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Sample records for neurological dysfunction cognitive

  1. Minor neurological dysfunction and cognition in 9-year-olds born at term

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikkert, Hedwig K; de Jong, Corina; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    BACKGROUND: In children with developmental disorders, motor problems often co-occur with cognitive difficulties. Associations between specific cognitive deficits underlying learning problems and minor neurological dysfunction (MND) are still unknown. AIMS: To assess associations between specific

  2. IS MINOR NEUROLOGICAL DYSFUNCTION AT 12 YEARS RELATED TO BEHAVIOR AND COGNITION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SOORANILUNSING, RJ; HADDERSALGRA, M; OLINGA, AA; HUISJES, HJ; TOUWEN, BCL

    Behavioural and cognitive development at 12 years were studied in 172 children with and 174 children without minor neurological dysfunction (MND). MND could be differentiated into fine manipulative disability, co-ordination problems, hypotonia and choreiform dyskinesia. Fine manipulative disability

  3. Suspecting Neurological Dysfunction From E Mail Messages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A non medical person suspected and confirmed neurological dysfunction in an individual, based only on e mail messages sent by the individual. With email communication becoming rampant “peculiar” email messages may raise the suspicion of neurological dysfunction. Organic pathology explaining the abnormal email ...

  4. Minor neurological dysfunction in children with dyslexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, Marja; De Jong, Marianne; De Groot, Erik; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2010-01-01

    AIM To improve understanding of brain function in children with severe dyslexia in terms of minor neurological dysfunctions (MNDs). METHOD One hundred and four children (81 males, 23 females; age range 7-12y; mean age 9y 7mo, SD 1y 2mo;) with severe dyslexia (the presence of a Full-scale IQ score of

  5. Dysfunctional HCN ion channels in neurological diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo C. DiFrancesco

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN channels are expressed as four different isoforms (HCN1-4 in the heart and in the central and peripheral nervous systems. HCN channels are activated by membrane hyperpolarization at voltages close to resting membrane potentials and carry the hyperpolarization-activated current, dubbed If (funny current in heart and Ih in neurons. HCN channels contribute in several ways to neuronal activity and are responsible for many important cellular functions, including cellular excitability, generation and modulation of rhythmic activity, dendritic integration, transmission of synaptic potentials and plasticity phenomena. Because of their role, defective HCN channels are natural candidates in the search for potential causes of neurological disorders in humans. Several data, including growing evidence that some forms of epilepsy are associated with HCN mutations, support the notion of an involvement of dysfunctional HCN channels in different experimental models of the disease. Additionally, some anti-epileptic drugs are known to modify the activity of the Ih current. HCN channels are widely expressed in the peripheral nervous system and recent evidence has highlighted the importance of the HCN2 isoform in the transmission of pain. HCN channels are also present in the midbrain system, where they finely regulate the activity of dopaminergic neurons, and a potential role of these channels in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease has recently emerged. The function of HCN channels is regulated by specific accessory proteins, which control the correct expression and modulation of the neuronal Ih current. Alteration of these proteins can severely interfere with the physiological channel function, potentially predisposing to pathological conditions. In this review we address the present knowledge of the association between HCN dysfunctions and neurological diseases, including clinical, genetic and

  6. Cognitive dysfunction after cardiovascular surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, K S; Steinmetz, J; Rasmussen, L S

    2009-01-01

    This review describes the incidence, risk factors, and long-term consequences of cognitive dysfunction after cardiovascular surgery. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is increasingly being recognized as an important complication, especially in the elderly. A highly sensitive neuropsychol......This review describes the incidence, risk factors, and long-term consequences of cognitive dysfunction after cardiovascular surgery. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is increasingly being recognized as an important complication, especially in the elderly. A highly sensitive...... neuropsychological test battery must be used to detect POCD and a well-matched control group is very useful for the analysis and interpretation of the test RESULTS: Cardiovascular surgery is associated with a high incidence of POCD. Cardiopulmonary bypass was thought to explain this difference, but randomized...

  7. COGNITIVE DYSFUNCTIONS IN DIABETIC POLYNEUROPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirena Valkova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of our study was to examine cognitive status, short – term memory, delayed recall and the retention of visual information in diabetics with polyneuropathy and to establish the impacts of some risk factors on cognitive performance.Contingent and methods: We assessed 47 diabetic patients with polyneuropathy, using the Mini Mental State Examination, 10 words test, the Benton visual retention test and the Hamilton scale.Results: Global cognitive dysfunction, decline in verbal memory and visual retention and tendency for depressive mood were observed. We found statistically significant interaction of ageing, sex, severity of pain, duration and late onset of diabetes mellitus (DM on cognitive functioning. Therapy association on cognition was not found.Conclusions: Our study confirms the hypothesis of global cognitive dysfunction, associated with diabetic polyneuropathy. The interactions of sex and pain severity require further study. We arise a hypothesis of asymmetrical brain injury in diabetics.

  8. Neurological condition assessed with the Hempel examination and cognition and behaviour at 4 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schendelaar, Pamela; Seggers, Jorien; Heineman, Maas Jan; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    Aim: To investigate associations between neurological condition, assessed with the Hempel examination, in terms of minor neurological dysfunction (MND) and neurological optimality, and cognition and behaviour at 4 years. Study design: Cross-sectional analyses within a prospective, assessor-blinded

  9. COGNITIVE DYSFUNCTION IN DEPRESSION

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, I.; Singh, P.; Agnihotri, S.S.

    1984-01-01

    SUMMARY Thirty patients of primary depression were assessed for their cognitive functions initially in the depressed state and on complete recovery. The results indicate presence of definite cognitive impairment during the depressed state (as measured by the Bhatia's Battery test and PGI memory scale) which is restored to normal after recovery from depression. The intensity of depression as indicated by the Hamilton Rating Scale for depression was directly related to the degree of cognitive i...

  10. Microvascular Dysfunction and Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, T. Michael; Faraci, Frank M.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of vascular risk factors on cognitive function has garnered much interest in recent years. The appropriate distribution of oxygen, glucose and other nutrients by the cerebral vasculature is critical for proper cognitive performance. The cerebral microvasculature is a key site of vascular resistance and a preferential target for small vessel disease. While deleterious effects of vascular risk factors on microvascular function are known, the contribution of this dysfunction to cognitive deficits is less clear. In this review, we summarize current evidence for microvascular dysfunction in brain. We highlight effects of select vascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes and hyperhomocysteinemia) on the pial and parenchymal circulation. Lastly, we discuss potential links between microvascular disease and cognitive function, highlighting current gaps in our understanding. PMID:26988697

  11. Ambulatory anaesthesia and cognitive dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lars S; Steinmetz, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    , sleep deprivation, unfamiliar surroundings, and medication errors. Enhanced recovery programmes (fast-track regimens) may allow earlier discharge which is probably beneficial for the elderly. Frailty is becoming an increasingly important concept that needs to be clinically considered in elderly patients...... anaesthesia in the outpatient setting. Cognitive complications such as delirium and postoperative cognitive dysfunction are less frequent in ambulatory surgery than with hospitalization. SUMMARY: The elderly are especially susceptible to adverse effects of the hospital environment such as immobilisation...

  12. Cognitive dysfunction in pediatric multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suppiej A

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Agnese Suppiej,1 Elisa Cainelli1,2 1Child Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, Pediatric University Hospital, Padua, Italy; 2Lifespan Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory (LCNL, Department of General Psychology, University of Padua, Italy Abstract: Cognitive and neuropsychological impairments are well documented in adult ­multiple sclerosis (MS. Research has only recently focused on cognitive disabilities in pediatric cases, highlighting some differences between pediatric and adult cases. Impairments in several functions have been reported in children, particularly in relation to attention, processing speed, visual–motor skills, and language. Language seems to be particularly vulnerable in pediatric MS, unlike in adults in whom it is usually preserved. Deficits in executive functions, which are considered MS-specific in adults, have been inconsistently reported in children. In children, as compared to adults, the relationship between cognitive dysfunctions and the two other main symptoms of MS, fatigue and psychiatric disorders, was poorly explored. Furthermore, data on the correlations of cognitive impairments with clinical and neuroimaging features are scarce in children, and the results are often incongruent; interestingly, involvement of corpus callosum and reduced thalamic volume differentiated patients identified as having a cognitive impairment from those without a cognitive impairment. Further studies about pediatric MS are needed in order to better understand the impact of the disease on brain development and the resulting effect on cognitive functions, particularly with respect to different therapeutic strategies. Keywords: central nervous system, child, deficit, IQ, inflammatory demyelination, neuropsychological

  13. Cognitive Dysfunction in Fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Tulay Koca

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The primary symptom of fibromyalgia is widespread pain with muscle tenderness to light palpation. Howeover many patients report a wide range of symptoms including pain, dyscognition, sleep disturbances, fatigue and mood disorders (frequently depression. Such symptoms seem to be related to one another. Besides, a decrease in concentration and memory disorder has recognised as an independent symptom yet; added into literature under the terms and lsquo;dyscognition' and and lsquo;fibrofog'. Recently clinicians interested in investigations about dyscognition in fibromyalgia syndrome. Cognitive symptoms may be exacerbated by the presence of depression, anxiety, sleep dysorders, endocrine disregulations and pain; but the relationship is unclear. Additionally some of recent studies suggest that insulin resistance may represent a risk factor for memory impairment in these patients. There is lack of standardized tests, treatment methods and studies for understanding pathophysiologic pathways of cognitive problems (memory, concentration in fibromyalgia.

  14. Minor neurological dysfunction in children with autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, Marianne; Punt, Marja; De Groot, Erik; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    Aim The aim of this study was to improve the understanding of brain function in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in relation to minor neurological dysfunctions (MNDs). Method We studied MNDs in 122 children (93 males, 29 females; mean age 8y 1mo, SD 2y 6mo) who, among a total cohort of

  15. COGNITIVE DYSFUNCTION IN PATIENTS WITH ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Yeremina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG is one of the most effective methods of surgical treatment of ischemic heart disease (IHD. However, even improvement of life quality is evident in patients underwent CABG, some neuropsychological, cognitive alterations may appear. Therefore, the problem of neurological complications in cardiac surgery is still of current interest. Prevalence of cognitive dysfunction after CABG varies from 12 to 79%. One third of the patients have alterations of cognitive functions for 1 year and more after the operation. In this review, we will discuss the current understandings on etiology, pathogenesis and prevalence of cognitive dysfunction in patients with IHD after CABG. The following factors determine development of long-lasting cognitive deficiency: lower educational level, advanced age, significant alterations of cognitive functions in preoperative period. At present, age, comorbid pathology (arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, vascular diseases, lung diseases, heart fai­lure, alcohol and drug abuse, preoperative cognitive dysfunction are considered as major risk factors for CABG-induced neurological complications. Importance of timely diagnostics and early beginning of treatment of cognitive dysfunction will be discussed.

  16. Peri-operative cognitive dysfunction and protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinmetz, J; Rasmussen, L S

    2016-01-01

    factors, the predominant one being age. Ignorance of the causes for postoperative cognitive dysfunction contributes to the difficulty of conducting interventional studies. Postoperative cognitive disorders are associated with increased mortality and permanent disability. Peri-operative interventions can...... reduce the rate of delirium in the elderly, but in spite of promising findings in animal experiments, no intervention reduces postoperative cognitive dysfunction in humans....

  17. Male sexual dysfunction and infertility associated with neurological disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Krogh-Jespersen, Sheila; Brackett, Nancy L

    2012-01-01

    always require assisted reproductive techniques including intrauterine insemination or in vitro fertilization with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection. The method of choice depends largely on the number of motile sperm in the ejaculate.Asian Journal of Andrology advance online publication, 5...... is managed by medications to reverse the condition in mild cases and in bladder harvest of semen after ejaculation in more severe cases. Anejaculation might also be managed by medication in mild cases while assisted ejaculatory techniques including penile vibratory stimulation and electroejaculation are used......Normal sexual and reproductive functions depend largely on neurological mechanisms. Neurological defects in men can cause infertility through erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction and semen abnormalities. Among the major conditions contributing to these symptoms are pelvic...

  18. Psychopathy: cognitive and neural dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Blair, R. James

    2013-01-01

    Psychopathy is a developmental disorder marked by emotional deficits and an increased risk for antisocial behavior. It is not equivalent to the diagnosis Antisocial Personality Disorder, which concentrates only on the increased risk for antisocial behavior and not a specific cause—ie, the reduced empathy and guilt that constitutes the emotional deficit. The current review considers data from adults with psychopathy with respect to the main cognitive accounts of the disorder that stress either a primary attention deficit or a primary emotion deficit. In addition, the current review considers data regarding the neurobiology of this disorder. Dysfunction within the amygdala's role in reinforcement learning and the role of ventromedial frontal cortex in the representation of reinforcement value is stressed. Data is also presented indicating potential difficulties within parts of temporal and posterior cingulate cortex. Suggestions are made with respect to why these deficits lead to the development of the disorder. PMID:24174892

  19. Male sexual dysfunction and infertility associated with neurological disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fode, Mikkel; Krogh-Jespersen, Sheila; Brackett, Nancy L; Ohl, Dana A; Lynne, Charles M; Sønksen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Normal sexual and reproductive functions depend largely on neurological mechanisms. Neurological defects in men can cause infertility through erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction and semen abnormalities. Among the major conditions contributing to these symptoms are pelvic and retroperitoneal surgery, diabetes, congenital spinal abnormalities, multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury. Erectile dysfunction can be managed by an increasingly invasive range of treatments including medications, injection therapy and the surgical insertion of a penile implant. Retrograde ejaculation is managed by medications to reverse the condition in mild cases and in bladder harvest of semen after ejaculation in more severe cases. Anejaculation might also be managed by medication in mild cases while assisted ejaculatory techniques including penile vibratory stimulation and electroejaculation are used in more severe cases. If these measures fail, surgical sperm retrieval can be attempted. Ejaculation with penile vibratory stimulation can be done by some spinal cord injured men and their partners at home, followed by in-home insemination if circumstances and sperm quality are adequate. The other options always require assisted reproductive techniques including intrauterine insemination or in vitro fertilization with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection. The method of choice depends largely on the number of motile sperm in the ejaculate. PMID:22138899

  20. Minor neurological dysfunction from birth to 12 years. II : Puberty is related to decreased dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lunsing, R J; Hadders-Algra, M; Huisjes, H J; Touwen, B C

    1992-01-01

    To determine whether puberty is related to decreased minor neurological dysfunction (MND), 174 children from the Groningen Perinatal Project who had had MND at nine years were re-examined at 12 years. No signs of MND could be demonstrated in 39 of the children, 33 of whom showed at least three signs

  1. MINOR NEUROLOGICAL DYSFUNCTION FROM BIRTH TO 12 YEARS .2. PUBERTY IS RELATED TO DECREASED DYSFUNCTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LUNSING, RJ; HADDERSALGRA, M; HUISJES, HJ; TOUWEN, BCL

    To determine whether puberty is related to decreased minor neurological dysfunction (MND), 174 children from the Groningen Perinatal Project who had had MND at nine years were re-examined at 12 years. No signs of MND could be demonstrated in 39 of the children, 33 of whom showed at least three signs

  2. Screening for cognitive dysfunction in unipolar depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Caroline Vintergaard; Bjertrup, Anne Juul; Jensen, Johan Høy

    2016-01-01

    with the executive skills domain only (r =-0.3, p=0.05). LIMITATIONS: A modest sample size. CONCLUSIONS: The SCIP-D and COBRA are valid measures of objective and subjective cognitive impairment, respectively, and should ideally be implemented together in the screening for cognitive dysfunction in UD.......BACKGROUND: Persistent cognitive dysfunction in unipolar depression (UD) contributes to socio-occupational impairment, but there are no feasible methods to screen for and monitor cognitive dysfunction in this patient group. The present study investigated the validity of two new instruments...... to screen for cognitive dysfunction in UD, and their associations with socio-occupational capacity. METHOD: Participants (n=53) with UD in partial or full remission and healthy control persons (n=103) were assessed with two new screening instruments, the Danish translations of the Screen for Cognitive...

