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Sample records for neurologically normal children

  1. Uroflowmetry in neurologically normal children with voiding disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K M; Nielsen, K.K.; Kristensen, E S

    1985-01-01

    of neurological deficits underwent a complete diagnostic program including intravenous urography, voiding cystography and cystoscopy as well as spontaneous uroflowmetry, cystometry-emg and pressure-flow-emg study. The incidence of dyssynergia was 22%. However, neither the flow curve pattern nor single flow...... variables were able to identify children with dyssynergia. Consequently uroflowmetry seems inefficient in the screening for dyssynergia in neurological normal children with voiding disorders in the absence of anatomical bladder outlet obstruction....

  2. Visual Scanning Strategies of Neurologically Impaired, Perceptually Impaired, And Normal Children Viewing the Bender-Gestalt Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locher, Paul J.; Worms, Peter F.

    1977-01-01

    This study describes and compares visual encoding processes and copying performance of normal children and children with perceptual and neurological disabilities viewing the Bender-Gestalt designs. Designs of the neurologically impaired children were significantly different from those of either of the other two diagnostic groups. (Author)

  3. Comparison of micronutrient levels in children with cerebral palsy and neurologically normal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Swati; Aggarwal, Anju; Chillar, Neelam; Faridi, M M A

    2015-02-01

    To measure levels of micronutrients in children with cerebral palsy and compare them with neurologically normal children of similar nutritional status. Fifty children with cerebral palsy (2-12 y) and 50 age and sex matched controls of similar nutritional status were enrolled. Detailed dietary history was recorded and nutritional status assessed. Venous blood (3 ml) was drawn for analysis. Micronutrient levels were measured as per standard technique. Serum iron was 12.6 ± 5.9 and 20.9 ± 3.3 μmol/L in CP and controls respectively (P  0.05). There was no difference in micronutrient levels with respect to gross motor functional classification system (GMFCS) grades and limb involvement (P > 0.05). The serum levels of iron, copper and magnesium are significantly less in children with cerebral palsy, hence the need for supplementation.

  4. Clinical NMR imaging of the brain in children: normal and neurologic disease

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    Johnson, M.A, (Hammersmith Hospital, London, England); Pennock, J.M.; Bydder, G.M.; Steiner, R.E.; Thomas, D.J.; Hayward, R.; Bryant, D.R.T.; Payne, J.A.; Levene, M.I.; Whitelaw, A.; Dubowitz, L.M.S.; Dubowitz, V.

    1983-11-01

    The results of initial clinical nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in eight normal and 52 children with a wide variety of neurologic diseases were reviewed. The high level of gray-white matter contrast available with inversion-recovery sequences provided a basis for visualizing normal myelination as well as delays or deficits in this process. The appearances seen in cases of parenchymal hemorrhage, cerebral infarction, and proencephalic cysts are described. Ventricular enlargement was readily identified and marginal edema was demonstrated with spin-echo sequences. Abnormalities were seen in cerebral palsy, congenital malformations, Hallervorden-Spatz disease, aminoaciduria, and meningitis. Space-occupying lesions were identified by virtue of their increased relaxation times and mass effects. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging has considerable potential in pediatric neuroradiologic practice, in some conditions supplying information not available by computed tomography or sonography.

  5. NEUROLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT DURING TODDLING AGE IN NORMAL-CHILDREN AND CHILDREN AT RISK OF DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HEMPEL, MS

    Toddling age (1.5-4 years) is a period in which the quality rather than the quantity of motor functions changes. We examined 305 normal and 43 so called 'risk' children with an examination technique which concentrates on observations of motor functions (grasping, sitting, crawling, standing and

  6. Minor neurological dysfunction in children with dyslexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, Marja; De Jong, Marianne; De Groot, Erik; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2010-01-01

    AIM To improve understanding of brain function in children with severe dyslexia in terms of minor neurological dysfunctions (MNDs). METHOD One hundred and four children (81 males, 23 females; age range 7-12y; mean age 9y 7mo, SD 1y 2mo;) with severe dyslexia (the presence of a Full-scale IQ score of

  7. Anaerobic Infections in Children with Neurological Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Itzhak

    1995-01-01

    Children with neurological impairments are prone to develop serious infection with anaerobic bacteria. The most common anaerobic infections are decubitus ulcers; gastrostomy site wound infections; pulmonary infections (aspiration pneumonia, lung abscesses, and tracheitis); and chronic suppurative otitis media. The unique microbiology of each of…

  8. Sleep disorders in children with neurologic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucconi, M; Bruni, O

    2001-12-01

    Pediatric neurologic diseases are often associated with different kinds of sleep disruption (mainly insomnia, less frequently hypersomnia or parasomnias). Due to the key-role of sleep for development, the effort to ameliorate sleep patterns in these children could have important prognostic benefits. Study of sleep architecture and organization in neurologic disorders could lead to a better comprehension of the pathogenesis and a better treatment of the disorders. This article focuses on the following specific neurologic diseases: nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy and abnormal motor behaviors of epileptic origin, evaluating differential diagnosis with parasomnias; achondroplasia, confirming the crucial role of craniofacial deformity in determining sleep-disordered breathing; neuromuscular diseases, mainly Duchenne's muscular dystrophy and myotonic dystrophy; cerebral palsy, evaluating either the features of sleep architecture and the importance of the respiratory problems associated; headaches, confirming the strict relationships with sleep in terms of neurochemical and neurobehavioral substrates; and finally a review on the effectiveness of melatonin for sleep problems in children with neurologic syndromes and mental retardation, blindness, and epilepsy.

  9. HYPONATREMIA IN CHILDREN. FOCUS — NEUROLOGICAL COMPLICATIONS

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    R.F. Tepaev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder in patients at the hospital stage of treatment. Symptomatic hyponatremia is associated with severe neurological disorders. The degree of dysfunction varies from mild behavioral disturbances to convulsions, coma, or death, depending on the duration and depth of hyponatremia. Neurological disorders are caused, on one hand by edema and swelling of the brain on the background of hyponatremia, on the other — by the development of the osmotic demyelination syndrome in its rapid correction. Symptomatic hyponatremia is a threatening complication and is associated with a significant increase in mortality in children with a wide range of diseases. The article deals with the modern approaches to the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of hyponatremia.Key words: hyponatremia, osmotic demyelination syndrome, children.

  10. [Neurological symptoms in children with intussusception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Carral, J; Puertas-Martín, V; Carreras-Sáez, I; Maraña-Pérez, A I; Escobar-Delgado, T; García-Peñas, J J

    2014-05-01

    Intussusception is a potentially severe obstructive disease that occurs when a more proximal portion of bowel invaginates into a more distal part of the bowel. Patients with intussusception often present with a wide range of non-specific systemic symptoms, with less than one quarter presenting with the classic triad of vomiting, abdominal pain, and bloody stools. An acute change in level of consciousness could be the only clinical symptom of this disorder. To ascertain the frequency and nature of the neurological symptoms in children with intussusception, and to describe the characteristics of the patients presenting in this atypical way. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 351 children presenting with intussusception from 2000 to 2012. General epidemiological data, abdominal and neurological signs and symptoms, duration of symptoms and effectiveness of treatment, were analysed in all patients. Of the 351 patients studied, 15 (4.27%) had one or more neurological symptoms recorded at presentation, with lethargy being the most frequent (66.66%), followed by hypotonia, generalized weakness, paroxysmal events, and fluctuating consciousness. Sixty per cent of these fifteen patients showed isolated neurological symptomatology, and eleven of them (73.3%) needed a laparotomy to reduce the intussusception. Intussusception should be considered in the differential diagnosis in infants and young children presenting as a pediatric emergency with lethargy, hypotonia, generalized weakness, paroxysmal events and/or sudden changes in consciousness, even in the absence of the classical symptoms of intussusception. An early recognition of intussusception may improve the global prognosis and avoid ischaemic intestinal sequelae. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Neurological disorders in children with autism

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    N. N. Zavadenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During a clinical examination of children with autistic spectrum disorders, attention should be drawn to both their major clinical manifestations and neurological comorbidities. The paper considers the mechanisms of autism-induced neurological disorders, the spectrum of which may include manifestations, such as retarded and disharmonic early psychomotor development; the specific features of sensory perception/processing; rigidity and monotony of motor and psychic reactions; motor disinhibition and hyperexcitability; motor stereotypies; uncoordinated movements; developmental coordination disorders (dyspraxia; impaired expressive motor skills; speech and articulation disorders; tics; epilepsy. It describes the specific features of neurological symptoms in Asperger’s syndrome, particularly in semantic-pragmatic language disorders, higher incidence rates of hyperlexia, motor and vocal tics. The incidence rate of epilepsy in autistic spectrum disorders is emphasized to be greater than the average population one. At the same time, the risk of epilepsy is higher in mentally retarded patients with autism. Identification of neurological disorders is of great importance in determining the tactics of complex care for patients with autistic spectrum disorders. 

  12. Autism spectrum symptoms in children with neurological disorders

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    Ryland Hilde K

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of the present study were to assess symptoms associated with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD in children with neurological disorders as reported by parents and teachers on the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ, as well as the level of agreement between informants for each child. Methods The ASSQ was completed by parents and teachers of the 5781 children (11–13 years who participated in the second wave of the Bergen Child Study (BCS, an on-going longitudinal population-based study. Out of these children, 496 were reported to have a chronic illness, including 99 whom had a neurological disorder. The neurological disorder group included children both with and without intellectual disabilities. Results Children with neurological disorders obtained significantly higher parent and teacher reported ASSQ scores than did non-chronically ill children and those with other chronic illnesses (p Conclusions The ASSQ identifies a high rate of ASD symptoms in children with neurological disorders, and a large number of children screened in the positive range for ASD. Although a firm conclusion awaits further clinical studies, the present results suggest that health care professionals should be aware of potential ASD related problems in children with neurological disorders, and should consider inclusion of the ASSQ or similar screening instruments as part of their routine assessment of this group of children.

  13. Psychological findings in preterm children related to neurologic status and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsén, P; Vainionpää, L; Pääkkö, E; Korkman, M; Pyhtinen, J; Järvelin, M R

    1998-08-01

    Preterm children experience learning disabilities more often than full-term children, but detailed information on their neuropsychological and neurologic determinants is lacking. We therefore examined these problems more closely and also studied if clinical neurologic examination and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used as tools to screen the preterm children at risk for these problems. In a population-based study, the psychological performance of 42 preterm children with a birth weight <1750 g and of their matched controls was assessed at 8 years of age and the findings were then related to clinical neurologic examination and MRI. Learning disabilities of these children, reported by the teachers, were also studied. The cognitive ability of the preterm children, although in the normal range, was significantly lower than that of the control children. They performed particularly poorly in tasks requiring spatial and visuoperceptual abilities, which were associated with the finding of periventricular leukomalacia in MRI, especially with posterior ventricular enlargement. The preterm children with minor neurodevelopmental dysfunction (MND) had the most problems in neuropsychological tests, whereas the clinically healthy preterm children and those with cerebral palsy had fewer problems. The problems of MND children emerged in the domain of attention. They also experienced the most problems at school. Visuospatial problems were associated with periventricular leukomalacia in MRI, but learning disabilities were most frequent among the preterm children with minor neurologic abnormalities. We recommend closer follow-up of preterm children with MND.

  14. [neurologic Semiology In A Population Of Hearing Impaired Children].

    OpenAIRE

    V. M. Gonçalves; Piovesana, A M; Moura-Ribeiro, M V

    2015-01-01

    A random sample of 42 sensorineural hearing impaired children (severe and bilateral) was studied, from special classes in Campinas, with chronological ages varying between 4 and 7 years old. The children of this sample were compared with two control groups of 42 children of the same chronological age, from regular classes of private and public schools. All of them were submitted to the traditional neurological examination. Hearing impaired children showed differences as to head circumference ...

  15. Minor neurological dysfunction in children with autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, Marianne; Punt, Marja; De Groot, Erik; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    Aim The aim of this study was to improve the understanding of brain function in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in relation to minor neurological dysfunctions (MNDs). Method We studied MNDs in 122 children (93 males, 29 females; mean age 8y 1mo, SD 2y 6mo) who, among a total cohort of

  16. Neurologic long term outcome after drowning in children

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    Suominen Pertti K

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Drowning is a major source of mortality and morbidity in children worldwide. Neurocognitive outcome of children after drowning incidents cannot be accurately predicted in the early course of treatment. Therefore, aggressive out-of-hospital and in-hospital treatment is emphasized. There are "miracle" cases after long submersion times that have been reported in the medical literature, which mostly concern small children. However, many of the survivors will remain severely neurologically compromised after remarkably shorter submersion times and will consequently be a great burden to their family and society for the rest of their lives. The duration of submersion, the need of advanced life support at the site of the accident, the duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, whether spontaneous breathing and circulation are present on arrival at the emergency room are important factors related to survival with mild neurological deficits or intact function in drowned children. Data on long-term outcome are scarce. The used outcome measurement methods and the duration of follow-up have not been optimal in most of the existing studies. Proper neurological and neurophysiological examinations for drowned children are superior to outcome scales based chart reviews. There is evidence that gross neurological examination at the time of discharge from the hospital in young children does not reveal all the possible sequelae related to hypoxic brain injury and thus long-term follow-up of drowned resuscitated children is strongly recommended.

  17. Study on subsequent neurologic complications in children with acute leukemia

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    Kobayashi, Naoaki; Shimazaki, Haruyo; Hoshi, Yasutaka; Akatsuka, Jun-ichi (Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1989-06-01

    Twenty-seven children with acute leukemia were studied in order to detect the subsequent neurologic complications due to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Twenty-four patients with ALL received central nervous system prophylaxis including cranial irradiation. The methods of evaluation consisted of electroencephalogram (EEG), computed tomography of the head (CT scan), soft neurological sign, intelligence quotient (IQ) and Bender Gestalt test. The patients with relapse showed severe abnormalities in various kinds of examinations. Younger children at diagnosis were associated with a higher abnormality rate of soft neurological signs and Bender Gestalt test. Factors which were found to be closely associated with a lower IQ score included younger children at diagnosis and longer duration of remission time. These results indicate the need for caution for the dosage of cranial irradiation for younger patients in CNS prophylaxis, and improvement of a lower IQ score in long-term survivors requires further investigation as to the appropriate intellectual environment for their development after remission. (author).

  18. Neurological manifestations of children with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, W F; Hussain, I M; Soffiah, A; Lim, Y N

    2000-12-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 21 children with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, 15 (71%) were found to have neuropsychiatric manifestations. The most common finding was generalised seizures (42.8%) followed by encephalopathy (19%) and hallucinations (19%). One child (4.76%) had hemichorea. In 3 children neurological manifestations were the first symptom of SLE. Computerised Axial Tomograms (CAT scans) showed cerebral atrophy in 7 of 12 scans available for review. Ten children had abnormal EEGs. Although none of the children had clinical evidence of a peripheral neuropathy, 8 had neurophysiological evidence of a neuropathy. One child died of intracranial haemorrhage. Six children had residual neuropsychiatric sequalae.

  19. Neurologic and Functional Morbidity in Critically Ill Children With Bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shein, Steven L; Slain, Katherine N; Clayton, Jason A; McKee, Bryan; Rotta, Alexandre T; Wilson-Costello, Deanne

    2017-09-19

    Neurologic and functional morbidity occurs in ~30% of PICU survivors, and young children may be at particular risk. Bronchiolitis is a common indication for PICU admission among children less than 2 years old. Two single-center studies suggest that greater than 10-25% of critical bronchiolitis survivors have neurologic and functional morbidity but those estimates are 20 years old. We aimed to estimate the burden of neurologic and functional morbidity among more recent bronchiolitis patients using two large, multicenter databases. Analysis of the Pediatric Health Information System and the Virtual Pediatric databases. Forty-eight U.S. children's hospitals (Pediatric Health Information System) and 40 international (mostly United States) children's hospitals (Virtual Pediatric Systems). Previously healthy PICU patients less than 2 years old admitted with bronchiolitis between 2009 and 2015 who survived and did not require extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or cardiopulmonary resuscitation. None. Neurologic and functional morbidity was defined as a Pediatric Overall Performance Category greater than 1 at PICU discharge (Virtual Pediatric Systems subjects), or a subsequent hospital encounter involving developmental delay, feeding tubes, MRI of the brain, neurologist evaluation, or rehabilitation services (Pediatric Health Information System subjects). Among 3,751 Virtual Pediatric Systems subjects and 9,516 Pediatric Health Information System subjects, ~20% of patients received mechanical ventilation. Evidence of neurologic and functional morbidity was present at PICU discharge in 707 Virtual Pediatric Systems subjects (18.6%) and more chronically in 1,104 Pediatric Health Information System subjects (11.6%). In both cohorts, neurologic and functional morbidity was more common in subjects receiving mechanical ventilation (27.5% vs 16.5% in Virtual Pediatric Systems; 14.5% vs 11.1% in Pediatric Health Information System; both p < 0.001). In multivariate models also

  20. [Neurologic semiology in a population of hearing impaired children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, V M; Piovesana, A M; de Moura-Ribeiro, M V

    1993-09-01

    A random sample of 42 sensorineural hearing impaired children (severe and bilateral) was studied, from special classes in Campinas, with chronological ages varying between 4 and 7 years old. The children of this sample were compared with two control groups of 42 children of the same chronological age, from regular classes of private and public schools. All of them were submitted to the traditional neurological examination. Hearing impaired children showed differences as to head circumference and muscle tonus. In the other examined items we found motor hyperactivity, cerebellar and ocular syndromes although there were no significant differences between the groups.

  1. Pattern of neurological diseases as seen in outpatient children: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    childhood are speech and communication disorders often associated with C/P and post febrile illness in our study. Despite an apparent large number of children with disabilities in developing countries especially in Africa, the majority of studies highlight the preponderance of neurological diseases among adults. As a result ...

  2. Fundoplication in neurologically impaired children: Nissen or Thal?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: fundoplication, gastroesophageal reflux disease, neurological impairment. aDepartment of Surgery, Pediatric Surgery Unit .... recordings were downloaded into the computer. Results were compared with the preset normal values ... A subjective assessment of the severity as mild, moderate, or severe was made in.

  3. The Neurological Hand Deformity Classification for children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, Melissa; Elliott, Catherine; Wilton, Judith; Blair, Eve; Blackmore, Marie; Garbellini, Simon

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of the Neurological Hand Deformity Classification and use it to describe changes in hand deformity over time in children with cerebral palsy. We identified 114 video clips of 26 children with cerebral palsy, aged 1-18 years (mean = 8.4, SD = 4.2), performing upper-limb tasks at multiple time points (n = 3-8) at least 6 months apart. Using the Neurological Hand Deformity Classification, three observers classified hand deformity in the video clips. Inter- and intra-observer reliabilities were estimated using Fleiss and Cohen's kappa (κ) and the temporal changes in classification of hand deformity were investigated. Inter- and intra-observer reliability respectively were κ = 0.87 and κ = 0.91. Hand deformity was identified in all children at all time points, even before the age of 2 years. Ten children did not change hand classification, wrist flexion increased in eight, and eight showed changes from wrist flexion to extension or vice versa. The Neurological Hand Deformity Classification is a reliable tool to classify hand deformity in children with cerebral palsy. For more than one-third of children hand deformity classification did not change. For the remaining children, two patterns of change in hand deformity over time were identified. It is recommended that children with cerebral palsy involving their upper limbs be monitored regularly. This is the first study to document longitudinal changes in hand deformity in children with cerebral palsy. © 2014 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  4. Neurological damage disrupts normal sex differences in psychophysiological responsiveness to music.

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    Belfi, Amy M; Chen, Kuan-Hua; Schneider, Brett; Tranel, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Men and women often display different physiological responses to emotional stimuli, and these responses can be affected by brain damage. Here, we investigated how brain damage differentially affects electrodermal responses based on sex. We studied neurologically normal, healthy adults and a sample of neurological patients. Participants listened to music, an emotional stimulus that reliably elicits skin conductance responses (SCRs). Electrodermal activity was recorded while participants listened to musical clips. When analyzing the data without regard to sex, there were no differences between healthy and brain-damaged participants in their SCRs. However, we found a significant interaction between brain injury status and sex. For men, brain damage significantly reduced SCRs. For women, there were no differences between brain-damaged participants and neurologically healthy participants. These findings illustrate the importance of including demographic variables, such as sex, when investigating brain-behavior relationships with a psychophysiological dependent variable. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  5. Neurological Effects of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Children

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    Coskun YARAR

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning (COP is one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity due to poisoning in all over the world. Although the incidence of COP has not been known exactly in the childhood, almost one-third of CO exposures occurred in children. The data regarding COP in children are inconclusive. Children may be more vulnerable to CO exposure than adults as a result of their high respiration and metabolic rates, high oxygen metabolism, and immature central nervous system. Recent researches proposed new theories about neurological effects of CO toxicity. The clinical presentations associated acute COP may be various and nonspecific. Unrecognized CO exposure may lead to significant morbidity and mortality. CO exposed children often become symptomatic earlier, and recover more rapidly, than similarly CO exposed adults. Mild clinical signs and symptoms associated with COP are headache, dizziness, weakness, lethargy, and myalgia; however, severe signs and symptoms such as blurred vision, syncope, convulsion, coma, cardiopulmonary arrest and death can also accompany with COP. Neurologic manifestations can include altered mental status at different degrees, neck stiffness, tremor, ataxia, and positive Babinski's sign. Delayed neurologic sequels (DNS of COP might be seen in children like adults. DNS symptoms and signs in children include memory problems, mental retardation, mutism, fecal and urinary incontinence, motor deficits, facial palsy, psychosis, chronic headache, seizures, and epilepsy. After CO exposure children must be cared to detect and treat DNS. Although hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT is reported to prevent development of DNS, its indications, application duration and procedures are controversial in both of the children and adults. Although their predictive values are limited, exposing to CO more than eight hours and suffering from CO-induced coma, cardiac arrest, lactic acidosis, high COHb levels, and pathologic findings

  6. Influenza vaccination in children with neurologic or neurodevelopmental disorders.

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    Smith, Michael; Peacock, Georgina; Uyeki, Timothy M; Moore, Cynthia

    2015-05-11

    Children with neurologic or neurodevelopmental disorders (NNDDs) are at increased risk of complications from influenza. Although the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) has recognized NNDDs as high-risk conditions for influenza complications since 2005, little is known about influenza vaccination practices in this population. CDC collaborated with Family Voices, a national advocacy group for children with special healthcare needs, to recruit parents of children with chronic medical conditions. Parents were surveyed about their knowledge, attitudes, and practices surrounding influenza vaccination. The primary outcome of interest was parental report of vaccination, or intent to vaccinate, at the time of survey participation. CDC also collaborated with the American Academy of Pediatrics to recruit primary care and specialty physicians who provide care for high-risk children, specifically those with neurologic conditions. The primary outcome was physician recognition of ACIP high-risk influenza conditions. 2138 surveys were completed by parents of children with high-risk conditions, including 1143 with at least one NNDD. Overall, 50% of children with an NNDD were vaccinated, or their parents planned to have them vaccinated against influenza. Among all 2138 children, in multivariable analysis, the presence of a respiratory condition and prior seasonal influenza vaccination was significantly associated with receipt or planned current season influenza vaccination, but the presence of an NNDD was not. 412 pediatricians completed the provider survey. Cerebral palsy was recognized as a high-risk influenza condition by 74% of physician respondents, but epilepsy (51%) and intellectual disability (46%) were less commonly identified. Our estimates of influenza vaccination in children with NNDDs are comparable to published reports of vaccination in healthy children, which continue to be suboptimal. Education of parents of children with NNDDs and healthcare

  7. Dietary Intakes and Nutritional Issues in Neurologically Impaired Children

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    Francesca Penagini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Neurologically impaired (NI children are at increased risk of malnutrition due to several nutritional and non-nutritional factors. Among the nutritional factors, insufficient dietary intake as a consequence of feeding difficulties is one of the main issues. Feeding problems are frequently secondary to oropharyngeal dysphagia, which usually correlates with the severity of motor impairment and presents in around 90% of preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP during the first year of life. Other nutritional factors are represented by excessive nutrient losses, often subsequent to gastroesophageal reflux and altered energy metabolism. Among the non-nutritional factors, the type and severity of neurological impairment, ambulatory status, the degree of cognitive impairment, and use of entiepileptic medication altogether concur to determination of nutritional status. With the present review, the current literature is discussed and a practical approach for nutritional assessment in NI children is proposed. Early identification and intervention of nutritional issues of NI children with a multidisciplinary approach is crucial to improve the overall health and quality of life of these complex children.

  8. Neurological comorbidity in children with neurofibromatosis type 1.

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    Hirabaru, Keiko; Matsuo, Muneaki

    2017-08-10

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of central nervous system comorbidities in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). We performed a nationwide survey to investigate neurological comorbidities in 3-15-year-old children with NF1 in Japan by sending questionnaires to pediatricians and pediatric neurologists. A secondary questionnaire was sent to the parents of identified NF1 patients to assess neurological comorbidities including headache, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Rating Scale (RS), and the Social Responsiveness Scale 2. The primary survey identified 760 NF1 patients, and the parents of 565 patients were sent the secondary questionnaire. The parental response rate was 25.7% (145; 63 girls, 81 boys, one unspecified). Among the patients, 42.9% (55/128; 35 girls, 20 boys) were reported to exhibit intellectual problems. On the ADHD-RS, 40.2% (47/117) of NF1 patients aged 6-15 had ADHD (RS score >93rd percentile), with a rate of 47.7% in boys and 30.8% in girls. Furthermore, 20.2% of patients had suspected autism spectrum disorder (29/143; 10 girls, 19 boys), with Social Responsiveness Scale score ≥76. Headache was reported by 49.6% (61/123) of children over 5 years old, and 25.2% (31/123; 10 girls, 21 boys) reported migraine. Other neurological comorbidities included 20 cases of epilepsy (13.8%), 11 cases of optic nerve glioma (7.6%), five cases of brain tumor (3.4%), six cases of cerebrovascular disease (4.1%), and two cases of hydrocephalus (1.4%). Intellectual problems, ADHD, autism spectrum disorder, and migraine are major neurological comorbidities in NF1. © 2017 Japan Pediatric Society.

  9. Dumping syndrome: an unusual cause of severe hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia in neurologically impaired children with gastrostomy.

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    Bizzarri, C; Cervoni, M; Crea, F; Cutrera, R; Schiavino, A; Schiaffini, R; Cappa, M

    2011-02-01

    This paper describes severe hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia during bolus enteral feeding in two neurologically impaired children. Both children were affected by dysphagia with swallowing difficulties; caloric intake was inadequate. For these reasons, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy had been positioned during the first months of life. In one patient due to persisting vomiting, after a few months, a gastrojejunal tube (PEG-J) was inserted. Hypoglycemia was revealed by routine blood tests, without evidence of specific symptoms. Continuous subcutaneous glucose monitoring showed wide glucose excursions, ranging from hypoglycemia to hyperglycemia. Extremely high levels of insulin were detected at the time of hypoglycemia. A diagnosis of dumping syndrome (DS) was suspected in both children. In the child with PEG, the tip of the gastrostomy catheter was found to be lying in the bulbus duodeni. Once this had been pulled back, hypoglycemic episodes disappeared. The child with PEG-J needed continuous enteral feeding to reach a normal glucose balance. DS is a relatively common complication in children with gastrostomy, but extremely irregular glucose levels, ranging from hypoglycemia to hyperglycemia, and increased insulin secretion had not been previously demonstrated. The incidence of DS is probably underestimated in children receiving enteral feeding for neurological impairment. In these patients intensive monitoring of blood glucose levels should be performed to calibrate meals. Repeated underestimated hypoglycemic episodes could worsen neurological damage and cause a deterioration in clinical conditions.

  10. HYPERNATREMIA IN CHILDREN. FOCUS ON THE NEUROLOGICAL COMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Tepaev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The hypernatremia is an electrolyte disorder in patients at the hospital stage of the treatment. The symptomatic hypernatremia is associated with severe neurological disorders. The degree of dysfunction varies from mild behavioral disturbances to convulsions, coma, and depends on the duration and depth of hypernatremia. Neurological disorders are caused, on the one hand, by the shrinkage of neurocytes in the background of a high concentration of sodium in the blood, on the other — by the development of brain edema related to the rapid correction of hypernatremia. Symptomatic hypernatremia is the threatening complication and is associated with a significant mortality increase in children with a wide range of diseases. The paper describes current approaches to the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of hypernatremia. 

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in epileptic cats with a normal interictal neurological examination: 188 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, F; Shihab, N; Gutierrez-Quintana, R; Smith, A; Trevail, R; Sanchez-Masian, D; Smith, P M

    2017-06-24

    Epilepsy is a common neurological condition in dogs and cats. Although an increased likelihood of significant brain lesions with age has been identified in neurologically normal dogs with epileptic seizures, the underlying aetiology of epileptic seizures in cats that present with normal physical and neurological examinations remains unknown. In this cross-sectional study, the authors examined MRI findings in a large population of cats with a normal interictal physical and neurological examination. They hypothesised that age would have an impact on the prevalence of detectable lesions. First, following the guidelines for dogs and in accordance with previous studies, the authors divided the cats into three age groups (aged one year or younger, between one and six, and older than six) and calculated the proportion of cats with a detectable lesion on MRI in these groups. In the first group, 3/32 cats (9.4 per cent) had significant MRI abnormalities that were all consistent with congenital malformation; in the second group, only 5/92 (5.4 per cent) MRI scans were abnormal and in the third group, 15/ 65 (23.1 per cent) cats showed abnormal findings that were predominantly lesions of neoplastic origin. Second, to investigate the impact of age further, data were investigated as a continuous variable using receiver operating characteristic analysis. This indicated an optimal cut-off age of five years, above which MRI abnormalities were more likely, with an increase in the odds of a significant structural lesion increasing by 14 per cent per year. British Veterinary Association.

  12. Discrimination of prosody and music by normal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, C P; Fitzsimons, M; Asenbauer, B; Staunton, H

    1999-03-01

    Prosody or the melody of speech is the process used to alter the meaning (linguistic prosody) or emotional force (affective prosody) of a sentence. The components of prosody are rhythm, pitch, tone and stress and they are articulated by modulation of the acoustic correlates of prosody; frequency, duration and amplitude. Little is known about the development of prosody in normal children other than that it appears to be a precursor to the further acquisition of normal language. In order to examine the development of the perception of prosody in normal children, a group of 40 neurologically normal children aged between 5 and 9 years were subjected to a number of prosodic recognition tasks. The objective was to modify a number of existing tasks and to devise a number of new ones to test both linguistic and affective prosody and the appreciation of affective cues in music. The results indicate a step-wise improvement in perceptual contours up to 8.5 years old. However the perception of emotion in music appears highly developed early on in development. This study provides normative data and is the first report of a comparison between the development of prosodic and musical appreciation in this age group of normal children. Copyright 1999 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  13. [Neurological consequences following perinatal asphyxia in preschool age children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabieva, T N

    2009-01-01

    Various groups have been addressing the question of whether perinatal asphyxia (PA) affects on newborn health and nervous system. It is widely accepted that severe PA causes motor and cognitive alterations and leads to a variety of brain disorders: cerebral palsy, epilepsy, mental retardation as well as psychiatric deficits. At the same time it was established, that large percentage of children, surviving PA didn't demonstrate apparent sequelae, but mild physical and mental delay in future. With the purpose of disclose further consequences of PA on child development, we examine 20 children (6 years old) surviving mild or moderate PA without severe neurological pathology. In most cases we revealed muscle tone disturbances, physical development and growth retardation, speech pathology in the form of dyslaliya and speech delay. Intact cognitive capacities in these children combine with limited information content. Our investigation discovered, that the presence of certain psychoneurological characteristics such as hyperexcitability, irritability, timidity, aggressiveness; reduced activity, concentration and motivation -- are the consequences of survived birth trauma. These characteristics producing undue fatiguability, inattention, restlessness and diminished working-capacity, can pose additional problems in education process. In the absence of individual approach without taking into account emotional and motivational peculiarities, this category of children could not completely realize their intact cognitive capacities and represent risk group for further mild retardation.

  14. Neurologic Damage and Behavior Disorder in Rubella Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chess, Stella; Fernandez, Paulina

    1980-01-01

    A longitudinal study of 214 rubella deaf children (13 to 14 years old) revealed a low incidence (10%) of neurologica damage among those with normal intelligence, but a high incidence (51% to 70%) among those who were mentally retarded or blind. (Author)

  15. Neurological and cardiac complications in a cohort of children with end-stage renal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumana H Albaramki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult patients with chronic kidney disease are at risk of major neurologic and cardiac complications. The purpose of this study is to review the neurological and cardiac complications in children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD. A retrospective review of medical records of children with ESRD at Jordan University Hospital was performed. All neurological and cardiac events were recorded and analyzed. Data of a total of 68 children with ESRD presenting between 2002 and 2013 were reviewed. Neurological complications occurred in 32.4%; seizures were the most common event. Uncontrolled hypertension was the leading cause of neurological events. Cardiac complications occurred in 39.7%, the most common being pericardial effusion. Mortality from neurological complications was 45%. Neurological and cardiac complications occurred in around a third of children with ESRD with a high mortality rate. More effective control of hypertension, anemia, and intensive and gentle dialysis are needed.

  16. Performance on neurological development tests by riverine children with moderate mercury exposure in Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavares Lydia Maria Bocayuva

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system can be damaged when the population is exposed to methyl mercury (MeHg by ingesting fish, and children deserve special attention due to their increased susceptibility as compared to adults. A comparative cross-sectional study was performed in order to investigate the use of a battery of neurological development tests in two groups of 209 riverine children from 3 to 7 years old: a group exposed to moderate levels of MeHg (n = 75 and a control group (n = 134. The study included a questionnaire, the collection of scalp hair samples for determination of total mercury concentration, and performance on a test for evaluating neurological function in children. Riverine children presented higher exposure to MeHg (mean hair Hg = 5.37 ? 3.35mg.g-1 in comparison to the control group (mean Hg = 2.08 ? 1.37mg.g-1. Both groups showed a high proportion of children with what was considered "non-normal" performance, suggesting that the results could not be related to mercury exposure and that this type of test presented limitations for use with river-dwelling Amazon communities.

  17. Performance on neurological development tests by riverine children with moderate mercury exposure in Amazonia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Lydia Maria Bocayuva; Câmara, Volney Magalhães; Malm, Olaf; Santos, Elisabeth C de Oliveira

    2005-01-01

    The nervous system can be damaged when the population is exposed to methyl mercury (MeHg) by ingesting fish, and children deserve special attention due to their increased susceptibility as compared to adults. A comparative cross-sectional study was performed in order to investigate the use of a battery of neurological development tests in two groups of 209 riverine children from 3 to 7 years old: a group exposed to moderate levels of MeHg (n = 75) and a control group (n = 134). The study included a questionnaire, the collection of scalp hair samples for determination of total mercury concentration, and performance on a test for evaluating neurological function in children. Riverine children presented higher exposure to MeHg (mean hair Hg = 5.37 +/- 3.35 microg x g(-1)) in comparison to the control group (mean Hg = 2.08 +/- 1.37 microg x g(-1)). Both groups showed a high proportion of children with what was considered "non-normal" performance, suggesting that the results could not be related to mercury exposure and that this type of test presented limitations for use with river-dwelling Amazon communities.

  18. Omega-3 LC-PUFA supply and neurological outcomes in children with phenylketonuria (PKU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koletzko, Berthold; Beblo, Skadi; Demmelmair, Hans; Hanebutt, Fabienne L

    2009-03-01

    Children with phenylketonuria (PKU) follow a diet with very low intakes of natural protein, which is devoid of food sources of the omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). A resulting DHA depletion has been demonstrated in PKU children and may account for detectable subtle neurological deficits that are not explained by variation in plasma phenylalanine concentrations. We supplemented 36 children with PKU ages 1 to 11 years for 3 months with encapsulated fish oil providing a daily dose of 15 mg DHA/kg body weight. DHA supplementation resulted in significantly faster visual evoked potential latencies, indicating more rapid central nervous system information processing. In addition, DHA significantly improved outcomes in a test of motor function and coordination. No changes over time were seen in age-matched healthy controls. Because the PKU children had a good supply of the omega-3 precursor alpha-linolenic acid, these observations lead us to conclude that endogenous conversion of alpha-linolenic acid is not sufficient to provide adequate amounts of DHA that support optimal function, and hence DHA appears to be a conditional essential substrate for children with PKU. Because early treated PKU children are healthy, with normal fatty acid turnover, these data may indicate a need to supply some DHA to children in general. Further studies are ongoing aiming at establishing quantitative DHA requirements in children.

  19. Return of normal urological and neurological function after revision surgery for spondyloptosis. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Quaidoo, Sean M; Hunt, Travis; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Arlet, Vincent

    2007-03-01

    The authors report on the return of neurological and urological function in an adolescent after revision surgery for spondyloptosis 5 years after the index procedure for high-grade spondylolisthesis. This 16-year-old girl with Grade 3 spondylolisthesis was initially treated with a posterolateral reduction and fusion. Following surgery, cauda equina syndrome symptoms developed and did not resolve despite subsequent surgical decompression. Five years later, because of worsening radicular pain, an inability to walk for significant distances, and no resolution of persistent bladder dysfunction, the patient presented with spondyloptosis. Posterior decompression, sacral dome osteotomy, and posterior reduction were performed and followed 3 days later with the placement of an anterior fibula autograft. Her bladder function recovered within 6 months, and at the 18-month follow up the patient reported a normal ability to ambulate.

  20. Assessing body composition and energy expenditure in children with severe neurological impairment and intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Rieken (Rob)

    2010-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Children with severe neurological impairment and intellectual disability are at increased risk of developing malnutrition. While in recent years increased use of gastrostomy feeding has turned this trend, children receiving tube feeding run the opposite risk of

  1. Optimization of nutritional correction treatment for neurological disorders in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Tekebaeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the results of a study project at the Infant Neurology Department, which has shown the urgency of nutritional rehabilitation in children aged 3 months to 5 years with infantile cerebral paralysis. Thirty patients were followed up to study the causes of malnutrition, to assess and correct their nutritional status, and to show the efficiency of the measures implemented. A diet corrected by a nutritionist was combined with nonsurgical interventions, such as positioning, a decision on the transition to nasogastric tube feeding, and maternal work. The complementary foods were FrutoNyanya products as the latter are low-immunogenic, cause no allergic reactions, and may be used both in the feeding of high-risk group children and as ingredients of a therapeutic diet for patients with different diseases. This resulted in 305-g weight gain within 7-10 day of hospital stay in those whose underweight averaged 28%. The emotional status of the patients and their caregivers was improved by 2-3 scores on 5-point rating scale. There were improvements in their emotional tone (in 75%, chewing (in 28%, and swallowing (in 35% and reductions in reflux episodes (in 19% and stress in the caregivers (in 86%.

  2. Bioelements in hair of children with selected neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józefczuk, Jan; Kasprzycka, Wiktoria; Czarnecki, Rafał; Graczyk, Alfreda; Józefczuk, Paweł; Krzysztof, Magda; Lampart, Urszula; Mrozowska-Ząbek, Ewa; Surdy, Weronika; Kwiatkowska-Graczyk, Róża

    2017-01-01

    We have analyzed concentrations of magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) in hair of a group of 82 children with mental retardation, in which 9 patients suffered from epilepsy, 18 from the Down's syndrome and 55 from cerebral palsy. Girls comprised little over 50% of the patients. In the group of boys with epilepsy, we found Mg, Ca, Cu and Fe deficiency, and normal level of Zn. In the group of girls with epilepsy, apart from low Fe concentration, a high level of Ca, Mg, Zn, and Cu was noted. For girls with the Down's syndrome, a high or normal level of Ca, Mg, Zn and Cu was found, whereas the Fe concentration varied and presented itself in a non-characteristic way. Both groups of children with cerebral palsy, i.e. boys and girls, displayed low Fe concentration in their hair; low Cu level was found in older patients as well. In this group of patients, we also noted high concentrations of Ca, Mg and Zn in girls and normal in boys. A high concentration of Ca in girls with cerebral palsy requires separate analysis. The obtained results could be useful as guidance in the direction and determination of the amount of possible patient nutritional supplementation.

  3. Interventions for oropharyngeal dysphagia in children with neurological impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Angela T; Dodrill, Pamela; Ward, Elizabeth C

    2012-10-17

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia encompasses problems with the oral preparatory phase of swallowing (chewing and preparing the food), oral phase (moving the food or fluid posteriorly through the oral cavity with the tongue into the back of the throat) and pharyngeal phase (swallowing the food or fluid and moving it through the pharynx to the oesophagus). Populations of children with neurological impairment who commonly experience dysphagia include, but are not limited to, those with acquired brain impairment (for example, cerebral palsy, traumatic brain injury, stroke), genetic syndromes (for example, Down syndrome, Rett syndrome) and degenerative conditions (for example, myotonic dystrophy). To examine the effectiveness of interventions for oropharyngeal dysphagia in children with neurological impairment. We searched the following electronic databases in October 2011: CENTRAL 2011(3), MEDLINE (1948 to September Week 4 2011), EMBASE (1980 to 2011 Week 40)
, CINAHL (1937 to current)
, ERIC (1966 to current), PsycINFO (1806 to October Week 1 2011), Science Citation Index (1970 to 7 October 2011), Social Science Citation Index (1970 to 7 October 2011), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2011(3), DARE 2011(3), Current Controlled Trials (ISRCTN Register) (15 October 2011), ClinicalTrials.gov (15 October 2011) and WHO ICTRP (15 October 2011). We searched for dissertations and theses using Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations, Australasian Digital Theses Program and DART-Europe E-theses Portal (11 October 2011). Finally, additional references were also obtained from reference lists from articles. The review included randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised controlled trials for children with oropharyngeal dysphagia and neurological impairment. All three review authors (AM, PD and EW) independently screened titles and abstracts for inclusion and discussed results. In cases of uncertainty over whether an abstract met inclusion criterion, review

  4. Normal cranial postmortem CT findings in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieswerda-Hoogendoorn, T.; Beenen, L. F. M.; van Rijn, R. R.

    2015-01-01

    Postmortem imaging (both CT and MRI) has become a widely used tool the last few years, both for adults and children. If it would be known which findings are normal postmortem changes, interpretation of abnormal findings becomes less ambiguous. Our aim was to describe postmortem intracranial

  5. Metabolically obese normal-weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Romero, Fernando; Rodríguez-Moran, Martha

    2012-12-08

    Non-obese children with elevated serum insulin levels and metabolic disorders such as, hyperglycemia, hypertension, and/or hypertriglyceridemia are a subset of children in high risk of developing cardiovascular disease later in life. Since usually the health policies for the prevention of the obesity associated disorders in children are based on the screening focused on the obese, frequently the metabolically obese normal-weight (MONW) children are not identified in primary care setting. Given that characterization of the MONW children is an important public health issue, and that a large amount of resources might be unnecessarily used in the screening of metabolic risk of nonobese children; we review data regarding criteria for the early recognition of this subset of children in high risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Results of our review suggests that the presence of family history of type 2 diabetes and/or hypertension, the elevated percentage of body fat, and the high birth-weight should be taken into account as criteria of high cardiovascular risk, irrespective of obesity.

  6. Correlates of depressed mood in normal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, R H; Lahey, B B; Strauss, C C

    1983-03-01

    Two instruments which have been proposed as measures of clinical depression in children and an ad hoc teacher rating were given to a group of 109 normal children. The Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), the Peer Nomination Inventory for Depression (PNID), and a teacher rating of depression were given along with the Conners Teacher Rating Scale (TRS), teacher ratings of somatic complaints, peer popularity, and absenteeism, and peer ratings of popularity to examine the behavioral correlates of depressed mood in normal children. While few sex differences were found on mean depression scores, different patterns of correlations were found for the two sexes. For males, there were no significant correlations among the three depression measures, but all three depression measures were correlated with unpopularity and conduct problem ratings on the TRS. For females, the three depression measures were adequately intercorrelated. The teacher rating of depression was correlated with general deviance as measured by the TRS, but the CDI and PNID were correlated with TRS ratings of conduct problems, with peer ratings of unpopularity, and with teacher ratings of somatic complaints. Implications for the issue of the possible existence of a clinical syndrome of depression in children were discussed.

  7. The neurology of learning and behavioural problems in pre-adolescent children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batstra, L; Neeleman, J; Hadders-Algra, M

    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate whether in pre-adolescent children specific types of minor neurological dysfunction (MND) are related to specific types of learning and behavioural problems, and whether it is the type or the severity of neurological dysfunction that matters most.

  8. Neurological condition in 18-month-old children perinatally exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, M; KoopmanEsseboom, C; vanderPaauw, CG; Tuinstra, LGMT; Fidler, [No Value; WeisglasKuperus, N; Sauer, PJJ; Boersma, ER; Touwen, BCL

    1995-01-01

    The neurological optimality of 418 Dutch children was evaluated at the age of 18 months, in order to determine whether prenatal and breast milk mediated exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins affected neurological development, Half of the infants were breast-fed, the other half

  9. Perimetry in young and neurologically impaired children : The Behavioral Visual Field (BEFIE) Screening Test revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenraads, Yvonne; Braun, Kees P J; Van Der Linden, Denise C P; Imhof, Saskia M.; Porro, Giorgio L.

    IMPORTANCE: Visual field examination in young or neurologically impaired children is a challenge. As a result, the Behavioral Visual Field (BEFIE) Screening Test was developed in 1995. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the applicability of the BEFIE test in a large population of young or neurologically

  10. Measuring body composition and energy expenditure in children with severe neurologic impairment and intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rieken, Rob; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Schierbeek, Henk; Willemsen, Sten P.; Calis, Elsbeth A. C.; Tibboel, Dick; Evenhuis, Heleen M.; Penning, Corine

    2011-01-01

    Accurate prediction equations for estimating body composition and total energy expenditure (TEE) in children with severe neurologic impairment and intellectual disability are currently lacking. The objective was to develop group-specific equations to predict body composition by using

  11. Hippotherapy effects on trunk, pelvic, and hip motion during ambulation in children with neurological impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encheff, Jenna L; Armstrong, Charles; Masterson, Michelle; Fox, Christine; Gribble, Phillip

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a 10-week hippotherapy program on trunk, pelvis, and hip joint positioning during the stance phase of gait. Eleven children (6 boys and 5 girls; 7.9 ± 2.7 years) with neurological disorders and impaired ambulation participated. Joint range of motion data were collected via 3-dimensional computerized gait analysis before and after the program. Paired t tests were performed on kinematic data for each joint. Significant improvements (P ≤ .008) and large effect sizes (ESs) for sagittal plane hip positions at initial contact and toe-off were found. No differences in pelvic or trunk positioning were determined, although sagittal plane pelvic positioning displayed a trend toward improvement with large ESs. Several trunk variables displayed moderate ESs with a trend toward more upright positioning. Improvements in pelvic and hip joint positioning and more normalized vertical trunk position may indicate increased postural control during gait after 10 sessions of hippotherapy.

  12. Quantitative Evaluation System of Soft Neurological Signs for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Kaneko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Soft neurological signs (SNS are minor neurological abnormalities in motor performance, and are used as one evaluation method for neurodevelopmental delays in children with ADHD. Our aim is to establish a quantitative evaluation system for children with ADHD. We focused on the arm movement called pronation and supination, which is one such soft neurological sign. Thirty three children with ADHD aged 7–11 years (27 males, six females and twenty five adults participants aged 21–29 years old (19 males, six females participated in our experiments. Our results suggested that the pronation and supination function in children with ADHD has a tendency to lag behind that of typically developing children by several years. From these results, our system has a possibility to objectively evaluate the neurodevelopmental delay of children with ADHD.

  13. Normal and abnormal torsional development in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabry, G; Cheng, L X; Molenaers, G

    1994-05-01

    This study presents findings in a series of 123 children with intoeing gait. The intoeing was caused by increased femoral anteversion (IFA) in 70% of the cases, and internal tibial torsion (ITT) in 30%. Rotation of the hips, thigh-foot angle, Q-angle, and computed tomography measured anteversion and tibial torsion divided the two groups very clearly. In the IFA group, 40.3% of the patients presented with an externally rotated tibia and 59.7% had an internally rotated tibia. In the ITT group, the anteversion was normal for age and the tibial torsion was significantly decreased. Eighty children who corrected their intoeing gait, and of whom 83.4% had IFA, were also reviewed: a decrease in anteversion was observed in 20.5% of the patients; 62.9% showed no decrease in anteversion.

  14. Idiopathic detrusor sphincter dyssynergia in neurologically normal patients with voiding abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, T M; Djurhuus, J C; Schrøder, H D

    1982-01-01

    Symptomatology and clinical manifestations of detrusor sphincter dyssynergia are described in 23 patients without neurological disease. Their cardinal symptoms were recurrent cystitis, enuresis, frequent voiding, back pain during voiding and anal discomfort. The major objective finding...... was vesicoureteral reflux in 11 cases with kidney scarring in 10. Bladder trabeculation was found in 13 patients, bladder hyperreflexia in 8, and significant residual urine in 16 patients. The etiology of detrusor sphincter dyssynergia in non-neurological patients is discussed. By means of exclusion it is most...

  15. Behavioral and neurological effects of symptomatic and asymptomatic lead exposure in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rummo, J.H.; Routh, D.K.; Rummo, N.J.; Brown, J.F.

    1979-03-01

    Forty-five children 4 to 8 y of age who had been exposed to environmental lead were studied, consisting of an acute encephalopathy group and groups with short- and long-term exposure but without encephalopathy. Control children were matched for age, sex, race, and socioeconomic status with lead-exposed subjects, but lived in post-1945 housing and had negative neurological history and blood tests. The encephalopathy group had a significantly higher incidence of neurological deficits, retarded mental development, and higher hyperactivity than control subjects. Children with short- and long-term exposure short of encephalopathy were somewhat inferior to matched control subjects, but not to a statistically significant extent.

  16. Neurological outcome in school-age children after in utero exposure to coumarins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseling, J; Van Driel, D; Smrkovsky, M; Van der Veer, E; Geven-Boere, LM; Sauer, PJJ; Touwen, BCL

    The effect of prenatal exposure to coumarins (acenocoumarol, phenprocoumon) on neurological outcome was assessed in a cohort of 306 children aged 7-15 years. Findings were compared with those in a non-exposed cohort of 267 children, matched for sex, age, and demographic region. We used a

  17. Kidney Length in Normal Korean Children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In One; Cheon, Jung Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Seok [Dankook University College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sun Wha [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ok Hwa [Ajou University College of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hye [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hong Dae [Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hanllym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sim, Jung Suk [Mothers Clinic, Bundang, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    Renal length offers important information to detect or follow-up various renal diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the kidney length of normal Korean children in relation to age, height, weight, body surface area (BSA), and body mass index (BMI). Children between 1 month and 15 years of age without urological abnormality were recruited. Children below 3rd percentile and over 97th percentile for height or weight were excluded. Both renal lengths were measured in the prone position three times and then averaged by experienced radiologists. The mean length and standard deviation for each age group was obtained, and regression equation was calculated between renal length and age, weight, height, BSA, and BMI, respectively. Renal length was measured in 550 children. Renal length grows rapidly until 24 month, while the growth rate is reduced thereafter. The regression equation for age is: renal length (mm) = 45.953 + 1.064 x age (month, {<=} 24 months) (R2 = 0.720) or 62.173 + 0.203 x age (months, > 24 months) (R2 = 0.711). The regression equation for height is: renal length (mm) = 24.494 + 0.457 x height (cm) (R2 = 0.894). The regression equation for weight is: renal length (mm) = 38.342 + 2.117 x weight (kg, {<=}18 kg) (R2 = 0.852) or 64.498 + 0.646 x weight (kg, > 18 kg) (R2 = 0.651). The regression equation for BSA is: renal length (mm) = 31.622 + 61.363 x BSA (m2, {<=} 0.7) (R2 = 0.857) or 52.717 + 29.959 x BSA (m2, > 0.7) (R2 = 0.715). The regression equation for BMI is: renal length (mm) = 44.474 + 1.163 x BMI (R2 = 0.079). This study provides data on the normal renal length and its association with age, weight, height, BSA and BMI. The results of this study will guide the detection and follow-up of renal diseases in Korean children

  18. Preschool performance of children with normal intelligence who were very low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, N; Hack, M; Gallagher, J; Fanaroff, A A

    1985-03-01

    Children who were very low-birth-weight infants (less than 1,500 g), beneficiaries of modern neonatal intensive care, are now of school age. To evaluate their school performance 80 children born in 1976 who had very low-birth-weight (mean birth weight 1.2 kg, mean gestational age 30 weeks) were examined at age 5 years. Sixty-five children were neurologically intact and had normal IQ (greater than or equal to 85) on the Stanford-Binet; five children were neurologically abnormal and ten had IQ below 85. Of the 65 children with normal intelligence and no neurologic impairments, 46 were single births and enrolled in preschool. These 46 children were matched by race, sex, and family background with classmate control children who had been born at full term. Outcome measurements included the Slosson Intelligence Test, the Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery (including subscales of Picture Vocabulary, Spatial Relations, Memory for Sentences, Visual Auditory Learning, Quantitative Concepts, and Blending) and the Beery Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration. No significant differences in IQ were found between children who were very low-birth-weight infants and control children; however, children who were very low-birth-weight infants performed significantly less well on the Spatial Relations subtest of the Woodcock-Johnson and on the Visual-Motor Integration test. Similar results were found for nine sets of twins and their control children. Recognition of these perceptual and visual-motor problems may permit appropriate early remedial intervention and prevent the compounding of these difficulties.

  19. Neurological Effects of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Children

    OpenAIRE

    YARAR, Coskun

    2009-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning (COP) is one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity due to poisoning in all over the world. Although the incidence of COP has not been known exactly in the childhood, almost one-third of CO exposures occurred in children. The data regarding COP in children are inconclusive. Children may be more vulnerable to CO exposure than adults as a result of their high respiration and metabolic rates, high oxygen metabolism, and immature central nervous system. Rec...

  20. Metabolic Cost, Mechanical Work, and Efficiency during Normal Walking in Obese and Normal-Weight Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liang; Chen, Peijie; Zhuang, Jie; Zhang, Yanxin; Walt, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the influence of childhood obesity on energetic cost during normal walking and to determine if obese children choose a walking strategy optimizing their gait pattern. Method: Sixteen obese children with no functional abnormalities were matched by age and gender with 16 normal-weight children. All…

  1. Pattern of neurological diseases as seen in outpatient children: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discussion and Conclusion: Epilepsy is a common disease in children. The prevailing enigma that epilepsy is rare in children is an unfounded myth making it imperative for appropriate index of clinical suspicion whenever a paediatric patient presents with unusual clinical pattern. The increased number of epileptic cases at ...

  2. THE NEUROLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF HEARING AND SPEECH IN CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TAYLOR, IAN G.

    A 5-YEAR LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF 78 CHILDREN (MINIMUM AGE 11 MONTHS) WHO WERE REFERRED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF DEAF EDUCATION AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MANCHESTER, ENGLAND, IS DESCRIBED. THE CHILDREN ALL PRESENTED PROBLEMS RELATED TO SOUND OR LINGUISTICS DEVELOPMENT OR BOTH. AFTER A DESCRIPTION OF THE PHYSIOLOGY OF HEARING AND THE PATHOLOGY OF DEAFNESS, THE…

  3. Brain magnetic resonance imaging pattern and outcome in children with haemolytic-uraemic syndrome and neurological impairment treated with eculizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitiaux, Cyril; Krug, Pauline; Grevent, David; Kossorotoff, Manoelle; Poncet, Sarah; Eisermann, Monika; Oualha, Mehdi; Boddaert, Nathalie; Salomon, Remi; Desguerre, Isabelle

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and the neurological and neuropsychological outcomes in paediatric, diarrhoea-associated haemolytic-uraemic syndrome (D+HUS) with central nervous system impairment treated with eculizumab, a monoclonal antibody. The 14-month single-centre prospective study included seven children (three males, four females; age range 16 mo-7 y 8 mo; median age 3 y 7 mo) with typical D+HUS and acute neurological impairment. In the acute phase of the disease, neurological assessment and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including measurement of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), were performed, and neuropsychological evaluation and brain MRI were also carried out 6 months after disease onset. In the acute phase, basal ganglia and white matter abnormalities with ADC restriction were a common and reversible MRI finding. In all the surviving patients (5/7), follow-up MRI after 6 months was normal, indicating reversible lesions. Clinical and neuropsychological evaluations after 6 months were also normal. This specific brain MRI pattern consisting of an ADC decrease in basal ganglia and white matter without major T2/fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) injury may be a key finding in the acute phase of the disease in favour of a vasculitis hypothesis. These reversible lesions were associated with a good neurological outcome. These results call for further evaluation of the potential role of eculizumab in the choice of treatment for severe D+HUS, particularly in the case of early neurological signs. © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  4. Use of Specialized Formulas in the Enteral Nutrition of Children with Severe Neurological Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.S. Koreniuk

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The problems of nutrition of disabled children with neurological diseases — cerebral palsy and congenital anomalies of the brain were examined in the article. The features and difficulties of feeding of these patients were identified. The experience in the use of nutritive formula of full hydrolysate in the enteral feeding of the children with secondary dystrophy against the background of severe neurological pathology is presented. The efficiency of this feeding technique, a positive dynamics of nutritional status of patients were shown.

  5. Children with behavioral problems and motor problems have a worse neurological condition than children with behavioral problems only

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Lieke H. J.; Maathuis, Carel G. B.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2014-01-01

    Background: Some evidence suggests that children with specific behavioral problems are at risk for motor problems. It is unclear whether neurological condition plays a role in the propensity of children with behavioral problems to develop Motor problems. Aims: To examine the relation between

  6. Neurological and neurocognitive function of HIV-infected children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and in older children cryptococcal meningitis.10-14 HIV-infected patients are at risk for thromboembolic strokes caused by disturbances in blood coagulation via antiphospholipid antibodies or reduced protein S concentration, and ischaemic strokes due to infections, coagulopathies or HIV-associated vasculopathy.15 ...

  7. Neurological, Metabolic, and Psychiatric Adverse Events in Children and Adolescents Treated With Aripiprazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Klaus Damgaard; Bruhn, Christina Hedegaard; Pagsberg, Anne-Katrine

    2016-01-01

    Aripiprazole is a partial dopamine agonist with only minor neurological and psychiatric adverse effects, making it a potential first-line drug for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. However, the evidence of its use in children and adolescents is rather sparse. The aim of this case study...... is to discuss adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports concerning aripiprazole-associated neurological and psychiatric events in children and adolescents. The ADR report database at Danish Medicines Agency was searched for all ADRs involving children and adolescents (... insomnia, Parkinsonism, behavioral changes psychoses, and weight gain, whereas the adverse effects in the PS group was predominantly anxiety, convulsions, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Although aripiprazole is considered safe and well tolerated in children and adolescents, severe adverse events...

  8. Visual behaviours of neurologically impaired children with cerebral visual impairment: an ethological study

    OpenAIRE

    Porro, G.L.; Dekker, E.M.; van Nieuwenhuizen, O; Schilder, M.B.H.; Wittebol - Post, D.; Schenk-Rootlieb, A.J.F; Treffers, W.F.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Visual functions of neurologically impaired children with permanent cerebral visual impairment (CVI) can be difficult to determine. This study investigated the behavioural profile of CVI children by means of ethological observations in order to gain a better understanding of their visual functions.
METHODS—Video registrations of nine subjects who were unable to undergo more orthodox methods of visual function testing were observed and analysed by an ethologist.
RESULTS—A serie...

  9. Severe neurological sequelae and behaviour problems after cerebral malaria in Ugandan children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugumisirize Joshua

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebral malaria is the most severe neurological complication of falciparum malaria and a leading cause of death and neuro-disability in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to describe functional deficits and behaviour problems in children who survived cerebral malaria with severe neurological sequelae and identify patterns of brain injury. Findings Records of children attending a specialist child neurology clinic in Uganda with severe neurological sequelae following cerebral malaria between January 2007 and December 2008 were examined to describe deficits in gross motor function, speech, vision and hearing, behaviour problems or epilepsy. Deficits were classified according to the time of development and whether their distribution suggested a focal or generalized injury. Any resolution during the observation period was also documented. Thirty children with probable exposure to cerebral malaria attended the clinic. Referral information was inadequate to exclude other diagnoses in 7 children and these were excluded. In the remaining 23 patients, the commonest severe deficits were spastic motor weakness (14, loss of speech (14, hearing deficit (9, behaviour problems (11, epilepsy (12, blindness (12 and severe cognitive impairment (9. Behaviour problems included hyperactivity, impulsiveness and inattentiveness as in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and conduct disorders with aggressive, self injurious or destructive behaviour. Two patterns were observed; a immediate onset deficits present on discharge and b late onset deficits. Some deficits e.g. blindness, resolved within 6 months while others e.g. speech, showed little improvement over the 6-months follow-up. Conclusions In addition to previously described neurological and cognitive sequelae, severe behaviour problems may follow cerebral malaria in children. The observed differences in patterns of sequelae may be due to different pathogenic mechanisms, brain

  10. Clinimetric properties of lower limb neurological impairment tests for children and young people with a neurological condition: A systematic review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramona Clark; Melissa Locke; Bridget Hill; Cherie Wells; Andrea Bialocerkowski

    2017-01-01

    .... Objective To determine the clinimetric evidence underpinning neurological impairment tests currently used in paediatric rehabilitation to evaluate muscle strength, tactile sensitivity, and deep...

  11. Normalizing: Children's Activity To Construct Meanings for Trend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainley, Janet; Pratt, Dave; Nardi, Elena

    2001-01-01

    Looks back over a number of exploratory studies that have researched young children's construction of meaning for graphs produced from data entered into spreadsheets. Discusses children's use of normalizing, an activity in which children 'correct' data towards some perceived norm. (Author/MM)

  12. Performance on the Test of Memory Malingering in children with neurological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetz, Danielle M; Mazur-Mosiewicz, Anya; Kirkwood, Michael W; Sherman, Elisabeth M S; Brooks, Brian L

    2016-01-01

    Despite increasing interest in the use of performance validity tests with youth, relatively little is known about how children and adolescents with neurological diagnoses perform on these measures. The purpose of this study was to examine performance on the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) in a general pediatric neurologic sample. Data were obtained from 266 consecutive patients (mean age = 13.0, SD = 3.7, range = 5-18) referred for a neuropsychological assessment in a tertiary care pediatric hospital. As part of a broader neuropsychological battery, patients were administered the TOMM. In this sample, 94% of children passed the TOMM. Pass rate was 87% for 5-7 year-olds but was ≥ 90% for all other ages. Children with a history of stroke had the lowest pass rate (86%), with other diagnostic groups scoring ≥ 90%, including epilepsy, traumatic brain injury, and hydrocephalus. Lower TOMM performance was related to slower processing speed and weaker memory performance. The results support using the TOMM with children and adolescents who have neurological diagnoses. Caution may still be warranted when interpreting scores in those who are younger and/or who have more significant cognitive difficulty.

  13. Candidate's Thesis: Laryngotracheal separation in neurologically impaired children: long-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Steven P

    2009-02-01

    Fifty-six consecutive neurologically impaired pediatric children underwent laryngotracheal separation (LTS) for acute recurrent and chronic aspiration in the last 18 years. The population demographics, indications for surgery, and comorbidities are reviewed. This study reports early and late complications and survivorship including admissions for pneumonia/aspiration. Diagnosis related group (DRGs) and work relative value units (wRVUs) were measured to document the potential benefits before and after LTS. Retrospective review of patient charts and records in an electronic medical record during an 18 year period. Information was obtained by a chart review and utilization of the electronic medical record. Patient specific DRG and wRVU data on their hospitalizations and outpatient encounters at the Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children of the Nemours Foundation and survival data were recorded. Data was analyzed using chi-square analysis, a two-tailed t test, and a Fisher's Exact test. Laryngotracheal separation achieved complete control of aspiration in all the children. A significant reduction in the number of hospital admissions for pneumonias after surgery was noted. After LTS there was a reduced average number of DRGs per month (p < .001) as well as wRVUs. Transient fistula formation (11%) was the most common complication. No patient had his or her procedure reversed to date. Laryngotracheal separation is 100% effective in controlling aspiration in all of neurologically impaired children in this study, It is a valuable procedure to prolong the life of children who have intractable aspiration. After LTS, a decrease in DRGs and wRVUs reduces health care costs for these patients. Prior to LTS, all medical and surgical treatment options for aspiration should be discussed and considered, based on the extent of the child's underlying neurologic status, ability to verbally communicate, degree of upper airway obstruction, and hope of recovery of neurologic function.

