Hadzibabic, Zoran
2007-06-01
Physics of a Bose gas in two dimensions (2D) is quite different from the usual 3D situation. In a homogeneous 2D fluid of identical bosons long-range order is always destroyed by long wavelength thermal fluctuations, but the system can nevertheless become superfluid at a finite critical temperature. This phase transition does not involve any symmetry breaking and in the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) paradigm it is explained in terms of binding and unbinding of pairs of vortices with opposite circulations. Above the critical temperature, proliferation of unbound vortices is expected. Using optical lattice potentials we can create two parallel, independent 2D atomic clouds with similar temperatures and chemical potentials. When the clouds are suddenly released from the trapping potential and allowed to freely expand, they overlap and interfere. This realizes a matter wave heterodyning experiment which gives direct access to several features of the phase distributions in the two planes. Long wavelength phase fluctuations create a smooth and random variation of the interference fringes and free vortices appear as sharp dislocations in the interference pattern. Temperature study of these effects supports the BKT picture of the development of quasi-long-range coherence in these systems. [1] Zoran Hadzibabic, Peter Kruger, Marc Cheneau, Baptiste Battelier, and Jean Dalibard, Nature 441, 1118 (2006).
Bose-Einstein condensation in the relativistic ideal Bose gas.
Grether, M; de Llano, M; Baker, George A
2007-11-16
The Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) critical temperature in a relativistic ideal Bose gas of identical bosons, with and without the antibosons expected to be pair-produced abundantly at sufficiently hot temperatures, is exactly calculated for all boson number densities, all boson point rest masses, and all temperatures. The Helmholtz free energy at the critical BEC temperature is lower with antibosons, thus implying that omitting antibosons always leads to the computation of a metastable state.
Variational approach to the dilute Bose gas
Bijlsma, M.; Stoof, H.T.C.
1997-01-01
We study the weakly interacting Bose gas in both two and three dimensions using a variational approach. In particular we construct the thermodynamic potential of the gas to within ladder approximation and find by minimization an accurate mean-field description of the dilute Bose gas. Using
Condensate formation in a Bose gas
Stoof, H.T.C.
1995-01-01
Using magnetically trapped atomic hydrogen as an example, we investigate the prospects of achieving Bose-Einstein condensation in a dilute Bose gas. We show that, if gas is quenched sufficiently far into the critical region of the phase transition, the typical time scale for the nucleation of the
Thermodynamic Properties of a Trapped Interacting Bose Gas
Shi, Hualin; Zheng, Wei-Mou
1996-01-01
A Bose gas in an external potential is studied by means of the local density approximation. Analytical results are derived for the thermodynamic properties of an ideal Bose gas in a generic power-law trapping potential, and their dependence on the mutual interaction of atoms in the case of a non-ideal Bose gas.
Magnetized pair Bose gas: relativistic superconductor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Daicic, J.; Frankel, N.E.; Kowalenko, V.
1993-01-01
The magnetized Bose gas at temperatures above pair threshold is investigated. New magnetization laws are obtained for a wide range of field strengths, and the gas is shown to exhibit the Meissner effect. Some related results for the Fermi gas, a relativistic paramagnet, are also discussed. It is concluded that the pair gases, through the interplay between pair creation, temperature, field strength, statistics and/in the case of fermions/spin, have remarkable magnetic properties. 14 refs
Collisionless modes of a trapped Bose gas
Bijlsma, M.J.; Stoof, H.T.C.
1999-01-01
We calculate the excitation frequencies of low-lying modes of a trapped Bose-condensed gas at nonzero temperatures. In our calculation we include the dynamics of the noncondensed cloud, and find agreement with experimental results if we assume that in the experiment both the in-phase and
Collisionless modes of a trapped Bose gas
Bijlsma, M.J.; Stoof, H.T.C.
1999-01-01
We calculate the excitation frequencies of the low-lying modes of a trapped Bose-condensed gas at nonzero temperatures. We include in our calculation the dynamics of the noncondensed cloud, and find agreement with experimental results if we assume that in the experiment both the in-phase and
Collapse of a Bose gas: Kinetic approach
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. We have analytically explored the temperature dependence of critical number of par- ticles for the collapse of a harmonically trapped attractively interacting Bose gas below the condensation point by introducing a kinetic approach within the Hartree–Fock approximation. The temperature dependence obtained by ...
A superheated Bose-condensed gas
Gaunt, Alexander L.; Fletcher, Richard J.; Smith, Robert P.; Hadzibabic, Zoran
2013-05-01
Our understanding of various states of matter usually relies on the assumption of thermodynamic equilibrium. However, the transitions between different phases of matter can be strongly affected by non-equilibrium phenomena. Here we demonstrate and explain an example of non-equilibrium stalling of a continuous, second-order phase transition. We create a superheated atomic Bose gas, in which a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) persists above the equilibrium critical temperature, Tc, if its coupling to the surrounding thermal bath is reduced by tuning interatomic interactions. For vanishing interactions the BEC persists in the superheated regime for a minute. However, if strong interactions are suddenly turned on, it rapidly boils away. Our observations can be understood within a two-fluid picture, treating the condensed and thermal components of the gas as separate equilibrium systems with a tunable inter-component coupling. We experimentally reconstruct a non-equilibrium phase diagram of our gas, and theoretically reproduce its main features.
Stability of a Unitary Bose Gas
Fletcher, Richard J.; Gaunt, Alexander L.; Navon, Nir; Smith, Robert P.; Hadzibabic, Zoran
2013-09-01
We study the stability of a thermal K39 Bose gas across a broad Feshbach resonance, focusing on the unitary regime, where the scattering length a exceeds the thermal wavelength λ. We measure the general scaling laws relating the particle-loss and heating rates to the temperature, scattering length, and atom number. Both at unitarity and for positive a≪λ we find agreement with three-body theory. However, for a<0 and away from unitarity, we observe significant four-body decay. At unitarity, the three-body loss coefficient, L3∝λ4, is 3 times lower than the universal theoretical upper bound. This reduction is a consequence of species-specific Efimov physics and makes K39 particularly promising for studies of many-body physics in a unitary Bose gas.
On Pair-Particle Distribution in Imperfect Bose Gas
Shanenko, A. A.
1996-01-01
A simple model of estimating the radial distribution function of an imperfect Bose gas in the ground state is presented. The model is based on integro-differential equations derived by considering the space boson distribution in an external field. With the approach proposed, the particular case of dilute Bose gas is investigated within the hard sphere approximation and beyond.
Formation of the condensate in a dilute Bose gas
Stoof, H.T.C.
1991-01-01
We examine the time evolution of a weakly interacting Bose gas in the course of the Bose-Einstein phase transition and show that, in contrast with previous claims in the literature, the relevant time scale for the appearance of the condensate is finite and, under the conditions we consider, of
Calorimetry of a Bose-Einstein-condensed photon gas
Damm, Tobias; Schmitt, Julian; Liang, Qi; Dung, David; Vewinger, Frank; Weitz, Martin; Klaers, Jan
2016-04-01
Phase transitions, as the condensation of a gas to a liquid, are often revealed by a discontinuous behaviour of thermodynamic quantities. For liquid helium, for example, a divergence of the specific heat signals the transition from the normal fluid to the superfluid state. Apart from liquid helium, determining the specific heat of a Bose gas has proven to be a challenging task, for example, for ultracold atomic Bose gases. Here we examine the thermodynamic behaviour of a trapped two-dimensional photon gas, a system that allows us to spectroscopically determine the specific heat and the entropy of a nearly ideal Bose gas from the classical high temperature to the Bose-condensed quantum regime. The critical behaviour at the phase transition is clearly revealed by a cusp singularity of the specific heat. Regarded as a test of quantum statistical mechanics, our results demonstrate a quantitative agreement with its predictions at the microscopic level.
Creation of Rydberg Polarons in a Bose Gas
Schmidt, Richard
2017-04-01
In this talk we review the theory of various types of Bose polarons that can be realized in ultracold atomic systems. We then report the spectroscopic observation of Rydberg polarons in a Bose gas which is in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. This novel type of polaron is created by excitation of Rydberg atoms in a strontium Bose-Einstein condensate and it is distinguished by the occupation of a large number bound molecular states. The cross-over from few-body bound molecular oligomers to many-body polaron features is described with a functional determinant theory that solves an extended Froehlich Hamiltonian for an impurity in a Bose gas. The detailed analysis of the red-detuned tail of the excitation spectrum describes the contribution from the region of highest density in the condensate and provides a clear signature of Rydberg polarons. This work has been performed in collaboration with groups at Rice University, Harvard University, and the TU Vienna.
Neutral impurities in a Bose-Einstein condensate for simulation of the Froehlich-polaron
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hohmann, Michael; Kindermann, Farina; Gaenger, Benjamin; Lausch, Tobias [University of Kaiserslautern, Department of Physics and Research Center OPTIMAS, Kaiserslautern (Germany); Mayer, Daniel; Schmidt, Felix; Widera, Artur [University of Kaiserslautern, Department of Physics and Research Center OPTIMAS, Kaiserslautern (Germany); Graduate School Materials Science in Mainz, Kaiserslautern (Germany)
2015-12-15
We present an experimental system to study the Bose polaron by immersion of single, well-controllable neutral Cs impurities into a Rb Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). We show that, by proper optical traps, independent control over impurity and BEC allows for precision relative positioning of the two sub-systems as well as for dynamical studies and independent read-out. We furthermore estimate that measuring the polaron binding energy of Froehlich-type Bose polarons in the low and intermediate coupling regime is feasible with our experimental constraints and limitations discussed, and we outline how a parameter regime can be reached to characterize differences between Froehlich and Bose-polaron in the strong coupling regime. (orig.)
One-dimensional Bose gas on an atom chip
van Amerongen, A.H.
2008-01-01
We describe experiments investigating the (coherence) properties of a finite-temperature one-dimensional (1D) Bose gas with repulsive interactions. The confining magnetic field is generated with a micro-electronic circuit. This microtrap for atoms or `atom chip' is particularly suited to generate a
Anisotropic Expansion of a Thermal Dipolar Bose Gas.
Tang, Y; Sykes, A G; Burdick, N Q; DiSciacca, J M; Petrov, D S; Lev, B L
2016-10-07
We report on the anisotropic expansion of ultracold bosonic dysprosium gases at temperatures above quantum degeneracy and develop a quantitative theory to describe this behavior. The theory expresses the postexpansion aspect ratio in terms of temperature and microscopic collisional properties by incorporating Hartree-Fock mean-field interactions, hydrodynamic effects, and Bose-enhancement factors. Our results extend the utility of expansion imaging by providing accurate thermometry for dipolar thermal Bose gases. Furthermore, we present a simple method to determine scattering lengths in dipolar gases, including near a Feshbach resonance, through observation of thermal gas expansion.
Esteve, J; Trebbia, J-B; Schumm, T; Aspect, A; Westbrook, C I; Bouchoule, I
2006-04-07
We report in situ measurements of density fluctuations in a quasi-one-dimensional 87Rb Bose gas at thermal equilibrium in an elongated harmonic trap. We observe an excess of fluctuations compared to the shot-noise level expected for uncorrelated atoms. At low atomic density, the measured excess is in good agreement with the expected "bunching" for an ideal Bose gas. At high density, the measured fluctuations are strongly reduced compared to the ideal gas case. We attribute this reduction to repulsive interatomic interactions. The data are compared with a calculation for an interacting Bose gas in the quasicondensate regime.
Momentum Distribution in the Unitary Bose Gas from First Principles.
Comparin, Tommaso; Krauth, Werner
2016-11-25
We consider a realistic bosonic N-particle model with unitary interactions relevant for Efimov physics. Using quantum Monte Carlo methods, we find that the critical temperature for Bose-Einstein condensation is decreased with respect to the ideal Bose gas. We also determine the full momentum distribution of the gas, including its universal asymptotic behavior, and compare this crucial observable to recent experimental data. Similar to the experiments with different atomic species, differentiated solely by a three-body length scale, our model only depends on a single parameter. We establish a weak influence of this parameter on physical observables. In current experiments, the thermodynamic instability of our model from the atomic gas towards an Efimov liquid could be masked by the dynamical instability due to three-body losses.
Thermodynamic properties of a rotating Bose gas in harmonic trap
Hassan, A. S.; El-Badry, A. M.; Soliman, S. S. M.
2011-10-01
In this paper, the thermodynamic properties of a rotating Bose gas in harmonic trap are investigated. In particularly, the condensate fraction, critical temperature and heat capacity are analytically calculated. A simple semiclassical approximation, which is the density of state approach, is suggested. This approach is able to include the effects, such as the finite size and the chemical potential when becomes equal to the energy of the lowest energy state, that altered the rotating ideal Bose gas simultaneously. The calculated results show that the thermodynamic properties depend strongly on the rotation rate. The rapid rotation leads to a highly anisotropic confinement potential. The possibility for dimensionality cross-over to lower dimensions for this system is discussed. We compare the outcome results with the experimental measured data of Coddington et al. [Phys. Rev. A 70, 063607 (2004)].
Bose-Einstein correlations of charged and neutral kaons in deep inelastic scattering at HERA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.
2007-05-01
Bose-Einstein correlations of charged and neutral kaons have been measured in e ± p deep inelastic scattering with an integrated luminosity of 121 pb -1 using the ZEUS detector at HERA. The two-particle correlation function was studied as a function of the four-momentum difference of the kaon pairs, Q 12 =√(-(p 1 -p 2 ) 2 ), assuming a Gaussian shape for the particle source. The values of the radius of the production volume, r, and of the correlation strength, λ, were obtained for both neutral and charged kaons. The radii for charged and neutral kaons are similar and are consistent with those obtained at LEP. (orig.)
The Atomic Bose Gas in Flatland
Hadzibabic, Z.; Krüger, P.; Cheneau, M.; Battelier, B.; Dalibard, J.
2006-11-01
We describe a recent experiment performed with rubidium atoms (87Rb), aiming at studying the coherence properties of a two-dimensional gas of bosonic particles at low temperature. We have observed in particular a Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) type crossover in the system, using a matter wave heterodyning technique. At low temperatures, the gas is quasi-coherent on the length scale set by the system size. As the temperature is increased, the loss of long-range coherence coincides with the onset of the proliferation of free vortices, in agreement with the microscopic BKT theory.
Bose-Einstein Correlations of Neutral and Charged Pions in Hadronic Z Decays
Achard, P.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, Valery P.; Anselmo, F.; Arefev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Baarmand, M.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldew, S.V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillere, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B.L.; Biasini, M.; Biglietti, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J.J.; Blyth, S.C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bohm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bottai, S.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J.G.; Brochu, F.; Buijs, A.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.; Casaus, J.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y.H.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; de la Cruz, B.; Cucciarelli, S.; Dai, T.S.; van Dalen, J.A.; de Asmundis, R.; Deglon, P.; Debreczeni, J.; Degre, A.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; van Dierendonck, D.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Doria, A.; Dova, M.T.; Duchesneau, D.; Duinker, P.; Echenard, B.; Eline, A.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F.J.; Ewers, A.; Extermann, P.; Falagan, M.A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P.H.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S.N.; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M.; Gentile, S.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z.F.; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M.W.; Guida, M.; van Gulik, R.; Gupta, V.K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L.J.; Haas, D.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Herve, Alain; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Holzner, G.; Hou, S.R.; Hu, Y.; Jin, B.N.; Jones, Lawrence W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Kafer, D.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.; Kim, J.K.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Konig, A.C.; Kopal, M.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraber, M.; Kraemer, R.W.; Krenz, W.; Kruger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Lee, H.J.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C.H.; Lin, W.T.; Linde, F.L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z.A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y.S.; Lubelsmeyer, K.; Luci, C.; Luckey, David; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W.G.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Mana, C.; Mangeol, D.; Mans, J.; Martin, J.P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R.R.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W.J.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G.B.; Muanza, G.S.; Muijs, A.J.M.; Musicar, B.; Musy, M.; Nagy, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Niessen, T.; Nisati, A.; Kluge, Hannelies; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Palomares, C.; Pandoulas, D.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Petersen, B.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pioppi, M.; Piroue, P.A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Postema, H.; Pothier, J.; Prokofev, D.O.; Prokofiev, D.; Quartieri, J.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, M.A.; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P.G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Riemann, S.; Riles, Keith; Roe, B.P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, Stefan; Rosenbleck, C.; Roux, B.; Rubio, J.A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sakharov, A.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Sanders, M.P.; Schafer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schmidt-Kaerst, S.; Schmitz, D.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D.J.; Schwering, G.; Sciacca, C.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D.P.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L.Z.; Sushkov, S.; Suter, H.; Swain, J.D.; Szillasi, Z.; Tang, X.W.; Tarjan, P.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tonwar, S.C.; Toth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K.L.; Uchida, Y.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Van de Walle, R.T.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vicinanza, D.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobev, I.; Vorobyov, A.A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wallraff, W.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Z.M.; Weber, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wilkens, H.; Wu, S.X.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z.Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B.Z.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, H.J.; Yang, M.; Yeh, S.C.; Zalite, A.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhao, J.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, R.Y.; Zhuang, H.L.; Zichichi, A.; Zilizi, G.; Zimmermann, B.; Zoller, M.
2002-01-01
Bose-Einstein correlations of both neutral and like-sign charged pion pairs are measured in a sample of 2 million hadronic $\\mathrm{Z}$ decays collected with the L3 detector at LEP. The analysis is performed in the four-momentum difference range $300 \\mathrm{\\ Me\\kern -0.1em V} < Q < 2 \\mathrm{\\ Ge\\kern -0.1em V}$. The radius of the neutral pion source is found to be smaller than that of charged pions. This result is in qualitative agreement with the string fragmentation model. \\end{document}
Decay of superfluid currents in the interacting one-dimensional Bose gas
Cherny, A.Y.; Caux, J.S.; Brand, J.
2009-01-01
We examine the superfluid properties of a one-dimensional (1D) Bose gas in a ring trap based on the model of Lieb and Liniger. While the 1D Bose gas has nonclassical rotational inertia and exhibits quantization of velocities, the metastability of currents depends sensitively on the strength of
Thermodynamics of the superfluid dilute Bose gas with disorder
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lopatin, A.V.; Vinokur, V.M.
2002-01-01
We generalize the Beliaev-Popov diagrammatic technique for the problem of interacting dilute Bose gas with weak disorder. Averaging over disorder is implemented by the replica method. The low-energy asymptotic form of the Green function confirms that the low-energy excitations of the superfluid dirty-boson system are sound waves with velocity renormalized by the disorder and additional dissipation due to the impurity scattering. We find the thermodynamic potential and the superfluid density at any temperature below the superfluid transition temperature (but outside the Ginzburg region) and derive the phase diagram in temperature vs disorder plane
Linear spin waves in a trapped Bose gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nikuni, T.; Williams, J.E.; Clark, C.W.
2002-01-01
An ultracold Bose gas of two-level atoms can be thought of as a spin-1/2 Bose gas. It supports spin-wave collective modes due to the exchange mean field. Such collective spin oscillations have been observed in recent experiments at JILA with 87 Rb atoms confined in a harmonic trap. We present a theory of the spin-wave collective modes based on the moment method for trapped gases. In the collisionless and hydrodynamic limits, we derive analytic expressions for the frequencies and damping rates of modes with dipole and quadrupole symmetry. We find that the frequency for a given mode is given by a temperature-independent function of the peak density n, and falls off as 1/n. We also find that, to a very good approximation, excitations in the radial and axial directions are decoupled. We compare our model to the numerical integration of a one-dimensional version of the kinetic equation and find very good qualitative agreement. The damping rates, however, show the largest deviation for intermediate densities, where one expects Landau damping--which is unaccounted for in our moment approach--to play a significant role
Mehedi Faruk, Mir; Sazzad Hossain, Md.; Muktadir Rahman, Md.
2016-02-01
The changes in characteristics of Bose condensation of ideal Bose gas due to an external generic power law potential U=\\sumi=1dci\\vert xi/ai\\vertni are studied carefully. Detailed calculation of Kim et al. (J. Phys. Condens. Matter 11 (1999) 10269) yielded the hierarchy of condensation transitions with changing fractional dimensionality. In this manuscript, some theorems regarding specific heat at constant volume CV are presented. Careful examination of these theorems reveal the existence of hidden hierarchy of the condensation transition in trapped systems as well.
Bose-Einstein correlations of charged and neutral kaons in deep inelastic scattering at HERA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)
2007-05-15
Bose-Einstein correlations of charged and neutral kaons have been measured in e{sup {+-}}p deep inelastic scattering with an integrated luminosity of 121 pb{sup -1} using the ZEUS detector at HERA. The two-particle correlation function was studied as a function of the four-momentum difference of the kaon pairs, Q{sub 12}={radical}(-(p{sub 1}-p{sub 2}){sup 2}), assuming a Gaussian shape for the particle source. The values of the radius of the production volume, r, and of the correlation strength, {lambda}, were obtained for both neutral and charged kaons. The radii for charged and neutral kaons are similar and are consistent with those obtained at LEP. (orig.)
Crossover Temperature of Bose-Einstein Condensation in an Atomic Fermi Gas
Falco, G.M.; Stoof, H.T.C.
2004-01-01
We show that in an atomic Fermi gas near a Feshbach resonance the crossover between a Bose-Einstein condensate of diatomic molecules and a Bose-Einstein condensate of Cooper pairs occurs at positive detuning, i.e., when the molecular energy level lies in the two-atom continuum. We determine the
Two-step condensation of the ideal Bose gas in highly anisotropic traps
van Druten, N.J.; Ketterle, W.
1997-01-01
The ideal Bose gas in a highly anisotropic harmonic potential is studied. It is found that Bose-Einstein condensation occurs in two distinct steps as the temperature is lowered. In the first step the specific heat shows a sharp feature, but the system still occupies many one-dimensional quantum
Bose gas with generalized dispersion relation plus an energy gap
Solis, M. A.; Martinez, J. G.; Garcia, J.
We report the critical temperature, the condensed fraction, the internal energy and the specific heat for a d-dimensional Bose gas with a generalized dispersion relation plus an energy gap, i.e., ɛ =ɛ0 for k = 0 and ɛ =ɛ0 + Δ +csks , for k > 0 , where ℏk is the particle momentum, ɛ0 the lowest particle energy, cs a constant with dimension of energy multiplied by a length to the power s > 0 . When Δ > 0 , a Bose-Einstein critical temperature Tc ≠ 0 exists for any d / s >= 0 at which the internal energy shows a peak and the specific heat shows a jump. The critical temperature and the specific heat jump increase as functions of the gap but they decrease as functions of d / s . Thermodynamic properties are ɛ0 independent since this is just a reference energy. For Δ = 0 we recover the results reported in Ref. [1]. V. C. Aguilera-Navarro, M. de Llano y M. A. Solís, Eur. J. Phys. 20, 177 (1999). We acknowledge partial support from Grants PAPIIT IN111613 and CONACyT 221030.
Quantum Impurity in a One-dimensional Trapped Bose Gas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Salami Dehkharghani, Amin; Volosniev, A. G.; Zinner, N. T.
2015-01-01
We present a new theoretical framework for describing an impurity in a trapped Bose system in one spatial dimension. The theory handles any external confinement, arbitrary mass ratios, and a weak interaction may be included between the Bose particles. To demonstrate our technique, we calculate...
Interacting Bose gas confined in a Kronig-Penney potential
Rodríguez, O. A.; Solís, M. A.
We analyze the effect of the 1D periodic Kronig-Penney potential, composed of barriers of width b and separated a distance a, over an interacting Bose gas. At T = 0 , the Gross-Pitaevskii equation is solved analytically in terms of the Jacobi elliptic functions for repulsive or attractive interaction between bosons. By applying the boundary conditions for periodic solutions as well as the normalization of the wave function, we arrive to a set of nonlinear equations from which we obtain the density profile and the chemical potential of the condensate as a function of the particle momentum. The profiles for attractive and repulsive interactions are compared with that of the non-interacting case. For attractive interaction we are able to observe a pronounced spatial localization in the middle of every two barriers. We reproduce the well known results when the Kronig-Penney potential becomes a Dirac Comb. We acknowledge partial support from Grants PAPIIT IN111613 and CONACyT 221030.
Beam heating of the neutralizer gas of neutral beam injectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ott, W.
1989-02-01
It was shown by Pamela that the target thickness of the neutralizer gas in neutral beam injectors is smaller than to be expected from gas flow calculations. He explained his findings by direct and indirect beam heating of the gas and a consequent flow acceleration. The role of the neutralizer plasma electrons in the gas heating scenario is reconsidered here. To this end the particle and energy balances of the electrons are solved with allowance for ionization and dissociation of the gas by the electrons. It is shown that the direct contribution of the electrons to heating is not dominant. Their indirect contribution via ion acceleration in the space charge sheath in front of the walls is usually stronger. Methods to increase the neutralizer target thickness are investigated. They are essentially (1) structuring the neutralizer surface in order to reduce the reflection of medium energy particles and to increase the gas accommodation, (2) cooling down the neutralizer to LN 2 -temperature. The scaling of the target thickness with various parameters is investigated and compared with 'cold' flow. Initially it was assumed that the neutralizer plasma electrons are hot and able to excite Balmer alpha radiation in collisions with H 2 molecules. The investigation shows that the electrons must be cold instead (T e + 2 and H + 3 ions leading to excited hydrogen atoms. (orig.)
Exploring the thermodynamics of Bose-Einstein condensation in a homogeneous atomic gas
Schmidutz, Tobias; Gotlibovych, Igor; Gaunt, Alexander; Smith, Robert; Hadzibabic, Zoran
2013-05-01
Atomic Bose-Einstein condensates have traditionally been produced in harmonic traps and only very recently it became possible to attain condensation in a homogeneous gas [A.L. Gaunt et al., arXiv:1212.4453]. In this talk we will present our new experimental results on the thermodynamics of condensation in a homogeneous weakly interacting Bose gas. We perform a systematic study of the tuning of the critical temperature with system parameters, the saturation of the thermal components in a partially condensed sample, and the total energy of the gas. We also study the dynamics of cooling in a uniform gas.
Bose-Einstein condensation in an ultra-hot gas of pumped magnons.
Serga, Alexander A; Tiberkevich, Vasil S; Sandweg, Christian W; Vasyuchka, Vitaliy I; Bozhko, Dmytro A; Chumak, Andrii V; Neumann, Timo; Obry, Björn; Melkov, Gennadii A; Slavin, Andrei N; Hillebrands, Burkard
2014-03-11
Bose-Einstein condensation of quasi-particles such as excitons, polaritons, magnons and photons is a fascinating quantum mechanical phenomenon. Unlike the Bose-Einstein condensation of real particles (like atoms), these processes do not require low temperatures, since the high densities of low-energy quasi-particles needed for the condensate to form can be produced via external pumping. Here we demonstrate that such a pumping can create remarkably high effective temperatures in a narrow spectral region of the lowest energy states in a magnon gas, resulting in strikingly unexpected transitional dynamics of Bose-Einstein magnon condensate: the density of the condensate increases immediately after the external magnon flow is switched off and initially decreases if it is switched on again. This behaviour finds explanation in a nonlinear 'evaporative supercooling' mechanism that couples the low-energy magnons overheated by pumping with all the other thermal magnons, removing the excess heat, and allowing Bose-Einstein condensate formation.
Bloch walls and the non-ideal bose gas spectrum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vitiello, S.A.S.
1986-05-01
The quasi-particle spectrum of non-ideal Bose gas with domain walls in the condensate is investigated. The existence of such a system is determined from solutions of Gross-Pitaevskii equation which represent many-soliton systems. The walls which make the condensate non-uniform are responsible for density and velocity fields ρ(x) and υ(x) repectively. In the laboratory, the Bogoliubov spectrum, supposed to be true for an uniform condensate at rest, is changed due to the velocity field to which the quasi-particles are submited. The spectrum in the laboratory frame is obtained by considering the Galileu invariance principle and the interaction energy between the quasi-particle and its medium. The importance in considering the last two facts is illustrated by the analyse of a constant density condensate which moves uniformly in the laboratory. The many-soliton spectrum configuration and structure function are studied by the Monte Carlo method. In an approximation that assumes the quasi-particle to be point like, the condensate can be treated as locally uniform. For each event the position x of a quasi-particle and its momentum in a frame with velocity υ(x) are determined. Thus, by a convenient Galileu transformation the energy spectrum in the laboratory an be obtained. The results show a phonon spectrum which splits in two branches in the high momenta region. In this region the lower energy branch exibiths a point of minimum. Analogies with the He II are explored. (author) [pt
On the infimum of the energy-momentum spectrum of a homogeneous Bose gas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cornean, Horia; Derezinski, J.; Zin, P.
2009-01-01
We consider second-quantized homogeneous Bose gas in a large cubic box with periodic boundary conditions at zero temperature. We discuss the energy-momentum spectrum of the Bose gas and its physical significance. We review various rigorous and heuristic results as well as open conjectures about its...... properties. Our main aim is to convince the readers, including those with mainly mathematical background, that this subject has many interesting problems for rigorous research. In particular, we investigate the upper bound on the infimum of the energy for a fixed total momentum k given by the expectation...
Anisotropic expansion of a thermal dipolar Bose gas
Tang, Yijun; Sykes, Andrew G.; Burdick, Nathaniel Q.; DiSciacca, Jack M.; Petrov, Dmitry S.; Lev, Benjamin L.
2016-01-01
We report on the anisotropic expansion of ultracold bosonic dysprosium gases at temperatures above quantum degeneracy and develop a quantitative theory to describe this behavior. The theory expresses the post-expansion aspect ratio in terms of temperature and microscopic collisional properties by incorporating Hartree-Fock mean-field interactions, hydrodynamic effects, and Bose-enhancement factors. Our results extend the utility of expansion imaging by providing accurate thermometry for dipol...
One-particle dynamical correlations in the one-dimensional Bose gas
Caux, J.S.; Calabrese, P.; Slavnov, N.
2007-01-01
The momentum- and frequency-dependent one-body correlation function of the one-dimensional interacting Bose gas (Lieb-Liniger model) in the repulsive regime is studied using the Algebraic Bethe Ansatz and numerics. We first provide a determinant representation for the field form factor which is
Effects of interaction imbalance in a strongly repulsive one-dimensional Bose gas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barfknecht, Rafael Emilio; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas; Foerster, Angela
2018-01-01
We calculate the spatial distributions and the dynamics of a few-body two-component strongly interacting Bose gas confined to an effectively one-dimensional trapping potential. We describe the densities for each component in the trap for different interaction and population imbalances. We calculate...
Effects of interaction imbalance in a strongly repulsive one-dimensional Bose gas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barfknecht, Rafael Emilio; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas; Foerster, Angela
2018-01-01
We calculate the spatial distributions and the dynamics of a few-body two-component strongly interacting Bose gas confined to an effectively one-dimensional trapping potential. We describe the densities for each component in the trap for different interaction and population imbalances. We calcula...
Yang-Yang thermometry and momentum distribution of a trapped one-dimensional Bose gas
Davis, M.J.; Blakie, P.B.; van Amerongen, A.H.; van Druten, N.J.; Kheruntsyan, K.V.
2012-01-01
We describe the use of the exact Yang-Yang solutions for the one-dimensional Bose gas to enable accurate kinetic-energy thermometry based on the root-mean-square width of an experimentally measured momentum distribution. Furthermore, we use the stochastic projected Gross-Pitaevskii theory to provide
Theory of superfluidity and drag force in the one-dimensional Bose gas
Cherny, A.Y.; Caux, J.-S.; Brand, J.
2012-01-01
The one-dimensional Bose gas is an unusual superfluid. In contrast to higher spatial dimensions, the existence of non-classical rotational inertia is not directly linked to the dissipationless motion of infinitesimal impurities. Recently, experimental tests with ultracold atoms have begun and
Quantum quenches to the attractive one-dimensional Bose gas: exact results
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lorenzo Piroli, Pasquale Calabrese, Fabian H. L. Essler
2016-09-01
Full Text Available We study quantum quenches to the one-dimensional Bose gas with attractive interactions in the case when the initial state is an ideal one-dimensional Bose condensate. We focus on properties of the stationary state reached at late times after the quench. This displays a finite density of multi-particle bound states, whose rapidity distribution is determined exactly by means of the quench action method. We discuss the relevance of the multi-particle bound states for the physical properties of the system, computing in particular the stationary value of the local pair correlation function $g_2$.
Temperature Dependence of the Thermal Conductivity of a Trapped Dipolar Bose-Condensed Gas
Yavari, H.
2018-02-01
The thermal conductivity of a trapped dipolar Bose condensed gas is calculated as a function of temperature in the framework of linear response theory. The contributions of the interactions between condensed and noncondensed atoms and between noncondensed atoms in the presence of both contact and dipole-dipole interactions are taken into account to the thermal relaxation time, by evaluating the self-energies of the system in the Beliaev approximation. We will show that above the Bose-Einstein condensation temperature ( T > T BEC ) in the absence of dipole-dipole interaction, the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity reduces to that of an ideal Bose gas. In a trapped Bose-condensed gas for temperature interval k B T > k B T, since the relaxation rate {τ}_{c12}^{-1} is independent of temperature and the relaxation rate due to dipolar interaction goes to zero exponentially, the T 2 temperature behavior for the thermal conductivity comes from the thermal mean velocity of the particles. We will also show that in the high-temperature limit ( k B T > n 0 g B ) and low momenta, the relaxation rates {τ}_{c12}^{-1} and {τ}_{dd12}^{-1} change linearly with temperature for both dipolar and contact interactions and the thermal conductivity scales linearly with temperature.
Quantized vortices in the ideal bose gas: a physical realization of random polynomials.
Castin, Yvan; Hadzibabic, Zoran; Stock, Sabine; Dalibard, Jean; Stringari, Sandro
2006-02-03
We propose a physical system allowing one to experimentally observe the distribution of the complex zeros of a random polynomial. We consider a degenerate, rotating, quasi-ideal atomic Bose gas prepared in the lowest Landau level. Thermal fluctuations provide the randomness of the bosonic field and of the locations of the vortex cores. These vortices can be mapped to zeros of random polynomials, and observed in the density profile of the gas.
Greenhouse gas neutral Germany in 2050
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benndorf, Rosemarie; Bernicke, Maja; Bertram, Andreas
2014-01-01
In order to answer the question how a greenhouse gas neutral Germany would look like an interdisciplinary process was started by the Federal Environmental Agency. It was clear from the beginning of this work that a sustainable regenerative energy supply could not be sufficient. Therefore all relevant emission sources were included into the studies: traffic, industry, waste and waste water, agriculture, land usage, land usage changes and forestry. The necessary transformation paths to reach the aim of a greenhouse gas neutral Germany in 2050, economic considerations and political instruments were not part of this study.
Effects of anisotropic potentials on the energy gap of Bose gas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F Nabipoor
2010-09-01
Full Text Available We investigate the effect of dipole-dipole and quadrapole- quadrapole interaction of a weakly interacting Bose gas near the transition temperature on the energy spectra of the thermal and condensate parts. We use the two fluid model and mean field approximation. We show that the effects of the condensate part on the shift of energy is greater than the case of contact potential
Gap and screening in Raman scattering of a Bose condensed gas
Navez, Patrick; Bongs, Kai
2009-01-01
We propose different spectroscopic methods to explore the nature of the thermal excitations of a trapped Bose condensed gas: 1) a four photon process to probe the uniform region in the trap center: 2) a stimulated Raman process in order to analyze the influence of a momentum transfer in the resulting scattered atom momentum distribution. We apply these methods to address specifically the energy spectrum and the scattering amplitude of these excitations in a transition between two hyperfine le...
Bose gas with two- and three-particle interaction: evolution of soliton-like bubbles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barashenkov, I.V.; Kholmurodov, Kh.T.
1988-01-01
Solutions of the non-linear Schroedinger equation (NSE) for the Bose gas with two- and three-particle interaction are considered. Problems of soliton-like bubble existence, stability and evolution of the moving soliton are studied. It is shown that at D=2.3 for low-amplitude waves propagating at the transonic velocity the NSE is reduced to a two- and three-dimensional Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) equation and the NSE bubble soliton transfers to the KP one
Dynamics and motional coherence of fermions immersed in a Bose gas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scelle, Raphael
2013-06-19
This thesis investigates the motional coherence of fermionic lithium atoms immersed in a Bose gas of sodium atoms. For this purpose, we implement and characterize a species-selective lattice potential for lithium. Shifting the lattice position couples Bloch bands of opposite parity and we observe Rabi oscillations between the first and second band for periodic modulation. We employ the coherent coupling between the bands to study the evolution of the lithium atoms in Ramsey and spin echo-type experiments. The interaction between the bosonic bath and the lithium atoms causes the loss of motional coherence, and we determine the decoherence time by analyzing the corresponding spin echo signal relative to the signal without Bose gas. We observe that the coherence decay occurs on a slightly longer time scale than the relaxation dynamics of motionally excited lithium atoms, and conclude that the loss of motional coherence is primarily induced by relaxation processes. Moreover, we test this interpretation by means of a master equation which governs the evolution of a single particle immersed in a Bose gas. Our calculations agree qualitatively with our experimental observations and confirm that the dynamics of the lithium atoms are dominated by relaxation processes.
Thermodynamics and Dynamics of Bose condensation in a quasi-homogeneous gas
Navon, Nir; Schmidutz, Tobias; Gotlibovych, Igor; Gaunt, Alexander; Robert-de-Saint-Vincent, Martin; Smith, Robert; Hadzibabic, Zoran
2014-05-01
We present an experimental study of the thermodynamics and dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in an optical-box trap. We first characterize the critical point for BEC, and observe saturation of the thermal component in a partially condensed cloud, in agreement with Einstein's textbook picture of a purely statistical phase transition. We also observed the quantum Joule-Thomson effect, namely isoenthalpic cooling of a non-interacting gas. We then investigate the dynamics of Bose condensation in the box potential following a rapid temperature quench through the phase transition, and focus on the time-evolution of the condensed fraction, the coherence length and the mean-field shift, that we probe via Bragg spectroscopy.
Ground-state properties of a dilute homogeneous Bose gas of hard disks in two dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mazzanti, F.; Polls, A.; Fabrocini, A.
2005-01-01
The energy and structure of a dilute hard-disks Bose gas are studied in the framework of a variational many-body approach based on a Jastrow correlated ground-state wave function. The asymptotic behaviors of the radial distribution function and the one-body density matrix are analyzed after solving the Euler equation obtained by a free minimization of the hypernetted chain energy functional. Our results show important deviations from those of the available low density expansions, already at gas parameter values x∼0.001. The condensate fraction in 2D is also computed and found generally lower than the 3D one at the same x
Dynamics of an Ultracold Bose Gas in Funnel-Shaped Potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan Li; Xu Guangyuan; Wang Yongjun; Liu Xianfeng; Han Jiurong
2009-01-01
In this paper we develop a variational theory to study the dynamic properties of ultracold Bose gas in a funnel external potential. We obtain one-dimensional nonlinear equation which describes the dynamics of transverse tight confined bosonic gas from three-dimension to one-dimension, and find one-dimensional s-wave scattering length which depends on the shape of transverse confining potential. If the funnel trapping potential is strong enough at zero temperature, all transverse excitations are frozen. We find the dynamic equation which describes the Tonks-Girardeau gas and present a qualitative analysis of the experimental accessibility of the Tonks-Girardeau gas with funnel-trapped alkalic atoms.
Stepwise Bose-Einstein Condensation in a Spinor Gas.
Frapolli, C; Zibold, T; Invernizzi, A; Jiménez-García, K; Dalibard, J; Gerbier, F
2017-08-04
We observe multistep condensation of sodium atoms with spin F=1, where the different Zeeman components m_{F}=0,±1 condense sequentially as the temperature decreases. The precise sequence changes drastically depending on the magnetization m_{z} and on the quadratic Zeeman energy q (QZE) in an applied magnetic field. For large QZE, the overall structure of the phase diagram is the same as for an ideal spin-1 gas, although the precise locations of the phase boundaries are significantly shifted by interactions. For small QZE, antiferromagnetic interactions qualitatively change the phase diagram with respect to the ideal case, leading, for instance, to condensation in m_{F}=±1, a phenomenon that cannot occur for an ideal gas with q>0.
On the infimum of the energy-momentum spectrum of a homogeneous Bose gas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cornean, Horia; Derezinski, J.; Zin, P.
We consider second quantized homogeneous Bose gas in a large cubic box with periodic boundary conditions, at zero temperature, and in the grand canonical setting (the chemical potential μ is fixed, the number of particles can vary). We investigate upper bounds on the infimum of the energy...... for a fixed total momentum k given by the expectation value at one-particleexcitations over a squeezed state. We show that the results of the Bogoliubov approach (usually derived heuristically) coincide with the results of the firstiteration of our method (which leads to rigorous upper bounds)....
Vortices in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates in the large-gas-parameter region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nilsen, J.K.; Mur-Petit, J.; Guilleumas, M.; Polls, A.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.
2005-01-01
In this work we compare the results of the Gross-Pitaevskii and modified Gross-Pitaevskii equations with ab initio variational Monte Carlo calculations for Bose-Einstein condensates of atoms in axially symmetric traps. We examine both the ground state and excited states having a vortex line along the z axis at high values of the gas parameter and demonstrate an excellent agreement between the modified Gross-Pitaevskii and ab initio Monte Carlo methods, both for the ground and vortex states
Quantum Joule-Thomson Effect in a Saturated Homogeneous Bose Gas
Schmidutz, Tobias F.; Gotlibovych, Igor; Gaunt, Alexander L.; Smith, Robert P.; Navon, Nir; Hadzibabic, Zoran
2014-01-01
We study the thermodynamics of Bose-Einstein condensation in a weakly interacting quasihomogeneous atomic gas, prepared in an optical-box trap. We characterize the critical point for condensation and observe saturation of the thermal component in a partially condensed cloud, in agreement with Einstein's textbook picture of a purely statistical phase transition. Finally, we observe the quantum Joule-Thomson effect, namely isoenthalpic cooling of an (essentially) ideal gas. In our experiments this cooling occurs spontaneously, due to energy-independent collisions with the background gas in the vacuum chamber. We extract a Joule-Thomson coefficient μJT>109 K /bar, about 10 orders of magnitude larger than observed in classical gases.
Mechanism of collisionless sound damping in dilute Bose gas with condensate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu. Slyusarenko
2013-06-01
Full Text Available We develop a microscopic theory of sound damping due to Landau mechanism in dilute gas with Bose condensate. It is based on the coupled evolution equations of the parameters describing the system. These equations have been derived in earlier works within a microscopic approach which employs the Peletminskii-Yatsenko reduced description method for quantum many-particle systems and Bogoliubov model for a weakly nonideal Bose gas with a separated condensate. The dispersion equations for sound oscillations were obtained by linearization of the mentioned evolution equations in the collisionless approximation. They were analyzed both analytically and numerically. The expressions for sound speed and decrement rate were obtained in high and low temperature limiting cases. We have shown that at low temperature the dependence of obtained quantities on temperature varies significantly from those one obtained by other authors in the semi-phenomenological approaches. Possible effects connected with non-analytic temperature dependence of dispersion characteristics of the system were also indicated.
Critical behavior of the ideal-gas Bose-Einstein condensation in the Apollonian network.
de Oliveira, I N; dos Santos, T B; de Moura, F A B F; Lyra, M L; Serva, M
2013-08-01
We show that the ideal Boson gas displays a finite-temperature Bose-Einstein condensation transition in the complex Apollonian network exhibiting scale-free, small-world, and hierarchical properties. The single-particle tight-binding Hamiltonian with properly rescaled hopping amplitudes has a fractal-like energy spectrum. The energy spectrum is analytically demonstrated to be generated by a nonlinear mapping transformation. A finite-size scaling analysis over several orders of magnitudes of network sizes is shown to provide precise estimates for the exponents characterizing the condensed fraction, correlation size, and specific heat. The critical exponents, as well as the power-law behavior of the density of states at the bottom of the band, are similar to those of the ideal Boson gas in lattices with spectral dimension d(s)=2ln(3)/ln(9/5)~/=3.74.
Spontaneous solitons in the thermal equilibrium of a quasi-1D Bose gas.
Karpiuk, Tomasz; Deuar, Piotr; Bienias, Przemysław; Witkowska, Emilia; Pawłowski, Krzysztof; Gajda, Mariusz; Rzążewski, Kazimierz; Brewczyk, Mirosław
2012-11-16
We show that solitons occur generically in the thermal equilibrium state of a weakly interacting elongated Bose gas, without the need for external forcing or perturbations. This reveals a major new quality to the experimentally widespread quasicondensate state, usually thought of as primarily phase-fluctuating. Thermal solitons are seen in uniform 1D, trapped 1D, and elongated 3D gases, appearing as shallow solitons at low quasicondensate temperatures, becoming widespread and deep as temperature rises. This behavior can be understood via thermal occupation of the type II excitations in the Lieb-Liniger model of a uniform 1D gas. Furthermore, we find that the quasicondensate phase includes very appreciable density fluctuations while leaving phase fluctuations largely unaltered from the standard picture derived from a density-fluctuation-free treatment.
Sudden expansion of a one-dimensional bose gas from power-law traps.
Campbell, A S; Gangardt, D M; Kheruntsyan, K V
2015-03-27
We analyze free expansion of a trapped one-dimensional Bose gas after a sudden release from the confining trap potential. By using the stationary phase and local density approximations, we show that the long-time asymptotic density profile and the momentum distribution of the gas are determined by the initial distribution of Bethe rapidities (quasimomenta) and hence can be obtained from the solutions to the Lieb-Liniger equations in the thermodynamic limit. For expansion from a harmonic trap, and in the limits of very weak and very strong interactions, we recover the self-similar scaling solutions known from the hydrodynamic approach. For all other power-law traps and arbitrary interaction strengths, the expansion is not self-similar and shows strong dependence of the density profile evolution on the trap anharmonicity. We also characterize dynamical fermionization of the expanding cloud in terms of correlation functions describing phase and density fluctuations.
Dynamics of a trapped 1D Bose gas for finite interaction strength
Muth, Dominik; Mering, Alexander; Fleischhauer, Michael
2008-05-01
We investigate the dynamics of a 1D Bose gas in a harmonic trap with point like interactions, recently studied experimentally in [1]. Starting from a discretisation of this model we calculate the groundstate properties and time evolution in the resulting Bose-Hubbard model using the time-evolving block decimation algorithm, TEBD. Both the case of vanishing interaction strength corresponding to the trivial case of free bosons, and the quasi integrable hard core case are well understood [2]. Furthermore recently exact solutions have been found in the absence of a trap potential and few particles [3]. We are focusing on the dynamics in the region with finite repulsive interaction and in a trap. Forall cases, using TEBD, we are able to calculate the propagation in both momentum and real space. [1] T. Kinoshita, T. Wenger, D. Weiss, Nature 440, 900 (2006) [2] M. Rigol, V. Dunjko, V. Yurovsky, M. Olshanii, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 050405 (2007) [3] H. Buljan, R. Pezer and T. Gasenzer, arXiv:0709.1444 (2007)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ioriatti Junior, L.C.
1976-01-01
The thermodynamic behavior of the one-dimensional bose gas-attractive delta impurity system is studied. The system is shown to undergo the Bose-Einstein condensation and the cause of the phase transition is attributed to the bound state introduced by the impurity in the free particle energy spectrum. The condensed phase is composed by particles captured by the impurity, forming a drop of particles well localized in space. This gives to the Bose-Einstein condensation in this system the appearance of the ordinary vapor-liquid phase transition. The order of the phase transition is analized with the aid of the Clausius-Clayperon equation, leading to the conclusion that the transition is a first order one. This reinforces the interpretation of a vapor-liquid transition. The evaluation of the heat capacity at constant length shows the existence of a finite discontinuity at the transition temperature [pt
The Ground State Energy of a Dilute Bose Gas in Dimension $n\\geq 3$
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aaen, Anders Gottfred
We consider a Bose gas in spatial dimension n≥3 with a repulsive, radially symmetric two-body potential V. In the limit of low density ρ, the ground state energy per particle in the thermodynamic limit is shown to be (n−2)|Sn−1|an−2ρ, where |Sn−1| denotes the surface measure of the unit sphere...... in Rn, and a is the scattering length of V. Furthermore, for smooth and compactly supported two-body potentials, we derive an upper bound to the ground state energy with a correction term (1+γ)8π4a6ρ2|ln(a4ρ)| in 4 dimensions, where 0... dimensions. Finally, we use a grand canonical construction to give a simplified proof of the second order upper bound to the Lee-Huang-Yang formula, a result first obtained by Yau and Yin. We also test this method in 4 dimensions, but with a negative outcome....
Critical dynamics of spontaneous symmetry breaking in a homogeneous Bose gas
Gaunt, Alexander; Navon, Nir; Smith, Robert; Hadzibabic, Zoran
2015-05-01
Kibble-Zurek theory models the dynamics of spontaneous symmetry breaking, which plays an important role in a wide variety of physical contexts, ranging from cosmology to superconductors. We explored these dynamics in a homogeneous system by thermally quenching an atomic gas with short-range interactions through the Bose-Einstein phase transition. Using homodyne matter-wave interferometry to measure first-order correlation functions, we verified the central quantitative prediction of the Kibble-Zurek theory, namely the homogeneous-system power-law scaling of the coherence length with the quench rate. Moreover, we directly confirmed its underlying hypothesis, the freezing of the correlation length near the transition. Our measurements agree with a beyond-mean-field theory and support the expectation that the dynamical critical exponent for this universality class is z=3/2.
Quantum gases. Critical dynamics of spontaneous symmetry breaking in a homogeneous Bose gas.
Navon, Nir; Gaunt, Alexander L; Smith, Robert P; Hadzibabic, Zoran
2015-01-09
Kibble-Zurek theory models the dynamics of spontaneous symmetry breaking, which plays an important role in a wide variety of physical contexts, ranging from cosmology to superconductors. We explored these dynamics in a homogeneous system by thermally quenching an atomic gas with short-range interactions through the Bose-Einstein phase transition. Using homodyne matter-wave interferometry to measure first-order correlation functions, we verified the central quantitative prediction of the Kibble-Zurek theory, namely the homogeneous-system power-law scaling of the coherence length with the quench rate. Moreover, we directly confirmed its underlying hypothesis, the freezing of the correlation length near the transition. Our measurements agree with a beyond-mean-field theory and support the expectation that the dynamical critical exponent for this universality class is z = 3/2. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
ULY JUPITER INTERSTELLAR NEUTRAL-GAS EXPERIMENT - NO DATA
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — No data were provided by the Interstellar Neutral-Gas Experiment (GAS) instrument team in connection with this volume. For data made available to the PDS subsequent...