  3. Behavioural and psychiatric symptoms in cognitive neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles Bayón, A; Gude Sampedro, F

    2017-03-01

    Behavioural and psychiatric symptoms (BPS) are frequent in neurological patients, contribute to disability, and decrease quality of life. We recorded BPS prevalence and type, as well as any associations with specific diagnoses, brain regions, and treatments, in consecutive outpatients examined in a cognitive neurology clinic. A retrospective analysis of 843 consecutive patients was performed, including a review of BPS, diagnosis, sensory impairment, lesion topography (neuroimaging), and treatment. The total sample was considered, and the cognitive impairment (CI) group (n=607) was compared to the non-CI group. BPS was present in 59.9% of the patients (61.3% in the CI group, 56.4% in the non-CI group). One BPS was present in 31.1%, two in 17.4%, and three or more in 11.4%. BPS, especially depression and anxiety, are more frequent in women than in men. Psychotic and behavioural symptoms predominate in subjects aged 65 and older, and anxiety in those younger than 65. Psychotic symptoms appear more often in patients with sensory impairment. Psychotic and behavioural symptoms are more prevalent in patients with degenerative dementia; depression and anxiety in those who suffer a psychiatric disease or adverse effects of substances; emotional lability in individuals with a metabolic or hormonal disorder; hypochondria in those with a pain syndrome; and irritability in subjects with chronic hypoxia. Behavioural symptoms are more frequent in patients with anomalies in the frontal or right temporal or parietal lobes, and antipsychotics constitute the first line of treatment. Leaving standard treatments aside, associations were observed between dysthymia and opioid analgesics, betahistine and statins, and between psychotic symptoms and levodopa, piracetam, and vasodilators. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Neurological condition assessed with the Hempel examination and cognition and behaviour at 4years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schendelaar, Pamela; Seggers, Jorien; Heineman, Maas Jan; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2017-09-01

    To investigate associations between neurological condition, assessed with the Hempel examination, in terms of minor neurological dysfunction (MND) and neurological optimality, and cognition and behaviour at 4years. Cross-sectional analyses within a prospective, assessor-blinded follow-up study. Four-year-old singletons born to subfertile parents (n=235; 120 boys). Outcome parameters were complex minor neurological dysfunction (complex MND) and the neurological optimality score (NOS). Cognitive outcome was evaluated with the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, resulting in a total intelligence quotient (IQ). Behavioural outcome was evaluated with the Child Behavior Checklist, resulting in a total problem T-score. Fifty-seven (24.3%) children had complex MND. None of the children showed fine motor dysfunction, suggesting a ceiling effect of the Hempel assessment. Complex MND was not correlated with IQ or total problem T-score. Nevertheless, a higher NOS was correlated with a higher IQ and a lower total problem T-score (adjusted mean estimate [95% confidence interval]: cognition: 0.445 [0.026; 0.865], p=0.038; behaviour: -0.458 [-0.830; -0.087], p=0.016). At age 4, complex MND assessed with the Hempel assessment was not associated with cognition and behaviour, presumably due to a ceiling effect in the Hempel domain of fine motor function. A more optimal neurological condition was associated with higher IQ and better behaviour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Kidney dysfunction and cerebral microbleeds in neurologically healthy adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hyuck Kim

    Full Text Available Cerebral microbleed (CMB is a potent risk factor for overt cerebrovascular disease. Although some studies indicated the possible role of renal dysfunction as a risk factor of CMB, the findings could not be generalized. This study aimed to investigate the association between renal dysfunction and cerebral microbleed (CMB in neurologically healthy adults.A total of 2,518 subjects who underwent brain MRI as part of health screening were involved in the study. CMBs were defined as well-demarcated focal areas of low signal intensity with associated blooming on the T2-weighted MRI measuring less than 5mm in diameter. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR was estimated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. Kidney function was classified as normal (≥90, mild (60 to 89.9, moderate (30 to 59.9, and severe (<30 mL/min/1.73 m2 renal dysfunction according to the GFR.The mean age of the participants was 57.5 ± 8.3 years (ranged 40 to 79, and 1,367 subjects (54.3% were male. The mean GFR level was 81.5 ± 15.5, and the prevalence of CMB was 4.1% (n = 103. Subjects with CMB demonstrated a higher proportion of moderate-to-severe renal dysfunction than those without CMB (15.5% vs. 5.0%, p < 0.001. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, moderate-to-severe renal dysfunction showed a significant association with CMB (adjusted odd ratio = 2.63; p = 0.008. Furthermore, a decrease in the GFR level was associated with an increasing trend of the presence of CMB (p for trend = 0.031 and number of CMB lesions (p for trend = 0.003.Renal dysfunction was significantly associated with the presence of CMB in neurologically healthy adults. More studies are needed to evaluate if treatment of kidney disease and risk factor modification may prevent further progress of CMB.

  6. Editorial cognition, neurology, psychiatry: golden triangle or bermuda triangle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, A D

    1996-08-01

    Cognitive neuropsychiatry occupies the comparatively neglected research region that lies between neurology, psychiatry, and cognitive psychology. Reasons for this neglect are discussed, together with arguments as to why it may be timely to focus on this intellectual no man's land.

  7. Effects of poverty on cognitive function: a hidden neurologic epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Donna C

    2008-08-05

    Mental retardation is one of the most prevalent neurologic disorders globally. Surveys in high-income countries show 3 to 5 per 1,000 with severe intellectual disability, i.e., IQ below 55. Estimates from developing countries, however, have found prevalence rates from 5 to as much as 22 per 1,000. Protein-energy malnutrition, dietary micronutrient deficiencies, environmental toxins, and lack of early sensory stimulation or the ability to profit from it may contribute to neurodevelopmental disabilities. Tropical diseases such as parasitosis with resultant anemia, malaria, and other infections are major contributory causes. Reduction of poverty and its effects would reduce the present and future burden of mental retardation and cognitive dysfunction, especially in developing countries.

  8. Cognitive dysfunction and hepatitis C virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Solinas, Antonio; Piras, Maria Rita; Deplano, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a distinct form of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). In fact, the majority of HCV-positive patients, irrespective of the grading of liver fibrosis, display alterations of verbal learning, attention, executive function, and memory when they are evaluated by suitable neuropsychological tests. Similarities between the cognitive dysfunction of HCV patients and MHE of patients with different etiologies are uncl...

  9. The assessment of minor neurological dysfunction in infancy using the Touwen Infant Neurological Examination : strengths and limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Heineman, Kirsten R.; Bos, Arend F.; Middelburg, Karin J.

    Aim Little is known of minor neurological dysfunction (MND) in infancy. This study aimed to evaluate the inter-assessor reliability of the assessment of MND with the Touwen Infant Neurological Examination (TINE) and the construct and predictive validity of MND in infancy. Method Inter-assessor

  10. Methodological issues of postoperative cognitive dysfunction research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Kamilia S; Steinmetz, Jacob; Rasmussen, Lars S

    2010-01-01

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a subtle impairment of memory, concentration, and speed of information processing. It is a frequent complication following surgery and can have a debilitating effect on patients' recovery and future prognosis. Neuropsychological testing is needed...... to reveal postoperative cognitive decline, and questionnaires are not useful for this purpose. There is a profound lack of consensus regarding the research methodology for detection of cognitive deterioration, especially the diagnostic criteria. Issues, such as baseline performance, learning effects...

  11. Erectile Dysfunction in Individuals with Neurologic Disability: A Hospital-based Cross-sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatore Calabrò, Rocco; Gervasi, Giuseppe; Naro, Antonino; De Luca, Rosaria; Marullo, Michelangelo; Bramanti, Placido

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Neurogenic erectile dysfunction can be broadly defined as an inability to sustain or maintain a penile erection due to neurologic impairment. Sexual problems can occur due to any lesion affecting the central and peripheral nervous system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and causes of erectile dysfunction in a group of hospital inpatients suffering from neurologic disorders.

  12. Cognitive dysfunction and hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solinas, Antonio; Piras, Maria Rita; Deplano, Angelo

    2015-05-08

    Cognitive dysfunction in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a distinct form of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). In fact, the majority of HCV-positive patients, irrespective of the grading of liver fibrosis, display alterations of verbal learning, attention, executive function, and memory when they are evaluated by suitable neuropsychological tests. Similarities between the cognitive dysfunction of HCV patients and MHE of patients with different etiologies are unclear. It is also unknown how the metabolic alterations of advanced liver diseases interact with the HCV-induced cognitive dysfunction, and whether these alterations are reversed by antiviral therapies. HCV replication in the brain may play a role in the pathogenesis of neuroinflammation. HCV-related brain dysfunction may be associated with white matter neuronal loss, alterations of association tracts and perfusion. It is unclear to what extent, in patients with cirrhosis, HCV triggers an irreversible neurodegenerative brain damage. New insights on this issue will be provided by longitudinal studies using the protocols established by the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders fifth edition for cognitive disorders. The domains to be evaluated are complex attention; executive functions; learning and memory; perceptual motor functions; social cognition. These evaluations should be associated with fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocols for major cognitive disorders including magnetic resonance spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging, magnetic resonance perfusion, and functional MRI. Also, the characteristics of portal hypertension, including the extent of liver blood flow and the type of portal shunts, should be evaluated.

  13. Aura and Other Neurologic Dysfunction in or with Migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissoon, Narayan R; Cutrer, Fred Michael

    2017-07-01

    Migraine can present with a wide range of neurological symptoms. Based on currently available data, the symptoms of typical migraine aura are most likely related to cortical spreading depression (CSD), and evidence supports that CSD can lead to trigeminovascular activation resulting in the headache phase of migraine. An alternative diagnosis to migraine aura should be considered if migrainous headaches present with transient neurological symptoms that have features inconsistent with aura. © 2017 American Headache Society.

  14. [Music therapy for dementia and higher cognitive dysfunction: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Masayuki

    2011-12-01

    Music is known to affect the human mind and body. Music therapy utilizes the effects of music for medical purposes. The history of music therapy is quite long, but only limited evidence supports its usefulness in the treatment of higher cognitive dysfunction. As for dementia, some studies conclude that music therapy is effective for preventing cognitive deterioration and the occurrence of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). In patients receiving music therapy for the treatment of higher cognitive dysfunction, aphasia was reported as the most common symptom. Many studies have been conducted to determine whether singing can improve aphasic symptoms: singing familiar and/or unfamiliar songs did not show any positive effect on aphasia. Melodic intonation therapy (MIT) is a method that utilizes melody and rhythm to improve speech output. MIT is a method that is known to have positive effects on aphasic patients. Some studies of music therapy for patients with unilateral spatial neglect; apraxia; hemiparesis; and walking disturbances, including parkinsonian gait, are available in the literature. Studies showed that the symptoms of unilateral spatial neglect and hemiparesis significantly improved when musical instruments were played for several months as a part of the music therapy. Here, I describe my study in which mental singing showed a positive effect on parkinsonian gait. Music is interesting, and every patient can go through training without any pain. Future studies need to be conducted to establish evidence of the positive effects of music therapy on neurological and neuropsychological symptoms.

  15. Biomarkers of postoperative delirium and cognitive dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganna eAndrosova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Elderly surgical patients frequently experience postoperative delirium (POD and the subsequent development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD. Clinical features include deterioration in cognition, disturbance in attention and reduced awareness of the environment and result in higher morbidity, mortality and greater utilization of social financial assistance. The aging Western societies can expect an increase in the incidence of POD and POCD. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms have been studied on the molecular level albeit with unsatisfying small research efforts given their societal burden. Here, we review the known physiological and immunological changes and genetic risk factors, identify candidates for further studies and integrate the information into a draft network for exploration on a systems level. The pathogenesis of these postoperative cognitive impairments is multifactorial; application of integrated systems biology has the potential to reconstruct the underlying network of molecular mechanisms and help in the identification of prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers.