  14. Prevalence of lateral ventricle asymmetry in brain MRI studies of neurologically normal dogs and dogs with idiopathic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivetta, Mauro; De Risio, Luisa; Newton, Richard; Dennis, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetry of the cerebral lateral ventricles is a common finding in cross-sectional imaging of otherwise normal canine brains and has been assumed to be incidental. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare the prevalence of ventricular asymmetry in brain MRI studies of normal dogs and dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. Brain MRI archives were searched for 100 neurologically normal dogs (Group 1) and 100 dogs with idiopathic epilepsy (Group 2). For each dog, asymmetry of the lateral ventricles was subjectively classified as absent, mild, moderate, and severe based on a consensus of two observers who were unaware of group status. Ventricular areas were measured from transverse T1W images at the level of the interthalamic adhesion. An asymmetry ratio was calculated as the ratio of the larger to smaller ventricular transverse area. There was excellent agreement between subjective assessments of ventricular asymmetry and quantitative assessments using asymmetry ratios (k = 0.995). The prevalence of asymmetry was 38% in Group 1 dogs and 44% in Group 2 dogs. Assymmetry was scored as mild in the majority of Group 2 dogs. There was no significant association between presence/absence and degree of ventricular asymmetry vs. dog group, age, gender, or skull conformation. Findings from the current study supported previously published assumptions that asymmetry of the lateral cerebral ventricles is an incidental finding in MRI studies of the canine brain. © 2013 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  15. Severe influenza among children and young adults with neurologic and neurodevelopmental conditions - Ohio, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    Children with neurologic and neurodevelopmental conditions are at increased risk for severe outcomes from influenza, including death. In April 2011, the Ohio Department of Health and CDC investigated an influenza outbreak that began in February 2011 in a residential facility for 130 children and young adults with neurologic and neurodevelopmental conditions. This report summarizes the characteristics and clinical courses of 13 severely ill residents with suspected or confirmed influenza; 10 were hospitalized, and seven died. Diagnosis is challenging in this population, and clinicians should consider influenza in patients with neurologic and neurodevelopmental conditions who have respiratory illness or a decline in baseline medical status when influenza is circulating in the community. Prompt testing, early and aggressive antiviral treatment, and antiviral chemoprophylaxis are important for these patients. When influenza is suspected, antiviral treatment should be given as soon as possible after symptom onset, ideally within 48 hours. Treatment should not wait for laboratory confirmation of influenza. During outbreaks, antiviral chemoprophylaxis should be provided to all residents of institutional facilities (e.g., nursing homes and long-term- care facilities), regardless of vaccination status. Residential facilities for patients with neurologic and neurodevelopmental conditions are encouraged to vaccinate all eligible residents and staff members against influenza.

  16. Minor neurological dysfunction and behaviour in 9-year-old children born at term : evidence for sex dimorphism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikkert, Hedwig K.; de Jong, Corina; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2013-01-01

    Aim The aim of the study was to assess associations between minor neurological dysfunction (MND) and behaviour, with specific attention to sex differences. MethodThis was an observational cohort study in which 341 9-year-old children (177 male, 164 female) without perinatal risk were neurologically

  17. Prenatal DHA Status and Neurological Outcome in Children at Age 5.5 Years Are Positively Associated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Victoria Escolano-Margarit, M.; Ramos, Rosa; Beyer, Jeannette; Csabi, Gyoergyi; Parrilla-Roure, Montserrat; Cruz, Francisco; Perez-Garcia, Miguel; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Gil, Angel; Decsi, Tamas; Koletzko, Berthold V.; Campoy, Cristina

    Beneficial effects of perinatal DHA supply on later neurological development have been reported. We assessed the effects of maternal DHA supplementation on the neurological development of their children. Healthy pregnant women from Spain, Germany, and Hungary were randomly assigned to a dietary

  18. Clinical Features and Neurologic Complications of Children Hospitalized With Chikungunya Virus in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samra, José A; Hagood, Nancy L; Summer, Andrea; Medina, Marco T; Holden, Kenton R

    2017-07-01

    The first case of Chikungunya virus in Honduras was identified in 2014. The virus has spread widely across Honduras via the Aedes aegypti mosquito, leading to an outbreak of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in 2015 that significantly impacted children. A retrospective chart review of 235 children diagnosed with CHIKV and admitted to the National Autonomous University of Honduras Hospital Escuela (Hospital Escuela) in Tegucigalpa, Honduras, was accomplished with patients who were assessed for clinical features and neurologic complications. Of 235 children admitted to Hospital Escuela with CHIKV, the majority had symptoms of fever, generalized erythematous rash, and irritability. Fourteen percent had clinical arthritis. Ten percent of patients had seizures. Six percent had meningoencephalitis. There were 2 childhood deaths during the course of this study, one from meningoencephalitis and another from myocarditis. Chikungunya virus can cause severe complications in children, the majority of which impact the central nervous system.

  19. Perimetry in young and neurologically impaired children: the Behavioral Visual Field (BEFIE) Screening Test revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenraads, Yvonne; Braun, Kees P J; van der Linden, Denise C P; Imhof, Saskia M; Porro, Giorgio L

    2015-03-01

    Visual field examination in young or neurologically impaired children is a challenge. As a result, the Behavioral Visual Field (BEFIE) Screening Test was developed in 1995. To evaluate the applicability of the BEFIE test in a large population of young or neurologically impaired children, its reliability and consistency of findings across time, and its potential diagnostic value compared with standard conventional perimetry. The BEFIE tests were performed at an academic tertiary center and measured the peripheral visual field extension in degrees by observing an individual's response to a stimulus on a graded arc that moved from the periphery to the center of the visual field along different meridians. Patient files from all children who underwent this test were retrospectively analyzed. In total, 1788 BEFIE tests were performed in 835 children (median age, 3.4 years). Reliability and results of all tests were longitudinally evaluated. The diagnostic value of the BEFIE test was assessed by comparing monocular BEFIE test results with those of standard conventional perimetry in children who underwent both. Of 1788 tests, 74% (95% CI, 72%-76%) were considered reliable from the age of 4 months and older, with increasing success with higher ages; 56% reliable in children younger than 1 year; 71% reliable in children between 1 and 2 years; and more than 75% reliable in children 2 years and older (Spearman r = 0.506; P = .11). Peripheral visual field defects were found in 28% (95% CI, 25%-31%) of all first reliable tests. In 75% of children who underwent serial testing, results were consistent and there were good explanations in the case of discrepancies. Comparison of monocular BEFIE tests with standard conventional perimetry results in 147 eyes yielded a positive predictive value of 98% (95% CI, 94%-100%), negative predictive value of 66% (95% CI, 56%-75%), specificity of 98% (95% CI, 95%-100%), sensitivity of 60% (95% CI, 50%-71%), and superior sensitivity of 80

  20. Malaria with neurological involvement in Ugandan children: effect on cognitive ability, academic achievement and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangirana, Paul; Musisi, Seggane; Boivin, Michael J; Ehnvall, Anna; John, Chandy C; Bergemann, Tracy L; Allebeck, Peter

    2011-11-03

    Malaria is a leading cause of ill health and neuro-disability in children in sub-Saharan Africa. Impaired cognition is a common outcome of malaria with neurological involvement. There is also a possibility that academic achievement may be affected by malaria with neurological involvement given the association between cognitive ability and academic achievement. This study investigated the effect of malaria with neurological involvement on cognitive ability, behaviour and academic achievement. This prospective case-control study was carried out in Kampala City, Uganda between February 2008 and October 2010. Sixty-two children with a history of malaria with neurological involvement were followed up and given assessments for cognitive ability (working memory, reasoning, learning, visual spatial skills and attention), behaviour (internalizing and externalizing problems) and academic achievement (arithmetic, spelling and reading) three months after the illness. Sixty-one community controls recruited from the homes or neighbouring families of the cases were also given the same assessments. Tests scores of the two groups were compared using analysis of covariance with age, sex, level of education, nutritional status and quality of the home environment as covariates. This study was approved by the relevant ethical bodies and informed consent sought from the caregivers. Children in the malaria group had more behavioural problems than the community controls for internalizing problems (estimated mean difference = -3.71, 95% confidence interval (CI), = -6.34 to -1.08, p = 0.007). There was marginal evidence of lower attention scores (0.40, CI = -0.05 to 0.86, p = 0.09). However, excluding one child from the analyses who was unable to perform the tests affected the attention scores to borderline significance (0.32, CI, = 0.01 to 0.62, p = 0.05). No significant differences were observed in other cognitive abilities or in academic achievement scores. Malaria with neurological

  1. Malaria with neurological involvement in Ugandan children: effect on cognitive ability, academic achievement and behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangirana Paul

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a leading cause of ill health and neuro-disability in children in sub-Saharan Africa. Impaired cognition is a common outcome of malaria with neurological involvement. There is also a possibility that academic achievement may be affected by malaria with neurological involvement given the association between cognitive ability and academic achievement. This study investigated the effect of malaria with neurological involvement on cognitive ability, behaviour and academic achievement. Methods This prospective case-control study was carried out in Kampala City, Uganda between February 2008 and October 2010. Sixty-two children with a history of malaria with neurological involvement were followed up and given assessments for cognitive ability (working memory, reasoning, learning, visual spatial skills and attention, behaviour (internalizing and externalizing problems and academic achievement (arithmetic, spelling and reading three months after the illness. Sixty-one community controls recruited from the homes or neighbouring families of the cases were also given the same assessments. Tests scores of the two groups were compared using analysis of covariance with age, sex, level of education, nutritional status and quality of the home environment as covariates. This study was approved by the relevant ethical bodies and informed consent sought from the caregivers. Results Children in the malaria group had more behavioural problems than the community controls for internalizing problems (estimated mean difference = -3.71, 95% confidence interval (CI, = -6.34 to -1.08, p = 0.007. There was marginal evidence of lower attention scores (0.40, CI = -0.05 to 0.86, p = 0.09. However, excluding one child from the analyses who was unable to perform the tests affected the attention scores to borderline significance (0.32, CI, = 0.01 to 0.62, p = 0.05. No significant differences were observed in other cognitive abilities or in academic

  2. Sexual behavior in children: normal or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornor, Gail

    2004-01-01

    Sexual abuse is a problem of epidemic proportions in the United States. Given the scope of the problem of sexual abuse and the amount of media attention it receives, it is not unusual for parents or caretakers who witness a child exhibiting sexual behavior to become alarmed. Primary care providers, including pediatric nurse practitioners, may be the first professional parents contact with concerns regarding a child's sexual behavior. It is imperative that primary care providers understand childhood sexuality and respond appropriately when confronted with child sexual behaviors in their practice. Although the literature includes little research on the subject of normal child sexual development, certain guidelines have been identified to describe normal child sexual behaviors and those of concern. Case studies illustrate the response of two primary care providers when they are confronted with sexual behaviors in their patients. Implications for practice are discussed, with examples and guidelines provided for primary care providers to use when evaluating sexual behavior in their pediatric patients.

  3. Perception of attachment security in families with children affected by neurological illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langher Viviana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes inter-family relationships of families with children with neurological problems using Bowlby’s attachment theory as model of reference. The research was conducted in two hospitals in Serbia specialized in neurological diseases: cerebral palsy and epilepsy. It is hypothesized that neurological problems could be associated to a discrepancy of inter-family attachment perceptions. Two groups were selected, a clinical one composed of 25 nuclear families: mother, father and child with a certified diagnosis of either cerebral palsy or epilepsy; and a control group of 25 nuclear families: mother, father and child with no pathology. Kerns, Klepac and Cole’s Security Scale (1996 was used for the investigation, with the addition of two modified version for administration to the parents. Data analysis demonstrated that the clinical group is substantively higher (p=.076 with respect to the discrepancy of attachment perceived by the children and the attribution of meaning that parents give to their child’s attachment perception towards them. Further analyses carried out on parent-child relationships demonstrated a significant difference (p =.017 between the clinical and control groups, with respect to the perception of father-child attachment. We conclude that in the clinical group, there is a discrepancy of attachment perceptions that particularly affects the father-child relationship. It appears that hospitalization and the consequent separation of the nuclear families may influence the formation of secure attachment relationships, in particular between father and child.

  4. Update on the key developments of the neurologic complications in children infected with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmshurst, Jo M; Donald, Kirsten A; Eley, Brian

    2014-11-01

    To discuss recent research findings of neurologic complications in HIV-infected children, specifically addressing neuroinfections, cerebrovascular disease, epilepsy and neurocognitive complications. The range of neurologic childhood onset complications is diverse and often overlaps diseases previously considered only to manifest in adults. In the pediatric population, these complications frequently have their own unique disease identity, which may be related to maturational patterns evident in the developing brain. Developments regarding the pathogenesis of neuroAIDS, treatment of tuberculous meningitis and prevention of bacterial meningitis are described. With the advent of neuroimaging, there is greater insight into silent cerebrovascular events and the progression of vasculopathy in HIV-infected children. The role of surgical intervention for affected cases is a novel area that could alter the otherwise poor prognosis. Epilepsy, although common as a burden of disease, carries its own additional complications with regard to cross reactivity with various antiretroviral therapies. Increased risk of low bone mineral density supports a role for supplementation with vitamin D in people receiving antiretroviral therapy and antiepileptic drugs. Recognition of the early neurobiological, as well as spectrum of neurocognitive effects of the HIV on the developing brain, is evolving, as greater numbers of children are treated early. Developments in these critical areas are described. Recent research reflects the need for improved strategies to prevent neuroinfections, more effective screening and interventions for vasculopathy and better antiepileptic drugs for HIV-infected children. Furthermore, our understanding of the timing and spectrum of neurocognitive complications is evolving.

  5. Near-normal values of extravascular lung water in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nusmeier, A.; Cecchetti, C.; Blohm, M.; Lehman, R.; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Lemson, J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To define near-normal values of extravascular lung water indexed to body weight in children. DESIGN: Prospective multicenter observational study. SETTING: Medical/surgical PICUs of 5 multinational hospitals. PATIENTS: Fifty-eight children with a median age of 4 years (range 1 month to 17

  6. Vegetative status characteristics in children with neurological pathology on the background of undifferentiated connective tissue dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyazka O.V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Disorders of the autonomic nervous system are the most common pathological conditions detected in 20% - 85% of children and adolescents according to different authors' data. Assessment of the vegetative status in the period of intensive growth and differentiation of organs and tissues that is characteristic of childhood is of great practical importance. Identification of vegetative dysregulation is an important diagnostic measure in children's health status evaluation especially in patients with undifferentiated connective tissue dysplasia (UNDCT taking into account its genetic determinism and debut in childhood. Genetically determined biochemical disorders in the connective tissue followed by formation of characteristic pathological substrates cause dysregulation of sympathoadrenal system and correlate with UNDCT severity degree. Material and methods. There were 100 children aged from 5 to 16 years engaged in the investigation. All of them were treated in the neurological department of the City clinical hospital №4. All patients were divided into two groups: basic group, which included 50 children with neurological disorders and UNDC, and control one, which consisted of 50 children with neurological disorders without UNDCT. The survey included obstetric history analysis, anthropometry to determine the ratio of longitudinal and transverse dimensions (the index of Vervica; clinical and neurological examination (study of reflex&motor areas, sensory function, coordination; laboratory methods (clinical blood count and biochemical blood tests to determine the level of potassium and calcium ions, instrumental methods (electroencephalography, rheoencephalography, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. Osokina's table was used for baseline autonomic tone assessment. The evaluation was conducted by counting the number of signs. Subsequently was performed the summation of the scores with the determination of the percentage of predominant

  7. Neurological profile and neurodevelopment of 88 children infected with HIV and 84 seroreverter children followed from 1995 to 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Tannous Tahan

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the degree of neurological compromise in HIV-infected children accompanied by the outpatient clinic of infectious diseases and pediatric neurology of the Clinical Hospital of the Federal University of Paraná (UFPR starting in 1995. Long-term progressive prospective and cross sectional study of 88 children infected by HIV and 84 seroreverter children, using data from general neurological examinations, neuroimaging procedures (brain CT scan and neurodevelopmental tests (CAT/CLAMS and DENVER I and II. Neurological and neurodevelopmental alterations were found in 82% of the HIV-infected patients and in 36% of the HIV-seroreverter group (P <0.01. In the CAT/CLAMS test, the development quotient (DQ of the HIV-infected group was significantly lower than that of the HIV-seroreverter group. CAT/CLAMS scores lower than 70 (mental deficiency were found in 31% of the HIV-infected patients during the first year of life and in only 1% of the patients of the HIV-seroreverter group, demonstrating the validity of this screening test for precocious detection of alterations in the neurodevelopment of infected patients. The same occurred with the Denver I and II tests, as the HIV-infected group failed more frequently than the HIV-seroreverter group. Nine HIV-infected children presented altered brain CT scans; calcification of basal ganglia was the main finding (five cases. Encephalopathy due to HIV causes early arrest of neurodevelopment, which can be detected with screening tests during the first year of life.

  8. [Adaptation and validation of the neurological soft sign's scale of Krebs et al. to children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halayem, S; Hammami, M; Fakhfakh, R; Gaddour, N; Tabbane, K; Amado, I; Krebs, M-O; Bouden, A

    2017-04-01

    Neurological soft signs (NSS) include anomalies in motor integration, coordination, sensory integration and lateralization and could be endophenotypic markers in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Their characterization provides a more precise phenotype of ASD and more homogeneous subtypes to facilitate clinical and genetic research. Few scales for NSS have been adapted and validated in children including children with ASD. Our objective was to perform an adaptation to the child of a scale assessing neurological soft signs and a validation study in both general and clinical populations. We have selected the NSS scale of Krebs et al. (2000) already validated in adults. It encompasses 5 dimensions: motor coordination, motor integration, sensory integration, involuntary movement, laterality. After a preliminary study that examined 42 children, several changes have been made to the original version to adapt it to the child and to increase its feasibility, particularly in children with ASD. Then we conducted a validation study by assessing the psychometric properties of this scale in a population of 86 children including 26 children with ASD (DSM 5 Criteria) and 60 typically developing children. Children's ages ranged between 6 and 12 years, and patients and controls were matched for gender, age and intelligence. Patients were assessed using the Autism diagnostic Interview-revised and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale to confirm diagnosis. Typically developing children were assessed using the semi-structured Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents to eliminate any psychiatric disorder. All children with neurological pathologies (history of cerebral palsy, congenital anomaly of the central nervous system, epilepsy, tuberous sclerosis, neurofibromatosis, antecedent of severe head trauma) and obvious physical deformities or sensory deficits that could interfere with neurological assessment were excluded from the study. Both patients

  9. Marital Satisfaction amongst Parents of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Normal Children

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Farokhzadi, Farideh; Alipour, Ahmad; Rostami, Reza; Dehestani, Mehdi; Salmanian, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare marital satisfactionbetween parents of children with attention deficit hyper activity disorder (ADHD) and parents of normal children.Methods: In this study we have selected 400 parents (200 parents of children with ADHD and 200 parents of normal children), whose children age range was 6-18 years. Data were collected using Enrich marital satisfaction Questionnaire, Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia Present and Lifetime Ver...

  10. Neurological assessment of 38 late-diagnosed children with classic phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeliha Haytoglu

    2016-03-01

    Material and Methods: Thirty-eight late-diagnosed classic phenylketonuria patients were enrolled in the study. Plasma phenylalanine levels were measured by spectrofluorometric method. MRI was evaluated by a pediatric neuroradiologist. Ankara developmental screening inventory (ADSI and Wechsler intelligence scale for Turkish children (WISC-R test were performed to detect IQ scores. Porteus Mazo test adapted for Turkish children intelligence test were performed to all children. The EEG of all patients were recorded. VEP was used to measure the electrical activity in the brain to visual stimulus. Results: The high plasma phenylalanine levels and late-diagnosis were associated with low IQ scores, pathological EEG, and pathological VEP patterns. High PA levels were also associated with more serious white matter signal abnormalities. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated the impact of early diagnosis and low levels of phenylalanine at diagnosis on the intellectual, neurological development and visual outcomes. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(1.000: 21-27

  11. Findings at brain MRI in children with dengue fever and neurological symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastogi, Ruchi; Garg, Bhavya [Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, Department of Radiodiagnosis, New Delhi (India)

    2016-01-15

    Dengue is a flavivirus of the genus arbovirus with four serotypes, from DEN 1 to DEN 4. There has been an increase in incidence of dengue infection in children in the tropics and subtropics. Dengue has a variable clinical presentation, with many patients being asymptomatic. Its clinical manifestations in children vary from fever and arthralgia to life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. We describe MRI findings in children with neurological involvement including dengue encephalopathy, acute hypoxic injury and dengue encephalitis. Dengue encephalopathy is usually secondary to multisystem derangement such as shock, hepatitis, coagulopathy and concurrent bacterial infection and is relatively common. Dengue encephalitis from direct neuronal invasion is rare. Nonspecific changes are seen on brain MRI in dengue infection. Clinical and laboratory findings as well as outcome do not necessarily correspond with brain MRI findings. (orig.)

  12. Postural balance under normal and altered sensory conditions in normal-weight and overweight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hondt, Eva; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Gentier, Ilse; Tanghe, Ann; Shultz, Sarah; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2011-01-01

    little or no research has been done in the overweight child on the relative contribution of multisensory information to maintain postural stability. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate postural balance control under normal and experimentally altered sensory conditions in normal-weight versus overweight children. sixty children were stratified into a younger (7-9yr) and an older age group (10-12yr). Participants were also classified as normal-weight (n=22) or overweight (n=38), according to the international BMI cut-off points for children. Postural stability was assessed during quiet bilateral stance in four sensory conditions (eyes open or closed, normal or reduced plantar sensation), using a Kistler force plate to quantify COP dynamics. Coefficients of variation were calculated as well to describe intra-individual variability. removal of vision resulted in systematically higher amounts of postural sway, but no significant BMI group differences were demonstrated across sensory conditions. However, under normal conditions lower plantar cutaneous sensation was associated with higher COP velocities and maximal excursion of the COP in the medial-lateral direction for the overweight group. Regardless of condition, higher variability was shown in the overweight children within the 7-9yr old subgroup for postural sway velocity, and more specifically medial-lateral velocity. in spite of these subtle differences, results did not establish any clear underlying sensory organization impairments that may affect standing balance performance in overweight children compared to normal-weight peers. Consequently, it is believed that other factors account for overweight children's functional balance deficiencies. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Intestinal helminthiasis in children with chronic neurological disorders in Benin City, Nigeria: intensity and behavioral risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaneri, Damia Uchechukwu; Ibadin, Michael Okoeguale; Ofovwe, Gabriel Egberue; Sadoh, Ayebo Evawere

    2013-05-01

    Behavioral aberrations such as nail biting, finger sucking, and pica have been postulated as risk factors that enhance helminths ova transmission. These aberrations may present commonly in children with chronic neurological disorders and predispose them to heavy intensity of intestinal helminthiasis. This comparative cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence, intensity, and behavioral risk factors for intestinal helminthiasis in children with chronic neurological disorders and apparently healthy controls. Fresh stool samples from 155 children (2-17 years) with chronic neurological disorders seen at the child neurology clinic and 155 age and sex matched controls from nursery and primary schools in Benin City were analyzed using the Kato-Katz technique for detection of ova of helminths from November 2008 to April 2009. The prevalence of intestinal helminthiasis (31.0%) was significantly higher in children with chronic neurological disorders compared with the controls (19.4%) (P=0.03). The intensity of infections in both groups was light ranging 24-144 eggs per gram. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm were the intestinal helminths isolated in both groups. Behavioral aberrations were significantly more represented in the subjects than in the controls (Pworming exercise were practices significantly associated with decreased prevalence of intestinal helminthiasis in the subjects and controls. Behavioral modification in children with chronic neurological disorders should be an integral part of the control program for intestinal helminthiasis.

  14. The association between cognition and academic performance in Ugandan children surviving malaria with neurological involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangirana, Paul; Menk, Jeremiah; John, Chandy C; Boivin, Michael J; Hodges, James S

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of different cognitive abilities to academic performance in children surviving cerebral insult can guide the choice of interventions to improve cognitive and academic outcomes. This study's objective was to identify which cognitive abilities are associated with academic performance in children after malaria with neurological involvement. 62 Ugandan children with a history of malaria with neurological involvement were assessed for cognitive ability (working memory, reasoning, learning, visual spatial skills, attention) and academic performance (reading, spelling, arithmetic) three months after the illness. Linear regressions were fit for each academic score with the five cognitive outcomes entered as predictors. Adjusters in the analysis were age, sex, education, nutrition, and home environment. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and structural equation models (SEM) were used to determine the nature of the association between cognition and academic performance. Predictive residual sum of squares was used to determine which combination of cognitive scores was needed to predict academic performance. In regressions of a single academic score on all five cognitive outcomes and adjusters, only Working Memory was associated with Reading (coefficient estimate = 0.36, 95% confidence interval = 0.10 to 0.63, pWorking memory, visual spatial ability and learning were the best predictors of academic performance. Academic performance is strongly associated with the latent variable labelled "cognitive ability" which captures most of the variation in the individual specific cognitive outcome measures. Working memory, visual spatial skills, and learning together stood out as the best combination to predict academic performance.

  15. Effectiveness of Music Therapy as an aid to Neurorestoration of children with severe neurological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria L Bringas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was a two-armed parallel group design aimed at testing real world effectiveness of a music therapy (MT intervention for children with severe neurological disorders. The control group received only the standard neurorestoration program and the experimental group received an additional MT Auditory Attention plus Communication (ACC protocol just before the usual occupational and speech therapy. Multivariate Item Response Theory (MIRT identified a neuropsychological status-latent variable manifested in all children and which exhibited highly significant changes only in the experimental group. Changes in brain plasticity also occurred in the experimental group, as evidenced using a Mismatch Event Related paradigm which revealed significant post intervention positive responses in the latency range between 308 and 400 ms in frontal regions. LORETA EEG source analysis identified prefrontal and midcingulate regions as differentially activated by the MT in the experimental group. Taken together, our results showing improved attention and communication as well as changes in brain plasticity in children with severe neurological impairments, highlight/comfort the importance of MT for the rehabilitation of patients across a wide range of dysfunctions.

  16. Acute flaccid paralysis in South African children: Causes, respiratory complications and neurological outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pijl, Jolanda; Wilmshurst, Jo M; van Dijk, Monique; Argent, Andrew; Booth, Jane; Zampoli, Marco

    2017-09-28

    To describe the causes, clinical presentation and neurological outcome of acute flaccid paralysis in children. A retrospective study in a tertiary paediatric hospital in South Africa. Data on clinical presentation, respiratory complications and long-term neurological outcomes of children presenting with acute flaccid paralysis were collected. Logistic regression analysis was applied to determine predictors for the need of mechanical ventilation. The study included 119 patients, 99 of whom had Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS); 47 patients (39.5%) required mechanical ventilation. Backward logistic regression analysis revealed that bulbar dysfunction (P < 0.001), autonomic dysfunction (P = 0.003) and upper limb paralysis (P = 0.038) significantly predicted the need for mechanical ventilation. EuroQol-5D scores of self-care problems and usual activities after discharge significantly declined over time. In this large series from Africa, GBS was the main cause of acute flaccid paralysis in children and was associated with significant morbidity. Other causes of acute flaccid paralysis mimicking GBS were not uncommon and should be excluded in this setting. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  17. Cephalic index of Japanese children with normal brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Takuya; Komuro, Yuzo; Hashizume, Katsumichi; Yanai, Akira

    2010-09-01

    The cephalic index is a method of assessing skull morphology in craniosynostosis. There are known racial differences; however, there are few reports on this index in Japan. In this study, we investigated the cephalic indices of Japanese children with normal brain development using axial slice computed tomography. Children presented to our institution because of head injuries but received no particular diagnosis. One hundred four children with normal brain development (62 males and 42 females) were divided into 7 age categories, namely, 4 categories for those younger than 1 year and 3 categories for those between 1 and 3 years. The cephalic index was calculated according to the following equation: (cephalic width/cephalic length) × 100. The cephalic indices by age groups were as follows: 86.7, 0 to 3 months (n = 21); 87.5, 4 to 6 months (n = 9); 89.2, 7 to 9 months (n = 16); 86.3, 10 to 12 months (n = 9); 85.9, 1 year (n = 25); 86.3, 2 years (n = 15); and 83.7, 3 years (n = 9). In this study, the cephalic indices of Japanese children with normal brain development tended to be more brachycephalic than those of white children, as reported by Haas and Waitzman. Thus, we formulated the classification of current cephalic indices of children with normal brain development in Japan.

  18. Expressive vocabulary of children with normal and deviant phonological development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athayde, Marcia de Lima; Mota, Helena Bolli; Mezzomo, Carolina Lisbôa

    2010-01-01

    expressive vocabulary of children with normal and deviant phonological development. to determine whether alterations presented by children with phonological disorders occur only at the phonological level or if there are any impacts on lexical acquisition; to compare the vocabulary performance of children with phonological disorders to reference values presented by the used test. participants of the study were 36 children of both genders, 14 with phonological disorders (Study group) and 22 with typical language development (Control Group). The ABFW - Vocabulary Test (Befi-Lopes, 2000) was used for assessing the expressive vocabulary of children and later to compare the performance of both groups. the performance of children with phonological disorder in the expressive vocabulary test is similar to that of children with normal phonological development. Most of the children of both groups reached the benchmarks proposed by the test for the different semantic fields. The semantic field Places demonstrated to be the most complex for both groups. the alterations presented by children with phonological disorder area limited to the phonological level, having no impact on the lexical aspect of language.

  19. Marital Satisfaction amongst Parents of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Normal Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Rostami

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare marital satisfactionbetween parents of children with attention deficit hyper activity disorder (ADHD and parents of normal children.Methods: In this study we have selected 400 parents (200 parents of children with ADHD and 200 parents of normal children, whose children age range was 6-18 years. Data were collected using Enrich marital satisfaction Questionnaire, Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL and Conner’s Questionnaire (parent and self-report forms. For data analysis, SPSS software17, bivariate χ2- test, and independent t- test were used.Results: The mean of marital satisfaction in parents of normal children was higher than parents of ADHD children. In the bivariate χ2- test, the p value was less than 0.05, and the obtained t was more than the table-t (1.96, so it can be assumed that there is a significant difference between parents of normal children and those with ADHD children in their marital satisfaction. The level of marital satisfaction (strongly agree level was 2.8% lower among parents of ADHD children compared to parents of normal children.Conclusions: Findings indicate that parents with ADHD children have lower level of marital satisfaction than parents with normal children.

  20. Caudal articular process dysplasia of thoracic vertebrae in neurologically normal French bulldogs, English bulldogs, and Pugs: Prevalence and characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Simon; Ter Haar, Gert; De Decker, Steven

    2018-02-20

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence and anatomical characteristics of thoracic caudal articular process dysplasia in French bulldogs, English bulldogs and Pugs presenting for problems unrelated to spinal disease. In this retrospective cross-sectional study, computed tomography scans of the thoracic vertebral column of these three breeds were reviewed for the presence and location of caudal articular process hypoplasia and aplasia, and compared between breeds. A total of 271 dogs met the inclusion criteria: 108 French bulldogs, 63 English bulldogs, and 100 Pugs. A total of 70.4% of French bulldogs, 84.1% of English bulldogs, and 97.0% of Pugs showed evidence of caudal articular process dysplasia. Compared to French and English bulldogs, Pugs showed a significantly higher prevalence of caudal articular process aplasia, but also a lower prevalence of caudal articular process hypoplasia, a higher number of affected vertebrae per dog and demonstrated a generalized and bilateral spatial pattern more frequently. Furthermore, Pugs showed a significantly different anatomical distribution of caudal articular process dysplasia along the vertebral column, with a high prevalence of caudal articular process aplasia between T10 and T13. This area was almost completely spared in French and English bulldogs. As previously suggested, caudal articular process dysplasia is a common finding in neurologically normal Pugs but this also seems to apply to French and English bulldogs. The predisposition of clinically relevant caudal articular process dysplasia in Pugs is possibly not only caused by the higher prevalence of caudal articular process dysplasia, but also by breed specific anatomical characteristics. © 2018 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  1. The epidemiology of epilepsy in children: a report from a Turkish pediatric neurology clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünver, Olcay; Keskin, Sabiha Paktuna; Uysal, Serap; Ünver, Afşin

    2015-05-01

    This retrospective cohort study aims to assess the distribution of seizure types and epileptic syndromes in children with epilepsy who were followed up in a tertiary outpatient pediatric neurology clinic between January 2004 and December 2009. The findings of 533 children aged between 2 months and 16 years were evaluated. The International League Against Epilepsy criteria (of 1981 and 1989) were used for diagnosis and classification. The rate of partial seizures (56.5%) was higher than that of generalized seizures (43.5%). Partial seizures were more common during late childhood (P epilepsies (53.3%) were more frequent than generalized epilepsies (37.1%). Generalized epilepsies were more frequent during the first year of life, whereas localization-related epilepsies were more common at later ages (P epilepsies during childhood represent an important health issue for developing countries. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Saccades improve postural control: a developmental study in normal children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layla Ajrezo

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dual-task performance is known to affect postural stability in children. This study focused on the effect of oculomotor tasks like saccadic eye movements on postural stability, studied in a large population of children by recording simultaneously their eye movements and posture. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-five healthy children from 5.8 to 17.6 years old were examined. All children were free of any vestibular, neurological, ophtalmologic and orthoptic abnormalities. Postural control was measured with a force platform TechnoConcept®, and eye movements with video oculography (MobilEBT®. Children performed two oculomotor tasks: fixation of a stable central target and horizontal saccades. We measured the saccade latency and the number of saccades during fixation as well as the surface, length and mean velocity of the center of pressure. RESULTS: During postural measurement, we observed a correlation between the age on the one hand and a decrease in saccade latency as well as an improvement in the quality of fixation on the other. Postural sway decreases with age and is reduced in the dual task (saccades in comparison with a simple task of fixation. DISCUSSION - CONCLUSION: These results suggest a maturation of neural circuits controlling posture and eye movements during childhood. This study also shows the presence of an interaction between the oculomotor system and the postural system. Engaging in oculomotor tasks results in a reduction of postural sway.

  3. Saccades improve postural control: a developmental study in normal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajrezo, Layla; Wiener-Vacher, Sylvette; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2013-01-01

    Dual-task performance is known to affect postural stability in children. This study focused on the effect of oculomotor tasks like saccadic eye movements on postural stability, studied in a large population of children by recording simultaneously their eye movements and posture. Ninety-five healthy children from 5.8 to 17.6 years old were examined. All children were free of any vestibular, neurological, ophtalmologic and orthoptic abnormalities. Postural control was measured with a force platform TechnoConcept®, and eye movements with video oculography (MobilEBT®). Children performed two oculomotor tasks: fixation of a stable central target and horizontal saccades. We measured the saccade latency and the number of saccades during fixation as well as the surface, length and mean velocity of the center of pressure. During postural measurement, we observed a correlation between the age on the one hand and a decrease in saccade latency as well as an improvement in the quality of fixation on the other. Postural sway decreases with age and is reduced in the dual task (saccades) in comparison with a simple task of fixation. These results suggest a maturation of neural circuits controlling posture and eye movements during childhood. This study also shows the presence of an interaction between the oculomotor system and the postural system. Engaging in oculomotor tasks results in a reduction of postural sway.

  4. Devices for Ambulatory Monitoring of Sleep-Associated Disorders in Children with Neurological Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ulate-Campos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Good sleep quality is essential for a child’s wellbeing. Early sleep problems have been linked to the later development of emotional and behavioral disorders and can negatively impact the quality of life of the child and his or her family. Sleep-associated conditions are frequent in the pediatric population, and even more so in children with neurological problems. Monitoring devices can help to better characterize sleep efficiency and sleep quality. They can also be helpful to better characterize paroxysmal nocturnal events and differentiate between nocturnal seizures, parasomnias, and obstructive sleep apnea, each of which has a different management. Overnight ambulatory detection devices allow for a tolerable, low cost, objective assessment of sleep quality in the patient’s natural environment. They can also be used as a notification system to allow for rapid recognition and prompt intervention of events like seizures. Optimal monitoring devices will be patient- and diagnosis-specific, but may include a combination of modalities such as ambulatory electroencephalograms, actigraphy, and pulse oximetry. We will summarize the current literature on ambulatory sleep devices for detecting sleep disorders in children with neurological diseases.

  5. [Analysis of the pragmatic abilities profile in normal preschool children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Simone de Rocha Vasconcellos; Resegue, Marta Maria; Viveiros, Daniele Cristina Sedano de; Pacheco, Elaine Florentino

    2007-01-01

    pragmatic abilities in children. to analyze the pragmatic abilities profile in normal preschool children and to verify if significant differences exist regarding the children's different socioeconomic levels. participants of this study were 30 children, with ages between 36 and 47 months, who attended public and private elementary schools - low and medium/high socioeconomic levels respectively. A thirty minute semi-structured conversation between each child and the evaluator was recorded in VHS. For the analysis of the pragmatic abilities profile 20 minutes of each conversation was transcribed. there is a prevalence of verbal over non-verbal and unintelligible utterances; simple over expansive utterances; coherent over incoherent utterances. There was a low occurrence of utterances used to start a conversation. Regarding the use of communicative functions, the informative function prevailed, even though all the others (instrumental, heuristic, naming, narrative, negative, interactive) were used by all of the children. Comparing the performance of children who attended public schools with that of children who attended private schools, statistically significant differences were observed in the number of simple and expansive verbal utterances, and in the use of the narrative function, indicating a better performance of children from private institutions. the analysis of the children's conversational abilities profile revealed that they respond/maintain the conversation instead of initiating it; their utterances are verbal, mostly coherent and simple. Regarding the communicative functions, the most prevalent was the informative function. Sociolinguistic aspects can interfere in the pragmatic abilities of children of different socioeconomic level.

  6. Epilepsy and other neurological diseases in the parents of children with infantile autism. A case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, S.E.; Rich, B.; Isager, T.

    2008-01-01

    In order to study the broader phenotype of infantile autism (IA) we compared the rates and types of epilepsy and other neurological diseases in the parents of 111 consecutively admitted patients with IA with a matched control group of parents of 330 children from the general population. All...... fathers the proportion was 5.7% vs 9.7%. No single neurological disease was significantly more frequent among parents of persons with IA. Our study lent support to the notion that epilepsy and other neurological diseases are not part of the broader IA phenotype Udgivelsesdato: 2008/3...

  7. Epilepsy and other neurological diseases in the parents of children with infantile autism. A case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben

    2008-01-01

    In order to study the broader phenotype of infantile autism (IA) we compared the rates and types of epilepsy and other neurological diseases in the parents of 111 consecutively admitted patients with IA with a matched control group of parents of 330 children from the general population. All...... fathers the proportion was 5.7% vs 9.7%. No single neurological disease was significantly more frequent among parents of persons with IA. Our study lent support to the notion that epilepsy and other neurological diseases are not part of the broader IA phenotype....

  8. Effect of growth hormone on short normal children.

    OpenAIRE

    Hindmarsh, P C; Brook, C G

    1987-01-01

    The growth of 26 short normal prepubertal children (mean age 8.4, height velocity standard deviation score for chronological age between +0.4 and -0.8) was studied for two years. Sixteen children were treated with somatrem (methionyl growth hormone) during the second year, and the remaining 10 children served as controls. During one year of treatment the height velocity standard deviation score for chronological age increased from the pretreatment mean of -0.44 (SD 0.33) to +2.20 (1.03). Thes...

  9. Normal distribution of standing balance for healthy Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Line Kjeldgaard; Ghasemi, Habib; Rahbek, Ole

    2013-01-01

    in children with orthopedic disabilities undergoing surgical procedures. Recent technology provides extremely usable sway analysis of balance parameters but a normal material for the standing balance of healthy children is lacking. Purpose/Aim of Study First, to assess standing balance in healthy Danish...... children using pedobarographic sway analysis. Second, to establish a reference for comparison of balance in children with orthopedic disorders. Materials and Methods 66 children aged 7-14 years from the 1 th , 3 th, 5th and 7th grade were included at a Danish public school after informed consent...... was obtained. The Tekscan F-scan Research was used and the pedobarographic measurements were analyzed with original Sway Analysis Module software. We did triple measurements on both standing pedobarograms with eyes open and eyes closed and averaged the results for each of the 5 parameters of balance...

  10. DAMPAK DEFISIENSI IODIUM MATERNAL PADA PERSISTENSI DISFUNGSI NEUROPSIKOLOGIS ANAK USIA 12 TAHUN (EFFECT OF MATERNAL IODINE DEFICIENCY ON THE PERSISTENCE OF NEUROLOGICAL DYSFUNCTIONS IN CHILDREN AGED 12 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basuki Budiman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Study on the last effect of neuropsychologic dysfunction due to iodine deficiency during gestation is still scarce. This study is to confirm the persistence of neuropsychological dysfunctions at 12-year-old of children born from pregnant mothers with iodine deficiency in endemic iodine deficient area. The study is 13-year-cohort design. Iodine status (Total T4, TSH and UIE of pregnant mothers at initial study, neonatal (TSH and 12 year-old iodine status (fT4, TSH are performed. Neurological dysfunction of infants is examined every 6 weeks until the child age is 24 months. Neuropsychological dysfunction of children 12 years of age such as minimal brain dysfunction and psychological battery of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC are also administered. A screening to determine case and reference using is done using mini mental status examination (MMSE. Score MMSE of 28 or less are implemented as cases while others as reference. The relationship of neurological and cognitive dysfunction with both maternal iodine status and neurological dysfunction at 2 months of neonates age are elaborated. The persistency risk of neurological dysfunction at 12 years of age is 8% (95%ci: 1-15%. Maternal and neonatal iodine status (as indicated by TSH, T4 are the risk factors for the persistency at 12-years. However, delays of neurological development in two-month old infants are found as directly risk factors. Median Total IQ score for all participants are far lower than the lowest limit of normal range. A very significant difference (p=0.000 are found in Total IQ score between cases and references. Discrepancy analysis of IQV-IQP indicates brain lesions in subtle form, such as diadokhokinesis, praxis, memory, distractibility and lowered IQ score. Neuropsychological dysfunctions due maternal iodine deficiency are still persistence at 12 years. Maternal T4 during gestation is not only influences on the persistency but also impaires directly on the

  11. Quantitative ultrasonography of skeletal muscles in children: normal values.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, R.R.; Pillen, S.; Verrips, A.; Zwarts, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish normal values of muscle thickness, ratio of muscle thickness to subcutaneous fat thickness, and muscle echo intensity in children between 11 weeks and 16 years of age. Transverse scans of four muscles were made by standardized real-time ultrasound

  12. RESPONSES OF BRIGHT, NORMAL, AND RETARDED CHILDREN TO LEARNING TASKS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CARRIER, NEIL A.; AND OTHERS

    THE RELATIONSHIPS AMONG THE VARIABLES OF INTELLIGENCE, LEARNING TASK PERFORMANCE, EMOTIONAL TENSION, AND TASK MOTIVATION WERE STUDIED. ABOUT 120 BRIGHT, NORMAL, AND RETARDED CHILDREN PERFORMED SIX TRIALS OF NUMBER LEARNING, CONCEPT FORMATION, PROBLEM SOLVING, PERCEPTUAL-MOTOR COORDINATION, AND VERBAL LEARNING TASKS. DURING THE LEARNING SESSIONS,…

  13. Normal values for cardiopulmonary exercise testing in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Harkel, A.D.J.; Takken, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/184586674; van Osch-Gevers, M.; Helbing, W.A.

    BACKGROUND: A reference set of data of normal values of newly developed cardiopulmonary parameters of exercise testing in an 8-18-year-old population is lacking. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing was performed in 175 healthy school children (8-18 years old). Continuous

  14. Visualization of the normal appendix with MR enterography in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovanlikaya, Arzu; Rosenbaum, Daniel; Brill, Paula W. [Weill Cornell Medical College, New York Presbyterian Hospital, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Mazumdar, Madhu; Dunning, Allison [Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, Department of Public Health, New York, NY (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging may provide a radiation-sparing alternative to CT in diagnosing appendicitis in children in whom US is equivocal. However, comparability with CT in the detection of the appendix remains to be established. To determine the detection rate of the normal appendix in children on oral and IV contrast-enhanced MRI. MR imaging of 58 patients who had previously undergone MR enterography was retrospectively reviewed. Detection rate, body mass index, age and gender were recorded. The normal appendix was detected in 28 cases (48 %), with greatest detection rate on the axial fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) sequence. Children in whom the appendix was detected had significantly higher BMI compared to children in whom the appendix was not seen. Neither age nor gender demonstrated a significant association with detection rate. The detection rate of the normal appendix in children on oral and IV contrast-enhanced MRI was 48 %, which is comparable to detection rates on CT, as well as to previously reported detection rates on MR imaging with neither oral nor IV contrast agents. These findings may serve to guide the development of MRI protocols for pediatric appendicitis. (orig.)

  15. Nasalance scores for normal-speaking Irish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Triona; Sell, Debbie; O'Regan, Myra

    2004-03-01

    To obtain normal nasalance values during the production of a standardized speech sample for Irish children and determine whether significantly different scores exist for different speech stimuli for female and male speakers. Mean nasalance scores were obtained for normal-speaking children during the repetition of 16 test sentences that were categorized according to consonant type within the sentences (high-pressure consonants, low-pressure consonants, nasal consonants). Seventy children (36 girls and 34 boys, aged 4 years 11 months to 13 years) with normal articulation, resonance, and voice were included. Children repeated each of the 16 test sentences individually. The sentences were presented in groups according to consonant type, referred to as sentence categories. Data were collected and analyzed using the Kay nasometer (model 6200.3). Nasalance scores were obtained for the total speech sample and each sentence category. Data were statistically analyzed to investigate the effects of gender, sentence category, and gender by sentence category. Normative nasalance scores were obtained for the total speech sample (26%), high-pressure consonant sentences (14%), low-pressure consonant sentences (16%), and a nasal consonant sentence (51%). There was no significant difference in nasalance scores between male and female speakers. Significant differences were found between each sentence category (p children. There was a significant difference between nasalance scores for different speech stimuli.

  16. Survey of Japanese pediatricians on vaccination of children with neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Takuya; Tagawa, Tetsuzo; Arai, Hiroshi; Imaishi, Hidenori; Uno, Risa; Tanaka, Junko; Nagai, Toshisaburou; Nishida, Masaru; Awaya, Yutaka; Maekawa, Kihei

    2011-10-01

    Primary care physicians in Japan are often unwilling to vaccinate children with neurological disorders. The aim of the present study was to determine the state of vaccination in children who are severely handicapped and/or have convulsive disorders, in order to increase the vaccination rate in this patient population. Six hundred and eighty pediatricians belonging to Osaka Shonika Ikai were asked to answer a questionnaire, and 359 doctors responded. Two hundred and thirty-four doctors consulted for febrile seizures (Fs), 190 for epilepsy and 145 for conditions affecting severely handicapped children, responded that they refused to vaccinate. The reasons for reluctance to vaccinate these children were short interval since the last seizure, including febrile (226 doctors) and epileptic (121 doctors) seizures. It was especially likely that a child with a past history of status epilepticus would be refused vaccination. Primary care doctors are very cautious about the indications for vaccination, especially the inoculation of live vaccines, because they often induce post-vaccination fever-associated convulsions. Intractable daily epileptic seizures was the most common reason for refusal to vaccinate severely handicapped children. Examples of inadequate decision-making as regards the indications for vaccination were: "need more than 6 months observation since last seizure whether Fs or epileptic", "need EEG examination for Fs", "contraindication because of low bodyweight and/or chronic wheezing in severely handicapped children". There is a need to provide correct information about the adverse effects of vaccination and for greater cooperation between primary care doctors and pediatric neurologists. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  17. Prevalence and risk factors for neurological disorders in children aged 6 months to 2 years in northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rashmi; Bhave, Anupama; Bhargava, Roli; Agarwal, Girdhar G

    2013-04-01

    To study prevalence and risk factors for neurological disorders--epilepsy, global developmental delay, and motor, vision, and hearing defects--in children aged 6 months to 2 years in northern India. A two-stage community survey for neurological disorders was conducted in rural and urban areas of Lucknow. After initial screening with a new instrument, the Lucknow Neurodevelopment Screen, screen positives and a random proportion of screen negatives were validated using predefined criteria. Prevalence was calculated by weighted estimates. Demographic, socio-economic, and medical risk factors were compared between validated children who were positive and negative for neurological disorders by univariate and logistic regression analysis. Of 4801 children screened (mean age [SD] 15.32mo [5.96]; 2542 males, 2259 females), 196 were positive; 190 screen positives and 269 screen negatives were validated. Prevalence of neurological disorders was 27.92 per 1000 (weighted 95% confidence interval 12.24-43.60). Significant risk factors (p≤0.01) for neurological disorders were higher age in months (p=0.010), lower mean number of appliances in the household (p=0.001), consanguineous marriage of parents (p=0.010), family history of neurological disorder (p=0.001), and infants born exceptionally small (parental description; p=0.009). On logistic regression, the final model included age (p=0.0193), number of appliances (p=0.0161), delayed cry at birth (p=0.0270), postneonatal meningoencephalitis (p=0.0549), and consanguinity (p=0.0801). Perinatal factors, lower socio-economic status, and consanguinity emerged as predictors of neurological disorders. These factors are largely modifiable. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  18. Zika Virus, Congenital Infection, and Neurologic Manifestations in Children: A Narrative Review

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    Narges Karimi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Context Zika virus (ZIKV is an arbovirus of the family Flaviviridae. This virus, which is transmitted by mosquitoes, usually affects children and causes self-limited diseases, associated with fever, maculopapular rash, conjunctivitis, arthralgia, and myalgia. There is a significant relationship between ZIKV infection and central nervous system disorders in infants. In this study, we aimed to review neurologic manifestations of ZIKV infection in infants. Evidence Acquisition We searched the following Mesh terms in scientific databases: “Zika virus”, “infants”, “children”, “neurologic manifestations”, and “congenital infection”. Electronic databases including Google Scholar, Science Direct, PubMed, Web of Science, Scientific Information Database, and Scopus were searched from 2000 to 2016. Results The literature review showed a probable relationship between ZIKV infection and prevalence of microcephaly in newborns. Besides microcephaly, other central nervous system abnormalities included abnormal gyral arrangement, decreased brain parenchymal volume, cortical atrophy and malformation, cerebellar hypoplasia, and delayed myelination of the brain stem. Conclusions Vertical transmission of ZIKV in pregnant women is associated with intrauterine infection and brain malformations in the developing fetus, including microcephaly, calcification, cortical displacement, ventriculomegaly, and white-matter abnormalities.

  19. Self-monitoring of listening abilities in normal-hearing children, normal-hearing adults, and children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothpletz, Ann M; Wightman, Frederic L; Kistler, Doris J

    2012-03-01

    Self-monitoring has been shown to be an essential skill for various aspects of our lives, including our health, education, and interpersonal relationships. Likewise, the ability to monitor one's speech reception in noisy environments may be a fundamental skill for communication, particularly for those who are often confronted with challenging listening environments, such as students and children with hearing loss. The purpose of this project was to determine if normal-hearing children, normal-hearing adults, and children with cochlear implants can monitor their listening ability in noise and recognize when they are not able to perceive spoken messages. Participants were administered an Objective-Subjective listening task in which their subjective judgments of their ability to understand sentences from the Coordinate Response Measure corpus presented in speech spectrum noise were compared to their objective performance on the same task. Participants included 41 normal-hearing children, 35 normal-hearing adults, and 10 children with cochlear implants. On the Objective-Subjective listening task, the level of the masker noise remained constant at 63 dB SPL, while the level of the target sentences varied over a 12 dB range in a block of trials. Psychometric functions, relating proportion correct (Objective condition) and proportion perceived as intelligible (Subjective condition) to target/masker ratio (T/M), were estimated for each participant. Thresholds were defined as the T/M required to produce 51% correct (Objective condition) and 51% perceived as intelligible (Subjective condition). Discrepancy scores between listeners' threshold estimates in the Objective and Subjective conditions served as an index of self-monitoring ability. In addition, the normal-hearing children were administered tests of cognitive skills and academic achievement, and results from these measures were compared to findings on the Objective-Subjective listening task. Nearly half of the

  20. [Comparison of functional activity performance in normally developing children and children with cerebral palsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Marisa C; Fiúza, Patrícia M; Rebelo, Jerusa M; Magalhães, Lívia C; Coelho, Zélia A C; Paixao, Maria Lúcia; Gontijo, Ana Paula B; Fonseca, Sérgio T

    2002-06-01

    To compare the pattern of self-care performance in normal children and children with cerebral palsy (CP). 142 normal children and 33 children with CP were evaluated by 22 items from the self-care scale of the PEDI functional test. Rasch methodology transformed scores into interval measures of difficulty from 0 to 100 (logit). Spearman rank correlation coefficient compared the order of logits in the two groups. Eleven items showed significant differences in the logit values received. Out of these, 7 items showed relative difficulty values greater in the group of children with CP and 4 items showed relative difficulty values greater among normal children. A significant correlation was observed in the order of the 22 items displayed in the two interval scales. The results suggest that the development of self-care functional activities may be influenced by the presence of CP. These results may support assessment and intervention strategies for children with neuromotor disorders.

  1. Vocal Frequency Measures in Normal Speaking Children and Children with Vocal Deviations. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeper, Herbert A., Jr.; Iverson, Rachel L.

    The report examines vocal frequency differences between normal speaking children and 65 children (mean age 9-years) with vocal nodules and accompanying vocal quality disturbances. In part I of the study children were screened by a physician and their voices were recorded and analyzed by a digitizer-computer system for mean vocal frequency,…

  2. Prenatal DHA status and neurological outcome in children at age 5.5 years are positively associated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escolano-Margarit, M Victoria; Ramos, Rosa; Beyer, Jeannette; Csábi, Györgyi; Parrilla-Roure, Montserrat; Cruz, Francisco; Perez-Garcia, Miguel; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Gil, Angel; Decsi, Tamás; Koletzko, Berthold V; Campoy, Cristina

    2011-06-01

    Beneficial effects of perinatal DHA supply on later neurological development have been reported. We assessed the effects of maternal DHA supplementation on the neurological development of their children. Healthy pregnant women from Spain, Germany, and Hungary were randomly assigned to a dietary supplement consisting of either fish oil (FO) (500 mg/d DHA + 150 mg/d EPA), 400 μg/d 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, both, or placebo from wk 20 of gestation until delivery. Fatty acids in plasma and erythrocyte phospholipids (PL) were determined in maternal blood at gestational wk 20 and 30 and in cord and maternal blood at delivery. Neurological development was assessed with the Hempel examination at the age of 4 y and the Touwen examination at 5.5 y. Minor neurological dysfunction, neurological optimality score (NOS), and fluency score did not differ between groups at either age, but the odds of children with the maximal NOS score increased with every unit increment in cord blood DHA level at delivery in plasma PL (95% CI: 1.094-2.262), erythrocyte phosphatidylethanolamine (95% CI: 1.091-2.417), and erythrocyte phosphatidylcholine (95% CI: 1.003-2.643). We conclude that higher DHA levels in cord blood may be related to a better neurological outcome at 5.5 y of age.

  3. Knowledge of binding in normal and SLI children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, S L; Connell, P J

    1996-06-01

    The properties of reflexives vary across adult languages with respect to (i) the domain in which a reflexive may be bound and (ii) the syntactic positions an appropriate antecedent may occupy. These two issues have been approached in GB theory in various ways, each with specific implications for acquisition. In this paper we examine these implications by testing normal and Specific Language Impaired (SLI) children for evidence of the binding domain and orientation properties of their grammars. The investigation reveals that, contrary to most previous claims, normal children acquiring English pass through a long-distance binding stage. SLI children, however, do not display this pattern, tending instead to behave like very young normal children in requiring the nearest available NP to be the antecedent. We argue that this constitutes an early binding stage not previously identified. Finally, we interpret our findings in terms of a conception of acquisition dubbed the 'competing grammars' model, according to which competing incompatible grammars may coexist in the mind of the learner.

  4. Comparison of life quality in mothers of children with cerebral palsy and normal children

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    Sayyed Ali Mousavi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parenting a child with cerebral palsy is associated with a number of challenges. The purpose of the present research was to compare the life quality in mothers of children with cerebral palsy and normal children. Methods: In this case-control study, 105 mothers of children with cerebral palsy were randomly selected as the experimental group and 105 mothers of normal children that were matched with the first group in terms of demographic variables were selected as control group. The participants answered the quality of life questionnaireSF-36. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS-18 statistical software and independent t-test. Results: Analysis of findings showed that there was a significant difference between whole life quality of mothers of normal children and mothers of children with cerebral palsy (t=6.324, p=0.001. Also, there was a significant difference between groups in other domains of quality of life except physical health domain (p=0.001. Conclusion: The research findings showed that whole life quality level of mothers of children with cerebral palsy was lower than that of mothers of normal children. Thus, clinical professionals should be concerned about poor quality of life in parents of children with cerebral palsy and provide the required resources to support these children.

  5. Epilepsy and Other Neurological Diseases in the Parents of Children with Infantile Autism. A Case Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben

    2008-01-01

    In order to study the broader phenotype of infantile autism (IA) we compared the rates and types of epilepsy and other neurological diseases in the parents of 111 consecutively admitted patients with IA with a matched control group of parents of 330 children from the general population. All participants were screened through the nationwide Danish…

  6. The association between cognition and academic performance in Ugandan children surviving malaria with neurological involvement.

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    Paul Bangirana

    Full Text Available The contribution of different cognitive abilities to academic performance in children surviving cerebral insult can guide the choice of interventions to improve cognitive and academic outcomes. This study's objective was to identify which cognitive abilities are associated with academic performance in children after malaria with neurological involvement.62 Ugandan children with a history of malaria with neurological involvement were assessed for cognitive ability (working memory, reasoning, learning, visual spatial skills, attention and academic performance (reading, spelling, arithmetic three months after the illness. Linear regressions were fit for each academic score with the five cognitive outcomes entered as predictors. Adjusters in the analysis were age, sex, education, nutrition, and home environment. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA and structural equation models (SEM were used to determine the nature of the association between cognition and academic performance. Predictive residual sum of squares was used to determine which combination of cognitive scores was needed to predict academic performance.In regressions of a single academic score on all five cognitive outcomes and adjusters, only Working Memory was associated with Reading (coefficient estimate = 0.36, 95% confidence interval = 0.10 to 0.63, p<0.01 and Spelling (0.46, 0.13 to 0.78, p<0.01, Visual Spatial Skills was associated with Arithmetic (0.15, 0.03 to 0.26, p<0.05, and Learning was associated with Reading (0.06, 0.00 to 0.11, p<0.05. One latent cognitive factor was identified using EFA. The SEM found a strong association between this latent cognitive ability and each academic performance measure (P<0.0001. Working memory, visual spatial ability and learning were the best predictors of academic performance.Academic performance is strongly associated with the latent variable labelled "cognitive ability" which captures most of the variation in the individual specific

  7. Metabolic assessment and enteral tube feeding usage in children with acute neurological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, H P; Fantozzi, G

    1998-01-01

    To report on acquired experience of metabolic support for children with acute neurological diseases, emphasizing enteral tube feeding usage and metabolic assessment, and also to recommend policies aimed towards improving its implementation. Retrospective analysis. Pediatric Intensive Care Unit of Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo. 44 patients consecutively admitted to the Pediatric ICU over a period of 3 years who were given nutrition and metabolic support for at least 72 hours. Head trauma, CNS infections and craniotomy post-operative period following tumor exeresis were the main diagnoses. Records of protein-energy intake, nutrient supply route, nitrogen balance and length of therapy. From a total of 527 days of therapy, single parenteral nutrition was utilized for 34.3% and single enteral tube feeding for 79.1% of that period. 61.4% of the children were fed exclusively via enteral tube feeding, 9.1% via parenteral and 39.5% by both routes. The enteral tube feeding was introduced upon admission and transpyloric placement was successful in 90% of the cases. Feeding was started 48 hours after ICU admission. The caloric goal was achieved on the 7th day after admission, and thereafter parenteral nutrition was interrupted. The maximum energy supply was 104.2 +/- 23.15 kcal/kg. The median length of therapy was 11 days (range 4-38). None of the patients on tube feeding developed GI tract bleeding, pneumonia or bronchoaspiration episodes and, of the 4 patients who were given exclusive TPN, 2 developed peptic ulcer. The initial urinary urea nitrogen was 7.11 g/m2 and at discharge 6.44 g/m2. The protein supply increased from 1.49 g/kg to 3.65 g/kg (p < 0.01). The nitrogen balance increased from--7.05 to 2.2 g (p < 0.01). Children with acute neurological diseases are hypercatabolic and have high urinary nitrogen losses. The initial negative nitrogen balance can be increased by more aggressive feeding regimes than the usual ones. Early tube feeding was

  8. Metabolic assessment and enteral tube feeding usage in children with acute neurological diseases

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    Heitor Pons Leite

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report on acquired experience of metabolic support for children with acute neurological diseases, emphasizing enteral tube feeding usage and metabolic assessment, and also to recommend policies aimed towards improving its implementation. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. SETTING: Pediatric Intensive Care Unit of Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo. SUBJECTS: 44 patients consecutively admitted to the Pediatric ICU over a period of 3 years who were given nutrition and metabolic support for at least 72 hours. Head trauma, CNS infections and craniotomy post-operative period following tumor exeresis were the main diagnoses. MEASUREMENTS: Records of protein-energy intake, nutrient supply route, nitrogen balance and length of therapy. RESULTS: From a total of 527 days of therapy, single parenteral nutrition was utilized for 34.3% and single enteral tube feeding for 79.1% of that period. 61.4% of the children were fed exclusively via enteral tube feeding, 9.1% via parenteral and 39.5 % by both routes. The enteral tube feeding was introduced upon admission and transpyloric placement was successful in 90% of the cases. Feeding was started 48 hours after ICU admission. The caloric goal was achieved on the 7th day after admission, and thereafter parenteral nutrition was interrupted. The maximum energy supply was 104.2 ± 23.15 kcal/kg. The median length of therapy was 11 days (range 4-38. None of the patients on tube feeding developed GI tract bleeding, pneumonia or bronchoaspiration episodes and, of the 4 patients who were given exclusive TPN, 2 developed peptic ulcer. The initial urinary urea nitrogen was 7.11 g/m2 and at discharge 6.44 g/m2. The protein supply increased from 1.49 g/kg to 3.65 g/kg (p< 0.01. The nitrogen balance increased from -7.05 to 2.2 g (p< 0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Children with acute neurological diseases are hypercatabolic and have high urinary nitrogen losses. The initial negative nitrogen balance can be

  9. Spatial hearing of normally hearing and cochlear implanted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John; Summerfield, A Quentin; O'Donoghue, Gerard M; Moore, David R

    2011-04-01

    Spatial hearing uses both monaural and binaural mechanisms that require sensitive hearing for normal function. Deaf children using either bilateral (BCI) or unilateral (UCI) cochlear implants would thus be expected to have poorer spatial hearing than normally hearing (NH) children. However, the relationship between spatial hearing in these various listener groups has not previously been extensively tested under ecologically valid conditions using a homogeneous group of children who are UCI users. We predicted that NH listeners would outperform BCI listeners who would, in turn, outperform UCI listeners. We tested two methods of spatial hearing to provide norms for NH and UCI using children and preliminary data for BCI users. NH children (n=40) were age matched (6-15 years) to UCI (n=12) and BCI (n=6) listeners. Testing used a horizontal ring of loudspeakers within a booth in a hospital outpatient clinic. In a 'lateral release' task, single nouns were presented frontally, and masking noises were presented frontally, or 90° left or right. In a 'localization' task, allowing head movements, nouns were presented from loudspeakers separated by 30°, 60° or 120° about the midline. Normally hearing children improved with age in speech detection in noise, but not in quiet or in lateral release. Implant users performed more poorly on all tasks. For frontal signals and noise, UCI and BCI listeners did not differ. For lateral noise, BCI listeners performed better on both sides (within ~2 dB of NH), whereas UCI listeners benefited only when the noise was opposite the unimplanted ear. Both the BCI and, surprisingly, the UCI listeners performed better than chance at all loudspeaker separations on the ecologically valid, localization task. However, the BCI listeners performed about twice as well and, in two cases, approached the performance of NH children. Children using either UCI or BCI have useful spatial hearing. BCI listeners gain benefits on both sides, and localize better

  10. Perceptual Development of Nasal Consonants in Children with Normal Hearing and in Children Who Use Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillot, Kathryn M.; Ohde, Ralph N.; Hedrick, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study was conducted to determine whether the perceptions of nasal consonants in children with normal hearing and children with cochlear implants were predicted by the discontinuity hypothesis. Methods: Four groups participated: 8 adults, 8 children with normal hearing (ages 5-7 years), 8 children with normal hearing (ages 3.5-4…

  11. Reading and visual search: a developmental study in normal children.

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    Magali Seassau

    Full Text Available Studies dealing with developmental aspects of binocular eye movement behaviour during reading are scarce. In this study we have explored binocular strategies during reading and during visual search tasks in a large population of normal young readers. Binocular eye movements were recorded using an infrared video-oculography system in sixty-nine children (aged 6 to 15 and in a group of 10 adults (aged 24 to 39. The main findings are (i in both tasks the number of progressive saccades (to the right and regressive saccades (to the left decreases with age; (ii the amplitude of progressive saccades increases with age in the reading task only; (iii in both tasks, the duration of fixations as well as the total duration of the task decreases with age; (iv in both tasks, the amplitude of disconjugacy recorded during and after the saccades decreases with age; (v children are significantly more accurate in reading than in visual search after 10 years of age. Data reported here confirms and expands previous studies on children's reading. The new finding is that younger children show poorer coordination than adults, both while reading and while performing a visual search task. Both reading skills and binocular saccades coordination improve with age and children reach a similar level to adults after the age of 10. This finding is most likely related to the fact that learning mechanisms responsible for saccade yoking develop during childhood until adolescence.

