WorldWideScience

Sample records for neuromodulation tools collectively

  1. Sacral Neuromodulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzel, Klaus E; Chartier-Kastler, Emmanuel; Knowles, Charles H

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Sacral neuromodulation (SNM) (sacral nerve stimulation SNS) has become an established therapy for functional disorders of the pelvic organs. Despite its overall success, the therapy fails in a proportion of patients. This may be partially due to inadequate electrode placement...... with suboptimal coupling of the electrode and nerve. Based on these assumptions the technique of sacral spinal neuromodulation has been redefined. All descriptions relate to the only currently available system licensed for all pelvic indications (Medtronic Interstim(®) ). METHOD: An international...

  2. Ultrasonic neuromodulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naor, Omer; Krupa, Steve; Shoham, Shy

    2016-06-01

    Ultrasonic waves can be non-invasively steered and focused into mm-scale regions across the human body and brain, and their application in generating controlled artificial modulation of neuronal activity could therefore potentially have profound implications for neural science and engineering. Ultrasonic neuro-modulation phenomena were experimentally observed and studied for nearly a century, with recent discoveries on direct neural excitation and suppression sparking a new wave of investigations in models ranging from rodents to humans. In this paper we review the physics, engineering and scientific aspects of ultrasonic fields, their control in both space and time, and their effect on neuronal activity, including a survey of both the field’s foundational history and of recent findings. We describe key constraints encountered in this field, as well as key engineering systems developed to surmount them. In closing, the state of the art is discussed, with an emphasis on emerging research and clinical directions.

  3. Computational models of neuromodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellous, J M; Linster, C

    1998-05-15

    Computational modeling of neural substrates provides an excellent theoretical framework for the understanding of the computational roles of neuromodulation. In this review, we illustrate, with a large number of modeling studies, the specific computations performed by neuromodulation in the context of various neural models of invertebrate and vertebrate preparations. We base our characterization of neuromodulations on their computational and functional roles rather than on anatomical or chemical criteria. We review the main framework in which neuromodulation has been studied theoretically (central pattern generation and oscillations, sensory processing, memory and information integration). Finally, we present a detailed mathematical overview of how neuromodulation has been implemented at the single cell and network levels in modeling studies. Overall, neuromodulation is found to increase and control computational complexity.

  4. Neuromodulators for Aging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Light treatment to the skin and Restylane to tear troughs and outer eyebrow. Photo courtesy of Rebecca Fitzagerald, MD - Los Angeles, California Possible risks Soreness Mild bruising Temporary weakness of surrounding muscles Headache Drooping eyelid Why choose neuromodulators for aging ...

  5. An intelligent tool for activity data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, A M Jehad

    2011-01-01

    Activity recognition systems using simple and ubiquitous sensors require a large variety of real-world sensor data for not only evaluating their performance but also training the systems for better functioning. However, a tremendous amount of effort is required to setup an environment for collecting such data. For example, expertise and resources are needed to design and install the sensors, controllers, network components, and middleware just to perform basic data collections. It is therefore desirable to have a data collection method that is inexpensive, flexible, user-friendly, and capable of providing large and diverse activity datasets. In this paper, we propose an intelligent activity data collection tool which has the ability to provide such datasets inexpensively without physically deploying the testbeds. It can be used as an inexpensive and alternative technique to collect human activity data. The tool provides a set of web interfaces to create a web-based activity data collection environment. It also provides a web-based experience sampling tool to take the user's activity input. The tool generates an activity log using its activity knowledge and the user-given inputs. The activity knowledge is mined from the web. We have performed two experiments to validate the tool's performance in producing reliable datasets.

  6. An Intelligent Tool for Activity Data Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Jehad Sarkar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Activity recognition systems using simple and ubiquitous sensors require a large variety of real-world sensor data for not only evaluating their performance but also training the systems for better functioning. However, a tremendous amount of effort is required to setup an environment for collecting such data. For example, expertise and resources are needed to design and install the sensors, controllers, network components, and middleware just to perform basic data collections. It is therefore desirable to have a data collection method that is inexpensive, flexible, user-friendly, and capable of providing large and diverse activity datasets. In this paper, we propose an intelligent activity data collection tool which has the ability to provide such datasets inexpensively without physically deploying the testbeds. It can be used as an inexpensive and alternative technique to collect human activity data. The tool provides a set of web interfaces to create a web-based activity data collection environment. It also provides a web-based experience sampling tool to take the user’s activity input. The tool generates an activity log using its activity knowledge and the user-given inputs. The activity knowledge is mined from the web. We have performed two experiments to validate the tool’s performance in producing reliable datasets.

  7. Neuromodulation, agency and autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glannon, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Neuromodulation consists in altering brain activity to restore mental and physical functions in individuals with neuropsychiatric disorders and brain and spinal cord injuries. This can be achieved by delivering electrical stimulation that excites or inhibits neural tissue, by using electrical signals in the brain to move computer cursors or robotic arms, or by displaying brain activity to subjects who regulate that activity by their own responses to it. As enabling prostheses, deep-brain stimulation and brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are forms of extended embodiment that become integrated into the individual's conception of himself as an autonomous agent. In BCIs and neurofeedback, the success or failure of the techniques depends on the interaction between the learner and the trainer. The restoration of agency and autonomy through neuromodulation thus involves neurophysiological, psychological and social factors.

  8. Neuromodulation in bladder dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, S T; Neal, D E

    1998-10-01

    Neuromodulation is one option for the management of a wide variety of lower urinary tract disorders, including non-neuropathic and neuropathic bladder dysfunctions. The mechanisms of action of the reported techniques remain unclear; urodynamic changes are minimal, but symptomatic improvements are common. Although the treatment is relatively free from side-effects compared with more aggressive surgical options, the placebo effect is likely to be significant. Its exact cost effectiveness is unclear, but the technology is a welcome addition to the range of treatment options for lower urinary tract dysfunctions, such as urgency and urge incontinence.

  9. Neuromodulation of Innate Behaviors in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Susy M; Su, Chih-Ying; Wang, Jing W

    2017-07-25

    Animals are born with a rich repertoire of robust behaviors that are critical for their survival. However, innate behaviors are also highly adaptable to an animal's internal state and external environment. Neuromodulators, including biogenic amines, neuropeptides, and hormones, are released to signal changes in animals' circumstances and serve to reconfigure neural circuits. This circuit flexibility allows animals to modify their behavioral responses according to environmental cues, metabolic demands, and physiological states. Aided by powerful genetic tools, researchers have made remarkable progress in Drosophila melanogaster to address how a myriad of contextual information influences the input-output relationship of hardwired circuits that support a complex behavioral repertoire. Here we highlight recent advances in understanding neuromodulation of Drosophila innate behaviors, with a special focus on feeding, courtship, aggression, and postmating behaviors.

  10. Intrinsic neuromodulation: altering neuronal circuits from within.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, P S; Frost, W N

    1996-02-01

    There are two sources of neuromodulation for neuronal circuits: extrinsic inputs and intrinsic components of the circuits themselves. Extrinsic neuromodulation is known to be pervasive in nervous systems, but intrinsic neuromodulation is less recognized, despite the fact that it has now been demonstrated in sensory and neuromuscular circuits and in central pattern generators. By its nature, intrinsic neuromodulation produces local changes in neuronal computation, whereas extrinsic neuromodulation can cause global changes, often affecting many circuits simultaneously. Studies in a number of systems are defining the different properties of these two forms of neuromodulation.

  11. Neuromodulation, development and synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foehring, R C; Lorenzon, N M

    1999-03-01

    We discuss parallels in the mechanisms underlying use-dependent synaptic plasticity during development and long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) in neocortical synapses. Neuromodulators, such as norepinephrine, serotonin, and acetylcholine have also been implicated in regulating both developmental plasticity and LTP/LTD. There are many potential levels of interaction between neuromodulators and plasticity. Ion channels are substrates for modulation in many cell types. We discuss examples of modulation of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and Ca(2+)-dependent K+ channels and the consequences for neocortical pyramidal cell firing behaviour. At the time when developmental plasticity is most evident in rat cortex, the substrate for modulation is changing as the densities and relative proportions of various ion channels types are altered during ontogeny. We discuss examples of changes in K+ and Ca2+ channels and the consequence for modulation of neuronal activity.

  12. Collective dose: Dogma, tool, or trauma?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, K.

    1996-01-01

    In Europe as well as in the United States, the argument continues in the radiation protection community between the open-quotes fundamentalists,close quotes who firmly believe in the linear no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis and the closely related concept of collective dose, and open-quotes pragmatists,close quotes who have serious doubts about these concepts for both radiobiological and socioeconomic reasons. The latter view is reflected in many recent compilations in the scientific literature, in particular in the books by G. Walinder and S. Kondo. The fundamentalist view has been expressed in other recent publications. What has been described as the good old boys' network of the establishment threatens nonbelievers with excommunication: in his 1996 Sievert lecture, D. Beninson described doubts about the LNT hypothesis as open-quotes arrogant ignoranceclose quotes; A. Gonzales, in a 1995 letter to the author, described them as open-quotes intellectual lazinessclose quotes; and R. Clarke, chairman of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), during the 1996 IRPA Congress, described them as open-quotes seriously misguided.close quotes Threshold or no threshold, that is the question - the most important one for this and the next generation of health physicists. Corrections of the current dogmas are needed soon and should be initiated not only by the nuclear community (which may be blamed by opinion makers for a biased view) but by those members of the radiation protection community, who are not only interested in order to 'keep the hazard alive' for reasons of publicity, research funding, and sales of instruments and services. The International Atomic Energy Agency will devote a symposium to these questions next year. The results should be interesting

  13. A translational platform for prototyping closed-loop neuromodulation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Pedram; Khambhati, Ankit; Stanslaski, Scott; Carlson, David; Jensen, Randy; Linde, Dave; Dani, Siddharth; Lazarewicz, Maciej; Cong, Peng; Giftakis, Jon; Stypulkowski, Paul; Denison, Tim

    2013-01-01

    While modulating neural activity through stimulation is an effective treatment for neurological diseases such as Parkinson's disease and essential tremor, an opportunity for improving neuromodulation therapy remains in automatically adjusting therapy to continuously optimize patient outcomes. Practical issues associated with achieving this include the paucity of human data related to disease states, poorly validated estimators of patient state, and unknown dynamic mappings of optimal stimulation parameters based on estimated states. To overcome these challenges, we present an investigational platform including: an implanted sensing and stimulation device to collect data and run automated closed-loop algorithms; an external tool to prototype classifier and control-policy algorithms; and real-time telemetry to update the implanted device firmware and monitor its state. The prototyping system was demonstrated in a chronic large animal model studying hippocampal dynamics. We used the platform to find biomarkers of the observed states and transfer functions of different stimulation amplitudes. Data showed that moderate levels of stimulation suppress hippocampal beta activity, while high levels of stimulation produce seizure-like after-discharge activity. The biomarker and transfer function observations were mapped into classifier and control-policy algorithms, which were downloaded to the implanted device to continuously titrate stimulation amplitude for the desired network effect. The platform is designed to be a flexible prototyping tool and could be used to develop improved mechanistic models and automated closed-loop systems for a variety of neurological disorders. PMID:23346048

  14. The 50 Most Cited Articles in Invasive Neuromodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Max; Doran, Joseph; Paskhover, Boris; Mammis, Antonios

    2018-03-14

    Bibliometric analysis is a commonly used analytic tool for objective determination of the most influential and peer-recognized articles within a given field. This study is the first bibliometric analysis of the literature in the field of invasive neuromodulation, excluding deep brain stimulation. The objectives of this study are to identify the 50 most cited articles in invasive neuromodulation, provide an overview of the literature to assist in clinical education, and evaluate the effect of impact factor on manuscript recognition. Bibliometric analysis was performed using the Science Citation Index from the Institute for Scientific Information, accessed through the Web of Science. Search terms relevant to the field of invasive neuromodulation were used to identify the 50 most cited journal articles between 1900 and 2016. The median number of citations was 236 (range, 173-578). The most common topics among the articles were vagus nerve stimulation (n = 24), spinal cord stimulation (n = 9), and motor cortex stimulation (n = 6). Median journal impact factor was 5.57. Most of these articles (n = 19) contained level I, II, or III evidence. This analysis provides a brief look into the most cited articles within the field, many of which evaluated innovated procedures and therapies that helped to drive surgical neuromodulation forward. These landmark articles contain vital clinical and educational information that remains relevant to clinicians and students within the field and provide insight into areas of expanding research. Journal impact factor may play a significant role in determining the literary relevance and general awareness of invasive neuromodulation studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Neuromodulation and antenatal depression: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim DR

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Deborah R Kim,1 Jessica L Snell,1 Grace C Ewing,1 John O’Reardon2 1Department of Psychiatry, Penn Center for Women’s Behavioral Health, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 2Department of Psychiatry, Rowan University, Rowan School of Medicine, Cherry Hill, NJ, USA Background: Depression during pregnancy affects 5%–8% of women. While the percentage of women in the US taking serotonin reuptake inhibitors during pregnancy has risen over the last decade, pregnant women continue to report that they prefer non-pharmacologic interventions. Objective: We review the literature regarding neuromodulation techniques for major depressive disorder during pregnancy. The rationale for their use in this population, new developments, and future directions are discussed. Methods: A literature search was conducted in PubMed Plus, Ovid Medline, and Embase to collect all articles on neuromodulation for the treatment of depression during pregnancy. Key search words included electroconvulsive therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation, deep brain stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, neuromodulation, depression, and pregnancy. Given the sparse literature, all articles from 1960 to 2014 that addressed the use of neuromodulation in pregnancy were included. Conclusion: The data support the use of electroconvulsive therapy in all trimesters of pregnancy for major depressive disorder. New data are emerging for the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation in pregnancy, which is likely safe, but more data are needed before it can be recommended as a primary treatment modality during pregnancy. Other neuromodulation techniques have not been well studied in this population. Keywords: electroconvulsive therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation, pregnancy, depression, antenatal depression, perinatal

  16. Neuromodulators: available agents, physiology, and anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettar, Kartik; Maas, Corey

    2011-12-01

    Neuromodulators have risen to the forefront of aesthetic medicine. By reversibly relaxing target muscles, neuromodulators exhibit their effect by softening hyperfunctional lines. An understanding of their physiology, relevant facial anatomy, and current agents is imperative for a successful aesthetic practice. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  17. EFFECTS OF NEUROMODULATION ON NEUROVASCULAR COUPLING

    OpenAIRE

    Zaldivar Perez, Jose Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The communication between neurons within neural circuits relies on neurotransmitters (glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)) and neuromodulators (acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin, etc.). However, despite sharing similar molecular elements, neurotransmitters and neuromodulators are distinct classes of molecules and mediate different aspects of neural activity and metabolism. Neurotransmitters on one hand are responsible for synaptic signal transmission (classical transmission) while neuromod...

  18. 78 FR 72151 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request on Information Collection Tools Relating to Qualitative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Information Collection Tools Relating to Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery. AGENCY: Internal...(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning the collection of qualitative...: Title: Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery OMB Number: 1545-NEW. Form Number...

  19. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Neuromodulation of Olfactory Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizbinski, Kristyn M; Dacks, Andrew M

    2017-01-01

    Neuromodulation is a ubiquitous feature of neural systems, allowing flexible, context specific control over network dynamics. Neuromodulation was first described in invertebrate motor systems and early work established a basic dichotomy for neuromodulation as having either an intrinsic origin (i.e., neurons that participate in network coding) or an extrinsic origin (i.e., neurons from independent networks). In this conceptual dichotomy, intrinsic sources of neuromodulation provide a "memory" by adjusting network dynamics based upon previous and ongoing activation of the network itself, while extrinsic neuromodulators provide the context of ongoing activity of other neural networks. Although this dichotomy has been thoroughly considered in motor systems, it has received far less attention in sensory systems. In this review, we discuss intrinsic and extrinsic modulation in the context of olfactory processing in invertebrate and vertebrate model systems. We begin by discussing presynaptic modulation of olfactory sensory neurons by local interneurons (LNs) as a mechanism for gain control based on ongoing network activation. We then discuss the cell-class specific effects of serotonergic centrifugal neurons on olfactory processing. Finally, we briefly discuss the integration of intrinsic and extrinsic neuromodulation (metamodulation) as an effective mechanism for exerting global control over olfactory network dynamics. The heterogeneous nature of neuromodulation is a recurring theme throughout this review as the effects of both intrinsic and extrinsic modulation are generally non-uniform.

  20. Intrinsic and extrinsic neuromodulation of motor circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, P S

    1995-12-01

    Neuromodulation of motor circuits by extrinsic inputs provides enormous flexibility in the production of behavior. Recent work has shown that neurons intrinsic to central pattern-generating circuits can evoke neuromodulatory effects in addition to their neurotransmitting actions. Modulatory neurons often elicit a multitude of different effects attributable to actions at different receptors and/or through the release of co-transmitters. Differences in neuromodulation between species can account for differences in behavior. Modulation of neuromodulation may provide an additional level of flexibility to motor circuits.

  1. Noninvasive neuromodulation in cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Láinez, Miguel J A; Jensen, Rigmor

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neuromodulation is an alternative in the management of medically intractable cluster headache patients. Most of the techniques are invasive, but in the last 2 years, some studies using a noninvasive device have been presented. The objective of this article is to review the data...... using this approach. RECENT FINDINGS: Techniques as occipital nerve stimulation or sphenopalatine ganglion stimulation are recommended as first-line therapy in refractory cluster patients, but they are invasive and maybe associated with complications. Noninvasive vagal nerve stimulation with an external...... device has been tried in cluster patients. Results from clinical practice and a single randomized clinical trial have been presented showing a reduction of the number of cluster attacks/week in the patients treated with the device. The rate of adverse events was low and most of them were mild. SUMMARY...

  2. Collective screening tools for early identification of dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Valéria Campana Dos Anjos Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current response to intervention models (RTI favor a three-tier system. In general, Tier 1 consists of evidence-based, effective reading instruction in the classroom and universal screening of all students at the beginning of the grade level to identify children for early intervention. Nonresponders to Tier 1 receive small-group tutoring in Tier 2. Nonresponders to Tier 2 are given still more intensive, individual intervention in Tier 3. Limited time, personnel and financial resources derail RTI’s implementation in Brazilian schools because this approach involves procedures that require extra time and extra personnel in all three tiers, including screening tools which normally consist of tasks administered individually. We explored the accuracy of collectively and easily administered screening tools for the early identification of second graders at risk for dyslexia in a two-stage screening model. A first-stage universal screening based on collectively administered curriculum-based measurements was used in 45 seven years old early Portuguese readers from 4 second-grade classrooms at the beginning of the school year and identified an at-risk group of 13 academic low-achievers. Collectively administered tasks based on phonological judgments by matching figures and figures to spoken words (Alternative Tools for Educators-ATE and a comprehensive cognitive-linguistic battery of collective and individual assessments were both administered to all children and constituted the second-stage screening. Low-achievement on ATE tasks and on collectively administered writing tasks (scores at the 25th percentile showed good sensitivity (true positives and specificity (true negatives to poor literacy status defined as scores ≤ 1 SD below the mean on literacy abilities at the end of fifth grade. These results provide implications for the use of a collectively administered screening tool for the early identification of children at risk for dyslexia in a

  3. Collective screening tools for early identification of dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Olga V. C. A.; Andrade, Paulo E.; Capellini, Simone A.

    2015-01-01

    Current response to intervention models (RTIs) favor a three-tier system. In general, Tier 1 consists of evidence-based, effective reading instruction in the classroom and universal screening of all students at the beginning of the grade level to identify children for early intervention. Non-responders to Tier 1 receive small-group tutoring in Tier 2. Non-responders to Tier 2 are given still more intensive, individual intervention in Tier 3. Limited time, personnel and financial resources derail RTI’s implementation in Brazilian schools because this approach involves procedures that require extra time and extra personnel in all three tiers, including screening tools which normally consist of tasks administered individually. We explored the accuracy of collectively and easily administered screening tools for the early identification of second graders at risk for dyslexia in a two-stage screening model. A first-stage universal screening based on collectively administered curriculum-based measurements was used in 45 7 years old early Portuguese readers from 4 second-grade classrooms at the beginning of the school year and identified an at-risk group of 13 academic low-achievers. Collectively administered tasks based on phonological judgments by matching figures and figures to spoken words [alternative tools for educators (ATE)] and a comprehensive cognitive-linguistic battery of collective and individual assessments were both administered to all children and constituted the second-stage screening. Low-achievement on ATE tasks and on collectively administered writing tasks (scores at the 25th percentile) showed good sensitivity (true positives) and specificity (true negatives) to poor literacy status defined as scores ≤1 SD below the mean on literacy abilities at the end of fifth grade. These results provide implications for the use of a collectively administered screening tool for the early identification of children at risk for dyslexia in a classroom setting

  4. Kinect, a Novel Cutting Edge Tool in Pavement Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudzadeh, A.; Firoozi Yeganeh, S.; Golroo, A.

    2015-12-01

    Pavement roughness and surface distress detection is of interest of decision makers due to vehicle safety, user satisfaction, and cost saving. Data collection, as a core of pavement management systems, is required for these detections. There are two major types of data collection: traditional/manual data collection and automated/semi-automated data collection. This paper study different non-destructive tools in detecting cracks and potholes. For this purpose, automated data collection tools, which have been utilized recently are discussed and their applications are criticized. The main issue is the significant amount of money as a capital investment needed to buy the vehicle. The main scope of this paper is to study the approach and related tools that not only are cost-effective but also precise and accurate. The new sensor called Kinect has all of these specifications. It can capture both RGB images and depth which are of significant use in measuring cracks and potholes. This sensor is able to take image of surfaces with adequate resolution to detect cracks along with measurement of distance between sensor and obstacles in front of it which results in depth of defects. This technology has been very recently studied by few researchers in different fields of studies such as project management, biomedical engineering, etc. Pavement management has not paid enough attention to use of Kinect in monitoring and detecting distresses. This paper is aimed at providing a thorough literature review on usage of Kinect in pavement management and finally proposing the best approach which is cost-effective and precise.

  5. KINECT, A NOVEL CUTTING EDGE TOOL IN PAVEMENT DATA COLLECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahmoudzadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pavement roughness and surface distress detection is of interest of decision makers due to vehicle safety, user satisfaction, and cost saving. Data collection, as a core of pavement management systems, is required for these detections. There are two major types of data collection: traditional/manual data collection and automated/semi-automated data collection. This paper study different non-destructive tools in detecting cracks and potholes. For this purpose, automated data collection tools, which have been utilized recently are discussed and their applications are criticized. The main issue is the significant amount of money as a capital investment needed to buy the vehicle. The main scope of this paper is to study the approach and related tools that not only are cost-effective but also precise and accurate. The new sensor called Kinect has all of these specifications. It can capture both RGB images and depth which are of significant use in measuring cracks and potholes. This sensor is able to take image of surfaces with adequate resolution to detect cracks along with measurement of distance between sensor and obstacles in front of it which results in depth of defects. This technology has been very recently studied by few researchers in different fields of studies such as project management, biomedical engineering, etc. Pavement management has not paid enough attention to use of Kinect in monitoring and detecting distresses. This paper is aimed at providing a thorough literature review on usage of Kinect in pavement management and finally proposing the best approach which is cost-effective and precise.

  6. 77 FR 60025 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Information Collection Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... organizations, not-for-profit institutions, and State, Local, and tribal Governments. Estimated Number of... an existing final regulation, INTL-485-89 (TD 8400), Taxation of Gain or Loss from Certain... information collection tools, reporting, and record-keeping requirements: (1) Title: Taxation of Gain or Loss...

  7. 78 FR 3499 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request on Information Collection Tools Relating to Customer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    .... In regard to online services, this feedback will provide insights into customer preferences for... Information Collection Tools Relating to Customer Satisfaction Surveys AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS... use a data-driven approach to understanding customer satisfaction at the Internal Revenue Service (IRS...

  8. Mdmap: A Tool for Metadata Collection and Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rico Simke

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a front-end for the semi-automatic collection, matching, and generation of bibliographic metadata obtained from different sources for use within a digitization architecture. The Library of a Billion Words project is building an infrastructure for digitizing text that requires high-quality bibliographic metadata, but currently only sparse metadata from digitized editions is available. The project’s approach is to collect metadata for each digitized item from as many sources as possible. An expert user can then use an intuitive front-end tool to choose matching metadata. The collected metadata are centrally displayed in an interactive grid view. The user can choose which metadata they want to assign to a certain edition, and export these data as MARCXML. This paper presents a new approach to bibliographic work and metadata correction. We try to achieve a high quality of the metadata by generating a large amount of metadata to choose from, as well as by giving librarians an intuitive tool to manage their data.

  9. Email as a Data Collection Tool when Interviewing Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A. Brondani DDS, MSc, PhD

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores several aspects of electronic communication, specifically its advantages and disadvantages within the context of a brief experience using email to interview elders. Two older adults participated via email as the psychosocial impact of aging was collected using such venue. Our experiences are compared with published reports from others to analyze the benefits and limitations of email as a research tool. The email was spontaneous, comprehensive, interactive, efficient, confidential, and cost effective. The use of email within this exploratory study appeared to be an effective approach to collecting qualitative information about beliefs and behaviours from older adults who feel comfortable with this form of communication. The lack of similar studies limited the scope of discussion and comparison of findings; generalization is limited due to the small sample size. This investigation, however, suggested that the use of email as an interview tool may be considered in today's exploratory research arena as an alternative to conference calls or face-to-face interviews when time is a constraint.

  10. Cyborg psychiatry to ensure agency and autonomy in mental disorders. A proposal for neuromodulation therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur; Fond, Guillaume; Dumas, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    Neuromodulation therapeutics-as repeated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) and neurofeedback-are valuable tools for psychiatry. Nevertheless, they currently face some limitations: rTMS has confounding effects on neural activation patterns, and neurofeedback fails to change neural dynamics in some cases. Here we propose how coupling rTMS and neurofeedback can tackle both issues by adapting neural activations during rTMS and actively guiding individuals during neurofeedback. An algorithmic challenge then consists in designing the proper recording, processing, feedback, and control of unwanted effects. But this new neuromodulation technique also poses an ethical challenge: ensuring treatment occurs within a biopsychosocial model of medicine, while considering both the interaction between the patients and the psychiatrist, and the maintenance of individuals' autonomy. Our solution is the concept of Cyborg psychiatry, which embodies the technique and includes a self-engaged interaction between patients and the neuromodulation device.

  11. Cyborg psychiatry to ensure agency and autonomy in mental disorders. A proposal for neuromodulation therapeutics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Arthur eMicoulaud Franchi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuromodulation therapeutics—as repeated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS and neurofeedback—are valuable tools for psychiatry. Nevertheless, they currently face some limitations: rTMS has confounding effects on neural activation patterns, and neurofeedback fails to change neural dynamics in some cases. Here we propose how coupling rTMS and neurofeedback can tackle both issues by adapting neural activations during rTMS and actively guiding individuals during neurofeedback. An algorithmic challenge then consists in designing the proper recording, processing, feedback, and control of unwanted effects. But this new neuromodulation technique also poses an ethical challenge: ensuring treatment occurs within a biopsychosocial model of medicine, while considering both the interaction between the patients and the psychiatrist, and the maintenance of individuals’ autonomy. Our solution is the concept of Cyborg psychiatry, which embodies the technique and includes a self-engaged interaction between patients and the neuromodulation device.

  12. Collaboratively Conceived, Designed and Implemented: Matching Visualization Tools with Geoscience Data Collections and Geoscience Data Collections with Visualization Tools via the ToolMatch Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoebelheinrich, N. J.; Lynnes, C.; West, P.; Ferritto, M.

    2014-12-01

    Two problems common to many geoscience domains are the difficulties in finding tools to work with a given dataset collection, and conversely, the difficulties in finding data for a known tool. A collaborative team from the Earth Science Information Partnership (ESIP) has gotten together to design and create a web service, called ToolMatch, to address these problems. The team began their efforts by defining an initial, relatively simple conceptual model that addressed the two uses cases briefly described above. The conceptual model is expressed as an ontology using OWL (Web Ontology Language) and DCterms (Dublin Core Terms), and utilizing standard ontologies such as DOAP (Description of a Project), FOAF (Friend of a Friend), SKOS (Simple Knowledge Organization System) and DCAT (Data Catalog Vocabulary). The ToolMatch service will be taking advantage of various Semantic Web and Web standards, such as OpenSearch, RESTful web services, SWRL (Semantic Web Rule Language) and SPARQL (Simple Protocol and RDF Query Language). The first version of the ToolMatch service was deployed in early fall 2014. While more complete testing is required, a number of communities besides ESIP member organizations have expressed interest in collaborating to create, test and use the service and incorporate it into their own web pages, tools and / or services including the USGS Data Catalog service, DataONE, the Deep Carbon Observatory, Virtual Solar Terrestrial Observatory (VSTO), and the U.S. Global Change Research Program. In this session, presenters will discuss the inception and development of the ToolMatch service, the collaborative process used to design, refine, and test the service, and future plans for the service.

  13. Noninvasive neuromodulation in migraine and cluster headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, Amaal

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this narrative review is to provide an overview of the currently available noninvasive neuromodulation devices for the treatment of migraine and cluster headache. Over the last decade, several noninvasive devices have undergone development and clinical trials to evaluate efficacy and safety. Based on this body of work, single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcutaneous supraorbital neurostimulation, and noninvasive vagal nerve stimulation devices have been cleared by the United States Food and Drug Administration and are available for clinical use for the treatment of primary headache disorders. Overall, these novel noninvasive devices appear to be safe, well tolerated, and have demonstrated promising results in clinical trials in both migraine and cluster headache. This narrative review will provide a summary and update of the proposed mechanisms of action, evidence, safety, and future directions of various currently available modalities of noninvasive neuromodulation for the treatment of migraine and cluster headache.

  14. Desynchronizing electrical and sensory coordinated reset neuromodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovych, Oleksandr V; Tass, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    Coordinated reset (CR) stimulation is a desynchronizing stimulation technique based on timely coordinated phase resets of sub-populations of a synchronized neuronal ensemble. It has initially been computationally developed for electrical deep brain stimulation (DBS), to enable an effective desynchronization and unlearning of pathological synchrony and connectivity (anti-kindling). Here we computationally show for ensembles of spiking and bursting model neurons interacting via excitatory and inhibitory adaptive synapses that a phase reset of neuronal populations as well as a desynchronization and an anti-kindling can robustly be achieved by direct electrical stimulation or indirect (synaptically-mediated) excitatory and inhibitory stimulation. Our findings are relevant for DBS as well as for sensory stimulation in neurological disorders characterized by pathological neuronal synchrony. Based on the obtained results, we may expect that the local effects in the vicinity of a depth electrode (realized by direct stimulation of the neurons' somata or stimulation of axon terminals) and the non-local CR effects (realized by stimulation of excitatory or inhibitory efferent fibers) of deep brain CR neuromodulation may be similar or even identical. Furthermore, our results indicate that an effective desynchronization and anti-kindling can even be achieved by non-invasive, sensory CR neuromodulation. We discuss the concept of sensory CR neuromodulation in the context of neurological disorders.

  15. Desynchronizing Electrical and Sensory Coordinated Reset Neuromodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr V. Popovych

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Coordinated reset (CR stimulation is a desynchronizing stimulation technique based on timely coordinated phase resets of sub-populations of a synchronized neuronal ensemble. It has initially been computationally developed for electrical deep brain stimulation (DBS,to enable an effective desynchronization and unlearning of pathological synchrony and connectivity (anti-kindling. Here we computationally show for ensembles of spiking and bursting model neurons interacting via excitatory and inhibitory adaptive synapses that a phase reset of neuronal populations as well as a desynchronization and an anti-kindling can robustly be achieved by direct electrical stimulation or indirect (synaptically-mediated excitatory and inhibitory stimulation.Our findings are relevant for DBS as well as for sensory stimulation in neurological disorders characterized by pathological neuronalsynchrony. Based on the obtained results, we may expect that the local effects in the vicinity of a depth electrode (realized by direct stimulation of the neurons' somata or stimulation of axon terminals and the non-local CR effects (realized by stimulation of excitatory or inhibitory efferent fibers of deep brain CR neuromodulation may be similar or even identical. Furthermore, ourresults indicate that an effective desynchronization and anti-kindlingcan even be achieved by non-invasive, sensory CR neuromodulation. We discuss the concept of sensory CR neuromodulation in the context of neurological disorders.

  16. Electrical stimulation and tinnitus: neuroplasticity, neuromodulation, neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Shulman; Barbara, Goldstein; Arnold, Strashun

    2013-01-01

    Neuroplasticity (NPL), neuromodulation (NM), and neuroprotection (NPT) are ongoing biophysiological processes that are linked together in sensory systems, the goal being the maintenance of a homeostasis of normal sensory function in the central nervous system. It is hypothesized that when the balance between excitatory - inhibitory action is broken in sensory systems, predominantly due to neuromodulatory activity with reduced induced inhibition and excitation predominates, sensory circuits become plastic with adaptation at synaptic levels to environmental inputs(1). Tinnitus an aberrant auditory sensation, for all clinical types, is clinically considered to reflect a failure of NPL, NM, and NPT to maintain normal auditory function at synaptic levels in sensory cortex and projected to downstream levels in the central auditory system in brain and sensorineural elements in ear. Clinically, the tinnitus sensation becomes behaviorally manifest with varying degrees of annoyance, reflecting a principle of sensory physiology that each sensation has components, i.e. sensory, affect/behavior, psychomotor and memory. Modalities of tinnitus therapies, eg instrumentation, pharmacology, surgery, target a particular component of tinnitus, with resultant activation of neuromodulators at multiple neuromodulatory centers in brain and ear. Effective neuromodulation at sensory neuronal synaptic levels results in NPL in sensory cortex, NPT and tinnitus relief. Functional brain imaging, metabolic (PET brain) and electrophysiology quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) data in a cochlear implant soft failure patient demonstrates what is clinically considered to reflect NPL, NM, NPT. The reader is provided with a rationale for tinnitus diagnosis and treatment, with a focus on ES, reflecting the biology underlying NPL, NM, NPT.

  17. Changes in sexual functioning in women after neuromodulation for voiding dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yih, Jessica M; Killinger, Kim A; Boura, Judith A; Peters, Kenneth M

    2013-10-01

    Sacral neuromodulation is a well-established treatment for urinary and bowel disorders with potential use for other disorders such as sexual dysfunction. To evaluate changes in sexual functioning in women undergoing neuromodulation for voiding symptoms. Patients enrolled in our prospective, observational neuromodulation database study were evaluated. Data were collected from medical records, and patient-completed Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and Interstitial Cystitis Symptom-Problem Indices (ICSI-PI) at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months post-implant. Patients rated overall change in sexual functioning on scaled global response assessments (GRA) at 3, 6, and 12 months post-implant. We grouped women by baseline FSFI scores: less (scoresexually functional (score≥26). Data were analyzed with Pearson's Chi-square or Fisher's Exact test and repeated measures. Changes in FSFI and ICSI-PI scores in women grouped by baseline FSFI scoresexually active at baseline, 10 became sexually active during follow-up. In the FSFI≥26 group there was slight but statistically significant decline in mean scores between baseline and 12 months (N=9; 27.4±1.1 to 24.5±3.4; P=0.0302); however one had become sexually inactive. A significant decrease was seen in the satisfaction domain. Many factors affect sexual functioning in women; however sexual function may improve along with urinary symptoms after neuromodulation. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  18. Internal State Dependent Odor Processing and Perception—The Role of Neuromodulation in the Fly Olfactory System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sercan Sayin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Animals rely heavily on their sense of olfaction to perform various vital interactions with an ever-in-flux environment. The turbulent and combinatorial nature of air-borne odorant cues demands the employment of various coding strategies, which allow the animal to attune to its internal needs and past or present experiences. Furthermore, these internal needs can be dependent on internal states such as hunger, reproductive state and sickness. Neuromodulation is a key component providing flexibility under such conditions. Understanding the contributions of neuromodulation, such as sensory neuron sensitization and choice bias requires manipulation of neuronal activity on a local and global scale. With Drosophila's genetic toolset, these manipulations are feasible and even allow a detailed look on the functional role of classical neuromodulators such as dopamine, octopamine and neuropeptides. The past years unraveled various mechanisms adapting chemosensory processing and perception to internal states such as hunger and reproductive state. However, future research should also investigate the mechanisms underlying other internal states including the modulatory influence of endogenous microbiota on Drosophila behavior. Furthermore, sickness induced by pathogenic infection could lead to novel insights as to the neuromodulators of circuits that integrate such a negative postingestive signal within the circuits governing olfactory behavior and learning. The enriched emporium of tools Drosophila provides will help to build a concrete picture of the influence of neuromodulation on olfaction and metabolism, adaptive behavior and our overall understanding of how a brain works.

  19. Software architecture analysis tool : software architecture metrics collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muskens, J.; Chaudron, M.R.V.; Westgeest, R.

    2002-01-01

    The Software Engineering discipline lacks the ability to evaluate software architectures. Here we describe a tool for software architecture analysis that is based on metrics. Metrics can be used to detect possible problems and bottlenecks in software architectures. Even though metrics do not give a

  20. Neurostimulation, neuromodulation, and the treatment of epilepsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolden Lauren B.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Neurostimulation and neuromodulation are techniques that may be able to affect the course of epilepsy. In the last 20 years, since the approval of VNS, we have observed a surge of studies assessing the potential of other devices and techniques for the treatment of pharmacoresistant epilepsies including deep brain stimulation (DBS, responsive neurostimulation (RNS, trigeminal nerve stimulation (TNS, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS. Are these devices and techniques simply another treatment option that can be offered to patients with epilepsy or do they offer specific advantages when compared to the standard antiepileptic drugs (AEDs?

  1. Interactions of Neuromodulators with Cells of the Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-05

    neuromodulators on non-neuronal cells. During the past year significant progress has been made in four inter-related areas: 1) The affects 4f ".orepinephrine on...of neuromodulators on non-neuronal cells. This laboratory is well equipped to undertake such studies since we also are involved in a large research

  2. 32 CFR 903.10 - Information collections, records, and forms or information management tools (IMTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information collections, records, and forms or information management tools (IMTS). 903.10 Section 903.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... Information collections, records, and forms or information management tools (IMTS). (a) Information...

  3. 32 CFR 806b.54 - Information collections, records, and forms or information management tools (IMT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... information management tools (IMT). 806b.54 Section 806b.54 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued..., records, and forms or information management tools (IMT). (a) Information Collections. No information.../pubfiles/af/37/afman37-139/afman37-139.pdf. (c) Forms or Information Management Tools (Adopted and...

  4. A smartphone-based ASR data collection tool for under-resourced languages

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Vries, NJ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available collection strategies, highlighting some of the salient issues pertaining to collecting ASR data for under-resourced languages. We then describe the development of a smartphone-based data collection tool, Woefzela, which is designed to function in a...

  5. 78 FR 43003 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request on Information Collection Tools Relating to the Offshore...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506... accounts and undisclosed foreign entities to avoid or evade tax into compliance with United States tax laws... information unless the collection of information displays a valid OMB control number. Books or records...

  6. Neuromodulation therapies and treatment-resistant depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Harbi KS

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Khalid Saad Al-Harbi,1 Naseem Akhtar Qureshi21National Guard Hospital, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2General Administration for Research and Studies and Mental Health and Social Services, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD who showed partial response to pharmacological and psychotherapeutic interventions need a trial of neuromodulation therapies (NTs.Objective: This paper aims to review evidence-based data on the use of NTs in TRD.Method: Using keywords and combined-word strategy, multiple computer searches of PubMed, Google Scholar, Quertle(R, and Medline were conducted for retrieving relevant articles published in English-language peer-reviewed journals (2000–2012. Those papers that addressed NTs in TRD were retained for extensive review.Results: Despite methodological challenges, a range of 30%–93% of TRD patients showed substantial improvement to one of the NTs. One hundred–percent improvement was reported in two single-case studies on deep brain stimulation. Some studies reported no benefits from transcranial direct current stimulation. NTs were reported to have good clinical efficacy, better safety margin, and benign side-effect profile. Data are limited regarding randomized clinical trials, long-term efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of these approaches. Both modified electroconvulsive therapy and magnetic seizure therapy were associated with reversible but disturbing neurocognitive adverse effects. Besides clinical utility, NTs including approaches on the horizon may unlock the biological basis underlying mood disorders including TRD.Conclusion: NTs are promising in patients with TRD, as the majority of them show good clinical response measured by standardized depression scales. NTs need further technological refinements and optimization together with continuing well-designed studies that recruit larger numbers of participants with TRD.Keywords: treatment

  7. MoDOT pavement preservation research program volume IV, pavement evaluation tools-data collection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The overarching goal of the MoDOT Pavement Preservation Research Program, Task 3: Pavement Evaluation Tools Data : Collection Methods was to identify and evaluate methods to rapidly obtain network-level and project-level information relevant to :...

  8. 75 FR 26345 - Agency Information Collection (Ethics Consultation Feedback Tool (ECFT)) New Enrollee Survey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... Collection (Ethics Consultation Feedback Tool (ECFT)) New Enrollee Survey) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY... OMB Desk Officer, OMB Human Resources and Housing Branch, New Executive Office Building, Room 10235...).'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Ethics Consultation Feedback Tool (ECFT), VA Form 10-0502. OMB Control Number...

  9. 78 FR 6847 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Information Collection Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... approved by OMB. Type of Review: Extension of a currently approved collection. Affected Public: Business or... information technology; and (e) estimates of capital or start-up costs and costs of operation, maintenance... Section 1(h) of the Internal Revenue Code (Applying Section 1(h) to Capital Gain Dividends of RICs and...

  10. 77 FR 60022 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Information Collection Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... OMB. Type of Review: Extension of a currently approved collection. Affected Public: Businesses and... information technology; and (e) estimates of capital or start-up costs and costs of operation, maintenance... C (Form 1040), Profit or Loss From Business; Form 8907, Nonconventional Source Fuel Credit; and REG...

  11. 78 FR 6846 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Information Collection Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... acquisition of a trade or business or an ownership interest in a legal entity. Current Actions: There is no...: Written comments should be received on or before April 1, 2013 to be assured of consideration. ADDRESSES... Code by section 1308 of the Small Business Job Protection Act of 1996. The collection of information...

  12. Consciousness in waking and dreaming: the roles of neuronal oscillation and neuromodulation in determining similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, D; Pace-Schott, E F; Hobson, J A

    1997-05-01

    State-dependent aspects of consciousness are explored with particular attention to waking and dreaming. First, those phenomenological differences between waking and dreaming that have been established through subjective reports are reviewed. These differences are robustly expressed in most aspects of consciousness including perception, attention, memory, emotion, orientation, and thought. Next, the roles of high frequency neuronal oscillation and neuromodulation are explored in waking and rapid eye movement sleep, the stage of sleep with which the most intense dreaming is associated. The high frequency neuronal oscillations serve similar functions in the wake and rapid eye movement states sleep but neuromodulation is very different in the two states. The collective high frequency oscillatory activity gives coherence to spatially separate neurons but, because of the different neuromodulation, the binding of sensory input in the wake state is very different from the binding of internally perceived input during rapid eye movement sleep. An explanatory model is presented which states that neuromodulation, as well as input source and brain activation level differentiate states of the brain, while the self-organized collective neuronal oscillations unify consciousness via long range correlations.

  13. 78 FR 49335 - Agency Information Collection (Ethics Consultation Feedback Tool (ECFT)) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0750] Agency Information Collection (Ethics... collection of information through www.Regulations.gov ; or to VA's OMB Desk Officer, OMB Human Resources and...-0750''. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Ethics Consultation Feedback Tool (ECFT), VA Form 10-10065...

  14. Development of Software Tools for ADA Compliance Data Collection, Management, and Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    In this NUTC research project, the UNR research team developed an iOS application (named NDOT ADA Data) to efficiently and intuitively collect ADA inventory data with iPhones or iPads. This tool was developed to facilitate NDOT ADA data collect...

  15. Methodological tools for the collection and analysis of participant observation data using grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitinen, Heleena; Kaunonen, Marja; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi

    2014-11-01

    To give clarity to the analysis of participant observation in nursing when implementing the grounded theory method. Participant observation (PO) is a method of collecting data that reveals the reality of daily life in a specific context. In grounded theory, interviews are the primary method of collecting data but PO gives a distinctive insight, revealing what people are really doing, instead of what they say they are doing. However, more focus is needed on the analysis of PO. An observational study carried out to gain awareness of nursing care and its electronic documentation in four acute care wards in hospitals in Finland. Discussion of using the grounded theory method and PO as a data collection tool. The following methodological tools are discussed: an observational protocol, jotting of notes, microanalysis, the use of questioning, constant comparison, and writing and illustrating. Each tool has specific significance in collecting and analysing data, working in constant interaction. Grounded theory and participant observation supplied rich data and revealed the complexity of the daily reality of acute care. In this study, the methodological tools provided a base for the study at the research sites and outside. The process as a whole was challenging. It was time-consuming and it required rigorous and simultaneous data collection and analysis, including reflective writing. Using these methodological tools helped the researcher stay focused from data collection and analysis to building theory. Using PO as a data collection method in qualitative nursing research provides insights. It is not commonly discussed in nursing research and therefore this study can provide insight, which cannot be seen or revealed by using other data collection methods. Therefore, this paper can produce a useful tool for those who intend to use PO and grounded theory in their nursing research.

  16. Neuromodulation of group prejudice and religious belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Colin; Izuma, Keise; Deblieck, Choi; Fessler, Daniel M T; Iacoboni, Marco

    2016-03-01

    People cleave to ideological convictions with greater intensity in the aftermath of threat. The posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC) plays a key role in both detecting discrepancies between desired and current conditions and adjusting subsequent behavior to resolve such conflicts. Building on prior literature examining the role of the pMFC in shifts in relatively low-level decision processes, we demonstrate that the pMFC mediates adjustments in adherence to political and religious ideologies. We presented participants with a reminder of death and a critique of their in-group ostensibly written by a member of an out-group, then experimentally decreased both avowed belief in God and out-group derogation by downregulating pMFC activity via transcranial magnetic stimulation. The results provide the first evidence that group prejudice and religious belief are susceptible to targeted neuromodulation, and point to a shared cognitive mechanism underlying concrete and abstract decision processes. We discuss the implications of these findings for further research characterizing the cognitive and affective mechanisms at play. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Glutamate: Tastant and Neuromodulator in Taste Buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Kinnamon, Sue C

    2016-07-01

    In taste buds, glutamate plays a double role as a gustatory stimulus and neuromodulator. The detection of glutamate as a tastant involves several G protein-coupled receptors, including the heterodimer taste receptor type 1, member 1 and 3 as well as metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1 and mGluR4). Both receptor types participate in the detection of glutamate as shown with knockout animals and selective antagonists. At the basal part of taste buds, ionotropic glutamate receptors [N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA] are expressed and participate in the modulation of the taste signal before its transmission to the brain. Evidence suggests that glutamate has an efferent function on taste cells and modulates the release of other neurotransmitters such as serotonin and ATP. This short article reviews the recent developments in the field with regard to glutamate receptors involved in both functions as well as the influence of glutamate on the taste signal. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. The urodynamic evaluation of neuromodulation in patients with voiding dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaert, K; Plancke, H; Lefevere, F; Oosterlinck, W

    1997-05-01

    To determine which patients with voiding dysfunction might be suitable for treatment with neuromodulation, using urodynamics to obtain an objective measure of improvement and to illustrate the effect of neuromodulation on voiding dysfunction. Patients were selected for implantation of a neuroprosthesis using a urodynamic evaluation before and during subchronic stimulation; 27 such patients (four men and 23 women, mean age 33 years, SD 15) were evaluated. Of the 27 patients, the 17 who responded well to neuromodulation all had hypocontractile detrusors and sphincter hypertonicity; sphincter relaxation during micturition was impaired. The urodynamic evaluation showed that these patients were not obstructed. Of 10 patients with spastic pelvic floor syndrome, nine responded well to the treatment. Those not responding to neuromodulation had mainly acontractile detrusors. The ideal candidates for neuromodulation are those patients with a spastic pelvic floor syndrome or with a hypocontractile detrusor, in combination with sphincter instability, and impaired sphincter relaxation. An increase of bladder contractility, enhancement of sphincter relaxation and decrease in bladder capacity and residual urine are the most important features of the response.

  19. IMPROVEMENT OF METHODS FOR HYDROBIOLOGICAL RESEARCH AND MODIFICATION OF STANDARD TOOLS FOR SAMPLE COLLECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Aligadjiev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The paper discusses the improvement of methods of hydrobiological studies by modifying tools for plankton and benthic samples collecting. Methods. In order to improve the standard methods of hydro-biological research, we have developed tools for sampling zooplankton and benthic environment of the Caspian Sea. Results. Long-term practice of selecting hydrobiological samples in the Caspian Sea shows that it is required to complete the modernization of the sampling tools used to collect hydrobiological material. With the introduction of Azov and Black Sea invasive comb jelly named Mnemiopsis leidyi A. Agassiz to the Caspian Sea there is a need to collect plankton samples without disturbing its integrity. Tools for collecting benthic fauna do not always give a complete picture of the state of benthic ecosystems because of the lack of visual site selection for sampling. Moreover, while sampling by dredge there is a probable loss of the samples, especially in areas with difficult terrain. Conclusion. We propose to modify a small model of Upstein net (applied in shallow water to collect zooplankton samples with an upper inverted cone that will significantly improve the catchability of the net in theCaspian Sea. Bottom sampler can be improved by installing a video camera for visual inspection of the bottom topography, and use sensors to determine tilt of the dredge and the position of the valves of the bucket. 

  20. A Danish survey of spinal cord stimulation baseline data: First results from a national neuromodulation database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Kaare; Scherer, Christian; Rosenlund, Christina

    A Danish survey of spinal cord stimulation baseline data: First results from a national neuromodulation database......A Danish survey of spinal cord stimulation baseline data: First results from a national neuromodulation database...

  1. Rivalry between the collective use of IT tools and working methods of design teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otter, den A.F.H.J.; Pels, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays a high variety of IT tools is available for communication purposes in design processes on individual and group level. Despite this, the exchange and sharing of design documents collectively in design and engineering teams might be limited mainly, due to habits, preferences, working methods

  2. Using an Ecomap as a Tool for Qualitative Data Collection in Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jo; Grant, Natalie S.

    2016-01-01

    An ecomap is a social work data collection tool that is used to gather data about a participant's environment. Derived from Bronfenbrenner's ecological system theory, the ecomap can be used in adult education and human resource development to record information of in-and-out-of-work and learning experiences and show how these interactions support…

  3. 77 FR 70809 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Assessment Tools for Park-Based Youth Education and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ....Y00000] Agency Information Collection Activities: Assessment Tools for Park-Based Youth Education and...) Usefulness of work experience. The SHRUB program provides education and in-depth involvement for students and their families in grade school. The EcoHelpers program provides one-day service learning programs to...

  4. 77 FR 70808 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Assessment Tools for Park-Based Youth Education and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ....Y00000] Agency Information Collection Activities: Assessment Tools for Park-Based Youth Education and...) Usefulness of work experience. The SHRUB program provides education and in-depth involvement for students and their families in grade school. The EcoHelpers program provides one-day service learning programs to...

  5. Neuromodulation for the treatment of eating disorders and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Darrin J; Elias, Gavin J B; Lozano, Andres M

    2018-02-01

    Eating disorders and obesity adversely affect individuals both medically and psychologically, leading to reduced life expectancy and poor quality of life. While there exist a number of treatments for anorexia, morbid obesity and bulimia, many patients do not respond favorably to current behavioral, medical or bariatric surgical management. Neuromodulation has been postulated as a potential treatment for eating disorders and obesity. In particular, deep brain stimulation and transcranial non-invasive brain stimulation have been studied for these indications across a variety of brain targets. Here, we review the neurobiology behind eating and eating disorders as well as the current status of preclinical and clinical neuromodulation trials for eating disorders and obesity.

  6. Body Mapping as a Youth Sexual Health Intervention and Data Collection Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lys, Candice; Gesink, Dionne; Strike, Carol; Larkin, June

    2018-06-01

    In this article, we describe and evaluate body mapping as (a) an arts-based activity within Fostering Open eXpression Among Youth (FOXY), an educational intervention targeting Northwest Territories (NWT) youth, and (b) a research data collection tool. Data included individual interviews with 41 female participants (aged 13-17 years) who attended FOXY body mapping workshops in six communities in 2013, field notes taken by the researcher during the workshops and interviews, and written reflections from seven FOXY facilitators on the body mapping process (from 2013 to 2016). Thematic analysis explored the utility of body mapping using a developmental evaluation methodology. The results show body mapping is an intervention tool that supports and encourages participant self-reflection, introspection, personal connectedness, and processing difficult emotions. Body mapping is also a data collection catalyst that enables trust and youth voice in research, reduces verbal communication barriers, and facilitates the collection of rich data regarding personal experiences.

  7. Introducing LIR (Lithotheque Ireland, a reference collection of flaked stone tool raw materials from Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Killian Driscoll

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The LIR (Lithotheque Ireland reference collection of flaked stone tool raw materials from Ireland began in 2013, and is based on the geological prospection from two projects. The first (2013-2015 focused attention primarily on Carboniferous cherts from the northwest of Ireland, collecting 405 samples. The second (2015-2017 is currently collecting samples of the Cretaceous flint primarily from in situ contexts in the northeast of Ireland, but also includes beach surveys of Cretaceous flint from around the island; the first phase of geological prospection in Autumn 2015 collected 239 samples, with the geological prospection continuing in 2016. Therefore, to date the collection contains over 600 hand samples of chert and flint, along with a small number of other materials (siliceous limestone, tuff, mudstone. The physical reference collection is housed at the UCD School of Archaeology, University College Dublin and contains the geological hand samples along with the various thin sections of the samples that are used for petrographic analysis. The physical collection is complemented by an online database that is to be used alongside the physical collection, or can be used as a stand-alone resource. This paper provides an overview of the database’s metadata and the processes of data entry and editing, to serve as a reference point for the database and the fieldwork undertaken to date, and to serve as a template for other researchers undertaking similar work on lithic reference collections.

  8. [Design and Implementation of the Data Collection Tools for National Mental Health Survey of Colombia, 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Viviana; Moreno, Socorro; Camacho, Jhon; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; de Santacruz, Cecilia; Rodriguez, Maria Nelcy; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie

    2016-12-01

    Population surveys on mental health are performed as part of the inputs required for the creation, implementation and evaluation of policies related to mental health, worldwide, and as an initiative of the World Health Organisation (WHO). was held The fourth National Survey of Mental Health (ENSM 2015) was carried out during the first half of 2015 on a representative sample of 2,727 children between 7 and 11 years of age, 1,754 adolescents, and 10, 870 adults who were selected throughout the country. To describe the selection and definition of the tools used to measure mental health (including social cognition and violence), problems, mental disorders, and the evaluation of health states, as well as to describe the process used to develop the data collection tools finally used. The measurement of mental disorders in children was performed using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC), and the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was used for adolescents and adults. For the remaining components evaluated in the survey, a search was conducted on the tools used at a national and international level. The selection of the toos used for the evaluation was based on the questions made by each tool, as well as the scientific validity that could be obtained from the results. In some cases the complete tool (as published) was used, in other cases the tools were constructed unifying parts of different ones, or questions were written based on the concepts or characteristics to be measured. Subsequently, a validation of content, concept and semantic of every tool was carried out, including the CIDI and DISC. The resulting tools were used on a group of people with different characteristics. It was noted that further clarification was necessary for some people to fully understand what was being asked. Because the collection of all the information in the survey would be computer assisted, a stream format was generated to guide the implementation in

  9. Smartphone tool to collect repeated 24 h dietary recall data in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris-Fry, Helen; Beard, B James; Harrisson, Tom; Paudel, Puskar; Shrestha, Niva; Jha, Sonali; Shrestha, Bhim P; Manandhar, Dharma S; Costello, Anthony; Saville, Naomi M

    2018-02-01

    To outline the development of a smartphone-based tool to collect thrice-repeated 24 h dietary recall data in rural Nepal, and to describe energy intakes, common errors and researchers' experiences using the tool. We designed a novel tool to collect multi-pass 24 h dietary recalls in rural Nepal by combining the use of a CommCare questionnaire on smartphones, a paper form, a QR (quick response)-coded list of foods and a photographic atlas of portion sizes. Twenty interviewers collected dietary data on three non-consecutive days per respondent, with three respondents per household. Intakes were converted into nutrients using databases on nutritional composition of foods, recipes and portion sizes. Dhanusha and Mahottari districts, Nepal. Pregnant women, their mothers-in-law and male household heads. Energy intakes assessed in 150 households; data corrections and our experiences reported from 805 households and 6765 individual recalls. Dietary intake estimates gave plausible values, with male household heads appearing to have higher energy intakes (median (25th-75th centile): 12 079 (9293-14 108) kJ/d) than female members (8979 (7234-11 042) kJ/d for pregnant women). Manual editing of data was required when interviewers mistook portions for food codes and for coding items not on the food list. Smartphones enabled quick monitoring of data and interviewer performance, but we initially faced technical challenges with CommCare forms crashing. With sufficient time dedicated to development and pre-testing, this novel smartphone-based tool provides a useful method to collect data. Future work is needed to further validate this tool and adapt it for other contexts.