  16. The cognitive neurology of the vestibular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemungal, Barry M

    2014-02-01

    The aim is to reappraise the current state about what we know of vestibular cognition. The review focuses on cognition and perception, and hence the stress on human studies. In addition, the cerebral cortex is the main but not exclusive brain region of interest. There is a brief mention of vestibular ocular function if only to demonstrate the differential processing between reflex and perception. The effect of vestibular activation on some aspects of cognition, for example neglect, is not reviewed, as there have been no recent landmark findings in this area. The vestibular cerebellum is pivotal in the differential gating of vestibular perceptual and ocular signals to the cerebral cortex. The neuroanatomical correlates mediating vestibular sensations of self-motion ('am I moving?') and spatial orientation ('where am I now?') are distinct. Vestibular-motion perception is supported by a widespread white matter network. Vestibular activation specifically reduces visual motion cortical excitability, whereas other visual cortical regions show an increase in excitability. As the vestibular ocular reflex (VOR) and self-motion perception can be uncoupled both behaviourally and in neural correlate, deficits underlying vestibular patients' symptoms may not be revealed by simple VOR assessment. Given the pivotal cerebellar role in gating vestibular signals to perceptual regions, modulating mechanisms of cerebellar plasticity, for example by combining training with medication or brain stimulation, may prove fruitful in treating the symptoms of chronic dizzy patients.

  17. Methylmalonate Induces Inflammatory and Apoptotic Potential: A Link to Glial Activation and Neurological Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbi, Patricia; Ribeiro, Leandro Rodrigo; Jessié Martins, Gutierres; Cardoso, Alexandra Seide; Haupental, Fernanda; Rodrigues, Fernanda Silva; Machado, Alencar Kolinski; Sperotto Brum, Juliana; Medeiros Frescura Duarte, M M; Schetinger, Maria Rosa Chitolina; da Cruz, Ivana Beatrice Mânica; Flávia Furian, Ana; Oliveira, Mauro Schneider; Dos Santos, Adair Roberto Soares; Royes, Luiz Fernando Freire; Fighera, Michele Rechia; de Freitas, Mayara Lutchemeyer

    2017-03-01

    Methylmalonic acid (MMA) accumulates in tissues in methylmalonic acidemia, a heterogeneous group of inherited childhood diseases characterized by neurological dysfunction, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation; it is associated with degeneration of striatal neurons and cerebral cortical atrophy. It is presently unknown, however, whether transient exposure to MMA in the neonatal period is sufficient to trigger inflammatory and apoptotic processes that lead to brain structural damage. Here, newborn mice were given a single intracerebroventricular dose of MMA at 12 hours after birth. Maze testing of 21- and 40-day-old mice showed that MMA-injected animals exhibited deficit in the working memory test but not in the reference test. MMA-injected mice showed increased levels of the reactive oxygen species marker 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1β, caspases 1, 3, and 8, and increased acetylcholinesterase activity in the cortex, hippocampus and striatum. This was associated with increased astrocyte and microglial immunoreactivity in all brain regions. These findings suggest that transient exposure to MMA may alter the redox state and cause neuroinflammatory/apoptotic processes and glial activation during critical periods of brain development. Similar processes may underlie brain dysfunction and cognitive impairment in patients with methylmalonic acidemia. © 2017 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cognitive dysfunction and work productivity in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Marci; DiBenedetti, Dana; Perez, Vanessa

    2016-08-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is strongly associated with poor work-related outcomes. Cognitive dysfunction is prevalent in MDD, and research supports a correlation between greater depression severity and more pronounced cognitive deficits, which frequently persist after remission. Given the prevalence of cognitive dysfunction, and the humanistic and economic impact of occupational impairments in individuals with MDD, the relationship between cognitive dysfunction in MDD and work-related outcomes requires characterization. A selective review of the literature was conducted to better understand and further highlight this relationship. Expert commentary: Although current evidence is limited, MDD-related cognitive dysfunction may have a direct negative impact on work productivity. Presenteeism is the key outcome impacted by cognitive deficits in MDD. Additional well-designed prospective observational research may clarify how cognitive dysfunction influences the MDD-work productivity relationship. Use of reliable, valid, and sensitive measures of cognitive functioning and work productivity in MDD is warranted.

  19. Disconnection as a Mechanism for Cognitive Dysfunction in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dineen, R. A.; Vilisaar, J.; Hlinka, J.; Bradshaw, C. M.; Morgan, P. S.; Constantinescu, C. S.; Auer, D. P.

    2009-01-01

    Disconnection of cognitively important processing regions by injury to the interconnecting white matter provides a potential mechanism for cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis. The contribution of tract-specific white matter injury to dysfunction in different cognitive domains in patients with multiple sclerosis has not previously been…

  20. Acute cognitive dysfunction after hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bitsch, M S; Foss, N B; Kristensen, B B

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing hip fracture surgery often experience acute post-operative cognitive dysfunction (APOCD). The pathogenesis of APOCD is probably multifactorial, and no single intervention has been successful in its prevention. No studies have investigated the incidence of APOCD after...... hip fracture surgery in an optimized, multimodal, peri-operative rehabilitation regimen. METHODS: One hundred unselected hip fracture patients treated in a well-defined, optimized, multimodal, peri-operative rehabilitation regimen were included. Patients were tested upon admission and on the second...... without a concomitant medical complication, the only risk factors were cognitive level and regular anti-psychotic treatment. CONCLUSION: On the basis of current evidence, APOCD is prevalent amongst hip fracture patients despite multimodal intervention; future research should therefore focus on defining...

  1. Cognitive behavioral therapy for cancer-related cognitive dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucherer, Shelly; Ferguson, Robert J

    2017-03-01

    To provide the reader with an overview of the cognitive-behavioral conceptualization of cancer-related cognitive dysfunction (CRCD) and how cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) can play an important role in treatment. Recent findings show that Memory and Attention Adaptation Training (MAAT), a CBT developed to help cancer survivors develop adaptive skills to improve daily cognitive performance and emotional coping, may be an efficacious treatment of CRCD and can be delivered through videoconference technology to improve survivor access to care. The etiology of CRCD remains largely undetermined and likely is produced by multiple mechanisms. This can include neuronal death, microvascular damage, inflammatory processes, and psychological factors of perceptions of inadequate cognitive capacity to meet performance demands and related emotional distress. As a result, there are a variety of treatments currently being researched. More research with larger sample sizes, multiple clinicians and multiple sites are needed to confirm efficacy, but CBT approaches such as Memory and Attention Adaptation Training that address multiple psychological factors involved may offer a flexible nonpharmacological approach to CRCD that optimizes quality of life outcomes.

  2. The Cognitive Roles of Dysfunctional Attitudes And Automatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Cognitive Roles of Dysfunctional Attitudes And Automatic Thoughts In Depression: A Study Of African-American College Students. ... This study examined the diathesis- stress model of Beck's cognitive theory of depression. This model postulates that dysfunctional attitudes will interact with negative life events in the ...

  3. Cognitive-Behavioral Erectile Dysfunction Treatment for Gay Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Trevor A.; Schwartz, Danielle R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to assist cognitive-behavioral therapists who are treating erectile dysfunction among gay men. Little information is available to cognitive-behavioral therapists about the psychological and social effects of erectile dysfunction in this population, or how to incorporate the concerns of gay men with erectile…

  4. MINOR NEUROLOGICAL DYSFUNCTION AFTER THE ONSET OF PUBERTY - ASSOCIATION WITH PERINATAL EVENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SOORANILUNSING, RJ; HADDERSALGRA, M; HUISJES, HJ; TOUWEN, BCL

    In order to study the hypotheses that puberty is related to a decrease of minor neurological dysfunction (MND) and that persisting MND is associated with perinatal factors, two groups (174 normal, 172 MND) of the Groningen Perinatal Project were followed from 12 to 14 years. At 14 years almost all

  5. Specific postural support promotes variation in motor behaviour of infants with minor neurological dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf-Peters, Victorine B.; De Groot-Hornstra, Agnes H.; Dirks, Tineke; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of specific postural support on motor behaviour of infants with and without minor neurological dysfunction (MND). The following questions were addressed: (1) Does application of supportive pillows affect the time during which the infant exhibits general movements

  6. NEUROLOGICAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN 9-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN FED BREAST-MILK OR FORMULA-MILK AS BABIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LANTING, CI; FIDLER, [No Value; HUISMAN, M; TOUWEN, BCL; BOERSMA, ER

    1994-01-01

    The presence of minor neurological dysfunction is associated with behavioural and cognitive development at school age. We have previously shown a relation between minor neurological dysfunction and perinatal disorders, especially abnormal neonatal neurological condition. We have now investigated the

  7. Recent developments in Canine Cognitive Dysfunction Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Seisdedos Benzal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Canine Cognitive Dysfunction Syndrome (CCD is a neurodegenerative disease affecting aging dogs. CCD is an underdiagnosed disease that involves at least 14% of geriatric dogs, but apparently less than 2% of diseased dogs are diagnosed. There are several physiopathological similarities between Alzheimer disease (AD and CCD, developing amyloid-β deposits in brain parenchyma and blood vessels, brain atrophy and neuronal loss. The clinical signs lead to behavioural changes. They are unspecific and could appear as soon as seven years of age, but are more relevant in senior dogs. The abnormal behaviour could be classified following the acronym DISHA: Disorientation in the immediate environment; altered Interactions with humans and other animals; Sleep-wake cycle disturbances; House-soiling; and changes in Activity levels. There is no specific diagnostic test or biomarker to demonstrate the presence of CCD; therefore, it is often assessed by ruling out other diseases that may cause similar behavioural changes. Veterinarians have to be able to make an accurate account of veterinary history asking for abnormal behaviour that could be misreported by the owners. CCD is a neurodegenerative disorder that cannot be cured. It is possible to delay the progression of the clinical signs and improve the quality of life of patients, but like in AD, the progression of the illness will depend on the individual. There are three treatment pathways, which could be used in combination: drug therapy to improve cognition and reduce anxiety, antioxidant diet and nutraceutical supplements to reduce the progression of the illness, and finally, environmental enrichment to maintain brain activity. The aim of this review article is to contribute to the knowledge of the illness, presenting recent advances in the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of the disease

  8. Staging neurological disorders: expressions of cognitive and motor disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Trevor; Kostrzewa, Richard M

    2010-08-01

    In neurologic disorders, there are progressive losses in regional brain structural integrity, circuitry, and neuronal process that threaten individuals' ability to express functional capacity at several levels of severity. The classification of (a) patients on the basis of diagnosis, risk prognosis, and intervention outcome forms the basis of clinical staging and (b) laboratory animals on the basis of animal model of brain disorder, extent of insult and dysfunctional expression, provides the components for the clinical staging and preclinical staging, respectively, of the disease state with certain associated epidemiological, biological, and genetic characteristics. The investigation of epigenetics and biomarkers is intrinsic to any analysis of the progressive nature of the neurogenerative disorders, in the present account disorders relating to Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, depression, and diabetes.

  9. Duration of cognitive dysfunction after concussion, and cognitive dysfunction as a risk factor: a population study of young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teasdale, T W; Engberg, A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish how long cognitive dysfunction lasts after concussion, and the extent to which it may be a predisposing risk factor for concussion, by examining the prevalence of cognitive dysfunction among young men who have sustained concussion. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING......: Denmark. SUBJECTS: 1220 young men who had been admitted to hospital for concussion between the ages of 16 and 24 (identified in a national register of admissions) and who had also been cognitively tested by the Danish conscription draft board. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Score on the draft board's cognitive......, the rate of dysfunctional scores was higher (30.4% (158/520)). Apart from suggesting cognitive dysfunction as a risk factor for concussion, this higher proportion seems to relate to the fact that they were typically injured as young adults, whereas those men who were tested after concussion had more often...

  10. Neurological, nutritional and alcohol consumption factors underlie cognitive and motor deficits in chronic alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fama, Rosemary; Le Berre, Anne-Pascale; Hardcastle, Cheshire; Sassoon, Stephanie A; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V; Zahr, Natalie M

    2017-12-15

    Variations in pattern and extent of cognitive and motor impairment occur in alcoholism (ALC). Causes of such heterogeneity are elusive and inconsistently accounted for by demographic or alcohol consumption differences. We examined neurological and nutritional factors as possible contributors to heterogeneity in impairment. Participants with ALC (n = 96) and a normal comparison group (n = 41) were examined on six cognitive and motor domains. Signs of historically determined subclinical Wernicke's encephalopathy were detected using the Caine et al. criteria, which were based on postmortem examination and chart review of antemortem data of alcoholic cases with postmortem evidence for Wernicke's encephalopathy. Herein, four Caine criteria provided quantification of dietary deficiency, cerebellar dysfunction, low general cognitive functioning and oculomotor abnormalities in 86 of the 96 ALC participants. Subgroups based on Caine criteria yielded a graded effect, where those meeting more criteria exhibited greater impairment than those meeting no to fewer criteria. These results could not be accounted for by history of drug dependence. Multiple regression indicated that compromised performance on ataxia, indicative of cerebellar dysfunction, predicted non-mnemonic and upper motor deficits, whereas low whole blood thiamine level, consistent with limbic circuit dysfunction, predicted mnemonic deficits. This double dissociation indicates biological markers that contribute to heterogeneity in expression of functional impairment in ALC. That non-mnemonic and mnemonic deficits are subserved by the dissociable neural systems of frontocerebellar and limbic circuitry, both commonly disrupted in ALC, suggests neural mechanisms that can differentially affect selective functions, thereby contributing to heterogeneity in pattern and extent of dysfunction in ALC. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. In Vitro Identification and Characterization of a Virus Isolated from a Dog with Neurological Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Baumgärtner, Wolfgang K.; Metzler, Alfred E.; Krakowka, Steven; Koestner, Adalbert

    1981-01-01

    A virus, 78-238, isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid of a dog with neurological dysfunction, was characterized as a paramyxovirus. This conclusion was supported by viral cytopathic effects and morphological appearance of virions and nucleocapsids in infected cells. Nucleocapsids were found in the cytoplasm of all infected cells and in the nuclei of 0.001% of these cells. Growth curves revealed that a high percentage (≥76%) of infectious progeny virus was cell released. Persistent infection ...