  12. Reading and visual search: a developmental study in normal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seassau, Magali; Bucci, Maria-Pia

    2013-01-01

    Studies dealing with developmental aspects of binocular eye movement behaviour during reading are scarce. In this study we have explored binocular strategies during reading and during visual search tasks in a large population of normal young readers. Binocular eye movements were recorded using an infrared video-oculography system in sixty-nine children (aged 6 to 15) and in a group of 10 adults (aged 24 to 39). The main findings are (i) in both tasks the number of progressive saccades (to the right) and regressive saccades (to the left) decreases with age; (ii) the amplitude of progressive saccades increases with age in the reading task only; (iii) in both tasks, the duration of fixations as well as the total duration of the task decreases with age; (iv) in both tasks, the amplitude of disconjugacy recorded during and after the saccades decreases with age; (v) children are significantly more accurate in reading than in visual search after 10 years of age. Data reported here confirms and expands previous studies on children's reading. The new finding is that younger children show poorer coordination than adults, both while reading and while performing a visual search task. Both reading skills and binocular saccades coordination improve with age and children reach a similar level to adults after the age of 10. This finding is most likely related to the fact that learning mechanisms responsible for saccade yoking develop during childhood until adolescence.

  13. Substance abuse disorders in the parents of ADHD children, and parents of normal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farokhzadi, Farideh; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Alipour, Ahmad; Rostami, Reza; Dehestani, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the attention-deficit/ hyperactivity, and substance abuse disorders background in the parents of children with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and the parents of normal children. The available sampling method was used to choose 400 parents of children (200 parents of children with ADHD and 200 parents of normal children), the ages of children were 6-18 years old. The data were collected through the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS) for parents and the Kiddy Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL), Connors Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS) and the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) for adult ADHD. The results were analyzed by using SPSS-17 software, based on two-variable Chi-Square and t-tests.and P value in all disorders were equals to Pabuse in parents of children with ADHD is 21% more prevalent, and parents of children with ADHD compared to parents of normal children have 2% ADHD, 9% attention deficit disorder, and 1% hyperactivity disorder more in their background. Therefore, we conclude that there exists a significant difference between the above mentioned disorders in the parents of children with ADHD, and parents of normal children. The high prevalence rate of disorders and background of ADHD in families of individuals with ADHD shows the probability of effect of inheritance in the disorder. Also, it shows that parents of children with ADHD have more substance abuse and history of ADHD in their background.

  14. Substance Abuse Disorders in the Parents of ADHD Children, and Parents of Normal Children

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    Ahmad Alipour

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to compare the attention-deficit/ hyperactivity, and substance abuse disorders background in the parents of children with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and the parents of normal children. The available sampling method was used to choose 400 parents of children (200 parents of children with ADHD and 200 parents of normal children, the ages of children were 6-18 years old. The data were collected through the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS for parents and the Kiddy Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL, Connors Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS and the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS for adult ADHD. The results were analyzed by using SPSS-17 software, based on two-variable Chi-Square and t-tests.and P value in all disorders were equals to P<0.05. The results indicated that substance abuse in parents of children with ADHD is 21% more prevalent, and parents of children with ADHD compared to parents of normal children have 2% ADHD, 9% attention deficit disorder, and 1% hyperactivity disorder more in their background. Therefore, we conclude that there exists a significant difference between the above mentioned disorders in the parents of children with ADHD, and parents of normal children. The high prevalence rate of disorders and background of ADHD in families of individuals with ADHD shows the probability of effect of inheritance in the disorder. Also, it shows that parents of children with ADHD have more substance abuse and history of ADHD in their background.

  15. [Early prediction of the neurological result at 12 months in newborns at neurological risk].

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    Herbón, F; Garibotti, G; Moguilevsky, J

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Amiel-Tison neurological examination (AT) and cranial ultrasound at term for predicting the neurological result at 12 months in newborns with neurological risk. The study included 89 newborns with high risk of neurological damage, who were discharged from the Neonatal Intensive Care of the Hospital Zonal Bariloche, Argentina. The assessment consisted of a neurological examination and cranial ultrasound at term, and neurological examination and evaluation of development at 12 months. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictor value was calculated. The relationship between perinatal factors and neurodevelopment at 12 month of age was also calculated using logistic regression models. Seventy children completed the follow-up. At 12 months of age, 14% had an abnormal neurological examination, and 17% abnormal development. The neurological examination and the cranial ultrasound at term had low sensitivity to predict abnormal neurodevelopment. At 12 months, 93% of newborns with normal AT showed normal neurological results, and 86% normal development. Among newborns with normal cranial ultrasound the percentages were 90 and 81%, respectively. Among children with three or more perinatal risk factors, the frequency of abnormalities in the neurological response was 5.4 times higher than among those with fewer risk factors, and abnormal development was 3.5 times more frequent. The neurological examination and cranial ultrasound at term had low sensitivity but high negative predictive value for the neurodevelopment at 12 months. Three or more perinatal risk factors were associated with neurodevelopment abnormalities at 12 months of age. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Cortical arousal in children and adolescents with functional neurological symptoms during the auditory oddball task

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    Kasia Kozlowska, MBBS., PhD. FRANZCP

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Our findings add to a growing literature indicating that a baseline state of high arousal may be a precondition for generating functional neurological symptoms, a finding that helps explain why a range of psychological and physiological stressors can trigger functional neurological symptoms in some patients. Interventions that target cortical arousal may be central to the treatment of paediatric patients with functional neurological symptom disorder.

  17. VISUAL ABILITY IN AMBLYOPIC CHILDREN COMPARED TO CHILDREN WITH NORMAL VISUAL ACUITY

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    Zorica Tončić

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Vision rehabilitation in adults with low vision, even in children, is achieved with special devices, called low vision aids, LVA. The aim of the study is to determine the degree of visual function in amblyopic children and daily activities that are best related to those of normally sighted peers with normal visual acuity. The subjects were divided into two groups, matched 1:1 by age and gender: the first group consisted of 19 amblyopic children, and the second one consisted of 19 children with normal visual acuity. The questionnaire used to assess visual ability was Cardiff Visual Ability Questionnaire for Children (CVAQC, a reliable instrument for measuring visual ability in children with low vision. The study was conducted in the only rehabilitation center for amblyopic children in this region, so this is also a pioneer study. The overall result of CVAQC in amblyopic children was 1.287 log vs.-2.956, representing statistically significantly poorer visual ability in comparison to peers without vision deficit (p˂0.005. Amblyopic children function best in entertainment activities, especially in listening music (-2.31 log; as for sport, these children report swimming to be their favourite activity (-0.99 log. In the field of education they show best results in language acquisition (-0.79 log and the worst in mathematics (3.13 log. The greatest problem is reading small print texts books (2.61 log. Low vision children have poorer result of visual function in comparison to their peers with normal visual acuity. A precise deficit assessment in the most important spheres of life can be determined by using the questionnaires, so the rehabilitation can be rightly chosen.

  18. Effects of blood lead level on biochemical and hematological parameters in children with neurological diseases of Western Maharashtra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratinidhi, Shilpa A; Patil, Arun J; Behera, Manaskumar; Patil, Maya; Ghadage, Dnyaneshwari P; Pratinidhi, Asha K

    2014-05-01

    Lead is found in small but appreciable quantities in air, soil, drinking water, and food. Exposure to such amounts of lead does not lead to acute lead toxicity but produces subtle effects particularly in children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of blood lead level on biochemical and hematological parameters in children with neurological diseases in Western Maharashtra, India, and to estimate the blood lead level by liver and kidney function tests and hematological parameters in children with neurological disorders admitted to the pediatric ward and compare them with healthy controls. In this study, 30 children with various neurological disorders admitted to the pediatric ward of Smt. Kashibai Navale Medical College and General Hospital, Pune, Maharashtra, India, were compared with 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Four milliliters of venous blood was collected for estimation of blood lead level, and biochemical and hematological parameters were determined using standard methods. Blood lead level was significantly increased in the study group (pfood habits and limit hand-to-mouth activities to prevent lead intoxication.

  19. An Analysis of a Novel, Short-Term Therapeutic Psychoeducational Program for Children and Adolescents with Chronic Neurological Illness and Their Parents; Feasibility and Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Bonglim Joo; Young-Mock Lee; Heung Dong Kim; Soyong Eom

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this intervention was to develop a therapeutic psycho-educational program that improves quality of life in children and adolescents who are experiencing chronic neurological illness, including epilepsy, and their parents, and to analyze the intervention's feasibility and efficacy and participants' satisfaction. Participants were eight children (n = 8) and adolescents and their parents; participating children were experiencing chronic neurological illness with psychological como...

  20. Artesunate-mefloquine combination therapy in acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria in young children: a field study regarding neurological and neuropsychiatric safety

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    Hatz Christoph

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mefloquine-artesunate combination therapy for uncomplicated falciparum malaria is one of the treatments used in African children. Data concerning neurological safety in adults and children treated with mefloquine and artesunate combination therapy is well documented in Asia. Safety data for neurological and neuropsychiatric side effects of mefloquine and artesunate combination therapy in African children are scarce, although WHO recommends this therapy in Africa. Methods A phase IV, open label, single arm study was conducted among African children between 10 and 20 kg with acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria. They were treated over three consecutive days with a paediatric fixed-dose combination of artesunate (50 mg/d and mefloquine (125 mg/d. Parasitological, clinical and neurological examinations and standardized questions about neuropsychiatric symptoms were carried out on days 0, 4, 7, 28 and 63. The primary objective was to assess the neurological and neuropsychiatric safety of artesunate-mefloquine combination therapy in young children. Results From December 2007 to March 2009, 220 children with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria were treated with artesunate and mefloquine. 213 children were analysed according to study protocol. 50 neurological and neuropsychiatric adverse events occurred in 28 patients. Eleven drug-related neurological and neuropsychiatric adverse events occurred in eight patients. Sleeping disorders were present in 2.3%, neurological disorders in 1.4%, neuropsychiatric disorders in 1% and eating disorders in 0.5% of the patients. Adverse events were of mild to moderate intensity and resolved spontaneously. Conclusion African children showed a low percentage of self-limited neurological and neuropsychiatric adverse events, confirming studies on neurological safety in Asian children treated with artesunate and mefloquine. Sleeping disorders were most frequently observed.

  1. Inferior patellar pole fragmentation in children: just a normal variant?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, J.H.; Vogelius, Esben S.; Orth, Robert C.; Guillerman, R.P.; Jadhav, Siddharth P. [Texas Children' s Hospital, E.B. Singleton Pediatric Radiology, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Fragmentary ossification of the inferior patella is often dismissed as a normal variant in children younger than 10 years of age. The purpose of this study was to determine whether fragmentary inferior patellar pole ossification is a normal variant or is associated with symptoms or signs of pathology using MRI and clinical exam findings as reference. A retrospective review was performed on 150 patients ages 5-10 years who underwent 164 knee radiography and MRI exams (45.1% male, mean age: 7.8 years). The presence or absence of inferior patellar pole fragmentation on radiography was correlated with the presence or absence of edema-like signal on MR images. Clinical notes were reviewed for the presence of symptoms or signs referable to the inferior patellar pole. These data were compared with a 1:1 age- and sex-matched control group without inferior pole fragmentation. Statistical analysis was performed using two-tailed t-tests. Forty of 164 (24.4%) knee radiographs showed fragmentary ossification of the inferior patella. Of these 40 knees, 62.5% (25/40) had edema-like signal of the inferior patellar bone marrow compared with 7.5% (3/40) of controls (P = 0.035). Patients with fragmentary ossification at the inferior patella had a significantly higher incidence of documented focal inferior patellar pain compared with controls (20% vs. 2.5%, P = 0.015). Inferior patellar pole fragmentation in children 5 to 10 years of age may be associated with localized symptoms and bone marrow edema-like signal and should not be routinely dismissed as a normal variant of ossification. (orig.)

  2. Comparison of children with joint angles in spastic diplegia with those of normal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Ju; Kim, Young Mi; Kim, Dong Dae

    2014-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare joint angles between normal children and those with spastic diplegia using three-dimensional gait analysis. [Subjects and Methods] The study subjects were eight patients with spastic diplegia and eight normal children. Three-dimensional gait analysis was used for the survey. The measured gait variables were the joints of the lower extremity in the sagittal plane, frontal plane, and transverse planes and the maximum and minimum angles of their stance phase and swing phases. [Results] In the sagittal plane, the maximum angles of both the right and left pelvis and hip joint in the stance phase and swing phases were significantly greater for children with spastic diplegia than for normal children. In the stance phase of the right side of the hip joint, the maximum angles of the hip in the swing phase and the knee joint's minimum angles in the stance phase differed significantly. In the transverse plane, there were a significant differences on the left side of the pelvis in the maximum angles in the swing and stance phases. There were also significant differences on the right side pelvis, in the maximum and minimum angles in the stance phase and minimum angles in the swing phase. [Conclusion] Children with spastic diplegia employ a different gait strategy and pattern from normal children.

  3. Normal neurologic and developmental outcome after an accidental intravenous infusion of expressed breast milk in a neonate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, C Anthony

    2012-02-03

    Here we describe a premature male infant who was accidentally given 10 mL of expressed breast milk intravenously over a 3.5-hour period. Having survived this event with supportive care, this boy was attending regular school with no obvious neurologic or learning difficulties at 6 years of age. In 1998, after a query on an e-mail discussion group for health care providers in neonatology (NICU-net), we were informed of 8 similar events that proved fatal in 3 infants. A root-cause analysis revealed that accidental intravenous administration of breast milk or formula can be avoided by the use of color-coded enteral-administration sets with Luer connections that are not compatible with intravenous cannulas. The addition of methylene blue to feeds, or bolus enteral feeds (instead of continuous gastric feedings), may also help prevent such errors. These cases show the value of gathering information about rare but important events through a neonatal network. In addition, they confirm that prevention of medical error should focus on faulty systems rather than faulty people.

  4. Nasalance scores for normal Korean-speaking adults and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mikyong; Baek, William S; Lee, Eunkyung; Koh, Kyung S; Kim, Baek-Kyu; Baek, Rongmin

    2014-02-01

    There are numerous nasometric studies to date, including normative nasalance scores for various languages as well as nasometric differences in age, gender, race and region except the Korean language. In this regard, we sought to establish normative nasalance scores for Koreans. We created speech samples based on the everyday use of phonemes in the Korean language which were syntactically simple for children. In addition, we analysed nasometric features based on age and gender and confirmed test-retest reliability. The study included 108 children (54 girls and 54 boys, aged 7-11 years) and 108 adults (54 women and 54 men, aged 18-29 years) with normal articulation, resonance, voice and hearing. Nasometer II 6400 was used to measure the nasalance scores. The subjects read or repeated three speech stimuli, each consisting of 33, 36 and 24 syllables: (1) an oral passage devoid of nasal consonants, (2) an oro-nasal passage and (3) nasal sentences. For each stimulus, mean nasalance scores were obtained and gender or age dependence was analysed, using two-way analyses of variance. The mean nasalance scores for the oral passage, oro-nasal passage and nasal sentences were 11.69% (standard deviation (SD) 3.68), 34.04% (SD 4.88) and 63.72% (SD 6.07), respectively. Female speakers exhibited significantly higher nasalance scores than male speakers on the oro-nasal passage (p = 0.000) and nasal sentences (p = 0.004). Children exhibited significantly higher nasalance scores than adults on nasal sentences (p = 0.000). The nasalance scores in children and females were a little higher. Korean normative data will provide reference information in the evaluation and treatment of resonance problems. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Metabolic complications and neurologic manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency in children of vegetarian mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolka, V; Bekárek, V; Hlídková, E; Bucil, J; Mayerová, D; Skopková, Z; Adam, T; Hrubá, E; Kozich, V; Buriánková, L; Saligová, J; Buncová, M; Zeman, J

    2001-11-22

    Serious hematological, metabolic and neurological complications owing to the nutritional deficiency of vitamin B12 may occur in infants of mothers on a strict vegetarian diet. The mother of the first child was a strict vegetarian. She had an elevated urinary methylmalonic acid level and a low concentration of serum vitamin B12. Her 13-month-old daughter was exclusively breast-fed until the age of 9 month and then she was fed only vegetables. Physical examination revealed psychomotoric retardation, apathy, muscular hypotonia, abnormal movements and failure to thrive. Laboratory analysis showed a megaloblastic anaemia, a low level of vitamin B12 and methylmalonic aciduria. MRI of the brain revealed diffuse frontotemporoparietal atrophy and retardation of myelination. After treatment with vitamin B12 supplements, abnormal movements disappeared and development improved, but a mild generalised hypotonia continued. A cranial MRI 9 months after treatment still showed signs of retardation of myelination. The second patient, an 8 month-old male, son of a strict vegetarian mother too, was referred for investigation of psychomotoric retardation, hypotonia, dyskinesia, failure to thrive and microcephaly. He was breast-fed and from 6 month of age he had also received fruit juices. Laboratory analysis revealed megaloblastic anaemia, high methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria. The patient's and his mother's serum level of vitamin B12 were low. After treatment with vitamin B12 supplements, biochemical and metabolic markers of disease were normal but there continued a generalised hypotonia, microcephaly and language delay. Our observations emphasize the health complications of nutritional cobalamine deficiency and a requirement of clinical, biochemical and metabolic monitoring in infants within strict vegetarian families.

  6. Enteral feeding in neurologically impaired children with gastroesophageal reflux: Nissen fundoplication and gastrostomy tube placement versus percutaneous gastrojejunostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenker, Erin

    2008-10-01

    Parents or caregivers of neurologically impaired children with gastroesophageal reflux who require enteral nutrition are often faced with the option of having their child undergo an antireflux surgery and placement of a gastrostomy tube or have a percutaneous gastrojejunostomy tube placed under fluoroscopic guidance. It is important that nurses have an understanding of these procedures and their associated risks and benefits as well as knowledge of the impact each might have on the daily life and care of these children to help support families during this decision-making process.

  7. The neurological effects of prenatal and postnatal mercury/methylmercury exposure on three-year-old children in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Jiang, Chuen-Bin; Yang, Tzu-Hsuan; Chien, Ling-Chu

    2014-04-01

    This study attempts to elucidate the relationship between neurological effects and mercury/methylmercury concentrations in various biomarkers, including meconium, hair, fingernail, and toenail. Eight-three mother-infant pairs were recruited between August 2008 and December 2009, and follow-up examinations on these children were completed after three years. The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Bayley-III) for evaluating the cognitive, language, and motor development of three-year-old children were calculated and validated. The geometric mean of the total mercury concentration in meconium was 89.6 ng g(-1). The methylmercury concentrations in hair, fingernail, and toenail samples were 1.96, 0.64, and 0.55 μg g(-1), respectively. Seventy percent of children had hair methylmercury concentrations exceeding the U.S. environmental protection agency (EPA) reference of 1 μg g(-1). A significantly positive correlation was obtained between methylmercury levels in hair, fingernail, and toenail. These methylmercury levels were also significantly positively correlated with the children's fish intake and negatively correlated with a Bayley-III scale score of expressive language. The prenatal mercury exposure, however, did not show significant influence on neurological development. High fish consumption appears to be a critical risk factor for methylmercury levels in children and may cause a lower expressive language score. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Stress in Mothers of Hearing Impaired Children Compared to Mothers of Normal and Other Disabled Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Aliakbari Dehkordi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Stress is associated with life satisfaction and also development of some physical diseases. Birth of a disabled child with mental or physical disability (especially deaf or blind children, impose an enormous load of stress on their parents especially the mothers. This study compared stress levels of mothers with hearing impaired children and mothers of normal children or with other disabilities.Methods: In this study, cluster random sampling was performed in Karaj city. 120 mothers in four groups of having a child with mental retardation, low vision, hearing impairment and with normal children were included. Family inventory of life events (FILE of Mc Cubbin et al. was used to determine stress level in four groups of mothers.Results: The results of this research indicated a significant difference (p<0.05 between stress levels of mothers with hearing impaired children and mothers of other disabled and normal children in subscales of intra-family stress, finance and business strains, stress of job transitions, stress of illness and family care and family members "in and out''. There was no difference between compared groups in other subscales.Conclusion: Since deafness is a hidden inability, the child with hearing impairment has a set of social and educational problems causing great stress for parents, especially to mother. In order to decrease mother’s stress, it is suggested to provide more family consultation, adequate social support and to run educational classes for parents to practice stress coping strategies.

  9. Association of blood lead level with neurological features in 972 children affected by an acute severe lead poisoning outbreak in Zamfara State, northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greig, Jane; Thurtle, Natalie; Cooney, Lauren; Ariti, Cono; Ahmed, Abdulkadir Ola; Ashagre, Teshome; Ayela, Anthony; Chukwumalu, Kingsley; Criado-Perez, Alison; Gómez-Restrepo, Camilo; Meredith, Caitlin; Neri, Antonio; Stellmach, Darryl; Sani-Gwarzo, Nasir; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Shanks, Leslie; Dargan, Paul I

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) investigated reports of high mortality in young children in Zamfara State, Nigeria, leading to confirmation of villages with widespread acute severe lead poisoning. In a retrospective analysis, we aimed to determine venous blood lead level (VBLL) thresholds and risk factors for encephalopathy using MSF programmatic data from the first year of the outbreak response. We included children aged ≤5 years with VBLL ≥45 µg/dL before any chelation and recorded neurological status. Odds ratios (OR) for neurological features were estimated; the final model was adjusted for age and baseline VBLL, using random effects for village of residence. 972 children met inclusion criteria: 885 (91%) had no neurological features; 34 (4%) had severe features; 47 (5%) had reported recent seizures; and six (1%) had other neurological abnormalities. The geometric mean VBLLs for all groups with neurological features were >100 µg/dL vs 65.9 µg/dL for those without neurological features. The adjusted OR for neurological features increased with increasing VBLL: from 2.75, 95%CI 1.27-5.98 (80-99.9 µg/dL) to 22.95, 95%CI 10.54-49.96 (≥120 µg/dL). Neurological features were associated with younger age (OR 4.77 [95% CI 2.50-9.11] for 1-lead poisoning in prioritising therapy and developing chelation protocols.

  10. Auditory Brainstem Responses in Autistic Children in Comparison with Normal Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Sarough Farahani

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: One of the most important problems of children who suffer from autism is abnormality in receiving and integrating sensory inputs, especially hearing input. It has been shown that brainstem has a key role in receiving, encoding and integrating hearing input. Auditory brainstem response (ABR is a tool by which we can evaluate this function. The purpose of this study was to assess and to compare autistic and normal children brainstem hearing function. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on thirty (58 ears autistic and thirty (57 ears normal 6-12 years old children. The children with autism were divided into slight and severe subgroups according to Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised questionnaire. Click-evoked ABR was recorded and compared between groups. Results: There was significant difference between two groups V and III wave latencies and I-III and I-V interpeak latencies (p<0.05. In fact, comparison of the results of autism subgroups with normal children indicated that the latencies of the severe subgroup significantly prolonged. Conclusion: Increasing latencies of ABR waves in severe subgroup maybe due to abnormality in low level of brainstem. Brainstem abnormality may result in exacerbating the symptom of autism. It is therefore suggested that ABR is included in diagnostic test batteries for these patients.

  11. Self-esteem and social well-being of children with cochlear implant compared to normal-hearing children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Percy-Smith, L.; Caye-Thomasen, P.; Gudman, M.

    2008-01-01

    -hearing children (NH). Parental questionnaires, used in a national survey assessing the self-esteem and well-being of normal-hearing children, were applied to the cochlear implanted group, in order to allow direct comparisons. Results: The children in the CI group rated significantly higher on questions about well......-being in kindergarten/school and the CI boys appeared to manage school work better than normal-hearing boys. CI children were significantly more active and bullied other children less than normal-hearing peers, whereas no difference existed as to being bullied by other children. No difference was obtained regarding...

  12. Crowded visual search in children with normal vision and children with visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huurneman, Bianca; Cox, Ralf F A; Vlaskamp, Björn N S; Boonstra, F Nienke

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates the influence of oculomotor control, crowding, and attentional factors on visual search in children with normal vision ([NV], n=11), children with visual impairment without nystagmus ([VI-nys], n=11), and children with VI with accompanying nystagmus ([VI+nys], n=26). Exclusion criteria for children with VI were: multiple impairments and visual acuity poorer than 20/400 or better than 20/50. Three search conditions were presented: a row with homogeneous distractors, a matrix with homogeneous distractors, and a matrix with heterogeneous distractors. Element spacing was manipulated in 5 steps from 2 to 32 minutes of arc. Symbols were sized 2 times the threshold acuity to guarantee visibility for the VI groups. During simple row and matrix search with homogeneous distractors children in the VI+nys group were less accurate than children with NV at smaller spacings. Group differences were even more pronounced during matrix search with heterogeneous distractors. Search times were longer in children with VI compared to children with NV. The more extended impairments during serial search reveal greater dependence on oculomotor control during serial compared to parallel search. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of Child Abuse between Normal Children and Children with Learning Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Keshavarz-Valiyan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare child abuse between normal children and children with learning disorder, aged 7-12 in Tehran city. Materials & Methods: This analytical and cross sectional study is a research in causative-comparative method. 120 normal children of primary school from districts 3.7 and 15 of Tehran education and 120 children with learning disorder from three center of primary school students with learning disorder (1.2 and 3 were selected by multistage cluster sampaling method and evaluated by Reliable Child Abuse Questionnaire. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient Friedman rank test and Paired T and independent T tests. Results: In children view, there were signifivant differences in mean scores of affective abuse (p<0.001 and total score of child abuse (p=0.002 between two groups. Likewise in parent's view. there were significant differences in mean scores of affective abuse (p<0.001, physical abuse (p<0.011 and total score of child abuse (p<0.001 between two groups. Also, there were significant differences between the ideas of children and their parents about physical abuse (p<0.002, sexual abuse (p<0.001 and ignorance (p<0.001 Conclusion: The tindings reveal that there is a difference between normal chidren and children with learning disorder in the extent of child abuse regarding it's type and in comparison with previous researches, affective abuse is more than other abuse types. So. it is necessary for mental health professionals to provide programs for training parents in future.

  14. Decline of Neurologic Varicella Complications in Children During the First Seven Years After Introduction of Universal Varicella Vaccination in Germany, 2005-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streng, Andrea; Grote, Veit; Rack-Hoch, Anita; Liese, Johannes G

    2017-01-01

    Universal varicella vaccination for 1-year-old children was introduced in Germany in 2004. We investigated changes in the incidence and type of varicella-associated neurologic complications in children during the first 7 years after universal vaccination recommendation. A surveillance study was conducted based on patients children (18.1%) had neurologic complications (median age 4 years, interquartile range 2-7; 56% male). The most frequent neurologic complications were febrile convulsion (32.0% of 228 children, median age 3.0 years), varicella encephalitis or meningitis (28.9%; median age 4.5 years), syncope (13.2%; median age 7.0 years) and cerebral convulsion (11.0%; median age 4.0 years). Other complications included ataxia (3.1%), facial nerve palsy (2.6%) and cerebral vasculitis/infarction (1.8%). Neurologic complications showed a continuous decrease between 2005 and 2011, from an incidence of 2.8 (95% confidence interval: 2.1-3.6) per 100,000 children children up to 7 years of age, mainly because of a decrease in the number of febrile convulsions and encephalitis or meningitis. The incidence of varicella-associated neurologic complications in children decreased approximately by 60% during the first 7 years following the recommendation for universal vaccination.

  15. Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD detected in neurologic disorders Iraqi children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel A. Kareem

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion In the absence of newborn screening, MSUD is not uncommon in neurologically disorder patients where MSUD was still diagnosed clinically, but delayed. The importance of clinical awareness and accurate biochemical analysis were the key tools for diagnosis and the necessity for a comprehensive national newborn screening program.

  16. Strategies of normalization used by parents of chronically ill school age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossert, E; Holaday, B; Harkins, A; Turner-Henson, A

    1990-01-01

    The concept of normalization is examined in relation to chronically ill children. From this conceptual base, the responses of 365 parents in a survey of chronically ill children's use of time out of school, were analyzed to determine the normalization strategies used pertaining to the life of the child and family. This article discusses the appropriateness and importance of normalization, and presents implications for the professional nurse working with families of chronically ill children.

  17. Memory outcomes following cognitive interventions in children with neurological deficits: A review with a focus on under-studied populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Yael; Geva, Ronny

    2016-01-01

    Given the primary role of memory in children's learning and well-being, the aim of this review was to examine the outcomes of memory remediation interventions in children with neurological deficits as a function of the affected memory system and intervention method. Fifty-seven studies that evaluated the outcome of memory interventions in children were identified. Thirty-four studies met the inclusion criteria, and were included in a systematic review. Diverse rehabilitation methods for improving explicit and implicit memory in children were reviewed. The analysis indicates that teaching restoration strategies may improve, and result in the generalisation of, semantic memory and working memory performance in children older than 7 years with mild to moderate memory deficits. Factors such as longer protocols, emotional support, and personal feedback contribute to intervention efficacy. In addition, the use of compensation aids seems to be highly effective in prospective memory tasks. Finally, the review unveiled a lack of studies with young children and the absence of group interventions. These findings point to the importance of future evidence-based intervention protocols in these areas.

  18. Neurologic Semiology In A Population Of Hearing Impaired Children [semiologia Neurológica Numa População De Crianças Deficientes Auditivas.

    OpenAIRE

    Goncalves V.M.; Piovesana A.M.; De Moura-Ribeiro M.V.

    1993-01-01

    A random sample of 42 sensorineural hearing impaired children (severe and bilateral) was studied, from special classes in Campinas, with chronological ages varying between 4 and 7 years old. The children of this sample were compared with two control groups of 42 children of the same chronological age, from regular classes of private and public schools. All of them were submitted to the traditional neurological examination. Hearing impaired children showed differences as to head circumference ...

  19. Neurological outcomes in children with and without amalgam-related mercury exposure: seven years of longitudinal observations in a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterbach, Martin; Martins, Isabel P; Castro-Caldas, Alexandre; Bernardo, Mario; Luis, Henrique; Amaral, Helena; Leitão, Jorge; Martin, Michael D; Townes, Brenda; Rosenbaum, Gail; Woods, James S; Derouen, Timothy

    2008-02-01

    Although large-scale, randomized trials involving children have been completed and their results demonstrate an absence of neurobehavioral effects from clinical exposure to mercury amalgam, neurological findings from such studies have not been reported. The authors conducted a randomized, prospective trial examining the safety of dental amalgam in which 507 children aged 8 through 12 years were assigned to treatment with either amalgam or resin-based composite. During seven years of follow-up, the authors performed annual clinical neurological examinations, including an evaluation of neurological hard signs (NHSs), presence of tremor and neurological soft signs (NSSs). The authors found no significant differences between treatment groups in any of the neurological measures. Groups did not differ with respect to the presence or absence of NHSs or tremor, nor the presence or absence or severity of NSSs at any point. As expected, NSS severity scores diminished with increasing age. Even at the levels of amalgam exposure in this study (a mean of 7.7-10.7 amalgam surfaces per subject across the seven years of follow-up), the authors conclude that exposure to mercury from dental amalgam does not adversely affect neurological status. The current evidence is that potential neurobehavioral or neurological effects from dental amalgam mercury exposure in children are inconsequential.

  20. Utility of Emergency Department Observation Units for Neurologically Intact Children With Head CT Abnormalities Secondary to Acute Closed Head Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefort, Roxanna; Hunter, Jill V; Cruz, Andrea T; Caviness, A Chantal; Luerssen, Thomas G; Adekunle-Ojo, Aderonke

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the utility of the emergency department observation unit (EDOU) for neurologically intact children with closed head injuries (CHIs) and computed tomography (CT) abnormalities. A retrospective cohort study of children aged 0 to 18 years with acute CHI, abnormal head CT, and a Glasgow Coma Scales score of 14 or higher admitted to the EDOU of a tertiary care children's hospital from 2007 to 2010. Children with multisystem trauma, nonaccidental trauma, and previous neurosurgical or coagulopathic conditions were excluded. Medical records were abstracted for demographic, clinical, and radiographic findings. Poor outcome was defined as death, intensive care unit admission, or medically/surgically treated increased intracranial pressure. Two hundred two children were included. Median (range) age was 14 (4 days-16 years) months; 51% were male. The most common CT findings were nondisplaced (136, 67%) or displaced (46, 23%) as well as skull fractures and subdural hematomas (38, 19%); 54 (27%) had less than 1 CT finding. The most common interventions included repeat CT (42, 21%), antiemetics (26, 13%), and pain medication (29, 14%). Eighty-nine percent were discharged in less than 24 hours. Inpatient admission from the EDOU occurred in 6 (3%); all were discharged in less than 3 days. One patient required additional intervention (corticosteroid therapy). She had a subdural hematoma, persistent vomiting, intractable headache, and a nonevolving CT. Neurologically intact patients on initial ED evaluation had a very low likelihood of requiring further interventions, irrespective of CT findings. Although prospective evidence is necessary, this supports reliance on clinical findings when evaluating a well-appearing child with an acute CHI.

  1. Practice guideline: Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: Response to shunting and predictors of response: Report of the Guideline Development, Dissemination, and Implementation Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, John J; Kurlan, Roger; Schwalb, Jason M; Cusimano, Michael D; Gronseth, Gary; Gloss, David

    2015-12-08

    We evaluated evidence for utility of shunting in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) and for predictors of shunting effectiveness. We identified and classified relevant published studies according to 2004 and 2011 American Academy of Neurology methodology. Of 21 articles, we identified 3 Class I articles. Shunting is possibly effective in iNPH (96% chance subjective improvement, 83% chance improvement on timed walk test at 6 months) (3 Class III). Serious adverse event risk was 11% (1 Class III). Predictors of success included elevated Ro (1 Class I, multiple Class II), impaired cerebral blood flow reactivity to acetazolamide (by SPECT) (1 Class I), and positive response to either external lumbar drainage (1 Class III) or repeated lumbar punctures. Age may not be a prognostic factor (1 Class II). Data are insufficient to judge efficacy of radionuclide cisternography or aqueductal flow measurement by MRI. Clinicians may choose to offer shunting for subjective iNPH symptoms and gait (Level C). Because of significant adverse event risk, risks and benefits should be carefully weighed (Level B). Clinicians should inform patients with iNPH with elevated Ro and their families that they have an increased chance of responding to shunting compared with those without such elevation (Level B). Clinicians may counsel patients with iNPH and their families that (1) positive response to external lumbar drainage or to repeated lumbar punctures increases the chance of response to shunting, and (2) increasing age does not decrease the chance of shunting being successful (both Level C). © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  2. NEUROLOGICAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN 9-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN FED BREAST-MILK OR FORMULA-MILK AS BABIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LANTING, CI; FIDLER, [No Value; HUISMAN, M; TOUWEN, BCL; BOERSMA, ER

    1994-01-01

    The presence of minor neurological dysfunction is associated with behavioural and cognitive development at school age. We have previously shown a relation between minor neurological dysfunction and perinatal disorders, especially abnormal neonatal neurological condition. We have now investigated the

  3. Long time to diagnosis of medulloblastoma in children is not associated with decreased survival or with worse neurological outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Francois Brasme

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The long time to diagnosis of medulloblastoma, one of the most frequent brain tumors in children, is the source of painful remorse and sometimes lawsuits. We analyzed its consequences for tumor stage, survival, and sequelae. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective population-based cohort study included all cases of pediatric medulloblastoma from a region of France between 1990 and 2005. We collected the demographic, clinical, and tumor data and analyzed the relations between the interval from symptom onset until diagnosis, initial disease stage, survival, and neuropsychological and neurological outcome. RESULTS: The median interval from symptom onset until diagnosis for the 166 cases was 65 days (interquartile range 31-121, range 3-457. A long interval (defined as longer than the median was associated with a lower frequency of metastasis in the univariate and multivariate analyses and with a larger tumor volume, desmoplastic histology, and longer survival in the univariate analysis, but not after adjustment for confounding factors. The time to diagnosis was significantly associated with IQ score among survivors. No significant relation was found between the time to diagnosis and neurological disability. In the 62 patients with metastases, a long prediagnosis interval was associated with a higher T stage, infiltration of the fourth ventricle floor, and incomplete surgical resection; it nonetheless did not influence survival significantly in this subgroup. CONCLUSIONS: We found complex and often inverse relations between time to diagnosis of medulloblastoma in children and initial severity factors, survival, and neuropsychological and neurological outcome. This interval appears due more to the nature of the tumor and its progression than to parental or medical factors. These conclusions should be taken into account in the information provided to parents and in expert assessments produced for malpractice claims.

  4. Minor neurological dysfunction and behaviour in 9-year-old children born at term: evidence for sex dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikkert, Hedwig K; de Jong, Corina; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study was to assess associations between minor neurological dysfunction (MND) and behaviour, with specific attention to sex differences. This was an observational cohort study in which 341 9-year-old children (177 male, 164 female) without perinatal risk were neurologically assessed, with attention to severity and type of MND. Eight domains of dysfunction were distinguished, including posture and muscle tone, fine manipulative ability and coordination. Severity of MND was based on the number of dysfunctional domains. Behaviour was assessed by parents and teachers using the Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher's Report Form (TRF); outcomes were internalizing and externalizing behaviour and total score of behavioural problems. Females with complex MND or dysfunctional posture and muscle tone had increased risk for externalizing behavioural problems (OR 4.52, 95% CI 1.01-20.2, and OR 4.05, 95% CI 1.06-15.5, respectively). In males, these associations were absent. However, males with simple MND had an increased risk for behavioural problems indicated by the total TRF-score (OR 7.52, 95% CI 1.36-41.4). In children without perinatal risk, associations between MND and behaviour are sex-specific. In females, dysfunction of complex neural networks, including the cerebellum, is associated with externalizing behaviour. In males, neurobehavioural relationships are limited, suggesting a larger role of psychosocial factors in the genesis of behavioural problems. © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  5. Differences of respiratory function in children with spastic diplegic and hemiplegic cerebral palsy, compared with normally developed children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong Hyun; Lee, Hye Young

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate differences between respiratory function in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) and children with normal development, and to compare respiratory function between children with spastic diplegic and those with hemiplegic CP. Fourteen children with spastic diplegic CP, 14 children with spastic hemiplegic CP, and 14 normal children were enrolled, whose age, gender, height, weight, and body surface area were matched. All participants performed respiratory function tests by inhaling a breath and then blowing the entire volume through a spirometer, as deeply and rapidly as possible. In general, children with spastic diplegic CP and those with hemiplegic CP showed lower respiratory function compared to children with normal development. In comparison between children with spastic CP and those with hemiplegic CP, statistical significance was observed only in FVC, FEV_1, and PEF. Findings revealed significantly weaker respiratory function in children with CP as compared to normal children. In addition, children with spastic diplegic CP showed significantly lower forced expiratory function than those with spastic hemiplegic CP. Therefore, clinical assessment and therapeutic intervention for respiratory function should be carefully considered for children with spastic diplegic and hemiplegic CP.

  6. Randomized controlled trial demonstrates that exposure to mercury from dental amalgam does not adversely affect neurological development in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackert, J Rodway

    2010-03-01

    The study subjects were 507 children (228 females and 279 males) from the Casa Pia school system in Lisbon, Portugal; the same cohort of children used in a previous study. The children were 8 to 12 years old at the time of enrollment in the study, which began in January of 1997. To be included in the study, a child must have had at baseline at least one carious lesion in a permanent tooth, no previous exposure to amalgam treatments, urinary mercury level less than 10 mg/L, blood lead level less than 15 mg/dL, IQ greater than or equal to 67 as obtained with the Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence, and no interfering health condition. Study subjects were randomly assigned to receive dental treatment with either amalgam or resin-based composite for posterior restorations (and composite for all anterior restorations). By the end of year 1, the participants had a mean of 8.3 surfaces restored with amalgam, and the mean number of surfaces restored varied between 7.7 and 10.7 during the 7 years of follow-up. The primary outcome measures for the study were the presence of neurological hard signs (NHSs), such as tremor, and the presence and severity of neurological soft signs (NSSs), such as synkinesias. NHSs were scored as present or absent. Tremor was reported separately from other NHSs because of its relationship to mercury toxicity. Observation of NSSs did not begin until follow-up year 2, so there were no baseline data for NSSs. NSSs were evaluated using the examination described by Peters et al, and each item was scored from 0 (absent) to 3 (maximum deviation). Over the 7-year duration of the study, there were slight differences in the percentages of subjects exhibiting any NHSs (including tremor, which was reported separately) between the 2 treatment groups, but the directions of the differences were not consistent from year to year, and the differences were not statistically significant in any year. No statistically significant difference in NSSs

  7. Can the Children's Communication Checklist differentiate between children with autism, children with ADHD, and normal controls?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, H.M.; Verte, S.; Osterlaan, J.; Roeyers, H; Hartman, C.A.; Mulder, Erik J.; Berckelaer-Onnes, I.A.; Sergeant, J.A.; van Berckelaer-Onnes, IA

    2004-01-01

    Background:  The Children's Communication Checklist (CCC; Bishop, 1998) is a questionnaire that was developed to measure pragmatic language use and may be completed by parents and teachers. Two studies are reported, which were designed to investigate: (1) whether children with Attention Deficit

  8. Cognition in anxious children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a comparison with clinical and normal children

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    Young Arlene

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognition in children with anxiety disorders (ANX and comorbid Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD has received little attention, potentially impacting clinical and academic interventions in this highly disabled group. This study examined several cognitive features relative to children with either pure condition and to normal controls. Methods One hundred and eight children ages 8–12 and parents were diagnosed by semi-structured parent interview and teacher report as having: ANX (any anxiety disorder except OCD or PTSD; n = 52, ADHD (n = 21, or ANX + ADHD (n = 35. All completed measures of academic ability, emotional perception, and working memory. Clinical subjects were compared to 35 normal controls from local schools. Results Groups did not differ significantly on age, gender, or estimated IQ. On analyses of variance, groups differed on academic functioning (Wide Range Achievement Test, p Conclusion Though requiring replication, findings suggest that ANX + ADHD relates to greater cognitive and academic vulnerability than ANX, but may relate to reduced perception of anger.

  9. Anxiety and threat perception abnormalities in normal children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muris, P.; Kindt, M.; Boegels, S.; Merckelbach, H.; Gadet, B,; Moulaert, V.

    2000-01-01

    Examined the relationship between childhood anxiety and threat perception abnormalities. 105 children (aged 8-13 yrs) were exposed to stories reflecting 3 types of anxiety: social anxiety, separation anxiety, and generalized anxiety. From children's reactions to the stories, a number of threat

  10. Emotional reasoning and parent-based reasoning in normal children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morren, M.; Muris, P.; Kindt, M.

    2004-01-01

    A previous study by Muris, Merckelbach, and Van Spauwen demonstrated that children display emotional reasoning irrespective of their anxiety levels. That is, when estimating whether a situation is dangerous, children not only rely on objective danger information but also on their own

  11. Recognition of Faux Pas by Normally Developing Children and Children with Asperger Syndrome or High-Functioning Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron-Cohen, Simon; O'Riordan, Michelle; Stone, Valerie; Jones, Rosie; Plaisted, Kate

    1999-01-01

    This article describes a test of theory of mind for children, ages 7-11, that involved recognition of faux pas. Three studies used the test with children with high functioning autism (HFA) or Asperger syndrome (AS). Results indicated that children with HFA or AS were significantly impaired on this task when compared to normally developing…

  12. Auditory, Visual, and Auditory-Visual Perceptions of Emotions by Young Children with Hearing Loss versus Children with Normal Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most, Tova; Michaelis, Hilit

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effect of hearing loss (HL) on emotion-perception ability among young children with and without HL. Method: A total of 26 children 4.0-6.6 years of age with prelingual sensory-neural HL ranging from moderate to profound and 14 children with normal hearing (NH) participated. They were asked to identify…

  13. Normalizing Heterosexuality: Mothers' Assumptions, Talk, and Strategies with Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Karin A.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, social scientists have identified not just heterosexism and homophobia as social problems, but also heteronormativity--the mundane, everyday ways that heterosexuality is privileged and taken for granted as normal and natural. There is little empirical research, however, on how heterosexuality is reproduced and then normalized for…

  14. Monocular and binocular development in children with albinism, infantile nystagmus syndrome and normal vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurneman, B.; Boonstra, F.N.

    2013-01-01

    Background/aims: To compare interocular acuity differences, crowding ratios, and binocular summation ratios in 4- to 8-year-old children with albinism (nn=n16), children with infantile nystagmus syndrome (nn=n10), and children with normal vision (nn=n72). Methods: Interocular acuity differences and

  15. The Perception and Production of Rhyme in Normal and Developmentally Apraxic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Michelle J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The phonological competence of 4 children, ages 5-7 years old, with a diagnosis of developmental apraxia of speech (DAS), was contrasted to that of 4 normal children. The DAS children revealed a severe deficit in rhyming ability. Results suggest that DAS is a fundamental disorder of the segmental phonological level of language. (Author/DB)

  16. Monocular and binocular development in children with albinism, infantile nystagmus syndrome, and normal vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurneman, B.; Boonstra, F.N.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background/aims: To compare interocular acuity differences, crowding ratios, and binocular summation ratios in 4- to 8-year-old children with albinism (n = 16), children with infantile nystagmus syndrome (n = 10), and children with normal vision (n = 72). Methods: Interocular acuity

  17. Monocular and binocular development in children with albinism, infantile nystagmus syndrome and normal vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurneman, B.; Boonstra, F.N.

    2013-01-01

    Background/aims: To compare interocular acuity differences, crowding ratios, and binocular summation ratios in 4- to 8-year-old children with albinism (n = 16), children with infantile nystagmus syndrome (n = 10), and children with normal vision (n = 72). Methods: Interocular acuity differences and

  18. Event-Related EEG Oscillations to Semantically Unrelated Words in Normal and Learning Disabled Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Thalia; Harmony, Thalia; Mendoza, Omar; Lopez-Alanis, Paula; Marroquin, Jose Luis; Otero, Gloria; Ricardo-Garcell, Josefina

    2012-01-01

    Learning disabilities (LD) are one of the most frequent problems for elementary school-aged children. In this paper, event-related EEG oscillations to semantically related and unrelated pairs of words were studied in a group of 18 children with LD not otherwise specified (LD-NOS) and in 16 children with normal academic achievement. We propose that…

  19. Nasalance Scores of Children with Repaired Cleft Palate Who Exhibit Normal Velopharyngeal Closure during Aerodynamic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajac, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if children with repaired cleft palate and normal velopharyngeal (VP) closure as determined by aerodynamic testing exhibit greater acoustic nasalance than control children without cleft palate. Method: Pressure-flow procedures were used to identify 2 groups of children based on VP closure during the production of /p/ in the…

  20. Monocular and binocular development in children with albinism, infantile nystagmus syndrome, and normal vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huurneman, Bianca; Boonstra, F Nienke

    2013-12-01

    To compare interocular acuity differences, crowding ratios, and binocular summation ratios in 4- to 8-year-old children with albinism (n = 16), children with infantile nystagmus syndrome (n = 10), and children with normal vision (n = 72). Interocular acuity differences and binocular summation ratios were compared between groups. Crowding ratios were calculated by dividing the single Landolt C decimal acuity with the crowded Landolt C decimal acuity mono- and binocularly. A linear regression analysis was conducted to investigate the contribution of 5 predictors to the monocular and binocular crowding ratio: nystagmus amplitude, nystagmus frequency, strabismus, astigmatism, and anisometropia. Crowding ratios were higher under mono- and binocular viewing conditions for children with infantile nystagmus syndrome than for children with normal vision. Children with albinism showed higher crowding ratios in their poorer eye and under binocular viewing conditions than children with normal vision. Children with albinism and children with infantile nystagmus syndrome showed larger interocular acuity differences than children with normal vision (0.1 logMAR in our clinical groups and 0.0 logMAR in children with normal vision). Binocular summation ratios did not differ between groups. Strabismus and nystagmus amplitude predicted the crowding ratio in the poorer eye (p = 0.015 and p = 0.005, respectively). The crowding ratio in the better eye showed a marginally significant relation with nystagmus frequency and depth of anisometropia (p = 0.082 and p = 0.070, respectively). The binocular crowding ratio was not predicted by any of the variables. Children with albinism and children with infantile nystagmus syndrome show larger interocular acuity differences than children with normal vision. Strabismus and nystagmus amplitude are significant predictors of the crowding ratio in the poorer eye.

  1. Comparing the drawings of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with normal children.

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    Mahnaz Haghighi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most common behavioral problem during childhood and in school-aged children. Various projection drawings have been designed for assessing children's personality and psychological disorders including the tests of draw a person (DAP and draw a family (DAF. We aimed to compare the differences between typically developing children and children with ADHD using these tests.In this case-control study, all the 9-10 year-old boy students studying at the third and fourth grades were enrolled from schools in the 2nd educational district of Shiraz, south of Iran. Eighty students were then selected and enrolled into the ADHD group and the control group. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition- text Revised (DSM-IV-TR, and the Child Symptoms Inventory were used to diagnose the children with ADHD. We evaluated and analyzed impulsiveness, non-impulsiveness, emotional problems and incompatibility indices in the DAP and DAF tests in each group.A significant difference was found in the indices of incompatibility and emotional problems, impulsiveness, non-impulsiveness and DAF between typically developing children and those with ADHD. The mean (±SD total scores of the above mentioned indices in the ADHD group were 19.79(±2.94, 12.31(±1.84, 5.26(±2.29 and 5.89(±2.13, respectively (P<0.001. The corresponding figures for these indices in the normal group were 12.11(±4.74, 5.63(±2, 10.36± (2.33 and 2.88(±2.13, respectively (P<0.001.Significant differences were obtained between the control group and children with ADHD using these two drawing tests. The rate of impulsivity and emotional problems indices in drawings of children with ADHD was markedly more common than those of the typically developing children. This suggests the need for further assessment to screen ADHD.

  2. Comparison of normal adult and children brain SPECT imaging using statistical parametric mapping(SPM)

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    Lee, Myoung Hoon; Yoon, Seok Nam; Joh, Chul Woo; Lee, Dong Soo [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Sung [Seoul national University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    This study compared rCBF pattern in normal adult and normal children using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). The purpose of this study was to determine distribution pattern not seen visual analysis in both groups. Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT was performed in 12 normal adults (M:F=11:1, average age 35 year old) and 6 normal control children (M:F=4:2, 10.5{+-}3.1y) who visited psychiatry clinic to evaluate ADHD. Their brain SPECT revealed normal rCBF pattern in visual analysis and they were diagnosed clinically normal. Using SPM method, we compared normal adult group's SPECT images with those of 6 normal children subjects and measured the extent of the area with significant hypoperfusion and hyperperfusion (p<0.001, extent threshold=16). The areas of both angnlar gyrus, both postcentral gyrus, both superior frontal gyrus, and both superior parietal lobe showed significant hyperperfusion in normal adult group compared with normal children group. The areas of left amygdala gyrus, brain stem, both cerebellum, left globus pallidus, both hippocampal formations, both parahippocampal gyrus, both thalamus, both uncus, both lateral and medial occipitotemporal gyrus revealed significantly hyperperfusion in the children. These results demonstrated that SPM can say more precise anatomical area difference not seen visual analysis.

  3. Impact of Dispatcher‐Assisted Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation on Neurological Outcomes in Children With Out‐of‐Hospital Cardiac Arrests: A Prospective, Nationwide, Population‐Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Yoshikazu; Maeda, Tetsuo; Goto, Yumiko

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of dispatcher‐assisted bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on neurological outcomes in children is unclear. We investigated whether dispatcher‐assisted bystander CPR shows favorable neurological outcomes (Cerebral Performance Category scale 1 or 2) in children with out‐of‐hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Methods and Results Children (n=5009, ageCPR (n=2287); bystander CPR with dispatcher instruction (n=2019); and bystander CPR without dispatcher instruction (n=703) groups. The primary endpoint was favorable neurological outcome at 1 month post‐OHCA. Dispatcher CPR instruction was offered to 53.9% of patients, significantly increasing bystander CPR provision rate (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 7.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.60 to 8.57). Bystander CPR with and without dispatcher instruction were significantly associated with improved 1‐month favorable neurological outcomes (aOR, 1.81 and 1.68; 95% CI, 1.24 to 2.67 and 1.07 to 2.62, respectively), compared to no bystander CPR. Conventional CPR was associated with increased odds of 1‐month favorable neurological outcomes irrespective of etiology of cardiac arrest (aOR, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.56 to 3.41). However, chest‐compression‐only CPR was not associated with 1‐month meaningful outcomes (aOR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.67 to 1.64). Conclusions In children with OHCA, dispatcher‐assisted bystander CPR increased bystander CPR provision rate and was associated with improved 1‐month favorable neurological outcomes, compared to no bystander CPR. Conventional bystander CPR was associated with greater likelihood of neurologically intact survival, compared to chest‐compression‐only CPR, irrespective of cardiac arrest etiology. PMID:24785780

  4. Designing and implementing a longitudinal study of children with neurological, genetic or metabolic conditions: charting the territory

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    Davies Betty

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with progressive metabolic, neurological, or chromosomal conditions and their families anticipate an unknown lifespan, endure unstable and often painful symptoms, and cope with erratic emotional and spiritual crises as the condition progresses along an uncertain trajectory towards death. Much is known about the genetics and pathophysiology of these diseases, but very little has been documented about the trajectory of symptoms for children with these conditions or the associated experience of their families. A longitudinal study design will help to close this gap in knowledge. Methods/Design Charting the Territory is a longitudinal descriptive, correlational study currently underway with children 0-19 years who are diagnosed with progressive neurological, metabolic, or chromosomal conditions and their families. The purpose of the study is to determine and document the clinical progression of the condition and the associated bio-psychosocial-spiritual experiences of the parents and siblings age 7-18 years. Approximately 300 families, both newly diagnosed children and those with established conditions, are being recruited in six Canadian cities. Children and their families are being followed for a minimum of 18 months, depending on when they enroll in the study. Family data collection will continue after the child's death if the child dies during the study period. Data collection includes monthly parental assessment of the child's symptoms; an annual functional assessment of the child; and completion of established instruments every 6 months by parents to assess family functioning, marital satisfaction, health status, anxiety, depression, stress, burden, grief, spirituality, and growth, and by siblings to assess coping and health. Impact of participation on parents is assessed after 1 year and at the end of the study. Chart reviews are conducted at enrollment and at the conclusion of the study or at the time of the

  5. Spirometric nomograms for normal children and adolescents in Puerto Rico

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    MARIO CHEN-MOK

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The use of spirometric reference values specific to the population being tested is preferable. A study carried out in Puerto Rico is used here to develop nomograms for normal children and adolescents based on age and height, two variables that have been found to be good predictors of pulmonary function. Material and methods. The data for healthy individuals aged 5 to 18 were extracted (108 girls and 107 boys from a larger study of spirometric measurements collected on 4 527 individuals attending medical services in Puerto Rico. Several models were tested for the prediction of FEV1, FVC and the ratio FEV1/FVC. The best models were selected for each gender, and nomograms were developed showing the fifth, twenty-fifth, fiftieth, seventy-fifth, and ninety-fifth percentile of the predicted values according to age and height separately. Results. The best models were those using the logarithm of the pulmonary function and the cube of height (R2= 0.79-0.81, and age without transformation (R2= 0.73-0.77. Corresponding nomograms were developed based on these models. The ratio showed little variation for different ages and heights. Conclusions. Pulmonary function can be efficiently predicted by age and height. Nomograms provide a simple way to use spirometric references that can be incorporated to clinical practice.Objetivo. Desarrollar nomogramas espirométricos para niños y adolescentes portorriqueños, de acuerdo con edad y estatura. Material y métodos. Se extrajeron datos de individuos sanos de edades entre 5 y 18 años (108 niñas y 107 niños de un estudio mayor, en el cual se recolectaron medidas espirométricas en 4 527 individuos que se presentaron en los servicios médicos en Puerto Rico. Se probaron varios modelos en la predicción del volumen de espiración forzada en un segundo (FEV1, de la capacidad vital forzada (CVF y la razón VEF1/CVF. Se seleccionaron los mejores modelos para cada sexo y se desarrollaron los nomogramas

  6. Prediction of the academic success of children with suspected neurological impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, P; Berk, R A

    1979-07-01

    Explored a multivariate approach to the prediction of 8-year academic achievement. Ss were black, of low socioeconomic status, and had been diagnosed as suspect neurologically impaired at age 7. A serial array of early predictors that included maternal education, sex, birth weight, 8-month and 4-year intelligence, and 3-year speech, hearing, and language were entered into multiple regression analyses to determine their value in predicting 8-year academic achievement in word recognition, arithmetic, spelling, and oral reading. The 4-year intelligence measure was the best overall predictor, although maternal education, sex, and birth weight contributed slightly to the predictions. The resulting equations, however, could not be used to predict accurately 8-year academic achievement.

  7. Working memory in Farsi-speaking children with normal development and cochlear implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymani, Zahra; Amidfar, Meysam; Dadgar, Hooshang; Jalaie, Shohre

    2014-04-01

    Working memory has an important role in language acquisition and development of cognition skills. The ability of encoding, storage and retrieval of phonological codes, as activities of working memory, acquired by audition sense. Children with cochlear implant experience a period that they are not able to perceive sounds. In order to assess the effect of hearing on working memory, we investigated working memory as a cognition skill in children with normal development and cochlear implant. Fifty students with normal hearing and 50 students with cochlear implant aged 5-7 years participated in this study. Children educated in the preschool, the first and second grades. Children with normal development were matched based on age, gender, and grade of education with cochlear implant. Two components of working memory including phonological loop and central executive were compared between two groups. Phonological loop assessed by nonword repetition task and forward digit span. To assess central executive component backward digit span was used. The developmental trend was studied in children with normal development and cochlear implant as well. The effect of age at implantation in children with cochlear implants on components of working memory was investigated. There are significant differences between children with normal development and cochlear implant in all tasks that assess working memory (p children's age at implantation was negatively correlated with all tasks (p memory between different grades showed significant differences both in children with normal development and in children with cochlear implant (p children with cochlear implant may experience difficulties in working memory. Therefore, these children have problems in encoding, practicing, and repeating phonological units. The results also suggested working memory develops when the child grows up. In cochlear implant children, with decreasing age at implantation and increasing their experience in perceiving

  8. A Comparative Study on Diadochokinetic Skill of Dyslexic, Stuttering, and Normal Children

    OpenAIRE

    Ayyoub Malek; Shahrokh Amiri; Issa Hekmati; Jaber Pirzadeh; Hossein Gholizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Previous studies have shown some motor deficits among stuttering and dyslexic children. While motor deficits in speech articulation of the stuttering children are among the controversial topics, no study on motor deficits of dyslexic children has been documented to date. Methods. 120 children (40 stuttering, 40 dyslexia, and 40 normal) 6?11 years old were matched and compared in terms of diadochokinetic skill. Dyslexia symptoms checklist, reading test, and diadochokinetic task were...

  9. Broader Autism Phenotype in Iranian Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders vs. Normal Children

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    Mohammad Reza Mohammadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the broader autism phenotype in Iranian parents of children with autism spectrum disorders and parents of typically developing children.Method: Parents of children with ASD and parents of typically developing children were asked to complete the Persian version of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ. In the ASD group, families included 204 parents (96 fathers and 108 mothers of children diagnosed as having autism (Autistic Disorder, or AD (n=124, Asperger Syndrome (AS or High Functioning Autism (HFA (n=48 and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS (n=32 by psychiatrists based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-4thedition (DSM-IV-TR criteria. In the control group, 210 (108 fathers and 102 mothers parents of typically developing children. Parents of typically developing children were selected from four primary schools. Based on family reports, their children did not have any psychiatric problems. Total AQ score and each of the 5 subscales were analyzed using two-way ANOVAs with sex and group as factors.Results: The mean age of ASD fathers was 40.6 years (SD=5.96; range 31-54, and of ASD mothers was 34.7 years (SD=4.55; range 28-45. The mean age of control fathers was 37 years (SD=4.6; range 29-45 and of control mothers was 34.11 years (SD=4.86; range 28-45. Group differences were found in age (p‹0/001. On total AQ, a main effect for group and sex was found. ASD parents scored higher than controls (F(1,410=77.876, P‹0/001 and males scored higher than females (F(1,410=23.324, P‹0/001. Also, Group by Sex interaction was significant (F(1,410=4.986, P‹0/05. Results of MANOVA analysis displayed significant differences between ASD's subgroups on total AQ and subscales scores (F (15, 1121 = 13.924, p<0.0005; Wilk's Lambda= 0.624, partial =0.145. Pairwise comparisons between ASD's subgroups and Normal group showed that mean scores for the

  10. The comparison of balance performance among children with cochlear implantation, post-aural aid and normal children

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    Arezoo Ahmad pour

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: This cross-sectional study was carried out to compare balance performance between children with cochlear implants and post-aural aid and normal children. Methods: The present study was done on 67 severe to profound hearing impaired children. Of these, 21 children with an average age of 7 years and 4 months (±1.7 wore cochlear implant, 46 children with an average age of 7 years and 7 months (±1.7 wore post-aural aid and 60 children with an average 8 years and one month (±11 months were considered as a control group. All of the children were tested with the 9-stage balance subtest of Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency2 (BOT2. Results: The mean total BOT2 score of hearing impaired children was significantly lower than the normal group (P≤0.001. The mean total BOT2 score among children with cochlear implant, post-aural aids and normal group showed that cochlear implant group significantly performed weaker than the other two groups (P≤0.001. Conclusion: Hearing impaired children particularly children with cochlear implant are exposed to the risk of balance deficit. Hearing impaired children specially those who wear cochlear implants must be screened for vestibular hypofunction.