  10. Community health assessment tool: a patterns approach to data collection and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegler, N F; Harton, M K

    1992-01-01

    Creation of an assessment tool to apply Gordon's functional patterns to the community as a client was a rewarding and stimulating project. Through use of the CHAT, students developed an appreciation of the complexity and inter-relationship of numerous aspects of the community. They completed the nursing process by developing appropriate nursing diagnoses, and planning, implementing, and evaluating a health promotion project. As the students continue to use this tool in the health promotion course, the diagnoses which they generate are being collected. From this accumulated input the plan is to compile a list of common diagnoses which are appropriate to use when the community is the client.

  11. Trained student pharmacists’ telephonic collection of patient medication information: Evaluation of a structured interview tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Amanda R.; Martin, Beth A.; Mott, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the feasibility and fidelity of student pharmacists collecting patient medication list information using a structured interview tool and the accuracy of documenting the information. The medication lists were used by a community pharmacist to provide a targeted medication therapy management (MTM) intervention. Design Descriptive analysis of patient medication lists collected via telephone interviews. Participants 10 trained student pharmacists collected the medication lists. Intervention Trained student pharmacists conducted audio-recorded telephone interviews with 80 English-speaking community dwelling older adults using a structured interview tool to collect and document medication lists. Main outcome measures Feasibility was measured using the number of completed interviews, the time student pharmacists took to collect the information, and pharmacist feedback. Fidelity to the interview tool was measured by assessing student pharmacists’ adherence to asking all scripted questions and probes. Accuracy was measured by comparing the audio recorded interviews to the medication list information documented in an electronic medical record. Results On average it took student pharmacists 26.7 minutes to collect the medication lists. The community pharmacist said the medication lists were complete and that having the medication lists saved time and allowed him to focus on assessment, recommendations, and education during the targeted MTM session. Fidelity was high with an overall proportion of asked scripted probes of 83.75% (95%CI: 80.62–86.88%). Accuracy was also high for both prescription (95.1%, 95%CI: 94.3–95.8%) and non-prescription (90.5%, 95%CI: 89.4–91.4%) medications. Conclusion Trained student pharmacists were able to use an interview tool to collect and document medication lists with a high degree of fidelity and accuracy. This study suggests that student pharmacists or trained technicians may be able to collect patient medication

  12. Trained student pharmacists' telephonic collection of patient medication information: Evaluation of a structured interview tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Amanda R; Martin, Beth A; Mott, David A

    2016-01-01

    To determine the feasibility and fidelity of student pharmacists collecting patient medication list information using a structured interview tool and the accuracy of documenting the information. The medication lists were used by a community pharmacist to provide a targeted medication therapy management (MTM) intervention. Descriptive analysis of patient medication lists collected with telephone interviews. Ten trained student pharmacists collected the medication lists. Trained student pharmacists conducted audio-recorded telephone interviews with 80 English-speaking, community-dwelling older adults using a structured interview tool to collect and document medication lists. Feasibility was measured using the number of completed interviews, the time student pharmacists took to collect the information, and pharmacist feedback. Fidelity to the interview tool was measured by assessing student pharmacists' adherence to asking all scripted questions and probes. Accuracy was measured by comparing the audio-recorded interviews to the medication list information documented in an electronic medical record. On average, it took student pharmacists 26.7 minutes to collect the medication lists. The community pharmacist said the medication lists were complete and that having the medication lists saved time and allowed him to focus on assessment, recommendations, and education during the targeted MTM session. Fidelity was high, with an overall proportion of asked scripted probes of 83.75% (95% confidence interval [CI], 80.62-86.88%). Accuracy was also high for both prescription (95.1%; 95% CI, 94.3-95.8%) and nonprescription (90.5%; 95% CI, 89.4-91.4%) medications. Trained student pharmacists were able to use an interview tool to collect and document medication lists with a high degree of fidelity and accuracy. This study suggests that student pharmacists or trained technicians may be able to collect patient medication lists to facilitate MTM sessions in the community pharmacy

  13. Neuromodulation of Behavioral and Cognitive Development across the Life Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Chen

    2012-01-01

    Among other mechanisms, behavioral and cognitive development entail, on the one hand, contextual scaffolding and, on the other hand, neuromodulation of adaptive neurocognitive representations across the life span. Key brain networks underlying cognition, emotion, and motivation are innervated by major transmitter systems (e.g., the catecholamines…

  14. Angiotensin receptors and norepinephrine neuromodulation: implications of functional coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelband, C H; Sumners, C; Lu, D; Raizada, M K

    1998-02-27

    The objective of this review is to examine the role of neuronal angiotensin II (Ang II) receptors in vitro. Two types of G protein-coupled Ang II receptors have been identified in cardiovascularly relevant areas of the brain: the AT1 and the AT2. We have utilized neurons in culture to study the signaling mechanisms of AT1 and AT2 receptors. Neuronal AT1 receptors are involved in norepinephrine (NE) neuromodulation. NE neuromodulation can be either evoked or enhanced. Evoked NE neuromodulation involves AT1 receptor-mediated, losartan-dependent, rapid NE release, inhibition of K+ channels and stimulation of Ca2+ channels. AT1 receptor-mediated enhanced NE neuromodulation involves the Ras-Raf-MAP kinase cascade and ultimately leads to an increase in NE transporter, tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine beta-hydroxylase mRNA transcription. Neuronal AT2 receptors signal via a Gi protein and are coupled to activation of PP2A and PLA2 and stimulation of K+ channels. Finally, putative cross-talk pathways between AT1 and AT2 receptors will be discussed.

  15. The Role of Neuromodulators in Cortical Plasticity. A Computational Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa, Victor; Clopath, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Neuromodulators play a ubiquitous role across the brain in regulating plasticity. With recent advances in experimental techniques, it is possible to study the effects of diverse neuromodulatory states in specific brain regions. Neuromodulators are thought to impact plasticity predominantly through two mechanisms: the gating of plasticity and the upregulation of neuronal activity. However, the consequences of these mechanisms are poorly understood and there is a need for both experimental and theoretical exploration. Here we illustrate how neuromodulatory state affects cortical plasticity through these two mechanisms. First, we explore the ability of neuromodulators to gate plasticity by reshaping the learning window for spike-timing-dependent plasticity. Using a simple computational model, we implement four different learning rules and demonstrate their effects on receptive field plasticity. We then compare the neuromodulatory effects of upregulating learning rate versus the effects of upregulating neuronal activity. We find that these seemingly similar mechanisms do not yield the same outcome: upregulating neuronal activity can lead to either a broadening or a sharpening of receptive field tuning, whereas upregulating learning rate only intensifies the sharpening of receptive field tuning. This simple model demonstrates the need for further exploration of the rich landscape of neuromodulator-mediated plasticity. Future experiments, coupled with biologically detailed computational models, will elucidate the diversity of mechanisms by which neuromodulatory state regulates cortical plasticity. PMID:28119596

  16. Neuroimaging and neuromodulation approaches to study eating behavior and prevent and treat eating disorders and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Val-Laillet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional, molecular and genetic neuroimaging has highlighted the existence of brain anomalies and neural vulnerability factors related to obesity and eating disorders such as binge eating or anorexia nervosa. In particular, decreased basal metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and striatum as well as dopaminergic alterations have been described in obese subjects, in parallel with increased activation of reward brain areas in response to palatable food cues. Elevated reward region responsivity may trigger food craving and predict future weight gain. This opens the way to prevention studies using functional and molecular neuroimaging to perform early diagnostics and to phenotype subjects at risk by exploring different neurobehavioral dimensions of the food choices and motivation processes. In the first part of this review, advantages and limitations of neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, positron emission tomography (PET, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, pharmacogenetic fMRI and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS will be discussed in the context of recent work dealing with eating behavior, with a particular focus on obesity. In the second part of the review, non-invasive strategies to modulate food-related brain processes and functions will be presented. At the leading edge of non-invasive brain-based technologies is real-time fMRI (rtfMRI neurofeedback, which is a powerful tool to better understand the complexity of human brain–behavior relationships. rtfMRI, alone or when combined with other techniques and tools such as EEG and cognitive therapy, could be used to alter neural plasticity and learned behavior to optimize and/or restore healthy cognition and eating behavior. Other promising non-invasive neuromodulation approaches being explored are repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS and transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS. Converging evidence points at

  17. Neuroimaging and neuromodulation approaches to study eating behavior and prevent and treat eating disorders and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val-Laillet, D; Aarts, E; Weber, B; Ferrari, M; Quaresima, V; Stoeckel, L E; Alonso-Alonso, M; Audette, M; Malbert, C H; Stice, E

    2015-01-01

    Functional, molecular and genetic neuroimaging has highlighted the existence of brain anomalies and neural vulnerability factors related to obesity and eating disorders such as binge eating or anorexia nervosa. In particular, decreased basal metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and striatum as well as dopaminergic alterations have been described in obese subjects, in parallel with increased activation of reward brain areas in response to palatable food cues. Elevated reward region responsivity may trigger food craving and predict future weight gain. This opens the way to prevention studies using functional and molecular neuroimaging to perform early diagnostics and to phenotype subjects at risk by exploring different neurobehavioral dimensions of the food choices and motivation processes. In the first part of this review, advantages and limitations of neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), pharmacogenetic fMRI and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) will be discussed in the context of recent work dealing with eating behavior, with a particular focus on obesity. In the second part of the review, non-invasive strategies to modulate food-related brain processes and functions will be presented. At the leading edge of non-invasive brain-based technologies is real-time fMRI (rtfMRI) neurofeedback, which is a powerful tool to better understand the complexity of human brain-behavior relationships. rtfMRI, alone or when combined with other techniques and tools such as EEG and cognitive therapy, could be used to alter neural plasticity and learned behavior to optimize and/or restore healthy cognition and eating behavior. Other promising non-invasive neuromodulation approaches being explored are repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS). Converging evidence points at the value of

  18. Neuroimaging and neuromodulation approaches to study eating behavior and prevent and treat eating disorders and obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val-Laillet, D.; Aarts, E.; Weber, B.; Ferrari, M.; Quaresima, V.; Stoeckel, L.E.; Alonso-Alonso, M.; Audette, M.; Malbert, C.H.; Stice, E.

    2015-01-01

    Functional, molecular and genetic neuroimaging has highlighted the existence of brain anomalies and neural vulnerability factors related to obesity and eating disorders such as binge eating or anorexia nervosa. In particular, decreased basal metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and striatum as well as dopaminergic alterations have been described in obese subjects, in parallel with increased activation of reward brain areas in response to palatable food cues. Elevated reward region responsivity may trigger food craving and predict future weight gain. This opens the way to prevention studies using functional and molecular neuroimaging to perform early diagnostics and to phenotype subjects at risk by exploring different neurobehavioral dimensions of the food choices and motivation processes. In the first part of this review, advantages and limitations of neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), pharmacogenetic fMRI and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) will be discussed in the context of recent work dealing with eating behavior, with a particular focus on obesity. In the second part of the review, non-invasive strategies to modulate food-related brain processes and functions will be presented. At the leading edge of non-invasive brain-based technologies is real-time fMRI (rtfMRI) neurofeedback, which is a powerful tool to better understand the complexity of human brain–behavior relationships. rtfMRI, alone or when combined with other techniques and tools such as EEG and cognitive therapy, could be used to alter neural plasticity and learned behavior to optimize and/or restore healthy cognition and eating behavior. Other promising non-invasive neuromodulation approaches being explored are repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS). Converging evidence points at the value of

  19. Sacral-neuromodulation CT-guided

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoroso, Lamberto; Ricci, Stefano; Pelliccioni, Giuseppe; Scarpino, Osvaldo; Ghiselli, Roberto; Saba, Vittorio

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Sacral neuromodulation is a new treatment for refractory voiding disorders such as urge incontinence, urinary retention, frequency-urgency syndromes and faecal incontinence. The current approach to sacral nerve stimulation consists of a two-stage procedure. The first is a PNE test (Percutaneous Nerve Evaluation) by a provisional electrically stimulated spinal needle, placed percutaneously in the S3 foramina for four of ten days. If successful, the second stage, permanent implantation, is carried out. The PNE test is performed under fluoroscopic control using the palpable bony sacral foramina as referral points. This technique can show some limitations, such as operator Rx exposure, poor visualization of sacral foramina because of bowel gas artefacts or sacral malformation. In order to reduce these inconveniences and to improve efficiency of the test we tried an alternative technique. The purpose of our study was to test the use of CT as an alternative technique in order to evaluate its advantages and possible routine use. Materials and methods: We tested 30 patients with the PNE test under CT guidance (16 males and 14 females) suffering from serious pelvic disorders and not responding to the normal therapeutic regime. Twenty-seven patient showed relative anatomical integrity of the pelvis and the sacrum, the remaining 3 patients presented morphological anormalities of the sacral foramina. With the patient in the prone position the sacral foramina were identified with CT volumetric scanning using a spiral CT scanner equipped with a second console for the three-dimensional reconstructions. Having identified the location of the S3 foramina, a sterile field was prepared and the spiral needle introduced checking correct positioning with a CT control scan. An electrode was inserted after having checked correct muscular contractile response and the precise position with a further CT scan. Results: Thirty patients were subjected to PNE under CT guidance for a

  20. Rethinking the Fashion Collection as a Strategic Tool in a Circular Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ræbild, Ulla; Bang, Anne Louise

    2017-01-01

    The fashion industry currently undergoes radical change showing signs of an overall sustainable paradigm shift. This paper investigates how the fashion collection, as a particular design framework, might be reconfigured as a strategic driver for garment longevity furthering sustainable fashion...... design. The study builds on a case study of a company offering a subscription service of baby clothing. We explore in details if and how they use the collection as a strategic design tool. In the analysis and discussion, it is clarified that the feedback from users, manufacturers and the garments play...

  1. Rethinking the Fashion Collection as a Design Strategic Tool in a Circular Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ræbild, Ulla; Bang, Anne Louise

    2017-01-01

    The fashion industry is currently undergoing a radical change towards an overall sustainable paradigm shift. This paper investigates how the fashion collection, as a particular design framework, might be reconfigured as a strategic driver for garment longevity furthering sustainable fashion design....... The study builds on a case study of a company offering a subscription service for baby clothing, exploring in detail whether and how the collection is used as a strategic design tool. In the analysis and discussion, feedback from users, manufacturers and the garments themselves plays a crucial role...

  2. A New Paradigm for Tissue Diagnostics: Tools and Techniques to Standardize Tissue Collection, Transport, and Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Daniel R; Otter, Michael; Chafin, David R

    2018-01-01

    Studying and developing preanalytical tools and technologies for the purpose of obtaining high-quality samples for histological assays is a growing field. Currently, there does not exist a standard practice for collecting, fixing, and monitoring these precious samples. There has been some advancement in standardizing collection for the highest profile tumor types, such as breast, where HER2 testing drives therapeutic decisions. This review examines the area of tissue collection, transport, and monitoring of formalin diffusion and details a prototype system that could be used to help standardize tissue collection efforts. We have surveyed recent primary literature sources and conducted several site visits to understand the most error-prone processes in histology laboratories. This effort identified errors that resulted from sample collection techniques and subsequent transport delays from the operating room (OR) to the histology laboratories. We have therefore devised a prototype sample collection and transport concept. The system consists of a custom data logger and cold transport box and takes advantage of a novel cold + warm (named 2 + 2) fixation method. This review highlights the beneficial aspects of standardizing tissue collection, fixation, and monitoring. In addition, a prototype system is introduced that could help standardize these processes and is compatible with use directly in the OR and from remote sites.

  3. Evaluation in medical education: A topical review of target parameters, data collection tools and confounding factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiekirka, Sarah; Feufel, Markus A.; Herrmann-Lingen, Christoph; Raupach, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective: Evaluation is an integral part of education in German medical schools. According to the quality standards set by the German Society for Evaluation, evaluation tools must provide an accurate and fair appraisal of teaching quality. Thus, data collection tools must be highly reliable and valid. This review summarises the current literature on evaluation of medical education with regard to the possible dimensions of teaching quality, the psychometric properties of survey instruments and potential confounding factors. Methods: We searched Pubmed, PsycINFO and PSYNDEX for literature on evaluation in medical education and included studies published up until June 30, 2011 as well as articles identified in the “grey literature”. Results are presented as a narrative review. Results: We identified four dimensions of teaching quality: structure, process, teacher characteristics, and outcome. Student ratings are predominantly used to address the first three dimensions, and a number of reliable tools are available for this purpose. However, potential confounders of student ratings pose a threat to the validity of these instruments. Outcome is usually operationalised in terms of student performance on examinations, but methodological problems may limit the usability of these data for evaluation purposes. In addition, not all examinations at German medical schools meet current quality standards. Conclusion: The choice of tools for evaluating medical education should be guided by the dimension that is targeted by the evaluation. Likewise, evaluation results can only be interpreted within the context of the construct addressed by the data collection tool that was used as well as its specific confounding factors. PMID:26421003

  4. A simple web-based tool to compare freshwater fish data collected using AFS standard methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, Scott A.; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Rahr, Matt; Torrey, Yuta T.; Cate, Averill

    2016-01-01

    The American Fisheries Society (AFS) recently published Standard Methods for Sampling North American Freshwater Fishes. Enlisting the expertise of 284 scientists from 107 organizations throughout Canada, Mexico, and the United States, this text was developed to facilitate comparisons of fish data across regions or time. Here we describe a user-friendly web tool that automates among-sample comparisons in individual fish condition, population length-frequency distributions, and catch per unit effort (CPUE) data collected using AFS standard methods. Currently, the web tool (1) provides instantaneous summaries of almost 4,000 data sets of condition, length frequency, and CPUE of common freshwater fishes collected using standard gears in 43 states and provinces; (2) is easily appended with new standardized field data to update subsequent queries and summaries; (3) compares fish data from a particular water body with continent, ecoregion, and state data summaries; and (4) provides additional information about AFS standard fish sampling including benefits, ongoing validation studies, and opportunities to comment on specific methods. The web tool—programmed in a PHP-based Drupal framework—was supported by several AFS Sections, agencies, and universities and is freely available from the AFS website and fisheriesstandardsampling.org. With widespread use, the online tool could become an important resource for fisheries biologists.

  5. Neuromodulated Synaptic Plasticity on the SpiNNaker Neuromorphic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantas Mikaitis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available SpiNNaker is a digital neuromorphic architecture, designed specifically for the low power simulation of large-scale spiking neural networks at speeds close to biological real-time. Unlike other neuromorphic systems, SpiNNaker allows users to develop their own neuron and synapse models as well as specify arbitrary connectivity. As a result SpiNNaker has proved to be a powerful tool for studying different neuron models as well as synaptic plasticity—believed to be one of the main mechanisms behind learning and memory in the brain. A number of Spike-Timing-Dependent-Plasticity(STDP rules have already been implemented on SpiNNaker and have been shown to be capable of solving various learning tasks in real-time. However, while STDP is an important biological theory of learning, it is a form of Hebbian or unsupervised learning and therefore does not explain behaviors that depend on feedback from the environment. Instead, learning rules based on neuromodulated STDP (three-factor learning rules have been shown to be capable of solving reinforcement learning tasks in a biologically plausible manner. In this paper we demonstrate for the first time how a model of three-factor STDP, with the third-factor representing spikes from dopaminergic neurons, can be implemented on the SpiNNaker neuromorphic system. Using this learning rule we first show how reward and punishment signals can be delivered to a single synapse before going on to demonstrate it in a larger network which solves the credit assignment problem in a Pavlovian conditioning experiment. Because of its extra complexity, we find that our three-factor learning rule requires approximately 2× as much processing time as the existing SpiNNaker STDP learning rules. However, we show that it is still possible to run our Pavlovian conditioning model with up to 1 × 104 neurons in real-time, opening up new research opportunities for modeling behavioral learning on SpiNNaker.

  6. [The use of interviews in participative intervention and research: the GAM tool as a collective interview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sade, Christian; de Barros, Leticia Maria Renault; Melo, Jorge José Maciel; Passos, Eduardo

    2013-10-01

    This paper seeks to assess a way of conducting interviews in line with the ideology of Brazilian Psychiatric Reform. In the methodology of participative intervention and research in mental health, the interview is less a data collection than a data harvesting procedure. It is designed to apply the principles of psychosocial care, autonomy as the basis for treatment, the predominance of the users and of their social networks and civic participation. Inspired by the Explicitation Interview technique, the contention is that the handling of the interview presupposes an open attitude able to promote and embrace different viewpoints. This attitude makes the interview a collective experience of sharing and belonging, allowing participants to reposition themselves subjectively in treatment with the emergence of groupality. As an example of using the interview as a methodological tool in mental health research, we examine research into adaptation of the tool of Autonomous Medication Management (GAM). It is an interventionist approach guided by principles that foster autonomy and the protagonist status of users of psychotropic medication, their quality of life, their rights and recognition of the multiple significances of medication, understood here as a collective interview technique.

  7. SDMdata: A Web-Based Software Tool for Collecting Species Occurrence Records.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoquan Kong

    Full Text Available It is important to easily and efficiently obtain high quality species distribution data for predicting the potential distribution of species using species distribution models (SDMs. There is a need for a powerful software tool to automatically or semi-automatically assist in identifying and correcting errors. Here, we use Python to develop a web-based software tool (SDMdata to easily collect occurrence data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF and check species names and the accuracy of coordinates (latitude and longitude. It is an open source software (GNU Affero General Public License/AGPL licensed allowing anyone to access and manipulate the source code. SDMdata is available online free of charge from .

  8. Neuromodulation for the treatment of eating disorders and obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Darrin J.; Elias, Gavin J.B.; Lozano, Andres M.

    2017-01-01

    Eating disorders and obesity adversely affect individuals both medically and psychologically, leading to reduced life expectancy and poor quality of life. While there exist a number of treatments for anorexia, morbid obesity and bulimia, many patients do not respond favorably to current behavioral, medical or bariatric surgical management. Neuromodulation has been postulated as a potential treatment for eating disorders and obesity. In particular, deep brain stimulation and transcranial non-invasive brain stimulation have been studied for these indications across a variety of brain targets. Here, we review the neurobiology behind eating and eating disorders as well as the current status of preclinical and clinical neuromodulation trials for eating disorders and obesity. PMID:29399320

  9. [Current status of neurostimulation and neuromodulation for vesicourethral dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Chamorro, F; Verdú Tartajo, F; Hernández Fernández, C

    1997-01-01

    To describe the current indications, techniques and results of sacral root stimulation in patients with spinal cord lesions as a treatment for patients with high pressure bladders and/or urinary incontinence despite conservative management, as well as sacral root neuromodulation with permanent stimulators for complex bladder dysfunction: vesical instability, sensory urgency, chronic pelvic pain and chronic voiding dysfunction. The literature is reviewed, both techniques are described and the results of the most significant series are discussed, with special reference to the first groups that utilized these techniques. There is ample experience in the application of sacral root electrical stimulation. The reported results are comparable with those achieved by other treatments, such as augmentation cystoplasty. Neurostimulation and neuromodulation techniques are simple, the complications are minimal and they do not prelude the use of other therapies.

  10. Quality of family history collection with use of a patient facing family history assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, R Ryanne; Himmel, Tiffany L; Buchanan, Adam H; Powell, Karen P; Hauser, Elizabeth R; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Henrich, Vincent C; Orlando, Lori A

    2014-02-13

    Studies have shown that the quality of family health history (FHH) collection in primary care is inadequate to assess disease risk. To use FHH for risk assessment, collected data must have adequate detail. To address this issue, we developed a patient facing FHH assessment tool, MeTree. In this paper we report the content and quality of the FHH collected using MeTree. A hybrid implementation-effectiveness study. Patients were recruited from 2009 to 2012. Two community primary care clinics in Greensboro, NC. All non-adopted adult English speaking patients with upcoming appointments were invited to participate. Education about and collection of FHH with entry into MeTree. We report the proportion of pedigrees that were high-quality. High-quality pedigrees are defined as having all the following criteria: (1) three generations of relatives, (2) relatives' lineage, (3) relatives' gender, (4) an up-to-date FHH, (5) pertinent negatives noted, (6) age of disease onset in affected relatives, and for deceased relatives, (7) the age and (8) cause of death (Prim Care31:479-495, 2004.). Enrollment: 1,184. Participant demographics: age range 18-92 (mean 58.8, SD 11.79), 56% male, and 75% white. The median pedigree size was 21 (range 8-71) and the FHH entered into MeTree resulted in a database of 27,406 individuals. FHHs collected by MeTree were found to be high quality in 99.8% (N = 1,182/1,184) as compared to quality of the FHH data that is collected and talking with relatives prior to the collection of FHH significantly improves the quantity and quality of the data provided. This allows more patients to be accurately risk stratified and offered appropriate preventive care guided by their risk level. NCT01372553.

  11. Botulinum toxin and neuromodulation for overactive bladder treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Yavuz Akman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The overactive bladder (OAB is a symptom complex characterized by urgency with /without urge incontinence, and often associated with frequency and nocturia. First-line therapy for OAB includes behavioral therapies and anticholinergic drugs. Although a large number of patients respond to conservative or pharmacological therapy or a combination of the two, some patients are refractory and require additional options for intervention. Botulinum toxin therapy and neuromodulation are frequently used treatment options in refractory OAB patients.

  12. Structural dichotomy of the mind; the role of sexual neuromodulators

    OpenAIRE

    Ion G. Motofei; David L. Rowland

    2016-01-01

    The mind (mental function) and sexuality represent two distinct environmental functions, but which are supported within the brain by a common (somatic-autonomic) neurobiological substrate. As a consequence, mental function takes on autonomic characteristics from the sexual-autonomic system (like autonomy, duality), while sexual function takes on features from mental functioning (such as lateralization). In this paper we discuss the lateralized action of two classes of sexual neuromodulators: ...

  13. Timing is not everything: neuromodulation opens the STDP gate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Pawlak

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP is a temporally specific extension of Hebbian associative plasticity that has tied together the timing of presynaptic inputs relative to the postsynaptic single spike. However, it is difficult to translate this mechanism to in vivo conditions where there is an abundance of presynaptic activity constantly impinging upon the dendritic tree as well as ongoing postsynaptic spiking activity that backpropagates along the dendrite. Theoretical studies have proposed that, in addition to this pre- and postsynaptic activity, a ‘third factor’ would enable the association of specific inputs to specific outputs. Experimentally, the picture that is beginning to emerge, is that in addition to the precise timing of pre- and postsynaptic spikes, this third factor involves neuromodulators that have a distinctive influence on STDP rules. Specifically, neuromodulatory systems can influence STDP rules by acting via dopaminergic, noradrenergic, muscarinic and nicotinic receptors. Neuromodulator actions can enable STDP induction or - by increasing or decreasing the threshold - can change the conditions for plasticity induction. Because some of the neuromodulators are also involved in reward, a link between STDP and reward-mediated learning is emerging. However, many outstanding questions concerning the relationship between neuromodulatory systems and STDP rules remain, that once solved, will help make the crucial link from timing-based synaptic plasticity rules to behaviorally-based learning.

  14. [Neuromodulation as an intervention for addiction: overview and future prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luigjes, J; Breteler, R; Vanneste, S; de Ridder, D

    2013-01-01

    In recent years several neuromodulation techniques have been introduced as interventions for addiction. To review and discuss studies that have investigated the effects of treating addiction by means of electroencephalography (EEG) neurofeedback, real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) neurofeedback, transcranial magnetic stimulation/transcranial direct current stimulation (TMS/tDCS) and deep brain stimulation (DBS). We reviewed the literature, focusing on Dutch studies in particular. Studies using EEG neurofeedback were shown to have positive effects on drug use, treatment compliance, and cue reactivity in patients with cocaine and alcohol dependence. A pilot study investigating the effects of rt-fMRI neurofeedback on nicotine dependent patients showed that modulation of the anterior cingulate cortex can decrease smokers' craving for nicotine. In several studies decreased craving was found in alcohol dependent patients after TMS or tDCS stimulation of the anterior cingulate cortex or the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The first DBS pilot studies suggest that the nucleus accumbens is a promising target region for the treatment of alcohol and heroin dependence. Neuromodulation provides us with a unique opportunity to directly apply neuroscientific knowledge to the treatment of addiction. However, more research is needed to ensure the efficacy, safety and feasibility of the various neuromodulation techniques that are now available.

  15. Neuromodulation and neurofeedback treatments in eating disorders and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Bethan; Campbell, Iain C; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2017-11-01

    Psychological interventions are the treatment of choice for most eating disorders; however, significant proportions of patients do not recover with these. Advances in understanding of the neurobiology of eating disorders have led to the development of targeted treatments, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS), noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS), and neurofeedback. We review the emerging clinical evidence for the use of these interventions in eating disorders and obesity, together with their theoretical rationale. Finally, we reflect on future developments. During the last 20 months, seven case studies/series and seven randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of NIBS or neurofeedback in different eating disorders, obesity, or food craving have appeared. These have largely had promising results. One NIBS trial, using a multisession protocol, was negative. A case series of subcallosal DBS in anorexia nervosa has also shown promise. A search of trial registries identified a further 21 neuromodulation/feedback studies in progress, indicating that neuromodulation/feedback is an area of growing interest. At present, neuromodulation and neurofeedback are largely experimental interventions; however, growing understanding of the mechanisms involved, together with the rising number of studies in this area, means that the clinical utility of these interventions is likely to become clearer soon.

  16. Sacral Neuromodulation in Patients With a Cardiac Pacemaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah A. Gahzi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe our experience using sacral neuromodulation to treat urinary urgency, frequency, urge incontinence, and chronic urinary retention in patients with cardiac pacemakers. With the increasingly widespread use of InterStim for bladder function restoration, we are seeing more complex patients with multiple comorbidities, including cardiac conditions. Herein, we report 3 cases of individuals with cardiac pacemakers who underwent InterStim implantation to treat urinary conditions. This study is a case series of 3 patients with cardiac pacemakers who underwent sacral neuromodulation to treat refractory voiding dysfunction. The initial patient screening for InterStim therapy involved percutaneous nerve evaluation (PNE, in which a temporary untined lead wire was placed through the S3 foramen. Patients who did not respond to PNE proceeded to a staged implant. All patients in this study had a greater than 50% improvement of their urinary symptoms during the initial trial and underwent placement of the InterStim implantable pulse generator (IPG. Postoperative programming was done under electrocardiogram monitoring by a cardiologist. No interference was observed between the Inter-Stim IPG and the cardiac pacemaker. In this group of patients, sacral neuromodulation in the presence of a cardiac pacemaker appears to have been safe.

  17. Modulation of Perception or Emotion? A Scoping Review of Tinnitus Neuromodulation Using Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhawat, Giriraj Singh; Stinear, Cathy M; Searchfield, Grant D

    2015-10-01

    Tinnitus is the phantom perception of sound and can have negative effect on the quality of life. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive neuromodulation technique, which can increase or decrease the cortical excitability in the brain region to which it is applied. tDCS has been used for tinnitus research since 2006. To investigate whether tDCS affects tinnitus perception, related emotion, or both, and the potential implications for tinnitus management. A scoping review was undertaken using the methods proposed by Arksey and O'Malley. After initial consideration of title relevance and reading abstracts, 15 studies were included in this review. The data from these studies were charted to investigate the impact of tDCS on tinnitus perception and emotions. tDCS results in transient suppression of tinnitus loudness and annoyance; however, it does not lead to long-term impact on tinnitus related emotion. Local stimulation of different sites of stimulation (left temporoparietal area, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and auditory cortex) might modulate tinnitus perception (loudness) and emotions differently; however, further research is needed to explore this hypothesis. This review has identified aspects of methodologies that require attention in upcoming tinnitus and tDCS trials to offer better insights. tDCS is an effective research tool for transient tinnitus neuromodulation. However, efforts should be invested in designing clinical trials using local and multiple sites of stimulation, optimized parameters, and objective outcome measures before it can be translated in to a clinical tool for tinnitus management. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Neuromodulation of the lumbar spinal locomotor circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AuYong, Nicholas; Lu, Daniel C

    2014-01-01

    The lumbar spinal cord contains the necessary circuitry to independently drive locomotor behaviors. This function is retained following spinal cord injury (SCI) and is amenable to rehabilitation. Although the effectiveness of task-specific training and pharmacologic modulation has been repeatedly demonstrated in animal studies, results from human studies are less striking. Recently, lumbar epidural stimulation (EDS) along with locomotor training was shown to restore weight-bearing function and lower-extremity voluntary control in a chronic, motor-complete human SCI subject. Related animal studies incorporating EDS as part of the therapeutic regiment are also encouraging. EDS is emerging as a promising neuromodulatory tool for SCI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessing the Validity of Automated Webcrawlers as Data Collection Tools to Investigate Online Child Sexual Exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westlake, Bryce; Bouchard, Martin; Frank, Richard

    2017-10-01

    The distribution of child sexual exploitation (CE) material has been aided by the growth of the Internet. The graphic nature and prevalence of the material has made researching and combating difficult. Although used to study online CE distribution, automated data collection tools (e.g., webcrawlers) have yet to be shown effective at targeting only relevant data. Using CE-related image and keyword criteria, we compare networks starting from CE websites to those from similar non-CE sexuality websites and dissimilar sports websites. Our results provide evidence that (a) webcrawlers have the potential to provide valid CE data, if the appropriate criterion is selected; (b) CE distribution is still heavily image-based suggesting images as an effective criterion; (c) CE-seeded networks are more hub-based and differ from non-CE-seeded networks on several website characteristics. Recommendations for improvements to reliable criteria selection are discussed.

  20. ANUBIS: artificial neuromodulation using a Bayesian inference system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Benjamin J H; Saaj, Chakravarthini M; Allouis, Elie

    2013-01-01

    Gain tuning is a crucial part of controller design and depends not only on an accurate understanding of the system in question, but also on the designer's ability to predict what disturbances and other perturbations the system will encounter throughout its operation. This letter presents ANUBIS (artificial neuromodulation using a Bayesian inference system), a novel biologically inspired technique for automatically tuning controller parameters in real time. ANUBIS is based on the Bayesian brain concept and modifies it by incorporating a model of the neuromodulatory system comprising four artificial neuromodulators. It has been applied to the controller of EchinoBot, a prototype walking rover for Martian exploration. ANUBIS has been implemented at three levels of the controller; gait generation, foot trajectory planning using Bézier curves, and foot trajectory tracking using a terminal sliding mode controller. We compare the results to a similar system that has been tuned using a multilayer perceptron. The use of Bayesian inference means that the system retains mathematical interpretability, unlike other intelligent tuning techniques, which use neural networks, fuzzy logic, or evolutionary algorithms. The simulation results show that ANUBIS provides significant improvements in efficiency and adaptability of the three controller components; it allows the robot to react to obstacles and uncertainties faster than the system tuned with the MLP, while maintaining stability and accuracy. As well as advancing rover autonomy, ANUBIS could also be applied to other situations where operating conditions are likely to change or cannot be accurately modeled in advance, such as process control. In addition, it demonstrates one way in which neuromodulation could fit into the Bayesian brain framework.

  1. Sacral root neuromodulation in idiopathic nonobstructive chronic urinary retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, H S; Hassouna, M

    1998-05-01

    Sacral root neuromodulation is becoming a superior alternative to the standard treatment of idiopathic nonobstructive urinary retention. We report results in 20 successive patients who underwent sacral foramen implantation to restore bladder function. After an initial, thorough baseline assessment 20 patients 19.43 to 55.66 years old with idiopathic nonobstructive urinary retention underwent percutaneous nerve evaluation. Response was assessed by a detailed voiding diary. Responders underwent implantation with an S3 foramen implant, and were followed 1, 3 and 6 months postoperatively, and every 6 months thereafter. Sacral root neuromodulation restored voiding capability in these patients. Bladders were emptied with minimal post-void residual urine, which decreased from 78.3 to 5.5 to 10.2% of the total voided volume from baseline to postoperative followup. These results were reflected in uroflowmetry and pressure-flow studies, which were almost normal after implantation. Furthermore, the urinary tract infection rate decreased significantly and associated pelvic pain improved substantially. The Beck depression inventory and SF-36 quality of life questionnaire indicated some improvement but reached significance in only 1 item. In addition, cystometrography showed no significant difference after 6 months of implantation compared with baseline values. Complications were minimal and within expectations. Sacral root neuromodulation is an appealing, successful modality for nonobstructive urinary retention. Only patients who have a good response to percutaneous nerve evaluation are candidates for implantation. The high efficacy in patients who undergo implantation, relative simplicity of the procedure and low complication rate make this a treatment breakthrough in this difficult group.

  2. Sacral neuromodulation in the treatment of the unstable bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, J L

    1998-07-01

    Sacral neuromodulation as a treatment for urge incontinence in patients with an unstable bladder is the subject of ongoing clinical studies. Although approximately 75% of the patients treated with a permanent sacral foramen electrode implant have experienced significant improvements, it is now also clear that there is an initial failure rate of about 25%. Recent studies have pointed out the importance of improved patient selection on the basis of sex differences, urodynamic parameters and psychological factors. Also, newer forms of test stimulation and permanent electrode implantation are being explored in an effort to improve on the present results.

  3. And Then There Was Light: Perspectives of Optogenetics for Deep Brain Stimulation and Neuromodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Delbeke

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS has evolved into a well-accepted add-on treatment for patients with severe Parkinsons disease as well as for other chronic neurological conditions. The focal action of electrical stimulation can yield better responses and it exposes the patient to fewer side effects compared to pharmaceuticals distributed throughout the body toward the brain. On the other hand, the current practice of DBS is hampered by the relatively coarse level of neuromodulation achieved. Optogenetics, in contrast, offers the perspective of much more selective actions on the various physiological structures, provided that the stimulated cells are rendered sensitive to the action of light. Optogenetics has experienced tremendous progress since its first in vivo applications about 10 years ago. Recent advancements of viral vector technology for gene transfer substantially reduce vector-associated cytotoxicity and immune responses. This brings about the possibility to transfer this technology into the clinic as a possible alternative to DBS and neuromodulation. New paths could be opened toward a rich panel of clinical applications. Some technical issues still limit the long term use in humans but realistic perspectives quickly emerge. Despite a rapid accumulation of observations about patho-physiological mechanisms, it is still mostly serendipity and empiric adjustments that dictate clinical practice while more efficient logically designed interventions remain rather exceptional. Interestingly, it is also very much the neuro technology developed around optogenetics that offers the most promising tools to fill in the existing knowledge gaps about brain function in health and disease. The present review examines Parkinson's disease and refractory epilepsy as use cases for possible optogenetic stimulation therapies.

  4. Intracellular Physiology of the Rat Suprachiasmatic Nucleus: Electrical Properties, Neurotransmission, and Effects of Neuromodulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-10

    Physiology of the Rat Suprachiasmatic Nucleus: Electrical Properties, Neurotransmission, and Effects of Neuromodulators . I-f 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) F...interplay between intrinsic electrophysiological properties, amino-acid-mediated synaptic transmission, and neuromodulation . We have continued to study the

  5. Sacral root neuromodulation in the treatment of various voiding and storage problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, H; Hassouna, M M

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the use of sacral neuromodulation as a treatment modality for patients with bladder dysfunction. The dual functions of the urinary bladder are to act as a reservoir and to evacuate under voluntary control. Bladder dysfunction is a descriptive term describing the loss or the impairment of one or both of these functions. In the first part of the manuscript we describe the different components of sacral neuromodulation: the screening test known as percutaneous nerve evaluation (PNE), which involves screening patients who could potentially benefit from the therapy. Those who show a satisfactory response will have a permanent neuroprosthesis implanted. The technical aspects of both components of neuromodulation are described in detail, as well as the technical difficulties encountered. In the second part we present our long-term results in patients with sacral neuromodulation. Sacral neuromodulation is a safe and efficient therapeutic modality that helps patients with refractory voiding dysfunction restore their bladder function.

  6. Neuromodulation by Mg2+ and polyamines of excitatory amino acid currents in rodent neurones in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumamoto, E

    1996-12-01

    Excitatory amino-acid currents in rodent central neurones are mediated by the activation of glutamate receptors. Ionotropic types of the receptors are divided into alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA), kainate and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, and the former two are collectively called non-NMDA receptors. The NMDA receptor is modulated by a number of endogenous neuromodulators including Mg2+, polyamines, glycine and protons in extracellular solutions. Although it has been generally thought that each of the neuromodulators acts on a distinct site in the NMDA receptor, recent studies have revealed that these actions may be not necessarily independent of each other. The NMDA receptor response is not only inhibited but also potentiated by Mg2+, and the latter action is due to an interaction of a Mg2+ site with either glycine- or proton-binding site. In the presence of polyamines, a tonic inhibition by protons of the NMDA receptor response is relieved, resulting in a potentiation of the response. Alternatively, it has been recently revealed that there are some subtypes of non-NMDA receptors which are negatively modulated by polyamines in either extra- or intra cellular solutions. The difference in polyamine sensitivity among non-NMDA receptors is attributed to a distinction in their constituted subunits. The inhibition of non-NMDA receptor by intracellular polyamines results in inward rectification of the current-voltage relation which is not seen for polyamine-insensitive ones. This polyamine action is not mimicked by intracellular Mg2+.

  7. Optimal number of stimulation contacts for coordinated reset neuromodulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysyansky, Borys; Popovych, Oleksandr V.; Tass, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    In this computational study we investigate coordinated reset (CR) neuromodulation designed for an effective control of synchronization by multi-site stimulation of neuronal target populations. This method was suggested to effectively counteract pathological neuronal synchrony characteristic for several neurological disorders. We study how many stimulation sites are required for optimal CR-induced desynchronization. We found that a moderate increase of the number of stimulation sites may significantly prolong the post-stimulation desynchronized transient after the stimulation is completely switched off. This can, in turn, reduce the amount of the administered stimulation current for the intermittent ON–OFF CR stimulation protocol, where time intervals with stimulation ON are recurrently followed by time intervals with stimulation OFF. In addition, we found that the optimal number of stimulation sites essentially depends on how strongly the administered current decays within the neuronal tissue with increasing distance from the stimulation site. In particular, for a broad spatial stimulation profile, i.e., for a weak spatial decay rate of the stimulation current, CR stimulation can optimally be delivered via a small number of stimulation sites. Our findings may contribute to an optimization of therapeutic applications of CR neuromodulation. PMID:23885239

  8. Astroglial networks and implications for therapeutic neuromodulation of epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R Witcher

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a common chronic neurologic disorder affecting approximately 1 percent of the world population. More than one-third of all epilepsy patients have incompletely controlled seizures or debilitating medication side effects in spite of optimal medical management. Medically refractory epilepsy is associated with excess injury and mortality, psychosocial dysfunction, and significant cognitive impairment. Effective treatment options for these patients can be limited. The cellular mechanisms underlying seizure activity are incompletely understood, though we here describe multiple lines of evidence supporting the likely contribution of astroglia to epilepsy, with focus on individual astrocytes and their network functions. Of the emerging therapeutic modalities for epilepsy, one of the most intriguing is the field of neuromodulation. Neuromodulatory treatment, which consists of administering electrical pulses to neural tissue to modulate its activity leading to a beneficial effect, may be an option for these patients. Current modalities consist of vagal nerve stimulation, open and closed loop stimulation, and transcranial magnetic stimulation. Due to their unique properties, we here present astrocytes as likely important targets for the developing field of neuromodulation in the treatment of epilepsy.

  9. Astroglial networks and implications for therapeutic neuromodulation of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcher, Mark R; Ellis, Thomas L

    2012-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common chronic neurologic disorder affecting approximately 1% of the world population. More than one-third of all epilepsy patients have incompletely controlled seizures or debilitating medication side effects in spite of optimal medical management. Medically refractory epilepsy is associated with excess injury and mortality, psychosocial dysfunction, and significant cognitive impairment. Effective treatment options for these patients can be limited. The cellular mechanisms underlying seizure activity are incompletely understood, though we here describe multiple lines of evidence supporting the likely contribution of astroglia to epilepsy, with focus on individual astrocytes and their network functions. Of the emerging therapeutic modalities for epilepsy, one of the most intriguing is the field of neuromodulation. Neuromodulatory treatment, which consists of administering electrical pulses to neural tissue to modulate its activity leading to a beneficial effect, may be an option for these patients. Current modalities consist of vagal nerve stimulation, open and closed-loop stimulation, and transcranial magnetic stimulation. Due to their unique properties, we here present astrocytes as likely important targets for the developing field of neuromodulation in the treatment of epilepsy.

  10. Cholinergic neuromodulation controls directed temporal communication in neocortex in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita K Roopun

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine is the primary neuromodulator involved in cortical arousal in mammals. Cholinergic modulation is involved in conscious awareness, memory formation and attention – processes that involve intercommunication between different cortical regions. Such communication is achieved in part through temporal structuring of neuronal activity by population rhythms, particularly in the beta and gamma frequency ranges (12 – 80 Hz. Here we demonstrate, using in vitro and in silico models, that spectrally identical patterns of beta2 and gamma rhythms are generated in primary sensory areas and polymodal association areas by fundamentally different local circuit mechanisms: Glutamatergic excitation induced beta2 frequency population rhythms only in layer 5 association cortex whereas cholinergic neuromodulation induced this rhythm only in layer 5 primary sensory cortex. This region-specific sensitivity of local circuits to cholinergic modulation allowed for control of the extent of cortical temporal interactions. Furthermore, the contrasting mechanisms underlying these beta2 rhythms produced a high degree of directionality, favouring an influence of association cortex over primary auditory cortex.

  11. Cholinergic Neuromodulation Controls Directed Temporal Communication in Neocortex in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopun, Anita K.; LeBeau, Fiona E.N.; Rammell, James; Cunningham, Mark O.; Traub, Roger D.; Whittington, Miles A.

    2010-01-01

    Acetylcholine is the primary neuromodulator involved in cortical arousal in mammals. Cholinergic modulation is involved in conscious awareness, memory formation and attention – processes that involve intercommunication between different cortical regions. Such communication is achieved in part through temporal structuring of neuronal activity by population rhythms, particularly in the beta and gamma frequency ranges (12–80 Hz). Here we demonstrate, using in vitro and in silico models, that spectrally identical patterns of beta2 and gamma rhythms are generated in primary sensory areas and polymodal association areas by fundamentally different local circuit mechanisms: Glutamatergic excitation induced beta2 frequency population rhythms only in layer 5 association cortex whereas cholinergic neuromodulation induced this rhythm only in layer 5 primary sensory cortex. This region-specific sensitivity of local circuits to cholinergic modulation allowed for control of the extent of cortical temporal interactions. Furthermore, the contrasting mechanisms underlying these beta2 rhythms produced a high degree of directionality, favouring an influence of association cortex over primary auditory cortex. PMID:20407636

  12. Optimal number of stimulation contacts for coordinated reset neuromodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borys eLysyansky

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this computational study we investigatecoordinated reset (CR neuromodulation designed for an effective controlof synchronization by multi-site stimulation of neuronal target populations. This method was suggested to effectively counteract pathological neuronal synchronycharacteristic for several neurological disorders. We studyhow many stimulation sites are required for optimal CR-induced desynchronization. We found that a moderate increase of the number of stimulation sitesmay significantly prolong the post-stimulation desynchronized transientafter the stimulation is completely switched off. This can, in turn,reduce the amount of the administered stimulation current for theintermittent ON-OFF CR stimulation protocol, where time intervalswith stimulation ON are recurrently followed by time intervals withstimulation OFF. In addition, we found that the optimal number ofstimulation sites essentially depends on how strongly the administeredcurrent decays within the neuronal tissue with increasing distancefrom the stimulation site. In particular, for a broad spatial stimulationprofile, i.e., for a weak spatial decay rate of the stimulation current,CR stimulation can optimally be delivered via a small number of stimulationsites. Our findings may contribute to an optimization of therapeutic applications of CR neuromodulation.

  13. Treatment of spasmodic dysphonia with a neuromodulating electrical implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, Michael J

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the feasibility of an implantable electrical stimulation device to treat spasmodic dysphonia (SD) by neuromodulation of the muscle spindle gamma loop. Prospective case series. Five subjects underwent daily stimulation of the left thyroarytenoid muscle (TA) below the level of α-motor neuron activation (AMNA) for 5 consecutive days. Professional and patient voice evaluations were performed. Transcartilagenous placement of an implantable stimulation device lead was investigated in anesthetized porcine and cadaveric human models. Three of 5 subjects improved in all categories of evaluation. One subject improved in three of four categories. These four subjects described significant carryover of effect after treatment. The fifth subject evidenced improvement until contracting an upper respiratory infection on day 3. Transcartilagenous electrode placement into the porcine TA with muscle stimulation was successful. The electrode lead was passed from the cadaveric larynx to the mastoid tip in the subplatysma layer with an absence of tension. The symptoms of SD improve after electrical stimulation of the TA at levels below AMNA. This is likely through neuromodulation of the muscle spindle gamma loop. Implantation of an electrode into the TA with a postauricular implanted stimulator is feasible with modifications of an already existing device. With further investigation, such a device has the potential to deliver an alternative treatment for SD. 4. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. A systematic review of the effects of neuromodulation on eating and body weight: evidence from human and animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Jessica; Bozhilova, Natali; Campbell, Iain; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2013-11-01

    Eating disorders (ED) are chronic and sometimes deadly illnesses. Existing treatments have limited proven efficacy, especially in the case of adults with anorexia nervosa (AN). Emerging neural models of ED provide a rationale for more targeted, brain-directed interventions. This systematic review has examined the effects of neuromodulation techniques on eating behaviours and body weight and assessed their potential for therapeutic use in ED. All articles in PubMed, PsychInfo and Web of Knowledge were considered and screened against a priori inclusion/exclusion criteria. The effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), transcranial direct current stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) and deep brain stimulation (DBS) were examined across studies in ED samples, other psychiatric and neurological disorders, and animal models. Sixty studies were identified. There is evidence for ED symptom reduction following rTMS and DBS in both AN and bulimia nervosa. Findings from studies of other psychiatric and neurological disorders and from animal studies demonstrate that increases in food intake and body weight can be achieved following DBS and that VNS has potential value as a means of controlling eating and inducing weight loss. Neuromodulation tools have potential for reducing ED symptomatology and related behaviours, and for altering food intake and body weight. In response to such findings, and emerging neural models of ED, treatment approaches are highly unlikely to remain 'brainless'. More research is required to evaluate the potential of neuromodulation procedures for improving long-term outcomes in ED. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  15. What saccadic eye movements tell us about TMS-induced neuromodulation of the DLPFC and mood changes: a pilot study in bipolar disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysianne eBeynel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study assumed that the antisaccade (AS task is a relevant psychophysical tool to assess (i short-term neuromodulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC induced by intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS and (ii mood change occurring during the course of the treatment. Saccadic inhibition is known to strongly involve the DLPFC, whose neuromodulation with iTBS requires less stimulation time and lower stimulation intensity, as well as results in longer aftereffects than the conventional repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS. Active or sham iTBS was applied every day for three weeks over the left DLPFC of 12 drug-resistant bipolar depressed patients. To assess the iTBS-induced short-term neuromodulation, the saccadic task was performed just before (S1 and just after (S2 the iTBS session, the first day of each week. Mood was evaluated through MADRS scores and the difference in scores between the beginning and the end of treatment was correlated with AS performance change between these two periods. As expected, only patients from the active group improved their performance from S1 to S2 and mood improvement was significantly correlated with AS performance improvement. In addition, the AS task also discriminated depressive bipolar patients from healthy control subjects. Therefore, the AS task could be a relevant and useful tool for clinicians to assess if the TMS-induced short-term neuromodulation of the DLPFC occurs as well as a ‘trait vs. state’ objective marker of depressive mood disorder.

  16. What saccadic eye movements tell us about TMS-induced neuromodulation of the DLPFC and mood changes: a pilot study in bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beynel, Lysianne; Chauvin, Alan; Guyader, Nathalie; Harquel, Sylvain; Szekely, David; Bougerol, Thierry; Marendaz, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The study assumed that the antisaccade (AS) task is a relevant psychophysical tool to assess (i) short-term neuromodulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) induced by intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS); and (ii) mood change occurring during the course of the treatment. Saccadic inhibition is known to strongly involve the DLPFC, whose neuromodulation with iTBS requires less stimulation time and lower stimulation intensity, as well as results in longer aftereffects than the conventional repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Active or sham iTBS was applied every day for 3 weeks over the left DLPFC of 12 drug-resistant bipolar depressed patients. To assess the iTBS-induced short-term neuromodulation, the saccadic task was performed just before (S1) and just after (S2) the iTBS session, the first day of each week. Mood was evaluated through Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) scores and the difference in scores between the beginning and the end of treatment was correlated with AS performance change between these two periods. As expected, only patients from the active group improved their performance from S1 to S2 and mood improvement was significantly correlated with AS performance improvement. In addition, the AS task also discriminated depressive bipolar patients from healthy control subjects. Therefore, the AS task could be a relevant and useful tool for clinicians to assess if the Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-induced short-term neuromodulation of the DLPFC occurs as well as a "trait vs. state" objective marker of depressive mood disorder.

  17. Evaluation of the Food and Agriculture Sector Criticality Assessment Tool (FASCAT) and the Collected Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Andrew G; Hodges, James S; Kennedy, Shaun P; Kircher, Amy

    2015-08-01

    To protect and secure food resources for the United States, it is crucial to have a method to compare food systems' criticality. In 2007, the U.S. government funded development of the Food and Agriculture Sector Criticality Assessment Tool (FASCAT) to determine which food and agriculture systems were most critical to the nation. FASCAT was developed in a collaborative process involving government officials and food industry subject matter experts (SMEs). After development, data were collected using FASCAT to quantify threats, vulnerabilities, consequences, and the impacts on the United States from failure of evaluated food and agriculture systems. To examine FASCAT's utility, linear regression models were used to determine: (1) which groups of questions posed in FASCAT were better predictors of cumulative criticality scores; (2) whether the items included in FASCAT's criticality method or the smaller subset of FASCAT items included in DHS's risk analysis method predicted similar criticality scores. Akaike's information criterion was used to determine which regression models best described criticality, and a mixed linear model was used to shrink estimates of criticality for individual food and agriculture systems. The results indicated that: (1) some of the questions used in FASCAT strongly predicted food or agriculture system criticality; (2) the FASCAT criticality formula was a stronger predictor of criticality compared to the DHS risk formula; (3) the cumulative criticality formula predicted criticality more strongly than weighted criticality formula; and (4) the mixed linear regression model did not change the rank-order of food and agriculture system criticality to a large degree. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Application of the NASCAP Spacecraft Simulation Tool to Investigate Electrodynamic Tether Current Collection in LEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mitzi; HabashKrause, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Recent interest in using electrodynamic tethers (EDTs) for orbital maneuvering in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) has prompted the development of the Marshall ElectroDynamic Tether Orbit Propagator (MEDTOP) model. The model is comprised of several modules which address various aspects of EDT propulsion, including calculation of state vectors using a standard orbit propagator (e.g., J2), an atmospheric drag model, realistic ionospheric and magnetic field models, space weather effects, and tether librations. The natural electromotive force (EMF) attained during a radially-aligned conductive tether results in electrons flowing down the tether and accumulating on the lower-altitude spacecraft. The energy that drives this EMF is sourced from the orbital energy of the system; thus, EDTs are often proposed as de-orbiting systems. However, when the current is reversed using satellite charged particle sources, then propulsion is possible. One of the most difficult challenges of the modeling effort is to ascertain the equivalent circuit between the spacecraft and the ionospheric plasma. The present study investigates the use of the NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP) to calculate currents to and from the tethered satellites and the ionospheric plasma. NASCAP is a sophisticated set of computational tools to model the surface charging of three-dimensional (3D) spacecraft surfaces in a time-varying space environment. The model's surface is tessellated into a collection of facets, and NASCAP calculates currents and potentials for each one. Additionally, NASCAP provides for the construction of one or more nested grids to calculate space potential and time-varying electric fields. This provides for the capability to track individual particles orbits, to model charged particle wakes, and to incorporate external charged particle sources. With this study, we have developed a model of calculating currents incident onto an electrodynamic tethered satellite system, and first results are shown

  19. Machine Assistance in Collection Building: New Tools, Research, Issues, and Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Mitchell

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital tool making offers many challenges, involving much trial and error. Developing machine learning and assistance in automated and semi-automated Internet resource discovery, metadata generation, and rich-text identification provides opportunities for great discovery, innovation, and the potential for transformation of the library community. The areas of computer science involved, as applied to the library applications addressed, are among that discipline’s leading edges. Making applied research practical and applicable, through placement within library/collection-management systems and services, involves equal parts computer scientist, research librarian, and legacy-systems archaeologist. Still, the early harvest is there for us now, with a large harvest pending. Data Fountains and iVia, the projects discussed, demonstrate this. Clearly, then, the present would be a good time for the library community to more proactively and significantly engage with this technology and research, to better plan for its impacts, to more proactively take up the challenges involved in its exploration, and to better and more comprehensively guide effort in this new territory. The alternative to doing this is that others will develop this territory for us, do it not as well, and sell it back to us at a premium. Awareness of this technology and its current capabilities, promises, limitations, and probable major impacts needs to be generalized throughout the library management, metadata, and systems communities. This article charts recent work, promising avenues for new research and development, and issues the library community needs to understand.

  20. Textbook of neuromodulation principles, methods and clinical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Knotkova, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, it was thought that the adult brain is modifiable only during early stages of ontogenesis. However, neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies now indicate that the mature human brain is, under certain conditions, capable of substantial neuroplastic changes. Neuroplasticity reflects the ability of the human brain to alter the pattern of neural activation in response to previous experience, and recent findings indicate that the effects of experience can lead to both structural as well as functional reorganization. It has been shown that pathological neuroplastic changes can be reverted/normalized and that the modulation of the neuroplastic changes can be paralleled by improvement of the patient's status. However, there is a gap between the potential of neuromodulation, technical progress and actual preparedness of medical personnel to provide this type of treatment. A prevalent opinion among medical professionals indicates that training programs and educational materials in neuromodulatory ...