  12. Delirium is associated with early postoperative cognitive dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolph, J.L.; Marcantonio, E.R.; Culley, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to determine if postoperative delirium was associated with early postoperative cognitive dysfunction (at 7 days) and long-term postoperative cognitive dysfunction (at 3 months). The International Study of Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction recruited 1218 subjects...... >or= 60 years old undergoing elective, non-cardiac surgery. Postoperatively, subjects were evaluated for delirium using the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Subjects underwent neuropsychological testing pre-operatively and postoperatively at 7 days (n = 1018) and 3 months (n = 946......). Postoperative cognitive dysfunction was defined as a composite Z-score > 2 across tests or at least two individual test Z-scores > 2. Subjects with delirium were significantly less likely to participate in postoperative testing. Delirium was associated with an increased incidence of early postoperative...

  13. Risk factors for canine cognitive dysfunction syndrome in Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Katina, Stanislav; Farbakova, Jana; Madari, Aladar; Novak, Michal; Zilka, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasing prevalence of cognitive impairment in an aging canine population poses a serious health problem. Identifying risk factors, which may influence the onset of cognitive decline, is becoming increasingly important. Here we investigated whether age, sex, weight, nutrition, dogs? housing and reproductive state were associated with increased risk of canine cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CCDS) in Slovakia. Results Age was associated with cognitive decline and nutrition emerged ...

  14. Targeting the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor pathway to treat cognitive dysfunction associated with Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Roesler

    Full Text Available Abstract Increasing evidence indicates that bombesin (BB-like peptides (BLPs, such as the gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP and its receptor (GRPR, might play a role in neurological and psychiatric disorders. The present study reviews findings from animal and human studies suggesting that the GRPR should be considered a target for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD. Abnormalities in GRPR-triggered signaling have been described in both fibroblasts from patients with AD, and in transgenic mouse models of AD. Pharmacological and genetic preclinical studies have indicated that BLPs and the GRPR are importantly involved in regulating cognitive function. Moreover, drugs acting at the GRPR have been shown to enhance memory and ameliorate cognitive dysfunction in experimental models of amnesia associated with AD. Taken together, these findings support the view that the GRPR is a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of memory deficits associated with AD.

  15. Cognitive dysfunction in depression - pathophysiology and novel targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, Andre F; Miskowiak, Kamilla Woznica; Hyphantis, Thomas N

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with cognitive dysfunction encompassing several domains, including memory, executive function, processing speed and attention. Cognitive deficits persist in a significant proportion of patients even in remission, compromising psychosocial functioning......, inflammation (e.g., enhanced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines), mitochondrial dysfunction, increased apoptosis as well as a diminished neurotrophic support. Several promising neurotherapeutic targets were identified such as minocycline, statins, anti-inflammatory compounds, N-acetylcysteine, omega-3...

  16. Effects of cognitive remediation on cognitive dysfunction in partially or fully remitted patients with bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Kirsa M; Almer, Glennie Marie; Vinberg, Maj

    2013-01-01

    A large proportion of patients with bipolar disorder experience persistent cognitive dysfunction, such as memory, attention and planning difficulties, even during periods of full remission. The aim of this trial is to investigate whether cognitive remediation, a new psychological treatment...

  17. Blood Brain Barrier Dysfunction and Delayed Neurological Deficits in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Induced by Blast Shock Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok K Shetty

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI resulting from exposure to blast shock waves (BSWs is one of the most predominant causes of illnesses among veterans who served in the recent Iraq and Afghanistan wars. Such mTBI can also happen to civilians if exposed to shock waves of bomb attacks by terrorists. While cognitive problems, memory dysfunction, depression, anxiety and diffuse white matter injury have been observed at both early and/or delayed time-points, an initial brain pathology resulting from exposure to BSWs appears to be the dysfunction or disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB. Studies in animal models suggest that exposure to relatively milder BSWs (123 kPa initially induces free radical generating enzymes in and around brain capillaries, which enhances oxidative stress resulting in loss of tight junction proteins, edema formation, and leakiness of BBB with disruption or loss of its components pericytes and astrocyte end-feet. On the other hand, exposure to more intense BSWs (145-323 kPa causes acute disruption of the BBB with vascular lesions in the brain. Both of these scenarios lead to apoptosis of endothelial and neural cells and neuroinflammation in and around capillaries, which may progress into chronic traumatic encephalopathy and/or a variety of neurological impairments, depending on brain regions that are afflicted with such lesions. This review discusses studies that examined alterations in the brain milieu causing dysfunction or disruption of the BBB and neuroinflammation following exposure to different intensities of BSWs. Furthermore, potential of early intervention strategies capable of easing oxidative stress, repairing the BBB or blocking inflammation for minimizing delayed neurological deficits resulting from exposure to BSWs is conferred.

  18. Blood brain barrier dysfunction and delayed neurological deficits in mild traumatic brain injury induced by blast shock waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Ashok K; Mishra, Vikas; Kodali, Maheedhar; Hattiangady, Bharathi

    2014-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) resulting from exposure to blast shock waves (BSWs) is one of the most predominant causes of illnesses among veterans who served in the recent Iraq and Afghanistan wars. Such mTBI can also happen to civilians if exposed to shock waves of bomb attacks by terrorists. While cognitive problems, memory dysfunction, depression, anxiety and diffuse white matter injury have been observed at both early and/or delayed time-points, an initial brain pathology resulting from exposure to BSWs appears to be the dysfunction or disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Studies in animal models suggest that exposure to relatively milder BSWs (123 kPa) initially induces free radical generating enzymes in and around brain capillaries, which enhances oxidative stress resulting in loss of tight junction (TJ) proteins, edema formation, and leakiness of BBB with disruption or loss of its components pericytes and astrocyte end-feet. On the other hand, exposure to more intense BSWs (145-323 kPa) causes acute disruption of the BBB with vascular lesions in the brain. Both of these scenarios lead to apoptosis of endothelial and neural cells and neuroinflammation in and around capillaries, which may progress into chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) and/or a variety of neurological impairments, depending on brain regions that are afflicted with such lesions. This review discusses studies that examined alterations in the brain milieu causing dysfunction or disruption of the BBB and neuroinflammation following exposure to different intensities of BSWs. Furthermore, potential of early intervention strategies capable of easing oxidative stress, repairing the BBB or blocking inflammation for minimizing delayed neurological deficits resulting from exposure to BSWs is conferred.

  19. Does mild cognitive impairment increase the risk of developing postoperative cognitive dysfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, Alex; Lee, Cynthia; de Santi, Susan; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Zaslavsky, Alexander; Farber, Sonya; Haile, Michael; de Leon, Mony J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Increasingly, postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is recognized as a complication after surgery in the elderly. We sought to determine whether patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) would have an accelerated progression of dementia postoperatively when compared with the patients without MCI. METHODS The Center for Brain Health at the New York University (NYU) Medical Center maintains records of volunteers who undergo a series of neurological assessments. We reviewed records of 670 patients who received at least 2 evaluations and whose surgery occurred before the second assessment. Longitudinal differences of several cognitive domains were examined. RESULTS Individuals with MCI and surgery had a greater decline in performance on the Digit Span Forward test compared with those with MCI without surgery on their postoperative evaluation (F3,158 = 3.12, P = .03). No performance changes were detected in the normal subjects. CONCLUSION These preliminary findings suggest that surgery negatively impacts attention/concentration in patients with MCI but not in normal individuals. This is the first study that identified a specific subgroup of patients who are predisposed to POCD. PMID:20609722

  20. Depth of anaesthesia and post-operative cognitive dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinmetz, J; Funder, K S; Dahl, B T

    2010-01-01

    A deep level of anaesthesia measured by the bispectral index has been found to improve processing speed as one aspect of cognitive function after surgery. The purpose of the present study was to assess the possible effect of the level of anaesthesia on post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) 1...

  1. Neuroanatomical Substrates of Social Cognition Dysfunction in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelphrey, Kevin; Adolphs, Ralph; Morris, James P.

    2004-01-01

    In this review article, we summarize recent progress toward understanding the neural structures and circuitry underlying dysfunctional social cognition in autism. We review selected studies from the growing literature that has used the functional neuroimaging techniques of cognitive neuroscience to map out the neuroanatomical substrates of social…

  2. Cognitive dysfunction in major depression and bipolar disorder: Assessment and treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacQueen, Glenda M; Memedovich, Katherine A

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is a recognized feature of mood disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Cognitive impairment is associated with poor overall functional outcome and is therefore an important feature of illness to optimize for patients' occupational and academic outcomes. While generally people with BD appear to have a greater degree of cognitive impairment than those with MDD, direct comparisons of both patient groups within a single study are lacking. There are a number of methods for the assessment of cognitive function, but few are currently used in clinical practice. Current symptoms, past course of illness, clinical features, such as the presence of psychosis and comorbid conditions, may all influence cognitive function in mood disorders. Despite the general lack of assessment of cognitive function in clinical practice, clinicians are increasingly targeting cognitive symptoms as part of comprehensive treatment strategies. Novel pharmacological agents may improve cognitive function, but most studies of standard mood stabilizers, such as lithium and the anticonvulsants, have focused on whether or not the medications impair cognition. Non-pharmacological strategies, such as cognitive remediation and exercise, are increasingly studied in patients with mood disorders. Despite the growing interest in strategies to manage cognitive function, there is a paucity of high-quality trials examining either pharmacological or non-pharmacological modes of intervention. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  3. ROLANDIC EPILEPSY OF CHILDHOOD: CORRECTION OF COGNITIVE DYSFUNCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Balkanskaya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dedicated to the problem of cognitive dysfunctions in pediatric patients with rolandic epilepsy (benign partial epilepsy of childhood. Russian nootropic drug pantoham (hopantenic acid was used for correction of cognitive deficit. Quantitative data obtained via psihomat testing computer system were utilised for verification of principle cognitive functions before and after treatment with hopantenic acid in school age patients undergoing basic antiepileptic therapy. Positive effect of the drug on studied cognitive functions' indices was demonstrated.Key words: children, epilepsy, cognitive functions, hopantenic acid.

  4. Minor neurological dysfunction and behaviour in 9-year-old children born at term : evidence for sex dimorphism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikkert, Hedwig K.; de Jong, Corina; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2013-01-01

    Aim The aim of the study was to assess associations between minor neurological dysfunction (MND) and behaviour, with specific attention to sex differences. MethodThis was an observational cohort study in which 341 9-year-old children (177 male, 164 female) without perinatal risk were neurologically

  5. Cognitive and noncognitive neurological features of young-onset dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Brendan J; Boeve, Bradley F; Josephs, Keith A

    2009-01-01

    The rarity of young-onset dementia (YOD), the broad differential diagnosis and unusual clinical presentations present unique challenges to correctly recognize the condition and establish an accurate diagnosis. Limited data exist regarding clinical features associated with dementia prior to the age of 45. We retrospectively assessed cognitive and noncognitive neurological characteristics of 235 patients who presented for evaluation of YOD to investigate the clinical characteristics of YOD compared to later-onset dementias and to identify clinical features associated with specific etiologies that may aid in the evaluation of YOD. Multiple cognitive domains were affected in most patients, and no significant differences in affected domains existed between groups. Early psychiatric and behavioral features occurred at very high frequencies. Nearly 80% of this YOD cohort had additional noncognitive symptoms or signs as a feature of their disease. Chorea was strongly associated with Huntington disease. Parkinsonism was not seen in patients having an autoimmune/inflammatory etiology. The rarity of YOD and the high frequency of early psychiatric features led to frequent misdiagnosis early in the clinical course. The high frequency of noncognitive symptoms and signs may aid clinicians in distinguishing patients requiring a more extensive evaluation for YOD.

  6. Cerebral white matter lesions and subjective cognitive dysfunction - The Rotterdam Scan Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, J.C.; de Leeuw, FE; Oudkerk, M; Hofman, A; Jolles, J; Breteler, MMB

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationship between cerebral white matter lesions (WML) and subjective cognitive dysfunction. Background: Subjective cognitive dysfunction is present when a person perceives failures of cognitive function. When annoying enough, these failures will be expressed as

  7. DAMPAK DEFISIENSI IODIUM MATERNAL PADA PERSISTENSI DISFUNGSI NEUROPSIKOLOGIS ANAK USIA 12 TAHUN (EFFECT OF MATERNAL IODINE DEFICIENCY ON THE PERSISTENCE OF NEUROLOGICAL DYSFUNCTIONS IN CHILDREN AGED 12 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basuki Budiman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Study on the last effect of neuropsychologic dysfunction due to iodine deficiency during gestation is still scarce. This study is to confirm the persistence of neuropsychological dysfunctions at 12-year-old of children born from pregnant mothers with iodine deficiency in endemic iodine deficient area. The study is 13-year-cohort design. Iodine status (Total T4, TSH and UIE of pregnant mothers at initial study, neonatal (TSH and 12 year-old iodine status (fT4, TSH are performed. Neurological dysfunction of infants is examined every 6 weeks until the child age is 24 months. Neuropsychological dysfunction of children 12 years of age such as minimal brain dysfunction and psychological battery of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC are also administered. A screening to determine case and reference using is done using mini mental status examination (MMSE. Score MMSE of 28 or less are implemented as cases while others as reference. The relationship of neurological and cognitive dysfunction with both maternal iodine status and neurological dysfunction at 2 months of neonates age are elaborated. The persistency risk of neurological dysfunction at 12 years of age is 8% (95%ci: 1-15%. Maternal and neonatal iodine status (as indicated by TSH, T4 are the risk factors for the persistency at 12-years. However, delays of neurological development in two-month old infants are found as directly risk factors. Median Total IQ score for all participants are far lower than the lowest limit of normal range. A very significant difference (p=0.000 are found in Total IQ score between cases and references. Discrepancy analysis of IQV-IQP indicates brain lesions in subtle form, such as diadokhokinesis, praxis, memory, distractibility and lowered IQ score. Neuropsychological dysfunctions due maternal iodine deficiency are still persistence at 12 years. Maternal T4 during gestation is not only influences on the persistency but also impaires directly on the

  8. Progressive neurologic dysfunction in a psoriasis patient treated with dimethyl fumarate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Thorsten; Rempe, Torge; Wrede, Arne; Leypoldt, Frank; Brück, Wolfgang; Adams, Ortwin; Rohr, Axel; Jansen, Olav; Wüthrich, Christian; Deuschl, Günther; Koralnik, Igor J

    2015-10-01

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) has recently been described in psoriasis or multiple sclerosis patients treated with fumaric acid esters (fumarates), who had developed severe and long-standing lymphocytopenia (psoriasis patient who presented with progressive neurologic dysfunction and seizures after 2.5 years of fumarate therapy. Despite absolute lymphocyte counts remaining between 500-1000/mm(3) , his CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell counts were markedly low. MRI showed right hemispheric and brainstem lesions and JC virus DNA was undetectable in his cerebrospinal fluid. Brain biopsy revealed typical features of PML as well as JC virus-infected neurons. Clinicians should consider PML in the differential diagnosis of fumarate-treated patients presenting with brain lesions or seizures even in the absence of severe lymphocytopenia. © 2015 American Neurological Association.