  11. Sexual self-esteem in mothers of normal and mentally-retarded children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakolizadeh, Jahanshir; Amiri, Mostafa; Nejad, Fahimeh Rastgoo

    2017-06-01

    Sexual self-esteem is negatively influenced by the stressful experiences in lifetime. This study compared the sexual self-esteem and its components in mothers with normal and mentally-retarded children in Qaen city, in 2014. A total of 120 mothers were selected and assigned into two groups of 60 samples based on convenient sampling method and randomized multiple stage sampling. Both groups completed sexual self-esteem questionnaire. The data were analyzed employing t-test through SPSS software version15. The results showed that the rate of sexual self-esteem in mothers of mentally-retarded children decreased significantly compared with that of mothers with normal children (pself-esteem including skill and experience, attractiveness, control, moral judgment, and adaptiveness in mothers of mentally-retarded children were significantly less than those of mothers with normal children (p self-esteem, especially the sexual one, be taught to mothers of mentally-retarded children by specialists.

  12. Comparative Analysis of Marital Satisfaction and Quality of life in Mothers with Exceptional Children and Mothers with Normal Children

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    Gholam Abbas Lohranpour

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to analyze comparatively marital satisfaction and quality of life in mothers with exceptional children and mothers with normal children. Methodology in present study is comparative. For sample, it selects 40 mothers with normal children in nursery school and preschool located in Ahvaz, 40 mothers with exceptional children under education and care in daily sanatorium, and 30 mothers with exceptional children hospitalized (nightly in Ahvaz. They are tested by a enrich questionnaire of short form with 47 questions and 36 questions of quality of life. Statistical model of one-way variance analysis is used for data analysis. Findings indicate that there is no significant difference in marital satisfaction between mothers with exceptional children in caring centers and mothers with normal children, yet there is a significant difference in quality of life (mental-physical between mothers with exceptional children and mothers with normal children. Results of study indicate that mental quality of life as dependent variable is influenced by factors such as children with mental or physical disability as independent variables. Birth of an exceptional child reduces mental quality of life. Results show that not presence of exceptional child for full-time is highly effective on physical quality of life.

  13. Guided self-help interventions for mental health disorders in children with neurological conditions: study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Sophie; Heyman, Isobel; Coughtrey, Anna; Simmonds, Jess; Varadkar, Sophia; Stephenson, Terence; DeJong, Margaret; Shafran, Roz

    2016-11-04

    Rates of mental health disorders are significantly greater in children with physical illnesses than in physically well children. Children with neurological conditions, such as epilepsy, are known to have particularly high rates of mental health disorders. Despite this, mental health problems in children with neurological conditions have remained under-recognised and under-treated in clinical settings. Evidence-based guided self-help interventions are efficacious in reducing symptoms of mental health disorders in children, but their efficacy in reducing symptoms of common mental health disorders in children with neurological conditions has not been investigated. We aim to pilot a guided self-help intervention for the treatment of mental health disorders in children with neurological conditions. A pilot randomised controlled trial with 18 patients with neurological conditions and mental health disorders will be conducted. Participants attending specialist neurology clinics at a National UK Children's Hospital will be randomised to receive guided self-help for common mental health disorders or to a 12-week waiting list control. Participants in the treatment group will receive 10 sessions of guided self-help delivered over the telephone. The waiting list control group will receive the intervention after a waiting period of 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure is reduction in symptoms of mental health disorders. Exclusion criteria are limited to those at significant risk of harm to self or others, the presence of primary mental health disorder other than anxiety, depression or disruptive behaviour (e.g. psychosis, eating disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder) or intellectual disability at a level meaning potential participants would be unable to access the intervention. The study has ethical approval from the Camden and Islington NHS Research Ethics Committee, registration number 14.LO.1353. Results will be disseminated to patients, the wider public, clinicians and

  14. The Influence of Lead Exposure and Toxicity to Children's Neurological Development and School Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Sarah L.

    This report discusses the effects of lead exposure and toxicity on children's cognitive development and school performance and addresses the role of schools in prevention of lead poisoning. Sources of lead exposure include mining, smelting and refining activities, lead paint, leaded gasoline, and industrial emissions. The results of lead poisoning…

  15. Emotional reasoning and parent-based reasoning in normal children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morren, M.; Muris, P.; Kindt, M.

    2004-01-01

    A previous study by Muris, Merckelbach, and Van Spauwen demonstrated that children display emotional reasoning irrepective of their anxiety levels. That is when estimating whether a situation is dangerous, childen not only rely on objective danger information but also on their own anciety-response.

  16. Neurological complications of chickenpox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girija A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the neurological complications of chickenpox with prognosis. Background: The neurological complications occur in 0.03% of persons who get chickenpox. There is no universal vaccination against chicken pox in India. Most patients prefer alternate modalities of treatment. Hence these complications of chickenpox are likely to continue to occur. Study Design: A prospective study was conducted for 2 years (from March 2002 on the admitted cases with neurological complications after chickenpox (with rash or scar. Patients were investigated with CT/MRI, CSF study, EEG and nerve conduction studies and hematological workup. They were followed-up for 1 year and outcome assessed using modified Rankin scale. Results: The latency for the neurological complications was 4-32 days (mean: 16.32 days. There were 18 cases: 10 adults (64% and 8 children (36%. Cerebellar ataxia (normal CT/MRI was observed in 7 cases (32% (mean age: 6.85 years. One patient (6 years had acute right hemiparesis in the fifth week due to left capsular infarct. All these cases spontaneously recovered by 4 weeks. The age range of the adult patients was 13-47 years (mean: 27 years. The manifestations included cerebellar and pyramidal signs (n-4 with features of demyelination in MRI who recovered spontaneously or with methylprednisolone by 8 weeks. Patient with encephalitis recovered in 2 weeks with acyclovir. Guillain Barre syndrome of the demyelinating type (n-2 was treated with Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG and they had a slow recovery by a modified Rankin scale (mRs score of 3 and 2 at 6 months and 1 year, respectively. One case died after hemorrhage into the occipital infarct. There were two cases of asymmetrical neuropathy, one each of the seventh cranial and brachial neuritis. Conclusion: Spontaneous recovery occurs in post-chickenpox cerebellar ataxia. Rarely, serious complications can occur in adults. The demyelinating disorders, either of the central or peripheral

  17. Anxiety in children with hearing aids or cochlear implants compared to normally hearing controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, Stephanie C P M; Rieffe, Carolien; Kouwenberg, Maartje; De Raeve, Leo; Soede, Wim; Briaire, Jeroen J; Frijns, Johan H M

    2012-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the levels of anxiety in hearing-impaired children with hearing aids or cochlear implants compared to normally hearing children, and to identify individual variables that were associated with differences in the level of anxiety. Large retrospective cohort study. Self-reports and parent-reports concerning general anxiety, social anxiety, and generalized anxiety disorder were used. The study group (mean age, 11.8 years) consisted of three age-matched subgroups: 32 children with cochlear implants, 51 children with conventional hearing aids, and 127 children without hearing loss. Levels of anxiety in children with cochlear implants and normally hearing children were similar. Early implantation was associated with lower levels of general and social anxiety. Remarkably, children with conventional hearing aids had higher levels of social anxiety, and their parents also reported more generalized anxiety disorder. The outcomes demonstrate that in their level of anxiety, children with cochlear implants might be more comparable to normally hearing children than to children with hearing aids. This positive finding can be the consequence of audiological factors or other aspects of the cochlear implant rehabilitation program. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. MRI characterization of brown adipose tissue in obese and normal-weight children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Jie; Rigsby, Cynthia K.; Shore, Richard M. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, 225 E. Chicago Ave., Box 9, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Schoeneman, Samantha E. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, 225 E. Chicago Ave., Box 9, Chicago, IL (United States); Zhang, Huiyuan [John H. Stroger, Jr. Hospital of Cook County, Collaborative Research Unit, Chicago, IL (United States); Kwon, Soyang [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Stanley Manne Children' s Research Institute, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Pediatrics, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Josefson, Jami L. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Division of Endocrinology, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Pediatrics, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is identified in mammals as an adaptive thermogenic organ for modulation of energy expenditure and heat generation. Human BAT may be primarily composed of brown-in-white (BRITE) adipocytes and stimulation of BRITE may serve as a potential target for obesity interventions. Current imaging studies of BAT detection and characterization have been mainly limited to PET/CT. MRI is an emerging application for BAT characterization in healthy children. To exploit Dixon and diffusion-weighted MRI methods to characterize cervical-supraclavicular BAT/BRITE properties in normal-weight and obese children while accounting for pubertal status. Twenty-eight healthy children (9-15 years old) with a normal or obese body mass index participated. MRI exams were performed to characterize supraclavicular adipose tissues by measuring tissue fat percentage, T2*, tissue water mobility, and microvasculature properties. We used multivariate linear regression models to compare tissue properties between normal-weight and obese groups while accounting for pubertal status. MRI measurements of BAT/BRITE tissues in obese children showed higher fat percentage (P < 0.0001), higher T2* (P < 0.0001), and lower diffusion coefficient (P = 0.015) compared with normal-weight children. Pubertal status was a significant covariate for the T2* measurement, with higher T2* (P = 0.0087) in pubertal children compared to prepubertal children. Perfusion measurements varied by pubertal status. Compared to normal-weight children, obese prepubertal children had lower perfusion fraction (P = 0.003) and pseudo-perfusion coefficient (P = 0.048); however, obese pubertal children had higher perfusion fraction (P = 0.02) and pseudo-perfusion coefficient (P = 0.028). This study utilized chemical-shift Dixon MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI methods to characterize supraclavicular BAT/BRITE tissue properties. The multi-parametric evaluation revealed evidence of morphological differences in brown

  19. Broader Autism Phenotype in Iranian Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders vs. Normal Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Ghasempour, Salehe

    2012-01-01

    differ in ASD fathers and mothers, but the proportion of fathers in Narrow Autism Phenotype(NAP) range was more than mothers (X2=14.344, P ‹ 0/001). Conclusion Results of the present study revealed that parents of children with ASD scored significantly higher than control parents on total AQ and its subscales and the rates of BAP, MAP and NAP were higher in ASD parents than in controls. In addition, in ASD's subgroups, the parents of Asperger children scored significantly more than other subgroups (Autism and PDD-nos) and the normal group on total AQ and some subscales. PMID:23408558

  20. Identification and validation of clinical predictors for the risk of neurological involvement in children with hand, foot, and mouth disease in Sarawak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Mong How; Wong, See Chang; Mohan, Anand; Podin, Yuwana; Perera, David; Clear, Daniella; del Sel, Sylvia; Chieng, Chae Hee; Tio, Phaik Hooi; Cardosa, Mary Jane; Solomon, Tom

    2009-01-19

    Human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) can cause Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) with neurological complications, which may rapidly progress to fulminant cardiorespiratory failure, and death. Early recognition of children at risk is the key to reduce acute mortality and morbidity. We examined data collected through a prospective clinical study of HFMD conducted between 2000 and 2006 that included 3 distinct outbreaks of HEV71 to identify risk factors associated with neurological involvement in children with HFMD. Total duration of fever >or= 3 days, peak temperature >or= 38.5 degrees C and history of lethargy were identified as independent risk factors for neurological involvement (evident by CSF pleocytosis) in the analysis of 725 children admitted during the first phase of the study. When they were validated in the second phase of the study, two or more (>or= 2) risk factors were present in 162 (65%) of 250 children with CSF pleocytosis compared with 56 (30%) of 186 children with no CSF pleocytosis (OR 4.27, 95% CI2.79-6.56, p or= 38.5 degrees C and history of lethargy had the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of 28%(48/174), 89%(125/140), 76%(48/63) and 50%(125/251), respectively in predicting CSF pleocytosis in children that were seen within the first 2 days of febrile illness. For those presented on the 3rd or later day of febrile illness, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of >or= 2 risk factors predictive of CSF pleocytosis were 75%(57/76), 59%(27/46), 75%(57/76) and 59%(27/46), respectively. Three readily elicited clinical risk factors were identified to help detect children at risk of neurological involvement. These risk factors may serve as a guide to clinicians to decide the need for hospitalization and further investigation, including cerebrospinal fluid examination, and close monitoring for disease progression in children with HFMD.

  1. Sagittal spinopelvic balance in normal children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac-Thiong, Jean-Marc; Labelle, Hubert; Berthonnaud, Eric; Betz, Randal R; Roussouly, Pierre

    2007-02-01

    The sagittal spinopelvic balance is poorly documented in normal pediatric subjects. The purpose of this study is to characterize the sagittal spinopelvic balance in the pediatric population and to evaluate the correlations between spinopelvic parameters. Seven parameters were evaluated from the lateral standing radiographs of 341 normal subjects aged 3-18 years old: thoracic kyphosis (TK), thoracic tilt (TT), lumbar lordosis (LL), lumbar tilt (LT), sacral slope (SS), pelvic tilt (PT) and pelvic incidence (PI). The mean values for the pelvic parameters were 49.1+/-11.0, 7.7+/-8.0 and 41.4+/-8.2 degrees for PI, PT and SS, respectively. The mean values for the spinal parameters were 48.0+/-11.7, 44.0+/-10.9, -7.3+/-5.2 and -3.1+/-5.2 degrees for LL, TK, LT and TT, respectively. The spinopelvic parameters were different from those reported in normal adults, but the correlations between the parameters were similar. PI was significantly related to SS and PT. Significant correlations were found between the parameters of adjacent anatomical regions. Pelvic morphology (PI) regulates sagittal sacro-pelvic orientation (SS and PT). Sacral orientation (SS) is correlated with the shape (LL) and orientation (LT) of the lumbar spine. Adjacent anatomical regions of the spine and pelvis are interdependent, and their relationships result in a stable and compensated posture, presumably to minimize energy expenditure. Results from this study could be used as an aid for the planning of surgery in pediatric patients with spinal deformity in order to restore a relatively normal sagittal spinopelvic balance.

  2. The Complexity Signature: Developing a Tool to Communicate Biopsychosocial Severity of Disease for Children with Chronic Neurological Complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, Sandro M; Sonanini, Sebastian; Sollmann, Nico; Focke, Axel; Gerstl, Lucia; Heinen, Florian

    2016-08-01

    Aim For children with medical complexity, interdisciplinary treatment approaches are required to address the various aspects defined within the biopsychosocial model. Methods The present study identifies dimensions of the biopsychosocial model to generate a standardized visualized severity score for chronic neurological diseases in children. We demonstrate the score's applicability and usefulness in clinical practice among clinicians with and without pediatric board certification with the aid of illustrative patient cases. The results are compared by Spearman correlation coefficient. Results Nine dimensions were identified as the basis for the development of the score, which consists of five grades of severity for each of the selected neuropediatric subsections. All board-certified pediatricians would recommend the application of the severity score in clinical routine. Furthermore, a good correlation was revealed between direct and indirect (severity score) assessment. Interpretation The severity score developed in this study takes into account biopsychosocial aspects of chronic diseases while being comprehensible and easily applicable in clinical routine-a biopsychosocial signature serving as an excellent, striking communication basis within the interdisciplinary team. However, upcoming studies including more patient cases are needed for further refinement. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Comparison in stress of caring mothers of children with developmental, external and internal disorders and normal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Zamani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available However, having a baby brings positive emotions such as happiness, sense of maturity and proud, parenting's issue could cause high level of stress and child's characteristics was a detrimental factor which can effect on parent's stress, so the aim of this research was comparison of stress of caring in mothers of children with developmental, external, and internal disorders and normal children. The study population included all mothers of children with developmental, emotional, and disruptive behavior disorders, and mothers with normal children in Hamadan (a city in Iran. 240 mothers (4 groups include 60 mothers were chosen based on simple random sampling. Family inventory of life events and changes Mc Cubbin, Patterson & Wilson was used for assessing participants. The results showed that maternal stress in mothers with children who have diagnosis of disruptive behavior disorders were significantly more than of mothers of children with developmental disorders, emotional and mothers of normal children. The present study showed that disruptive behavior disorders in children have a greater impact on their mothers. So, we suggest approved psychological interventions for helping mothers of children with psychological problems, particularly children with external disorders.

  4. Comparison of body composition and adipokine levels between thin and normal-weight prepubertal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Ambroszkiewicz

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Thinness can have substantial consequences for child development and health. Adipokines, including leptin and adiponectin, play a significant role in the regulation of important metabolic functions. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between body composition and serum leptin and adiponectin levels in thin and normal-weight children. Methods: The authors examined 100 healthy prepubertal children, who were divided into two subgroups: thin (n = 50 and normal-weight children (n = 50. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum concentrations of adipokines were determined by immunoenzymatic assays. Results: Thin children had a similar body height but significantly lower (p < 0.0001 body weight, body mass index, fat mass, lean mass, and bone mineral content compared with normal-weight children. Serum concentrations of leptin were about 2-fold lower (p < 0.0001 in thin vs. normal-weight subjects. Serum levels of total adiponectin, adiponectin multimers, and soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R were similar in both groups. The leptin/soluble leptin receptor ratio and leptin/adiponectin ratios were lower (p < 0.0001 in thin vs. normal-weight children. In both groups of children, it was found that body composition parameters were positively related with leptin but not with adiponectin levels. Additionally, bone mineral content was positively related with body mass index, fat mass, lean mass, and leptin level in thin and normal-weight children. Conclusions: Prepubertal thin children have disturbances in body composition and adipokine profile. Early recognition of thinness and determination of body composition parameters and adipokine levels can be useful in medical and nutritional care of thin children for the optimization of bone mineral accrual.

  5. Early school outcomes for extremely preterm infants with transient neurological abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Heidi M; Taylor, H Gerry; Minich, Nori; Wilson-Costello, Deanne; Hack, Maureen

    2015-09-01

    To determine if transient neurological abnormalities (TNA) at 9 months corrected age predict cognitive, behavioral, and motor outcomes at 6 years of age in extremely preterm infants. A cohort of 124 extremely preterm infants (mean gestational age 25.5wks; 55 males, 69 females), admitted to our unit between 2001 and 2003, were classified based on the Amiel-Tison Neurological Assessment at 9 months and 20 months corrected age as having TNA (n=17), normal neurological assessment (n=89), or neurologically abnormal assessment (n=18). The children were assessed at a mean age of 5 years 11 months (SD 4mo) on cognition, academic achievement, motor ability, and behavior. Compared with children with a normal neurological assessment, children with TNA had higher postnatal exposure to steroids (35% vs 9%) and lower adjusted mean scores on spatial relations (84 [standard error {SE} 5] vs 98 [SE 2]), visual matching (79 [SE 5] vs 91 [SE 2]), letter-word identification (97 [SE 4] vs 108 [SE 1]), and spelling (76 [SE 4] vs 96 [SE 2]) (all p<0.05). Despite a normalized neurological assessment, extremely preterm children with a history TNA are at higher risk for lower cognitive and academic skills than those with normal neurological findings during their first year of school. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  6. Development of Communicative Gestures in Normally Developing Children between 8 and 18 Months: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veena, Kadiyali D; Bellur, Rajashekhar

    2015-01-01

    Children who have not developed speech tend to use gestures to communicate. Since gestures are not encouraged and suppressed in the Indian traditional context while speaking, this study focused on profiling the developing gestures in children to explore whether they use the gestures before development of speech. Eight normally developing…

  7. One-day bowel preparation in children with colostomy using normal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Colonic and colorectal surgery frequently requires bowel preparation. This is an evaluation of the use of normal saline for one-day bowel preparation in children with colostomy. Patients and Methods: A prospective study of 55 children with colostomy who had one-day bowel preparation for colonic and ...

  8. Development of Spatial Release from Masking in Mandarin-Speaking Children with Normal Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Kevin C. P.; Yuan, Meng

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the development of spatial release from masking in children using closed-set Mandarin disyllabic words and monosyllabic words carrying lexical tones as test stimuli and speech spectrum-weighted noise as a masker. Method: Twenty-six children ages 4-9 years and 12 adults, all with normal hearing, participated in…

  9. Differences in Brain Information Transmission between Gifted and Normal Children during Scientific Hypothesis Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Seung-Hyun; Kwon, Yong-Ju; Jeong, Jin-Su; Kwon, Suk-Won; Shin, Dong-Hoon

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate differences in neural information transmission between gifted and normal children involved in scientific hypothesis generation. To investigate changes in the amount of information transmission, the children's averaged-cross mutual information (A-CMI) of EEGs was estimated during their generation…

  10. An Investigation of the Oral Narratives of Normal and Language-Learning Disabled Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klecan-Aker, Joan S.; Kelty, Kimberly R.

    1990-01-01

    Ten fourth grade language-learning-disabled children and 10 normal peers were shown a movie and subsequently asked to tell the story. Language-disabled subjects told less complex stories. It is concluded that normal subjects used a greater number of story grammar components within each narrative and remembered more aspects of the previously…

  11. Identification and validation of clinical predictors for the risk of neurological involvement in children with hand, foot, and mouth disease in Sarawak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Sel Sylvia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human enterovirus 71 (HEV71 can cause Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD with neurological complications, which may rapidly progress to fulminant cardiorespiratory failure, and death. Early recognition of children at risk is the key to reduce acute mortality and morbidity. Methods We examined data collected through a prospective clinical study of HFMD conducted between 2000 and 2006 that included 3 distinct outbreaks of HEV71 to identify risk factors associated with neurological involvement in children with HFMD. Results Total duration of fever ≥ 3 days, peak temperature ≥ 38.5°C and history of lethargy were identified as independent risk factors for neurological involvement (evident by CSF pleocytosis in the analysis of 725 children admitted during the first phase of the study. When they were validated in the second phase of the study, two or more (≥ 2 risk factors were present in 162 (65% of 250 children with CSF pleocytosis compared with 56 (30% of 186 children with no CSF pleocytosis (OR 4.27, 95% CI2.79–6.56, p rd or later day of febrile illness, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of ≥ 2 risk factors predictive of CSF pleocytosis were 75%(57/76, 59%(27/46, 75%(57/76 and 59%(27/46, respectively. Conclusion Three readily elicited clinical risk factors were identified to help detect children at risk of neurological involvement. These risk factors may serve as a guide to clinicians to decide the need for hospitalization and further investigation, including cerebrospinal fluid examination, and close monitoring for disease progression in children with HFMD.

  12. The neurological assessment in young children treated with artesunate monotherapy or artesunate-mefloquine combination therapy for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singhasivanon Pratap

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mefloquine and artesunate combination therapy is the recommended first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria throughout much of south-east Asia. Concerns have been raised about the potential central nervous system (CNS effects of both drug components and there are no detailed reports in very young children. Methods Children, aged between three months and five years, with acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria were randomized to either 7 days of artesunate monotherapy or the same schedule of artesunate plus mefloquine on day 7 and 8. Neurological testing targeting coordination and behaviour was carried out at day 0, 7, 9, 10, 14 and 28. Non-febrile healthy control children from the same population were tested on days 0, 7, 14 and 28. Results From December 1994 to July 1997, 91 children with uncomplicated P. falciparum, 45 treated with artesunate monotherapy, 46 treated with mefloquine and artesunate combination therapy and 36 non-febrile controls, underwent neurological testing. Malaria and fever had a significant negative impact on testing performance. By contrast, the anti-malarial treatments were not associated with worsening performances in the various components of the test. Artesunate and mefloquine do not appear to have a significant influence on coordination and behaviour. Children treated with mefloquine were significantly less likely to suffer recurrent malaria infection during follow-up compared to those treated with artesunate alone (P = 0.033. Conclusion In keeping with the results of randomized controlled trials in adults, mefloquine was not associated with a decrease in specific items of neurological performance. Likewise, children treated with artesunate did not perform significantly differently to control children. This study does not exclude subtle or rare treatment CNS effects of artesunate or mefloquine. Treatment of acute uncomplicated malaria results in a significant improvement on items of

  13. Laryngeal Aerodynamics in Children with Hearing Impairment versus Age and Height Matched Normal Hearing Peers

    OpenAIRE

    Barshapriya Das; Suman Kumar; Indranil Chatterjee

    2013-01-01

    Lack of proper auditory feedback in hearing-impaired subjects results in functional voice disorder. It is directly related to discoordination of intrinsic and extrinsic laryngeal muscles and disturbed contraction and relaxation of antagonistic muscles. A total of twenty children in the age range of 5–10 years were considered for the study. They were divided into two groups: normal hearing children and hearing aid user children. Results showed a significant difference in the vital capacity, ma...

  14. Normalization of muscle tone in children with cerebral palsy in special schools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruglyak M.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The features of using exercise to reduce muscle tone in children with cerebral palsy in training at a special school. The study involved children with cerebral palsy 7-10 years. Presents the results of evaluation of motor function and muscle tone. The efficacy of the use of physical rehabilitation for children with cerebral palsy, a positive effect of using special exercise in stretching the muscles with increased tone, improve motor function and normalization of muscle tone.

  15. Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Differences between Normal-Weight, Overweight, Obese, and Morbidly Obese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brian; Johnson, Romaine F; Mitchell Md, Ron B

    2016-05-01

    The severity of obstructive sleep apnea in children determines perioperative management and is an indication for postoperative polysomnography. The relationship between increasing weight and sleep apnea severity in children remains unclear. To compare demographic, clinical, and polysomnography parameters in normal-weight, overweight, obese, and morbidly obese children, as well as identify demographic factors that predict sleep apnea severity. Case series with chart review. Academic children's hospital. A retrospective chart review of 290 children aged 2 to 18 years who underwent polysomnography at an academic children's hospital was performed. Demographics, clinical findings, and polysomnographic parameters were recorded. Children were categorized as normal weight, overweight, obese, or morbidly obese. Differences were assessed using linear and logistical regression models. Significance was set at P weight children (mean, 8.0 ± 0.5 years vs 5.8 ± 0.3 years; P weight, overweight, obese, and morbidly obese children. Sleep efficiency and percentage of time in rapid eye movement were decreased in morbidly obese compared with other children (P sleep apnea severity is correlated with a combination of increasing age and weight but not with either variable independently. This study suggests that obese and morbidly obese older children are most likely to have severe obstructive sleep apnea. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  16. Portal venous diameter in children: Normal limits according to age, weight and height

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soyupak, Sureyya, E-mail: sureyya@cu.edu.t [Cukurova University Hospital Radiology Department, Adana, 01330 (Turkey); Gunesli, Aylin [Cukurova University Hospital Radiology Department, Adana, 01330 (Turkey); Seydaoglu, Guelsah [Cukurova Universty Medical School, Medical Statitics Department, Adana (Turkey); Binokay, Figen; Celiktas, Medih; Inal, Mehmet [Cukurova University Hospital Radiology Department, Adana, 01330 (Turkey)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: To establish the normal limits of portal vein diameter according to age, height and weight. Materials and methods: One hundred and sixty-eight healthy children, ages ranging from 1 month to 15 years were examined by ultrasound. Portal vein diameters at hepatic port, weight and height were recorded. Results: A range of normal limits for portal veneous diameter according to age, weight and height are obtained and presented in tables. Conclusion: Knowing the normals for portal venous diameter in every age group in children is mandatory in differentiating disease. The tables according to age, weight and height will definitely be helpful in the work-up process.

  17. Developmental changes in visuo-spatial working memory in normally developing children: event-related potentials study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myatchin, Ivan; Lagae, Lieven

    2013-10-01

    Working memory (WM) is very important for normal development. The fronto-parietal neuronal network supporting WM has already been well-studied. Less is known about the cortical activity changes during development of WM. We evaluated the maturation of visual WM network at the electrophysiological level in a group of normally developing children. Multichannel (n=31) event-related potentials (ERP) were measured during a visuo-spatial backmatching task in 69 childrens (6-16 years old). One-backmatching (BM1) and two-backmatching (BM2) tasks were performed. Age-related changes in behavioral parameters (commission and omission errors and reaction times) and ERP parameters (peak amplitudes and latencies) were analyzed between different ages. Clear improvement in performance from young childhood toward adolescence was seen at the behavioral level: decrease of errors and fastening of reaction times. At the electrophysiological level age-related changes were seen in peak latencies and especially in amplitudes. Different peaks have different dynamics in amplitudes and latencies: early peak amplitude decreased and latency shortened with age, which was not always seen in late peaks. This reflects developmental changes in intensity and speed of WM processing. Later peaks were more clearly seen over the right hemisphere in older children, illustrating hemispheric lateralization in visuo-spatial working memory. Our results indicate that not only at the behavioral but also at the electrophysiological level clear age-related dynamics in WM processing can be seen. Furthermore, with ERP we showed that different WM components follow different developmental trajectories. Our work demonstrates that age-related dynamics in intensity and speed of information processing during WM task is reflected in developmental changes in different ERP components. It also states that fronto-parietal visual WM network can be functional even before all its nodes are fully mature. Copyright © 2012 The

  18. Effects of conventional neurological treatment and a virtual reality training program on eye-hand coordination in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ji-Won; Song, Gui-Bin; Hwangbo, Gak

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of conventional neurological treatment and a virtual reality training program on eye-hand coordination in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects] Sixteen children (9 males, 7 females) with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy were recruited and randomly assigned to the conventional neurological physical therapy group (CG) and virtual reality training group (VRG). [Methods] Eight children in the control group performed 45 minutes of therapeutic exercise twice a week for eight weeks. In the experimental group, the other eight children performed 30 minutes of therapeutic exercise and 15 minutes of a training program using virtual reality twice a week during the experimental period. [Results] After eight weeks of the training program, there were significant differences in eye-hand coordination and visual motor speed in the comparison of the virtual reality training group with the conventional neurological physical therapy group. [Conclusion] We conclude that a well-designed training program using virtual reality can improve eye-hand coordination in children with cerebral palsy.

  19. An Analysis of a Novel, Short-Term Therapeutic Psychoeducational Program for Children and Adolescents with Chronic Neurological Illness and Their Parents; Feasibility and Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonglim Joo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this intervention was to develop a therapeutic psycho-educational program that improves quality of life in children and adolescents who are experiencing chronic neurological illness, including epilepsy, and their parents, and to analyze the intervention's feasibility and efficacy and participants' satisfaction. Participants were eight children (n = 8 and adolescents and their parents; participating children were experiencing chronic neurological illness with psychological comorbidity; children with intellectual impairment were excluded (IQ < 80. The program was carried out weekly for four sessions. In each of the 4 weeks, children's session content addressed self, emotion, coping skills, and finishing up, respectively; and parents' session content targeted family dynamic and emotional intervention, coping skills, childcare and education, and finishing up, respectively. Clinical psychologists administered psychological assessments (viz., Child Behavior Checklist, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, Parenting Stress Index, Beck Depression Inventory, Children's Depression Inventory, and Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale at pre- and post-intervention, and administered satisfaction surveys following the intervention. Participants' opinions about the program's necessity, contents, and process, and participants' overall program satisfaction were analyzed. Parents and children reported high levels of satisfaction with the program. Externalizing behavioral problems, anxiety/depression, and emotional functioning from quality of life showed improvement after the intervention. Although not statistically significant, total child stress trended downward from pre- to post-intervention. A four-session structured therapeutic psycho-educational program for children and adolescents with chronic neurological illness and their parents was successfully implemented, showing good compliance and high satisfaction and efficacy.

  20. [Serum testosterone response to chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) injection in normal and cryptorchid children (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fideleff, H L; Baigorri, A M; Guitelman, A; Hollander, T; Villuendas, V; Espínola, B

    1980-01-01

    Plasma testosterone (ng/ml) was measured in a group of prepuberal children with intrascrotal testes (n = 15) and in a group of prepuberal cryptorchid children (7 unilateral and 3 bilateral; n = 10) before and after stimulus with 3000IU of HCG (Group A) and with 5000IU (Group B). The serum testosterone before HCG stimulus was similar in normal (Group A: 1.10 +/- 0.03: Group B: 1.18 +/- 0.31) as well as in those of the cryptorchid children (Group A: 1 +/- 0.28; Group B: 1.19 +/- 0.36). The stimulus with 3000IU of HCG did not significantly raise the plasma testosterone in both normal (2.42 +/- 1.09) and cryptorchid children (1.70 +/- 0.5). The stimulus with 5000IU of HCG increased the plasma testosterone to 3.52 +/- 1 in normal children and 3.26 +/- 1.2 in cryptorchid children (p less than 0.05 with respect to the pre HCG values), with no difference in the response between the normal and the cryptorchid children.

  1. Incidence of sleep disorders in children with presumed normal variant short stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Thomas A; Papadopoulosverge, Dimitri J; Verge, Charles F; Williamson, Bruce D; Teng, Arthur

    2005-07-01

    To determine whether unrecognized obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is present in some children diagnosed with normal variant short stature. One hundred and fifty-eight children aged less than 15 years and previously diagnosed with familial short stature or constitutional delay of growth were identified from the endocrine clinic database. A validated, standardized questionnaire designed to screen for symptoms of sleep disorders in children was mailed to the parents of eligible children. Fifty-three questionnaires were returned. Fifteen of these had an abnormal score (greater than the mean + three standard deviations in 1157 normal control children). Of these, 10 agreed to a sleep study. Overnight polysomnography showed no evidence of OSA or other sleep/breathing disorders. However, five (half) children showed frequent periodic leg movements of 6.3, 9.2, 9.4, 10.2 and 15.4 per h (adult normal <5 per h). We did not find OSA among a group of children with normal variant short stature. However, we found frequent periodic limb movements during sleep in a large proportion of the subjects, the significance of which remains to be determined.

  2. Normalizing lower extremity strength data for children, adolescents, and young adults with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Tishya A L; Engsberg, Jack R

    2009-08-01

    The traditional method for normalizing quantitative strength data is to divide force or torque by body mass. We have previously shown that this method is not appropriate for able-bodied children and young adults and that normalization using allometric scaling is more effective. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of applying existing normalization equations for lower extremity strength to children, adolescents, and young adults with cerebral palsy (CP) and, if appropriate, to develop CP-specific normalization equations using allometric scaling. We measured the maximum torque generated during hip abduction/adduction, knee extension/flexion, and ankle dorsiflexion/plantar flexion in 96 subjects with spastic diplegia CP ages 4-23 years. Traditional mass normalization (Torque/Mass1.0) and allometric scaling equations from children without disability (Torque/Mass1.6 for hip and knee; Torque/Mass1.4 for ankle) were not effective in eliminating the influence of body mass. Normalization using CP-specific allometric scaling equations was effective using both muscle-specific and common (Torque/Mass0.8 for ankle plantar flexors; Torque/Mass1.4 for all others) scaling relationships. For the first time, normalization equations have been presented with demonstrated effectiveness in adjusting strength measures for body size in a group of children, adolescents, and young adults with CP.

  3. Joint attention studies in normal and autistic children using NIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Ujwal; Hall, Michael; Gutierrez, Anibal; Messinger, Daniel; Rey, Gustavo; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2011-03-01

    Autism is a socio-communication brain development disorder. It is marked by degeneration in the ability to respond to joint attention skill task, from as early as 12 to 18 months of age. This trait is used to distinguish autistic from nonautistic. In this study Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is being applied for the first time to study the difference in activation and connectivity in the frontal cortex of typically developing (TD) and autistic children between 4-8 years of age in response to joint attention task. The optical measurements are acquired in real time from frontal cortex using Imagent (ISS Inc.) - a frequency domain based NIRS system in response to video clips which engenders a feeling of joint attention experience in the subjects. A block design consisting of 5 blocks of following sequence 30 sec joint attention clip (J), 30 sec non-joint attention clip (NJ) and 30 sec rest condition is used. Preliminary results from TD child shows difference in brain activation (in terms of oxy-hemoglobin, HbO) during joint attention interaction compared to the nonjoint interaction and rest. Similar activation study did not reveal significant differences in HbO across the stimuli in, unlike in an autistic child. Extensive studies are carried out to validate the initial observations from both brain activation as well as connectivity analysis. The result has significant implication for research in neural pathways associated with autism that can be mapped using NIRS.

  4. Evaluation of cardiac functions with Doppler echocardiography in children with Down syndrome and anatomically normal heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Biltagi, Mohammed; Serag, Amany R; Hefidah, Mohammed M; Mabrouk, Maaly M

    2013-04-01

    To study the cardiac functions in Down syndrome children who did not have structural cardiac lesion by conventional and tissue Doppler echocardiography. A total of 85 children with Down syndrome without anatomic heart disease and 50 normal control children were subjected to the assessment of right and left ventricular functions by both two-dimensional and tissue Doppler echocardiography. Children with Down syndrome had significantly higher left ventricular ejection fraction detected by two-dimensional echocardiography and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction detected by tissue Doppler than observed in the controls. In addition, children with Down syndrome also had right ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunctions. Children with Down syndrome had significantly higher pulmonary artery systolic pressure than the control children. There was no significant difference in the cardiac functions between children with non-disjunction Down syndrome and those with the translocation type. Despite an apparently normal heart, children with Down syndrome may have silent disturbed cardiac functions, which may be detected by two-dimensional or tissue Doppler echocardiography. This may have an important clinical implication, especially before involving Down syndrome children in surgery or strenuous exercise.

  5. Error analysis of pronouns by normal and language-impaired children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M E

    1995-03-01

    Recent research has located extraordinary weakness in specifically language-impaired (SLI) children's development other than grammatical morphemes. A problem with pronoun case marking was reported to be more prevalent in SLI children than in normally developing children matched by mean length of utterance. However, results from the present study do not support that finding. Spontaneous utterances from 3 conversational contexts were generated by 3 groups of normal and SLI children and were analyzed for accuracy of pronoun usage. Third person singular pronouns were judged according to case, gender, number, person and cohesion based on their linguistic and nonlinguistic contexts. Results indicated that SLI children exhibited more total errors than their chronological peers, but not more than their language level peers. An analysis of error types indicated a similar pattern in pronoun case marking.

  6. Comparison of reading comprehension and working memory in hearing-impaired and normal-hearing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rezaei

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Reading is the most important human need for learning. In normal-hearing people working memory is a predictor of reading comprehension. In this study the relationship between working memory and reading comprehension skills was studied in hearing-impaired children, and then compared with the normal-hearing group.Methods: This was a descriptive-analytic study. The working memory and reading comprehension skills of 18 (8 male, 10 female sever hearing-impaired children in year five of exceptional schools were compared by means of a reading test with 18 hearing children as control group. The subjects in the control group were of the same gender and educational level of the sample group.Results: The children with hearing loss performed similarly to the normal-hearing children in tasks related to auditory-verbal memory of sounds (reverse, visual-verbal memory of letters, and visual-verbal memory of pictures. However, they showed lower levels of performance in reading comprehension (p<0.001. Moreover, no significant relationship was observed between working memory and reading comprehension skills.Conclusion: Findings indicated that children with hearing loss have a significant impairment in the reading comprehension skill. Impairment in language knowledge and vocabulary may be the main cause of poor reading comprehension in these children. In hearing-impaired children working memory is not a strong predictor of reading comprehension.

  7. Comprehension of reversible relative clauses in specifically language impaired and normally developing Greek children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrakaki, S

    2001-06-01

    This paper aims to investigate the syntactic comprehension of reversible relative clauses in a group of eight Greek children with specific language impairment (SLI) and two control groups of normally developing children matched on chronological and language age, respectively. An experiment using an acting out procedure was undertaken. Group analysis revealed that SLI children's performance is qualitatively different than that of both control groups. Interpreting the data, processes involved in syntactic comprehension are taken into consideration. It is claimed that processing demands impede SLI children's performance due to a deficit in their competence grammar. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  8. IBUPROFEN AS A MEDICATION FOR A CORRECTION OF SYMPTOMS OF NORMAL VACCINAL PROCESS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Chebotareva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenetic approach to treatment of symptoms of normal vaccinal process in children after standard vaccination, based on the results of application of anti9inflammatory medications — ibuprofen (nurofen for children and paracetamol is presented in this article. Clinical activity of ibuprofen was established on the basis of clinica catamnestic observation of 856 vaccinated children aged from 3 months to 3 years. recommendations for application of these medications as a treatment for a correction of vaccinal reactions are given.Key words: children, ibuprofen, paracetamol, vaccination.

  9. The expanding spectrum of neurological phenotypes in children with ATP1A3 mutations, Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood, Rapid-onset Dystonia-Parkinsonism, CAPOS and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweney, Matthew T; Newcomb, Tara M; Swoboda, Kathryn J

    2015-01-01

    ATP1A3 mutations have now been recognized in infants and children presenting with a diverse group of neurological phenotypes, including Rapid-onset Dystonia-Parkinsonism (RDP), Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood (AHC), and most recently, Cerebellar ataxia, Areflexia, Pes cavus, Optic atrophy, and Sensorineural hearing loss (CAPOS) syndrome. Existing literature on ATP1A3-related disorders in the pediatric population were reviewed, with attention to clinical features and associated genotypes among those with RDP, AHC, or CAPOS syndrome phenotypes. While classically defined phenotypes associated with AHC, RDP, and CAPOS syndromes are distinct, common elements among ATP1A3-related neurological disorders include characteristic episodic neurological symptoms and signs that vary in severity, duration, and frequency of occurrence. Affected children typically present in the context of an acute onset of paroxysmal, episodic neurological symptoms ranging from oculomotor abnormalities, hypotonia, paralysis, dystonia, ataxia, seizure-like episodes, or encephalopathy. Neurodevelopmental delays or persistence of dystonia, chorea, or ataxia after resolution of an initial episode are common, providing important clues for diagnosis. The phenotypic spectrum of ATP1A3-related neurological disorders continues to expand beyond the distinct yet overlapping phenotypes in patients with AHC, RDP, and CAPOS syndromes. ATP1A3 mutation analysis is appropriate to consider in the diagnostic algorithm for any child presenting with episodic or fluctuating ataxia, weakness or dystonia whether they manifest persistence of neurological symptoms between episodes. Additional work is needed to better identify and classify affected patients and develop targeted treatment approaches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Obesity and attenuated adiposity rebound in children with congenital hypothyroidism. Normalization of BMI values in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livadas, S; Magiakou, M-A; Mengreli, C; Girginoudis, P; Galani, C; Smyrnaki, P; Kanaka-Gantenbein, C; Xekouki, P; Chrousos, G P; Dacou-Voutetakis, C

    2007-07-01

    An earlier adiposity rebound, suggestive of adult obesity, has been reported in children with congenital hypothyroidism. We undertook this study to evaluate the effect of congenital hypothyroidism on: 1) the timing of adiposity rebound, 2) the long-term prognosis of BMI status, and 3) the factors potentially affecting adiposity in subjects with congenital hypothyroidism. We found that in children with congenital hypothyroidism the BMI values were higher during the first years of life compared to normal population, but subsequently normalized. After the initial rise of BMI, the decline (nadir) and subsequent rise (adiposity rebound), usually occurring in normal children at an age greater than 30 months, was less evident in our group of children with congenital hypothyroidism. The severity of hypothyroidism affected BMI values at 6 and 12, but not at 36 months of age. In conclusion, in children with congenital hypothyroidism, 1) the high BMI values in early childhood normalize in adolescence, and 2) the normally expected BMI fluctuations during the first years of life are attenuated. These findings constitute indirect evidence that thyroid function during fetal and neonatal life affects BMI status during the first years of life.

  11. Normal Bowel Pattern in Children and Dietary and Other Precipitating Factors in Functional Constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayutham, Dhakshyani Raghavan; Deivamani, Nirmala; Bavanandam, Sumathi

    2015-01-01

    Aim To study the bowel pattern of children in general population and children with habit constipation with respect to food habits and regarding psychosocial aspect of toileting. Materials and Methods A prospective descriptive study was done in the Institute of child health and hospital for children, Chennai, with two groups, Functional constipation group and Normal bowel pattern group. The functional group included the children with the age group of 2-12 years, of either sex who fulfilled the ROME III criteria for constipation. Normal bowel pattern group had school children of age group 6-12 years of age and 2-5-year-old children attending OPD for minor ailments. The demographic profile, socioeconomic status, complaints, psychosocial aspects affecting bowel pattern and diet chart were collected and recorded from the parents in proforma. Stool frequency and type of stool passed were recorded for a week, with Bristol stool chart. Results A total of 523 and 131 children were analysed for normal bowel pattern and functional constipation respectively. Data analysis done using SPSS version 15. The prevalence of functional constipation was noted in 13.5% with female preponderance and in the age group of 2-4 years. Conclusion Constipation continues to be a problem, mostly under recognised in older population. Psychosocial factors had a significant effect on functional constipation. Skipping breakfast, early toilet training, low intake of vegetables and fruits were other factors of significance leading to constipation. PMID:26266179

  12. The non-invasive tear film break-up time in normal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sophie M; Nischal, Ken K

    2013-09-01

    To perform an objective evaluation of the non-invasive tear break-up time (NITBUT) and lipid layer interferometry in normal children. Children with no known ocular surface disease or anterior segment abnormality were evaluated. We excluded patients with disorders affecting lid margins or tear film composition. NITBUT and lipid layer interferometry were performed using a Keeler tearscope mounted on a slit lamp. The time from eye opening to the first distortion of the grid was noted. The average of three readings was taken as the NITBUT. Thirty-six children (71 eyes) were included (mean age 7.64 years, range 2.16-15.83 years). Mean NITBUT was 21.76 ± 4.06 s (range 14.9-30.95). This is significantly higher in comparison to recent adult studies utilising the tearscope. Twenty-four children allowed tearscope lipid layer interferometry. Eighteen demonstrated grade 1 and six demonstrated grade 2. These grades are within the normal tear film range. To our knowledge, this prospective study is the first to evaluate NITBUT in normal children. The results demonstrate that NITBUT is greater in children in comparison to adults. These normative data are a useful benchmark for further research into tear film instability in children.

  13. Blood pressure directly correlates with blood viscosity in diabetes type 1 children but not in normals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Beatriz Y Salazar; Vázquez, Miguel A Salazar; Jáquez, Manuel Guajardo; Huemoeller, Antonio H Bracho; Intaglietta, Marcos; Cabrales, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    To determine the relationship between mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and blood viscosity in diabetic type 1 children and healthy controls to investigate whether MAP is independent of blood viscosity in healthy children, and vice versa. Children with diabetes type 1 treated by insulin injection were studied. Controls were healthy children of both sexes. MAP was calculated from systolic and diastolic pressure measurements. Blood viscosity was determined indirectly by measuring blood hemoglobin (Hb) content. The relationship between Hb, hematocrit (Hct) and blood viscosity was determined in a subgroup of controls and diabetics selected at random. 21 (10.6+/-2.5 years) type 1 diabetic children treated with insulin and 25 healthy controls age 9.6+/-1.7 years were studied. Hb was 13.8+/-0.8 g/dl in normal children vs. 14.3+/-0.9 g/dl in the diabetic group (p<0.05). MAP was 71.4+/-8.2 in the normal vs. 82.9+/-7.2 mmHg in the diabetic group (p<0.001). Glucose was 89.3+/-10.6 vs. 202.4+/-87.4 mg/dl respectively. Diabetics had a positive MAP/Hb correlation (p=0.007), while normals showed a non significant (p=0.2) negative correlation. The blood viscosity/Hb relationship was studied in a subgroup of 8 healthy controls and 8 diabetic type 1 children. There was no significant difference in Hb and Hct between groups. Diabetics showed a trend of increasing blood viscosity (+7%, p=0.15). Normal children compensate for the increase in vascular resistance due to increased blood viscosity (increased Hb and Hct) while diabetic children do not, probably due to endothelial dysfunction.

  14. Neurological condition in 42-month-old children in relation to pre- and postnatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patandin, S; Fidler, [No Value; Weisglas-Kuperus, N; Sauer, PJJ; Boersma, ER; Touwen, BCL

    1998-01-01

    Adverse neurological effects of exposure to PCBs have been found up to 18 months of age. Now we report on the effect of pre-and postnatal exposure to PCBs and dioxins on the neurological condition at 42 months of age. For this purpose, PCB levels were determined in cord and maternal plasma, and used

  15. Perceived contrastive stress production in hearing-impaired and normal-hearing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, A L; Carney, A E; Leonard, L B

    1985-03-01

    Contrastive stress production patterns of 20 moderate-to-severely hearing-impaired children, aged 4:5-18:2 (years:months), were compared with those of 20 normal-hearing children, aged 3:7-6:7. The groups were matched on the basis of a linguistic measure, mean length of utterance. Analyses of judges' responses to the speakers' audiotapes recorded during a conversation-based task yielded evidence of similar production patterns for the groups although considerable individual performance variation was noted. This finding supports the view that language-matched normal and hearing-impaired children may not be very different in their production of this prosodic cue. Results of this study further support the idea that prosodic features of the speech signal enhance intelligibility, a factor which merits consideration in the intelligibility assessment and training of hearing-impaired children.

  16. Neurological sequelae of bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Marjolein J; Brouwer, Matthijs C; van de Beek, Diederik

    2016-07-01

    We reported on occurrence and impact of neurological sequelae after bacterial meningitis. We reviewed occurrence of neurological sequelae in children and adults after pneumococcal and meningococcal meningitis. Most frequently reported sequelae are focal neurological deficits, hearing loss, cognitive impairment and epilepsy. Adults with pneumococcal meningitis have the highest risk of developing focal neurological deficits, which are most commonly caused by cerebral infarction, but can also be due to cerebritis, subdural empyema, cerebral abscess or intracerebral bleeding. Focal deficits may improve during clinical course and even after discharge, but a proportion of patients will have persisting focal neurological deficits that often interfere in patient's daily life. Hearing loss occurs in a high proportion of patients with pneumococcal meningitis and has been associated with co-existing otitis. Children and adults recovering from bacterial meningitis without apparent neurological deficits are at risk for long-term cognitive deficits. Early identification of neurological sequelae is important for children to prevent additional developmental delay, and for adults to achieve successful return in society after the disease. Neurological sequelae occur in a substantial amount of patients following bacterial meningitis. Most frequently reported sequelae are focal neurological deficits, hearing loss, cognitive impairment and epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Physical fitness of normal, stunted and overweight children 6-13 years in Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, R M; Peña Reyes, M E; Tan, S K; Little, B B

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the growth and physical fitness of normal, stunted and overweight/obese (owt/ob) Oaxaca children 6-13 years. This study was a cross-sectional, included 688 school children (grades 1-3, 4-6), aged 6-13 years, from an indigenous rural community (n=361) and colonia popular (n=327) in Oaxaca, southern Mexico. Anthropometry-weight, height, sitting height, limb circumferences, skinfolds. Derived-body mass index, sitting height/height ratio, leg and step lengths, limb muscle areas, sum of skinfolds. Physical fitness-sit and reach, sit-ups, distance run, grip strength, standing long jump, 35 yard dash. Physical activity-steps to and from school, household chores, sports participation. Normal-not stunted, not owt/ob; stunted-not owt/ob; and owt/ob-not stunted were compared with multivariate analysis of covariance controlling for age. Two children were stunted and owt/ob, and were excluded. Age-adjusted means for body size, muscularity, adiposity and grip strength showed a gradient, owt/ob>normal>stunted in both sexes and grade levels (Pnormal>stunted, but owt/ob children had less strength per unit mass and poorer endurance. Normal and stunted children did not differ consistently in fitness. Physical activity and television time did not differ among the three groups.

  18. Identification and validation of clinical predictors for the risk of neurological involvement in children with hand, foot, and mouth disease in Sarawak

    OpenAIRE

    del Sel Sylvia; Clear Daniella; Perera David; Mohan Anand; Podin Yuwana; Wong See; Ooi Mong; Chieng Chae; Tio Phaik; Cardosa Mary; Solomon Tom

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) can cause Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) with neurological complications, which may rapidly progress to fulminant cardiorespiratory failure, and death. Early recognition of children at risk is the key to reduce acute mortality and morbidity. Methods We examined data collected through a prospective clinical study of HFMD conducted between 2000 and 2006 that included 3 distinct outbreaks of HEV71 to identify risk factors associated with neu...

  19. A syntactic investigation of verbal autistic, mentally retarded, and normal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, S; Bartolucci, G

    1977-06-01

    The syndrome of childhood autism is typified by major abnormalities in language development, yet there are few systematic descriptions of autistic children's linguistic systems. We have, therefore, begun a comprehensive investigation of the language of verbal autistic children and concentrate in this paper on comparing the syntax used by 10 verbal autistic children matched for nonlinguistic mental age with a group of mentally retarded subjects and normal controls. Two different means of assessing syntactic development were utilized: Lee's Developmental Sentence analysis and Chomsky's Transformational analysis. The autistic group was found to rank significantly lower than either the mentally retarded or the normal groups in terms of Developmental Sentence Scores. When a transformational grammar was used to describe the language samples of our subjects the autistic children were typified by a higher error rate and lower level of complexity compared to the other two groups. However, the results also indicate that the grammatical system of autistic children is rule-governed and probably not unlike that of young normal or retarded children. In conclusion, it appears that the syntactic abnormalities characteristic of autism are attributable to an extreme delay in language development as well as to an impaired ability to make use of linguistic rules.

  20. Study of phonological awareness of preschool and school aged children with cochlear implant and normal hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegarianzadeh, Niloufar; Shahbodaghi, Mohammadrahim; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat

    2014-09-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to assess whether very early access to speech sounds provided by the cochlear implant enables children to develop age-appropriate phonological awareness abilities in their preschool and school years. A secondary purpose of this study was to examine whether children who had cochlear implantation before 18 months of age will develop better skills in phonological awareness than children who had cochlear implants in 18-36 months of age. A third purpose of this study was to examine whether some factors like the child's age or sex would have any effects on developing of age-appropriate phonological awareness abilities. 48 children with 70 to 95 months of age who had been utilizing their cochlear implant(s) before 36 months of age (CI group) and 30 normal hearing peers (NH group) were enrolled in this study. Child's age had a significant effect on phonological awareness, but sex had absolutely no effect in each group. Children in the cochlear implanted group were outperformed by their normal hearing peers in the area of phonological awareness, especially in phonemic awareness. The age of implantation was another significant variable. Although children with a younger age at implantation got better scores in phonological awareness test, they were outperformed by their normal hearing peers in this area.

  1. El neurodesarrollo a los dos años de vida de neonatos tratados en una unidad de cuidados intensivos neonatales Neurological development at age two of children who had been treated in a neonatal intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Fernández Carrocera

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo principal de este estudio fue evaluar de forma prospectiva, a los 2 años de vida, el desarrollo de un grupo de neonatos tratados en la unidad de cuidados intensivos neonatales (UCIN del Instituto Nacional de Perinatología de México. Se estudió desde el punto de vista neurológico, psicológico, auditivo, lingüístico, motor y neuromuscular a todos los neonatos nacidos entre el 1 de enero de 1992 y el 31 de diciembre de 1993 que hubieran ingresado a la UCIN y permanecido en ella 3 días o más. Se incluyó a 134 pacientes con una edad gestacional promedio de 32 semanas y un peso promedio al nacer de 1 677 g. De ellos, 75% habían sido sometidos a ventilación mecánica, con una estancia hospitalaria promedio de 51 días. En el examen efectuado a los 2 años, 66,5% de los niños fueron normales y 8,2% tuvieron alteraciones graves. Se encontraron asociaciones significativas entre el estado neurológico y los días de ventilación artificial (P The principal objective of this study was to evaluate, at 2 years of age, the neurological development of a group of children who had been treated in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU of the National Institute of Perinatology of Mexico. All the children born between 1 January 1992 and 31 December 1993 who had entered the NICU and stayed for 3 or more days were studied from the neurological, psychological, auditory, linguistic, motor, and neuromuscular standpoint. This group included 134 patients, who had had an average gestational age of 32 weeks and an average birthweight of 1 677 g. They had stayed in the hospital an average of 51 days, and 75% of them had undergone artificial respiration. In the examination done at age 2, 66.5% of the children were normal and 8.2% had serious impairments. There were statistically significant associations between their neurological condition and the days of artificial respiration (P < 0.0001, the days spent in the NICU (P < 0.000004, and the

  2. Adult neurology training during child neurology residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schor, Nina F

    2012-08-21

    As it is currently configured, completion of child neurology residency requires performance of 12 months of training in adult neurology. Exploration of whether or not this duration of training in adult neurology is appropriate for what child neurology is today must take into account the initial reasons for this requirement and the goals of adult neurology training during child neurology residency.

  3. [Children's eating behaviour: comparison between normal and overweight children from a school in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Passos, Darlise Rodrigues; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Maciel, Francine Villela; Matijasevich, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate differences in children's eating behavior as a function of their nutritional status, sex and age. Male and female children aged six to ten years were included. They were recruited from a private school in the city of Pelotas, southern Brazil, in 2012. Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) subscales were used to assess eating behaviours: Food Responsiveness (FR), Enjoyment of Food (EF), Desire to Drink (DD), Emotional Overeating (EOE), Emotional Undereating (EUE), Satiety Responsiveness (SR), Fussiness (FF) and Slowness in Eating (SE). Age-adjusted body mass index (BMI) z-scores were calculated according to the WHO recommendations to assess nutritional status. The study sample comprised 335 children aged 87.9 ± 10.4 months and 49.3% were normal weight (n = 163), 26% overweight (n = 86), 15% obese (n = 50) and 9.7% severely obese (n = 32). Children with excessive weight showed higher scores on the CEBQ subscales associated with "food approach" (FR, EF, DD, EOE, p < 0.001) and lower scores on two "food avoidance" subscales (SR and SE, p < 0.001 and p = 0.003, respectively) compared to normal weight children. "Food approach" subscales were positively associated to excessive weight in children. Significant age and gender differences in eating behaviours were not found. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Post-contrast FLAIR MR imaging of the brain in children: normal and abnormal intracranial enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Hyun Woo; Choi, Choong-Gon [Department of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Poongnap-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea)

    2003-12-01

    To describe the normally enhancing intracranial structures on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI and evaluate the usefulness of postcontrast FLAIR images of the brain in the assessment of enhancing lesions by comparing postcontrast FLAIR imaging with postcontrast T1-weighted (T1-W) imaging in children. In 218 children, 249 pre- and postcontrast FLAIR MRI examinations of the brain were obtained consecutively between August 2001 and April 2002. The normally enhancing intracranial structures on FLAIR imaging were assessed in 77 MRI studies of 74 children who showed normal intracranial imaging findings. In 86 MRI studies in 68 children who showed enhancing intracranial lesions, lesion conspicuity on postcontrast FLAIR imaging was compared with that on postcontrast T1-W imaging for all lesions (n=107), intra-axial lesions (n=40), or extra-axial lesions (n=67). The normally enhancing intracranial structures on FLAIR MRI were the choroid plexus (99%, 76/77), pituitary stalk (84%, 65/77), pineal gland (71%, 55/77), dural sinuses (26%, 20/77), and cortical veins (9%, 7/77). Of all the enhancing lesions, lesion conspicuousness on postcontrast FLAIR imaging was better than postcontrast T1-weighted imaging in 42, equal in 28, and worse in 37. Of 40 intra-axial lesions, lesion conspicuousness on postcontrast FLAIR imaging was better in 6, equal in 10, and worse in 24. Of 67 extra-axial lesions, lesion conspicuity on postcontrast FLAIR imaging was better in 36, equal in 18, and worse in 13. Conspicuousness of extra-axial lesions was significantly better than that of intra-axial lesions on postcontrast FLAIR imaging (P<0.001). The choroid plexus, pituitary stalk, pineal gland, dural sinuses, and cortical veins show normal enhancement on postcontrast FLAIR MRI in children, and postcontrast FLAIR imaging appears better than postcontrast T1-W imaging in the assessment of extra-axial enhancing lesions in children. (orig.)

  5. Quality of life in children with cancer and their normal siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Hilda

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Cancer treatment in children influences the quality of life of patients and their families. The Pediatric Quality of Life (PedsQL inventory is a questionnaire to assess quality of life of the healthy and ill children. Objective To compare quality of life in children with cancer and their normal siblings, and to compare quality of life in those with hematologic malignancies to those with solid tumors. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 5-to-18- year-olds at the Hematology-Oncology Division at Haji Adam Malik Hospital, Medan, North Sumatera, from May to July 2012. The case group (subjects with cancer filled the PedsQL 3.0 and 4.0 questionnaires, while the control group (normal siblings filled only the PedsQL 4.0 questionnaire. Independent T-test was used to compare the quality of life between children with cancer and their normal siblings. Results There were 46 children in each group. The PedsQL 4.0 results in children with cancer and their normal siblings, and PedsQL 3.0 between hematology malignant and solid cancer were as follows: physical function 36.9 vs. 80.7, respectively (95%CI of differences -52.639 to -34.990; P= 0.0001, emotional function 40.4 vs. 69.3, respectively (95%CI of differences -35.912 to -21.914; P=0.0001, social function 71.5 vs. 93.9, respectively (95%CI of differences - 29.238 to -15.587; P=0.0001, school function 20.7 vs. 74.2, respectively (95%CI of differences - 62.124 to -44.832; P=0.0001, and total score 42.1 vs. 79.3, respectively (95%CI of differences - 43.066 to -31.344; P=0.0001. School function was the most affected parameter in children with cancer compared to their normal siblings. Conclusion There is a significant difference in quality of life between children with cancer and their normal siblings, for all four parameters examined by the PedsQL inventory. However, there are no significant differences in quality of life between children with hematologic malignancy and those with

  6. [Simple and useful evaluation of motor difficulty in childhood (9-12 years old children ) by interview score on motor skills and soft neurological signs--aim for the diagnosis of developmental coordination disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, Mitsuru; Suzuki, Shuhei

    2009-09-01

    Many children with developmental disorders are known to have motor impairment such as clumsiness and poor physical ability;however, the objective evaluation of such difficulties is not easy in routine clinical practice. In this study, we aimed to establish a simple method for evaluating motor difficulty of childhood. This method employs a scored interview and examination for detecting soft neurological signs (SNSs). After a preliminary survey with 22 normal children, we set the items and the cutoffs for the interview and SNSs. The interview consisted of questions pertaining to 12 items related to a child's motor skills in his/her past and current life, such as skipping, jumping a rope, ball sports, origami, and using chopsticks. The SNS evaluation included 5 tests, namely, standing on one leg with eyes closed, diadochokinesia, associated movements during diadochokinesia, finger opposition test, and laterally fixed gaze. We applied this method to 43 children, including 25 cases of developmental disorders. Children showing significantly high scores in both the interview and SNS were assigned to the "with motor difficulty" group, while those with low scores in both the tests were assigned to the "without motor difficulty" group. The remaining children were assigned to the "with suspicious motor difficulty" group. More than 90% of the children in the "with motor difficulty" group had high impairment scores in Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC), a standardized motor test, whereas 82% of the children in the "without motor difficulty" group revealed no motor impairment. Thus, we conclude that our simple method and criteria would be useful for the evaluation of motor difficulty of childhood. Further, we have discussed the diagnostic process for developmental coordination disorder using our evaluation method.

  7. Normal Threshold Size of Stimuli in Children Using a Game-Based Visual Field Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanfang; Ali, Zaria; Subramani, Siddharth; Biswas, Susmito; Fenerty, Cecilia; Henson, David B; Aslam, Tariq

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate and explore the ability of novel game-based perimetry to establish normal visual field thresholds in children. One hundred and eighteen children (aged 8.0 ± 2.8 years old) with no history of visual field loss or significant medical history were recruited. Each child had one eye tested using a game-based visual field test 'Caspar's Castle' at four retinal locations 12.7° (N = 118) from fixation. Thresholds were established repeatedly using up/down staircase algorithms with stimuli of varying diameter (luminance 20 cd/m2, duration 200 ms, background luminance 10 cd/m2). Relationships between threshold and age were determined along with measures of intra- and intersubject variability. The Game-based visual field test was able to establish threshold estimates in the full range of children tested. Threshold size reduced with increasing age in children. Intrasubject variability and intersubject variability were inversely related to age in children. Normal visual field thresholds were established for specific locations in children using a novel game-based visual field test. These could be used as a foundation for developing a game-based perimetry screening test for children.