  1. Structural dichotomy of the mind; the role of sexual neuromodulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion G. Motofei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The mind (mental function and sexuality represent two distinct environmental functions, but which are supported within the brain by a common (somatic-autonomic neurobiological substrate. As a consequence, mental function takes on autonomic characteristics from the sexual-autonomic system (like autonomy, duality, while sexual function takes on features from mental functioning (such as lateralization. In this paper we discuss the lateralized action of two classes of sexual neuromodulators: hormones and pheromones. This process of lateralization is assimilated with the structural dichotomy of the mind. A relatively similar process but related to informational dichotomy of the mind will be presented in a forthcoming paper. Structural and informational dichotomies of the mind represent essential aspects that need clarification in order to continue the solving of the mind-body process, a work in progress articulated through a succession of papers.

  2. Neuromodulation of the neural circuits controlling the lower urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, Parag N; Roy, Roland R; Zhong, Hui; Gerasimenko, Yury P; Taccola, Giuliano; Edgerton, V Reggie

    2016-11-01

    The inability to control timely bladder emptying is one of the most serious challenges among the many functional deficits that occur after a spinal cord injury. We previously demonstrated that electrodes placed epidurally on the dorsum of the spinal cord can be used in animals and humans to recover postural and locomotor function after complete paralysis and can be used to enable voiding in spinal rats. In the present study, we examined the neuromodulation of lower urinary tract function associated with acute epidural spinal cord stimulation, locomotion, and peripheral nerve stimulation in adult rats. Herein we demonstrate that electrically evoked potentials in the hindlimb muscles and external urethral sphincter are modulated uniquely when the rat is stepping bipedally and not voiding, immediately pre-voiding, or when voiding. We also show that spinal cord stimulation can effectively neuromodulate the lower urinary tract via frequency-dependent stimulation patterns and that neural peripheral nerve stimulation can activate the external urethral sphincter both directly and via relays in the spinal cord. The data demonstrate that the sensorimotor networks controlling bladder and locomotion are highly integrated neurophysiologically and behaviorally and demonstrate how these two functions are modulated by sensory input from the tibial and pudental nerves. A more detailed understanding of the high level of interaction between these networks could lead to the integration of multiple neurophysiological strategies to improve bladder function. These data suggest that the development of strategies to improve bladder function should simultaneously engage these highly integrated networks in an activity-dependent manner. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Taurine as an Essential Neuromodulator during Perinatal Cortical Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Kilb

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A variety of experimental studies demonstrated that neurotransmitters are an important factor for the development of the central nervous system, affecting neurodevelopmental events like neurogenesis, neuronal migration, programmed cell death, and differentiation. While the role of the classical neurotransmitters glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA on neuronal development is well established, the aminosulfonic acid taurine has also been considered as possible neuromodulator during early neuronal development. The purpose of the present review article is to summarize the properties of taurine as neuromodulator in detail, focusing on the direct involvement of taurine on various neurodevelopmental events and the regulation of neuronal activity during early developmental epochs. The current knowledge is that taurine lacks a synaptic release mechanism but is released by volume-sensitive organic anion channels and/or a reversal of the taurine transporter. Extracellular taurine affects neurons and neuronal progenitor cells mainly via glycine, GABA(A, and GABA(B receptors with considerable receptor and subtype-specific affinities. Taurine has been shown to directly influence neurogenesis in vitro as well as neuronal migration in vitro and in vivo. It provides a depolarizing signal for a variety of neuronal population in the immature central nervous system, thereby directly influencing neuronal activity. While in the neocortex, taurine probably enhance neuronal activity, in the immature hippocampus, a tonic taurinergic tone might be necessary to attenuate activity. In summary, taurine must be considered as an essential modulator of neurodevelopmental events, and possible adverse consequences on fetal and/or early postnatal development should be evaluated for pharmacological therapies affecting taurinergic functions.

  4. Intrinsic neuromodulation in the Tritonia swim CPG: serotonin mediates both neuromodulation and neurotransmission by the dorsal swim interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, P S; Frost, W N

    1995-12-01

    1. Neuromodulation has previously been shown to be intrinsic to the central pattern generator (CPG) circuit that generates the escape swim of the nudibranch mollusk Tritonia diomedea; the dorsal swim interneurons (DSIs) make conventional monosynaptic connections and evoke neuromodulatory effects within the swim motor circuit. The conventional synaptic potentials evoked by a DSI onto cerebral neuron 2 (C2) and onto the dorsal flexion neurons (DFNs) consist of a fast excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) followed by a prolonged slow EPSP. In their neuromodulatory role, the DSIs produce an enhancement of the monosynaptic connections made by C2 onto other CPG circuit interneurons and onto efferent flexion neurons. Previous work showed that the DSIs are immunoreactive for serotonin. Here we provide evidence that both the neurotransmission and the neuromodulation evoked by the DSIs are produced by serotonin, and that these effects may be pharmacologically separable. 2. Previously it was shown that bath-applied serotonin both mimics and occludes the modulation of the C2 synapses by the DSIs. Here we find that pressure-applied puffs of serotonin mimic both the fast and slow EPSPs evoked by a DSI onto a DFN, whereas high concentrations of bath-applied serotonin occlude both of these synaptic components. 3. Consistent with the hypothesis that serotonin mediates the actions of the DSIs, the serotonin reuptake inhibitor imipramine prolongs the duration of the fast DSI-DFN EPSP, increases the amplitude of the slow DSI-DFN EPSP, and increases both the amplitude and duration of the modulation of the C2-DFN synapse by the DSIs. 4. Two serotonergic antagonists were found that block the actions of the DSIs. Gramine blocks the fast DSI-DFN EPSP, and has far less of an effect on the slow EPSP and the modulation. Gramine also diminishes the depolarization evoked by pressure-applied serotonin, showing that it is a serotonin antagonist in this system. In contrast, methysergide greatly

  5. Education Students' Use of Collaborative Writing Tools in Collectively Reflective Essay Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodahl, Cornelia; Hansen, Nils Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Google Docs and EtherPad are Web 2.0 tools providing opportunity for multiple users to work online on the same document consecutively or simultaneously. Over the last few years a number of research papers on the use of these collaborative tools in a teaching and learning environment have been published. This work builds on that of Brodahl,…

  6. Effects of pudendal neuromodulation on bladder function in chronic spinal cord-injured rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Tsong Lin

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrates the feasibility of using pudendal neuromodulation in chronic SCI rats. These results could aid in developing an advanced neural prosthesis to restore bladder function in clinical settings.

  7. Neuromodulated Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity and Theory of Three-Factor Learning Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulfram eGerstner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Classical Hebbian learning puts the emphasis on joint pre- and postsynaptic activity, but neglects the potential role of neuromodulators. Since neuromodulators convey information about novelty or reward, the influence of neuromodulatorson synaptic plasticity is useful not just for action learning in classical conditioning, but also to decide 'when' to create new memories in response to a flow of sensory stimuli.In this review, we focus on timing requirements for pre- and postsynaptic activity in conjunction with one or several phasic neuromodulatory signals. While the emphasis of the text is on conceptual models and mathematical theories, we also discusssome experimental evidence for neuromodulation of Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity.We highlight the importance of synaptic mechanisms in bridging the temporal gap between sensory stimulation and neuromodulatory signals, and develop a framework for a class of neo-Hebbian three-factor learning rules that depend on presynaptic activity, postsynaptic variables as well as the influence of neuromodulators.

  8. Point-of-Care Programming for Neuromodulation: A Feasibility Study Using Remote Presence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Ivar; Song, Michael; Chiasson, Paula; Bustamante, Luis

    2013-01-01

    The expansion of neuromodulation and its indications has resulted in hundreds of thousands of patients with implanted devices worldwide. Because all patients require programming, this growth has created a heavy burden on neuromodulation centers and patients. Remote point-of-care programming may provide patients with real-time access to neuromodulation expertise in their communities. To test the feasibility of remotely programming a neuromodulation device using a remote-presence robot and to determine the ability of an expert programmer to telementor a nonexpert in programming the device. A remote-presence robot (RP-7) was used for remote programming. Twenty patients were randomly assigned to either conventional programming or a robotic session. The expert remotely mentored 10 nurses with no previous experience to program the devices of patients assigned to the remote-presence sessions. Accuracy of programming, adverse events, and satisfaction scores for all participants were assessed. There was no difference in the accuracy or clinical outcomes of programming between the standard and remote-presence sessions. No adverse events occurred in any session. The patients, nurses, and the expert programmer expressed high satisfaction scores with the remote-presence sessions. This study establishes the proof-of-principle that remote programming of neuromodulation devices using telepresence and expert telementoring of an individual with no previous experience to accurately program a device is feasible. We envision a time in the future when patients with implanted devices will have real-time access to neuromodulation expertise from the comfort of their own home.

  9. A urodynamic study of surface neuromodulation versus sham in detrusor instability and sensory urgency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, W F; Moore, K H; Adams, R D; Shepherd, R

    1998-12-01

    We studied the effect of surface neuromodulation on cystometric pressure and volume parameters in women with detrusor instability or sensory urgency. Electrical current was delivered to the suprapubic region and third sacral foramina via a transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator with sham neuromodulation control. A consecutive series of women with proved detrusor instability or sensory urgency were randomized to 3 surface neuromodulation groups. Volume and pressure parameters were the main outcomes of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation applied during second cystometric fill. Sham transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation did not alter the outcome measures. However, neuromodulation delivered across the suprapubic and sacral skin effected a reduction in mean maximum height of detrusor contraction. A current which inhibits motor activity was not superior to that which inhibits sensory perception in reducing detrusor pressure. Response in sensory urgency was poor. Results from our sham controlled study suggest that short-term surface neuromodulation via transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation may have a role in the treatment of detrusor instability. Future studies must examine the clinical effect of long-term surface neuromodulation.

  10. Citizen Science as a Tool for Augmenting Museum Collection Data from Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakota M. Spear

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Museum collections are critical to contemporary biological research, but museum acquisitions have declined in recent decades, hampering researchers' ability to use collections to assess species responses to habitat modification, urbanization, and global climate change. Citizen science may be a key method to bolster museum collections data, particularly from urban regions, where ongoing data collection is critical to our understanding of ecosystem dynamics in a highly modified and variable landscape. In this study, we compare data collected as part of the citizen-science project Reptiles and Amphibians of Southern California (RASCals, hosted on the platform iNaturalist (www.inaturalist.org, to data in the VertNet database (www.vertnet.org, which houses millions of museum collection records from over 250 natural-history collections, for four focal species, including a native lizard of conservation concern that has declined with urbanization, a native lizard that is widespread in urban areas, and two invasive aquatic species. We compared numbers of VertNet records over time to modern RASCals records, and the number of records collected from urban, suburban, and protected areas from both databases. For all species, citizen-science records were generated much more rapidly than museum records. For three of our four focal species, RASCals participants over 27 months documented from 70 to 750% more records than were added to the VertNet database after 1990. For the urban-tolerant southern alligator lizard, RASCals participants collected nearly 45 times more modern urban records than are contained in the VertNet database. For all other species, the majority of RASCals records were collected within suburban or other highly modified landscapes, demonstrating the value of citizen science for collecting data within urban and suburban ecosystems. As new museum acquisitions decline, citizen-science projects like RASCals may become critical to the maintenance

  11. 78 FR 54241 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; BroadbandMatch Web Site Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... goal of increased broadband deployment and use in the United States. The BroadbandMatch Web site began... proposed collection of information is necessary for the proper performance of the functions of the agency... the quality, utility, and clarity of the information to be collected; and (d) ways to minimize the...

  12. Role of functional imaging in the development and refinement of invasive neuromodulation for psychiatric disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nolan; R; Williams; Joseph; J; Taylor; Kayla; Lamb; Colleen; A; Hanlon; E; Baron; Short; Mark; S; George

    2014-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation(DBS) is emerging as a pow-erful tool for the alleviation of targeted symptoms in treatment-resistant neuropsychiatric disorders. Despite the expanding use of neuropsychiatric DBS, the mecha-nisms responsible for its effects are only starting to be elucidated. Several modalities such as quantitative elec-troencephalography as well a intraoperative recordings have been utilized to attempt to understand the under-pinnings of this new treatment modality, but functional imaging appears to offer several unique advantages. Functional imaging techniques like positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomog-raphy and functional magnetic resonance imaging have been used to examine the effects of focal DBS on activ-ity in a distributed neural network. These investigations are critical for advancing the field of invasive neuro-modulation in a safe and effective manner, particularly in terms of defining the neuroanatomical targets and refining the stimulation protocols. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current functional neuroim-aging findings from neuropsychiatric DBS implantation for three disorders: treatment-resistant depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and Tourette syndrome. All of the major targets will be discussed(Nucleus ac-cumbens, anterior limb of internal capsule, subcallosal cingulate, Subthalamic nucleus, Centromedial nucleus of the thalamus-Parafasicular complex, frontal pole, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex). We will also address some apparent inconsistencies within this literature, and suggest potential future directions for this promis-ing area.

  13. Mating system and pollen dispersal in Eugenia dysenterica (Myrtaceae) germplasm collection: tools for conservation and domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Eduardo B; Collevatti, Rosane G; Chaves, Lázaro J; Moreira, Lucas R; Telles, Mariana P C

    2016-04-01

    Eugenia dysenterica DC. (Myrtaceae) is a perennial tree producing edible fruits and ornamental flowers of potential value widely distributed in Brazilian "Cerrados" (savannas), but available genetic resources and potential for future breeding programs must be evaluated. Here we evaluated the reproductive system and pollen-mediated gene flow in one generation of Eugenia dysenterica germplasm collection of Agronomy School, Federal University of Goiás (in Goiânia city, Central Brazil). We collected leaves from all adults from the germplasm collection (682 plants) and seeds (542) from 23 mother-trees. Genotypes were obtained for seven microsatellite loci. Genetic diversity was high and did not significantly differ between adults (H e = 0.777) and progeny arrays (H e = 0.617). Our results showed that E. dysenterica has an allogamous mating system in the germplasm collection (t m = 0.957), but with high and significant biparental inbreeding (t m - t s = 0.109). Because sibs are very close to each other, mating between closely related individuals is likely. Paternity correlation was also relatively high, indicating a 11.9 % probability that a randomly chosen pair of outcrossed progeny from the same array are full sibs. The maximum pollen dispersal distance (224 m), estimated using assignment test, corresponded to the boundaries of the orchard. We were able to assign the paternity to only 64 % of the 349 seeds analyzed, indicating potential pollen immigration to the germplasm collection. The variance effective population size estimated for one maternal family in the germplasm collection (N ev = 3.42) is very close to the theoretical maximum value for half-sibs (Nev = 4.0). Because E. dysenterica has a long life cycle and generation time, the maintenance of an effective population size of at least 100 in the germplasm collection is suggested, which can be achieved by maintaining a seed-trees number around 30 individuals.

  14. Benefits of a clinical data warehouse with data mining tools to collect data for a radiotherapy trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Erik; Persoon, Lucas; Nijsten, Sebastiaan; Wiessler, Wolfgang; Dekker, André; Lambin, Philippe

    2013-07-01

    Collecting trial data in a medical environment is at present mostly performed manually and therefore time-consuming, prone to errors and often incomplete with the complex data considered. Faster and more accurate methods are needed to improve the data quality and to shorten data collection times where information is often scattered over multiple data sources. The purpose of this study is to investigate the possible benefit of modern data warehouse technology in the radiation oncology field. In this study, a Computer Aided Theragnostics (CAT) data warehouse combined with automated tools for feature extraction was benchmarked against the regular manual data-collection processes. Two sets of clinical parameters were compiled for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and rectal cancer, using 27 patients per disease. Data collection times and inconsistencies were compared between the manual and the automated extraction method. The average time per case to collect the NSCLC data manually was 10.4 ± 2.1 min and 4.3 ± 1.1 min when using the automated method (pdata collected for NSCLC and 5.3% for rectal cancer, there was a discrepancy between the manual and automated method. Aggregating multiple data sources in a data warehouse combined with tools for extraction of relevant parameters is beneficial for data collection times and offers the ability to improve data quality. The initial investments in digitizing the data are expected to be compensated due to the flexibility of the data analysis. Furthermore, successive investigations can easily select trial candidates and extract new parameters from the existing databases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Benefits of a clinical data warehouse with data mining tools to collect data for a radiotherapy trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelofs, Erik; Persoon, Lucas; Nijsten, Sebastiaan; Wiessler, Wolfgang; Dekker, André; Lambin, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Collecting trial data in a medical environment is at present mostly performed manually and therefore time-consuming, prone to errors and often incomplete with the complex data considered. Faster and more accurate methods are needed to improve the data quality and to shorten data collection times where information is often scattered over multiple data sources. The purpose of this study is to investigate the possible benefit of modern data warehouse technology in the radiation oncology field. Material and methods: In this study, a Computer Aided Theragnostics (CAT) data warehouse combined with automated tools for feature extraction was benchmarked against the regular manual data-collection processes. Two sets of clinical parameters were compiled for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and rectal cancer, using 27 patients per disease. Data collection times and inconsistencies were compared between the manual and the automated extraction method. Results: The average time per case to collect the NSCLC data manually was 10.4 ± 2.1 min and 4.3 ± 1.1 min when using the automated method (p < 0.001). For rectal cancer, these times were 13.5 ± 4.1 and 6.8 ± 2.4 min, respectively (p < 0.001). In 3.2% of the data collected for NSCLC and 5.3% for rectal cancer, there was a discrepancy between the manual and automated method. Conclusions: Aggregating multiple data sources in a data warehouse combined with tools for extraction of relevant parameters is beneficial for data collection times and offers the ability to improve data quality. The initial investments in digitizing the data are expected to be compensated due to the flexibility of the data analysis. Furthermore, successive investigations can easily select trial candidates and extract new parameters from the existing databases

  16. Sacral neuromodulation effects on periurethral sensation and urethral sphincter activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Jonathan L; Kenton, Kimberly; Greer, W Jerod; Ramm, Olga; Szychowski, Jeff M; Wilson, Tracey; Richter, Holly E

    2013-06-01

    To characterize the effect of sacral neuromodulation (SNM) on urethral neuromuscular function. Following IRB approval, women with refractory overactive bladder (OAB) underwent standardized urethral testing prior to and after Stage 1 SNM implantation. Periurethral sensation was measured using current perception thresholds (CPT). Striated urethral sphincter activity was quantified using concentric needle electromyography (CNE) and Multi-Motor Unit Action Potential (MUP) analysis software. Nonparametric analyses were used to characterize pre/post changes with intervention. Baseline CPT and CNE findings were compared between SNM responders and non-responders. Twenty-seven women were enrolled in this pilot study with a mean age of 61 ± 13 years. Twenty of 26 women (76.9%) responded to SNM and went to Stage 2 permanent implantation. Four (14.8%) withdrew after Stage 1 implantation; three of the four withdrawals had not had therapeutic responses to SNM. CPT and CNE parameters did not significantly differ from baseline 2 weeks after SNM. Pre-SNM urethral sensation was not significantly different between responders and non-responders. However, responders had larger amplitude, longer duration and more turns and phases at baseline approaching significance, reflecting more successful urethral reinnervation, than non-responders. SNM does not alter urethral neuromuscular function 2 weeks post Stage 1 implantation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The dopamine metabolite 3-methoxytyramine is a neuromodulator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana D Sotnikova

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine (3-hydroxytyramine is a well-known catecholamine neurotransmitter involved in multiple physiological functions including movement control. Here we report that the major extracellular metabolite of dopamine, 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT, can induce behavioral effects in a dopamine-independent manner and these effects are partially mediated by the trace amine associated receptor 1 (TAAR1. Unbiased in vivo screening of putative trace amine receptor ligands for potential effects on the movement control revealed that 3-MT infused in the brain is able to induce a complex set of abnormal involuntary movements in mice acutely depleted of dopamine. In normal mice, the central administration of 3-MT caused a temporary mild hyperactivity with a concomitant set of abnormal movements. Furthermore, 3-MT induced significant ERK and CREB phosphorylation in the mouse striatum, signaling events generally related to PKA-mediated cAMP accumulation. In mice lacking TAAR1, both behavioral and signaling effects of 3-MT were partially attenuated, consistent with the ability of 3-MT to activate TAAR1 receptors and cause cAMP accumulation as well as ERK and CREB phosphorylation in cellular assays. Thus, 3-MT is not just an inactive metabolite of DA, but a novel neuromodulator that in certain situations may be involved in movement control. Further characterization of the physiological functions mediated by 3-MT may advance understanding of the pathophysiology and pharmacology of brain disorders involving abnormal dopaminergic transmission, such as Parkinson's disease, dyskinesia and schizophrenia.

  18. Neurosteroids as neuromodulators in the treatment of anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia eLongone

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric disorders. They are frequently treated with benzodiazepines, which are fast acting highly effective anxiolytic agents. However, their long term use is impaired by tolerance development and abuse liability. In contrast, antidepressants such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs are considered as first line treatment but have a slow onset of action. Neurosteroids are powerful allosteric modulators of GABAA and glutamate receptors. However, they also modulate sigma receptors and they are modulated themselves by SSRIs. Both preclinical and clinical studies have shown that neurosteroid homeostasis is altered in depression and anxiety disorders and antidepressants may act in part through restoring neurosteroid dysbalance. Moreover, novel drugs interfering with neurosteroidogenesis such as ligands of the translocator protein (18 kDa may represent an attractive pharmacological option for novel anxiolytics which lack the unwarranted side effects of benzodiazepines. Thus, neurosteroids are important endogenous neuromodulators for the physiology and pathophysiology of anxiety and they may constitute a novel therapeutic approach in the treatment of these disorders.

  19. Neuromodulator and Emotion Biomarker for Stress Induced Mental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Simeng; Wang, Wei; Wang, Fushun; Huang, Jason H

    2016-01-01

    Affective disorders are a leading cause of disabilities worldwide, and the etiology of these many affective disorders such as depression and posttraumatic stress disorder is due to hormone changes, which includes hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in the peripheral nervous system and neuromodulators in the central nervous system. Consistent with pharmacological studies indicating that medical treatment acts by increasing the concentration of catecholamine, the locus coeruleus (LC)/norepinephrine (NE) system is regarded as a critical part of the central "stress circuitry," whose major function is to induce "fight or flight" behavior and fear and anger emotion. Despite the intensive studies, there is still controversy about NE with fear and anger. For example, the rats with LC ablation were more reluctant to leave a familiar place and took longer to consume the food pellets in an unfamiliar place (neophobia, i.e., fear in response to novelty). The reason for this discrepancy might be that NE is not only for flight (fear), but also for fight (anger). Here, we try to review recent literatures about NE with stress induced emotions and their relations with mental disorders. We propose that stress induced NE release can induce both fear and anger. "Adrenaline rush or norepinephrine rush" and fear and anger emotion might act as biomarkers for mental disorders.

  20. Neuromodulator and Emotion Biomarker for Stress Induced Mental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeng Gu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Affective disorders are a leading cause of disabilities worldwide, and the etiology of these many affective disorders such as depression and posttraumatic stress disorder is due to hormone changes, which includes hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in the peripheral nervous system and neuromodulators in the central nervous system. Consistent with pharmacological studies indicating that medical treatment acts by increasing the concentration of catecholamine, the locus coeruleus (LC/norepinephrine (NE system is regarded as a critical part of the central “stress circuitry,” whose major function is to induce “fight or flight” behavior and fear and anger emotion. Despite the intensive studies, there is still controversy about NE with fear and anger. For example, the rats with LC ablation were more reluctant to leave a familiar place and took longer to consume the food pellets in an unfamiliar place (neophobia, i.e., fear in response to novelty. The reason for this discrepancy might be that NE is not only for flight (fear, but also for fight (anger. Here, we try to review recent literatures about NE with stress induced emotions and their relations with mental disorders. We propose that stress induced NE release can induce both fear and anger. “Adrenaline rush or norepinephrine rush” and fear and anger emotion might act as biomarkers for mental disorders.

  1. [Sacral neuromodulation in urology - development and current status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalenberg, T; Stolzenburg, J-U; Kriegel, C; Gonsior, A

    2012-01-01

    Sacral neuromodulation (SNM) in urology is employed to treat refractory lower urinary tract dysfunction as well as chronic pelvic pain. Electrical stimulation of the sacral afferents (S2 - S4) causes activation and conditioning of higher autonomic and somatic neural structures and thereby influences the efferents controlling the urinary bladder, the rectum and their related sphincter systems. It is therefore possible to treat overactivity as well as hypocontractility and functional bladder neck obstruction. SNM treatment is conducted biphasically. Initially, test electrodes are placed to evaluate changes in micturition and pain parameters. If, in this first phase - called peripheral nerve evaluation (PNE test) - sufficient improvements are observed, the patient progresses to phase two which involves implantation of the permanent electrodes and impulse generator system. In recent years, the "two stage approach" with initial implantation of the permanent electrodes has been favoured as it increases treatment success rates. Long-term success rates of SNM vary significantly in the literature (50 - 80 %) due to heterogeneous patient populations as well as improved surgical approaches. With the introduction of "tined lead electrodes" (2002), tissue damage is reduced to a minimum. Technical innovation, financial feasibility (reimbursed in Germany since 2004) and wider application, especially in otherwise therapy-refractory patients or complex dysfunctions of the pelvis, have established SNM as a potent treatment option in urology. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Pregnancy in women with Fowler's syndrome treated with sacral neuromodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khunda, Azar; Karmarkar, Roopali; Abtahi, Bahareh; Gonzales, Gwen; Elneil, Sohier

    2013-07-01

    Our aim was to determine the impact of pregnancy on sacral neuromodulation (SNM) and vice versa in patients with Fowler's syndrome (FS), which is typified by chronic urinary retention (CUR). We performed a retrospective study of pregnancy in patients with FS who underwent a two-stage SNM implantation. Data were obtained using a standard questionnaire and clinical interview. There were a total of ten patients with 13 pregnancies. The SNM was switched off in ten of the 13 pregnancies, with CUR recurring in nine of the ten pregnancies and recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) occurring in four of these pregnancies (more than three UTI in the pregnancy). Those in whom the device was left on continued to void normally. One woman had a first trimester miscarriage, eight pregnancies went to term, and four deliveries were premature. Caesarean section was performed in eight pregnancies for obstetric reasons. Four pregnancies resulted in a vaginal delivery. There were no congenital anomalies reported. Following delivery, four of nine women experienced dysfunction of their SNM device when it was switched back on. Turing off the SNM during pregnancy results in recurrence of CUR, with an increased risk of recurrent UTI associated with preterm delivery. This did not impact foetal well-being. The option of keeping the SNM on during pregnancy should therefore be considered, and as caesarean section affects the SNM device, we advise that caesarean section should only be performed for obstetric reasons.

  3. Evidence against nitrergic neuromodulation in the rat vas deferens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, S; Burnstock, G

    1997-09-03

    Electrical field stimulation (60 V, 1 ms, single pulses or 20 s trains of 1-10 Hz) of the nerve terminals within the rat vas deferens produced biphasic contractions in preparations oriented to measure either longitudinal or circular muscle contractions. In confirmation of earlier reports, these contractions were blocked by tetrodotoxin (1 microM). The initial fast purinergic contraction was dominant in prostatic halves of the vas deferens while the second slower noradrenergic contraction was greater in epididymal halves. Although previous studies have shown nitric oxide synthase immuno-positive nerves in the vas deferens, electrical field stimulation-induced contractions were unaffected by L-arginine, sodium nitroprusside, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) or superoxide dismutase in concentrations up to I mM. In concentrations above 1 mM, L-NAME reduced the size of the field stimulation-induced contractions but this effect could not be reversed by either L-arginine or sodium nitroprusside. Furthermore, L-arginine, sodium nitroprusside and L-NAME did not affect the contractions induced by exogenous application of noradrenaline (10 microM), ATP (1 mM) or BaCl2 (1-10 mM). We conclude that nitric oxide does not act as a neuromodulator in isolated preparations of rat vas deferens.

  4. Domain-Specific Thesaurus as a Tool for Information Retrieval and Collection of Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir N. Boikov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports basic approaches to constructive creation of an open resource named ”Domain-specified thesaurus of poetics”, which is one of the levels of an information-analytical system of the Russian poetry (IAS RP. The poetics is a group of disciplines focused on a comprehensive theoretical and historical study of poetry. IAS RP will be used as a tool for a wide range of studies allowing to determine the characteristic features of the analyzed works of poetry. Consequently, the thesaurus is the knowledge base from which one can borrow input data for training the system. The aim of our research requires a specific approach to formating the knowledge base. Thesaurus is a web-based resource which includes a domain-specific directory, information retrieval tools and tools for further analyzes. The study of glossary consisting of three thousand terms and a set of semantic fields is reviewed in this paper. Rdf-graph of the domain-specified thesaurus of poetics is presented, containing 9 types of objects and different kinds of relationships among them. Wiki-tecnologies are used for implementing a resource which allows to store data in Semantic Web formats.

  5. 78 FR 48859 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2013 NOAA Engagement Survey Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... services that are essential public goods used in public and private sectors, science institutions and.... Revision: The survey will be conducted by the Sea Grant Program rather than the Office of Education and the Gulf of Mexico Regional Collaboration Team, as it was originally. II. Method of Collection Primarily...

  6. Development of a Web-based tool to collect and display water system customer service areas for public health action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Michelle; Wolff, Craig; Collins, Natalie; Guo, Liang; Meltzer, Dan; English, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Significant illness is associated with biological contaminants in drinking water, but little is known about health effects from low levels of chemical contamination in drinking water. To examine these effects in epidemiological studies, the sources of drinking water of study populations need to be known. The California Environmental Health Tracking Program developed an online application that would collect data on the geographic location of public water system (PWS) customer service areas in California, which then could be linked to demographic and drinking water quality data. We deployed the Water Boundary Tool (WBT), a Web-based geospatial crowdsourcing application that can manage customer service boundary data for each PWS in California and can track changes over time. We also conducted a needs assessment for expansion to other states. The WBT was designed for water system operators, local and state regulatory agencies, and government entities. Since its public launch in 2012, the WBT has collected service area boundaries for about 2300 individual PWS, serving more than 90% of the California population. Results of the needs assessment suggest interest and utility for deploying such a tool among states lacking statewide PWS service area boundary data. Although the WBT data set is incomplete, it has already been used for a variety of applications, including fulfilling legislatively mandated reporting requirements and linking customer service areas to drinking water quality data to better understand local water quality issues. Development of this tool holds promise to assist with outbreak investigations and prevention, environmental health monitoring, and emergency preparedness and response.

  7. Assessing the role of learning devices and geovisualisation tools for collective action in natural resource management: Experiences from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castella, Jean-Christophe

    2009-02-01

    In northern Vietnam uplands the successive policy reforms that accompanied agricultural decollectivisation triggered very rapid changes in land use in the 1990s. From a centralized system of natural resource management, a multitude of individual strategies emerged which contributed to new production interactions among farming households, changes in landscape structures, and conflicting strategies among local stakeholders. Within this context of agrarian transition, learning devices can help local communities to collectively design their own course of action towards sustainable natural resource management. This paper presents a collaborative approach combining a number of participatory methods and geovisualisation tools (e.g., spatially explicit multi-agent models and role-playing games) with the shared goal to analyse and represent the interactions between: (i) decision-making processes by individual farmers based on the resource profiles of their farms; (ii) the institutions which regulate resource access and usage; and (iii) the biophysical and socioeconomic environment. This methodological pathway is illustrated by a case study in Bac Kan Province where it successfully led to a communication platform on natural resource management. In a context of rapid socioeconomic changes, learning devices and geovisualisation tools helped embed the participatory approach within a process of community development. The combination of different tools, each with its own advantages and constraints, proved highly relevant for supporting collective natural resource management.

  8. Neuromodulation by implant for treating lower urinary tract symptoms and dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemelmans, B L; Mundy, A R; Craggs, M D

    1999-08-01

    Patients with irritative micturition complaints, pelvic pain, involuntary urine loss or urinary retention are sometimes difficult to treat. The advent of direct sacral nerve stimulation offers a therapeutic alternative if conservative measures fail and surgery is considered. This paper reviews therapeutic neuromodulation by implant for treating lower urinary tract symptoms and dysfunction. The international literature is reviewed on topics such as the physiological basis of neuromodulation, techniques of acute testing and chronic implantation, and clinical results. Future developments and ways for possible improvement are discussed. The mode of action of neuromodulation is probably through restoring the correct balance between excitatory and inhibitory impulses from and to the pelvic organs at a sacral and supra-sacral level. Depending on the predefined success criteria, average success rates of definitive implants vary from 50 to 70%. From the data it seems that patients with urge incontinence and urinary retention are the best candidates for neuromodulation. In the literature the lack of standardisation of selection criteria, stimulation parameters and definitions of success is striking. Neuromodulation by implant is a useful therapeutic alternative. It should at least be considered in patients with therapy-resistant urge incontinence and urinary retention before proceeding to surgery. Issues such as underlying physiology, methodological standardisation, technical improvements, and patient selection must be addressed in future research.

  9. Altering risky decision-making: Influence of impulsivity on the neuromodulation of prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gordon L F; Lee, Tatia M C

    2016-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) subserves complex cognitive abilities, including risky decision-making; the modulation of this brain area is shown to alter the way people take risks. Yet, neuromodulation of the PFC in relation to risk-taking behavior remains relatively less well-studied. Moreover, the psychological variables that influence such neuromodulation remain poorly understood. To address these issues, 16 participants took part in 3 experimental sessions on separate days. They received: (i) left anodal-right cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS); (ii) left cathodal-right anodal stimulation; or (iii) sham stimulation while they completed two risk-taking tasks. They also measured on several cognitive-affective abilities and personality traits. It was revealed that left cathodal-right anodal stimulation led to significantly reduced risk-taking under a context of haste. The reduction of risk-taking (relative to sham) correlated with state and trait impulsivity, such that the effect was larger in more impulsive individuals. For these individuals, the tDCS effect size was considered to be large (generalized partial η(2) > .17). The effect of prefrontal-neuromodulation in reducing risk-taking was influenced by baseline impulsivity, reflecting a state-dependent effect of neuromodulation on the PFC. The results of this study carry important insights into the use of neuromodulation to alter higher cognition.

  10. Acoustic Coordinated Reset Neuromodulation in a Real Life Patient Population with Chronic Tonal Tinnitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptmann, Christian; Ströbel, Armin; Williams, Mark; Patel, Nitesh; Wurzer, Hannes; von Stackelberg, Tatjana; Brinkmann, Uwe; Langguth, Berthold; Tass, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Primary tinnitus has a severe negative influence on the quality of life of a significant portion of the general population. Acoustic coordinated reset neuromodulation is designed to induce a long-lasting reduction of tinnitus symptoms. To test acoustic coordinated reset neuromodulation as a treatment for chronic, tonal tinnitus under real life conditions, an outpatient study “RESET Real Life” was commissioned by ANM GmbH. Herein we present the results of this study. Methods. In a prospective, open-label, nonrandomized, noncontrolled multicenter clinical study with 200 chronic tinnitus patients, tinnitus questionnaire TBF-12 and Global Clinical Improvement-Impression Scale (CGI-I7) are used to study the safety and efficacy of acoustic coordinated reset neuromodulation. 189 patients completed the last 12-month visit, 11 patients dropped out (8 because of nontreatment related reasons; 2 because tinnitus did not change; and 1 because tinnitus got louder). Results. Acoustic coordinated reset neuromodulation caused a statistically and clinically significant decrease in TBF-12 scores as well as in CGI-I7 after 12 months of therapy under real life conditions. There were no persistent adverse events reported that were related to the therapy. Conclusion. The field study “RESET Real Life” provides evidence for safety and efficacy of acoustic coordinated reset neuromodulation in a prospective, open-label, real life setting. PMID:26568958

  11. Basal Ganglia Circuits as Targets for Neuromodulation in Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLong, Mahlon R; Wichmann, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    The revival of stereotactic surgery for Parkinson disease (PD) in the 1990s, with pallidotomy and then with high-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS), has led to a renaissance in functional surgery for movement and other neuropsychiatric disorders. To examine the scientific foundations and rationale for the use of ablation and DBS for treatment of neurologic and psychiatric diseases, using PD as the primary example. A summary of the large body of relevant literature is presented on anatomy, physiology, pathophysiology, and functional surgery for PD and other basal ganglia disorders. The signs and symptoms of movement disorders appear to result largely from signature abnormalities in one of several parallel and largely segregated basal ganglia thalamocortical circuits (ie, the motor circuit). The available evidence suggests that the varied movement disorders resulting from dysfunction of this circuit result from propagated disruption of downstream network activity in the thalamus, cortex, and brainstem. Ablation and DBS act to free downstream networks to function more normally. The basal ganglia thalamocortical circuit may play a key role in the expression of disordered movement, and the basal ganglia-brainstem projections may play roles in akinesia and disturbances of gait. Efforts are under way to target circuit dysfunction in brain areas outside of the traditionally implicated basal ganglia thalamocortical system, in particular, the pedunculopontine nucleus, to address gait disorders that respond poorly to levodopa and conventional DBS targets. Deep brain stimulation is now the treatment of choice for many patients with advanced PD and other movement disorders. The success of DBS and other forms of neuromodulation for neuropsychiatric disorders is the result of the ability to modulate circuit activity in discrete functional domains within the basal ganglia circuitry with highly focused interventions, which spare uninvolved areas that are often disrupted with

  12. Brain plasticity effects of neuromodulation against multiple sclerosis fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franca eTecchio

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available RationaleWe recently reported on the efficacy of a personalized transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS treatment in reducing MS fatigue. That result supports the notion that interventions targeted at modifying unbalanced interactions within the sensorimotor network could represent valid non-pharmacological treatments. ObjectiveThe present work aimed at assessing whether the mentioned intervention also induces changes in the excitability of cortical areas. MethodTwo separate groups of fatigued MS patients were given a 5-day tDCS treatments targeting respectively the whole body somatosensory areas (S1wb and the hand sensorimotor areas (SM1hand. The study had a double blind, sham-controlled, randomized, cross-over (Real vs. Sham design. Before and after each treatment, we measured fatigue levels (by the modified Fatigue Impact Scale, mFIS, motor evoked potentials (MEPs in response to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP in response to median nerve stimulation. We took MEPs and SEPs as measures of the excitability of the primary motor area (M1 and the primary somatosensory area (S1 respectively.ResultsThe Real S1wb treatment produced a 27% reduction of the mFIS baseline level, while the SM1hand treatment showed no difference between Real and Sham stimulations. M1 excitability increased on average 6 % of the baseline in the S1wb group and 40% in the SM1hand group. Observed SEP changes were not significant and we found no association between M1 excitability changes and mFIS decrease.ConclusionsThe tDCS treatment was more effective against MS fatigue when the electrode was focused on the bilateral whole body somatosensory area. Changes in S1 and M1 excitability did not correlate with symptoms amelioration.SignificanceThe neuromodulation treatment that proved effective against MS fatigue induced only minor variations of the motor cortex excitability, not enough to explain the beneficial effects of

  13. Neuromodulation Therapies for Alcohol Addiction: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Celeste A; Mammis, Antonios

    2018-02-01

    associated with oral baclofen. © 2017 International Neuromodulation Society.

  14. Applying Multiple Data Collection Tools to Quantify Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Communication on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Philip M; Leader, Amy; Yom-Tov, Elad; Budenz, Alexandra; Fisher, Kara; Klassen, Ann C

    2016-12-05

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States. There are several vaccines that protect against strains of HPV most associated with cervical and other cancers. Thus, HPV vaccination has become an important component of adolescent preventive health care. As media evolves, more information about HPV vaccination is shifting to social media platforms such as Twitter. Health information consumed on social media may be especially influential for segments of society such as younger populations, as well as ethnic and racial minorities. The objectives of our study were to quantify HPV vaccine communication on Twitter, and to develop a novel methodology to improve the collection and analysis of Twitter data. We collected Twitter data using 10 keywords related to HPV vaccination from August 1, 2014 to July 31, 2015. Prospective data collection used the Twitter Search API and retrospective data collection used Twitter Firehose. Using a codebook to characterize tweet sentiment and content, we coded a subsample of tweets by hand to develop classification models to code the entire sample using machine learning procedures. We also documented the words in the 140-character tweet text most associated with each keyword. We used chi-square tests, analysis of variance, and nonparametric equality of medians to test for significant differences in tweet characteristic by sentiment. A total of 193,379 English-language tweets were collected, classified, and analyzed. Associated words varied with each keyword, with more positive and preventive words associated with "HPV vaccine" and more negative words associated with name-brand vaccines. Positive sentiment was the largest type of sentiment in the sample, with 75,393 positive tweets (38.99% of the sample), followed by negative sentiment with 48,940 tweets (25.31% of the sample). Positive and neutral tweets constituted the largest percentage of tweets mentioning prevention or protection (20

  15. The Appropriate Use of Neurostimulation of the Spinal Cord and Peripheral Nervous System for the Treatment of Chronic Pain and Ischemic Diseases : The Neuromodulation Appropriateness Consensus Committee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deer, Timothy R.; Mekhail, Nagy; Provenzano, David; Pope, Jason; Krames, Elliot; Leong, Michael; Levy, Robert M.; Abejon, David; Buchser, Eric; Burton, Allen; Buvanendran, Asokumar; Candido, Kenneth; Caraway, David; Cousins, Michael; de Jongste, Micheal; Diwan, Sudhir; Eldabe, Sam; Gatzinsky, Kliment; Foreman, Robert D.; Hayek, Salim; Kim, Philip; Kinfe, Thomas; Kloth, David; Kumar, Krishna; Rizvi, Syed; Lad, Shivanand P.; Liem, Liong; Linderoth, Bengt; Mackey, Sean; McDowell, Gladstone; McRoberts, Porter; Poree, Lawrence; Prager, Joshua; Raso, Lou; Rauck, Richard; Russo, Marc; Simpson, Brian; Slavin, Konstantin; Staats, Peter; Stanton-Hicks, Michael; Verrills, Paul; Wellington, Joshua; Williams, Kayode; North, Richard

    Introduction: The Neuromodulation Appropriateness Consensus Committee (NACC) of the International Neuromodulation Society (INS) evaluated evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of neurostimulation to treat chronic pain, chronic critical limb ischemia, and refractory angina and recommended

  16. Evaluating the Usefulness and the Ease of Use of a Web-based Inspection Data Collection Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Dreyer, H.M.; Laitenberger, O.

    1998-01-01

    This paper contributes a valid and reliable measurement instrument in the form of a questionnaire to determine, from a userüs perspective, the usefulness and ease of use of a Web-based Inspection Process Support tool (WIPS) that we developed for inspection data collection. The questionnaire is built upon the work of Fred Davis on perceived usefulness, ease of use, and usage of information technology. To validate the questionnaire and its underlying model as well as to evaluate WIPS, we perfor...

  17. ELIPGRID-PC and INRADS copyright: Tools for reducing costs and optimizing data collection on sites contaminated with NORM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egidi, P.V.

    1996-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Environmental Technology Section (ETS), located in Grand Junction, Colorado has more than ten years experience in radiological surveying and more than twenty years as part of the ongoing Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Project surveys conducted by ORNL Health Sciences Research Division. As part of our mission, ETS researchers develops and applies innovative technologies to share with private industry. The ELIPGRID-PC software and INRADS multidetector radiologic survey instrument are works in progress are discussed. ELIPGRID-PC is a tool that aids in survey design, and the INRADS system automates and increases the amount of data collected

  18. Noise in Neural Networks: Thresholds, Hysteresis, and Neuromodulation of Signal-To-Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, James D.; Pichler, Elgar E.; Ross, John

    1989-03-01

    We study a neural-network model including Gaussian noise, higher-order neuronal interactions, and neuromodulation. For a first-order network, there is a threshold in the noise level (phase transition) above which the network displays only disorganized behavior and critical slowing down near the noise threshold. The network can tolerate more noise if it has higher-order feedback interactions, which also lead to hysteresis and multistability in the network dynamics. The signal-to-noise ratio can be adjusted in a biological neural network by neuromodulators such as norepinephrine. Comparisons are made to experimental results and further investigations are suggested to test the effects of hysteresis and neuromodulation in pattern recognition and learning. We propose that norepinephrine may ``quench'' the neural patterns of activity to enhance the ability to learn details.

  19. Using Twitter for Demographic and Social Science Research: Tools for Data Collection and Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Tyler H; Lee, Hedwig; Cesare, Nina; Shojaie, Ali; Spiro, Emma S

    2017-08-01

    Despite recent and growing interest in using Twitter to examine human behavior and attitudes, there is still significant room for growth regarding the ability to leverage Twitter data for social science research. In particular, gleaning demographic information about Twitter users-a key component of much social science research-remains a challenge. This article develops an accurate and reliable data processing approach for social science researchers interested in using Twitter data to examine behaviors and attitudes, as well as the demographic characteristics of the populations expressing or engaging in them. Using information gathered from Twitter users who state an intention to not vote in the 2012 presidential election, we describe and evaluate a method for processing data to retrieve demographic information reported by users that is not encoded as text (e.g., details of images) and evaluate the reliability of these techniques. We end by assessing the challenges of this data collection strategy and discussing how large-scale social media data may benefit demographic researchers.

  20. [Antipyretics indication by pediatricians. Internet as a tool in data collections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melamud, Ariel; Suwezda, Alejandro; Matamoros, Rodrigo; Ringuelet, Lucio

    2008-10-01

    Fever is one of the most common complaints in Pediatrics. We performed this study to know how pediatricians use antipyretics to manage fever in children, and Internet was used to collect data. On line survey with a questionnaire regarding general and specific issues about fever. 1600 pediatricians participated. 62% were female, 35% had less than 10 years of practice, 28% between 10 and 20 years of practice, and 33% over 20 years of practice. 67% had training in Pediatrics. 93% use the arm-pit to measure fever and 37% consider over 38 degrees C as being fever. The mostly used antithermic in older than 6 month was Ibuprofeno and in younger than 6 months, Paracetamol. 59% of the pediatricians alternate 2 antipyretics (63.7% with less than 20 year of experience versus 49.3% with > 20 years of experience in their profession); 29% define their actions based on the Argentine Society of Pediatrics guidelines and 26% on their personal experience. Pediatricians prescribe antipyretics regularly alternating them in spite of the lack of evidence supporting that behavior. The less experienced the pediatrician, the more frecuent the practice of alternating antipyretics.

  1. Concepts and methods in neuromodulation and functional electrical stimulation: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsheimer, J

    1998-04-01

    This article introduces two clinical fields in which stimulation is applied to the nervous system: neuromodulation and functional electrical stimulation. The concepts underlying these fields and their main clinical applications, as well as the methods and techniques used in each field, are described. Concepts and techniques common in one field that might be beneficial to the other are discussed. 1998 Blackwell Science, Inc.

  2. Developmental emergence of different forms of neuromodulation in Aplysia sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, E A; Carew, T J

    1998-04-14

    The capacity for neuromodulation and biophysical plasticity is a defining feature of most mature neuronal cell types. In several cases, modulation at the level of the individual neuron has been causally linked to changes in the functional output of a neuronal circuit and subsequent adaptive changes in the organism's behavioral responses. Understanding how such capacity for neuromodulation develops therefore may provide insights into the mechanisms both of neuronal development and learning and memory. We have examined the development of multiple forms of neuromodulation triggered by a common neurotransmitter, serotonin, in the pleural sensory neurons of Aplysia californica. We have found that multiple signaling cascades within a single neuron develop sequentially, with some being expressed only very late in development. In addition, our data suggest a model in which, within a single neuromodulatory pathway, the elements of the signaling cascade are developmentally expressed in a "retrograde" manner with the ionic channel that is modulated appearing early in development, functional elements in the second messenger cascade appearing later, and finally, coupling of the second messenger cascade to the serotonin receptor appearing quite late. These studies provide the characterization of the development of neuromodulation at the level of an identified cell type and offer insights into the potential roles of neuromodulatory processes in development and adult plasticity.

  3. Identification of SLURP-1 as an epidermal neuromodulator explains the clinical phenotype of Mal de Meleda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chimienti, Fabrice; Hogg, Ronald C; Plantard, Laure

    2003-01-01

    alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors that are present in keratinocytes. These results identify SLURP-1 as a secreted epidermal neuromodulator which is likely to be essential for both epidermal homeostasis and inhibition of TNF-alpha release by macrophages during wound healing. This explains both...

  4. Frank Beach Award Winner: Steroids as Neuromodulators of Brain Circuits and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remage-Healey, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Neurons communicate primarily via action potentials that transmit information on the timescale of milliseconds. Neurons also integrate information via alterations in gene transcription and protein translation that are sustained for hours to days after initiation. Positioned between these two signaling timescales are the minute-by-minute actions of neuromodulators. Over the course of minutes, the classical neuromodulators (such as serotonin, dopamine, octopamine, and norepinephrine) can alter and/or stabilize neural circuit patterning as well as behavioral states. Neuromodulators allow many flexible outputs from neural circuits and can encode information content into the firing state of neural networks. The idea that steroid molecules can operate as genuine behavioral neuromodulators - synthesized by and acting within brain circuits on a minute-by-minute timescale - has gained traction in recent years. Evidence for brain steroid synthesis at synaptic terminals has converged with evidence for the rapid actions of brain-derived steroids on neural circuits and behavior. The general principle emerging from this work is that the production of steroid hormones within brain circuits can alter their functional connectivity and shift sensory representations by enhancing their information coding. Steroids produced in the brain can therefore change the information content of neuronal networks to rapidly modulate sensory experience and sensorimotor functions. PMID:25110187

  5. Diffusion tensor imaging and neuromodulation: DTI as key technology for deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenen, Volker Arnd; Schlaepfer, Thomas E; Allert, Niels; Mädler, Burkhard

    2012-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is more than just a useful adjunct to invasive techniques like optogenetics which recently have tremendously influenced our understanding of the mechanisms of deep brain stimulation (DBS). In combination with other technologies, DTI helps us to understand which parts of the brain tissue are connected to others and which ones are truly influenced with neuromodulation. The complex interaction of DBS with the surrounding tissues-scrutinized with DTI-allows to create testable hypotheses that can explain network interactions. Those interactions are vital for our understanding of the net effects of neuromodulation. This work naturally was first done in the field of movement disorder surgery, where a lot of experience regarding therapeutic effects and only a short latency between initiation of neuromodulation and alleviation of symptoms exist. This chapter shows the journey over the past 10 years with first applications in DBS toward current research in affect regulating network balances and their therapeutic alterations with the neuromodulation technology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The role of multiple neuromodulators in reinforcement learning that is based on competition between eligibility traces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A Huertas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to maximize reward and avoid punishment is essential for animal survival. Reinforcement learning (RL refers to the algorithms used by biological or artificial systems to learn how to maximize reward or avoid negative outcomes based on past experiences. While RL is also important in machine learning, the types of mechanistic constraints encountered by biological machinery might be different than those for artificial systems. Two major problems encountered by RL are how to relate a stimulus with a reinforcing signal that is delayed in time (temporal credit assignment, and how to stop learning once the target behaviors are attained (stopping rule. To address the first problem, synaptic eligibility traces were introduced, bridging the temporal gap between a stimulus and its reward. Although these were mere theoretical constructs, recent experiements have provided evidence of their existence. These experiments also reveal that the presence of specific neuromodulators converts the traces into changes in synaptic efficacy. A mechanistic implementation of the stopping rule usually assumes the inhibition of the reward nucleus; however, recent experimental results have shown that learning terminates at the appropriate network state even in setups where the reward cannot be inhibited. In an effort to describe a learning rule that solves the temporal credit assignment problem and implements a biologically plausible stopping rule, we proposed a model based on two separate synaptic eligibility traces, one for long-term potentiation (LTP and one for long-term depression (LTD, each obeying different dynamics and having different effective magnitudes. The model has been shown to successfully generate stable learning in recurrent networks. Although the model assumes the presence of a single neuromodulator, evidence indicates that there are different neuromodulators for expressing the different traces. What could be the role of different

  7. Excellence in Physics Education Award Talk: Curriculum Development for Active Learning using Real Time Graphing and Data Collection Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Priscilla

    2010-02-01

    In June 1986 Ronald Thornton (at the Tufts University Center for Science and Mathematics Teaching) and Priscilla Laws (at Dickinson College) applied independently for grants to develop curricular materials based on both the outcomes of Physics Education Research and the use of Microcomputer Based Laboratory Tools (MBL) developed by Robert Tinker, Ron Thornton and others at Technical Education Research Centers (TERC). Thornton proposed to develop a series of Tools for Scientific Thinking (TST) laboratory exercises to address known learning difficulties using carefully sequenced MBL observations. These TST laboratories were to be beta tested at several types of institutions. Laws proposed to develop a Workshop Physics Activity Guide for a 2 semester calculus-based introductory course sequence centering on MBL-based guided inquiry. Workshop Physics was to be designed to replace traditional lectures and separate labs in relatively small classes and was to be tested at Dickinson College. In September 1986 a project officer at the Fund for Post-Secondary Education (FIPSE) awarded grants to Laws and Thornton provided that they would collaborate. David Sokoloff (at the University of Oregon) joined Thornton to develop and test the TST laboratories. This talk will describe the 23 year collaboration between Thornton, Laws, and Sokoloff that led to the development of a suite of Activity Based Physics curricular materials, new apparatus and enhanced computer tools for real time graphing, data collection and mathematical modeling. The Suite includes TST Labs, the Workshop Physics Activity Guide, RealTime Physics Laboratory Modules, and a series of Interactive Lecture Demonstrations. A textbook and a guide to using the Suite were also developed. The vital importance of obtaining continued grant support, doing continuous research on student learning, collaborating with instructors at other institutions, and forging relationships with vendors and publishers will be described. )

  8. Synthesis of high-complexity rhythmic signals for closed-loop electrical neuromodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalay, Osbert C; Bardakjian, Berj L

    2013-06-01

    We propose an approach to synthesizing high-complexity rhythmic signals for closed-loop electrical neuromodulation using cognitive rhythm generator (CRG) networks, wherein the CRG is a hybrid oscillator comprised of (1) a bank of neuronal modes, (2) a ring device (clock), and (3) a static output nonlinearity (mapper). Networks of coupled CRGs have been previously implemented to simulate the electrical activity of biological neural networks, including in silico models of epilepsy, producing outputs of similar waveform and complexity to the biological system. This has enabled CRG network models to be used as platforms for testing seizure control strategies. Presently, we take the application one step further, envisioning therapeutic CRG networks as rhythmic signal generators creating neuromimetic signals for stimulation purposes, motivated by recent research indicating that stimulus complexity and waveform characteristics influence neuromodulation efficacy. To demonstrate this concept, an epileptiform CRG network generating spontaneous seizure-like events (SLEs) was coupled to a therapeutic CRG network, forming a closed-loop neuromodulation system. SLEs are associated with low-complexity dynamics and high phase coherence in the network. The tuned therapeutic network generated a high-complexity, multi-banded rhythmic stimulation signal with prominent theta and gamma-frequency power that suppressed SLEs and increased dynamic complexity in the epileptiform network, as measured by a relative increase in the maximum Lyapunov exponent and decrease in phase coherence. CRG-based neuromodulation outperformed both low and high-frequency periodic pulse stimulation, suggesting that neuromodulation using complex, biomimetic signals may provide an improvement over conventional electrical stimulation techniques for treating neurological disorders such as epilepsy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Computational exploration of wave propagation and heating from transcranial focused ultrasound for neuromodulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Jerel K.; Ai, Leo; Bansal, Priya; Legon, Wynn

    2016-10-01

    Objective. While ultrasound is largely established for use in diagnostic imaging, its application for neuromodulation is relatively new and crudely understood. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of tissue properties and geometry on the wave propagation and heating in the context of transcranial neuromodulation. Approach. A computational model of transcranial-focused ultrasound was constructed and validated against empirical data. The models were then incrementally extended to investigate a number of issues related to the use of ultrasound for neuromodulation, including the effect on wave propagation of variations in geometry of skull and gyral anatomy as well as the effect of multiple tissue and media layers, including scalp, skull, CSF, and gray/white matter. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was run to characterize the influence of acoustic properties of intracranial tissues. Finally, the heating associated with ultrasonic stimulation waveforms designed for neuromodulation was modeled. Main results. The wave propagation of a transcranially focused ultrasound beam is significantly influenced by the cranial domain. The half maximum acoustic beam intensity profiles are insensitive overall to small changes in material properties, though the inclusion of sulci in models results in greater peak intensity values compared to a model without sulci (1%-30% greater). Finally, heating using currently employed stimulation parameters in humans is highest in bone (0.16 °C) and is negligible in brain (4.27 × 10-3 °C) for a 0.5 s exposure. Significance. Ultrasound for noninvasive neuromodulation holds great promise and appeal for its non-invasiveness, high spatial resolution and deep focal lengths. Here we show gross brain anatomy and biological material properties to have limited effect on ultrasound wave propagation and to result in safe heating levels in the skull and brain.