  9. ASSESSMENT OF COGNITIVE DYSFUNCTIONS IN ESSENTIAL HYPERTENSIVES- A CROSSSECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunkumar C

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Arterial hypertension and blood pressure level are associated with cognitive impairment. Susceptible people, especially cerebral ischaemia are having more severe cognitive impairment. Elevated blood pressure for long term contributes to cognitive impairment in later life. The aim of this study is to determine the cognitive dysfunctions in essential hypertensives. MATERIALS AND METHODS It was a descriptive cross-sectional study that was conducted among 300 subjects who were diagnosed as essential hypertensives were chosen by simple random sampling from the inpatient and outpatient facility of Department of Medicine, Father Muller’s Medical College. The socio-demographic data of hypertensives was collected on a semi-structured proforma. Patients were assessed for cognitive dysfunctions using the Standardised Mini Mental Status Examination (SMMSE and Brief Cognitive Rating Scale (BCRS. Data was analysed using SPSS 18 software. RESULTS Mean age group of patients was 51.67 years, majority of the patients were males and were urban domicile. Majority of patients had primary level of education. Majority of patients had positive relation between cognitive deficiency and their hypertensive status was measured using Standardised Mini Mental Status Examination (SMMSE and Brief Cognitive Rating Scale (BCRS. CONCLUSION The study showed that there are significant cognitive deficits in hypertensives. SMMSE (Standardised Mini Mental Status Examination and BCRS (Brief Cognitive Rating Scales were used to measure Cognitive deficits, which were very closely related to hypertension.

  10. Methodological issues of postoperative cognitive dysfunction research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Kamilia S; Steinmetz, Jacob; Rasmussen, Lars S

    2010-01-01

    to reveal postoperative cognitive decline, and questionnaires are not useful for this purpose. There is a profound lack of consensus regarding the research methodology for detection of cognitive deterioration, especially the diagnostic criteria. Issues, such as baseline performance, learning effects......, and the interval between test sessions, also influence test results and must be considered when designing and interpreting POCD data....

  11. Cognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortolato, Beatrice; Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Köhler, Cristiano A

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is a core feature of schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD). A neurocognitive profile characterized by widespread cognitive deficits across multiple domains in the context of substantial intellectual impairment, which appears to antedate illness onset, is a replicated...... studies. Meta-analytic techniques may offer an opportunity to synthesize findings and to control for potential sources of heterogeneity. Here, we performed a systematic review of meta-analyses of neuropsychological findings in SZ and BD. While there is no conclusive evidence for progressive cognitive...... deterioration in either SZ or BD, some findings point to more severe cognitive deficits in patients with early illness onset across both disorders. A compromised pattern of cognitive functioning in individuals at familiar and/or clinical risk to psychosis as well as in first-degree relatives of BD patients...

  12. Brain disease, connectivity, plasticity and cognitive therapy: A neurological view of mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubrini, G; Martín-Montes, A; Díez-Ascaso, O; Díez-Tejedor, E

    2017-04-25

    Our conception of the mind-brain relationship has evolved from the traditional idea of dualism to current evidence that mental functions result from brain activity. This paradigm shift, combined with recent advances in neuroimaging, has led to a novel definition of brain functioning in terms of structural and functional connectivity. The purpose of this literature review is to describe the relationship between connectivity, brain lesions, cerebral plasticity, and functional recovery. Assuming that brain function results from the organisation of the entire brain in networks, brain dysfunction would be a consequence of altered brain network connectivity. According to this approach, cognitive and behavioural impairment following brain damage result from disrupted functional organisation of brain networks. However, the dynamic and versatile nature of these circuits makes recovering brain function possible. Cerebral plasticity allows for functional reorganisation leading to recovery, whether spontaneous or resulting from cognitive therapy, after brain disease. Current knowledge of brain connectivity and cerebral plasticity provides new insights into normal brain functioning, the mechanisms of brain damage, and functional recovery, which in turn serve as the foundations of cognitive therapy. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Cognitive dysfunction in children with sleep-disordered breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Luciane Bizari Coin; Prado, Lucila F; Silva, Luciana; de Almeida, Marilaine Medeiros; Almeida e Silva, Tatiana; Lora, Mayra Ivanoff; Prado, Gilmar F

    2005-05-01

    Two daily school periods are mandatory in Brazil owing to a shortage of academic facilities, which can decrease cognitive performance, especially in children with sleep-disordered breathing. This study aimed to verify the influence of starting time to school on cognition, comparing children with sleep disorders and normal children. Cognition was assessed in 79 children with sleep-disordered breathing, 468 children with nonrespiratory sleep disorders, and 633 normal control children. We analyzed total sleep time, starting time to school (morning or afternoon), and grades. First grade morning students with sleep-disordered breathing had 8.04 higher odds for cognitive dysfunction than normal children. For children with sleep-disordered breathing, second and third grade morning students had higher odds for cognitive dysfunction than those who studied in the afternoon (3.69 and 4.07). Fourth grade morning students had 8.27 higher odds for cognitive dysfunction than first grade children. In conclusion, sleep-disordered breathing, grades, and starting time to school interact to affect cognition in Brazilian children.

  14. Cognitive reactivity versus dysfunctional cognitions and the prediction of relapse in recurrent major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figueroa, Caroline A.; Ruhe, Henricus G.; Koeter, Maarten W.; Spinhoven, Philip; Van der Does, Willem; Bockting, Claudi L.; Schene, Aart H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a burdensome disease that has a high risk of relapse/recurrence. Cognitive reactivity appears to be a risk factor for relapse. It remains unclear, however, whether dysfunctional cognitions alone or the reactivity of such cognitions to mild states of

  15. Human recombinant erythropoietin reduces sensorimotor dysfunction and cognitive impairment in rat models of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza-Zaldívar, E E; Sandoval-Avila, S; Gutiérrez-Mercado, Y K; Vázquez-Méndez, E; Canales-Aguirre, A A; Esquivel-Solís, H; Gómez-Pinedo, U; Márquez-Aguirre, A L

    2017-11-10

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) can cause anaemia and neurological disorders. Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) is used to manage anaemia in CKD. However, there is little evidence on the effects of rHuEPO on behaviour and cognitive function in CKD. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of rHuEPO in sensorimotor and cognitive functions in a CKD model. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: control and CKD, with and without rHuEPO treatment (1050 IU per kg body weight, once weekly for 4 weeks). The Morris water maze, open field, and adhesive removal tests were performed simultaneously to kidney damage induction and treatment. Markers of anaemia and renal function were measured at the end of the study. Treatment with rHuEPO reduced kidney damage and corrected anaemia in rats with CKD. We observed reduced sensorimotor dysfunction in animals with CKD and treated with rHuEPO. These rats also completed the water maze test in a shorter time than the control groups. rHuEPO reduces kidney damage, corrects anemia, and reduces sensorimotor and cognitive dysfunction in animals with CKD. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Amantadine to Treat Cognitive Dysfunction in Moderate to Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmaschuk, Stephanie; Will, Mary Colleen; Meyers, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of injury, disability, and death in the United States. Amantadine is an established dopamine agonist that supports neurological function. The purpose of this literature review was to determine whether amantadine improves cognitive function post-TBI. PubMed and CINAHL were used to search the literature for articles using amantadine to treat TBI from 1994 to 2004. Outcomes were summarized and the evidence was appraised. Although earlier studies from 1994 to 2003 were lower-level studies and recommended further research on treatment of cognitive dysfunction in TBI, the literature from 2004 to present generally concluded that amantadine improved cognitive function related to arousal, memory, and aggression. It can be started days to months postinjury and still produces benefits.

  17. Pathogenesis of irradiation-induced cognitive dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abayomi, O.K. [Howard Univ. Hospital, Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    1996-12-31

    Neurocognitive dysfunction is a common sequela of cranial irradiation that is especially severe in young children. The underlying mechanisms of this disorder have not been described. The present review describes the role of the hippocampus and the anatomically related cortex in memory function and its marked susceptibility to ischemic and hypoxic injury. Based on studies of animal models of human amnesia and histopathological findings in the irradiated brain, the neurocognitive sequela of cranial irradiation can be seen to be mediated through vascular injury, resulting in ischemia and hypoxia in the hippocampal region. Recognition of the site and mechanisms of this injury may lead to the development of techniques to minimize the risks. (orig.).

  18. Relationship of mechanical impact magnitude to neurologic dysfunction severity in a rat traumatic brain injury model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Hsun Hsieh

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a major brain injury type commonly caused by traffic accidents, falls, violence, or sports injuries. To obtain mechanistic insights about TBI, experimental animal models such as weight-drop-induced TBI in rats have been developed to mimic closed-head injury in humans. However, the relationship between the mechanical impact level and neurological severity following weight-drop-induced TBI remains uncertain. In this study, we comprehensively investigated the relationship between physical impact and graded severity at various weight-drop heights.The acceleration, impact force, and displacement during the impact were accurately measured using an accelerometer, a pressure sensor, and a high-speed camera, respectively. In addition, the longitudinal changes in neurological deficits and balance function were investigated at 1, 4, and 7 days post TBI lesion. The inflammatory expression markers tested by Western blot analysis, including glial fibrillary acidic protein, beta-amyloid precursor protein, and bone marrow tyrosine kinase gene in chromosome X, in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and corpus callosum were investigated at 1 and 7 days post-lesion.Gradations in impact pressure produced progressive degrees of injury severity in the neurological score and balance function. Western blot analysis demonstrated that all inflammatory expression markers were increased at 1 and 7 days post-impact injury when compared to the sham control rats. The severity of neurologic dysfunction and induction in inflammatory markers strongly correlated with the graded mechanical impact levels.We conclude that the weight-drop-induced TBI model can produce graded brain injury and induction of neurobehavioral deficits and may have translational relevance to developing therapeutic strategies for TBI.

  19. Cognitive Visual Dysfunctions in Preterm Children with Periventricular Leukomalacia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzi, Elisa; Bova, Stefania; Giovenzana, Alessia; Signorini, Sabrina; Uggetti, Carla; Bianchi, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Cognitive visual dysfunctions (CVDs) reflect an impairment of the capacity to process visual information. The question of whether CVDs might be classifiable according to the nature and distribution of the underlying brain damage is an intriguing one in child neuropsychology. Method: We studied 22 children born preterm (12 males, 10 females;…

  20. Olfactory perception, cognition, and dysfunction in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Richard J

    2013-05-01

    The main functions of olfaction relate to finding food, avoiding predators and disease, and social communication. Its role in detecting food has resulted in a unique dual mode sensory system. Environmental odorants are 'smelled' via the external nostrils, while volatile chemicals in food-detected by the same receptors-arrive via the nasopharynx, contributing to flavor. This arrangement allows the brain to link the consequences of eating with a food's odor, and then later to use this information in the search for food. Recognizing an odorant-a food, mate, or predator-requires the detection of complex chemical blends against a noisy chemical background. The brain solves this problem in two ways. First, by rapid adaptation to background odorants so that new odorants stand out. Second, by pattern matching the neural representation of an odorant to prior olfactory experiences. This account is consistent with olfactory sensory physiology, anatomy, and psychology. Odor perception, and its products, may be subject to further processing-olfactory cognition. While olfactory cognition has features in common with visual or auditory cognition, several aspects are unique, and even those that are common may be instantiated in different ways. These differences can be productively used to evaluate the generality of models of cognition and consciousness. Finally, the olfactory system can breakdown, and this may be predictive of the onset of neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's, as well as having prognostic value in other disorders such as schizophrenia. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:273-284. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1224 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Is postoperative cognitive dysfunction a risk factor for dementia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinmetz, J; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Kessing, L V

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: /st>Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a common complication in elderly patients after major surgery. An association between POCD and the development of dementia has been suspected. In this study, we assessed if POCD was a risk factor for the occurrence of dementia. METHODS......: /st>Danish patients enrolled between November 1994 and October 2000 in the two International Studies of Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction (ISPOCD 1 and 2) were followed until July 1, 2011. Cognitive performance was assessed at three time points: before operation, at 1 week, and 3 months after...... developed dementia during follow-up. The hazard ratio (95% CI) for any dementia diagnoses in patients with POCD at 1 week (n=118) and POCD at 3 months (n=57) after surgery compared with those without POCD was 1.16 (0.48-2.78), P=0.74, and 1.50 (0.51-4.44); P=0.47, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: /st...