  8. Sleep habits, food intake, and physical activity levels in normal and overweight and obese Malaysian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firouzi, Somayyeh; Poh, Bee Koon; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Sadeghilar, Aidin

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the association between sleep habits (including bedtime, wake up time, sleep duration, and sleep disorder score) and physical characteristics, physical activity level, and food pattern in overweight and obese versus normal weight children. Case control study. 164 Malaysian boys and girls aged 6-€“12 years. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, waist circumference, and body fat percentage. Subjects divided into normal weight (n = 82) and overweight/obese (n = 82) group based on World Health Organization 2007 BMI-for-age criteria and were matched one by one based on ethnicity, gender, and age plus minus one year. Questionnaires related to sleep habits, physical activity, and food frequency were proxy-reported by parents. Sleep disorder score was measured by Children Sleep Habit Questionnaire. Sleep disorder score and carbohydrate intake (%) to total energy intake were significantly higher in overweight/obese group (p children with shortest sleep duration were found to have 4.5 times higher odds of being overweight/obese (odd ratio: 4.536, 95% CI: 1.912-€“8.898) compared to children with normal sleep duration. The odds of being overweight/obese in children with sleep disorder score higher than 48 were 2.17 times more than children with sleep disorder score less than 48. Children who sleep lees than normal amount, had poor sleep quality, and consumed more carbohydrates were at higher risk of overweight/obesity. © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Vaccination and neurological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Gkampeta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Active immunization of children has been proven very effective in elimination of life threatening complications of many infectious diseases in developed countries. However, as vaccination-preventable infectious diseases and their complications have become rare, the interest focuses on immunization-related adverse reactions. Unfortunately, fear of vaccination-related adverse effects can led to decreased vaccination coverage and subsequent epidemics of infectious diseases. This review includes reports about possible side effects following vaccinations in children with neurological disorders and also published recommendations about vaccinating children with neurological disorders. From all international published data anyone can conclude that vaccines are safer than ever before, but the challenge remains to convey this message to society.

  10. Comparison of the Speech Syntactic Features between Hearing-Impaired and Normal Hearing Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza PahlavanNezhad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study seeks to describe and analyze the syntactic features of children with severely hearing loss who had access to the hearing aids compared with children with normal hearing, assigning them to the same separate gender classes.   Materials and Methods: In the present study, eight children with severe hearing impairment who used a hearing aid and eight hearing children matched for age and gender were selected using an available sampling method based on the principles of auditory-verbal approach. Hearing children had an average age of 5.45 ±1.9 years and subjects had a mean age of 5.43±2.17 years and their rehabilitation had begun before they were 18 months old. The assessment instrument of the study included the language development test, TOLDP-3. The syntactic skills of these children were analyzed and compared with the hearing children of the same age based on gender.   Results: There was a significant difference between the syntactic scores of the hearing-impaired children and the scores of the hearing children of the same age in the “sentence imitation” (t=−2/90, P

  11. Cranial index of children with normal and abnormal brain development in Sokoto, Nigeria: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Muhammad Awwal; Zagga, Abdullahi Daudu; Danfulani, Mohammed; Tadros, Aziz Abdo; Ahmed, Hamid

    2014-04-01

    Abnormal brain development due to neurodevelopmental disorders in children has always been an important concern, but yet has to be considered as a significant public health problem, especially in the low- and middle-income countries including Nigeria. The aim of this study is to determine whether abnormal brain development in the form of neurodevelopmental disorders causes any deviation in the cranial index of affected children. This is a comparative study on the head length, head width, and cranial index of 112 children (72 males and 40 females) diagnosed with at least one abnormal problem in brain development, in the form of a neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD), in comparison with that of 218 normal growing children without any form of NDD (121 males and 97 females), aged 0-18 years old seen at the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, over a period of six months, June to December, 2012. The head length and head width of the children was measured using standard anatomical landmarks and cranial index calculated. The data obtained was entered into the Microsoft excel worksheet and analyzed using SPSS version 17. The mean Cephalic Index for normal growing children with normal brain development was 79.82 ± 3.35 and that of the children with abnormal brain development was 77.78 ± 2.95 and the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). It can be deduced from this present study that the cranial index does not change in children with neurodevelopmental disorders.

  12. Diurnal changes in postural control in normal children: Computerized static and dynamic assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourelle, Sophie; Taiar, Redha; Berge, Benoit; Gautheron, Vincent; Cottalorda, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) causes postural control deficits and accordingly comparison of aberrant postural control against normal postural control may help diagnose mTBI. However, in the current literature, little is known regarding the normal pattern of postural control in young children. This study was therefore conducted as an effort to fill this knowledge gap. Eight normal school-aged children participated. Posture assessment was conducted before (7-8 a.m. in the morning) and after (4-7 p.m. in the afternoon) school on regular school days using the Balance Master® evaluation system composed of 3 static tests and 2 dynamic balance tests. A significant difference in the weight-bearing squats was detected between morning hours and afternoon hours (P control of the lateral rhythmic weight shifts was observed at the end of the afternoon than at morning hours (P posture control in humans. On a regular school day, the capacity of postural control and laterality or medio-lateral balance in children varies between morning and afternoon hours. We suggest that posturographic assessment in children, either in normal (e.g., physical education and sports training) or in abnormal conditions (e.g., mTBI-associated balance disorders), be better performed late in the afternoon.

  13. A Comparative Study of the Writing/Spelling Performances of "Normal," Dyslexic, and Dysgraphic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovik, Nils; Arntzen, Oddvar

    1986-01-01

    General movement/feedback theory and a "two-routes" theoretical model were tested on 24 normal, 24 dyslexic, and 24 dysgraphic children. Familiarity of the test items and complexity and length of required movement pattern played an important role in the writing/spelling performance of the nine-year-old subjects defined as dyslexic or dysgraphic.…

  14. Consonant Cluster Production in Children with Cochlear Implants: A Comparison with Normally Hearing Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faes, Jolien; Gillis, Steven

    2017-01-01

    In early word productions, the same types of errors are manifest in children with cochlear implants (CI) as in their normally hearing (NH) peers with respect to consonant clusters. However, the incidence of those types and their longitudinal development have not been examined or quantified in the literature thus far. Furthermore, studies on the…

  15. Communication Breakdowns in Normal and Language Learning-Disabled Children's Conversation and Narration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLachlan, Barbara G.; Chapman, Robin S.

    1988-01-01

    Communication breakdowns occurring in the speech of seven language learning-disabled children (aged 9-11) were examined in conversation and narration and compared to normal peers. Length of communication unit and rate of communication breakdowns per communication unit were greater in narration than conversation compared to controls. No differences…

  16. Differences in intermittent postural control between normal-weight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarrasa-Sapiña, Israel; García-Massó, Xavier; Serra-Añó, Pilar; Garcia-Lucerga, Consolación; Gonzalez, Luis-Millán; Lurbe, Empar

    2016-09-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine differences in postural control between obese and non-obese children. The study design was cross-sectional, prospective, between-subjects. Postural control variables were obtained from a group of obese children and a normal-weight control group under two different postural conditions: bipedal standing position with eyes open and bipedal standing with eyes closed. Variables were obtained for each balance condition using time domain and sway-density plot analysis of the center of pressure signals acquired by means of a force plate. Pairwise comparisons revealed significant differences between obese and normal-weight children in mean velocity in antero-posterior and medio-lateral directions, ellipse area and mean distance with both eyes open and eyes closed. Normal-weight subjects obtained lower values in all these variables than obese subjects. Furthermore, there were differences between both groups in mean peaks with eyes open and in mean time with eyes closed. Alterations were detected in the intermittent postural control in obese children. According to the results obtained, active anticipatory control produces higher center of pressure displacement responses in obese children and the periods during which balance is maintained by passive control and reflex mechanisms are of shorter duration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of Motor Skills in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder and Normal Peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahel Hemmati

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD is a motor skill disorder which impacts upon a child, s ability to perform age-appropriate activity of daily living and academic performance. They have problems in gross & fine motors, their upper limb coordination are impaired, too. In this way, we decided to compare motors skills with BOTMP test in children with DCD and their normal peers. Methods: In this study 30 children with DCD (age range is 6/5-8/5 have studied and compared with their normal peers. Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP was used. Results: The study showed Motor skills in DCD children are significantly poorer than their normal peers. (P<0/001 Gross motor, Fine motor skills and the upper limb coordination are significant impaired in DCD children. Discussion: In the process of evaluation Children with DCD, standard instrument, like BOTMP can be used.BOTMP detected deficiency in gross & fine motor and other area like, upper limb coordination. We need accurate in formations for better treatment. BOTMP can be used in the process of evaluation for every DCD child, after that goals of treatment will be clearer.

  18. The association between the early motor repertoire and language development in term children born after normal pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, Sahar; Einspieler, Christa; Vagelli, Giulia; Zhang, Dajie; Pansy, Jasmin; Burgerhof, Johannes G. M.; Marschik, Peter B.; Bos, Arend F.

    Background: The assessment of the early motor repertoire is a widely used method for assessing the infant's neurological status. Aim: To determine the association between the early motor repertoire and language development. Study design: Prospective cohort study. Subjects: 22 term children born

  19. The study comparing parenting style of children with ADHD and normal children

    OpenAIRE

    Moghaddam, Mahboobeh Firouzkouhi; Assareh,Marzeyeh; Heidaripoor, Amirahossein; Rad,Raheleh Eslami; Pishjoo, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    Aim. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder is one of the most often diagnosed psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents based on hyperactivity, attention deficit and impulsivity criteria. This disorder causes a lot of problems at home, school and social situations. Considering the family and parenting factors in growth and development of ADHD children, the parenting interventions are consider as a primary intervention programs for this children. Parenting management training, based...

  20. The Acoustic Analysis of Voice Onset Time in Cochlear Implanted Children and Normal-Hearing Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Shohreh Jalaie

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Hearing has an important role in speech production and making phonological distinction, especially voicing distinction. Voice onset time (VOT has been a reliable acoustic cue of voicing differences in plosive consonants. The purpose of this study was to measure VOT in initial Persian (Farsi oral plosives produced by cochlear implanted children, comparing to normal hearing children. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 20 cases and 20 controls were assessed. Cases were prelingually deaf children who were cochlear implanted 4.5 years prior to test. Controls were normal hearing children at 4.5 years of age. VOT were measured while children uttered oral plosives. The effect of hearing status, voicing, and gender on VOT were assessed. Results: The amount of VOT of plosives produced by girls was higher than boys, in both groups. This difference was significantly higher in voiceless plosives than in voiced ones. In both groups, voiceless plosives had long-positive VOT value; while the amount of VOT was short-positive regarding voiced plosives. Conclusion: It was demonstrated that VOT is significantly correlated with voicing. In voiceless plosives, VOT could not be considered as a phonetic correlate of hearing status; whereas it made significant differences between cochlear implanted children and hearing controls. Furthermore, it was confirmed that concerning voiceless plosives, the amount of VOT of girls was significantly higher than boys. On the contrary, in voiced plosives, gender had no significant effect on the amount of VOT.

  1. Audio-visual speech perception in noise: Implanted children and young adults versus normal hearing peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taitelbaum-Swead, Riki; Fostick, Leah

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate auditory, visual and audiovisual speech perception abilities among two groups of cochlear implant (CI) users: prelingual children and long-term young adults, as compared to their normal hearing (NH) peers. Prospective cohort study that included 50 participants, divided into two groups of CI (10 children and 10 adults), and two groups of normal hearing peers (15 participants each). Speech stimuli included monosyllabic meaningful and nonsense words in a signal to noise ratio of 0 dB. Speech stimuli were introduced via auditory, visual and audiovisual modalities. (1) CI children and adults show lower speech perception accuracy with background noise in audiovisual and auditory modalities, as compared to NH peers, but significantly higher visual speech perception scores. (2) CI children are superior to CI adults in speech perception in noise via auditory modality, but inferior in the visual one. Both CI children and CI adults had similar audiovisual integration. The findings of the current study show that in spite of the fact that the CI children were implanted bilaterally, at a very young age, and using advanced technology, they still have difficulties in perceiving speech in adverse listening conditions even when adding the visual modality. This suggests that adding audiovisual training might be beneficial for this group by improving their audiovisual integration in difficult listening situations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Laryngeal Aerodynamics in Children with Hearing Impairment versus Age and Height Matched Normal Hearing Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Barshapriya; Chatterjee, Indranil; Kumar, Suman

    2013-01-01

    Lack of proper auditory feedback in hearing-impaired subjects results in functional voice disorder. It is directly related to discoordination of intrinsic and extrinsic laryngeal muscles and disturbed contraction and relaxation of antagonistic muscles. A total of twenty children in the age range of 5-10 years were considered for the study. They were divided into two groups: normal hearing children and hearing aid user children. Results showed a significant difference in the vital capacity, maximum sustained phonation, and fast adduction abduction rate having equal variance for normal and hearing aid user children, respectively, but no significant difference was found in the peak flow value with being statistically significant. A reduced vital capacity in hearing aid user children suggests a limited use of the lung volume for speech production. It may be inferred from the study that the hearing aid user children have poor vocal proficiency which is reflected in their voice. The use of voicing component in hearing impaired subjects is seen due to improper auditory feedback. It was found that there was a significant difference in the vital capacity, maximum sustained phonation (MSP), and fast adduction abduction rate and no significant difference in the peak flow.

  3. The value of cervical magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of the obtunded or comatose patient with cervical trauma, no other abnormal neurological findings, and a normal cervical computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Pavan; Chau, Cam; Dublin, Arthur; Kim, Kee; Wisner, David

    2012-03-01

    The value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of the obtunded or comatose patient with a potential neck injury is a controversial subject. Some authors have suggested that MRI of the cervical spine adds no value in the evaluation of patients with a normal computed tomography (CT) of the neck. However, others have suggested that MRI is the gold standard for clearing the cervical spine in a clinically suspicious or unevaluatable blunt trauma patient. The purpose of this study is to evaluate our data in regard to these conflicting hypotheses. Five consecutive years of data from 17,000 patients seen at our Level I trauma center yielded 512 individuals who underwent both CT and MRI of the cervical spine. Of the latter group, 150 individuals met three strict inclusion criteria for this study: (1) obtundation (Glasgow Coma Scale ≤13, with 94 of this group comatose [Glasgow Coma Scale ≤8]); (2) no obvious neurologic deficits; and (3) a normal cervical CT. The effect of MRI on the clinical management of these patients was evaluated. Among the 150 obtunded or comatose patients with a negative CT, the majority (51%) had a normal MRI. Among the patients with a positive MRI, the most common MRI-positive findings were ligamentous and soft tissue injury (81%). However, no MRI findings were deemed unstable, and no surgical intervention or change in the clinical management aside from collar immobilization of these individuals occurred after MRI. The addition of a cervical MRI to the evaluation protocol of obtunded or comatose patients with an otherwise normal neurologic examination and a normal cervical CT did not provide any additional useful information to change the management of these patients.

  4. Language skills and phonological awareness in children with cochlear implants and normal hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymani, Zahra; Mahmoodabadi, Najmeh; Nouri, Mina Mohammadi

    2016-04-01

    Early auditory experience plays a major role in language acquisition. Linguistic and metalinguistic abilities of children aged 5-5.5 years with cochlear implants (CIs) were compared to age-matched children with normal hearing (NH) to investigate the effect of hearing on development of these two skills. Eighteen children with NH and 18 children with CIs took part in the study. The Test of Language Development-Primary, third edition, was used to assess language and metalinguistic skills by assessment of phonological awareness (PA). Language skills and PA were then compared between groups. Hierarchical linear regression was conducted to determine whether the language skills explained the unique variance in PA. There were significant differences between children with NH and those with CIs for language skills and PA (p≤0.001). All language skills (semantics, syntax, listening, spoken language, organizing, and speaking) were uniquely predictive of PA outcome in the CI children. Linear combinations of listening and semantics and listening, semantics, and syntax correlated significantly with PA. The results show that children with CIs may have trouble with language skills and PA. Listening, semantics, and syntax, among other skills, are significant indicators of the variance in PA for children with CIs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Comparative Study on Diadochokinetic Skill of Dyslexic, Stuttering, and Normal Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Ayyoub; Amiri, Shahrokh; Hekmati, Issa; Pirzadeh, Jaber; Gholizadeh, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Previous studies have shown some motor deficits among stuttering and dyslexic children. While motor deficits in speech articulation of the stuttering children are among the controversial topics, no study on motor deficits of dyslexic children has been documented to date. Methods. 120 children (40 stuttering, 40 dyslexia, and 40 normal) 6–11 years old were matched and compared in terms of diadochokinetic skill. Dyslexia symptoms checklist, reading test, and diadochokinetic task were used as measurement instruments. Results. The data analysis showed that there are significant differences (P < 0.001) in reaction time and the number of syllables in accomplishing diadochokinetic tasks among stuttering children, dyslexics, and the control group. This indicates that stuttering children and dyslexics have poor performance in reaction time and in the number of monosyllable articulation and long syllable articulation. Furthermore, there are significant differences (P < 0.001) in these indices between stuttering children and dyslexics, so that the latter group have better performance than the former one. Conclusion. The findings indicate that stuttering children and dyslexics have deficits in diadochokinetic skill which suggests their low performance in the motor control of speech production and articulation. Such deficits might be due to the role of the tongue in the development of stuttering and dyslexia. PMID:23986872

  6. Neurologic manifestations of achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Jacqueline T; Bodensteiner, John B; Butler, Ian J

    2014-01-01

    Achondroplasia is the best described and most common form of the congenital short-limbed dwarfing conditions. Achondroplasia is apparent at birth and has a birth prevalence of 1 in 20000-30000 live-born infants. Achondroplasia is inherited as an autosomal dominant condition, although 80% of cases occur sporadically as new events in their families. Achondroplasia is caused, in virtually all of the cases, by a G380R mutation in fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3). Patients with achondroplasia should be evaluated by a multidisciplinary team of clinicians including geneticists, neurologists, and orthopedists, since there are numerous bony and neurological complications. The most severe complication results from craniocervical stenosis and medullary and upper spinal cord compression, which can have devastating and even lethal sequelae during early childhood. In subsequent decades, including adolescence, spinal cord and nerve compression are more prominent. The neurological complications of achondroplasia have been recognized in adults for more than a century and are attributed to bony defects, connective tissue structures, or both. Similar neurological complications are now appreciated in infants, young children, and teenagers with achondroplasia. Defective connective tissue elements in achondroplasia frequently lead to ligamentous laxity, which can aggravate the complications associated with bony stenosis. Bony abnormalities are known to cause neurological morbidity and lead to a shortened lifespan. Neurological complications associated with achondroplasia are reviewed, including recommendations for the evaluation and management of these clinical problems. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Physical activity levels and estimated energy expenditure in overweight and normal-weight 11-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soric, M; Misigoj-Durakovic, M

    2010-02-01

    To objectively evaluate physical activity and energy expenditure in overweight and normal-weight 11-year-old children. The final sample consisted of 91 children (32 overweight and 59 normal-weight children), mean age (SD) = 11.3 (0.2) years. Energy expenditure and physical activity were assessed during two weekdays and two weekend days using a multiple-sensor body monitor (SenseWear Armband; BodyMedia Inc., Pittsburgh, PA, USA). Time spent in physical activity was higher in normal-weight compared with overweight children (p = 0.002). The highest level of physical activity was noted in normal-weight boys [mean (SD) = 258 (114) min/day] and the lowest in overweight girls [mean (SD) = 136 (59) min/day] (p = 0.002). In contrast, energy expended during physical activity did not differ between normal-weight and overweight children (2.6 and 2.7 MJ/day, respectively, p = 0.89). The average decrease in physical activity at weekends was 39 min in overweight children (from 166 to 127 min/day) and 27 min in their normal-weight counterparts (from 230 to 203 min/day). Overweight children engaged in less physical activity of both moderate and vigorous intensity compared with their normal-weight peers. Both overweight and normal-weight children were less active at weekends than on weekdays. Initiatives aiming to increase physical activity of overweight children at weekends are warranted.

  8. A comparative study on diadochokinetic skill of dyslexic, stuttering, and normal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Ayyoub; Amiri, Shahrokh; Hekmati, Issa; Pirzadeh, Jaber; Gholizadeh, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Previous studies have shown some motor deficits among stuttering and dyslexic children. While motor deficits in speech articulation of the stuttering children are among the controversial topics, no study on motor deficits of dyslexic children has been documented to date. Methods. 120 children (40 stuttering, 40 dyslexia, and 40 normal) 6-11 years old were matched and compared in terms of diadochokinetic skill. Dyslexia symptoms checklist, reading test, and diadochokinetic task were used as measurement instruments. Results. The data analysis showed that there are significant differences (P skill which suggests their low performance in the motor control of speech production and articulation. Such deficits might be due to the role of the tongue in the development of stuttering and dyslexia.

  9. Comparison of sensory-specific satiety between normal weight and overweight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rischel, Helene Egebjerg; Nielsen, Louise Aas; Gamborg, Michael Orland

    2016-01-01

    Sensory properties of some foods may be of importance to energy consumption and thus the development and maintenance of childhood obesity. This study compares selected food related qualities in overweight and normal weight children. Ninety-two participants were included; 55 were overweight...... with a mean age of 11.6 years (range 6-18 years) and a mean BMI z-score of 2.71 (range 1.29-4.60). The 37 normal weight children had a mean age of 13.0 years (range 6-19 years) and a mean BMI z-score of 0.16 (range -1.71 to 1.24). All children completed a half-hour long meal test consisting of alternation...... between consumption of foods and answering of questionnaires. Compared to the normal weight, the overweight children displayed lower self-reported intake paces (χ(2)(2) = 6.3, p = 0.04), higher changes in liking for mozzarella (F(1,63) = 9.55, p = 0.003) and pretzels (F(1,87) = 5.27, p = 0...

  10. Effects of Noise on Speech Recognition and Listening Effort in Children with Normal Hearing and Children with Mild Bilateral or Unilateral Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Dawna; Schmid, Kendra; O'Leary, Samantha; Spalding, Jody; Heinrichs-Graham, Elizabeth; High, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of stimulus type and hearing status on speech recognition and listening effort in children with normal hearing (NH) and children with mild bilateral hearing loss (MBHL) or unilateral hearing loss (UHL). Method Children (5-12 years of age) with NH (Experiment 1) and children (8-12 years of age) with MBHL,…

  11. Development of the Parent Form of the Preschool Children's Communication Skills Scale and Comparison of the Communication Skills of Children with Normal Development and with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Aydan

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at developing an assessment scale for identifying preschool children's communication skills, at distinguishing children with communication deficiencies and at comparing the communication skills of children with normal development (ND) and those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were 427 children of up to 6 years of…

  12. Anatomical risk factors that distinguish dyslexia from SLI predict reading skill in normal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Christiana M; Lombardino, Linda J; Walsh, Katherine; Eckert, Mark A; Mockler, Jennifer L; Rowe, Lisa A; Williams, Sharyl; DeBose, Cheryl B

    2002-01-01

    These studies investigated whether anatomical measures could separate phonologically-based reading disability (PD) from nonphonologically-based learning disabilities such as specific language impairment (SLI). In a previous study. four brain measures (cerebral asymmetry. summed planum temporale and parietale asymmetry, anterior cerebellar asymmetry, and a duplicated left Heschl's gyrus) distinguished a group of PD adults from reading disabled adults without specific phonological deficits (URD). Study 1 found that these measures did not distinguish 14 reading disabled children from 21 children with SLI. Instead, differences were found in cerebral volume, planum temporale asymmetry, and the size of a single left Heschl's gyrus. Study 2 demonstrated that including all seven measures in a discriminant analysis separated the adults and children into two groups: one with 100% of the PD adults and 75% of the reading disabled children and the other with 72% of the SLI children and 75% of the URD adults. Study 3 demonstrated that an anatomical risk factor index (ARF7) generated from the discriminant function with seven brain measures predicted reading in normal children. Children with ARF7 near 0 (normal anatomy) had superior verbal ability and phonological decoding scores that improved with age. Normal children with negative ARF7 the relatively s mall symmetrical structures that characterize SLI)had deficits in verbal ability. Children with positive ARF7 (the asymmetrical structures that characterize PD) had phonological decoding scores that decreased with age. These results suggest that PD and SLI are qualitatively different disorders associated with anatomical deviations in opposite directions from the population mean. As a result of this activity, the participant will be able to: (1) distinguish the neuroanatomical features that characterize PD and SLI; (2) recognize that PD is associated with large asymmetrical brain structures while SLI is associated with smaller

  13. Narrative competence among hearing-impaired and normal-hearing children: analytical cross-sectional study

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    Alexandra Dezani Soares

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Oral narrative is a means of language development assessment. However, standardized data for deaf patients are scarce. The aim here was to compare the use of narrative competence between hearing-impaired and normal-hearing children. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study at the Department of Speech-Language and Hearing Sciences, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: Twenty-one moderately to profoundly bilaterally hearing-impaired children (cases and 21 normal-hearing children without language abnormalities (controls, matched according to sex, age, schooling level and school type, were studied. A board showing pictures in a temporally logical sequence was presented to each child, to elicit a narrative, and the child's performance relating to narrative structure and cohesion was measured. The frequencies of variables, their associations (Mann-Whitney test and their 95% confidence intervals was analyzed. RESULTS: The deaf subjects showed poorer performance regarding narrative structure, use of connectives, cohesion measurements and general punctuation (P < 0.05. There were no differences in the number of propositions elaborated or in referent specification between the two groups. The deaf children produced a higher proportion of orientation-related propositions (P = 0.001 and lower proportions of propositions relating to complicating actions (P = 0.015 and character reactions (P = 0.005. CONCLUSION: Hearing-impaired children have abnormalities in different aspects of language, involving form, content and use, in relation to their normal-hearing peers. Narrative competence was also associated with the children's ages and the school type.

  14. TIBIAL TORSION; DOES IT DIFFER IN CHILDREN WITH CONGENITAL TALIPES EQUINOVARUS (CTEV COMPARED TO NORMAL ONES?

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    Amol Sanap, Tushar Chaudhari, Binoti Sheth, Dhruvilkumar Gandhi, Kaustubh Gate, Arun AA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV or clubfoot is one of the commonest congenital orthopaedic conditions requiring intensive treatment. A typical clubfoot consists of a deformed foot in equinus ,varus, adduction. In some cases a cavus component is also there. Tibial torsion is the angle between the transverse axes of the proximal and distal tibial articular surfaces. Controversy exists concerning the presence or absence of excessive medial or internal tibial torsion in CTEV. Materials & Methods: A cross sectional study was done of thirty consenting patients with CTEV and thirty children with injuries not involving the tibia or fibula selected by convenience sampling attending the orthopaedic clinic of a tertiary care hospital of Western Maharashtra . We measured the angular difference between the proximal and distal posterior tibial planes as defined by ultrasound scans thus minimising the error introduced by the posterior shifting of lower end fibula in the fibular notch after manipulative correction. The data was entered in excel and appropriate statistic test was applied. Results: The mean external torsion of the tibia in children with CTEV was 18 degrees (standard deviation 2.7, which was significantly less than the mean external torsion of tibia in normal children (38.13 degrees; standard deviation 9.194 (p<0.05. Conclusions: The children with CTEV have a relative tibial intorsion, as compared to normal children.

  15. New horizons for aerobic fitness normalization in children: Breaking the paradigm

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    Giovani dos Santos Cunha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional methods to normalize aerobic fitness (VO2max have been considered inadequate for not properly adjusting the effects of body size in children, adolescents and adults. Allometric scaling (Y=aXb has emerged as an efficient method to compare individuals of different body dimensions. Studies aimed to compare VO2max in individuals with different body sizes should use methodology that properly accounts for the body size effect, thereby avoiding misinterpretation and reaching the potentially wrong conclusion. The use of allometric scaling for studies aimed to compare aerobic fitness in children and adolescents who dramatically vary in body size is strongly recommended.

  16. [Neuropsychological data about children with autistic disorder and an intellectual development within what is considered to be a normal span of time].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Molina, F; Alcamí-Pertejo, M; Peral-Guerra, M; Vidriales-Fernández, R; Martín-Plasencia, P

    Characteristic symptoms of autistic disorder (AD) can be the result of cognitive impairment which can be produced by specific neurological irregularities. Up until now a specific cognitive deficit in autism has not been found, although the majority of people with autism show intellectual impairment, verbal scores lower than manipulative measures and executive dysfunctions. A neuropsychological evaluation of children with AD was planned. These children had intellectual abilities in the normal range. They were compared with two other groups, one with pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NS), and the other from the general population. A battery of neuropsychological tests was carried out on five boys AD, five boys PDD-NS, and five boys of the general population. All of them were between 9 and 15 years old and their intellectual abilities were within the normal range. The children AD obtained verbal scores lower than their visual-perception scores. They also showed good dynamic coordination of movement. Scores in episodic memory tasks where executive strategies are needed were low. The characteristics described in the paper do not demonstrate a specific profile of the AD, but they can be useful in diagnoses and in planning treatment.

  17. Primacy and Recency Effects for Serially Presented Supraspan Information in Normal and Learning Disabled Children. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Donald B.

    Primacy and recency aspects of short term memory (STM) were investigated with 30 learning disabled (LD) and 30 normal children, all with a mean age of 113 months. The pretest experiment compared the serial position curve performance of LD and normal children when seven-digit series were presented visually or auditorially. The second experiment…

  18. Effects of anterior-tipped seating on respiratory function of normal children and children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, D T; Sochaniwskyj, A

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the respiratory parameters of tidal volume, respiration rate, and minute ventilation of a group of six normal children and a group of six children with spastic cerebral palsy, in response to two seat base positions: (1) flat, and (2) anterior-tipped. Respiratory inductance plethysmography was used to record respiratory parameters. The results demonstrated significant differences in tidal volume and minute ventilation between the groups in the anterior-tipped seat condition. No significant differences in respiratory parameters could be attributed to seat base position within either the normal or cerebral palsied subjects. Implications are discussed in relation to the anterior seat base design, group data analysis methods and individual data profiles, and the impact of these results for future research and practice.

  19. Normal intellectual development in children born from women with hypothyroxinemia during their pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Gema; Aguayo, Anibal; Vela, Amaia; Aniel-Quiroga, Angeles; Espada, Mercedes; Miranda, Gorka; Martinez-Indart, Lorea; Martul, Pedro; Castaño, Luis; Rica, Itxaso

    2015-01-01

    Proper maternal thyroid function is known to be essential for neural differentiation and migration in the fetus during the first half of pregnancy. The objectives of this study were to assess the relationship between thyroxin levels, in pregnant women with no thyroid disease and the intellectual development of their offspring in a non-iodine-deficient area, and to know specifically whether or not isolated hypothyroxinemia during pregnancy was associated with a lower intelligence in the offspring. Previously we had publicated values TSH, FT4, free T3 (FT3), anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO Abs) and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in 1322 pregnant women in our hospital area. Now we presented results of intelligence quotient in children born from these pregnancies. We assessed 455 children at one year of age using Brunet-Lezine scale. Of these, 289 children were evaluated again at 6-8 years of age using the WISC-IV. From the total group of children recruited, we established as control subgroup, children born of rigorously normal pregnancies (women with UIC > 150 μg/L, FT4>10th percentile and TPO-Ab negative in both trimesters). The remaining children were divided into two subgroups: those born to mothers with FT4 below the 10th percentile and the rest. No correlation was found between FT4 maternal levels, in either of trimesters studied, and the intellectual scores of offspring. No differences were found in intellectual scores comparing children born to mothers with hypothyroxinemia and those whose mothers were euthyroxinemic in both trimesters, or with the control subgroup. As conclusions we did not find any association between the levels of maternal FT4 during pregnancy and the subsequent intellectual development the offspring from these pregnancies. We attribute this result to the fact that all the pregnant women included had normal thyroid function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Sweet Christmas: Do overweight and obese children associate special events more frequently with food than normal weight children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martijn, Carolien; Pasch, Sophie; Roefs, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This study examined children's spontaneous associations of special events with food. Children in primary education (N = 111, age between 10 and 13 years) at a school in Germany wrote down their first five associations with five special or festive events (Christmas, holidays, weekend, carnival and birthday). After completing the free-word association test, they were offered a choice between a candy and a toy. Finally, their body mass index (BMI) was measured. The first prediction was that overweight and obese children would associate special events more often with food than normal weight and leaner children. The second prediction was that choice for a candy would be predicted by a higher number of food-related associations. The first hypothesis was not supported: BMI was negatively related to number of food-related associations (the lower the BMI, the more food-related associations). The second hypothesis was also not supported: There was no relation between number of food-related associations and choice for a candy or toy. A possible explanation for the finding that leaner children reported more food-related associations is that for them specific sweets and snack food are more exclusively connected to special occasions than for overweight children. Speculatively, this may be the result of differences in food parenting styles between parents of heavier and leaner children. Parents of leaner children often have a more restrictive style, i.e., reserving specific foods for specific, relatively rare occasions whereas parents of overweight children adopt more liberal food rules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of metallothionein and antibodies to metallothionein in normal and autistic children having exposure to vaccine-derived thimerosal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijendra K; Hanson, Jeff

    2006-06-01

    Allergic autoimmune reaction after exposure to heavy metals such as mercury may play a causal role in autism, a developmental disorder of the central nervous system. As metallothionein (MT) is the primary metal-detoxifying protein in the body, we conducted a study of the MT protein and antibodies to metallothionein (anti-MT) in normal and autistic children whose exposure to mercury was only from thimerosal-containing vaccines. Laboratory analysis by immunoassays revealed that the serum level of MT did not significantly differ between normal and autistic children. Furthermore, autistic children harboured normal levels of anti-MT, including antibodies to isoform MT-I (anti-MT-I) and MT-II (anti-MT-II), without any significant difference between normal and autistic children. Our findings indicate that because autistic children have a normal profile of MT and anti-MT, the mercury-induced autoimmunity to MT may not be implicated in the pathogenesis of autism.

  2. Diurnal changes in postural control in normal children: Computerized static and dynamic assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Bourelle

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI causes postural control deficits and accordingly comparison of aberrant postural control against normal postural control may help diagnose mTBI. However, in the current literature, little is known regarding the normal pattern of postural control in young children. This study was therefore conducted as an effort to fill this knowledge gap. Eight normal school-aged children participated. Posture assessment was conducted before (7-8 a.m. in the morning and after (4-7 p.m. in the afternoon school on regular school days using the Balance Master ® evaluation system composed of 3 static tests and 2 dynamic balance tests. A significant difference in the weight-bearing squats was detected between morning hours and afternoon hours (P < 0.05. By end of afternoon, the body weight was borne mainly on the left side with the knee fully extended and at various degrees of knee flexion. A significantly better directional control of the lateral rhythmic weight shifts was observed at the end of the afternoon than at morning hours (P < 0.05. In summary, most of our findings are inconsistent with results from previous studies in adults, suggesting age-related differences in posture control in humans. On a regular school day, the capacity of postural control and laterality or medio-lateral balance in children varies between morning and afternoon hours. We suggest that posturographic assessment in children, either in normal (e.g., physical education and sports training or in abnormal conditions (e.g., mTBI-associated balance disorders, be better performed late in the afternoon.

  3. Does priming with sex steroids improve the diagnosis of normal growth hormone secretion in short children?

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    Ashraf Soliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is still controversy for priming with sex steroid before growth hormone (GH testing. Objective: We studied GH response to stimulation in 92 children >9 years with idiopathic short stature (height standard deviation score [HtSDS]-2. They were divided randomly into two groups. Children in Group 1 (n = 50 were primed with premarin in girls and testosterone in boys and those in Group 2 were not primed (n = 42. All children were tested using standard clonidine test and their serum insulin-like growth factor-I concentration (IGF-I. Additionally the growth and GH-IGF-I data of the two groups of children were compared with those for 32 short children (HtSDS 9 years. The peak GH response to clonidine provocation test did not differ before (n = 42 versus after 9 years (n = 32 of age. Conclusions: In this randomized study priming with sex steroids before GH testing did not significantly increase the yield of diagnosing short patients with normal GH secretion. In addition, GH response to provocation did not vary significantly between young (9 years short children.

  4. Normal visual evoked potentials in preschool children born small for gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Josefin; Dahlgren, Jovanna; Karlsson, Ann-Katrine; Grönlund, Marita Andersson

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies have shown visual evoked potential (VEP) abnormalities in infants and animals born small for gestational age (SGA) compared with controls. The current exploratory study aims to investigate whether VEP abnormalities persist in older ages. Pattern VEP latencies were obtained in 21 children (11 girls, 10 boys), born SGA and moderately preterm, at an average age of 5 years and 8 months. Fifty-one children (24 girls, 27 boys, mean age of 5 years and 7 months), also born moderately preterm but with normal height and weight at birth, served as controls Visual evoked potential results showed no significant differences in latency between children born SGA and controls born appropriate for gestational age (AGA) for either binocular stimulation, right eye or left eye stimulation. Our findings do not indicate any differences in VEP latency at preschool age for children born SGA compared with children born AGA. The results may support previous studies, suggesting that children born SGA show accelerated neurophysiologic maturation during their first year of life and that previously delayed VEP latencies after catch-up stay unchanged compared with controls. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  5. A Persian version of the sustained auditory attention capacity test and its results in normal children

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    Sanaz Soltanparast

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Sustained attention refers to the ability to maintain attention in target stimuli over a sustained period of time. This study was conducted to develop a Persian version of the sustained auditory attention capacity test and to study its results in normal children.Methods: To develop the Persian version of the sustained auditory attention capacity test, like the original version, speech stimuli were used. The speech stimuli consisted of one hundred monosyllabic words consisting of a 20 times random of and repetition of the words of a 21-word list of monosyllabic words, which were randomly grouped together. The test was carried out at comfortable hearing level using binaural, and diotic presentation modes on 46 normal children of 7 to 11 years of age of both gender.Results: There was a significant difference between age, and an average of impulsiveness error score (p=0.004 and total score of sustained auditory attention capacity test (p=0.005. No significant difference was revealed between age, and an average of inattention error score and attention reduction span index. Gender did not have a significant impact on various indicators of the test.Conclusion: The results of this test on a group of normal hearing children confirmed its ability to measure sustained auditory attention capacity through speech stimuli.

  6. Kinematic differences between normal and low arched feet in children using the Heidelberg foot measurement method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, D; McIntosh, A S; Simon, J; Lowe, K; Wolf, S I

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the kinematics of normal arched and low arched feet in children and use this data to quantify the differences between the two foot types during walking gait. Multi-segment foot motion was measured, using the Heidelberg foot measurement method (HFMM), for 25 normal arched feet and 27 low arched feet in 9-12-year-old children. The kinematic differences in the foot between the two groups during walking were relatively small, except for the medial arch and forefoot supination angles. The magnitude of the medial arch angle was approximately 10 degrees greater in the low arched group than the normal arched group throughout the gait cycle. There was a significant difference found in the forefoot supination angle (pfeet and highlight the mechanical differences in flexible flat feet in this age group. This data contributes to knowledge on foot kinematics in children and will be valuable for future research on the structure, function and potential treatment of the flexible flat foot. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of oral health status between children with cerebral palsy and normal children in India: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Nidhi; Singh, Bijay; Chhabra, Kumar Gaurav; Patil, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to describe and compare the oral health of children with cerebral palsy (CP) with the normal children in India. Fifty children with CP of the age range 7-17 years and fifty normal children were selected for the study. An oral examination was carried out and decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft/DMFT) index, oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) index, Angles malocclusion were charted along with other significant dental findings. Data were analyzed using Student's t-test and Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA test. The mean dmft/DMFT of the CP group was 4.11 ± 2.62, while that of controls was 2.95 ± 2.75, which showed higher caries prevalence in the CP group. There was a significant association between the dmft/DMFT (P = 0.03), OHI-S (P = 0.001), and Angles Class 2 malocclusion and CP. Cerebral palsy group had higher caries, poor oral hygiene and Class 2 malocclusion when compared to controls primarily because of their compromised general health condition and also less dental awareness. Effort should be made for better organization of preventive dental care and promoting dental health of this challenged population.

  8. Differences in assertive speech acts produced by children with autism, Asperger syndrome, specific language impairment, and normal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziatas, Kathryn; Durkin, Kevin; Pratt, Chris

    2003-01-01

    The assertive speech acts of children with autism (n = 12) and Asperger syndrome (n = 12), individually matched to children with specific language impairment (SLI; n = 24) and children with normal development (n = 24) were studied in the context of gently structured conversation. These children also completed the false belief test of theory of mind. The children with autism used significantly lower proportions of assertions involving explanations and descriptions than the children with SLI or normal development and significantly lower proportions of assertions involving internal state and explanations than the children with Asperger syndrome. The children with autism used a higher proportion of assertions involving identifications than any other group. The assertions of the children with Asperger syndrome were generally not different than those of the children with SLI or normal development except for a higher proportion of assertions involving own internal state. Further analysis of the mental assertions revealed that the children with autism and Asperger syndrome predominantly referred to desire and made few references to thought and belief, whereas the children with SLI and those with normal development used a higher proportion of references to thought and belief.

  9. Body fat distribution in stunted compared with normal-height children from the shantytowns of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether central fat distribution varies between children who were growth retarded as young children, compared to normal height children from the same impoverished communities of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Research methods and procedures: A prospectiv...

  10. Analysing the Peer Relationships of Obese and Normal-Weight Preschool Children Aged between Five and Six Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seçer, Zarife; Gülay Ogelman, Hülya; Önder, Alev

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to reveal whether the peer relationships of preschool children who are determined to be obese, based on their body mass index (BMI), differentiate or not. The study was conducted within the frame of a relational survey model. A total of 114 five- to six-year-old children (57 normal-weight children and 57 obese…

  11. Beyond stuttering: Speech disfluencies in normally fluent French-speaking children at age 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Anne-Lise; Suaire, Pauline; Moyse, Astrid

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish normative data on the speech disfluencies of normally fluent French-speaking children at age 4, an age at which stuttering has begun in 95% of children who stutter (Yairi & Ambrose, 2013). Fifty monolingual French-speaking children who do not stutter participated in the study. Analyses of a conversational speech sample comprising 250-550 words revealed an average of 10% total disfluencies, 2% stuttering-like disfluencies and around 8% non-stuttered disfluencies. Possible explanations for these high speech disfluency frequencies are discussed, including explanations linked to French in particular. The results shed light on the importance of normative data specific to each language.

  12. [Long-term follow-up of children with prenatally found increased nuchal translucency and normal karyotype].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornacki, Jakub; Ziółkowska, Katarzyna; Ignaszak, Natalia; Skrzypczak, Jana

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was a long-term follow-up of children with prenatally found increased nuchal translucency (NT) and normal karyotype. The study was conducted among 147 pregnant women who underwent amniocentesis due to increased fetal NT with or without other structural anomalies in the fetus. The final analysis concerned children with prenatally found increased NT and normal karyotype who were at least 2 years of age. A questionnaire was sent to all patients who underwent amniocentesis in order to assess the development of the children. Normal karyotype was found in 101 (68.7%) fetuses with increased NT Complete information on the outcome of pregnancy and further development of the children was submitted by 70 patients (69.3%). An abnormal outcome of pregnancy congenital structural anomalies and abnormal development was found finally in 17.1% of the children. In case of normal result of the second-trimester fetal ultrasound scan, normal further development was found in 93% of the children. 1. Further development of the children with prenatally found increased NT and normal karyotype is usually normal. 2. The degree of NT increase and the result of the second-trimester fetal anatomy scan seem to play the key role in the prognosis of further, postnatal outcome of the fetuses with increased NT 3. Normal karyotype in fetuses with increased NT does not exclude the possibility of an existing genetic syndrome.

  13. Erosion or normal variant? 4-year MRI follow-up of the wrists in healthy children

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    Avenarius, Derk F.M. [University of Tromsoe, Faculty of Health Sciences, Tromsoe (Norway); University Hospital of North Norway, Department of Radiology, Tromsoe (Norway); Ording Mueller, Lil-Sofie [Oslo University Hospital, Department for Radiology and Intervention, Oslo (Norway); Rosendahl, Karen [Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bergen (Norway); University of Bergen, Department of Clinical Medicine K1, Bergen (Norway)

    2016-03-15

    A large proportion of healthy children have wrist changes on MRI, namely carpal depressions, findings that have been described as pathological in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. We performed follow-up imaging in a cohort of healthy children to evaluate carpal surface depressions over time, focusing on the presence of overlying cartilage as a potential discriminator between normal variants and true erosions. 74 of the initial cohort of 89 healthy children (83%) had a re-scan of their wrists using the same protocol, including coronal T1 and fat-saturated T2 sequences. A cartilage-selective sequence was added for this study. We registered number and location of bony depressions and presence of overlying cartilage. The total number of carpal depressions increased by age group and over time; their location was unchanged in 370 of 487 (76%) carpal sites and 91 of 117 (78%) metacarpal sites. In total, 426 of the 1,087 (39.2%) bony depressions were covered by cartilage, with a decreasing percentage by age (P = 0.001). Normal appearances during growth, such as bony depressions, should not be mistaken for pathology. There must be additional findings to support a diagnosis of disease. A cartilage sequence may add to the diagnostic image analysis. (orig.)

  14. Normal weight children have higher cognitive performance - Independent of physical activity, sleep, and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Mads F; Sørensen, Louise B; Andersen, Rikke; Dyssegaard, Camilla B; Ritz, Christian; Tetens, Inge; Michaelsen, Kim F; Astrup, Arne; Egelund, Niels; Sjödin, Anders

    2016-10-15

    Aside from the health consequences, observational studies indicate that being overweight may also negatively affect cognitive function. However, existing evidence has to a large extent not controlled for the possible confounding effect of having different lifestyles. Therefore, the objective was to examine the independent associations between weight status and lifestyle indicators with cognitive performance in 8-11year old Danish children. The analyses included 828 children (measured in 2011-2012) each having one to three measurement occasions separated by approximately 100days. Dietary intake, physical activity, sedentary time, and sleep duration were measured using dietary records and accelerometers. The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire was used to access sleep problems and the Andersen test was carried out to estimate cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF). Weight status (underweight, normal weight, and overweight/obese) was defined according to body mass index and cognitive performance was assessed using the d2-test of attention, a reading test, and a math test. A linear mixed model including a number of fixed and random effects was used to test associations between lifestyle indicators as well as BMI category and cognitive performance. After adjustment for demographics, socioeconomics, and multiple lifestyle indicators, normal weight children had higher cognitive test scores than overweight/obese and underweight children of up to 89% and 48% of expected learning within one school year (Psleep problems, higher CRF, less total physical activity, more sedentary time, and less light physical activity were associated with higher cognitive performance independently of each other in at least one of the three cognitive tests (Pcognitive performance compared to overweight/obese as well as underweight children, independent of multiple lifestyle indicators. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Are short normal children at a disadvantage? The Wessex growth study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, A B; Mulligan, J; Stratford, R J; Betts, P R; Voss, L D

    1997-01-11

    To examine whether short stature through childhood represents a disadvantage at around 12 years. Longitudinal non-intervention study of the physical and psychological development of children recruited from the community in 1986-7 after entry into primary school at age 5-6 years; this is the second psychometric assessment made in 1994-5 after entry into secondary school at age 11-13 years. Southampton and Winchester health districts. 106 short normal children (concept development, behaviour, and locus of control. The short children did not differ significantly from the control children on measures of self esteem (19.4 v 20.2), self perception (104.2 v 102.4), parents' perception (46.9 v 47.0), or behaviour (6.8 v 5.3). The short children achieved significantly lower scores on measures of intelligence quotient (IQ) (102.6 v 108.6; P < 0.005), reading attainment (44.3 v 47.9; P < 0.002), and basic number skills (40.2 v 43.5; P < 0.003) and displayed less internalisation of control (16.6 v 14.3; P < 0.001) and less satisfaction with their height (P < 0.0001). More short than control children, however, came from working class homes (P < 0.05). Social class was a better predictor than height of all measures except that of body satisfaction. Attainment scores were predicted by class and IQ together rather than by height. Height accounted for some of the variance in IQ and locus of control scores. These results provide only limited support for the hypothesis that short children are disadvantaged, at least up until 11-13 years old. Social class seems to have more influence than height on children's psychological development.

  16. Ophthalmic, hearing, speaking and school readiness outcomes in low birth weight and normal birth weight primary school children in Mashhad-Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, Ashraf; Jafarzade, Mohsen; Farhat, Ahmad Shah; Amiri, Rana; Esmaeli, Habiballah

    2011-01-01

    Low Birth weight infants are at risk of many problems. Therefore their outcome must evaluate in different ages especially in school age. In this study we determined prevalence of ophthalmic, hearing, speaking and school readiness problems in children who were born low birth weight and compared them with normal birth weight children. In a cross-sectional and retrospective study, all Primary School children referred to special educational organization center for screening before entrance to school were elected in Mashhad, Iran. In this study 2400 children enrolled to study and were checked for ophthalmic, hearing, speaking and school readiness problems by valid instrument. Data were analyzed by SPSS 11.5. This study showed that 8.3% of our population had birth weight less than 2500 gram. Visual impairment in LBW (Low Birth Weight) and NBW (Normal Birth Weight) was 8.29% vs. 5.74% and there was statistically significant difference between them (P=0.015). Hearing problem in LBW and NBW was 2.1% vs. 1.3 and it was not statistically significant. Speaking problem in LBW and NBW was 2.6% vs. 2.2% and it was not statistically significant. School readiness problem in LBW and NBW was 12.4% vs. 5.8% and it was statistically significant (P<0.001). According to the results, neurological problems in our society is more than other society and pay attention to this problem is critical. We believe that in our country, it is necessary to provide a program to routinely evaluate LBW children.

  17. Ophthalmic, Hearing, Speaking and School Readiness Outcomes in Low Birth Weight and Normal Birth Weight Primary School Children in Mashhad-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Mohammadzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Low Birth weight infants are at risk of many problems. Therefore their outcome must evaluate in different ages especially in school age. In this study we determined prevalence of ophthalmic, hearing, speaking and school readiness problems in children who were born low birth weight and compared them with normal birth weight children. In a cross-sectional and retrospective study, all Primary School children referred to special educational organization center for screening before entrance to school were elected in Mashhad, Iran. In this study 2400 children enrolled to study and were checked for ophthalmic, hearing, speaking and school readiness problems by valid instrument. Data were analyzed by SPSS 11.5. This study showed that 8.3% of our population had birth weight less than 2500 gram. Visual impairment in LBW (Low Birth Weight and NBW (Normal Birth Weight was 8.29% vs. 5.74% and there was statistically significant difference between them (P=0.015. Hearing problem in LBW and NBW was 2.1% vs. 1.3 and it was not statistically significant. Speaking problem in LBW and NBW was 2.6% vs. 2.2% and it was not statistically significant. School readiness problem in LBW and NBW was 12.4% vs. 5.8% and it was statistically significant (P<0.001. According to the results, neurological problems in our society is more than other society and pay attention to this problem is critical. We believe that in our country, it is necessary to provide a program to routinely evaluate LBW children.

  18. Differences in bone mineral density between normal-weight children and children with overweight and obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, J; Koes, B W; Paulis, W D; van Middelkoop, M

    2017-05-01

    This study examines the differences in bone mineral density between normal-weight children and children with overweight or obesity. A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies (published up to 22 June 2016) on the differences in bone mineral density between normal-weight children and overweight and obese children was performed. Results were pooled when possible and mean differences (MDs) were calculated between normal-weight and overweight and normal-weight and obese children for bone content and density measures at different body sites. Twenty-seven studies, with a total of 5,958 children, were included. There was moderate and high quality of evidence that overweight (MD 213 g; 95% confidence interval [CI] 166, 261) and obese children (MD 329 g; 95%CI [229, 430]) have a significantly higher whole body bone mineral content than normal-weight children. Similar results were found for whole body bone mineral density. Sensitivity analysis showed that the association was stronger in girls. Overweight and obese children have a significantly higher bone mineral density compared with normal-weight children. Because there was only one study included with a longitudinal design, the long-term impact of childhood overweight and obesity on bone health at adulthood is not clear. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  19. A comparison of speech intonation production and perception abilities of Farsi speaking cochlear implanted and normal hearing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moein, Narges; Khoddami, Seyyedeh Maryam; Shahbodaghi, Mohammad Rahim

    2017-10-01

    Cochlear implant prosthesis facilitates spoken language development and speech comprehension in children with severe-profound hearing loss. However, this prosthesis is limited in encoding information about fundamental frequency and pitch that are essentially for recognition of speech prosody. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the perception and production of intonation in cochlear implant children and comparison with normal hearing children. This study carried out on 25 cochlear implanted children and 50 children with normal hearing. First, using 10 action pictures statements and questions sentences were extracted. Fundamental frequency and pitch changes were identified using Praat software. Then, these sentences were judged by 7 adult listeners. In second stage 20 sentences were played for child and he/she determined whether it was in a question form or statement one. Performance of cochlear implanted children in perception and production of intonation was significantly lower than children with normal hearing. The difference between fundamental frequency and pitch changes in cochlear implanted children and children with normal hearing was significant (P perception and production of intonation has significant correlation with child's age surgery and duration of prosthesis use (P perception and production of intonation in cochlear implanted children. It should be noted that the child's age at the surgery and duration of prosthesis's use is important in reduction of this limitation. According to these findings, speech and language pathologists should consider intervention of intonation in treatment program of cochlear implanted children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Achievement in children with birth weights less than 750 grams with normal cognitive abilities: evidence for specific learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H G; Hack, M; Klein, N; Schatschneider, C

    1995-12-01

    Examined achievement, behavior, and neuropsychological outcomes at early school age in a regional population of children < 750-g birth weight who were neurologically intact and who scored in the broad average range on a test of cognitive ability. Comparison groups included children of birth weight 750-1,499 g and children born at full-term. The children < 750 g performed more poorly than the higher birth weight groups on tests of math, even after adjusting for group differences in cognitive ability. Corresponding group differences were found in language, perceptual motor, and attentional skills, but not in behavior outcomes. Findings document specific weaknesses in achievement and neuropsychological skills in children < 750 g birth weight and support the need for early identification and special education interventions.

  1. Nutcracker and SMA syndromes: What is the normal SMA angle in children?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthurs, O.J., E-mail: oja20@owenarthurs.co.uk [Department of Radiology, Box 219, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge University Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom); Mehta, U. [Department of Radiology, Box 219, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge University Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom); Set, P.A.K., E-mail: p.set@addenbrookes.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Box 219, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge University Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    Objective: The nutcracker and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndromes are rare conditions where the left renal vein or duodenum may be compressed by an unusually acute angle between the SMA and aorta, although the normal angle in children is unknown. We measured the SMA angle to define the normal range in children. Methods: We retrospectively measured SMA angles, left renal vein (LRV) distance, and duodenal distance (DD) in 205 consecutive pediatric abdominal CT. Total and visceral intra-abdominal fat at the level of the umbilicus were also assessed. Results: Mean SMA angle was 45.6 {+-} 19.6 Degree-Sign (range 10.6-112.9 Degree-Sign ), mean LRV distance was 8.6 {+-} 3.9 mm (range 2.0-28.6 mm) and mean DD was 11.3 {+-} 4.8 mm (range 3.6-35.3 mm). There was a significant but weak correlation between %visceral fat volume (%VF) and SMA angle (R = 0.30; p < 0.001), LRV distance (R = 0.37, p < 0.001) and DD (R = 0.32; p < 0.001). Conclusion: There is a wide range of SMA angle, LRV and DD in normal children, which correlated weakly with visceral fat volume. Using a definition of SMA angle <25 Degree-Sign would diagnose 9.3% of asymptomatic children with nutcracker syndrome, and using a DD definition of <8 mm would diagnose 20% with SMA compression. Our findings suggest exercising caution when attributing these rare syndromes to an absolute SMA angle.

  2. Oscillometric blood pressure percentiles for Polish normal-weight school-aged children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kułaga, Zbigniew; Litwin, Mieczysław; Grajda, Aneta; Kułaga, Katarzyna; Gurzkowska, Beata; Góźdź, Magdalena; Pan, Huiqi

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to construct blood pressure (BP) references with the use of a validated oscillometric device for normal-weight, school-aged children and adolescents and to study BP predictors. BP was measured in 14 266 randomly selected, normal-weight Polish children and adolescents aged 7-18 years, who were free of chronic disease, using a validated oscillometric device (Datascope Accutor Plus). Height, weight and waist circumference were measured. BP percentiles were constructed for age and height simultaneously with the use of a polynomial regression model. The normative values of BP were compared with the US normal-weight reference, German oscillometric reference, and Polish auscultatory reference. Reference BP percentiles by sex, age and height are presented. At median height, the age-specific differences in the 90th BP percentiles compared with German oscillometric reference ranged in the case of boys from -3 to 2  mmHg and from -5 to -1  mmHg, SBP and DBP, respectively, and in the case of girls from 0 to 3  mmHg and from -5 to -1  mmHg, SBP and DBP, respectively. As compared to weight, waist circumference was stronger SBP predictor in low birth weight boys. The study provides BP references for oscillmetric device, based on a current, nationally representative sample of normal-weight Polish children and adolescents. The normative values of BP were compared taking into consideration the height and BMI differences, the pubertal spurt, the methods of BP measurement and percentile construction.

  3. Omega-3 fatty acids rich foods free from contaminants and suitable for vegetarians, and its significance in the normal neurological development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángeles Molina-Peralta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Essential long chain v-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids as a-linolenic acid (ALA and its derivatives, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA are involved in the growth and function of nervous tissue as structural components of the neuronal membrane. The maternal intake of v-3 fatty acid during pregnancy and breastfeeding must come from non-animal sources free from dioxins and heavy metals to ensure the normal development of the neural structures of infants. Various lead sources were consulted, including scientific reviews, studies with animal models, cellular assays and clinical trials in the following data bases: PubMed central (PMC-NBCI, Elsevier Journal, Scielo España, Scirus and Science Direct, in order to assess the potential effect of algae, fungi, marine bacteria and other vegetarian sources of v-3 fatty acids on the neural development of infant.

  4. Sonographic findings of the internal jugular vein valve in normal children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youk, Dong Joon; Rho, Taek Soo; Lee, Min Jin; Lee, Sang Chun [Seoul Red Cross Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    To describe the sonographic findings of the valve in the internal jugular vein in normal children. Seventy children (5-15 years, average age 10.8 years, 36 boys and 34 girls) were recruited for the study. The number of cusps, length and insertion sites of the valve in the internal jugular vein was examined. Sex differences were investigated, in addition to the symmetry of the valves found in both of the veins. In all children, valve was found in either one or both internal jugular veins. Sixteen percents of the children had valve on one side only, while eighty four percents showed on both sides. All the one side were found on the right side only. Nine percents of the valves in the internal jugular veins of the children were bicuspid and ninety one percents were unicuspid. The length of the cusps was on the average, 7.59 +- 2.77 mm. The insertion of the cusps was on the average, 6.75 +- 2.59 mm (range: 0-12.0 mm), proximal to the confluence of the subclavian and internal jugular veins to form the brachiocephalic vein. There was no significant statistical difference of the number of cusps, length and insertion sites of the valves on both sides and sex distinction. A valve in internal jugular vein is identified in all cases on ultrasonography. There was no significant statistical difference of the number of cusps, length and insertion sites of the valves on both sides and sex distinction.

  5. Infection control assessment after an influenza outbreak in a residential care facility for children and young adults with neurologic and neurodevelopmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azofeifa, Alejandro; Yeung, Lorraine F; Peacock, Georgina; Moore, Cynthia A; Rodgers, Loren; DiOrio, Mary; Page, Shannon L; Fowler, Brian; Stone, Nimalie D; Finelli, Lyn; Jhung, Michael A

    2013-07-01

    To assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of infection control among staff in a residential care facility for children and young adults with neurologic and neurodevelopmental conditions. Self-administered survey. Residential care facility (facility A). Facility A staff ([Formula: see text]). We distributed a survey to staff at facility A. We classified staff with direct care responsibilities as clinical (ie, physicians, nurses, and therapists) or nonclinical (ie, habilitation assistants, volunteers, and teachers) and used χ(2) tests to measure differences between staff agreement to questions. Of 248 surveys distributed, 200 (81%) were completed; median respondent age was 36 years; 85% were female; and 151 were direct care staff (50 clinical, 101 nonclinical). Among direct care staff respondents, 86% agreed they could identify residents with respiratory symptoms, 70% stayed home from work when ill with respiratory infection, 64% agreed that facility administration encouraged them to stay home when ill with respiratory infection, and 72% reported that ill residents with respiratory infections were separated from well residents. Clinical and nonclinical staff differed in agreement about using waterless hand gel as a substitute for handwashing (96% vs 78%; [Formula: see text]) and whether handwashing was done after touching residents (92% vs 75%; [Formula: see text]). Respondents' knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding infection control could be improved, especially among nonclinical staff. Facilities caring for children and young adults with neurologic and neurodevelopmental conditions should encourage adherence to infection control best practices among all staff having direct contact with residents.

  6. Differential negative air ion effects on learning disabled and normal-achieving children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, L. L.; Kershner, J. R.

    1990-03-01

    Forty normal-achieving and 33 learning disabled (LD) children were assigned randomly to either a negative ion or placebo test condition. On a dichotic listening task using consonant-vowel (CV) combinations, both groups showed an ioninduced increase in the normal right ear advantage (REA). However, the mechanisms for this effect were different for each group. The LDs showed the effect at the right ear/left hemisphere (enhancement). The normal achievers showed the effect at the left ear/right hemisphere (inhibition). The results are consistent with an activation-inhibition model of cerebral function and suggest a functional relationship between arousal, interhemispheric activation-inhibition, and learning disabilities. The LDs may have an interhemispheric dysfunction. Both groups showed superior right ear report and the normal achiever showed overall superiority. Normal achievers showed higher consonant intrusion scores, probably due to a greater cognitive capacity. Age was a significant covariate reflecting developmental capacity changes. Negative air ions are seen to be a tool with potential theoretical and remedial applications.

  7. Adenotonsillectomy Normalizes Hormones and Urinary Electrolytes in Children With Nocturnal Enuresis and Sleep-Disordered Breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevic, Larisa; Lu, Hong; Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Abdulhamid, Ibrahim; Thottam, Prasad J; Lulgjuraj, Mark; Madgy, David N; Lakshmanan, Yegappan

    2015-07-01

    To assess (1) plasma levels of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and urinary levels of electrolytes in children with sleep disordered breathing (SDB), with or without nocturnal enuresis (NE), and (2) the effect of adenotonsillectomy (T&A) on urinary electrolytes and the secretion of ADH and BNP in children with NE and SDB. We previously reported post-T&A improvements in plasma levels of BNP and ADH in children with SDB and NE. However, the differences in plasma concentration of these hormones in SDB children with and without NE, and their relationships with urinary electrolytes, have not yet been addressed. This prospective study compared concentrations of urinary electrolytes and plasma ADH and BNP in (1) children with SDB and NE (study group) and an age- and sex-matched control group of children with SDB without NE, and (2) the study group before and 1-month after T&A. Compared with the control group (n = 31), the study group (n = 37) exhibited significantly lower ADH (P = .04) and higher BNP (P = .009) plasma levels. The differences in urinary electrolytes were not significant. Post-T&A, the study group showed significantly decreased BNP (P = .018), urinary sodium-to-creatinine ratio (P = .02), and urinary calcium-to-creatinine ratio (P = .007) compared with the pre-T&A values. Post-T&A changes in urinary calcium were significantly correlated with changes in sodium excretion (P = .002) and in plasma levels of BNP (P <.001). The presence of NE is associated with altered ADH and BNP levels in children with SDB. T&A led to normalization of ADH and BNP, probably through a calcium- and sodium-dependent mechanism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Neurological Manifestations of Dengue Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Hong Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dengue counts among the most commonly encountered arboviral diseases, representing the fastest spreading tropical illness in the world. It is prevalent in 128 countries, and each year >2.5 billion people are at risk of dengue virus infection worldwide. Neurological signs of dengue infection are increasingly reported. In this review, the main neurological complications of dengue virus infection, such as central nervous system (CNS, peripheral nervous system, and ophthalmic complications were discussed according to clinical features, treatment and possible pathogenesis. In addition, neurological complications in children were assessed due to their atypical clinical features. Finally, dengue infection and Japanese encephalitis were compared for pathogenesis and main clinical manifestations.