  10. Validation of a Mobile Device for Acoustic Coordinated Reset Neuromodulation Tinnitus Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptmann, Christian; Wegener, Alexander; Poppe, Hendrik; Williams, Mark; Popelka, Gerald; Tass, Peter A

    2016-10-01

    Sound-based tinnitus intervention stimuli include broad-band noise signals with subjectively adjusted bandwidths used as maskers delivered by commercial devices or hearing aids, environmental sounds broadly described and delivered by both consumer devices and hearing aids, music recordings specifically modified and delivered in a variety of different ways, and other stimuli. Acoustic coordinated reset neuromodulation therapy for tinnitus reduction has unique and more stringent requirements compared to all other sound-based tinnitus interventions. These include precise characterization of tinnitus pitch and loudness, and effective provision of patient-controlled daily therapy signals at defined frequencies, levels, and durations outside of the clinic. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an approach to accommodate these requirements including evaluation of a mobile device, validation of an automated tinnitus pitch-matching algorithm and assessment of a patient's ability to control stimuli and collect repeated outcome measures. The experimental design involved direct laboratory measurements of the sound delivery capabilities of a mobile device, comparison of an automated, adaptive pitch-matching method to a traditional manual method and measures of a patient's ability to understand and manipulate a mobile device graphic user interface to both deliver the therapy signals and collect the outcome measures. This study consisted of 5 samples of a common mobile device for the laboratory measures and a total of 30 adult participants: 15 randomly selected normal-hearing participants with simulated tinnitus for validation of a tinnitus pitch-matching algorithm and 15 sequentially selected patients already undergoing tinnitus therapy for evaluation of patient usability. No tinnitus intervention(s) were specifically studied as a component of this study. Data collection involved laboratory measures of mobile devices, comparison of manual and automated adaptive tinnitus

  11. Indigenous Australian household structure: a simple data collection tool and implications for close contact transmission of communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vino, Thiripura; Singh, Gurmeet R; Davison, Belinda; Campbell, Patricia T; Lydeamore, Michael J; Robinson, Andrew; McVernon, Jodie; Tong, Steven Y C; Geard, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Households are an important location for the transmission of communicable diseases. Social contact between household members is typically more frequent, of greater intensity, and is more likely to involve people of different age groups than contact occurring in the general community. Understanding household structure in different populations is therefore fundamental to explaining patterns of disease transmission in these populations. Indigenous populations in Australia tend to live in larger households than non-Indigenous populations, but limited data are available on the structure of these households, and how they differ between remote and urban communities. We have developed a novel approach to the collection of household structure data, suitable for use in a variety of contexts, which provides a detailed view of age, gender, and room occupancy patterns in remote and urban Australian Indigenous households. Here we report analysis of data collected using this tool, which quantifies the extent of crowding in Indigenous households, particularly in remote areas. We use these data to generate matrices of age-specific contact rates, as used by mathematical models of infectious disease transmission. To demonstrate the impact of household structure, we use a mathematical model to simulate an influenza-like illness in different populations. Our simulations suggest that outbreaks in remote populations are likely to spread more rapidly and to a greater extent than outbreaks in non-Indigenous populations.

  12. THE METHOD OF APPLICATION OF A COLLECTIVE SEARCH ACTIVITY AS A TOOL DEVELOPING METHODOLOGICAL THINKING OF A TEACHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibragimova Luiza Vahaevna

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available To realize any pedagogical theory into practice it is necessary to transform the theoretical concepts in teaching methods. The development of all abilities, including thinking, occurs only in the activity, which is specially organized by creating the required pedagogical conditions, in this case – it is a the application of enhanced mental activity in teachers training course and vocational training b establishment of a "virtual university" for teachers in an institute of professional training c the organization of interdisciplinary interaction of teachers, based on conditions of the nonlinear didactics (training teachers of different subjects. The presented method is implemented for two years and consists of three phases: the motivational and educational, intellectual and developmental, innovative and reflective. At the motivational and educational stage, possibilities of collective search activity actualize during the course of training, group goals are set and chosen methods of their achieving by using the first pedagogical conditions. At intellectual and developmental stage, the development of skills to the collective search for effective teaching decisions during intercourse training with the first-and second-pedagogical conditions is carried out. The innovative step is the promotion of teachers to self-determination of techniques and tools that improve the quality of the educational process, providing assistance to each other in the development of teaching manuals, which is achieved with the help of all three pedagogical conditions.

  13. Indigenous Australian household structure: a simple data collection tool and implications for close contact transmission of communicable diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiripura Vino

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Households are an important location for the transmission of communicable diseases. Social contact between household members is typically more frequent, of greater intensity, and is more likely to involve people of different age groups than contact occurring in the general community. Understanding household structure in different populations is therefore fundamental to explaining patterns of disease transmission in these populations. Indigenous populations in Australia tend to live in larger households than non-Indigenous populations, but limited data are available on the structure of these households, and how they differ between remote and urban communities. We have developed a novel approach to the collection of household structure data, suitable for use in a variety of contexts, which provides a detailed view of age, gender, and room occupancy patterns in remote and urban Australian Indigenous households. Here we report analysis of data collected using this tool, which quantifies the extent of crowding in Indigenous households, particularly in remote areas. We use these data to generate matrices of age-specific contact rates, as used by mathematical models of infectious disease transmission. To demonstrate the impact of household structure, we use a mathematical model to simulate an influenza-like illness in different populations. Our simulations suggest that outbreaks in remote populations are likely to spread more rapidly and to a greater extent than outbreaks in non-Indigenous populations.

  14. THE METHOD OF APPLICATION OF A COLLECTIVE SEARCH ACTIVITY AS A TOOL DEVELOPING METHODOLOGICAL THINKING OF A TEACHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Луиза Вахаевна Ибрагимова

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To realize any pedagogical theory into practice it is necessary to transform the theoretical concepts in teaching methods. The development of all abilities, including thinking, occurs only in the activity, which is specially organized by creating the required pedagogical conditions, in this case – it is a the application of enhanced mental activity in teachers training course and vocational training b establishment of a "virtual university" for teachers in an institute of professional training c the organization of interdisciplinary interaction of teachers, based on conditions of the nonlinear didactics (training teachers of different subjects. The presented method is implemented for two years and consists of three phases: the motivational and educational, intellectual and developmental, innovative and reflective. At the motivational and educational stage, possibilities of collective search activity actualize during the course of training, group goals are set and chosen methods of their achieving by using the first pedagogical conditions. At intellectual and developmental stage, the development of skills to the collective search for effective teaching decisions during intercourse training with the first-and second-pedagogical conditions is carried out. The innovative step is the promotion of teachers to self-determination of techniques and tools that improve the quality of the educational process, providing assistance to each other in the development of teaching manuals, which is achieved with the help of all three pedagogical conditions.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-2-17

  15. Self-Organizing Maps: A Data Mining Tool for the Analysis of Airborne Geophysical Data Collected over the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, C.; Fraser, S. J.; Crosta, A. P.; Silva, A.; Barros, C.

    2011-12-01

    Regional airborne geophysical data sets are being collected worldwide to promote mineral exploration and resource development. These data sets often are collected over highly prospective terranes, where access is limited or there are environmental concerns. Such regional surveys typically consist of two or more sensor packages being flown in an aircraft over the survey area and vast amounts of near-continuous data can be acquired in a relatively short time. Increasingly, there is also a need to process such data in a timely fashion to demonstrate the data's value and indicate the potential return or value of the survey to the funding agency. To assist in the timely analysis of such regional data sets, we have used an exploratory data mining approach: the Self Organizing Map (SOM). Because SOM is based on vector quantization and measures of vector similarity, it is an ideal tool to analyze a data set consisting of disparate geophysical input parameters to look for relationships and trends. We report on our use of SOM to analyze part of a regional airborne geophysical survey collected over the prospective Anapu-Tuere region of the Brazilian Amazon. Magnetic and spectrometric gamma ray data were used as input to our SOM analysis, and the results used to discriminate and identify various rock types and produce a "pseudo" geological map over the study area. The ability of SOM to define discrete domains of rock-types with similar properties allowed us to expand upon existing geological knowledge of the area for mapping purposes; and, often it was the combination of the magnetic and radiometric responses that identified a lithology's unique response. One particular unit was identified that had an association with known gold mineralization, which consequently highlighted the prospectivity of that unit elsewhere in the survey area. Our results indicate that SOM can be used for the semi-automatic analysis of regional airborne geophysical data to assist in geological mapping

  16. Patient Perceived Benefit in Facial Aesthetic Procedures: FACE-Q as a Tool to Study Botulinum Toxin Injection Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Brian L; Wilson, Anthony J; Taglienti, Anthony J; Chang, Catherine S; Folsom, Nancy; Percec, Ivona

    2016-07-01

    There are numerous methods of assessing patient satisfaction with botulinum toxin type A neuromodulation of the glabellar rhytids. As the use of aesthetic neuromodulation increases both in breadth and number of procedures, there is a need for more comprehensive tools to evaluate patient-reported outcomes. The FACE-Q is a recently validated patient-reported outcome instrument that can be used to measure patient perceptions of botulinum toxin type A neuromodulation. This study used the FACE-Q to assess patient satisfaction following botulinum toxin type A neuromodulation of the glabellar rhytids. 57 female patients completed the FACE-Q, a survey that evaluates patients' satisfaction with their facial appearance. After this baseline survey, the patients received injections of one of onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox, Allergan, Dublin, Ireland), abobotulinumtoxinA (Dysport, Galderma, Lausanne, Switzerland), or incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin, Merz Pharmaceuticals, Frankfurt am Main, Germany) in the glabella. Two weeks post-injection, the patients completed the FACE-Q again. The percentage changes in patient responses were tabulated to determine how neuromodulation affects patient satisfaction with their facial appearance. The percentage changes for each of the neurotoxin groups were compared to determine if patient satisfaction with neuromodulation varies with the type of neurotoxin. Patient satisfaction with their overall facial appearance increased by 28% following neuromodulation. Patients stated that they believe they look an average of 5.6 years younger post-neuromodulation. There were no significant differences among the treatment groups. The FACE-Q demonstrates that patients are more satisfied by their overall facial appearance and age appearance following neuromodulation of their glabellar rhytids. Patients are equally satisfied with the improvement of their facial appearance regardless of which neurotoxin they received. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE 2: Therapeutic. © 2016 The

  17. MAP kinase-independent signaling in angiotensin II regulation of neuromodulation in SHR neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H; Raizada, M K

    1998-09-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II), via its interaction with the angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor subtype, causes enhanced stimulation of norepinephrine (NE) neuromodulation. This involves increased transcription of NE transporter, tyrosine hydroxylase, and dopamine ss-hydroxylase genes in Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY) brain neurons. AT1 receptor-mediated regulation of certain signaling events (such as activation of the Ras-Raf-1-mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathway, nuclear translocation of transcription factors such as Fos and Jun, and the interactions of these factors with AP-1 binding sites) is involved in this NE neuromodulation (Lu et al. J Cell Biol. 1996;135:1609-1617). The aim of this study was to compare the signal transduction mechanism of Ang II regulation of NE neuromodulation in WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) brain neurons, in view of the fact that AT1 receptor expression and Ang II stimulation of NE neuromodulation are higher in SHR neurons compared with WKY neurons. Despite this hyperactivity, Ang II stimulation of Ras, Raf-1, and MAP kinase activities was comparable between the neurons from WKY and SHR. Similarly, central injections of Ang II caused a comparable stimulation of MAP kinase in the hypothalamic and brain stem areas of adult WKY and SHR. Inhibition of MAP kinase by either an MAP kinase kinase inhibitor (PD98059) or an MAP kinase antisense oligonucleotide completely attenuated the stimulatory effects of Ang II on [3H]-NE uptake, NE transporter mRNA, and tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA levels in WKY neurons. These treatments resulted in only 43% to 50% inhibition of [3H]-NE uptake and NE transporter and tyrosine hydroxylase mRNAs in SHR neurons. Thus, Ang II stimulation of NE neuromodulation was completely blocked by MAP kinase inhibition in WKY neurons and only partially blocked in the SHR neurons. These observations suggest the presence of an additional signal transduction pathway involved in NE neuromodulation in SHR neurons

  18. The Role of Multiple Neuromodulators in Reinforcement Learning That Is Based on Competition between Eligibility Traces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Marco A; Schwettmann, Sarah E; Shouval, Harel Z

    2016-01-01

    The ability to maximize reward and avoid punishment is essential for animal survival. Reinforcement learning (RL) refers to the algorithms used by biological or artificial systems to learn how to maximize reward or avoid negative outcomes based on past experiences. While RL is also important in machine learning, the types of mechanistic constraints encountered by biological machinery might be different than those for artificial systems. Two major problems encountered by RL are how to relate a stimulus with a reinforcing signal that is delayed in time (temporal credit assignment), and how to stop learning once the target behaviors are attained (stopping rule). To address the first problem synaptic eligibility traces were introduced, bridging the temporal gap between a stimulus and its reward. Although, these were mere theoretical constructs, recent experiments have provided evidence of their existence. These experiments also reveal that the presence of specific neuromodulators converts the traces into changes in synaptic efficacy. A mechanistic implementation of the stopping rule usually assumes the inhibition of the reward nucleus; however, recent experimental results have shown that learning terminates at the appropriate network state even in setups where the reward nucleus cannot be inhibited. In an effort to describe a learning rule that solves the temporal credit assignment problem and implements a biologically plausible stopping rule, we proposed a model based on two separate synaptic eligibility traces, one for long-term potentiation (LTP) and one for long-term depression (LTD), each obeying different dynamics and having different effective magnitudes. The model has been shown to successfully generate stable learning in recurrent networks. Although, the model assumes the presence of a single neuromodulator, evidence indicates that there are different neuromodulators for expressing the different traces. What could be the role of different neuromodulators for

  19. Hospital-based nurses' perceptions of the adoption of Web 2.0 tools for knowledge sharing, learning, social interaction and the production of collective intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Adela S M

    2011-11-11

    Web 2.0 provides a platform or a set of tools such as blogs, wikis, really simple syndication (RSS), podcasts, tags, social bookmarks, and social networking software for knowledge sharing, learning, social interaction, and the production of collective intelligence in a virtual environment. Web 2.0 is also becoming increasingly popular in e-learning and e-social communities. The objectives were to investigate how Web 2.0 tools can be applied for knowledge sharing, learning, social interaction, and the production of collective intelligence in the nursing domain and to investigate what behavioral perceptions are involved in the adoption of Web 2.0 tools by nurses. The decomposed technology acceptance model was applied to construct the research model on which the hypotheses were based. A questionnaire was developed based on the model and data from nurses (n = 388) were collected from late January 2009 until April 30, 2009. Pearson's correlation analysis and t tests were used for data analysis. Intention toward using Web 2.0 tools was positively correlated with usage behavior (r = .60, P Web 2.0 tools and enable them to better plan the strategy of implementation of Web 2.0 tools for knowledge sharing, learning, social interaction, and the production of collective intelligence.

  20. Hospital-Based Nurses’ Perceptions of the Adoption of Web 2.0 Tools for Knowledge Sharing, Learning, Social Interaction and the Production of Collective Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Web 2.0 provides a platform or a set of tools such as blogs, wikis, really simple syndication (RSS), podcasts, tags, social bookmarks, and social networking software for knowledge sharing, learning, social interaction, and the production of collective intelligence in a virtual environment. Web 2.0 is also becoming increasingly popular in e-learning and e-social communities. Objectives The objectives were to investigate how Web 2.0 tools can be applied for knowledge sharing, learning, social interaction, and the production of collective intelligence in the nursing domain and to investigate what behavioral perceptions are involved in the adoption of Web 2.0 tools by nurses. Methods The decomposed technology acceptance model was applied to construct the research model on which the hypotheses were based. A questionnaire was developed based on the model and data from nurses (n = 388) were collected from late January 2009 until April 30, 2009. Pearson’s correlation analysis and t tests were used for data analysis. Results Intention toward using Web 2.0 tools was positively correlated with usage behavior (r = .60, P Web 2.0 tools and enable them to better plan the strategy of implementation of Web 2.0 tools for knowledge sharing, learning, social interaction, and the production of collective intelligence. PMID:22079851

  1. Applications of neuromodulation of the lower urinary tract in female urology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firouz Daneshgari

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuromodulation is becoming part of clinical armamentarium for treatment of a variety of lower urinary tract conditions in female urology. Its increased usage stems from need of patients who have exhausted all other therapeutic options for their complex and poorly understood lower urinary tract disorders. Currently neuromodulation may consist of the use of sacral nerve stimulation (SNS and injectable therapies. Herein, we will discuss the background and development of SNS, its current indications, methods of patient selection and will review the results of the recent published literature on SNS. In addition, we will discuss some of the newer developments in SNS such as Bion device and the future direction in integration of SNS in female urology.

  2. Requirement for tyrosine phosphatase during serotonergic neuromodulation by protein kinase C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catarsi, S; Drapeau, P

    1997-08-01

    Tyrosine kinases and phosphatases are abundant in the nervous system, where they signal cellular differentiation, mediate the responses to growth factors, and direct neurite outgrowth during development. Tyrosine phosphorylation can also alter ion channel activity, but its physiological significance remains unclear. In an identified leech mechanosensory neuron, the ubiquitous neuromodulator serotonin increases the activity of a cation channel by activating protein kinase C (PKC), resulting in membrane depolarization and modulation of the receptive field properties. We observed that the effects on isolated neurons and channels were blocked by inhibiting tyrosine phosphatases. Serotonergic stimulation of PKC thus activates a tyrosine phosphatase activity associated with the channels, which reverses their constitutive inhibition by tyrosine phosphorylation, representing a novel form of neuromodulation.

  3. Prevalence and Cost Analysis of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS): A Role for Neuromodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsamadicy, Aladine A; Yang, Siyun; Sergesketter, Amanda R; Ashraf, Bilal; Charalambous, Lefko; Kemeny, Hanna; Ejikeme, Tiffany; Ren, Xinru; Pagadala, Promila; Parente, Beth; Xie, Jichun; Lad, Shivanand P

    2017-09-29

    The diagnosis and treatment of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is challenging and there is a paucity of data describing its overall cost burden and quantifying its impact on the US healthcare system. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and healthcare utilization costs associated with CRPS. A retrospective longitudinal study was performed using the Truven MarketScan® database to identify patients with a new indexed diagnosis of CRPS (Type I, II, or both) from 2001 to 2012. We collected total, outpatient, and pain prescription costs three years prior to CRPS diagnosis (baseline), at year of CRPS diagnosis, and eight-year post-CRPS diagnosis. A longitudinal multivariate analysis was used to model the estimated total and pain prescription cost ratios comparing patients diagnosed before and after CRPS. We included 35,316 patients with a newly indexed diagnosis of CRPS (Type I: n = 18,703, Type II: n = 14,599, Unspecified: n = 2014). Baseline characteristics were similar between the CRPS cohorts. Compared to two- and three-year baseline costs, one-year prior to diagnosis for all CRPS patients yielded the highest interquartile median [IQR] costs: total costs $7904[$3469, $16,084]; outpatient costs $6706[$3119, $12,715]; and pain prescription costs $1862[$147, $7649]. At the year of CRPS diagnosis, the median [IQR] costs were significantly higher than baseline costs: total costs $8508[$3943, $16,666]; outpatient costs $7251[$3527, $13,568]; and pain prescription costs $2077[$140, $8856]. Over the eight-year period after CRPS diagnosis, costs between all the years were similar, ranging from the highest (one-year) to lowest (seven-years), $4845 to $3888. The median total cumulative cost 8-years after CRPS diagnosis was $43,026 and $12,037 for pain prescription costs. [Correction added on 06 November 2017 after first online publication: the preceding sentence has been updated to demonstrate the median cumulative cost in replacement of the

  4. Tools for a collective management of the climate risks. An analysis framework centered on the means to derive a signal-price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godard, O.; Hourcade, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    The greenhouse effect appears as a particular problem (collective uncertainty, imprecise understanding, etc.) that necessitates a specific strategical approach and tool selection adequate criteria. The applicability of any environmental regulation concerning greenhouse gas abatement must take into account aspects such as efficiency, predictability, political sovereignty, perverted effects and practicability. Combined tools have to be coordinated: regulations, negotiation, financial incentives, exchangeable emission rights..., that could be controlled by a signal price system

  5. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and temporary S3 neuromodulation in idiopathic detrusor instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, S T; Robson, W A; Pridie, A K; Neal, D E

    1996-06-01

    We studied the effects of electrical stimulation on idiopathic detrusor instability. Between January 1993 and December 1994, 30 men and 41 women (mean age plus or minus standard deviation 48 +/- 16 years) underwent transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) of the S2-S3 dermatomes, and 13 men and 22 women (mean age 48 +/- 12 years) underwent S3 neuromodulation. Subjective assessment was performed using a diary and symptom score of 0 to 14. Objective outcome was analyzed with urodynamic studies. Mean duration of TENS was 3 +/- 1 weeks (range 2 to 4). Although there were no major complications 31% of the patients reported local skin irritation. The overall urinary symptom scores improved from 10 +/- 2 (range 5 to 14) before the study to 7 +/- 3 (range 1 to 14) during stimulation. Urodynamic analysis revealed significant (p neuromodulation was 6 +/- 1 days (range 4 to 8 days). Four procedures failed due to electrode displacement in 3 cases and procedure intolerance in 1. Hemorrhage from the puncture site occurred in 1 patient. Overall urinary symptom scores were 10 +/- 3 (range 5 to 14) before the study and 5 +/- 2 (range 2 to 10) during stimulation. Although symptomatic relief was more pronounced with S3 neuromodulation, no statistically significant differences were found regarding urinary symptoms compared to TENS. In patients with severe detrusor instability refractory to conservative treatments the use of TENS and S3 neuromodulation produced significant changes in urodynamic parameters and presenting symptoms. Our results appear to justify evaluation with neuromodulatory techniques before definitive surgical intervention in these patients.

  6. Comparison of extrinsic and intrinsic neuromodulation in two central pattern generator circuits in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, P S

    1998-05-01

    There are many sources of modulatory input to CPGs and other types of neuronal circuits. These inputs can change the properties of cells and synapses and dramatically alter the production of motor patterns. Sometimes this enables the production of motor patterns by the circuit. At other times, the modulation allows alternate motor patterns to be produced by a single circuit. Modulatory neurones have fast as well as slow actions. In some cases, such as with GPR, the two types of effects are due to the release of co-transmitters. In other cases, such as with the DSIs, a single substance can act at different receptors to cause fast and slow postsynaptic actions. The effect of a neuromodulatory neurone is determined by the type of receptor on the target neurone. Thus a single modulatory neurone evokes a suite of actions in a circuit and thereby produces a co-ordinated output. Extrinsic and intrinsic sources of neuromodulation have different sets of constraints acting upon them. For example, extrinsic neuromodulation can easily be used for motor pattern selection; a different pattern is produced depending upon which modulatory inputs are active. However, intrinsic neuromodulation is not well suited to that task. Instead, it is useful for self-organizing properties and experience-dependent effects. One clear conclusion from this work and other work in the field is that neuromodulation by neurones intrinsic and extrinsic to CPGs is not uncommon (Katz, 1995; Katz & Frost, 1996). It is part of the normal process of motor pattern generation. As such, it needs to be considered when discussing mechanisms for neuronal circuit actions.

  7. Evidence for respiratory neuromodulator interdependence after cholinergic disruption in the ventral respiratory column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muere, Clarissa; Neumueller, Suzanne; Miller, Justin; Olesiak, Samantha; Hodges, Matthew R; Pan, Lawrence; Forster, Hubert V

    2015-01-01

    Reverse dialysis of the muscarinic receptor antagonist, atropine (ATR, 50 mM), into the pre-Bötzinger Complex region of the ventral respiratory column (VRC) of awake and sleeping goats increases breathing frequency and serotonin (5-HT), substance P (SP), glycine, and GABA concentrations in the effluent dialysate. Herein, we report data from goats in which we reverse dialyzed 5 mM ATR or specific antagonists of M2 or M3 muscarinic receptors into the VRC. The effects on frequency of all three antagonists were not significantly different from time control studies. 5 mM ATR and the M3 antagonist increased SP sevenfold less than 50 mM ATR. The antagonists had no effect on 5-HT, glycine, and/or GABA, suggesting that the increases in glycine and GABA with 50 mM ATR were secondary to the larger increases in 5-HT and/or SP. These data are suggestive of neuromodulator interdependence, whereby attenuation of one neuromodulator is compensated for by local changes in other neuromodulators to stabilize breathing. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Diffusion-based neuromodulation can eliminate catastrophic forgetting in simple neural networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roby Velez

    Full Text Available A long-term goal of AI is to produce agents that can learn a diversity of skills throughout their lifetimes and continuously improve those skills via experience. A longstanding obstacle towards that goal is catastrophic forgetting, which is when learning new information erases previously learned information. Catastrophic forgetting occurs in artificial neural networks (ANNs, which have fueled most recent advances in AI. A recent paper proposed that catastrophic forgetting in ANNs can be reduced by promoting modularity, which can limit forgetting by isolating task information to specific clusters of nodes and connections (functional modules. While the prior work did show that modular ANNs suffered less from catastrophic forgetting, it was not able to produce ANNs that possessed task-specific functional modules, thereby leaving the main theory regarding modularity and forgetting untested. We introduce diffusion-based neuromodulation, which simulates the release of diffusing, neuromodulatory chemicals within an ANN that can modulate (i.e. up or down regulate learning in a spatial region. On the simple diagnostic problem from the prior work, diffusion-based neuromodulation 1 induces task-specific learning in groups of nodes and connections (task-specific localized learning, which 2 produces functional modules for each subtask, and 3 yields higher performance by eliminating catastrophic forgetting. Overall, our results suggest that diffusion-based neuromodulation promotes task-specific localized learning and functional modularity, which can help solve the challenging, but important problem of catastrophic forgetting.

  9. Bilateral chronic sacral neuromodulation for treatment of lower urinary tract dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenfellner, M; Schultz-Lampel, D; Dahms, S; Matzel, K; Thüroff, J W

    1998-09-01

    Chronic sacral neuromodulation aims at functional restoration of selected forms of nonneurogenic and neurogenic bladder dysfunction. The original technique, as described by Tanagho and Schmidt, provides unilateral sacral nerve stimulation via an implanted stimulator powering an electrode inserted into a sacral foramen. Its drawback was that the implant failed unpredictably in some patients despite previous successful percutaneous test stimulation. Therefore, we modified the stimulation technique to improve the efficacy of chronic sacral neuromodulation. Guarded bipolar electrodes powered by an implantable neurostimulator were attached bilaterally directly to the S3 nerves through a sacral laminectomy in 9 women and 2 men (mean age 43.4 years). Of the patients 5 had urinary incontinence due to detrusor hyperactivity and 6 had urinary retention from detrusor hypocontractility. Mean followup with repeated urodynamics was 13 months (range 9 to 28). Four significant complications were encountered in 4 patients. In 10 patients the urological sequelae of the neurological disorder were alleviated significantly (50% or more), including 5 who experienced complete relief of symptoms. The efficacy of chronic sacral neuromodulation can be improved by bilateral attachment of electrodes directly to the sacral nerves.

  10. Sacral electrical neuromodulation as an alternative treatment option for lower urinary tract dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünewald, Volker; Höfner, Klaus; Thon, Walter F.; Kuczyk, Markus A.; Jonas, Udo

    1999-01-01

    Temporary electrical stimulation using anal or vaginal electrodes and an external pulse generator has been a treatment modality for urinary urge incontinence for nearly three decades. In 1981 Tanagho and Schmidt introduced chronic electrical stimulation of the sacral spinal nerves using a permanently implanted sacral foramen electrode and a battery powered pulse generator for treatment of different kinds of lower urinary tract dysfunction, refractory to conservative treatment. At our department chronic unilateral electrical stimulation of the S3 sacral spinal nerve has been used for treatment of vesi-courethral dysfunction in 43 patients with a mean postoperative follow up of 43,6 months. Lasting symptomatic improvement by more than 50 % could be achieved in 13 of 18 patients with motor urge incontinence (72,2 %) and in 18 of the 21 patients with urinary retention (85,7 %). Implants offer a sustained therapeutic effect to treatment responders, which is not achieved by temporary neuromodulation. Chronic neuromodulation should be predominantly considered in patients with urinary retention. Furthermore in patients with motor urge incontinence, refusing temporary techniques or in those requiring too much effort to achieve a sustained clinical effect. Despite high initial costs chronic sacral neuromodulation is an economically reasonable treatment option in the long run, when comparing it to the more invasive remaining therapeutic alternatives.

  11. Diffusion-based neuromodulation can eliminate catastrophic forgetting in simple neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clune, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    A long-term goal of AI is to produce agents that can learn a diversity of skills throughout their lifetimes and continuously improve those skills via experience. A longstanding obstacle towards that goal is catastrophic forgetting, which is when learning new information erases previously learned information. Catastrophic forgetting occurs in artificial neural networks (ANNs), which have fueled most recent advances in AI. A recent paper proposed that catastrophic forgetting in ANNs can be reduced by promoting modularity, which can limit forgetting by isolating task information to specific clusters of nodes and connections (functional modules). While the prior work did show that modular ANNs suffered less from catastrophic forgetting, it was not able to produce ANNs that possessed task-specific functional modules, thereby leaving the main theory regarding modularity and forgetting untested. We introduce diffusion-based neuromodulation, which simulates the release of diffusing, neuromodulatory chemicals within an ANN that can modulate (i.e. up or down regulate) learning in a spatial region. On the simple diagnostic problem from the prior work, diffusion-based neuromodulation 1) induces task-specific learning in groups of nodes and connections (task-specific localized learning), which 2) produces functional modules for each subtask, and 3) yields higher performance by eliminating catastrophic forgetting. Overall, our results suggest that diffusion-based neuromodulation promotes task-specific localized learning and functional modularity, which can help solve the challenging, but important problem of catastrophic forgetting. PMID:29145413

  12. A New Tool for Automated Data Collection and Complete On-site Flux Data Processing for Eddy Covariance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begashaw, I. G.; Kathilankal, J. C.; Li, J.; Beaty, K.; Ediger, K.; Forgione, A.; Fratini, G.; Johnson, D.; Velgersdyk, M.; Hupp, J. R.; Xu, L.; Burba, G. G.

    2014-12-01

    The eddy covariance method is widely used for direct measurements of turbulent exchange of gases and energy between the surface and atmosphere. In the past, raw data were collected first in the field and then processed back in the laboratory to achieve fully corrected publication-ready flux results. This post-processing consumed significant amount of time and resources, and precluded researchers from accessing near real-time final flux results. A new automated measurement system with novel hardware and software designs was developed, tested, and deployed starting late 2013. The major advancements with this automated flux system include: 1) Enabling logging high-frequency, three-dimensional wind speeds and multiple gas densities (CO2, H2O and CH4), low-frequency meteorological data, and site metadata simultaneously through a specially designed file format 2) Conducting fully corrected, real-time on-site flux computations using conventional as well as user-specified methods, by implementing EddyPro Software on a small low-power microprocessor 3) Providing precision clock control and coordinate information for data synchronization and inter-site data comparison by incorporating a GPS and Precision Time Protocol. Along with these innovations, a data management server application was also developed to chart fully corrected real-time fluxes to assist remote system monitoring, to send e-mail alerts, and to automate data QA/QC, transfer and archiving at individual stations or on a network level. Combination of all of these functions was designed to help save substantial amount of time and costs associated with managing a research site by eliminating the post-field data processing, reducing user errors and facilitating real-time access to fully corrected flux results. The design, functionality, and test results from this new eddy covariance measurement tool will be presented.

  13. PanMetaDocs - A tool for collecting and managing the long tail of "small science data"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, J.; Ulbricht, D.

    2011-12-01

    REST interface to create version controlled items with metadata records in XML format. PanMetaDocs utilizes the eSciDoc items model to add multiple metadata records that describe uploaded files in different metadata schemata. While datasets are collected and described, shared to collaborate with other scientists and finally published, data objects are transferred from a shared data curation domain into a persistent data curation domain. Through an RSS interface for recent datasets PanMetaWorks allows project members to be informed about data uploaded by other project members. The implementation of the OAI-PMH interface can be used to syndicate data catalogs to research data portals, such as the panFMP data portal framework. Once data objects are uploaded to the eSciDoc infrastructure it is possible to drop the software instance that was used for collecting the data, while the compiled data and metadata are accessible for other authorized applications through the institution's eSciDoc middleware. This approach of "expendable data curation tools" allows for a significant reduction in costs for software maintenance as expensive data capture applications do not need to be maintained indefinitely to ensure long term access to the stored data.

  14. Specific Changes in Brain Activity During Urgency in Women with Overactive Bladder after Successful Sacral Neuromodulation: An fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbart, Steven J; Bhavsar, Rupal; Rao, Hengyi; Wein, Alan J; Detre, John A; Arya, Lily A; Smith, Ariana L

    2018-04-06

    The mechanism of sacral neuromodulation is poorly understood. We compared brain activity during urgency before and after sacral neuromodulation in women with overactive bladder and according to response to treatment. Women with refractory overactive bladder who elected for sacral neuromodulation were invited to undergo a functional magnetic resonance imaging exam before and after treatment. During the imaging exams, the bladder was filled until urgency was experienced. Regions of interest were identified a priori, and brain activity in these regions of interest was compared before and after treatment as well as according to treatment response. A whole brain exploratory analysis with an uncorrected voxel level threshold of pbrain regions that changed after sacral neuromodulation. Among 12 women who underwent a pretreatment functional magnetic resonance imaging exam, seven were successfully treated with sacral neuromodulation and underwent a posttreatment exam. After sacral neuromodulation, brain activity decreased in the left anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral insula, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and bilateral orbitofrontal cortex (all pbrain regions with increased activity after sacral neuromodulation. Pretreatment brain activity levels in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, right insula, bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right orbitofrontal cortex, right supplementary motor area, and right sensorimotor cortex were higher in women who underwent successful treatment (all pBrain activity during urgency changes after successful sacral neuromodulation. Sacral neuromodulation may be more effective in women with higher levels of pretreatment brain activity during urgency. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. How to Conduct Multimethod Field Studies in the Operating Room: The iPad Combined With a Survey App as a Valid and Reliable Data Collection Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tscholl, David W; Weiss, Mona; Spahn, Donat R; Noethiger, Christoph B

    2016-01-05

    Tablet computers such as the Apple iPad are progressively replacing traditional paper-and-pencil-based data collection. We combined the iPad with the ready-to-use survey software, iSurvey (from Harvestyourdata), to create a straightforward tool for data collection during the Anesthesia Pre-Induction Checklist (APIC) study, a hospital-wide multimethod intervention study involving observation of team performance and team member surveys in the operating room (OR). We aimed to provide an analysis of the factors that led to the use of the iPad- and iSurvey-based tool for data collection, illustrate our experiences with the use of this data collection tool, and report the results of an expert survey about user experience with this tool. We used an iPad- and iSurvey-based tool to observe anesthesia inductions conducted by 205 teams (N=557 team members) in the OR. In Phase 1, expert raters used the iPad- and iSurvey-based tool to rate team performance during anesthesia inductions, and anesthesia team members were asked to indicate their perceptions after the inductions. In Phase 2, we surveyed the expert raters about their perceptions regarding the use of the iPad- and iSurvey-based tool to observe, rate, and survey teams in the ORs. The results of Phase 1 showed that training data collectors on the iPad- and iSurvey-based data collection tool was effortless and there were no serious problems during data collection, upload, download, and export. Interrater agreement of the combined data collection tool was found to be very high for the team observations (median Fleiss' kappa=0.88, 95% CI 0.78-1.00). The results of the follow-up expert rater survey (Phase 2) showed that the raters did not prefer a paper-and-pencil-based data collection method they had used during other earlier studies over the iPad- and iSurvey-based tool (median response 1, IQR 1-1; 1=do not agree, 2=somewhat disagree, 3=neutral, 4=somewhat agree, 5=fully agree). They found the iPad (median 5, IQR 4

  16. Neuromodulation of Nestmate Recognition Decisions by Pavement Ants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew N Bubak

    Full Text Available Ant colonies are distributed systems that are regulated in a non-hierarchical manner. Without a central authority, individuals inform their decisions by comparing information in local cues to a set of inherent behavioral rules. Individual behavioral decisions collectively change colony behavior and lead to self-organization capable of solving complex problems such as the decision to engage in aggressive societal conflicts with neighbors. Despite the relevance to colony fitness, the mechanisms that drive individual decisions leading to cooperative behavior are not well understood. Here we show how sensory information, both tactile and chemical, and social context-isolation, nestmate interaction, or fighting non-nestmates-affects brain monoamine levels in pavement ants (Tetramorium caespitum. Our results provide evidence that changes in octopamine and serotonin in the brains of individuals are sufficient to alter the decision by pavement ants to be aggressive towards non-nestmate ants whereas increased brain levels of dopamine correlate to physical fighting. We propose a model in which the changes in brain states of many workers collectively lead to the self-organization of societal aggression between neighboring colonies of pavement ants.

  17. Neuromodulation of Nestmate Recognition Decisions by Pavement Ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubak, Andrew N; Yaeger, Jazmine D W; Renner, Kenneth J; Swallow, John G; Greene, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Ant colonies are distributed systems that are regulated in a non-hierarchical manner. Without a central authority, individuals inform their decisions by comparing information in local cues to a set of inherent behavioral rules. Individual behavioral decisions collectively change colony behavior and lead to self-organization capable of solving complex problems such as the decision to engage in aggressive societal conflicts with neighbors. Despite the relevance to colony fitness, the mechanisms that drive individual decisions leading to cooperative behavior are not well understood. Here we show how sensory information, both tactile and chemical, and social context-isolation, nestmate interaction, or fighting non-nestmates-affects brain monoamine levels in pavement ants (Tetramorium caespitum). Our results provide evidence that changes in octopamine and serotonin in the brains of individuals are sufficient to alter the decision by pavement ants to be aggressive towards non-nestmate ants whereas increased brain levels of dopamine correlate to physical fighting. We propose a model in which the changes in brain states of many workers collectively lead to the self-organization of societal aggression between neighboring colonies of pavement ants.

  18. Pacemaker neuron and network oscillations depend on a neuromodulator-regulated linear current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunbing Zhao

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Linear leak currents have been implicated in the regulation of neuronal excitability, generation of neuronal and network oscillations, and network state transitions. Yet, few studies have directly tested the dependence of network oscillations on leak currents or explored the role of leak currents on network activity. In the oscillatory pyloric network of decapod crustaceans neuromodulatory inputs are necessary for pacemaker activity. A large subset of neuromodulators is known to activate a single voltage-gated inward current IMI, which has been shown to regulate the rhythmic activity of the network and its pacemaker neurons. Using the dynamic clamp technique, we show that the crucial component of IMI for the generation of oscillatory activity is only a close-to-linear portion of the current-voltage relationship. The nature of this conductance is such that the presence or the absence of neuromodulators effectively regulates the amount of leak current and the input resistance in the pacemaker neurons. When deprived of neuromodulatory inputs, pyloric oscillations are disrupted; yet, a linear reduction of the total conductance in a single neuron within the pacemaker group recovers not only the pacemaker activity in that neuron, but also leads to a recovery of oscillations in the entire pyloric network. The recovered activity produces proper frequency and phasing that is similar to that induced by neuromodulators. These results show that the passive properties of pacemaker neurons can significantly affect their capacity to generate and regulate the oscillatory activity of an entire network, and that this feature is exploited by neuromodulatory inputs.

  19. Health Heritage© a web-based tool for the collection and assessment of family health history: initial user experience and analytic validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, W F; Ropka, M E; Pelletier, S L; Barrett, J R; Kinzie, M B; Harrison, M B; Liu, Z; Miesfeldt, S; Tucker, A L; Worrall, B B; Gibson, J; Mullins, I M; Elward, K S; Franko, J; Guterbock, T M; Knaus, W A

    2010-01-01

    A detailed family health history is currently the most potentially useful tool for diagnosis and risk assessment in clinical genetics. We developed and evaluated the usability and analytic validity of a patient-driven web-based family health history collection and analysis tool. Health Heritage(©) guides users through the collection of their family health history by relative, generates a pedigree, completes risk assessment, stratification, and recommendations for 89 conditions. We compared the performance of Health Heritage to that of Usual Care using a nonrandomized cohort trial of 109 volunteers. We contrasted the completeness and sensitivity of family health history collection and risk assessments derived from Health Heritage and Usual Care to those obtained by genetic counselors and genetic assessment teams. Nearly half (42%) of the Health Heritage participants reported discovery of health risks; 63% found the information easy to understand and 56% indicated it would change their health behavior. Health Heritage consistently outperformed Usual Care in the completeness and accuracy of family health history collection, identifying 60% of the elevated risk conditions specified by the genetic team versus 24% identified by Usual Care. Health Heritage also had greater sensitivity than Usual Care when comparing the identification of risks. These results suggest a strong role for automated family health history collection and risk assessment and underscore the potential of these data to serve as the foundation for comprehensive, cost-effective personalized genomic medicine. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Effect of Sacral Neuromodulation on Outcome Measures and Urine Chemokines in Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Kenneth M; Jayabalan, Nirmal; Bui, Don; Killinger, Kim; Chancellor, Michael; Tyagi, Pradeep

    2015-05-01

    Sacral neuromodulation (SNM) may improve interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/BPS) symptoms of urinary frequency, urgency and perhaps even pain, but objective measures of improvement are lacking. We evaluated the potential for urinary chemokines to serve as measures of treatment response over time to SNM. Women with IC/BPS undergoing SNM consented for this study. Three-day bladder/pain diaries were collected at baseline and validated Interstitial Cystitis Symptom Problem Index (ICSPI) scores and mid-stream urine specimens were collected at baseline and at 24 weeks after successful implant. Collected urine was screened for infection by dipstick and analyzed for chemokines by luminex xMAP analysis. At baseline (n = 16), urine levels of CXCL-1 positively correlated with pain score (r = 0.63, P = 0.009), urgency (r = 0.61, P = 0.01), ICSPI (r = 0.43, P = 0.09) and daily voids (r = 0.44, P = 0.08). ICSPI and pain scores also positively correlated with sIL-1ra (r = 0.50, P = 0.04) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) or CCL2 positively correlated with daily voids (r = 0.45, P = 0.07) only. At 24 weeks, the median ICSPI index fell from 28 to 15 (n = 7, P = 0.008). Urine levels of sIL-1ra (633.8 ± 188.2 vs. 149.9 ± 41.62 pg/mL) and MCP-1 (448.3 ± 11.6 vs. 176.9 ± 46.16 pg/mL) and CCL5 (20.78 ± 4.09 vs. 11.21 ± 4.12 pg/mL) were also significantly reduced at the follow-up relative to baseline values (P = 0.04). Multivariable analysis of data revealed that sIL-1ra and MCP-1 together explained the majority of variance in data. Levels of CXCL-1, CXCL-10, interleukin (IL)-8, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) were also reduced at 24 weeks, but differences were not significant. Concomitant decrease in urine levels of chemokines especially MCP-1 was associated with treatment response of SNM. These results

  1. Bio-AIMS Collection of Chemoinformatics Web Tools based on Molecular Graph Information and Artificial Intelligence Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munteanu, Cristian R; Gonzalez-Diaz, Humberto; Garcia, Rafael; Loza, Mabel; Pazos, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The molecular information encoding into molecular descriptors is the first step into in silico Chemoinformatics methods in Drug Design. The Machine Learning methods are a complex solution to find prediction models for specific biological properties of molecules. These models connect the molecular structure information such as atom connectivity (molecular graphs) or physical-chemical properties of an atom/group of atoms to the molecular activity (Quantitative Structure - Activity Relationship, QSAR). Due to the complexity of the proteins, the prediction of their activity is a complicated task and the interpretation of the models is more difficult. The current review presents a series of 11 prediction models for proteins, implemented as free Web tools on an Artificial Intelligence Model Server in Biosciences, Bio-AIMS (http://bio-aims.udc.es/TargetPred.php). Six tools predict protein activity, two models evaluate drug - protein target interactions and the other three calculate protein - protein interactions. The input information is based on the protein 3D structure for nine models, 1D peptide amino acid sequence for three tools and drug SMILES formulas for two servers. The molecular graph descriptor-based Machine Learning models could be useful tools for in silico screening of new peptides/proteins as future drug targets for specific treatments.

  2. Migraine generator network and spreading depression dynamics as neuromodulation targets in episodic migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlem, Markus A.

    2013-12-01

    Migraine is a common disabling headache disorder characterized by recurrent episodes sometimes preceded or accompanied by focal neurological symptoms called aura. The relation between two subtypes, migraine without aura (MWoA) and migraine with aura (MWA), is explored with the aim to identify targets for neuromodulation techniques. To this end, a dynamically regulated control system is schematically reduced to a network of the trigeminal nerve, which innervates the cranial circulation, an associated descending modulatory network of brainstem nuclei, and parasympathetic vasomotor efferents. This extends the idea of a migraine generator region in the brainstem to a larger network and is still simple and explicit enough to open up possibilities for mathematical modeling in the future. In this study, it is suggested that the migraine generator network (MGN) is driven and may therefore respond differently to different spatio-temporal noxious input in the migraine subtypes MWA and MWoA. The noxious input is caused by a cortical perturbation of homeostasis, known as spreading depression (SD). The MGN might even trigger SD in the first place by a failure in vasomotor control. As a consequence, migraine is considered as an inherently dynamical disease to which a linear course from upstream to downstream events would not do justice. Minimally invasive and noninvasive neuromodulation techniques are briefly reviewed and their rational is discussed in the context of the proposed mechanism.

  3. Neuromodulation of chronic headaches: position statement from the European Headache Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The medical treatment of patients with chronic primary headache syndromes (chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, chronic cluster headache, hemicrania continua) is challenging as serious side effects frequently complicate the course of medical treatment and some patients may be even medically intractable. When a definitive lack of responsiveness to conservative treatments is ascertained and medication overuse headache is excluded, neuromodulation options can be considered in selected cases. Here, the various invasive and non-invasive approaches, such as hypothalamic deep brain stimulation, occipital nerve stimulation, stimulation of sphenopalatine ganglion, cervical spinal cord stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation are extensively published although proper RCT-based evidence is limited. The European Headache Federation herewith provides a consensus statement on the clinical use of neuromodulation in headache, based on theoretical background, clinical data, and side effect of each method. This international consensus further gives recommendations for future studies on these new approaches. In spite of a growing field of stimulation devices in headaches treatment, further controlled studies to validate, strengthen and disseminate the use of neurostimulation are clearly warranted. Consequently, until these data are available any neurostimulation device should only be used in patients with medically intractable syndromes from tertiary headache centers either as part of a valid study or have shown to be effective in such controlled studies with an acceptable side effect profile. PMID:24144382

  4. Neuromodulation intrinsic to the central pattern generator for escape swimming in Tritonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, P S

    1998-11-16

    Extrinsic neuromodulatory inputs to central pattern generators (CPGs) can alter the properties and synaptic interactions of neurons in those circuits and thereby modify the output of the CPG. Recent work in a number of systems has now demonstrated that neurons intrinsic to CPG can also evoke neuromodulatory actions on other members of the CPG. Such "intrinsic neuromodulation" plays a role in controlling the CPG underlying the escape swim response of the nudibrach mollusc, Tritonia diomedea. The dorsal swim interneurons (DSIs) are a bilaterally represented set of three serotonergic neurons that participate in the generation of the rhythmic swim motor program. Serotonin released from these CPG neurons functions both as a fast neurotransmitter and as a slower neuromodulator. In its modulatory role, serotonin enhances the release of neurotransmitter from another CPG neuron, C2, and also increases C2 excitability by decreasing spike frequency adaptation. These neuromodulatory actions intrinsic to the CPG may be important for the initial self-configuration of the system into a function CPG and for experience-dependent changes in the output such as behavioral sensitization and habituation.

  5. Clinical results of sacral neuromodulation for chronic voiding dysfunction using unilateral sacral foramen electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, E H; Ruiz-Cerdá, J L; Eerdmans, P H; Janknegt, R A; Van Kerrebroeck, P E

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the long-term clinical efficacy and complications of neuromodulation with a unilateral sacral foramen electrode in 36 patients with chronic voiding dysfunction. Following a positive effect of a percutaneous nerve evaluation test, patients underwent open surgery. A permanent electrode was implanted in 24 patients with urge incontinence, in 6 with urgency-frequency syndrome, and in 6 with nonobstructive urinary retention. After an average follow-up period of 37.8 months, 19 patients (52.8%) continue to benefit from the neuromodulation with a significant improvement of symptoms and urodynamic parameters. The median duration of the therapeutic effect for the total study population was longer than 60 months. No significant difference in the median duration of therapeutic effect with regard to sex, the type of voiding disorder, or the implant pulse generator was found. However, in patients with previous psychological disorders the median duration of therapeutic effect was only 12 months (P = 0.008). Complications were mild. In the group of patients in whom the therapeutic effect remains, 37 reoperations have had to be performed. We conclude that although reoperations were needed to overcome technical problems, patients can achieve lasting symptomatic improvement. Since technical changes in the equipment have reduced the number of complications, even better results can be expected in terms of the reoperation rate.

  6. New approach to neurorehabilitation: cranial nerve noninvasive neuromodulation (CN-NINM) technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilov, Yuri P.; Tyler, Mitchel E.; Kaczmarek, Kurt A.; Skinner, Kimberley L.

    2014-06-01

    Cranial Nerve NonInvasive NeuroModulation (CN-NINM) is a primary and complementary multi-targeted rehabilitation therapy that appears to initiate the recovery of multiple damaged or suppressed brain functions affected by neurological disorders. It is deployable as a simple, home-based device (portable neuromodulation stimulator, or PoNSTM) and training regimen following initial patient training in an outpatient clinic. It may be easily combined with many existing rehabilitation therapies, and may reduce or eliminate the need for more aggressive invasive procedures or possibly decrease total medication intake. CN-NINM uses sequenced patterns of electrical stimulation on the tongue. Our hypothesis is that CN-NINM induces neuroplasticity by noninvasive stimulation of two major cranial nerves: trigeminal (CN-V), and facial (CN-VII). This stimulation excites a natural flow of neural impulses to the brainstem (pons varolli and medulla), and cerebellum, to effect changes in the function of these targeted brain structures, extending to corresponding nuclei of the brainstem. CN-NINM represents a synthesis of a new noninvasive brain stimulation technique with applications in physical medicine, cognitive, and affective neurosciences. Our new stimulation method appears promising for treatment of a full spectrum of movement disorders, and for both attention and memory dysfunction associated with traumatic brain injury.

  7. The EEG as an index of neuromodulator balance in memory and mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa eVakalopoulos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a strong correlation between signature EEG frequency patterns and the relative levels of distinct neuromodulators. These associations become particularly evident during the sleep-wake cycle. The monoamine-acetylcholine balance hypothesis is a theory of neurophysiological markers of the EEG and a detailed description of the findings that support this proposal are presented in this paper. According to this model alpha rhythm reflects the relative predominance of cholinergic muscarinic signals and delta rhythm that of monoaminergic receptor effects. Both high voltage synchronized rhythms are likely mediated by inhibitory Gαi/o-mediated transduction of inhibitory interneurons. Cognitively, alpha and delta EEG measures are proposed to indicate automatic and flexible strategies, respectively. Sleep is associated with marked changes in relative neuromodulator levels corresponding to EEG markers of distinct stages. Sleep studies on memory consolidation present some of the strongest evidence yet for the respective roles of monoaminergic and cholinergic projections in declarative and non-declarative memory processes, a key theoretical premise for understanding the data. Affective dysregulation is reflected in altered EEG patterns during sleep.

  8. The EEG as an index of neuromodulator balance in memory and mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakalopoulos, Costa

    2014-01-01

    There is a strong correlation between signature EEG frequency patterns and the relative levels of distinct neuromodulators. These associations become particularly evident during the sleep-wake cycle. The monoamine-acetylcholine balance hypothesis is a theory of neurophysiological markers of the EEG and a detailed description of the findings that support this proposal are presented in this paper. According to this model alpha rhythm reflects the relative predominance of cholinergic muscarinic signals and delta rhythm that of monoaminergic receptor effects. Both high voltage synchronized rhythms are likely mediated by inhibitory Gαi/o-mediated transduction of inhibitory interneurons. Cognitively, alpha and delta EEG measures are proposed to indicate automatic and flexible strategies, respectively. Sleep is associated with marked changes in relative neuromodulator levels corresponding to EEG markers of distinct stages. Sleep studies on memory consolidation present some of the strongest evidence yet for the respective roles of monoaminergic and cholinergic projections in declarative and non-declarative memory processes, a key theoretical premise for understanding the data. Affective dysregulation is reflected in altered EEG patterns during sleep.

  9. A new internet-based tool for reporting and analysing patient-reported outcomes and the feasibility of repeated data collection from patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochmann, Nana; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Kjerholt, Mette; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Hasselbalch, Hans Carl; Andersen, Christen Lykkegaard

    2016-04-01

    An Internet-based tool for reporting and analysing patient-reported outcomes (PROs) has been developed. The tool enables merging PROs with blood test results and allows for computation of treatment responses. Data may be visualized by graphical analysis and may be exported for downstream statistical processing. The aim of this study was to investigate, whether patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) were willing and able to use the tool and fill out questionnaires regularly. Participants were recruited from the outpatient clinic at the Department of Haematology, Roskilde University Hospital, Denmark. Validated questionnaires that were used were European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30, Myeloproliferative Neoplasm Symptom Assessment Form, Brief Fatigue Inventory and Short Form 36 Health Survey. Questionnaires were filled out ≥ 6 months online or on paper according to participant preference. Regularity of questionnaire submission was investigated, and participant acceptance was evaluated by focus-group interviews. Of 135 invited patients, 118 (87 %) accepted participation. One hundred and seven participants (91 %) preferred to use the Internet-based tool. Of the 118 enrolled participants, 104 (88 %) submitted PROs regularly ≥ 6 months. The focus-group interviews revealed that the Internet-based tool was well accepted. The Internet-based approach and regular collection of PROs are well accepted with a high participation rate, persistency and adherence in a population of MPN patients. The plasticity of the platform allows for adaptation to patients with other medical conditions.

  10. From collection to reflection : on designing Freed, a tool for free and flexible organization of designers' digital work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendels, P.

    2013-01-01

    Designers collect a lot of information during the design process, such as background research, ideas, notes, sketches, photos, videos and feedback from various stakeholders. A large part of this information gets lost in folders on individual computers, inside documents and presentations, or on pages

  11. Childhood Emotional Abuse Moderates Associations Among Corticomotor White Matter Structure and Stress Neuromodulators in Women With and Without Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlton P. Frost

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Adverse caregiving during development can produce long-lasting changes to neural, endocrine, and behavioral responses to stress, and is strongly related to elevated risk of adult psychopathology. While prior experience of adversity is associated with altered sympathetic nervous system (SNS and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis activity, the underlying neural pathways are not completely understood. In a double-blind crossover study, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to examine whether variation in white matter structure predicts differences in HPA-SNS interactions as a function of early adversity. Participants included 74 women who exhibited a wide range of depression severity and/or childhood emotional abuse (EA. Participants attended two experimental sessions during which they were administered 20 mg cortisol (CORT or placebo and after 90 min, viewed emotionally laden pictures while undergoing MRI scanning. Immediately after emotional picture-viewing, we collected salivary alpha-amylase (sAA to index SNS activation. We tested whether EA moderated the relation between fractional anisotropy (FA, a measure of white matter fiber structure, and sAA. In the placebo condition, for participants with minimal history of EA, higher FA in corticomotor projections was negatively correlated with sAA, whereas in participants with severe EA, the correlation was trending in the opposite direction. Following CORT administration, FA and sAA were not related, suggesting that SNS tone during acute cortisol elevation may depend on neural pathways other than corticomotor projections. The results suggest that at baseline—though not during cortisol elevation—increased FA in these tracts is associated with lower levels of SNS activity in women with minimal EA, but not in women with severe EA. These findings provide evidence that corticomotor projections may be a key component of altered neural circuitry in adults with history of maltreatment, and may be

  12. A formative evaluation of the implementation of a medication safety data collection tool in English healthcare settings: A qualitative interview study using normalisation process theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Paryaneh; Ashcroft, Darren M; Tully, Mary P

    2018-01-01

    Reducing medication-related harm is a global priority; however, impetus for improvement is impeded as routine medication safety data are seldom available. Therefore, the Medication Safety Thermometer was developed within England's National Health Service. This study aimed to explore the implementation of the tool into routine practice from users' perspectives. Fifteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with purposely sampled National Health Service staff from primary and secondary care settings. Interview data were analysed using an initial thematic analysis, and subsequent analysis using Normalisation Process Theory. Secondary care staff understood that the Medication Safety Thermometer's purpose was to measure medication safety and improvement. However, other uses were reported, such as pinpointing poor practice. Confusion about its purpose existed in primary care, despite further training, suggesting unsuitability of the tool. Decreased engagement was displayed by staff less involved with medication use, who displayed less ownership. Nonetheless, these advocates often lacked support from management and frontline levels, leading to an overall lack of engagement. Many participants reported efforts to drive scale-up of the use of the tool, for example, by securing funding, despite uncertainty around how to use data. Successful improvement was often at ward-level and went unrecognised within the wider organisation. There was mixed feedback regarding the value of the tool, often due to a perceived lack of "capacity". However, participants demonstrated interest in learning how to use their data and unexpected applications of data were reported. Routine medication safety data collection is complex, but achievable and facilitates improvements. However, collected data must be analysed, understood and used for further work to achieve improvement, which often does not happen. The national roll-out of the tool has accelerated shared learning; however, a number of

  13. A formative evaluation of the implementation of a medication safety data collection tool in English healthcare settings: A qualitative interview study using normalisation process theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paryaneh Rostami

    Full Text Available Reducing medication-related harm is a global priority; however, impetus for improvement is impeded as routine medication safety data are seldom available. Therefore, the Medication Safety Thermometer was developed within England's National Health Service. This study aimed to explore the implementation of the tool into routine practice from users' perspectives.Fifteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with purposely sampled National Health Service staff from primary and secondary care settings. Interview data were analysed using an initial thematic analysis, and subsequent analysis using Normalisation Process Theory.Secondary care staff understood that the Medication Safety Thermometer's purpose was to measure medication safety and improvement. However, other uses were reported, such as pinpointing poor practice. Confusion about its purpose existed in primary care, despite further training, suggesting unsuitability of the tool. Decreased engagement was displayed by staff less involved with medication use, who displayed less ownership. Nonetheless, these advocates often lacked support from management and frontline levels, leading to an overall lack of engagement. Many participants reported efforts to drive scale-up of the use of the tool, for example, by securing funding, despite uncertainty around how to use data. Successful improvement was often at ward-level and went unrecognised within the wider organisation. There was mixed feedback regarding the value of the tool, often due to a perceived lack of "capacity". However, participants demonstrated interest in learning how to use their data and unexpected applications of data were reported.Routine medication safety data collection is complex, but achievable and facilitates improvements. However, collected data must be analysed, understood and used for further work to achieve improvement, which often does not happen. The national roll-out of the tool has accelerated shared learning; however

  14. American Association of Orthodontists Foundation Craniofacial Growth Legacy Collection: Overview of a powerful tool for orthodontic research and teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Sheldon; Curry, Sean

    2015-08-01

    This article reports on the current status of the American Association of Orthodontists Foundation (AAOF) Craniofacial Growth Legacy Collection--an AAOF-supported multi-institutional project that uses the Internet and cloud computing to collect and share craniofacial images and data for orthodontic research and education. The project gives investigators and clinicians all over the world online access to longitudinal information on craniofacial development in untreated children with malocclusions of various types. It also is a unique source of control samples for testing the validity of consensually accepted beliefs about the effects of orthodontic treatment or of failure to treat. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Electrical neuromodulation improves myocardial perfusion and ameliorates refractory angina pectoris in patients with syndrome X : fad or future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jessurun, G; Hautvast, RWM; Tio, RA; DeJongste, M

    2003-01-01

    At present, there is no reliable antianginal drug therapy for patients with cardiac syndrome X. Therefore, the effect of electrical neuromodulation on refractory angina pectoris and myocardial perfusion in cardiac syndrome X was assessed. Eight patients (aged 55 +/- 7 years) with heterogeneous

  16. What neuromodulation and lesion studies tell us about the function of the mirror neuron system and embodied cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keysers, Christian; Paracampo, Riccardo; Gazzola, V.