Off-diagonal long-range order, cycle probabilities, and condensate fraction in the ideal Bose gas.
Chevallier, Maguelonne; Krauth, Werner
2007-11-01
We discuss the relationship between the cycle probabilities in the path-integral representation of the ideal Bose gas, off-diagonal long-range order, and Bose-Einstein condensation. Starting from the Landsberg recursion relation for the canonic partition function, we use elementary considerations to show that in a box of size L3 the sum of the cycle probabilities of length k>L2 equals the off-diagonal long-range order parameter in the thermodynamic limit. For arbitrary systems of ideal bosons, the integer derivative of the cycle probabilities is related to the probability of condensing k bosons. We use this relation to derive the precise form of the pik in the thermodynamic limit. We also determine the function pik for arbitrary systems. Furthermore, we use the cycle probabilities to compute the probability distribution of the maximum-length cycles both at T=0, where the ideal Bose gas reduces to the study of random permutations, and at finite temperature. We close with comments on the cycle probabilities in interacting Bose gases.
Theory of a condensed charged-Bose, charged Fermi gas and Ginzburg--Landau studies of superfluid 3He
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dahl, D.A.
1976-01-01
Two independent topics in the field of condensed matter physics are examined: the condensed charged-Bose, charged Fermi gas and superfluid 3 He. Green's function (field theoretic) methods are used to derive the low-temperature properties of a dense, neutral gas of condensed charged bosons and degenerate charged fermions. Restriction is made to the case where the fermion mass is much lighter than the boson mass. Linear response and the density-density correlation function are examined and shown to exhibit two collective modes: a plasmon branch and a phonon branch with speed equal to that of ionic sound in solids. Comparison with a possible astrophysical application (white dwarf stars) is made. The behavior near the superfluid transition temperature (Ginzburg--Landau regime) of 3 He is then studied. Gorkov equations are derived and studied in the weak-coupling limit. In this way the form and order of magnitude estimates of coefficients appearing in the Ginzburg--Landau theory are obtained. Weak-coupling particle and spin currents are derived. Various perturbations break the large degeneracy of the states and have experimental implications. The electric contribution to the Ginzburg--Landau free energy is studied for the proposed A and B phases. Imposition of an electric field orients the axial state, but does not give rise to shifts in the NMR resonances. Shifts and discontinuous jumps in the longitudinal and transverse signals are predicted for the Balian--Werthamer state, the details depending on the relative strengths of the fields, as well as the angle between them
Second sound in a two-dimensional Bose gas: From the weakly to the strongly interacting regime
Ota, Miki; Stringari, Sandro
2018-03-01
Using Landau's theory of two-fluid hydrodynamics, we investigate first and second sounds propagating in a two-dimensional (2D) Bose gas. We study the temperature and interaction dependence of both sound modes and show that their behavior exhibits a deep qualitative change as the gas evolves from the weakly interacting to the strongly interacting regime. Special emphasis is placed on the jump of both sounds at the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition, caused by the discontinuity of the superfluid density. We find that the excitation of second sound through a density perturbation becomes weaker and weaker as the interaction strength increases as a consequence of the decrease in the thermal expansion coefficient. Our results could be relevant for future experiments on the propagation of sound on the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) side of the BCS-BEC crossover of a 2D superfluid Fermi gas.
Gap and screening in Raman scattering of a Bose condensed gas
Navez, P.; Bongs, K.
2009-12-01
We propose different spectroscopic methods to explore the nature of the thermal excitations of a trapped Bose condensed gas: 1) a four photon process to probe the uniform region in the trap center: 2) a stimulated Raman process in order to analyze the influence of a momentum transfer in the resulting scattered atom momentum distribution. We apply these methods to address specifically the energy spectrum and the scattering amplitude of these excitations in a transition between two hyperfine levels of the gas atoms. In particular, we exemplify the potential offered by these proposed techniques by contrasting the spectrum expected from the non-conserving Bogoliubov approximation, valid for weak depletion, to the spectrum of the finite-temperature extensions like the conserving generalized random phase approximation (GRPA). Both predict the existence of the Bogoliubov collective excitations but the GRPA approximation distinguishes them from the single-atom excitations with a gapped and parabolic dispersion relation and accounts for the dynamical screening of any external perturbation applied to the gas. We present two feasible experiments, one concerns the observation of the gap associated to this second branch of excitations and the other deals with this screening effect.
Impact of neutral density fluctuations on gas puff imaging diagnostics
Wersal, C.; Ricci, P.
2017-11-01
A three-dimensional turbulence simulation of the SOL and edge regions of a toroidally limited tokamak is carried out. The simulation couples self-consistently the drift-reduced two-fluid Braginskii equations to a kinetic equation for neutral atoms. A diagnostic neutral gas puff on the low-field side midplane is included and the impact of neutral density fluctuations on D_α light emission investigated. We find that neutral density fluctuations affect the D_α emission. In particular, at a radial distance from the gas puff smaller than the neutral mean free path, neutral density fluctuations are anti-correlated with plasma density, electron temperature, and D_α fluctuations. It follows that the neutral fluctuations reduce the D_α emission in most of the observed region and, therefore, have to be taken into account when interpreting the amplitude of the D_α emission. On the other hand, higher order statistical moments (skewness, kurtosis) and turbulence characteristics (such as correlation length, or the autocorrelation time) are not significantly affected by the neutral fluctuations. At distances from the gas puff larger than the neutral mean free path, a non-local shadowing effect influences the neutral density fluctuations. There, the D_α fluctuations are correlated with the neutral density fluctuations, and the high-order statistical moments and measurements of other turbulence properties are strongly affected by the neutral density fluctuations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avetisyan, Yu. A.; Trifonov, E. D.
2008-01-01
We give a general formulation of the semiclassical approach to solving the problem of interaction between a Bose-Einstein condensate of dilute gas and electromagnetic radiation without using the commonly applied mean-field approximation. We suggest variants of the systems of Maxwell-Schroedinger equations whose solution describes such effects as superradiant light scattering, light beam amplification, atomic wave (atomic laser) amplification, induced transparency, and reduction in the group velocity of light
Quantum quench in a harmonically trapped one-dimensional Bose gas
Collura, Mario; Kormos, Márton; Calabrese, Pasquale
2018-03-01
We study the nonequilibrium dynamics of a one-dimensional Bose gas trapped by a harmonic potential for a quench from zero to infinite interaction. The different thermodynamic limits required for the equilibrium pre- and post-quench Hamiltonians are the origin of a few unexpected phenomena that have no counterparts in the translational-invariant setting. We find that the dynamics is perfectly periodic with breathing time related to the strength of the trapping potential. For very short times, we observe a sudden expansion leading to an extreme dilution of the gas and to the emergence of slowly decaying tails in the density profile. The haste of the expansion induces an undertow-like effect with a pronounced local minimum of the density at the center of the trap. At half period there is a refocusing phenomenon characterized by a sharp central peak of the density, juxtaposed to algebraically decaying tails. We finally show that the time-averaged density is correctly captured by a generalized Gibbs ensemble built with the conserved mode occupations.
Hsieh, K. C.; Eip, WING-H. AFKEPPLER, E. agrichter, a. k; Eip, WING-H. AFKEPPLER, E. agrichter, a. k
1986-01-01
The neutral gas density profile of comet Halley measured by the Neutral Gas Experiment on Vega 1 showed an asymmetry between the inbound and the outbound legs during the fly-by on 6 March 1986. The implications of this asymmetry are discussed, and it is shown how the asymmetry detected by NGE on Vega 1 can be traced back to regions on or near the nucleus to obtain their relative gas production activities at specific times of emission.
Real-space mean-field theory of a spin-1 Bose gas in synthetic dimensions
Hurst, Hilary M.; Wilson, Justin H.; Pixley, J. H.; Spielman, I. B.; Natu, Stefan S.
2016-12-01
The internal degrees of freedom provided by ultracold atoms provide a route for realizing higher dimensional physics in systems with limited spatial dimensions. Nonspatial degrees of freedom in these systems are dubbed "synthetic dimensions." This connection is useful from an experimental standpoint but complicated by the fact that interactions alter the condensate ground state. Here we use the Gross-Pitaevskii equation to study the ground-state properties of a spin-1 Bose gas under the combined influence of an optical lattice, spatially varying spin-orbit coupling, and interactions at the mean-field level. The associated phases depend on the sign of the spin-dependent interaction parameter and the strength of the spin-orbit field. We find "charge"- and spin-density-wave phases which are directly related to helical spin order in real space and affect the behavior of edge currents in the synthetic dimension. We determine the resulting phase diagram as a function of the spin-orbit coupling and spin-dependent interaction strength, considering both attractive (ferromagnetic) and repulsive (polar) spin-dependent interactions, and we provide a direct comparison of our results with the noninteracting case. Our findings are applicable to current and future experiments, specifically with 87Rb, 7Li, 41K, and 23Na.
Distribution of neutral gas and dust near Saturn
Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Scudder, J. D.; Bridge, H. S.
1981-01-01
The distribution of neutral gas and dust within the magnetosphere of Saturn has been inferred from the electron velocity distribution functions measured by the Voyager 1 plasma science experiment. Substantial enhancements of neutral material near Titan and in the vicinity of Enceladus are found. The E ring is also shown to be larger than previously thought.
MAVEN Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer Data
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This bundle contains the data collected by the Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) instrument aboard the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN)...
Neutral gas flows in fusion devices with finite Knudsen numbers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
May, C.
1997-12-01
The effects of neutral particles on the conditions of the plasma edge play a key role in divertor and limiter physics. In computational models they are usually treated in the linear test particle approximation or in the fluid limit. However, in some divertor concepts a large neutral gas pressure is required in the divertor chamber to provide sufficient neutral-plasma interaction in the plasma fan (momentum removal and energy dissipation) and to permit adequate pumping performance. In such regimes visous effects in the neutral gas may become relevant. The linear Monte Carlo Code for neutral gas transport in fusion plasmas is extended by a non-linear BGK collision integral. The new features of the model are tested against analytical solutions, and are applied to an ITER divertor configuration. This, for the first time, allows to assess the issue of momentum removal from the divertor fan through the gas in the divertor chamber for real configurations. As expected, we find a partial thermalization between atoms and molecules. Momentum sources seem to be redistributed in the plasma fan due to viscous forces in the gas. Possible consequences for the design are discussed. (orig.)
Modeling of modification experiments involving neutral-gas release
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernhardt, P.A.
1983-01-01
Many experiments involve the injection of neutral gases into the upper atmosphere. Examples are critical velocity experiments, MHD wave generation, ionospheric hole production, plasma striation formation, and ion tracing. Many of these experiments are discussed in other sessions of the Active Experiments Conference. This paper limits its discussion to: (1) the modeling of the neutral gas dynamics after injection, (2) subsequent formation of ionosphere holes, and (3) use of such holes as experimental tools
Accelerated expansion of a universe containing a self-interacting Bose-Einstein gas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Izquierdo, German; Besprosvany, Jaime, E-mail: german.izquierdo@gmail.co, E-mail: bespro@fisica.unam.m [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito de la Investigacion CientIfica S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, CP 04510, Mexico, Distrito Federal (Mexico)
2010-03-21
Acceleration of the universe is obtained from a model of non-relativistic particles with a short-range attractive interaction, at low enough temperature to produce a Bose-Einstein condensate. Conditions are derived for negative-pressure behavior. In particular, we show that a phantom-accelerated regime at the beginning of the universe solves the horizon problem, consistently with nucleosynthesis.
On the Second Order Correction to the Ground State Energy of the Dilute Bose Gas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brietzke, Birger
Bogolubov's work in the late 1950's. In the introduction we discuss how to derive the LHY formula using Bogolubov's approximation step, which presupposes Bose-Einstein condensation. The second part contains a detailed proof, which establishes the LHY formula as a lower bound in a weak coupling and low...
Fujimoto, Kazuya; Hamazaki, Ryusuke; Ueda, Masahito
2018-02-01
By studying the coarsening dynamics of a one-dimensional spin-1 Bose-Hubbard model in a superfluid regime, we analytically find an unconventional universal dynamical scaling for the growth of the spin correlation length, which is characterized by the exponential integral unlike the conventional power law or simple logarithmic behavior, and numerically confirmed with the truncated Wigner approximation.
Power and gas flow models for monoenergetic neutral beam injectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fasolo, J.A.
1978-01-01
Large, ignition tokamak reactors (ITR, EPR, and beyond will require supplemental heating to achieve ignition. In the earlier machines, at least, this heating will probably be provided by monoenergetic neutral beams. These beams, with energies greater than or equal to 150 keV, will most likely be derived from D + or D - ions produced by direct extraction ion sources. A positive ion source will be followed by a bending magnet, a neutralizer, and a second bending magnet. The first magnet will remove molecular ions, and the second one atomic ions. Direct convertors will be used to recover energy from unused molecular and atomic ions. The first bending magnet may be omitted if D - ion sources are used. Models have been developed for power and gas flow in injectors which employ direct extraction D + or D - ion sources. The power flow model accounts explicitly for all beam losses in terms of line densities of gas along paths traversed by ions and neutrals and cross sections for dissociation and charge-changing collisions. The gas flow model uses the results of power flow calculations and known gas flows from sources and neutralizers to determine gas loads and pumping requirements in various parts of the injector
Integral Transport Analysis Results for Ions Flowing Through Neutral Gas
Emmert, Gilbert; Santarius, John
2017-10-01
Results of a computational model for the flow of energetic ions and neutrals through a background neutral gas will be presented. The method models reactions as creating a new source of ions or neutrals if the energy or charge state of the resulting particle is changed. For a given source boundary condition, the creation and annihilation of the various species is formulated as a 1-D Volterra integral equation that can quickly be solved numerically by finite differences. The present work focuses on multiple-pass, 1-D ion flow through neutral gas and a nearly transparent, concentric anode and cathode pair in spherical, cylindrical, or linear geometry. This has been implemented as a computer code for atomic (3He, 3He +, 3He + +) and molecular (D, D2, D-, D +, D2 +, D3 +) ion and neutral species, and applied to modeling inertial-electrostatic connement (IEC) devices. The code yields detailed energy spectra of the various ions and energetic neutral species. Calculations for several University of Wisconsin IEC and ion implantation devices will be presented. Research supported by US Dept. of Homeland Security Grant 2015-DN-077-ARI095, Dept. of Energy Grant DE-FG02-04ER54745, and the Grainger Foundation.
Phases of a Two-Dimensional Bose Gas in an Optical Lattice
Jiménez-García, K.; Compton, R. L.; Lin, Y.-J.; Phillips, W. D.; Porto, J. V.; Spielman, I. B.
2010-09-01
Ultracold atoms in optical lattices realize simple condensed matter models. We create an ensemble of ≈60 harmonically trapped 2D Bose-Hubbard systems from a Rb87 Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical lattice and use a magnetic resonance imaging approach to select a few 2D systems for study, thereby eliminating ensemble averaging. Our identification of the transition from superfluid to Mott insulator, as a function of both atom density and lattice depth, is in excellent agreement with a universal state diagram [M. Rigol , Phys. Rev. A 79 053605 (2009)PLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.79.053605] suitable for our trapped system. In agreement with theory, our data suggest a failure of the local density approximation in the transition region.
Light on light: Satyendra Nath Bose's work on radiative equilibrium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sudarshan, E.C.G.
1977-06-01
The discussion of radiative equilibrium covers electromagnetic theory, photons, statistical mechanics of a photon gas, Bose-Einstein statistics, Bose processes as an innovation on a Poisson process, Einstein's dynamic derivation for Bohr atoms, Bose's generalized dynamic derivation, dynamical theory of radiative equilibrium, partial coherence, quantum field theory, and Bose condensation
Non-linear effects on neutral gas transport in divertors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reiter, D.; May, C.; Baelmans, M.; Boerner, P.
1997-01-01
The effects of neutral particles on the condition of the plasma edge play a key role in divertor and limiter physics. In computational models they are usually treated in the linear test particle approximation. However, in some divertor concepts a large neutral gas pressure is required in the divertor chamber to provide sufficient neutral-plasma interaction in the plasma fan (momentum removal and energy dissipation) and to permit adequate pumping performance. In such regimes viscous effects in the neutral gas may become relevant. We have extended the EIRENE code to solve the Boltzmann equation with a non-linear BGK-model collision term added to its standard linear collision integrals. The linear in-elastic collision integrals are reconsidered with respect to volume recombination and momentum removal efficiency from the plasma. The numerical procedure in the EIRENE Monte Carlo code is outlined. A simple test application (Couette flow) shows that the procedure works properly. First numerical studies have been carried out and the results are discussed. (orig.)
Damping-free collective oscillations of a driven two-component Bose gas in optical lattices
Shchedrin, Gavriil; Jaschke, Daniel; Carr, Lincoln D.
2018-04-01
We explore the quantum many-body physics of a driven Bose-Einstein condensate in optical lattices. The laser field induces a gap in the generalized Bogoliubov spectrum proportional to the effective Rabi frequency. The lowest-lying modes in a driven condensate are characterized by zero group velocity and nonzero current. Thus, the laser field induces roton modes, which carry interaction in a driven condensate. We show that collective excitations below the energy of the laser-induced gap remain undamped, while above the gap they are characterized by a significantly suppressed Landau damping rate.
Choi, S; Dunjko, V; Zhang, Z D; Olshanii, M
2015-09-11
Using a time-dependent modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation (MNLSE)-where the conventional chemical potential proportional to the density is replaced by the one inferred from Lieb-Liniger's exact solution-we study frequencies of the collective monopole excitations of a one-dimensional Bose gas. We find that our method accurately reproduces the results of a recent experimental study [E. Haller et al., Science 325, 1224 (2009)] in the full spectrum of interaction regimes from the ideal gas, through the mean-field regime, through the mean-field Thomas-Fermi regime, all the way to the Tonks-Giradeau gas. While the former two are accessible by the standard time-dependent NLSE and inaccessible by the time-dependent local density approximation, the situation reverses in the latter case. However, the MNLSE is shown to treat all these regimes within a single numerical method.
Phases of a 2D Bose Gas in an Optical Lattice
Jimenez-Garcia, Karina; Compton, Robert; Lin, Yu-Ju; Phillips, William; Porto, James; Spielman, Ian
2010-03-01
We realize the Bose-Hubbard (BH) model with a ^87Rb Bose- Einstein condensate (BEC) and measure condensate fraction to determine the Superfluid (SF) to Mott-Insulator (MI) transition as a function of atom density and lattice depth. We start with a 3D BEC in |F=1, mF=1>, in the presence of a magnetic field gradient along z, and load it into a 3D optical lattice to get an ensemble of 60 2D systems along z and to realize the 2D BH model in x- y. With a MRI approach, we address a localized group of nearly identical 2D systems from the ensemble. We choose an rf magnetic field Brf to maximize the transfer from |mF=1> to |mF=0> using a 400 μs Blackman pulse. After the rf pulse the lattices are adiabatically ramped down. Simultaneously, all other confinement potentials are turned off and the atoms evolve in time of flight (TOF). During part of TOF a magnetic field gradient along y separates the mF components. Our results are in agreement with the Quantum Monte Carlo universal state diagram, suitable for trapped systems, introduced by Rigol et. al.(Phys. Rev. A 79, 053605 (2009)).
Bose condensation in (random traps
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V.A. Zagrebnov
2009-01-01
Full Text Available We study a non-interacting (perfect Bose-gas in random external potentials (traps. It is shown that a generalized Bose-Einstein condensation in the random eigenstates manifests if and only if the same occurs in the one-particle kinetic-energy eigenstates, which corresponds to the generalized condensation of the free Bose-gas. Moreover, we prove that the amounts of both condensate densities are equal. This statement is relevant for justification of the Bogoliubov approximation} in the theory of disordered boson systems.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Since their average energy is proportional to the temperature, the total energy per unit volume is proportional to the fourth power of the temperature. However, if we apply Bose statistics to a gas of helium atoms in a box, we must obviously keep the number of atoms fixed as the temperature varies. So the precise formula for ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
have quoted, London noted that at the density of liquid helium, the temperature for Bose-Einstein condensation of an ideal gas would be about three degrees above absolute zero.4 Liquid helium shows new properties below 2.1 degrees Kelvin [3]. London boldly suggested that these new properties were a consequence of ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
travel, music, and food are optimally satisfied by listening to Hindi film music half as old as he is while eating potato chips in a sleeper coach. R Nityananda. In 1924 Bose introduced a counting rule for the states of a gas of photons which explained Planck's law for thermal radiation at one stroke. Einstein not only recognised ...
Ground State Energy and Momentum Distribution Function for a Bose Gas Within a Multi-Rods Structure
Rodriguez, O. A.; Solis, M. A.
We use the Variational Monte Carlo (VMC) method to calculate the ground state (gs) energy and the momentum distribution of an interacting Bose gas confined by a one-dimensional periodic multi-rods structure created by an external Kronig-Penney potential. The VMC gs energy is compared with that previously obtained using the Mean-Field theory approximation by solving analytically the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. In the limit of zero external potential, we recover the well-known Lieb-Liniger gas, which for strong interactions becomes the Tonks gas. In this limit case, we compare our variational results with those obtained originally by Lieb and Liniger, as well as with those calculated by means of the Diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) method. Only in the region of high density and weak interaction, Mean-Field results are equal to DMC results and slightly better than the variational ones. We thank partial support from Grants CONACyT 221030 and PAPIIT IN107616.
Germany 2050 a greenhouse gas-neutral country. Background paper
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Werner, Kathrin; Nissler, Diana (eds.)
2013-10-15
For several years, the German Federal Environment Agency (UBA) has been looking at the question how the climate target of a GHG-neutral Germany can be achieved. In a multi-disciplinary project launched by the agency, the first point of call was power generation because of its high emissions. It was shown in 2010 that power generation from 100 % renewable energy is possible. Even then it was understood that a renewable energy supply alone would not be enough to completely abolish greenhouse gas emissions. Other sectors of the economy would have to follow suit and undergo major changes, relying on low-GHG technology. Consequently, the study now submitted, ''Greenhouse gas-neutral Germany 2050'', includes in its research all relevant emission sources that are described in the annual National Inventory Report (NIR) on emissions and removal of greenhouse gases. Alongside complete energy supply, including heating and transport, we also look at emissions from industry, waste disposal, agriculture and forestry as well as changes in land use. We develop a target scenario. The transformations that lead to the target and related economic considerations or the selection of appropriate policy instruments, however, are not part of our study. The scenario analysis is based on the assumption that in 2050, Germany will still be an exporting industrial country with an average annual growth of 0.7 % of its gross domestic product.
Revised neutral gas shielding model for pellet ablation - combined neutral and plasma shielding
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Houlberg, W.A.; Schuresko, D.D.; Attenberger, S.E.
1986-01-01
The ablation and penetration of pellets in early ORMAK and ISX-A experiments were reliably predicted by the neutral gas shielding model of Milora and Foster. These experiments demonstrated that the principle components of the model - a self-generated shield which reduces the heat flux at the plasma surface - were correct. In more recent experiments with higher temperature plasmas, this model consistently predicts greater penetration than observed in the experiments. Upgarding known limitations of the original model brings the predicted and observed penetration values into agreement. These improvements include: (1) treating the incident electrons as having distribution in energy rather than being monoenergetic; (2) including the shielding effects of cold, dense plasma extending along the magnetic field outside the neutral shield; and (3) modifying the finite plasma, self-limiting incident heat flux so that it represents a collisionless plasma limit rather than a collisional limit. Comparisons are made between the models for a selection of ISX-B Alcator-C, and TFTR shots. The net effect of the changes in the model is an increase in pellet ablation rates and decrease in penetration for current and future experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hanai, R.; Littlewood, P. B.; Ohashi, Y.
2016-03-01
We theoretically investigate a Bose-condensed exciton gas out of equilibrium. Within the framework of the combined BCS-Leggett strong-coupling theory with the non-equilibrium Keldysh formalism, we show how the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of excitons is suppressed to eventually disappear, when the system is in the non-equilibrium steady state. The supply of electrons and holes from the bath is shown to induce quasi-particle excitations, leading to the partial occupation of the upper branch of Bogoliubov single-particle excitation spectrum. We also discuss how this quasi-particle induction is related to the suppression of exciton BEC, as well as the stability of the steady state.
GASDUC-3: a gas pipeline with neutralization of greenhouse gases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D' Oliveira, Celso A.; Paula, Eliane H. de; Freire, Dilian A.D. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2009-07-01
PETROBRAS seeks to develop its projects following the contemporary premises of sustainable development. The Cabiunas-REDUC-3 Gas Pipeline (GASDUC-3), an undertaking from the Transportadora Associada de Gas - TAG (Associated Gas Transporter) in progress by PETROBRAS, is an example showing that interfacing with the environment can overcome legal questions to reach the realm of awareness and community spirit. In addition to the many programs directed specifically towards the fulfillment of environmental regulations, as defined by competent agencies, the GASDUC-3 is also inserted in the Carbon Free Program. In the Carbon Free Program, all the GHG emissions into the atmosphere during the construction of the gas pipeline will be compensated for with the neutralization of carbon through reforestation. Such initiative is considered unheard of in works with pipelines worldwide. An inventory that quantified the emission of GHG during the implementation of GASDUC-3 made it possible to quantify the reforestation to be implemented and to calculate the number of native species to be planted for absorption - during the course of their growth - of this same amount of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The trees are being planted especially in Permanent Preservation Areas (PPA), located in the Unidades de Conservacao do Bioma Mata Atlantica (Conservation Units of the Atlantic Forest Biome), inside the influence region of the gas pipeline, in accordance with the competent environmental agencies and owners. In this way, in addition to fixing carbon and contributing to the deceleration of global warming, the project also cooperates with the preservation of hydro and soil resources and the local and regional biodiversity. The recapturing of the already emitted GHG through reforestation faces bureaucratic and economic difficulties in order to be implemented, different from the emission reduction projects which are widely disseminated by means of Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM
Direct, nondestructive observation of a Bose condensate
Andrews, M.R.; Mewes, M.O.; van Druten, N.J.; Durfee, D.S.; Kurn, D.M.; Ketterle, W.
1996-01-01
The spatial observation of a Bose condensate is reported. Dispersive light scattering was used to observe the separation between the condensed and normal components of the Bose gas inside a magnetic trap. This technique is nondestructive, and about a hundred images of the same condensate can be
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albertin, U.K.; Morrison, H.L.
1990-01-01
A number of representations of the group of volume preserving diffeomorphisms of M=S 3 in the finite-volume case and M=R 3 in the infinite-volume case that describe a Bose gas in the presence of a vortex filament are examined. The core of the vortex is taken to lie along a curve γ. Let Dif f γ μ (M) be the group of volume preserving diffeomorphisms that map γ onto itself, M γ the manifold M with γ removed, and Map(M γ ,T) the space of smooth maps of M γ into the complex numbers of modulus unity. It is shown, using the formalism of Klauder [J. Math. Phys. 11, 233 (1970)], that an infinite number of inequivalent representations of Dif f γ μ (M) exist in the infinite-volume limit using cyclic vectors, which are coherent states based on elements in Map(M γ ,T). It is found, however, that these states have questionable physical significance since they appear to violate the continuity equation for quantum probability flow. This leads to the postulation that Dif f γ μ (M) acts as gauge group. The representations of Dif f γ μ (M) are then used to construct induced representations of the full group volume preserving diffeomorphisms of M, which are realized in the Hilbert space over the space of unparametrized loops in M in a natural way. These latter representations are found to be essentially the ones under current study in quantum hydrodynamics [G. A. Goldin, R. Menikoff, and D. H. Sharp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2162 (1987)
Density form factors of the 1D Bose gas for finite entropy states
De Nardis, J.; Panfil, M.
2015-01-01
We consider the Lieb-Liniger model for a gas of bosonic delta-interacting particles. Using Algebraic Bethe Ansatz results we compute the thermodynamic limit of the form factors of the density operator between finite entropy eigenstates such as finite temperature states or generic non-equilibrium
Bose condensation in an attractive fermion gas: From weak to strong coupling superconductivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nozieres, P.; Schmitt-Rink, S.
1985-01-01
We consider a gas of fermions interacting via an attractive potential. We study the ground state of that system and calculate the critical temperature for the onset of superconductivity as a function of the coupling strength. We compare the behavior of continuum and lattice models and show that the evolution from weak to strong coupling superconductivity is smooth
Light on light: Satyendra Nath Bose's work on radiative equilibrium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sudarshan, E.C.G.
1977-06-01
The discussion of radiative equilibrium covers electromagnetic theory, photons, statistical mechanics of a photon gas, Bose-Einstein statistics, Bose processes as an innovation on a Poisson process, Einstein's dynamic derivation for Bohr atoms, Bose's generalized dynamic derivation, dynamical theory of radiative equilibrium, partial coherence, quantum field theory, and Bose condensation. (JFP)
Creation of a Bose-condensed gas of87Rb by laser cooling.
Hu, Jiazhong; Urvoy, Alban; Vendeiro, Zachary; Crépel, Valentin; Chen, Wenlan; Vuletić, Vladan
2017-11-24
Protocols for attaining quantum degeneracy in atomic gases almost exclusively rely on evaporative cooling, a time-consuming final step associated with substantial atom loss. We demonstrate direct laser cooling of a gas of rubidium-87 ( 87 Rb) atoms to quantum degeneracy. The method is fast and induces little atom loss. The atoms are trapped in a two-dimensional optical lattice that enables cycles of compression to increase the density, followed by Raman sideband cooling to decrease the temperature. From a starting number of 2000 atoms, 1400 atoms reach quantum degeneracy in 300 milliseconds, as confirmed by a bimodal velocity distribution. The method should be broadly applicable to many bosonic and fermionic species and to systems where evaporative cooling is not possible. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Han, Daoman; Liu, Zigeng; Liu, Yongxin; Peng, Wei; Wang, Younian
2016-09-01
Neutral gas temperature was measured using Fiber Bragg Grating sensor (FBGs) in capacitively coupled argon plasmas. Thermometry is based on the thermal equilibrium between the sensor and neutral gases, which is found to become faster with increasing pressure. It is also observed that the neutral gas temperature is higher than the room temperature by 10 120 °depending on the experiental conditions, and gas temperature shows significant non-uniformity in space. In addition, radial profiles of neutral temperature at different pressures, resemble these of ion density, obtained by a floating double probe. Specifically, at low pressure, neutral gas temperature and ion density peak at the center of the reactor, while the peak appears at the edge of the electrode at higher pressure. The neutral gas heating is mainly caused by the elastic collisions of Ar + with neutral gas atoms in the sheath region after Ar + gaining a certain energy. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (Grants No. 11335004, 11405018, and 61137005).
Ultracold Fermi and Bose gases and Spinless Bose Charged Sound Particles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Minasyan V.
2011-10-01
Full Text Available We propose a novel approach for investigation of the motion of Bose or Fermi liquid (or gas which consists of decoupled electrons and ions in the uppermost hyperfine state. Hence, we use such a concept as the fluctuation motion of “charged fluid particles” or “charged fluid points” representing a charged longitudinal elastic wave. In turn, this elastic wave is quantized by spinless longitudinal Bose charged sound particles with the rest mass m and charge e 0 . The existence of spinless Bose charged sound particles allows us to present a new model for description of Bose or Fermi liquid via a non-ideal Bose gas of charged sound particles . In this respect, we introduce a new postulation for the superfluid component of Bose or Fermi liquid determined by means of charged sound particles in the condensate, which may explain the results of experiments connected with ultra-cold Fermi gases of spin-polarized hydrogen, 6 Li and 40 K, and such a Bose gas as 87 Rb in the uppermost hyperfine state, where the Bose- Einstein condensation of charged sound particles is realized by tuning the magnetic field.
Advanced neutral gas diagnostics for magnetic confinement devices
Wenzel, U.; Kremeyer, T.; Schlisio, G.; Marquardt, M.; Pedersen, T. S.; Schmitz, O.; Mackie, B.; Maisano-Brown, J.; the W7-X Team
2017-09-01
For the study of particle exhaust in nuclear fusion devices the neutral pressure must be measured in strong magnetic fields. We describe as an example the neutral pressure gauges in the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator. Two types are used: hot cathode ionization gauges (or ASDEX pressure gauges) and Penning gauges. We show some results from the first experimental campaign. The main problems were runtime effects and the failure of some ASDEX pressure gauges. To improve the reliability we integrated a new LaB6 electron emitter into the ASDEX pressure gauges. In addition, a special Penning gauge without permanent magnets was developed in order to operate Penning gauges near the plasma edge. These new pressure gauges will be used in the upcoming campaign of Wendelstein 7-X.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergey Tarasov
2018-02-01
Full Text Available We analytically calculate the statistics of Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC fluctuations in an interacting gas trapped in a three-dimensional cubic or rectangular box with the Dirichlet, fused or periodic boundary conditions within the mean-field Bogoliubov and Thomas-Fermi approximations. We study a mesoscopic system of a finite number of trapped particles and its thermodynamic limit. We find that the BEC fluctuations, first, are anomalously large and non-Gaussian and, second, depend on the trap’s form and boundary conditions. Remarkably, these effects persist with increasing interparticle interaction and even in the thermodynamic limit—only the mean BEC occupation, not BEC fluctuations, becomes independent on the trap’s form and boundary conditions.
Renormalization group approach to the interacting bose fluid
Wiegel, F.W.
1978-01-01
It is pointed out that the method of functional integration provides a very convenient starting point for the renormalization group approach to the interacting Bose gas. Using such methods we show in a general and non-perturbative way that the critical exponents of the Bose gas are identical to
Investigation of accelerated neutral atom beams created from gas cluster ion beams
Kirkpatrick, A.; Kirkpatrick, S.; Walsh, M.; Chau, S.; Mack, M.; Harrison, S.; Svrluga, R.; Khoury, J.
2013-07-01
A new concept for ultra-shallow processing of surfaces known as accelerated neutral atom beam (ANAB) technique employs conversion of energetic gas cluster ions produced by the gas cluster ion beam (GCIB) method into intense collimated beams of coincident neutral gas atoms having controllable average energies from less than 10 eV per atom to beyond 100 eV per atom. A beam of accelerated gas cluster ions is first produced as is usual in GCIB, but conditions within the source ionizer and extraction regions are adjusted such that immediately after ionization and acceleration the clusters undergo collisions with non-ionized gas atoms. Energy transfer during these collisions causes the energetic cluster ions to release many of their constituent atoms. An electrostatic deflector is then used to eliminate charged species, leaving the released neutral atoms to still travel collectively at the same velocities they had as bonded components of their parent clusters. Upon target impact, the accelerated neutral atom beams produce effects similar to those normally associated with GCIB, but to shallower depths, with less surface damage and with superior subsurface interfaces. The paper discusses generation and characterization of the accelerated neutral atom beams, describes interactions of the beams with target surfaces, and presents examples of ongoing work on applications for biomedical devices.
Efficiencies of gas neutralizers for multi-MeV beams of light negative ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grisham, L.R.; Post, D.E.; Johnson, B.M.; Jones, K.W.; Barrette, J.; Kruse, T.H.; Tserruya, I.; Da-Hai, W.
1982-01-01
We report measurements of the neutral and charged particle fractions produced by running beams of Li - , C - , O - , and Si - at energies up to 7 MeV through gas cells of N 2 , Ar, or CO 2 . We discuss the implications of these measurements for the design of neutralizers to produce high-energy light atom beams for heating or current drive in tokamaks
Neutral gas and impurity ion flow produced by a plasma sound wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohkawa, T.; Miller, R.L.
1993-01-01
It is proposed to launch an ion sound wave near the divertor plate of a tokamak plasma to direct the flow of impurities and neutrals in the divertor region. By exciting the ion sound wave with a properly phased second harmonic component, nonlinear effects in the collisional drag of neutrals and impurities can be exploited to yield a time-averaged flow of both hydrogen gas and impurities towards the divertor plate. Thus impurities can be restrained from entering the plasma interior, and an increased neutral density in the divertor region can reduce recycling and enhance radiative cooling there. (Author)
Neutral gas sympathetic cooling of an ion in a Paul trap.
Chen, Kuang; Sullivan, Scott T; Hudson, Eric R
2014-04-11
A single ion immersed in a neutral buffer gas is studied. An analytical model is developed that gives a complete description of the dynamics and steady-state properties of the ions. An extension of this model, using techniques employed in the mathematics of economics and finance, is used to explain the recent observation of non-Maxwellian statistics for these systems. Taken together, these results offer an explanation of the long-standing issues associated with sympathetic cooling of an ion by a neutral buffer gas.
Alfalfa discovery of the nearby gas-rich dwarf galaxy LEO P. V. Neutral gas dynamics and kinematics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernstein-Cooper, Elijah Z.; Pardy, Stephen A.; Cannon, John M.
2014-01-01
We present new H I spectral line imaging of the extremely metal-poor, star-forming dwarf irregular galaxy Leo P. Our H I images probe the global neutral gas properties and the local conditions of the interstellar medium (ISM). The H I morphology is slightly elongated along the optical major axis. We do not find obvious signatures of interaction or infalling gas at large spatial scales. The neutral gas disk shows obvious rotation, although the velocity dispersion is comparable to the rotation velocity. The rotation amplitude is estimated to be V c =15 ± 5 km s –1 . Within the H I radius probed by these observations, the mass ratio of gas to stars is roughly 2:1, while the ratio of the total mass to the baryonic mass is ≳15:1. We use this information to place Leo P on the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation, testing the baryonic content of cosmic structures in a sparsely populated portion of parameter space that has hitherto been occupied primarily by dwarf spheroidal galaxies. We detect the signature of two temperature components in the neutral ISM of Leo P; the cold and warm components have characteristic velocity widths of 4.2 ± 0.9 km s –1 and 10.1 ± 1.2 km s –1 , corresponding to kinetic temperature upper limits of ∼1100 K and ∼6200 K, respectively. The cold H I component is unresolved at a physical resolution of 200 pc. The highest H I surface densities are observed in close physical proximity to the single H II region. A comparison of the neutral gas properties of Leo P with other extremely metal-deficient (XMD) galaxies reveals that Leo P has the lowest neutral gas mass of any known XMD, and that the dynamical mass of Leo P is more than two orders of magnitude smaller than any known XMD with comparable metallicity.
Analytical model of neutral gas shielding for hydrogen pellet ablation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kuteev, Boris V.; Tsendin, Lev D. [State Technical Univ., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)
2001-11-01
A kinetic gasdynamic scaling for hydrogen pellet ablation is obtained in terms of a neural gas shielding model using both numerical and analytical approaches. The scaling on plasma and pellet parameters proposed in the monoenergy approximation by Milora and Foster dR{sub pe}/dt{approx}S{sub n}{sup 2/3}R{sub p}{sup -2/3}q{sub eo}{sup 1/3}m{sub i}{sup -1/3} is confirmed. Here R{sub p} is the pellet radius, S{sub n} is the optical thickness of a cloud, q{sub eo} is the electron energy flux density and m{sub i} is the molecular mass. Only the numeral factor is approximately two times less than that for the monoenergy approach. Due to this effect, the pellet ablation rates, which were obtained by Kuteev on the basis of the Milora scaling, should be reduced by a factor of 1.7. Such a modification provides a reasonable agreement (even at high plasma parameters) between the two-dimensional kinetic model and the one-dimensional monoenergy approximation validated in contemporary tokamak experiments. As the could (in the kinetic approximation) is significantly thicker than that for the monoenergy case as well as the velocities of the gas flow are much slower, the relative effect of plasma and magnetic shielding on the ablation rate is strongly reduced. (author)
Competition between Bose-Einstein Condensation and Spin Dynamics.
Naylor, B; Brewczyk, M; Gajda, M; Gorceix, O; Maréchal, E; Vernac, L; Laburthe-Tolra, B
2016-10-28
We study the impact of spin-exchange collisions on the dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensation by rapidly cooling a chromium multicomponent Bose gas. Despite relatively strong spin-dependent interactions, the critical temperature for Bose-Einstein condensation is reached before the spin degrees of freedom fully thermalize. The increase in density due to Bose-Einstein condensation then triggers spin dynamics, hampering the formation of condensates in spin-excited states. Small metastable spinor condensates are, nevertheless, produced, and they manifest in strong spin fluctuations.
On the relation between plasma and neutral gas profiles in a cold gas-blanket system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bures, M.
1981-01-01
A solution for the neutral density profile using the measured plasma density and temperature gradients is presented. The fluid model is used. It is found that the penetration length for neutrals is underestimated in the situation where the integrated profiles are used. The ionization rate need not be inferred in the present calculation, because the ionization of neutrals diffusing into the plasma is implicitly included in measured profiles. This calculation is advantageous in the low temperature range where the ionization rate is a strongly varying function of temperature. Finally the presented solution indicates that the temperature gradient plays the essential role in the determination of the neutral density profile. (Auth.)
Cosmological Evolution of the Universe Neutral Gas Mass Measured by Quasar Absorption Systems
Peroux, Celine; McMahon, Richard G.; Irwin, Mike; Storrie-Lombardi, Lisa J.
2001-01-01
The cosmological evolution of neutral hydrogen is an efficient way of tracing structure formation with redshift. It indicates the rate of evolution of gas into stars and hence the gas consumption and rate star formation history of the Universe. In measuring HI, quasar absorbers have proven to be an ideal tool and we use observations from a recent survey for high-redshift quasar absorption systems together with data gathered from the literature to measure the cosmological comoving mass density...
Condensate growth in trapped Bose gates
Bijlsma, M.J.; Zaremba, E.; Stoof, H.T.C.
2000-01-01
We study the dynamics of condensate fromation in an inhomogeneous trapped Bose gas with a positive interatomic scattering length. We take into account both the nonequilibrium kinetics of the thermal cloud and the Hartree-Fock mean-field efects in the condensed and the noncondensed parts of the gas.
Condensate growth in trapped Bose gases
Bijlsma, M.J.; Zaremba, E.; Stoof, H.T.C.
2000-01-01
We study the dynamics of condensate formation in an inhomogeneous trapped Bose gas with a positive interatomic scattering length. We take into account both the nonequilibrium kinetics of the thermal cloud and the Hartree-Fock mean-field effects in the condensed and the noncondensed parts of the gas.
Interaction effects on dynamic correlations in noncondensed Bose gases
Bezett, A.; Van Driel, H. J.; Mink, M. P.; Stoof, H. T C; Duine, R. A.
2014-01-01
We consider dynamic, i.e., frequency-dependent, correlations in noncondensed ultracold atomic Bose gases. In particular, we consider the single-particle correlation function and its power spectrum. We compute this power spectrum for a one-component Bose gas, and we show how it depends on the
Transport Processes in Materials Processing Plasmas: Particulate Behavior and Neutral Gas Transport.
Kilgore, Michael Duane
This research work focuses on two transport problems in low pressure plasma reactors which are used in thin film manufacturing processes. Computer simulation techniques are used to study particulate behavior in processing discharges and neutral species transport in high plasma density discharges. Particulate behavior is predicted by combining models of charging and transport with numerical plasma simulation. A charged particulate is influenced by discharge electric fields and by momentum transfer collisions with drifting plasma species. A particulate is also subject to other forces including neutral gas drag, thermophoresis, and gravity. For radio frequency capacitively coupled discharges, several forces which act on a particulate may be of comparable magnitude. This results in particulate trapping at plasma-sheath boundaries in many cases. For high plasma density discharges, high ion fluxes make the ion drag force dominate particulate behavior. This means that it is more difficult for particulates to be suspended in the plasma, compared to the situation in parallel plate systems. However, particulate contamination of a wafer can still occur in high density plasmas because particulates may be ejected from chamber walls and reach the wafer after residing very briefly in the gas phase. The direct simulation Monte Carlo method is applied to follow transition regime neutral gas transport in high plasma density processing discharges. Three effects are evaluated: neutral depletion by ionization; neutral heating by collisions with energetic plasma species; and gas flow and pumping. These effects are important for discharges that operate at relatively high fractional ionization. Results show the magnitude of these effects in an electron cyclotron resonance reactor and in an inductively coupled reactor operated under a range of typical conditions. The neutral gas transport simulation is extended to investigate neutral beam processing. A high density inductively coupled
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaksch, D
2003-01-01
The Gross-Pitaevskii equation, named after one of the authors of the book, and its large number of applications for describing the properties of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in trapped weakly interacting atomic gases, is the main topic of this book. In total the monograph comprises 18 chapters and is divided into two parts. Part I introduces the notion of BEC and superfluidity in general terms. The most important properties of the ideal and the weakly interacting Bose gas are described and the effects of nonuniformity due to an external potential at zero temperature are studied. The first part is then concluded with a summary of the properties of superfluid He. In Part II the authors describe the theoretical aspects of BEC in harmonically trapped weakly interacting atomic gases. A short and rather rudimentary chapter on collisions and trapping of atomic gases which seems to be included for completeness only is followed by a detailed analysis of the ground state, collective excitations, thermodynamics, and vortices as well as mixtures of BECs and the Josephson effect in BEC. Finally, the last three chapters deal with topics of more recent interest like BEC in optical lattices, low dimensional systems, and cold Fermi gases. The book is well written and in fact it provides numerous useful and important relations between the different properties of a BEC and covers most of the aspects of ultracold weakly interacting atomic gases from the point of view of condensed matter physics. The book contains a comprehensive introduction to BEC for physicists new to the field as well as a lot of detail and insight for those already familiar with this area. I therefore recommend it to everyone who is interested in BEC. Very clearly however, the intention of the book is not to provide prospects for applications of BEC in atomic physics, quantum optics or quantum state engineering and therefore the more practically oriented reader might sometimes wonder why exactly an equation is
Development of SSUBPIC code for modeling the neutral gas depletion effect in helicon discharges
Kollasch, Jeffrey; Sovenic, Carl; Schmitz, Oliver
2017-10-01
The SSUBPIC (steady-state unstructured-boundary particle-in-cell) code is being developed to model helicon plasma devices. The envisioned modeling framework incorporates (1) a kinetic neutral particle model, (2) a kinetic ion model, (3) a fluid electron model, and (4) an RF power deposition model. The models are loosely coupled and iterated until convergence to steady-state. Of the four required solvers, the kinetic ion and neutral particle simulation can now be done within the SSUBPIC code. Recent SSUBPIC modifications include implementation and testing of a Coulomb collision model (Lemons et al., JCP, 228(5), pp. 1391-1403) allowing efficient coupling of kineticly-treated ions to fluid electrons, and implementation of a neutral particle tracking mode with charge-exchange and electron impact ionization physics. These new simulation capabilities are demonstrated working independently and coupled to ``dummy'' profiles for RF power deposition to converge on steady-state plasma and neutral profiles. The geometry and conditions considered are similar to those of the MARIA experiment at UW-Madison. Initial results qualitatively show the expected neutral gas depletion effect in which neutrals in the plasma core are not replenished at a sufficient rate to sustain a higher plasma density. This work is funded by the NSF CAREER award PHY-1455210 and NSF Grant PHY-1206421.
Simulation of neutral gas flow in a tokamak divertor using the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gleason-González, Cristian; Varoutis, Stylianos; Hauer, Volker; Day, Christian
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Subdivertor gas flows calculations in tokamaks by coupling the B2-EIRENE and DSMC method. • The results include pressure, temperature, bulk velocity and particle fluxes in the subdivertor. • Gas recirculation effect towards the plasma chamber through the vertical targets is found. • Comparison between DSMC and the ITERVAC code reveals a very good agreement. - Abstract: This paper presents a new innovative scientific and engineering approach for describing sub-divertor gas flows of fusion devices by coupling the B2-EIRENE (SOLPS) code and the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. The present study exemplifies this with a computational investigation of neutral gas flow in the ITER's sub-divertor region. The numerical results include the flow fields and contours of the overall quantities of practical interest such as the pressure, the temperature and the bulk velocity assuming helium as model gas. Moreover, the study unravels the gas recirculation effect located behind the vertical targets, viz. neutral particles flowing towards the plasma chamber. Comparison between calculations performed by the DSMC method and the ITERVAC code reveals a very good agreement along the main sub-divertor ducts
Alfalfa discovery of the nearby gas-rich dwarf galaxy LEO P. V. Neutral gas dynamics and kinematics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bernstein-Cooper, Elijah Z.; Pardy, Stephen A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 N Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Cannon, John M., E-mail: ezbc@astro.wisc.edu, E-mail: spardy@astro.wisc.edu, E-mail: jcannon@macalester.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); and others
2014-08-01
We present new H I spectral line imaging of the extremely metal-poor, star-forming dwarf irregular galaxy Leo P. Our H I images probe the global neutral gas properties and the local conditions of the interstellar medium (ISM). The H I morphology is slightly elongated along the optical major axis. We do not find obvious signatures of interaction or infalling gas at large spatial scales. The neutral gas disk shows obvious rotation, although the velocity dispersion is comparable to the rotation velocity. The rotation amplitude is estimated to be V {sub c} =15 ± 5 km s{sup –1}. Within the H I radius probed by these observations, the mass ratio of gas to stars is roughly 2:1, while the ratio of the total mass to the baryonic mass is ≳15:1. We use this information to place Leo P on the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation, testing the baryonic content of cosmic structures in a sparsely populated portion of parameter space that has hitherto been occupied primarily by dwarf spheroidal galaxies. We detect the signature of two temperature components in the neutral ISM of Leo P; the cold and warm components have characteristic velocity widths of 4.2 ± 0.9 km s{sup –1} and 10.1 ± 1.2 km s{sup –1}, corresponding to kinetic temperature upper limits of ∼1100 K and ∼6200 K, respectively. The cold H I component is unresolved at a physical resolution of 200 pc. The highest H I surface densities are observed in close physical proximity to the single H II region. A comparison of the neutral gas properties of Leo P with other extremely metal-deficient (XMD) galaxies reveals that Leo P has the lowest neutral gas mass of any known XMD, and that the dynamical mass of Leo P is more than two orders of magnitude smaller than any known XMD with comparable metallicity.
The Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer on the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission
Mahaffy, Paul R.; Benna, Mehdi; King, Todd; Harpold, Daniel N.; Arvey, Robert; Barciniak, Michael; Bendt, Mirl; Carrigan, Daniel; Errigo, Therese; Holmes, Vincent; Johnson, Christopher S.; Kellogg, James; Kimvilakani, Patrick; Lefavor, Matthew; Hengemihle, Jerome; Jaeger, Ferzan; Lyness, Eric; Maurer, John; Melak, Anthony; Noreiga, Felix; Noriega, Marvin; Patel, Kiran; Prats, Benito; Raaen, Eric; Tan, Florence; Weidner, Edwin; Gundersen, Cynthia; Battel, Steven; Block, Bruce P.; Arnett, Ken; Miller, Ryan; Cooper, Curt; Edmonson, Charles; Nolan, J. Thomas
2015-12-01
The Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) of the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission (MAVEN) is designed to measure the composition, structure, and variability of the upper atmosphere of Mars. The NGIMS complements two other instrument packages on the MAVEN spacecraft designed to characterize the neutral upper atmosphere and ionosphere of Mars and the solar wind input to this region of the atmosphere. The combined measurement set is designed to quantify atmosphere escape rates and provide input to models of the evolution of the martian atmosphere. The NGIMS is designed to measure both surface reactive and inert neutral species and ambient ions along the spacecraft track over the 125-500 km altitude region utilizing a dual ion source and a quadrupole analyzer.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Elected: 2000 Section: Physics. Bose, Prof. Indrani Ph.D. (Calcutta), FNASc. Date of birth: 15 August 1951. Specialization: Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics, Statistical Physics, Biological Physics and Systems Biology Address: Emeritus Scientist, Department of Physics, Bose Institute, 93/1, APC Road, Kolkata 700 009, ...
Neutral gas temperatures measured within a high-density, inductively coupled plasma abatement device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tonnis, Eric J.; Graves, David B.
2002-01-01
The neutral temperature within a cylindrical, inductively coupled plasma source has been studied for rare gas and molecular plasmas using the technique of optical emission thermometry. By adding small quantities of N 2 to the gas feeds as an actinometer, the neutral temperature of the discharge can be estimated by simulation and fitting of the rotationally unresolved second positive band (C 3 Π u -B 3 Π g ). In this work, the neutral temperature was estimated using this technique for flowing discharges of argon, helium, neon, nitrogen, and oxygen as a function of pressure and power. It was found that the neutral temperature for all of the discharges studied increased roughly proportional to the logarithm of the pressure. An increase in neutral temperature was also observed with increases in power; however, the dependence did not follow a simple functional form. The rare gases exhibited temperatures significantly above room temperature under high power (1200 W) and high pressure (∼1 Torr) conditions with argon approaching 2000 K. Molecular discharges such as N 2 and O 2 exhibited significantly higher temperatures (approaching 2500 K) than the rare gases even though they are expected to have lower plasma densities at the same pressure and power. It is believed that Franck-Condon heating of the gases during electron impact dissociation, vibrational excitation/thermalization, and exothermic wall reactions may all play important roles in producing such elevated temperatures. Simple, zero-dimensional plasma modeling indicates that neutral temperature elevation will result in significant increases in discharge electron temperature and electron-impact reaction rate coefficients under the same operating conditions
Properties of clusters in the gas phase: V. Complexes of neutral molecules onto negative ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keesee, R.G.; Lee, N.; Castleman, A.W. Jr.
1980-01-01
Ion--molecules association reactions of the form A - (B)/sub n1/-+B=A - (B)/sub n/ were studied over a range of temperatures in the gas phase using high pressure mass spectrometry. Enthalpy and entropy changes were determined for the stepwise clustering reactions of (1) sulfur dioxide onto Cl - , I - , and NO 2 - with n ranging from one to three or four, and onto SO 2 - and SO 3 - with n equal to one; and (2) carbon dioxide onto Cl - , I - , NO 2 - , CO 3 - , and SO 3 - with n equal to one. From these data and earlier hydration results, the order of the magnitude of the enthalpy changes on the association of the first neutral for a series of negative ions was found to parallel the gas-phase basicity of those anions. For any given ion, the relative order of the addition enthalpies among the neutrals was found to be dependent on the polarizabilities of the neutrals and on the covalency in the ion-neutral bond. Dispersion of charge via covalent bonding was found to affect significantly the succeeding clustering steps
The formation of urea in space. I. Ion-molecule, neutral-neutral, and radical gas-phase reactions
Brigiano, Flavio Siro; Jeanvoine, Yannick; Largo, Antonio; Spezia, Riccardo
2018-02-01
Context. Many organic molecules have been observed in the interstellar medium thanks to advances in radioastronomy, and very recently the presence of urea was also suggested. While those molecules were observed, it is not clear what the mechanisms responsible to their formation are. In fact, if gas-phase reactions are responsible, they should occur through barrierless mechanisms (or with very low barriers). In the past, mechanisms for the formation of different organic molecules were studied, providing only in a few cases energetic conditions favorable to a synthesis at very low temperature. A particularly intriguing class of such molecules are those containing one N-C-O peptide bond, which could be a building block for the formation of biological molecules. Urea is a particular case because two nitrogen atoms are linked to the C-O moiety. Thus, motivated also by the recent tentative observation of urea, we have considered the synthetic pathways responsible to its formation. Aims: We have studied the possibility of forming urea in the gas phase via different kinds of bi-molecular reactions: ion-molecule, neutral, and radical. In particular we have focused on the activation energy of these reactions in order to find possible reactants that could be responsible for to barrierless (or very low energy) pathways. Methods: We have used very accurate, highly correlated quantum chemistry calculations to locate and characterize the reaction pathways in terms of minima and transition states connecting reactants to products. Results: Most of the reactions considered have an activation energy that is too high; but the ion-molecule reaction between NH2OHNH2OH2+ and formamide is not too high. These reactants could be responsible not only for the formation of urea but also of isocyanic acid, which is an organic molecule also observed in the interstellar medium.
Synthesis of diamond-like carbon via PECD using a streaming neutral gas injection hollow cathode
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pacho, A.; Pares, E.; Ramos, H.; Mendenilla, A.; Malapit, G.
2009-01-01
A streaming neutral gas injection hollow cathode system was used to deposit diamond-like carbon films via plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition on silicon and nickel-coated silicon substrates with acetylene and hydrogen as reactant gases. Samples were characterized using SEM and Raman spectroscopy. The work presented here aims to demonstrate the capability of the system to synthesize carbonaceous films and is starting point towards work on formation of carbon nanostructures. (author)
Stability aspects of plasmas penetrated by neutral gas with respect to velocity driven modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohlsson, D.
1978-08-01
A study of the stability properties of dense partially ionized plasmas immersed in strong magnetic fields with respect to velocity driven modes are presented. First we consider modes driven by mass motion perpendicular to the lines of force and the unperturbed density and temperature gradients. The presence of a third fluid, neutral gas, gives under certain conditions rise to unstable modes. This type of instability arises independently or whether the applied electric field transverse to the lines of force, driving the mass motion, being parallel or antiparallel to the unperturbed density and temperature gradient. The presence of neutral gas also corresponds to stabilizing effects which, in certain parameter regions, result in a quenching of this instability. It is shown that modes driven by velocity shear perpendicular to the lines of force are effectively stabilized by viscous and resistive effects. These effects are in certain parameter ranges strongly enhanced on account of plasma-neutral gas interaction effects. In collisionless plasmas, modes driven by velocity shear parallel to the lines of force are stabilized by compressibility effects parallel to the magnetic field and by finite Larmor radius effects. (author)
Bose gases in one-dimensional harmonic trap
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
dimensional Bose gas confined by a harmonic potential are studied using different ensemble approaches. Combining number theory methods, a new approach is presented to calculate the occupation numbers of different energy levels in ...
Rubin, Martin; Toth, Gabor; Tenishev, Valeriy; Fougere, Nicolas; Huang, Zhenguang
2016-07-01
Comets are surrounded by an extended gas and dust coma. Neutral particles are continuously ionized by solar irradiation and then picked-up by the solar wind. This leads to a complex interaction between the neutral gas coma and the solar wind, which changes over the course of the comet's orbit around the Sun. The European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft has been in orbit around comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko since August 2014. Rosetta carries several instruments to investigate the comet's nucleus and surrounding neutral gas coma and plasma. Part of the payload is the Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis (ROSINA) that consists of two mass spectrometers and a pressure sensor. ROSINA was designed to measure the neutral gas abundance and composition and low energy ions in the coma in situ. ROSINA observations have shown that the coma is very heterogeneous both in total density and composition of the neutral gas. This heterogeneity is driven in large part by the complex shape of the nucleus and the varying illumination conditions associated with the comet's rotation. In this presentation we will show the time-dependent distribution of the major volatiles around the comet constrained by ROSINA observations. Furthermore we will investigate the impact of the highly non-symmetric neutral gas coma on the interaction of the solar wind with the comet.
Gas flow and related beam losses in the ITER neutral beam injector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krylov, A.; Hemsworth, R.S.
2006-01-01
The gas flow in the ITER neutral beam injectors has been studied using a 3D Monte-Carlo code to define a number of key parameters affecting the design and operation of the injector. This paper presents the results of calculations of the gas density in the two accelerator concepts presently considered as options for the ITER injectors, and the resultant stripping losses of the negative ions during their acceleration to 1 MeV. The sensitivity of the model to various parameters has been studied, including the gas temperature in the ion source and the subsequent accommodation by collisions with the accelerator structure, and the degree of dissociation of the D 2 or H 2 in the ion source, and subsequent recombination during collisions with the accelerator structure. Additionally the sensitivity of the losses to details of the beam source design and operating parameters are examined for the both accelerator concepts. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krasheninnikov, S.I.; Pigarov, A.Yu.; Soboleva, T.K.; Sigmar, D.J.
1997-01-01
We investigate the influence of hydrogen molecules on plasma recombination using a collisional-radiative model for multispecies hydrogen plasmas and tokamak detached divertor parameters. The rate constant found for molecular activated recombination of a plasma can be as high as 2 x 10 -10 cm 3 /s, confirming our pervious estimates. We investigate the effects of hydrogen molecules and plasma recombination on self-consistent plasma-neutral gas interactions in the recycling region of a tokamak divertor. We treat the plasma flow in a fluid approximation retaining the effects of plasma recombination and employing a Knudsen neutral transport model for a 'gas box' divertor geometry. For the model of plasma-neutral interactions we employ we find: (a) molecular activated recombination is a dominant channel of divertor plasma recombination; and (b) plasma recombination is a key element leading to a decrease in the plasma flux onto the target and substantial plasma pressure drop which are the main features of detached divertor regimes. (orig.)
Interaction of a neutral gas with a moving magnetised plasma : theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Varma, R.K.
1977-01-01
A theory of the interaction of a neutral gas with a moving magnetized plasma with particular reference to the direct interaction experiment of Danielsson is presented. It is shown that the velocity given by the equation (1): 1/2 Mn Vsub(c)sup(2) = ephisub(ion) is essentially the relative terminal velocity attained after the interaction is over. On the other hand, the threshold relative velocity required for an active interaction between the plasma and the neutral gas to occur is shown to be given approximately by the equation (2): 1/2 Msub(i)V 2 = ephisub(ion). For the gases used in the Danielsson experiment (H-plasma and neutral He) Vsub(c)sup((2)) = 2Vsub(c)sup((1)), where Vsub(c)sup((2)) is the value determined from Eq.(2), there is an indication to this effect in the results of the Danielsson experiment. The important observations recorded in the experiments of Danielsson (1970) and of Danielsson and Brenning (1975) are reviewed. Most of these observations are explained on the basis of the present model. (A.K.)
Discrete clouds of neutral gas between the galaxies M31 and M33.
Wolfe, Spencer A; Pisano, D J; Lockman, Felix J; McGaugh, Stacy S; Shaya, Edward J
2013-05-09
Spiral galaxies must acquire gas to maintain their observed level of star formation beyond the next few billion years. A source of this material may be the gas that resides between galaxies, but our understanding of the state and distribution of this gas is incomplete. Radio observations of the Local Group of galaxies have revealed hydrogen gas extending from the disk of the galaxy M31 at least halfway to M33. This feature has been interpreted to be the neutral component of a condensing intergalactic filament, which would be able to fuel star formation in M31 and M33, but simulations suggest that such a feature could also result from an interaction between both galaxies within the past few billion years (ref. 5). Here we report radio observations showing that about 50 per cent of this gas is composed of clouds, with the rest distributed in an extended, diffuse component. The clouds have velocities comparable to those of M31 and M33, and have properties suggesting that they are unrelated to other Local Group objects. We conclude that the clouds are likely to be transient condensations of gas embedded in an intergalactic filament and are therefore a potential source of fuel for future star formation in M31 and M33.
Figueroamartinez, Dante R.
Data collected by the method of incoherent retrodiffusion about the electrically charged particles of the ionosphere was used for derivation of the parameters of the neutral gas, whose temperature and velocity was deduced from energy and impulse equations. The DTM (Drag Temperature Model) model was used to obtain a better evaluation of the calculated values. Measurements were achieved with a Fabry-Perot interferometer and showed that by a high magnetic parasitic degree a strong coupling exists between ions and neutral gas.
Some estimates of mirror plasma startup by neutral beam heating of pellet and gas cloud targets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shearer, J.W.; Willmann, P.A.
1978-01-01
Hot plasma buildup by neutral beam injection into an initially cold solid or gaseous target is found to be conceivable in large mirror machine experiments such as 2XIIB or MFTF. A simple analysis shows that existing neutral beam intensities are sufficient to ablate suitable targets to form a gas or vapor cloud. An approximate rate equation model is used to follow the subsequent processes of ionization, heating, and hot plasma formation. Solutions of these rate equations are obtained by means of the ''GEAR'' techniques for solving ''stiff'' systems of differential equations. These solutions are in rough agreement with the 2XIIB stream plasma buildup experiment. They also predict that buildup on a suitable nitrogen-like target will occur in the MFTF geometry. In 2XIIB the solutions are marginal; buildup may be possible, but is not certain
Detection of cold gas releases in space via low energy neutral atom imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McComas, D.J.; Funsten, H.O.; Moore, K.R.; Scime, E.E.; Thomsen, M.F.
1993-01-01
Low energy neutral atoms (LENAs) are produced in space plasmas by charge exchange between the ambient magnetospheric plasma ions and cold neutral atoms. Under normal conditions these cold neutrals come from the terrestrial geocorona, a shroud of few-eV hydrogen atoms surrounding the Earth. As a consequence of this charge exchange, it has become possible to remotely image many regions of the magnetosphere for the first time utilizing recently developed LENA imaging technology. In addition to the natural hydrogen geocorona, conventional explosions and maneuvering thruster firings can also introduce large amounts of cold gas into the space environment. In this paper the authors examine whether such potentially clandestine activities could also be remotely observed for the first time via LENA imaging. First, they examine the fluxes of LENAs produced in the space environment from a conventional explosion. Then they review the present state of the art in the emerging field of LENA detection and imaging. Recent work has shown that LENAs can be imaged by first converting the neutrals to ions with ultra-thin (10s of angstrom) foils and then electrostatically analyzing these newly created ions to reject the large (> 10 10 cm -2 s -1 ) UV background to which the low energy detectors are sensitive. They conclude that the sensitivities for present LENA imager designs may be just adequate for detecting some man-made releases. With additional improvements in LENA detection capabilities, this technique could become an important new method for monitoring for conventional explosions, as well as other man-made neutral releases, in the space environment
Fe I in the β Pictoris circumstellar gas disk. I. Physical properties of the neutral iron gas
Vidal-Madjar, A.; Kiefer, F.; Lecavelier des Etangs, A.; Bourrier, V.; Ehrenreich, D.; Ferlet, R.; Hébrard, G.; Wilson, P. A.
2017-10-01
The young planetary system β Pictoris is surrounded by a circumstellar disk of dust and gas. Because both dust and gas have a lifetime shorter than the system age, they need to be replenished continuously. The gas composition is partly known, but its location and its origin are still a puzzle. The gas source could be the exocomets (or so-called falling and evaporating bodies, FEBs), which are observed as transient features in absorption lines of refractory elements (Mg, Ca, and Fe) when they transit in front of the star at several tens of stellar radii. Nearly 1700 high-resolution spectra of β Pictoris have been obtained from 2003 to 2015 using the HARPS spectrograph. In these spectra, the circumstellar disk is always detected as a stable component among the numerous variable absorption signatures of transiting exocomets. Summing all the 1700 spectra allowed us to reach a signal-to-noise ratio higher than 1000, which is an unprecedentedly high number for a β Pictoris spectrum. It revealed many weak Fe I absorption lines of the circumstellar gas in more than ten excited states. These weak lines bring new information on the physical properties of the neutral iron gas in the circumstellar disk. The population of the first excited levels follows a Boltzmann distribution with a slope consistent with a gas temperature of about 1300 K; this temperature corresponds to a distance to the star of 38 RStar and implies a turbulence of ξ 0.8 km s-1. A copy of the averaged spectrum (FITS file) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/607/A25
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernhardt, P.A.
1979-01-01
A time-varying model of neutral gas expansion in a nonuniform environment is developed. The model includes diffusion in a multicomponent atmosphere, chemical reactions between the diffusing gases and the atmosphere, thermal diffusion effects, and transport due to altitude-dependent winds. The three-dimensional diffusion equation governing the neutral gas flow is solved numerically using Fourier transform and finite difference techniques. Examples of H 2 , OH, and CO 2 diffusion illustrate the effects of chemical reactions and wind shears on the neutral expansion. The model may be applied to chemical releases which produce ionospheric depletions or luminescent trails
Vortex line in a neutral finite-temperature superfluid Fermi gas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nygaard, Nicolai; Bruun, G. M.; Schneider, B. I.
2004-01-01
The structure of an isolated vortex in a dilute two-component neutral superfluid Fermi gas is studied within the context of self-consistent Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory. Various thermodynamic properties are calculated, and the shift in the critical temperature due to the presence of the vortex is ...... is analyzed. The gapless excitations inside the vortex core are studied, and a scheme to detect these states and thus the presence of the vortex is examined. The numerical results are compared with various analytical expressions when appropriate....
First in situ plasma and neutral gas measurements at comet Halley: initial VEGA results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gringauz, K.I.; Remizov, A.P.; Gombosi, T.I.
1986-04-01
The first in situ observations and a description of the large scale behaviour of comet Halley's plasma environment are presented. The scientific objectives of the PLASMAG-1 experiment were as follows: to study the change of plasma parameters and distributions as a function of cometocentric distance; to investigate the existence and structure of the cometary bow shock; to determine the change in chemical composition of the heavily mass loaded plasma as the spacecraft approached the comet; and to measure the neutral gas distribution along the spacecraft trajectory. (author)
Neutral Transport Simulations of Gas Puff Imaging Experiments on Alcator C-Mod
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stotler, D.P.; LaBombard, B.; Terry, J.L.; Zweben, S.J.
2002-01-01
Visible imaging of gas puffs has been used on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak to characterize edge plasma turbulence, yielding data that can be compared with plasma turbulence codes. Simulations of these experiments with the DEGAS 2 Monte Carlo neutral transport code have been carried out to explore the relationship between the plasma fluctuations and the observed light emission. By imposing two-dimensional modulations on the measured time-average plasma density and temperature profiles, we demonstrate that the spatial structure of the emission cloud reflects that of the underlying turbulence. However, the photon emission rate depends on the plasma density and temperature in a complicated way, and no simple scheme for inferring the plasma parameters directly from the light emission patterns is apparent. The simulations indicate that excited atoms generated by molecular dissociation are a significant source of photons, further complicating interpretation of the gas puff imaging results.Visibl e imaging of gas puffs has been used on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak to characterize edge plasma turbulence, yielding data that can be compared with plasma turbulence codes. Simulations of these experiments with the DEGAS 2 Monte Carlo neutral transport code have been carried out to explore the relationship between the plasma fluctuations and the observed light emission. By imposing two-dimensional modulations on the measured time-average plasma density and temperature profiles, we demonstrate that the spatial structure of the emission cloud reflects that of the underlying turbulence. However, the photon emission rate depends on the plasma density and temperature in a complicated way, and no simple scheme for inferring the plasma parameters directly from the light emission patterns is apparent. The simulations indicate that excited atoms generated by molecular dissociation are a significant source of photons, further complicating interpretation of the gas puff imaging results
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Valiente, Manuel
2012-01-01
We prove the equivalence between the hard-sphere Bose gas and a system with momentum-dependent zero-range interactions in one spatial dimension, which we call extended hard-sphere Bose gas. The two-body interaction in the latter model has the advantage of being a regular pseudopotential. The most...... attractive interactions, in perturbation theory from the novel extended hard-sphere Bose gas....
Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anglin, J. R.; Ketterle, W.
2003-01-01
The early experiments on Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute atomic gases accomplished three longstanding goals. First, cooling of neutral atoms into their motional state, thus subjecting them to ultimate control, limited only by Heisenberg uncertainty relation. Second, creation of a coherent sample of atoms, in which all occupy the same quantum states, and the realization of atom lasers - devices that output coherent matter waves. And third, creation of gaseous quantum fluid, with properties that are different from the quantum liquids helium-3 and helium-4. The field of Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic gases has continued to progress rapidly, driven by the combination of new experimental techniques and theoretical advances. The family of quantum degenerate gases has grown, and now includes metastable and fermionic atoms. condensates have become an ultralow-temperature laboratory for atom optics, collisional physics and many-body physics, encompassing phonons, superfluidity, quantized vortices, Josephson junctions and quantum phase transitions. (author)
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 12. Bose-Einstein Condensation - Birds of a Feather Flock Together. Rajaram Nityananda. Volume 10 Issue 12 December 2005 pp 142-147. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Bose-Einstein Condensation. Vasant Natarajan is at the. Department of Physics,. Indian Institute of. Science. His current research involves trapping of atoms to carry out high precision tests of fundamental physics. He has earlier worked on high precision mass spectrom- etry and on the focussing of atomic beams by laser.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1973 Honorary. Bose, Prof. Satyendra Nath. Date of birth: 1 January 1894. Date of death: 4 February 1974. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. 29th Mid-year meeting. Posted on 19 January 2018. The 29th Mid-year meeting of the Academy will be held ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Fellow Profile. Elected: 1990 Section: Mathematical Sciences. Bose, Prof. Sujit Kumar D.Sc. (Calcutta). Date of birth: 10 October 1938. Specialization: Applied Mathematics, Solid Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Sediment Transport Address: BE-188, Salt Lake City, Kolkata 700 064, W.B.. Contact: Residence: 79805 77636
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Page 1. CPMG/KA/8GE-340/2003-05. Licenced to post WPP(E) No.6. Resonance - September 2003. Raj Chandra Bose. (1901 - 1987). Registered with Registrar of Newspapers in India vide Regn. No. 66273/96. ISSN 0971-8044.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Date of birth: 15 August 1951. Specialization: Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics, Statistical Physics, Biological Physics and Systems Biology Address: Emeritus Scientist, Department of Physics, Bose Institute, 93/1, APC Road, Kolkata 700 009, W.B.. Contact: Office: (033) 2303 1184. Residence: (033) 2352 3723
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
... Mid Year Meetings · Discussion Meetings · Public Lectures · Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1973 Honorary. Bose, Prof. Satyendra Nath. Date of birth: 1 January 1894. Date of death: 4 February 1974. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 2006 Section: Mathematical Sciences. Bose, Prof. Arup Ph.D. (ISI, Calcutta), FNA, FNASc. Date of birth: 1 April 1959. Specialization: Probability and Statistics, Economics Address: Professor, Statistics & Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, 203, B.T. Road, Kolkata 700 108, ...
Popović, S.; Vušković, L.
1997-10-01
We investigated nonlinear and dispersion effects of strong acoustic waves in weakly ionized gas generated by glow discharge. Direct current glow discharge between two hollow cylindrical electrodes in flowing gas is a convenient arrangement for this kind of study. One of the critical parameters is the ratio of electron mean energy and neutral gas temperature, both associated with characteristic wavespeed in ionized and neutral gas. Models usually assume this parameter to be equal to infinity (``cold ions") and the effects of finite gas kinetic temperature are not included. We evaluated the axial and radial distributions of electron mean energy and gas temperature in negative glow and positive column of glow discharge in flowing Argon and Nitrogen in the pressure range of 1 to 100 Torr. These two gases are chosen because of their substantially different ionization mechanisms. The difference in discharge penetration depth into the hollow cathode, extent of the negative glow, high energy electron relaxation depth, and axial neutral transport in the two gases are obtained. Results of gas kinetic temperature are compared with reported experiments and calculations in Argon(M. Sato and S. Arima, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 23), 1302 (1990). and Nitrogen.(H. Brunet and J. Rocca-Serra, J. Appl. Phys. 57), 1574 (1985).
The Complex Neutral Gas Dynamics of the Dwarf Starburst Galaxy NGC 625
Cannon, John M.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Skillman, Evan D.; Côté, Stéphanie
2004-05-01
We present new multiconfiguration H I aperture synthesis imaging of the nearby dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 625 obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. Total H I column density images show gas well aligned with the optical major axis and low column density H I extending to greater than 6 optical scale lengths. The H I velocity field, on the other hand, is highly disturbed, with neutral gas at nearly all detected velocities within the central region. After considering various interpretations, we find that a blowout scenario most accurately describes the data. Since at our resolution we do not detect any large evacuated holes in the H I disk, we interpret this blowout to be the result of the extended (both spatially and temporally) star formation event that NGC 625 has undergone in the last 100 Myr. This is one of the clearest examples of H I outflow detected in a dwarf galaxy. We find no obvious external trigger for this extended star formation event. We detect strong radio continuum emission from the largest H II regions; comparing to our Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based Hα fluxes suggests either appreciable amounts of extinction toward the star formation regions or the contribution of nonthermal sources to the radio continuum luminosity.
Metal enrichment of the neutral gas of blue compact dwarf galaxies: the compelling case of Pox 36
Lebouteiller, V.; Kunth, D.; Thuan, T. X.; Désert, J. M.
2009-02-01
Context: Evidence has grown over the past few years that the neutral phase of blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxies may be metal-deficient as compared to the ionized gas of their H ii regions. These results have strong implications for our understanding of the chemical evolution of galaxies, and it is essential to strengthen the method, as well as to find possible explanations. Aims: We present the analysis of the interstellar spectrum of Pox 36 with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE). Pox 36 was selected because of the relatively low foreground gas content that makes it possible to detect absorption-lines weak enough that unseen components should not be saturated. Methods: Interstellar lines of H i, N i, O i, Si ii, P ii, Ar i, and Fe ii are detected. Column densities are derived directly from the observed line profiles except for H i, whose lines are contaminated by stellar absorption, thus needing the stellar continuum to be removed. We used the TLUSTY models to remove the stellar continuum and isolate the interstellar component. The best fit indicates that the dominant stellar population is B0. The observed far-UV flux agrees with an equivalent number of ~300 B0 stars. The fit of the interstellar H i line gives a column density of 1020.3±0.4 cm-2. Chemical abundances were then computed from the column densities using the dominant ionization stage in the neutral gas. Our abundances are compared to those measured from emission-line spectra in the optical, probing the ionized gas of the H ii regions. Results: Our results suggest that the neutral gas of Pox 36 is metal-deficient by a factor ~7 as compared to the ionized gas, and they agree with a metallicity of ≈1/35 Z_⊙. Elemental depletion is not problematic because of the low dust content along the selected lines of sight. In contrast, the ionized gas shows a clear depletion pattern, with iron being strongly depleted. Conclusions: The abundance discontinuity between the neutral and ionized phases
Mean-field theory of anyons near Bose statistics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McCabe, J.; MacKenzie, R.
1992-01-01
The validity of a mean-field approximation for a boson-based free anyon gas near Bose statistics is shown. The magnetic properties of the system is discussed in the approximation that the statistical magnetic field is uniform. It is proved that the anyon gas does not exhibit a Meissner effect in the domain of validity the approximation. (K.A.) 7 refs
Investigating the Neutral-Gas Manometers in the Wendelstein 7-X Experimental Fusion Reactor
Maisano-Brown, Jeannette; Wenzel, Uwe; Sunn-Pederson, Thomas
2017-01-01
The neutral-gas manometer is a powerful diagnostic tool used in the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator, a magnetized fusion experiment located in Germany. The Wendelstein, produced at a cost of 1.2 billion euros, and 20 years in the making, had its first experimental results in Winter 2016. Initial findings exceeded expectations but further study is still necessary. The particular instrument we examined was a hot-cathode ionization gauge, critical for attaining a quality in-vessel environment and a stable plasma. However, after the winter operation of Wendelstein, we found that some of the gauges had failed the six-second (maximum) plasma runs. Wendelstein is on track for 30-minute operations within three years, so it has become of utmost importance to scrutinize gauge design claims. We therefore subjected the devices to high magnetic field, input current, and temperature, as well as to long operational periods. Our results confirmed that the manometer cannot survive a 30-minute run. Though our findings did motivate promising recommendations for design improvement and for further experimentation so that the gauge can be ready for upcoming operations in Summer 2017 and eventual installment in ITER, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, currently under construction. This research was graciously supported by the Max Planck Institute and the MIT-Germany Initiative.
Cruden, Brett A.; Rao, M. V. V. S.; Sharma, Surendra P.; Meyyappan, M.
2001-01-01
This work examines the accuracy of plasma neutral temperature estimates by fitting the rotational band envelope of different diatomic species in emission. Experiments are performed in an inductively coupled CF4 plasma generated in a Gaseous Electronics Conference reference cell. Visible and ultraviolet emission spectra are collected at a power of 300 W (approximately 0.7 W/cc) and pressure of 30 mtorr. The emission bands of several molecules (CF, CN, C2, CO, and SiF) are fit simultaneously for rotational and vibrational temperatures and compared. Four different rotational temperatures are obtained: 1250 K for CF and CN, 1600 K for CO, 1800 K for C2, and 2300 K for SiF. The vibrational temperatures obtained vary from 1750-5950 K, with the higher vibrational temperatures generally corresponding to the lower rotational temperatures. These results suggest that the different species have achieved different degrees of equilibration between the rotational and vibrational modes and may not be equilibrated with the translational temperatures. The different temperatures are also related to the likelihood that the species are produced by ion bombardment of the surface, with etch products like SiF, CO, and C2 having higher temperatures than species expected to have formed in the gas phase.
Thermodynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate with weak disorder
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Falco, G. M.; Pelster, A.; Graham, R.
2007-01-01
We consider the thermodynamics of a homogeneous superfluid dilute Bose gas in the presence of weak quenched disorder. Following the zero-temperature approach of Huang and Meng, we diagonalize the Hamiltonian of a dilute Bose gas in an external random δ-correlated potential by means of a Bogoliubov transformation. We extend this approach to finite temperature by combining the Popov and the many-body T-matrix approximations. This approach permits us to include the quasiparticle interactions within this temperature range. We derive the disorder-induced shifts of the Bose-Einstein critical temperature and of the temperature for the onset of superfluidity by approaching the transition points from below, i.e., from the superfluid phase. Our results lead to a phase diagram consistent with that of the finite-temperature theory of Lopatin and Vinokur which was based on the replica method, and in which the transition points were approached from above
Wongwaitayakornkul, Pakorn; Bellan, Paul; Li, Hui; Li, Shengtai
2016-10-01
Shocks occur in the co-rotating interaction regions just beyond the solar corona, in the corona during CME events, and when the solar wind impacts Earth's magnetosphere. The Caltech solar loop experiment investigates shock physics by creating an arched plasma-filled flux rope that expands to collide with a pre-injected, initially-neutral gas. We focus the investigation on the situation of a heavy-gas plasma (Argon) impacting a much lighter neutral gas cloud (Hydrogen). The neutral gas target cloud ionizes immediately upon being impacted and plasma-induced shock waves propagate in the target cloud away from the impact region. Analysis of data from magnetic probes, Langmuir probes, a fast camera, and spectroscopic measurements will be presented. The measurements suggest that a thin, compressed, ionized layer of hydrogen is formed just downstream of the Argon plasma loop and that thin, supersonic shocks form further downstream and propagate obliquely away from the plasma loop. Numerical simulation of an ideal MHD plasma is underway to enable comparison of the measurements with the predictions of MHD theory.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In November 2008, the Indian Institute of. Science, Bangalore, organized a symposium to celebrate the 150th birth anniversary of Sir. J. C. Bose. This inspiring book is the outcome of that symposium held under the leadership of P Balaram. The book is organized into three chapters titled 'Jagdish Chandra Bose: The Man ...
Quantum Phase Transitions in the Bose Hubbard Model and in a Bose-Fermi Mixture
Duchon, Eric Nicholas
Ultracold atomic gases may be the ultimate quantum simulator. These isolated systems have the lowest temperatures in the observable universe, and their properties and interactions can be precisely and accurately tuned across a full spectrum of behaviors, from few-body physics to highly-correlated many-body effects. The ability to impose potentials on and tune interactions within ultracold gases to mimic complex systems mean they could become a theorist's playground. One of their great strengths, however, is also one of the largest obstacles to this dream: isolation. This thesis touches on both of these themes. First, methods to characterize phases and quantum critical points, and to construct finite temperature phase diagrams using experimentally accessible observables in the Bose Hubbard model are discussed. Then, the transition from a weakly to a strongly interacting Bose-Fermi mixture in the continuum is analyzed using zero temperature numerical techniques. Real materials can be emulated by ultracold atomic gases loaded into optical lattice potentials. We discuss the characteristics of a single boson species trapped in an optical lattice (described by the Bose Hubbard model) and the hallmarks of the quantum critical region that separates the superfluid and the Mott insulator ground states. We propose a method to map the quantum critical region using the single, experimentally accessible, local quantity R, the ratio of compressibility to local number fluctuations. The procedure to map a phase diagram with R is easily generalized to inhomogeneous systems and generic many-body Hamiltonians. We illustrate it here using quantum Monte Carlo simulations of the 2D Bose Hubbard model. Secondly, we investigate the transition from a degenerate Fermi gas weakly coupled to a Bose Einstein condensate to the strong coupling limit of composite boson-fermion molecules. We propose a variational wave function to investigate the ground state properties of such a Bose-Fermi mixture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ausloos, P.
1975-01-01
A discussion is presented of the fate of unreactive hydrocarbon ions in various selected gaseous systems. It is shown that experiments performed with the high radiation dose rates obtained in pulse radiolysis experiments have several advantages over conventional low dose rate experiments for the elucidation of the mechanism of homogeneous neutralization of unreactive hydrocarbon ions. This is so because the charged species has a much shorter lifetime with respect to neutralization under high dose rate (pulse radiolysis) conditions, so that the reaction of the ions with minor impurities or accumulated products is much less probable than in low dose rate experiments. It is further shown through a few examples, that quantitative information about the rate contants of neutralization events and ion-molecule reactions can be obtained when the dose rate is high enough for neutralization and chemical reaction to be in competition. Once reliable rate constants for neutralization and ion-molecule reactions are derived, one can obtain a quantitative evaluation of the products which will by formed in the pulse radiolysis of a hydrocarbon gas mixture from a computer calculation. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marcalo, Joaquim; Gibson, John K.
2009-08-10
An assessment of the gas-phase energetics of neutral and singly and doubly charged cationic actinide monoxides and dioxides of thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium is presented. A consistent set of metal-oxygen bond dissociation enthalpies, ionization energies, and enthalpies of formation, including new or revised values, is proposed, mainly based on recent experimental data and on correlations with the electronic energetics of the atoms or cations and with condensed-phase thermochemistry.
Marçalo, Joaquim; Gibson, John K.
2009-09-01
An assessment of the gas-phase energetics of neutral and singly and doubly charged cationic actinide monoxides and dioxides of thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium is presented. A consistent set of metal-oxygen bond dissociation enthalpies, ionization energies, and enthalpies of formation, including new or revised values, is proposed, mainly based on recent experimental data and on correlations with the electronic energetics of the atoms or cations and with condensed-phase thermochemistry.
Bose gases in one-dimensional harmonic trap
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-09-21
Sep 21, 2016 ... Abstract. Thermodynamic quantities, occupation numbers and their fluctuations of a one-dimensional Bose gas confined by a harmonic potential are studied using different ensemble approaches. Combining number theory methods, a new approach is presented to calculate the occupation numbers of ...
Induced interactions in a superfluid Bose-Fermi mixture
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kinnunen, Jami; Bruun, Georg
2015-01-01
We analyze a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) mixed with a superfluid two-component Fermi gas in the whole BCS-BEC crossover. Using a quasiparticle random-phase approximation combined with Beliaev theory to describe the Fermi superfluid and the BEC, respectively, we show that the single...
Comparison between microscopic methods for finite-temperature Bose gases
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cockburn, S.P.; Negretti, Antonio; Proukakis, N.P.
2011-01-01
We analyze the equilibrium properties of a weakly interacting, trapped quasi-one-dimensional Bose gas at finite temperatures and compare different theoretical approaches. We focus in particular on two stochastic theories: a number-conserving Bogoliubov (NCB) approach and a stochastic Gross-Pitaev...
Multiple condensed phases in attractively interacting Bose systems
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Männel, M.; Morawetz, K.; Lipavský, Pavel
2010-01-01
Roč. 12, č. 3 (2010), 033013/1-033013/9 ISSN 1367-2630 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : Bose gas * T-matrix * Evan-Rashid transition Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 3.849, year: 2010
Phase diagram and binding energy of interacting Bose gases
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Männel, M.; Morawetz, K.; Schreiber, M.; Lipavský, Pavel
2008-01-01
Roč. 78, č. 5 (2008), 054508/1-054508/5 ISSN 1098-0121 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : Bose gas * quantum statistics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.322, year: 2008
Solitons, Bose-Einstein condensation and superfluidity in He II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chela-Flores, J.; Ghassib, H.B.
1985-09-01
The analytic form of a wave propagating with a constant velocity and a permanent profile is inferred for a weakly interacting Bose gas, using an exact (rather than asymptotic) solution of the field equation of the self-consistent Hartree model. The significance of this approach is indicated, especially when realistic interatomic potentials are used. In addition, the general relation between solitons and Bose-Einstein condensation is underlined by invoking the profound insight recently acquired in studies of the quantum liquids involved in the living state. It is concluded that solitons may occur in He II, and may play a significant role in the phenomena of superfluidity. (author)
Finite-temperature behavior of the Bose polaron
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Levinsen, Jesper; Parish, Meera M.; Christensen, Rasmus S.
2017-01-01
We consider a mobile impurity immersed in a Bose gas at finite temperature. Using perturbation theory valid for weak coupling between the impurity and the bosons, we derive analytical results for the energy and damping of the impurity for low and high temperatures, as well as for temperatures close...... to the critical temperature $T_c$ for Bose-Einstein condensation. These results show that the properties of the impurity vary strongly with temperature. The energy exhibits an intriguing non-monotonic behavior close to $T_c$, and the damping rises sharply close to $T_c$. We finally discuss how these effects can...
Two-dimensional Bose and Fermi gases beyond weak coupling
França, Guilherme; LeClair, André; Squires, Joshua
2017-07-01
Using a formalism based on the two-body S-matrix we study two-dimensional Bose and Fermi gases with both attractive and repulsive interactions. Approximate analytic expressions, valid at weak coupling and beyond, are developed and applied to the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition. We successfully recover the correct logarithmic functional form of the critical chemical potential and density for the Bose gas. For fermions, the BKT critical temperature is calculated in BCS and BEC regimes through consideration of Tan’s contact.
Watabe, Shohei; Ohashi, Yoji
2014-07-01
We present a Green's-function formalism for an interacting Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) satisfying the two required conditions: (i) the infrared-divergent longitudinal susceptibility with respect to the BEC order parameter, and (ii) the Nepomnyashchii-Nepomnyashchii identity stating the vanishing off-diagonal self-energy in the low-energy and low-momentum limit. These conditions cannot be described by the ordinary mean-field Bogoliubov theory, the many-body T-matrix theory, or the random-phase approximation with the vertex correction. In this paper, we show that these required conditions can be satisfied, when we divide many-body corrections into singular and nonsingular parts, and separately treat them as different self-energy corrections. The resulting Green's function may be viewed as an extension of the Popov's hydrodynamic theory to the region at finite temperatures. Our results would be useful in constructing a consistent theory of BECs satisfying various required conditions, beyond the mean-field level.
Coexistence of photonic and atomic Bose-Einstein condensates in ideal atomic gases
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Boichenko
2015-12-01
Full Text Available We have studied conditions of photon Bose-Einstein condensate formation that is in thermodynamic equilibrium with ideal gas of two-level Bose atoms below the degeneracy temperature. Equations describing thermodynamic equilibrium in the system were formulated; critical temperatures and densities of photonic and atomic gas subsystems were obtained analytically. Coexistence conditions of these photonic and atomic Bose-Einstein condensates were found. There was predicted the possibility of an abrupt type of photon condensation in the presence of Bose condensate of ground-state atoms: it was shown that the slightest decrease of the temperature could cause a significant gathering of photons in the condensate. This case could be treated as a simple model of the situation known as "stopped light" in cold atomic gas. We also showed how population inversion of atomic levels can be created by lowering the temperature. The latter situation looks promising for light accumulation in atomic vapor at very low temperatures.
Coupled two-dimensional edge plasma and neutral gas modeling of tokamak scrape-off-layers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maingi, R.
1992-08-01
The objective of this study is to devise a detailed description of the tokamak scrape-off-layer (SOL), which includes the best available models of both the plasma and neutral species and the strong coupling between the two in many SOL regimes. A good estimate of both particle flux and heat flux profiles at the limiter/divertor target plates is desired. Peak heat flux is one of the limiting factors in determining the survival probability of plasma-facing-components at high power levels. Plate particle flux affects the neutral flux to the pump, which determines the particle exhaust rate. A technique which couples a two-dimensional (2-D) plasma and a 2-D neutral transport code has been developed (coupled code technique), but this procedure requires large amounts of computer time. Relevant physics has been added to an existing two-neutral-species model which takes the SOL plasma/neutral coupling into account in a simple manner (molecular physics model), and this model is compared with the coupled code technique mentioned above. The molecular physics model is benchmarked against experimental data from a divertor tokamak (DIII-D), and a similar model (single-species model) is benchmarked against data from a pump-limiter tokamak (Tore Supra). The models are then used to examine two key issues: free-streaming-limits (ion energy conduction and momentum flux) and the effects of the non-orthogonal geometry of magnetic flux surfaces and target plates on edge plasma parameter profiles
Bose enhancement and the ridge
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tolga Altinoluk
2015-12-01
Full Text Available We point out that Bose enhancement in a hadronic wave function generically leads to correlations between produced particles. We show explicitly, by calculating the projectile density matrix in the Color Glass Condensate approach to high-energy hadronic collisions, that the Bose enhancement of gluons in the projectile leads to azimuthal collimation of long range rapidity correlations of the produced particles, the so-called ridge correlations.
Bose enhancement and the ridge
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Altinoluk, Tolga [Departamento de Física de Partículas and IGFAE, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Armesto, Néstor, E-mail: nestor.armesto@usc.es [Departamento de Física de Partículas and IGFAE, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Beuf, Guillaume [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Kovner, Alex [Physics Department, University of Connecticut, 2152 Hillside Road, Storrs, CT 06269-3046 (United States); Lublinsky, Michael [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)
2015-12-17
We point out that Bose enhancement in a hadronic wave function generically leads to correlations between produced particles. We show explicitly, by calculating the projectile density matrix in the Color Glass Condensate approach to high-energy hadronic collisions, that the Bose enhancement of gluons in the projectile leads to azimuthal collimation of long range rapidity correlations of the produced particles, the so-called ridge correlations.
Natural gas and renewable methane for powertrains future strategies for a climate-neutral mobility
2016-01-01
This book focuses on natural gas and synthetic methane as contemporary and future energy sources. Following a historical overview, physical and chemical properties, occurrence, extraction, transportation and storage of natural gas are discussed. Sustainable production of natural gas and methane as well as production and storage of synthetic methane are scrutinized next. A substantial part of the book addresses construction of vehicles for natural and synthetic methane as well as large engines for industrial and maritime use. The last chapters present some perspectives on further uses of renewable liquid fuels as well as natural gas for industrial engines and gas power plants.
A SEARCH FOR CO-EVOLVING ION AND NEUTRAL GAS SPECIES IN PRESTELLAR MOLECULAR CLOUD CORES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tassis, Konstantinos; Hezareh, Talayeh; Willacy, Karen
2012-01-01
A comparison between the widths of ion and neutral molecule spectral lines has been recently used to estimate the strength of the magnetic field in turbulent star-forming regions. However, the ion (HCO + ) and neutral (HCN) species used in such studies may not be necessarily co-evolving at every scale and density, and thus, may not trace the same regions. Here, we use coupled chemical/dynamical models of evolving prestellar molecular cloud cores including non-equilibrium chemistry, with and without magnetic fields, to study the spatial distribution of HCO + and HCN, which have been used in observations of spectral line width differences to date. In addition, we seek new ion-neutral pairs that are good candidates for such observations, because they have similar evolution and are approximately co-spatial in our models. We identify three such good candidate pairs: HCO + /NO, HCO + /CO, and NO + /NO.
Shuman, Nicholas S; Miller, Thomas M; Johnsen, Rainer; Viggiano, Albert A
2014-01-28
We report thermal rate coefficients for 12 reactions of rare gas cations (Ne(+), Ar(+), Kr(+), Xe(+)) with halide anions (Cl(-), Br(-), I(-)), comprising both mutual neutralization (MN) and transfer ionization. No rate coefficients have been previously reported for these reactions; however, the development of the Variable Electron and Neutral Density Attachment Mass Spectrometry technique makes it possible to measure the difference of the rate coefficients for pairs of parallel reactions in a Flowing Afterglow-Langmuir Probe apparatus. Measurements of 18 such combinations of competing reaction pairs yield an over-determined data set from which a consistent set of rate coefficients of the 12 MN reactions can be deduced. Unlike rate coefficients of MN reactions involving at least one polyatomic ion, which vary by at most a factor of ∼3, those of the atom-atom reactions vary by at least a factor 60 depending on the species. It is found that the rate coefficients involving light rare-gas ions are larger than those for the heavier rare-gas ions, but the opposite trend is observed in the progression from Cl(-) to I(-). The largest rate coefficient is 6.5 × 10(-8) cm(3) s(-1) for Ne(+) with I(-). Rate coefficients for Ar(+), Kr(+), and Xe(+) reacting with Br2 (-) are also reported.
Analysis of fecal bile acids and neutral steroids using gas-liquid chromatography
Srikumar, T.S.; Wezendonk, B.; Dokkum, W. van
1998-01-01
In the present pilot study, for investigating the physiological effects of different types of nondigestible oligosaccharides, we have validated the application of methodologies for the analysis of bile acids and neutral steroids in feces of human subjects. The accuracy of the extraction and
Glovebox with purification and pressure control of the neutral gas atmosphere in closed circuit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cadrot, J.
1990-01-01
In the gas main are placed 2 series of specific gas purifiers in parallel. Pressure is controlled with a buffer tank two three way solenoid value upstream and down stream a compressor and a supercharger. A checking board allows continuous monitoring of circuit tightness [fr
Periodic modulation of gas giant magnetospheres by the neutral upper atmosphere
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. G. A. Smith
2006-10-01
Full Text Available Periodic signatures present in the magnetospheres of both Jupiter and Saturn have yet to be fully explained. At Jupiter the unexplained signatures are related to emissions from the Io torus ("System IV"; at Saturn they are observed in emissions of kilometric radiation (SKR and in magnetometer data. These signatures are often interpreted in terms of magnetic field anomalies. This paper describes an alternative mechanism by which the neutral atmosphere may impose such periodic signatures on the magnetosphere. The mechanism invokes a persistent zonal asymmetry in the neutral wind field that rotates with the planet. This asymmetry must be coupled to substantial ionospheric conductivity. It is then able to drive divergent currents in the upper atmosphere that close in and perturb the magnetosphere. We estimate the conductivities and wind speeds required for these perturbations to be significant, and argue that they are most likely to be important at auroral latitudes where the conductivity may be enhanced by particle precipitation.
Picard, Baptiste; Gouilleux, Boris; Lebleu, Thomas; Maddaluno, Jacques; Chataigner, Isabelle; Penhoat, Maël; Felpin, François-Xavier; Giraudeau, Patrick; Legros, Julien
2017-06-19
The fast and effective neutralization of the mustard-gas simulant 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) using a simple and portable continuous flow device is reported. Neutralization takes place through a fully selective sulfoxidation by a stable source of hydrogen peroxide (alcoholic solution of urea-H 2 O 2 adduct/MeSO 3 H freshly prepared). The reaction progress can be monitored with an in-line benchtop NMR spectrometer, allowing a real-time adjustment of reaction conditions. Inherent features of millireactors, that is, perfect control of mixing, heat and reaction time, allowed the neutralization of 25 g of pure CEES within 46 minutes in a 21.5 mL millireactor (t R =3.9 minutes). This device, which relies on affordable and nontoxic reagents, fits into a suitcase, and can be deployed by police/military forces directly on the attack site. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Induced interactions in a superfluid Bose-Fermi mixture
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kinnunen, Jami; Bruun, Georg
2015-01-01
We analyze a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) mixed with a superfluid two-component Fermi gas in the whole BCS-BEC crossover. Using a quasiparticle random-phase approximation combined with Beliaev theory to describe the Fermi superfluid and the BEC, respectively, we show that the single-particle an......We analyze a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) mixed with a superfluid two-component Fermi gas in the whole BCS-BEC crossover. Using a quasiparticle random-phase approximation combined with Beliaev theory to describe the Fermi superfluid and the BEC, respectively, we show that the single......-particle and collective excitations of the Fermi gas give rise to an induced interaction between the bosons, which varies strongly with momentum and frequency. It diverges at the sound mode of the Fermi superfluid, resulting in a sharp avoided crossing feature and a corresponding sign change of the interaction energy...