  9. Neurological examination in small animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Paluš

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This clinical review about the neurological examination in small animals describes the basics about the first steps of investigation when dealing with neurological patients. The knowledge of how to perform the neurological examination is important however more important is how to correctly interpret these performed tests. A step-by-step approach is mandatory and examiners should master the order and the style of performing these tests. Neurological conditions can be sometimes very distressing for owners and for pets that might not be the most cooperating. The role of a veterinary surgeon, as a professional, is therefore to collect the most relevant history, to examine a patient in a professional manner and to give to owners an educated opinion about the further treatment and prognosis. However neurological examinations might look challenging for many. But it is only the clinical application of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology to an every-day situation for practicing veterinarians and it does not require any specific in-to-depth knowledge. This clinical review is aimed not only to provide the information on how to perform the neurological examination but it is also aimed to appeal on veterinarians to challenge their daily routine and to start practicing on neurologically normal patients. This is the best and only way to differentiate between the normal and abnormal in a real situation.

  10. [Perinatal and pediatric follow up of children with increased nuchal translucency and normal karyotype].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Lívia Adriano; Silva, Sônia Valadares Lemos; de Faria, Roberto Buenfil; Lippi, Umberto Gazi; Lopes, Reginaldo Guedes Coelho

    2013-06-01

    To analyze the perinatal and pediatric outcome of fetuses that showed nuchal translucency (NT) above the 95th percentile (P95) and a normal karyotype in order to obtain data allowing better maternal prenatal counseling. fetuses from a tertiary obstetric service with an NT above P95 and a normal karyotype were analyzed between 2005 and 2011. We analyzed gestational ultrasound follow-up, fetal and postnatal echocardiography (ECHO), weight, length and Apgar score at birth, and neuropsychomotor development by the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) up to July 2012. During this period, there were 116 cases of nuchal translucency above the 95th percentile, and the fetal karyotype was determined in 79 of them (68%). Forty-three analyses were normal (54.4%) and 36 were altered (45.6%). Among the fetuses with a normal karyotype, one was miscarried at 15 weeks of gestation with Cantrel pentalogy and one died at 24 weeks with several structural abnormalities. There was one neonatal death of unknown cause and two cases of intraventricular communication (IVC) detected by fetal ECHO. Postnatal echocardiography revealed the persistence of IVC in one case and one case of atrial septal defect (ASD) and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Of the 40 surviving children, only 1 showed delayed speech development and another presented autism. The remaining cases resulted in normal neurodevelopment. During the monitoring of fetuses with increased NT and a normal karyotype, parents can be best advised that when a 2nd trimester morphological-echocardiography ultrasound study is normal, the probability of the child being born alive and well is high (93.5%).

  11. One-day bowel preparation in children with colostomy using normal saline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel A Ameh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colonic and colorectal surgery frequently requires bowel preparation. This is an evaluation of the use of normal saline for one-day bowel preparation in children with colostomy. Patients and Methods:A prospective study of 55 children with colostomy who had one-day bowel preparation for colonic and colorectal surgical procedures in a 3-year period. The information, along with clinical data was recorded on a structured proforma. Data were analysed using SPSS version 11.0. Results:There were 33 boys and 22 girls. The median age was 4 years (range, one month - 13 years. The primary diagnosis were as follows: Anorectal malformation, 24 (44%; Hirschsprung`s disease, 24 (44%; Faecal incontinence- post-abdominoperineal pull-through, 2 (4%; Penetrating rectal injury, 1 (2%; others, 4(8%. Intraoperative bowel luminal fluid cleanliness was assessed as clear in 36 (62% and contaminated in 21 (38%. Overall, postoperatively, superficial surgical site infection occurred in 6 (10.9% patients (2 had clean intraoperative colonic fluid, 5.9%. Conclusion:One-day bowel preparation using normal saline is effective and safe in children with colostomy.

  12. Neural correlates of deception in social contexts in normally developing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu eYokota

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Deception is related to the ability to inhibit prepotent responses and to engage in mental tasks such as anticipating responses and inferring what another person knows, especially in social contexts. However, the neural correlates of deception processing, which requires mentalizing, remain unclear. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we examined the neural correlates of deception, including mentalization, in social contexts in normally developing children. Healthy right-handed children (aged 8–9 years were scanned while performing interactive games involving deception. The games varied along two dimensions: the type of reply (deception and truth and the type of context (social and less social. Participants were instructed to deceive a witch and to tell the truth to a girl. Under the social-context conditions, participants were asked to consider what they inferred about protagonists’ preferences from their facial expressions when responding to questions. Under the less-social-context conditions, participants did not need to consider others’ preferences. We found a significantly greater response in the right precuneus under the social-context than under less-social-context conditions. Additionally, we found substantially greater activation in the right inferior parietal lobule (IPL under the deception than under the truth condition. These results suggest that deception in a social context requires not only inhibition of prepotent responses but also engagement in mentalizing processes. This study provides the first evidence of the neural correlates of the mentalizing processes involved in deception in normally developing children.

  13. Normal patterns of 18F-FDG appendiceal uptake in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reavey, Hamilton E. [Emory University, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Division of Nuclear Medicine Molecular Imaging, Atlanta, GA (United States); Alazraki, Adina L.; Simoneaux, Stephen F. [Emory University, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Division of Pediatric Imaging, Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta at Egleston, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Prior to interpreting PET/CT, it is crucial to understand the normal biodistribution of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). It is also important to realize that the normal biodistribution can vary between adults and children. Although many studies have defined normal patterns of pediatric FDG uptake in structures like the thymus, brown fat and bone marrow, patterns of normal pediatric bowel activity, specifically uptake within the appendix, have not been well described. Active lymphoid tissue has increased FDG uptake when compared with inactive tissue. Since children have more active lymphoid tissue than adults, and because the appendix contains aggregated lymphoid tissue, we postulated that appendiceal uptake may be increased in pediatric patients. To define the normal level of appendiceal FDG activity in children by evaluating a series of consecutive FDG PET/CT scans performed for other indications. After obtaining IRB approval, we retrospectively reviewed 128 consecutive whole-body pediatric FDG PET/CT examinations obtained for a variety of clinical indications. CT scans on which the appendix could not be visualized were excluded from analysis. CT scans on which the appendix could be visualized were evaluated for underlying appendiceal pathology. Studies with appendiceal or periappendiceal pathology by CT criteria were excluded. A region of interest (ROI) was placed over a portion of each appendix and appendiceal maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was calculated. If an adjacent loop of bowel activity interfered with accurate measurements of the appendix SUVmax, the scan was excluded from the analysis. A chart review was performed on patients with elevated appendiceal SUVmax values to ensure that the patients did not have clinical symptomatology suggestive of acute appendicitis. When the appendix or a portion of the appendix could be visualized and accurately measured, the SUVmax was determined. SUVmax of the appendix was compared to the SUVmax of normal liver and

  14. The neurology of proverbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lancker, D

    1990-01-01

    Although proverb tests are commonly used in the mental status examination surprisingly little is known about either normal comprehension or the interpretation of proverbial expressions. Current proverbs tests have conceptual and linguistic shortcomings, and few studies have been done to investigate the specific effects of neurological and psychiatric disorders on the interpretation of proverbs. Although frontal lobes have traditionally been impugned in patients who are "concrete", recent studies targeting deficient comprehension of non literal language (e.g. proverbs, idioms, speech formulas, and indirect requests) point to an important role of the right hemisphere (RH). Research describing responses of psychiatrically and neurologically classified groups to tests of proverb and idiom usage is needed to clarify details of aberrant processing of nonliteral meanings. Meanwhile, the proverb test, drawing on diverse cognitive skills, is a nonspecific but sensitive probe of mental status.

  15. The Neurology of Proverbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Van Lancker

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Although proverb tests are commonly used in the mental status examination surprisingly little is known about either normal comprehension or the interpretation of proverbial expressions. Current proverbs tests have conceptual and linguistic shortcomings, and few studies have been done to investigate the specific effects of neurological and psychiatric disorders on the interpretation of proverbs. Although frontal lobes have traditionally been impugned in patients who are “concrete”, recent studies targeting deficient comprehension of non literal language (e.g. proverbs, idioms, speech formulas, and indirect requests point to an important role of the right hemisphere (RH. Research describing responses of psychiatrically and neurologically classified groups to tests of proverb and idiom usage is needed to clarify details of aberrant processing of nonliteral meanings. Meanwhile, the proverb test, drawing on diverse cognitive skills, is a nonspecific but sensitive probe of mental status.

  16. Normal weight children have higher cognitive performance – Independent of physical activity, sleep, and diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads F.; Sørensen, Louise B.; Andersen, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    Background/objectives Aside from the health consequences, observational studies indicate that being overweight may also negatively affect cognitive function. However, existing evidence has to a large extent not controlled for the possible confounding effect of having different lifestyles. Therefore......, the objective was to examine the independent associations between weight status and lifestyle indicators with cognitive performance in 8–11 year old Danish children. Subjects/methods The analyses included 828 children (measured in 2011–2012) each having one to three measurement occasions separated......). Weight status (underweight, normal weight, and overweight/obese) was defined according to body mass index and cognitive performance was assessed using the d2-test of attention, a reading test, and a math test. A linear mixed model including a number of fixed and random effects was used to test...

  17. New horizons for aerobic fitness normalization in children: Breaking the paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani dos Santos Cunha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2014v16n6p709 Traditional methods to normalize aerobic fitness (VO2max have been considered inadequate for not properly adjusting the effects of body size in children, adolescents and adults. Allometric scaling (Y=aXb has emerged as an efficient method to compare individuals of different body dimensions. Studies aimed to compare VO2max in individuals with different body sizes should use methodology that properly accounts for the body size effect, thereby avoiding misinterpretation and reaching the potentially wrong conclusion. The use of allometric scaling for studies aimed to compare aerobic fitness in children and adolescents who dramatically vary in body size is strongly recommended.

  18. Reality Testing in Children with Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia and Normal Children: A Comparison using the Ego Impairment Index on the Rorschach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Hosseininasab, Abufazel; Borjali, Ahmad; Mazandarani, Amir Ali

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine reality testing in schizophrenic children and compare it with normal children using minus responses subcomponent in ego impairment index of the Rorschach test. In a descriptive design, 20 accidentally sampled children, including 10 schizophrenic and 10 normal children, were recruited in to two groups and were compared in terms of reality testing subcomponent of Ego Impairment Index (EII). After initial interview, the Rorschach inkblot test was administered on the two groups, and Distorted Quality responses (FQ-) were calculated. The results were then analyzed by independent t-test and Cohen's d for effect size. The result of independent t-test revealed that the mean of minus responses in schizophrenic children was significantly higher than that of normal children. In addition, the usefulness of the Rorschach ego impairment index (EII) in evaluating reality testing in schizophrenic children was confirmed. In addition, it was found that defect in reality testing is one of the prominent characteristics of schizophrenic children. The higher minus responses in schizophrenic children indicate that schizophrenic children have weaker functioning in reality testing compared with normal children.

  19. Reality Testing in Children with Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia and Normal Children: A Comparison using the Ego Impairment Index on the Rorschach

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    Mohammad Reza Mohammadi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to examine reality testing in schizophrenic children and compare it with normal children using minus responses subcomponent in ego impairment index of the Rorschach test.Methods: In a descriptive design, 20 accidentally sampled children, including 10 schizophrenic and 10 normal children, were recruited in to two groups and were compared in terms of reality testing subcomponent of Ego Impairment Index (EII. After initial interview, the Rorschach inkblot test was administered on the two groups, and Distorted Quality responses (FQ- were calculated. The results were then analyzed by independent t-test and Cohen’s d for effect size.Results: The result of independent t-test revealed that the mean of minus responses in schizophrenic children was significantly higher than that of normal children. In addition, the usefulness of the Rorschach ego impairment index (EII in evaluating reality testing in schizophrenic children was confirmed. In addition, it was found that defect in reality testing is one of the prominent characteristics of schizophrenic children. Conclusion: The higher minus responses in schizophrenic children indicate that schizophrenic children have weaker functioning in reality testing compared with normal children.

  20. Evolução neurológica de crianças de baixo peso ao nascimento Neurological evolution of children with lowbirth weight

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    Aron J. Diament

    1976-12-01

    environmental intra-uterine factors. Having in mind the study of the development of such type of children, a group of investigators has been working for 9 years now, envolving aspects related to the Pediatry, Social Pediatry, Neuropediatry, Psychiatry, Otorhynolaringology, Ophtalmology and Odontology. In this study they are trying to envolve all the possible aspects on growth and development of children with lowbirth weight. In 189 chldren, 129 were followed during several years. Most of them were observed up to 5 years of age and few of them up to 9 years of age. The children were divided into three groups as follow: Group I — Children with weights under 1.750 g; Group II — Children with weights between 1.751 and 2.000 g; Group III — Children with weights over 2.001 g and under 2.500 g. The neurological tests were done according to the used system at the Neurologic Clinic of the Faculty of Medicine (University of São Paulo. The present work starts with a general revision on the most important existent papers on the prematures neurological evolution. After presenting his own results, the authors make a correlaction of the neurologic evolution with the developmental quotient (DQ, which were gotten through Gesell's tests and its variations, in order to verify the existence of what is known as "continuum of lesion" of Knobloch & col.21.

  1. Salivary glucose concentration exhibits threshold kinetics in normal-weight, overweight, and obese children

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    Hartman ML

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mor-Li Hartman,1 J Max Goodson,1 Roula Barake,2 Osama Alsmadi,3 Sabiha Al-Mutawa,4 Jitendra Ariga,4 Pramod Soparkar,1 Jawad Behbehani,5 Kazem Behbehani,6 Francine Welty7 1Department of Applied Oral Sciences, The Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA, USA; 2Department of Nutrition, The Dasman Diabetes Institute, Dasman, Kuwait; 3Genome Center, The Dasman Diabetes Institute, Dasman, Kuwait; 4Ministry of Health, Kuwait City, Kuwait; 5Faculty of Dentistry, Kuwait University, Kuwait City, Kuwait; 6The Dasman Diabetes Institute, Dasman, Kuwait; 7Division of Cardiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA Background: Metabolic syndrome in childhood predicts the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes (T2D in adulthood. Testing for features of metabolic syndrome, such as fasting plasma glucose concentration, requires blood sampling which can be difficult in children. Here we evaluated salivary glucose concentration as a surrogate measurement for plasma glucose concentration in 11-year-old US children. Methods: Children from Portland, Maine, and Cambridge, Massachusetts, with a mean age of 10.6±0.2 years provided 6-hour fasting samples of both blood and whole saliva. Salivary glucose levels were measured with a high-sensitivity assay (sensitivity =0.002 mg/dL. Plasma glucose levels were determined by a commercial clinical laboratory. Blood pressure, salivary flow rate, height, and weight were also measured. Results: Of the 65 children enrolled, there were two underweight children (3.1%, 30 normal-weight children (46.2%, 12 overweight children (18.4%, and 21 obese children (32.3%. The mean overall glucose concentrations were 0.11±0.02 mg/dL in saliva and 86.3±0.8 mg/dL in plasma, and these did not differ significantly by body–weight groups. By regression analysis, the plasma concentration equaled 13.5 times the saliva concentration, with a threshold level of 84.8 mg/dL. Salivary glucose values less than threshold plasma

  2. The comprehension of deictic terms in normal and language impaired children

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    Michelle Mentis

    1981-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the comprehension of four pairs of deictic terms in a group of language impaired children and compared their interpretation of these terms with those of non-language impaired children of the same age range. Each group was comprised of ten subjects within the age range of 9,6 to 10,6 years. Two tasks were administered, one to assess the comprehension of the terms here, there, this, and that and the other to assess the comprehension of the terms, come, go, bring and take. The results showed that while the non-language impaired subjects comprehended the full deictic contrast between the pairs of terms tested, the language impaired group did not. A qualitative analysis of the data revealed that the language impaired subjects appeared to follow the same developmental sequence as normal children in their acquisition of these terms and responded by using the same strategies that younger non-language impaired children use at equivalent stages of development. Furthermore, the language impaired subjects appeared to comprehend the deictic terms in a predictable order based on their relative semantic complexity.

  3. Normal mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes in children on multi-detector row chest computed tomography

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    Jong, Pim A. de; Nievelstein, Rutger-Jan A. [University Medical Center Utrecht and Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    To study normal mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes on multi-detector chest computed tomography (CT). A cohort of 120 children aged 1-17 years underwent emergency CT, including the chest, after high-energy trauma. Axial 5-mm reconstructions were evaluated for lymph nodes at hilar and various mediastinal levels and the short-axis diameters were measured. At least one lymph node was found in 115 (96%) children, with subcarinal (69%), lower paratracheal (64%) and hilar (60%) nodes being most common. Up to 10 years of age most lymph nodes were smaller than or equal to 7 mm. In older children lymph nodes measuring up to 10-mm-short-axis diameter were found. Lymph nodes were rare along the mammary vessels, at lower oesophageal and at prevascular and posterior mediastinal levels in children. Mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes are more common than previously thought, probably because of increased detection by modern multi-detector CT. Lymph node location and age have to be taken into account when evaluating lymph nodes in the paediatric chest. (orig.)

  4. Low-frequency pitch perception in children with cochlear implants in comparison to normal hearing peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dincer D'Alessandro, Hilal; Filipo, Roberto; Ballantyne, Deborah; Attanasio, Giuseppe; Bosco, Ersilia; Nicastri, Maria; Mancini, Patrizia

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the application of two new pitch perception tests in children with cochlear implants (CI) and to compare CI outcomes to normal hearing (NH) children, as well as investigating the effect of chronological age on performance. The tests were believed to be linked to the availability of Temporal Fine Structure (TFS) cues. 20 profoundly deaf children with CI (5-17 years) and 31 NH peers participated in the study. Harmonic Intonation (HI) and Disharmonic Intonation (DI) tests were used to measure low-frequency pitch perception. HI/DI outcomes were found poorer in children with CI. CI and NH groups showed a statistically significant difference (p test (p test, bimodal listeners had better performance than when listening with CI alone. HI/DI tests were applicable as clinical tools in the pediatric population. The majority of CI users showed abnormal outcomes on both tests confirming poor TFS processing in the hearing-impaired population. Findings indicated that the DI test provided more differential low-frequency pitch perception outcomes in that it reflected phase locking and TFS processing capacities of the ear, whereas HI test provided information of its place coding capacity as well.

  5. Computed tomography measurements of the normal and the pathologic cochlea in children

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    Teissier, Natacha; Abbeele, Thierry van den [Robert Debre Hospital, Paediatric ENT, Paris (France); Sebag, Guy; Elmaleh-Berges, Monique [Robert Debre Hospital, Paediatric Imaging, Paris (France)

    2010-03-15

    Radiological investigation is frequently undertaken to assess the aetiology of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). To establish the CT measurements of the normal cochlea in children and to determine radiological criteria correlated with SNHL. A retrospective study of temporal bone CT performed in 159 children, age range from 3 days to 16 years between February 1999 and July 2004. A control group (n = 88) comprised children without SNHL; the SNHL group comprised 71 children. The width of the second turn of the cochlea (CW), the cochlear height (CH), and the width of the bony canal for the cochlear nerve (WCN) were measured on a reference plane containing the modiolus, the posterior semicircular canal, the footplate, and the stapes arch. Width of the canal measurements {<=}1.7 mm or {>=}2.5 mm supported the diagnosis of SNHL with a specificity of 97% and 91%, respectively. Cochlear width was found to be significantly smaller in the SNHL group (5.61 {+-} 0.51 mm) than in the control group (5.75 {+-} 0.31 mm, P < 0.02), a size <5.4 mm being highly suggestive of SNHL with a specificity of 90%. No significant variations of all measurements were found with age. Appropriate measurements of WCN and CW are highly correlated with SNHL. (orig.)

  6. Normal Percentile Reference Curves and Correlation of Acetabular Index and Acetabular Depth Ratio in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novais, Eduardo N; Pan, Zhaoxing; Autruong, Patrick T; Meyers, Mariana L; Chang, Frank M

    2018-03-01

    Radiographic surveillance of the hip is vital in the diagnosis and treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in children. The acetabular index (AI) and the acetabular depth ratio (ADR) are radiographic parameters for evaluation of acetabular morphology. Normal reference curves for these parameters that allow for serial evaluation of acetabular development in a manner that is independent of age are necessary and clinically useful. The purpose of this study was (1) to establish normal values of AI and ADR in the normally developing pediatric hip up to age 14, (2) to generate percentile reference curves of both parameters, (3) to determine the extent of correlation between AI and ADR, and (4) to assess intrarater and interrater reliability of AI measurement. We identified 1734 patients who underwent anterior-posterior pelvic radiography between 2004 and 2014. A total of 1152 patients (age range, 0.15 to 13.97 y; 2304 hips) were identified as radiographically normal in the radiology report, signed by the attending pediatric radiologist on the basis of the absence of structural deformity of the hip and previously established reference values for DDH assessment. A review of the medical records confirmed that patients had no diagnosis of DDH or any other orthopaedic hip pathology. The AI and ADR were measured in all radiographs. Normal values and fully parametric percentile curves were generated from birth to skeletal maturity. Correlation between AI and ADR was assessed using linear regression analysis. Normal AI decreased, and ADR increased, with age. Percentile curves were generated for AI and ADR. Using the provided equations, measured values can be converted to age-appropriate percentile and Z-score. The 2 parameters exhibited strong correlation (Pearson correlation=-0.789, Ppercentile and Z-score. Using the presented method during surveillance of the pathologic hip, change in acetabular development can now be assessed in a manner that is independent of

  7. Quality of phonological representations in 54 to 77 months typically normal Persian-speaking children

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    Golnoosh Golmohamadi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The ways in which words are phonologically stored and organized change with maturation. Hence, most researchers agree on the issue of phonological representations abilities evolve over time . This study aimed to determine the quality of phonological representations in normal Persian-speaking boys and girls.Methods: In this cross-sectional study , quality of phonological representations of 240 normal children at the age of 54 to 77 months was investigated using descriptive - analytical method s . The subjects were randomly selected among the children in kindergartens and preschoolers in Arak city, Iran. The study tool was a researcher-made quality of phonological representations test.Results: Significant differences were found between age groups in the scores of quality of phonological representations (p<0.01. Subjects in the first ( aged 54 to 59 months and fourth (aged 72 to 77 months age-group had the lowest and highest scores, respectively. The differences in mean scores between 54 to 59 month- and 66 to 71 month-old and between 66 to 71 month- and 72 to 77 month-old children were not significant. There were significant differences in other group mean scores (p<0.001. In all groups of syllables (i.e., words with two , three and four syllables , o lder children have better performance. The mean scores of quality of phonological representations in the two groups of boys and girls in any of the age groups were not significantly different from each other.Conclusion: It seems that subjects' performances have improved with increase in age and gender does not affect the quality of phonological representations.

  8. Bisphenol A, phthalate metabolites and glucose homeostasis in healthy normal-weight children

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    Amalie Carlsson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bisphenol A and several of the most commonly used phthalates have been associated with adverse metabolic health effects such as obesity and diabetes. Therefore, we analyzed these man-made chemicals in first morning urine samples from 107 healthy normal-weight Danish children and adolescents. Method: This was a cross-sectional study. Participants were recruited as part of the Copenhagen Puberty Study. The subjects were evaluated by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA scan, direct oxygen uptake measurement during cycle ergometry and fasting blood samples. First morning urine was collected and phthalate metabolites and BPA were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS with prior enzymatic deconjugation. Individual chemical concentrations were divided into tertiles and analyzed in relation to biological outcome. Results: Children in the lowest tertile of urinary BPA had significantly higher peak insulin levels during OGTT (P = 0.01, lower insulin sensitivity index (P < 0.01, higher leptin (P = 0.03, triglyceride (P < 0.01 and total cholesterol levels (P = 0.04, lower aerobic fitness (P = 0.02 and a tendency toward higher fat mass index (P = 0.1 compared with children in the highest tertile for uBPA. No significant differences in anthropometrics, body composition or glucose metabolism were associated with any of the phthalate metabolites measured. Conclusion: This pilot study on healthy normal-weight children suggests an inverse association between BPA and insulin resistance. Our findings contrast other cross-sectional studies showing a positive association for BPA, which may be due to confounding or reverse causation because diet is an important source of both BPA exposure and obesity.

  9. Differences in quality between privately and publicly banked umbilical cord blood units: a pilot study of autologous cord blood infusion in children with acquired neurologic disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jessica; Allison, June; McLaughlin, Colleen; Sledge, Linda; Waters-Pick, Barbara; Wease, Stephen; Kurtzberg, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND A pilot study was conducted to determine the safety and feasibility of intravenous administration of autologous umbilical cord blood (CB) in young children with acquired neurologic disorders. Most CB units (CBUs) were electively stored in private CB banks. Unlike public banks, which utilize specific criteria and thresholds for banking, private banks generally store all collected CBUs. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS CBUs of eligible patients containing more than 1 × 107 cells/kg were shipped to Duke from the banks of origin after confirming identity by HLA typing. On the day of infusion, CBUs were thawed and washed in dextran-albumin and infused intravenously. Patients were medicated with acetaminophen, diphenhydramine, and methylprednisolone before transfusion. Data regarding patients, infusions, and CBUs were collected retrospectively. Characteristics of CBUs were compared to existing data from CBUs publicly banked at the Carolinas Cord Blood Bank. RESULTS From March 2004 to December 2009, 184 children received 198 CB infusions. Three patients had infusion reactions, all responsive to medical therapy and stopping the infusion. Median precryopreservation volume (60 mL vs. 89 mL, p < 0.0001), total nucleated cell count (4.7 × 108 vs. 10.8 × 108, p < 0.0001), and CD34 count (1.8 × 106 vs. 3.0 × 106, p < 0.0001) were significantly lower than publicly stored CBUs. Postthaw sterility cultures were positive in 7.6% of infused CBUs. CONCLUSION IV infusion of autologous CB is safe and feasible in young children with neurologic injuries. Quality parameters of privately banked CBUs are inferior to those stored in public banks. If efficacy of autologous CB is established clinically, the quality of autologous units should be held to the same standards as those stored in public banks. PMID:20546200

  10. A comparison with result of normalized image to different template image on statistical parametric mapping of ADHD children patients

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    Shin, Dong Ho [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soung Ock; Kwon, Soo Il [Dongnam Health College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Joh, Chol Woo; Yoon, Seok Nam [Medical College, Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-15

    We studied 64 ADHD children patients group (4 {approx} 15 ys, mean age: 8 {+-} 2.6 ys. M/F: 52/12) and 12 normal group (6 {approx} 7 ys, mean age: 9.4 {+-} 3.4 ys, M/F: 8/4) of the brain had been used to analysis of blood flow between normal and ADHD group. For analysis of Children ADHD, we used 12 children's mean brain images and made Template image of SPM99 program. In crease of blood flow (P-value 0.05), the result of normalized images to Template image to offer from SPM99 program, showed significant cluster in inter-Hemispheric and occipital Lobe, in the case of normalized images to children template image, showed inter-hemispheric and parietal lobe.

  11. A comparison of request-response sequences in the discourse of normal and language-disordered children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinton, B; Fujiki, M

    1982-02-01

    This study compared several discourse characteristics of linguistically normal and language-disordered children. In order to examine interactive skills, several types of request-response sequences were considered. These included choice questions, product questions, request for clarification, and the responses elicited by these speech acts. While neither the linguistically normal nor the language-disordered groups had achieved an adult level of competence, normal children were much more aware of the interactive nature of discourse than language-disordered children. Normals most often responded within the boundaries of an acceptable adult response. Language-disordered children frequently ignored and responded inappropriately to requests. Their responses were occasionally contrary to fact or totally unrelated to the expected information. Some language-disordered subjects also demonstrated linguistic strategies that facilitated the flow of conversation, but showed no understanding of the content of the communicative interchange. The clinical implications of these findings and the need for further research are discussed.

  12. A novel EEG-based brain mapping to determine cortical activation patterns in normal children and children with cerebral palsy during motor imagery tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yoon Kyum; Lee, Dong Ryul; Hwang, Han Jeong; You, Sung Joshua Hyun; Im, Chang Hwan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare EEG topographical maps in normal children and children with cerebral palsy (CP) during motor execution and motor imagery tasks. Four normal children and four children with CP (mean age 11.6 years) were recruited from a community medical center. An EEG-based brain mapping system with 30 scalp sites (extended 10--20 system) was used to determine cortical reorganization in the regions of interest (ROIs) during four motor tasks: movement execution (ME), kinesthetic-motor imagery (KMI), observation of movement (OOM), and visual motor imagery (VMI). ROIs included the primary sensorimotor cortex (SMC), premotor cortex (PMC), and supplementary motor area (SMA). Descriptive analysis. Normal children showed increased SMC activation during the ME and KMI aswell as SMC and visual cortex (VC) activation during KMI. Children with CP showed similar activation in the SMC and other motor network areas (PMC, SMA, and VC). During the OOM and VMI tasks, the VC or occipital area were primarily activated in normal children, whereas the VC, SMC, and bilateral auditory areas were activated in children with CP. This is the first study demonstrating different neural substrates for motor imagery tasks in normal and children with CP.

  13. Plasma and erythrocyte magnesium, manganese, zinc, and plasma calcium levels in G-6-PD-deficient and normal male children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikcioglu, Süreyya Bilmen; Gümüslü, Saadet; Uysal, Nimet; Aksu, T Aslan

    2004-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency is the most common human enzymopathy in the world. Trace elements are important for normal hematopoiesis and can play a role in acute hemolytic anemia induced by G-6-PD deficiency. For this purpose, we studied two groups consisting of 10 male children who are G-6-PD-deficient and 12 age-matched normal male children to compare plasma and erythrocyte magnesium, manganese, zinc, and plasma calcium levels between G-6-PD-deficient and normal children. All assays were performed under normal conditions free of any oxidative attack that may result in hemolytic crisis in G-6-PD-deficient subjects. All parameters in each group did not differ significantly except for erythrocyte G-6-PD activities. These data show that plasma and erythrocyte trace element contents of G-6-PD-deficient subjects do not differ in normal conditions.

  14. Salivary glucose concentration exhibits threshold kinetics in normal-weight, overweight, and obese children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Mor-Li; Goodson, J Max; Barake, Roula; Alsmadi, Osama; Al-Mutawa, Sabiha; Ariga, Jitendra; Soparkar, Pramod; Behbehani, Jawad; Behbehani, Kazem; Welty, Francine

    2015-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome in childhood predicts the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in adulthood. Testing for features of metabolic syndrome, such as fasting plasma glucose concentration, requires blood sampling which can be difficult in children. Here we evaluated salivary glucose concentration as a surrogate measurement for plasma glucose concentration in 11-year-old US children. Methods Children from Portland, Maine, and Cambridge, Massachusetts, with a mean age of 10.6±0.2 years provided 6-hour fasting samples of both blood and whole saliva. Salivary glucose levels were measured with a high-sensitivity assay (sensitivity =0.002 mg/dL). Plasma glucose levels were determined by a commercial clinical laboratory. Blood pressure, salivary flow rate, height, and weight were also measured. Results Of the 65 children enrolled, there were two underweight children (3.1%), 30 normal-weight children (46.2%), 12 overweight children (18.4%), and 21 obese children (32.3%). The mean overall glucose concentrations were 0.11±0.02 mg/dL in saliva and 86.3±0.8 mg/dL in plasma, and these did not differ significantly by body–weight groups. By regression analysis, the plasma concentration equaled 13.5 times the saliva concentration, with a threshold level of 84.8 mg/dL. Salivary glucose values less than threshold plasma concentration were essentially zero. Diagnostic analysis indicated a positive predictive value of 50%, a negative predictive value of 90%, and a sensitivity and specificity both of approximately 75%. The salivary glucose concentration did not vary with saliva flow rate. Conclusion Taking into account the threshold response characteristics of the salivary glucose concentration response, these results suggest that testing salivary glucose levels may be useful as a screening assay for high fasting plasma glucose levels. The low false positive value is important to assure a low fraction of missed diagnoses. PMID:25565874

  15. Serum salicylic acid and fruit and vegetable consumption in obese and normal-weight children: a pilot-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassandro, Carlotta; Banderali, Giuseppe; Mariani, Benedetta; Battezzati, Alberto; Diaferio, Lucia; Miniello, Vito Leonardo; Radaelli, Giovanni; Verduci, Elvira

    2017-06-01

    Salicylic acid (SA), a phenolic compound produced by plants, may play a beneficial role on health. This pilot study evaluated whether there might be an association between serum SA and fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption in obese and normal-weight children. Thirty-four obese children (17 boys and 17 girls) and 34 normal-weight children were recruited. Dietary intake was evaluated by the 7-day dietary record. Serum SA was measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. FV intake in obese and normal-weight children was not different between groups (175.00 (97.66) g versus 192.29 (90.54) g, p = .455). Obese children had lower serum SA than normal-weight children [mean difference, -0.025; 95% CI (-0.044; -0.006) μmol/L]. Serum SA was not associated with daily intake of FV in obese (p = .111) and normal-weight (p = .092) children. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of FV on serum SA, taking into account also the quantity and the type.

  16. Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Children: Normal Variation or Sign of a Failing Thyroid Gland?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaplowitz PaulB

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH, defined by a normal total or free T4 level and a mildly elevated TSH (typically 5–10 mU/L, is common in children, but there is currently no consensus on management. Several recent pediatric studies indicate that progression of SCH to overt hypothyroidism (OH is uncommon and that over a period of several years, elevated TSH usually either normalizes or persists but does not increase. The etiology appears to be multifactorial, with some cases representing minor developmental abnormalities, some related to obesity, some to mild autoimmune thyroiditis, and some associated with mutations in the gene for the TSH-receptor. There are no pediatric studies showing clinical benefit of treating these children with thyroid hormone, but additional studies in this area are needed. Since few cases of pediatric SCH progress to OH, treatment can be deferred, and periodic follow-up testing may be the preferred strategy, with elevated thyroid antibodies or a goiter being considered risk factors for eventual OH.

  17. MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS OF DENTAL ARCH OF CHILDREN IN NORMAL OCCLUSION: A LITERATURE REVIEW

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    M. Abu-Hussein DDS, MScD, MSc, DPD

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM. This paper is an attempt to compare and analyze the various mathematical models for defining the dental arch curvature of children in normal occlusion based upon a review of available literature. Background. While various studies have touched upon ways to cure or prevent dental diseases and upon surgical ways for teeth reconstitution to correct teeth anomalies during childhood, a substantial literature also exists, attempting to mathematically define the dental arch of children in normal occlusion. This paper reviews these dental studies and compares them analytically. Method. The paper compares the different mathematical approaches, highlights the basic assumptions behind each model, underscores the relevancy and applicability of the same, and also lists applicable mathematical formulae. Results. Each model has been found applicable to specific research conditions, as a universal mathematical model for describing the human dental arch still eludes satisfactory definition. The models necessarily need to include the features of the dental arch, such as shape, spacing between teeth and symmetry or asymmetry, but they also need substantial improvement. Conclusions. While the paper shows that the existing models are inadequate in properly defining the human dental arch, it also acknowledges that future research based on modern imaging techniques and computeraided simulation could well succeed in deriving an allinclusive definition for the human dental curve till now eluding the experts.

  18. Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Children: Normal Variation or Sign of a Failing Thyroid Gland?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Kaplowitz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH, defined by a normal total or free T4 level and a mildly elevated TSH (typically 5–10 mU/L, is common in children, but there is currently no consensus on management. Several recent pediatric studies indicate that progression of SCH to overt hypothyroidism (OH is uncommon and that over a period of several years, elevated TSH usually either normalizes or persists but does not increase. The etiology appears to be multifactorial, with some cases representing minor developmental abnormalities, some related to obesity, some to mild autoimmune thyroiditis, and some associated with mutations in the gene for the TSH-receptor. There are no pediatric studies showing clinical benefit of treating these children with thyroid hormone, but additional studies in this area are needed. Since few cases of pediatric SCH progress to OH, treatment can be deferred, and periodic follow-up testing may be the preferred strategy, with elevated thyroid antibodies or a goiter being considered risk factors for eventual OH.

  19. Normal values of knee angle, intercondylar and intermalleolar distances in Nigerian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omololu, Bade; Tella, A; Ogunlade, S O; Adeyemo, A A; Adebisi, A; Alonge, T O; Salawu, S A; Akinpelu, A O

    2003-12-01

    There is little data on the range of variation of knee angle, intermalleolar and intercondylar distances in African children. Such measurements are needed to assist determining whether a child legs are normal or not. Knee angle intermalleolar and intercondylar distances were measured in 2166 Nigerian children aged one year to 10 years to establish normal values for these measurements. In the study we discovered that knees were maximally bowed at ages 1-3 years and reduced to neutral of 0 degrees at age five (5 years) in girls and age seven (7) in boys. Both sexes had no bowing after age (7 years) in boys. Both sexes had no bowing after age of 7 years. The valgus angle was found to be constant at about 11 degrees between ages 1-10 years in both sexes. Mean intercondylar distance was 0.2 cm at 1 year of age and did not vary significantly at 10 years of age. The greatest intermalleolar distances of 2.5 cm and 2.2 cm were noted between the ages of 2 and 4 years. Normograms of these measurements are presented as diagnostic aids in clinical settings.

  20. Corneal backward scattering and higher-order aberrations in children with vernal keratoconjunctivitis and normal topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tommy C Y; Wong, Emily S; Chan, Jason C K; Wang, Yumeng; Yu, Marco; Maeda, Naoyuki; Jhanji, Vishal

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the corneal backward scattering and higher-order aberrations (HOAs) in children with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) and normal topography. Thirty-six eyes of 22 patients with VKC and 54 eyes of 34 normal subjects were included. All participants had clear cornea, absence of dry eyes and a normal corneal tomography. Scheimpflug imaging was used to measure corneal backward scattering in zones centred on the corneal apex (central 2-mm zone and paracentral 2- to 6-mm zone), and HOAs were compared between VKC and normal control. The mean age of participants was 12.0 ± 4.1 years in VKC group and 11.2 ± 4.1 years in control group (p = 0.339). There was no significant intergroup difference in mean keratometry, astigmatism and apex pachymetry (p ≥ 0.076). Total corneal backscatter was higher in the VKC group compared to the control group (p ≤ 0.012). Anterior and posterior cornea displayed a higher level of backward scattering in the VKC group (p < 0.001 for anterior; p ≤ 0.048 for posterior). Patients with VKC exhibited higher total HOAs and coma (p ≤ 0.036). There were significant correlations between total anterior HOAs and backward scattering measured at the central (r = 0.500; p = 0.032) and paracentral zones (r = 0.470; p = 0.024) for VKC. The current study showed optical quality changes in patients with clear corneas and quiescent VKC. An increase in corneal backward scattering and HOAs was noted in patients with VKC as compared to normal patients. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Semiologia neurológica numa população de escolares da primeira série do ensino fundamental Neurologic examination of a group of children attending first grade of a elementary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VANDA M. G. GONÇALVES

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliamos escolares de primeira série do ensino fundamental, utilizando semiologia neurológica. Foram convidados, sem o conhecimento prévio do desempenho escolar, todos os alunos que frequentavam 5 classes de primeira série do primeiro grau de uma escola pública escolhida ao acaso, no município de Itatiba / São Paulo, cujos pais assinaram o Termo de Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido. Foram excluídos aqueles cujos pais não assinaram esse termo ou não compareceram a 3 consultas agendadas em dias diferentes. Utilizou-se o Exame Neurológico Tradicional (ENT (Lefèvre, 1972. Considerou-se como normal a realização de todas as provas do ENT e as medidas do perímetro craniano propostas por Diament & Rodrigues (1976. Os dados foram armazenados em banco de dados do programa Epi6 (Epidemiologic Information. Os resultados foram analisados pelo cálculo de porcentagem e pelo teste c2. O nível de significância foi 0,05. Foram avaliados 124 alunos. O ENT foi normal em 87 (70,16% e alterado em 37 (29,83% escolares. Entre as alterações, foram observados: leve tremor, leve hipotonia muscular, atraso na aquisição da fala, macrocefalia, microcefalia, hiperatividade, síndrome de nervo craniano e paresia facial central. Um escolar apresentou síndrome de liberação piramidal nos membros inferiores.We evaluated children in the first grade of a elementary school using neurological examination. With no previous knowledgement of their educational performance, were invited all children attending five classes of the first grade of an elementary public school chosen randomly, in Itatiba / Sao Paulo / Brazil, whose parents assigned a Commitment Term for participation in this research. Children who missed three evaluations in different days or whose parents did not assigned the Commitment Term were excluded. The Traditional Neurological Examination (ENT (Lefevre, 1972 was applied. It was considered for normal the measurement of the skull circumference

  2. Sleep Disorders in Childhood Neurological Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Tolaymat

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sleep problems are frequently addressed as a primary or secondary concern during the visit to the pediatric neurology clinic. Sleep disorders can mimic other neurologic diseases (e.g., epilepsy and movement disorders, and this adds challenges to the diagnostic process. Sleep disorders can significantly affect the quality of life and functionality of children in general and those with comorbid neurological diseases in particular. Understanding the pathophysiology of sleep disorders, recognizing the implications of sleep disorder in children with neurologic diseases and behavioral difficulties, and early intervention continue to evolve resulting in better neurocognitive outcomes.

  3. Dietary intake and physical activity of normal weight and overweight 6 to 14 year old Swiss children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aeberli, I.; Kaspar, M.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2007-01-01

    Principles and questions under study: The prevalence of overweight is increasing in Swiss children, and they are at increased risk for hypertension and insulin resistance. Better understanding of how food intakes and activity patterns differ between overweight and normal weight children is needed to

  4. Pathognomic Verbalizations, Anxiety, and Hostility in Normal Mexican and United States Anglo-American Children's Fantasies: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laosa, Luis M.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    The effects of culture on the development of logical thinking and degree of emotional disturbance in normal children were investigated. Results show significantly higher amounts of disturbed thinking and anxious and hostile response content in Anglo-American than in Mexican children. Results are interpreted in light of cultural differences.…

  5. A Comparative Evaluation of Adaptive Behavior in Children and Adolescents with Autism, Down Syndrome, and Normal Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigue, James R.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This study compared the adaptive behaviors of 20 autistic, 20 Down's syndrome, and 20 normal children matched on age equivalent adaptive behavior, gender, race, birth order, family size, and socioeconomic status. The autistic children displayed significant and pervasive deficits in the acquisition of adaptive social skills and greater variability…

  6. Speech-evoked cortical auditory responses in children with normal hearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aseel Almeqbel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cortical auditory-evoked potentials (CAEPs, an objective measure of human speech encoding in individuals with normal or impaired auditory systems, can be used to assess the outcomes of hearing aids and cochlear implants in infants, or in young children who cannot co-operate for behavioural speech discrimination testing. The current study aimed to determine whether naturally produced speech stimuli /m/, /g/ and /t/ evoke distinct CAEP response patterns that can be reliably recorded and differentiated, based on their spectral information and whether the CAEP could be an electrophysiological measure to differentiate between these speech sounds.Method: CAEPs were recorded from 18 school-aged children with normal hearing, tested in two groups: younger (5 - 7 years and older children (8 - 12 years. Cortical responses differed in their P1 and N2 latencies and amplitudes in response to /m/, /g/ and /t/ sounds (from low-, mid- and high-frequency regions, respectively. The largest amplitude of the P1 and N2 component was for /g/ and the smallest was for /t/. The P1 latency in both age groups did not show any significant difference between these speech sounds. The N2 latency showed a significant change in the younger group but not in the older group. The N2 latency of the speech sound /g/ was always noted earlier in both groups.Conclusion: This study demonstrates that spectrally different speech sounds are encoded differentially at the cortical level, and evoke distinct CAEP response patterns. CAEP latencies and amplitudes may provide an objective indication that spectrally different speech sounds are encoded differently at the cortical level.

  7. NORMAL VALUES AND FACTORS AFFECTING FUNCTIONAL REACH TEST IN SAUDI ARABIA SCHOOL CHILDREN WITH TYPICAL DEVELOPMENT

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    Hatem A. Emara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most critical feature of motor development is the ability to balance the body in sitting or standing. Impaired balance limits a child’s ability to recover from unexpected threats to stability. The functional reach test (FRT defines the maximal distance an individual is able to reach forward beyond arm’s length in a standing position without loss of balance, taking a step, or touching the wall. The Purpose of this study was to establish the normal values for FRT in Saudi Arabia school children with typical development and to study the correlation of anthropometric measures with FRT values. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Almadinah Almonawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 280 children without disabilities aged 6 to 12 years were randomly selected. Functional reach was assessed by having subjects extend their arms to 90 degrees and reach as far forward as they could without taking a step. Reach distance was recorded by noting the beginning and final position of the subject's extended arm parallel to a yard stick attached to the wall. Three successive trials of FRT were performed and the mean of the three trials was calculated. Pearson product moment correlation was used to examine the association of FR to age, and anthropometric measures. Results: Normal mean values of FR ranged from 24.2cm to 33.95cm. Age, height and weight significantly correlate with FRT. Conclusion: The FRT is a feasible test to examine the balance of 6-12 year-old children. FRT may be useful for detecting balance impairment, change in balance performance over time.

  8. MRI of the normal appendix in children: data toward a new reference standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swenson, David W. [Alpert Medical School of Brown University and Rhode Island Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Providence, RI (United States); Schooler, Gary R. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); Stamoulis, Catherine; Lee, Edward Y. [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) might prove useful in the diagnostic evaluation of pediatric appendicitis in the effort to avoid exposing children to the ionizing radiation of CT, yet there is a paucity of literature describing the normal range of appearances of the pediatric appendix on MRI. To investigate MRI characteristics of the normal appendix to aid in establishing a reference standard in the pediatric population. We conducted a retrospective study of children and young adults (≤18 years of age) who underwent lumbar spine or pelvis MRI between Jan. 1, 2013, and Dec. 31, 2013, for indications unrelated to appendicitis. Two board-certified radiologists independently reviewed all patients' MRI examinations for appendix visualization, diameter, intraluminal content signal, and presence of periappendiceal inflammation or free fluid. We used the Cohen kappa statistic and Spearman correlation coefficient to assess reader agreement on qualitative and quantitative data, respectively. Three hundred forty-six patients met inclusion criteria. Both readers visualized the appendix in 192/346 (55.5%) patients (kappa = 0.88, P < 0.0001). Estimated median appendix diameter was 5 mm for reader 1 and 6 mm for reader 2 ([25th, 75th] quartiles = [5, 6] mm; range, 2-11 mm; r = 0.81, P < 0.0001). Appendix intraluminal signal characteristics were variable. Periappendiceal inflammation was present in 0/192 (0%) and free fluid in 6/192 (3.1%) MRI examinations (kappa = 1.0). The normal appendix was seen on MRI in approximately half of pediatric patients, with a mean diameter of ∝5-6 mm, variable intraluminal signal characteristics, no adjacent inflammatory changes, and rare surrounding free fluid. (orig.)

  9. Auditory-Verbal Comprehension Development of 2-5 Year Old Normal Persian Speaking Children in Tehran, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Fariba Yadegari; Tahereh Sima Shirazi; Nayyereh Mehdipour Shahrivar

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aim: Understanding and defining developmental norms of auditory comprehension is a necessity for detecting auditory-verbal comprehension impairments in children. We hereby investigated lexical auditory development of Persian (Farsi) speaking children.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, auditory comprehension of four 2-5 year old normal children of adult’s child-directed utterance at available nurseries was observed by researchers primarily to gain a great number of comprehe...

  10. Mesiodistal root angulation of permanent teeth in children with mixed dentition and normal occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia A. S. Jesuino

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: There is little information regarding the mesiodistal angulation of permanent teeth in mixed dentition. The aim of this study was to evaluate mesiodistal root angulation of permanent incisors, canines and first molars of 100 Brazilian children, using a new horizontal reference plane based on the midpoint of the intercuspation of primary canines and permanent first molars in panoramic radiographs during the mixed-dentition phase. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Children were equally divided between the genders with a mean age of 8.9 years (SD=0.76, normal occlusion and no eruptive disturbances. RESULTS: The angulation of the permanent maxillary first molars was close to the vertical, whereas the mandibular molars presented approximately 25 degrees of distal root angulation. The maxillary canines were the most distally angulated teeth, whereas the permanent mandibular canines were vertically positioned. The evaluation of the anterior maxillary area showed vertical position of permanent lateral, and central incisors with a slight distal angulation, whereas the permanent mandibular incisors tended to a mesial radicular convergence. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed reference line could be useful in mixed dentition root angulation evaluation; there was a slight asymmetry in the mesiodistal angulation among homologous teeth, and also a small variation between the male and the female groups, but no difference between 8-and 10-year-old children.

  11. ATYPICAL AUTISM IN CHILDREN: THE SPECIFIC FEATURES OF THEIR SOMATIC AND NEUROLOGICAL STATUS AND OUTPATIENT FOLLOW-UP BY A GENERAL PEDIATRICIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Bobylоva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders in children are attracting the increasing attention of general practitioners, which is due to the specification of diagnostic criteria and to the recognition of the fact that there is atypical autism that is a syndrome of many different diseases. The authors consider in detail the theory of autism and the clinical manifestations of atypical autism, including possible neurological and somatic disorders. Individual attention is placed on the association of autistic disorder with epilepsy or epileptiform activity on the electroencephalogram. An emphasis is made on the need for an interdisciplinary approach and on the interaction of clinicians of different specialties when treating patients with autistic disorder.

  12. Hypertension outcomes in metabolically unhealthy normal-weight and metabolically healthy obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, W Q; Yan, Y K; Zhang, M X; Cheng, H; Zhao, X Y; Hou, D Q; Mi, J

    2015-09-01

    Metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) begins in childhood and continues into adulthood. However, the association between MHO and the risk of developing hypertension remains controversial. A prospective cohort study was conducted to investigate the risk of hypertension in MHO and metabolically unhealthy normal-weight (MUNW) Chinese children and adolescents. A total of 1183 participants, 6-18 years old at baseline with normal blood pressure values, were studied using follow-up data from the cohort of the Beijing Child and Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome (BCAMS) study. The participants were classified according to the body mass index and the presence/absence of metabolic abnormality, which was defined by metabolic syndrome (MetS) or insulin resistance (IR). During the 6-year follow-up period, 239 (20.2%) participants developed incident hypertension. After adjusting for age, sex, physical activity, pubertal stage, dietary habits and family history of hypertension, an increased risk for hypertension was observed in the MHO individuals (risk ratio, RRMetS 5.42; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.19-9.22 and RRIR 7.59; 95% CI 1.64-35.20) compared with their metabolically healthy normal-weight counterparts. Independent of the definition of metabolic abnormality, the MUNW subjects did not have an elevated incidence of hypertension. These results suggest that the risk of developing hypertension is increased in the MHO but not in the MUNW individuals.

  13. Renal and Neurologic Effects of Cadmium, Lead, Mercury, and Arsenic in Children: Evidence of Early Effects and Multiple Interactions at Environmental Exposure Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Burbure, Claire; Buchet, Jean-Pierre; Leroyer, Ariane; Nisse, Catherine; Haguenoer, Jean-Marie; Mutti, Antonio; Smerhovský, Zdenek; Cikrt, Miroslav; Trzcinka-Ochocka, Malgorzata; Razniewska, Grazyna; Jakubowski, Marek; Bernard, Alfred

    2006-01-01

    Lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic are common environmental pollutants in industrialized countries, but their combined impact on children’s health is little known. We studied their effects on two main targets, the renal and dopaminergic systems, in > 800 children during a cross-sectional European survey. Control and exposed children were recruited from those living around historical nonferrous smelters in France, the Czech Republic, and Poland. Children provided blood and urine samples for the determination of the metals and sensitive renal or neurologic biomarkers. Serum concentrations of creatinine, cystatin C, and β2-microglobulin were negatively correlated with blood lead levels (PbB), suggesting an early renal hyperfiltration that averaged 7% in the upper quartile of PbB levels (> 55 μg/L; mean, 78.4 μg/L). The urinary excretion of retinol-binding protein, Clara cell protein, and N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase was associated mainly with cadmium levels in blood or urine and with urinary mercury. All four metals influenced the dopaminergic markers serum prolactin and urinary homovanillic acid, with complex interactions brought to light. Heavy metals polluting the environment can cause subtle effects on children’s renal and dopaminergic systems without clear evidence of a threshold, which reinforces the need to control and regulate potential sources of contamination by heavy metals. PMID:16581550

  14. The patterning of test scores of children living in proximity to an inactive toxic waste disposal site who are classified as neurologically impaired

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licata, L.

    1992-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the pattern of impairment on test scores of the neurologically impaired children and proximity to an inactive toxic waste disposal site. Subjects (N = 147) were students, ages 6-16, classified as neurologically impaired. Seventy-six who lived within six miles of the site served as the experimental group and 71 who did not live near a site comprised the control group. Research was based on existing data available through the Child Study Team evaluation process. Attention was given to the ACID cluster of the WISC-R, the Arithmetic and Reading subtests on the WRAT, and the Koppitz scores of the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test. No significant difference was found between the experimental and control groups. Sex differences within the experimental group were not significant. Time of exposure and patterning of scores in the experimental group were investigated. Time had a significant main effect on WISC-R Arithmetic and Digit Span subtests, the ACID cluster and the Bender Test for the total group. Main effect for sex was significant for the WISC-R Information subtest. An interaction effect was found to be significant on the WRAT Arithmetic subtest WRAT. The longer the girls lived within the site area the lower they scored on the WISC-R Information subtest and the WRAT Arithmetic subtest. The variable exposure (interaction of distance and time) was related to lower scores on the WISC-R Arithmetic and Digit Span subtest. A two-way interaction was found on the WRAT Arithmetic subtest. The longer the females were exposed to the waste site area, the lower they scored on the WRAT Arithmetic subtest. A comparison of those children in the site area from birth and those in the area three years prior to the evaluation was done. A significant main effect was found for the Bender Gestalt.

  15. Classification of neurological abnormalities in children with congenital melanocytic naevus syndrome identifies magnetic resonance imaging as the best predictor of clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waelchli, R; Aylett, S E; Atherton, D; Thompson, D J; Chong, W K; Kinsler, V A

    2015-09-01

    The spectrum of central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities described in association with congenital melanocytic naevi (CMN) includes congenital, acquired, melanotic and nonmelanotic pathology. Historically, symptomatic CNS abnormalities were considered to carry a poor prognosis, although studies from large centres have suggested a much wider variation in outcome. To establish whether routine MRI of the CNS is a clinically relevant investigation in children with multiple CMN (more than one at birth), and to subclassify radiological abnormalities. Of 376 patients seen between 1991 and 2013, 289 fulfilled our criterion for a single screening CNS MRI, which since 2008 has been more than one CMN at birth, independent of size and site of the largest naevus. Cutaneous phenotyping and radiological variables were combined in a multiple regression model of long-term outcome measures (abnormal neurodevelopment, seizures, requirement for neurosurgery). Twenty-one per cent of children with multiple CMN had an abnormal MRI. Abnormal MRI was the most significant predictor of all outcome measures. Abnormalities were subclassified into group 1 'intraparenchymal melanosis alone' (n = 28) and group 2 'all other pathology' (n = 18). Group 1 was not associated with malignancy or death during the study period, even when symptomatic with seizures or developmental delay, whereas group 2 showed a much more complex picture, requiring individual assessment. For screening for congenital neurological lesions a single MRI in multiple CMN is a clinically relevant strategy. Any child with a stepwise change in neurological/developmental symptoms or signs should have an MRI with contrast of the brain and spine to look for new CNS melanoma. © 2015 The Authors. British Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Association of Dermatologists.

  16. Children of parents with alcohol problems performing normality: A qualitative interview study about unmet needs for professional support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Anne; Malterud, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    Children of parents with alcohol problems are at risk for serious long-term health consequences. Knowledge is limited about how to recognize those in need of support and how to offer respectful services. From nine interviews with adult children from families with alcohol problems, we explored childhood experiences, emphasizing issues concerning potentially unmet needs for professional support. Smart's perspective on family secrets and Goffman's dramaturgical metaphor on social order of the family focusing on the social drama and the dramaturgy enacted by the children supported our cross-case thematic analysis. The social interaction in the family was disrupted during childhood because of the parent's drinking problems. An everyday drama characterized by tension and threats, blame and manipulation was the backstage of their everyday life. Dealing with the drama, the children experienced limited parental support. Some children felt betrayed by the other parent who might trivialize the problems and excuse the drinking parent. Family activities and routines were disturbed, and uncertainty and insecurity was created. The children struggled to restore social order within the family and to act as normally as possible outside the family. It was a dilemma for the children to disclose the difficulties of the family. Altogether, the children worked hard to perform a normally functioning family, managing a situation characterized by unmet needs for professional support. Adequate support requires recognition of the children's efforts to perform a normally functioning family.

  17. Comparing Diagnostic Ability of Basic Emotional States in Children with High Performance Autism Disorder with Normal Peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Jalili

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Study on weaknesses and diagnostic strategies of autistic children in social interactions as well as how we can diagnose different emotions in the face may be an efficient step towards their therapy and communication improvement. The objective of this study was to compare diagnostic ability of basic emotions in children with high-performance autism with normal peers.Materials and Method: In this comparative profile study, two groups of 16 individuals: children with high-performance autistic disorder and their normal peers were selected by available sample method in terms of age, sex and life location. Neuropsychology diagnostic test of different emotions in Benton face (changed version was used to determine diagnostic ability of emotions (happy, sad and angry. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software and descriptive statistics and t-test were done for both independent groups.Results: Results showed that the ability of both tested groups is equal in diagnosing emotional states of joy, anger and neutral condition in face while viewing face picture and there was not any significant difference between groups but in diagnosing emotional grief state, the performance of autistics is lower and there was significant difference with normal peer group.Conclusion: The autistic children with high function are equal in ability with normal children in case of recognizing the happiness, anger and neutral facial excitement. However, they are less competent in recognizing the sadness and facial excitement than normal children

  18. [Wide band tympanometry energy reflectance in Chinese infants and children with normal outer and middle ears].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yibo; Lu, Wei; Mo, Lingyan

    2014-06-01

    To explore the law of wide band tympanometry energy reflectance (WBTER) in Chinese infants of Han nationality with normal outer and middle ears, and to provide the normal values for the clinical application of WBTER. Ninety four infants (170 ears) of Han nationality with normal outer and middle ears evidenced by temporal bone CT, and 226 Hz and 1 000 Hz tympanometry at the ages between three and 48 months (median age: 14 months) were selected and divided into four groups: 3-6 months (32 ears), 7-12 months (53 ears), 13-24 months (46 ears) and 25-48 months (39 ears). WBTER was conducted on these infants, and the basic law of energy reflectance under different frequencies, as well as the influence of age on energy reflectance were analyzed using SPSS 15.0. The normal value of energy reflectance was higher at low frequency, gradually decreased with the increase of frequency, reached the minimum near 4 000 Hz , followed by constantly increased till 8 000 Hz. In the scope of frequency below 1 000 Hz and above 6 350 Hz, the energy reflectance values of infants in the group of 3-6 months were significantly lower than those of infants in other age groups (P reflectance and lower fluctuation. The pattern of energy reflectance across frequency range for Chinese infants and children was consistent with that of other races reported in foreign countries. The WBTER changes with the growing of age, which tends to be stable after the first six months of birth.

  19. The effect of cochlear implantation in development of intelligence quotient of 6-9 deaf children in comparison with normal hearing children (Iran, 2009-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Seyed Basir; Monshizadeh, Leila

    2012-06-01

    Before the introduction of cochlear implant (CI) in 1980, hearing aids were the only means by which profoundly deaf children had access to auditory stimuli. Nowadays, CI is firmly established as effective option in speech and language rehabilitation of deaf children, but much of the literature regarding outcomes for children after CI are focused on development of speech and less is known about language acquisition. So, the main aim of this study is the evaluation of verbal intelligence quotient (IQ) of cochlear implanted children in comparison with normal children. 30 cochlear implanted and 30 normal hearing children with similar socio-economic level at the same age were compared by a revised version (in Persian) of WISC test (Wechsler, 1991). Then the data were analyzed through SPSS software 16. In spite of the fact that cochlear implanted children did well in different parameters of WISC test, the average scores of this group was less than normal hearing children. But in similarities (one of the parameters of WISC test) 2 group's performance was approximately the same. CI plays an important role in development of verbal IQ and language acquisition of deaf children. Different researches indicate that most of the cochlear implanted children show less language delay during the time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Advocacy in neurology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pauranik, Apoorva

    2008-01-01

    ...), launched the Neurological Alliance of Ireland, a nationwide coalition of patient advocacy groups and physicians and authored Standards of Care, the "blueprint" for the development of neurological...

  1. Age-related changes in physical examination and gait parameters in normally developing children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Yeol; Lee, Sang Hyeong; Chung, Chin Youb; Park, Moon Seok; Lee, Kyoung Min; Akhmedov, Bekhzad; Choi, In Ho; Cho, Tae-Joon; Yoo, Won Joon; Sung, Ki Hyuk

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to examine the correlations between physical examinations and gait kinematics, and age-related changes in 47 normally developing children. Physical examinations were not found to be significantly correlated with kinematics, except for Thomas and Staheli tests. Unilateral and bilateral popliteal angles decreased significantly by 2.2 and 1.6° per annum, and ankle dorsiflexion with knee extension and 90° flexion decreased significantly by 0.7 and 0.8°. Physical examinations and gait parameters might represent different dimensions of gait, and care should be taken when assessing gait problems. Age-related changes should be considered when interpreting physical examination and gait kinematics for surgery.

  2. "Skinny is prettier and normal: I want to be normal"-Perceived body image of non-Western ethnic minority children in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuis, Jolanda; Te Poel, Fam; Pepping, Rian; Konijn, Elly A; Spekman, Marloes L C

    2017-03-01

    While the prevalence of overweight and obesity is higher among children of some non-Western ethnic minorities than among their Caucasian counterparts, their body image is understudied. The current study examined the body image of Dutch children of non-Western ethnic minorities (i.e., Surinamese, Antillean, Moroccan, and Turkish). Sociocultural influences from school, media and home environments and their perceptions of overweight prevention programs were taken into account. Fifty-two non-Western ethnic minority children (aged 8-12 years) participated in semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Results showed that the children generally underestimated their current body size, which was often overweight, and preferred thin and 'normal' body sizes. Results further revealed important insights into culturally determined themes, relating to perceived preferences in media, peers, parents, and teachers, nutritional habits, and children's beliefs about school-based health interventions. We conclude that targeting culturally sensitive awareness about actual body size and healthy body images seems paramount in future interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. "For me it's just normal" - Strategies of children and young people from rainbow families against de-normalization. The case of Slovenia and Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uli Streib Brzič

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some findings from an international study called “School is out – Experiences of children from rainbow families in school” which explored how children and young people from rainbow families anticipate, experience and deal with schools as heteronormative spaces. In the research, the term de-normalisation was developed to describe the processes by which children with LGBT-identified parents are perceived and constructed as not normal, as classified beyond the ‘hetero-normative normality’, which is expressed through ‘othering’ by others, for example in interaction. To avoid, prevent or reduce the impacts of de-normalisation processes, the interviewed children and youth have developed different strategies which we present in two frames: one involving disclosure and concealment and the other involving verbalisations and justifications. Based on these insights and findings, the article also outlines ideas on the resilience factors against de-normalisation and emphasises the importance of children and youth not standing alone against it.