  2. Cardiovascular disease and cognitive dysfunction in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Sara G; Yazdany, Jinoos; Kaiser, Rachel; Criswell, Lindsey A; Trupin, Laura; Yelin, Edward H; Katz, Patricia P; Julian, Laura J

    2012-09-01

    Cognitive dysfunction and cardiovascular disease are common and debilitating manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In this study, we evaluated the relationship between cardiovascular events, traditional cardiovascular risk factors, and SLE-specific risk factors as predictors of cognitive dysfunction in a large cohort of participants with SLE. Subjects included 694 participants from the Lupus Outcomes Study (LOS), a longitudinal study of SLE outcomes based on an annual telephone survey querying demographic and clinical variables. The Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised and the Controlled Oral Word Association Test were administered to assess cognitive function. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke), traditional cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, obesity, smoking), and SLE-specific risk factors (antiphospholipid antibodies [aPL], disease activity, disease duration) associated with cognitive impairment in year 7 of the LOS. The prevalence of cognitive impairment as measured by verbal memory and verbal fluency metrics was 15%. In adjusted multiple logistic regression analyses, aPL (odds ratio [OR] 2.10, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.3-3.41), hypertension (OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.19-3.56), and a history of stroke (OR 2.27, 95% CI 1.16-4.43) were significantly associated with cognitive dysfunction. In additional analyses evaluating the association between these predictors and severity of cognitive impairment, stroke was significantly more prevalent in participants with severe impairment when compared to those with mild or moderate impairment (P = 0.036). These results suggest that the presence of aPL, hypertension, and stroke are key variables associated with cognitive impairment, which may aid in identification of patients at greatest risk. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  3. Neuropsychological dysfunction and neuroimaging abnormalities in neurologically intact adults with sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichinsky, Elliott P; Neumayr, Lynne D; Gold, Jeffrey I; Weiner, Michael W; Rule, Randall R; Truran, Diana; Kasten, Jeffrey; Eggleston, Barry; Kesler, Karen; McMahon, Lillian; Orringer, Eugene P; Harrington, Thomas; Kalinyak, Karen; De Castro, Laura M; Kutlar, Abdullah; Rutherford, Cynthia J; Johnson, Cage; Bessman, Joel David; Jordan, Lanetta B; Armstrong, F Daniel

    2010-05-12

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a chronic illness causing progressive deterioration in quality of life. Brain dysfunction may be the most important and least studied problem affecting individuals with this disease. To measure neurocognitive dysfunction in neurologically asymptomatic adults with SCA vs healthy control individuals. Cross-sectional study comparing neuropsychological function and neuroimaging findings in neurologically asymptomatic adults with SCA and controls from 12 SCA centers, conducted between December 2004 and May 2008. Participants were patients with SCA (hemoglobin [Hb] SS and hemoglobin level aged 19 to 55 years and of African descent (n = 149) or community controls (Hb AA and normal hemoglobin level) (n = 47). Participants were stratified on age, sex, and education. The primary outcome measure was nonverbal function assessed by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, third edition (WAIS-III) Performance IQ Index. Secondary exploratory outcomes included performance on neurocognitive tests of executive function, memory, attention, and language and magnetic resonance imaging measurement of total intracranial and hippocampal volume, cortical gray and white matter, and lacunae. The mean WAIS-III Performance IQ score of patients with SCA was significantly lower than that of controls (adjusted mean, 86.69 for patients with SCA vs 95.19 for controls [mean difference, -5.50; 95% confidence interval {CI}, -9.55 to -1.44]; P = .008), with 33% performing more than 1 SD (full-scale IQ) (90.47 for patients with SCA vs 95.66 for controls [mean difference, -5.19; 95% CI, -9.24 to -1.13]; P = .01), working memory (90.75 vs 95.25 [mean difference, -4.50; 95% CI, -8.55 to -0.45]; P = .03), processing speed (86.50 vs 97.95 [mean difference, -11.46; 95% CI, -15.51 to -7.40]; P age.

  4. Sleep and cognitive dysfunctions. Therapeutic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Poluektov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the possible mechanisms of sleep disorders in patients with cognitive impairment (CI of different severity. The interrelation between CI, emotional disorders and insomnia, as well as the dependence of CI severity on the degree of sleep disorders, are discussed. The issues related to treatment of sleep disorders in patients with CI, the advantages and disadvantages of modern somnogenic medications are studied. Recommendations on management of patients with a combination of sleep disorders and CI are provided. Data on the use of Egb 761 to treat CI no dementia and melatonin-based drugs to treat sleep disorders in patients with CI are presented. 

  5. Post Operative Cognitive Dysfunction (POCD in Geriatric Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh MC

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Post-operative mental dysfunction and confusion in aged patients is a well recognized entity. Commonly known as post-operative delirium and cognitive dysfunction (POCD, these are important for any peri-operative physician dealing with geriatric population. The incidence is more in older patients with pre-existing impairment. Impact of POCD is grave. This can result in poor rehabilitation outcome and increased hospital stay. Incidence ranges from 15-50% with ˂5% for cataract surgery and as high as 60% after hip replacement procedures.

  6. Dysfunctional cognitions, anxiety and depression in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijssen, Annemieke Y; Jonkers, Dorothea M A E; Leue, Carsten; van der Veek, Patrick P J; Vidakovic-Vukic, Michelle; van Rood, Yanda R; Clemens, Cornelis H M; Masclee, Ad A M

    2010-01-01

    Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have significantly impaired quality of life (QoL). We investigated the presence of dysfunctional cognitions, anxiety, and depression symptoms and their impact on daily symptoms and QoL in a large IBS cohort. A total of 268 IBS patients (Rome II criteria, age 18 to 65 y) were included. Patients completed a 2-week daily symptom diary. The Short Form-36 was used to score QoL. The 31-items Cognitive Scale for Functional Bowel Disorders (CSFBD) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were used to analyze the psychological factors. Possible anxiety and depression disorders were present in 30% and 22% of IBS patients, respectively. Patients with anxiety and depression had significantly higher mean symptom scores, impaired QoL, and higher CSFBD scores (Panxiety (HADS-A) (Panxiety and depression influenced QoL and IBS symptoms. In this IBS cohort, dysfunctional cognitions independently influence physical and mental QoL and symptom severity. Presence of possible anxiety and depression disorders resulted in higher symptoms, lower QoL, and higher CSFBD scores. The results point toward an important role of psychological factors, especially dysfunctional cognitions on QoL and symptom scores in IBS patients.

  7. Cognitive dysfunctions in multiple sclerosis--a "multiple disconnection syndrome"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Pasquale; Penner, Iris Katharina

    2007-05-01

    After giving a brief overview of the cognitive core deficit in multiple sclerosis (MS), pros and cons of considering the clinical characteristics as a form of 'subcortical dementia' are discussed. By comparing the neuropsychological descriptions of MS patients as given in the literature to other neurological diseases which are also associated with neuropsychological deficiencies, we propose the term 'multiple disconnection syndrome' to describe the variety of neuropsychological deficits encountered in MS.

  8. Cannabis-induced Moto-Cognitive Dysfunction in Wistar Rats: Ameliorative Efficacy of Nigella Sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Aminu; Ajao, Moyosore Saliu; Amin, Abdulbasit; Abdulmajeed, Wahab Imam; Ibrahim, Abdulmumin; Olajide, Olayemi Joseph; Ajibola, Musa Iyiola; Alli-Oluwafuyi, Abdulmusawir; Balogun, Wasiu Gbolahan

    2016-01-01

    Background Cannabis is a widely used illicit drug with various threats of personality syndrome, and Nigella sativa has been widely implicated as having therapeutic efficacy in many neurological diseases. The present study investigates the ameliorative efficacy of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) on cannabis-induced moto-cognitive defects. Methods Scopolamine (1 mg/kg i.p.) was given to induce dementia as a standard base line for cannabis (20 mg/kg)-induced cognitive impairment, followed by an oral administration of NSO (1 ml/kg) for 14 consecutive days. The Morris water maze (MWM) paradigm was used to assess the memory index, the elevated plus maze was used for anxiety-like behaviour, and the open field test was used for locomotor activities; thereafter, the rats were sacrificed and their brains were removed for histopathologic studies. Results Cannabis-like Scopolamine caused memory impairment, delayed latency in the MWM, and anxiety-like behaviour, coupled with alterations in the cerebello-hippocampal neurons. The post-treatment of rats with NSO mitigated cannabis-induced cognitive dysfunction as with scopolamine and impaired anxiety-like behaviour by increasing open arm entry, line crossing, and histological changes. Conclusions The observed ameliorative effects of NSO make it a promising agent against moto-cognitive dysfunction and cerebelo-hippocampal alterations induced by cannabis. PMID:27904421

  9. Role of brain iron accumulation in cognitive dysfunction: evidence from animal models and human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Nadja; Figueiredo, Luciana Silva; de Lima, Maria Noêmia Martins

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decades, studies from our laboratory and other groups using animal models have shown that iron overload, resulting in iron accumulation in the brain, produces significant cognitive deficits. Iron accumulation in the hippocampus and the basal ganglia has been related to impairments in spatial memory, aversive memory, and recognition memory in rodents. These results are corroborated by studies showing that the administration of iron chelators attenuates cognitive deficits in a variety of animal models of cognitive dysfunction, including aging and Alzheimer's disease models. Remarkably, recent human studies using magnetic resonance image techniques have also shown a consistent correlation between cognitive dysfunction and iron deposition, mostly in the hippocampus, cortical areas, and basal ganglia. These findings may have relevant implications in the light of the knowledge that iron accumulates in brain regions of patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases. A better understanding of the functional consequences of iron dysregulation in aging and neurological diseases may help to identify novel targets for treating memory problems that afflict a growing aging population.

  10. Cannabis-induced Moto-Cognitive Dysfunction in Wistar Rats: Ameliorative Efficacy of Nigella Sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Aminu; Ajao, Moyosore Saliu; Amin, Abdulbasit; Abdulmajeed, Wahab Imam; Ibrahim, Abdulmumin; Olajide, Olayemi Joseph; Ajibola, Musa Iyiola; Alli-Oluwafuyi, Abdulmusawir; Balogun, Wasiu Gbolahan

    2016-09-01

    Cannabis is a widely used illicit drug with various threats of personality syndrome, and Nigella sativa has been widely implicated as having therapeutic efficacy in many neurological diseases. The present study investigates the ameliorative efficacy of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) on cannabis-induced moto-cognitive defects. Scopolamine (1 mg/kg i.p.) was given to induce dementia as a standard base line for cannabis (20 mg/kg)-induced cognitive impairment, followed by an oral administration of NSO (1 ml/kg) for 14 consecutive days. The Morris water maze (MWM) paradigm was used to assess the memory index, the elevated plus maze was used for anxiety-like behaviour, and the open field test was used for locomotor activities; thereafter, the rats were sacrificed and their brains were removed for histopathologic studies. Cannabis-like Scopolamine caused memory impairment, delayed latency in the MWM, and anxiety-like behaviour, coupled with alterations in the cerebello-hippocampal neurons. The post-treatment of rats with NSO mitigated cannabis-induced cognitive dysfunction as with scopolamine and impaired anxiety-like behaviour by increasing open arm entry, line crossing, and histological changes. The observed ameliorative effects of NSO make it a promising agent against moto-cognitive dysfunction and cerebelo-hippocampal alterations induced by cannabis.

  11. Cognitive Dysfunction Contributes to Mobility Impairments in Huntington's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloos, Anne D; Kegelmeyer, Deb A; Fritz, Nora E; Daley, Allison M; Young, Gregory S; Kostyk, Sandra K

    2017-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that results in a gradual decline in mobility and balance. Increasing evidence has documented an important role of executive function in the safe ambulation of the elderly and people with a variety of neurological disorders. Little is known about the contribution of cognitive deficits to decline in mobility over time in HD. This study examined the relationships of mobility, motor and cognitive function measures at baseline, and of mobility and cognitive measures over four years. A retrospective chart review was performed on 70 patients with genetically confirmed HD (age 20-75 years old) across 121 HD clinic visits. Correlations between Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale - Total Motor, Tinetti Mobility Test (TMT), and cognitive measures (Letter Verbal Fluency, Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), and Stroop Test) were analyzed. Longitudinal relationships between TMT and cognitive measures were examined using mixed effect regression models. Gait and balance measures representing domains of mobility (TMT scores) were significantly correlated with each of the cognitive measures with the exception of the Verbal Fluency score. Mixed effects regression modeling showed that the Stroop Interference sub-test and SDMT were significant predictors (p-values <0.01) of TMT total scores. Impairments in executive function measures correlate highly with measures of gait, balance and mobility in individuals with HD. Interventions designed to improve mobility and decrease fall risk should also address issues of cognitive impairments with particular consideration given to interventions that may focus on motor-cognitive dual task training.

  12. Is previous hyperthyroidism associated with long-term cognitive dysfunction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillevang-Johansen, Mads; Petersen, Inge; Christensen, Kaare

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Hyperthyroidism has been suggested to adversely affect cognitive function. However, this association could also be caused by genetic and environmental factors affecting both the development of hyperthyroidism and cognitive functioning. By investigating twin pairs discordant...... for hyperthyroidism, this potential confounding can be minimized. The aim of the study was to examine if hyperthyroidism is associated with long-term cognitive dysfunction. DESIGN: Twin case-control study. PATIENTS: Twin pairs discordant for hyperthyroidism were identified by record-linkage between The Danish...... tests. Based on five of the tests a composite cognitive score was calculated. RESULTS: 55 out of 3036 twin pairs were discordant for hyperthyroidism. The mean time from diagnosis until survey participation was 7.3 years (range: 0-24.1 years). In both the intra-pair and individual level analyses...

  13. The quality of the early motor repertoire in preterm infants predicts minor neurologic dysfunction at school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggink, Janneke L. M.; Einspieler, Christa; Butcher, Phillipa R.; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Prechtl, Heinz F. R.; Bos, Arend F.

    Objective The quality of a child's motor repertoire at age 3 to 4 months postterm is predictive of later cerebral palsy (CP). Its predictive power for minor neurologic dysfunction (MND) is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the predictive value of the quality of the early motor repertoire for

  14. Cytochrome P450 polymorphism and postoperative cognitive dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinmetz, J; Jespersgaard, Cathrine; Dalhoff, Kim Peder

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The etiology of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) remains unclear but toxicity of anesthetic drugs and their metabolites could be important. We aimed to assess the possible association between POCD after propofol anesthesia and various phenotypes owing to polymorphisms...... neuropsychological testing at one week had POCD, and 24 out of 307 (7.8%) had POCD at three months. None of the examined CYP2C19, 2D6 alleles, or various phenotypes were significantly associated with POCD. CONCLUSION: Polymorphisms in CYP2C19, or 2D6 genes do not seem to be related to the occurrence of cognitive...