Bose-Einstein Condensation of Atoms in a Uniform Potential
Gaunt, Alexander L.; Schmidutz, Tobias F.; Gotlibovych, Igor; Smith, Robert P.; Hadzibabic, Zoran
2013-05-01
We have observed the Bose-Einstein condensation of an atomic gas in the (quasi)uniform three-dimensional potential of an optical box trap. Condensation is seen in the bimodal momentum distribution and the anisotropic time-of-flight expansion of the condensate. The critical temperature agrees with the theoretical prediction for a uniform Bose gas. The momentum distribution of a noncondensed quantum-degenerate gas is also clearly distinct from the conventional case of a harmonically trapped sample and close to the expected distribution in a uniform system. We confirm the coherence of our condensate in a matter-wave interference experiment. Our experiments open many new possibilities for fundamental studies of many-body physics.
Effects of neutral gas collisions on the power transmission factor at the divertor sheath
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Futch, A.H.; Matthews, G.F.; Buchenauer, D.; Hill, D.N.; Jong, R.A.; Porter, G.D.
1992-01-01
We show that charge-exchange and other ion-neutral collision can reduce the power transmission factor of the plasma sheath, thereby lowering the ion impact energy and target plate sputtering. The power transmission factor relates the heat flux reaching the divertor target to the plasma density and temperature just in front of the surface: δ=Q surf /J ew k T e . Experimental data from the DIII-D tokamak suggests that δ could be as low as 2-3 near the region of peak divertor particle flux, instead of the 7-8 expected from usual sheath theory. Several effects combine to allow ion-neutral interactions to be important in the divertor plasma sheath. The shallow angle of incidence of the magnetic field (1-3deg in DIII-D) leads to the spatial extension of the sheath from approximately ρ i ∝1 mm normal to the plate to several centimeters along the field lines. Ionization reduces the sheath potential, and collisions reduce the ion impact energy. (orig.)
Ichimura, K; Fukumoto, M; Islam, M M; Islam, M S; Shimizu, K; Fukui, K; Ohuchi, M; Nojiri, K; Terakado, A; Yoshikawa, M; Ezumi, N; Sakamoto, M; Nakashima, Y
2016-11-01
In the divertor simulation experiments in the GAMMA 10/PDX tandem mirror, pressure of the neutral gas was investigated by using a fast ionization gauge. The gauge was absolutely calibrated for hydrogen gas by using a capacitance manometer. Change of the gauge sensitivity due to the magnetic field of GAMMA 10/PDX was also evaluated. The typical gas pressure measured in detached plasma experiments was 0.1-10 Pa. The degree of plasma detachment determined from the reduction of heat flux was enhanced as the gas pressure increases. Rapid increase of the gas pressure under the plasma flow was also observed.
Controllable friction of dark solitons in Bose-Fermi mixtures
Hurst, Hilary; Efimkin, Dmitry; Galitski, Victor
We study controllable friction in a system consisting of a dark soliton in a one-dimensional Bose gas and a non-interacting, degenerate Fermi gas. The fermions act as impurity atoms, not part of the original condensate, that scatter off of the soliton. We study semi-classical dynamics of the dark soliton by treating it as a particle with negative mass, and calculate its friction coefficient. Surprisingly, the amount of friction depends on the ratio of interspecies (impurity-condensate) to intraspecies (condensate-condensate) interaction strengths. By tuning this ratio, one can access a regime where the friction coefficient vanishes. We compare our results to experimental regimes and conclude that tunable friction has measurable physical consquences in experiments with Bose-Fermi mixtures.
Raising the Bose-Einstein condensation critical temperature using vacancies
Solis, M. A.; Martinez, J. G.; Garcia, J.; Fortes, M.; Salas, P.; Rodriguez, O. A.
We have studied the thermodynamic properties of an Ideal Bose gas confined within a semi-infinite box with periodic permeable multilayers, in particular we have calculated its BEC critical temperature and isochoric specific heat, where we have always observed a critical temperature Tc smaller than the BEC critical temperature (T0) of an infinite homogeneous ideal Bose gas. However, when we introduce a plane vacancy, a finite gap between the ground and first excited states in the particle energy spectrum is introduced, which increases the critical temperature beyond T0 and generates a specific heat jump at Tc. We expect that these vacancies could lead to a raise in the critical temperature of superfluids within lattice structures. We acknowledge partial support from Grants PAPIIT IN107616 and CONACyT 221030.
Sonic black holes in dilute Bose-Einstein condensates
Garay, L. J.; Anglin, J. R.; Cirac, J. I.; Zoller, P.
2000-01-01
The sonic analog of a gravitational black hole in dilute-gas Bose-Einstein condensates is investigated. It is shown that there exist both dynamically stable and unstable configurations which, in the hydrodynamic limit, exhibit behaviors completely analogous to that of gravitational black holes. The dynamical instabilities involve the creation of quasiparticle pairs in positive and negative energy states. We illustrate these features in two qualitatively different one-dimensional models, namel...
The Gaia-ESO Survey: dynamics of ionized and neutral gas in the Lagoon nebula (M 8)
Damiani, F.; Bonito, R.; Prisinzano, L.; Zwitter, T.; Bayo, A.; Kalari, V.; Jiménez-Esteban, F. M.; Costado, M. T.; Jofré, P.; Randich, S.; Flaccomio, E.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Lardo, C.; Morbidelli, L.; Zaggia, S.
2017-08-01
Aims: We present a spectroscopic study of the dynamics of the ionized and neutral gas throughout the Lagoon nebula (M 8), using VLT-FLAMES data from the Gaia-ESO Survey. The new data permit exploration of the physical connections between the nebular gas and the stellar population of the associated star cluster NGC 6530. Methods: We characterized through spectral fitting emission lines of Hα, [N II] and [S II] doublets, [O III], and absorption lines of sodium D doublet, using data from the FLAMES-Giraffe and UVES spectrographs, on more than 1000 sightlines toward the entire face of the Lagoon nebula. Gas temperatures are derived from line-width comparisons, densities from the [S II] doublet ratio, and ionization parameter from Hα/[N II] ratio. Although doubly-peaked emission profiles are rarely found, line asymmetries often imply multiple velocity components along the same line of sight. This is especially true for the sodium absorption, and for the [O III] lines. Results: Spatial maps for density and ionization are derived, and compared to other known properties of the nebula and of its massive stars 9 Sgr, Herschel 36 and HD 165052 which are confirmed to provide most of the ionizing flux. The detailed velocity fields across the nebula show several expanding shells, related to the cluster NGC 6530, the O stars 9 Sgr and Herschel 36, and the massive protostar M 8East-IR. The origins of kinematical expansion and ionization of the NGC 6530 shell appear to be different. We are able to put constrains on the line-of-sight (relative or absolute) distances between some of these objects and the molecular cloud. The data show that the large obscuring band running through the middle of the nebula is being compressed by both sides, which might explain its enhanced density. We also find an unexplained large-scale velocity gradient across the entire nebula. At larger distances, the transition from ionized to neutral gas is studied using the sodium lines. Based on observations
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
He did research on problems related to transmission of radio waves when radios did not exist. He worked on aspects of plant biology which were un- known at that time. Jagdish Chandra Bose is a superb example of a very creative .... concepts of plant intelligence, learning and long distance electrical signalling have led to.
van Driel, H.J.
2012-01-01
In this Thesis, we show that in a rotating two-component Bose mixture, the spin drag between the two different spin species shows a Hall effect. This spin drag Hall effect can be observed experimentally by studying the out-of-phase dipole mode of the mixture. We determine the damping of this mode
Approaching Bose-Einstein Condensation
Ferrari, Loris
2011-01-01
Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is discussed at the level of an advanced course of statistical thermodynamics, clarifying some formal and physical aspects that are usually not covered by the standard pedagogical literature. The non-conventional approach adopted starts by showing that the continuum limit, in certain cases, cancels out the crucial…
JC Bose's Contributions to Chronobiology
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
1122 printed pages offour monograph volumes. Reproduced here are his contributions to chronobiology in ... to J C Bose's work in the first monograph written on the subject of circadian clocks in German in 1958, ... account from his many passages in his inimitable English prose,. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ,AAAAA, _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. 54.
Effects of self-similar correlations on the spectral line shape in the neutral gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kharintsev, S.S.; Salakhov, M.Kh.
2001-01-01
The paper is devoted to the study of the influence of self-similar correlations on the Doppler and pressure broadening within the non-equilibrium Boltzmann gas. The diffuse model for the thermal motion of the radiator and the self-similar mechanism of interference of scalar perturbations for phase shifts of an atomic oscillator are developed. It is shown that taking into account self-similar correlation in a description of the spectral line shape allows one to explain, on the one hand, the additional spectral line Dicke-narrowing in the Doppler regime, and, on the other hand, the asymmetry in wings of the spectral line in a high pressure region
Laser cooling, evaporative cooling and Bose-Einstein condensation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghosh, Pradip N.
2002-01-01
Laser radiations are used to slow down atoms by the process of momentum transfer. This leads to reducing the temperature to micro kelvin region. Gas phase atoms are trapped by using magnetic fields. The recent advances have led to the realization of the dream of physicists of confining the atoms and reducing their velocities to the limit imposed by quantum mechanics. A number of new experiments are possible with the cooled and trapped atoms and ions that would be useful to solve many problems of theoretical physics. Further cooling by the process of evaporative technique has led to the observation of Bose-Einstein Condensation predicted by Einstein and Bose nearly seventy-five years ago. A brief review of the method of laser cooling, magnetic trapping and evaporative cooling methods used for obtaining ultracold atoms are discussed. It is possible to obtain temperature in the nano kelvin region without using cryogenic methods thus simplifying the experimental methods to a great extent. (author)
On The Kinetic Parameters of Interstellar Neutral Helium: An Update From Ulysses/gas Results
Witte, M.; Banaszkiewicz, M.; Rosenbauer, H.
Employing more than 100 observations of star positions, a small systematic er- ror (approximately 0.5 degree) in the overall, absolute pointing calibration of the ULYSSES/GAS instrument has been determined. Given the delicate dependence of the data evaluation (solution of a tomography problem) on the pointing accuracy, all previous data from the in-ecliptic orbital phase (1990-1992) and the first perihelion phase (1995) have been re-analysed. In addition, new data from the second perihelion (2001) phase have been included. As there is no obvious time dependence, the follow- ing updated values for the kinetic parameters of the flow of interstellar He-atoms have been obtained over almost a complete solar cycle: Velocity Vinf (km/s) 26.1 +/- 0.4 Ecl. Longitude Linf (degree) 74.8 +/- 0.6 Ecl. Latitude Binf (degree) -5.1 +/- 0.3 Temperature Tinf (K) 6470 +/- 770 Density ninf (10-2cm-3) 1.6 +/- 0.1 No. of Observations 195 In contrast to previous analyses, the calculation of the density n now is based on pho- toionisation loss rates which have been derived from actual time resolved measure- ments of the UV-intensities, e.g. from the SOHO/SEM instrument (Don McMullin, private communciation, ISSI-Workshop, 2001). An apparent increase in the density after July 2001, when ULYSSES moves from 30 to 80 degrees solar latitude, is inter- preted as evidence for a latitudinal dependence (decrease) of the photoionisation loss rate rather than an increase of the interstellar densities. Such an evidence would have been observed for the first time.
Canonical ensemble ground state and correlation entropy of Bose-Einstein condensate
Svidzinsky, Anatoly; Kim, Moochan; Agarwal, Girish; Scully, Marlan O.
2018-01-01
Constraint of a fixed total number of particles yields a correlation between the fluctuation of particles in different states in the canonical ensemble. Here we show that, below the temperature of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), the correlation part of the entropy of an ideal Bose gas is cancelled by the ground-state contribution. Thus, in the BEC region, the thermodynamic properties of the gas in the canonical ensemble can be described accurately in a simplified model which excludes the ground state and assumes no correlation between excited levels.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
particles in an ideal gas. Carrying this analogy further, he .... major development in the 1980s. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Meanwhile, a parallel effort in observing BEe using alkali atoms was getting underway. The main impetus for this was to see if ... The beauty of this technique is that the rl fre- quency determines which atoms ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Jianhui; Ma Yongli
2009-01-01
We generalize the scheme to characterize phase transitions of finite systems in a complex temperature plane and approach the classifications of phase transitions in ideal and weakly interacting Bose gases of a finite number of particles, confined in a cubic box of volume L 3 with different boundary conditions. For this finite ideal Bose system, by extending the classification parameters to all regions, we predict that the phase transition for periodic boundary conditions is of second order, while the transition in Dirichlet boundary conditions is of first order. For a weakly interacting Bose gas with periodic boundary conditions, we discuss the effects of finite particle numbers and inter-particle interactions on the nature of the phase transitions. We show that this homogenous weakly interacting Bose gas undergoes a second-order phase transition, which is in accordance with universality arguments for infinite systems. We also discuss the dependence of transition temperature on interaction strengths and particle numbers.
Entropy of the Bose-Einstein-condensate ground state: Correlation versus ground-state entropy
Kim, Moochan B.; Svidzinsky, Anatoly; Agarwal, Girish S.; Scully, Marlan O.
2018-01-01
Calculation of the entropy of an ideal Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in a three-dimensional trap reveals unusual, previously unrecognized, features of the canonical ensemble. It is found that, for any temperature, the entropy of the Bose gas is equal to the entropy of the excited particles although the entropy of the particles in the ground state is nonzero. We explain this by considering the correlations between the ground-state particles and particles in the excited states. These correlations lead to a correlation entropy which is exactly equal to the contribution from the ground state. The correlations themselves arise from the fact that we have a fixed number of particles obeying quantum statistics. We present results for correlation functions between the ground and excited states in a Bose gas, so as to clarify the role of fluctuations in the system. We also report the sub-Poissonian nature of the ground-state fluctuations.
Tunneling of trapped-atom Bose condensates
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Tunneling of trapped-atom Bose condensates. SUBODH R SHENOY. Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box 586, Trieste 34100, Italy. Abstract. We obtain the dynamics in number and phase difference, for Bose condensates that tun- nel between two wells of a double-well atomic trap, using the ...
Collision of Bose Condensate Dark Matter structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guzman, F. S.
2008-01-01
The status of the scalar field or Bose condensate dark matter model is presented. Results about the solitonic behavior in collision of structures is presented as a possible explanation to the recent-possibly-solitonic behavior in the bullet cluster merger. Some estimates about the possibility to simulate the bullet cluster under the Bose Condensate dark matter model are indicated.
Soliton resonance in bose-einstein condensate
Zak, Michail; Kulikov, I.
2002-01-01
A new phenomenon in nonlinear dispersive systems, including a Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC), has been described. It is based upon a resonance between an externally induced soliton and 'eigen-solitons' of the homogeneous cubic Schrodinger equation. There have been shown that a moving source of positive /negative potential induces bright /dark solitons in an attractive / repulsive Bose condensate.
Renormalization theory of the interacting Bose fluid
Creswick, R.J.; Wiegel, F.W.
1983-01-01
We derive an approximate closed form for the infinitesimal generator of the renormalization group for the interacting Bose fluid. The Bose-condensed phase is treated by the method of Bogoliubov, and a simple scaling law is found for the condensate density. It is shown that the quantum-mechanical
Theory of Bose-Fermi Quantum Liquids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khalatnikov, I.M.
1969-01-01
A phenomenological theory of a mixture of Fermi and Bose liquids is presented here, similarly to Landau's procedure for Fermi liquids. We give a definition of the Fermi excitation energy in a superfluid liquid. An exact set of equations has been obtained which describes the properties of a Fermi-Bose liquid; the solutions in the acoustic range are discussed. (author)
Collapse of a Bose gas: Kinetic approach
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
their theory for 0 ≤ T ≤ Tc within the Hartree–Fock (H–F) approximation [14]. In the generalized theory, different parts of the free energy (grand potential) of our system were scaled by a parameter which reduces the length scale of the system as a result of attractive. DOI: 10.1007/s12043-012-0317-2; ePublication: 20 July ...
Thermalization of a quenched Bose-Josephson junction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Posazhennikova, Anna [Royal Holloway, University of London (United Kingdom); Trujillo-Martinez, Mauricio; Kroha, Johann [Universitaet Bonn (Germany)
2015-07-01
The experimental realization and control of quantum systems isolated from the environment, in ultracold atomic gases relaunched the interest in the fundamental non-equilibrium problem of how a finite system approaches thermal equilibrium. Despite intensive research there is still no conclusive answer to this question. We investigate theoretically how a quenched Bose-Josephson junction, where the Josephson coupling is switched on instantaneously, approaches its stationary state. We use the field theoretical approach for bosons out of equilibrium in a trap with discrete levels, developed by us previously. In this approach the operators for Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) particles are treated on mean-field level, while excitations of the Bose gas in higher trap levels are treated fully quantum-mechanically. This leads to coupled equations of motion for the BEC amplitudes (Gross-Pitaevskii equation) and the quasiparticle propagators. The inelastic quasiparticle collisions responsible for the system relaxation during the time-dependent evolution are described within self-consistent second-order approximation.
Remy, Q.; Grenier, I. A.; Marshall, D. J.; Casandjian, J. M.
2018-03-01
Aim. H I 21-cm and 12CO 2.6-mm line emissions trace the atomic and molecular gas phases, respectively, but they miss most of the opaque H I and diffuse H2 present in the dark neutral medium (DNM) at the transition between the H I-bright and CO-bright regions. Jointly probing H I, CO, and DNM gas, we aim to constrain the threshold of the H I-H2 transition in visual extinction, AV, and in total hydrogen column densities, NHtot. We also aim to measure gas mass fractions in the different phases and to test their relation to cloud properties. Methods: We have used dust optical depth measurements at 353 GHz, γ-ray maps at GeV energies, and H I and CO line data to trace the gas column densities and map the DNM in nearby clouds toward the Galactic anticentre and Chamaeleon regions. We have selected a subset of 15 individual clouds, from diffuse to star-forming structures, in order to study the different phases across each cloud and to probe changes from cloud to cloud. Results: The atomic fraction of the total hydrogen column density is observed to decrease in the (0.6-1) × 1021 cm-2 range in NHtot (AV ≈ 0.4 mag) because of the formation of H2 molecules. The onset of detectable CO intensities varies by only a factor of 4 from cloud to cloud, between 0.6 × 1021 cm-2 and 2.5 × 1021 cm-2 in total gas column density. We observe larger H2 column densities than linearly inferred from the CO intensities at AV > 3 mag because of the large CO optical thickness; the additional H2 mass in this regime represents on average 20% of the CO-inferred molecular mass. In the DNM envelopes, we find that the fraction of diffuse CO-dark H2 in the molecular column densities decreases with increasing AV in a cloud. For a half molecular DNM, the fraction decreases from more than 80% at 0.4 mag to less than 20% beyond 2 mag. In mass, the DNM fraction varies with the cloud properties. Clouds with low peak CO intensities exhibit large CO-dark H2 fractions in molecular mass, in particular the
Bose-Einstein condensation of light: general theory.
Sob'yanin, Denis Nikolaevich
2013-08-01
A theory of Bose-Einstein condensation of light in a dye-filled optical microcavity is presented. The theory is based on the hierarchical maximum entropy principle and allows one to investigate the fluctuating behavior of the photon gas in the microcavity for all numbers of photons, dye molecules, and excitations at all temperatures, including the whole critical region. The master equation describing the interaction between photons and dye molecules in the microcavity is derived and the equivalence between the hierarchical maximum entropy principle and the master equation approach is shown. The cases of a fixed mean total photon number and a fixed total excitation number are considered, and a much sharper, nonparabolic onset of a macroscopic Bose-Einstein condensation of light in the latter case is demonstrated. The theory does not use the grand canonical approximation, takes into account the photon polarization degeneracy, and exactly describes the microscopic, mesoscopic, and macroscopic Bose-Einstein condensation of light. Under certain conditions, it predicts sub-Poissonian statistics of the photon condensate and the polarized photon condensate, and a universal relation takes place between the degrees of second-order coherence for these condensates. In the macroscopic case, there appear a sharp jump in the degrees of second-order coherence, a sharp jump and kink in the reduced standard deviations of the fluctuating numbers of photons in the polarized and whole condensates, and a sharp peak, a cusp, of the Mandel parameter for the whole condensate in the critical region. The possibility of nonclassical light generation in the microcavity with the photon Bose-Einstein condensate is predicted.
Excitations of Bose-Einstein condensates at finite temperatures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rusch, M.
2000-01-01
Recent experimental observations of collective excitations of Bose condensed atomic vapours have stimulated interest in the microscopic description of the dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate confined in an external potential. We present a finite temperature field theory for collective excitations of trapped Bose-Einstein condensates and use a finite-temperature linear response formalism, which goes beyond the simple mean-field approximation of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The effect of the non-condensed thermal atoms we include using perturbation theory in a quasiparticle basis. This presents a simple scheme to understand the interaction between condensate and non-condensed atoms and enables us to include the effect the condensate has on collision dynamics. At first we limit our treatment to the case of a spatially homogeneous Bose gas. We include the effect of pair and triplet anomalous averages and thus obtain a gapless theory for the excitations of a weakly interacting system, which we can link to well known results for Landau and Beliaev damping rates. A gapless theory for trapped systems with a static thermal component follows straightforwardly. We then investigate finite temperature excitations of a condensate in a spherically symmetric harmonic trap. We avoid approximations to the density of states and thus emphasise finite size aspects of the problem. We show that excitations couple strongly to a restricted number of modes, giving rise to resonance structure in their frequency spectra. Where possible we derive energy shifts and lifetimes of excitations. For one particular mode, the breathing mode, the effects of the discreteness of the system are sufficiently pronounced that the simple picture of an energy shift and width fails. Experiments in spherical traps have recently become feasible and should be able to test our detailed quantitative predictions. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin Bihong; Zhang Yue; Chen Jincan
2006-01-01
The Stirling refrigeration cycle using an ideal Bose-gas as the working substance is called the Bose-Stirling refrigeration cycle, which is different from other thermodynamic cycles such as the Carnot cycle, Ericsson cycle, Brayton cycle, Otto cycle, Diesel cycle and Atkinson cycle working with an ideal Bose gas and may be operated across the critical temperature of Bose-Einstein condensation of the Bose system. The performance of the cycle is investigated, based on the equation of state of an ideal Bose gas. The inherent regenerative losses of the cycle are considered and the coefficient of performance and the amount of refrigeration of the cycle are calculated. The results obtained here are compared with those derived from the classical Stirling refrigeration cycle, using an ideal gas as the working substance. The influence of quantum degeneracy and inherent regenerative losses on the performance of the Bose Stirling refrigeration cycle operated in different temperature regions is discussed in detail, and consequently, general performance characteristics of the cycle are revealed
Collective modes of a quasi-two-dimensional Bose condensate in ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Q2D) Bose condensate in the large gas parameter regime by using a formalism which treats the interaction energy beyond the mean-field approximation. The results show that incorporation of this higher order term leads to significant ...
Collective modes of a quasi-two-dimensional Bose condensate in ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
(Q2D) Bose condensate in the large gas parameter regime by using a formalism which treats the interaction energy beyond the mean-field approximation. The results show that incorporation of this higher order term leads to significant modifications in the mode frequencies. Keywords. Bose–Einstein condensation; collective ...
Kinetic theory of collective exitations and damping in Bose-Einstein condensed gases
Al Khawaja, U.; Stoof, H.T.C.
2000-01-01
We calculate the frequencies and damping rates of the low-lying collective modes of a Bose-Einstein condensed gas at nonzero temperature. We use a complex nonlinear Schrödinger equation to determine the dynamics of the condensate atoms. In this manner we take into account both collisions between
Kinetic theory of collective excitations and damping in Bose-Einstein condensed gases
Al Khawaja, U.; Stoof, H.T.C.
2000-01-01
We calculate the frequencies and damping rates of the low-lying collective modes of a Bose-Einstein condensed gas at nonzero temperature. We use a complex nonlinear Schrödinger equation to determine the dynamics of the condensate atoms, and couple it to a Boltzmann equation for the noncondensate
Impurity self-energy in the strongly-correlated Bose systems
Panochko, Galyna; Pastukhov, Volodymyr; Vakarchuk, Ivan
2018-02-01
We proposed the nonperturbative scheme for the calculation of the impurity spectrum in the Bose system at zero temperature. The method is based on the path-integral formulation and describes an impurity as a zero-density ideal Fermi gas interacting with Bose system for which the action is written in terms of density fluctuations. On the example of the 3He atom immersed in the liquid helium-4 a good consistency with experimental data and results of Monte Carlo simulations is shown.
Satyendra Nath Bose his life and times
2009-01-01
Satyendra Nath Bose became a legendary figure of science in the 20th century in India with his revolutionary discovery on the nature of radiation. Despite the association with Einstein, however, little is known about him outside of India. This book highlights the remarkable intellect and the extraordinary personality of Bose set against the backdrop of a rich Bengali cultural tradition and British-Indian politics. Unlike other books covering the significance of Bose's discovery, this book describes his diverse scientific contributions to India's scientific community by bringing together select
Families of Bose rays in quantum optics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mukunda, N.; Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Simon, R.
1988-01-01
Having known classical wave optics and wave mechanics, can we reverse Schroedinger's path and extend the concept of families of rays of light to provide a new exact rendering of quantum optics including the Bose nature of photons? This question is answered in the affirmative, and the implications of the Bose symmetry for certain nonlocal correlations of the many-ray distribution functions are worked out. The similarities and the differences between classical and quantum wave optics are brought out. The ray-ray Bose correlation is analyzed. The generating functional for the many-ray distribution functions is formulated; and the notion of paraxial illumination for quantum optics is made precise
The disordered Bose condensate in two dimensions: application to high-Tc superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gold, A.
1992-01-01
We calculate the dynamical conductivity for a weakly disordered Bose condensate in two dimensions. The disorder is due to neutral impurities. We compare the asymptotic laws (for small and large frequencies) for neutral impurities with the ones for charged impurities. Universal functions for the dynamical transport properties are derived. The plasmon density of states shows a linear increase with energy for intermediate energies and a peak structure at larger energies. Our theoretical results are compared with experimental results (far-infrared, electron-energy-loss and Raman spectroscopy) found in the high-Tc superconductor YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ . The occurrence of a quasi-gap in a disordered Bose condensate is described and discussed in connection with experiments on high-Tc superconductors. (orig.)
Universal Themes of Bose-Einstein Condensation
Proukakis, Nick P.; Snoke, David W.; Littlewood, Peter B.
2017-04-01
Foreword; List of contributors; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. Universality and Bose-Einstein condensation: perspectives on recent work D. W. Snoke, N. P. Proukakis, T. Giamarchi and P. B. Littlewood; 2. A history of Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic hydrogen T. Greytak and D. Kleppner; 3. Twenty years of atomic quantum gases: 1995-2015 W. Ketterle; 4. Introduction to polariton condensation P. B. Littlewood and A. Edelman; Part II. General Topics: Editorial notes; 5. The question of spontaneous symmetry breaking in condensates D. W. Snoke and A. J. Daley; 6. Effects of interactions on Bose-Einstein condensation R. P. Smith; 7. Formation of Bose-Einstein condensates M. J. Davis, T. M. Wright, T. Gasenzer, S. A. Gardiner and N. P. Proukakis; 8. Quenches, relaxation and pre-thermalization in an isolated quantum system T. Langen and J. Schmiedmayer; 9. Ultracold gases with intrinsic scale invariance C. Chin; 10. Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless phase of a driven-dissipative condensate N. Y. Kim, W. H. Nitsche and Y. Yamamoto; 11. Superfluidity and phase correlations of driven dissipative condensates J. Keeling, L. M. Sieberer, E. Altman, L. Chen, S. Diehl and J. Toner; 12. BEC to BCS crossover from superconductors to polaritons A. Edelman and P. B. Littlewood; Part III. Condensates in Atomic Physics: Editorial notes; 13. Probing and controlling strongly correlated quantum many-body systems using ultracold quantum gases I. Bloch; 14. Preparing and probing chern bands with cold atoms N. Goldman, N. R. Cooper and J. Dalibard; 15. Bose-Einstein condensates in artificial gauge fields L. J. LeBlanc and I. B. Spielman; 16. Second sound in ultracold atomic gases L. Pitaevskii and S. Stringari; 17. Quantum turbulence in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates N. G. Parker, A. J. Allen, C. F. Barenghi and N. P. Proukakis; 18. Spinor-dipolar aspects of Bose-Einstein condensation M. Ueda; Part IV. Condensates in Condensed Matter Physics: Editorial notes; 19. Bose
Recent developments in Bose-Einstein condensation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kalman, G.
1997-09-22
This paper contains viewgraphs on developments on Bose-Einstein condensation. Some topics covered are: strongly coupled coulomb systems; standard response functions of the first and second kind; dynamical mean field theory; quasi localized charge approximation; and the main equations.
Achieving Airport Carbon Neutrality
2016-03-01
This report is a guide for airports that wish to reduce or eliminate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from existing buildings and operations. Reaching carbon neutrality typically requires the use of multiple mechanisms to first minimize energy consumpt...
Free-free absorption of infrared radiation in collisions of electrons with neutral rare-gas atoms
Stallcop, J. R.
1974-01-01
A relationship between the inverse bremsstrahlung absorption cross section and the electron neutral momentum transfer cross section has been utilized to determine the infrared free-free continuum absorption coefficient for the negative ions of helium, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon. The values of the momentum transfer cross section for this calculation have been obtained from experimental measurements. Analytical expressions for the absorption coefficient have also been developed. From the results of this calculation, it is possible to determine the absorption coefficient per unit electron density per neutral atom for temperatures in the range from 2500 to 25,000 K. The results are compared with those from tabulations of previous calculations and those computed from theoretical values of the phase shifts for the elastic scattering of electrons by neutral atoms.
Coupled two-dimensional edge-plasma and neutral gas modelling of the DIII-D scrape-off-layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maingi, R.; Gilligan, J.; Hankins, O.; Rensink, M.; Owen, L.; Klepper, C.; Mioduszewski, P.
1992-01-01
This paper reports that in order to do consistent scrape-off-layer plasma and neutral transport calculations, the 2-D fluid code, B2 has been externally coupled to the neutral transport code, DEGAS, for Dlll-D. The coupling procedure is similar to recent simulations done for TFTR, Tore Supra, and ClT. An averaged source approach is utilized to allow convergence between the two codes. Initial comparison of plasma quantities between the coupled code set and the B2 code alone shows that a colder, denser plasma may exist at the divertor targets than predicted by the B2 code with its internal recycling model
Theoretical Investigations of Trapped Interacting Bose-Einstein Condensates
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
You, Li
1999-01-01
.... Primary topics being addressed are: (1) To understand the properties of atomic Bose-Einstein condensates, in particular, the low energy excitations, dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensation, vortex states creation and detection. (2...
Rafelski, Marc; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Fumagalli, Michele; Neeleman, Marcel; Teplitz, Harry I.; Grogin, Norman; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Scarlata, Claudia
2016-01-01
Current observational evidence suggests that the star formation rate (SFR)efficiency of neutral atomic hydrogen gas measured in damped Ly(alpha) systems (DLAs) at z approx. 3 is more than 10 times lower than predicted by the Kennicutt-Schmidt (KS)relation. To understand the origin of this deficit, and to investigate possible evolution with redshift and galaxy properties, we measure the SFR efficiency of atomic gas at z approx. 1, z approx. 2, and z approx. 3 around star-forming galaxies. We use new robust photometric redshifts in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field to create galaxy stacks in these three redshift bins, and measure the SFR efficiency by combining DLA absorber statistics with the observed rest-frame UV emission in the galaxies' outskirts. We find that the SFR efficiency of H I gas at z > 1 is approx. 1%-3% of that predicted by the KS relation. Contrary to simulations and models that predict a reduced SFR efficiency with decreasing metallicity and thus with increasing redshift, we find no significant evolution in the SFR efficiency with redshift. Our analysis instead suggests that the reduced SFR efficiency is driven by the low molecular content of this atomic-dominated phase, with metallicity playing a secondary effect in regulating the conversion between atomic and molecular gas. This interpretation is supported by the similarity between the observed SFR efficiency and that observed in local atomic-dominated gas, such as in the outskirts of local spiral galaxies and local dwarf galaxies.
Spin-Orbit Coupled Bose-Einstein Condensates
2016-11-03
Spin-Orbit Coupled Bose- Einstein Condensates This ARO research proposal entitled "SPIN-ORBIT COUPLED BOSE- EINSTEIN CONDENSATES" (SOBECs) explored...Administration 3112 Lee Building 7809 Regents Drive College Park, MD 20742 -5141 ABSTRACT Final Report: Spin-Orbit Coupled Bose- Einstein Condensates...Report Title This ARO research proposal entitled "SPIN-ORBIT COUPLED BOSE- EINSTEIN CONDENSATES" (SOBECs) explored properties of the fundamentally new
Dunning, J. W., Jr.; Lancashire, R. B.; Manista, E. J.
1976-01-01
Measurements have been conducted of the effect of the convection of ions and electrons on the discharge characteristics in a large scale laser. The results are presented for one particular distribution of ballast resistance. Values of electric field, current density, input power density, ratio of electric field to neutral gas density (E/N), and electron number density were calculated on the basis of measurements of the discharge properties. In a number of graphs, the E/N ratio, current density, power density, and electron density are plotted as a function of row number (downstream position) with total discharge current and gas velocity as parameters. From the dependence of the current distribution on the total current, it appears that the electron production in the first two rows significantly affects the current flowing in the succeeding rows.
Disordered spinor Bose-Hubbard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
LaPcki, Mateusz; Paganelli, Simone; Ahufinger, Veronica; Sanpera, Anna; Zakrzewski, Jakub
2011-01-01
We study the zero-temperature phase diagram of the disordered spin-1 Bose-Hubbard model in a two-dimensional square lattice. To this aim, we use a mean-field Gutzwiller ansatz and a probabilistic mean-field perturbation theory. The spin interaction induces two different regimes, corresponding to a ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic order. In the ferromagnetic case, the introduction of disorder reproduces analogous features of the disordered scalar Bose-Hubbard model, consisting in the formation of a Bose glass phase between Mott insulator lobes. In the antiferromagnetic regime, the phase diagram differs more from the scalar case. Disorder in the chemical potential can lead to the disappearance of Mott insulator lobes with an odd-integer filling factor and, for sufficiently strong spin coupling, to Bose glass of singlets between even-filling Mott insulator lobes. Disorder in the spinor coupling parameter results in the appearance of a Bose glass phase only between the n and the n+1 lobes for n odd. Disorder in the scalar Hubbard interaction inhibits Mott insulator regions for occupation larger than a critical value.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghosh, Tarun Kanti
2002-01-01
We study the collective excitations of a neutral atomic Bose-Einstein condensate with gravitylike 1/r interatomic attraction induced by an electromagnetic wave. Using the time-dependent variational approach, we derive an analytical spectrum for monopole and quadrupole mode frequencies of a gravitylike self-bound Bose condensed state at zero temperature. We also analyze the excitation frequencies of the Thomas-Fermi-gravity (TF-G) and gravity (G) regimes. Our result agrees excellently with that of Giovanazzi et al. [Europhysics Lett., 56, 1 (2001)], which is obtained within the sum-rule approach. We also consider the vortex state. We estimate the superfluid coherence length and the critical angular frequencies to create a vortex around the z axis. We find that the TF-G regime can exhibit the superfluid properties more prominently than the G regime. We find that the monopole mode frequency of the condensate decreases due to the presence of a vortex
Neutron Matter as a Composite Bose-Fermi Superfluid
Arbanas, Goran; Kerman, Arthur; Nam, Hai Ah; Stone, Jirina
2011-10-01
We model infinite neutron matter as an interacting Bose-Fermi superfluid consisting of superconducting neutrons and a Bose-Einstein condensate of a six-quark Feshbach state. The interaction term in the many-body grand canonical Hamiltonian is defined by a coupling form-factor and a coupling strength that are determined by fitting an expression for neutron-neutron scattering (via the same Feshbach state) to the 1S0 phase shift. Extremization of the expectation value of the grand canonical Hamiltonian in the ground state yields an equation of state for infinite neutron matter that we numerically solve for particle-number densities between 10-7 and 0.5 fm-3. In the unitary limit (i.e., infinite scattering length and a zero effective range), we find the energy per particle to be 0.6 that of a free Fermi gas. The effect of random-phase-approximation corrections to our equation of state is addressed. This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy.
Bose-Einstein Condensation in Complex Networks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bianconi, Ginestra; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo
2001-06-11
The evolution of many complex systems, including the World Wide Web, business, and citation networks, is encoded in the dynamic web describing the interactions between the system's constituents. Despite their irreversible and nonequilibrium nature these networks follow Bose statistics and can undergo Bose-Einstein condensation. Addressing the dynamical properties of these nonequilibrium systems within the framework of equilibrium quantum gases predicts that the {open_quotes}first-mover-advantage,{close_quotes} {open_quotes}fit-get-rich,{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}winner-takes-all{close_quotes} phenomena observed in competitive systems are thermodynamically distinct phases of the underlying evolving networks.
Tunneling problems between Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watabe, Shohei; Kato, Yusuke
2009-01-01
We investigate transmission and reflection of Bose-Einstein condensate excitations in the low-energy limit across a potential barrier separating two condensates with different densities. Bogoliubov excitation in the low-energy limit has an incident angle where perfect transmission occurs. This condition corresponds to the Brewster's law for the electromagnetic wave. There also exists the total internal reflection of the Bogoliubov excitation in the low-energy limit. In the case of the normal incidence, our result in the low-energy limit is consistent with a result for weakly interacting one-dimensional Bose gases treated as Tomonaga-Luttinger liquids.
Tunneling problems between Bose-Einstein condensates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Watabe, Shohei [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan); Kato, Yusuke [Department of Basic Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 153-8902 (Japan)], E-mail: watabe@vortex.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp
2009-02-01
We investigate transmission and reflection of Bose-Einstein condensate excitations in the low-energy limit across a potential barrier separating two condensates with different densities. Bogoliubov excitation in the low-energy limit has an incident angle where perfect transmission occurs. This condition corresponds to the Brewster's law for the electromagnetic wave. There also exists the total internal reflection of the Bogoliubov excitation in the low-energy limit. In the case of the normal incidence, our result in the low-energy limit is consistent with a result for weakly interacting one-dimensional Bose gases treated as Tomonaga-Luttinger liquids.
Bose-Einstein Condensation in Complex Networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bianconi, Ginestra; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo
2001-01-01
The evolution of many complex systems, including the World Wide Web, business, and citation networks, is encoded in the dynamic web describing the interactions between the system's constituents. Despite their irreversible and nonequilibrium nature these networks follow Bose statistics and can undergo Bose-Einstein condensation. Addressing the dynamical properties of these nonequilibrium systems within the framework of equilibrium quantum gases predicts that the 'first-mover-advantage,' 'fit-get-rich,' and 'winner-takes-all' phenomena observed in competitive systems are thermodynamically distinct phases of the underlying evolving networks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bolte, Jens, E-mail: jens.bolte@rhul.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham TW20 0EX (United Kingdom); Kerner, Joachim, E-mail: joachim.kerner@fernuni-hagen.de [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, FernUniversität in Hagen, Hagen 58084 (Germany)
2016-04-15
In this paper we investigate Bose-Einstein condensation into the one-particle ground state in interacting quantum many-particle systems on graphs. We extend previous results obtained for particles on an interval and show that even arbitrarily small repulsive two-particle interactions destroy the condensate in the one-particle ground state present in the non-interacting Bose gas. Our results also cover singular two-particle interactions, such as the well-known Lieb-Liniger model, in the thermodynamic limit.
Study of dynamical behaviour and fermionization of a bosonic gas in funnel potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Guangyuan; Yan Li; Wang Yongjun; Liu Xianfeng; Han Jiurong; Wang Yuzhu
2008-01-01
This paper presents a funnel external potential model to investigate dynamic properties of ultracold Bose gas. By using variational method, we obtain the ground-state energy and density properties of ultracold Bose atoms. The results show that the ultracold Bose gas confined in a funnel potential experiences the transition from three-dimensional regime to quasi-one-dimensional regime in a small aspect ratio, and undergoes fermionization process as the aspect ratio increases. (atomic and molecular physics)
Tunneling of trapped-atom Bose condensates
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. We obtain the dynamics in number and phase difference, for Bose condensates that tun- nel between two wells of a double-well atomic trap, using the (nonlinear) Gross–Pitaevskii equation. The dynamical equations are of the canonical form for the two conjugate variables, and the Hamil- tonian corresponds to that ...
Quantum monodromy in trapped Bose condensates
Waalkens, H.
2002-01-01
Bose-Einstein condensation of ultra cold atoms is typically realized in magnetic traps which effectively lead to an axially symmetric harmonic potential. This letter shows that the spectrum of collective vibrational modes of a repulsive condensate in a prolate potential displays a defect known as
Tunneling of trapped-atom Bose condensates
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We obtain the dynamics in number and phase difference, for Bose condensates that tunnel between two wells of a double-well atomic trap, using the (nonlinear) Gross–Pitaevskii equation. The dynamical equations are of the canonical form for the two conjugate variables, and the Hamiltonian corresponds to that of a ...
Watson, Valerie J.
2013-11-01
Commercially available activated carbon (AC) powders from different precursor materials (peat, coconut shell, coal, and hardwood) were treated with ammonia gas at 700 C to improve their performance as oxygen reduction catalysts in neutral pH solutions used in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The ammonia treated ACs exhibited better catalytic performance in rotating ring-disk electrode tests than their untreated precursors, with the bituminous based AC most improved, with an onset potential of Eonset = 0.12 V (untreated, Eonset = 0.08 V) and n = 3.9 electrons transferred in oxygen reduction (untreated, n = 3.6), and the hardwood based AC (treated, E onset = 0.03 V, n = 3.3; untreated, Eonset = -0.04 V, n = 3.0). Ammonia treatment decreased oxygen content by 29-58%, increased nitrogen content to 1.8 atomic %, and increased the basicity of the bituminous, peat, and hardwood ACs. The treated coal based AC cathodes had higher maximum power densities in MFCs (2450 ± 40 mW m-2) than the other AC cathodes or a Pt/C cathode (2100 ± 1 mW m-2). These results show that reduced oxygen abundance and increased nitrogen functionalities on the AC surface can increase catalytic performance for oxygen reduction in neutral media. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bose Einstein condensation of gases in a harmonic potential trap
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. E. Zomorrodian
2005-03-01
Full Text Available One of the most interesting properties of boson gases is that under special conditions, there is a possibility of a phase transition, in a critical temperature below which all bosons condensate into the ground state. This phenomenon is called Bose – Einstein Condensation (BEC. In this paper, we investigate BEC in a harmonic oscillator trap. We conclude that, in contrast to a free boson gas, there is no critical temperature for phase transition in a harmonic oscillator trap. However , by numerical and analytical calculation, it is possible to obtain a temperature at which the heat capacity is maximum. We call this the critical temperature . Possible explanation for all these features will be explained in this paper.
Quantum Mayer Graphs: Application to Bose and Coulomb Gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin, P.A.
2003-01-01
The functional integral representation of quantum statistical mechanics by means of the Feynman-Kac formula leads to a classical-like description of the system. Point quantum particles are then described in terms of random loops (closed Brownian paths), and all techniques of classical statistical mechanics become available. One advantage of this formalism is that it is not perturbative with respect to the interaction strength, in contrast to the standard many-body perturbative treatment. We apply these ideas to the Coulomb gas by constructing an effective potential (the quantum analogue of the Debye potential) that incorporates both long distance collective screening effects as well as the short range quantum mechanical binding. For Bose systems, we show that mean field theory corresponds to summing all tree-graphs and investigate how to go beyond the mean field description. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nestingen-Palm, David; Stanimirović, Snežana; González-Casanova, Diego F.; Babler, Brian [Astronomy Department, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706-1582 (United States); Jameson, Katherine; Bolatto, Alberto, E-mail: sstanimi@astro.wisc.edu [Astronomy Department and Laboratory for Millimeter-wave Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)
2017-08-10
We investigate spatial variations of turbulent properties in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) by using neutral hydrogen (H i) observations. With the goal of testing the importance of stellar feedback on H i turbulence, we define central and outer SMC regions based on the star formation rate (SFR) surface density, as well as the H i integrated intensity. We use the structure function and the velocity channel analysis to calculate the power-law index ( γ ) for both underlying density and velocity fields in these regions. In all cases, our results show essentially no difference in γ between the central and outer regions. This suggests that H i turbulent properties are surprisingly homogeneous across the SMC when probed at a resolution of 30 pc. Contrary to recent suggestions from numerical simulations, we do not find a significant change in γ due to stellar feedback as traced by the SFR surface density. This could be due to the stellar feedback being widespread over the whole of the SMC, but more likely due to a large-scale gravitational driving of turbulence. We show that the lack of difference between central and outer SMC regions cannot be explained by the high optical depth H I.
Generalized deformed para-Bose oscillator and nonlinear algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ha Huy Bang.
1995-10-01
Generalized deformed commutation relations for a single mode para-Bose oscillator and for a system of two para-Bose oscillators are constructed. It turns out that generalized deformed para-Bose oscillators are not, in general, exactly independent. Furthermore, we also discuss about the Fock space corresponding to generalized deformed para-Bose oscillators. Finally, we show how SU(2) and SU(1,1) generators can be constructed in terms of generalized deformed para-Bose creation and annihilation operators. The algebras SU(2) and SU(1,1) of generalized deformed oscillators are the special cases of generalized deformed para-Bose oscillators algebras but, interestingly, they have the same form. (author). 23 refs
Fluctuation-induced forces in confined ideal and imperfect Bose gases
Diehl, H. W.; Rutkevich, Sergei B.
2017-06-01
Fluctuation-induced ("Casimir") forces caused by thermal and quantum fluctuations are investigated for ideal and imperfect Bose gases confined to d -dimensional films of size ∞d -1×D under periodic (P), antiperiodic (A), Dirichlet-Dirichlet (DD), Neumann-Neumann (NN), and Robin (R) boundary conditions (BCs). The full scaling functions ΥdBC(xλ=D /λth ,xξ=D /ξ ) of the residual reduced grand potential per area φres,dBC(T ,μ ,D ) =D-(d -1 )ΥdBC(xλ,xξ) are determined for the ideal gas case with these BCs, where λth and ξ are the thermal de Broglie wavelength and the bulk correlation length, respectively. The associated limiting scaling functions ΘdBC(xξ) ≡ΥdBC(∞ ,xξ) describing the critical behavior at the bulk condensation transition are shown to agree with those previously determined from a massive free O (2 ) theory for BC=P,A,DD,DN,NN . For d =3 , they are expressed in closed analytical form in terms of polylogarithms. The analogous scaling functions ΥdBC(xλ,xξ,c1D ,c2D ) and ΘdR(xξ,c1D ,c2D ) under the RBCs (∂z-c1) ϕ |z=0=(∂z+c2) ϕ | z =D=0 with c1≥0 and c2≥0 are also determined. The corresponding scaling functions Υ∞,d P(xλ,xξ) and Θ∞,d P(xξ) for the imperfect Bose gas are shown to agree with those of the interacting Bose gas with n internal degrees of freedom in the limit n →∞ . Hence, for d =3 , Θ∞,d P(xξ) is known exactly in closed analytic form. To account for the breakdown of translation invariance in the direction perpendicular to the boundary planes implied by free BCs such as DDBCs, a modified imperfect Bose gas model is introduced that corresponds to the limit n →∞ of this interacting Bose gas. Numerically and analytically exact results for the scaling function Θ∞,3 DD(xξ) therefore follow from those of the O (2 n ) ϕ4 model for n →∞ .
Fluctuation-induced forces in confined ideal and imperfect Bose gases.
Diehl, H W; Rutkevich, Sergei B
2017-06-01
Fluctuation-induced ("Casimir") forces caused by thermal and quantum fluctuations are investigated for ideal and imperfect Bose gases confined to d-dimensional films of size ∞^{d-1}×D under periodic (P), antiperiodic (A), Dirichlet-Dirichlet (DD), Neumann-Neumann (NN), and Robin (R) boundary conditions (BCs). The full scaling functions Υ_{d}^{BC}(x_{λ}=D/λ_{th},x_{ξ}=D/ξ) of the residual reduced grand potential per area φ_{res,d}^{BC}(T,μ,D)=D^{-(d-1)}Υ_{d}^{BC}(x_{λ},x_{ξ}) are determined for the ideal gas case with these BCs, where λ_{th} and ξ are the thermal de Broglie wavelength and the bulk correlation length, respectively. The associated limiting scaling functions Θ_{d}^{BC}(x_{ξ})≡Υ_{d}^{BC}(∞,x_{ξ}) describing the critical behavior at the bulk condensation transition are shown to agree with those previously determined from a massive free O(2) theory for BC=P,A,DD,DN,NN. For d=3, they are expressed in closed analytical form in terms of polylogarithms. The analogous scaling functions Υ_{d}^{BC}(x_{λ},x_{ξ},c_{1}D,c_{2}D) and Θ_{d}^{R}(x_{ξ},c_{1}D,c_{2}D) under the RBCs (∂_{z}-c_{1})ϕ|_{z=0}=(∂_{z}+c_{2})ϕ|_{z=D}=0 with c_{1}≥0 and c_{2}≥0 are also determined. The corresponding scaling functions Υ_{∞,d}^{P}(x_{λ},x_{ξ}) and Θ_{∞,d}^{P}(x_{ξ}) for the imperfect Bose gas are shown to agree with those of the interacting Bose gas with n internal degrees of freedom in the limit n→∞. Hence, for d=3, Θ_{∞,d}^{P}(x_{ξ}) is known exactly in closed analytic form. To account for the breakdown of translation invariance in the direction perpendicular to the boundary planes implied by free BCs such as DDBCs, a modified imperfect Bose gas model is introduced that corresponds to the limit n→∞ of this interacting Bose gas. Numerically and analytically exact results for the scaling function Θ_{∞,3}^{DD}(x_{ξ}) therefore follow from those of the O(2n)ϕ^{4} model for n→∞.
Vortices and hysteresis in a rotating Bose-Einstein condensate with anharmonic confinement
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jackson, A.D.; Kavoulakis, G.M.