    2018-01-01

    We review neuromodulation and lesion studies that address how activations in the mirror neuron system contribute to our perception of observed actions. Past reviews showed disruptions of this parieto-premotor network impair imitation and goal and kinematic processing. Recent studies bring five new

  17. Sacral nerve root neuromodulation: an effective treatment for refractory urge incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, H S; Hassouna, M

    1998-05-01

    Sacral foramina implants have been recognized recently as a method for treatment of refractory urinary urge incontinence. We study the outcome of the procedure with in-depth analysis of the results of 18 implanted cases. Patients with urinary urge incontinence were subjected to percutaneous nerve evaluation of the S3 roots as a temporary screening test to determine response to neuromodulation. Satisfactory responders were implanted with permanent sacral root neuroprosthesis. The study design included comprehensive voiding diaries for 4 consecutive days twice as a baseline, 1 with percutaneous nerve evaluation screening, 1 after the percutaneous nerve evaluation, 1 at the 1, 3 and 6 post-implantation visits, and every 6 months thereafter. Uroflowmetry and quality of life questionnaires were performed at the same intervals. Urodynamic study was done as a baseline and 6 months after implantation of the neuroprosthesis. All 18 patients (16 women and 2 men) with refractory urge incontinence received a sacral foramina neuroprosthesis after demonstrating a good response to the percutaneous nerve evaluation. Average patient age at presentation was 42.3+/-3.3 years (range 22 to 67) and duration of urinary symptoms was 6.6+/-1.3 years (range 1.2 to 18.8). Average followup was 18.8 months (range 3 to 83). Neuromodulation in these patients showed a marked reduction in leakage episodes from 6.49 to 1.98 times per 24 hours and in the leakage severity score. Eight patients became completely dry and 4 had average leakage episodes of 1 or less daily. Patients showed as well a decrease in urinary frequency with an increase in functional bladder capacity. Associated pelvic pain improved substantially. Cystometrograms demonstrated increased volume at first sensation by 50% and increased cystometric capacity by 15% with the disappearance of uninhibited contractions in 1 of the 4 patients who presented with it preoperatively. There was also noticeable improvement in the quality of life

  18. The AmeriFlux data activity and data system: an evolving collection of data management techniques, tools, products and services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, T. A.; Krassovski, M.; Yang, B.

    2013-06-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), USA has provided scientific data management support for the US Department of Energy and international climate change science since 1982. Among the many data archived and available from CDIAC are collections from long-term measurement projects. One current example is the AmeriFlux measurement network. AmeriFlux provides continuous measurements from forests, grasslands, wetlands, and croplands in North, Central, and South America and offers important insight about carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. To successfully manage AmeriFlux data and support climate change research, CDIAC has designed flexible data systems using proven technologies and standards blended with new, evolving technologies and standards. The AmeriFlux data system, comprised primarily of a relational database, a PHP-based data interface and a FTP server, offers a broad suite of AmeriFlux data. The data interface allows users to query the AmeriFlux collection in a variety of ways and then subset, visualize and download the data. From the perspective of data stewardship, on the other hand, this system is designed for CDIAC to easily control database content, automate data movement, track data provenance, manage metadata content, and handle frequent additions and corrections. CDIAC and researchers in the flux community developed data submission guidelines to enhance the AmeriFlux data collection, enable automated data processing, and promote standardization across regional networks. Both continuous flux and meteorological data and irregular biological data collected at AmeriFlux sites are carefully scrutinized by CDIAC using established quality-control algorithms before the data are ingested into the AmeriFlux data system. Other tasks at CDIAC include reformatting and standardizing the diverse and heterogeneous datasets received from individual sites into a uniform and consistent network database

  19. The AmeriFlux data activity and data system: an evolving collection of data management techniques, tools, products and services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Boden

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL, USA has provided scientific data management support for the US Department of Energy and international climate change science since 1982. Among the many data archived and available from CDIAC are collections from long-term measurement projects. One current example is the AmeriFlux measurement network. AmeriFlux provides continuous measurements from forests, grasslands, wetlands, and croplands in North, Central, and South America and offers important insight about carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. To successfully manage AmeriFlux data and support climate change research, CDIAC has designed flexible data systems using proven technologies and standards blended with new, evolving technologies and standards. The AmeriFlux data system, comprised primarily of a relational database, a PHP-based data interface and a FTP server, offers a broad suite of AmeriFlux data. The data interface allows users to query the AmeriFlux collection in a variety of ways and then subset, visualize and download the data. From the perspective of data stewardship, on the other hand, this system is designed for CDIAC to easily control database content, automate data movement, track data provenance, manage metadata content, and handle frequent additions and corrections. CDIAC and researchers in the flux community developed data submission guidelines to enhance the AmeriFlux data collection, enable automated data processing, and promote standardization across regional networks. Both continuous flux and meteorological data and irregular biological data collected at AmeriFlux sites are carefully scrutinized by CDIAC using established quality-control algorithms before the data are ingested into the AmeriFlux data system. Other tasks at CDIAC include reformatting and standardizing the diverse and heterogeneous datasets received from individual sites into a uniform and consistent

  20. Action Research as a tool for the Strengthening of the Small Businesses Collective (Copec in Salto, Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisabina Minteguiaga

    2018-01-01

    up of commercial units whose economic function is linked, or better said, integrated, to the family structure function. This work is preceded by work done at the Universidad Cenur Litoral Norte between 2014 and 2015 with a group of about 15 entrepreneur units. On the whole, their location and influence area are neighborhoods; their importance lies in the relevance they have for the livelihood of the family. The family-business unit is seen as an integrality that broadly surpasses the economic factor; it is a family lifestyle with a specific identity that responds to a new production scenario. During 2016, a new experience with another group of seventeen business units took place, after reformulating the project’s objectives based on the previous experience. This time the participation methodology proposed by Tomás Rodríguez Villasante and the Citizens’ Network and Sustainable Environment (Cimas, acronym in Spanish was adopted and as Rodriquez states in his book, through the incorporation of specificities of the process itself. In this participatory work dynamic, the actors themselves participated in the path to be taken by the small business collective of Salto through the generation of systematic training and exchange scenarios. Within this framework, this text presents this experience which seeks the creation and strengthening of the collective actor, highlighting the actors of the social and economic reality of the city of Salto.

  1. Cholinergic neuromodulation changes phase response curve shape and type in cortical pyramidal neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus M Stiefel

    Full Text Available Spike generation in cortical neurons depends on the interplay between diverse intrinsic conductances. The phase response curve (PRC is a measure of the spike time shift caused by perturbations of the membrane potential as a function of the phase of the spike cycle of a neuron. Near the rheobase, purely positive (type I phase-response curves are associated with an onset of repetitive firing through a saddle-node bifurcation, whereas biphasic (type II phase-response curves point towards a transition based on a Hopf-Andronov bifurcation. In recordings from layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in cortical slices, cholinergic action, consistent with down-regulation of slow voltage-dependent potassium currents such as the M-current, switched the PRC from type II to type I. This is the first report showing that cholinergic neuromodulation may cause a qualitative switch in the PRCs type implying a change in the fundamental dynamical mechanism of spike generation.

  2. Angiotensin II regulation of neuromodulation: downstream signaling mechanism from activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, D; Yang, H; Raizada, M K

    1996-12-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulates expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and norepinephrine transporter genes in brain neurons; however, the signal-transduction mechanism is not clearly defined. This study was conducted to determine the involvement of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathway in Ang II stimulation of these genes. MAP kinase was localized in the perinuclear region of the neuronal soma. Ang II caused activation of MAP kinase and its subsequent translocation from the cytoplasmic to nuclear compartment, both effects being mediated by AT1 receptor subtype. Ang II also stimulated SRE- and AP1-binding activities and fos gene expression and its translocation in a MAP kinase-dependent process. These observations are the first demonstration of a downstream signaling pathway involving MAP kinase in Ang II-mediated neuromodulation in noradrenergic neurons.

  3. Imaging sensory effects of occipital nerve stimulation: a new computer-based method in neuromodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbel, Anna; Göbel, Carl H; Heinze, Axel; Heinze-Kuhn, Katja; Petersen, Inga; Meinecke, Christoph; Clasen, Svenja; Niederberger, Uwe; Rasche, Dirk; Mehdorn, Hubertus M; Göbel, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Within the last years, occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) has proven to be an important method in the treatment of severe therapy-resistant neurological pain disorders. The correspondence between lead placement as well as possible stimulation parameters and the resulting stimulation effects remains unclear. The method aims to directly relate the neuromodulatory mechanisms with the clinical treatment results, to achieve insight in the mode of action of neuromodulation, to identify the most effective stimulation sets and to optimize individual treatment effects. We describe a new computer-based imaging method for mapping the spatial, cognitive and affective sensory effects of ONS. The procedure allows a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the relationship between lead positioning, the stimulation settings as well as the sensory and clinical stimulation effects. A regular mapping of stimulation and sensory parameters allows a coordinated monitoring. The stimulation results can be reviewed and compared with regards to clinical effectiveness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The collective capabilities as a methodological tool for assessing human welfare in indigenous territories of the Colombian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Acosta Muñoz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an integrating approach of conceptual issues to evaluate the wellbeing in indigenous communities. The approach recognizes the consensual absence of a “wellbeing” definition. Therefore, understanding the local concepts of wellbeing could help develop planning tools for decision-makers in indigenous societies contexts. The approach is based on the concept of capacities developed by A. Sen in which a group of human wellbeing indicators are constructed and where cultural issues might be included without affecting the power of the indicator. A study with Uitoto (múrui-muina-mɨnɨka and the called People of the Center indigenous groups of the Northern Amazonia has been done to discuss their particular idea of what wellbeing is. It is a concept the People of the Center summarizes in the word monifue (abundance. This concept is the result of the analysis of their symbolic and ritual contexts. The concept has been actualized through the time and today integrate issues of their contemporary life style. The paper describes some elements derived of this concept, and contributes to the conceptualization of issues that might be used in a valid model to describe the life style of these indigenous societies. The discussion of the paper is not based on technical issues of the model yet. The discussion define some limits where the variables to measure and relate should be placed. This is an important result about the understanding of the concept wellbeing of these indigenous societies and the elements that require to be transformed in concrete indicators.

  5. Drinking water consumption patterns among adults-SMS as a novel tool for collection of repeated self-reported water consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säve-Söderbergh, Melle; Toljander, Jonas; Mattisson, Irene; Åkesson, Agneta; Simonsson, Magnus

    2018-03-01

    Studies have shown that the average drinking water consumption ranges between 0.075 and 3 L/day for adults with both national and regional differences. For exposure assessment of drinking water hazards, country-specific drinking water consumption data including sources of the consumed water may therefore be warranted. To estimate the amount and source of drinking water consumed among adults in Sweden, we collected self-reported estimates using both traditional methods (telephone interviews, web questionnaire) and a novel method (Short Message Service, SMS questionnaires) in a population from an average sized Swedish municipality. Monthly SMS questionnaires were sent out during one year to obtain longitudinal information as well. SMS showed to be a promising tool for collecting self-reported consumption, as most citizens could participate and the method showed high response rate. Data collected via the SMS questionnaire shows an average consumption of cold tap water of 4.9 glasses/24 h (one glass=200 ml), while the average estimates of cold tap water collected by the traditional methods range from 4.5 to 7.0 glasses/24 h. For statistical distributions, the mean daily consumption of cold tap water for the population was best fitted to a gamma distribution. About 70% of the cold tap water is consumed at home. Based on the results from the SMS study, we suggest using 1 l/day for the average adult population and 2.5 l/day for high consumers for risk assessment of cold tap water consumption. As 46% of the tap water consumed is heated, we suggest using 1.85 l/day for total tap water consumption.

  6. The role of timing in the induction of neuromodulation in perceptual learning by transcranial electric stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirulli, Cornelia; Fertonani, Anna; Miniussi, Carlo

    2013-07-01

    Transcranial electric stimulation (tES) protocols are able to induce neuromodulation, offering important insights to focus and constrain theories of the relationship between brain and behavior. Previous studies have shown that different types of tES (i.e., direct current stimulation - tDCS, and random noise stimulation - tRNS) induce different facilitatory behavioral effects. However to date is not clear which is the optimal timing to apply tES in relation to the induction of robust facilitatory effects. The goal of this work was to investigate how different types of tES (tDCS and tRNS) can modulate behavioral performance in the healthy adult brain in relation to their timing of application. We applied tES protocols before (offline) or during (online) the execution of a visual perceptual learning (PL) task. PL is a form of implicit memory that is characterized by an improvement in sensory discrimination after repeated exposure to a particular type of stimulus and is considered a manifestation of neural plasticity. Our aim was to understand if the timing of tES is critical for the induction of differential neuromodulatory effects in the primary visual cortex (V1). We applied high-frequency tRNS, anodal tDCS and sham tDCS on V1 before or during the execution of an orientation discrimination task. The experimental design was between subjects and performance was measured in terms of d' values. The ideal timing of application varied depending on the stimulation type. tRNS facilitated task performance only when it was applied during task execution, whereas anodal tDCS induced a larger facilitation if it was applied before task execution. The main result of this study is the finding that the timing of identical tES protocols yields opposite effects on performance. These results provide important guidelines for designing neuromodulation induction protocols and highlight the different optimal timing of the two excitatory techniques. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All

  7. SedCT: MATLAB™ tools for standardized and quantitative processing of sediment core computed tomography (CT) data collected using a medical CT scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, B. T.; Stoner, J. S.; Wiest, J.

    2017-08-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of sediment cores allows for high-resolution images, three-dimensional volumes, and down core profiles. These quantitative data are generated through the attenuation of X-rays, which are sensitive to sediment density and atomic number, and are stored in pixels as relative gray scale values or Hounsfield units (HU). We present a suite of MATLAB™ tools specifically designed for routine sediment core analysis as a means to standardize and better quantify the products of CT data collected on medical CT scanners. SedCT uses a graphical interface to process Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) files, stitch overlapping scanned intervals, and create down core HU profiles in a manner robust to normal coring imperfections. Utilizing a random sampling technique, SedCT reduces data size and allows for quick processing on typical laptop computers. SedCTimage uses a graphical interface to create quality tiff files of CT slices that are scaled to a user-defined HU range, preserving the quantitative nature of CT images and easily allowing for comparison between sediment cores with different HU means and variance. These tools are presented along with examples from lacustrine and marine sediment cores to highlight the robustness and quantitative nature of this method.

  8. Neuromodulators for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders (Disorders of Gut-Brain Interaction): A Rome Foundation Working Team Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drossman, Douglas A; Tack, Jan; Ford, Alexander C; Szigethy, Eva; Törnblom, Hans; Van Oudenhove, Lukas

    2018-03-01

    Central neuromodulators (antidepressants, antipsychotics, and other central nervous system-targeted medications) are increasingly used for treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), now recognized as disorders of gut-brain interaction. However, the available evidence and guidance for the use of central neuromodulators in these conditions is scanty and incomplete. In this Rome Foundation Working Team report, a multidisciplinary team summarized available research evidence and clinical experience to provide guidance and treatment recommendations. The working team summarized the literature on the pharmacology of central neuromodulators and their effects on gastrointestinal sensorimotor function and conducted an evidence-based review on their use for treating FGID syndromes. Because of the paucity of data for FGIDs, we included data for non-gastrointestinal painful disorders and specific symptoms of pain, nausea, and vomiting. This information was combined into a final document comprising a synthesis of available evidence and recommendations for clinical use guided by the research and clinical experience of the experts on the committee. The evidence-based review on neuromodulators in FGID, restricted by the limited available controlled trials, was integrated with open-label studies and case series, along with the experience of experts to create recommendations using a consensus (Delphi) approach. Due to the diversity of conditions and complexity of treatment options, specific recommendations were generated for different FGIDs. However, some general recommendations include: (1) low to modest dosages of tricyclic antidepressants provide the most convincing evidence of benefit for treating chronic gastrointestinal pain and painful FGIDs and serotonin noradrenergic reuptake inhibitors can also be recommended, though further studies are needed; (2) augmentation, that is, adding a second treatment (adding quetiapine, aripiprazole, buspirone α2δ ligand

  9. Male/female differences in neuroprotection and neuromodulation of brain dopamine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie eBourque

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The existence of a sex difference in Parkinson’s disease is observed in several variables, including susceptibility of the disease, age at onset and symptoms. These differences between men and women represent a significant characteristic of Parkinson’s disease which suggests that estrogens may exert beneficial effects against the development and the progression of the disease. This paper reviews the neuroprotective and neuromodulator effect of 17β-estradiol and progesterone as compared to androgens in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system of both female and male rodents. The 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP mice model of Parkinson’s disease and methamphetamine toxicity faithfully reproduce the sex differences of Parkinson’s disease in that endogenous estrogen levels appear to influence the vulnerability to toxins targeting the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system. Exogenous 17β-estradiol and/or progesterone treatments show neuroprotective properties against nigrostriatal dopaminergic toxins while androgens fail to induce beneficial effect. Sex steroids treatments show males and females difference in their neuroprotective action against methamphetamine toxicity. Nigrostriatal dopaminergic structure and function, as well as the distribution of estrogen receptors, show sex difference and may influence the susceptibility to the toxins and the response to sex steroids. Genomic and non-genomic actions of 17β-estradiol converge to promote survival factors and the presence of both estrogen receptors α and β are critical to 17β-estradiol neuroprotective action against MPTP toxicity.

  10. Sexual response in patients treated with sacral neuromodulation for lower urinary tract symptoms or fecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Voskuilen, A C; Oerlemans, D J; Gielen, N; Lansen-Koch, S M P; Weil, E H J; van Lankveld, J J D M; van den Hombergh, U; Baeten, C G M I; van Kerrenbroeck, P E V

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether sacral neuromodulation (SNM) for urinary symptoms or fecal incontinence gives improvement of female sexual function and whether improvement is due to physiological or psychological factors. Between 2002 and 2008, 8 patients had an array of questionnaires before and after SNM implantation. The questionnaires were: the Questionnaire for Screening for Sexual Dysfunctions, the Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction, the Symptom Checklist-90, the Maudsley Marital Questionnaire and the McGill-Mah Orgasm Questionnaire. Three of these 8 patients underwent vaginal plethysmography before and after implantation. No statistically significant changes were found, although there seems to be a trend toward improvement in orgasm scores. In plethysmography all 3 patients showed increased vaginal pulse amplitude with the stimulator turned on with both erotic and non-erotic stimuli. This study does not show a clear effect of SNM on sexual function, although there seems to be an improvement in orgasm scores. The lack of response on psychological questionnaires and the increase in vaginal pulse amplitude after SNM implantation indicate that there might be a physiological response. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Effects of hypergravic fields on serotonergic neuromodulation in the rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrigan, D J; Fuller, C A; Horowitz, J M

    1997-10-01

    The effects of 7 day exposure to 2G fields on serotonergic modulation at two synapses on a hippocampal pathway were examined by recording dentate gyrus and CA1 pyramidal cell layer electrical activity. Serotonin decreased the amplitude of the population spike (synchronous action potentials in hundreds of neurons) in both the dentate gyrus and CA1 regions of rats exposed to 2G fields for 7 days. The inhibition, averaging 26 +/- 4% (mean +/- SEM) in the dentate gyrus and 80 +/- 5% in the CA1 region, was not significantly different from inhibitory responses observed in 1G controls. The 5-HT1A agonist 8-OH-DPAT mimicked this inhibition in the dentate and CA1 regions of 1G rats. 8-OH-DPAT responses were not affected by exposure to 2G fields. We conclude that the hippocampus contains surplus 5-HT receptors so that decreases in receptor density reported in receptor binding studies do not result in a decrease in modulatory capability. A model to account for the physiological pathway that relates gravitational field strength to 5-HT receptor density without changing the effectiveness of 5-HT neuromodulation is discussed.

  12. Surface localization of sacral foramina for neuromodulation of bladder function. An anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, S T; Shanahan, D A; Pridie, A K; Neal, D E

    1996-01-01

    A method is described for percutaneous localization of the sacral foramina, for neuromodulation of bladder function. We carried out an anatomical study of 5 male and 5 female human cadaver pelves. Using the described surface markings, needles were placed percutaneously into all sacral foramina from nine different angles. Paths of needle entry were studied by subsequent dissection. We observed that although it was possible to enter any sacral foramen at a wide range of insertion angles, the incidence of nerve root/vascular penetration increased with increasing angle of needle entry. Also, the incidence of nerve root penetration was higher with the medial approach compared with lateral entry. The insertion of a needle into the S1 foramen was associated with a higher incidence of nerve root penetration and presents a potential for arterial haemorrhage. On the other hand the smaller S3 and S4 nerve roots were surrounded by venous plexuses, presenting a potential source of venous haemorrhage during procedures. Our study suggests a new method for identifying the surface markings of sacral foramina and it describes the paths of inserted needles into the respective foramina. In addition, it has highlighted some potential risk factors secondary to needle insertion.

  13. Importance of stimulation paradigm in determining facilitation and effects of neuromodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crider, M E; Cooper, R L

    1999-09-25

    Evoked synaptic activity within the CNS and at the neuromuscular junction in most in vivo preparations studied occurs not with single isolated stimuli, but with trains, or bursts, of stimuli. Although for ease in studying the mechanisms of vesicular synaptic transmission one often uses single discrete stimuli, the true mechanisms in the animal may be far more complex. When repetitive stimuli are present at a nerve terminal, often a heightened (i.e., facilitated) postsynaptic potential can be as a result. Facilitation is commonly used as an index of synaptic function and plasticity induced by chronic stimulation or by neuromodulation. The mechanisms that give rise to facilitation are thought to be the same that may underlie short-term learning and memory [C.H. Bailey, E.R. Kandel, Structural changes accompanying memory storage. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 55 (1993) 397-426.]. Differences in short term facilitation (STF) are seen depending on the conventional stimulation paradigm (twin pulse, train, or continuous) used to induce facilitation. Thus, a battery of paradigms should be used to characterize synaptic function to obtain a closer understanding of the possible in vivo conditions.

  14. Improving neuromodulation technique for refractory voiding dysfunctions: two-stage implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janknegt, R A; Weil, E H; Eerdmans, P H

    1997-03-01

    Neuromodulation is a new technique that uses electrical stimulation of the sacral nerves for patients with refractory urinary urge/frequency or urge-incontinence, and some forms of urinary retention. The limiting factor for receiving an implant is often a failure of the percutaneous nerve evaluation (PNE) test. Present publications mention only about a 50% success score for PNE of all patients, although the micturition diaries and urodynamic parameters are similar. We wanted to investigate whether PNE results improved by using a permanent electrode as a PNE test. This would show that improvement of the PNE technique is feasible. In 10 patients where the original PNE had failed to improve the micturition diary parameters more than 50%, a permanent electrode was implanted by operation. It was connected to an external stimulator. In those cases where the patients improved according to their micturition diary by more than 50% during a period of 4 days, the external stimulator was replaced by a permanent subcutaneous neurostimulator. Eight of the 10 patients had a good to very good result (60% to 90% improvement) during the testing period and received their implant 5 to 14 days after the first stage. The good results of the two-stage implant technique we used indicate that the development of better PNE electrodes may lead to an improvement of the testing technique and better selection between nonresponders and technical failures.

  15. Neuromodulation of detrusor hyper-reflexia by functional magnetic stimulation of the sacral roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheriff, M K; Shah, P J; Fowler, C; Mundy, A R; Craggs, M D

    1996-07-01

    To investigate the acute effects of functional magnetic stimulation (FMS) on detrusor hyper-reflexia using a multi-pulse magnetic stimulator. Seven male patients with established and intractable detrusor hyper-reflexia following spinal cord injury were studied. No patient was on medication and none had had previous surgery for detrusor hyper-reflexia. After optimization of magnetic stimulation of S2-S4 sacral anterior roots by recording toe flexor electromyograms, unstable detrusor activity was provoked during cystometry by rapid infusion of fluid into the bladder. The provocation test produced consistent and predictable detrusor hyper-reflexia. On some provocations, supramaximal FMS at 20 pulses/s for 5 s was applied at detrusor pressures which were > 15 cmH2O. Following FMS there was an obvious acute suppression of detrusor hyper-reflexia. There was a profound reduction in detrusor contraction, as assessed by the area under the curves of detrusor pressure with time. Functional magnetic stimulation applied over the sacrum can profoundly suppress detrusor hyper-reflexia in man. It may provide a non-invasive method of assessing patients for implantable electrical neuromodulation devices and as a therapeutic option in its own right.

  16. The neurophysiology of urinary retention in young women and its treatment by neuromodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, R J; Swinn, M J; Fowler, C J

    1998-01-01

    Urinary retention occurring in young women as an isolated phenomenon was often thought to be psychogenic in origin. However, in 1988, Fowler et al. described a syndrome in young women in which urinary retention was the predominant feature and in which electromyography (EMG) of the striated urethral sphincter revealed a striking abnormality. This abnormality, it was postulated, would result in an inability of the sphincter to relax and retention would therefore result. Until recently there was no effective treatment for this disorder except management by clean intermittent self-catheterisation. However, preliminary results of neuromodulation using a Medtronic sacral nerve stimulator have been particularly promising in this group of patients. The response is often spectacular; a woman who has not passed urine per urethram for many months or years will frequently find that within a few hours of insertion of the percutaneous nerve evaluation (PNE) lead, she can void quite normally with little or no residual urine. The precise mechanism of action is yet to be defined, but measurements of the latency of anal sphincter contraction on S3 stimulation during PNE are so prolonged that they can only be the result of an afferent-mediated reflex.

  17. Effects of Acute Sacral Neuromodulation at Different Frequencies on Bladder Overactivity in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose We investigated the effects of different stimulation frequencies on the inhibition of bladder overactivity by sacral neuromodulation (SNM in pigs. Methods Implant-driven stimulators were used to stimulate the S3 spinal nerve in 13 pigs. Cystometry was performed by infusing normal saline (NS or acetic acid (AA. SNM (pulse width, 210 µsec at frequencies ranging from 5 to 50 Hz was conducted at the intensity threshold at which observable perianal and/or tail movement was induced. Multiple cystometrograms were performed to determine the effects of different frequencies on the micturition reflex. Results AA-induced bladder overactivity significantly reduced the bladder capacity (BC to 34.4%±4.7% of the NS control level (354.4±35.9 mL (P0.05, but SNM at 15, 30, and 50 Hz significantly increased the BC to 54.5%±7.1%, 55.2%±6.5%, and 57.2%±6.1% of the NS control level (P0.05. Conclusions This study demonstrated that 15 Hz was an appropriate frequency for SNM and that frequencies higher than 15 Hz did not lead to better surgical outcomes.

  18. An Elongin-Cullin-SOCS Box Complex Regulates Stress-Induced Serotonergic Neuromodulation

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    Xicotencatl Gracida

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuromodulatory cells transduce environmental information into long-lasting behavioral responses. However, the mechanisms governing how neuronal cells influence behavioral plasticity are difficult to characterize. Here, we adapted the translating ribosome affinity purification (TRAP approach in C. elegans to profile ribosome-associated mRNAs from three major tissues and the neuromodulatory dopaminergic and serotonergic cells. We identified elc-2, an Elongin C ortholog, specifically expressed in stress-sensing amphid neuron dual ciliated sensory ending (ADF serotonergic sensory neurons, and we found that it plays a role in mediating a long-lasting change in serotonin-dependent feeding behavior induced by heat stress. We demonstrate that ELC-2 and the von Hippel-Lindau protein VHL-1, components of an Elongin-Cullin-SOCS box (ECS E3 ubiquitin ligase, modulate this behavior after experiencing stress. Also, heat stress induces a transient redistribution of ELC-2, becoming more nuclearly enriched. Together, our results demonstrate dynamic regulation of an E3 ligase and a role for an ECS complex in neuromodulation and control of lasting behavioral states.

  19. PMD2HD--a web tool aligning a PubMed search results page with the local German Cancer Research Centre library collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohne-Lang, Andreas; Lang, Elke; Taube, Anke

    2005-06-27

    Web-based searching is the accepted contemporary mode of retrieving relevant literature, and retrieving as many full text articles as possible is a typical prerequisite for research success. In most cases only a proportion of references will be directly accessible as digital reprints through displayed links. A large number of references, however, have to be verified in library catalogues and, depending on their availability, are accessible as print holdings or by interlibrary loan request. The problem of verifying local print holdings from an initial retrieval set of citations can be solved using Z39.50, an ANSI protocol for interactively querying library information systems. Numerous systems include Z39.50 interfaces and therefore can process Z39.50 interactive requests. However, the programmed query interaction command structure is non-intuitive and inaccessible to the average biomedical researcher. For the typical user, it is necessary to implement the protocol within a tool that hides and handles Z39.50 syntax, presenting a comfortable user interface. PMD2HD is a web tool implementing Z39.50 to provide an appropriately functional and usable interface to integrate into the typical workflow that follows an initial PubMed literature search, providing users with an immediate asset to assist in the most tedious step in literature retrieval, checking for subscription holdings against a local online catalogue. PMD2HD can facilitate literature access considerably with respect to the time and cost of manual comparisons of search results with local catalogue holdings. The example presented in this article is related to the library system and collections of the German Cancer Research Centre. However, the PMD2HD software architecture and use of common Z39.50 protocol commands allow for transfer to a broad range of scientific libraries using Z39.50-compatible library information systems.

  20. Canis mtDNA HV1 database: a web-based tool for collecting and surveying Canis mtDNA HV1 haplotype in public database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Quan Ke; Chung, Dung Anh; Tran, Hoang-Dung

    2017-06-26

    Canine and wolf mitochondrial DNA haplotypes, which can be used for forensic or phylogenetic analyses, have been defined in various schemes depending on the region analyzed. In recent studies, the 582 bp fragment of the HV1 region is most commonly used. 317 different canine HV1 haplotypes have been reported in the rapidly growing public database GenBank. These reported haplotypes contain several inconsistencies in their haplotype information. To overcome this issue, we have developed a Canis mtDNA HV1 database. This database collects data on the HV1 582 bp region in dog mitochondrial DNA from the GenBank to screen and correct the inconsistencies. It also supports users in detection of new novel mutation profiles and assignment of new haplotypes. The Canis mtDNA HV1 database (CHD) contains 5567 nucleotide entries originating from 15 subspecies in the species Canis lupus. Of these entries, 3646 were haplotypes and grouped into 804 distinct sequences. 319 sequences were recognized as previously assigned haplotypes, while the remaining 485 sequences had new mutation profiles and were marked as new haplotype candidates awaiting further analysis for haplotype assignment. Of the 3646 nucleotide entries, only 414 were annotated with correct haplotype information, while 3232 had insufficient or lacked haplotype information and were corrected or modified before storing in the CHD. The CHD can be accessed at http://chd.vnbiology.com . It provides sequences, haplotype information, and a web-based tool for mtDNA HV1 haplotyping. The CHD is updated monthly and supplies all data for download. The Canis mtDNA HV1 database contains information about canine mitochondrial DNA HV1 sequences with reconciled annotation. It serves as a tool for detection of inconsistencies in GenBank and helps identifying new HV1 haplotypes. Thus, it supports the scientific community in naming new HV1 haplotypes and to reconcile existing annotation of HV1 582 bp sequences.

  1. Initial clinical validation of Health Heritage, a patient-facing tool for personal and family history collection and cancer risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Leigh A; Postula, Kristen J Vogel; Knaus, William A

    2016-04-01

    Personal and family health histories remain important independent risk factors for cancer; however they are currently not being well collected or used effectively. Health Heritage was designed to address this need. The purpose of this study was to validate the ability of Health Heritage to identify patients appropriate for further genetic evaluation and to accurately stratify cancer risk. A retrospective chart review was conducted on 100 random patients seen at an adult genetics clinic presenting with concern for an inherited predisposition to cancer. Relevant personal and family history obtained from the patients' medical records was entered into Health Heritage. Recommendations by Health Heritage were compared to national guidelines of eligibility for genetic evaluation. Agreement between Health Heritage referral for genetic evaluation and guideline eligibility for genetic evaluation was 97% (sensitivity 98% and specificity 88%). Risk stratification for cancer was also compared between Health Heritage and those documented by a geneticist. For patients at increased risk for breast, ovarian, or colorectal cancer as determined by the geneticist, risk stratification by Health Heritage agreed 90, 93, and 75%, respectively. Discordances in risk stratification were attributed to both complex situations better handled by the geneticist and Health Heritage's adherence to incorporating all information into its algorithms. Health Heritage is a clinically valid tool to identify patients appropriate for further genetic evaluation and to encourage them to confirm the assessment and management recommendations with cancer genetic experts. Health Heritage also provides an estimate of cancer risk that is complementary to a genetics team.

  2. Advantages of soft subdural implants for the delivery of electrochemical neuromodulation therapies to the spinal cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capogrosso, Marco; Gandar, Jerome; Greiner, Nathan; Moraud, Eduardo Martin; Wenger, Nikolaus; Shkorbatova, Polina; Musienko, Pavel; Minev, Ivan; Lacour, Stephanie; Courtine, Grégoire

    2018-04-01

    opportunity to deliver electrical and chemical neuromodulation therapies using a single, bio-compatible and mechanically compliant device that effectively alleviates locomotor deficits after spinal cord injury.

  3. Effects of Neuromodulation on Excitatory-Inhibitory Neural Network Dynamics Depend on Network Connectivity Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Scott; Zochowski, Michal; Booth, Victoria

    2018-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh), one of the brain's most potent neuromodulators, can affect intrinsic neuron properties through blockade of an M-type potassium current. The effect of ACh on excitatory and inhibitory cells with this potassium channel modulates their membrane excitability, which in turn affects their tendency to synchronize in networks. Here, we study the resulting changes in dynamics in networks with inter-connected excitatory and inhibitory populations (E-I networks), which are ubiquitous in the brain. Utilizing biophysical models of E-I networks, we analyze how the network connectivity structure in terms of synaptic connectivity alters the influence of ACh on the generation of synchronous excitatory bursting. We investigate networks containing all combinations of excitatory and inhibitory cells with high (Type I properties) or low (Type II properties) modulatory tone. To vary network connectivity structure, we focus on the effects of the strengths of inter-connections between excitatory and inhibitory cells (E-I synapses and I-E synapses), and the strengths of intra-connections among excitatory cells (E-E synapses) and among inhibitory cells (I-I synapses). We show that the presence of ACh may or may not affect the generation of network synchrony depending on the network connectivity. Specifically, strong network inter-connectivity induces synchronous excitatory bursting regardless of the cellular propensity for synchronization, which aligns with predictions of the PING model. However, when a network's intra-connectivity dominates its inter-connectivity, the propensity for synchrony of either inhibitory or excitatory cells can determine the generation of network-wide bursting.

  4. rTMS neuromodulation improves electrocortical functional measures of information processing and behavioral responses in autism

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    Estate M Sokhadze

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Reports in autism spectrum disorders (ASD of a minicolumnopathy with consequent deficits of lateral inhibition help explain observed behavioral and executive dysfunctions. We propose that neuromodulation based on rTMS will enhance lateral inhibition through activation of inhibitory double bouquet interneurons and will be accompanied by improvements in the prefrontal executive functions. Methods: The current study used ERPs in a visual oddball task with illusory figures. We compared clinical, behavioral and electrocortical outcomes in 2 groups of children with autism (TMS, wait-list group [WTL]. We predicted that 18 session long course in autistic patients will have better behavioral and ERP outcomes as compared to age- and IQ-matched wait-list group. We used 18 sessions of 1Hz rTMS applied over the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex in 27 individuals with ASD diagnosis. The WTL group was comprised of 27 age-matched ASD subjects. Results: Post-TMS evaluations showed decreased irritability and hyperactivity and decreased stereotypic behaviors. Following rTMS we found decreased amplitude and prolonged latency in the fronto-central ERPs to non-targets in the TMS group. These ERP changes along with increased centro-parietal ERPs to targets are indicative of more efficient processing of information post-TMS. Another finding was increased magnitude of error-related negativity (ERN during commission errors. We calculated normative post-error reaction time (RT slowing response in both groups and found that rTMS was accompanied by post-error RT slowing and higher accuracy of responses, whereas the WTL group kept on showing typical for ASD post-error RT speeding and had higher error rate. Conclusion: Results from our study indicate that rTMS improves executive functioning in ASD as evidenced by normalization of ERP responses and behavioral reactions during executive function test, and also by improvements in clinical behavioral evaluations.

  5. A neurochemical closed-loop controller for deep brain stimulation: toward individualized smart neuromodulation therapies.

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    Peter Jonas Grahn

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Current strategies for optimizing deep brain stimulation (DBS therapy involve multiple postoperative visits. During each visit, stimulation parameters are adjusted until desired therapeutic effects are achieved and adverse effects are minimized. However, the efficacy of these therapeutic parameters may decline with time due at least in part to disease progression, interactions between the host environment and the electrode, and lead migration. As such, development of closed-loop control systems that can respond to changing neurochemical environments, tailoring DBS therapy to individual patients, is paramount for improving the therapeutic efficacy of DBS.Evidence obtained using electrophysiology and imaging techniques in both animals and humans suggests that DBS works by modulating neural network activity. Recently, animal studies have shown that stimulation-evoked changes in neurotransmitter release that mirror normal physiology are associated with the therapeutic benefits of DBS. Therefore, to fully understand the neurophysiology of DBS and optimize its efficacy, it may be necessary to look beyond conventional electrophysiological analyses and characterize the neurochemical effects of therapeutic and non-therapeutic stimulation. By combining electrochemical monitoring and mathematical modeling techniques, we can potentially replace the trial-and-error process used in clinical programming with deterministic approaches that help attain optimal and stable neurochemical profiles. In this manuscript, we summarize the current understanding of electrophysiological and electrochemical processing for control of neuromodulation therapies. Additionally, we describe a proof-of-principle closed-loop controller that characterizes DBS-evoked dopamine changes to adjust stimulation parameters in a rodent model of DBS. The work described herein represents the initial steps toward achieving a smart neuroprosthetic system for treatment of neurologic and

  6. Detecting a cortical fingerprint of Parkinson’s disease for closed-loop neuromodulation

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    Kevin eKern

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that deep brain stimulation (DBS of the subthalamic nucleus (STN in Parkinson’s disease (PD mediates its clinical effects by modulating cortical oscillatory activity, presumably via a direct cortico-subthalamic connection. This observation might pave the way for novel closed-loop approaches comprising a cortical sensor. Enhanced beta oscillations (13-35 Hz have been linked to the pathophysiology of PD and may serve as such a candidate marker to localize a cortical area reliably modulated by DBS. However, beta-oscillations are widely distributed over the cortical surface, necessitating an additional signal source for spotting the cortical area linked to the pathologically synchronized cortico-subcortical motor network.In this context, both cortico-subthalamic coherence and cortico-muscular coherence (CMC have been studied in PD patients. Whereas the former requires invasive recordings, the latter allows for non-invasive detection, but displays a rather distributed cortical synchronization pattern in motor tasks. This distributed cortical representation may conflict with the goal of detecting a cortical localization with robust biomarker properties which is detectable on a single subject basis. We propose that this limitation could be overcome when recording CMC at rest. We hypothesized that – unlike healthy subjects – PD would show CMC at rest owing to the enhanced beta oscillations observed in PD. By performing source space analysis of beta CMC recorded during resting-state magnetoencephalography, we provide preliminary evidence in one patient for a cortical hot spot that is modulated most strongly by subthalamic DBS. Such a spot would provide a prominent target region either for direct neuromodulation or for placing a potential sensor in closed-loop DBS approaches, a proposal that requires investigation in a larger cohort of PD patients.

  7. Age-dependent changes of presynaptic neuromodulation via A1-adenosine receptors in rat hippocampal slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperlágh, B; Zsilla, G; Baranyi, M; Kékes-Szabó, A; Vizi, E S

    1997-10-01

    The presynaptic neuromodulation of stimulation-evoked release of [3H]-acetylcholine by endogenous adenosine, via A1-adenosine receptors, was studied in superfused hippocampal slices taken from 4-, 12- and 24-month-old rats. 8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine (0.25 microM), a selective A1-receptor antagonist, increased significantly the electrical field stimulation-induced release of [3H]-acetylcholine in slices prepared from 4- and 12-month-old rats, showing a tonic inhibitory action of endogenous adenosine via stimulation of presynaptic A1-adenosine receptors. In contrast, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine had no effect in 24-month-old rats. 2-Chloroadenosine (10 microM), an adenosine receptor agonist decreased the release of [3H]-acetylcholine in slices taken from 4- and 12-month-old rats, and no significant change was observed in slices taken from 24-month-old rats. In order to show whether the number/or affinity of the A1-receptors was affected in aged rats, [3H]-8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine binding was studied in hippocampal membranes prepared from rats of different ages. Whereas the Bmax value was significantly lower in 2-year-old rats than in younger counterparts, the dissociation constant (Kd) was not affected by aging, indicating that the density rather than the affinity of adenosine receptors was altered. Endogenous adenosine levels present in the extracellular space were also measured in the superfusate by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with ultraviolet detection, and an age-related increase in the adenosine level was found. In summary, our results indicate that during aging the level of adenosine in the extracellular fluid is increased in the hippocampus. There is a downregulation and reduced responsiveness of presynaptic adenosine A1-receptors, and it seems likely that these changes are due to the enhanced adenosine level in the extracellular space.

  8. Development and aminergic neuromodulation of a spinal locomotor network controlling swimming in Xenopus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillar, K T; Reith, C A; McDearmid, J R

    1998-11-16

    In this article we review our research on the development and intrinsic neuromodulation of a spinal network controlling locomotion in a simple vertebrate. Swimming in hatchling Xenopus embryos is generated by a restricted network of well-characterized spinal neurons. This network produces a stereotyped motor pattern which, like real swimming, involves rhythmic activity that alternates across the body and progresses rostrocaudally with a brief delay between muscle segments. The stereotypy results from motoneurons discharging a single impulse in each cycle; because all motoneurons appear to behave similarly there is little scope for altering the output to the myotomes from one cycle to the next. Just one day later, however, Xenopus larvae generate a more complex and flexible motor pattern in which motoneurons can discharge a variable number of impulses which contribute to ventral root bursts in each cycle. This maturation of swimming is due, in part, to the influence of serotonin released from brain-stem raphespinal interneurons whose axonal projections innervate the cord early in larval life. Larval swimming is differentially modulated by both serotonin and by noradrenaline: serotonin leads to relatively fast, intense swimming whereas noradrenaline favors slower, weaker activity. Thus, these two biogenic amines select opposite extremes from the spectrum of possible output patterns that the swimming network can produce. Our studies on the cellular and synaptic effects of the amines indicate that they can control the strength of reciprocal glycinergic inhibition in the spinal cord. Serotonin and noradrenaline act presynaptically on the terminals of glycinergic commissural interneurons to weaken and strengthen, respectively, crossed glycinergic inhibition during swimming. As a result, serotonin reduces and noradrenaline increases interburst intervals. The membrane properties of spinal neurons are also affected by the amines. In particular, serotonin can induce

  9. Experimental results on mechanisms of action of electrical neuromodulation in chronic urinary retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz-Lampel, D; Jiang, C; Lindström, S; Thüroff, J W

    1998-01-01

    Sacral foramen neuromodulation--initially applied for the treatment of urinary incontinence--has proved to be effective in patients with chronic urinary retention. Thus far, the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms have not been elucidated. In an experimental study on the neurophysiological basis of sacral neurostimulation, one objective was to investigate the mechanisms responsible for initiation of micturition in chronic urinary retention. In ten female cats anesthetized with alpha-chloralose the clinical situation of sacral foramen stimulation was experimentally reproduced by isolated S2 nerve stimulation after L6-S3 laminectomy. Stimulation responses were recorded from the bladder, peripheral nerves, and striated muscles of the foot and pelvic floor. The effect of sudden cessation of prolonged S2 stimulation, during which the bladder was completely inhibited, was evaluated in 70 stimulation sequences in 5 cats. Sacral nerve stimulation induced excitatory and inhibitory effects on the bladder, depending on the frequency and intensity of stimulation. With unilateral S2 stimulation, bladder excitation was best at frequencies of 2-5 Hz and at intensities ranging between 0.8 and 1.4 times the threshold for the M-response of the foot muscle. Inhibition was the dominating effect at frequencies of 7-10 Hz and at intensities exceeding 1.4 times the threshold. Prolonged S2 stimulation above the threshold produced complete bladder inhibition during stimulation but induced strong bladder contractions after sudden interruption of stimulation, with amplitudes being significantly higher than that of spontaneous contractions preceding the stimulation. These results confirm the hypothesis of a "rebound" phenomenon as the mechanism of action for induction of spontaneous voiding in patients with chronic urinary retention.

  10. Differential activation of an identified motor neuron and neuromodulation provide Aplysia's retractor muscle an additional function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Jeffrey M; Lu, Hui; Cullins, Miranda J; Chiel, Hillel J

    2014-08-15

    To survive, animals must use the same peripheral structures to perform a variety of tasks. How does a nervous system employ one muscle to perform multiple functions? We addressed this question through work on the I3 jaw muscle of the marine mollusk Aplysia californica's feeding system. This muscle mediates retraction of Aplysia's food grasper in multiple feeding responses and is innervated by a pool of identified neurons that activate different muscle regions. One I3 motor neuron, B38, is active in the protraction phase, rather than the retraction phase, suggesting the muscle has an additional function. We used intracellular, extracellular, and muscle force recordings in several in vitro preparations as well as recordings of nerve and muscle activity from intact, behaving animals to characterize B38's activation of the muscle and its activity in different behavior types. We show that B38 specifically activates the anterior region of I3 and is specifically recruited during one behavior, swallowing. The function of this protraction-phase jaw muscle contraction is to hold food; thus the I3 muscle has an additional function beyond mediating retraction. We additionally show that B38's typical activity during in vivo swallowing is insufficient to generate force in an unmodulated muscle and that intrinsic and extrinsic modulation shift the force-frequency relationship to allow contraction. Using methods that traverse levels from individual neuron to muscle to intact animal, we show how regional muscle activation, differential motor neuron recruitment, and neuromodulation are key components in Aplysia's generation of multifunctionality. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Numerical evaluation of the skull for human neuromodulation with transcranial focused ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Jerel K.; Ai, Leo; Bansal, Priya; Legon, Wynn

    2017-12-01

    Objective. Transcranial focused ultrasound is an emerging field for human non-invasive neuromodulation, but its dosing in humans is difficult to know due to the skull. The objective of the present study was to establish modeling methods based on medical images to assess skull differences between individuals on the wave propagation of ultrasound. Approach. Computational models of transcranial focused ultrasound were constructed using CT and MR scans to solve for intracranial pressure. We explored the effect of including the skull base in models, different transducer placements on the head, and differences between 250 kHz or 500 kHz acoustic frequency for both female and male models. We further tested these features using linear, nonlinear, and elastic simulations. To better understand inter-subject skull thickness and composition effects we evaluated the intracranial pressure maps between twelve individuals at two different skull sites. Main results. Nonlinear acoustic simulations resulted in virtually identical intracranial pressure maps with linear acoustic simulations. Elastic simulations showed a difference in max pressures and full width half maximum volumes of 15% at most. Ultrasound at an acoustic frequency of 250 kHz resulted in the creation of more prominent intracranial standing waves compared to 500 kHz. Finally, across twelve model human skulls, a significant linear relationship to characterize intracranial pressure maps was not found. Significance. Despite its appeal, an inherent problem with the use of a noninvasive transcranial ultrasound method is the difficulty of knowing intracranial effects because of the skull. Here we develop detailed computational models derived from medical images of individuals to simulate the propagation of neuromodulatory ultrasound across the skull and solve for intracranial pressure maps. These methods allow for a much better understanding of the intracranial effects of ultrasound for an individual in order to

  12. Recovery of rhythmic activity in a central pattern generator: analysis of the role of neuromodulator and activity-dependent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yili; Golowasch, Jorge

    2011-11-01

    The pyloric network of decapods crustaceans can undergo dramatic rhythmic activity changes. Under normal conditions the network generates low frequency rhythmic activity that depends obligatorily on the presence of neuromodulatory input from the central nervous system. When this input is removed (decentralization) the rhythmic activity ceases. In the continued absence of this input, periodic activity resumes after a few hours in the form of episodic bursting across the entire network that later turns into stable rhythmic activity that is nearly indistinguishable from control (recovery). It has been proposed that an activity-dependent modification of ionic conductance levels in the pyloric pacemaker neuron drives the process of recovery of activity. Previous modeling attempts have captured some aspects of the temporal changes observed experimentally, but key features could not be reproduced. Here we examined a model in which slow activity-dependent regulation of ionic conductances and slower neuromodulator-dependent regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration reproduce all the temporal features of this recovery. Key aspects of these two regulatory mechanisms are their independence and their different kinetics. We also examined the role of variability (noise) in the activity-dependent regulation pathway and observe that it can help to reduce unrealistic constraints that were otherwise required on the neuromodulator-dependent pathway. We conclude that small variations in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, a Ca(2+) uptake regulation mechanism that is directly targeted by neuromodulator-activated signaling pathways, and variability in the Ca(2+) concentration sensing signaling pathway can account for the observed changes in neuronal activity. Our conclusions are all amenable to experimental analysis.

  13. Participatory data collection and monitoring of agricultural pest dynamics for climate-resilient coffee production using Tiko'n, a generic tool to develop agroecological food web models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, M.; Malard, J. J.; Adamowski, J. F.; Tuy, H.

    2016-12-01

    Climate variability impacts agricultural processes through many mechanisms. For example, the proliferation of pests and diseases increases with warmer climate and alternated wind patterns, as longer growing seasons allow pest species to complete more reproductive cycles and changes in the weather patterns alter the stages and rates of development of pests and pathogens. Several studies suggest that enhancing plant diversity and complexity in farming systems, such as in agroforestry systems, reduces the vulnerability of farms to extreme climatic events. On the other hand, other authors have argued that vegetation diversity does not necessarily reduce the incidence of pests and diseases, highlighting the importance of understanding how, where and when it is recommendable to diversify vegetation to improve pest and disease control, and emphasising the need for tools to develop, monitor and evaluate agroecosystems. In order to understand how biodiversity can enhance ecosystem services provided by the agroecosystem in the context of climatic variability, it is important to develop comprehensive models that include the role of trophic chains in the regulation of pests, which can be achieved by integrating crop models with pest-predator models, also known as agroecosystem network (AEN) models. Here we present a methodology for the participatory data collection and monitoring necessary for running Tiko'n, an AEN model that can also be coupled to a crop model such as DSSAT. This methodology aims to combine the local and practical knowledge of farmers with the scientific knowledge of entomologists and agronomists, allowing for the simplification of complex ecological networks of plant and insect interactions. This also increases the acceptability, credibility, and comprehension of the model by farmers, allowing them to understand their relationship with the local agroecosystem and their potential to use key agroecosystem principles such as functional diversity to mitigate

  14. Volatile Compound Profiling by HS-SPME/GC-MS-FID of a Core Olive Cultivar Collection as a Tool for Aroma Improvement of Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes García-Vico

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Virgin olive oil (VOO is the only food product requiring official sensory analysis to be classified in commercial categories, in which the evaluation of the aroma plays a very important role. The selection of parents, with the aim of obtaining new cultivars with improved oil aroma, is of paramount importance in olive breeding programs. We have assessed the volatile fraction by headspace-solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-flame ionization detection (HS-SPME/GC-MS-FID and the deduced aroma properties of VOO from a core set of olive cultivars (Core-36 which possesses most of the genetic diversity found in the World Olive Germplasm Collection (IFAPA Alameda del Obispo located in Cordoba, Spain. The VOO volatile fractions of Core-36 cultivars display a high level of variability. It is mostly made of compounds produced from polyunsaturated fatty acids through the lipoxygenase pathway, which confirms to be a general characteristic of the olive species (Olea europaea L.. The main group of volatile compounds in the oils was six straight-chain carbon compounds derived from linolenic acid, some of them being the main contributors to the aroma of the olive oils according to their odor activity values (OAV. The high level of variability found for the volatile fraction of the oils from Core-36 and, therefore, for the aroma odor notes, suggest that this core set may be a very useful tool for the choice of optimal parents in olive breeding programs in order to raise new cultivars with improved VOO aroma.

  15. Volatile Compound Profiling by HS-SPME/GC-MS-FID of a Core Olive Cultivar Collection as a Tool for Aroma Improvement of Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vico, Lourdes; Belaj, Angjelina; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Martínez-Rivas, José M; Pérez, Ana G; Sanz, Carlos

    2017-01-14

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) is the only food product requiring official sensory analysis to be classified in commercial categories, in which the evaluation of the aroma plays a very important role. The selection of parents, with the aim of obtaining new cultivars with improved oil aroma, is of paramount importance in olive breeding programs. We have assessed the volatile fraction by headspace-solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-flame ionization detection (HS-SPME/GC-MS-FID) and the deduced aroma properties of VOO from a core set of olive cultivars (Core-36) which possesses most of the genetic diversity found in the World Olive Germplasm Collection (IFAPA Alameda del Obispo) located in Cordoba, Spain. The VOO volatile fractions of Core-36 cultivars display a high level of variability. It is mostly made of compounds produced from polyunsaturated fatty acids through the lipoxygenase pathway, which confirms to be a general characteristic of the olive species ( Olea europaea L.). The main group of volatile compounds in the oils was six straight-chain carbon compounds derived from linolenic acid, some of them being the main contributors to the aroma of the olive oils according to their odor activity values (OAV). The high level of variability found for the volatile fraction of the oils from Core-36 and, therefore, for the aroma odor notes, suggest that this core set may be a very useful tool for the choice of optimal parents in olive breeding programs in order to raise new cultivars with improved VOO aroma.