  15. Cognitive and autonomic dysfunction in presymptomatic and early Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobal, Jan; Melik, Ziva; Cankar, Ksenija; Strucl, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Huntington's disease is characterized by disorders of movement, cognition and behavior. Individuals with Huntington's disease display aberrant changes in the autonomic nervous system that are detected even before the onset of other symptoms. Subtle cognitive dysfunction may start before other clinical manifestations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the autonomic nervous system response to mental arithmetic and the relationship between the autonomic and cognitive/motor function in presymptomatic and early Huntington's disease. We examined 15 presymptomatic Huntington's disease gene carriers (PHD), 15 early Huntington's disease patients (EHD) and 30 healthy controls. PHD and EHD groups were determined according to Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) motor score. ECG, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and cutaneous laser Doppler flux were measured during rest and during a simple mental arithmetic test. UHDRS cognitive test battery was applied to determine cognitive dysfunction. During mental arithmetic, the heart rate of PHD/EHD increased significantly less than that of controls. Decreased microvascular response to mental arithmetic was found in EHD. Significant correlations for the PHD/EHD group were found between laser Doppler flux response and Symbol Digit Modalities Test score, and between laser Doppler flux response and UHDRS motor score. It seems that central autonomic dysregulation of cardiovascular system in Huntington's disease goes along with the degeneration of other central neuronal systems. This finding is relevant as it could enable simple and noninvasive testing of disease progression.

  16. Cognitive Dysfunction, MRI Findings and Manganese Levels in Alcoholics

    OpenAIRE

    Itoh, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Katsurou; Shimanaga, Masaki; Nakane, Yoshibumi

    2002-01-01

    Alcoholic patients have been known to have brain atrophy and cognitive dysfunction. However,recent studies have reported bilateral signal hyperintensities of the globus pallidus on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in liver failure, findings that are typically associated with manganese intoxication. The present study compared brain atrophy on T1-weighted MRI, signal intensity ratios of the globus pallidus on T1-weighted MRI, whole blood manganese levels, and Wechsler Adult Intellig...

  17. More than intelligence: distinct cognitive/behavioral clusters linked to adaptive dysfunction in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazoglou, Aimilia; Jacobson, Lisa A; Zabel, T Andrew

    2013-02-01

    Impairments in adaptive functioning are frequently associated with intellectual disability (ID); however, adaptive dysfunction can be seen in many individuals with a variety of neurological conditions without ID. The extent to which other variables may be associated with adaptive dysfunction is unclear. In a mixed clinical sample of children (n = 348) consecutively referred for neuropsychological evaluation, the majority were rated as showing weak adaptive skills (ABAS-II, >1 SD below the mean; 71%), with a substantial proportion evidencing frank impairment (>2 SD below the mean, 45%). We examined patterns of scores on measures of intelligence (WISC-IV) and behavioral/affective dysregulation (BRIEF and BASC-2). Using hierarchical cluster analysis, a four cluster model yielded the most appropriate fit and adaptive functioning was subsequently examined across clusters. As expected, adaptive functioning was most intact in the cluster characterized by average IQ and minimal behavioral dysregulation. Other clusters were marked by adaptive dysfunction and distinguished by sub-average intellectual functioning and varying behavioral/emotional dysregulation. In contrast to traditional views associating low IQ with adaptive dysfunction, adaptive impairment was comparable between the cluster characterized by low intelligence and the cluster with average intelligence but significant behavioral dysregulation. These data suggest that adaptive functioning should be considered across various cognitive/behavioral conditions.

  18. Risk factors for canine cognitive dysfunction syndrome in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katina, Stanislav; Farbakova, Jana; Madari, Aladar; Novak, Michal; Zilka, Norbert

    2016-02-29

    Increasing prevalence of cognitive impairment in an aging canine population poses a serious health problem. Identifying risk factors, which may influence the onset of cognitive decline, is becoming increasingly important. Here we investigated whether age, sex, weight, nutrition, dogs' housing and reproductive state were associated with increased risk of canine cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CCDS) in Slovakia. Age was associated with cognitive decline and nutrition emerged as a significant predictor variable. Dogs fed controlled diets had 2.8 times lower odds of developing CCDS when compared with dogs fed uncontrolled diets. Sex, weight, reproductive state and dogs' housing were not significantly associated with cognitive decline. Further, the prevalence of CCDS was similar in both small and medium/large sized dogs aged 8-11 years, but differed in dogs at an age of 11-13 years. Age was found to be the most prominent risk factors of CCDS. Nutrition may influence the cognitive state of dogs. This finding suggests that nutritional interventions may modify canine cognitive functions.

  19. Improving clinical cognitive testing: report of the AAN Behavioral Neurology Section Workgroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daffner, Kirk R; Gale, Seth A; Barrett, A M; Boeve, Bradley F; Chatterjee, Anjan; Coslett, H Branch; D'Esposito, Mark; Finney, Glen R; Gitelman, Darren R; Hart, John J; Lerner, Alan J; Meador, Kimford J; Pietras, Alison C; Voeller, Kytja S; Kaufer, Daniel I

    2015-09-08

    To evaluate the evidence basis of single-domain cognitive tests frequently used by behavioral neurologists in an effort to improve the quality of clinical cognitive assessment. Behavioral Neurology Section members of the American Academy of Neurology were surveyed about how they conduct clinical cognitive testing, with a particular focus on the Neurobehavioral Status Exam (NBSE). In contrast to general screening cognitive tests, an NBSE consists of tests of individual cognitive domains (e.g., memory or language) that provide a more comprehensive diagnostic assessment. Workgroups for each of 5 cognitive domains (attention, executive function, memory, language, and spatial cognition) conducted evidence-based reviews of frequently used tests. Reviews focused on suitability for office-based clinical practice, including test administration time, accessibility of normative data, disease populations studied, and availability in the public domain. Demographic and clinical practice data were obtained from 200 respondents who reported using a wide range of cognitive tests. Based on survey data and ancillary information, between 5 and 15 tests in each cognitive domain were reviewed. Within each domain, several tests are highlighted as being well-suited for an NBSE. We identified frequently used single-domain cognitive tests that are suitable for an NBSE to help make informed choices about clinical cognitive assessment. Some frequently used tests have limited normative data or have not been well-studied in common neurologic disorders. Utilizing standardized cognitive tests, particularly those with normative data based on the individual's age and educational level, can enhance the rigor and utility of clinical cognitive assessment. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  20. Effectiveness of music-based interventions on motricity or cognitive functioning in neurological populations: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moumdjian, Lousin; Sarkamo, Teppo; Leone, Carmela; Leman, Marc; Feys, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Motor and cognitive symptoms are frequent in persons with neurological disorders and often require extensive long-term rehabilitation. Recently, a variety of music-based interventions have been introduced into neurological rehabilitation as training tools. This review aims to 1) describe and define music-based intervention modalities and content which are applied in experimental studies; and 2) describe the effects of these interventions on motor and/or cognitive symptoms in the neurological population. The databases PubMed and Web of Science were searched. Cited references of included articles where screened for potential inclusion. A systematic literature search up to 20th of June 2016 was conducted to include controlled trials and cohort studies that have used music-based interventions for ≥3 weeks in the neurological population (in- and outpatients) targeting motor and/or cognitive symptoms. No limitations to publication date was set. EVIDENCE SYNTHESISː Nineteen articles comprising thirteen randomized controlled trials (total participants Nexp=241, Nctrl=269), four controlled trials (Nexp=59, Nctrl=53) and two cohort studies (N.=27) were included. Fourteen studies were conducted in stroke, three in Parkinson's disease, and two in multiple sclerosis population. Modalities of music-based interventions were clustered into four groups: instrument-based, listening-based, rhythm-based, and multicomponent-based music interventions. Overall, studies consistently showed that music-based interventions had similar or larger effects than conventional rehabilitation on upper limb function (N.=16; fine motricity, hand and arm capacity, finger and hand tapping velocity/variability), mobility (N.=7; gait parameters), and cognition (N.=4; verbal memory and focused attention). CONCLUSIONSː Variety of modalities using music-based interventions has been identified and grouped into four clusters. Effects of interventions demonstrate an improvement in the domains assessed

  1. Neurological status predicts response to alpha-blockers in men with voiding dysfunction and Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano M. Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate predictors of the response to doxazosin, a selective alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist, when used for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms in men with Parkinson's disease. METHODS: In a prospective study, 33 consecutive men (mean age 59.2±7.0 years with Parkinson's disease and lower urinary tract symptoms were evaluated. Neurological dysfunction was assessed with the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. Urological assessment was performed at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment with 4 mg/day of extended-release doxazosin, including symptom evaluation with the International Continence Society male short-form questionnaire, an assessment of the impact of lower urinary tract symptoms on quality of life and urodynamics. Clinical and urodynamic predictors of response were specifically evaluated. RESULTS: Compared with the score at baseline, the total International Continence Society male short-form score was reduced after doxazosin administration, from 17.4±7.5 to 11.1±6.9 (p<0.001. The impact of lower urinary tract symptoms on quality of life was also significantly reduced, from 1.8±1.1 to 1.0±1.0 (p<0.001 and the maximum urinary flow varied from 9.3±4.4 to 11.2±4.6 ml/s (p = 0.025. The severity of neurological impairment was the only predictor of the clinical response. Additionally, patients with a Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score lower than 70 had a significantly higher chance of clinical improvement with doxazosin treatment than those with higher Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale scores did (RR = 3.10, 95% CI = [1.15 to 5.37], p = 0.011. CONCLUSIONS: Doxazosin resulted in the improvement of lower urinary tract symptoms and the maximum flow rate and was well tolerated in men with Parkinson's disease. The response to treatment is dependent on the severity of neurological disability.

  2. Amyloid-β Homeostasis Bridges Inflammation, Synaptic Plasticity Deficits and Cognitive Dysfunction in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Stampanoni Bassi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive deficits are frequently observed in multiple sclerosis (MS, mainly involving processing speed and episodic memory. Both demyelination and gray matter atrophy can contribute to cognitive deficits in MS. In recent years, neuroinflammation is emerging as a new factor influencing clinical course in MS. Inflammatory cytokines induce synaptic dysfunction in MS. Synaptic plasticity occurring within hippocampal structures is considered as one of the basic physiological mechanisms of learning and memory. In experimental models of MS, hippocampal plasticity is profoundly altered by proinflammatory cytokines. Although mechanisms of inflammation-induced hippocampal pathology in MS are not completely understood, alteration of Amyloid-β (Aβ metabolism is emerging as a key factor linking together inflammation, synaptic plasticity and neurodegeneration in different neurological diseases. We explored the correlation between concentrations of Aβ1–42 and the levels of some proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β (IL-1β, IL1-ra, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα, interferon γ (IFNγ in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of 103 remitting MS patients. CSF levels of Aβ1–42 were negatively correlated with the proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 and positively correlated with the anti-inflammatory molecules IL-10 and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra. Other correlations, although noticeable, were either borderline or not significant. Our data show that an imbalance between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines may lead to altered Aβ homeostasis, representing a key factor linking together inflammation, synaptic plasticity and cognitive dysfunction in MS. This could be relevant to identify novel therapeutic approaches to hinder the progression of cognitive dysfunction in MS.

  3. Amyloid-β Homeostasis Bridges Inflammation, Synaptic Plasticity Deficits and Cognitive Dysfunction in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampanoni Bassi, Mario; Garofalo, Sara; Marfia, Girolama A; Gilio, Luana; Simonelli, Ilaria; Finardi, Annamaria; Furlan, Roberto; Sancesario, Giulia M; Di Giandomenico, Jonny; Storto, Marianna; Mori, Francesco; Centonze, Diego; Iezzi, Ennio

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive deficits are frequently observed in multiple sclerosis (MS), mainly involving processing speed and episodic memory. Both demyelination and gray matter atrophy can contribute to cognitive deficits in MS. In recent years, neuroinflammation is emerging as a new factor influencing clinical course in MS. Inflammatory cytokines induce synaptic dysfunction in MS. Synaptic plasticity occurring within hippocampal structures is considered as one of the basic physiological mechanisms of learning and memory. In experimental models of MS, hippocampal plasticity is profoundly altered by proinflammatory cytokines. Although mechanisms of inflammation-induced hippocampal pathology in MS are not completely understood, alteration of Amyloid-β (Aβ) metabolism is emerging as a key factor linking together inflammation, synaptic plasticity and neurodegeneration in different neurological diseases. We explored the correlation between concentrations of Aβ 1-42 and the levels of some proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL1-ra, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interferon γ (IFNγ)) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 103 remitting MS patients. CSF levels of Aβ 1-42 were negatively correlated with the proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 and positively correlated with the anti-inflammatory molecules IL-10 and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra). Other correlations, although noticeable, were either borderline or not significant. Our data show that an imbalance between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines may lead to altered Aβ homeostasis, representing a key factor linking together inflammation, synaptic plasticity and cognitive dysfunction in MS. This could be relevant to identify novel therapeutic approaches to hinder the progression of cognitive dysfunction in MS.