  4. EEG power spectra of children with dyslexia, slow learners, and normally reading children with ADD during verbal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, P T; Dykman, R A; Oglesby, D M; Newton, J E

    1994-12-01

    EEG power spectra were studied in two poor reader groups (with dyslexia and slow learning) and a normally reading clinic control group (with attention deficit disorder) as the children viewed strings of words and letters (seven categories). The children ranged in age from 7.5 to 12 years; 33 were girls, 86 were boys. Bilateral temporal and parietal sites and four midline sites were used. The major difference between groups was in the low beta band, where the ADD group had greater power at the parietal and midline sites. Also, the slow learner group had marginally greater low beta at the left than right temporal site, with the opposite trend found for the dyslexic and ADD groups. Across groups, power was greater at the right than at the left parietal site in the delta and alpha bands and at the right than at the left temporal site in the low beta band. Stimulus category effects were modest, with some alpha suppression to word strings, relative to letter strings, found in the poor readers. In correlational analyses, the combination of greater low beta and less theta power significantly predicted better reading and spelling. Results indicate that the adequate readers more actively processed the stimuli than did the poor readers.

  5. The normal radiological anteroposterior alignment of the lower limb in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popkov, Dmitry; Popkov, Arnold [Russian Ilizarov Scientific Center for Restorative Traumatology and Orthopaedics, Kurgan (Russian Federation); Lascombes, Pierre [University of Geneva, Division of Pediatric Orthopaedics, Geneva (Switzerland); Berte, Nicolas; Hetzel, Laurent; Baptista, Bruno Ribeiro; Journeau, Pierre [Children' s Hospital of Nancy, Department of Pediatric Orthopaedics, Nancy (France)

    2014-07-05

    The development of reconstructive surgery of the lower limbs aimed at multilevel correction demands a precise knowledge of the physiological variations in general radiological parameters of the lower limbs in children of various age groups. It is crucial in systemic skeletal diseases, when deformities affect limbs and the surgeon does not have an intact limb as a reference. The aim of this retrospective study was to establish the normal radiological values of lower limb parameters used in the surgical correction of deformities in children of various age groups. Teleradiographs of the lower limbs taken in children with unilateral congenital or posttraumatic deformity were retrospectively reviewed. Weight-bearing full-length anteroposterior radiographs of the entire lower extremities were taken in a standing position. The study involved 215 extremities of 208 children (93 girls and 115 boys); the ages ranged from 2 years 1 month to 15 years 11 months old. Key variables included the anatomic medial proximal femoral angle (aMPFA), anatomic lateral distal femoral angle (aLDFA), anatomic medial proximal tibial angle (aMPTA), anatomic lateral distal tibial angle (aLDTA), mechanical axis deviation (MAD), the angle formed by the femoral anatomical axis and the mechanical axis of the lower limb. The means and dynamics of variations, standard deviations (SD) and 95 % confidence intervals of each parameter were calculated for each age and gender group. Simple regression analysis was performed to determine the relationship between the patient's age and the magnitude of aMPFA, aLDFA, aMPTA and aLDTA. Simple regression analysis showed a significant inverse correlation between patient age and the magnitude of aMPFA: the correlation coefficient was -0.77. A statistically significant inverse correlation between the MAD and the angle between the anatomic femoral axis and mechanical limb axis was found: the correlation coefficient was -0.53. In general, the received values were

  6. Dosimetric studies in monocorte TC teams in adult and pediatric and its application in children with chronic neurological diseases; Estudio dosimetrico en equipos de TC monocorte en pacientes adultos y pediatricos, y su aplicacion en ninos con enfermedades neuronales cronicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casal, M. D.; Jimenez, M.; Urena, A.; Sanchez, G.; Herrador, M.

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to measure and analyze some of the parameters directly related to the doses administrated both for adult and pediatric patients in clinical practice at the Hospital Virgen del Rocio, in Seville. Among the latter group of patients doses in also estimated in children suffering from chronic neurological diseases. (Author) 14 refs.

  7. Auditory and visual novelty processing in normally-developing Kenyan children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihara, Michael; Hogan, Alexandra M.; Newton, Charles R.; Garrashi, Harrun H.; Neville, Brian R.; de Haan, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to describe the normative development of the electrophysiological response to auditory and visual novelty in children living in rural Kenya. Methods We examined event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by novel auditory and visual stimuli in 178 normally-developing children aged 4–12 years (86 boys, mean 6.7 years, SD 1.8 years and 92 girls, mean 6.6 years, SD 1.5 years) who were living in rural Kenya. Results The latency of early components (auditory P1 and visual N170) decreased with age and their amplitudes also tended to decrease with age. The changes in longer-latency components (Auditory N2, P3a and visual Nc, P3a) were more modality-specific; the N2 amplitude to novel stimuli decreased with age and the auditory P3a increased in both latency and amplitude with age. The Nc amplitude decreased with age while visual P3a amplitude tended to increase, though not linearly. Conclusions The changes in the timing and magnitude of early-latency ERPs likely reflect brain maturational processes. The age-related changes to auditory stimuli generally occurred later than those to visual stimuli suggesting that visual processing matures faster than auditory processing. Significance ERPs may be used to assess children’s cognitive development in rural areas of Africa. PMID:20080442

  8. [VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY AMONG CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS WITH NORMAL NUTRITIONAL STATUS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durá-Travé, Teodoro; Gallinas-Victoriano, Fidel; Chueca Guindulain, María Jesús; Berrade-Zubiri, Sara

    2015-09-01

    to analyze the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency throughout a natural year in a pediatric population with normal nutrition status. cross sectional clinical and analytical study (calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, calcidiol and parathyroid hormone) in 413 caucasian individuals (aged 3.1 to 15.4 years): 227 school children (96 males and 131 females) and 186 adolescents (94 males and 92 females), all of them in a normal nutrition status, during the year 2014. Vitamin D deficiency was defined according to the United States Endocrine Society guidelines. calcidiol levels were lower during spring (25.96 ± 6.64 ng/ml) and reached its maximum level in summer (35.33 ± 7.51 ng/ml); PTH levels were lower in summer (27.13 ± 7.89 pg/ml) and reached maximum level in autumn (34.73 ± 15.38 pg/ml). Vitamin D deficiency prevalence was 14.3% in summer and 75.3% in spring. PTH levels were compatible with secondary hyperparathyroidism in 8 individuals (1.9%). There was a negative correlation between calcidol and PTH levels (p nutrition status shows a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency during the months of autumn and winter and, especially, in spring; the addition of vitamin supplements and/ or an increase in the ingestion of their natural dietary sources should be considered. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  9. Objective analysis versus subjective assessment of vowels pronounced by deaf and normal-hearing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkum, M J; Plomp, R; Pols, L W

    1995-08-01

    Objective whole-spectrum and formant analyses have been performed on all 15 Dutch vowels pronounced in /C1VC2/ words by 24 deaf and 24 normal-hearing children, in order to develop a model of pronunciation quality for evaluating (deaf) speech; the results as obtained for adult males by Bakkum et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 94, 1989-2004 (1993)] have been verified and extended. Spectral representations of the vowels were created by determining the output levels of a bank of 16 filters (90-7200 Hz), with 1/3-oct bandwidths and logarithmic spacing of their center frequencies. Spectral differences agree well with subjective differences in pronunciation quality obtained from magnitude estimation and identification experiments. Spectral differences not related to pronunciation quality judgments arise as a consequence of physiological interspeaker differences and variation in fundamental frequency, but these differences can be compensated for by speaker-normalization and F0-compensation procedures. Using principal components analysis (PCA), the vowel spectra can be described by a limited number of dimensions, without losing much information; a description in a two-dimensional PCA subspace still agrees well with the subjective judgments and it also agrees with a description by the first two formants. The whole-spectrum approach provides a determinate, readily interpretable model of pronunciation quality for evaluating vowels. As a practical advantage, its computational requirements are modest and, in conjunction with PCA, the vowel dynamics can be visualized, which makes the approach suitable for vowel training and diagnostics.

  10. Impairment of intellectual functions after surgery and posterior fossa irradiation in children with ependymoma is related to age and neurologic complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalifa Chantal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the neuropsychological outcome of children treated with surgery and posterior fossa irradiation for localized infratentorial ependymoma. Methods 23 patients (age 0.3 – 14 years at diagnosis who were treated with local posterior fossa irradiation (54 Gy underwent one (4 patients or sequential (19 patients neuropsychologic evaluation. The last evaluation was performed at a median of 4.5 (1 to 15.5 years after RT. Results Mean last full scale IQ (FSIQ, verbal IQ (VIQ and PIQ were 89.1, 94.0, and 86.2 respectively. All patients had difficulties with reading, and individual patients showed deficits in visuospatial, memory and attentional tasks. There was no trend for deterioration of intellectual outcome over time. All 5 children with IQ scores ≤ 75 were under the age of four at diagnosis. There was a significant association between the presence of cerebellar deficits and impaired IQ (72.0 vs 95.2, p Conclusion Within the evaluated cohort, intellectual functions were moderately impaired. Markedly reduced IQ scores were only seen with early disease manifestation and treatment, and postoperative neurological deficits had a strong impact on intellectual outcome.

  11. Speech Intonation and Melodic Contour Recognition in Children with Cochlear Implants and with Normal Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Rachel L.; Driscoll, Virginia D.; Gfeller, Kate; Kliethermes, Stephanie; Oleson, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Background Cochlear implant (CI) users have difficulty perceiving some intonation cues in speech and melodic contours because of poor frequency selectivity in the cochlear implant signal. Objectives To assess perceptual accuracy of normal hearing (NH) children and pediatric CI users on speech intonation (prosody), melodic contour, and pitch ranking, and to determine potential predictors of outcomes. Hypothesis Does perceptual accuracy for speech intonation or melodic contour differ as a function of auditory status (NH, CI), perceptual category (falling vs. rising intonation/contour), pitch perception, or individual differences (e.g., age, hearing history)? Method NH and CI groups were tested on recognition of falling intonation/contour vs. rising intonation/contour presented in both spoken and melodic (sung) conditions. Pitch ranking was also tested. Outcomes were correlated with variables of age, hearing history, HINT, and CNC scores. Results The CI group was significantly less accurate than the NH group in spoken (CI, M=63.1 %; NH, M=82.1%) and melodic (CI, M=61.6%; NH, M=84.2%) conditions. The CI group was more accurate in recognizing rising contour in the melodic condition compared with rising intonation in the spoken condition. Pitch ranking was a significant predictor of outcome for both groups in falling intonation and rising melodic contour; age at testing and hearing history variables were not predictive of outcomes. Conclusions Children with CIs were less accurate than NH children in perception of speech intonation, melodic contour, and pitch ranking. However, the larger pitch excursions of the melodic condition may assist in recognition of the rising inflection associated with the interrogative form. PMID:23442568

  12. Cephalic index in the first three years of life: study of children with normal brain development based on computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likus, Wirginia; Bajor, Grzegorz; Gruszczyńska, Katrzyna; Baron, Jan; Markowski, Jarosław; Machnikowska-Sokołowska, Magdalena; Milka, Daniela; Lepich, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Cephalic index is a highly useful method for planning surgical procedures, as well as assessing their effectiveness in correcting cranial deformations in children. There are relatively very few studies measuring cephalic index in healthy Caucasian young children. The aim of our study was to develop a classification of current cephalic index for healthy Caucasian children up to 3 years of age with normal brain development, using axial slice computer tomography performed with very thin slices (0.5 mm) resulting in more accurate measurements. 180 healthy infants (83 females and 97 males) were divided into 5 age categories: 0-3, 4-6, 7-12, 13-24, and 25-36 months. The average value of cephalic index in children up to 3 years of age amounted to 81.45 ± 7.06. The index value in case of children under 3 months was 80.19, 4 to 6 months was 81.45, 7 to 12 months was 83.15, in children under 2 years was 81.05, and in children under 3 years was 79.76. Mesocephaly is the dominating skull shape in children. In this study, we formulated a classification of current cephalic indices of children with normal brain development. Our date appears to be of utmost importance in anthropology, anatomy forensic medicine, and genetics.

  13. Microbiota and neurologic diseases: potential effects of probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbrello, Giulia; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-10-19

    The microbiota colonizing the gastrointestinal tract have been associated with both gastrointestinal and extra-gastrointestinal diseases. In recent years, considerable interest has been devoted to their role in the development of neurologic diseases, as many studies have described bidirectional communication between the central nervous system and the gut, the so-called "microbiota-gut-brain axis". Considering the ability of probiotics (i.e., live non-pathogenic microorganisms) to restore the normal microbial population and produce benefits for the host, their potential effects have been investigated in the context of neurologic diseases. The main aims of this review are to analyse the relationship between the gut microbiota and brain disorders and to evaluate the current evidence for the use of probiotics in the treatment and prevention of neurologic conditions. Overall, trials involving animal models and adults have reported encouraging results, suggesting that the administration of probiotic strains may exert some prophylactic and therapeutic effects in a wide range of neurologic conditions. Studies involving children have mainly focused on autism spectrum disorder and have shown that probiotics seem to improve neuro behavioural symptoms. However, the available data are incomplete and far from conclusive. The potential usefulness of probiotics in preventing or treating neurologic diseases is becoming a topic of great interest. However, deeper studies are needed to understand which formulation, dosage and timing might represent the optimal regimen for each specific neurologic disease and what populations can benefit. Moreover, future trials should also consider the tolerability and safety of probiotics in patients with neurologic diseases.

  14. Sports neurology topics in neurologic practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conidi, Francis X.; Drogan, Oksana; Giza, Christopher C.; Kutcher, Jeffery S.; Alessi, Anthony G.; Crutchfield, Kevin E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary We sought to assess neurologists' interest in sports neurology and learn about their experience in treating sports-related neurologic conditions. A survey was sent to a random sample of American Academy of Neurology members. A majority of members (77%) see at least some patients with sports-related neurologic issues. Concussion is the most common sports-related condition neurologists treat. More than half of survey participants (63%) did not receive any formal or informal training in sports neurology. At least two-thirds of respondents think it is very important to address the following issues: developing evidence-based return-to-play guidelines, identifying risk factors for long-term cognitive-behavioral sequelae, and developing objective diagnostic criteria for concussion. Our findings provide an up-to-date view of the subspecialty of sports neurology and identify areas for future research. PMID:24790800

  15. A new Approach to the Study of Russian Language Acquisition in Preschool Children with Normal and Abnormal Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebedeva T.V

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the possibilities of using a standardized method of psychological evaluation of the Russian language development in preschool children. We provide a rationale for the relevance of timely differentiation of children with language and speech difficulties in modern educational practice. We present the results of comparative analysis of language and speech development in the two groups of children 5-6 years old: normally developing (N=92 and with language and speech disorders (N=59. We describe the diagnostic potential of this research tool for clinical sample of children with speech and language disorders, reveal differences in the development of Russian language between the two groups of children. The data obtained can be used in solving the problems of differentiated correctional help to pre-school children with impaired language and speech development.

  16. Comparative study of attachment relationships in young children with symptoms of externalizing disorders: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder and normal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz Najafi Shoar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the relationship of attachment between children with externalizing disorder (ADHD and less conflict and conduct disorder was performed with normal children. And the correlation was causalcomparative research design. The study population included all male students in Year 94 was 12.7 years in Tabriz To this aim, and to a multi-stage random sampling method, a sample of 200 (150 patients with symptoms and 50 normal KCAQ people were selected and CSI-4 was performed on them. The data were analyzed using ANOVA. The results showed that children with externalizing disorders and normal children in terms of attachment there is a significant difference (P <0/005. So that children with attention disorders and children with the disorder more or less active and less conflict in relationships have insecure attachment styles. Another finding of the study showed that children with conduct disorder, avoidant, ambivalent insecure attachment relationships are the common children are secure attachment relationships. Thus, the results of this study have practical implications in clinical areas to the extent that the design of such attachment-based interventions are necessary.

  17. Cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in children with spastic cerebral palsy and normal children with 7-12 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazila Akbarfahimi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP is one of the diagnostic tests used in assessing vestibular function. Two aims of this study were to investigate implications of cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential in children with spastic cerebral palsy (7-12 years, and to compare vestibular function in these children and normal children.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, myogenic potential was recorded in 31 children with spastic cerebral palsy (8 girls, 23 boys,7-12 years of age, with mean age of 8.77 years old and standard deviation of 1.52 years and 31 normal children (13 girls, 18 boys with mean age of 8.77 years and standard deviation of 1.52 years. Cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential was recorded with 500 Hz tone burst. The recorded parameters included p13 and n23 latency, p13-n23 pick to pick amplitude, and threshold.Results: Myogenic Potential was recorded in 31 normal children. They had bilateral responses. In children with cerebral palsy, 21 children showed bilateral responses, 3 children had only right-sided responses, 8 children had only left-sided responses, and two children did not show any responses. The statistical significant differences were shown between the two groups in n23, p13-n23 pick to pick amplitude, and threshold (p<0.05.Conclusion: These findings showed that cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential can be used in children with cerebral palsy. There were significant differences in myogenic potential parameters between the two groups. More studies are needed to investigate the causes of these differences.

  18. Neurology and literature 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iniesta, I

    2014-05-01

    Good literary fiction has the potential to move us, extend our sense of life, transform our prospective views and help us in the face of adversity. A neurological disorder is likely to be the most challenging experience a human being may have to confront in a lifetime. As such, literary recreations of illnesses have a doubly powerful effect. Study the synergies between neurology and fictional literature with particular reference to narrative based medicine (NBM). Doctors establish boundaries between the normal and the abnormal. Taking a clinical history is an act of interpretation in which the doctor integrates the science of objective signs and measurable quantities with the art of subjective clinical judgment. The more discrepancy there is between the patient's experience with the illness and the doctor's interpretation of that disease, the less likely the doctor-patient interaction is to succeed. NBM contributes to a better discernment of the meanings, thus considering disease as a biographical event rather than just a natural fact. Drawing from their own experience with disease, writers of fiction provide universal insights through their narratives, whilst neuroscientists, like Cajal, have occasionally devoted their scientific knowledge to literary narratives. Furthermore, neurologists from Alzheimer to Oliver Sacks remind us of the essential value of NBM in the clinic. Integrating NBM (the narrative of patients) and the classic holistic approach to patients with our current paradigm of evidence based medicine represents a challenge as relevant to neurologists as keeping up with technological and scientific advances. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. The Δ4-desaturation pathway for DHA biosynthesis is operative in the human species: Differences between normal controls and children with the Zellweger syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez Manuela

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6ω3 is a fundamental component of cell membranes, especially in the brain and retina. In the experimental animal, DHA deficiency leads to suboptimal neurological performance and visual deficiencies. Children with the Zellweger syndrome (ZS have a profound DHA deficiency and symptoms that can be attributed to their extremely low DHA levels. These children seem to have a metabolic defect in DHA biosynthesis, which has never been totally elucidated. Treatment with DHA ethyl ester greatly improves these patients, but if we could normalize their endogenous DHA production we could get additional benefits. We examined whether DHA biosynthesis by Δ4-desaturation could be enhanced in the human species by transfecting the enzyme, and if this could normalize the DHA levels in cells from ZS patients. Results We showed that the Δ4-desaturase gene (Fad4 from Thraustochytrium sp, which can be expressed by heterologous transfection in other plant and yeast cells, can also be transfected into human lymphocytes, and that it expresses the enzyme (FAD4, Δ4-desaturase by producing DHA from direct Δ4-desaturation of 22:5ω3. We also found that the other substrate for Δ4-desaturase, 22:4ω6, was parallely desaturated to 22:5ω6. Conclusions The present "in vitro" study demonstrates that Δ4-desaturase can be transfected into human cells and synthesize DHA (as well as 22:5ω6, DPA from 22:5ω3 and 22:4ω6, respectively, by putative Δ4-desaturation. Even if this pathway may not be the physiological route for DHA biosynthesis "in vivo", the present study opens new perspectives for the treatment of patients within the ZS spectrum.

  20. The Δ4-desaturation pathway for DHA biosynthesis is operative in the human species: differences between normal controls and children with the Zellweger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Manuela; Ichaso, Natalia; Setien, Fernando; Durany, Nuria; Qiu, Xiao; Roesler, William

    2010-09-09

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6ω3) is a fundamental component of cell membranes, especially in the brain and retina. In the experimental animal, DHA deficiency leads to suboptimal neurological performance and visual deficiencies. Children with the Zellweger syndrome (ZS) have a profound DHA deficiency and symptoms that can be attributed to their extremely low DHA levels. These children seem to have a metabolic defect in DHA biosynthesis, which has never been totally elucidated. Treatment with DHA ethyl ester greatly improves these patients, but if we could normalize their endogenous DHA production we could get additional benefits. We examined whether DHA biosynthesis by Δ4-desaturation could be enhanced in the human species by transfecting the enzyme, and if this could normalize the DHA levels in cells from ZS patients. We showed that the Δ4-desaturase gene (Fad4) from Thraustochytrium sp, which can be expressed by heterologous transfection in other plant and yeast cells, can also be transfected into human lymphocytes, and that it expresses the enzyme (FAD4, Δ4-desaturase) by producing DHA from direct Δ4-desaturation of 22:5ω3. We also found that the other substrate for Δ4-desaturase, 22:4ω6, was parallely desaturated to 22:5ω6. The present "in vitro" study demonstrates that Δ4-desaturase can be transfected into human cells and synthesize DHA (as well as 22:5ω6, DPA) from 22:5ω3 and 22:4ω6, respectively, by putative Δ4-desaturation. Even if this pathway may not be the physiological route for DHA biosynthesis "in vivo", the present study opens new perspectives for the treatment of patients within the ZS spectrum.

  1. Impaired fasting glucose and the metabolic profile in Danish children and adolescents with normal weight, overweight, or obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kloppenborg, Julie T; Fonvig, Cilius E; Nielsen, Tenna R H

    2017-01-01

    : Two thousand one hundred and fifty four (979 boys) children and adolescents with overweight or obesity (median age 12 years) and 1824 (728 boys) children with normal weight (median age 12 years) from The Danish Childhood Obesity Biobank were studied. Anthropometrics, blood pressure, puberty...... criterion compared with the WHO criterion, was 4 times higher in individuals with overweight and obesity and 14 times higher in individuals with normal weight in this study sample of children and adolescents. IFG was associated with a higher risk of hypertension and dyslipidemia compared......OBJECTIVE: Whether the definitions of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) from the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) differentially impact estimates of the metabolic profile and IFG-related comorbidities in Danish children and adolescents is unknown. METHODS...

  2. Segmental and suprasegmental properties in nonword repetition--an explorative study of the associations with nonword decoding in children with normal hearing and children with bilateral cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakeva Von Mentzer, Cecilia; Lyxell, Björn; Sahlén, Birgitta; Dahlström, Örjan; Lindgren, Magnus; Ors, Marianne; Kallioinen, Petter; Engström, Elisabet; Uhlén, Inger

    2015-03-01

    This study explored nonword repetition (NWR) and nonword decoding in normal-hearing (NH) children and in children with bilateral cochlear implants (CI). Participants were 11 children, with CI, 5:0-7:11 years (M = 6.5 years), and 11 NH children, individually age-matched to the children with CI. This study fills an important gap in research, since it thoroughly describes detailed aspects of NWR and nonword decoding and their possible associations. All children were assessed after having practiced with a computer-assisted reading intervention with a phonics approach during four weeks. Results showed that NH children outperformed children with CI on the majority of aspects of NWR. The analysis of syllable number in NWR revealed that children with CI made more syllable omissions than did the NH children, and predominantly in prestressed positions. In addition, the consonant cluster analysis in NWR showed significantly more consonant omissions and substitutions in children with CI suggesting that reaching fine-grained levels of phonological processing was particularly difficult for these children. No significant difference was found for nonword-decoding accuracy between the groups, as measured by whole words correct and phonemes correct, but differences were observed regarding error patterns. In children with CI phoneme, deletions occurred significantly more often than in children with NH. The correlation analysis revealed that the ability to repeat consonant clusters in NWR had the strongest associations to nonword decoding in both groups. The absence of as frequent significant associations between NWR and nonword decoding in children with CI compared to children with NH suggest that these children partly use other decoding strategies to compensate for less precise phonological knowledge, for example, lexicalizations in nonword decoding, specifically, making a real word of a nonword.

  3. Normal values of the sagittal diameter of the lumbar spine (vertebral body and dural sac) in children measured by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knirsch, Walter [University Children' s Hospital Freiburg, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Freiburg (Germany); University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Division of Paediatric Cardiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Kurtz, Claudia; Langer, Mathias [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Radiology, Freiburg (Germany); Haeffner, Nicole; Kececioglu, Deniz [University Children' s Hospital Freiburg, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Freiburg (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    The definition of normal values is a prerequisite for the reliable evaluation of abnormality in the lumbar spine, such as spinal canal stenosis or dural ectasia in patients with Marfan syndrome. Values for vertebral body diameter (VBD) and dural sac diameter (DSD) for the lumbar spine have been published in adults. In children, normal values have been established using conventional radiography or myelography, but not by MRI. To define normal values for the sagittal diameter of the vertebral body and dural sac, and to calculate a dural sac ratio (DSR) in the lumbosacral spine (L1-S1) in healthy children using MRI. A total of 75 healthy children between 6 years and 17 years of age were examined using a sagittal T2-weighted sequence. Sagittal VBD and DSD were measured and a DSR was calculated. This was a retrospective and cross-sectional study. With increasing age there is a significant increase of VBD, a slight increase of DSD, and a slight decrease of DSR. There is no significant sex difference. DSR in healthy children is higher than in healthy adults. MRI is a reliable method demonstrating the natural shape of the lumbosacral spine and its absolute values. These normal values compare well with those established by conventional radiological techniques. Our data may serve as a reference for defining dural ectasia in children with Marfan syndrome. (orig.)

  4. High Amplitude Background Slow Waves in Normal Children Aged 3 to 18 Months-Implications for the Consideration of Hypsarhythmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mytinger, John R; Weber, Amanda; Vidaurre, Jorge

    2018-01-08

    To assess for the presence of high amplitude EEG background slow waves in normal young children. One hundred children with normal development ages 3 to 18 months had normal EEGs for spells and did not have seizures or epilepsy. Three electroencephalographers retrospectively reviewed 5 minutes of stable stage II sleep to measure background slow waves for peak-to-peak amplitudes. A standard 10-20 longitudinal bipolar montage was used. Interrater agreement was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient. Interrater agreement between reviewers in the assessment of recurrent slow wave amplitudes was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.97). Slow wave amplitudes were the highest in the posterior head regions for all patients. We found recurring slow waves of 500 µV in 17%, 49%, 30%, 3% and 1%, respectively. Although hypsarhythmia typically includes high amplitude background slow waves of >200 or >300 µV, we found that 83% and 34% of normal children had recurring posterior background slow waves of >200 or >300 µV, respectively. These data may be useful in the EEG background assessment of young children, for determining the presence or absence of hypsarhythmia, and determining treatment response in children with epileptic spasms.

  5. The moderating effect of self-efficacy on normal-weight, overweight, and obese children's math achievement: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranjac, Ashley Wendell

    2015-03-01

    Increased body weight is associated with decreased cognitive function in school-aged children. The role of self-efficacy in shaping the connection between children's educational achievement and obesity-related comorbidities has not been examined to date. Evidence of the predictive ability of self-efficacy in children is demonstrated in cognitive tasks, including math achievement scores. This study examined the relationship between self-efficacy and math achievement in normal weight, overweight, and obese children. I hypothesized that overweight and obese children with higher self-efficacy will be less affected in math achievement than otherwise comparable children with lower self-efficacy. I tested this prediction with multilevel growth modeling techniques using the ECLS-K 1998-1999 survey data, a nationally representative sample of children. Increased self-efficacy moderates the link between body weight and children's math achievement by buffering the risks that increased weight status poses to children's cognitive function. My findings indicate that self-efficacy moderates math outcomes in overweight, but not obese, children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Preliminary findings on associations between moral emotions and social behavior in young children with normal hearing and with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketelaar, Lizet; Wiefferink, Carin H; Frijns, Johan H M; Broekhof, Evelien; Rieffe, Carolien

    2015-11-01

    Moral emotions such as shame, guilt and pride are the result of an evaluation of the own behavior as (morally) right or wrong. The capacity to experience moral emotions is thought to be an important driving force behind socially appropriate behavior. The relationship between moral emotions and social behavior in young children has not been studied extensively in normally hearing (NH) children, let alone in those with a hearing impairment. This study compared young children with hearing impairments who have a cochlear implant (CI) to NH peers regarding the extent to which they display moral emotions, and how this relates to their social functioning and language skills. Responses of 184 NH children and 60 children with CI (14-61 months old) to shame-/guilt- and pride-inducing events were observed. Parents reported on their children's social competence and externalizing behavior, and experimenters observed children's cooperative behavior. To examine the role of communication in the development of moral emotions and social behavior, children's language skills were assessed. Results show that children with CI displayed moral emotions to a lesser degree than NH children. An association between moral emotions and social functioning was found in the NH group, but not in the CI group. General language skills were unrelated to moral emotions in the CI group, yet emotion vocabulary was related to social functioning in both groups of children. We conclude that facilitating emotion language skills has the potential to promote children's social functioning, and could contribute to a decrease in behavioral problems in children with CI specifically. Future studies should examine in greater detail which factors are associated with the development of moral emotions, particularly in children with CI. Some possible directions for future research are discussed.

  7. Shear wave velocity measurements using acoustic radiation force impulse in young children with normal kidneys versus hydronephrotic kidneys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shon, Beom Seok; Kim, Myung Joon; Han, Sang Won; Im, Young Jae; Lee, Mi Jung [Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    To measure shear wave velocities (SWVs) by acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) ultrasound elastography in normal kidneys and in hydronephrotic kidneys in young children and to compare SWVs between the hydronephrosis grades. This study was approved by an institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained from the parents of all the children included. Children under the age of 24 months were prospectively enrolled. Hydronephrosis grade was evaluated on ultrasonography, and three valid ARFI measurements were attempted using a high-frequency transducer for both kidneys. Hydronephrosis was graded from 0 to 4, and high-grade hydronephrosis was defined as grades 3 and 4. Fifty-one children underwent ARFI measurements, and three valid measurements for both kidneys were obtained in 96% (49/51) of the patients. Nineteen children (38.8%) had no hydronephrosis. Twenty-three children (46.9%) had unilateral hydronephrosis, and seven children (14.3%) had bilateral hydronephrosis. Seven children had ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO). Median SWVs in kidneys with high-grade hydronephrosis (2.02 m/sec) were higher than those in normal kidneys (1.75 m/sec; P=0.027). However, the presence of UPJO did not influence the median SWVs in hydronephrotic kidneys (P=0.362). Obtaining ARFI measurements of the kidney is feasible in young children with median SWVs of 1.75 m/sec in normal kidneys. Median SWVs increased in high-grade hydronephrotic kidneys but were not different between hydronephrotic kidneys with and without UPJO.

  8. Neurologic considerations in propionic acidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, John; Chapman, Kimberly A; Summar, Marshall L; Ah Mew, Nicholas; Sutton, V Reid; MacLeod, Erin; Stagni, Kathy; Ueda, Keiko; Franks, Jill; Island, Eddie; Matern, Dietrich; Peña, Loren; Smith, Brittany; Urv, Tiina; Venditti, Charles; Chakarapani, Anupam; Gropman, Andrea L

    2012-01-01

    Propionic acidemia (PA) is an organic acidemia which has a broad range of neurological complications, including developmental delay, intellectual disability, structural abnormalities, metabolic stroke-like episodes, seizures, optic neuropathy, and cranial nerve abnormalities. As the PA consensus conference hosted by Children's National Medical Center progressed from January 28 to 30, 2011, it became evident that neurological complications were common and a major component of morbidity, but the role of imaging and the basis for brain pathophysiology were unclear. This paper reviews the hypothesized pathophysiology, presentation and uses the best available evidence to suggest programs for treatment, imaging, and monitoring the neurological complications of PA. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Child neurology: Past, present, and future: part 1: history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millichap, John J; Millichap, J Gordon

    2009-08-18

    The founding period of child neurology occurred in 3 phases: 1) early individual contributory phase, 2) organized training phase, and 3) expansion phase. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, individuals in pediatrics, neurology, and psychiatry established clinics and made important contributions to the literature on childhood epilepsy, cerebral palsy, and pediatric neurology. The latter half of the 20th century saw the organization of training programs in pediatric neurology, with fellowships supported by the NIH. This development was followed by a rapid expansion in the number of trainees certified in child neurology and their appointment to divisions of neurology in children's hospitals. In recent years, referrals of children with neurologic disorders have increased, and disorders previously managed by pediatricians are often seen in neurology clinics. The era of subspecialization is embraced by the practicing physician. The present day status of pediatric neurology and suggestions for the future development of the specialty are subjects for further discussion.

  10. Deja vu in neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Edward

    2005-01-01

    The significance of deja vu is widely recognised in the context of temporal lobe epilepsy, and enquiry about deja vu is frequently made in the clinical assessment of patients with possible epilepsy. Deja vu has also been associated with several psychiatric disorders. The historical context of current understanding of deja vu is discussed. The literature reveals deja vu to be a common phenomenon consistent with normality. Several authors have suggested the existence of a "pathological" form of deja vu that differs, qualitatively or quantitatively, from "non-pathological" deja vu. The features of deja vu suggesting neurological or psychiatric pathology are discussed. Several neuroanatomical and psychological models of the deja vu experience are highlighted, implicating the perceptual, mnemonic and affective regions of the lateral temporal cortex, hippocampus and amygdala in the genesis of deja vu. A possible genetic basis for a neurochemical model of deja vu is discussed. Clinical approaches to the patient presenting with possible deja vu are proposed.

  11. Consciousness: A Neurological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea E. Cavanna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Consciousness is a state so essentially entwined with human experience, yet so difficult to conceptually define and measure. In this article, we explore how a bidimensional model of consciousness involving both level of arousal and subjective awareness of the contents of consciousness can be used to differentiate a range of healthy and altered conscious states. These include the different sleep stages of healthy individuals and the altered states of consciousness associated with neurological conditions such as epilepsy, vegetative state and coma. In particular, we discuss how arousal and awareness are positively correlated in normal physiological states with the exception of REM sleep, while a disturbance in this relationship is characteristic of vegetative state, minimally conscious state, complex partial seizures and sleepwalking.

  12. Neurology and neurologic practice in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Fu-Dong; Jia, Jian-Ping

    2011-11-29

    In the wake of dramatic economic success during the past 2 decades, the specialized field of neurology has undergone a significant transformation in China. With an increase in life expectancy, the problems of aging and cognition have grown. Lifestyle alterations have been associated with an epidemiologic transition both in the incidence and etiology of stroke. These changes, together with an array of social issues and institution of health care reform, are creating challenges for practicing neurologists throughout China. Notable problems include overcrowded, decrepit facilities, overloaded physician schedules, deteriorating physician-patient relationships, and an insufficient infrastructure to accommodate patients who need specialized neurologic care. Conversely, with the creation of large and sophisticated neurology centers in many cities across the country, tremendous opportunities exist. Developments in neurologic subspecialties enable delivery of high-quality care. Clinical and translational research based on large patient populations as well as highly sophisticated technologies are emerging in many neurologic centers and pharmaceutical companies. Child neurology and neurorehabilitation will be fast-developing subdisciplines. Given China's extensive population, the growth and progress of its neurology complex, and its ever-improving quality control, it is reasonable to anticipate that Chinese neurologists will contribute notably to unraveling the pathogenic factors causing neurologic diseases and to providing new therapeutic solutions.

  13. Research Paper: Comparison of Participation of Children With Cerebral Palsy Aged 4 to 6 years in Occupations With Normal Peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Rostam Zadeh

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion The results showed that the children with CP have a lower level of participation in occupations compared to their normally-developing counterparts. One of the reasons for the low participation level of children with CP could be the lack of goal-oriented and occupation-oriented interventions. Thus, this finding will help the healthcare providers to create and develop appropriate  therapeutic and rehabilitation interventions so as to meet the needs of these children and promote their participation level and wellbeing.

  14. Hand function with touch screen technology in children with normal hand formation, congenital differences, and neuromuscular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, David H; Bohn, Deborah K; Agel, Julie; Lindstrom, Katy A; Cronquist, Sara M; Van Heest, Ann E

    2015-05-01

    To measure and compare hand function for children with normal hand development, congenital hand differences (CHD), and neuromuscular disease (NMD) using a function test with touch screen technology designed as an iPhone application. We measured touch screen hand function in 201 children including 113 with normal hand formation, 43 with CHD, and 45 with NMD. The touch screen test was developed on the iOS platform using an Apple iPhone 4. We measured 4 tasks: touching dots on a 3 × 4 grid, dragging shapes, use of the touch screen camera, and typing a line of text. The test takes 60 to 120 seconds and includes a pretest to familiarize the subject with the format. Each task is timed independently and the overall time is recorded. Children with normal hand development took less time to complete all 4 subtests with increasing age. When comparing children with normal hand development with those with CHD or NMD, in children aged less than 5 years we saw minimal differences; those aged 5 to 6 years with CHD took significantly longer total time; those aged 7 to 8 years with NMD took significantly longer total time; those aged 9 to 11 years with CHD took significantly longer total time; and those aged 12 years and older with NMD took significantly longer total time. Touch screen technology has becoming increasingly relevant to hand function in modern society. This study provides standardized age norms and shows that our test discriminates between normal hand development and that in children with CHD or NMD. Diagnostic III. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Combined effects of noise and reverberation on speech recognition performance of normal-hearing children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Arlene C; Wroblewski, Marcin; Hajicek, Joshua; Rubinstein, Adrienne

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine how combinations of noise levels and reverberation typical of ranges found in current classrooms will affect speech recognition performance of typically developing children with normal speech, language, and hearing and to compare their performance with that of adults with normal hearing. Speech recognition performance was measured using the Bamford-Kowal-Bench Speech in Noise test. A virtual test paradigm represented the signal reaching a student seated in the back of a classroom with a volume of 228 m and with varied reverberation time (0.3, 0.6, and 0.8 sec). The signal to noise ratios required for 50% performance (SNR-50) and for 95% performance were determined for groups of children aged 6 to 12 yrs and a group of young adults with normal hearing. This is a cross-sectional developmental study incorporating a repeated measures design. Experimental variables included age and reverberation time. A total of 63 children with normal hearing and typically developing speech and language and nine adults with normal hearing were tested. Nine children were included in each age group (6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 yrs). The SNR-50 increased significantly with increased reverberation and decreased significantly with increasing age. On average, children required positive SNRs for 50% performance, whereas thresholds for adults were close to 0 dB or or = 10 dB is required for all children at the lowest reverberation time, of > or = 12 dB for children up to age 11 yrs at the 0.6-sec reverberant condition, and of > or = 15 dB for children aged 7 to 11 yrs at the 0.8-sec condition. The youngest children require even higher SNRs in the 0.8-sec condition. Results highlight changes in speech recognition performance with age in elementary school children listening to speech in noisy, reverberant classrooms. The more reverberant the environment, the better the SNR required. The younger the child, the better the SNR required. Results support the

  16. Comparison of Social Adjustment in Blind Children and Normal in Primary School in Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA ModdaresMoghaddam

    2014-05-01

    Methods:This is a descriptive, analytical study in which 270 blind and viewing students of primary schools in Mashhad participated in the academic years 2012-13. The blind students were chosen by census and viewing students through a stratified random sampling from normal schools. For data collection, a standard questionnaire that was social adjustment questionnaire was used. It was made in 1974 in America by Lambert, Wind Miller, Cole & Figueroa, which was translated in 1992 by Dr. Shahny Yeylagh, to be used for children of 7 to 13 years. It was conducted on 1500 boy and girl students of the first to fifth grade in elementary schools of Ahvaz. This test consists of 11 subscales, 38 sub-categories and 260 items. For data analysis, descriptive and inferential statistics such as t-test was used. (P <0.05. Results:The mean scores of social adjustment of students showed no statistically significant difference between the viewing and the blind (p=0.8. Also the mean of social adjustment in blind girls and boys was not statistically significant (p=0.1, but the incompatibility was found in more boys than the girls. Conclusion: Regarding the results, social incompatibility was higher in the blind girl students than the viewing girl students. Also this incompatibility was higher in the boys than the girls thereby requiring scientific and coherent planning for them.

  17. International consensus statement for the use of botulinum toxin treatment in adults and children with neurological impairments--introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquenazi, A; Novak, I; Sheean, G; Singer, B J; Ward, A B

    2010-08-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is most commonly used to reduce focal over-activity in skeletal muscle, although newer indications such as management of drooling, pain and tremor are emerging. Treatment of spasticity incorporating BoNT is usually part of an integrated multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme. Prior to initiating this therapy, specific functional limitations, goals and expected outcomes of treatment should be discussed with the patient/carers. Muscle selection and the order/priority of treatment should be agreed. Treatment goals may involve increasing active or passive function or the avoidance of secondary complications or impairment progression. This paper describes the basic science mechanisms of the action of BoNT and subsequent nerve recovery and introduces a supplement comprising the best available evidence and expert opinion from international panels on questions of assessment, indications, BoNT regimen, adjunctive therapy, expected outcomes and recommended monitoring. Speciality areas reviewed include Paediatric Lower Limb Hypertonicity, Paediatric Upper Limb Hypertonicity, Adult Lower Limb Hypertonicity, Adult Upper Limb Hypertonicity, Cervical Dystonia, Drooling and Pain and Niche Indications. There is good quality scientific evidence to support the efficacy of BoNT to reduce muscle over-activity in the limbs secondary to central nervous system disorders in adults and children, to address primary or secondary cervical dystonia, to reduce saliva flow and to treat some pain syndromes. There is emergent evidence for the efficacy of BoNT to reduce focal tremor, to treat other types of pain including neuropathic pain and also to improve function following treatment of focal muscle over-activity.

  18. Comparison in regression of femoral neck anteversion in children with normal, intoeing and outtoeing gait--prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matovinović, D; Nemec, B; Gulan, G; Sestan, B; Ravlić-Gulan, J

    1998-12-01

    We studied the 950 children for spontaneous regression of femoral neck anteversion (FNA) angle. The children were divided in three groups. The first group comprised children with normal gait, second group comprised children with intoeing gait and the third group children with outtoeing gait. All children were seen first time at age seven. Second examination was performed at age 10 and the third at age 14. The FNA was measured using ultrasound techniques. The mean FNA angle in the first group was 24 degrees, and decreased during examined period for average 1 degree per year. The FNA angle in the second group was on average 42 degrees at age 7 and decreased average 1.6 degrees per year. FNA angle in group of children with outtoeing gait was average 13 degrees and did not significantly change during all three examinations. We found that medial and lateral rotation in the extended hip correlate with FNA angle as well as differences between medical and lateral rotation. On the third examination percentage of children with intoeing gait decreased from 12.8% to 1%, while number of children with outtoeing gait did not change significantly during examined period.

  19. Copper analysis of nail clippings an attempt to differentiate between normal children and patients suffering from cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stekelenburg, G.J. van; Laar, A.J.B. van de; Laag, J. van der

    From 39 normal children and 36 patients, suffering from cystic fibrosis (C/F), the copper content of finger nail clippings and toe nail clippings were determined. From this study it can be concluded that, although the patients with cystic fibrosis (C/F) have a higher copper content, the

  20. A Developmental Study of Static Postural Control and Superimposed Arm Movements in Normal and Slowly Developing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Janet M.

    Selected electromyographic parameters underlying static postural control in 4, 6, and 8 year old normally and slowly developing children during performance of selected arm movements were studied. Developmental delays in balance control were assessed by the Cashin Test of Motor Development (1974) and/or the Williams Gross Motor Coordination Test…

  1. Shear wave velocity measurements using acoustic radiation force impulse in young children with normal kidneys versus hydronephrotic kidneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beomseok Sohn

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Obtaining ARFI measurements of the kidney is feasible in young children with median SWVs of 1.75 m/sec in normal kidneys. Median SWVs increased in high-grade hydronephrotic kidneys but were not different between hydronephrotic kidneys with and without UPJO.

  2. Assessing the Importance of Lexical Tone Contour to Sentence Perception in Mandarin-Speaking Children with Normal Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shufeng; Wong, Lena L. N.; Wang, Bin; Chen, Fei

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of lexical tone contour and age on sentence perception in quiet and in noise conditions in Mandarin-speaking children ages 7 to 11 years with normal hearing. Method: Test materials were synthesized Mandarin sentences, each word with a manipulated lexical contour, that is, normal…

  3. Comparison of psychological well-being and coping styles in mothers of deaf and normally-hearing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Ghasempour

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Families who have a child with hearing deficiency deal with different challenges, and mothers have a greater responsibility towards these children because of their traditional role of caregiver; so, they deal with more psychological problems. The aim of this study was to compare the psychological well-being and coping styles in mothers of deaf and normal children.Methods: In this cross-sectional and post event study (causal-comparative method, 30 mothers of deaf students and 30 mothers of normal students from elementary schools of Ardabil, Iran, were selected using available sampling. The Ryff psychological well-being (1989 and Billings and Moos coping styles (1981 questionnaires were used in this study. The data were analyzed using MANOVA test.Results: We found that in mother's of deaf children, psychological well-being and its components was significantly lower than mothers of normal children (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively. There was a significant difference between two groups in terms of cognitive coping style, too (p<0.01. However, mothers of deaf children used less cognitive coping style.Conclusions: It seems that child's hearing loss affects on mothers psychological well-being and coping styles; this effect can be visible as psychological problems and lower use of adaptive coping styles.

  4. Estado neurológico e cardiorrespiratório de filhotes de cães nascidos de parto normal ou de cesariana sob anestesia geral inalatória com sevofluorano Neurological and cardiocirculatory investigation of dog neonates born by normal parturition or cesarean section on sevoflurane inhalation anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Tozadore Gabas

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A anestesia obstétrica possibilita um procedimento mais seguro para a mãe e para os fetos. Em medicina veterinária, no entanto, a literatura científica a respeito do assunto é deficiente. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o grau de depressão neurológica, hemodinâmica e respiratória fetais provocado pelo agente anestésico, em que as mães foram submetidas ao parto normal ou à cesariana, utilizando-se sevofluorano como agente de manutenção anestésica, comparando-o com o parto normal. Foram realizados seis partos normais (GN e seis cesarianas (GC, avaliando-se um total de 36 filhotes. As cesarianas foram realizadas utilizando-se acepromazina, propofol e sevofluorano (GC e os neonatos foram avaliados clinicamente ao primeiro, quinto e décimo minuto de nascimento, nos dois grupos. Observou-se maior depressão respiratória nos filhotes nascidos de cesariana. Contudo, apesar dessa depressão, o protocolo anestésico empregado não comprometeu de maneira importante a viabilidade e a saúde das mães e dos filhotes, demonstrando ser seguro em cadelas gestantes.The obstetric anesthesia must be safe for mother and puppies and about this, the literature is pour. This study was aimed at evaluating the neurological, hemodinamic and respiratory changes in neonates provoked by the anestesic agent as a result of normal parturition and cesarean section employing sevoflurane as the maintenance agent. Six deliveries (GN and six cesarean sections (GC were performed. The cesarean sections were performed under general anesthesia using acepromazina maleate, propofol and sevoflurane. Thirty six puppies were evaluated and the neurologic reflexes were worse in that were born through cesarean section. However, we concluded that despite the anesthetic depression, the protocol employed didn,t affect in any important way the viability and health of the mothers and puppies, being suitable for cesarean sections.

  5. The Δ4-desaturation pathway for DHA biosynthesis is operative in the human species: Differences between normal controls and children with the Zellweger syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez Manuela; Ichaso Natalia; Setien Fernando; Durany Nuria; Qiu Xiao; Roesler William

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6ω3) is a fundamental component of cell membranes, especially in the brain and retina. In the experimental animal, DHA deficiency leads to suboptimal neurological performance and visual deficiencies. Children with the Zellweger syndrome (ZS) have a profound DHA deficiency and symptoms that can be attributed to their extremely low DHA levels. These children seem to have a metabolic defect in DHA biosynthesis, which has never been totally elucid...

  6. Lumbar spine and total-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in children with severe neurological impairment and intellectual disability: a pilot study of artefacts and disrupting factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mergler, S.; Rieken, R.; Evenhuis, H.M.; Penning, C. [Erasmus University Medical Centre, Intellectual Disability Medicine, Department of General Practice, PO Box 2040, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Tibboel, D. [Erasmus University Medical Centre, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Rijn, R.R. van [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-05-15

    Children with severe neurological impairment and intellectual disability (ID) are susceptible for developing low bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures. BMD is generally measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). To describe the occurrence of factors that may influence the feasibility of DXA and the accuracy of DXA outcome in children with severe neurological impairment and ID. Based on literature and expert opinion, a list of disrupting factors was developed. Occurrence of these factors was assessed in 27 children who underwent DXA measurement. Disrupting factors that occurred most frequently were movement during measurement (82%), aberrant body composition (67%), small length for age (56%) and scoliosis (37%). The number of disrupting factors per child was mean 5.3 (range 1-8). No correlation was found between DXA outcomes and the number of disrupting factors. Factors that may negatively influence the accuracy of DXA outcome are frequently present in children with severe neurological impairment and ID. No systematic deviation of DXA outcome in coherence with the amount of disrupting factors was found, but physicians should be aware of the possible influence of disrupting factors on the accuracy of DXA. (orig.)

  7. Parental comparison of the prosodic and paralinguistic ability of children with cochlear implants and their normal hearing siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, David J; Christiansen, Lærke; Uglebjerg, Cathrine; Brännström, K Jonas; Falkenberg, Eva-Signe

    2015-01-01

    The everyday communication of children is commonly observed by their parents. This paper examines the responses of parents (n=18) who had both a Cochlear Implant (CI) and a Normal Hearing (NH) child. Through an online questionnaire, parents rated the ability of their children on a gamut of speech communication competencies encountered in everyday settings. Comparative parental ratings of the CI children were significantly poorer than those of their NH siblings in speaker recognition, happy and sad emotion, and question versus statement identification. Parents also reported that they changed the vocal effort and the enunciation of their speech when they addressed their CI child and that their CI child consistently responded when their name was called in normal, but not in noisy backgrounds. Demographic factors were not found to be linked to the parental impressions.

  8. [Airway obstruction after tracheostomy in a neurologically impaired child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Mizuho; Arakura, Kumiko; Kawase, Soichiro; Shiozawa, Riyo; Inoue, Yasuro

    2008-03-01

    A 14-year-old boy neurologically impaired was scheduled for tracheostomy under general anesthesia because of the prolonged tracheal intubation. He had twice received artificial respiration under tracheal intubation for aspiration pneumonia. During emergence from anesthesia, bucking occurred and suddenly the patient's lungs could not be ventilated. Neither anesthetic circuit nor tracheostomy tube were not functioning well, and airway obstruction was not relieved by manual and positive pressure ventilation within 40 mmHg. SpO2 gradually decreased to 48%, resulting in bradicardia. However, it became possible to inflate the lungs immediately because of the respiratory effort decreased. SpO2 rapidly increased to normal range and heart rate recovered. The patient was suspected of having tracheomalacia as a result of flexible bronchoscopy performed through tracheostomy tube, revealing slight collapse of the trachea. Tracheomalacia can be a cause of sudden difficult ventilation in neurologically impaired children.

  9. [Neurological soft signs in pervasive developmental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halayem, S; Bouden, A; Halayem, M B; Tabbane, K; Amado, I; Krebs, M O

    2010-09-01

    Many studies have focused on specific motor signs in autism and Asperger's syndrome, but few has been published on the complete range of neurological soft signs (NSS) in children with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD). Scarce are the studies evaluating NSS in children suffering from PDD not otherwise specified (PDDNOS). This study compared performance of 11 autistic children (AD) and 10 children with PDDNOS, with controls matched on age, sex and cognitive performance on Krebs et al.'s NSS scale. Because of the duration of the assessments and specific difficulties encountered in managing some items, an adaptation of the scale had to be made during a pilot study with the agreement of the author. To be eligible, patients had to meet the following inclusion criteria: an age range of 6-16 years, a diagnosis of autistic disorder or PDDNOS based on the DSM IV criteria (American Psychiatric Association 1994). The autism diagnostic interview-revised (ADI-R) was used in order to confirm the diagnosis and to evaluate the association of the symptoms to the severity of the NSS. The childhood autism rating scale (CARS) was completed for the patients in order to evaluate symptoms at the time of the NSS examination. Cognitive ability was assessed with Raven's progressive matrices. Were excluded patients with: history of cerebral palsy, congenital anomaly of the central nervous system, epilepsy, known genetic syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, neurofibromatosis, antecedent of severe head trauma, Asperger's syndrome, obvious physical deformities or sensory deficits that would interfere with neurological assessment, deep mental retardation and recent or chronic substance use or abuse. Healthy controls shared the same exclusion criteria, with no personal history of neurological, psychiatric disorder or substance abuse, no family history of psychiatric disorder and normal or retardation in schooling. All study procedures were approved by the local Ethics Committee (Comité d

  10. The impact of epilepsy on academic achievement in children with normal intelligence and without major comorbidities: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wo, S W; Ong, L C; Low, W Y; Lai, P S M

    2017-10-01

    To systematically examine published literature which assessed the prevalence of academic difficulties in children with epilepsy (CWE) of normal intelligence, and its associating factors. A search was conducted on five databases for articles published in English from 1980 till March 2015. Included were studies who recruited children (aged 5-18 years), with a diagnosis or newly/recurrent epilepsy, an intelligent quotient (IQ) of ≥70 or attending regular school, with or without a control group, which measured academic achievement using a standardised objective measure, and published in English. Excluded were children with learning difficulties, intellectual disabilities (IQacademic achievement scores compared to healthy controls, children with asthma or reported norms. The remaining six studies (30%) did not report any differences. CWE had stable academic achievement scores over time (2-4 years), even among those whose seizure frequency improved. Higher parental education and children with higher IQ, and had better attention or had a positive attitude towards epilepsy, were associated with higher academic achievement score. Older children were found to have lower academic achievement score. In CWE of normal intelligence, the majority of published literature found that academic achievement was lower than controls or reported norms. The high percentages of low achievement in CWE, especially in the older age group, and the stability of scores even as seizure frequency improved, highlights the need for early screening of learning problems, and continued surveillance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Supraglotoplastia endoscópica em crianças com laringomalacia grave com e sem doença neurológica associada Endoscopic supraglottoplasty in children with severe laryngomalacia with and without neurological impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C. Fraga

    2001-10-01

    children with or without neurological impairment. METHODS: Eight children with severe laryngomalacia submitted to endoscopic supraglottoplasty were retrospectively studied. Four had neurological impairment (male, mean age 6 years, and 4 did not present neurological problems (3 female, mean age 11.5 months. Surgery indications were respiratory distress, feeding difficulties, failure to thrive, and low oxygen saturation. Polysomnographic evaluation was carried out on the last 2 children, showing abnormal oxygen saturation, obstructive apnea, and hypoventilation. All children received preoperative antibiotics and corticosteroids. RESULTS: all children without neurological impairment had significant relief of symptoms. Children with neurological impairment had different outcome: one needed tracheotomy immediately after surgery due to edema and supraglottic granulation tissue. The other three children presented initial relief of symptoms, but subsequent follow-up showed progressive airway obstruction: one needed another endoscopic surgery 6 months later; other needed tracheotomy 7 months later. The children who were not submitted to tracheostomy presented persistent severe airway obstruction. No endoscopic surgery complication was observed. CONCLUSIONS: 1 Endoscopic supraglottoplasty is well tolerated and does not present complications when used in children; 2 Endoscopic supraglottoplasty was efficient in the treatment of children with severe laryngomalacia and in without neurological impairment; however, supraglottoplasty did not resolve airway obstruction in children with neurological impairment.

  12. Video head-impulse test (vHIT) in dizzy children with normal caloric responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, Ahmed Mohammed; Afifi, Pretty O

    2016-08-01

    The caloric test and the video head-impulse test are diagnostic tools to examine dizzy patients through assessing the function of the semicircular canals. There are major differences between the two tests as regards stimulus characteristics, methodology, and function examined. The aim of this study is to evaluate the results of vHIT in children and adolescents with normal caloric test. This work was performed on 63 patients, but 14 were excluded because of technical problems in the caloric test. So, this is a prospective work in 49 patients (27 females and 22 males) with different types of vestibular disease seen because of vertigo in which both procedures were performed the same day. The caloric test was performed with air at two different temperatures in which both ears were irrigated alternately. Then, the video head-impulse test was carried out. Main outcome measures were the gain of vestibulo-ocular reflex, gain asymmetry, and refixation saccades in the vHIT. in all studied cases, caloric test was normal. The mean age of patients was 16 years. By vHIT, in 8 patients (16%) no abnormality was detected, while abnormal findings were found in 41 patients. Single canal affection was seen in 29 patients whereas 12 patients had combined canal affection. The right side was affected in 27 and left side in 22 patients. In single canal affection, isolated horizontal canals were affected in 4, anterior canals in 5 and posterior canals in 20 patients. While in combined canal affection, the affection is seen in the same ear. Moreover the most common pattern seen is affection of left anterior and left posterior canals. The caloric and vHIT is very important tests in diagnosis of dizzy patients. The information from both methods is redundant in some cases but complementary in most. vHIT is a "child friendly," relatively easy-to-use, and simple tool to evaluate each of the 6 semicircular canals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Normal birth weight variation and children's neuropsychological functioning: links between language, executive functioning, and theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, M; Browne, D T; Madigan, S; Plamondon, A; Jenkins, J M

    2014-10-01

    The effect of low birth weight on children's development has been documented for a range of neurocognitive outcomes. However, few previous studies have examined the effect of birth weight variability within the normal range on children's neuropsychological development. The current study examined birth weight variation amongst children weighing ≥2500 g in relation to their language, executive functioning (EF), and theory of mind (ToM), and specified a developmental pathway in which birth weight was hypothesized to be associated with children's EF and ToM through their intermediary language skills. The current study used a prospective community birth cohort of 468 children. Families were recruited when children were newborns and followed up every 18 months until children were age 4.5. Language was assessed at age 3 using a standardized measure of receptive vocabulary (PPVT), and EF and ToM were measured at age 4.5 using previously validated and developmentally appropriate tasks. After controlling for potential confounding variables (family income, parent education, gestational age), birth weight within the normal range was associated with language ability at age 3 (β=.17; p=.012); and the effect of birth weight on both EF (z=2.09; p=.03) and ToM (z=2.07; p=.03) at age 4.5 operated indirectly through their language ability at age 3. Our findings indicate that the effects of birth weight on child neurocognition extend into the normal range of birth weight, and specific developmental mechanisms may link these skills over time.

  14. Language Behaviors of Mothers of Children with Normal and Delayed Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondurant, Judith Love; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Fourteen mothers of language delayed two- to five-year-old children provided shorter utterances, fewer questions, more directions, and fewer acceptance utterances than 14 mothers of nondelayed children in free play and structured situations. (CL)

  15. Comparação do desempenho de atividades funcionais em crianças com desenvolvimento normal e crianças com paralisia cerebral Comparison of functional activity performance in normally developing children and children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa C. Mancini

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar o desempenho de atividades funcionais de auto-cuidado em crianças com desenvolvimento normal e crianças com paralisia cerebral (PC, utilizando o teste PEDI. MÉTODO: 142 crianças com desenvolvimento normal e 33 crianças com PC foram avaliadas em 22 itens da escala de auto-cuidado do teste funcional PEDI. A metodologia Rasch transformou os escores em incrementos de dificuldade intervalar de 0 a 100 (logit. O índice de correlação Spearman rank comparou a ordem dos logits nos dois grupos. RESULTADOS: Onze itens apresentaram diferença significativa nos valores logit dos dois grupos. Destes, sete itens apresentaram dificuldade relativa superior no grupo de crianças com PC e quatro itens apresentaram dificuldade relativa maior no grupo de crianças normais. Foi observada ainda relação significativa na ordem dos 22 itens nas duas escalas intervalares.CONCLUSÃO: Resultados sugerem que o desenvolvimento de atividades funcionais de auto-cuidado pode ser influenciado pela presença de PC. Tais resultados podem subsidiar estratégias de avaliação e intervenção para crianças com distúrbios neuromotores.OBJECTIVE: To compare the pattern of self-care performance in normal children and children with cerebral palsy (CP. METHOD: 142 normal children and 33 children with CP were evaluated by 22 items from the self-care scale of the PEDI functional test. Rasch methodology transformed scores into interval measures of difficulty from 0 to 100 (logit. Spearman rank correlation coefficient compared the order of logits in the two groups. RESULTS: Eleven items showed significant differences in the logit values received. Out of these, 7 items showed relative difficulty values greater in the group of children with CP and 4 items showed relative difficulty values greater among normal children. A significant correlation was observed in the order of the 22 items displayed in the two interval scales. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the

  16. Differences in respiratory pressure and pulmonary function among children with spastic diplegic and hemiplegic cerebral palsy in comparison with normal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong Hyun; Lee, Hye Young

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine differences in respiratory pressure and pulmonary function among children with spastic diplegic and hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP) in comparison with children with normal development. [Subjects and Methods] Fourteen children with spastic diplegic CP, 11 children with hemiplegic CP, and 14 children with normal development were recruited. Respiratory pressure was measured and the pulmonary function test (PFT) was performed to evaluate the strength of the respiratory muscles and lung volumetric capacity. [Results] Regarding respiratory pressure, children with spastic diplegic and hemiplegic CP showed significantly lower functions in terms of MIP and MEP compared with children with normal development, although no significant differences were found between children with the two types of CP. In the pulmonary function test, children with spastic diplegic CP showed significantly higher pulmonary function than children with normal development in terms of only FVC and FEV1. [Conclusion] Children with CP showed relatively lower function in terms of respiratory pressure and lung capacity, in comparison with children with normal development. Therefore, respiratory function in children with CP should be carefully evaluated and should receive more attention in a rehabilitation setting.

  17. Serum levels of growth hormone binding protein in children with normal and precocious puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Fisker, Sidse; Scheike, Thomas Harder

    2000-01-01

    To study the regulation of GHBP serum levels by gonadal steroids in normal and precocious puberty.......To study the regulation of GHBP serum levels by gonadal steroids in normal and precocious puberty....

  18. THE NEUROLOGICAL FACE OF CELIAC DISEASE

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    Sedat IŞIKAY

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSeveral neurological disorders have also been widely described in celiac disease patients.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to determine the incidence of accompanying different neurologic manifestations in children with celiac disease at the time of diagnosis and to discuss these manifestations in the light of the recent literature.MethodsThis prospective cross sectional study included 297 children diagnosed with celiac disease. The medical records of all patients were reviewed.ResultsIn neurological evaluation, totally 40 (13. 5% of the 297 celiac patients had a neurological finding including headache, epilepsy, migraine, mental retardation, breath holding spells, ataxia, cerebral palsy, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Down syndrome and Turner syndrome in order of frequency. There was not any significant difference between the laboratory data of the patients with and without neurological manifestations. However; type 3a biopsy was statistically significantly more common among patients without neurological manifestations, while type 3b biopsy was statistically significantly more common among patients with neurological manifestations.ConclusionIt is important to keep in mind that in clinical course of celiac disease different neurological manifestations may be reported.