2004-01-01
Vortices; Bose-Einstein condensation; phase diagrams; phase transformation Udgivelsesdato: 4 August......Vortices; Bose-Einstein condensation; phase diagrams; phase transformation Udgivelsesdato: 4 August...
Discrete Bose-Einstein systems in a box with low adiabatic invariant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vlad, V.I.; Ionescu-Pallas, N.
2002-03-01
The Bose-Einstein energy spectrum of a quantum gas, confined in a (cubic) box, is discrete and strongly dependent on the box geometry and temperature, for low product of the atomic mass number, A at and the adiabatic invariant, TV 2/3 , i.e. on γ=A at TV 2/3 . Even within the approximation of noninteracting particles in the gas, the calculation of the thermodynamic properties of Bose-Einstein systems turns out to be a difficult mathematical problem. It is solved in the textbooks and most papers by approximating the sums by integrals. The present study compares the total number of particles and the total energy obtained by summing up the exact contributions of the eigenvalues and their weights, for defined values of γ, to the results of the approximate integrals. Then, the passage from sums to integrals is done in a more rigorous manner and better analytical approximations are found. The corrected thermodynamic functions depend on γ. The critical temperature is corrected also in order to describe more accurately the discrete Bose-Einstein systems and their onset of the phase transition. (author)
Collisions of Solitons and Vortex Rings in Cylindrical Bose-Einstein Condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Komineas, Stavros; Brand, Joachim
2005-01-01
Interactions of solitary waves in a cylindrically confined Bose-Einstein condensate are investigated by simulating their head-on collisions. Slow vortex rings and fast solitons are found to collide elastically contrary to the situation in the three-dimensional homogeneous Bose gas. Strongly inelastic collisions are absent for low density condensates but occur at higher densities for intermediate velocities. The scattering behavior is rationalized by use of dispersion diagrams. During inelastic collisions, spherical shell-like structures of low density are formed and they eventually decay into depletion droplets with solitary-wave features. The relation to similar shells observed in a recent experiment by Ginsberg et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 040403 (2005)] is discussed
Bose-Einstein Condensation of Long-Lifetime Polaritons in Thermal Equilibrium.
Sun, Yongbao; Wen, Patrick; Yoon, Yoseob; Liu, Gangqiang; Steger, Mark; Pfeiffer, Loren N; West, Ken; Snoke, David W; Nelson, Keith A
2017-01-06
The experimental realization of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) with atoms and quasiparticles has triggered wide exploration of macroscopic quantum effects. Microcavity polaritons are of particular interest because quantum phenomena such as BEC and superfluidity can be observed at elevated temperatures. However, polariton lifetimes are typically too short to permit thermal equilibration. This has led to debate about whether polariton condensation is intrinsically a nonequilibrium effect. Here we report the first unambiguous observation of BEC of optically trapped polaritons in thermal equilibrium in a high-Q microcavity, evidenced by equilibrium Bose-Einstein distributions over broad ranges of polariton densities and bath temperatures. With thermal equilibrium established, we verify that polariton condensation is a phase transition with a well-defined density-temperature phase diagram. The measured phase boundary agrees well with the predictions of basic quantum gas theory.
Beyond mean-field properties of binary dipolar Bose mixtures at low temperatures
Pastukhov, Volodymyr
2017-02-01
We rigorously analyze the low-temperature properties of homogeneous three-dimensional two-component Bose mixture with dipole-dipole interaction. For such a system the effective hydrodynamic action that governs the behavior of low-energy excitations is derived. The infrared structure of the exact single-particle Green's functions is obtained in terms of macroscopic parameters, namely the inverse compressibility and the superfluid density matrices. Within the one-loop approximation we calculate some of the most relevant observable quantities and give the beyond mean-field stability condition for the binary dipolar Bose gas in the dilute limit. A brief variational derivation of the coupled equations that describe macroscopic hydrodynamics of the system in the external nonuniform potential at zero temperature is presented.
Bose-Einstein condensation in microgravity.
van Zoest, T; Gaaloul, N; Singh, Y; Ahlers, H; Herr, W; Seidel, S T; Ertmer, W; Rasel, E; Eckart, M; Kajari, E; Arnold, S; Nandi, G; Schleich, W P; Walser, R; Vogel, A; Sengstock, K; Bongs, K; Lewoczko-Adamczyk, W; Schiemangk, M; Schuldt, T; Peters, A; Könemann, T; Müntinga, H; Lämmerzahl, C; Dittus, H; Steinmetz, T; Hänsch, T W; Reichel, J
2010-06-18
Albert Einstein's insight that it is impossible to distinguish a local experiment in a "freely falling elevator" from one in free space led to the development of the theory of general relativity. The wave nature of matter manifests itself in a striking way in Bose-Einstein condensates, where millions of atoms lose their identity and can be described by a single macroscopic wave function. We combine these two topics and report the preparation and observation of a Bose-Einstein condensate during free fall in a 146-meter-tall evacuated drop tower. During the expansion over 1 second, the atoms form a giant coherent matter wave that is delocalized on a millimeter scale, which represents a promising source for matter-wave interferometry to test the universality of free fall with quantum matter.
Phase diagram for interacting Bose gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morawetz, K.; Maennel, M.; Schreiber, M.
2007-01-01
We propose a modified form of the inversion method in terms of a self-energy expansion to access the phase diagram of the Bose-Einstein transition. The dependence of the critical temperature on the interaction parameter is calculated. This is discussed with the help of a condition for Bose-Einstein condensation in interacting systems which follows from the pole of the T matrix in the same way as from the divergence of the medium-dependent scattering length. A many-body approximation consisting of screened ladder diagrams is proposed, which describes the Monte Carlo data more appropriately. The specific results are that a non-self-consistent T matrix leads to a linear coefficient in leading order of 4.7, the screened ladder approximation to 2.3, and the self-consistent T matrix due to the effective mass to a coefficient of 1.3 close to the Monte Carlo data
Faraday waves in Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nicolin, Alexandru I.; Carretero-Gonzalez, R.; Kevrekidis, P. G.
2007-01-01
Motivated by recent experiments on Faraday waves in Bose-Einstein condensates we investigate both analytically and numerically the dynamics of cigar-shaped Bose-condensed gases subject to periodic modulation of the strength of the transverse confinement. We offer a fully analytical explanation of the observed parametric resonance, based on a Mathieu-type analysis of the non-polynomial Schroedinger equation. The theoretical prediction for the pattern periodicity versus the driving frequency is directly compared to the experimental data, yielding good qualitative and quantitative agreement between the two. These results are corroborated by direct numerical simulations of both the one-dimensional non-polynomial Schroedinger equation and of the fully three-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation
Data is presented showing the progress made towards the development of a new automated system combining solid phase extraction (SPE) with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the single run analysis of water samples containing a broad range of acid, base and neutral compounds...
Physics of hollow Bose-Einstein condensates
Padavić, Karmela; Sun, Kuei; Lannert, Courtney; Vishveshwara, Smitha
2016-01-01
Bose-Einstein condensate shells, while occurring in ultracold systems of coexisting phases and potentially within neutron stars, have yet to be realized in isolation on Earth due to the experimental challenge of overcoming gravitational sag. Motivated by the expected realization of hollow condensates by the space-based Cold Atomic Laboratory in microgravity conditions, we study a spherical condensate undergoing a topological change from a filled sphere to a hollow shell. We argue that the col...
Lebouteiller, V.; Péquignot, D.; Cormier, D.; Madden, S.; Pakull, M. W.; Kunth, D.; Galliano, F.; Chevance, M.; Heap, S. R.; Lee, M.-Y.; Polles, F. L.
2017-06-01
Context. The neutral interstellar medium of galaxies acts as a reservoir to fuel star formation. The dominant heating and cooling mechanisms in this phase are uncertain in extremely metal-poor star-forming galaxies. The low dust-to-gas mass ratio and low polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon abundance in such objects suggest that the traditional photoelectric effect heating may not be effective. Aims: Our objective is to identify the dominant thermal mechanisms in one such galaxy, I Zw 18 (1/30Z⊙), assess the diagnostic value of fine-structure cooling lines, and estimate the molecular gas content. Even though molecular gas is an important catalyst and tracer of star formation, constraints on the molecular gas mass remain elusive in the most metal-poor galaxies. Methods: Building on a previous photoionization model describing the giant H II region of I Zw 18-NW within a multi-sector topology, we provide additional constraints using, in particular, the [C II] 157 μm and [O I] 63 μm lines and the dust mass recently measured with the Herschel Space Telescope. Results: The heating of the H I region appears to be mainly due to photoionization by radiation from a bright X-ray binary source, while the photoelectric effect is negligible. Significant cosmic ray heating is not excluded. Inasmuch as X-ray heating dominates in the H I gas, the infrared fine-structure lines provide an average X-ray luminosity of order 4 × 1040 erg s-1 over the last few 104 yr in the galaxy. The upper limits to the [Ne v] lines provide strong constraints on the soft X-ray flux arising from the binary. A negligible mass of H2 is predicted. Nonetheless, up to 107 M⊙ of H2 may be hidden in a few sufficiently dense clouds of order ≲5 pc (≲0.05'') in size. Regardless of the presence of significant amounts of H2 gas, [C II] and [O I] do not trace the so-called "CO-dark gas", but they trace the almost purely atomic medium. Although the [C II]+[O I] to total infrared ratio in I Zw 18 is similar to
Bose-Einstein condensation of atoms with attractive interaction in a harmonic trap
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akhmediev, N.; Das, M.P.; Vagov, A.V.
2000-01-01
It is well known that bosonic particles with attractive interaction in a uniform gas do not form a condensate. Here we investigate a dilute Bose gas and study stationary solutions of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with attractive interaction. We have also used a higher order stabilising term in the presence of a harmonic confining potential. We show that there are three possible types of stationary solutions corresponding to stable, metastable and unstable phases. These results are discussed in relation to a 7 Li condensate. Copyright (2000) CSIRO Australia
Atom-molecule dark states in a Bose-Einstein condensate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Winkler, K.; Thalhammer, G.; Theis, M.; Ritsch, H.; Grimm, R.
2005-01-01
Full text: We have created a dark quantum superposition state of a Rb Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) and a degenerate gas of Rb 2 ground state molecules in a specific ro-vibrational state using two-color photoassociation. We infer the presence of this coherent atom-molecule gas from a strong resonant suppression of photoassociation loss. In our experiment the maximal molecule population in the dark state is limited to about 100 Rb 2 molecules due to laser induced decay. The experimental findings can be well described by a simple three mode model. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dillinger, K.H.
2000-03-01
Tilsit cheese is made by the influence of lab ferment and starter cultures on milk. The ripening is done by repeated inoculation of the surface of the Tilsit cheese with yeasts and read smear cultures. This surface flora forms the typical aroma of the Tilsit cheese during the ripening process. The aim of the work was to receive general knowledge about the kind and amount of the neutral volatile aroma components of Tilsit cheese. Beyond this the ability of forming aroma components by read smear cultures and the dispersion of these components in cheese was to be examined. The results were intended to evaluate the formation of aroma components in Tilsit cheese. The semi-quantitative analyses of the aroma components of all samples were done by combining dynamic headspace extraction, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. In this process the neutral volatile aroma components were extracted by dynamic headspace technique, adsorbed on a trap, thermally desorbed, separated by gas chromatography, detected and identified by mass spectrometry. 63 components belonging to the chemical classes of esters, ketones, aldehydes, alcohols and sulfur containing substances as well as aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons and hydrocarbons were found in the analysed cheese samples of different Austrian Tilsit manufacturing plants. All cheese samples showed a qualitative equal but quantitative varied spectrum of aroma components. The cultivation of pure cultures on a cheese agar medium showed all analysed aroma components to be involved in the biochemical metabolism of these cultures. The ability to produce aroma components greatly differed between the strains and it was not possible to correlate this ability with the taxonomic classification of the strains. The majority of the components had a non-homogeneous concentration profile in the cheese body. This was explained by effects of diffusion and temporal and spatial different forming of components by the metabolism of the
Klitsch, A.; Péroux, C.; Zwaan, M. A.; Smail, I.; Oteo, I.; Biggs, A. D.; Popping, G.; Swinbank, A. M.
2018-03-01
Studying the flow of baryons into and out of galaxies is an important part of understanding the evolution of galaxies over time. We present a detailed case study of the environment around an intervening Ly α absorption line system at zabs = 0.633, seen towards the quasar J0423-0130 (zQSO = 0.915). We detect with ALMA the 12CO(2-1), 12CO(3-2), and 1.2 mm continuum emission from a galaxy at the redshift of the Ly α absorber at a projected distance of 135 kpc. From the ALMA detections, we infer interstellar medium conditions similar to those in low-redshift luminous infrared galaxies. Director's Discretionary Time (DDT) Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) integral field unit observations reveal the optical counterpart of the 12CO emission line source and three additional emission line galaxies at the absorber redshift, which together form a galaxy group. The 12CO emission line detections originate from the most massive galaxy in this group. While we cannot exclude that we miss a fainter host, we reach a dust-uncorrected star formation rate (SFR) limit of >0.3 M⊙yr-1 within 100 kpc from the sightline to the background quasar. We measure the dust-corrected SFR (ranging from 3 to 50 M⊙ yr-1), the morpho-kinematics and the metallicities of the four group galaxies to understand the relation between the group and the neutral gas probed in absorption. We find that the Ly α absorber traces either an outflow from the most massive galaxy or intragroup gas. This case study illustrates the power of combining ALMA and MUSE to obtain a census of the cool baryons in a bounded structure at intermediate redshift.
Olah, George A; Goeppert, Alain; Prakash, G K Surya
2009-01-16
Nature's photosynthesis uses the sun's energy with chlorophyll in plants as a catalyst to recycle carbon dioxide and water into new plant life. Only given sufficient geological time can new fossil fuels be formed naturally. In contrast, chemical recycling of carbon dioxide from natural and industrial sources as well as varied human activities or even from the air itself to methanol or dimethyl ether (DME) and their varied products can be achieved via its capture and subsequent reductive hydrogenative conversion. The present Perspective reviews this new approach and our research in the field over the last 15 years. Carbon recycling represents a significant aspect of our proposed Methanol Economy. Any available energy source (alternative energies such as solar, wind, geothermal, and atomic energy) can be used for the production of needed hydrogen and chemical conversion of CO(2). Improved new methods for the efficient reductive conversion of CO(2) to methanol and/or DME that we have developed include bireforming with methane and ways of catalytic or electrochemical conversions. Liquid methanol is preferable to highly volatile and potentially explosive hydrogen for energy storage and transportation. Together with the derived DME, they are excellent transportation fuels for internal combustion engines (ICE) and fuel cells as well as convenient starting materials for synthetic hydrocarbons and their varied products. Carbon dioxide thus can be chemically transformed from a detrimental greenhouse gas causing global warming into a valuable, renewable and inexhaustible carbon source of the future allowing environmentally neutral use of carbon fuels and derived hydrocarbon products.
On the Dynamics of the Fermi-Bose model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ögren, Magnus
In this talk we formulate and prove results for the exponential matrix representing the dynamics of the Fermi-Bose model in an undepleted bosonic field approximation. A recent application of this model is molecular dimmers dissociating into its atomic compounds. The problem is solved in D spatial...... molecular Bose-Einstein condensate....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krueger, Frank; Wu Jiansheng; Phillips, Philip
2009-01-01
We study the weakly disordered Bose-Hubbard model on a cubic lattice through a one-loop renormalization-group analysis of the corresponding effective-field theory which is explicitly derived by combining a strong-coupling expansion with a replica average over the disorder. The method is applied not only to generic uncorrelated on-site disorder but also to simultaneous hopping-disorder correlated with the differences of adjacent disorder potentials. Such correlations are inherent in fine-grained optical speckle potentials used as a source of disorder in optical lattice experiments. As a result of strong coupling, the strength of the replica-mixing disorder vertex, responsible for the emergence of a Bose glass, crucially depends on the chemical potential and the Hubbard repulsion and vanishes to leading order in the disorder at commensurate boson fillings. As a consequence, at such fillings a direct transition between the Mott insulator and the superfluid in the presence of disorder cannot be excluded on the basis of a one-loop calculation. At incommensurate fillings, at a certain length scale, the Mott insulator will eventually become unstable toward the formation of a Bose glass. Phase diagrams as a function of the microscopic parameters are presented and the finite-size crossover between the Mott-insulating state and the Bose glass is analyzed.
Vortex molecules in Bose-Einstein condensates
Nitta, Muneto; Eto, Minoru; Cipriani, Mattia
2013-01-01
Stable vortex dimers are known to exist in coherently coupled two component Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). We construct stable vortex trimers in three component BECs and find that the shape can be controlled by changing the internal coherent (Rabi) couplings. Stable vortex N-omers are also constructed in coherently coupled N-component BECs. We classify all possible N-omers in terms of the mathematical graph theory. Next, we study effects of the Rabi coupling in vortex lattices in two-compo...
Visualizing the Efimov Correlation in Bose Polarons
Sun, Mingyuan; Zhai, Hui; Cui, Xiaoling
2017-07-01
The Bose polaron is a quasiparticle of an impurity dressed by surrounding bosons. In few-body physics, it is known that two identical bosons and a third distinguishable particle can form a sequence of Efimov bound states in the vicinity of interspecies scattering resonance. On the other hand, in the Bose polaron system with an impurity atom embedded in many bosons, no signature of Efimov physics has been reported in the existing spectroscopy measurements to date. In this Letter, we propose that a large mass imbalance between a light impurity and heavy bosons can help produce visible signatures of Efimov physics in such a spectroscopy measurement. Using the diagrammatic approach in the virial expansion to include three-body effects from pair-wise interactions, we determine the impurity self-energy and its spectral function. Taking the 6Li - 133Cs system as a concrete example, we find two visible Efimov branches in the polaron spectrum, as well as their hybridizations with the attractive polaron branch. We also discuss the general scenarios for observing the signature of Efimov physics in polaron systems. This work paves the way for experimentally exploring intriguing few-body correlations in a many-body system in the near future.
Observation of Spontaneous Coherence in Bose-Einstein Condensate of Magnons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Demidov, V. E.; Dzyapko, O.; Demokritov, S. O.; Melkov, G. A.; Slavin, A. N.
2008-01-01
The room-temperature dynamics of a magnon gas driven by short microwave pumping pulses is studied. An overpopulation of the lowest energy level of the system following the pumping is observed. Using the sensitivity of the Brillouin light scattering technique to the coherence degree of the scattering magnons we demonstrate the spontaneous emergence of coherence of the magnons at the lowest level, if their density exceeds a critical value. This finding is clear proof of the quantum nature of the observed phenomenon and direct evidence of Bose-Einstein condensation of magnons at room temperature
Topology-induced spatial Bose-Einstein condensation for bosons on star-shaped optical networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brunelli, I; Giusiano, G; Mancini, F P; Sodano, P; Trombettoni, A
2004-01-01
New coherent states may be induced by pertinently engineering the topology of a network. As an example, we consider the properties of non-interacting bosons on a star network, which may be realized with a dilute atomic gas in a star-shaped deep optical lattice. The ground state is localized around the star centre and it is macroscopically occupied below the Bose-Einstein condensation temperature T c . We show that T c depends only on the number of the star arms and on the Josephson energy of the bosonic Josephson junctions and that the non-condensate fraction is simply given by the reduced temperature T/T c
Superfluidity, Bose condensation and neutron scattering in liquid 4He
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silver, R.N.
1997-01-01
The relation between superfluidity and Bose condensation in 4 He provides lessons that may be valuable in understanding the strongly correlated electron system of high T c superconductivity. Direct observation of a Bose condensate in the superfluid by deep inelastic neutron scattering measurements has been attempted over many years. But the impulse approximation, which relates momentum distributions to neutron scattering structure functions, is broadened by final state effects. Nevertheless, the excellent quantitative agreement between ab initio quantum many body theory and high precision neutron experiments provides confidence in the connection between superfluidity and Bose condensation
Stagflation: Bose-Einstein condensation in the early universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukuyama, Takeshi; Morikawa, Masahiro
2009-01-01
Our universe experienced the accelerated expansion at least twice; an extreme inflationary acceleration in the early universe and the recent mild acceleration. By introducing the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) phase of a boson field, we have been developing a unified model of dark energy (DE) and dark matter (DM) for the later mild acceleration. In this scenario, two phases of BEC (=DE) and normal gas (=DM) transform with each other through BEC phase transition. This unified model has successfully explained the mild acceleration as an attractor. We extend this BEC cosmology to the early universe without introducing new ingredients. In this scenario, the inflation is naturally initiated by the condensation of the bosons in the huge vacuum energy. This inflation and even the cosmic expansion eventually terminates exactly at zero energy density. We call this stage as stagflation. At this stagflation era, particle production and the decay of BEC take place. The former makes the universe turn into the standard hot big bang stage and the latter makes the cosmological constant vanishingly small after the inflation. Furthermore, we calculate the density fluctuations produced in this model, which turns out to be in the range allowed by the present observational data. We also show that the stagflation is quite robust and easily appears when one allows negative region of the potential. Further, we comment on the possibility that BEC generation/decay series might have continued all the time in the cosmic history from the inflation to present.
Bose-Einstein condensation in a frustrated triangular optical lattice
Janzen, Peter; Huang, Wen-Min; Mathey, L.
2016-12-01
The recent experimental condensation of ultracold atoms in a triangular optical lattice with a negative effective tunneling parameter paves the way for the study of frustrated systems in a controlled environment. Here, we explore the critical behavior of the chiral phase transition in such a frustrated lattice in three dimensions. We represent the low-energy action of the lattice system as a two-component Bose gas corresponding to the two minima of the dispersion. The contact repulsion between the bosons separates into intra- and intercomponent interactions, referred to as V0 and V12, respectively. We first employ a Huang-Yang-Luttinger approximation of the free energy. For V12/V0=2 , which corresponds to the bare interaction, this approach suggests a first-order phase transition, at which both the U (1 ) symmetry of condensation and the Z2 symmetry of the emergent chiral order are broken simultaneously. Furthermore, we perform a renormalization-group calculation at one-loop order. We demonstrate that the coupling regime 0 1 we show that V0 flows to a negative value, while V12 increases and remains positive. This results in a breakdown of the effective quartic-field theory due to a cubic anisotropy and, again, suggests a discontinuous phase transition.
Bose polaron as an instance of quantum Brownian motion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aniello Lampo
2017-09-01
Full Text Available We study the dynamics of a quantum impurity immersed in a Bose-Einstein condensate as an open quantum system in the framework of the quantum Brownian motion model. We derive a generalized Langevin equation for the position of the impurity. The Langevin equation is an integrodifferential equation that contains a memory kernel and is driven by a colored noise. These result from considering the environment as given by the degrees of freedom of the quantum gas, and thus depend on its parameters, e.g. interaction strength between the bosons, temperature, etc. We study the role of the memory on the dynamics of the impurity. When the impurity is untrapped, we find that it exhibits a super-diffusive behavior at long times. We find that back-flow in energy between the environment and the impurity occurs during evolution. When the particle is trapped, we calculate the variance of the position and momentum to determine how they compare with the Heisenberg limit. One important result of this paper is that we find position squeezing for the trapped impurity at long times. We determine the regime of validity of our model and the parameters in which these effects can be observed in realistic experiments.
Nonperturbative Renormalization Group and Bose-Einstein Condensation
Blaizot, Jean-Paul
These lectures are centered around a specific problem, the effect of weak repulsive interactions on the transition temperature T_c of a Bose gas. This problem provides indeed a beautiful illustration of many of the techniques which have been discussed at this school on effective theories and renormalization group. Effective theories are used first in order to obtain a simple hamiltonian describing the atomic interactions: because the typical atomic interaction potentials are short range, and the systems that we consider are dilute, these potentials can be replaced by a contact interaction whose strength is determined by the s-wave scattering length. Effective theories are used next in order to obtain a simple formula for the shift in T_c: this comes from the fact that near T_c the physics is dominated by low momentum modes whose dynamics is most economically described in terms of classical fields. The ingredients needed to calculate the shift of T_c can be obtained from this classical field theory. Finally the renormalization group is used both to obtain a qualitative understanding, and also as a non perturbative tool to evaluate quantitatively the shift in T_c.
Spontaneous formation of quantized vortices in Bose-Einstein condensates
Weiler, Chad Nathan
Phase transitions abound in the physical world, from the subatomic length scales of quark condensation to the decoupling forces in the early universe. In the Bose-Einstein condensation phase transition, a gas of trapped bosonic atoms is cooled to a critical temperature. Below this temperature, a macroscopic number of atoms suddenly starts to occupy a single quantum state; these atoms comprise the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). The dynamics of the BEC phase transition are the focus of this dissertation and the experiments described here have provided new information on the details of BEC formation. New theoretical developments are proving to be valuable tools for describing BEC phase transition dynamics and interpreting new experimental results. With their amenability to optical manipulation and probing along with the advent of new microscopic theories, BECs provide an important new avenue for gaining insight into the universal dynamics of phase transitions in general. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in the system's order parameter may be one result of cooling through a phase transition. A potential consequence of this is the spontaneous formation of topological defects, which in a BEC appear as vortices. We experimentally observed and characterized the spontaneous formation of vortices during BEC growth. We attribute vortex creation to coherence length limitations during the initial stages of the phase transition. Parallel to these experimental observations, theory collaborators have used the Stochastic Gross-Pitaevski Equation formalism to simulate the growth of a condensate from a thermal cloud. The experimental and theoretical statistical results of the spontaneous formation of vortex cores during the growth of the condensate are in good quantitative agreement with one another, supporting our understanding of the dynamics of the phase transition. We believe that our results are also qualitatively consistent with the Kibble-Zurek mechanism, a universal model for
Bose-Einstein Condensation and Bose Glasses in an S = 1 Organo-metallic quantum magnet
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zapf, Vivien [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2012-06-01
I will speak about Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in quantum magnets, in particular the compound NiCl2-4SC(NH2)2. Here a magnetic field-induced quantum phase transition to XY antiferromagnetism can be mapped onto BEC of the spins. The tuning parameter for BEC transition is the magnetic field rather than the temperature. Some interesting phenomena arise, for example the fact that the mass of the bosons that condense can be strongly renormalized by quantum fluctuations. I will discuss the utility of this mapping for both understanding the nature of the quantum magnetism and testing the thermodynamic limit of Bose-Einstein Condensation. Furthermore we can dope the system in a clean and controlled way to create the long sought-after Bose Glass transition, which is the bosonic analogy of Anderson localization. I will present experiments and simulations showing evidence for a new scaling exponent, which finally makes contact between theory and experiments. Thus we take a small step towards the difficult problem of understanding the effect of disorder on bosonic wave functions.
Plasma/Neutral-Beam Etching Apparatus
Langer, William; Cohen, Samuel; Cuthbertson, John; Manos, Dennis; Motley, Robert
1989-01-01
Energies of neutral particles controllable. Apparatus developed to produce intense beams of reactant atoms for simulating low-Earth-orbit oxygen erosion, for studying beam-gas collisions, and for etching semiconductor substrates. Neutral beam formed by neutralization and reflection of accelerated plasma on metal plate. Plasma ejected from coaxial plasma gun toward neutralizing plate, where turned into beam of atoms or molecules and aimed at substrate to be etched.
Exactly solvable models for multiatomic molecular Bose-Einstein condensates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Santos, G, E-mail: gfilho@if.ufrgs.br, E-mail: gfilho@cbpf.br [Instituto de Fisica da UFRGS, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, Agronomia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)
2011-08-26
I introduce two families of exactly solvable models for multiatomic hetero-nuclear and homo-nuclear molecular Bose-Einstein condensates through the algebraic Bethe ansatz method. The conserved quantities of the respective models are also shown. (paper)
Jagadis Chandra Bose and His Pioneering Research on Microwaves
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 12. Jagadis Chandra Bose and His Pioneering Research on Microwaves. C George Verghese George C Verghese. Volume 10 Issue 12 December 2005 pp 83-85 ...
Higher order Bose-Einstein correlations in identical particle production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biyajima, M.
1990-01-01
A diagram technique to calculate the higher order Bose-Einstein correlations is formulated. This technique is applied to derive explicit expressions for the n-pion correlation functions for n = 2, 3, 4, and 5, and numerical predictions are given. In a comparison with the AFS and NA23 data on two-pion and three-pion Bose-Einstein correlations good agreement is obtained. 21 refs., 5 figs. (Authors)
Electronic Pumping of Quasiequilibrium Bose-Einstein-Condensed Magnons
Bender, Scott A.; Duine, Rembert A.; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav
2012-01-01
We theoretically investigate spin transfer between a system of quasiequilibrated Bose-Einstein-condensed magnons in an insulator in direct contact with a conductor. While charge transfer is prohibited across the interface, spin transport arises from the exchange coupling between insulator and conductor spins. In a normal insulator phase, spin transport is governed solely by the presence of thermal and spin-diffusive gradients; the presence of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), meanwhile, gives...
Vortex Molecules in Bose-Einstein Condensates
Nitta, Muneto; Eto, Minoru; Cipriani, Mattia
2014-04-01
Stable vortex dimers are known to exist in coherently coupled two component Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). We construct stable vortex trimers in three component BECs and find that the shape can be controlled by changing the internal coherent (Rabi) couplings. Stable vortex N-omers are also constructed in coherently coupled N-component BECs. We classify all possible N-omers in terms of the mathematical graph theory. Next, we study effects of the Rabi coupling in vortex lattices in two-component BECs. We find how the vortex lattices without the Rabi coupling known before are connected to the Abrikosov lattice of integer vortices with increasing the Rabi coupling. In this process, vortex dimers change their partners in various ways at large couplings. We then find that the Abrikosov lattices are robust in three-component BECs.
Quantum monodromy in trapped Bose condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Waalkens, H.
2002-01-01
Bose-Einstein condensation of ultra cold atoms is typically realized in magnetic traps which effectively lead to an axially symmetric harmonic potential. This letter shows that the spectrum of collective vibrational modes of a repulsive condensate in a prolate potential displays a defect known as quantum monodromy. The monodromy is analysed on the basis of the dynamics of quasiparticles. In terms of the quasiparticles the regime of collective modes or the so-called hydrodynamic regime is characterized through kinetic energies much smaller than the chemical potential. In this limit the classical dynamics of the quasiparticles is integrable. The monodromy is quantitatively described by a monodromy matrix that is calculated from classical actions. (authors)
Fidelity of a Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Jie; Zhang Chuanwei; Niu Qian; Li Baowen
2006-01-01
We investigate fidelity for the quantum evolution of a Bose-Einstein condensate and reveal its general property with a simple model. We find the fidelity decay with time in various ways depending on the form of initial states as well as on mean-field dynamics. When the initial state is a coherent state, the fidelity decays with time in the ways of exponential, Gaussian, and power-law, having a close relation to the classical mean-field dynamics. With the initial state prepared as a maximally entangled state, we find the behavior of fidelity has no classical correspondence and observe a novel behavior of the fidelity: periodic revival, where the period is inversely proportional to the number of bosons and the perturbation strength. An experimental observation of the fidelity decay is suggested
Ferroelectricity by Bose-Einstein condensation in a quantum magnet.
Kimura, S; Kakihata, K; Sawada, Y; Watanabe, K; Matsumoto, M; Hagiwara, M; Tanaka, H
2016-09-26
The Bose-Einstein condensation is a fascinating phenomenon, which results from quantum statistics for identical particles with an integer spin. Surprising properties, such as superfluidity, vortex quantization or Josephson effect, appear owing to the macroscopic quantum coherence, which spontaneously develops in Bose-Einstein condensates. Realization of Bose-Einstein condensation is not restricted in fluids like liquid helium, a superconducting phase of paired electrons in a metal and laser-cooled dilute alkali atoms. Bosonic quasi-particles like exciton-polariton and magnon in solids-state systems can also undergo Bose-Einstein condensation in certain conditions. Here, we report that the quantum coherence in Bose-Einstein condensate of the magnon quasi particles yields spontaneous electric polarization in the quantum magnet TlCuCl 3 , leading to remarkable magnetoelectric effect. Very soft ferroelectricity is realized as a consequence of the O(2) symmetry breaking by magnon Bose-Einstein condensation. The finding of this ferroelectricity will open a new window to explore multi-functionality of quantum magnets.
Temporal dynamics of Bose-condensed gases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trujillo Martinez, Mauricio
2014-03-19
We perform a detailed quantum dynamical study of non-equilibrium trapped, interacting Bose-condensed gases. We investigate Josephson oscillations between interacting Bose-Einstein condensates confined in a finite size double-well trap and the non-trivial time evolution of a coherent state placed at the center of a two dimensional optical lattice. For the Josephson oscillations three time scales appear. We find that Josephson junction can sustain multiple undamped oscillations up to a characteristic time scale τ{sub c} without exciting atoms out of the condensates. Beyond the characteristic time scale τ{sub c} the dynamics of the junction are governed by fast, non-condensed particles assisted Josephson tunnelling as well as the collisions between non-condensed particles. In the non-condensed particles dominated regime we observe strong damping of the oscillations due to inelastic collisions, equilibrating the system leading to an effective loss of details of the initial conditions. In addition, we predict that an initially self-trapped BEC state will be destroyed by these fast dynamics. The time evolution of a coherent state released at the center of a two dimensional optical lattice shows a ballistic expansion with a decreasing expansion velocity for increasing two-body interactions strength and particle number. Additionally, we predict that if the two-body interactions strength exceeds a certain value, a forerunner splits up from the expanding coherent state. We also observe that this system, which is prepared far from equilibrium, can evolve to a quasistationary non-equilibrium state.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jain, Piyush; Weinfurtner, Silke; Visser, Matt; Gardiner, C. W.
2007-01-01
Analog models of gravity have been motivated by the possibility of investigating phenomena not readily accessible in their cosmological counterparts. In this paper, we investigate the analog of cosmological particle creation in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe by numerically simulating a Bose-Einstein condensate with a time-dependent scattering length. In particular, we focus on a two-dimensional homogeneous condensate using the classical field method via the truncated Wigner approximation. We show that for various forms of the scaling function the particle production is consistent with the underlying theory in the long wavelength limit. In this context, we further discuss the implications of modified dispersion relations that arise from the microscopic theory of a weakly interacting Bose gas
Dynamics of a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate in the presence of a one-dimensional optical lattice
Cataliotti, F S; Ferlaino, F; Fort, C; Maddaloni, P; Inguscio, M
2003-01-01
We explore the dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate created in the combined potential of a far-detuned laser standing wave superimposed to a 3D harmonic magnetic potential. We report the investigation of low-lying collective modes showing that the macroscopic dynamics along the optical lattice is strongly modified, resulting in a shift of the dipole and quadrupole mode frequencies depending on the height of the optical lattice, whereas the transverse breathing mode, occurring perpendicularly to the lattice axis, is not perturbed. The experimental findings are compared with the theoretical treatment that generalizes the hydrodynamic equation of superfluids for a weakly interacting Bose gas to include the effects of the periodic potential. We show that the array of condensates trapped in the optical wells and driven by the harmonic magnetic potential is equivalent to an array of Josephson junctions. In the regime of 'small' amplitude dipole oscillation the system performs a collective motion and we investigat...
Theory of a Nearly Two-Dimensional Dipolar Bose Gas
2016-05-11
optical data storage, and quantum computing. Today, BECs can be made with a variety of atomic species, including Chromium (Cr) [8] and the rare-earth...simplification brings us the full diagonalized Hamiltonian. Despite the complexity of our system, Ĥ ′ 2 ultimately arrives at a simple and elegant final...Physical Review Letters 107, 190401 (2011). [11] R. Onofrio, C. Raman , J. Vogels, J. Abo-Shaer, A. Chikkatur, and W. Ketterle, Physical Review Letters 85
Study of the Perturbation to a Bose-Einstein Gas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Chan
2003-06-01
Full Text Available We developed a new approach to the perturbation theory for the effective Hamiltonian of condensateparticles in Fock space. Using this new theory, we can easily analyze the effect of including a somewhatproblematic term in the work of Ezawa et al. We thus showed that indeed, the inclusion of this term in theperturbation potential is justified.
Weakly interacting Bose gas in the one-dimensional limit
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krüger, Peter; Hofferberth, S.; Mazets, I. E.
2010-01-01
(transverse oscillator eigenfrequency ω) when collisional thermalization slows down as expected in 1D. At the lowest temperatures the transverse-momentum distribution exhibits a residual dependence on the line density n1D, characteristic for 1D systems. For very low densities the approach to the transverse single......-particle ground state is linear in n 1D....
Bose condensation in 4He and neutron scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silver, R.N.
1997-01-01
The discovery of superfluidity in liquid 4 He below T λ = 2.17 K, and its phenomenological characterization since then, has been one of the great success stories of condensed matter physics. The relation of superfluidity to the behavior of atoms was conjectured by F. London in 1938. Superfluidity is a manifestation of the Bose condensation of helium atoms, the extensive occupation of the zero momentum state. Ever since 4 He has been the paradigm in the search for Bose condensates in other systems. At the Pune meeting scientists have heard exciting new evidence for Bose condensates of laser cooled alkali atoms in magnetic traps, of excitons in Cu 2 O, and possibly pre-formed Cooper pairs of electrons in the high T c perovskite superconductors. There remains the holy-grail of forming a Bose condensate in spin-polarized hydrogen. In the current excitement for new types of Bose condensates, and new phenomena such as atom lasers, it may be useful to recall the older story of the experimental verification of a relation between superfluidity and Bose condensation in 4 He. This topic has been investigated over many years by neutron scattering experiments and quantum many-body theory. The authors goal is to illustrate the difficulties of establishing the existence of a Bose condensate in a strongly interacting system, even though its macroscopic effects are manifest. The author assumes readers have access to a review by Silver and Sokol which emphasizes the neutron scattering theory through 1990 and a review by Snow and Sokol of the deep inelastic neutron scattering (DINS) experiments through 1995
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1996-01-01
The French government has decided to modify the conditions of extension of local natural gas authorities to neighbouring districts. The European Union is studying the conditions of internal gas market with the objective of more open markets although considering public service requirements
Landau damping in trapped Bose condensed gases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jackson, B; Zaremba, E [Department of Physics, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada)
2003-07-01
We study Landau damping in dilute Bose-Einstein condensed gases in both spherical and prolate ellipsoidal harmonic traps. We solve the Bogoliubov equations for the mode spectrum in both of these cases, and calculate the damping by summing over transitions between excited quasiparticle states. The results for the spherical case are compared to those obtained in the Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation, where the excitations take on a single-particle character, and excellent agreement between the two approaches is found. We have also taken the semiclassical limit of the HF approximation and obtain a novel expression for the Landau damping rate involving the time-dependent self-diffusion function of the thermal cloud. As a final approach, we study the decay of a condensate mode by making use of dynamical simulations in which both the condensate and thermal cloud are evolved explicitly as a function of time. A detailed comparison of all these methods over a wide range of sample sizes and trap geometries is presented.
Physics of hollow Bose-Einstein condensates
Padavić, Karmela; Sun, Kuei; Lannert, Courtney; Vishveshwara, Smitha
2017-10-01
Bose-Einstein condensate shells, while occurring in ultracold systems of coexisting phases and potentially within neutron stars, have yet to be realized in isolation on Earth due to the experimental challenge of overcoming gravitational sag. Motivated by the expected realization of hollow condensates by the space-based Cold Atomic Laboratory in microgravity conditions, we study a spherical condensate undergoing a topological change from a filled sphere to a hollow shell. We argue that the collective modes of the system show marked and robust signatures of this hollowing transition accompanied by the appearance of a new boundary. In particular, we demonstrate that the frequency spectrum of the breathing modes shows a pronounced depression as it evolves from the filled-sphere limit to the hollowing transition. Furthermore, when the center of the system becomes hollow surface modes show a global restructuring of their spectrum due to the availability of a new, inner, surface for supporting density distortions. We pinpoint universal features of this topological transition as well as analyse the spectral evolution of collective modes in the experimentally relevant case of a bubble-trap.
Structure of binary Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trippenbach, Marek; Goral, Krzysztof; Rzazewski, Kazimierz; Malomed, Boris; Band, Y.B.
2000-01-01
We identify all possible classes of solutions for two-component Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) within the Thomas-Fermi (TF) approximation and check these results against numerical simulations of the coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations (GPEs). We find that they can be divided into two general categories. The first class contains solutions with a region of overlap between the components. The other class consists of non-overlapping wavefunctions and also contains solutions that do not possess the symmetry of the trap. The chemical potential and average energy can be found for both classes within the TF approximation by solving a set of coupled algebraic equations representing the normalization conditions for each component. A ground state minimizing the energy (within both classes of states) is found for a given set of parameters characterizing the scattering length and confining potential. In the TF approximation, the ground state always shares the symmetry of the trap. However, a full numerical solution of the coupled GPEs, incorporating the kinetic energy of the BEC atoms, can sometimes select a broken-symmetry state as the ground state of the system. We also investigate effects of finite-range interactions on the structure of the ground state. (author)
Bose-Einstein correlation measurements at CMS
Dogra, Sunil
2014-01-01
Multidimensional and one-dimensional quantum-statistical (Bose-Einstein) correlations are measured in proton-proton collisions at 0.9, 2.76 and 7 TeV, in proton-lead collisions at 5.02 TeV/nucleon pair and peripheral lead-lead collisions at 2.76 TeV/nucleon pair center-of-mass energy with the CMS detector at the LHC. The correlation functions are extracted in terms of different components of the relative momentum of the pair, in order to investigate the extension of the emission source in different directions. The results are presented for different intervals of transverse pair momentum, $k_T$, and charged particle multiplicity of the collision, $N_\\text{tracks}$, as well as for their integrated values. Besides inclusive charged particles, charged pions and kaons, identified via their energy loss in the silicon tracker detector, can also be correlated. The extracted source radii increase with increasing multiplicity, and decreases with increasing $k_T$. The results open the possibility to study scaling and fa...
Bose-Einstein correlations in W-pair decays
Barate, R; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Jézéquel, S; Lees, J P; Martin, F; Merle, E; Minard, M N; Pietrzyk, B; Alemany, R; Bravo, S; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Graugès-Pous, E; Juste, A; Martínez, M; Merino, G; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Morawitz, P; Pacheco, A; Riu, I; Ruiz, H; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Tricomi, A; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Abbaneo, D; Boix, G; Buchmüller, O L; Cattaneo, M; Cerutti, F; Ciulli, V; Davies, G; Dissertori, G; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Gianotti, F; Greening, T C; Halley, A W; Hansen, J B; Harvey, J; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kado, M; Leroy, O; Maley, P; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Moutoussi, A; Ranjard, F; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmitt, M; Schneider, O; Spagnolo, P; Tejessy, W; Teubert, F; Tournefier, E; Valassi, Andrea; Wright, A E; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Badaud, F; Chazelle, G; Deschamps, O; Dessagne, S; Falvard, A; Ferdi, C; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Pascolo, J M; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Rensch, B; Wäänänen, A; Daskalakis, G; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Vayaki, Anna; Blondel, A; Brient, J C; Machefert, F P; Rougé, A; Swynghedauw, M; Tanaka, R; Videau, H L; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Zachariadou, K; Corden, M; Georgiopoulos, C H; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Chalmers, M; Kennedy, J; Lynch, J G; Negus, P; O'Shea, V; Räven, B; Smith, D; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thompson, A S; Ward, J J; Cavanaugh, R J; Dhamotharan, S; Geweniger, C; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Leibenguth, G; Putzer, A; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, Peter J; Girone, M; Goodsir, S M; Marinelli, N; Martin, E B; Nash, J; Nowell, J; Przysiezniak, H; Sciabà, A; Sedgbeer, J K; Thompson, J C; Thomson, E; Williams, M D; Ghete, V M; Girtler, P; Kneringer, E; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Buck, P G; Ellis, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Jones, R W L; Robertson, N A; Smizanska, M; Williams, M I; Giehl, I; Hölldorfer, F; Jakobs, K; Kleinknecht, K; Kröcker, M; Müller, A S; Nürnberger, H A; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Schmeling, S; Wachsmuth, H W; Zeitnitz, C; Ziegler, T; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bonissent, A; Carr, J; Coyle, P; Ealet, A; Fouchez, D; Tilquin, A; Aleppo, M; Antonelli, M; Gilardoni, S S; Ragusa, F; Büscher, V; Dietl, H; Ganis, G; Hüttmann, K; Lütjens, G; Mannert, C; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Stenzel, H; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Azzurri, P; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Chen, S; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacholkowska, A; Lefrançois, J; Serin, L; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; De Vivie de Régie, J B; Zerwas, D; Bagliesi, G; Boccali, T; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Dell'Orso, R; Ferrante, I; Giassi, A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sguazzoni, G; Tenchini, Roberto; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Blair, G A; Coles, J; Cowan, G D; Green, M G; Hutchcroft, D E; Jones, L T; Medcalf, T; Strong, J A; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Norton, P R; Tomalin, I R; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Fabbro, B; Faïf, G; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Rosowsky, A; Seager, P; Trabelsi, A; Tuchming, B; Vallage, B; Black, S N; Dann, J H; Loomis, C; Kim, H Y; Konstantinidis, N P; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Hodgson, P N; Lehto, M H; Thompson, L F; Affholderbach, K; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Grupen, Claus; Hess, J; Misiejuk, A; Prange, G; Sieler, U; Borean, C; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Pütz, J; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Williams, R W; Armstrong, S R; Elmer, P; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y; González, S; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; Jin, S; Kile, J; McNamara, P A; Nielsen, J; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Scott, I J; Walsh, J; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Zobernig, G
2000-01-01
Bose-Einstein correlations are studied in semileptonicWW --> qqbarlnu and fully hadronic WW --> qqbarqqbar W-pair decays with the ALEPH detector at LEP at centre-of-mass energies of 172, 183 and 189GeV. They are compared with those made at the Z peak after correction for the different flavour compositions. A Monte Carlo model of Bose-Einsteincorrelations based on the JETSET hadronization scheme was tuned to the Z data and reproduces the correlations in the WW --> qqbarlnu events. The same Monte Carlo reproduces the correlations in the WW --> qqbarqqbarchannel assuming independent fragmentation of the two W's. A variant thismodel with Bose-Einstein correlations between decay products of different W's is disfavoured.
Equation of state and self-bound droplet in Rabi-coupled Bose mixtures.
Cappellaro, Alberto; Macrì, Tommaso; Bertacco, Giovanni F; Salasnich, Luca
2017-10-17
Laser induced transitions between internal states of atoms have been playing a fundamental role to manipulate atomic clouds for many decades. In absence of interactions each atom behaves independently and their coherent quantum dynamics is described by the Rabi model. Since the experimental observation of Bose condensation in dilute gases, static and dynamical properties of multicomponent quantum gases have been extensively investigated. Moreover, at very low temperatures quantum fluctuations crucially affect the equation of state of many-body systems. Here we study the effects of quantum fluctuations on a Rabi-coupled two-component Bose gas of interacting alkali atoms. The divergent zero-point energy of gapless and gapped elementary excitations of the uniform system is properly regularized obtaining a meaningful analytical expression for the beyond-mean-field equation of state. In the case of attractive inter-particle interaction we show that the quantum pressure arising from Gaussian fluctuations can prevent the collapse of the mixture with the creation of a self-bound droplet. We characterize the droplet phase and discover an energetic instability above a critical Rabi frequency provoking the evaporation of the droplet. Finally, we suggest an experiment to observe such quantum droplets using Rabi-coupled internal states of K 39 atoms.
Finite temperature effects in Bose-Einstein condensed dark matter halos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harko, Tiberiu; Madarassy, Enikö J.M.
2012-01-01
Once the critical temperature of a cosmological boson gas is less than the critical temperature, a Bose-Einstein Condensation process can always take place during the cosmic history of the universe. Zero temperature condensed dark matter can be described as a non-relativistic, Newtonian gravitational condensate, whose density and pressure are related by a barotropic equation of state, with barotropic index equal to one. In the present paper we analyze the effects of the finite dark matter temperature on the properties of the dark matter halos. We formulate the basic equations describing the finite temperature condensate, representing a generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation that takes into account the presence of the thermal cloud. The static condensate and thermal cloud in thermodynamic equilibrium is analyzed in detail, by using the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov and Thomas-Fermi approximations. The condensed dark matter and thermal cloud density and mass profiles at finite temperatures are explicitly obtained. Our results show that when the temperature of the condensate and of the thermal cloud are much smaller than the critical Bose-Einstein transition temperature, the zero temperature density and mass profiles give an excellent description of the dark matter halos. However, finite temperature effects may play an important role in the early stages of the cosmological evolution of the dark matter condensates
Bethe Ansatz Solutions of the Bose-Hubbard Dimer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jon Links
2006-12-01
Full Text Available The Bose-Hubbard dimer Hamiltonian is a simple yet effective model for describing tunneling phenomena of Bose-Einstein condensates. One of the significant mathematical properties of the model is that it can be exactly solved by Bethe ansatz methods. Here we review the known exact solutions, highlighting the contributions of V.B. Kuznetsov to this field. Two of the exact solutions arise in the context of the Quantum Inverse Scattering Method, while the third solution uses a differential operator realisation of the su(2 Lie algebra.
Nonperturbative predictions for cold atom bose gases with tunable interactions.
Cooper, Fred; Chien, Chih-Chun; Mihaila, Bogdan; Dawson, John F; Timmermans, Eddy
2010-12-10
We derive a theoretical description for dilute Bose gases as a loop expansion in terms of composite-field propagators by rewriting the Lagrangian in terms of auxiliary fields related to the normal and anomalous densities. We demonstrate that already in leading order this nonperturbative approach describes a large interval of coupling-constant values, satisfies Goldstone's theorem, yields a Bose-Einstein transition that is second order, and is consistent with the critical temperature predicted in the weak-coupling limit by the next-to-leading-order large-N expansion.
Universal Bose Gases Near Resonance: A Rigorous Solution
Jiang, Shao-Jian; Liu, Wu-Ming; Semenoff, Gordon W.; Zhou, Fei
2013-01-01
We obtain a rigorous solution of universal Bose gases near resonance and offer an answer to one of the long-standing challenges of quantum gases at large scattering lengths, where the standard dilute theory breaks down. The solution was obtained by using an $\\epsilon$ expansion near four spatial dimension. In dimension $d = 4 - \\epsilon$, the chemical potential of Bose gases near resonances is shown to approach the universal value $\\epsilon^{(2/(4-\\epsilon))} \\epsilon_F \\sqrt{2/3} (1 + 0.474 ...