  16. Designing a Qualitative Data Collection Strategy (QDCS) for Africa - Phase 1: A Gap Analysis of Existing Models, Simulations, and Tools Relating to Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    QDCS) for Africa – Phase I: A Gap Analysis of Existing Models, Simulations, and Tools Relating to Africa Ashley N. Bybee , Project Leader Dominick E...Strategy (QDCS) for Africa – Phase I: A Gap Analysis of Existing Models, Simulations, and Tools Relating to Africa Ashley N. Bybee , Project Leader...Africa Phase I: A Gap Analysis of Existing Models, Simulations, and Tools Relating to Africa June 2012 Authors: Dr. Ashley Bybee , Project Lead Dr

  17. Loss of catecholaminergic neuromodulation of persistent forms of hippocampal synaptic plasticity with increasing age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Twarkowski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuromodulation by means of the catecholaminergic system is a key component of motivation-driven learning and behaviorally modulated hippocampal synaptic plasticity. In particular, dopamine acting on D1/D5 receptors and noradrenaline acting on beta-adrenergic receptors exert a very potent regulation of forms of hippocampal synaptic plasticity that last for very long-periods of time (>24h, and occur in conjunction with novel spatial learning. Antagonism of these receptors not only prevents long-term potentiation (LTP and long-term depression (LTD, but prevents the memory of the spatial event that, under normal circumstances, leads to the perpetuation of these plasticity forms. Spatial learning behavior that normally comes easily to rats, such as object-place learning and spatial reference learning, becomes increasingly impaired with aging. Middle-aged animals display aging-related deficits of specific, but not all, components of spatial learning, and one possibility is that this initial manifestation of decrements in learning ability that become manifest in middle-age relate to changes in motivation, attention and/or the regulation by neuromodulatory systems of these behavioral states.Here, we compared the regulation by dopaminergic D1/D5 and beta-adrenergic receptors of persistent LTP in young (2-4 month old and middle-aged (8-14 month old rats. We observed in young rats, that weak potentiation that typically lasts for ca. 2h could be strengthened into persistent (>24h LTP by pharmacological activation of either D1/D5 or beta-adrenergic receptors. By contrast, no such facilitation occurred in middle-aged rats. This difference was not related to an ostensible learning deficit: a facilitation of weak potentiation into LTP by spatial learning was possible both in young and middle-aged rats. It was also not directly linked to deficits in LTP: strong afferent stimulation resulted in equivalent LTP in both age groups. We postulate that this change in

  18. PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF LEARNING-RELATED NEUROMODULATION IN MOLLUSCAN MECHANOSENSORY NEURONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, William G; Kirschman, David; Rozen, Danny; Maynard, Barbara

    1996-12-01

    In spite of significant advances in our understanding of mechanisms of learning and memory in a variety of organisms, little is known about how such mechanisms evolve. Even mechanisms of simple forms of learning, such as habituation and sensitization, have not been studied phylogenetically. Here we begin an evolutionary analysis of learning-related neuromodulation in species related to the well-studied opisthobranch gastropod, Aplysia californica. In Aplysia, increased spike duration and excitability in mechanosensory neurons contribute to several forms of learning-related changes to defensive withdrawal reflexes. The modulatory transmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT), is thought to play a critical role in producing these firing property changes. In the present study, we tested mechanosensory homologs of the tail-withdrawal reflex in species related to Aplysia for 5-HT-mediated increases in spike duration and excitability. Criteria used to identify homologous tail-sensory neurons included position, relative size, resting electrical properties, expression of a sensory neuron-specific protein, neuroanatomy, and receptive field. The four ingroup species studied (Aplysia californica, Dolabella auricularia, Bursatella leachii, and Dolabrifera dolabrifera) belong to two clades (two species each) within the family Aplysiidae. In the first clade (Aplysia/Dolabella), we found that the tail-sensory neurons of A. californica and tail-sensory homologs of a closely related species, D. auricularia, responded to bath-applied serotonin in essentially similar fashion: significant increases in spike duration as well as excitability. In the other clade (Dolabrifera/Bursatella), more distantly related to Aplysia, one species (B. leachii) showed spike broadening and increased excitability. However, the other species (D. dolabrifera) showed neither spike broadening nor increased excitability. The firing properties of tail-sensory homologs of D. dolabrifera were insensitive

  19. Short neuropeptide F acts as a functional neuromodulator for olfactory memory in Kenyon cells of Drosophila mushroom bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapek, Stephan; Kahsai, Lily; Winther, Asa M E; Tanimoto, Hiromu; Nässel, Dick R

    2013-03-20

    In insects, many complex behaviors, including olfactory memory, are controlled by a paired brain structure, the so-called mushroom bodies (MB). In Drosophila, the development, neuroanatomy, and function of intrinsic neurons of the MB, the Kenyon cells, have been well characterized. Until now, several potential neurotransmitters or neuromodulators of Kenyon cells have been anatomically identified. However, whether these neuroactive substances of the Kenyon cells are functional has not been clarified yet. Here we show that a neuropeptide precursor gene encoding four types of short neuropeptide F (sNPF) is required in the Kenyon cells for appetitive olfactory memory. We found that activation of Kenyon cells by expressing a thermosensitive cation channel (dTrpA1) leads to a decrease in sNPF immunoreactivity in the MB lobes. Targeted expression of RNA interference against the sNPF precursor in Kenyon cells results in a highly significant knockdown of sNPF levels. This knockdown of sNPF in the Kenyon cells impairs sugar-rewarded olfactory memory. This impairment is not due to a defect in the reflexive sugar preference or odor response. Consistently, knockdown of sNPF receptors outside the MB causes deficits in appetitive memory. Altogether, these results suggest that sNPF is a functional neuromodulator released by Kenyon cells.

  20. Developing a Deep Brain Stimulation Neuromodulation Network for Parkinson Disease, Essential Tremor, and Dystonia: Report of a Quality Improvement Project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B Dewey

    Full Text Available To develop a process to improve patient outcomes from deep brain stimulation (DBS surgery for Parkinson disease (PD, essential tremor (ET, and dystonia.We employed standard quality improvement methodology using the Plan-Do-Study-Act process to improve patient selection, surgical DBS lead implantation, postoperative programming, and ongoing assessment of patient outcomes.The result of this quality improvement process was the development of a neuromodulation network. The key aspect of this program is rigorous patient assessment of both motor and non-motor outcomes tracked longitudinally using a REDCap database. We describe how this information is used to identify problems and to initiate Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles to address them. Preliminary outcomes data is presented for the cohort of PD and ET patients who have received surgery since the creation of the neuromodulation network.Careful outcomes tracking is essential to ensure quality in a complex therapeutic endeavor like DBS surgery for movement disorders. The REDCap database system is well suited to store outcomes data for the purpose of ongoing quality assurance monitoring.

  1. Evolving Applications, Technological Challenges and Future Opportunities in Neuromodulation: Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Deep Brain Stimulation Think Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Zamora, Adolfo; Giordano, James J.; Gunduz, Aysegul; Brown, Peter; Sanchez, Justin C.; Foote, Kelly D.; Almeida, Leonardo; Starr, Philip A.; Bronte-Stewart, Helen M.; Hu, Wei; McIntyre, Cameron; Goodman, Wayne; Kumsa, Doe; Grill, Warren M.; Walker, Harrison C.; Johnson, Matthew D.; Vitek, Jerrold L.; Greene, David; Rizzuto, Daniel S.; Song, Dong; Berger, Theodore W.; Hampson, Robert E.; Deadwyler, Sam A.; Hochberg, Leigh R.; Schiff, Nicholas D.; Stypulkowski, Paul; Worrell, Greg; Tiruvadi, Vineet; Mayberg, Helen S.; Jimenez-Shahed, Joohi; Nanda, Pranav; Sheth, Sameer A.; Gross, Robert E.; Lempka, Scott F.; Li, Luming; Deeb, Wissam; Okun, Michael S.

    2018-01-01

    The annual Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Think Tank provides a focal opportunity for a multidisciplinary ensemble of experts in the field of neuromodulation to discuss advancements and forthcoming opportunities and challenges in the field. The proceedings of the fifth Think Tank summarize progress in neuromodulation neurotechnology and techniques for the treatment of a range of neuropsychiatric conditions including Parkinson's disease, dystonia, essential tremor, Tourette syndrome, obsessive compulsive disorder, epilepsy and cognitive, and motor disorders. Each section of this overview of the meeting provides insight to the critical elements of discussion, current challenges, and identified future directions of scientific and technological development and application. The report addresses key issues in developing, and emphasizes major innovations that have occurred during the past year. Specifically, this year's meeting focused on technical developments in DBS, design considerations for DBS electrodes, improved sensors, neuronal signal processing, advancements in development and uses of responsive DBS (closed-loop systems), updates on National Institutes of Health and DARPA DBS programs of the BRAIN initiative, and neuroethical and policy issues arising in and from DBS research and applications in practice. PMID:29416498

  2. Evolving Applications, Technological Challenges and Future Opportunities in Neuromodulation: Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Deep Brain Stimulation Think Tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Ramirez-Zamora

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The annual Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS Think Tank provides a focal opportunity for a multidisciplinary ensemble of experts in the field of neuromodulation to discuss advancements and forthcoming opportunities and challenges in the field. The proceedings of the fifth Think Tank summarize progress in neuromodulation neurotechnology and techniques for the treatment of a range of neuropsychiatric conditions including Parkinson's disease, dystonia, essential tremor, Tourette syndrome, obsessive compulsive disorder, epilepsy and cognitive, and motor disorders. Each section of this overview of the meeting provides insight to the critical elements of discussion, current challenges, and identified future directions of scientific and technological development and application. The report addresses key issues in developing, and emphasizes major innovations that have occurred during the past year. Specifically, this year's meeting focused on technical developments in DBS, design considerations for DBS electrodes, improved sensors, neuronal signal processing, advancements in development and uses of responsive DBS (closed-loop systems, updates on National Institutes of Health and DARPA DBS programs of the BRAIN initiative, and neuroethical and policy issues arising in and from DBS research and applications in practice.

  3. A new internet-based tool for reporting and analysing patient-reported outcomes and the feasibility of repeated data collection from patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brochmann, Nana; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Kjerholt, Mette

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: An Internet-based tool for reporting and analysing patient-reported outcomes (PROs) has been developed. The tool enables merging PROs with blood test results and allows for computation of treatment responses. Data may be visualized by graphical analysis and may be exported for downstream...

  4. Coupling Flux Towers and Networks with Proximal and Remote Sensing Data: New Tools to Collect and Share Time-Synchronized Hourly Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burba, George; Avenson, Tom; Burkart, Andreas; Gamon, John; Guan, Kaiyu; Julitta, Tommaso; Pastorello, Gilberto; Sakowska, Karolina

    2017-04-01

    Multiple hundreds of flux towers are presently operational as standalone projects and as parts of larger networks. However, the vast majority of these towers do not allow straight-forward coupling with satellite data, and even fewer have optical sensors for validation of satellite products and upscaling from field to regional levels. In 2016, new tools to collect, process, and share time-synchronized flux data from multiple towers were developed and deployed globally. Originally designed to automate site and data management, these new tools can also be effective in coupling tower data with satellite data due to the following present capabilities: Fully automated FluxSuite system combines hardware, software and web-services, and does not require an expert to run it It can be incorporated into a new flux station or added to a present station, using weatherized remotely-accessible microcomputer, SmartFlux2 It utilizes EddyPro software to calculate fully-processed fluxes and footprints in near-realtime, alongside radiation, optical, weather and soil data All site data are merged into a single quality-controlled file timed using PTP time protocol Data from optical sensors can be integrated into this complete dataset via compatible dataloggers Multiple stations can be linked into time-synchronized network with automated reports and email alerts visible to PIs in real-time Remote sensing researchers without stations can form "virtual networks" of stations by collaborating with tower PIs from different physical networks The present system can then be utilized to couple ground data with satellite data via the following proposed concept: GPS-driven PTP protocol will synchronize instrumentation within the station, different stations with each other, and all of these to satellite data to precisely align optical and flux data in time Footprint size and coordinates computed and stored with flux data will help correctly align footprints and satellite motion to precisely align

  5. Sacral neuromodulation and Botulinum toxin A for refractory idiopathic overactive bladder: a cost-utility analysis in the perspective of Italian Healthcare System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertapelle, Maria Paola; Vottero, Mario; Popolo, Giulio Del; Mencarini, Marco; Ostardo, Edoardo; Spinelli, Michele; Giannantoni, Antonella; D'Ausilio, Anna

    2015-08-01

    To assess the relative cost-effectiveness of two therapeutic strategies: one starting with sacral neuromodulation (SNM) versus one starting with Botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) for the management of refractory incontinent idiopathic overactive bladder (OAB) patients, from the perspective of the Italian National Health Service (INHS). Direct medical costs (2011) and benefits (quality-adjusted life years-QALYs) were assessed over a ten-year time frame adapting to the Italian practice a published Markov model. Clinical inputs were based on the published literature and on the expert opinion. Resource consumption rates were provided by clinical experts; unit costs were collected from a single hospital accounting and from standard tariff lists and public prices. Interventional procedures and management of adverse events were costed through a micro-costing approach. The primary outcome was incremental costs per QALYs gained (i.e. differential costs divided by differential benefits). Deterministic (DSA) and probabilistic (PSA) sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the robustness of the model. Starting with SNM appears to be cost effective (i.e. under 40.000/QALY) from year three (21,259/QALY) onwards and becomes dominant (i.e. more effective and less costly) at year ten: cumulative costs were 32,975 for early SNM and 33,309 for early BTX-A, while cumulative QALYs were 7.52 and 6.93, respectively. At year ten, DSA suggests the results robustness and 99.8 % of the PSA iterations fell within the cost-effectiveness threshold. A therapeutic strategy starting with SNM may be considered cost effective in the midterm and cost saving in the long-term treatment of idiopathic OAB from the INHS perspective.

  6. An introduction to neural networks surgery, a field of neuromodulation which is based on advances in neural networks science and digitised brain imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakas, D E; Panourias, I G; Simpson, B A

    2007-01-01

    Operative Neuromodulation is the field of altering electrically or chemically the signal transmission in the nervous system by implanted devices in order to excite, inhibit or tune the activities of neurons or neural networks and produce therapeutic effects. The present article reviews relevant literature on procedures or devices applied either in contact with the cerebral cortex or cranial nerves or in deep sites inside the brain in order to treat various refractory neurological conditions such as: a) chronic pain (facial, somatic, deafferentation, phantom limb), b) movement disorders (Parkinson's disease, dystonia, Tourette syndrome), c) epilepsy, d) psychiatric disease, e) hearing deficits, and f) visual loss. These data indicate that in operative neuromodulation, a new field emerges that is based on neural networks research and on advances in digitised stereometric brain imaging which allow precise localisation of cerebral neural networks and their relay stations; this field can be described as Neural networks surgery because it aims to act extrinsically or intrinsically on neural networks and to alter therapeutically the neural signal transmission with the use of implantable electrical or electronic devices. The authors also review neurotechnology literature relevant to neuroengineering, nanotechnologies, brain computer interfaces, hybrid cultured probes, neuromimetics, neuroinformatics, neurocomputation, and computational neuromodulation; the latter field is dedicated to the study of the biophysical and mathematical characteristics of electrochemical neuromodulation. The article also brings forward particularly interesting lines of research such as the carbon nanofibers electrode arrays for simultaneous electrochemical recording and stimulation, closed-loop systems for responsive neuromodulation, and the intracortical electrodes for restoring hearing or vision. The present review of cerebral neuromodulatory procedures highlights the transition from the

  7. REAC neuromodulation treatments in subjects with severe socioeconomic and cultural hardship in the Brazilian state of Pará: a family observational pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho Pereira, José Alfredo; Rinaldi, Arianna; Fontani, Vania; Rinaldi, Salvatore

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary observational study was to evaluate the usefulness of a humanitarian initiative, aimed at improving the neuropsychological and behavioral attitude of children with severe socioeconomic and cultural hardship, in the Brazilian state of Pará. This humanitarian initiative was realized through the administration of two neuromodulation protocols, with radioelectric asymmetric conveyor (REAC) technology. During several years of clinical use, the REAC neuromodulation protocols have already proved to be effective in countering the effects of environmental stress on neuropsycho-physical functions. After the preliminary medical examination, all subjects were investigated with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), including the impact supplement with teacher's report. After the SDQ, they received the neuromodulation treatment with REAC technology named neuro postural optimization (NPO), to evaluate their responsiveness. Subsequently, every 3 months all subjects underwent a treatment cycle of neuropsycho-physical optimization (NPPO) with REAC technology, for a total of three cycles. At the end of the last REAC-NPPO treatment cycle, all subjects were investigated once again with the SDQ. For the adequacy of the data, the Wilcoxon and the Signs tests were used. For the subdivision into clusters, the Kruskal-Wallis test was applied for the adequacy of the procedure. For all the applied tests, a statistical significance of p <0.5 was found. The results showed that the REAC-NPO and REAC-NPPO neuromodulation protocols are able to improve the quality of life, the scholastic and socialization skills, and the overall state of physical and mental health in children of a family with severe socioeconomic and cultural hardship. The REAC-NPO and REAC-NPPO neuromodulation protocols, due to their non-invasive characteristics, painlessness, and speed of administration, can be hypothesized as a treatment to improve the overall state of physical and

  8. Neuromodulation: urodynamic effects of sacral (S3) spinal nerve stimulation in patients with detrusor instability or detrusor hyperflexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, J L; Groen, J

    1998-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the urodynamic effects of sacral (S3) nerve stimulation in patients with urge incontinence due to detrusor overactivity which has been refractory to conservative treatment. A total of 24 patients with idiopathic detrusor instability and five with neurogenic hyperreflexia were studied urodynamically before and 6 months after a permanent S3 foramen electrode implant. The urodynamic studies at follow-up were done with the stimulus on. Clinically, the average voiding frequency, the number of leakage episodes and pad use per 24 h decreased significantly. Improvement in several urodynamic parameters was noted. In the idiopathic as well as in the neurogenic group, the correlation between symptomatic and urodynamic improvement was incomplete. Neuromodulation leads to improvement of several urodynamic parameters in patients with urge incontinence due to detrusor overactivity which has been refractory to conservative treatment and appears to be a valuable treatment option in these patients.

  9. Classification of H2O2 as a Neuromodulator that Regulates Striatal Dopamine Release on a Subsecond Time Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Here we review evidence that the reactive oxygen species, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), meets the criteria for classification as a neuromodulator through its effects on striatal dopamine (DA) release. This evidence was obtained using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to detect evoked DA release in striatal slices, along with whole-cell and fluorescence imaging to monitor cellular activity and H2O2 generation in striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs). The data show that (1) exogenous H2O2 suppresses DA release in dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens shell and the same effect is seen with elevation of endogenous H2O2 levels; (2) H2O2 is generated downstream from glutamatergic AMPA receptor activation in MSNs, but not DA axons; (3) generation of modulatory H2O2 is activity dependent; (4) H2O2 generated in MSNs diffuses to DA axons to cause transient DA release suppression by activating ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels on DA axons; and (5) the amplitude of H2O2-dependent inhibition of DA release is attenuated by enzymatic degradation of H2O2, but the subsecond time course is determined by H2O2 diffusion rate and/or KATP-channel kinetics. In the dorsal striatum, neuromodulatory H2O2 is an intermediate in the regulation of DA release by the classical neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA, as well as other neuromodulators, including cannabinoids. However, modulatory actions of H2O2 occur in other regions and cell types, as well, consistent with the widespread expression of KATP and other H2O2-sensitive channels throughout the CNS. PMID:23259034

  10. An Interactive, Mobile-Based Tool for Personal Social Network Data Collection and Visualization Among a Geographically Isolated and Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Population: Early-Stage Feasibility Study With Qualitative User Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddens, Katherine S; Fagan, Jesse M; Collins, Tom

    2017-06-22

    Personal social networks have a profound impact on our health, yet collecting personal network data for use in health communication, behavior change, or translation and dissemination interventions has proved challenging. Recent advances in social network data collection software have reduced the burden of network studies on researchers and respondents alike, yet little testing has occurred to discover whether these methods are: (1) acceptable to a variety of target populations, including those who may have limited experience with technology or limited literacy; and (2) practical in the field, specifically in areas that are geographically and technologically disconnected, such as rural Appalachian Kentucky. We explored the early-stage feasibility (Acceptability, Demand, Implementation, and Practicality) of using innovative, interactive, tablet-based network data collection and visualization software (OpenEddi) in field collection of personal network data in Appalachian Kentucky. A total of 168 rural Appalachian women who had previously participated in a study on the use of a self-collected vaginal swab (SCVS) for human papillomavirus testing were recruited by community-based nurse interviewers between September 2013 and August 2014. Participants completed egocentric network surveys via OpenEddi, which captured social and communication network influences on participation in, and recruitment to, the SCVS study. After study completion, we conducted a qualitative group interview with four nurse interviewers and two participants in the network study. Using this qualitative data, and quantitative data from the network study, we applied guidelines from Bowen et al to assess feasibility in four areas of early-stage development of OpenEddi: Acceptability, Demand, Implementation, and Practicality. Basic descriptive network statistics (size, edges, density) were analyzed using RStudio. OpenEddi was perceived as fun, novel, and superior to other data collection methods or tools

  11. Sacral-neuromodulation CT-guided; Nuova tecnica di centraggio TC-assistista nella neuromodulazione sacrale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoroso, Lamberto; Ricci, Stefano [INRCA, Ancona (Italy). Dipartimento di radiologia e medicina nucleare; Pelliccioni, Giuseppe; Scarpino, Osvaldo [INRCA, Ancona (Italy). Unita' operativa di radiologia; Ghiselli, Roberto; Saba, Vittorio [INRCA, Ancona (Italy). Dipartimento di chirurgia

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: Sacral neuromodulation is a new treatment for refractory voiding disorders such as urge incontinence, urinary retention, frequency-urgency syndromes and faecal incontinence. The current approach to sacral nerve stimulation consists of a two-stage procedure. The first is a PNE test (Percutaneous Nerve Evaluation) by a provisional electrically stimulated spinal needle, placed percutaneously in the S3 foramina for four of ten days. If successful, the second stage, permanent implantation, is carried out. The PNE test is performed under fluoroscopic control using the palpable bony sacral foramina as referral points. This technique can show some limitations, such as operator Rx exposure, poor visualization of sacral foramina because of bowel gas artefacts or sacral malformation. In order to reduce these inconveniences and to improve efficiency of the test we tried an alternative technique. The purpose of our study was to test the use of CT as an alternative technique in order to evaluate its advantages and possible routine use. Materials and methods: We tested 30 patients with the PNE test under CT guidance (16 males and 14 females) suffering from serious pelvic disorders and not responding to the normal therapeutic regime. Twenty-seven patient showed relative anatomical integrity of the pelvis and the sacrum, the remaining 3 patients presented morphological anormalities of the sacral foramina. With the patient in the prone position the sacral foramina were identified with CT volumetric scanning using a spiral CT scanner equipped with a second console for the three-dimensional reconstructions. Having identified the location of the S3 foramina, a sterile field was prepared and the spiral needle introduced checking correct positioning with a CT control scan. An electrode was inserted after having checked correct muscular contractile response and the precise position with a further CT scan. Results: Thirty patients were subjected to PNE under CT guidance for a

  12. Drinking water consumption patterns among adults—SMS as a novel tool for collection of repeated self-reported water consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Säve-Söderbergh, Melle; Toljander, Jonas; Mattisson, Irene; Åkesson, Agneta; Simonsson, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that the average drinking water consumption ranges between 0.075 and 3 L/day for adults with both national and regional differences. For exposure assessment of drinking water hazards, country-specific drinking water consumption data including sources of the consumed water may therefore be warranted. To estimate the amount and source of drinking water consumed among adults in Sweden, we collected self-reported estimates using both traditional methods (telephone interviews, w...

  13. Behavioral Senescence and Aging-Related Changes in Motor Neurons and Brain Neuromodulator Levels Are Ameliorated by Lifespan-Extending Reproductive Dormancy in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick R. Nässel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The lifespan of Drosophilamelanogaster can be extended substantially by inducing reproductive dormancy (also known as diapause by lowered temperature and short days. This increase of longevity is accompanied by lowered metabolism and increased stress tolerance. We ask here whether behavioral senescence is ameliorated during adult dormancy. To study this we kept flies for seven or more weeks in normal rearing conditions or in diapause conditions and compared to 1-week-old flies in different behavioral assays of sleep, negative geotaxis and exploratory walking. We found that the senescence of geotaxis and locomotor behavior seen under normal rearing conditions was negligible in flies kept in dormancy. The normal senescence of rhythmic activity and sleep patterns during the daytime was also reduced by adult dormancy. Investigating the morphology of specific neuromuscular junctions (NMJs, we found that changes normally seen with aging do not take place in dormant flies. To monitor age-associated changes in neuronal circuits regulating activity rhythms, sleep and walking behavior we applied antisera to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, serotonin and several neuropeptides to examine changes in expression levels and neuron morphology. In most neuron types the levels of stored neuromodulators decreased during normal aging, but not in diapause treated flies. No signs of neurodegeneration were seen in either condition. Our data suggest that age-related changes in motor neurons could be the cause of part of the behavioral senescence and that this is ameliorated by reproductive diapause. Earlier studies established a link between age-associated decreases in neuromodulator levels and behavioral decline that could be rescued by overexpression of neuromodulator. Thus, it is likely that the retained levels of neuromodulators in dormant flies alleviate behavioral senescence.

  14. Altered expression of genes involved in GABAergic transmission and neuromodulation of granule cell activity in the cerebellum of schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, W Michael; Cardon, Karen; Bustillo, Juan; Roberts, Rosalinda C; Perrone-Bizzozero, Nora I

    2008-12-01

    Deficits in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signaling have been described in the prefrontal cortex, limbic system, and cerebellum in individuals with schizophrenia. The purpose of the present study was to further investigate cerebellar gene expression alterations as they relate to decreases in GABAergic transmission by examining the expression of GABAergic markers, N-methyl-d-aspartic-acid (NMDA) receptor subunits, and cerebellum neuromodulators in individuals with schizophrenia. Subjects were postmortem men with a diagnosis of schizophrenia (N=13) and a postmortem interval-matched non-psychiatric male comparison group (N=13). The authors utilized real-time-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to measure mRNA levels of the following GABAergic markers: glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 65 and 67; GABA plasma membrane transporter-1 (GAT-1); GABA type A (GABA(A)) receptor subunits alpha(6), beta(3), and delta; and parvalbumin. In addition, real-time-quantitative PCR was utilized to assess mRNA levels of the NMDA receptor (NR) subunits NR1, NR2-A, NR2-B, NR2-C, and NR2-D as well as the cerebellar neuromodulators glutamate receptor (GluR)-6, kainate-preferring glutamate receptor subunit-2 (KA2), metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR)-2 and mGluR3, and neuronal nitric oxide synthase. Measurements for mRNA levels were determined using lateral cerebellar hemisphere tissue from both schizophrenia and comparison subjects. Schizophrenia subjects showed significant decreases in mRNA levels of GAD(67), GAD(65), GAT-1, mGluR2, and neuronal nitric oxide synthase. Increases in GABA(A)-alpha(6 )and GABA(A)-delta as well as GluR6 and KA2 were also observed. Medication effects on the expression of the same genes were examined in rats treated with either haloperidol (Sprague-Dawley rats [N=16]) or clozapine (Long-Evans rats [N=20]). Both haloperidol and clozapine increased the levels of GAD(67) in the cerebellum and altered the expression of other cerebellar mRNAs. These

  15. Genogram use as a collect tool in qualitative research / A Utilização do Genograma como instrumento de coleta de dados na pesquisa qualitativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiane Carvalho Wendt

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The genogram is a graphical representation of a family and has been used in several contexts. This paper aims to highlight the genogram use relevance in qualitative research and to propose an application and analysis procedure. The information gathered by the genogram may include genetics, medical, social, behavioral, relational and cultural aspects that denote the family structure and its configuration giving indicia of its functioning and dynamics. It is proposed that the inquiries, comments and verbalizations held by the researcher during the application of the tool are classified, according to the pre-determined categories system and that the data obtained are submitted to graphical, clinical and discourse analysis for later calculus of judges' agreement.

  16. Dried Blood Spots, an Affordable Tool to Collect, Ship, and Sequence gDNA from Patients with an X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia Phenotype Residing in a Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesmar R. S. Segundo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundNew sequencing techniques have revolutionized the identification of the molecular basis of primary immunodeficiency disorders (PID not only by establishing a gene-based diagnosis but also by facilitating defect-specific treatment strategies, improving quality of life and survival, and allowing factual genetic counseling. Because these techniques are generally not available for physicians and their patients residing in developing countries, collaboration with overseas laboratories has been explored as a possible, albeit cumbersome, strategy. To reduce the cost of time and temperature-sensitive shipping, we selected Guthrie cards, developed for newborn screening, to collect dried blood spots (DBS, as a source of DNA that can be shipped by regular mail at minimal cost.MethodBlood was collected and blotted onto the filter paper of Guthrie cards by completely filling three circles. We enrolled 20 male patients with presumptive X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA cared for at the Vietnam National Children’s Hospital, their mothers, and several sisters for carrier analysis. DBS were stored at room temperature until ready to be shipped together, using an appropriately sized envelope, to a CLIA-certified laboratory in the US for sequencing. The protocol for Sanger sequencing was modified to account for the reduced quantity of gDNA extracted from DBS.ResultHigh-quality gDNA could be extracted from every specimen. Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK mutations were identified in 17 of 20 patients studied, confirming the diagnosis of XLA in 85% of the study cohort. Type and location of the mutations were similar to those reported in previous reviews. The mean age when XLA was suspected clinically was 4.6 years, similar to that reported by Western countries. Two of 15 mothers, each with an affected boy, had a normal BTK sequence, suggesting gonadal mosaicism.ConclusionDBS collected on Guthrie cards can be shipped inexpensively by airmail across continents

  17. Effectiveness of Telebehavioral Health Program Nurse Case Managers (NCM): Data Collection Tools and the Process for NCM-Sensitive Outcome Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Judy; Cohen, Roslyn; Bice-Stephens, Wynona

    2014-01-01

    As a part of our nation's pursuit of improvements in patient care outcomes, continuity of care, and cost containment, the case manager has become a vital member on interdisciplinary teams and in health care agencies. Telebehavioral health programs, as a relatively new method of delivering behavioral health care, have recently begun to incorporate case management into their multidisciplinary teams. To determine the efficacy and efficiency of healthcare programs, program managers are charged with the determination of the outcomes of the care rendered to patient populations. However, programs that use telehealth methods to deliver care have unique structures in place that impact ability to collect outcome data. A military medical center that serves the Pacific region developed surveys and processes to distribute, administer, and collect information about a telehealth environment to obtain outcome data for the nurse case manager. This report describes the survey development and the processes created to capture nurse case manager outcomes. Additionally, the surveys and processes developed in this project for measuring outcomes may be useful in other settings and disciplines.

  18. Survey Email Scheduling and Monitoring in eRCTs (SESAMe): A Digital Tool to Improve Data Collection in Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skonnord, Trygve; Steen, Finn; Skjeie, Holgeir; Fetveit, Arne; Brekke, Mette; Klovning, Atle

    2016-11-22

    Electronic questionnaires can ease data collection in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in clinical practice. We found no existing software that could automate the sending of emails to participants enrolled into an RCT at different study participant inclusion time points. Our aim was to develop suitable software to facilitate data collection in an ongoing multicenter RCT of low back pain (the Acuback study). For the Acuback study, we determined that we would need to send a total of 5130 emails to 270 patients recruited at different centers and at 19 different time points. The first version of the software was tested in a pilot study in November 2013 but was unable to deliver multiuser or Web-based access. We resolved these shortcomings in the next version, which we tested on the Web in February 2014. Our new version was able to schedule and send the required emails in the full-scale Acuback trial that started in March 2014. The system architecture evolved through an iterative, inductive process between the project study leader and the software programmer. The program was tested and updated when errors occurred. To evaluate the development of the software, we used a logbook, a research assistant dialogue, and Acuback trial participant queries. We have developed a Web-based app, Survey Email Scheduling and Monitoring in eRCTs (SESAMe), that monitors responses in electronic surveys and sends reminders by emails or text messages (short message service, SMS) to participants. The overall response rate for the 19 surveys in the Acuback study increased from 76.4% (655/857) before we introduced reminders to 93.11% (1149/1234) after the new function (P<.001). Further development will aim at securing encryption and data storage. The SESAMe software facilitates consecutive patient data collection in RCTs and can be used to increase response rates and quality of research, both in general practice and in other clinical trial settings. ©Trygve Skonnord, Finn Steen, Holgeir

  19. A Web-Based Tool for Automatic Data Collection, Curation, and Visualization of Complex Healthcare Survey Studies including Social Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Benítez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a great concern nowadays regarding alcohol consumption and drug abuse, especially in young people. Analyzing the social environment where these adolescents are immersed, as well as a series of measures determining the alcohol abuse risk or personal situation and perception using a number of questionnaires like AUDIT, FAS, KIDSCREEN, and others, it is possible to gain insight into the current situation of a given individual regarding his/her consumption behavior. But this analysis, in order to be achieved, requires the use of tools that can ease the process of questionnaire creation, data gathering, curation and representation, and later analysis and visualization to the user. This research presents the design and construction of a web-based platform able to facilitate each of the mentioned processes by integrating the different phases into an intuitive system with a graphical user interface that hides the complexity underlying each of the questionnaires and techniques used and presenting the results in a flexible and visual way, avoiding any manual handling of data during the process. Advantages of this approach are shown and compared to the previous situation where some of the tasks were accomplished by time consuming and error prone manipulations of data.

  20. A Web-Based Tool for Automatic Data Collection, Curation, and Visualization of Complex Healthcare Survey Studies including Social Network Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, José Alberto; Labra, José Emilio; Quiroga, Enedina; Martín, Vicente; García, Isaías; Marqués-Sánchez, Pilar; Benavides, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    There is a great concern nowadays regarding alcohol consumption and drug abuse, especially in young people. Analyzing the social environment where these adolescents are immersed, as well as a series of measures determining the alcohol abuse risk or personal situation and perception using a number of questionnaires like AUDIT, FAS, KIDSCREEN, and others, it is possible to gain insight into the current situation of a given individual regarding his/her consumption behavior. But this analysis, in order to be achieved, requires the use of tools that can ease the process of questionnaire creation, data gathering, curation and representation, and later analysis and visualization to the user. This research presents the design and construction of a web-based platform able to facilitate each of the mentioned processes by integrating the different phases into an intuitive system with a graphical user interface that hides the complexity underlying each of the questionnaires and techniques used and presenting the results in a flexible and visual way, avoiding any manual handling of data during the process. Advantages of this approach are shown and compared to the previous situation where some of the tasks were accomplished by time consuming and error prone manipulations of data.

  1. Weight Bearing Over-ground Stepping in an Exoskeleton with Non-invasive Spinal Cord Neuromodulation after Motor Complete Paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, Parag; Gerasimenko, Yury; Zdunowski, Sharon; Turner, Amanda; Sayenko, Dimitry; Lu, Daniel C; Edgerton, V Reggie

    2017-01-01

    We asked whether coordinated voluntary movement of the lower limbs could be regained in an individual having been completely paralyzed (>4 year) and completely absent of vision (>15 year) using two novel strategies-transcutaneous electrical spinal cord stimulation at selected sites over the spine as well as pharmacological neuromodulation by buspirone. We also asked whether these neuromodulatory strategies could facilitate stepping assisted by an exoskeleton (EKSO, EKSO Bionics, CA) that is designed so that the subject can voluntarily complement the work being performed by the exoskeleton. We found that spinal cord stimulation and drug enhanced the level of effort that the subject could generate while stepping in the exoskeleton. In addition, stimulation improved the coordination patterns of the lower limb muscles resulting in a more continuous, smooth stepping motion in the exoskeleton along with changes in autonomic functions including cardiovascular and thermoregulation. Based on these data from this case study it appears that there is considerable potential for positive synergistic effects after complete paralysis by combining the over-ground step training in an exoskeleton, combined with transcutaneous electrical spinal cord stimulation either without or with pharmacological modulation.

  2. A random phased-array for MR-guided transcranial ultrasound neuromodulation in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Vandiver; Phipps, Marshal A; Caskey, Charles F

    2018-04-18

    Transcranial focused ultrasound (FUS) is a non-invasive technique for therapy and study of brain neural activation. Here we report on the design and characterization of a new MR-guided FUS transducer for neuromodulation in non-human primates at 650 kHz. The array is randomized with 128 elements 6.6 mm in diameter, radius of curvature 7.2 cm, opening diameter 10.3 cm (focal ratio 0.7), and 46% coverage. Simulations were used to optimize transducer geometry with respect to focus size, grating lobes, and directivity. Focus size and grating lobes during electronic steering were quantified using hydrophone measurements in water and a three-axis stage. A novel combination of optical tracking and acoustic mapping enabled measurement of the 3D pressure distribution in the cortical region of an ex vivo skull to within ~3.5 mm of the surface, and allowed accurate modelling of the experiment via non-homogeneous 3D acoustic simulations. The data demonstrates acoustic focusing beyond the skull bone, with the focus slightly broadened and shifted proximal to the skull. The fabricated design is capable of targeting regions within the S1 sensorimotor cortex of macaques. © 2018 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine.

  3. Does Epileptiform Activity Represent a Failure of Neuromodulation to Control Central Pattern Generator-Like Neocortical Behavior?

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    Roger D. Traub

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rhythmic motor patterns in invertebrates are often driven by specialized “central pattern generators” (CPGs, containing small numbers of neurons, which are likely to be “identifiable” in one individual compared with another. The dynamics of any particular CPG lies under the control of modulatory substances, amines, or peptides, entering the CPG from outside it, or released by internal constituent neurons; consequently, a particular CPG can generate a given rhythm at different frequencies and amplitudes, and perhaps even generate a repertoire of distinctive patterns. The mechanisms exploited by neuromodulators in this respect are manifold: Intrinsic conductances (e.g., calcium, potassium channels, conductance state of postsynaptic receptors, degree of plasticity, and magnitude and kinetics of transmitter release can all be affected. The CPG concept has been generalized to vertebrate motor pattern generating circuits (e.g., for locomotion, which may contain large numbers of neurons – a construct that is sensible, if there is enough redundancy: that is, the large number of neurons consists of only a small number of classes, and the cells within any one class act stereotypically. Here we suggest that CPG and modulator ideas may also help to understand cortical oscillations, normal ones, and particularly transition to epileptiform pathology. Furthermore, in the case illustrated, the mechanism of the transition appears to be an exaggerated form of a normal modulatory action used to influence sensory processing.

  4. A random phased-array for MR-guided transcranial ultrasound neuromodulation in non-human primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Vandiver; Phipps, Marshal A.; Caskey, Charles F.

    2018-05-01

    Transcranial focused ultrasound (FUS) is a non-invasive technique for therapy and study of brain neural activation. Here we report on the design and characterization of a new MR-guided FUS transducer for neuromodulation in non-human primates at 650 kHz. The array is randomized with 128 elements 6.6 mm in diameter, radius of curvature 7.2 cm, opening diameter 10.3 cm (focal ratio 0.7), and 46% coverage. Simulations were used to optimize transducer geometry with respect to focus size, grating lobes, and directivity. Focus size and grating lobes during electronic steering were quantified using hydrophone measurements in water and a three-axis stage. A novel combination of optical tracking and acoustic mapping enabled measurement of the 3D pressure distribution in the cortical region of an ex vivo skull to within ~3.5 mm of the surface, and allowed accurate modelling of the experiment via non-homogeneous 3D acoustic simulations. The data demonstrates acoustic focusing beyond the skull bone, with the focus slightly broadened and shifted proximal to the skull. The fabricated design is capable of targeting regions within the S1 sensorimotor cortex of macaques.

  5. Historical development of epistemology and the study of pain: Place of neuromodulation of electroacupuncture in the experimental pain research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara B. Garrido-Suárez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the diffusion of acupuncture and its related techniques in Cuba and the World, its mechanism of action is still controversial, being considered by the most sceptics as placebo or some kind oriental myth, and it only should by related to this subjects as a matter of cultural-historical elements and not to science. The purpose of this revision is to characterize the pain sensation, after a critical analysis of the different philosophical streams related to the human knowledge and its expression in the historical evolution of the algology. On the other hand, to emphasize the importance of electroacupuncture-induced neuro-modulation in the field of experimental pain researches. In this content will be analyzed the concept of Khun paradigm and his ideas about the structure of scientific revolution in the theory of gates control and the explosion of pain researches in the last decades. It will related the introduction to acupuncture and its techniques in pain clinics, with scientific context of the historical moment. In addition, a space will be dedicated to the topic of complementary and alternative medicine on the century of evidence based medicine, given its scientific needs of validation in ours times.

  6. A Utilização do Genograma como instrumento de coleta de dados na pesquisa qualitativa Genogram use as a collect tool in qualitative research

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    Naiane Carvalho Wendt

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O Genograma é uma representação gráfica da família e tem sido utilizado em diversos contextos. Este artigo visa destacar a relevância da utilização do genograma na pesquisa qualitativa e propor um procedimento de aplicação e análise do mesmo. As informações reunidas pelo genograma podem incluir aspectos genéticos, médicos, sociais, comportamentais, relacionais e culturais, que denotam a estrutura e configuração da família dando indícios de seu funcionamento e dinâmica. Propõe-se que os questionamentos, comentários e verbalizações realizados pelo pesquisador durante a aplicação do instrumento sejam classificados de acordo com o sistema de categorias pré-determinado, e que os dados obtidos sejam submetidos às análises gráfica, clínica e do discurso, com posterior encaminhamento para cálculo de acordo entre juízes.The genogram is a graphical representation of a family and has been used in several contexts. This paper aims to highlight the genogram use relevance in qualitative research and to propose an application and analysis procedure. The information gathered by the genogram may include genetics, medical, social, behavioral, relational and cultural aspects that denote the family structure and its configuration giving indicia of its functioning and dynamics. It is proposed that the inquiries, comments and verbalizations held by the researcher during the application of the tool are classified, according to the pre-determined categories system and that the data obtained are submitted to graphical, clinical and discourse analysis for later calculus of judges' agreement.

  7. Metabolic Profiling as a Screening Tool for Cytotoxic Compounds: Identification of 3-Alkyl Pyridine Alkaloids from Sponges Collected at a Shallow Water Hydrothermal Vent Site North of Iceland

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    Eydis Einarsdottir

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-eight sponge specimens were collected at a shallow water hydrothermal vent site north of Iceland. Extracts were prepared and tested in vitro for cytotoxic activity, and eight of them were shown to be cytotoxic. A mass spectrometry (MS-based metabolomics approach was used to determine the chemical composition of the extracts. This analysis highlighted clear differences in the metabolomes of three sponge specimens, and all of them were identified as Haliclona (Rhizoniera rosea (Bowerbank, 1866. Therefore, these specimens were selected for further investigation. Haliclona rosea metabolomes contained a class of potential key compounds, the 3-alkyl pyridine alkaloids (3-APA responsible for the cytotoxic activity of the fractions. Several 3-APA compounds were tentatively identified including haliclamines, cyclostellettamines, viscosalines and viscosamines. Among these compounds, cyclostellettamine P was tentatively identified for the first time by using ion mobility MS in time-aligned parallel (TAP fragmentation mode. In this work, we show the potential of applying metabolomics strategies and in particular the utility of coupling ion mobility with MS for the molecular characterization of sponge specimens.

  8. Wyoming greater sage-grouse habitat prioritization: A collection of multi-scale seasonal models and geographic information systems land management tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Michael S.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Doherty, Kevin E.; Fedy, Bradley C.

    2015-01-01

    With rapidly changing landscape conditions within Wyoming and the potential effects of landscape changes on sage-grouse habitat, land managers and conservation planners, among others, need procedures to assess the location and juxtaposition of important habitats, land-cover, and land-use patterns to balance wildlife requirements with multiple human land uses. Biologists frequently develop habitat-selection studies to identify prioritization efforts for species of conservation concern to increase understanding and help guide habitat-conservation efforts. Recently, the authors undertook a large-scale collaborative effort that developed habitat-selection models for Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) across large landscapes in Wyoming, USA and for multiple life-stages (nesting, late brood-rearing, and winter). We developed these habitat models using resource selection functions, based upon sage-grouse telemetry data collected for localized studies and within each life-stage. The models allowed us to characterize and spatially predict seasonal sage-grouse habitat use in Wyoming. Due to the quantity of models, the diversity of model predictors (in the form of geographic information system data) produced by analyses, and the variety of potential applications for these data, we present here a resource that complements our published modeling effort, which will further support land managers.

  9. Neuromodulation as a cognitive enhancement strategy in healthy older adults: promises and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Ana R S; Fregni, Felipe; Simis, Marcel; Almeida, Jorge

    2017-03-01

    Increases in life expectancy have been followed by an upsurge of age-associated cognitive decline. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have risen as promising approaches to prevent or delay such cognitive decline. However, consensus has not yet been reached about their efficacy in improving cognitive functioning in healthy older adults. Here we review the effects of TMS and tDCS on cognitive abilities in healthy older adults. Despite considerable variability in the targeted cognitive domains, design features and outcomes, the results generally show an enhancement or uniform benefit across studies. Most studies employed tDCS, suggesting that this technique is particularly well-suited for cognitive enhancement. Further work is required to determine the viability of these techniques as tools for long-term cognitive improvement. Importantly, the combination of TMS/tDCS with other cognitive enhancement strategies may be a promising strategy to alleviate the cognitive decline associated with the healthy aging process.

  10. The Neuromodulation of the Intestinal Immune System and Its Relevance in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giovangiulio, Martina; Verheijden, Simon; Bosmans, Goele; Stakenborg, Nathalie; Boeckxstaens, Guy E; Matteoli, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    One of the main tasks of the immune system is to discriminate and appropriately react to "danger" or "non-danger" signals. This is crucial in the gastrointestinal tract, where the immune system is confronted with a myriad of food antigens and symbiotic microflora that are in constant contact with the mucosa, in addition to any potential pathogens. This large number of antigens and commensal microflora, which are essential for providing vital nutrients, must be tolerated by the intestinal immune system to prevent aberrant inflammation. Hence, the balance between immune activation versus tolerance should be tightly regulated to maintain intestinal homeostasis and to prevent immune activation indiscriminately against all luminal antigens. Loss of this delicate equilibrium can lead to chronic activation of the intestinal immune response resulting in intestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In order to maintain homeostasis, the immune system has evolved diverse regulatory strategies including additional non-immunological actors able to control the immune response. Accumulating evidence strongly indicates a bidirectional link between the two systems in which the brain modulates the immune response via the detection of circulating cytokines and via direct afferent input from sensory fibers and from enteric neurons. In the current review, we will highlight the most recent findings regarding the cross-talk between the nervous system and the mucosal immune system and will discuss the potential use of these neuronal circuits and neuromediators as novel therapeutic tools to reestablish immune tolerance and treat intestinal chronic inflammation.

  11. Role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in angiotensin II regulation of norepinephrine neuromodulation in brain neurons of the spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H; Raizada, M K

    1999-04-01

    Chronic stimulation of norepinephrine (NE) neuromodulation by angiotensin II (Ang II) involves activation of the Ras-Raf-MAP kinase signal transduction pathway in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat brain neurons. This pathway is only partially responsible for this heightened action of Ang II in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) brain neurons. In this study, we demonstrate that the MAP kinase-independent signaling pathway in the SHR neuron involves activation of PI3-kinase and protein kinase B (PKB/Akt). Ang II stimulated PI3-kinase activity in both WKY and SHR brain neurons and was accompanied by its translocation from the cytoplasmic to the nuclear compartment. Although the magnitude of stimulation by Ang II was comparable, the stimulation was more persistent in the SHR neuron compared with the WKY rat neuron. Inhibition of PI3-kinase had no significant effect in the WKY rat neuron. However, it caused a 40-50% attenuation of the Ang II-induced increase in norepinephrine transporter (NET) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNAs and [3H]-NE uptake in the SHR neuron. In contrast, inhibition of MAP kinase completely attenuated Ang II stimulation of NET and TH mRNA levels in the WKY rat neuron, whereas it caused only a 45% decrease in the SHR neuron. However, an additive attenuation was observed when both kinases of the SHR neurons were inhibited. Ang II also stimulated PKB/Akt activity in both WKY and SHR neurons. This stimulation was 30% higher and lasted longer in the SHR neuron compared with the WKY rat neuron. In conclusion, these observations demonstrate an exclusive involvement of PI3-kinase-PKB-dependent signaling pathway in a heightened NE neuromodulatory action of Ang II in the SHR neuron. Thus, this study offers an excellent potential for the development of new therapies for the treatment of centrally mediated hypertension.

  12. Voltage-dependent neuromodulation of Na+ channels by D1-like dopamine receptors in rat hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, A R; Scheuer, T; Catterall, W A

    1999-07-01

    Activation of D1-like dopamine (DA) receptors reduces peak Na+ current in acutely isolated hippocampal neurons through phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of the Na+ channel by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Here we report that neuromodulation of Na+ currents by DA receptors via PKA is voltage-dependent in the range of -110 to -70 mV and is also sensitive to concurrent activation of protein kinase C (PKC). Depolarization enhanced the ability of D1-like DA receptors to reduce peak Na+ currents via the PKA pathway. Similar voltage-dependent modulation was observed when PKA was activated directly with the membrane-permeant PKA activator DCl-cBIMPS (cBIMPS; 20 microM), indicating that the membrane potential dependence occurs downstream of PKA. PKA activation caused only a small (-2.9 mV) shift in the voltage dependence of steady-state inactivation and had no effect on slow inactivation or on the rates of entry into the fast or slow inactivated states, suggesting that another mechanism is responsible for coupling of membrane potential changes to PKA modulation. Activation of PKC with a low concentration of the membrane-permeant diacylglycerol analog oleylacetyl glycerol also potentiated modulation by SKF 81297 or cBIMPS, and these effects were most striking at hyperpolarized membrane potentials where PKA modulation was not stimulated by membrane depolarization. Thus, activation of D1-like DA receptors causes a strong reduction in Na+ current via the PKA pathway, but it is effective primarily when it is combined with depolarization or activation of PKC. The convergence of these three distinct signaling modalities on the Na+ channel provides an intriguing mechanism for integration of information from multiple signaling pathways in the hippocampus and CNS.

  13. Sleep-promoting effects of a GABA/5-HTP mixture: Behavioral changes and neuromodulation in an invertebrate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ki-Bae; Park, Yooheon; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2016-04-01

    This study was to investigate the sleep promoting effects of combined γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), by examining neuronal processes governing mRNA level alterations, as well as assessing neuromodulator concentrations, in a fruit fly model. Behavioral assays were applied to investigate subjective nighttime activity, sleep episodes, and total duration of subjective nighttime sleep of two amino acids and GABA/5-HTP mixture with caffeine treated flies. Also, real-time PCR and HPLC analysis were applied to analyze the signaling pathway. Subjective nighttime activity and sleep patterns of individual flies significantly decreased with 1% GABA treatment in conjunction with 0.1% 5-HTP treatment (pGABA/5-HTP mixture resulted in significant differences between groups related to sleep patterns (40%, plevels of the GABAB receptor (GABAB-R1) and serotonin receptor (5-HT1A), compared to the control group. In addition, GABA/5-HTP mixture significantly increased GABA levels 1h and 12h following treatment (2.1 fold and 1.2 fold higher than the control, respectively) and also increased 5-HTP levels (0 h: 1.01 μg/protein, 12h: 3.45 μg/protein). In this regard, we successfully demonstrated that using a GABA/5-HTP mixture modulates subjective nighttime activity, sleep episodes, and total duration of subjective nighttime sleep to a greater extent than single administration of each amino acid, and that this modulation occurs via GABAergic and serotonergic signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ascending control of arousal and motivation: role of nucleus incertus and its peptide neuromodulators in behavioural responses to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, S; Gundlach, A L

    2015-06-01

    Arousal is a process that involves the activation of ascending neural pathways originating in the rostral pons that project to the forebrain through the midbrain reticular formation to promote the activation of key cortical, thalamic, hypothalamic and limbic centres. Established modulators of arousal include the cholinergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic networks originating in the pons and midbrain. Recent data indicate that a population of largely GABAergic projection neurones located in the nucleus incertus (NI) are also involved in arousal and motivational processes. The NI has prominent efferent connections with distinct hypothalamic, amygdalar and thalamic nuclei, in addition to dense projections to key brain regions associated with the generation and pacing of hippocampal activity. The NI receives strong inputs from the prefrontal cortex, lateral habenula and the interpeduncular and median raphe nuclei, suggesting it is highly integrated in circuits regulating higher cognitive behaviours (hippocampal theta rhythm) and emotion. Anatomical and functional studies have revealed that the NI is a rich source of multiple peptide neuromodulators, including relaxin-3, and may mediate extra-hypothalamic effects of the stress hormone corticotrophin-releasing factor, as well as other key modulators such as orexins and oxytocin. This review provides an overview of earlier studies and highlights more recent research that implicates this neural network in the integration of arousal and motivated behaviours and has begun to identify the associated mechanisms. Future research that should help to better clarify the connectivity and function of the NI in major experimental species and humans is also discussed. © 2015 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  15. Neuromodulation of Limb Proprioceptive Afferents Decreases Apnea of Prematurity and Accompanying Intermittent Hypoxia and Bradycardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavan, Kalpashri; Frank, Paul; Cordero, Daniella M; Benharash, Peyman; Harper, Ronald M

    2016-01-01

    Apnea of Prematurity (AOP) is common, affecting the majority of infants born at Apnea and periodic breathing are accompanied by intermittent hypoxia (IH). Animal and human studies demonstrate that IH exposure contributes to multiple pathologies, including retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), injury to sympathetic ganglia regulating cardiovascular action, impaired pancreatic islet cell and bone development, cerebellar injury, and neurodevelopmental disabilities. Current standard of care for AOP/IH includes prone positioning, positive pressure ventilation, and methylxanthine therapy; these interventions are inadequate, and not optimal for early development. The objective is to support breathing in premature infants by using a simple, non-invasive vibratory device placed over limb proprioceptor fibers, an intervention using the principle that limb movements trigger reflexive facilitation of breathing. Premature infants (23-34 wks gestational age), with clinical evidence of AOP/IH episodes were enrolled 1 week after birth. Caffeine treatment was not a reason for exclusion. Small vibration devices were placed on one hand and one foot and activated in 6 hour ON/OFF sequences for a total of 24 hours. Heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation (SpO2), and breathing pauses were continuously collected. Fewer respiratory pauses occurred during vibration periods, relative to baseline (papnea, bradycardia and intermittent hypoxia in premature neonates. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02641249.

  16. Neuromodulation of Limb Proprioceptive Afferents Decreases Apnea of Prematurity and Accompanying Intermittent Hypoxia and Bradycardia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpashri Kesavan

    Full Text Available Apnea of Prematurity (AOP is common, affecting the majority of infants born at <34 weeks gestational age. Apnea and periodic breathing are accompanied by intermittent hypoxia (IH. Animal and human studies demonstrate that IH exposure contributes to multiple pathologies, including retinopathy of prematurity (ROP, injury to sympathetic ganglia regulating cardiovascular action, impaired pancreatic islet cell and bone development, cerebellar injury, and neurodevelopmental disabilities. Current standard of care for AOP/IH includes prone positioning, positive pressure ventilation, and methylxanthine therapy; these interventions are inadequate, and not optimal for early development.The objective is to support breathing in premature infants by using a simple, non-invasive vibratory device placed over limb proprioceptor fibers, an intervention using the principle that limb movements trigger reflexive facilitation of breathing.Premature infants (23-34 wks gestational age, with clinical evidence of AOP/IH episodes were enrolled 1 week after birth. Caffeine treatment was not a reason for exclusion. Small vibration devices were placed on one hand and one foot and activated in 6 hour ON/OFF sequences for a total of 24 hours. Heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation (SpO2, and breathing pauses were continuously collected.Fewer respiratory pauses occurred during vibration periods, relative to baseline (p<0.005. Significantly fewer SpO2 declines occurred with vibration (p<0.05, relative to control periods. Significantly fewer bradycardic events occurred during vibration periods, relative to no vibration periods (p<0.05.In premature neonates, limb proprioceptive stimulation, simulating limb movement, reduces breathing pauses and IH episodes, and lowers the number of bradycardic events that accompany aberrant breathing episodes. This low-cost neuromodulatory procedure has the potential to provide a non-invasive intervention to reduce apnea, bradycardia and

  17. The value and cost of complexity in predictive modelling: role of tissue anisotropic conductivity and fibre tracts in neuromodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Syed Salman; Bikson, Marom; Salman, Humaira; Wen, Peng; Ahfock, Tony

    2014-06-01

    balance the role of model complexity, such as anisotropy in detailed current flow analysis versus value in clinical dose design. However, when extending our analysis to include axonal polarization, the results provide presumably clinically meaningful information. Hence the importance of model complexity may be more relevant with cellular level predictions of neuromodulation.

  18. The value and cost of complexity in predictive modelling: role of tissue anisotropic conductivity and fibre tracts in neuromodulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman Shahid, Syed; Bikson, Marom; Salman, Humaira; Wen, Peng; Ahfock, Tony

    2014-06-01

    . Significance. Results illustrate the need to rationally balance the role of model complexity, such as anisotropy in detailed current flow analysis versus value in clinical dose design. However, when extending our analysis to include axonal polarization, the results provide presumably clinically meaningful information. Hence the importance of model complexity may be more relevant with cellular level predictions of neuromodulation.