  19. Working memory and referential communication – multimodal aspects of interaction between children with sensorineural hearing impairment and normal hearing peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof eSandgren

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Whereas the language development of children with sensorineural hearing impairment (SNHI has repeatedly been shown to differ from that of peers with normal hearing (NH, few studies have used an experimental approach to investigate the consequences on everyday communicative interaction. This mini review gives an overview of a range of studies on children with SNHI and NH exploring intra- and inter-individual cognitive and linguistic systems during communication.Over the last decade, our research group has studied the conversational strategies of Swedish speaking children and adolescents with SNHI and NH using referential communication, an experimental analogue to problem-solving in the classroom. We have established verbal and nonverbal control and validation mechanisms, related to working memory capacity (WMC and phonological short term memory (PSTM. We present main findings and future directions relevant for the field of cognitive hearing science and for the clinical and school-based management of children and adolescents with SNHI.

  20. [Neurorehabilitation, neurology, rehabilitation medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbán, Edina; Szél, István; Fáy, Veronika; Dénes, Zoltán; Lippai, Zoltán; Fazekas, Gábor

    2013-05-30

    We have read several publications of great authority on the neurological profession in the last two years in which were expressed assessments of the current situation combined with opinions about neurology and the necessity to reorganize neurological patient care. These articles took up the question of neurorehabilitation too. The authors, who on a daily basis, deal with the rehabilitation of people with disabilities as a consequence of neurological conditions, summarize some important definitions of rehabilitation medicine and the present system of neurological rehabilitation, as it is defined by the rehabilitation profession.

  1. Neurology at the bedside

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondziella, Daniel; Waldemar, Gunhild

    This updated and expanded new edition takes neurology trainees by the hand and guides them through the whole patient encounter - from an efficient neurological history and bedside examination through to differential diagnosis, diagnostic procedures and treatment. At each step the expert authors......, as have new chapters including neurogenetics, neurorehabilitation, neurocritical care and heuristic neurological reasoning. In addition, this second edition now includes more than 100 unique case histories. Neurology at the Bedside, Second Edition is written for neurologists in all stages of training....... Medical students, general practitioners and others with an interest in neurology will also find invaluable information here....

  2. The Processing and Interpretation of Verb Phrase Ellipsis Constructions by Children at Normal and Slowed Speech Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Sarah M.; Walenski, Matthew; Love, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine children’s comprehension of verb phrase (VP) ellipsis constructions in light of their automatic, online structural processing abilities and conscious, metalinguistic reflective skill. Method Forty-two children ages 5 through 12 years listened to VP ellipsis constructions involving the strict/sloppy ambiguity (e.g., “The janitor untangled himself from the rope and the fireman in the elementary school did too after the accident.”) in which the ellipsis phrase (“did too”) had 2 interpretations: (a) strict (“untangled the janitor”) and (b) sloppy (“untangled the fireman”). We examined these sentences at a normal speech rate with an online cross-modal picture priming task (n = 14) and an offline sentence–picture matching task (n = 11). Both tasks were also given with slowed speech input (n = 17). Results Children showed priming for both the strict and sloppy interpretations at a normal speech rate but only for the strict interpretation with slowed input. Offline, children displayed an adultlike preference for the sloppy interpretation with normal-rate input but a divergent pattern with slowed speech. Conclusions Our results suggest that children and adults rely on a hybrid syntax-discourse model for the online comprehension and offline interpretation of VP ellipsis constructions. This model incorporates a temporally sensitive syntactic process of VP reconstruction (disrupted with slow input) and a temporally protracted discourse effect attributed to parallelism (preserved with slow input). PMID:22223886

  3. [Study of growth pattern of cranialfacial complex based on skeletal age in children with normal occlusion in Shandong province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiang-qian; Fu, Chuan-yun; Wang, Zhi-qiang; Wei, Zhi-min; Guo, Jie

    2013-06-01

    To establish the normal values of cephalometric items for children with normal occlusion in Shandong province, and study the growth tendency of them and analyze the characteristics in different skeletal stages and sexes. Lateral cephalograph was taken in 172 children of Han nationality with normal occlusion in Shandong province. The pictures were processed by WinCeph7.0, and statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS18.0 software Package. The results between sexes and 4 skeletal stages were compared. Facial contour in males were larger than in females. With growth of children, counter-clockwise rotation happened in mandibular plane, and males rotated more than females. Maxillary anterior tooth tilted more forword in males than in females, while mandibular anterior tooth positioned more upright in males than in females, and the protrution of maxillary and mandibular anterior tooth in males decreased along with growth. The lower lip in males was thicker than in females. The normal values and standard deviations of measuring items in different gender and bone-age group were established. Supported by Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province (ZR2009CM109) and Natural Science Foundation of Science and Technology Bureau of Shandong Province(2006GG3208004).

  4. Cephalometric evaluation of the airway space and head posture in children with normal and atypical deglutition: correlations study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almiro, Jose Machado Junior; Crespo, Agrício N

    2013-11-01

    Head posture has been related to pharyngeal space, especially in the syndrome of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in adults. However no studies were found that evaluated the possible correlation between head posture and pharyngeal airway space measured in children with atypical swallowing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible correction between head posture and the measurement of pharyngeal space on radiographs of children who were in the period of mixed dentition who demonstrated atypical swallowing and in children with normal deglutition. A retrospective clinical study, using cephalometric analysis of lateral radiographs to obtain measures of the antero-posterior dimension of the pharyngeal airway space (PAS) and the angle formed between the base of the skull and the odontoid process (CC1) between two groups: the 55 radiographs experimental group (with atypical swallowing) and 55 radiographs of the control group (normal swallowing). The Spearman Coefficient of Correlation was used to evaluate the possible relationship between PAS and CC1 was used. Results indicated a positive correlation between measures of CC1 and PAS (r = 0357) only in the control group (normal swallowing). There is positive correlation between head posture and measure pharyngeal airway space (PAS) in the group of normal swallowing. This correlation was not observed in the experimental group (atypical swallowing).

  5. Cortical networks for vision and language in dyslexic and normal children of variable socio-economic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzalvo, Karla; Fluss, Joel; Billard, Catherine; Dehaene, Stanislas; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine

    2012-05-15

    In dyslexia, anomalous activations have been described in both left temporo-parietal language cortices and in left ventral visual occipito-temporal cortex. However, the reproducibility, task-dependency, and presence of these brain anomalies in childhood rather than adulthood remain debated. We probed the large-scale organization of ventral visual and spoken language areas in dyslexic children using minimal target-detection tasks that were performed equally well by all groups. In 23 normal and 23 dyslexic 10-year-old children from two different socio-economic status (SES) backgrounds, we compared fMRI activity to visually presented houses, faces, and written strings, and to spoken sentences in the native or in a foreign language. Our results confirm a disorganization of both ventral visual and spoken language areas in dyslexic children. Visually, dyslexic children showed a normal lateral-to-medial mosaic of preferences, as well as normal responses to houses and checkerboards, but a reduced activation to words in the visual word form area (VWFA) and to faces in the right fusiform face area (FFA). Auditorily, dyslexic children exhibited reduced responses to speech in posterior temporal cortex, left insula and supplementary motor area, as well as reduced responses to maternal language in subparts of the planum temporale, left basal language area and VWFA. By correlating these two findings, we identify spoken-language predictors of VWFA activation to written words, which differ for dyslexic and normal readers. Similarities in fMRI deficits in both SES groups emphasize the existence of a core set of brain activation anomalies in dyslexia, regardless of culture, language and SES, without however resolving whether these anomalies are a cause or a consequence of impaired reading. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiation dose and image quality in pediatric chest CT: effects of iterative reconstruction in normal weight and overweight children

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    Yoon, Haesung; Kim, Myung-Joon; Shin, Hyun Joo; Kim, Hyun Gi; Lee, Mi-Jung [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Children' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Choon-Sik [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jiin [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Biostatistics Collaboration Unit, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-01

    New CT reconstruction techniques may help reduce the burden of ionizing radiation. To quantify radiation dose reduction when performing pediatric chest CT using a low-dose protocol and 50% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) compared with age/gender-matched chest CT using a conventional dose protocol and reconstructed with filtered back projection (control group) and to determine its effect on image quality in normal weight and overweight children. We retrospectively reviewed 40 pediatric chest CT (M:F = 21:19; range: 0.1-17 years) in both groups. Radiation dose was compared between the two groups using paired Student's t-test. Image quality including noise, sharpness, artifacts and diagnostic acceptability was subjectively assessed by three pediatric radiologists using a four-point scale (superior, average, suboptimal, unacceptable). Eight children in the ASIR group and seven in the control group were overweight. All radiation dose parameters were significantly lower in the ASIR group (P < 0.01) with a greater than 57% dose reduction in overweight children. Image noise was higher in the ASIR group in both normal weight and overweight children. Only one scan in the ASIR group (1/40, 2.5%) was rated as diagnostically suboptimal and there was no unacceptable study. In both normal weight and overweight children, the ASIR technique is associated with a greater than 57% mean dose reduction, without significantly impacting diagnostic image quality in pediatric chest CT examinations. However, CT scans in overweight children may have a greater noise level, even when using the ASIR technique. (orig.)

  7. Prevalence of pre-diabetes, diabetes, pre-hypertension, and hypertension in children weighing more than normal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti Phatale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Prevalence of pre-diabetes, diabetes, pre-hypertension (pre-HT, and hypertension (HT in children weighing more than normal. Materials and Methods: Three- to eighteen-year old children weighing more than normal were included. Pathological short children were excluded. According to Centre for Disease Control (CDC, children are grouped into overweight (OW and obese (OB. Indian B.P. reference tables are used for defining HT and pre-HT. [2] HbA1c by HPLC (BIO RAD method was used to define pre-diabetes and diabetes. [3] Children with HbA1c ≥6.5 were subjected for Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT. C-peptide assay was done to rule out (r/o IDDM. Observations: When we compare this with our earlier presentation at PEDICON 2011, we found that hypertension (HTN (22.9% vs. 23.07% is not significantly different but pre-HTN (28.09% vs. 33.9%, pre-diabetes mellitus (pre-DM (3.7% vs. 64.3%, and diabetes mellitus (DM (0.35% vs. 3.8% are significantly high in this study. Conclusion: (1 Prevalence of HT (22.90% vs. 23.07% is similar in both groups but pre-HT (33.9% vs. 28.09% is high in this study. (2 Significant rise in prevalence of diabetes (3.84% vs. 0.35% and pre-diabetes (64.33% vs. 3.7% is seen in this study. (3 This change is because of using HbA1c as screening tool in children weighing more than normal.

  8. Relationship between pickiness and subsequent development in body mass index and diet intake in obesity prone normal weight preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Jeanett Friis; Händel, Mina Nicole; Stougaard, Maria; Olsen, Nanna Julie; Trærup, Maria; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2017-01-01

    Most children have periods in their life where they reject familiar as well as non-familiar food items and this is often referred to as pickiness. The consequences of pickiness may be malnutrition and, if prolonged, potentially lower body weight. However, studies investigating the consequence of pickiness on subsequent changes in diet intake and weight are limited. To examine whether pickiness influences body mass index as well as diet intake over subsequent 15 months among obesity prone normal weight children aged 2-6 years. Data was obtained from the "Healthy Start" intervention study which included 271 children aged 2-6 years susceptible to overweight later in life. Information on pickiness was obtained from a parental questionnaire. Dietary habits were collected by 4-day dietary records filled in by the parents and height and weight were measured by trained health professionals and both measured twice over a 15 month period. Linear regression models were performed to assess the influence of pickiness on body mass index and diet with adjustments for possible confounders. No differences in mean BMI Z-score were seen between picky/non-picky (P = 0.68) and little picky/non-picky (P = 0.68) children at 15 month follow-up. Picky children had a lower intake of protein (P = 0.01) than non-picky children despite no differences in total energy intake (P = 0.74), or in the other macronutrients, or the intake of fruit and vegetables, though children being a little picky had a lower intake of starch compared to non-picky children (P = 0.05). Results were essentially similar before and after adjustment for key covariates. Our study showed that BMI Z-score after 15 months follow-up was similar for picky and non-picky children. Picky children seemed to develop a lower protein intake despite similar total energy intake and diet composition.

  9. Relationship between pickiness and subsequent development in body mass index and diet intake in obesity prone normal weight preschool children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanett Friis Rohde

    Full Text Available Most children have periods in their life where they reject familiar as well as non-familiar food items and this is often referred to as pickiness. The consequences of pickiness may be malnutrition and, if prolonged, potentially lower body weight. However, studies investigating the consequence of pickiness on subsequent changes in diet intake and weight are limited.To examine whether pickiness influences body mass index as well as diet intake over subsequent 15 months among obesity prone normal weight children aged 2-6 years.Data was obtained from the "Healthy Start" intervention study which included 271 children aged 2-6 years susceptible to overweight later in life. Information on pickiness was obtained from a parental questionnaire. Dietary habits were collected by 4-day dietary records filled in by the parents and height and weight were measured by trained health professionals and both measured twice over a 15 month period. Linear regression models were performed to assess the influence of pickiness on body mass index and diet with adjustments for possible confounders.No differences in mean BMI Z-score were seen between picky/non-picky (P = 0.68 and little picky/non-picky (P = 0.68 children at 15 month follow-up. Picky children had a lower intake of protein (P = 0.01 than non-picky children despite no differences in total energy intake (P = 0.74, or in the other macronutrients, or the intake of fruit and vegetables, though children being a little picky had a lower intake of starch compared to non-picky children (P = 0.05. Results were essentially similar before and after adjustment for key covariates.Our study showed that BMI Z-score after 15 months follow-up was similar for picky and non-picky children. Picky children seemed to develop a lower protein intake despite similar total energy intake and diet composition.

  10. Body mass index is associated with fat mass in normal, overweight/obese, and stunted preschool children in central Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongcharoen, Tippawan; Judprasong, Kunchit; Jitngarmkusol, Siwaporn; Kriengsinyos, Wantanee; Winichagoon, Pattanee

    Body mass index (BMI) is widely used as a surrogate measure of adiposity. The relationship between BMI and body fatness varies by race, sex, and age and more variations have been found among children. This study investigated the relationship between BMI and fat mass among 3-5 year old children having different nutritional status. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 15 daycare centers in central Thailand. 137 healthy preschool children were recruited according to their nutritional status: thin [BMI for age Z scores, (BAZ) +2 SD), and stunted [height for age Z scores FM) in kilograms (TFM) and in percentage (FM%), and fat mass index (FMI, FM/height2) were calculated. FM and FMI were the highest in the overweight/obese groups. In the thin group, girls had higher FMI compared to boys (3.2 vs 2.8 kg/m2, pFM differed by nutritional status. BMI was more strongly associated with FMI, TFM, and FM% in the overweight/ obese (r=0.97, 0.95, 0.80, p<0.05) and the normal (r=0.88, 0.84, 0.68, p<0.05) groups but not in the stunted group, and inconsistent in the thin group. The inconsistency in the relationship between BMI and body fatness suggests that BMI is appropriate for reflecting adiposity in normal and overweight/obese children, but not undernourished preschool children.

  11. Study of Phonological Awareness of Preschool and School Aged Children with Cochlear Implant and Normal Hearing

    OpenAIRE

    Rastegarianzadeh, Niloufar; Shahbodaghi, Mohammadrahim; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives The primary purpose of this study was to assess whether very early access to speech sounds provided by the cochlear implant enables children to develop age-appropriate phonological awareness abilities in their preschool and school years. A secondary purpose of this study was to examine whether children who had cochlear implantation before 18 months of age will develop better skills in phonological awareness than children who had cochlear implants in 18-36 months of a...

  12. A comparative evaluation of dental caries status among hearing-impaired and normal children of Malda, West Bengal, evaluated with the Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Sudipta; Kundu, Goutam; Maiti, Shyamal Kumar; Ghosh, Chiranjit; Bazmi, Badruddin Ahamed; Mukhopadhyay, Santanu

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the major modern-day diseases of dental hard tissue. It may affect both normal and hearing-impaired children. This study is aimed to evaluate and compare the prevalence of dental caries in hearing-impaired and normal children of Malda, West Bengal, utilizing the Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment (CAST). In a cross-sectional, case-control study of dental caries status of 6-12-year-old children was assessed. Statistically significant difference was found in studied (hearing-impaired) and control group (normal children). In the present study, caries affected hearing-impaired children found to be about 30.51% compared to 15.81% in normal children, and the result was statistically significant. Regarding individual caries assessment criteria, nearly all subgroups reflect statistically significant difference except sealed tooth structure group, internal caries-related discoloration in dentin, and distinct cavitation into dentine group, and the result is significant at P caries effected hearing-impaired children found about 30.51% instead of 15.81% in normal children, and the result was statistically significant (P caries assessment criteria, nearly all subgroups reflect statistically significant difference except sealed tooth structure group, internal caries-related discoloration in dentin, and distinct cavitation into dentine group. Dental health of hearing-impaired children was found unsatisfactory than normal children when studied in relation to dental caries status evaluated with CAST.

  13. Auditory-Verbal Comprehension Development of 2-5 Year Old Normal Persian Speaking Children in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Yadegari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Understanding and defining developmental norms of auditory comprehension is a necessity for detecting auditory-verbal comprehension impairments in children. We hereby investigated lexical auditory development of Persian (Farsi speaking children.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, auditory comprehension of four 2-5 year old normal children of adult’s child-directed utterance at available nurseries was observed by researchers primarily to gain a great number of comprehendible words for the children of the same age. The words were classified into nouns, verbs and adjectives. Auditory-verbal comprehension task items were also considered in 2 sections of subordinates and superordinates auditory comprehension. Colored pictures were provided for each item. Thirty 2-5 year old normal children were randomly selected from nurseries all over Tehran. Children were tested by this task and subsequently, mean of their correct response were analyzed. Results: The findings revealed that there is a high positive correlation between auditory-verbal comprehension and age (r=0.804, p=0.001. Comparing children in 3 age groups of 2-3, 3-4 and 4-5 year old, showed that subordinate and superordinate auditory comprehension of the former group is significantly lower (p0.05, while the difference between subordinate and superordinate auditory comprehension was significant in all age groups (p<0.05.Conclusion: Auditory-verbal comprehension develop much faster at lower than older ages and there is no prominent difference between word linguistic classes including nouns, verbs and adjectives. Slower development of superordinate auditory comprehension implies semantic hierarchical evolution of words.

  14. Chapter 38: American neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freemon, Frank R

    2010-01-01

    The great formative event in the history of North America, the Civil War of 1861 to 1865, was the stimulus for the development of clinical neurology and the neurosciences. The first neurological research center on the continent was the US Army hospital at Turner's Lane, Philadelphia, PA. Silas Weir Mitchell and his colleagues described causalgia (reflex sympathetic dystrophy), phantom limb sensation, and Horner's syndrome (before Horner). The medical leader of the Northern army was William Hammond. After the conclusion of hostilities, he began a huge clinical practice in New York City. In the United States, clinical neurology began in private practice, unlike Europe, where neurology began in institutions. Hammond's textbook, which first used the term athetosis, was used by a generation of physicians who encountered patients with neurological signs and symptoms. Early in the 20th century, neurological institutions were formed around universities; probably the most famous was the Montreal Neurological Institute founded by Wilder Penfield. The US federal government sponsored extensive research into the function and dysfunction of the nervous system through the Neurological Institute of Neurological Diseases and Blindness, later called the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke. The government officially classified the final 10 years of the 20th century as the Decade of the Brain and provided an even greater level of research funding.

  15. Transabdominal ultrasound for standardized measurement of bowel wall thickness in normal children and those with Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiorean, Liliana; Schreiber-Dietrich, Dagmar; Braden, Barbara; Cui, XinWu; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2014-12-01

    The intestinal wall can be visualized using high resolution transabdominal ultrasound (TUS). TTUS measurement of the bowel wall thickness has been described in adults but data are lacking in children. The purpose of this prospective study was to sonographically investigate bowel wall thickness in healthy children and children with Crohn's disease. TUS (5-15 MHz) of the intestine was performed in 58 healthy children (age range 3 to 16 years) and in 30 children with Crohn's disease (age range 8 to 17 years). The following regions were assessed and bowel wall thickness measured: terminal ileum, cecum, right flexure, and sigmoid colon. In patients with Crohn's disease, the involved region was additionally assessed regarding length of involved segment and sonographic signs of transmural inflammation and fistula. TUS allowed adequate measurement of bowel wall thickness in all 58 healthy children (100%) and in all 30 Crohn's disease patients (100%). The bowel wall thickness significantly differed between groups. Bowel wall thickness (mean +/- SD) in all segments was less then 2 mm in all healthy children (1.0+/-0.1 mm terminal ileum, 1.1+/-0.1 mm cecum, 1.1+/-0.1 mm right flexure, and 1.3+/-0.1 mm sigmoid colon). In Crohn's disease patients, bowel wall thickness was ≥ 3 mm in the ileocecal region and was significantly increased (5.1+/-1.9 mm) compared to the healthy children. The mean length of involved segment was 15+/-6.5 cm [5 - 30 cm]. Additional findings in Crohn's disease patients were: transmural inflamation (3/30), interenteric fistula (3/30), gastrocolic fistula (1/30) and vesicoenteric fistula (1/30). Similar to adults, normal bowel wall thickness in children is always less than 2 mm. In all patients with Crohn's disease, increased bowel wall thickness could be detected. TUS is a helpful tool in the diagnosis and assessment of activity and complications in Crohn's disease.

  16. Crowding in central vision in normally sighted and visually impaired [corrected] children aged 4 to 8 years: the influence of age and test design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huurneman, Bianca; Boonstra, F Nienke; Cillessen, Antonius H N; van Rens, Ger; Cox, Ralf F A

    2012-06-01

    To investigate crowding ratios in children with a visual impairment due to ocular disease (n = 58) and normally sighted children (n = 75) aged 4 to 8 years using several variants of two clinically available tests with different optotype spacing (fixed or proportional to the optotype size). Crowding ratios, calculated by dividing the single acuity by the linear acuity, were measured binocularly with the C-test and the LH line chart. Ratios >1.00 indicate crowding. The charts with fixed spacing revealed significantly higher crowding ratios for visually impaired children than normally sighted children (both for measurements at 40 cm and 5 m). The age-related reduction of the crowding ratios seen in normally sighted children when tested with near-vision charts with fixed spacing was not present in the visually impaired group. Visually impaired children with nystagmus showed higher crowding ratios than visually impaired children without nystagmus. The chart with proportional intersymbol spacing (ISS) did not reveal differences between the normally sighted and visually impaired children; nor did it show group, age, or nystagmus effects. Visually impaired children showed higher crowding ratios than normally sighted children when measured with charts with fixed ISS. This study illustrates that test design and target/flanker interference as a manifestation of crowding are critical issues to bear in mind when assessing crowding ratios in children.

  17. The development of spelling procedures in French-speaking, normal and reading-disabled children: effects of frequency and lexicality.

    OpenAIRE

    Alegria Iscoa, Jesus; Mousty, Philippe

    1996-01-01

    The spelling procedures of normal and reading-disabled French-speaking children matched for reading level were examined. Subjects had to spell frequent and infrequent words containing either inconsistent nondominant graphonemes (e.g. /s/ spelled "c" as in "cigarette," the dominant spelling for /s/ being "s") or consistent context-dependent graphonemes (e.g. /g/ followed by "i"-->"gu") as well as pseudo-words including inconsistent graphonemes presented in different phonological contexts (e.g....

  18. Recognition of Disorders and Emotional Problems of Deaf Children Using House-Tree-Person and Draw-A-Person Tests in Comparison with Normal Children of Hamadan Province

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    D. Amini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Deaf children have special emotional reactions, Understanding these characteristics and problems can help medical and paramedical professionals, parents and teachers to reach the purpose of behavioral adaptability.The present study was performed in order to recognize disorders, emotional problems and functions of deaf children compared with normal children in emotional components of anxiety, depression, aggression, impulsiv-ity and lack of compromise. Materials & Methods: In order to recognize emotional disorders and problems of deaf children, sample groups of 120 male and female patients (60 deaf children and 60 children with nor-mal hearing with equal number of male and female enrolled in primary schools of Hamadan province were selected by multi stage randomly sampling in this casual_comparative study. House-Tree-Person (HTP and Draw-A-Person tests (DAP were used to determine their emotional problems. Results:Our results indicate that in terms of parameters related to the two tests (distance of three components of each other ,anxiety, aggression, depression and impulsivity and lack of compromise, participants' overall scores in two tests by major scales such as anxiety (?=0.01, P< 0.05; 3.48, 3.13 aggression (?= 0.05 , 0.01, P< 0.05; 6.12 ,3.97 depression (?=0.05 P<0.05 ; 3.75,3.81 , impulsivity (?=0.05, 0.01, P<0.05 ; 3.47, 3.01 and lack of compromise (?=0.05, 0.01, P<0.05; 4.89, 4.95 are significantly different from each other. Conclusion:The deaf children in terms of denotative parameters related to the two tests are sig-nificantly different from normal children; and the overall scores obtained on each of the scales generally show a significant difference with normal children,In the deaf group with regard to gender variable (male and female significant differences in some of the scales such as distance of three components of each other ,anxiety, aggression, depression and lack of compromise iare observed between

  19. Facial growth in patients with apert and crouzon syndromes compared to normal children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitsma, J.H.; Ongkosuwito, E.M.; Buschang, P.H.; Prahl-Andersen, B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate vertical and sagittal facial growth in children with Apert and Crouzon syndromes and compare it to the growth patterns of a nonsyndromic control group. Design: Case-control study. Setting: Department of Orthodontics, Children's Hospital Erasmus Medical Centre, Sophia,

  20. Physical activity and fitness in 8-year-old overweight and normal weight children and their parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Kaisa Karppanen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the physical fitness and physical activity of 8-year-old overweight children (n = 53 to normal weight children (n = 65, and to determine whether a significant relationship exists between physical activity of parents and their children. Study design: A cross-sectional study. Methods: A total of 119 children from Northern Finland were recruited for the study. Waist circumference, height, weight and BMI were measured. Physical activity of the children and their parents was determined with self-administered 7-day recall questionnaires (PAQ-C. Physical fitness of the children was evaluated with 7 items of the EUROFIT-test battery (flamingo balance test, plate tapping, sit-and-reach test, sit-ups, bent arm hang and 10×5 shuttle run. Aerobic capacity of the children was tested with 6-minute walking test. Results: Overweigh was related to impaired performance in tests requiring muscle endurance, balance, explosive power of lower extremities, upper body strength and endurance, speed and agility in both genders and aerobic capacity in boys. Physical activity levels of overweight boys (2.41 SD 0.72 were lower than their lean counterparts (2.91 SD 0.64, p = 0.004; no such difference was observed in girls (2.53 SD 0.64 vs. 2.59 SD 0.68, p = 0.741. Physical activity was significantly associated with better performance in several physical fitness tests in boys, but not in girls. Mothers’ physical activity was associated with children's physical activity (r = 0.363, p < 0.001, but no such association was found between fathers and children (r = 0.019, p = 0.864. Conclusion: This study shows an inverse relationship between excess bodyweight and physical fitness in children. Mother-child relationship of physical activity appeared to be stronger than father-child relationship. Improving physical fitness in children through physical activity might require interventions that are responsive to the ability and needs of overweight children and

  1. Physical activity and fitness in 8-year-old overweight and normal weight children and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karppanen, Anna-Kaisa; Ahonen, Sanna-Mari; Tammelin, Tuija; Vanhala, Marja; Korpelainen, Raija

    2012-01-01

    To compare the physical fitness and physical activity of 8-year-old overweight children (n = 53) to normal weight children (n = 65), and to determine whether a significant relationship exists between physical activity of parents and their children. A cross-sectional study. A total of 119 children from Northern Finland were recruited for the study. Waist circumference, height, weight and BMI were measured. Physical activity of the children and their parents was determined with self-administered 7-day recall questionnaires (PAQ-C). Physical fitness of the children was evaluated with 7 items of the EUROFIT-test battery (flamingo balance test, plate tapping, sit-and-reach test, sit-ups, bent arm hang and 10×5 shuttle run). Aerobic capacity of the children was tested with 6-minute walking test. Overweigh was related to impaired performance in tests requiring muscle endurance, balance, explosive power of lower extremities, upper body strength and endurance, speed and agility in both genders and aerobic capacity in boys. Physical activity levels of overweight boys (2.41 SD 0.72) were lower than their lean counterparts (2.91 SD 0.64, p = 0.004); no such difference was observed in girls (2.53 SD 0.64 vs. 2.59 SD 0.68, p = 0.741). Physical activity was significantly associated with better performance in several physical fitness tests in boys, but not in girls. Mothers' physical activity was associated with children's physical activity (r = 0.363, p < 0.001), but no such association was found between fathers and children (r = 0.019, p = 0.864). This study shows an inverse relationship between excess bodyweight and physical fitness in children. Mother-child relationship of physical activity appeared to be stronger than father-child relationship. Improving physical fitness in children through physical activity might require interventions that are responsive to the ability and needs of overweight children and their families and focus on helping

  2. Brazilian adaptation of the Functioning after Pediatric Cochlear Implantation (FAPCI): comparison between normal hearing and cochlear implanted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassoler, Trissia M F; Cordeiro, Mara L

    2015-01-01

    Enabling development of the ability to communicate effectively is the principal objective of cochlear implantation (CI) in children. However, objective and effective metrics of communication for cochlear-implanted Brazilian children are lacking. The Functioning after Pediatric Cochlear Implantation (FAPCI), a parent/caregiver reporting instrument developed in the United States, is the first communicative performance scale for evaluation of real-world verbal communicative performance of 2-5-year-old children with cochlear implants. The primary aim was to cross-culturally adapt and validate the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the FAPCI. The secondary aim was to conduct a trial of the adapted Brazilian-Portuguese FAPCI (FAPCI-BP) in normal hearing (NH) and CI children. The American-English FAPCI was translated by a rigorous forward-backward process. The FAPCI-BP was then applied to the parents of children with NH (n=131) and CI (n=13), 2-9 years of age. Test-retest reliability was verified. The FAPCI-BP was confirmed to have excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha > 0.90). The CI group had lower FAPCI scores (58.38 ± 22.6) than the NH group (100.38 ± 15.2; pimplanted children. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Pain and Other Non-Neurological Adverse Events in Children with Sickle Cell Anemia and Previous Stroke who Received Hydroxyurea and Phlebotomy or Chronic Transfusions and Chelation: Results from the SWiTCH Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Ofelia; Yovetich, Nancy A.; Scott, J. Paul; Owen, William; Miller, Scott T.; Schultz, William; Lockhart, Alexandre; Aygun, Banu; Flanagan, Jonathan; Bonner, Melanie; Mueller, Brigitta U.; Ware, Russell E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare the non-neurological events in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) and previous stroke enrolled in SWiTCH. Methods The NHLBI-sponsored Phase III multicenter randomized clinical trial Stroke With Transfusions Changing to Hydroxyurea (SWiTCH) (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00122980) compared continuation of chronic blood transfusion/iron chelation to switching to hydroxyurea/phlebotomy for secondary stroke prevention and management of iron overload. All randomized children were included in the analysis (intention to treat). The Fisher's Exact test was used to compare the frequency of subjects who experienced at least one SCA-related adverse event (AE) or serious adverse event (SAE) in each arm and to compare event rates. Results 133 subjects, mean age 13 ±3.9 years (range 5.2-19.0 years) and mean time of 7 years on chronic transfusion at study entry, were randomized and treated. Numbers of subjects experiencing non-neurological AEs were similar in the two treatment arms, including SCA-related events, SCA pain events, and low rates of acute chest syndrome and infection. However, fewer children continuing transfusion/chelation experienced SAEs (p=0.012), SCA-related SAEs (p=0.003), and SCA pain SAEs (p=0.016) as compared to children on the hydroxyurea/phlebotomy arm. The timing of phlebotomy did not influence SAEs. Older age at baseline predicted having at least 1 SCA pain event. Patients with recurrent neurological events during SWiTCH were not more likely to experience pain. Conclusions In children with SCA and prior stroke, monthly transfusions and daily iron chelation provided superior protection against acute vaso-occlusive pain SAEs when compared to hydroxyurea and monthly phlebotomy. PMID:23861242

  4. Glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance in normal-weight, overweight and obese children with obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsuzzaman, Abu; Szczesniak, Rhonda D; Fenchel, Matthew C; Amin, Raouf S

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with components of metabolic syndrome. Both body weight and OSA independently influence metabolic measurements. The goal of this study was to determine whether OSA in normal-weight, overweight or obese children, compared to matched control groups, was associated with increased levels of glucose, insulin and insulin resistance (IR). Age- and gender-specific body mass index (BMI) percentiles were determined and used to categorize subjects into normal-weight (BMIweight (BMIweight, overweight and obese subjects. The ODI was significantly associated with elevated levels of glucose and HOMA-IR after adjustment for age, gender, race, and BMI Z-score. IR levels between OSA and control for both normal-weight, overweight and obese subjects were not significantly different. The ODI was associated with increased IR in children with OSA. OSA-induced hypoxic events during sleep may be a potential mechanism of increased IR in children with OSA, independent of body weight. Copyright © 2013 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Children with severe Osteogenesis imperfecta and short stature present on average with normal IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer-Kuhn, Heike; Höbing, Laura; Cassens, Julia; Schoenau, Eckhard; Semler, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is characterized by bone fragility and short stature. Data about IGF-I/IGFBP-3 levels are rare in OI. Therefore IGF-I/IGFBP-3 levels in children with different types of OI were investigated. IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels of 60 children (male n=38) were assessed in a retrospective cross-sectional setting. Height/weight was significant different [height z-score type 3 versus type 4: p=0.0011 and weight (p≤0.0001)] between OI type 3 and 4. Mean IGF-I levels were in the lower normal range (mean±SD level 137.4±109.1 μg/L). Mean IGFBP-3 measurements were in the normal range (mean±SD 3.105±1.175 mg/L). No significant differences between OI type 3 and 4 children have been observed (IGF-I: p=0.0906; IGFBP-3: p=0.2042). Patients with different severities of OI have IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels in the lower normal range. The type of OI does not significantly influence these growth factors.

  6. Working memory span in Persian-speaking children with speech sound disorders and normal speech development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Mohamad Reza; Ghorbani, Ali; Rashedi, Vahid; Jalilevand, Nahid; Kamali, Mohamad

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare working memory span in Persian-speaking preschool children with speech sound disorder (SSD) and their typically speaking peers. Additionally, the study aimed to examine Non-Word Repetition (NWR), Forward Digit Span (FDS) and Backward Digit Span (BDS) in four groups of children with varying severity levels of SSD. The participants in this study comprised 35 children with SSD and 35 typically developing (TD) children -matched for age and sex-as a control group. The participants were between the age range of 48 and 72 months. Two components of working memory including phonological loop and central executive were compared between two groups. We used two tasks (NWR and FDS) to assess phonological loop component, and one task (BDS) to assess central executive component. Percentage of correct consonants (PCC) was used to calculate the severity of SSD. Significant differences were observed between the two groups in all tasks that assess working memory (p memory between the various severity groups indicated significant differences between different severities of both NWR and FDS tasks among the SSD children (p  0.05). The result showed that PCC scores in TD children were associated with NWR (p children were associated with NWR and FDS (p  0.05). The working memory skills were weaker in SSD children, in comparison to TD children. In addition, children with varying levels of severity of SSD differed in terms of NWR and FSD, but not BDS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Childhood acute bacterial meningitis: risk factors for acute neurological complications and neurological sequelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniuk, Sérgio A; Hamdar, Fátima; Ducci, Renata D; Kira, Ariane T F; Cat, Mônica N L; Cruz, Cristina R da

    2011-01-01

    To assess acute neurological complications and neurological sequelae of childhood acute bacterial meningitis in order to determine possible warning signs. This retrospective study evaluated children with acute bacterial meningitis (between 1 month and 14 years of age) admitted between 2003 and 2006. Of the 44 patients studied, 17 (38.6%) had acute neurological complications. Seizure was the most frequent (31.8%) complication. Patients with acute neurological complications showed a higher frequency of lower neutrophil count (p = 0.03), seizure at admission (p 200 mg/dL (p < 0.01), and cerebrospinal fluid glucose concentration/glycemia ratio (p < 0.01) were identified as risk variables for sequelae. Neutrophil count < 60%, seizure at admission, and S. pneumoniae as the etiologic agent were identified as warning signs for acute neurological complications, while protein levels, cerebrospinal fluid glucose concentration/glycemia ratio, and seizure at admission were seen as risk factors for neurological sequelae.

  8. How Children with Parents Suffering from Mental Health Distress Search for "Normality" and Avoid Stigma: To Be or Not to Be... Is "Not" the Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjone, Heidi Haug; Ytterhus, Borgunn; Almvik, Arve

    2009-01-01

    Using data from in-depth interviews with 20 children, this study finds that children with parents suffering from mental health distress struggle hard to present themselves as "normal" and equal among their peer group. The study shows how they avoid stigma in their presentation of self in everyday life. All the children in this study,…

  9. The Attitude of Parents to Pre-School Inclusive Education for Normal Children and a Child with Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana A. Gubina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The object of the researchis pre-school inclusive education, this kind of organization of the learning process, in which all children are included in a single system of education and training in educational institutions of General type, regardless of mental, physical and other characteristics, where they receive the necessary support and takes into account their special educational needs (children with Down syndrome. The main source of empirical data quantitative and qualitative methods of the survey of parents and teachers in inclusive groups of kindergartens of Moscow, conducted by the authors in April 2016. The subject of research is the attitude of parents of normal children to preschool inclusive education a child with Down syndrome based on their socio-demographic characteristics, level of education and awareness in the field of inclusion.

  10. Use of computerized tests to evaluate psychomotor performance in children with specific learning disabilities in comparison to normal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Taur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Children with specific learning disabilities (SpLD have an unexplained difficulty in acquiring basic academic skills resulting in a significant discrepancy between their academic potential and achievements. This study was undertaken to compare the performance on a battery of six psychomotor tests of children with SpLD and those without any learning disabilities (controls using computerized tests. Methods: In this study, 25 children with SpLD and 25 controls (matched for age, socio-economic status and medium of instruction were given three training sessions over one week. Then children were asked to perform on the six computerized psychomotor tests. Results were compared between the two groups. Results: Children with SpLD fared significantly worse on finger tapping test, choice reaction test, digit picture substitution test and card sorting test compared to the controls ( p <0.05. Interpretation & conclusions: Children with SpLD have impairment of psychomotor skills like attention, sensory-motor coordination and executive functioning. Further research is needed to evaluate if the remedial education plan results in improvement in psychomotor performance of children with SpLD on these selected tests.

  11. Evaluation of auditory lateralization ability and its development in normal children with 8 to 11 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yones Lotfi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Auditory lateralization is a binaural phenomenon that is the result of processing of interaural time and intensity cues in the central auditory system. The main advantage of this phenomenon in human is understanding speech in noisy environments due to the auditory sciene analysis and cocktail party effects . The aim of the present study was to assess the auditory lateralization ability in normal children.Methods: Participants were 80 normal school age children (8-11 years of both genders, 42 girls and 38 boys. Lateralization functions were determined by interaural time difference (ITD ranging from -880 to +880 µs and interaural intensity difference (IID ranging from -10 to +10 dB for high-pass and low-pass noise.Results: Interaural intensity difference lateralization functions were linear , while the interaural time difference lateralization functions were S-shaped with a clear linear component from -220 to +220 µs and with an asymptote from -440 to -880 µs and +440 to +880 µs. Generally, interaural intensity difference errors were significantly less than interaural time difference tasks (p<0.0001. Age effect was only present in interaural time difference tasks (p=0.001.Conclusion: According to these results, children with the age of 11 years performed better in lateralization using interaural time difference cues compared to other children; whereas there was no difference in performance in all ages when using interaural intensity difference cues.

  12. Association of Irisin Plasma Levels with Anthropometric Parameters in Children with Underweight, Normal Weight, Overweight, and Obesity

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    Leticia Elizondo-Montemayor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The correlations between irisin levels, physical activity, and anthropometric measurements have been extensively described in adults with considerable controversy, but little evidence about these relationships has been found in children. The objective of this study is to correlate the plasma levels of irisin in underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese children with anthropometric parameters and physical activity levels. A cross-sample of 40 children was divided into the following groups on the basis of body mass index (BMI percentile. The correlations of plasma irisin levels with physical activity, anthropometric, and metabolic measurements were determined. Plasma irisin levels (ng/mL were lower for the underweight group (164.2 ± 5.95 than for the normal weight and obese groups (182.8 ± 5.58; p<0.05. Irisin levels correlated positively with BMI percentile (0.387, waist circumference (0.373, and fat-free mass (0.353; p<0.05, but not with body muscle mass (−0.027. After a multiple linear regression analysis, only BMI percentile (0.564; p<0.008 showed a positive correlation with irisin. Our results indicated no association with metabolic parameters. A negative correlation with physical activity was observed. Interrelationships among body components might influence irisin levels in children.

  13. Crossed and uncrossed acoustic reflex growth functions in normal-hearing adults, typically developing children, and children with suspected auditory processing disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Udit; Allan, Chris; Allen, Prudence

    2015-01-01

    Previous data suggested that children with suspected auditory processing disorders (APD) often show elevated or absent acoustic reflex thresholds, especially in crossed conditions (e.g. Allen & Allan, 2014 ). This study further explored these effects by measuring acoustic reflex growth functions (ARGF). Crossed and uncrossed ARGF slopes were obtained by linear fits between reflex amplitudes and increases in activator level from threshold to 15 dB above it. Normal-hearing adults, typically developing children and children with reported listening difficulties and suspected of having an APD, participated. The ARGF slopes were shallower in crossed than in uncrossed conditions for all groups but the magnitude of the effect was significantly greater in the children with suspected APD. There were no differences between the typically developing children and the adults. The results suggest shallower ARGFs in children with suspected APD. Given the role of the acoustic reflex in facilitating hearing speech in noise these findings may begin to shed light on physiologic explanations for some of the difficulties that are reported by children with suspected APD.

  14. Differences in lifestyle behaviors, dietary habits, and familial factors among normal-weight, overweight, and obese Chinese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaofan; Zheng, Liqiang; Li, Yang; Yu, Shasha; Sun, Guozhe; Yang, Hongmei; Zhou, Xinghu; Zhang, Xingang; Sun, Zhaoqing; Sun, Yingxian

    2012-10-02

    Pediatric obesity has become a global public health problem. Data on the lifestyle behaviors, dietary habits, and familial factors of overweight and obese children and adolescents are limited. The present study aims to compare health-related factors among normal-weight, overweight, and obese Chinese children and adolescents. We conducted a cross-sectional study consisted of 4262 children and adolescents aged 5-18 years old from rural areas of the northeast China. Anthropometric measurements and self-reported information on health-related variables, such as physical activities, sleep duration, dietary habits, family income, and recognition of weight status from the views of both children and parents, were collected by trained personnel. The prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were 15.3 and 6.4%, respectively. Compared to girls, boys were more commonly overweight (17.5% vs. 12.9%) and obese (9.5% vs. 3.1%). Approximately half of the parents with an overweight or obese child reported that they failed to recognize their child's excess weight status, and 65% of patients with an overweight child reported that they would not take measures to decrease their child's body weight. Obese children and adolescents were more likely to be nonsnackers [odds ratio (OR): 1.348; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.039-1.748] and to have a family income of 2000 CNY or more per month (OR: 1.442; 95% CI: 1.045-1.99) and less likely to sleep longer (≥7.5 h) (OR: 0.475; 95% CI: 0.31-0.728) than the normal-weight participants. Our study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in a large Chinese pediatric population. Differences in sleep duration, snacking, family income, and parental recognition of children's weight status among participants in different weight categories were observed, which should be considered when planning prevention and treatment programs for pediatric obesity.

  15. Different effects of adding white noise on cognitive performance of sub-, normal and super-attentive school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helps, Suzannah K; Bamford, Susan; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Söderlund, Göran B W

    2014-01-01

    Noise often has detrimental effects on performance. However, because of the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR), auditory white noise (WN) can alter the "signal to noise" ratio and improve performance. The Moderate Brain Arousal (MBA) model postulates different levels of internal "neural noise" in individuals with different attentional capacities. This in turn determines the particular WN level most beneficial in each individual case-with one level of WN facilitating poor attenders but hindering super-attentive children. The objective of the present study is to find out if added WN affects cognitive performance differently in children that differ in attention ability. Participants were teacher-rated super- (N = 25); normal- (N = 29) and sub-attentive (N = 36) children (aged 8 to 10 years). Two non-executive function (EF) tasks (a verbal episodic recall task and a delayed verbal recognition task) and two EF tasks (a visuo-spatial working memory test and a Go-NoGo task) were performed under three WN levels. The non-WN condition was only used to control for potential differences in background noise in the group testing situations. There were different effects of WN on performance in the three groups-adding moderate WN worsened the performance of super-attentive children for both task types and improved EF performance in sub-attentive children. The normal-attentive children's performance was unaffected by WN exposure. The shift from moderate to high levels of WN had little further effect on performance in any group. The predicted differential effect of WN on performance was confirmed. However, the failure to find evidence for an inverted U function challenges current theories. Alternative explanations are discussed. We propose that WN therapy should be further investigated as a possible non-pharmacological treatment for inattention.

  16. Different effects of adding white noise on cognitive performance of sub-, normal and super-attentive school children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzannah K Helps

    Full Text Available Noise often has detrimental effects on performance. However, because of the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR, auditory white noise (WN can alter the "signal to noise" ratio and improve performance. The Moderate Brain Arousal (MBA model postulates different levels of internal "neural noise" in individuals with different attentional capacities. This in turn determines the particular WN level most beneficial in each individual case-with one level of WN facilitating poor attenders but hindering super-attentive children. The objective of the present study is to find out if added WN affects cognitive performance differently in children that differ in attention ability.Participants were teacher-rated super- (N = 25; normal- (N = 29 and sub-attentive (N = 36 children (aged 8 to 10 years. Two non-executive function (EF tasks (a verbal episodic recall task and a delayed verbal recognition task and two EF tasks (a visuo-spatial working memory test and a Go-NoGo task were performed under three WN levels. The non-WN condition was only used to control for potential differences in background noise in the group testing situations.There were different effects of WN on performance in the three groups-adding moderate WN worsened the performance of super-attentive children for both task types and improved EF performance in sub-attentive children. The normal-attentive children's performance was unaffected by WN exposure. The shift from moderate to high levels of WN had little further effect on performance in any group.The predicted differential effect of WN on performance was confirmed. However, the failure to find evidence for an inverted U function challenges current theories. Alternative explanations are discussed. We propose that WN therapy should be further investigated as a possible non-pharmacological treatment for inattention.

  17. An Investigation of Spatial Hearing in Children with Normal Hearing and with Cochlear Implants and the Impact of Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misurelli, Sara M.

    The ability to analyze an "auditory scene"---that is, to selectively attend to a target source while simultaneously segregating and ignoring distracting information---is one of the most important and complex skills utilized by normal hearing (NH) adults. The NH adult auditory system and brain work rather well to segregate auditory sources in adverse environments. However, for some children and individuals with hearing loss, selectively attending to one source in noisy environments can be extremely challenging. In a normal auditory system, information arriving at each ear is integrated, and thus these binaural cues aid in speech understanding in noise. A growing number of individuals who are deaf now receive cochlear implants (CIs), which supply hearing through electrical stimulation to the auditory nerve. In particular, bilateral cochlear implants (BICIs) are now becoming more prevalent, especially in children. However, because CI sound processing lacks both fine structure cues and coordination between stimulation at the two ears, binaural cues may either be absent or inconsistent. For children with NH and with BiCIs, this difficulty in segregating sources is of particular concern because their learning and development commonly occurs within the context of complex auditory environments. This dissertation intends to explore and understand the ability of children with NH and with BiCIs to function in everyday noisy environments. The goals of this work are to (1) Investigate source segregation abilities in children with NH and with BiCIs; (2) Examine the effect of target-interferer similarity and the benefits of source segregation for children with NH and with BiCIs; (3) Investigate measures of executive function that may predict performance in complex and realistic auditory tasks of source segregation for listeners with NH; and (4) Examine source segregation abilities in NH listeners, from school-age to adults.

  18. Genetics of neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Mohammad Ali; Mottagui-Tabar, Salim; Wahlestedt, Claes

    2004-05-01

    Neurological diseases are defined as an inappropriate function of the peripheral or central nervous system due to impaired electrical impulses throughout the brain and/or nervous system that may present with heterogeneous symptoms according to the parts of the system involved in these pathologic processes. Growing evidence on genetic components of neurological disease have been collected during recent years. Genetic studies have opened the way for understanding the underlying pathology of many neurological disorders. The outcome of current intense research into the genetics of neurological disorders will hopefully be the introduction of new diagnostic tools and the discovery of potential targets for new and more effective medications and preventive measures.

  19. Focal neurological deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or head Electromyogram (EMG), nerve conduction velocities (NCV) MRI of the back, neck, or head Spinal tap Alternative Names Neurological deficits - focal Images Brain References Daroff RB, Jankovic ...

  20. Long term neurological complications of bacterial meningitis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    Long term neurological complications of bacterial meningitis in Nigerian children. Accepted: 11th March 2013. Frank-Briggs AI ... illnesses, a person's memory, mo- tor and cognitive abilities, con- centration, speech, and physique ... follow up prospective study of children with meningitis at the. Paediatric neurology unit of the.

  1. Sound localization, sound lateralization, and binaural masking level differences in young children with normal hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Deun, Lieselot; van Wieringen, Astrid; Van den Bogaert, Tim; Scherf, Fanny; Offeciers, F Erwin; Van de Heyning, Paul H; Desloovere, Christian; Dhooge, Ingeborg J; Deggouj, Naïma; De Raeve, Leo; Wouters, Jan

    2009-04-01

    In this study, procedures for measuring sound localization, sound lateralization, and binaural masking level differences (BMLDs) in young children were developed. Sensitivity for these tasks was assessed in large groups of children between 4 and 9 yr of age to investigate potential developmental trends. Sound localization was measured in the sound field, with a broadband bell-ring presented from one of nine loudspeakers positioned in the frontal horizontal field. A group of 33 children between 4 and 6 yr of age and 5 adults took part in this experiment. Sound lateralization based on interaural time differences was measured with headphones in 49 children between 4 and 9 yr of age and 10 adults. A low-frequency stimulus containing harmonics 2 to 5 from a click train with a rate of 160 Hz was used. In the BMLD test, the same filtered click train was presented diotically or dichotically (phase reversed or time delayed) in a broadband (200 to 1000 Hz) frozen noise to 23 children between 4 and 6 yr of age and 10 adults. For comparison with literature, additional measurements with a 500-Hz sinusoid were administered to adults. All tasks were adapted to the interest and attention span of young children. Children of 5 yr of age did not perform significantly different from adults on the sound localization task, but mean absolute errors were larger for the 4-yr-olds. Also on the BMLD task, 5-yr-old children performed at the adult level, whereas the 4-yr-old children obtained significantly less binaural unmasking compared with the adults. Concerning sound lateralization, a small but significant difference between adults and children existed, but no age effects were apparent in the 4- to 9-yr-old group. Overall, the variation was relatively large in the 4-yr-old group, with some of the children performing at adult level, in all three tasks. The results of this study show that the modified procedures are suitable for testing children from the age of 4 to 5 yr. Furthermore, it

  2. Outcomes From Polyhydramnios With Normal Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yefet, Enav; Daniel-Spiegel, Etty

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the short- and long-term outcomes of children from pregnancies complicated with polyhydramnios, defined as amniotic fluid index (AFI) >24 cm, and with a normal detailed ultrasound examination. This retrospective cohort study examined 134 children aged 4 to 9 years with polyhydramnios and normal detailed ultrasound examination during pregnancy compared with 268 controls with normal AFI and normal detailed ultrasound examination matched for maternal age, year of delivery, gestational week at delivery, and presence or absence of diabetes. The primary outcome was the rate of malformations diagnosed postnatally. Additional outcomes were obstetrics outcomes, genetic syndromes, and neurodevelopment. Polyhydramnios was associated with increased risk for cesarean delivery (CD) and birth weight >90th percentile. This elevation in CD was attributed to increased rate of elective CD due to suspected macrosomia. Polyhydramnios was associated with increased risk for congenital malformations (n = 25 [19%] compared with 27 [10%], respectively; P = .016) without a statistically significant increase in the rate of major malformations (11 [8%] vs. 10 [4%]; P = .057). Genetic syndromes were more prevalent in the polyhydramnios group (5 [3.7%] vs. 2 [0.75%]; P = .043), as were neurologic disorders and developmental delay (9.7% vs. 3%; P = .004). Despite a normal detailed ultrasound examination, polyhydramnios is associated with increased rate of fetal malformations, genetic syndromes, neurologic disorders, and developmental delay, which may be diagnosed only after birth. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. [Application of psychophysics to neurology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Shinichi

    2008-04-01

    Although psychophysics has already been used in many neurological evaluations including the visual and hearing tests, the use of psychophysics has been limited to the evaluation of sensory disorders. In this review paper, however, the author introduced recent attempts to apply psychophysics to the evaluation of higher cognitive functions such as perception of scenes and facial expressions. Psychophysics was also used to measure visual hypersensitivity in a patient with migraine. The benefits of the use of psychophysics in neurological and neuropsychological settings would be as follows. (1) We can evaluate higher cognitive functions quantitatively. (2) We can measure performance both above and below the normal range by the same method. (3) We can use the same stimulus and task as other research areas such as neuroscience and neuroimaging, and compare results between research areas.

  4. Adapting to the new normal- Educating Syrian refugee children in Jordan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Culbertson, S.; Ling, T.; Henham, M.L.; Corbett, J.; Karam, R.; Pankowska, P.K.P.; Saunders, C.L.; Bellasio, J.; Baruch, B.

    2016-01-01

    RAND's evaluation of Jordan's Emergency Education Response Programme for Syrian refugee children identified significant successes and longer-term challenges. Key recommendations related to developing medium-term thinking and targeting gendered needs.

  5. [Neurologic aspects of HIV infections--follow-up of pediatric patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollár, Katalin; Jelenik, Zsuzsanna; Hegelsberger, Edit

    2003-11-20

    Before the widespread introduction of combined antiretroviral therapy (1995) complications from HIV and AIDS in the central nervous system had been reported in larger proportion in infants and children than in adults: 80-90% versus 60-70%. Particular clinical manifestations tend to occur at different stages during the evolution of HIV infection. The authors review the neurological aspects of HIV infection. First, a summary of the protocol of the neurological examinations and related experience is given. Then authors present the evaluation of neuro-psychological development, prevalence of neurological impairment and neuro-imaging of nine HIV infected children (seven boys, two girls) for the period of ten years (1991-2001). Three/ten children had vertically transmitted HIV six/nine were infected by a nosocomial route in their early childhood. Children were regularly followed up from the diagnosis of HIV. The median follow up time has been 79 month (range: 18-144 month). Four patients died during the study period. The neurological status, the motor and mental development were examined at three month intervals or monthly under one year of age. EEG was performed every six month and CT/MRI once a year. All patients received combined antiretroviral treatment and immunoglobulin therapy continuously. Three/nine children have normal development, one/nine has hyperactive and attention deficit disorder with normal IQ range, two/nine have slight, one/nine moderate and two/nine serious mental retardation. Mild neurological signs were found in two children, various moderate and serious neuro/psychological symptoms were found in four patients, one of them was treated with benign epilepsy too. There was also dose correlation between the clinical symptoms and the results of EEG examination (diffuse background slowing) and results of neuroimaging studies (cortical atrophy, calcification of the basal ganglia, toxoplasma abscesses). According to the results of different examinations

  6. COMPARISON OF STRESS LEVELS IN THE PARENTS OF CHILDREN WITH CEREBRAL PALSY AND PARENTS OF NORMAL CHILDREN IN VADODARA REGION OF GUJARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Vivek H. Ramanandi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parenting is inherently stressful at times and several studies have shown that being a caregiver of a child who is disabled is even more stressful. A number of studies have identified the factors which exacerbate or mediate parenting stress in caregivers of children who are disabled. The aim of this study was to assess the parenting stress levels in parents of children who have cerebral palsy as compared to parents of normal children. Further objectives were to ascertain variables predictive of parenting stress levels. Methods: The Gujarati translated version of Parenting Stress Index/Short Form was first validated and was given to 49 parents of children with cerebral palsy (Group-A who were attending Varun Mahajan Apang Shishu Mandal, Vadodara and to the 50 parents of normal children(Group-B. Caregivers also completed a demographic questionnaire. 43 questionnaires from Group-A and 45 from Group-B were returned to the researcher. Means and frequencies were used to summarise the demographic data. T-tests were performed to establish whether there was any significant difference between the parenting stress levels in Group-A and Group-B. Results: The parents in Group-A showed clinically significant, and in many cases, pathological levels of parenting stress as compared to the parents in Group-B. Conclusions: The results of this study confirm that parenting stress is complex matter and it is important to predict the parenting stress levels of caregivers of disabled children. Therapists should evaluate the needs of each family individually and follow a family centred approach when managing children with cerebral palsy.

  7. Circadian rhythms of saliva melatonin in ADHD, anxious and normal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paclt, Ivo; Ptácek, Radek; Kuzelová, Hana; Cermáková, Nikol; Trefilová, Alexandra; Kollárová, Patricie; Cálková, Tereza; Csemy, Ladislav; Cíhal, Libor

    2011-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety disorders are the most frequent psychiatric disorders in children. Changes in rhythms of symptoms during the day may be influenced by genetic, biological and psychological factors. Some changes of melatonin rhythm may hypothetically change the activity of ADHD by changing arousal or in anxiety children by changing their emotional state. In our present study we identify one group of ADHD children combine type without comorbids, one group of anxiety children and a control group. Most changes of melatonin daily rhythm are supposed in the anxiety group, especially in sleeping time, and more prominent change in the ADHD group with prominent hyperactivity and conduct disorder symptoms. Thirty-four ADHD and forty-three control children and eleven anxiety children, all 6-12 years old, participated in the study. The saliva specimens were collected in four different sessions during the school year, around the time of the spring and autumn equinox, when the natural light lasted 11.2 h ± 0.9 h. In our study more symptoms of conduct disorder elevated positive or negative correlations between psychopathology and saliva level of melatonin in ADHD and anxiety samples. We hypothesize that co-morbidity of ADHD or anxiety with impulsivity and conduct disorders might have elevated correlations between psychopathology of ADHD or anxiety and plasma melatonin level.

  8. Assessment of gait in toddlers with normal motor development and in hemiplegic children with mild motor impairment: a validity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla R. P. Figueiredo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The optimization of gait performance is an important goal in the rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy (CP who present a prognosis associated with locomotion. Gait analysis using videos captured by digital cameras requires validation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the validity of a method that involves the analysis of videos captured using a digital camera for quantifying the temporal parameters of gait in toddlers with normal motor development and children with CP. METHOD: Eleven toddlers with normal motor development and eight children with spastic hemiplegia who were able to walk without assistive devices were asked to walk through a space contained in the visual field of two instruments: a digital camera and a three-dimensional motion analysis system, Qualisys Pro-Reflex. The duration of the stance and swing phases of gait and of the entire gait cycle were calculated by analyzing videos captured by a digital camera and compared to those obtained by Qualisys Pro-Reflex, which is considered a highly accurate system. RESULTS: The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC demonstrated excellent agreement (ICC>0.90 between the two procedures for all measurements, except for the swing phase of the normal toddlers (ICC=0.35. The standard error of measurement was less than 0.02 seconds for all measures. CONCLUSIONS: The results reveal similarities between the two instruments, suggesting that digital cameras can be valid instruments for quantifying two temporal parameters of gait. This congruence is of clinical and scientific relevance and validates the use of digital cameras as a resource for helping the assessment and documentation of the therapeutic effects of interventions targeted at the gait of children with CP.

  9. Physical activity during soccer and its contribution to physical activity recommendations in normal weight and overweight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacheck, Jennifer M; Nelson, Tara; Ficker, Laura; Kafka, Tamar; Kuder, Julia; Economos, Christina D

    2011-05-01

    Amid the childhood obesity epidemic, understanding how organized sports participation contributes to meeting physical activity recommendations in children is important. Anthropometrics were measured in children (n = 111; 68% female, 9.1 ± 0.8 yr) before one 50-min soccer match. Time spent at different physical activity intensity levels was examined using Actigraph accelerometers. 49% of the match time was spent in sedentary activity (25.4 ± 5.7 min), while 33% of the match (16.9 ± 4.7 min) was spent in moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA; p < .001). 22.5% of the children were overweight/obese and spent more time in sedentary activity (+3.2 ± 1.2 min; p < .05) and less time in MVPA (-3.0 ± 1.0 min; p < .01) compared with the normal weight children. These data demonstrate that playing an organized sport such as soccer only meets a portion (~25%) of the 60 min of MVPA recommended and even less of this recommendation is met by overweight/obese children.

  10. Functional neurological disorders: imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, V

    2014-10-01

    Functional neurological disorders, also known as conversion disorder, are unexplained neurological symptoms. These symptoms are common and can be associated with significant consequences. This review covers the neuroimaging literature focusing on functional motor symptoms including motor functioning and upstream influences including self-monitoring and internal representations, voluntariness and arousal and trauma. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  11. Neurological Complications of AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the National Library of Medicine’s MedlinePlus Living with HIV/AIDS × What research is being done? The National Institute of Neurological ... the National Library of Medicine’s MedlinePlus Living with HIV/AIDS See More About Research The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke ( ...

  12. Brazilian adaptation of the Functioning after Pediatric Cochlear Implantation (FAPCI: comparison between normal hearing and cochlear implanted children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trissia M.F. Vassoler

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Enabling development of the ability to communicate effectively is the principal objective of cochlear implantation (CI in children. However, objective and effective metrics of communication for cochlear-implanted Brazilian children are lacking . The Functioning after Pediatric Cochlear Implantation (FAPCI, a parent/caregiver reporting instrument developed in the United States, is the first communicative performance scale for evaluation of real-world verbal communicative performance of 2-5-year-old children with cochlear implants. The primary aim was to cross-culturally adapt and validate the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the FAPCI. The secondary aim was to conduct a trial of the adapted Brazilian-Portuguese FAPCI (FAPCI-BP in normal hearing (NH and CI children. METHODS: The American-English FAPCI was translated by a rigorous forward-backward process. The FAPCI-BP was then applied to the parents of children with NH (n = 131 and CI (n = 13, 2-9 years of age. Test-retest reliability was verified. RESULTS: The FAPCI-BP was confirmed to have excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha > 0.90. The CI group had lower FAPCI scores (58.38 ± 22.6 than the NH group (100.38 ± 15.2; p < 0.001, Wilcoxon test. CONCLUSION: The present results indicate that the FAPCI-BP is a reliable instrument. It can be used to evaluate verbal communicative performance in children with and without CI. The FAPCI is currently the only psychometrically-validated instrument that allows such measures in cochlear-implanted children.

  13. Literacy Skills of Children Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Alison; Crosbie, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Most children born preterm are considered neurologically normal and free of disability. However in follow-up studies at school age, preterm children, born without major impairment, have been shown to have lower cognitive abilities and associated academic, social and behavioural difficulties. This study investigated the literacy, phonological…

  14. Sleep disorders in Latin-American children with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and normal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia-Pereira, M; Solé, D; Chong Neto, H J; Acosta, V; Cepeda, A M; Álvarez-Castelló, M; Almendarez, C F; Lozano-Saenz, J; Sisul-Alvariza, J C; Rosario, N A; Castillo, A J; Valentin-Rostan, M; Badellino, H; Castro-Almarales, R L; González-León, M; Sanchez-Silot, C; Avalos, M M; Fernandez, C; Berroa, F; De la Cruz, M M; Sarni, R O S

    Asthma and/or allergic rhinitis have been associated with sleep disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate sleep disorders in Latin-American children (4-10 years) from nine countries, with persistent asthma (A) and/or allergic rhinitis (AR) and in normal controls (C). Parents from 454 C children and 700 A and/or AR children followed up in allergy reference clinics completed the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) which is a retrospective one-week questionnaire composed of 33 questions composed of seven subscales (bedtime resistance, sleep duration, sleep anxiety, night wakings, parasomnias, sleep-diso