Voskresensky, D. N.; Kolomeitsev, E. E.
2017-12-01
We consider a hot isospin-symmetric pion gas with the dynamically fixed number of particles in the model with a λφ 4 interaction. In the thermodynamic limit, for temperature above the critical value for the Bose-Einstein condensation we calculate the effective pion mass, the chemical potential and the normalized variance. In contrast to the ideal gas, the normalized variance remains finite in the critical point of the Bose-Einstein condensation.
Goede, A. P. H.
2015-08-01
The need for storage of renewable energy (RE) generated by photovoltaic, concentrated solar and wind arises from the fact that supply and demand are ill-matched both geographically and temporarily. This already causes problems of overcapacity and grid congestion in countries where the fraction of RE exceeds the 20% level. A system approach is needed, which focusses not only on the energy source, but includes conversion, storage, transport, distribution, use and, last but not least, the recycling of waste. Furthermore, there is a need for more flexibility in the energy system, rather than relying on electrification, integration with other energy systems, for example the gas network, would yield a system less vulnerable to failure and better adapted to requirements. For example, long-term large-scale storage of electrical energy is limited by capacity, yet needed to cover weekly to seasonal demand. This limitation can be overcome by coupling the electricity net to the gas system, considering the fact that the Dutch gas network alone has a storage capacity of 552 TWh, sufficient to cover the entire EU energy demand for over a month. This lecture explores energy storage in chemicals bonds. The focus is on chemicals other than hydrogen, taking advantage of the higher volumetric energy density of hydrocarbons, in this case methane, which has an approximate 3.5 times higher volumetric energy density. More importantly, it allows the ready use of existing gas infrastructure for energy storage, transport and distribution. Intermittent wind electricity generated is converted into synthetic methane, the Power to Gas (P2G) scheme, by splitting feedstock CO2 and H2O into synthesis gas, a mixture of CO and H2. Syngas plays a central role in the synthesis of a range of hydrocarbon products, including methane, diesel and dimethyl ether. The splitting is accomplished by innovative means; plasmolysis and high-temperature solid oxygen electrolysis. A CO2-neutral fuel cycle is
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Goede A. P. H.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The need for storage of renewable energy (RE generated by photovoltaic, concentrated solar and wind arises from the fact that supply and demand are ill-matched both geographically and temporarily. This already causes problems of overcapacity and grid congestion in countries where the fraction of RE exceeds the 20% level. A system approach is needed, which focusses not only on the energy source, but includes conversion, storage, transport, distribution, use and, last but not least, the recycling of waste. Furthermore, there is a need for more flexibility in the energy system, rather than relying on electrification, integration with other energy systems, for example the gas network, would yield a system less vulnerable to failure and better adapted to requirements. For example, long-term large-scale storage of electrical energy is limited by capacity, yet needed to cover weekly to seasonal demand. This limitation can be overcome by coupling the electricity net to the gas system, considering the fact that the Dutch gas network alone has a storage capacity of 552 TWh, sufficient to cover the entire EU energy demand for over a month. This lecture explores energy storage in chemicals bonds. The focus is on chemicals other than hydrogen, taking advantage of the higher volumetric energy density of hydrocarbons, in this case methane, which has an approximate 3.5 times higher volumetric energy density. More importantly, it allows the ready use of existing gas infrastructure for energy storage, transport and distribution. Intermittent wind electricity generated is converted into synthetic methane, the Power to Gas (P2G scheme, by splitting feedstock CO2 and H2O into synthesis gas, a mixture of CO and H2. Syngas plays a central role in the synthesis of a range of hydrocarbon products, including methane, diesel and dimethyl ether. The splitting is accomplished by innovative means; plasmolysis and high-temperature solid oxygen electrolysis. A CO2-neutral fuel
Pierik, R.; van der Burg, W.
2014-01-01
This paper reinvestigates the question of liberal neutrality. We contend that current liberal discussions have been dominated - if not hijacked - by one particular interpretation of what neutrality could imply, namely, exclusive neutrality, that aims to exclude religious and cultural expressions
Explosion of a collapsing Bose-Einstein condensate
Duine, R.A.; Stoof, H.T.C.
2001-01-01
We show that elastic collisions between atoms in a Bose-Einstein condensate with attractive interactions can lead to an explosion that ejects a large fraction of the collapsing condensate. We study variationally the dynamics of this explosion and find excellent agreement with recent experiments on
Explosion of a Collapsing Bose-Einstein Condensate
Duine, R.A.; Stoof, H.T.C.
2000-01-01
we show that elastic collisions between atoms in an Bose-Einstein condensate with attractive interactions lead to an explosion that ejects a large fraction of the collapsing condensate. We study variationally the dynamics of thes explosion and find excellent agreement with recent experiments on
Stochastic dynamics of a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate
Duine, R.A.; Stoof, H.T.C.
2001-01-01
We present a variational solution of the Langevin field equation describing the nonequilibrium dynamics of a harmonically trapped Bose-Einstein condensate. If the thermal cloud remains in equilibrium at all times, we find that the equations of motion for the parameters in our variational ansatz are
Monopoles in an Antiferromagnetic Bose-Einstein Condensate
Stoof, H.T.C.; Vliegen, E.; Al Khawaja, U.
2001-01-01
We show that even in three dimensions an antiferromagnetic spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate, which can, for instance, be created with 23Na atoms in an optical trap, has not only singular linelike vortex excitations, but also allows for singular pointlike topological excitations, i.e., monopoles
Quantum Fluctuations of Low Dimensional Bose-Einstein ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Tadesse
can be classified as quantum fluctuations and thermal (classical) fluctuations. In every physical process ... Other kinds of fluctuations that exist in nature are those induced by nonlinear dynamics. Bose-Einstein ..... enough so that no significant heat transfer happens between the system and the outside environment. On the ...
Feshbach resonance induced shock waves in Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perez-Garcia, Victor M.; Konotop, Vladimir V.; Brazhnyi, Valeriy A.
2004-01-01
We propose a method for generating shock waves in Bose-Einstein condensates by rapidly increasing the value of the nonlinear coefficient using Feshbach resonances. We show that in a cigar-shaped condensate there exist primary (transverse) and secondary (longitudinal) shock waves. We analyze how the shocks are generated in multidimensional scenarios and describe the related phenomenology
Diffused vorticity approach to the oscillations of a rotating Bose ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The collective modes of a rotating Bose-Einstein condensate confined in an attractive quadratic plus quartic trap are investigated. Assuming the presence of a large number of vortices we apply the diffused vorticity approach to the system. We then use the sum rule technique for the calculation of collective frequencies, ...
Lieb-Thirring Bounds for Interacting Bose Gases
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lundholm, Douglas; Portmann, Fabian; Solovej, Jan Philip
2015-01-01
We study interacting Bose gases and prove lower bounds for the kinetic plus interaction energy of a many-body wave function in terms of its particle density. These general estimates are then applied to various types of interactions, including hard sphere (in 3D) and hard disk (in 2D) as well...
The one-dimensional extended Bose-Hubbard model
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We use the finite-size, density-matrix-renormalization-group (DMRG) method to obtain the zero-temperature phase diagram of the one-dimensional, extended Bose-Hubbard model, for mean boson density ρ = 1, in the - plane ( and are respectively, onsite and nearest-neighbour repulsive interactions between ...
Generalized N-coupled maps with invariant measure in Bose ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Algebraic properties of the Bose-Mesner algebra with an associated scheme with definite spectrum has been used in order to study the stability of the coupled map lattice. Associated schemes play a key role and may lead to analytical methods in studying the stability of the dynamical systems. The relation between the ...
Woordeboek en gebruik: 'n bose kringloop | Prinsloo | Lexikos
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Die studie ondersoek die stelling dat Afrikaanse verklarende en vertalende woordeboeke as gevolg van die ekserpering van bykans uitsluitlik gepubliseerde stof 'n bose kringloop tot stand bring waardeur leksikale items wat deur opgevoede moedertaalsprekers van Afrikaans as standaardtaal beskou word, uit die ...
Investigating tunable KRb gases and Bose-Einstein condensates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Nils Byg
2015-01-01
We present the production of dual-species Bose-Einstein condensates of 39K and 87Rb with tunable interactions. A dark spontaneous force optical trap was used for 87Rb to reduce the losses in 39K originating from light-assisted collisions in the magneto optical trapping phase. Using sympathetic...
Sensing electric and magnetic fields with Bose-Einstein condensates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wildermuth, Stefan; Hofferberth, S.; Lesanovsky, Igor
2006-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate that one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates brought close to microfabricated wires on an atom chip are a very sensitive sensor for magnetic and electric fields reaching a sensitivity to potential variations of ∼ 10-14 eV at 3 μm spatial resolution. We measure a two...
Spontaneous symmetry breaking in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Scherer, Manuel; Lücke, Bernd; Peise, Jan
2013-01-01
We present an analytical model for the theoretical analysis of spin dynamics and spontaneous symmetry breaking in a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). This allows for an excellent intuitive understanding of the processes and provides good quantitative agreement with the experimental results...
On the Dynamics of the Fermi-Bose Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ögren, Magnus; Carlsson, M.
2013-01-01
We consider the exponential matrix representing the dynamics of the Fermi-Bose model in an undepleted bosonic field approximation. A recent application of this model is molecular dimers dissociating into its atomic compounds. The problem is solved in D spatial dimensions by dividing the system...
Electronic Pumping of Quasiequilibrium Bose-Einstein Condensed Magnons
Bender, S.A.; Duine, R.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830127; Tserkovnyak, Y.
2012-01-01
We theoretically investigate spin transfer between a system of quasiequilibrated Bose-Einstein-condensed magnons in an insulator in direct contact with a conductor. While charge transfer is prohibited across the interface, spin transport arises from the exchange coupling between insulator and
Multi-impurity polarons in a dilute Bose-Einstein condensate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santamore, D H; Timmermans, Eddy
2011-01-01
We describe the ground state of a large, dilute, neutral atom Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) doped with N strongly coupled mutually indistinguishable, bosonic neutral atoms (referred to as ‘impurity’) in the polaron regime where the BEC density response to the impurity atoms remains significantly smaller than the average density of the surrounding BEC. We find that N impurity atoms with N ≠ 1 can self-localize at a lower value of the impurity-boson interaction strength than a single impurity atom. When the ‘bare’ short-range impurity-impurity repulsion does not play a significant role, the self-localization of multiple bosonic impurity atoms into the same single particle orbital (which we call co-self-localization) is the nucleation process of the phase separation transition. When the short-range impurity-impurity repulsion successfully competes with co-self-localization, the system may form a stable liquid of self-localized single impurity polarons. (paper)
Conformal symmetry of trapped Bose-Einstein condensates and massive Nambu-Goldstone modes
Ohashi, Keisuke; Fujimori, Toshiaki; Nitta, Muneto
2017-11-01
The Gross-Pitaevskii or nonlinear Schrödinger equation relevant to ultracold atomic gaseous Bose-Einstein condensates possesses a modified Schrödinger symmetry in two spatial dimensions, in the presence of a harmonic trapping potential, an (artificial) constant magnetic field (or rotation), and an (artificial) electric field of a quadratic electrostatic potential. We find that a variance and a center of a trapped gas with or without a vorticity can be regarded as massive Nambu-Goldstone (NG) modes associated with spontaneous breaking of the modified Schrödinger symmetry. We show that the Noether theorem for the modified Schrödinger symmetry gives universal equations of motion which describe exact time evolutions of the trapped gases such as a harmonic oscillation, a cyclotron motion, and a breathing oscillation with frequencies determined by the symmetry independent of the details of the system. We further construct an exact effective action for all the NG modes.
Quantum Hall states of atomic Bose gases: Density profiles in single-layer and multilayer geometries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cooper, N. R.; Lankvelt, F. J. M. van; Reijnders, J. W.; Schoutens, K.
2005-01-01
We describe the density profiles of confined atomic Bose gases in the high-rotation limit, in single-layer and multilayer geometries. We show that, in a local-density approximation, the density in a single layer shows a landscape of quantized steps due to the formation of incompressible liquids, which are analogous to fractional quantum Hall liquids for a two-dimensional electron gas in a strong magnetic field. In a multilayered setup we find different phases, depending on the strength of the interlayer tunneling t. We discuss the situation where a vortex lattice in the three-dimensional condensate (at large tunneling) undergoes quantum melting at a critical tunneling t c 1 . For tunneling well below t c 1 one expects weakly coupled or isolated layers, each exhibiting a landscape of quantum Hall liquids. After expansion, this gives a radial density distribution with characteristic features (cusps) that provide experimental signatures of the quantum Hall liquids
Quantum liquid droplets in a mixture of Bose-Einstein condensates
Cabrera, C. R.; Tanzi, L.; Sanz, J.; Naylor, B.; Thomas, P.; Cheiney, P.; Tarruell, L.
2018-01-01
Quantum droplets are small clusters of atoms self-bound by the balance of attractive and repulsive forces. Here, we report on the observation of droplets solely stabilized by contact interactions in a mixture of two Bose-Einstein condensates. We demonstrate that they are several orders of magnitude more dilute than liquid helium by directly measuring their size and density via in situ imaging. We show that the droplets are stablized against collapse by quantum fluctuations and that they require a minimum atom number to be stable. Below that number, quantum pressure drives a liquid-to-gas transition that we map out as a function of interaction strength. These ultradilute isotropic liquids remain weakly interacting and constitute an ideal platform to benchmark quantum many-body theories.
The coherence and spectra of a Bose condensate generated by an atomic laser
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kozlovskii, A.V.
2003-01-01
The first-order coherence dynamics of a Bose condensate generated by a cw atomic laser with evaporative cooling is analyzed. For the atomic-laser multimode model, the coherence functions and atomic field spectra are calculated by the master equation technique. Elastic collisions in the trapped atomic gas lead to significant broadening of the atomic laser line, a shift of its center, and a multi peak structure of the spectra. The oscillatory time dynamics of the atomic-field coherence function is studied. For the atomic laser, the free phase diffusion of the field typical of optical lasers, and characterized by monotonically decreasing mean field with a constant mean phase, is absent due to elastic collisions
Signals of Bose Einstein condensation and Fermi quenching in the decay of hot nuclear systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marini, P., E-mail: marini@cenbg.in2p3.fr [Grand Accélérateur National d' Ions Lourds, Bd. Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 Caen (France); Zheng, H. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX-77843 (United States); Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, via Santa Sofia, 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Boisjoli, M. [Grand Accélérateur National d' Ions Lourds, Bd. Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 Caen (France); Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire, Université Laval, Québec, G1V 0A6 (Canada); Verde, G. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS-IN2P3, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); INFN – Sezione di Catania, via Santa Sofia, 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Chbihi, A. [Grand Accélérateur National d' Ions Lourds, Bd. Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 Caen (France); Napolitani, P.; Ademard, G. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS-IN2P3, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Augey, L. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, ENSICAEN, Université de Caen Basse Normandie, CNRS/IN2P3, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); Bhattacharya, C. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Center, Kolkata (India); Borderie, B. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS-IN2P3, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Bougault, R. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, ENSICAEN, Université de Caen Basse Normandie, CNRS/IN2P3, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); and others
2016-05-10
We report on first experimental observations of nuclear fermionic and bosonic components displaying different behaviours in the decay of hot Ca projectile-like sources produced in mid-peripheral collisions at sub-Fermi energies. The experimental setup, constituted by the coupling of the INDRA 4π detector array to the forward angle VAMOS magnetic spectrometer, allowed to reconstruct the mass, charge and excitation energy of the decaying hot projectile-like sources. By means of quantum-fluctuation analysis techniques, temperatures and local partial densities of bosons and fermions could be correlated to the excitation energy of the reconstructed system. The results are consistent with the production of dilute mixed systems of bosons and fermions, where bosons experience higher phase-space and energy density as compared to the surrounding fermionic gas. Our findings recall phenomena observed in the study of Bose condensates and Fermi gases in atomic traps despite the different scales.
Signals of Bose Einstein condensation and Fermi quenching in the decay of hot nuclear systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Marini
2016-05-01
Full Text Available We report on first experimental observations of nuclear fermionic and bosonic components displaying different behaviours in the decay of hot Ca projectile-like sources produced in mid-peripheral collisions at sub-Fermi energies. The experimental setup, constituted by the coupling of the INDRA 4π detector array to the forward angle VAMOS magnetic spectrometer, allowed to reconstruct the mass, charge and excitation energy of the decaying hot projectile-like sources. By means of quantum-fluctuation analysis techniques, temperatures and local partial densities of bosons and fermions could be correlated to the excitation energy of the reconstructed system. The results are consistent with the production of dilute mixed systems of bosons and fermions, where bosons experience higher phase-space and energy density as compared to the surrounding fermionic gas. Our findings recall phenomena observed in the study of Bose condensates and Fermi gases in atomic traps despite the different scales.
Three-Component Soliton States in Spinor F =1 Bose-Einstein Condensates
Bersano, T. M.; Gokhroo, V.; Khamehchi, M. A.; D'Ambroise, J.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.; Engels, P.; Kevrekidis, P. G.
2018-02-01
Dilute-gas Bose-Einstein condensates are an exceptionally versatile test bed for the investigation of novel solitonic structures. While matter-wave solitons in one- and two-component systems have been the focus of intense research efforts, an extension to three components has never been attempted in experiments. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the existence of robust dark-bright-bright (DBB) and dark-dark-bright solitons in a multicomponent F =1 condensate. We observe lifetimes on the order of hundreds of milliseconds for these structures. Our theoretical analysis, based on a multiscale expansion method, shows that small-amplitude solitons of these types obey universal long-short wave resonant interaction models, namely, Yajima-Oikawa systems. Our experimental and analytical findings are corroborated by direct numerical simulations highlighting the persistence of, e.g., the DBB soliton states, as well as their robust oscillations in the trap.
Ultrafast quantum random access memory utilizing single Rydberg atoms in a Bose-Einstein condensate.
Patton, Kelly R; Fischer, Uwe R
2013-12-13
We propose a long-lived and rapidly accessible quantum memory unit, for which the operational Hilbert space is spanned by states involving the two macroscopically occupied hyperfine levels of a miscible binary atomic Bose-Einstein condensate and the Rydberg state of a single atom. It is shown that an arbitrary qubit state, initially prepared using a flux qubit, can be rapidly transferred to and from the trapped atomic ensemble in approximately 10 ns and with a large fidelity of 97%, via an effective two-photon process using an external laser for the transition to the Rydberg level. The achievable ultrafast transfer of quantum information therefore enables a large number of storage and retrieval cycles from the highly controllable quantum optics setup of a dilute ultracold gas, even within the typically very short flux qubit lifetimes of the order of microseconds.
Response of Bose-Einstein condensates to external perturbations at finite temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morgan, S.A.
2004-01-01
We present a theory of the linear response of a Bose-Einstein-condensed gas to external perturbations at finite temperature. The theory developed here is the basis of a recent quantitative explanation of the measurements of condensate excitations and decay rates made at JILA [D. S. Jin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 764 (1997)]. The formalism is based on a dynamic, number-conserving, mean-field scheme and is valid in the collisionless limit of well-defined quasiparticles. The theory is gapless, consistent with the generalized Kohn theorem for the dipole modes, and includes the time-dependent normal and anomalous averages, Beliaev and Landau processes, and all relevant finite-size effects. The important physical process where the thermal cloud is driven directly by the external perturbation is explicitly included. This is required for consistency with the dipole modes and is also needed to explain the JILA observations
Design of a megawatt neutral injector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coupland, J.R.; Hammond, D.P.; Holmes, A.J.T.; Pedley, T.R.; Roberts, P.J.; Thompson, E.; Ward, B.J.
1976-01-01
High power neutral injection plays an increasingly important role in controlled fusion research as a means of heating a magnetically-confined plasma; there is also considerable interest in various beam-fusion energy amplifier systems in which efficient neutral injection plays an essential role. Next generation neutral injection systems will require energies approximately 60-80 keV (H 0 ) for periods approximately 1 sec with power levels approximately 1 MW in the neutral beam. The main features of the design of a prototype megawatt neutral injection system now under construction at Culham is described. The injector is based on the extraction and acceleration of a beam of positive ions followed by conversion to neutral atoms by charge transfer collisions in a gas cell. Details of the design of the four-electrode multi-slot extraction system will be given along with estimates of the (large) gas flow required for the neutralizer gas cell. This large gas load can be handled conveniently only by means of high speed cryopumps and one of the first aims of the programme is to evaluate the performance of large (1 m 2 ) liquid helium cooled cryo-panels for this application. A brief description of the main high voltage and auxiliary power supplies along with some aspects of the novel high voltage protection system we have proposed are also discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Katushkina, O. A.; Izmodenov, V. V.; Wood, B. E.; McMullin, D. R.
2014-01-01
Recent analysis of the interstellar helium fluxes measured in 2009-2010 at Earth's orbit by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) has suggested that the interstellar velocity (both direction and magnitude) is inconsistent with that derived previously from Ulysses/GAS observations made in the period from 1990 to 2002 at 1.5-5.5 AU from the Sun. Both results are model dependent, and models that were used in the analyses are different. In this paper, we perform an analysis of the Ulysses/GAS and IBEX-Lo data using our state-of-the-art three-dimensional time-dependent kinetic model of interstellar atoms in the heliosphere. For the first time, we analyze Ulysses/GAS data from year 2007, the closest available Ulysses/GAS observations in time to the IBEX observations. We show that the interstellar velocity derived from the Ulysses 2007 data is consistent with previous Ulysses results and does not agree with the velocity derived from IBEX. This conclusion is very robust since, as is shown in the paper, it does not depend on the ionization rates adopted in theoretical models. We conclude that Ulysses data are not consistent with the new local interstellar medium (LISM) velocity vector from IBEX. In contrast, IBEX data, in principle, could be explained with the LISM velocity vector derived from the Ulysses data. This is possible for the models where the interstellar temperature increased from 6300 K to 9000 K. There is a need to perform further studies of possible reasons for the broadening of the helium signal core measured by IBEX, which could be an instrumental effect or could be due to unconsidered physical processes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Katushkina, O. A.; Izmodenov, V. V. [Space Research Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Wood, B. E. [Naval Research Laboratory, Space Science Division, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); McMullin, D. R., E-mail: okat@iki.rssi.ru [Space Systems Research Corporation, Alexandria, VA 22314 (United States)
2014-07-01
Recent analysis of the interstellar helium fluxes measured in 2009-2010 at Earth's orbit by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) has suggested that the interstellar velocity (both direction and magnitude) is inconsistent with that derived previously from Ulysses/GAS observations made in the period from 1990 to 2002 at 1.5-5.5 AU from the Sun. Both results are model dependent, and models that were used in the analyses are different. In this paper, we perform an analysis of the Ulysses/GAS and IBEX-Lo data using our state-of-the-art three-dimensional time-dependent kinetic model of interstellar atoms in the heliosphere. For the first time, we analyze Ulysses/GAS data from year 2007, the closest available Ulysses/GAS observations in time to the IBEX observations. We show that the interstellar velocity derived from the Ulysses 2007 data is consistent with previous Ulysses results and does not agree with the velocity derived from IBEX. This conclusion is very robust since, as is shown in the paper, it does not depend on the ionization rates adopted in theoretical models. We conclude that Ulysses data are not consistent with the new local interstellar medium (LISM) velocity vector from IBEX. In contrast, IBEX data, in principle, could be explained with the LISM velocity vector derived from the Ulysses data. This is possible for the models where the interstellar temperature increased from 6300 K to 9000 K. There is a need to perform further studies of possible reasons for the broadening of the helium signal core measured by IBEX, which could be an instrumental effect or could be due to unconsidered physical processes.
Mixing of charged and neutral Bose condensates at nonzero temperature and magnetic field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Haber Alexander
2017-01-01
Full Text Available It is expected that in the interior of compact stars a proton superconductor coexists with and couples to a neutron superfluid. Starting from a field-theoretical model for two complex scalar fields – one of which is electrically charged – we derive a Ginzburg-Landau potential which includes entrainment between the two fluids and temperature effects from thermal excitations of the two scalar fields and the gauge field. The Ginzburg-Landau description is then used for an analysis of the phase structure in the presence of an external magnetic field. In particular, we study the effect of the superfluid on the flux tube phase by computing the various critical magnetic fields and deriving an approximation for the flux tube interaction. As a result, we point out differences to the naive expectations from an isolated superconductor, for instance the existence of a first-order flux tube onset, resulting in a more complicated phase structure in the region between type-I and type-II superconductivity.
Electromagnetic trapping of neutral atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Metcalf, H.J.
1986-01-01
Cooling and trapping of neutral atoms is a new branch of applied physics that has potential for application in many areas. The authors present an introduction to laser cooling and magnetic trapping. Some basic ideas and fundamental limitations are discussed, and the first successful experiments are reviewed. Trapping a neutral object depends on the interaction between an inhomogeneous electromagnetic field and a multiple moment that results in the exchange of kinetic for potential energy. In neutral atom traps, the potential energy must be stored as internal atomic energy, resulting in two immediate and extremely important consequences. First, the atomic energy levels will necessarily shift as the atoms move in the trap, and, second, practical traps for ground state neutral atoms atr necessarily very shallow compared to thermal energy. This small depth also dictates stringent vacuum requirements because a trapped atom cannot survive a single collision with a thermal energy background gas molecule. Neutral trapping, therefore, depends on substantial cooling of a thermal atomic sample and is inextricably connected with the cooling process
The explicit expression of the fugacity for weakly interacting Bose and Fermi gases
Dai, Wu-Sheng; Xie, Mi
2017-11-01
In this paper, we calculate the explicit expression for the fugacity for two- and three-dimensional weakly interacting Bose and Fermi gases from their equations of state in isochoric and isobaric processes, respectively, based on the mathematical result of the boundary problem of analytic functions—the homogeneous Riemann-Hilbert problem. We also discuss the Bose-Einstein condensation phase transition of three-dimensional hard-sphere Bose gases.
Control for dynamics of two coupled Bose-Einstein condensate solitons by potential deviation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li Hong [Department of Physics, Hubei Normal University, Huangshi (China); School of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Huangshi Institute of Technology, Huangshi (China)], E-mail: lihong-hust@hust.edu.cn; Wang, D.N. [Department of Electrical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China)
2008-06-15
The control of the potential deviation for two coupled Bose-Einstein condensate solitons is investigated by the variational approach, and the effects of the potential deviation on dynamics of the two Bose-Einstein condensate solitons are discussed. The potential deviation resets the stationary state, affects the existence time, and changes the switching and self-trapping effect on the Bose-Einstein condensate solitons. The results are confirmed by the evolution of the atom population transferring ratio, and demonstrate a new way to guide the motion of the two Bose-Einstein condensate solitons.
Quantum nucleation of phase slips in Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buechler, H.P.; Blatter, G.; Geschkenbein, V.B.; Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Moscow
2001-01-01
We present a theoretical study of quantum fluctuations in a Bose-Einstein condensate confined within a thin cylindrical trap and perturbed by a moving impurity. We derive an effective action which maps the problem to that of a massive particle with damping in a periodic potential. Quantum fluctuations lead to a finite nucleation rate of phase slips and we make use of known results in our determination of the transport characteristic. Real Bose-Einstein condensate are finite systems and exhibit interesting effects depending on topology: in superfluid rings we obtain a critical velocity below which the nucleation rate is quenched. In a cigar shaped condensate the low-energy action is equivalent to that of a capacitively shunted Josephson junction. The state with a well defined phase difference across the impurity then is unstable towards a decoupled state with a fixed number of particles on either side of the impurity. (orig.)
Breakdown of Bose-Einstein distribution in photonic crystals.
Lo, Ping-Yuan; Xiong, Heng-Na; Zhang, Wei-Min
2015-03-30
In the last two decades, considerable advances have been made in the investigation of nano-photonics in photonic crystals. Previous theoretical investigations of photon dynamics were carried out at zero temperature. Here, we investigate micro/nano cavity photonics in photonic crystals at finite temperature. Due to photonic-band-gap-induced localized long-lived photon dynamics, we discover that cavity photons in photonic crystals do not obey Bose-Einstein statistical distribution. Within the photonic band gap and in the vicinity of the band edge, cavity photons combine the long-lived non-Markovain dynamics with thermal fluctuations together to form photon states that memorize the initial cavity state information. As a result, Bose-Einstein distribution is completely broken down in these regimes, even if the thermal energy is larger or much larger than the cavity detuning energy. In this investigation, a crossover phenomenon from equilibrium to nonequilibrium steady states is also revealed.
Vortex Lattices in the Bose-Fermi Superfluid Mixture.
Jiang, Yuzhu; Qi, Ran; Shi, Zhe-Yu; Zhai, Hui
2017-02-24
In this Letter we show that the vortex lattice structure in the Bose-Fermi superfluid mixture can undergo a sequence of structure transitions when the Fermi superfluid is tuned from the BCS regime to the BEC regime. This is due to the difference in the vortex core structure of a Fermi superfluid in the BCS regime and in the BEC regime. In the BCS regime the vortex core is nearly filled, while the density at the vortex core gradually decreases until it empties out in the BEC regime. Therefore, with the density-density interaction between the Bose and the Fermi superfluids, interaction between the two sets of vortex lattices gets stronger in the BEC regime, which yields the structure transition of vortex lattices. In view of the recent realization of this superfluid mixture and vortices therein, our theoretical predication can be verified experimentally in the near future.
Classical Dynamics of Excitations of Bose Condensates in Anisotropic Traps
Graham, Robert
This lecture discusses some aspects of the dynamics of the collective and single-particle excitations at zero temperature of Bose-Einstein condensates of alkali-vapors in magnetic traps. We shall discuss those aspects which can be understood by taking the short-wavelength or 'eikonal' limit of the excitations. Trapped Bose-Einstein condensates can be excited experimentally either directly via periodic modulations of the trap potential or by scattering light off the condensate. My discussion here will closely follow some theoretical work published in [1-3] that has recently been done in collaboration with Andras Csordas and Peter Szepfalusy at the Research Institute for solid State Physics and Optics in Budapest, Hungary and with Martin Fliesser at the University of Essen, Germany.
Physical replicas and the Bose glass in cold atomic gases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morrison, S; Kantian, A; Daley, A J; Zoller, P [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Innsbruck, Technikerstr. 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Katzgraber, H G [Theoretische Physik, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Lewenstein, M [ICAO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Parc Mediterrani de la Tecnologia, E-08860 Castelldefels, Barcelona (Spain); Buechler, H P [Institute for Theoretical Physics III, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, 70550 Stuttgart (Germany)], E-mail: sarah.morrison@uibk.ac.at
2008-07-15
We study cold atomic gases in a disorder potential and analyse the correlations between different systems subjected to the same disorder landscape. Such independent copies with the same disorder landscape are known as replicas. While, in general, these are not accessible experimentally in condensed matter systems, they can be realized using standard tools for controlling cold atomic gases in an optical lattice. Of special interest is the overlap function which represents a natural order parameter for disordered systems and is a correlation function between the atoms of two independent replicas with the same disorder. We demonstrate an efficient measurement scheme for the determination of this disorder-induced correlation function. As an application, we focus on the disordered Bose-Hubbard model and determine the overlap function within the perturbation theory and a numerical analysis. We find that the measurement of the overlap function allows for the identification of the Bose-glass phase in certain parameter regimes.
Physical replicas and the Bose glass in cold atomic gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morrison, S; Kantian, A; Daley, A J; Zoller, P; Katzgraber, H G; Lewenstein, M; Buechler, H P
2008-01-01
We study cold atomic gases in a disorder potential and analyse the correlations between different systems subjected to the same disorder landscape. Such independent copies with the same disorder landscape are known as replicas. While, in general, these are not accessible experimentally in condensed matter systems, they can be realized using standard tools for controlling cold atomic gases in an optical lattice. Of special interest is the overlap function which represents a natural order parameter for disordered systems and is a correlation function between the atoms of two independent replicas with the same disorder. We demonstrate an efficient measurement scheme for the determination of this disorder-induced correlation function. As an application, we focus on the disordered Bose-Hubbard model and determine the overlap function within the perturbation theory and a numerical analysis. We find that the measurement of the overlap function allows for the identification of the Bose-glass phase in certain parameter regimes
Interferometry with Bose-Einstein condensates in microgravity.
Müntinga, H; Ahlers, H; Krutzik, M; Wenzlawski, A; Arnold, S; Becker, D; Bongs, K; Dittus, H; Duncker, H; Gaaloul, N; Gherasim, C; Giese, E; Grzeschik, C; Hänsch, T W; Hellmig, O; Herr, W; Herrmann, S; Kajari, E; Kleinert, S; Lämmerzahl, C; Lewoczko-Adamczyk, W; Malcolm, J; Meyer, N; Nolte, R; Peters, A; Popp, M; Reichel, J; Roura, A; Rudolph, J; Schiemangk, M; Schneider, M; Seidel, S T; Sengstock, K; Tamma, V; Valenzuela, T; Vogel, A; Walser, R; Wendrich, T; Windpassinger, P; Zeller, W; van Zoest, T; Ertmer, W; Schleich, W P; Rasel, E M
2013-03-01
Atom interferometers covering macroscopic domains of space-time are a spectacular manifestation of the wave nature of matter. Because of their unique coherence properties, Bose-Einstein condensates are ideal sources for an atom interferometer in extended free fall. In this Letter we report on the realization of an asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer operated with a Bose-Einstein condensate in microgravity. The resulting interference pattern is similar to the one in the far field of a double slit and shows a linear scaling with the time the wave packets expand. We employ delta-kick cooling in order to enhance the signal and extend our atom interferometer. Our experiments demonstrate the high potential of interferometers operated with quantum gases for probing the fundamental concepts of quantum mechanics and general relativity.
Bose-Einstein condensates in charged black-hole spacetimes
Castellanos, Elías; Degollado, Juan Carlos; Lämmerzahl, Claus; Macías, Alfredo; Perlick, Volker
2018-01-01
We analyze Bose-Einstein condensates on three types of spherically symmetric and static charged black-hole spacetimes: the Reissner-Nordström spacetime, Hoffmann's Born-Infeld black-hole spacetime, and the regular Ayón-Beato-García spacetime. The Bose-Einstein condensate is modeled in terms of a massive scalar field that satisfies a Klein-Gordon equation with a self-interaction term. The scalar field is assumed to be uncharged and not self-gravitating. If the mass parameter of the scalar field is chosen sufficiently small, there are quasi-bound states of the scalar field that may be interpreted as dark matter clouds. We estimate the size and the total energy of such clouds around charged supermassive black holes and we investigate if their observable features can be used for discriminating between the different types of charged black holes.
Electronic Pumping of Quasiequilibrium Bose-Einstein-Condensed Magnons
Bender, Scott A.; Duine, Rembert A.; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav
2012-06-01
We theoretically investigate spin transfer between a system of quasiequilibrated Bose-Einstein-condensed magnons in an insulator in direct contact with a conductor. While charge transfer is prohibited across the interface, spin transport arises from the exchange coupling between insulator and conductor spins. In a normal insulator phase, spin transport is governed solely by the presence of thermal and spin-diffusive gradients; the presence of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), meanwhile, gives rise to a temperature-independent condensate spin current. Depending on the thermodynamic bias of the system, spin may flow in either direction across the interface, engendering the possibility of a dynamical phase transition of magnons. We discuss the experimental feasibility of observing a BEC steady state (fomented by a spin Seebeck effect), which is contrasted to the more familiar spin-transfer-induced classical instabilities.
Particles with small violations of Fermi or Bose statistics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greenberg, O.W.
1991-01-01
I discuss the statistics of ''quons'' (pronounced to rhyme with muons), particles whose annihilation and creation operators obey the q-deformed commutation relation (the quon algebra or q-mutator) which interpolates between fermions and bosons. Topics discussed include representations of the quon algebra, proof of the TCP theorem, violation of the usual locality properties, and experimental constraints on violations of the Pauli exclusion principle (i.e., Fermi statistics) and of Bose statistics
Hidden multiparticle excitation in weakly interacting Bose-Einstein Condensate
Watabe, Shohei
2017-01-01
We investigate multiparticle excitation effect on a collective density excitation as well as a single-particle excitation in a weakly interacting Bose--Einstein condensate (BEC). We find that although the weakly interacting BEC offers weak multiparticle excitation spectrum at low temperatures, this multiparticle excitation effect may not remain hidden, but emerges as bimodality in the density response function through the single-particle excitation. Identification of spectra in the BEC betwee...
Bose-Einstein condensation and indirect excitons: a review.
Combescot, Monique; Combescot, Roland; Dubin, François
2017-06-01
We review recent progress on Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of semiconductor excitons. The first part deals with theory, the second part with experiments. This Review is written at a time where the problem of exciton Bose-Einstein condensation has just been revived by the understanding that the exciton condensate must be dark because the exciton ground state is not coupled to light. Here, we theoretically discuss this missed understanding before providing its experimental support through experiments that scrutinize indirect excitons made of spatially separated electrons and holes. The theoretical part first discusses condensation of elementary bosons. In particular, the necessary inhibition of condensate fragmentation by exchange interaction is stressed, before extending the discussion to interacting bosons with spin degrees of freedom. The theoretical part then considers composite bosons made of two fermions like semiconductor excitons. The spin structure of the excitons is detailed, with emphasis on the crucial fact that ground-state excitons are dark: indeed, this imposes the exciton Bose-Einstein condensate to be not coupled to light in the dilute regime. Condensate fragmentations are then reconsidered. In particular, it is shown that while at low density, the exciton condensate is fully dark, it acquires a bright component, coherent with the dark one, beyond a density threshold: in this regime, the exciton condensate is 'gray'. The experimental part first discusses optical creation of indirect excitons in quantum wells, and the detection of their photoluminescence. Exciton thermalisation is also addressed, as well as available approaches to estimate the exciton density. We then switch to specific experiments where indirect excitons form a macroscopic fragmented ring. We show that such ring provides efficient electrostatic trapping in the region of the fragments where an essentially-dark exciton Bose-Einstein condensate is formed at sub-Kelvin bath
Generation of dark solitons in oscillating Bose-Einstein condensates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Theocharis, G. [Department of Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos, Athens 15784 (Greece); Kevrekidis, P.G. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-4515 (United States); Nistazakis, H.E. [Department of Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos, Athens 15784 (Greece); Department of Telecommunications Science and Technology, University of Peloponnese, Tripolis 22100 (Greece); Frantzeskakis, D.J. [Department of Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos, Athens 15784 (Greece)]. E-mail: dfrantz@cc.uoa.gr; Bishop, A.R. [Center for Nonlinear Studies and Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)
2005-04-11
We propose an experimentally tractable setting for observing an 'instability' of a repulsive oscillating Bose-Einstein condensate that leads to the generation of dark solitons. We illustrate that when the trap of the condensate (which incorporates a localized impurity) is displaced so that the condensate flow is characterized by an atomic velocity larger than the local speed of sound, dark solitons are generated. The subcritical, near critical and supercritical are analyzed in detail.
Observable Vortex Properties in Finite Temperature Bose Gases
Allen, A. J.; Zaremba, E.; Barenghi, C. F.; Proukakis, N. P.
2012-01-01
We study the dynamics of vortices in finite temperature atomic Bose-Einstein condensates, focussing on decay rates, precession frequencies and core brightness, motivated by a recent experiment (Freilich et al. Science 329, 1182 (2010)) in which real-time dynamics of a single vortex was observed. Using the ZNG formalism based on a dissipative Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the condensate coupled to a semi-classical Boltzmann equation for the thermal cloud, we find a rapid nonlinear increase of ...
Experiments with a Bose-Einstein condensate in a quasi-one-dimensional magnetic waveguide
Henderson, Kevin Christopher
This thesis is primarily a comprehensive discussion of the development of two experimental studies: the quantum transport and effects of heating of ultracold atoms. It specifically provides details of the manipulation and control of ultracold atoms in magnetic waveguides, optical lattices, and optical billiards. The design, construction, and implementation of experimental apparati are also outlined and additional experimental tests are summarized, including the realization of a macroscopic transport (> 20 cm) system for ultracold atoms and transmission of ultracold atoms through a random optical potential. The first experiment is a study of the quantum transport for atoms confined in a periodic potential. These results include a comparison made of thermal and BEC initial conditions. Here, observation of ballistic transport is made for all values of well depth and initial conditions, and the expansion rates for thermal atoms are shown to be in excellent agreement with a single-particle model. For weak wells (V0/E R ≤ 6), the expansion of the BEC is also in excellent agreement with single-particle theory, using an effective temperature model based on single (non-interacting) particle theory. For deep wells (V 0/ER ≥ 6), a crossover is observed to a new regime for the BEC case, indicating the importance of interactions on quantum transport. The second experiment is a study of the effect of different heating rates on a dilute Bose gas confined in a quasi-1D finite, leaky box. An optical kicked-rotor is used to transfer energy to the atoms while two repulsive optical beams are used to confine the atoms. The average energy of the atoms is localized after a large number of kicks and the system reaches a nonequilibrium steady state. A numerical simulation of the experimental data suggests that the localization is due to energetic atoms leaking over the barrier. Our data also indicates a correlation between collisions and the destruction of the Bose-Einstein condensate
Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL)
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) is an astronaut training facility and neutral buoyancy pool operated by NASA and located at the Sonny Carter Training Facility,...
Spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Poul Lindholm; Gajdacz, Miroslav; Deuretzbacher, Frank
2014-01-01
We have investigated spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas. Through spin-changing collisions, two clouds with opposite spin orientations are spontaneously created in a Bose-Einstein condensate. After ballistic expansion, both clouds acquire ring-shaped density distributions with superimp......We have investigated spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas. Through spin-changing collisions, two clouds with opposite spin orientations are spontaneously created in a Bose-Einstein condensate. After ballistic expansion, both clouds acquire ring-shaped density distributions...... with nonlocal Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Chomaz
2016-11-01
Full Text Available In a joint experimental and theoretical effort, we report on the formation of a macrodroplet state in an ultracold bosonic gas of erbium atoms with strong dipolar interactions. By precise tuning of the s-wave scattering length below the so-called dipolar length, we observe a smooth crossover of the ground state from a dilute Bose-Einstein condensate to a dense macrodroplet state of more than 2×10^{4} atoms. Based on the study of collective excitations and loss features, we prove that quantum fluctuations stabilize the ultracold gas far beyond the instability threshold imposed by mean-field interactions. Finally, we perform expansion measurements, showing that although self-bound solutions are prevented by losses, the interplay between quantum stabilization and losses results in a minimal time-of-flight expansion velocity at a finite scattering length.
Fractional Quantum Hall Effects with Bose-gases in Rotating Optical Lattice Potentials
Gemelke, Nathan; Sarajlic, Edina; Chu, Steven
2008-05-01
It has previously been noted that an analog to the fractional quantum-Hall (FQH) effect for two-dimensional electron gases can be produced with harmonically trapped and rotating neutral atoms. We report progress investigating FQH-like effects in the centrifugal limit of small, rotating, two-dimensional Bose gases. An ensemble of such systems is prepared in an optical lattice with locally rotating on-site potentials, produced by manipulation only of lattice beam optical phases. The non- rotating few-atom ground states are adiabatically transformed to higher angular momentum by applying a time-dependent sweep of rotation rate and deformation of the local lattice potential. Near the centrifugal limit, where the trap rotates at its vibration frequency, correlation is expected as a result of collisions. The onset of this behavior is probed by a combination of photoassociative transitions to bound molecules, and careful analysis of time-of-flight momentum distributions of atoms suddenly released from the lattice.
Dalafi, A.; Naderi, M. H.
2017-04-01
An interacting cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) inside a driven optical cavity exhibits an intrinsic cross-Kerr (CK) nonlinearity due to the interaction with the optical mode of the cavity. Although the CK coupling is much weaker than those of the radiation pressure and the atom-atom interactions, it can affect the bistability behavior of the system when the intensity of the laser pump is strong enough. On the other hand, there is a competition between the CK nonlinearity and the atom-atom interaction so that the latter can neutralize the effect of the former. Furthermore, the CK nonlinearity causes the effective frequency of the Bogoliubov mode of the BEC as well as the quantum fluctuations of the system to be increased by increasing the cavity driving rate. However, in the dispersive interaction regime the effect of the CK nonlinearity is negligible. In addition, we show that by increasing the s -wave scattering frequency of atomic collisions one can generate a strong stationary quadrature squeezing in the Bogoliubov mode of the BEC.
Nonexponential one-body loss in a Bose-Einstein condensate
Knoop, S.; Borbely, J. S.; van Rooij, R.; Vassen, W.
2012-01-01
We have studied the decay of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of metastable helium atoms in an optical dipole trap. In the regime where two- and three-body losses can be neglected we show that the Bose-Einstein condensate and the thermal cloud show fundamentally different decay characteristics. The
Collective excitations of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a magnetic trap
Mewes, M.O.; Andrews, M.R.; van Druten, N.J.; Kurn, D.M.; Durfee, D.S.; Townsend, C.G.; Ketterle, W.
1996-01-01
Collective excitations of a dilute Bose condensate have been observed. These excitations are analogous to phonons in superfluid helium. Bose condensates were created by evaporatively cooling magnetically trapped sodium atoms. Excitations were induced by a modulation of the trapping potential, and
Bose-Operator Expansions of Tensor Operators in the Theory of Magnetism
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindgård, Per-Anker; Danielsen, O.
1974-01-01
Using a method of matching corresponding matrix elements, a hermitian Bose-operator expansion of tensor operators of arbitrary rank which transforms all kinematic effects into dynamical interactions between Bose particles is derived. It is shown that the method is a generalization of the Holstein...
Existence of Bose-Einstein condensation in one and two dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olinto, A.C.
1988-10-01
It is shown that in Bose Condensed systems the γ-sum rule has an additional term due to the condensate reservoir. As a result of this new sum rule and an exact Bogoliubov inequality, Bose-Einstein condensation in repulsively interacting systems may occur in one and two dimensions. (author) [pt
Bose-Einstein Kondensation: Når atomer synger i kor
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nygaard, Nicolai
2005-01-01
I 1924 udledte den unge bengalske fysiker S. N. Bose Plancks strålingslov ved at postulere, at fotoner er uskelnelige partikler. Deres tællestatistik er derfor forskellig fra klassiske partikler, som kan skelnes fra hinanden. Da Boses artikel blev afvist af Philosophical Magazine, sendte han...
Measurement of Genuine Three-Particle Bose-Einstein Correlations in Hadronic Z decay
Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; van Dalen, J A; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Ewers, A; Extermann, Pierre; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, Marta; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hakobyan, R S; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Hu, Y; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Käfer, D; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M H; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levchenko, P M; Li, C; Likhoded, S A; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangeol, D J J; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Niessen, T; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Palomares, C; Pandoulas, D; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pioppi, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofiev, D O; Prokofev, D; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rosenbleck, C; Roux, B; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Sanders, M P; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S V; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vásquez, R P; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Wienemann, P; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Yeh, S C; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B; Zöller, M
2002-01-01
We measure three-particle Bose-Einstein correlations in hadronic Z decay with the L3 detector at LEP. Genuine three-particle Bose-Einstein correlations are observed. By comparing two- and three-particle correlations we find that the data are consistent with fully incoherent pion production.
A Hartree-Bose mean-field approximation for IBM-3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia-Ramos, J.E.; Arias, J.M.; Dukelsky, J.; Guerra, E. Moya de Guerra; Isacker, P. van
1998-01-01
A Hartree-Bose mean-field approximation for the IBM-3 is presented. A Hartree-Bose transformation from the spherical to the deformed bosons with charge-dependent parammentum bosons. The formalism contains previously proposed IBM-2 and IBM-3 intrinsic states as particular limits. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bartel, W.; Bulos, F.; Eisner, A.
1975-01-01
The range of physics problems for which a detector emphasizing neutrals is most suitable is discussed. The primary goals are the all neutrals cross section, sigma/sub o/ (e + e - → neutrals), the characterization of the neutral energy in multi-hadronic events, the search for monoenergetic photons, and good sensitivity in the difficult region of low energy photons. Those features of multi-hadronic events which are most relevant to a neutral detector were calculated using a jet model with parameters extrapolated from SPEAR energies. These distributions are presented and discussed
Testing the Bose-Einstein Condensate dark matter model at galactic cluster scale
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Harko, Tiberiu [Department of Mathematics, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Liang, Pengxiang; Liang, Shi-Dong [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Material and Technology, and Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Display Material and Technology, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Mocanu, Gabriela, E-mail: t.harko@ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: lpengx@mail2.sysu.edu.cn2, E-mail: stslsd@mail.sysu.edu.cn, E-mail: gabriela.mocanu@ubbcluj.ro [Astronomical Institute, Astronomical Observatory Cluj-Napoca, Romanian Academy, 15 Cire\\csilor Street, 400487 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)
2015-11-01
The possibility that dark matter may be in the form of a Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) has been extensively explored at galactic scale. In particular, good fits for the galactic rotations curves have been obtained, and upper limits for the dark matter particle mass and scattering length have been estimated. In the present paper we extend the investigation of the properties of the BEC dark matter to the galactic cluster scale, involving dark matter dominated astrophysical systems formed of thousands of galaxies each. By considering that one of the major components of a galactic cluster, the intra-cluster hot gas, is described by King's β-model, and that both intra-cluster gas and dark matter are in hydrostatic equilibrium, bound by the same total mass profile, we derive the mass and density profiles of the BEC dark matter. In our analysis we consider several theoretical models, corresponding to isothermal hot gas and zero temperature BEC dark matter, non-isothermal gas and zero temperature dark matter, and isothermal gas and finite temperature BEC, respectively. The properties of the finite temperature BEC dark matter cluster are investigated in detail numerically. We compare our theoretical results with the observational data of 106 galactic clusters. Using a least-squares fitting, as well as the observational results for the dark matter self-interaction cross section, we obtain some upper bounds for the mass and scattering length of the dark matter particle. Our results suggest that the mass of the dark matter particle is of the order of μ eV, while the scattering length has values in the range of 10{sup −7} fm.