  19. Combined motor cortex and spinal cord neuromodulation promotes corticospinal system functional and structural plasticity and motor function after injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Weiguo; Amer, Alzahraa; Ryan, Daniel; Martin, John H

    2016-03-01

    An important strategy for promoting voluntary movements after motor system injury is to harness activity-dependent corticospinal tract (CST) plasticity. We combine forelimb motor cortex (M1) activation with co-activation of its cervical spinal targets in rats to promote CST sprouting and skilled limb movement after pyramidal tract lesion (PTX). We used a two-step experimental design in which we first established the optimal combined stimulation protocol in intact rats and then used the optimal protocol in injured animals to promote CST repair and motor recovery. M1 was activated epidurally using an electrical analog of intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS). The cervical spinal cord was co-activated by trans-spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) that was targeted to the cervical enlargement, simulated from finite element method. In intact rats, forelimb motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were strongly facilitated during iTBS and for 10 min after cessation of stimulation. Cathodal, not anodal, tsDCS alone facilitated MEPs and also produced a facilitatory aftereffect that peaked at 10 min. Combined iTBS and cathodal tsDCS (c-tsDCS) produced further MEP enhancement during stimulation, but without further aftereffect enhancement. Correlations between forelimb M1 local field potentials and forelimb electromyogram (EMG) during locomotion increased after electrical iTBS alone and further increased with combined stimulation (iTBS+c-tsDCS). This optimized combined stimulation was then used to promote function after PTX because it enhanced functional connections between M1 and spinal circuits and greater M1 engagement in muscle contraction than either stimulation alone. Daily application of combined M1 iTBS on the intact side and c-tsDCS after PTX (10 days, 27 min/day) significantly restored skilled movements during horizontal ladder walking. Stimulation produced a 5.4-fold increase in spared ipsilateral CST terminations. Combined neuromodulation achieves optimal motor

  20. Feed-Forward Inhibition of CD73 and Upregulation of Adenosine Deaminase Contribute to the Loss of Adenosine Neuromodulation in Postinflammatory Ileitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia Vieira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purinergic signalling is remarkably plastic during gastrointestinal inflammation. Thus, selective drugs targeting the “purinome” may be helpful for inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases. The myenteric neuromuscular transmission of healthy individuals is fine-tuned and controlled by adenosine acting on A2A excitatory receptors. Here, we investigated the neuromodulatory role of adenosine in TNBS-inflamed longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus of the rat ileum. Seven-day postinflammation ileitis lacks adenosine neuromodulation, which may contribute to acceleration of gastrointestinal transit. The loss of adenosine neuromodulation results from deficient accumulation of the nucleoside at the myenteric synapse despite the fact that the increases in ATP release were observed. Disparity between ATP outflow and adenosine deficit in postinflammatory ileitis is ascribed to feed-forward inhibition of ecto-5′-nucleotidase/CD73 by high extracellular ATP and/or ADP. Redistribution of NTPDase2, but not of NTPDase3, from ganglion cell bodies to myenteric nerve terminals leads to preferential ADP accumulation from released ATP, thus contributing to the prolonged inhibition of muscle-bound ecto-5′-nucleotidase/CD73 and to the delay of adenosine formation at the inflamed neuromuscular synapse. On the other hand, depression of endogenous adenosine accumulation may also occur due to enhancement of adenosine deaminase activity. Both membrane-bound and soluble forms of ecto-5′-nucleotidase/CD73 and adenosine deaminase were detected in the inflamed myenteric plexus. These findings provide novel therapeutic targets for inflammatory gut motility disorders.

  1. Obturator Neuromodulation with Laparoscopic Placement of an Obturator Lead for the Treatment of Intractable Opioid Dependent Chronic Pelvic Pain due to Obturator Neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvel, Richard P

    2018-05-12

    Chronic pelvic pain(CPP) is a common condition in women that can have a devastating effect on quality of life. Some of the most severe forms of CPP are related to peripheral nerve injuries causing persistent neuropathic pain. This is a case of a young woman with severe opioid dependent chronic pelvic and right groin pain due to obturator neuralgia. She had failed a multitude of treatments including multiple medications, manual physical therapy, nerve blocks, surgical neurolysis and spinal cord stimulation without significant benefit. She underwent a trial of peripheral neuromodulation of the obturator nerve with laparoscopic placement of a quadripolar lead. During the 6-day trial she had almost complete relief of her pain; therefore, she underwent permanent implantation of an intermittent pulse generator. Over the next 6 months she was completely weaned completely off her chronic opioids. At 23 months post implantation, she had essentially no pain and is no longer on any analgesic, antidepressant or membrane stabilizing medications. Peripheral Neuromodulation has the potential to alleviate pain and significantly improve quality of life in women with longstanding neuropathic chronic pelvic pain who have failed multimodal conservative therapy. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Neuromodulation on Cerebral Activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremoux, Sylvain; Ibanez Pereda, Jaime; Ates, Sedar; Dessi, Alessia; Pons, José L.; Torricelli, Diego

    2014-01-01

    During a motor task, a causal relation occurs between the motor command generated in the cortex and the proprioceptive feedbacks that go from the activated muscles through the corticospinal pathway. This causal relation is of interest in neurorehabilitation to improve motor function for people with

  3. Neuromodulation of chronic headaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martelletti, Paolo; Jensen, Rigmor H; Antal, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    stimulation, occipital nerve stimulation, stimulation of sphenopalatine ganglion, cervical spinal cord stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation are extensively published although...

  4. Evaluating Mobile Survey Tools (MSTs for Field-Level Monitoring and Data Collection: Development of a Novel Evaluation Framework, and Application to MSTs for Rural Water and Sanitation Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Fisher

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Information and communications technologies (ICTs such as mobile survey tools (MSTs can facilitate field-level data collection to drive improvements in national and international development programs. MSTs allow users to gather and transmit field data in real time, standardize data storage and management, automate routine analyses, and visualize data. Dozens of diverse MST options are available, and users may struggle to select suitable options. We developed a systematic MST Evaluation Framework (EF, based on International Organization for Standardization/International Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC software quality modeling standards, to objectively assess MSTs and assist program implementers in identifying suitable MST options. The EF is applicable to MSTs for a broad variety of applications. We also conducted an MST user survey to elucidate needs and priorities of current MST users. Finally, the EF was used to assess seven MSTs currently used for water and sanitation monitoring, as a validation exercise. The results suggest that the EF is a promising method for evaluating MSTs.

  5. Survey report for fiscal 1998. International project for rationalizing energy use (a project for investigating analyzing a tool to improve energy consumption efficiency in Asia) (Data collection 1 (Year 1990 data)); 1998 nendo kokusai energy shiyo gorika nado taisaku jigyo chosa hokokusho. Asia energy shohi koritsuka bunseki tool chosa jigyo (shiryoshu 1 1990 nen data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    With an objective to identify quantitatively the mutually influencing effect of economical development and energy consumption efficiency improvement in the entire Asia-Pacific region, a data collection was prepared according to the common industry classification as a tool to analyze energy consumption improvement in Asia. This data collection summarizes the industry relation tables and the energy relation tables available in eight Asian countries (Korea, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines, China, Taiwan, Singapore and Malaysia) and Japan. Both kinds of the tables are unified in conception among the nations, hence comparable. The industry relation table consists of a basic transaction table, a charged coefficient table, a final demand converter table, an import coefficient table, a reverse matrix table, a sensitivity coefficient able, an influence force coefficient table, a production inducing amount table, a production inducing coefficient table, a production induction dependence table, an import inducing amount table, an import induction coefficient table, and an import induction dependence table. The energy table consists of an energy input table, an energy consumption table, and an emission table. (NEDO)

  6. Simulation tools

    CERN Document Server

    Jenni, F

    2006-01-01

    In the last two decades, simulation tools made a significant contribution to the great progress in development of power electronics. Time to market was shortened and development costs were reduced drastically. Falling costs, as well as improved speed and precision, opened new fields of application. Today, continuous and switched circuits can be mixed. A comfortable number of powerful simulation tools is available. The users have to choose the best suitable for their application. Here a simple rule applies: The best available simulation tool is the tool the user is already used to (provided, it can solve the task). Abilities, speed, user friendliness and other features are continuously being improved—even though they are already powerful and comfortable. This paper aims at giving the reader an insight into the simulation of power electronics. Starting with a short description of the fundamentals of a simulation tool as well as properties of tools, several tools are presented. Starting with simplified models ...

  7. Do TRPC channels support working memory? Comparing modulations of TRPC channels and working memory through G-protein coupled receptors and neuromodulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboreda, Antonio; Theissen, Frederik M; Valero-Aracama, Maria J; Arboit, Alberto; Corbu, Mihaela A; Yoshida, Motoharu

    2018-03-01

    Working memory is a crucial ability we use in daily life. However, the cellular mechanisms supporting working memory still remain largely unclear. A key component of working memory is persistent neural firing which is believed to serve short-term (hundreds of milliseconds up to tens of seconds) maintenance of necessary information. In this review, we will focus on the role of transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels as a mechanism underlying persistent firing. Many years of in vitro work have been suggesting a crucial role of TRPC channels in working memory and temporal association tasks. If TRPC channels are indeed a central mechanism for working memory, manipulations which impair or facilitate working memory should have a similar effect on TRPC channel modulation. However, modulations of working memory and TRPC channels were never systematically compared, and it remains unanswered whether TRPC channels indeed contribute to working memory in vivo or not. In this article, we review the effects of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) and neuromodulators, including acetylcholine, noradrenalin, serotonin and dopamine, on working memory and TRPC channels. Based on comparisons, we argue that GPCR and downstream signaling pathways that activate TRPC, generally support working memory, while those that suppress TRPC channels impair it. However, depending on the channel types, areas, and systems tested, this is not the case in all studies. Further work to clarify involvement of specific TRPC channels in working memory tasks and how they are affected by neuromodulators is still necessary in the future. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Selective Radiofrequency Stimulation of the Dorsal Root Ganglion (DRG) as a Method for Predicting Targets for Neuromodulation in Patients With Post Amputation Pain: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Corey W; Yang, Ajax; Davis, Tim

    2017-10-01

    While spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has established itself as an accepted and validated treatment for neuropathic pain, there are a number of conditions where it has experienced less, long-term success: post amputee pain (PAP) being one of them. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) stimulation has shown great promise, particularly in conditions where traditional SCS has fallen short. One major difference between DRG stimulation and traditional SCS is the ability to provide focal stimulation over targeted areas. While this may be a contributing factor to its superiority, it can also be a limitation insofar stimulating the wrong DRG(s) can lead to failure. This is particularly relevant in conditions like PAP where neuroplastic maladaptation occurs causing the pain to deviate from expected patterns, thus creating uncertainty and variability in predicting targets for stimulation. We propose selective radiofrequency (RF) stimulation of the DRG as a method for preoperatively predicting targets for neuromodulation in patients with PAP. We present four patients with PAP of the lower extremities. RF stimulation was used to selectively stimulate individual DRG's, creating areas of paresthesias to see which most closely correlated/overlapped with the painful area(s). RF stimulation to the DRG's that resulted in the desirable paresthesia coverage in the residual or the missing limb(s) was recorded as "positive." Trial DRG leads were placed based on the positive RF stimulation findings. In each patient, stimulating one or more DRG(s) produced paresthesias patterns that were contradictory to know dermatomal patterns. Upon completion of a one-week trial all four patients reported 60-90% pain relief, with coverage over the painful areas, and opted for permanent implant. Mapping the DRG via RF stimulation appears to provide improved accuracy for determining lead placement in the setting of PAP where pain patterns are known to deviate from conventional dermatomal mapping. © 2017

  9. Chimera Grid Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, William M.; Rogers, Stuart E.; Nash, Steven M.; Buning, Pieter G.; Meakin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Chimera Grid Tools (CGT) is a software package for performing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis utilizing the Chimera-overset-grid method. For modeling flows with viscosity about geometrically complex bodies in relative motion, the Chimera-overset-grid method is among the most computationally cost-effective methods for obtaining accurate aerodynamic results. CGT contains a large collection of tools for generating overset grids, preparing inputs for computer programs that solve equations of flow on the grids, and post-processing of flow-solution data. The tools in CGT include grid editing tools, surface-grid-generation tools, volume-grid-generation tools, utility scripts, configuration scripts, and tools for post-processing (including generation of animated images of flows and calculating forces and moments exerted on affected bodies). One of the tools, denoted OVERGRID, is a graphical user interface (GUI) that serves to visualize the grids and flow solutions and provides central access to many other tools. The GUI facilitates the generation of grids for a new flow-field configuration. Scripts that follow the grid generation process can then be constructed to mostly automate grid generation for similar configurations. CGT is designed for use in conjunction with a computer-aided-design program that provides the geometry description of the bodies, and a flow-solver program.

  10. Collective agreements as a tool for achieving gender equality in the workplace. Case study: the chemical industry in Tarragona / Los convenios colectivos como herramienta para alcanzar la igualdad de género en el trabajo. Estudio de caso: la industria química en Tarragona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Pontón Merino

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gender equality and collective bargaining are the key elements of the analysis presented in this paper. Collective agreements and collective bargaining are some of the tools to achieve the goal of equality between women and men at work. The incorporation of equality issues in bargaining debate is something relatively new, which is crucial to reach real labor equality. In Spain, since 2007, the collective agreements that include clauses on equality have grown exponentially. Nevertheless, the incorporation of contents on equality between women and men in collective agreements is slow and limited. Changes in legislation and the contents incorporated in the agreements do not stop being functional measures for a system based on the sexual division of labor that is not sufficiently criticized. In this paper we analyze the existing collective agreements of the Asociación Empresarial Química de Tarragona, in south Catalonia, that demonstrate these affirmations.

  11. Collective Improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare M. Cooper

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Collective improvisation as a creative practice is intensely social, trusting, unpopular, anti-hierarchical and, for these reasons, political. Cooper describes the risks and rich rewards of improvising with fellow artists and identifies the parallels between improvising ensembles of musicians in Australia with the collectively painted protest banners of the Taring Padi Collective in Indonesia after a brief visit to Jogjakarta.

  12. Field Audit Checklist Tool (FACT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Download EPA's The Field Audit Checklist Tool (FACT). FACT is intended to help auditors perform field audits, to easily view monitoring plan, quality assurance and emissions data and provides access to data collected under MATS.

  13. Developing a learning analytics tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahl, Christian; Belle, Gianna; Clemmensen, Anita Lykke

    This poster describes how learning analytics and collective intelligence can be combined in order to develop a tool for providing support and feedback to learners and teachers regarding students self-initiated learning activities.......This poster describes how learning analytics and collective intelligence can be combined in order to develop a tool for providing support and feedback to learners and teachers regarding students self-initiated learning activities....

  14. 2017 SmartWay Logistics Tool Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EPA presentation provides information on the SmartWay Logistics Carrier Tool: its background and development, participation in the program, application process, emission metrics, tool demonstration, data collection, and schedule for 2017.

  15. Integrated Radiation Analysis and Design Tools

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Integrated Radiation Analysis and Design Tools (IRADT) Project develops and maintains an integrated tool set that collects the current best practices, databases,...

  16. Fluid sampling tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A.R.; Johnston, R.G.; Martinez, R.K.

    1999-05-25

    A fluid sampling tool is described for sampling fluid from a container. The tool has a fluid collecting portion which is drilled into the container wall, thereby affixing it to the wall. The tool may have a fluid extracting section which withdraws fluid collected by the fluid collecting section. The fluid collecting section has a fluted shank with an end configured to drill a hole into a container wall. The shank has a threaded portion for tapping the borehole. The shank is threadably engaged to a cylindrical housing having an inner axial passageway sealed at one end by a septum. A flexible member having a cylindrical portion and a bulbous portion is provided. The housing can be slid into an inner axial passageway in the cylindrical portion and sealed to the flexible member. The bulbous portion has an outer lip defining an opening. The housing is clamped into the chuck of a drill, the lip of the bulbous section is pressed against a container wall until the shank touches the wall, and the user operates the drill. Wall shavings (kerf) are confined in a chamber formed in the bulbous section as it folds when the shank advances inside the container. After sufficient advancement of the shank, an o-ring makes a seal with the container wall. 6 figs.

  17. Fluid sampling tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Anthony R.; Johnston, Roger G.; Martinez, Ronald K.

    1999-05-25

    A fluid sampling tool for sampling fluid from a container. The tool has a fluid collecting portion which is drilled into the container wall, thereby affixing it to the wall. The tool may have a fluid extracting section which withdraws fluid collected by the fluid collecting section. The fluid collecting section has a fluted shank with an end configured to drill a hole into a container wall. The shank has a threaded portion for tapping the borehole. The shank is threadably engaged to a cylindrical housing having an inner axial passageway sealed at one end by a septum. A flexible member having a cylindrical portion and a bulbous portion is provided. The housing can be slid into an inner axial passageway in the cylindrical portion and sealed to the flexible member. The bulbous portion has an outer lip defining an opening. The housing is clamped into the chuck of a drill, the lip of the bulbous section is pressed against a container wall until the shank touches the wall, and the user operates the drill. Wall shavings (kerf) are confined in a chamber formed in the bulbous section as it folds when the shank advances inside the container. After sufficient advancement of the shank, an o-ring makes a seal with the container wall.

  18. Tools for charged Higgs bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staal, Oscar

    2010-12-01

    We review the status of publicly available software tools applicable to charged Higgs physics. A selection of codes are highlighted in more detail, focusing on new developments that have taken place since the previous charged Higgs workshop in 2008. We conclude that phenomenologists now have the tools ready to face the LHC data. A new web page collecting charged Higgs resources is presented. (orig.)

  19. Authoring Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviranus, Jutta

    Authoring tools that are accessible and that enable authors to produce accessible Web content play a critical role in web accessibility. Widespread use of authoring tools that comply to the W3C Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG) would ensure that even authors who are neither knowledgeable about nor particularly motivated to produce accessible content do so by default. The principles and techniques of ATAG are discussed. Some examples of accessible authoring tools are described including authoring tool content management components such as TinyMCE. Considerations for creating an accessible collaborative environment are also covered. As part of providing accessible content, the debate between system-based personal optimization and one universally accessible site configuration is presented. The issues and potential solutions to address the accessibility crisis presented by the advent of rich internet applications are outlined. This challenge must be met to ensure that a large segment of the population is able to participate in the move toward the web as a two-way communication mechanism.

  20. Tool steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højerslev, C.

    2001-01-01

    On designing a tool steel, its composition and heat treatment parameters are chosen to provide a hardened and tempered martensitic matrix in which carbides are evenly distributed. In this condition the matrix has an optimum combination of hardness andtoughness, the primary carbides provide...... resistance against abrasive wear and secondary carbides (if any) increase the resistance against plastic deformation. Tool steels are alloyed with carbide forming elements (Typically: vanadium, tungsten, molybdenumand chromium) furthermore some steel types contains cobalt. Addition of alloying elements...... serves primarily two purpose (i) to improve the hardenabillity and (ii) to provide harder and thermally more stable carbides than cementite. Assuming proper heattreatment, the properties of a tool steel depends on the which alloying elements are added and their respective concentrations....

  1. Management Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Manugistics, Inc. (formerly AVYX, Inc.) has introduced a new programming language for IBM and IBM compatible computers called TREES-pls. It is a resource management tool originating from the space shuttle, that can be used in such applications as scheduling, resource allocation project control, information management, and artificial intelligence. Manugistics, Inc. was looking for a flexible tool that can be applied to many problems with minimal adaptation. Among the non-government markets are aerospace, other manufacturing, transportation, health care, food and beverage and professional services.

  2. Stress-Induced Synaptic Dysfunction and Neurotransmitter Release in Alzheimer's Disease: Can Neurotransmitters and Neuromodulators be Potential Therapeutic Targets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Saurabh Kumar; Jha, Niraj Kumar; Kumar, Dhiraj; Sharma, Renu; Shrivastava, Abhishek; Ambasta, Rashmi K; Kumar, Pravir

    2017-01-01

    The communication between neurons at synaptic junctions is an intriguing process that monitors the transmission of various electro-chemical signals in the central nervous system. Albeit any aberration in the mechanisms associated with transmission of these signals leads to loss of synaptic contacts in both the neocortex and hippocampus thereby causing insidious cognitive decline and memory dysfunction. Compelling evidence suggests that soluble amyloid-β (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau serve as toxins in the dysfunction of synaptic plasticity and aberrant neurotransmitter (NT) release at synapses consequently causing a cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Further, an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission systems induced by impaired redox signaling and altered mitochondrial integrity is also amenable for such abnormalities. Defective NT release at the synaptic junction causes several detrimental effects associated with altered activity of synaptic proteins, transcription factors, Ca2+ homeostasis, and other molecules critical for neuronal plasticity. These detrimental effects further disrupt the normal homeostasis of neuronal cells and thereby causing synaptic loss. Moreover, the precise mechanistic role played by impaired NTs and neuromodulators (NMs) and altered redox signaling in synaptic dysfunction remains mysterious, and their possible interlink still needs to be investigated. Therefore, this review elucidates the intricate role played by both defective NTs/NMs and altered redox signaling in synaptopathy. Further, the involvement of numerous pharmacological approaches to compensate neurotransmission imbalance has also been discussed, which may be considered as a potential therapeutic approach in synaptopathy associated with AD.

  3. A novel treatment modality in patients with premature ejaculation resistant to conventional methods: the neuromodulation of dorsal penile nerves by pulsed radiofrequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basal, Seref; Goktas, Serdar; Ergin, Atilla; Yildirim, Ibrahim; Atim, Abdulkadir; Tahmaz, Lutfi; Dayanc, Murat

    2010-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common sexual problem experienced by men, and it affects 20%-30% of them. Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) neuromodulation has been shown to be an effective treatment for a wide range of pain conditions. We used PRF to treat PE by desensitizing dorsal penile nerves in patients resistant to conventional treatments. Fifteen patients with a lifelong history of PE, defined as an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) of IELT and sexual satisfaction score (SSS; for patients and their partners) were obtained. The mean IELTs before and 3 weeks after procedure were 18.5 +/- 17.9 and 139.9 +/- 55.1 seconds, respectively. Side effects did not occur. Mean SSSs of patients before and after treatment were 1.3 +/- 0.3 and 4.6 +/- 0.5, and mean SSSs of partners before and after treatment were 1.3 +/- 0.4 and 4.4 +/- 0.5, respectively. In all cases, IELT and SSS were significantly increased (P < .05). None of the patients or their wives reported any treatment failure during the follow-up period. The mean follow-up time was 8.3 +/- 1.9 months. It is early to conclude that this new treatment modality might be used widely for the treatment of PE; however, because it is an innovative modality, placebo-controlled studies (eg, sham procedure), with larger numbers of patients and including assessment of penile sensitivity (eg, biothesiometry), are needed.

  4. Does a Combination of Virtual Reality, Neuromodulation and Neuroimaging Provide a Comprehensive Platform for Neurorehabilitation? - A Narrative Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Wei-Peng; Muthalib, Makii; Yamin, Sami; Hendy, Ashlee M; Bramstedt, Kelly; Kotsopoulos, Eleftheria; Perrey, Stephane; Ayaz, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, virtual reality (VR) training has been used extensively in video games and military training to provide a sense of realism and environmental interaction to its users. More recently, VR training has been explored as a possible adjunct therapy for people with motor and mental health dysfunctions. The concept underlying VR therapy as a treatment for motor and cognitive dysfunction is to improve neuroplasticity of the brain by engaging users in multisensory training. In this review, we discuss the theoretical framework underlying the use of VR as a therapeutic intervention for neurorehabilitation and provide evidence for its use in treating motor and mental disorders such as cerebral palsy, Parkinson's disease, stroke, schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, and other related clinical areas. While this review provides some insights into the efficacy of VR in clinical rehabilitation and its complimentary use with neuroimaging (e.g., fNIRS and EEG) and neuromodulation (e.g., tDCS and rTMS), more research is needed to understand how different clinical conditions are affected by VR therapies (e.g., stimulus presentation, interactivity, control and types of VR). Future studies should consider large, longitudinal randomized controlled trials to determine the true potential of VR therapies in various clinical populations.

  5. Does a Combination of Virtual Reality, Neuromodulation and Neuroimaging Provide a Comprehensive Platform for Neurorehabilitation? – A Narrative Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Wei-Peng; Muthalib, Makii; Yamin, Sami; Hendy, Ashlee M.; Bramstedt, Kelly; Kotsopoulos, Eleftheria; Perrey, Stephane; Ayaz, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, virtual reality (VR) training has been used extensively in video games and military training to provide a sense of realism and environmental interaction to its users. More recently, VR training has been explored as a possible adjunct therapy for people with motor and mental health dysfunctions. The concept underlying VR therapy as a treatment for motor and cognitive dysfunction is to improve neuroplasticity of the brain by engaging users in multisensory training. In this review, we discuss the theoretical framework underlying the use of VR as a therapeutic intervention for neurorehabilitation and provide evidence for its use in treating motor and mental disorders such as cerebral palsy, Parkinson’s disease, stroke, schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, and other related clinical areas. While this review provides some insights into the efficacy of VR in clinical rehabilitation and its complimentary use with neuroimaging (e.g., fNIRS and EEG) and neuromodulation (e.g., tDCS and rTMS), more research is needed to understand how different clinical conditions are affected by VR therapies (e.g., stimulus presentation, interactivity, control and types of VR). Future studies should consider large, longitudinal randomized controlled trials to determine the true potential of VR therapies in various clinical populations. PMID:27445739

  6. Culture collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David

    2012-01-01

    Culture collections no matter their size, form, or institutional objectives play a role in underpinning microbiology, supplying the resources for study, innovation, and discovery. Their basic roles include providing a mechanism for ex situ conservation of organisms; they are repositories for strains subject to publication, taking in safe, confidential, and patent deposits from researchers. They supply strains for use; therefore, the microorganisms provided must be authentic and preserved well, and any associated information must be valid and sufficient to facilitate the confirmation of their identity and to facilitate their use. The organisms must be collected in compliance with international conventions, international and national legislation and distributed to users indicating clearly the terms and conditions under which they are received and can be used. Collections are harmonizing approaches and characterizing strains to meet user needs. No one single collection can carry out this task alone, and therefore, it is important that output and strategy are coordinated to ensure culture collections deliver the basic resources and services microbiological innovation requires. This chapter describes the types of collection and how they can implement quality management systems and operate to deliver their basic functions. The links to information sources given not only provide support for the practitioners within collections but also provide guidance to users on accessing the huge resource available and how they can help ensure microbiology has the resources and a solid platform for future development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Design tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton TenWolde; Mark T. Bomberg

    2009-01-01

    Overall, despite the lack of exact input data, the use of design tools, including models, is much superior to the simple following of rules of thumbs, and a moisture analysis should be standard procedure for any building envelope design. Exceptions can only be made for buildings in the same climate, similar occupancy, and similar envelope construction. This chapter...

  8. Social Data Analytics Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Abid; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design, development and demonstrative case studies of the Social Data Analytics Tool, SODATO. Adopting Action Design Framework [1], the objective of SODATO [2] is to collect, store, analyze, and report big social data emanating from the social media engagement of and social...... media conversations about organizations. We report and discuss results from two demonstrative case studies that were conducted using SODATO and conclude with implications and future work....

  9. Collective Efficacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ying; Zhou, Xiaohu; Klyver, Kim

    2018-01-01

    at manufacturing companies show that benevolent leadership and moral leadership, both components of paternalistic leadership, are positively related to organizational commitment and further that collective efficacy mediates the moral leadership–organizational commitment relationship. We did not find a relationship...... between authoritarian leadership and organizational commitment. Besides, it was found that team cohesion negatively moderates the relationship between moral leadership and collective efficacy and positively moderates the relationship between collective efficacy and organizational commitment. Explanations......Based on social cognitive theory, we theorize that collective efficacy plays a mediating role in the relationship between paternalistic leadership and organizational commitment and that this mediating role depends on team cohesion. The empirical results from a study of 238 employees from 52 teams...

  10. Collective Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galster, Kjeld

    in worldwide market conditions left perceptible ripples in Danish economy, budget discussions grew in importance over this period. The pacifist stance entailed disinclination to accept that the collective security concept and international treaties and accords signed by Denmark should necessitate credible...... and other international treaties provided arguments for adjusting the foreign and security policy ambitions, and since the general flux in worldwide market conditions left perceptible ripples in Danish economy, budget discussions grew in importance over this period. The pacifist stance entailed......Collective Security: National Egotism (Abstract) In Danish pre-World War I defence debate the notion of collective security is missing. During the early years of the 19th century, the political work is influenced by a pervasive feeling of rising tension and danger on the continent of Europe...

  11. Locals Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Hastings-King

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A locals collection is a set of parameters that are used to delimit data-mining operations. This piece uses a collection of locals from around Essex Massachusetts to shape and delimit an interrogation of post-reality in contemporary America. It explores the notion of crisis, the possibility of a crisis of empire that may or may not emerge in a media-space that does not allow crisis of empire to be mentioned and relations this maybe-crisis to the various levels of economic dysfunction that have become evident since late 2008. But mostly this piece explores ways in which particular stories about particular people do and do not link/link to these larger-scale narratives. This is the first of a potential series of locals collections that will mine the American post-real.

  12. Partnering for Quality under the Workforce Investment Act: A Tool Kit for One-Stop System Building. Module 3: Collecting and Using Customer Feedback. Trainer Manual with Participant Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Deborah; Koller, Vinz; Kozumplik, Richalene; Lawrence, Mary Ann

    This document is part of a five-module training package to help employment and training service providers comply with the Workforce Investment Act (WIA) of 1998 and develop a one-stop training and employment services system. It contains the participant workbook, trainer manual, and activity worksheets for a module on collecting and using customer…

  13. Fostering collective intelligence education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Meza

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available New educational models are necessary to update learning environments to the digitally shared communication and information. Collective intelligence is an emerging field that already has a significant impact in many areas and will have great implications in education, not only from the side of new methodologies but also as a challenge for education. This paper proposes an approach to a collective intelligence model of teaching using Internet to combine two strategies: idea management and real time assessment in the class. A digital tool named Fabricius has been created supporting these two elements to foster the collaboration and engagement of students in the learning process. As a result of the research we propose a list of KPI trying to measure individual and collective performance. We are conscious that this is just a first approach to define which aspects of a class following a course can be qualified and quantified.

  14. FFI: A software tool for ecological monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan C. Lutes; Nathan C. Benson; MaryBeth Keifer; John F. Caratti; S. Austin Streetman

    2009-01-01

    A new monitoring tool called FFI (FEAT/FIREMON Integrated) has been developed to assist managers with collection, storage and analysis of ecological information. The tool was developed through the complementary integration of two fire effects monitoring systems commonly used in the United States: FIREMON and the Fire Ecology Assessment Tool. FFI provides software...

  15. Concurrent Collections

    OpenAIRE

    Budimlić, Zoran; Burke, Michael; Cavé, Vincent; Knobe, Kathleen; Lowney, Geoff; Newton, Ryan; Palsberg, Jens; Peixotto, David; Sarkar, Vivek; Schlimbach, Frank; Taşırlar, Sağnak

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the Concurrent Collections (CnC) programming model. CnC supports flexible combinations of task and data parallelism while retaining determinism. CnC is implicitly parallel, with the user providing high-level operations along with semantic ordering constraints that together form a CnC graph. We formally describe the execution semantics of CnC and prove that the model guarantees deterministic computation. We evaluate the performance of CnC implementations on several applications an...

  16. Neuromodulation integrating rTMS and neurofeedback for the treatment of autism spectrum disorder: An exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokhadze, Estate M.; El-Baz, Ayman S.; Tasman, Allan; Sears, Lonnie L.; Wang, Yao; Lamina, Eva V.; Casanova, Manuel F.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by deficits in social interaction, language, stereotyped behaviors, and restricted range of interests. In previous studies low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been used, with positive behavioral and electrophysiological results, for the experimental treatment in ASD. In this study we combined prefrontal rTMS sessions with electroencephalographic (EEG) neurofeedback (NFB) to prolong and reinforce TMS-induced EEG changes. The pilot trial recruited 42 children with ASD (~14.5 yrs). Outcome measures included behavioral evaluations and reaction time test with event-related potential (ERP) recording. For the main goal of this exploratory study we used rTMS-neurofeedback combination (TMS-NFB, N=20) and waitlist (WTL, N=22) groups to examine effects of 18 sessions of integrated rTMS-NFB treatment or wait period) on behavioral responses, stimulus and response-locked ERPs, and other functional and clinical outcomes. The underlying hypothesis was that combined TMS-NFB will improve executive functions in autistic patients as compared to the waitlist group. Behavioral and ERP outcomes were collected in pre- and post-treatment tests in both groups. Results of the study supported our hypothesis by demonstration of positive effects of combined TMS-NFB neurotherapy in active treatment group as compared to control waitlist group, as the TMS-NFB group showed significant improvements in behavioral and functional outcomes as compared to the waitlist group. PMID:25267414

  17. Collective excitations in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomaz, Ph.

    1998-01-01

    The properties of the nucleus cannot be reduced to the properties of its constituents: it is a complex system. The fact that many properties of the nucleus are consequences of the existence of mean-field potential is a manifestation of this complexity. In particular, the nucleons can thus self-organize in collective motions such as giant resonances. Therefore the study of this collective motions is a very good tool to understand the properties of the nucleus itself. The purpose of this article is to stress some aspects of these collective vibrations. We have studied how an ensemble of fermions as the nucleus can self-organize in collective vibrations which are behaving like a gas of bosons in weak interaction. Understanding of these phenomena remains one of the important subjects of actuality in the context of quantal systems in strong interaction. In particular, the study of the states with one or two vibration quanta provides a direct information on the structure of nuclei close to their ground states. Moreover, some collective states appear to be very robust against the onset of chaos. This is the case of the hot giant dipole built on top of a hot nucleus which seems to survive up to rather high temperatures. Their sudden disappearance is still a subject of controversy. It may be that the mean-field and the associated collective states are playing a crucial role also in catastrophic processes such as the phase-transitions. Indeed, when the system is diluted the collective vibrations may become unstable and it seems that these unstable modes provide a natural explanation to the self organization of the system in drops. Finally, considering the diversity of the different structures of exotic nuclei one may expect new vibration types. All these studies are showing the diversity of the collective motions of strongly correlated quantum systems such as the nucleus but many open questions remain to be solved. (authors)

  18. Collective excitations in nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chomaz, Ph. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Collaboration: La Direction des Sciences de la Matiere du CEA (FR); Le Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique de Belgique (BE)

    1998-12-31

    The properties of the nucleus cannot be reduced to the properties of its constituents: it is a complex system. The fact that many properties of the nucleus are consequences of the existence of mean-field potential is a manifestation of this complexity. In particular, the nucleons can thus self-organize in collective motions such as giant resonances. Therefore the study of this collective motions is a very good tool to understand the properties of the nucleus itself. The purpose of this article is to stress some aspects of these collective vibrations. We have studied how an ensemble of fermions as the nucleus can self-organize in collective vibrations which are behaving like a gas of bosons in weak interaction. Understanding of these phenomena remains one of the important subjects of actuality in the context of quantal systems in strong interaction. In particular, the study of the states with one or two vibration quanta provides a direct information on the structure of nuclei close to their ground states. Moreover, some collective states appear to be very robust against the onset of chaos. This is the case of the hot giant dipole built on top of a hot nucleus which seems to survive up to rather high temperatures. Their sudden disappearance is still a subject of controversy. It may be that the mean-field and the associated collective states are playing a crucial role also in catastrophic processes such as the phase-transitions. Indeed, when the system is diluted the collective vibrations may become unstable and it seems that these unstable modes provide a natural explanation to the self organization of the system in drops. Finally, considering the diversity of the different structures of exotic nuclei one may expect new vibration types. All these studies are showing the diversity of the collective motions of strongly correlated quantum systems such as the nucleus but many open questions remain to be solved. (authors) 304 refs., 53 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Collective Success or Collective Failure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fayyaz, Anjum

    study of soccer village project to learn how various attempts at facilitating joint CSR action in the Pakistani football manufacturing have consistently failed in addressing international CSR compliance demands. I conclude that this form of collective failure – along with technological changes, lack...... of innovation, and government failure - can partly explain why Sialkot has been marginalized in terms of its overall share of world football manufacturing in the last decade....

  20. "Research Tools": Tools for supporting research and publications

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim, Nader Ale

    2014-01-01

    “Research Tools” can be defined as vehicles that broadly facilitate research and related activities. “Research Tools” enable researchers to collect, organize, analyze, visualize and publicized research outputs. Dr. Nader has collected over 700 tools that enable students to follow the correct path in research and to ultimately produce high-quality research outputs with more accuracy and efficiency. It is assembled as an interactive Web-based mind map, titled “Research Tools”, which is updated ...

  1. Assessment of the FasciMol-ELISA in the detection of the trematode Fasciola hepatica in field-collected Galba cubensis: a novel tool for the malacological survey of fasciolosis transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Annia; Vázquez, Antonio A; Sánchez, Jorge; Fraga, Jorge; Hernández, Hilda; Martínez, Elizabeth; Marcet, Ricardo; Figueredo, Mabel; Sarracent, Jorge

    2016-01-16

    western Cuba. The sensitivity and specificity of the FasciMol-ELISA as well as its time-saving capacity and the easy of performing the determination of a large number of samples, point at this assay as a novel tool suitable for large-scale monitoring of natural snails populations. To our knowledge, this is the first study that explores natural infection by F. hepatica in field-occurring lymnaeid snails using an immunoenzymatic assay.

  2. Virtual Museums as Educational Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    Virtual Museums as Educational Tool On this web site you will find a collection of resources on virtual museums. The web site is meant to be a knowledge base for people with interest in museums, virtuality and education, and how virtual museums may contribute to adult education and lifelong...

  3. An Intelligence Collection Management Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    classification of inteligence collection requirements in terms of. the a-.- metnodo"c, .ev--e in Chaster Five. 116 APPgENDIX A A METHOD OF RANKING...of Artificial Intelligence Tools and Technigues to!TN’X n~l is n rs aa~emfft-.3-ufnyva: ’A TZ Ashby W. Ecss. An Introduction to Cybernetics. New York

  4. QR Codes: Taking Collections Further

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahearn, Caitlin

    2014-01-01

    With some thought and direction, QR (quick response) codes are a great tool to use in school libraries to enhance access to information. From March through April 2013, Caitlin Ahearn interned at Sanborn Regional High School (SRHS) under the supervision of Pam Harland. As a result of Harland's un-Deweying of the nonfiction collection at SRHS,…

  5. Crash course in collection development

    CERN Document Server

    Disher, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    This professional volume covers all aspects of collection development and management in the public library, from gathering statistics to design a collection that meets community needs, to selecting materials, managing vendor relations, understanding the publishing industry, and handling complaints. Author Wayne Disher provides public librarians-especially those without the benefit of academic training-access to the tools to make them successful, and their collections beneficial to the public they serve. The second edition features two new chapters on digital curation and cooperative colle

  6. Neuromodulation: acetylcholine and memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselmo

    1999-09-01

    Clinical and experimental evidence suggests that hippocampal damage causes more severe disruption of episodic memories if those memories were encoded in the recent rather than the more distant past. This decrease in sensitivity to damage over time might reflect the formation of multiple traces within the hippocampus itself, or the formation of additional associative links in entorhinal and association cortices. Physiological evidence also supports a two-stage model of the encoding process in which the initial encoding occurs during active waking and deeper consolidation occurs via the formation of additional memory traces during quiet waking or slow-wave sleep. In this article I will describe the changes in cholinergic tone within the hippocampus in different stages of the sleep-wake cycle and will propose that these changes modulate different stages of memory formation. In particular, I will suggest that the high levels of acetylcholine that are present during active waking might set the appropriate dynamics for encoding new information in the hippocampus, by partially suppressing excitatory feedback connections and so facilitating encoding without interference from previously stored information. By contrast, the lower levels of acetylcholine that are present during quiet waking and slow-wave sleep might release this suppression and thereby allow a stronger spread of activity within the hippocampus itself and from the hippocampus to the entorhinal cortex, thus facilitating the process of consolidation of separate memory traces.

  7. Neuromodulation of the Suprascapular Nerve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurt, E.; Eijk, T. van; Henssen, D.J.H.A.; Arnts, I.; Steegers, M.A.H.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic intractable shoulder pain (CISP) is defined as shoulder pain which is present for longer than 6 months and does not respond to standard treatments like medication, physical therapy, rehabilitation, selective nerve blocks and local infiltrations, or orthopedic procedures. The etiology of CISP

  8. Sphenopalatine ganglion neuromodulation in migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Sabrina; Schoenen, Jean; Ashina, Messoud

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to review the prospect of treating migraine with sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) neurostimulation. BACKGROUND: Fuelled by preliminary studies showing a beneficial effect in cluster headache patients, the potential of treating migraine with neurostimulation...

  9. Tool path in torus tool CNC machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Ying

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about tool path in torus tool CNC machining.The mathematical model of torus tool is established.The tool path planning algorithm is determined through calculation of the cutter location,boundary discretization,calculation of adjacent tool path and so on,according to the conversion formula,the cutter contact point will be converted to the cutter location point and then these points fit a toolpath.Lastly,the path planning algorithm is implemented by using Matlab programming.The cutter location points for torus tool are calculated by Matlab,and then fit these points to a toolpath.While using UG software,another tool path of free surface is simulated of the same data.It is drew compared the two tool paths that using torus tool is more efficient.

  10. Quality Assurance Project Plan Development Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    This tool contains information designed to assist in developing a Quality Assurance (QA) Project Plan that meets EPA requirements for projects that involve surface or groundwater monitoring and/or the collection and analysis of water samples.

  11. Useful design tools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2005-01-01

    vague and contested concept of sustainability into concrete concepts and building projects. It describes a typology of tools: process tools, impact assessment tools, multi-criteria tools and tools for monitoring. It includes a Danish paradigmatic case study of stakeholder participation in the planning...... of a new sustainable settlement. The use of design tools is discussed in relation to innovation and stakeholder participation, and it is stressed that the usefulness of design tools is context dependent....

  12. CoC GIS Tools (GIS Tool)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This tool provides a no-cost downloadable software tool that allows users to interact with professional quality GIS maps. Users access pre-compiled projects through...

  13. Mathematical tools for physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trigg, G.L.

    2005-01-01

    Mathematical Tools for Physisists is a unique collection of 18 review articles, each one written by a renowned expert of its field. Their professional style will be beneficial for advanced students as well as for the scientist at work. The first may find a comprehensive introduction while the latter use it as a quick reference. Great attention was paid to ensuring fast access to the information, and each carefully reviewed article includes a glossary of terms and a guide to further reading. The contributions range from fundamental methods right up to the latest applications, including: - Algebraic Methods - Analytic Methods - Fourier and Other Mathematical Transforms - Fractal Geometry - Geometrical Methods - Green's Functions - Group Theory - Mathematical Modeling - Monte Carlo Methods - Numerical Methods - Perturbation Methods - Quantum Computation - Quantum Logic - Special Functions - Stochastic Processes - Symmetries and Conservation Laws - Topology - Variational Methods. (orig.)

  14. Nanotechnology tools in pharmaceutical R&D

    OpenAIRE

    Challa S.S.R. Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a new approach to problem solving and can be considered as a collection of tools and ideas which can be applied in pharmaceutical industry. Application of nanotechnology tools in pharmaceutical R&D is likely to result in moving the industry from ‘blockbuster drug’ model to ‘personalized medicine’. There are compelling applications in pharmaceutical industry where inexpensive nanotechnology tools can be utilized. The review explores the possibility of categorizing various nan...

  15. Quality improvement tools and processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Catherine Y

    2015-04-01

    The Model for Improvement and the Plan-Do-Study-Act cycle is a popular quality improvement (QI) tool for health care providers to successfully lead QI projects and redesign care processes. This tool has several distinct components that must be addressed in sequence to organize and critically evaluate improvement activities. Unlike other health sciences clinical research, QI projects and research are based on dynamic hypotheses that develop into observable, serial tests of change with continuous collection and feedback of performance data to stakeholders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Markets for Collective Concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Christian; Ossandón, José; Pallesen, Trine

    Despite the recent fall-out of finance, confidence in the market does not seem to be diminishing, but, on the contrary, market mechanisms are becoming key instruments to deal with core contemporary collective concerns, including global warming, education, environmental pollution, supply of energy......, quality of education, poverty and health care (Mirowski 2013). Recent research within STS has started to focus on such kind of arrangements and in this presentation we will critically engage with this literature. Our main results are twofold. On the one hand, we recognize there are important conceptual...... tools already available - such as 'matters of public concern' (Marres 2007) and 'hybrid forums' (Callon et al. 2001; Callon 2009)- that help in framing the particularity of these arrangements. On the other hand, previous STS-market research notions developed mostly in the field of finance studies cannot...

  17. The power tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HAYFIELD, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    POWER Tool--Planning, Optimization, Waste Estimating and Resourcing tool, a hand-held field estimating unit and relational database software tool for optimizing disassembly and final waste form of contaminated systems and equipment

  18. The neutron porosity tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1988-01-01

    The report contains a review of available information on neutron porosity tools with the emphasis on dual thermal-neutron-detector porosity tools and epithermal-neutron-detector porosity tools. The general principle of such tools is discussed and theoretical models are very briefly reviewed. Available data on tool designs are summarized with special regard to the source-detector distance. Tool operational data, porosity determination and correction of measurements are briefly discussed. (author) 15 refs

  19. Preset pivotal tool holder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmanes, Charles

    1979-01-01

    A tool fixture is provided for precise pre-alignment of a radiused edge cutting tool in a tool holder relative to a fixed reference pivot point established on said holder about which the tool holder may be selectively pivoted relative to the fixture base member to change the contact point of the tool cutting edge with a workpiece while maintaining the precise same tool cutting radius relative to the reference pivot point.

  20. Workforce Competitiveness Collection. "LINCS" Resource Collection News

    Science.gov (United States)

    Literacy Information and Communication System, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This edition of "'LINCS' Resource Collection News" features the Workforce Competitiveness Collection, covering the topics of workforce education, English language acquisition, and technology. Each month Collections News features one of the three "LINCS" (Literacy Information and Communication System) Resource Collections--Basic…

  1. Chemical Tool Peer Review Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cashion, Avery Ted [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cieslewski, Grzegorz [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Chemical tracers are commonly used to characterize fracture networks and to determine the connectivity between the injection and production wells. Currently, most tracer experiments involve injecting the tracer at the injection well, manually collecting liquid samples at the wellhead of the production well, and sending the samples off for laboratory analysis. While this method provides accurate tracer concentration data, it does not provide information regarding the location of the fractures conducting the tracer between wellbores. The goal of this project is to develop chemical sensors and design a prototype tool to help understand the fracture properties of a geothermal reservoir by monitoring tracer concentrations along the depth of the well. The sensors will be able to detect certain species of the ionic tracers (mainly iodide) and pH in-situ during the tracer experiment. The proposed high-temperature (HT) tool will house the chemical sensors as well as a standard logging sensor package of pressure, temperature, and flow sensors in order to provide additional information on the state of the geothermal reservoir. The sensors and the tool will be able to survive extended deployments at temperatures up to 225 °C and high pressures to provide real-time temporal and spatial feedback of tracer concentration. Data collected from this tool will allow for the real-time identification of the fractures conducting chemical tracers between wellbores along with the pH of the reservoir fluid at various depths.

  2. Coordination and Collective Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-21

    collective foraging (self-propelled interacting particles) within an evolutionary framework, and tools from dynamical systems theory, statistical...position of individuals affects their influence on swarms: A numerical comparison of two popular swarm dynamics models, PLoS ONE, (03 2013): 58525...Individuals Affects Their Influence on Swarms: A Numerical Comparison of Two Popular Swarm Dynamics Models, PLoS ONE, (03 2013): 58525. doi: Ugo Lopez

  3. Dutch Risk Assessment tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, A.

    2015-01-01

    The ‘Risico- Inventarisatie- en Evaluatie-instrumenten’ is the name for the Dutch risk assessment (RA) tools. A RA tool can be used to perform a risk assessment including an evaluation of the identified risks. These tools were among the first online risk assessment tools developed in Europe. The

  4. New QC 7 tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    This book tells of new QC with 7 tools which includes TQC and new QC with 7 tools which is for better propel, what is QC method to think? what is new QC 7 tool ? like KJ law, PDPC law, arrow and diagram law, and matrix diagram law, application of new QC 7 tools such as field to apply, application of new QC 7 tools for policy management the method of new QC 7 tools including related regulations KJ law, matrix and data analysis, PDPC law and education and introduction of new QC 7 tools.

  5. 78 FR 78359 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Public Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... Customer Relationship Management (CRM) application is a nimble business intelligence tool being used by... Management and Budget (OMB). The ICR is for extending the use of the approved information collection assigned...

  6. Nanocomposites for Machining Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Sidorenko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Machining tools are used in many areas of production. To a considerable extent, the performance characteristics of the tools determine the quality and cost of obtained products. The main materials used for producing machining tools are steel, cemented carbides, ceramics and superhard materials. A promising way to improve the performance characteristics of these materials is to design new nanocomposites based on them. The application of micromechanical modeling during the elaboration of composite materials for machining tools can reduce the financial and time costs for development of new tools, with enhanced performance. This article reviews the main groups of nanocomposites for machining tools and their performance.

  7. Tool grinding machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dial, Sr., Charles E.

    1980-01-01

    The present invention relates to an improved tool grinding mechanism for grinding single point diamond cutting tools to precise roundness and radius specifications. The present invention utilizes a tool holder which is longitudinally displaced with respect to the remainder of the grinding system due to contact of the tool with the grinding surface with this displacement being monitored so that any variation in the grinding of the cutting surface such as caused by crystal orientation or tool thickness may be compensated for during the grinding operation to assure the attainment of the desired cutting tool face specifications.

  8. Improved tool grinding machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dial, C.E. Sr.

    The present invention relates to an improved tool grinding mechanism for grinding single point diamond cutting tools to precise roundness and radius specifications. The present invention utilizes a tool holder which is longitudinally displaced with respect to the remainder of the grinding system due to contact of the tool with the grinding surface with this displacement being monitored so that any variation in the grinding of the cutting surface such as caused by crystal orientation or tool thicknesses may be compensated for during the grinding operation to assure the attainment of the desired cutting tool face specifications.

  9. Collection Directions: The Evolution of Library Collections and Collecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Lorcan; Malpas, Constance; Lavoie, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This article takes a broad view of the evolution of collecting behaviors in a network environment and suggests some future directions based on various simple models. The authors look at the changing dynamics of print collections, at the greater engagement with research and learning behaviors, and at trends in scholarly communication. The goal is…

  10. Tools of radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Thomas L; Hüttemeister, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    This 6th edition of “Tools of Radio Astronomy”, the most used introductory text in radio astronomy, has been revised to reflect the current state of this important branch of astronomy. This includes the use of satellites, low radio frequencies, the millimeter/sub-mm universe, the Cosmic Microwave Background and the increased importance of mm/sub-mm dust emission. Several derivations and presentations of technical aspects of radio astronomy and receivers, such as receiver noise, the Hertz dipole and  beam forming have been updated, expanded, re-worked or complemented by alternative derivations. These reflect advances in technology. The wider bandwidths of the Jansky-VLA and long wave arrays such as LOFAR and mm/sub-mm arrays such as ALMA required an expansion of the discussion of interferometers and aperture synthesis. Developments in data reduction algorithms have been included. As a result of the large amount of data collected in the past 20 years, the discussion of solar system radio astronomy, dust em...

  11. Systematic medical data collection of intentional injuries during armed conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Abdel-Jabbar Al-Qadi, Ashraf Hasan; Al-Jabriri, Jalal

    2004-01-01

    A study was undertaken on implementing medical data collection as a tool to assess the relative number and character of intentional injuries before and during an armed conflict.......A study was undertaken on implementing medical data collection as a tool to assess the relative number and character of intentional injuries before and during an armed conflict....

  12. 77 FR 60023 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Information Collection tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    .... Affected Public: Business or other for-profit institutions, and state, local, or tribal governments...) Receiving Gambling Winnings; Form 6781, Gains and Losses From Section 1256 Contracts and Straddles; and REG.... Affected Public: Business or other for-profit organizations, individuals, and farms. Estimated Number of...

  13. 78 FR 20174 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Information Collection Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... 6324A permits the executor of a decedent's estate to elect a lien on section 6166 property in favor of... and the executor files an agreement under section 6324A(c). This regulation clarifies the procedures...

  14. 78 FR 72151 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request on Information Collection Tools Relating to Using Omnibus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... satisfying experience with the Agency's programs. This feedback will provide insights into customer or stakeholder perceptions, experiences and expectations, provide an early warning of issues with service, or...) estimates of capital or start-up costs and costs of operation, maintenance, and purchase of services to...

  15. 77 FR 61833 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Information Collection Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning... Private Foundation or Section 4947(a)(1) Nonexempt charitable Trust Treated as a Private Foundation, and... the Internal revenue Code; Form 5227, Split-Interest Trust Information Return; Revenue Procedure 97-33...

  16. 77 FR 61830 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Information Collection Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... Form 8876, Excise Tax on Structured Settlement Factoring Transactions; Form 944-SS, Employer's ANNUAL...: (1) Title: Excise Tax on Structured Settlement Factoring Transactions. OMB Number: 1545-1826. Form...) estimates of capital or start-up costs and costs of operation, maintenance, and purchase of services to...

  17. 77 FR 61832 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Information Collection Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... Notice 2009-85, Guidance for Expatriates and Recipients of Foreign Source Gifts and Bequests Under... record-keeping requirements: (1) Title: Guidance for Expatriates and Recipients of Foreign Source Gifts... of operation, maintenance, and purchase of services to provide information. Approved: September 24...

  18. 78 FR 20175 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Information Collection tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ...: Form 8879-PE is used by an electronic return originator (ERO) and a general partner or limited liability company member when the general partner or limited liability company member wants to use a personal identification number (PIN) to electronically sign a partnership's electronic income tax return...

  19. 77 FR 61829 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Information Collection Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... respondent burden, invites the general public and other Federal agencies to take this opportunity to comment... Facilitate Business Election Filing. DATES: Written comments should be received on or before December 10... permit the district director to recharacterize a financing arrangement as a conduit arrangement. The...

  20. 78 FR 19576 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Information Collection Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... comments. SUMMARY: The Department of the Treasury, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and... government are working to ensure compliance with excise taxes on motor fuels. This joint effect has resulted... Respondent: 4 hours, 40 minutes. Estimated Annual Burden Hours for Respondents: 2,347,020. (2) Title: Support...

  1. 78 FR 9454 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Information Collection Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... Use in the Food and Beverage Industry; the Tip Rate Determination Agreement (TRDA) for industries other than the food and beverage industry and the gaming industry; and Notice 2006-97, Taxation and... Reporting Alternative Commitment Agreement (TRAC) for Use in the Food and Beverage Industry. OMB Number...

  2. 78 FR 19572 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Information Collection Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... Determination Agreement (for use by employers in the food and beverage industry); and REG-107186-00 (TD 9114... Agreement (for Use by Employers in the Food and Beverage Industry). OMB Number: 1545-1715. Form Number: N/A...

  3. Software Tools Streamline Project Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    -Based Document Management (QBDM) is a tool that enables content or context searches, either simple or hierarchical, across a variety of databases. The system enables users to specify notification subscriptions where they associate "contexts of interest" and "events of interest" to one or more documents or collection(s) of documents. Based on these subscriptions, users receive notification when the events of interest occur within the contexts of interest for associated document or collection(s) of documents. Users can also associate at least one notification time as part of the notification subscription, with at least one option for the time period of notifications.

  4. Challenge Course Facilitator Technical Skills Assessment Tool Mark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, William Quinn

    2007-01-01

    A study was conducted to develop a technical skills assessment tool for the training and development of challenge course facilitators. Researchers accessed two professional on-line listserves to collect a sample size of twenty-seven currently used technical skills assessment tools. The assessment tools were critically analysed by three independent…

  5. Surgical Technology Integration with Tools for Cognitive Human Factors (STITCH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Measurement Tool We conducted another round of data collection using the daVinci Surgical System at the University of Kentucky Hospital in May. In this...9 3. Tools and Display Technology...considering cognitive and environmental factors such as mental workload, stress, situation awareness, and level of comfort with complex tools . To

  6. Tools for Understanding Identity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creese, Sadie; Gibson-Robinson, Thomas; Goldsmith, Michael; Hodges, Duncan; Kim, Dee DH; Love, Oriana J.; Nurse, Jason R.; Pike, William A.; Scholtz, Jean

    2013-12-28

    into account the difficulty of the inferences, allowing the user to consider different scenarios depending on the perceived resources of the attacker, or to prioritize lines of investigation. It also has a number of interesting visualizations that are designed to aid the user in understanding the model. The tool works by considering the inferences as a graph and runs various graph-theoretic algorithms, with some novel adaptations, in order to deduce various properties. Using the Model To help investigators exploit the model to perform identity attribution, we have developed the Identity Map visualization. For a user-provided set of known starting elements and a set of desired target elements for a given identity, the Identity Map generates investigative workflows as paths through the model. Each path consists of a series of elements and inferences between them that connect the input and output elements. Each path also has an associated confidence level that estimates the reliability of the resulting attribution. Identity Map can help investigators understand the possible ways to make an identification decision and guide them toward the data-collection or analysis steps required to reach that decision.

  7. Tools of online Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, M. S.; Rahman, M. F.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Online marketing is the most crucial issue in the modern marketing era but there was no previous research that could identify the tools of internet marketing before this study and it was the first study on the field of online marketing tools. This research was descriptive in nature and it has attempted to identify the major tools of internet marketing from the concepts of traditional marketing tools. Worldwide network is known as Internet that can exchange information between use...

  8. OOTW COST TOOLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HARTLEY, D.S.III; PACKARD, S.L.

    1998-09-01

    This document reports the results of a study of cost tools to support the analysis of Operations Other Than War (OOTW). It recommends the continued development of the Department of Defense (DoD) Contingency Operational Support Tool (COST) as the basic cost analysis tool for 00TWS. It also recommends modifications to be included in future versions of COST and the development of an 00TW mission planning tool to supply valid input for costing.

  9. Práticas inovadoras em saúde coletiva: ferramenta re-leitora do processo saúde-doença Prácticas innovadoras en salud colectiva: herramienta re-lectora del proceso salud enfermedad Innovator practices in collective health: re-reading tool of the health disease process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Regina Cubas

    2007-12-01

    categorías sociales, el instrumento permitió visualizar el aspecto colectivo de familias y grupos sociales.This study aims to present the basis to build a re-reading tool of the Health-Disease Process which relies on dialogical relation among social categories and the functional variables found in the a consultation instrument. The tool is an analytical model for decision support that intends the development of data warehousing. Data from the electronic records of nursing consultation were related to the categories: need, social class, gender, race and generation, unveil the social aspects of the health - disease process and assign degrees of vulnerability to homogeneous social groups. Four degrees of vulnerability can be observed that are qualified by eleven markers. The tool lead to the reflection that inequalities are reproduced as time goes by and transforms groups in targets from the social immobility. Although there are some gaps for the visualization of the social categories, the tool enables to visualize the collective face of families and social groups.