Testing the Bose-Einstein Condensate dark matter model at galactic cluster scale
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harko, Tiberiu; Liang, Pengxiang; Liang, Shi-Dong; Mocanu, Gabriela
2015-01-01
The possibility that dark matter may be in the form of a Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) has been extensively explored at galactic scale. In particular, good fits for the galactic rotations curves have been obtained, and upper limits for the dark matter particle mass and scattering length have been estimated. In the present paper we extend the investigation of the properties of the BEC dark matter to the galactic cluster scale, involving dark matter dominated astrophysical systems formed of thousands of galaxies each. By considering that one of the major components of a galactic cluster, the intra-cluster hot gas, is described by King's β-model, and that both intra-cluster gas and dark matter are in hydrostatic equilibrium, bound by the same total mass profile, we derive the mass and density profiles of the BEC dark matter. In our analysis we consider several theoretical models, corresponding to isothermal hot gas and zero temperature BEC dark matter, non-isothermal gas and zero temperature dark matter, and isothermal gas and finite temperature BEC, respectively. The properties of the finite temperature BEC dark matter cluster are investigated in detail numerically. We compare our theoretical results with the observational data of 106 galactic clusters. Using a least-squares fitting, as well as the observational results for the dark matter self-interaction cross section, we obtain some upper bounds for the mass and scattering length of the dark matter particle. Our results suggest that the mass of the dark matter particle is of the order of μ eV, while the scattering length has values in the range of 10 −7 fm
Beam divergence scaling in neutral beam injectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holmes, A.J.T.
1976-01-01
One of the main considerations in the design of neutral beam injectors is to monimize the divergence of the primary ion beam and hence maximize the beam transport and minimize the input of thermal gas. Experimental measurements of the divergence of a cylindrical ion beam are presented and these measurements are used to analyze the major components of ion beam divergence, namely: space charge expansion, gas-ion scattering, emittance and optical aberrations. The implication of these divergence components in the design of a neutral beam injector system is discussed and a method of maximizing the beam current is described for a given area of source plasma
Bose-Einstein Condensation: Quantum weirdness at the lowest temperature in the universe
Wieman, Carl
2004-10-01
In 1924 Einstein predicted that a gas would undergo a dramatic transformation at a sufficiently low temperature (now known as Bose-Einstein condensation or BEC). In 1995, my group was able to observe this transformation by cooling a gas sample to the unprecedented temperature of less than 100 billionths of a degree above absolute zero. The BEC state is a novel form of matter in which a large number of atoms lose their individual identities and behave as a single quantum entity, the ``superatom.'' This entity is the atom analogue to laser light, and, although large enough to be easily seen and manipulated, exhibits the nonintuitive quantum behavior normally important only at much tinier size scales. The study and use of the curious properties of BEC has now become an important subfield of physics. I will discuss how we create BEC and some of the subsequent research we have done on it. Interactive applets as a tool for teaching science will be demonstrated in the presentation.
Bose and Fermi walk configurations on planar graphs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arrowsmith, D K; Bhatti, F M; Essam, J W
2012-01-01
The number, f C n (H), of n-walk configurations of type C is investigated on certain two-rooted directed planar graphs H which will be always realized as plane graphs in R 2 . C may be Bose or Fermi as defined by Inui and Katori. Both types of configuration are collections of non-crossing walks which follow the directed paths between the roots of the plane graph H. In the case of configurations of Fermi type each walk may be included only once. The number f Bose n (H) is shown to be a polynomial in n of degree n max − 1 where n max is the maximum number of walks in a Fermi configuration. The coefficient of the highest power of n in this polynomial is simply related to the number of maximal Fermi walk configurations. It is also shown that n max = c(H) + 1 where c(H) is the number of finite faces on H. Extension of these results to multi-rooted graphs is also discussed. When H is the union of paths between two sites of the directed square lattice subject to various boundary conditions Kreweras showed that the number of Bose configurations is equal to the number of n-element multi-chains on segments of Young’s lattice. He expressed this number as a determinant the elements of which are polynomials in n. We evaluate this determinant by the method of LU decomposition in the case of ‘watermelon’ configurations above a wall. In this case the polynomial is a product of linear factors but on introducing a second wall the polynomial does not completely factorize but has a factor which is the number of watermelon configurations on the largest rectangular subgraph. The number of two-rooted ‘star’ configurations is found to be the product of the numbers of watermelon configurations on the three rectangular subgraphs into which it may be partitioned. (paper)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kamperschroer, J.H.; Gammel, G.M.; Roquemore, A.L.; Grisham, L.R.; Kugel, H.W.; Medley, S.S.; O' Connor, T.E.; Stevenson, T.N.; von Halle, A.; Williams, M.D.
1989-09-01
Data from an E {parallel} B charge exchange neutral analyzer (CENA), which views down the axis of a neutral beamline through an aperture in the target chamber calorimeter of the TFTR neutral beam test facility, exhibit two curious effects. First, there is a turn-on transient lasting tens of milliseconds having a magnitude up to three times that of the steady-state level. Second, there is a 720 Hz, up to 20% peak-to-peak fluctuation persisting the entire pulse duration. The turn-on transient occurs as the neutralizer/ion source system reaches a new pressure equilibrium following the effective ion source gas throughput reduction by particle removal as ion beam. Widths of the transient are a function of the gas throughput into the ion source, decreasing as the gas supply rate is reduced. Heating of the neutalizer gas by the beam is assumed responsible, with gas temperature increasing as gas supply rate is decreased. At low gas supply rates, the transient is primarliy due to dynamic changes in the neutralizer line density and/or beam species composition. Light emission from the drift duct corroborate the CENA data. At high gas supply rates, dynamic changes in component divergence and/or spatial profiles of the source plasma are necessary to explain the observations. The 720 Hz fluctuation is attributed to a 3% peak-to-peak ripple of 720 Hz on the arc power supply amplified by the quadratic relationship between beam divergence and beam current. Tight collimation by CENA apertures cause it to accept a very small part of the ion source's velocity space, producing a signal linearly proportional to beam divergence. Estimated fluctuations in the peak power density delivered to the plasma under these conditions are a modest 3--8% peak to peak. The efffects of both phenomena on the injected neutral beam can be ameliorated by careful operion of the ion sources. 21 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamperschroer, J.H.; Gammel, G.M.; Roquemore, A.L.
1989-09-01
Data from an E parallel B charge exchange neutral analyzer (CENA), which views down the axis of a neutral beamline through an aperture in the target chamber calorimeter of the TFTR neutral beam test facility, exhibit two curious effects. First, there is a turn-on transient lasting tens of milliseconds having a magnitude up to three times that of the steady-state level. Second, there is a 720 Hz, up to 20% peak-to-peak fluctuation persisting the entire pulse duration. The turn-on transient occurs as the neutralizer/ion source system reaches a new pressure equilibrium following the effective ion source gas throughput reduction by particle removal as ion beam. Widths of the transient are a function of the gas throughput into the ion source, decreasing as the gas supply rate is reduced. Heating of the neutalizer gas by the beam is assumed responsible, with gas temperature increasing as gas supply rate is decreased. At low gas supply rates, the transient is primarliy due to dynamic changes in the neutralizer line density and/or beam species composition. Light emission from the drift duct corroborate the CENA data. At high gas supply rates, dynamic changes in component divergence and/or spatial profiles of the source plasma are necessary to explain the observations. The 720 Hz fluctuation is attributed to a 3% peak-to-peak ripple of 720 Hz on the arc power supply amplified by the quadratic relationship between beam divergence and beam current. Tight collimation by CENA apertures cause it to accept a very small part of the ion source's velocity space, producing a signal linearly proportional to beam divergence. Estimated fluctuations in the peak power density delivered to the plasma under these conditions are a modest 3--8% peak to peak. The efffects of both phenomena on the injected neutral beam can be ameliorated by careful operion of the ion sources. 21 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs
Vortices and ring solitons in Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carr, L. D.; Clark, Charles W.
2006-01-01
The form and stability properties of axisymmetric and spherically symmetric stationary states in two and three dimensions, respectively, are elucidated for Bose-Einstein condensates. These states include the ground state, central vortices, and radial excitations of both. The latter are called ring solitons in two dimensions and spherical shells in three. The nonlinear Schroedinger equation is taken as the fundamental model; both extended and harmonically trapped condensates are considered. It is found that the instability times of ring solitons can be long compared to experimental time scales, making them effectively stable over the lifetime of an experiment
Vortices in Attractive Bose-Einstein Condensates in Two Dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carr, L.D.; Clark, Charles W.
2006-01-01
The form and stability of quantum vortices in Bose-Einstein condensates with attractive atomic interactions is elucidated. They appear as ring bright solitons, and are a generalization of the Townes soliton to nonzero winding number m. An infinite sequence of radially excited stationary states appear for each value of m, which are characterized by concentric matter-wave rings separated by nodes, in contrast to repulsive condensates, where no such set of states exists. It is shown that robustly stable as well as unstable regimes may be achieved in confined geometries, thereby suggesting that vortices and their radial excited states can be observed in experiments on attractive condensates in two dimensions
Observation of Weak Collapse in a Bose-Einstein Condensate
Eigen, Christoph; Gaunt, Alexander L.; Suleymanzade, Aziza; Navon, Nir; Hadzibabic, Zoran; Smith, Robert P.
2016-10-01
We study the collapse of an attractive atomic Bose-Einstein condensate prepared in the uniform potential of an optical-box trap. We characterize the critical point for collapse and the collapse dynamics, observing universal behavior in agreement with theoretical expectations. Most importantly, we observe a clear experimental signature of the counterintuitive weak collapse, namely, that making the system more unstable can result in a smaller particle loss. We experimentally determine the scaling laws that govern the weak-collapse atom loss, providing a benchmark for the general theories of nonlinear wave phenomena.
Cooling of a Bose-Einstein Condensate by Spin Distillation
Naylor, B.; Maréchal, E.; Huckans, J.; Gorceix, O.; Pedri, P.; Vernac, L.; Laburthe-Tolra, B.
2015-12-01
We propose and experimentally demonstrate a new cooling mechanism leading to purification of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Our scheme starts with a BEC polarized in the lowest energy spin state. Spin excited states are thermally populated by lowering the single particle energy gap set by the magnetic field. Then, these spin-excited thermal components are filtered out, which leads to an increase of the BEC fraction. We experimentally demonstrate such cooling for a spin 3 52Cr dipolar BEC. Our scheme should be applicable to Na or Rb, with the perspective to reach temperatures below 1 nK.
Bose-Einstein interferometry and the Coulomb corrections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erazmus, B.; Lednicky, R; Lyuboshitz, V.; Martin, L.; Mikhailov, V.; Pluta, J.; Sinyukov, Y.; Stavinky, A.
1997-01-01
Two different methods are currently used to unfold the effects of the Coulomb interaction from the experimental correlation functions. Both the Gamow corrections and the method based on correlation function of opposite charge particles fail to reproduce exact calculations of Bose-Einstein correlation functions for two-pion and two-kaon pairs. The Gamow correction is a currently used technique by the physicists' community of ultra-relativistic heavy ions aiming at the deconvolution of the Coulomb interaction effects so allowing the occurrence of only the quantum statistics effects in the correlation functions.An improved formulation of the Gamow correction is presented which gives good agreements with the correct calculations
Brownian motion of solitons in a Bose-Einstein condensate.
Aycock, Lauren M; Hurst, Hilary M; Efimkin, Dmitry K; Genkina, Dina; Lu, Hsin-I; Galitski, Victor M; Spielman, I B
2017-03-07
We observed and controlled the Brownian motion of solitons. We launched solitonic excitations in highly elongated [Formula: see text] Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) and showed that a dilute background of impurity atoms in a different internal state dramatically affects the soliton. With no impurities and in one dimension (1D), these solitons would have an infinite lifetime, a consequence of integrability. In our experiment, the added impurities scatter off the much larger soliton, contributing to its Brownian motion and decreasing its lifetime. We describe the soliton's diffusive behavior using a quasi-1D scattering theory of impurity atoms interacting with a soliton, giving diffusion coefficients consistent with experiment.
Hydrodynamic flow of expanding Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brazhnyi, V. A.; Konotop, V. V.; Kamchatnov, A. M.
2003-01-01
We study expansion of quasi-one-dimensional (1D) Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) after switching off the confining harmonic potential. Exact solution of dynamical equations is obtained in the framework of the hydrodynamic approximation and it is compared with the direct numerical simulation of the full problem, showing excellent agreement at realistic values of physical parameters. We analyze the maximum of the current density and estimate the velocity of expansion. The results of the 1D analysis provides also qualitative understanding of some properties of BEC expansion observed in experiments
Observation of Weak Collapse in a Bose-Einstein Condensate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christoph Eigen
2016-12-01
Full Text Available We study the collapse of an attractive atomic Bose-Einstein condensate prepared in the uniform potential of an optical-box trap. We characterize the critical point for collapse and the collapse dynamics, observing universal behavior in agreement with theoretical expectations. Most importantly, we observe a clear experimental signature of the counterintuitive weak collapse, namely, that making the system more unstable can result in a smaller particle loss. We experimentally determine the scaling laws that govern the weak-collapse atom loss, providing a benchmark for the general theories of nonlinear wave phenomena.
Propagation of Sound in a Bose-Einstein Condensate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andrews, M.R.; Kurn, D.M.; Miesner, H.; Durfee, D.S.; Townsend, C.G.; Inouye, S.; Ketterle, W.
1997-01-01
Sound propagation has been studied in a magnetically trapped dilute Bose-Einstein condensate. Localized excitations were induced by suddenly modifying the trapping potential using the optical dipole force of a focused laser beam. The resulting propagation of sound was observed using a novel technique, rapid sequencing of nondestructive phase-contrast images. The speed of sound was determined as a function of density and found to be consistent with Bogoliubov theory. This method may generally be used to observe high-lying modes and perhaps second sound. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Transition to instability in a kicked Bose-Einstein condensate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Chuanwei; Raizen, Mark G.; Liu Jie; Niu Qian
2004-01-01
A periodically kicked ring of a Bose-Einstein condensate is considered as a nonlinear generalization of the quantum kicked rotor. For weak interactions between atoms, periodic motion (antiresonance) becomes quasiperiodic (quantum beating) but remains stable. There exists a critical strength of interactions beyond which quasiperiodic motion becomes chaotic, resulting in an instability of the condensate manifested by exponential growth in the number of noncondensed atoms. Similar behavior is observed for dynamically localized states (essentially quasiperiodic motions), where stability remains for weak interactions but is destroyed by strong interactions
The forces on a single interacting Bose-Einstein condensate
Thu, Nguyen Van
2018-04-01
Using double parabola approximation for a single Bose-Einstein condensate confined between double slabs we proved that in grand canonical ensemble (GCE) the ground state with Robin boundary condition (BC) is favored, whereas in canonical ensemble (CE) our system undergoes from ground state with Robin BC to the one with Dirichlet BC in small-L region and vice versa for large-L region and phase transition in space of the ground state is the first order. The surface tension force and Casimir force are also considered in both CE and GCE in detail.
Fermi–Bose mixture in mixed dimensions
Caracanhas, M. A.; Schreck, F.; Morais Smith, C.
2017-11-01
One of the challenging goals in the studies of many-body physics with ultracold atoms is the creation of a topological {p}x+{{{i}}{p}}y superfluid for identical fermions in two dimensions (2D). The expectations of reaching the critical temperature T c through p-wave Feshbach resonance in spin-polarized fermionic gases have soon faded away because on approaching the resonance, the system becomes unstable due to inelastic-collision processes. Here, we consider an alternative scenario in which a single-component degenerate gas of fermions in 2D is paired via phonon-mediated interactions provided by a 3D BEC background. Within the weak-coupling regime, we calculate the critical temperature T c for the fermionic pair formation using the Bethe–Salpeter formalism, and show that it is significantly boosted by higher-order diagrammatic terms, such as phonon dressing and vertex corrections. We describe in detail an experimental scheme to implement our proposal, and show that the long-sought p-wave superfluid is at reach with state-of-the-art experiments.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naylor, B.
2016-01-01
This thesis presents experimental results performed with quantum gases of Chromium atoms. The specificity of Chromium resides in its large electronic spin s=3 and non negligible dipole-dipole interaction between atoms. We produced a new quantum gas, a Fermi sea of the 53 Cr isotope. Optimization of the co-evaporation with the 52 Cr bosonic isotope leads to 10 3 atoms at T/T F = 0.66 ± 0.08. We obtained new results on thermodynamics of a spinor Bose gas. By 'shock cooling' a thermal multi-spin component gas, we find that the condensation dynamics is affected by spin changing collisions. We also demonstrate a new cooling mechanism based on the spin degrees of freedom when the Bose Einstein condensate (BEC) is in the lowest energy spin state. Dipolar interactions thermally populate spin excited states at low magnetic eld. The purification of the BEC is obtained by selectively removing these thermal atoms. Finally, we present spin dynamics experiments. In the first experiment, spin dynamics following the preparation of atoms in a double well trap in opposite stretch spin states allows the measurement of the last unknown scattering length of 52 Cr: a 0 = (13.5+15-10) a B (with a B being the Bohr radius). We then present preliminary results performed in a 3D lattice and in the bulk, where spin excitation is performed by a spin rotation. We investigate for different experimental configurations which theory with or without quantum correlations fits best our data. (author)
SHIELD: Neutral Gas Kinematics and Dynamics
McNichols, Andrew T.; Teich, Yaron G.; Nims, Elise; Cannon, John M.; Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Bernstein-Cooper, Elijah Z.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Józsa, Gyula I. G.; McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Salzer, John J.; Skillman, Evan D.; Warren, Steven R.; Dolphin, Andrew; Elson, E. C.; Haurberg, Nathalie; Ott, Jürgen; Saintonge, Amelie; Cave, Ian; Hagen, Cedric; Huang, Shan; Janowiecki, Steven; Marshall, Melissa V.; Thomann, Clara M.; Van Sistine, Angela
2016-11-01
We present kinematic analyses of the 12 galaxies in the “Survey of H I in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs” (SHIELD). We use multi-configuration interferometric observations of the H I 21 cm emission line from the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA)22 to produce image cubes at a variety of spatial and spectral resolutions. Both two- and three-dimensional fitting techniques are employed in an attempt to derive inclination-corrected rotation curves for each galaxy. In most cases, the comparable magnitudes of velocity dispersion and projected rotation result in degeneracies that prohibit unambiguous circular velocity solutions. We thus make spatially resolved position-velocity cuts, corrected for inclination using the stellar components, to estimate the circular rotation velocities. We find {v}{circ} ≤slant 30 km s-1 for the entire survey population. Baryonic masses are calculated using single-dish H I fluxes from Arecibo and stellar masses derived from HST and Spitzer imaging. Comparison is made with total dynamical masses estimated from the position-velocity analysis. The SHIELD galaxies are then placed on the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation. There exists an empirical threshold rotational velocity, V {}{rot} < 15 km s-1, below which current observations cannot differentiate coherent rotation from pressure support. The SHIELD galaxies are representative of an important population of galaxies whose properties cannot be described by current models of rotationally dominated galaxy dynamics.
Gravitational Thermodynamics for Interstellar Gas and Weakly Degenerate Quantum Gas
Zhu, Ding Yu; Shen, Jian Qi
2016-03-01
The temperature distribution of an ideal gas in gravitational fields has been identified as a longstanding problem in thermodynamics and statistical physics. According to the principle of entropy increase (i.e., the principle of maximum entropy), we apply a variational principle to the thermodynamical entropy functional of an ideal gas and establish a relationship between temperature gradient and gravitational field strength. As an illustrative example, the temperature and density distributions of an ideal gas in two simple but typical gravitational fields (i.e., a uniform gravitational field and an inverse-square gravitational field) are considered on the basis of entropic and hydrostatic equilibrium conditions. The effect of temperature inhomogeneity in gravitational fields is also addressed for a weakly degenerate quantum gas (e.g., Fermi and Bose gas). The present gravitational thermodynamics of a gas would have potential applications in quantum fluids, e.g., Bose-Einstein condensates in Earth’s gravitational field and the temperature fluctuation spectrum in cosmic microwave background radiation.
New state of matter: Bose-Einstein condensation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1995-01-01
70 years after work by the Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose led Einstein to predict the existence of a new state of matter, the Bose-Einstein condensate has finally been seen. The discovery was made in July by a team from Colorado, and was followed one month later by a second sighting at Rice University at Houston, Texas. It is Bose's theoretical framework governing the behaviour of the particles we now call bosons which led to Einstein's prediction. Unlike fermions, which obey the Pauli exclusion principle of only one resident particle per allowed quantum state, any number of bosons can pack into an identical quantum state. This led Einstein to suggest that under certain conditions, bosons would lose their individual identities, condensing into a kind of 'superboson'. This condensate forms when the quantum mechanical waves of neighbouring bosons overlap, hiding the identity of the individual particles. Such a condition is difficult to achieve, since most long-lived bosons are composite particles which tend to interact and stick together before a condensate can emerge. Extremely low temperatures and high densities are required to overcome this problem. As bosons lose energy and cool down, their wavelengths become longer, and they can be packed close enough together to merge into a condensate. Up until now, however, the extreme conditions needed have not been attainable. Nevertheless, hints of the Bose- Einstein condensate have been inferred in phenomena such as superconductivity and liquid helium superfluidity. Condensates could also play an important role in particle physics and cosmology, explaining, for example, why the pion as a bound quark-antiquark state is so much lighter than the three-quark proton. A hunt to create a pure Bose- Einstein condensate has been underway for over 15 years, with different groups employing different techniques to cool their bosons. The two recent successes have been achieved by incorporating several
Bose-Einstein correlations in W+ W- events at LEP2
van Dalen, Jorn A
2000-01-01
Analyses of Bose-Einstein Correlations in w+w- events at LEP2 by the four LEP collaborations are presented. In particular, Bose-Einstein correlations in w+w- overlap are investigated and the possible existence of these correlations between particles coming from different W's, which may influence the W mass measurements in the fully-hadronic channel e+e- --+ w+w- --+ qiihq3ij<. No evidence for such an inter-W Bose-Einstein correlation is found by L3 and ALEPH. Possible indication of these correlations by DELPHI is mentioned.
Ground State of Bosons in Bose-Fermi Mixture with Spin-Orbit Coupling
Sakamoto, Ryohei; Ono, Yosuke; Hatsuda, Rei; Shiina, Kenta; Arahata, Emiko; Mori, Hiroyuki
2017-07-01
We study an effect of spin-1/2 fermions on the ground state of a Bose system with equal Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling. By using mean-field and tight-binding approximations, we show the ground state phase diagram of the Bose system in the spin-orbit coupled Bose-Fermi mixture and find that the characteristic phase domain, where a spin current of fermions may be induced, can exist even in the presence of a significantly large number of fermions.
Mid-Pleistocene Acheulean-like stone technology of the Bose basin, South China.
Yamei, H; Potts, R; Baoyin, Y; Zhengtang, G; Deino, A; Wei, W; Clark, J; Guangmao, X; Weiwen, H
2000-03-03
Stone artifacts from the Bose basin, South China, are associated with tektites dated to 803,000 +/- 3000 years ago and represent the oldest known large cutting tools (LCTs) in East Asia. Bose toolmaking is compatible with Mode 2 (Acheulean) technologies in Africa in its targeted manufacture and biased spatial distribution of LCTs, large-scale flaking, and high flake scar counts. Acheulean-like tools in the mid-Pleistocene of South China imply that Mode 2 technical advances were manifested in East Asia contemporaneously with handaxe technology in Africa and western Eurasia. Bose lithic technology is associated with a tektite airfall and forest burning.
Condensation of an ideal gas obeying non-Abelian statistics.
Mirza, Behrouz; Mohammadzadeh, Hosein
2011-09-01
We consider the thermodynamic geometry of an ideal non-Abelian gas. We show that, for a certain value of the fractional parameter and at the relevant maximum value of fugacity, the thermodynamic curvature has a singular point. This indicates a condensation such as Bose-Einstein condensation for non-Abelian statistics and we work out the phase transition temperature in various dimensions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brand, Joachim; Reinhardt, William P.
2002-01-01
The connection between quantized vortices and dark solitons in a waveguidelike trap geometry is explored in the framework of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation. Variation of the transverse confinement leads from the quasi-one-dimensional (1D) regime, where solitons are stable, to 2D (or 3D) confinement, where soliton stripes are subject to a transverse modulational instability known as the 'snake instability'. We present numerical evidence of a regime of intermediate confinement where solitons decay into single, deformed vortices with solitonic properties rather than vortex pairs as associated with the 'snake' metaphor. Further relaxing the transverse confinement leads to the production of two and then three vortices, which correlates perfectly with a Bogoliubov stability analysis. The decay of a stationary dark soliton (or, planar node) into a single solitonic vortex is predicted to be experimentally observable in a 3D harmonically confined dilute-gas Bose-Einstein condensate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leonard, J.
2003-11-01
In the vicinity of Bose-Einstein condensation, the collisional properties of a dilute gas of metastable helium (He 2 3 S) are governed by the rate of ionizing Penning collisions and the s-wave scattering length. In order to investigate these properties, we have carried out new photo-association experiments in which a pair of free atoms absorbs a photon to produce a molecule in an excited electronic state. In particular, we have observed 'giant dimers' for which the autoionizing process is inhibited. Accurate spectra have been acquired by the use of an original 'calorimetric' detection scheme. In addition, we have calculated long-range electronic potentials for the 2 3 S + 2 3 P system. Our asymptotic approach is described in detail, which reproduces the measured binding energies of the giant dimers with very good accuracy. (author)
Knotted Solitons in an Interacting Mixture of a Charged and a Neutral Superfluid for Neutron Stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ren Jirong; Guo Heng; Zhang Xinhui; Li Ran
2009-01-01
By making use of the decomposition of U(1) gauge potential theory and the φ-mapping method we discuss a mixture of interacting neutral and charged Bose condensates, which is supposed being realized in the interior of neutron stars in the form of a coexistent neutron superfluid and protonic superconductor. We propose that this system possesses vortex lines and two classes of knotted solitons. The topological charge of the vortex lines are characterized by the Hopf indices and the Brower degrees of φ-mapping, and the knotted solitons are described by nontrivial Hopf invariant and the BF action respectively.
Topological Aspects in an Interacting Mixture of a Charged and a Neutral Superfluid in Neutron Stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ji-Rong, Ren; Heng, Guo; Xin-Hui, Zhang; Ran, Li
2009-01-01
By making use of the decomposition of U(1) gauge potential theory and the ø-mapping method we discuss a mixture of interacting neutral and charged Bose condensates, which is supposed to be realized in the interior of neutron stars in the form of a coexistent neutron superfluid and protonic superconductor. We propose that this system possesses vortex line knotted solitons and the topological charges of vortex lines are characterized by the winding numbers of the ø-mapping. Furthermore the spatial bifurcation of vortices is also discussed. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)
Lattice-ramp-induced dynamics in an interacting Bose-Bose mixture
Wernsdorfer, J.; Snoek, M.; Hofstetter, W.
2010-01-01
We investigate a bosonic quantum gas consisting of two interacting species in an optical lattice at zero and finite temperature. The equilibrium properties and dynamics of this system are obtained by means of the Gutzwiller mean-field method. In particular we model recent experiments where the
Comparative studies of many-body corrections to an interacting Bose-Einstein condensate
Watabe, Shohei; Ohashi, Yoji
2013-11-01
We compare many-body theories describing fluctuation corrections to the mean-field theory in a weakly interacting Bose-condensed gas. Using a generalized random-phase approximation, we include both density fluctuations and fluctuations in the particle-particle scattering channel in a consistent manner. We also separately examine effects of the fluctuations within the framework of the random-phase approximation. Effects of fluctuations in the particle-particle scattering channel are also separately examined by using the many-body T-matrix approximation. We assess these approximations with respect to the transition temperature Tc, the order of phase transition, as well as the so-called Nepomnyashchii-Nepomnyashchii identity, which states the vanishing off-diagonal self-energy in the low-energy and low-momentum limit. Since the construction of a consistent theory for interacting bosons which satisfies various required conditions is a long-standing problem in cold atom physics, our results would be useful for this important challenge.
Coherent inflationary dynamics for Bose-Einstein condensates crossing a quantum critical point
Feng, Lei; Clark, Logan W.; Gaj, Anita; Chin, Cheng
2017-12-01
Quantum phase transitions, transitions between many-body ground states, are of extensive interest in research ranging from condensed-matter physics to cosmology1-4. Key features of the phase transitions include a stage with rapidly growing new order, called inflation in cosmology5, followed by the formation of topological defects6-8. How inflation is initiated and evolves into topological defects remains a hot topic of debate. Ultracold atomic gas offers a pristine and tunable platform to investigate quantum critical dynamics9-21. We report the observation of coherent inflationary dynamics across a quantum critical point in driven Bose-Einstein condensates. The inflation manifests in the exponential growth of density waves and populations in well-resolved momentum states. After the inflation stage, extended coherent dynamics is evident in both real and momentum space. We present an intuitive description of the quantum critical dynamics in our system and demonstrate the essential role of phase fluctuations in the formation of topological defects.
Physics of Ultra-Cold Matter Atomic Clouds, Bose-Einstein Condensates and Rydberg Plasmas
Mendonça, J T
2013-01-01
The advent of laser cooling of atoms led to the discovery of ultra-cold matter, with temperatures below liquid Helium, which displays a variety of new physical phenomena. Physics of Ultra-Cold Matter gives an overview of this recent area of science, with a discussion of its main results and a description of its theoretical concepts and methods. Ultra-cold matter can be considered in three distinct phases: ultra-cold gas, Bose Einstein condensate, and Rydberg plasmas. This book gives an integrated view of this new area of science at the frontier between atomic physics, condensed matter, and plasma physics. It describes these three distinct phases while exploring the differences, as well as the sometimes unexpected similarities, of their respective theoretical methods. This book is an informative guide for researchers, and the benefits are a result from an integrated view of a very broad area of research, which is limited in previous books about this subject. The main unifying tool explored in this book is the ...
Neutral surfaces in neutral four-spaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gary Jensen
1990-11-01
Full Text Available Properties of the Gauss map of neutral surfaces are studied. Special attention is given to surfaces of parallel, or zero, mean curvature. Bilagrangian structures are defined and used in ways analogous to the use of complex structures in the Riemannian case. The nonsimplicity of the structure group SO(2,2 is used to factor the Gauss map and to construct analogs of the twistor space, called in this context reflector space.
The environmental dependence of neutral hydrogen in the gimic simulations
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Cunnama, D
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We use the Galaxies-Intergalactic Medium Interaction Calculation (GIMIC) cosmological hydrodynamic simulation at z = 0 to study the distribution and environmental dependence of neutral hydrogen (Hi) gas in the outskirts of simulated galaxies...
ISX-B neutral beams and the beam target experiment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bates, S.C.; Edmonds, P.H.; Kim, J.; Bush, C.E.; Massengill, L.A.; Overbey, D.R.; Pearce, J.W.
1980-10-01
This report describes the hardware and operation of the ISX neutral beamlines as well as an experiment done to verify estimates of the neutral power injected into the tokamak. Tangential coinjection of megawatt levels of 30 to 40-keV neutrals into the tokamak has made the study of high-beta plasmas in ISX possible. These power levels were achieved with high reliability (over 90%) by two neutral beamlines with design power ratings of 900 kW of H/sup 0/ (upgraded to 1.5 MW) each. The neutral beamlines consist of a duoPIGatron plasma generator, acceleration grids, a gas neutralization cell, an ion deflection magnet, beam calorimetry, high-speed helium cryocondensation vacuum pumps, and associated electrical and control systems. The beamlines and their operation are described briefly with an emphasis on their relation to injection into a plasma. Neutral injection geometry with respect to the tokamak is given.
Transnational Quantum: Quantum Physics in India through the Lens of Satyendranath Bose
Banerjee, Somaditya
2016-08-01
This paper traces the social and cultural dimensions of quantum physics in colonial India where Satyendranath Bose worked. By focusing on Bose's approach towards the quantum and his collaboration with Albert Einstein, I argue that his physics displayed both the localities of doing science in early twentieth century India as well as a cosmopolitan dimension. He transformed the fundamental new concept of the light quantum developed by Einstein in 1905 within the social and political context of colonial India. This cross-pollination of the local with the global is termed here as the locally rooted cosmopolitan nature of Bose's science. The production of new knowledge through quantum statistics by Bose show the co-constructed nature of physics and the transnational nature of the quantum.
Exact solution of the infinite-range-hopping Bose-Hubbard model
Bru, J B
2003-01-01
The thermodynamic behavior of the Bose-Hubbard model is solved for any temperature and any chemical potential. It is found that there is a range of critical coupling strengths $\\lambda_{c1} < \\lambda_{c2} < \\lambda_{c3} < \\dots $ in this model. For coupling strengths between $\\lambda_{c,k}$ and $% \\lambda_{c,k+1}$, Bose-Einstein condensation is suppressed at densities near the integer values $\\rho = 1, \\dots, k$ with an energy gap. This is known as a Mott insulator phase and was previously shown only for zero temperature. In the context of ultra-cold atoms, this phenomenon was experimentally observed in 2002 \\cite{BoseCondInsulator1} but, in the Bose-Hubbard model, it manifests itself also in the pressure-volume diagram at high pressures. It is suggested that this phenomenon persists for finite-range hopping and might also be experimentally observable.
The Evolution of Hyperedge Cardinalities and Bose-Einstein Condensation in Hypernetworks.
Guo, Jin-Li; Suo, Qi; Shen, Ai-Zhong; Forrest, Jeffrey
2016-09-27
To depict the complex relationship among nodes and the evolving process of a complex system, a Bose-Einstein hypernetwork is proposed in this paper. Based on two basic evolutionary mechanisms, growth and preference jumping, the distribution of hyperedge cardinalities is studied. The Poisson process theory is used to describe the arrival process of new node batches. And, by using the Poisson process theory and a continuity technique, the hypernetwork is analyzed and the characteristic equation of hyperedge cardinalities is obtained. Additionally, an analytical expression for the stationary average hyperedge cardinality distribution is derived by employing the characteristic equation, from which Bose-Einstein condensation in the hypernetwork is obtained. The theoretical analyses in this paper agree with the conducted numerical simulations. This is the first study on the hyperedge cardinality in hypernetworks, where Bose-Einstein condensation can be regarded as a special case of hypernetworks. Moreover, a condensation degree is also discussed with which Bose-Einstein condensation can be classified.
Non-equilibrium coherence dynamics in one-dimensional Bose gases
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hofferberth, S.; Lesanovsky, Igor; Fischer, B.
2007-01-01
, it remains a challenge to probe the dynamics by which this equilibrium state is reached. Here we present a direct experimental study of the coherence dynamics in both isolated and coupled degenerate 1D Bose gases. Dynamic splitting is used to create two 1D systems in a phase coherent state. The time...... evolution of the coherence is revealed through local phase shifts of the subsequently observed interference patterns. Completely isolated 1D Bose gases are observed to exhibit universal sub-exponential coherence decay, in excellent agreement with recent predictions. For two coupled 1D Bose gases...... range of physical systems, such as superconductors, quantum Hall systems, superfluid helium and spin systems. Our experiments studying coherence dynamics show that 1D Bose gases are ideally suited for investigating this class of phenomena....
Renormalization group theory of the critical properties of the interacting bose fluid
Creswick, Richard J.; Wiegel, F.W.
1982-01-01
Starting from a functional integral representation of the partition function we apply the renormalization group to the interacting Bose fluid. A closed form for the renormalization equation is derived and the critical exponents are calculated in 4-ε dimensions.
Equilibrium and Non-Equilibrium Condensation Phenomena in Tuneable 3D and 2D Bose Gases
2016-04-01
AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2016-0009 Equilibrium and non- equilibrium condensation phenomena in tuneable 3D and 2D Bose gases Zoran Hadzibabic THE CHANCELLOR...31-Aug-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Equilibrium and non- equilibrium condensation phenomena in tuneable 3D and 2D Bose gases 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER... equilibrium and non- equilibrium many-body phenomena, trapping ultracold atomic gases in different geometries including both 3 and 2 spatial dimensions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The interstellar gas in galaxies is heated by stellar radiation and cosmic rays and it also cools through radiation. We take a detailed look at these processes in order to understand the thermal state of equilibrium of the interstellar gas. This gas also manifests itself in different 'phases'– molecular, neutral atomic and ionized ...
Quantum Rabi model in a superfluid Bose-Einstein condensate
Felicetti, S.; Romero, G.; Solano, E.; Sabín, C.
2017-09-01
We propose a quantum simulation of the quantum Rabi model in an atomic quantum dot, which is a single atom in a tight optical trap coupled to the quasiparticle modes of a superfluid Bose-Einstein condensate. This widely tunable setup allows us to simulate the ultrastrong coupling regime of light-matter interaction in a system which enjoys an amenable characteristic time scale, paving the way for an experimental analysis of the transition between the Jaynes-Cummings and the quantum Rabi dynamics using cold-atom systems. Our scheme can be naturally extended to simulate multiqubit quantum Rabi models. In particular, we discuss the appearance of effective two-qubit interactions due to phononic exchange, among other features.
Bose-Einstein Correlations in Deep-Inelastic Muon Scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anthony, Perry Lee [MIT
1990-01-01
Bose-Einstein (B-E) correlations between like-sign pion pairs produced in deep-inelastic muon-nucleon scattering at 490 Ge V are used to measure the pion source distribution. Measuring the enhancement as a function of $M^2 =(p_1 {-p}_2 )^2$ (4-vectors) gave a source size of R=l .42 +/- 0.13 fm. Measuring this enhancement as a function of $\\Delta\\overrightarrow{p} _T\\mid^2$ gave a transverse source size of $R_T$ = 1.50 +/- 0.50 fm, while the enhancement as a function of $\\mid \\Delta\\overrightarrow{p}_{\\ell}\\mid$ gave a longitudinal source size of $R_{\\ell}$ = 2.90 +/- 1.23 fm. To check the validity of such a large longitudinal source size in the data, a thorough investigation of background and other possible sources of small $\\mid \\Delta\\overrightarrow{p} _{\\ell}\\mid$ pairs was made
Bose-Einstein condensation of alkaline earth atoms: ;{40}Ca.
Kraft, Sebastian; Vogt, Felix; Appel, Oliver; Riehle, Fritz; Sterr, Uwe
2009-09-25
We have achieved Bose-Einstein condensation of ;{40}Ca, the first for an alkaline earth element. The influence of elastic and inelastic collisions associated with the large ground-state s-wave scattering length of ;{40}Ca was measured. From these findings, an optimized loading and cooling scheme was developed that allowed us to condense about 2 x 10;{4} atoms after laser cooling in a two-stage magneto-optical trap and subsequent forced evaporation in a crossed dipole trap within less than 3 s. The condensation of an alkaline earth element opens novel opportunities for precision measurements on the narrow intercombination lines as well as investigations of molecular states at the ;{1}S-;{3}P asymptotes.
Thermalization and Bose-Einstein Condensation in Overpopulated Glasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blaizot, Jean-Paul; Gelis, François [Institut de Physique Théorique (URA 2306 du CNRS), CEA/DSM/Saclay, 91191, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Liao, Jinfeng [Physics Department and CEEM, Indiana University, 2401 N Milo B. Sampson Lane, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); RIKEN BNL Research Center, Bldg. 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); McLerran, Larry [Physics Department, Bldg. 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); RIKEN BNL Research Center, Bldg. 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Venugopalan, Raju [Physics Department, Bldg. 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)
2013-05-02
We report recent progress on understanding the thermalization of the quark-gluon plasma during the early stage in a heavy ion collision. The initially high overpopulation in the far-from-equilibrium gluonic matter (“Glasma”) is shown to play a crucial role. The strongly interacting nature (and thus fast evolution) naturally arises as an emergent property of this pre-equilibrium matter where the intrinsic coupling is weak but the highly occupied gluon states coherently amplify the scattering. A possible transient Bose-Einstein Condensate is argued to form dynamically on a rather general ground. We develop a kinetic approach for describing its evolution toward thermalization as well as the onset of condensation.
Thermalization and Bose-Einstein Condensation in Overpopulated Glasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blaizot, Jean-Paul; Gelis, François; Liao, Jinfeng; McLerran, Larry; Venugopalan, Raju
2013-01-01
We report recent progress on understanding the thermalization of the quark-gluon plasma during the early stage in a heavy ion collision. The initially high overpopulation in the far-from-equilibrium gluonic matter (“Glasma”) is shown to play a crucial role. The strongly interacting nature (and thus fast evolution) naturally arises as an emergent property of this pre-equilibrium matter where the intrinsic coupling is weak but the highly occupied gluon states coherently amplify the scattering. A possible transient Bose-Einstein Condensate is argued to form dynamically on a rather general ground. We develop a kinetic approach for describing its evolution toward thermalization as well as the onset of condensation
Black Hole Horizons and Bose-Einstein Condensation
Ferrari, Frank
2016-01-01
Consider a particle sitting at a fixed position outside of a stable black hole. If the system is heated up, the black hole horizon grows and there should exist a critical temperature above which the particle enters the black hole interior. We solve a simple model describing exactly this situation: a large N matrix quantum mechanics modeling a fixed D-particle in a black hole background. We show that indeed a striking phenomenon occurs: above some critical temperature, there is a non-perturbative Bose-Einstein condensation of massless strings. The transition, even though precisely defined by the presence of the condensate, cannot be sharply detected by measurements made in a finite amount of time. The order parameter is fundamentally non-local in time and corresponds to infinite-time correlations.
Relativistic Bose-Einstein condensates thin-shell wormholes
Richarte, M. G.; Salako, I. G.; Graça, J. P. Morais; Moradpour, H.; Övgün, Ali
2017-10-01
We construct traversable thin-shell wormholes which are asymptotically Ads/dS applying the cut and paste procedure for the case of an acoustic metric created by a relativistic Bose-Einstein condensate. We examine several definitions of the flare-out condition along with the violation or not of the energy conditions for such relativistic geometries. Under reasonable assumptions about the equation of state of the matter located at the shell, we concentrate on the mechanical stability of wormholes under radial perturbation preserving the original spherical symmetry. To do so, we consider linearized perturbations around static solutions. We obtain that dS acoustic wormholes remain stable under radial perturbations as long as they have small radius; such wormholes with finite radius do not violate the strong/null energy condition. Besides, we show that stable Ads wormhole satisfy some of the energy conditions whereas unstable Ads wormhole with large radii violate them.
Superfluid-Quasicrystal in a Bose-Einstein Condensate
Hou, Junpeng; Hu, Haiping; Sun, Kuei; Zhang, Chuanwei
2018-02-01
A quasicrystal is a class of ordered structures defying conventional classification of solid crystals and may carry classically forbidden (e.g., fivefold) rotational symmetries. In view of long-sought supersolids, a natural question is whether a superfluid can spontaneously form quasicrystalline order that is not possessed by the underlying Hamiltonian, forming "superfluid-quasicrystals." Here we show that a superfluid-quasicrystal stripe state with the minimal fivefold rotational symmetry can be realized as the ground state of a Bose-Einstein condensate within a practical experimental scheme. There exists a rich phase diagram consisting of various superfluid-quasicrystal, supersolid, and plane-wave phases. Our scheme can be generalized for generating other higher-order (e.g., sevenfold) quasicrystal states, and provides a platform for investigating such new exotic quantum matter.
Solitons and rogue waves in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates
Li, Sitai; Prinari, Barbara; Biondini, Gino
2018-02-01
We present a general classification of one-soliton solutions as well as families of rogue-wave solutions for F =1 spinor Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). These solutions are obtained from the inverse scattering transform for a focusing matrix nonlinear Schrödinger equation which models condensates in the case of attractive mean-field interactions and ferromagnetic spin-exchange interactions. In particular, we show that when no background is present, all one-soliton solutions are reducible via unitary transformations to a combination of oppositely polarized solitonic solutions of single-component BECs. On the other hand, we show that when a nonzero background is present, not all matrix one-soliton solutions are reducible to a simple combination of scalar solutions. Finally, by taking suitable limits of all the solutions on a nonzero background we also obtain three families of rogue-wave (i.e., rational) solutions.
Ground State Properties of a Homogeneous Bose-Einstein Condensate
Smith, Robert; Gotlibovych, Igor; Schmidutz, Tobias; Gaunt, Alex; Navon, Nir; Hadzibabic, Zoran
2014-05-01
We will present measurements of the coherence, energy and free expansion of a quasi-homogeneous atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in an optical box potential. We have measured the ground state wave function of a trapped quasi-pure BEC in momentum space using Bragg spectroscopy and compare this with the real-space wave function. We find excellent quantitative agreement with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle and also confirm the expected scaling of the momentum uncertainty with the box length. In addition, by varying the condensate atom number, we have studied the effect of interactions on the momentum distribution and mean-field energy of the condensate. Finally, we will present measurements of the evolution in time of both the mean-field energy and the momentum distribution of a freely expanding condensate.
Spatial dynamics and spin squeezing in Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thanvanthri, Sulakshana; Dutton, Zachary
2007-01-01
We develop a cumulant based formalism to deterministically calculate the lowest order quantum fluctuations of a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate. We use this to study spin squeezing induced by the atom-atom interaction nonlinearity. Our formalism naturally accounts for the multimode spatial description of the condensate, extending previous spin squeezing work which assumed a single spatial mode. We study spin squeezing in both the miscible and immiscible (phase separating) regimes for the scattering lengths. In the miscible regime, we find the squeezing parameter deviates very little from the single spatial mode approach, while in the phase separating regime, we find the squeezing is slightly reduced, though significant squeezing still occurs
All-optical production of chromium Bose-Einstein condensates
Beaufils, Q.; Chicireanu, R.; Zanon, T.; Laburthe-Tolra, B.; Maréchal, E.; Vernac, L.; Keller, J.-C.; Gorceix, O.
2008-06-01
We report on the production of Cr52 Bose-Einstein condensates with an all-optical method. We first load 5×106 metastable chromium atoms in a one-dimensional (1D) far-off-resonance optical trap (FORT) from a magneto-optical trap, by combining the use of radio-frequency sweeps and depumping toward the S25 state. The atoms are then pumped to the absolute ground state, and transferred into a crossed FORT in which they are evaporated. The fast loading of the 1D FORT ( 35ms 1/e time) and the use of relatively fast evaporative ramps allow us to obtain in 20s about 15000 atoms in an almost pure condensate.
Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics of Continuously Monitored Bose-Condensed Atoms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mark D. Lee
2015-09-01
Full Text Available We study cavity quantum electrodynamics of Bose-condensed atoms that are subjected to continuous monitoring of the light leaking out of the cavity. Due to a given detection record of each stochastic realization, individual runs spontaneously break the symmetry of the spatial profile of the atom cloud and this symmetry can be restored by considering ensemble averages over many realizations. We show that the cavity optomechanical excitations of the condensate can be engineered to target specific collective modes. This is achieved by exploiting the spatial structure and symmetries of the collective modes and light fields. The cavity fields can be utilized both for strong driving of the collective modes and for their measurement. In the weak excitation limit the condensate–cavity system may be employed as a sensitive phonon detector which operates by counting photons outside the cavity that have been selectively scattered by desired phonons.
Asymptotic localization in the Bose-Hubbard model
Bols, Alex; De Roeck, Wojciech
2018-02-01
We consider the Bose-Hubbard model. Our focus is on many-body localization, which was described by many authors in such models, even in the absence of disorder. Since our work is rigorous, and since we believe that the localization in this type of models is not strictly valid in the infinite-time limit, we necessarily restrict our study to "asymptotic localization" also known as "quasi-localization:" We prove that transport and thermalization are small beyond perturbation theory in the limit of large particle density. Our theorem takes the form of a many-body Nekhoroshev estimate. An interesting and new aspect of this model is the following: The localization cannot be inferred from a lack of hybridization between zero-hopping eigenstates. Naively speaking, all these eigenstates appear resonant and one has to move to a dressed basis to see the absence of resonances that are responsible for (quasi-)localization.
Design of the ITER Neutral Beam injectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hemsworth, R.S.; Feist, J.; Hanada, M.; Heinemann, B.; Inoue, T.; Kuessel, E.; Kulygin, V.; Krylov, A.; Lotte, P.; Miyamoto, K.; Miyamoto, N.; Murdoch, D.; Nagase, A.; Ohara, Y.; Okumura, Y.; Pamela, J.; Panasenkov, A.; Shibata, K.; Tanii, M.
1996-01-01
This paper describes the Neutral Beam Injection system which is presently being designed in Europe, Japan and Russia, with co-ordination by the Joint Central Team of ITER at Naka, Japan. The proposed system consists of three negative ion based neutral injectors, delivering a total of 50 MW of 1 MeV D 0 to the ITER plasma for pulse length of ≥1000 s. The injectors each use a single caesiated volume arc discharge negative ion source, and a multi-grid, multi-aperture accelerator, to produce about 40 A of 1 MeV D - . This will be neutralized in a sub-divided gas neutralizer, which has a conversion efficiency of about 60%. The charged fraction of the beam emerging from the neutralizer is dumped in an electrostatic residual ion dump. A water cooled calorimeter can be moved into the beam path to intercept the neutral beam, allowing commissioning of the injector independent of ITER. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
Bose-fermi symmetries and SUSY in nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Casten, R.F.
1986-01-01
Most of the comparison with theory has compared energy levels and we have seen many beautiful examples of one-to-one level correspondences, sometimes supported with a few B(E2) values. However, what we really need to check, the author thinks, is the structural correspondence, to make sure these levels really correspond to each other, and that the energy level agreement is not just accidental; for that we need to look at transfer reactions, and more B(E2)'s. This brings up the very important question of the transfer operator. The author hopes that its importance can be seen in recent cases where a few B(E2)'s for a few transfer strengths have substantially changed the correspondence between theoretical and experimental levels even though the overall energy level agreement is neither better or worse. So it's clearly sensitive to that question. Also cases have been seen now where several different supergroups have been applied to the same regions, U(6/4) and U(6/20) for example, to the mass 130 region, and so the question of the single-particle spaces and the single-particle energies is an important one. The question of microscopic understanding of the parameters and the interactions, these bose-fermi symmetries is important since it probes the underlying physical basis. And finally there have be some very interesting, what the author calls ''exotic'' extensions of bose-fermi symmetry ideas presented at this meeting. One is the extension to odd-odd nuclei, another is the generalized SUSY extension that can apply to transition regions, and this is the interesting beta decay calculations of Dobes that were reported yesterday, and probably some others the author has missed
PDX neutral-beam reionization losses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kugel, H.W.; Dylla, H.F.; Eubank, H.P.; Kozub, T.A.; Moore, R.; Schilling, G.; Stewart, L.D.; von Halle, A.; Williams, M.D.