  10. Pro Tools HD

    CERN Document Server

    Camou, Edouard

    2013-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide for using Pro Tools HD 11 effectively.This book is ideal for anyone who already uses ProTools and wants to learn more, or is new to Pro Tools HD and wants to use it effectively in their own audio workstations.

  11. Nanocomposites for Machining Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidorenko, Daria; Loginov, Pavel; Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2017-01-01

    Machining tools are used in many areas of production. To a considerable extent, the performance characteristics of the tools determine the quality and cost of obtained products. The main materials used for producing machining tools are steel, cemented carbides, ceramics and superhard materials...

  12. Tree Transduction Tools for Cdec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Matthews

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe a collection of open source tools for learning tree-to-string and tree-to-tree transducers and the extensions to the cdec decoder that enable translation with these. Our modular, easy-to-extend tools extract rules from trees or forests aligned to strings and trees subject to different structural constraints. A fast, multithreaded implementation of the Cohn and Blunsom (2009 model for extracting compact tree-to-string rules is also included. The implementation of the tree composition algorithm used by cdec is described, and translation quality and decoding time results are presented. Our experimental results add to the body of evidence suggesting that tree transducers are a compelling option for translation, particularly when decoding speed and translation model size are important.

  13. Pickering tool management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, E.H.; Green, A.H.

    1997-01-01

    Tools were being deployed in the station with no process in effect to ensure that they are maintained in good repair so as to effectively support the performance of Maintenance activities. Today's legal requirements require that all employers have a process in place to ensure that tools are maintained in a safe condition. This is specified in the Ontario Health and Safety Act. The Pickering Tool Management System has been chosen as the process at Pickering N.D to manage tools. Tools are identified by number etching and bar codes. The system is a Windows application installed on several file servers

  14. Machine tool structures

    CERN Document Server

    Koenigsberger, F

    1970-01-01

    Machine Tool Structures, Volume 1 deals with fundamental theories and calculation methods for machine tool structures. Experimental investigations into stiffness are discussed, along with the application of the results to the design of machine tool structures. Topics covered range from static and dynamic stiffness to chatter in metal cutting, stability in machine tools, and deformations of machine tool structures. This volume is divided into three sections and opens with a discussion on stiffness specifications and the effect of stiffness on the behavior of the machine under forced vibration c

  15. Hurricane Data Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhong; Ostrenga, Dana; Leptoukh, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    In order to facilitate Earth science data access, the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data Information Services Center (GES DISC) has developed a web prototype, the Hurricane Data Analysis Tool (HDAT; URL: http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/HDAT), to allow users to conduct online visualization and analysis of several remote sensing and model datasets for educational activities and studies of tropical cyclones and other weather phenomena. With a web browser and few mouse clicks, users can have a full access to terabytes of data and generate 2-D or time-series plots and animation without downloading any software and data. HDAT includes data from the NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), the NASA Quick Scatterometer(QuikSCAT) and NECP Reanalysis, and the NCEP/CPC half-hourly, 4-km Global (60 N - 60 S) IR Dataset. The GES DISC archives TRMM data. The daily global rainfall product derived from the 3-hourly multi-satellite precipitation product (3B42 V6) is available in HDAT. The TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) sea surface temperature from the Remote Sensing Systems is in HDAT as well. The NASA QuikSCAT ocean surface wind and the NCEP Reanalysis provide ocean surface and atmospheric conditions, respectively. The global merged IR product, also known as, the NCEP/CPC half-hourly, 4-km Global (60 N -60 S) IR Dataset, is one of TRMM ancillary datasets. They are globally-merged pixel-resolution IR brightness temperature data (equivalent blackbody temperatures), merged from all available geostationary satellites (GOES-8/10, METEOSAT-7/5 & GMS). The GES DISC has collected over 10 years of the data beginning from February of 2000. This high temporal resolution (every 30 minutes) dataset not only provides additional background information to TRMM and other satellite missions, but also allows observing a wide range of meteorological phenomena from space, such as, hurricanes, typhoons, tropical cyclones, mesoscale convection system, etc. Basic functions include selection of area of

  16. Using smartphones in survey research: a multifunctional tool

    OpenAIRE

    Nathalie Sonck; Henk Fernee

    2013-01-01

    Smartphones and apps offer an innovative means of collecting data from the public. The Netherlands Institute for Social Research | SCP has been engaged in one of the first experiments involving the use of a smartphone app to collect time use data recorded by means of an electronic diary. Is it feasible to use smartphones as a data collection tool for social research? What are the effects on data quality? Can we also incorporate reality mining tools in the smartphone app to replace traditional...

  17. PAT tools for fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist

    The publication of the Process Analytical Technology (PAT) guidance has been one of the most important milestones for pharmaceutical production during the past ten years. The ideas outlined in the PAT guidance are also applied in other industries, for example the fermentation industry. Process...... knowledge is central in PAT projects. This presentation therefore gives a brief overview of a number of PAT tools for collecting process knowledge on fermentation processes: - On-line sensors, where for example spectroscopic measurements are increasingly applied - Mechanistic models, which can be used...

  18. PAT tools for fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Bolic, Andrijana; Svanholm, Bent

    2012-01-01

    The publication of the Process Analytical Technology (PAT) guidance has been one of the most important milestones for pharmaceutical production during the past ten years. The ideas outlined in the PAT guidance are also applied in other industries, for example the fermentation industry. Process...... knowledge is central in PAT projects. This manuscript therefore gives a brief overview of a number of PAT tools for collecting process knowledge on fermentation processes: on-line sensors, mechanistic models and small-scale equipment for high-throughput experimentation. The manuscript ends with a short...

  19. The tools of mathematical reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    Lakins, Tamara J

    2016-01-01

    This accessible textbook gives beginning undergraduate mathematics students a first exposure to introductory logic, proofs, sets, functions, number theory, relations, finite and infinite sets, and the foundations of analysis. The book provides students with a quick path to writing proofs and a practical collection of tools that they can use in later mathematics courses such as abstract algebra and analysis. The importance of the logical structure of a mathematical statement as a framework for finding a proof of that statement, and the proper use of variables, is an early and consistent theme used throughout the book.

  20. O uso de diários como ferramenta de intervenção da Análise Institucional: potencializando reflexões no cotidiano da Saúde Bucal Coletiva The use of diaries as tools for intervention in institutional analysis: reflections on everyday work in collective oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane M. Pezzato

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available É significativo o numero de estudos de natureza qualitativa que utilizam a técnica do diário em trabalho de campo. Tendo em vista as diferentes abordagens teórico-metodológicas às quais tais investigações se vinculam, este artigo tem como objetivo discutir as potencialidades de diferentes formas de produção de diários, quando utilizados como uma ferramenta de intervenção da Análise Institucional na Saúde Coletiva. Este estudo inscreve-se no contexto de uma pesquisa que analisou o trabalho de um grupo de profissionais da Saúde Bucal dispostos a propor estratégias inovadoras no modo de produção do cuidado presente em seus cotidianos na atenção básica do SUS Campinas-SP. Realizar esses registros possibilitou aos diaristas uma reflexão acerca da própria prática, desnaturalizando-a, o que permitiu explorar a complexidade do trabalho em saúde bucal na atenção básica. Mostrou, também, ser um caminho possível para dar sentido às suas "práticas", sejam elas individuais ou coletivas.This paper discusses the potential of different ways of producing diaries when used in collective health as tools for intervention through institutional analysis. The text and its argument are based on an analysis of many different studies that use the technique of diaries in fieldwork. Several theoretical and methodological approaches are considered in this study, which was related to academic work for the attainment of a doctoral degree. The work of a group of oral health professionals interested in proposing innovative strategies for developing types of care in their work in the public health system in Campinas city, SP, Brazil. The practice of writing diaries allowed the professionals to reflect on their everyday work and experiences. Complex and often conflictive situations in basic activities in oral health are described and elaborated on, and the method has proved to be a feasible manner for these professionals to give meaning and form

  1. Transcranial magnetic stimulation as an investigative tool for motor dysfunction and recovery in stroke: an overview for neurorehabilitation clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Mar; Black-Schaffer, Randie M; Edwards, Dylan J

    2012-07-01

    An improved understanding of motor dysfunction and recovery after stroke has important clinical implications that may lead to the design of more effective rehabilitation strategies for patients with hemiparesis. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a safe and painless tool that has been used in conjunction with other existing diagnostic tools to investigate motor pathophysiology in stroke patients. Since TMS emerged more than two decades ago, its application in clinical and basic neuroscience has expanded worldwide. TMS can quantify the corticomotor excitability properties of clinically affected and unaffected muscles and can probe local cortical networks as well as remote but functionally related areas. This provides novel insight into the physiology of neural circuits underlying motor dysfunction and brain reorganization during the motor recovery process. This important tool needs to be used with caution by clinical investigators, its limitations need to be understood, and the results should to be interpreted along with clinical evaluation in this patient population. In this review, we provide an overview of the rationale, implementation, and limitations of TMS to study stroke motor physiology. This knowledge may be useful to guide future rehabilitation treatments by assessing and promoting functional plasticity. © 2012 International Neuromodulation Society.

  2. Open Health Tools: Tooling for Interoperable Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skip McGaughey

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The Open Health Tools initiative is creating an ecosystem focused on the production of software tooling that promotes the exchange of medical information across political, geographic, cultural, product, and technology lines. At its core, OHT believes that the availability of high-quality tooling that interoperates will propel the industry forward, enabling organizations and vendors to build products and systems that effectively work together. This will ?raise the interoperability bar? as a result of having tools that just work. To achieve these lofty goals, careful consideration must be made to the constituencies that will be most affected by an OHT-influenced world. This document outlines a vision of OHT?s impact to these stakeholders. It does not explain the OHT process itself or how the OHT community operates. Instead, we place emphasis on the impact of that process within the health industry. The catchphrase ?code is king? underpins this document, meaning that the manifestation of any open source community lies in the products and technology it produces.

  3. Scheme Program Documentation Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    are separate and intended for different documentation purposes they are related to each other in several ways. Both tools are based on XML languages for tool setup and for documentation authoring. In addition, both tools rely on the LAML framework which---in a systematic way---makes an XML language available...... as named functions in Scheme. Finally, the Scheme Elucidator is able to integrate SchemeDoc resources as part of an internal documentation resource....

  4. Agreement Workflow Tool (AWT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Agreement Workflow Tool (AWT) is a role-based Intranet application used for processing SSA's Reimbursable Agreements according to SSA's standards. AWT provides...

  5. Instant Spring Tool Suite

    CERN Document Server

    Chiang, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A tutorial guide that walks you through how to use the features of Spring Tool Suite using well defined sections for the different parts of Spring.Instant Spring Tool Suite is for novice to intermediate Java developers looking to get a head-start in enterprise application development using Spring Tool Suite and the Spring framework. If you are looking for a guide for effective application development using Spring Tool Suite, then this book is for you.

  6. Easy QC 7 tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    This book explains method of QC 7 tools, mind for using QC 7 tools, effect of QC 7 tools application, giving descriptions of graph, pareto's diagram like application writing way and using method of pareto's diagram, characteristic diagram, check sheet such as purpose and subject of check, goals and types of check sheet, and using point of check sheet, histogram like application and using method, and stratification, scatterplot, control chart, promotion method and improvement and cases of practice of QC tools.

  7. Java Power Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Smart, John

    2008-01-01

    All true craftsmen need the best tools to do their finest work, and programmers are no different. Java Power Tools delivers 30 open source tools designed to improve the development practices of Java developers in any size team or organization. Each chapter includes a series of short articles about one particular tool -- whether it's for build systems, version control, or other aspects of the development process -- giving you the equivalent of 30 short reference books in one package. No matter which development method your team chooses, whether it's Agile, RUP, XP, SCRUM, or one of many other

  8. Easy QC 7 tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-04-15

    This book explains method of QC 7 tools, mind for using QC 7 tools, effect of QC 7 tools application, giving descriptions of graph, pareto's diagram like application writing way and using method of pareto's diagram, characteristic diagram, check sheet such as purpose and subject of check, goals and types of check sheet, and using point of check sheet, histogram like application and using method, and stratification, scatterplot, control chart, promotion method and improvement and cases of practice of QC tools.

  9. Qlikview Audit Tool (QLIKVIEW) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This tool supports the cyclical financial audit process. Qlikview supports large volumes of financial transaction data that can be mined, summarized and presented to...

  10. Usage-Based Collection Evaluation with a Curricular Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Karen C.

    2013-01-01

    Systematic evaluation of a library's collection can be a useful tool for collection development. After reviewing three evaluation methods and their usefulness for our small academic library, I undertook a usage-based evaluation, focusing on narrow segments of our collection that served specific undergraduate courses. For each section, I collected…

  11. Final Technical Report: PV Fault Detection Tool.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Bruce Hardison [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Christian Birk [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The PV Fault Detection Tool project plans to demonstrate that the FDT can (a) detect catastrophic and degradation faults and (b) identify the type of fault. This will be accomplished by collecting fault signatures using different instruments and integrating this information to establish a logical controller for detecting, diagnosing and classifying each fault.

  12. Tools for Measuring and Improving Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurow, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Explains the need for meaningful performance measures in libraries and the Total Quality Management (TQM) approach to data collection. Five tools representing different stages of a TQM inquiry are covered (i.e., the Shewhart Cycle, flowcharts, cause-and-effect diagrams, Pareto charts, and control charts), and benchmarking is addressed. (Contains…

  13. EPR design tools. Integrated data processing tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, R.

    1997-01-01

    In all technical areas, planning and design have been supported by electronic data processing for many years. New data processing tools had to be developed for the European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR). The work to be performed was split between KWU and Framatome and laid down in the Basic Design contract. The entire plant was reduced to a logical data structure; the circuit diagrams and flowsheets of the systems were drafted, the central data pool was established, the outlines of building structures were defined, the layout of plant components was planned, and the electrical systems were documented. Also building construction engineering was supported by data processing. The tasks laid down in the Basic Design were completed as so-called milestones. Additional data processing tools also based on the central data pool are required for the phases following after the Basic Design phase, i.e Basic Design Optimization; Detailed Design; Management; Construction, and Commissioning. (orig.) [de

  14. Data Tools and Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment and Payroll Survey of Business Owners Work from Home Our statistics highlight trends in household statistics from multiple surveys. Data Tools & Apps Main American FactFinder Census Business Builder My ). Business Dynamics Statistics This tool shows tabulations on establishments, firms, and employment with

  15. Evaluating meeting support tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, W.M.; Huis in 't Veld, M. M.A.; Boogaard, S.A.A. van den

    2007-01-01

    Many attempts are underway for developing meeting support tools, but less attention is paid to the evaluation of meetingware. This article describes the development and testing of an instrument for evaluating meeting tools. First, we specified the object of evaluation -meetings- by means of a set of

  16. Maailma suurim tool

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    AS Tartu näitused, Tartu Kunstikool ja ajakiri 'Diivan' korraldavad 9.-11. III Tartu messikeskuse I paviljonis näituse 'Tool 2000'. Eksponeeritakse 2000 tooli, mille hulgast valitakse TOP 12. Messikeskuse territooriumile on kavas püstitada maailma suurim tool. Samal ajal II paviljonis kaksikmess 'Sisustus 2000' ja 'Büroo 2000'.

  17. Design mentoring tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    In 2004 a design engineer on-line mentoring tool was developed and implemented The purpose of the tool was to assist senior engineers : mentoring new engineers to the INDOT design process and improve their technical competency. This approach saves se...

  18. Evaluating meeting support tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, W.M.; Huis in't Veld, M.A.A.; Boogaard, S.A.A. van den

    2008-01-01

    Many attempts are underway for developing meeting support tools, but less attention is paid to the evaluation of meetingware. This article describes the development and testing of an instrument for evaluating meeting tools. First, we specified the object of evaluation - meetings - by means of a set

  19. Tool Storage Problem Solved!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenke, Andrew M.; Dell, Tim W.

    2007-01-01

    Graduates of the automotive technology program at Pittsburg State University (PSU) generally enter the workforce in some type of automotive management role. As a result, the program does not require students to purchase their own tools, and it does not have room for all 280 majors to roll around a personal tool chest. Each instructor must maintain…

  20. Benchmarking Tool Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Health Libraries Association.

    Nine Canadian health libraries participated in a pilot test of the Benchmarking Tool Kit between January and April, 1998. Although the Tool Kit was designed specifically for health libraries, the content and approach are useful to other types of libraries as well. Used to its full potential, benchmarking can provide a common measuring stick to…

  1. Expert tool use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Kathrine Liedtke; Ravn, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    on a case study of elite rope skipping, we argue that the phenomenological concept of incorporation does not suffice to adequately describe how expert tool users feel when interacting with their tools. By analyzing a combination of insights gained from participant observation of 11 elite rope skippers......According to some phenomenologists, a tool can be experienced as incorporated when, as a result of habitual use or deliberate practice, someone is able to manipulate it without conscious effort. In this article, we specifically focus on the experience of expertise tool use in elite sport. Based...... and autoethnographic material from one former elite skipper, we take some initial steps toward the development of a more nuanced understanding of the concept of incorporation; one that is able to accommodate the experiences of expert tool users. In sum, our analyses indicate that the possibility for experiencing...

  2. Language Management Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    This paper offers a review of existing literature on the topic of language management tools – the means by which language is managed – in multilingual organisations. By drawing on a combination of sociolinguistics and international business and management studies, a new taxonomy of language...... management tools is proposed, differentiating between three categories of tools. Firstly, corporate policies are the deliberate control of issues pertaining to language and communication developed at the managerial level of a firm. Secondly, corporate measures are the planned activities the firm’s leadership...... may deploy in order to address the language needs of the organisation. Finally, front-line practices refer to the use of informal, emergent language management tools available to staff members. The language management tools taxonomy provides a framework for operationalising the management of language...

  3. 78 FR 19695 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... request with the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). Comments are invited on: (a) Whether the extended... Fleet Report and the Federal Fleet Report is collected using the Federal Automotive Statistical Tool and... Fleet Report, Federal Fleet Report; (3) Type of Review: Renewal; (4) Purpose: The information being...

  4. 77 FR 70741 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... Management and Budget (OMB) to revise a currently-approved data collection under the provisions of the... analysis tools for federal/state agencies, AFV suppliers, vehicle fleet managers, and other interested... sent to the: DOE Desk Officer, Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and...

  5. 78 FR 11630 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... comment cards and other customer satisfaction collection media, which exist at various customer service... feedback to the service provider on the quality of their experience and their satisfaction level. This is a management tool for improving customer services. Affected Public: Individuals or households; business or...

  6. Towards modern petrological collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kriegsman, L.M.

    2004-01-01

    Petrological collections result from sampling for academic research, for aesthetic or commercial reasons, and to document natural diversity. Selection criteria for reducing and enhancing collections include adequate documentation, potential for future use, information density, time and money

  7. OOTW Force Design Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, R.E.; Hartley, D.S.III; Packard, S.L.

    1999-05-01

    This report documents refined requirements for tools to aid the process of force design in Operations Other Than War (OOTWs). It recommends actions for the creation of one tool and work on other tools relating to mission planning. It also identifies the governmental agencies and commands with interests in each tool, from whom should come the user advisory groups overseeing the respective tool development activities. The understanding of OOTWs and their analytical support requirements has matured to the point where action can be taken in three areas: force design, collaborative analysis, and impact analysis. While the nature of the action and the length of time before complete results can be expected depends on the area, in each case the action should begin immediately. Force design for OOTWs is not a technically difficult process. Like force design for combat operations, it is a process of matching the capabilities of forces against the specified and implied tasks of the operation, considering the constraints of logistics, transport and force availabilities. However, there is a critical difference that restricts the usefulness of combat force design tools for OOTWs: the combat tools are built to infer non-combat capability requirements from combat capability requirements and cannot reverse the direction of the inference, as is required for OOTWs. Recently, OOTWs have played a larger role in force assessment, system effectiveness and tradeoff analysis, and concept and doctrine development and analysis. In the first Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR), each of the Services created its own OOTW force design tool. Unfortunately, the tools address different parts of the problem and do not coordinate the use of competing capabilities. These tools satisfied the immediate requirements of the QDR, but do not provide a long-term cost-effective solution.

  8. Collective Agreements for the Clearance of Copyrights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Riis, Thomas; Rognstad, Ole-Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This contribution analyses and discusses the use of collective management organizations (CMOs) in copyright. More concretely, it examines the use and effects of extended collective licenses (ECL). This model of rights management has been developed in the Nordic countries and has for some time been...... hailed as a promising tool to solve some of copyright’s problems relating to mass uses of works. It is pointed out how ECL builds on users generated rights managements structures (CMOs) but owes its specific effectiveness to a legislator’s willingness to provide a third-party effect of the collective...

  9. Old tropical botanical collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2017-01-01

    The early history of botanical collections is reviewed, with particular emphasis on old collections from the tropics. The information available about older and newer botanical collections from the tropics was much improved after World War Two, including better lists of validly published names, more...

  10. Statistical analysis in MSW collection performance assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Carlos Afonso; Avelino, Catarina; Ferreira, Fátima; Bentes, Isabel

    2014-09-01

    The increase of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) generated over the last years forces waste managers pursuing more effective collection schemes, technically viable, environmentally effective and economically sustainable. The assessment of MSW services using performance indicators plays a crucial role for improving service quality. In this work, we focus on the relevance of regular system monitoring as a service assessment tool. In particular, we select and test a core-set of MSW collection performance indicators (effective collection distance, effective collection time and effective fuel consumption) that highlights collection system strengths and weaknesses and supports pro-active management decision-making and strategic planning. A statistical analysis was conducted with data collected in mixed collection system of Oporto Municipality, Portugal, during one year, a week per month. This analysis provides collection circuits' operational assessment and supports effective short-term municipality collection strategies at the level of, e.g., collection frequency and timetables, and type of containers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Satellite image collection optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William

    2002-09-01

    Imaging satellite systems represent a high capital cost. Optimizing the collection of images is critical for both satisfying customer orders and building a sustainable satellite operations business. We describe the functions of an operational, multivariable, time dynamic optimization system that maximizes the daily collection of satellite images. A graphical user interface allows the operator to quickly see the results of what if adjustments to an image collection plan. Used for both long range planning and daily collection scheduling of Space Imaging's IKONOS satellite, the satellite control and tasking (SCT) software allows collection commands to be altered up to 10 min before upload to the satellite.

  12. Collection time again.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, D L

    1984-01-01

    Looking forward to your next round of collection calls? Few of us do, yet collections play a vital role in every group practice, large or small. This crop of practical collection tips is guaranteed to boost the morale of everyone involved in the collection process. Not only are the basics of a good collection call set down, but result-getting responses to frequent debtor excuses are provided. Telephoning the debtor patient need not be a dreaded task. Just have confidence, keep in mind that the patient does owe you for services rendered in good faith, and pick up the phone--it's a snap!

  13. Cockpit System Situational Awareness Modeling Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, John; Lebiere, Christian; Shay, Rick; Latorella, Kara

    2004-01-01

    This project explored the possibility of predicting pilot situational awareness (SA) using human performance modeling techniques for the purpose of evaluating developing cockpit systems. The Improved Performance Research Integration Tool (IMPRINT) was combined with the Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) cognitive modeling architecture to produce a tool that can model both the discrete tasks of pilots and the cognitive processes associated with SA. The techniques for using this tool to predict SA were demonstrated using the newly developed Aviation Weather Information (AWIN) system. By providing an SA prediction tool to cockpit system designers, cockpit concepts can be assessed early in the design process while providing a cost-effective complement to the traditional pilot-in-the-loop experiments and data collection techniques.

  14. Collective Lyapunov modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Kazumasa A; Chaté, Hugues

    2013-01-01

    We show, using covariant Lyapunov vectors in addition to standard Lyapunov analysis, that there exists a set of collective Lyapunov modes in large chaotic systems exhibiting collective dynamics. Associated with delocalized Lyapunov vectors, they act collectively on the trajectory and hence characterize the instability of its collective dynamics. We further develop, for globally coupled systems, a connection between these collective modes and the Lyapunov modes in the corresponding Perron–Frobenius equation. We thereby address the fundamental question of the effective dimension of collective dynamics and discuss the extensivity of chaos in the presence of collective dynamics. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Lyapunov analysis: from dynamical systems theory to applications’. (paper)

  15. Electricity of machine tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gijeon media editorial department

    1977-10-01

    This book is divided into three parts. The first part deals with electricity machine, which can taints from generator to motor, motor a power source of machine tool, electricity machine for machine tool such as switch in main circuit, automatic machine, a knife switch and pushing button, snap switch, protection device, timer, solenoid, and rectifier. The second part handles wiring diagram. This concludes basic electricity circuit of machine tool, electricity wiring diagram in your machine like milling machine, planer and grinding machine. The third part introduces fault diagnosis of machine, which gives the practical solution according to fault diagnosis and the diagnostic method with voltage and resistance measurement by tester.

  16. Machine tool evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunsford, B.E.

    1976-01-01

    Continued improvement in numerical control (NC) units and the mechanical components used in the construction of today's machine tools, necessitate the use of more precise instrumentation to calibrate and determine the capabilities of these systems. It is now necessary to calibrate most tape-control lathes to a tool-path positioning accuracy of +-300 microinches in the full slide travel and, on some special turning and boring machines, a capability of +-100 microinches must be achieved. The use of a laser interferometer to determine tool-path capabilities is described

  17. Machine Tool Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    A NASA-developed software package has played a part in technical education of students who major in Mechanical Engineering Technology at William Rainey Harper College. Professor Hack has been using (APT) Automatically Programmed Tool Software since 1969 in his CAD/CAM Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing curriculum. Professor Hack teaches the use of APT programming languages for control of metal cutting machines. Machine tool instructions are geometry definitions written in APT Language to constitute a "part program." The part program is processed by the machine tool. CAD/CAM students go from writing a program to cutting steel in the course of a semester.

  18. Young children's tool innovation across culture: Affordance visibility matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neldner, Karri; Mushin, Ilana; Nielsen, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Young children typically demonstrate low rates of tool innovation. However, previous studies have limited children's performance by presenting tools with opaque affordances. In an attempt to scaffold children's understanding of what constitutes an appropriate tool within an innovation task we compared tools in which the focal affordance was visible to those in which it was opaque. To evaluate possible cultural specificity, data collection was undertaken in a Western urban population and a remote Indigenous community. As expected affordance visibility altered innovation rates: young children were more likely to innovate on a tool that had visible affordances than one with concealed affordances. Furthermore, innovation rates were higher than those reported in previous innovation studies. Cultural background did not affect children's rates of tool innovation. It is suggested that new methods for testing tool innovation in children must be developed in order to broaden our knowledge of young children's tool innovation capabilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Game development tool essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Berinstein, Paula; Ardolino, Alessandro; Franco, Simon; Herubel, Adrien; McCutchan, John; Nedelcu, Nicusor; Nitschke, Benjamin; Olmstead, Don; Robinet, Fabrice; Ronchi, Christian; Turkowski, Rita; Walter, Robert; Samour, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Offers game developers new techniques for streamlining the critical game tools pipeline. Inspires game developers to share their secrets and improve the productivity of the entire industry. Helps game industry practitioners compete in a hyper-competitive environment.

  20. Tool Inventory and Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, W. Forrest

    1976-01-01

    Vocational agriculture teachers are encouraged to evaluate curriculum offerings, the new trends in business and industry, and develop a master tool purchase and replacement plan over a 3- to 5-year period. (HD)

  1. ATO Resource Tool -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Cru-X/ART is a shift management tool designed for?use by operational employees in Air Traffic Facilities.? Cru-X/ART is used for shift scheduling, shift sign in/out,...

  2. Water Budget Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you're designing a new landscape or rethinking your current one, the WaterSense Water Budget Tool will tell you if you have designed a landscape that will use an appropriate amount of water for your climate.

  3. Neighborhood Mapping Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This tool assists the public and Choice Neighborhoods applicants to prepare data to submit with their grant application by allowing applicants to draw the exact...

  4. Sequence History Update Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanampompan, Teerapat; Gladden, Roy; Fisher, Forest; DelGuercio, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The Sequence History Update Tool performs Web-based sequence statistics archiving for Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). Using a single UNIX command, the software takes advantage of sequencing conventions to automatically extract the needed statistics from multiple files. This information is then used to populate a PHP database, which is then seamlessly formatted into a dynamic Web page. This tool replaces a previous tedious and error-prone process of manually editing HTML code to construct a Web-based table. Because the tool manages all of the statistics gathering and file delivery to and from multiple data sources spread across multiple servers, there is also a considerable time and effort savings. With the use of The Sequence History Update Tool what previously took minutes is now done in less than 30 seconds, and now provides a more accurate archival record of the sequence commanding for MRO.

  5. Microgrid Analysis Tools Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Antonio [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Haase, Scott G [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mathur, Shivani [Formerly NREL

    2018-03-05

    The over-arching goal of the Alaska Microgrid Partnership is to reduce the use of total imported fuel into communities to secure all energy services by at least 50% in Alaska's remote microgrids without increasing system life cycle costs while also improving overall system reliability, security, and resilience. One goal of the Alaska Microgrid Partnership is to investigate whether a combination of energy efficiency and high-contribution (from renewable energy) power systems can reduce total imported energy usage by 50% while reducing life cycle costs and improving reliability and resiliency. This presentation provides an overview of the following four renewable energy optimization tools. Information is from respective tool websites, tool developers, and author experience. Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) Microgrid Design Toolkit (MDT) Renewable Energy Optimization (REopt) Tool Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables (HOMER).

  6. Financing Alternatives Comparison Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    FACT is a financial analysis tool that helps identify the most cost-effective method to fund a wastewater or drinking water management project. It produces a comprehensive analysis that compares various financing options.

  7. Breastfeeding assessment tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizouerne, Cécile; Kerac, Marko; Macgrath, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Breastfeeding plays a major role in reducing the global burden of child mortality and under-nutrition. Whilst many programmes aim to support breastfeeding and prevent feeding problems occurring, interventions are also needed once they have developed. In this situation, accurate assessment of a problem is critical to inform prognosis and enables tailored, appropriate treatment. The presentation will present a review, which aims to identify breastfeeding assessment tools/checklists for use in assessing malnourished infants in poor resource settings. The literature review identified 24 breastfeeding assessment tools, and 41 validation studies. Evidence underpinning most of the tools was mainly low quality, and conducted in high-income countries and hospital settings. The presentation will describe the main findings of the literature review and propose recommendations for improving existing tools in order to appropriately assess malnourished infants and enable early, appropriate intervention and treatment of malnutrition. (author)

  8. Personal Wellness Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Personal Stories Peers Celebrating Art Peers Celebrating Music Be Vocal Support Locator DBSA In-Person Support ... With this tool, you can track key health trends related to the following: Overall mood Mood disorder ...

  9. Cash Reconciliation Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — CART is a cash reconciliation tool that allows users to reconcile Agency cash disbursements with Treasury fund balances; track open unreconciled items; and create an...

  10. Chemical Data Access Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This tool is intended to aid individuals interested in learning more about chemicals that are manufactured or imported into the United States. Health and safety...

  11. Tools and their uses

    CERN Document Server

    1973-01-01

    Teaches names, general uses, and correct operation of all basic hand and power tools, fasteners, and measuring devices you are likely to need. Also, grinding, metal cutting, soldering, and more. 329 illustrations.

  12. Chatter and machine tools

    CERN Document Server

    Stone, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Focussing on occurrences of unstable vibrations, or Chatter, in machine tools, this book gives important insights into how to eliminate chatter with associated improvements in product quality, surface finish and tool wear. Covering a wide range of machining processes, including turning, drilling, milling and grinding, the author uses his research expertise and practical knowledge of vibration problems to provide solutions supported by experimental evidence of their effectiveness. In addition, this book contains links to supplementary animation programs that help readers to visualise the ideas detailed in the text. Advancing knowledge in chatter avoidance and suggesting areas for new innovations, Chatter and Machine Tools serves as a handbook for those desiring to achieve significant reductions in noise, longer tool and grinding wheel life and improved product finish.

  13. Learning Design Tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffiths, David; Blat, Josep; Garcia, Rocío; Vogten, Hubert; Kwong, KL

    2005-01-01

    Griffiths, D., Blat, J., Garcia, R., Vogten, H. & Kwong, KL. (2005). Learning Design Tools. In: Koper, R. & Tattersall, C., Learning Design: A Handbook on Modelling and Delivering Networked Education and Training (pp. 109-136). Berlin-Heidelberg: Springer Verlag.

  14. Clean Energy Finance Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    State and local governments interested in developing a financing program can use this Excel tool to support energy efficiency and clean energy improvements for large numbers of buildings within their jurisdiction.

  15. Mapping Medicare Disparities Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Office of Minority Health has designed an interactive map, the Mapping Medicare Disparities Tool, to identify areas of disparities between subgroups of...

  16. Recovery Action Mapping Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Recovery Action Mapping Tool is a web map that allows users to visually interact with and query actions that were developed to recover species listed under the...

  17. Friction stir welding tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolle,; Charles R. , Clark; Denis E. , Barnes; Timothy, A [Ammon, ID

    2008-04-15

    A friction stir welding tool is described and which includes a shank portion; a shoulder portion which is releasably engageable with the shank portion; and a pin which is releasably engageable with the shoulder portion.

  18. CMS offline web tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metson, S; Newbold, D; Belforte, S; Kavka, C; Bockelman, B; Dziedziniewicz, K; Egeland, R; Elmer, P; Eulisse, G; Tuura, L; Evans, D; Fanfani, A; Feichtinger, D; Kuznetsov, V; Lingen, F van; Wakefield, S

    2008-01-01

    We describe a relatively new effort within CMS to converge on a set of web based tools, using state of the art industry techniques, to engage with the CMS offline computing system. CMS collaborators require tools to monitor various components of the computing system and interact with the system itself. The current state of the various CMS web tools is described along side current planned developments. The CMS collaboration comprises of nearly 3000 people from all over the world. As well as its collaborators, its computing resources are spread all over globe and are accessed via the LHC grid to run analysis, large scale production and data transfer tasks. Due to the distributed nature of collaborators effective provision of collaborative tools is essential to maximise physics exploitation of the CMS experiment, especially when the size of the CMS data set is considered. CMS has chosen to provide such tools over the world wide web as a top level service, enabling all members of the collaboration to interact with the various offline computing components. Traditionally web interfaces have been added in HEP experiments as an afterthought. In the CMS offline we have decided to put web interfaces, and the development of a common CMS web framework, on an equal footing with the rest of the offline development. Tools exist within CMS to transfer and catalogue data (PhEDEx and DBS/DLS), run Monte Carlo production (ProdAgent) and submit analysis (CRAB). Effective human interfaces to these systems are required for users with different agendas and practical knowledge of the systems to effectively use the CMS computing system. The CMS web tools project aims to provide a consistent interface to all these tools

  19. Quality management tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tae Hun

    2011-09-15

    This book introduces basic conception of quality with characteristic, price, cost, and function, basic conception on quality management, introduction and operation of quality management, quality guaranteed and claim like handling of claim of goods, standards, and quality guaranteed method, basic tools of quality management such as Pareto diagram, characteristic diagram, cause-and-effect, fish born diagram check sheet histogram scatter diagram graph and stratification new seven tools of QC, quality deployment function and measurement system.

  20. Quality management tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tae Hun

    2011-09-01

    This book introduces basic conception of quality with characteristic, price, cost, and function, basic conception on quality management, introduction and operation of quality management, quality guaranteed and claim like handling of claim of goods, standards, and quality guaranteed method, basic tools of quality management such as Pareto diagram, characteristic diagram, cause-and-effect, fish born diagram check sheet histogram scatter diagram graph and stratification new seven tools of QC, quality deployment function and measurement system.

  1. Stochastic tools in turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Lumey, John L

    2012-01-01

    Stochastic Tools in Turbulence discusses the available mathematical tools to describe stochastic vector fields to solve problems related to these fields. The book deals with the needs of turbulence in relation to stochastic vector fields, particularly, on three-dimensional aspects, linear problems, and stochastic model building. The text describes probability distributions and densities, including Lebesgue integration, conditional probabilities, conditional expectations, statistical independence, lack of correlation. The book also explains the significance of the moments, the properties of the

  2. CMS offline web tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metson, S; Newbold, D [H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Belforte, S; Kavka, C [INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy); Bockelman, B [University of Nebraska Lincoln, Lincoln, NE (United States); Dziedziniewicz, K [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Egeland, R [University of Minnesota Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Elmer, P [Princeton (United States); Eulisse, G; Tuura, L [Northeastern University, Boston, MA (United States); Evans, D [Fermilab MS234, Batavia, IL (United States); Fanfani, A [Universita degli Studi di Bologna (Italy); Feichtinger, D [PSI, Villigen (Switzerland); Kuznetsov, V [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Lingen, F van [California Institute of Technology, Pasedena, CA (United States); Wakefield, S [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-15

    We describe a relatively new effort within CMS to converge on a set of web based tools, using state of the art industry techniques, to engage with the CMS offline computing system. CMS collaborators require tools to monitor various components of the computing system and interact with the system itself. The current state of the various CMS web tools is described along side current planned developments. The CMS collaboration comprises of nearly 3000 people from all over the world. As well as its collaborators, its computing resources are spread all over globe and are accessed via the LHC grid to run analysis, large scale production and data transfer tasks. Due to the distributed nature of collaborators effective provision of collaborative tools is essential to maximise physics exploitation of the CMS experiment, especially when the size of the CMS data set is considered. CMS has chosen to provide such tools over the world wide web as a top level service, enabling all members of the collaboration to interact with the various offline computing components. Traditionally web interfaces have been added in HEP experiments as an afterthought. In the CMS offline we have decided to put web interfaces, and the development of a common CMS web framework, on an equal footing with the rest of the offline development. Tools exist within CMS to transfer and catalogue data (PhEDEx and DBS/DLS), run Monte Carlo production (ProdAgent) and submit analysis (CRAB). Effective human interfaces to these systems are required for users with different agendas and practical knowledge of the systems to effectively use the CMS computing system. The CMS web tools project aims to provide a consistent interface to all these tools.

  3. Enhancing the Effectiveness of ICT Applications and Tools for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Enhancing the Effectiveness of ICT Applications and Tools for Disaster ... of disaster management in the Caribbean, including early warning systems and collection ... to enhancing regional strategies to respond to natural hazards using ICTs.

  4. IT Tools for Foresight: The Integrated Insight and Response System of Deutsche Telekom Innovation Laboratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohrbeck, René; Thom, Nico; Arnold, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    . The overall system consists of a tool for scanning for weak signals on change (PEACOQ Scouting Tool), a tool for collecting internal ideas (PEACOQ Gate 0.5), and a tool for triggering organizational responses (Foresight Landing page). Particularly the link to innovation management and R&D strategy...

  5. Tools used for hand deburring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1981-03-01

    This guide is designed to help in quick identification of those tools most commonly used to deburr hand size or smaller parts. Photographs and textual descriptions are used to provide rapid yet detailed information. The data presented include the Bendix Kansas City Division coded tool number, tool description, tool crib in which the tool can be found, the maximum and minimum inventory requirements, the cost of each tool, and the number of the illustration that shows the tool.

  6. Using Smartphones to Collect Bicycle Travel Data in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    Researchers believed that if smartphones could prove to be an effective tool for collecting bicycle travel data, the information could be used for aiding decision making as to what types of facilities users prefer and guiding decisions about future f...

  7. Data Center IT Equipment Energy Assessment Tools: Current State of Commercial Tools, Proposal for a Future Set of Assessment Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, Ben D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); National Univ., San Diego, CA (United States). School of Engineering

    2012-06-30

    This research project, which was conducted during the Summer and Fall of 2011, investigated some commercially available assessment tools with a focus on IT equipment to see if such tools could round out the DC Pro tool suite. In this research, the assessment capabilities of the various tools were compiled to help make “non-biased” information available to the public. This research should not be considered to be exhaustive on all existing vendor tools although a number of vendors were contacted. Large IT equipment OEM’s like IBM and Dell provide their proprietary internal automated software which does not work on any other IT equipment. However, found two companies with products that showed promise in performing automated assessments for IT equipment from different OEM vendors. This report documents the research and provides a list of software products reviewed, contacts and websites, product details, discussions with specific companies, a set of recommendations, and next steps. As a result of this research, a simple 3-level approach to an IT assessment tool is proposed along with an example of an assessment using a simple IT equipment data collection tool (Level 1, spreadsheet). The tool has been reviewed with the Green Grid and LBNL staff. The initial feedback has been positive although further refinement to the tool will be necessary. Proposed next steps include a field trial of at least two vendors’ software in two different data centers with an objective to prove the concept, ascertain the extent of energy and computational assessment, ease of installation and opportunities for continuous improvement. Based on the discussions, field trials (or case studies) are proposed with two vendors – JouleX (expected to be completed in 2012) and Sentilla.

  8. Reflections on collectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feshbach, H.

    1983-01-01

    Comments are made on papers presented to the International School of Nuclear Physics, Erice (1982) concerning collective bands and collectivity in nuclei. The importance of these collective modes of motion, the role of the Bohr-Mottelson model and the Interacting Boson Models (IBM-1 and IBM-2), and experimental evidence presented by a number of workers, are examined. The extensions of the models to take into account additional degrees of freedom both collective and non-collective, the discovery of new collective modes such as those corresponding to tri-axial shapes, and the possible existence of additional symmetries reported at the meeting, are discussed. Finally the importance is examined of relating the phenomenological models to a more fundamental underlying theory, which has been taken to be the nuclear shell model. (U.K.)

  9. Collecting Taxes Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Collecting Taxes Database contains performance and structural indicators about national tax systems. The database contains quantitative revenue performance...

  10. Physics analysis tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, P.F.

    1991-04-01

    There are many tools used in analysis in High Energy Physics (HEP). They range from low level tools such as a programming language to high level such as a detector simulation package. This paper will discuss some aspects of these tools that are directly associated with the process of analyzing HEP data. Physics analysis tools cover the whole range from the simulation of the interactions of particles to the display and fitting of statistical data. For purposes of this paper, the stages of analysis is broken down to five main stages. The categories are also classified as areas of generation, reconstruction, and analysis. Different detector groups use different terms for these stages thus it is useful to define what is meant by them in this paper. The particle generation stage is a simulation of the initial interaction, the production of particles, and the decay of the short lived particles. The detector simulation stage simulates the behavior of an event in a detector. The track reconstruction stage does pattern recognition on the measured or simulated space points, calorimeter information, etc., and reconstructs track segments of the original event. The event reconstruction stage takes the reconstructed tracks, along with particle identification information and assigns masses to produce 4-vectors. Finally the display and fit stage displays statistical data accumulated in the preceding stages in the form of histograms, scatter plots, etc. The remainder of this paper will consider what analysis tools are available today, and what one might expect in the future. In each stage, the integration of the tools with other stages and the portability of the tool will be analyzed

  11. Developing Tool Support for Problem Diagrams with CPN and VDM++

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjell, Simon; Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we describe ongoing work on the development of tool support for formal description of domains found in Problem Diagrams. The purpose of the tool is to handle the generation of a CPN model based on a collection of Problem Diagrams. The Problem Diagrams are used for representing the ...

  12. A Tool for Monitoring of YouTube Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lashari, Intzar Ali; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    2014-01-01

    in abundance from social media is difficult. This paper describes a new tool that can collect, monitor, and mine data from YouTube. The tool is part of a larger framework aimed at monitoring various social media including Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube. A specific case focusing on “Islamic Jihad Holy War...

  13. NTL Data Management Planning "Greenout" Bingo Self Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-11

    This tool is designed to help assess your current data management practices. Pick a dataset or research project, sit down with your data collection team, and discuss each prompt below. This tool can guide DMP improvement by revealing best practices t...

  14. Narratives and Activity Theory as Reflective Tools in Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Kaz

    2012-01-01

    Narratives and activity theory are useful as socially constructed data collection tools that allow a researcher access to the social, cultural and historical meanings that research participants place on events in their lives. This case study shows how these tools were used to promote reflection within a cultural-historical activity theoretically…

  15. Web Surveys to Digital Movies: Technological Tools of the Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, David M.

    2002-01-01

    Highlights some of the technological tools used by educational researchers today, focusing on data collection related tools such as Web surveys, digital photography, voice recognition and transcription, file sharing and virtual office, videoconferencing on the Internet, instantaneous chat and chat rooms, reporting and dissemination, and digital…

  16. Efficient Immutable Collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steindorfer, M.J.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis proposes novel and efficient data structures, suitable for immutable collection libraries, that carefully balance memory footprint and runtime performance of operations, and are aware of constraints and platform co-design challenges on the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). Collection data

  17. Profiling a Periodicals Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolgiano, Christina E.; King, Mary Kathryn

    1978-01-01

    Libraries need solid information upon which to base collection development decisions. Specific evaluative methods for determining scope, access, and usefullness are described. Approaches used for data collection include analysis of interlibrary loan requests, comparison with major bibliographies, and analysis of accessibility through available…

  18. Preparing collections for digitization

    CERN Document Server

    Bulow, Anna E

    2010-01-01

    Most libraries, archives and museums are confronting the challenges of providing digital access to their collections. This guide offers guidance covering the end-to-end process of digitizing collections, from selecting records for digitization to choosing suppliers and equipment and dealing with documents that present individual problems.

  19. High Collection Nonimaging Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland

    1989-07-01

    Nonimaging optics departs from the methods of traditional optical design to develop instead techniques for maximizing the collecting power of concentrating elements and systems. Designs which exceed the concentration attainable with focusing techniques by factors of four or more and approach the theoretical limit are possible (ideal concentrators). The methodology for designing high collection nonirnaging systems is described.

  20. Collective Responsibility for Oppression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stahl, Titus

    2017-01-01

    Many contemporary forms of oppression are not primarily the result of formally organized collective action nor are they an unintended outcome of a combination of individual actions. This raises the question of collective responsibility. I argue that we can only determine who is responsible for

  1. Bloody Fast Blood Collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Brummelen, Samuel Pieter Josephus

    2017-01-01

    This thesis consists of four parts: The first part contains an introduction, the second presents approaches for the evaluation of waiting times at blood collection sites, the third uses these to present approaches that improve waiting times at blood collection sites. The final part shows the

  2. UNO's Afghanistan Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, M. D.

    This paper explores the background history and sources of the Afghanistan collection at the University Library, University of Nebraska at Omaha (UNO). Credit for the impetus behind the development of the collection is given to Chris Jung, a former UNO geography/geology faculty member; Ronald Roskens, then UNO chancellor; and the Afghanistan…

  3. Instructions for collecting Bamboos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corner, E.J.H.

    1962-01-01

    Although our knowledge of reproductive parts of bamboos is still very defective, an adequately collected vegetative specimen is valuable and sufficient for identification. Like in tree ferns (see p. 567) and in rattans, a well-collected specimen does not need to be excessively bulky, provided the

  4. Botanical Collections of Brass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brass, L.J.

    1966-01-01

    Earliest collections, made in southeastern parts of Queensland, were not numbered in sequence, and probably no duplicates were kept. Serious collecting began in 1919, when a start was made in sending specimens to C.T. White at the Queensland Herbarium.

  5. New Conceptual Design Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pugnale, Alberto; Holst, Malene Kirstine; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    hand, the main software houses are trying to introduce powerful and effective user-friendly applications in the world of building designers, that are more and more able to fit their specific requirements; on the other hand, some groups of expert users with a basic programming knowledge seem to deal......This paper aims to discuss recent approaches in using more and more frequently computer tools as supports for the conceptual design phase of the architectural project. The present state-of-the-art about software as conceptual design tool could be summarized in two parallel tendencies. On the one...... with the problem of software as conceptual design tool by means of 'scripting', in other words by self-developing codes able to solve specific and well defined design problems. Starting with a brief historical recall and the discussion of relevant researches and practical experiences, this paper investigates...

  6. Assembly tool design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanamori, Naokazu; Nakahira, Masataka; Ohkawa, Yoshinao; Tada, Eisuke; Seki, Masahiro

    1996-06-01

    The reactor core of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is assembled with a number of large and asymmetric components within a tight tolerance in order to assure the structural integrity for various loads and to provide the tritium confinement. In addition, the assembly procedure should be compatible with remote operation since the core structures will be activated by 14-MeV neutrons once it starts operation and thus personal access will be prohibited. Accordingly, the assembly procedure and tool design are quite essential and should be designed from the beginning to facilitate remote operation. According to the ITER Design Task Agreement, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has performed design study to develop the assembly procedures and associated tool design for the ITER tokamak assembly. This report describes outlines of the assembly tools and the remaining issues obtained in this design study. (author)

  7. RSP Tooling Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-11-20

    RSP Tooling{trademark} is a spray forming technology tailored for producing molds and dies. The approach combines rapid solidification processing and net-shape materials processing in a single step. The general concept involves converting a mold design described by a CAD file to a tooling master using a suitable rapid prototyping (RP) technology such as stereolithography. A pattern transfer is made to a castable ceramic, typically alumina or fused silica (Figure 1). This is followed by spray forming a thick deposit of a tooling alloy on the pattern to capture the desired shape, surface texture, and detail. The resultant metal block is cooled to room temperature and separated from the pattern. The deposit's exterior walls are machined square, allowing it to be used as an insert in a standard mold base. The overall turnaround time for tooling is about 3 to 5 days, starting with a master. Molds and dies produced in this way have been used in high volume production runs in plastic injection molding and die casting. A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Grupo Vitro has been established to evaluate the feasibility of using RSP Tooling technology for producing molds and dies of interest to Vitro. This report summarizes results from Phase I of this agreement, and describes work scope and budget for Phase I1 activities. The main objective in Phase I was to demonstrate the feasibility of applying the Rapid Solidification Process (RSP) Tooling method to produce molds for the manufacture of glass and other components of interest to Vitro. This objective was successfully achieved.

  8. The Virtual Physiological Human ToolKit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jonathan; Cervenansky, Frederic; De Fabritiis, Gianni; Fenner, John; Friboulet, Denis; Giorgino, Toni; Manos, Steven; Martelli, Yves; Villà-Freixa, Jordi; Zasada, Stefan; Lloyd, Sharon; McCormack, Keith; Coveney, Peter V

    2010-08-28

    The Virtual Physiological Human (VPH) is a major European e-Science initiative intended to support the development of patient-specific computer models and their application in personalized and predictive healthcare. The VPH Network of Excellence (VPH-NoE) project is tasked with facilitating interaction between the various VPH projects and addressing issues of common concern. A key deliverable is the 'VPH ToolKit'--a collection of tools, methodologies and services to support and enable VPH research, integrating and extending existing work across Europe towards greater interoperability and sustainability. Owing to the diverse nature of the field, a single monolithic 'toolkit' is incapable of addressing the needs of the VPH. Rather, the VPH ToolKit should be considered more as a 'toolbox' of relevant technologies, interacting around a common set of standards. The latter apply to the information used by tools, including any data and the VPH models themselves, and also to the naming and categorizing of entities and concepts involved. Furthermore, the technologies and methodologies available need to be widely disseminated, and relevant tools and services easily found by researchers. The VPH-NoE has thus created an online resource for the VPH community to meet this need. It consists of a database of tools, methods and services for VPH research, with a Web front-end. This has facilities for searching the database, for adding or updating entries, and for providing user feedback on entries. Anyone is welcome to contribute.

  9. CMS tracker visualization tools

    CERN Document Server

    Zito, G; Osborne, I; Regano, A

    2005-01-01

    This document will review the design considerations, implementations and performance of the CMS Tracker Visualization tools. In view of the great complexity of this sub-detector (more than 50 millions channels organized in 16540 modules each one of these being a complete detector), the standard CMS visualization tools (IGUANA and IGUANACMS) that provide basic 3D capabilities and integration within CMS framework, respectively, have been complemented with additional 2D graphics objects. Based on the experience acquired using this software to debug and understand both hardware and software during the construction phase, we propose possible future improvements to cope with online monitoring and event analysis during data taking.

  10. CMS tracker visualization tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mennea, M.S. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica ' Michelangelo Merlin' e INFN sezione di Bari, Via Amendola 173 - 70126 Bari (Italy); Osborne, I. [Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Regano, A. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica ' Michelangelo Merlin' e INFN sezione di Bari, Via Amendola 173 - 70126 Bari (Italy); Zito, G. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica ' Michelangelo Merlin' e INFN sezione di Bari, Via Amendola 173 - 70126 Bari (Italy)]. E-mail: giuseppe.zito@ba.infn.it

    2005-08-21

    This document will review the design considerations, implementations and performance of the CMS Tracker Visualization tools. In view of the great complexity of this sub-detector (more than 50 millions channels organized in 16540 modules each one of these being a complete detector), the standard CMS visualization tools (IGUANA and IGUANACMS) that provide basic 3D capabilities and integration within CMS framework, respectively, have been complemented with additional 2D graphics objects. Based on the experience acquired using this software to debug and understand both hardware and software during the construction phase, we propose possible future improvements to cope with online monitoring and event analysis during data taking.

  11. The GNEMRE Dendro Tool.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchant, Bion John

    2007-10-01

    The GNEMRE Dendro Tool provides a previously unrealized analysis capability in the field of nuclear explosion monitoring. Dendro Tool allows analysts to quickly and easily determine the similarity between seismic events using the waveform time-series for each of the events to compute cross-correlation values. Events can then be categorized into clusters of similar events. This analysis technique can be used to characterize historical archives of seismic events in order to determine many of the unique sources that are present. In addition, the source of any new events can be quickly identified simply by comparing the new event to the historical set.

  12. Authoring Issues beyond Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spierling, Ulrike; Szilas, Nicolas

    Authoring is still considered a bottleneck in successful Interactive Storytelling and Drama. The claim for intuitive authoring tools is high, especially for tools that allow storytellers and artists to define dynamic content that can be run with an AI-based story engine. We explored two concrete authoring processes in depth, using various Interactive Storytelling prototypes, and have provided feedback from the practical steps. The result is a presentation of general issues in authoring Interactive Storytelling, rather than of particular problems with a specific system that could be overcome by 'simply' designing the right interface. Priorities for future developments are also outlined.

  13. CMS tracker visualization tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mennea, M.S.; Osborne, I.; Regano, A.; Zito, G.

    2005-01-01

    This document will review the design considerations, implementations and performance of the CMS Tracker Visualization tools. In view of the great complexity of this sub-detector (more than 50 millions channels organized in 16540 modules each one of these being a complete detector), the standard CMS visualization tools (IGUANA and IGUANACMS) that provide basic 3D capabilities and integration within CMS framework, respectively, have been complemented with additional 2D graphics objects. Based on the experience acquired using this software to debug and understand both hardware and software during the construction phase, we propose possible future improvements to cope with online monitoring and event analysis during data taking

  14. Coach assessment tool

    OpenAIRE

    Härkönen, Niko; Klicznik, Roman

    2014-01-01

    The Coach Assessment Tool was created to assist coaches of all sports for their own development. The starting point to develop the tool is the fact that coaching clinics solely focus on the technical and tactial skills of the sport. The education for coaches is lacking to teach the importance of the coach´s behavior towards their athletes. The question is how to teach properly the task in hand to increase the athlete´s performance considering the coach´s behavior. Nevertheless,...

  15. New trends in computational collective intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Sang-Wook; Trawiński, Bogdan

    2015-01-01

    This book consists of 20 chapters in which the authors deal with different theoretical and practical aspects of new trends in Collective Computational Intelligence techniques. Computational Collective Intelligence methods and algorithms are one the current trending research topics from areas related to Artificial Intelligence, Soft Computing or Data Mining among others. Computational Collective Intelligence is a rapidly growing field that is most often understood as an AI sub-field dealing with soft computing methods which enable making group decisions and processing knowledge among autonomous units acting in distributed environments. Web-based Systems, Social Networks, and Multi-Agent Systems very often need these tools for working out consistent knowledge states, resolving conflicts and making decisions. The chapters included in this volume cover a selection of topics and new trends in several domains related to Collective Computational Intelligence: Language and Knowledge Processing, Data Mining Methods an...

  16. An Overview of the Advanced CompuTational Software (ACTS)Collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, Leroy A.; Marques, Osni A.

    2005-02-02

    The ACTS Collection brings together a number of general-purpose computational tools that were developed by independent research projects mostly funded and supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. These tools tackle a number of common computational issues found in many applications, mainly implementation of numerical algorithms, and support for code development, execution and optimization. In this article, we introduce the numerical tools in the collection and their functionalities, present a model for developing more complex computational applications on top of ACTS tools, and summarize applications that use these tools. Lastly, we present a vision of the ACTS project for deployment of the ACTS Collection by the computational sciences community.

  17. Cancer Data and Statistics Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educational Campaigns Initiatives Stay Informed Cancer Data and Statistics Tools Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Cancer Statistics Tools United States Cancer Statistics: Data Visualizations The ...

  18. 77 FR 43228 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request-Generic Clearance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... Frequency of responses per Hours per Total burden respondents responses respondent response (exf) (cxd) (a... products, including Internet-based tools. The information collected will be used to refine messages and... Rihane, Director, Nutrition Guidance and Analysis Division, Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion, U...

  19. 77 FR 38127 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Request for Comments for a New Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... DOTs. Frequency: one time. Estimated Average Burden per Response: Approximately 5 hours. [[Page 38128... roads. The requested information collection, in the form of an on-line survey tool, will be used to... identification, analysis, development, evaluation, and implementation of local road safety improvement projects...

  20. Human Capital Tracking Tool -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — AVS is now required to collect, track, and report on data from the following Flight, Business and Workforce Plan. The Human Resource Management’s Performance Target...