1982-02-01
Reionization losses for 1.5 MW H 0 and 2 MW D 0 neutral beams injected into the PDX tokamak were studied using pressure gauges, photo-transistors, thermocouples, surface shielding, and surface sample analysis. Considerable outgassing of conventionally prepared 304SS ducts occurred during initial injections and gradually decreased with the cumulative absorption of beam power. Reionization power losses are presently about 5% in the ducts and about 12% total for a beamline including the duct. Present duct pressures are attributed primarily to gas from the ion source and neutralizer with much smaller contributions from residual wall desorption. Physical mechanisms for the observed duct outgassing are discussed
Measurement of Bose-Einstein Correlations in $e^{+}e^{-}\\to W^{+}W^{-}$ Events at LEP
Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; van Dalen, J A; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Ewers, A; Extermann, Pierre; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, Marta; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hakobyan, R S; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Hu, Y; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Käfer, D; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M H; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levchenko, P M; Li, C; Likhoded, S A; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangeol, D J J; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Niessen, T; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Palomares, C; Pandoulas, D; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pioppi, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofiev, D O; Prokofev, D; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rosenbleck, C; Roux, B; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Sanders, M P; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S V; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vásquez, R P; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Wienemann, P; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Yeh, S C; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B; Zöller, M
2002-01-01
Bose-Einstein correlations in W-pair production at LEP are investigated in a data sample of 629 pb$^{-1}$ collected by the L3 detector at $\\sqrt{s}=$ 189--209\\,GeV. Bose-Einstein correlations between pions within a W decay are observed and found to be in good agreement with those in light-quark Z decay. No evidence is found for Bose-Einstein correlations between hadrons coming from different W's in the same event.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sirjean, O
2003-06-01
At this writing, metastable helium (23S1) is the only example of Bose-Einstein condensation of an atom in an excited electronic state. The corresponding internal energy permits efficient and fast electronic detection of the atoms using a micro-channel plate detector (MCP). Moreover, this energy is responsible for ionizing collisions inside the magnetically trapped cloud (Penning ionization). These ions are also easily detected by the MCP. This thesis begins by describing the characteristics of the MCP detector. Next, the experimental procedure to achieve Bose-Einstein condensation is presented. These preliminaries are followed by a description of the experiments performed in order to determine the origin of the ions produced and by a presentation of some of the new experimental possibilities provided by the ion signal. For clouds with a low enough density, ions are mainly produced by collisions with the residual gas, and the signal is proportional to the number of trapped atoms. For clouds with a sufficiently high density, for example close to the condensation threshold, ions are mainly produced by 2- and 3-body collisions. In this case, the ion signal is also related to the density of the cloud. Depending on the density, the signal gives a real-time and 'non-destructive' measurement of these different characteristics. In particular, we have shown it is a valuable indicator of the onset of condensation, because it signals the sudden increase of density which then occurs. By studying the ion rate versus the density and the number of atoms for pure condensates and for thermal clouds at critical temperature, we have measured the collision rate constants for these ionizing processes. Our results are in agreement with theoretical predictions. (author)
Chemical potential of quasi-equilibrium magnon gas driven by pure spin current.
Demidov, V E; Urazhdin, S; Divinskiy, B; Bessonov, V D; Rinkevich, A B; Ustinov, V V; Demokritov, S O
2017-11-17
Pure spin currents provide the possibility to control the magnetization state of conducting and insulating magnetic materials. They allow one to increase or reduce the density of magnons, and achieve coherent dynamic states of magnetization reminiscent of the Bose-Einstein condensation. However, until now there was no direct evidence that the state of the magnon gas subjected to spin current can be treated thermodynamically. Here, we show experimentally that the spin current generated by the spin-Hall effect drives the magnon gas into a quasi-equilibrium state that can be described by the Bose-Einstein statistics. The magnon population function is characterized either by an increased effective chemical potential or by a reduced effective temperature, depending on the spin current polarization. In the former case, the chemical potential can closely approach, at large driving currents, the lowest-energy magnon state, indicating the possibility of spin current-driven Bose-Einstein condensation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tokumitu, A.; Miyake, K.; Yamada, K.
1993-01-01
The crossover between the Cooper-pair condensation and the Bose-Einstein condensation of ''di-electronic'' molecules in two-dimensional superconductors is investigated in detail on the basis of the Nozieres and Schmitt-Rink formalism. It is shown that temperature dependence of the chemical potential μ so calculated is classified into two classes as decreasing temperatures; i.e., class (a) where μ approaches the point of Bose-Einstein condensation of two-dimensional ideal Bose gas of ''di-electronic'' molecules, and class (b) where μ diverges positively along the line of BCS-type mean-field pair condensation. This feature is rather universal irrespective of strength V of the attractive interaction of the s-wave type. While the former class (a) has been found by Schmitt-Rink, Varma, and Ruckenstein, existence of the latter class (b) is recognized here. In the case where V is fixed, class (a) is realized for electron number density N smaller than N cr , which is an increasing function of V, and class (b) is realized for N larger than N cr . If N much-gt N cr in particular, there exists a regime, where the Fermi-liquid-like description is valid, between the BCS-type mean-field transition temperature and the Fermi temperature. In the situation where V is changed with N being fixed, low-temperature states for the strong-coupling case belong to class (a) while those for the weak-coupling case belong to class (b). Therefore, with decreasing V, the chemical potential μ(T), at temperatures far below the Fermi temperature, shows a discontinuous jump at V=V cr (N) corresponding to the transition from class (a) to (b)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sakmann, Kaspar
2010-07-21
In this thesis, the physics of trapped, interacting Bose-Einstein condensates is analyzed by solving the many-body Schroedinger equation. Particular emphasis is put on coherence, fragmentation and reduced density matrices. First, the ground state of a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate and its correlation functions are obtained. Then the dynamics of a bosonic Josephson junction is investigated by solving the time-dependent many-body Schroedinger equation numerically exactly. These are the first exact results in literature in this context. It is shown that the standard approximations of the field, Gross-Pitaevskii theory and the Bose-Hubbard model fail at weak interaction strength and within their range of expected validity. For stronger interactions the dynamics becomes strongly correlated and a new equilibration phenomenon is discovered. By comparison with exact results it is shown that a symmetry of the Bose- Hubbard model between attractive and repulsive interactions must be considered an artefact of the model. A conceptual innovation of this thesis are time-dependent Wannier functions. Equations of motion for time-dependent Wannier functions are derived from the variational principle. By comparison with exact results it is shown that lattice models can be greatly improved at little computational cost by letting the Wannier functions of a lattice model become time-dependent. (orig.)
Dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates in novel optical potentials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kueber, Johannes
2014-07-21
Matter wave interferometry offers a novel approach for high precision measurements, such as the determination of physical constants like the local gravity constant g or the fine-structure constant. Since its early demonstration, it has become an important tool in the fields of fundamental and applied physics. The present work covers the implementation of matter wave interferometers as well as the creation of novel guiding potentials for ultra-cold ensembles of atoms and Bose-Einstein condensates for this purpose. In addition, novel techniques for the manipulation of atoms with Bragg lattices are presented, serving as elements for interferometry. The measurements in this work are performed with a Bose-Einstein condensate of 25000 {sup 87}rubidium atoms created in a crossed optical dipole trap. The crossed optical dipole trap is loaded from a magneto-optical trap and allows a measurement every 25 s. This work introduces the novel technique of double Bragg diffraction as a tool for atom optics for the first time experimentally. The creation of beamsplitters and mirrors for advanced interferometric measurements is characterized. An in depth discussion on the momentum distribution of atomic clouds and its influence on double Bragg diffraction is given. Additionally experimental results for higher-order Bragg diffraction are explained and double Bragg diffraction is used to implement a full Ramsey-type interferometer. A second central result of this work is the implementation of novel guiding structures for ultra-cold atoms. These structures are created with conical refraction, an effect that occurs when light is guided along one of the optical axis of a bi-axial crystal. The conical refraction crystal used to operate the novel trapping geometries is a KGd(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} crystal that has been specifically cut orthogonal to one of the optical axis. Two regimes are discussed in detail: the creation of a toroidal matter wave guide and the implementation of a three
Goede, A.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.
2016-01-01
Mimicking the biogeochemical cycle of System Earth, synthetic hydrocarbon fuels are produced from recycled CO2 and H2O powered by renewable energy. Recapturing CO2 after use closes the carbon cycle, rendering the fuel cycle CO2 neutral. Non-equilibrium molecular CO2 vibrations are key to high energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sehgal, L.M.
1980-01-01
The experimental results on low energy confirming the structure of the effective Lagrangian of the weak neutral current processes as predicted by the Salam-Weinberg model are reviewed. Some possible modifications of the effective Lagrangian and the feasibility of their experimental verification are also considered. (P.L.)
Analysis of particle species evolution in neutral beam injection lines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, J.; Haselton, H.H.
1978-07-01
Analytic solutions to the rate equations describing the species evolution of a multispecies positive ion beam of hydrogen due to charge exchange and molecular dissociation are derived as a function of the background gas (H 2 ) line density in the neutralizing gas cell and in the drift tube. Using the solutions, calculations are presented for the relative abundance of each species as a function of the gas cell thickness, the reionization loss rates in the drift tube, and the neutral beam power as a function of the beam energy and the species composition of the original ion beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raghavan, S.; Smerzi, A.; Fantoni, S.; Shenoy, S.R.
2001-03-01
We discuss the coherent atomic oscillations between two weakly coupled Bose-Einstein condensates. The weak link is provided by a laser barrier in a (possibly asymmetric) double-well trap or by Raman coupling between two condensates in different hyperfine levels. The boson Josephson junction (BJJ) dynamics is described by the two-mode nonlinear Gross-Pitaevskii equation that is solved analytically in terms of elliptic functions. The BJJ, being a neutral, isolated system, allows the investigations of dynamical regimes for the phase difference across the junction and for the population imbalance that are not accessible with superconductor Josephson junctions (SJJ's). These include oscillations with either or both of the following properties: (i) the time-averaged value of the phase is equal to π (π-phase oscillations); (ii) the average population imbalance is nonzero, in states with macroscopic quantum self-trapping. The (nonsinusoidal) generalization of the SJJ ac and plasma oscillations and the Shapiro resonance can also be observed. We predict the collapse of experimental data (corresponding to different trap geometries and the total number of condensate atoms) onto a single universal curve for the inverse period of oscillations. Analogies with Josephson oscillations between two weakly coupled reservoirs of 3 He-B and the internal Josephson effect in 3 He-A are also discussed. (author)
The search for the decay of Z boson into two gamma as a test of Bose statistics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ignatiev, A.Yu.; Joshi, G.C.; Matsuda, M.
1994-01-01
It is suggested that Bose statistics for photons can be tested by looking for decays of spin-1 bosons into two photons. The experimental upper limit on the decay Z → γγ is used to establish for the first time the quantitative measure of the validity of Bose symmetry for photons. 38 refs
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Panas, J.; Kauch, Anna; Kuneš, Jan; Vollhardt, D.; Byczuk, K.
2015-01-01
Roč. 92, č. 4 (2015), "045102-1"-"045102-9" ISSN 1098-0121 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Bose-Hubbard model * Bose-Einstein condensation * superfluidity Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014
Universality of an Impurity in a Bose-Einstein Condensate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shuhei M. Yoshida
2018-02-01
Full Text Available We consider the ground-state properties of an impurity particle (“polaron” resonantly interacting with a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC. Focusing on the equal-mass system, we use a variational wave function for the polaron that goes beyond previous work and includes up to three Bogoliubov excitations of the BEC, thus allowing us to capture both Efimov trimers and associated tetramers. We find that the length scale associated with Efimov trimers (i.e., the three-body parameter can strongly affect the polaron’s behavior, even at densities where there are no well-defined Efimov states. However, by comparing our results with recent quantum Monte Carlo calculations, we argue that the polaron energy is a universal function of the Efimov three-body parameter for sufficiently low boson densities. We further support this conclusion by showing that the energies of the deepest bound Efimov trimers and tetramers at unitarity are universally related to one another, regardless of the microscopic model. On the other hand, we find that the quasiparticle residue and effective mass sensitively depend on the coherence length ξ of the BEC, with the residue tending to zero as ξ diverges, in a manner akin to the orthogonality catastrophe.
Are Quasiparticles and Phonons Identical in Bose-Einstein Condensates?
Tsutsui, Kazumasa; Kato, Yusuke; Kita, Takafumi
2016-12-01
We study an interacting spinless Bose-Einstein condensate to clarify theoretically whether the spectra of its quasiparticles (one-particle excitations) and collective modes (two-particle excitations) are identical, as concluded by Gavoret and Nozières [Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 28, 349 (1964)]. We derive analytic expressions for their first and second moments so as to extend the Bijl-Feynman formula for the peak of the collective-mode spectrum to its width (inverse lifetime) and also to the one-particle channel. The obtained formulas indicate that the width of the collective-mode spectrum manifestly vanishes in the long-wavelength limit, whereas that of the quasiparticle spectrum apparently remains finite. We also evaluate the peaks and widths of the two spectra numerically for a model interaction potential in terms of the Jastrow wave function optimized by a variational method. It is thereby found that the width of the quasiparticle spectrum increases towards a constant as the wavenumber decreases. This marked difference in the spectral widths implies that the two spectra are distinct. In particular, the lifetime of the quasiparticles remains finite even in the long-wavelength limit.
Vortices in spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Radic, J.; Sedrakyan, T. A.; Galitski, V.; Spielman, I. B.
2011-01-01
Realistic methods to create vortices in spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates are discussed. It is shown that, contrary to common intuition, rotation of the trap containing a spin-orbit condensate does not lead to an equilibrium state with static vortex structures but gives rise instead to nonequilibrium behavior described by an intrinsically time-dependent Hamiltonian. We propose here the following alternative methods to induce thermodynamically stable static vortex configurations: (i) to rotate both the lasers and the anisotropic trap and (ii) to impose a synthetic Abelian field on top of synthetic spin-orbit interactions. Effective Hamiltonians for spin-orbit condensates under such perturbations are derived for most currently known realistic laser schemes that induce synthetic spin-orbit couplings. The Gross-Pitaevskii equation is solved for several experimentally relevant regimes. The new interesting effects include spatial separation of left- and right-moving spin-orbit condensates, the appearance of unusual vortex arrangements, and parity effects in vortex nucleation where the topological excitations are predicted to appear in pairs. All these phenomena are shown to be highly nonuniversal and depend strongly on a specific laser scheme and system parameters.
Atomic interactions in precision interferometry using Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jamison, Alan O.; Gupta, Subhadeep; Kutz, J. Nathan
2011-01-01
We present theoretical tools for predicting and reducing the effects of atomic interactions in Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) interferometry experiments. To address mean-field shifts during free propagation, we derive a robust scaling solution that reduces the three-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation to a set of three simple differential equations valid for any interaction strength. To model the other common components of a BEC interferometer--condensate splitting, manipulation, and recombination--we generalize the slowly varying envelope reduction, providing both analytic handles and dramatically improved simulations. Applying these tools to a BEC interferometer to measure the fine structure constant, α[S. Gupta, K. Dieckmann, Z. Hadzibabic, and D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 140401 (2002)], we find agreement with the results of the original experiment and demonstrate that atomic interactions do not preclude measurement to better than part-per-billion accuracy, even for atomic species with relatively large scattering lengths. These tools help make BEC interferometry a viable choice for a broad class of precision measurements.
Motion of vortices in inhomogeneous Bose-Einstein condensates
Groszek, Andrew J.; Paganin, David M.; Helmerson, Kristian; Simula, Tapio P.
2018-02-01
We derive a general and exact equation of motion for a quantized vortex in an inhomogeneous two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate. This equation expresses the velocity of a vortex as a sum of local ambient density and phase gradients in the vicinity of the vortex. We perform Gross-Pitaevskii simulations of single-vortex dynamics in both harmonic and hard-walled disk-shaped traps, and find excellent agreement in both cases with our analytical prediction. The simulations reveal that, in a harmonic trap, the main contribution to the vortex velocity is an induced ambient phase gradient, a finding that contradicts the commonly quoted result that the local density gradient is the only relevant effect in this scenario. We use our analytical vortex velocity formula to derive a point-vortex model that accounts for both density and phase contributions to the vortex velocity, suitable for use in inhomogeneous condensates. Although good agreement is obtained between Gross-Pitaevskii and point-vortex simulations for specific few-vortex configurations, the effects of nonuniform condensate density are in general highly nontrivial, and are thus difficult to efficiently and accurately model using a simplified point-vortex description.
Universality of an Impurity in a Bose-Einstein Condensate
Yoshida, Shuhei M.; Endo, Shimpei; Levinsen, Jesper; Parish, Meera M.
2018-02-01
We consider the ground-state properties of an impurity particle ("polaron") resonantly interacting with a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Focusing on the equal-mass system, we use a variational wave function for the polaron that goes beyond previous work and includes up to three Bogoliubov excitations of the BEC, thus allowing us to capture both Efimov trimers and associated tetramers. We find that the length scale associated with Efimov trimers (i.e., the three-body parameter) can strongly affect the polaron's behavior, even at densities where there are no well-defined Efimov states. However, by comparing our results with recent quantum Monte Carlo calculations, we argue that the polaron energy is a universal function of the Efimov three-body parameter for sufficiently low boson densities. We further support this conclusion by showing that the energies of the deepest bound Efimov trimers and tetramers at unitarity are universally related to one another, regardless of the microscopic model. On the other hand, we find that the quasiparticle residue and effective mass sensitively depend on the coherence length ξ of the BEC, with the residue tending to zero as ξ diverges, in a manner akin to the orthogonality catastrophe.
Symmetry breaking and singularity structure in Bose-Einstein condensates
Commeford, K. A.; Garcia-March, M. A.; Ferrando, A.; Carr, Lincoln D.
2012-08-01
We determine the trajectories of vortex singularities that arise after a single vortex is broken by a discretely symmetric impulse in the context of Bose-Einstein condensates in a harmonic trap. The dynamics of these singularities are analyzed to determine the form of the imprinted motion. We find that the symmetry-breaking process introduces two effective forces: a repulsive harmonic force that causes the daughter trajectories to be ejected from the parent singularity and a Magnus force that introduces a torque about the axis of symmetry. For the analytical noninteracting case we find that the parent singularity is reconstructed from the daughter singularities after one period of the trapping frequency. The interactions between singularities in the weakly interacting system do not allow the parent vortex to be reconstructed. Analytic trajectories were compared to the actual minima of the wave function, showing less than 0.5% error for an impulse strength of v=0.00005. We show that these solutions are valid within the impulse regime for various impulse strengths using numerical integration of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We also show that the actual duration of the symmetry-breaking potential does not significantly change the dynamics of the system as long as the strength is below v=0.0005.
Creating the first Bose-Einstein Condensate in Space
Lachmann, M.; Seidel, S.; Becker, D.; Ahlers, H.; Wendrich, T.; Grosse, J.; Müntinga, H.; Weps, B.; Dinkelaker, A.; Schkolnik, V.; Hellmig, O.; Wenzlawski, A.; Herr, W.; Gaaloul, N.; Rasel, E.; Ertmer, W.; Quantus Collaboration
2017-04-01
On 23rd of January 2017 the first Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) in Space was created onboard the sounding rocket mission MAIUS-1. The successful launch marks a major advancement in the effort of performing matter wave interferometry with BECs on space vehicles. Its high BEC-flux enables more than 100 experiments during flight, characterizing the creation of BECs in space, their free evolution, state preparation, and the creation of cold atoms in highly dynamic environments. MAIUS-1 opens a new path towards space borne inertial sensing employing interferometers with high accuracy and sensitivity. Two follow-up missions will investigate dual-species interferometry. Recently several missions were proposed ranging from tests of the universality of free fall to gravimetry. Due to their small initial size and low expansion rates BECs are the ideal source for such an interferometric measurement. The findings of the mission will contribute to the NASA CAL project and BECCAL (NASA and DLR). DLR under grant 50WP1435.
Atom loss resonances in a Bose-Einstein condensate.
Langmack, Christian; Smith, D Hudson; Braaten, Eric
2013-07-12
Atom loss resonances in ultracold trapped atoms have been observed at scattering lengths near atom-dimer resonances, at which Efimov trimers cross the atom-dimer threshold, and near two-dimer resonances, at which universal tetramers cross the dimer-dimer threshold. We propose a new mechanism for these loss resonances in a Bose-Einstein condensate of atoms. As the scattering length is ramped to the large final value at which the atom loss rate is measured, the time-dependent scattering length generates a small condensate of shallow dimers coherently from the atom condensate. The coexisting atom and dimer condensates can be described by a low-energy effective field theory with universal coefficients that are determined by matching exact results from few-body physics. The classical field equations for the atom and dimer condensates predict narrow enhancements in the atom loss rate near atom-dimer resonances and near two-dimer resonances due to inelastic dimer collisions.
Magnetically ordered phase near transition to Bose-glass phase
Syromyatnikov, A. V.; Sizanov, A. V.
2017-01-01
We discuss a magnetically ordered ("superfluid") phase near quantum transition to the Bose-glass phase in a simple modeling system, a Heisenberg antiferromagnet with spatial dimension d >2 in an external magnetic field with disorder in exchange coupling constants. Our analytical consideration is based on hydrodynamic description of long-wavelength excitations. Results obtained are valid in the entire critical region near the quantum critical point (QCP), allowing us to describe a possible crossover from one critical behavior to another. We demonstrate that the system behaves in full agreement with predictions by M. P. Fisher et al. [Phys. Rev. B 40, 546 (1989), 10.1103/PhysRevB.40.546] in close vicinity to the QCP. We find as an extension to that analysis that the anomalous dimension η =2 -d and β =ν d /2 , where β and ν are critical exponents of the order parameter and the correlation length, respectively. The density of states per spin of low-energy localized excitations is found to be independent of d ("superuniversal"). We show that many recent experimental and numerical results obtained in various three-dimensional (3D) systems can be described by our formulas using percolation critical exponents. Then, it is a possibility that a percolation critical regime arises in the ordered phase in some 3D systems not very close to the QCP.
Bose condensation of interwell excitons in double quantum wells
Larionov, A V; Ni, P A; Dubonos, S V; Hvam, I; Soerensen, K
2002-01-01
The luminescence of the interwell excitons in the GaAs/AlGaAs double quantum wells, containing large-scale fluctuations of the random potential in the heteroboundary planes, is studied. The properties of the excitons, wherein the excited electron and hole are spatially separated between the neighboring quantum wells by the density and temperature variation within the domain limits of the scale below one micron, are investigated. The interwell excitons by low pumping (below 50 mW) are strongly localized due to the small-scale fluctuations of the random potential. The localized excitons line grows by increase in the resonance excitation capacity through the threshold method. With the temperature growth this line disappears in the spectrum (T sub c <= 3.4 K). The above phenomenon is related to the Bose-Einstein condensation in the quasi-two-dimensional system of the interwell excitons. The critical values of the exciton density and temperature in the studied temperature range (1.5-3.4 K) grow according to the...
Bose-Einstein condensation in diamond hierarchical lattices.
Lyra, M L; de Moura, F A B F; de Oliveira, I N; Serva, M
2014-05-01
The Bose-Einstein condensation of noninteracting particles restricted to move on the sites of hierarchical diamond lattices is investigated. Using a tight-binding single-particle Hamiltonian with properly rescaled hopping amplitudes, we are able to employ an orthogonal basis transformation to exactly map it on a set of decoupled linear chains with sizes and degeneracies written in terms of the network branching parameter q and generation number n. The integrated density of states is shown to have a fractal structure of gaps and degeneracies with a power-law decay at the band bottom. The spectral dimension d(s) coincides with the network topological dimension d(f) = ln(2q)/ln(2). We perform a finite-size scaling analysis of the fraction of condensed particles and specific heat to characterize the critical behavior of the BEC transition that occurs for q > 2 (d(s) > 2). The critical exponents are shown to follow those for lattices with a pure power-law spectral density, with non-mean-field values for q grow monotonically with the branching parameter, obeying the relation 1/T(c) = a + b/(q - 2).
The Bose-Einstein correlations in CDFII experiment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lovás, Lubomír [Comenius Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia)
2008-01-01
We present the results of a study of p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV collected by the CDF-II experiment at Tevatron collider. The Bose-Einstein correlations of the π^{±}π^{±} two boson system have been studied in the minimum-bias high-multiplicity events. The research was carried out on the sample at the size of 173761 events. The two pion correlations have been retrieved. The final results were corrected to the coulomb interactions. Two different reference samples were compared and discussed. A significant two-pion correlation enhancement near origin is observed. This enhancement effect has been used to evaluate the radius of the two-pion emitter source. We have used the TOF detector to distinguish between π and K mesons. The C_{2}(Q) function parameters have also been retrieved for the sample containing only tagged π mesons. A comparison between four different parametrizations based on two diff t theoretical approaches of the C_{2}(Q) function is given.
Vortex dynamics in coherently coupled Bose-Einstein condensates
Calderaro, Luca; Fetter, Alexander L.; Massignan, Pietro; Wittek, Peter
2017-02-01
In classical hydrodynamics with uniform density, vortices move with the local fluid velocity. This description is rewritten in terms of forces arising from the interaction with other vortices. Two such positive straight vortices experience a repulsive interaction and precess in a positive (anticlockwise) sense around their common centroid. A similar picture applies to vortices in a two-component, two-dimensional uniform Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) coherently coupled through rf Rabi fields. Unlike the classical case, however, the rf Rabi coupling induces an attractive interaction and two such vortices with positive signs now rotate in the negative (clockwise) sense. Pairs of counter-rotating vortices are instead found to translate with uniform velocity perpendicular to the line joining their cores. This picture is extended to a single vortex in a two-component trapped BEC. Although two uniform vortex-free components experience familiar Rabi oscillations of particle-number difference, such behavior is absent for a vortex in one component because of the nonuniform vortex phase. Instead the coherent Rabi coupling induces a periodic vorticity transfer between the two components.
Experimental investigation of tunneling times using Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ciampini, Donatella; Arimondo, Ennio; Morsch, Oliver
2011-01-01
The time it takes a quantum system to complete a tunneling event (which in the case of cross-barrier tunneling can be viewed as the time spent in a classically forbidden area) is related to the time required for a state to evolve to an orthogonal state, and an observation, i.e., a quantum mechanical projection on a particular basis, is required to distinguish one state from another. We have performed time-resolved measurements of Landau-Zener tunneling of Bose-Einstein condensates in accelerated optical lattices, clearly resolving the steplike time dependence of the band populations. The use of different protocols enabled us to access the tunneling probability, in two different bases, namely, the adiabatic basis and the diabatic basis. The adiabatic basis corresponds to the eigenstates of the lattice, and the diabatic one to the free-particle momentum eigenstates. Our findings pave the way towards more quantitative studies of the tunneling time for LZ transitions, which are of current interest in the context of optimal quantum control and the quantum speed limit.
Pashitskii, E. A.
1999-02-01
The paradoxes and disparities in the contemporary microscopic theory of superfluid helium (He-II) are discussed along with possible ways of resolving them by taking pair correlations of 4He atoms into consideration. It is shown that most paradoxes are associated with the commonly accepted initial assumption concerning the dominating role of single-particle Bose condensate (SPBC) in the quantum microstructure of the superfluid component ρs. The existence of intensive SPBC leads to a strong hybridization of the elementary excitation branches and to a common dispersion law for all boson branches, which is identified with the quasiparticle spectrum E(p) observed experimentally from slow neutron scattering in liquid helium. However, the stability of this spectrum during a transition through the λ-point and the large value of the gap in the vicinity of the "rotonic" minimum contradict both the Landau theoretical criterion of superfluidity and the small value of experimentally measured critical velocity. At the same time, a strong interaction between particles in the Bose liquid 4He strongly suppresses the SPBC which amounts to less than 1% of all 4He atoms and hence cannot be the main constituent of the superfluid component, unlike the case of a weakly nonideal Bose gas. Moreover, for a quite strong attraction between particles in a certain region of the momentum space, bound pairs of bosons can be formed in the superfluid Bose liquid, and a coherent pair condensate (CPC) analogous to the Cooper pair condensate in superconductors may appear. Such a strong CPC may completely suppress the weak SPBC. In this case, the one-particle spectrum ɛ(p) of elementary excitations does not hybridize with the collective (two-particle) spectrum and does not appear in the structure of the dynamic form factor S(p,ɛ), i.e., does not coincide with the spectrum measured from neutron scattering. The dispersion of one-particle spectrum is defined by the momentum dependence of the pair
Spin tunnelling dynamics for spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensates in a swept magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Guanfang; Fu Libin; Liu Jie
2008-01-01
We investigate the spin tunnelling of spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensates in a linearly swept magnetic field with a mean-field treatment. We focus on the two typical alkali Bose atoms 87 Rb and 23 Na condensates and study their tunnelling dynamics according to the sweep rates of the external magnetic fields. In the adiabatic (i.e. slowly sweeping) and sudden (i.e. fast sweeping) limits, no tunnelling is observed. For the case of moderate sweep rates, the tunnelling dynamics is found to be very sensitive to the sweep rates, so the plots of tunnelling probability versus sweep rate only become resolvable at a resolution of 10 -4 G s -1 . Moreover, a conserved quantity standing for the magnetization in experiments is found to affect dramatically the dynamics of the spin tunnelling. Theoretically we have given a complete interpretation of the above findings, and our studies could stimulate the experimental study of spinor Bose-Einstein condensates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pack, Michael Vern
2008-12-01
This report describes progress in designing a neutral atom trap capable of trapping sub millikelvin atom in a magnetic trap and shuttling the atoms across the atom chip from a collection area to an optical cavity. The numerical simulation and atom chip design are discussed. Also, discussed are preliminary calculations of quantum noise sources in Kerr nonlinear optics measurements based on electromagnetically induced transparency. These types of measurements may be important for quantum nondemolition measurements at the few photon limit.
1982-05-31
of Birmingam, P 0 Box 363, 2310/A2 Birmingham B15 2TT, England. 2303/GlAC II. Controlling Office Name and Address 12. Report Date Air Force Geophysics...source. Thus unwanted molecular excitation and dissociation can be avoided and greater control can be exercised in the creation of suitable plasma...The Fall fractigRal ionization density in these afterglow plagas (%-10 -) ensures that electron- neutral collisions are the most effective. This
Exercise Equipment: Neutral Buoyancy
Shackelford, Linda; Valle, Paul
2016-01-01
Load Bearing Equipment for Neutral Buoyancy (LBE-NB) is an exercise frame that holds two exercising subjects in position as they apply counter forces to each other for lower extremity and spine loading resistance exercises. Resistance exercise prevents bone loss on ISS, but the ISS equipment is too massive for use in exploration craft. Integrating the human into the load directing, load generating, and motion control functions of the exercise equipment generates safe exercise loads with less equipment mass and volume.
Gargamelle: neutral current event
1973-01-01
This event shows real tracks of particles from the 1200 litre Gargamelle bubble chamber that ran on the PS from 1970 to 1976 and on the SPS from 1976 to 1979. In this image a neutrino passes close to a nucleon and reemerges as a neutrino. Such events are called neutral curent, as they are mediated by the Z0 boson which has no electric charge.
Antihypertensive neutral lipid
Snyder, F.L.; Blank, M.L.
1984-10-26
The invention relates to the discovery of a class of neutral acetylated either-linked glycerolipids having the capacity to lower blood presure in warm-blooded animals. This physiological effect is structure sensitive requiring a long chain alkyl group at the sn-1 position and a short carbon chain acyl group (acetyl or propionyl) at the sn-2 position, and a hydroxyl group at the sn-3 position.
Clark, Kevin B
2010-03-01
Fringe quantum biology theories often adopt the concept of Bose-Einstein condensation when explaining how consciousness, emotion, perception, learning, and reasoning emerge from operations of intact animal nervous systems and other computational media. However, controversial empirical evidence and mathematical formalism concerning decoherence rates of bioprocesses keep these frameworks from satisfactorily accounting for the physical nature of cognitive-like events. This study, inspired by the discovery that preferential attachment rules computed by complex technological networks obey Bose-Einstein statistics, is the first rigorous attempt to examine whether analogues of Bose-Einstein condensation precipitate learned decision making in live biological systems as bioenergetics optimization predicts. By exploiting the ciliate Spirostomum ambiguum's capacity to learn and store behavioral strategies advertising mating availability into heuristics of topologically invariant computational networks, three distinct phases of strategy use were found to map onto statistical distributions described by Bose-Einstein, Fermi-Dirac, and classical Maxwell-Boltzmann behavior. Ciliates that sensitized or habituated signaling patterns to emit brief periods of either deceptive 'harder-to-get' or altruistic 'easier-to-get' serial escape reactions began testing condensed on initially perceived fittest 'courting' solutions. When these ciliates switched from their first strategy choices, Bose-Einstein condensation of strategy use abruptly dissipated into a Maxwell-Boltzmann computational phase no longer dominated by a single fittest strategy. Recursive trial-and-error strategy searches annealed strategy use back into a condensed phase consistent with performance optimization. 'Social' decisions performed by ciliates showing no nonassociative learning were largely governed by Fermi-Dirac statistics, resulting in degenerate distributions of strategy choices. These findings corroborate
Some statistical aspects of the spinor field Fermi-Bose duality
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V.M. Simulik
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The structure of 29-dimensional extended real Clifford-Dirac algebra, which has been introduced in our paper Phys. Lett. A, 2011, Vol. 375, 2479, is considered in brief. Using this algebra, the property of Fermi-Bose duality of the Dirac equation with nonzero mass is proved. It means that Dirac equation can describe not only the fermionic but also the bosonic states. The proof of our assertion based on the examples of bosonic symmetries, solutions and conservation laws is given. Some statistical aspects of the spinor field Fermi-Bose duality are discussed.
Dynamics of Phase Coherence Onset in Bose Condensates of Photons by Incoherent Phonon Emission
Snoke, D. W.; Girvin, S. M.
2013-04-01
Recent experiments with photons equilibrating inside a dye medium in a cavity have raised the question of whether Bose condensation can occur in a system with only incoherent interaction with phonons in a bath but without particle-particle interaction. Analytical calculations analogous to those done for a system with particle-particle interactions indicate that a system of bosons interacting only with incoherent phonons can indeed undergo Bose condensation and furthermore can exhibit spontaneous amplification of quantum coherence. We review the basic theory for these calculations.
Response of a homogeneous Bose-Einstein condensate to an oscillating spatially-uniform force
Navon, Nir; Gaunt, Alexander; Smith, Robert; Hadzibabic, Zoran
2015-05-01
The recent production of quasi-uniform Bose gases has offered new exciting possibilities to study out-of-equilibrium phenomena in nearly textbook systems. We explore the response of a homogeneous Bose-Einstein condensate to a time-oscillating constant-gradient potential. By tuning the amplitude and frequency of the modulation, as well as the atom number, we study the response of the BEC, from excitationless superflow to the turbulent regime. We probe the steady state of the driven system by measuring the momentum distribution using two-photon Bragg spectroscopy.
A consistent description of kinetics and hydrodynamics of quantum Bose-systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P.A.Hlushak
2004-01-01
Full Text Available A consistent approach to the description of kinetics and hydrodynamics of many-Boson systems is proposed. The generalized transport equations for strongly and weakly nonequilibrium Bose systems are obtained. Here we use the method of nonequilibrium statistical operator by D.N. Zubarev. New equations for the time distribution function of the quantum Bose system with a separate contribution from both the kinetic and potential energies of particle interactions are obtained. The generalized transport coefficients are determined accounting for the consistent description of kinetic and hydrodynamic processes.
Neutral particle beam intensity controller
Dagenhart, W.K.
1984-05-29
The neutral beam intensity controller is based on selected magnetic defocusing of the ion beam prior to neutralization. The defocused portion of the beam is dumped onto a beam dump disposed perpendicular to the beam axis. Selective defocusing is accomplished by means of a magnetic field generator disposed about the neutralizer so that the field is transverse to the beam axis. The magnetic field intensity is varied to provide the selected partial beam defocusing of the ions prior to neutralization. The desired focused neutral beam portion passes along the beam path through a defining aperture in the beam dump, thereby controlling the desired fraction of neutral particles transmitted to a utilization device without altering the kinetic energy level of the desired neutral particle fraction. By proper selection of the magnetic field intensity, virtually zero through 100% intensity control of the neutral beam is achieved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos Y Valenzuela
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The complete base sequence of HIV-1 virus and GP120 ENV gene were analyzed to establish their distance to the expected neutral random sequence. An especial methodology was devised to achieve this aim. Analyses included: a proportion of dinucleotides (signatures; b homogeneity in the distribution of dinucleotides and bases (isochores by dividing both segments in ten and three sub-segments, respectively; c probability of runs of bases and No-bases according to the Bose-Einstein distribution. The analyses showed a huge deviation from the random distribution expected from neutral evolution and neutral-neighbor influence of nucleotide sites. The most significant result is the tremendous lack of CG dinucleotides (p < 10-50, a selective trait of eukaryote and not of single stranded RNA virus genomes. Results not only refute neutral evolution and neutral neighbor influence, but also strongly indicate that any base at any nucleotide site correlates with all the viral genome or sub-segments. These results suggest that evolution of HIV-1 is pan-selective rather than neutral or nearly neutral.
Bose-Einstein condensate in a rapidly rotating nonsymmetric trap
Fetter, Alexander L.
2010-03-01
A rapidly rotating Bose-Einstein condensate in a symmetric two-dimensional harmonic trap can be described with the lowest Landau-level set of single-particle states. The condensate wave function ψ(x,y) is a Gaussian ∝exp(-r2/2), multiplied by an analytic function f(z) of the complex variable z=x+iy. The criterion for a quantum phase transition to a non-superfluid correlated many-body state is usually expressed in terms of the ratio of the number of particles to the number of vortices. Here a similar description applies to a rapidly rotating nonsymmetric two-dimensional trap with arbitrary quadratic anisotropy (ωx2<ωy2). The corresponding condensate wave function ψ(x,y) is a complex anisotropic Gaussian with a phase proportional to xy, multiplied by an analytic function f(z), where z=x+iβ-y is a stretched complex variable and 0⩽β-⩽1 is a real parameter that depends on the trap anisotropy and the rotation frequency. Both in the mean-field Thomas-Fermi approximation and in the mean-field lowest Landau level approximation with many visible vortices, an anisotropic parabolic density profile minimizes the energy. An elongated condensate grows along the soft trap direction yet ultimately shrinks along the tight trap direction. The criterion for the quantum phase transition to a correlated state is generalized (1) in terms of N/Lz, which suggests that a nonsymmetric trap should make it easier to observe this transition, or (2) in terms of a “fragmented” correlated state, which suggests that a nonsymmetric trap should make it harder to observe this transition. An alternative scenario involves a crossover to a quasi one-dimensional condensate without visible vortices, as suggested by Aftalion , Phys. Rev. A 79, 011603(R) (2009).
TPX Neutral Beam Injection System design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
von Halle, A.; Bowen, O.N.; Edwards, J.W.
1993-01-01
The existing Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor Neutral Beam system is proposed to be modified for long pulse operation on the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Day one of TPX will call for one TFTR beamline modified for 1000 second pulse lengths oriented co-directional to the plasma current. The system design will be capable of accommodating an additional co-directional and a single counter directional beamline. For the TPX conceptual design, every attempt was made to use existing Neutral Beam hardware, plant facilities, auxiliary systems, service infrastructure, and control systems. This paper describes the moderate modifications required to the power systems, the ion sources, and the beam impinged surfaces of the ion dumps, the calorimeters, the various beam scrapers, and the neutralizers. Also described are the minimal modifications required to the vacuum, cryogenic, and gas systems and the major modification of replacing the beamline-torus duct in its entirety. Operational considerations for Neutral Beam subsystems over 1000 second pulse lengths will be explored including proposed operating scenarios for full steady state operation
Lyon, M.; Rolston, S. L.
2017-01-01
By photoionizing samples of laser-cooled atoms with laser light tuned just above the ionization limit, plasmas can be created with electron and ion temperatures below 10 K. These ultracold neutral plasmas have extended the temperature bounds of plasma physics by two orders of magnitude. Table-top experiments, using many of the tools from atomic physics, allow for the study of plasma phenomena in this new regime with independent control over the density and temperature of the plasma through the excitation process. Characteristic of these systems is an inhomogeneous density profile, inherited from the density distribution of the laser-cooled neutral atom sample. Most work has dealt with unconfined plasmas in vacuum, which expand outward at velocities of order 100 m/s, governed by electron pressure, and with lifetimes of order 100 μs, limited by stray electric fields. Using detection of charged particles and optical detection techniques, a wide variety of properties and phenomena have been observed, including expansion dynamics, collective excitations in both the electrons and ions, and collisional properties. Through three-body recombination collisions, the plasmas rapidly form Rydberg atoms, and clouds of cold Rydberg atoms have been observed to spontaneously avalanche ionize to form plasmas. Of particular interest is the possibility of the formation of strongly coupled plasmas, where Coulomb forces dominate thermal motion and correlations become important. The strongest impediment to strong coupling is disorder-induced heating, a process in which Coulomb energy from an initially disordered sample is converted into thermal energy. This restricts electrons to a weakly coupled regime and leaves the ions barely within the strongly coupled regime. This review will give an overview of the field of ultracold neutral plasmas, from its inception in 1999 to current work, including efforts to increase strong coupling and effects on plasma properties due to strong coupling.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bateman, J.E.
1994-01-01
The operation of gas counters used for detecting radiation is explained in terms of the four fundamental physical processes which govern their operation. These are 1) conversion of neutral radiation into charged particles, 2) ionization of the host gas by a fast charge particle 3) transport of the gas ions to the electrodes and 4) amplification of the electrons in a region of enhanced electric field. Practical implications of these are illustrated. (UK)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Icart, Laura; Jean, Pascale; Georget, Cyrille; Schmill, Rafael
2017-01-01
This document contains 12 articles notably addressing the importance of natural gas production and supplies in Europe. The themes of the articles are: the advantages of natural gas in the context of energy and environmental policies, energy diversification, energy supply in the local territories, etc.; the position of GrDF, one of the main French natural gas supplier; LPG (butane, propane), a solution which popularity grows in remote areas; the Gaya project (production of renewable gas from dry biomass); a panorama of gas supply routes in Europe; the situation of gas in Europe's energy supply and consumption; the promotion of LNG fuel for maritime and fluvial ships; why the small scale LNG could be the next revolution; presentation of the new 'Honfleur' ferry (using LNG fuel) that will cross the English Channel by 2019; carbon market and the role of ETS for the energy policy in Europe facing the climatic change challenge; presentation of the French 'Climate Plan' that aims to engage France into a carbon neutrality by 2050; presentation of the French policy against air pollution; economic growth, energy, climate: how to square this circle?
Breakdown studies for neutral injectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bottiglioni, F.; Bussac, J.P.
1981-01-01
Reliable operation of high energy neutral injectors is challenged by the voltage hold-off capability of the extraction systems. The high voltage behavior of a gap depends not only on a large number of macroscopic parameters, e.g. the electrodes material, geometry, separation, and residual gas pressure, but also upon dimly defined and badly controlled microscopic electric properties such as electrodes surface conditions, which are in turn affected by the conditioning procedures and by the operational history of the gap. In fact, it is merely due to the microscopic surface conditions of electrodes, especially cathodes, that for most favorable regimes, macroscopic breakdown fields are two orders of magnitude lower than what can be expected from the field emission theory (E greater than or equal to 3 10 9 V/m). At FAR, experimental data on the voltage hold-off problems are obtained in a large injector (Megawatt Beam Line - MWBL) and in L.E.O., a smaller but more flexible facility where single beam studies will be made, up to 160 keV. Some results are described
Mixtures of ultracold gases: Fermi sea and Bose-Einstein condensate of lithium isotopes
Schreck, F.
2003-03-01
This thesis presents studies of quantum degenerate atomic gases of fermionic ^6Li and bosonic ^7Li. Degeneracy is reached by evaporative cooling of ^7Li in a strongly confining magnetic trap. Since at low temperatures direct evaporative cooling is not possible for a polarized fermionic gas, ^6Li is sympathetically cooled by thermal contact with ^7Li. In a first series of experiments both isotopes are trapped in their low-field seeking higher hyperfine states. A Fermi degeneracy of T/T_F=0.25(5) is achieved for 10^5 fermions. For more than 300 atoms, the ^7Li condensate collapses, due to the attractive interatomic interaction in this state. This limits the degeneracy reached for both species. To overcome this limit, in a second series of experiments ^7Li and ^6Li atoms are transferred to their low field seeking lower hyperfine states, where the boson-boson interaction is repulsive but weak. The inter-isotope collisions are used to thermalize the mixture. A ^7Li Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of 10^4 atoms immersed in a Fermi sea is produced. The BEC is quasi-one-dimensional and the thermal fraction can be negligible. The measured degeneracies are T/T_C=T/T_F=0.2(1). The temperature is measured using the bosonic thermal fraction, which vanishes at the lowest temperatures, limiting our measurement sensitivity. In a third series of experiments, the bosons are transferred into an optical trap and their internal state is changed to |F=1,m_F=1rangle, the lowest energy state. A Feshbach resonance is detected and used to produce a BEC with tunable atomic interactions. When the effective interaction between atoms is tuned to be small and attractive, we observe the formation of a matter-wave bright soliton. Propagation of the soliton without spreading over a macroscopic distance of 1.1 mm is observed. Mélanges de gaz ultrafroids: mer de Fermi et condensat de Bose-Einstein des isotopes du lithium Cette thèse décrit l'étude des gaz de fermions ^6Li et de bosons ^7Li dans le
't Hooft-Polyakov monopoles in an antiferromagnetic Bose-Einstein condensate
Stoof, H.T.C.; Vliegen, E.; Al Khawaja, U.
2001-01-01
We show that an antiferromagnetic spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate, which can for instance be created with 23-Na atoms in an optical trap, has not only singular line-like vortex excitations, but also allows for singular point-like topological excitations, i.e., 't Hooft-Polyakov monopoles. We discuss
Sweeping a molecular Bose-Einstein condensate across a Feshbach resonance
Haque, M.; Stoof, H.T.C.
2004-01-01
We consider the dissociation of a molecular Bose-Einstein condensate during a magnetic-field sweep through a Feshbach resonance that starts on the molecular side of the resonance and ends on the atomic side. In particular, we determine the energy distribution of the atoms produced after the
Vortex-Line Solitons in A Periodically Modulated Bose-Einstein Condensate
Martikainen, J.-P.; Stoof, H.T.C.
2004-01-01
We study the nonlinear excitations of a vortex line in a Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in a one-dimensional optical lattice. We find that the classical Euler dynamics of the vortex results in a description of the vortex line in terms of a (discrete) one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation,
Parametric amplification of matter waves in dipolar spinor Bose-Einstein condensates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Deuretzbacher, F.; Gebreyesus, G.; Topic, O.
2010-01-01
Spin-changing collisions may lead under proper conditions to the parametric amplification of matter waves in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates. Magnetic dipole-dipole interactions, although typically very weak in alkali-metal atoms, are shown to play a very relevant role in the amplification process...
Time-reversal-invariant topological superfluids in Bose-Fermi mixtures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Midtgaard, Jonatan Melkaer; Wu, Zhigang; Bruun, G. M.
2017-01-01
A mixed dimensional system of fermions in two layers immersed in a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) is shown to be a promising setup to realize topological superfluids with time-reversal symmetry (TRS). The induced interaction between the fermions mediated by the BEC gives rise to a competition bet...
Decoherence dynamics in interferometry with one-dimensional bose-einstein condensates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schumm, Thorsten; Hofferberth, Sebastian; Schmiedmayer, Jörg
2007-01-01
We perform interferometry with one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates in a double well potential. Using dressed adiabatic potentials on an atomchip, we dynamically split BECs, imposing a macroscopic coherence on the system. Fluctuations of the order parameter are revealed as local shifts in th...
Observational limitations of Bose-Einstein photon statistics and radiation noise in thermal emission
Lee, Y.-J.; Talghader, J. J.
2018-01-01
For many decades, theory has predicted that Bose-Einstein statistics are a fundamental feature of thermal emission into one or a few optical modes; however, the resulting Bose-Einstein-like photon noise has never been experimentally observed. There are at least two reasons for this: (1) Relationships to describe the thermal radiation noise for an arbitrary mode structure have yet to be set forth, and (2) the mode and detector constraints necessary for the detection of such light is extremely hard to fulfill. Herein, photon statistics and radiation noise relationships are developed for systems with any number of modes and couplings to an observing space. The results are shown to reproduce existing special cases of thermal emission and are then applied to resonator systems to discuss physically realizable conditions under which Bose-Einstein-like thermal statistics might be observed. Examples include a single isolated cavity and an emitter cavity coupled to a small detector space. Low-mode-number noise theory shows major deviations from solely Bose-Einstein or Poisson treatments and has particular significance because of recent advances in perfect absorption and subwavelength structures both in the long-wave infrared and terahertz regimes. These microresonator devices tend to utilize a small volume with few modes, a regime where the current theory of thermal emission fluctuations and background noise, which was developed decades ago for free-space or single-mode cavities, has no derived solutions.
Exactly solvable models for tri-atomic molecular Bose-Einstein condensates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Santos, G; Roditi, I; Santos, Z V T [CBPF-Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil); Foerster, A [Instituto de Fisica da UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Tonel, A P [CCET da Universidade Federal do Pampa/Unipampa, Bage, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: gfilho@cbpf.br
2008-07-25
We construct a family of tri-atomic models for heteronuclear and homonuclear molecular Bose-Einstein condensates. We show that these new generalized models are exactly solvable through the algebraic Bethe ansatz method and derive their corresponding Bethe ansatz equations and energies.