  4. The NCAN gene: schizophrenia susceptibility and cognitive dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang P

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Peirong Wang,1 Jun Cai,2 Jianliang Ni,1 Jiangtao Zhang,1 Wei Tang,3 Chen Zhang2 1Department of Psychiatry, Tongde Hospital of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 2Schizophrenia Program, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 3Wenzhou Kangning Hospital, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China Background: Cognitive dysfunction has been recognized as a cardinal feature of schizophrenia. Elucidating the neurobiological substrates of cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia would help identify the underlying mechanism of this disorder. The rs1064395 single nucleotide polymorphism, within the gene encoding neurocan (NCAN, is reported to be associated with schizophrenia in European populations and may influence brain structure in patients with schizophrenia.Methods: In this study, we aimed to explore whether NCAN rs1064395 confers some risk for schizophrenia and cognitive dysfunction in Han Chinese. We recruited 681 patients with schizophrenia and 699 healthy subjects. Two hundred and fifty-four patients were evaluated according to Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS.Results: There were no significant differences in genotype or allele distributions of the rs1064395 polymorphism between the schizophrenia and control groups. Patients showed significantly poorer performance than controls on immediate memory, visuospatial skill, language, attention, delayed memory, and total RBANS score. Patients with the A/A or A/G genotype of rs1064395 had lower scores of immediate memory, visuospatial skill, attention, and total RBANS score than those with the G/G genotype. We performed an expression quantitative trait loci analysis and observed a significant association between rs1064395 and NCAN expression in the frontal (P=0.0022, P=0.022 after Bonferroni correction and cerebellar cortex (P=0.0032, P=0.032 after Bonferroni correction.Conclusion: Our findings indicate

  5. Cognitive reactivity versus dysfunctional cognitions and the prediction of relapse in recurrent major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Caroline A; Ruhé, Henricus G; Koeter, Maarten W; Spinhoven, Philip; Van der Does, Willem; Bockting, Claudi L; Schene, Aart H

    2015-10-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a burdensome disease that has a high risk of relapse/recurrence. Cognitive reactivity appears to be a risk factor for relapse. It remains unclear, however, whether dysfunctional cognitions alone or the reactivity of such cognitions to mild states of sadness (ie, cognitive reactivity) is the crucial factor that increases relapse risk. We aimed to assess the long-term predictive value of cognitive reactivity versus dysfunctional cognitions and other risk factors for depressive relapse. In a prospective cohort of outpatients (N = 116; studied between 2000-2005) who had experienced ≥ 2 previous major depressive episodes (MDEs) and were in remission (DSM-IV) at the start of follow-up, we measured cognitive reactivity, with the Leiden Index of Depression Sensitivity (LEIDS), and dysfunctional cognitions, with the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale, simultaneously. Course of illness (with the primary outcome of MDE assessed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders Patient Edition) and time to relapse were monitored prospectively for 3.5 years. Cognitive reactivity scores were associated with time to relapse over the 3.5-year follow-up and also when corrected for the number of previous MDEs and concurrent depressive symptoms (hazard ratio for 1 standard deviation [(HR(SD)); 20 points of the LEIDS, measuring cognitive reactivity] = 1.47; 95% CI, 1.04-2.09; P = .031). Rumination appeared to be a particularly strong predictor of relapse (HR(SD) = 1.60; 95% CI, 1.13-2.26; P = .007). Dysfunctional cognitions did not predict relapse over 3.5 years (HR(SD) = 1.00; 95% CI, 0.74-1.37; P = .93). Every 20-point increase on the cognitive reactivity scale resulted in a 10% to 15% increase in risk of relapse (corrected for previous MDEs and concurrent depressive symptoms). Cognitive reactivity--and particularly rumination--is a long-term predictor of relapse. Future research should address whether psychological interventions can

  6. Neurologic sequela in a patient with galactosemia potentially mediated by interleukin-11 dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Gidon N; Ben-Pazi, Hilla

    2015-06-01

    A 16-year-old galactosemic patient, homozygous for the 5.5-kb gene deletion, suffered severe neurologic regression following streptococcal infection. Since the gene deletion includes the promoter of interleukin-11a receptor involved in neuronal apoptosis, we questioned whether this patient had no interleukin-11a receptor activity-resulting in neuronal toxicity during septicemia. We hypothesized that interleukin-11 levels would be elevated because of a loss of feedback induced by the absent interleukin-11Ra receptor complex. To assess this, we compared interleukin-11 levels in the proband and 2 of his siblings with the same genetic deletion, to age-matched controls. No differences were found in interleukin-11 levels between groups. Our study was not carried out during acute infective states, when the disrupted immunoregulation triggered by sepsis is relevant, and is thus limited. In conclusion, although interleukin-11 was not chronically elevated in individuals with galactosemia and 5.5-kb gene deletion, data do not rule out potential interleukin-11 dysfunction during acute infection. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Definition of the clinical spectrum of kernicterus and bilirubin-induced neurologic dysfunction (BIND).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Steven M

    2005-01-01

    Kernicterus, currently used to describe both the neuropathology of bilirubin-induced brain injury and its associated clinical findings, is a complex syndrome. The neurobiology of kernicterus, including the determinants and mechanisms of neuronal injury, is discussed along with traditional and evolving definitions ranging from classical kernicterus with athetoid cerebral palsy, impaired upward gaze and deafness, to isolated conditions, for example, auditory neuropathy or dys-synchrony (AN/AD), and subtle bilirubin-induced neurological dysfunction (BIND). The clinical expression of BIND varies with location, severity, and time of assessment, influenced by the amount, duration and developmental age of exposure to excessive free bilirubin. Although total serum bilirubin (TSB) is important, kernicterus cannot be defined based solely on TSB. For study purposes kernicterus may be defined in term and near-term infants with TSB > or = 20 mg/dl using abnormal muscle tone on examination, auditory testing diagnostic of AN/AD, and magnetic resonance imaging showing bilateral lesions of globus pallidus+/-subthalamic nucleus.

  8. Cognitive Performance, Mood, and Neurological Status at High Terrestrial Elevation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Banderet, Louis

    2002-01-01

    Cognitive and psychomotor performance and mood states, including many critical behavioral functions such as sleep, memory, reasoning, and vigilance, are significantly impaired by ascent to HTE higher than 3,000 m...

  9. Neurological soft signs in aging, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer´s disease – the impact of cognitive decline and cognitive reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja eUrbanowitsch

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Neurological soft signs (NSS, i.e. minor motor and sensory changes, are a common feature in severe psychiatric disorders. We sought to establish the frequency of NSS in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI and Alzheimer’s disease (AD on basis of a large population based sample and to identify their neuropsychological correlates including cognitive reserve.Methods: NSS were examined using an abbreviated version of the Heidelberg NSS Scale in 221 old participants born between 1930 and 1932 (63 with MCI, 15 with AD, 143 healthy old controls and 256 healthy young participants (born between 1950 and 1952 of the population-based Interdisciplinary Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ILSE. Subjects received thorough neuropsychological testing; years of school education were used as a proxy for cognitive reserve.Results: NSS scores were significantly (p<0.001 higher in the AD patients (5.6±3.11 than in the healthy old controls (2.8±1.90 and in the MCI patients (3.0±1.96. This result was confirmed after years of school education which were inversely correlated (r = - 0.25; p<0.001 with NSS were entered as a covariate. In the patients but not in the controls, NSS were significantly correlated with deficits in executive functioning and visuospatial functioning. Comparison of NSS scores between old (2.84 ± 1.9 and young (2.46 ± 1.97 controls yielded only minor, non-significant differences after education (13.86 ± 3.0 vs. 14.61 ± 2.48 years, respectively was controlled for.Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that NSS are frequently found in mild AD but not in MCI. NSS refer to frontal-executive deficits and visuospatial dysfunction rather than age per se and can be partly compensated for by cognitive reserve.

  10. Post-stroke cognitive dysfunctions: A clinical and neuroimaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Yuryevich Emelin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging examinations were made in 65 patients (52 men and 13 women aged 65.6±10.1 years who had experienced ischemic stroke. Cognitive impairments (CI were heterogeneous; regulatory functions, attention, and counting were most significantly affected in moderate CI. In mild dementia, mainly poor attention and regulatory dysfunctions were added by clearly-cut impairments of memory, orientation, and visual-spatial function. Brain atrophy, white matter changes, and small focal gray matter damages along with focal post-stroke changes were revealed by neuroimaging in most patients. It was found that besides the volume and location of a damage focus, the signs of impaired integrated mental activity of the brain, regulatory dysfunctions in particular, should be a necessary condition for the verification of post-stroke CI.

  11. Minor neurological dysfunction and behaviour in 9-year-old children born at term: evidence for sex dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikkert, Hedwig K; de Jong, Corina; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study was to assess associations between minor neurological dysfunction (MND) and behaviour, with specific attention to sex differences. This was an observational cohort study in which 341 9-year-old children (177 male, 164 female) without perinatal risk were neurologically assessed, with attention to severity and type of MND. Eight domains of dysfunction were distinguished, including posture and muscle tone, fine manipulative ability and coordination. Severity of MND was based on the number of dysfunctional domains. Behaviour was assessed by parents and teachers using the Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher's Report Form (TRF); outcomes were internalizing and externalizing behaviour and total score of behavioural problems. Females with complex MND or dysfunctional posture and muscle tone had increased risk for externalizing behavioural problems (OR 4.52, 95% CI 1.01-20.2, and OR 4.05, 95% CI 1.06-15.5, respectively). In males, these associations were absent. However, males with simple MND had an increased risk for behavioural problems indicated by the total TRF-score (OR 7.52, 95% CI 1.36-41.4). In children without perinatal risk, associations between MND and behaviour are sex-specific. In females, dysfunction of complex neural networks, including the cerebellum, is associated with externalizing behaviour. In males, neurobehavioural relationships are limited, suggesting a larger role of psychosocial factors in the genesis of behavioural problems. © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  12. Hesperidin alleviates cognitive impairment, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongmei; Liu, Ling; Zhu, Xiaoying; Wu, Wenlan; Wang, Yong

    2014-11-01

    The role of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress has been well-documented in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Bioflavonoids are being utilised as neuroprotectants in the treatment of various neurological disorders, including AD. Therefore, we conducted this current study in order to explore the effects of hesperidin (a flavanone glycoside) against amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced cognitive dysfunction, oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction in mice. Three-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice were randomly assigned to a vehicle group, two hesperidin (either 50 or 100 mg/kg per day) groups, or an Aricept (2.5 mg/kg per day) group. After 16 weeks of treatment, although there was no obvious change in Aβ deposition in the hesperidin-treated (100 mg/kg per day) group, however, we found that the administration of hesperidin (100 mg/kg per day) resulted in the reduction of learning and memory deficits, improved locomotor activity, and the increase of anti-oxidative defense and mitochondrial complex I-IV enzymes activities. Furthermore, Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) phosphorylation significantly increased in the hesperidin-treated (100 mg/kg per day) group. Taken together, these findings suggest that a reduction in mitochondrial dysfunction through the inhibition of GSK-3β activity, coupled with an increase in anti-oxidative defense, may be one of the mechanisms by which hesperidin improves cognitive function in the APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mouse model of AD.

  13. Cognitive dysfunction and physical activity after stroke: the Gothenburg cognitive stroke study in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Påhlman, Ulrika; Sävborg, Marianne; Tarkowski, Elisabeth

    2012-11-01

    This study explored the association between cognitive and executive dysfunction and level of physical activity 1 year after stroke. Cognition before stroke and cognitive and executive function in the acute phase and at 1 year after stroke were assessed in 74 subjects. Physical activity was assessed at 1 year after stroke. Factors that appeared to predict low level of physical activity at 1 year after stroke were impaired global cognition before stroke, visual neglect and impaired logical deductive ability in the acute phase, and impaired global cognition, executive function, and visual memory 1 year after stroke. Our findings underscore the importance of identifying stroke patients with impaired cognitive and executive function who are at risk for developing inactivity. Copyright © 2012 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Long-term consequences of postoperative cognitive dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinmetz, Jacob; Christensen, Karl Bang; Lund, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is common in elderly patients after noncardiac surgery, but the consequences are unknown. The authors' aim was to determine the effects of POCD on long-term prognosis. METHODS: This was an observational study of Danish patients enrolled in two...... by Poisson regression. RESULTS: A total of 701 patients were followed up for a median of 8.5 yr (interquartile range, 5.3-11.4 yr). POCD at 3 months, but not at 1 week, was associated with increased mortality (hazard ratio, 1.63 [95% confidence interval, 1.11-2.38]; P = 0.01, adjusted for sex, age...

  15. Neurologically Inspired Computational Cognitive Modeling of Situation Awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thilakarathne, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    How information processes in the human brain relate to action formation is an interesting research question and with the latest development of brain imaging and recording techniques more and more interesting insights have been uncovered. In this paper a cognitive model is scrutinized which is based

  16. The association between cognition and academic performance in Ugandan children surviving malaria with neurological involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangirana, Paul; Menk, Jeremiah; John, Chandy C; Boivin, Michael J; Hodges, James S

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of different cognitive abilities to academic performance in children surviving cerebral insult can guide the choice of interventions to improve cognitive and academic outcomes. This study's objective was to identify which cognitive abilities are associated with academic performance in children after malaria with neurological involvement. 62 Ugandan children with a history of malaria with neurological involvement were assessed for cognitive ability (working memory, reasoning, learning, visual spatial skills, attention) and academic performance (reading, spelling, arithmetic) three months after the illness. Linear regressions were fit for each academic score with the five cognitive outcomes entered as predictors. Adjusters in the analysis were age, sex, education, nutrition, and home environment. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and structural equation models (SEM) were used to determine the nature of the association between cognition and academic performance. Predictive residual sum of squares was used to determine which combination of cognitive scores was needed to predict academic performance. In regressions of a single academic score on all five cognitive outcomes and adjusters, only Working Memory was associated with Reading (coefficient estimate = 0.36, 95% confidence interval = 0.10 to 0.63, pWorking memory, visual spatial ability and learning were the best predictors of academic performance. Academic performance is strongly associated with the latent variable labelled "cognitive ability" which captures most of the variation in the individual specific cognitive outcome measures. Working memory, visual spatial skills, and learning together stood out as the best combination to predict academic performance.

  17. Cognitive dysfunction after fast-track hip and knee replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Lene; Kehlet, Henrik; Bæk Hansen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is reported to occur after major surgery in as many as 20% of patients, elderly patients may especially experience problems in the weeks and months after surgery. Recent studies vary greatly in methods of evaluation and diagnosis of POCD......, and the pathogenic mechanisms are still unclear. We evaluated a large uniform cohort of elderly patients in a standardized approach, after major joint replacement surgery (total hip and knee replacement). Patients were in an optimized perioperative approach (fast track) with multimodal opioid-sparing analgesia...... to 2 weeks and 3 months postoperatively. LOS, pain, opioid use, inflammatory response, and sleep quality were recorded. The practice effect of repeated cognitive testing was gauged using data from a healthy community-dwelling control group (n = 161). RESULTS: Median LOS was 2 days (interquartile range...

  18. Stress, childhood trauma, and cognitive functions in functional neurologic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, K; Pasman, J

    2016-01-01

    Conversion disorder (CD) has traditionally been ascribed to psychologic factors such as trauma, stress, or emotional conflict. Although reference to the psychologic origin of CD has been removed from the criteria list in DSM-5, many theories still incorporate CD as originating from adverse events. This chapter provides a critical review of the literature on stressful life events in CD and discusses current cognitive and neurobiologic models linking psychologic stressors with conversion symptomatology. In addition, we propose a neurobiologic stress model integrating those cognitive models with neuroendocrine stress research and propose that stress and stress-induced changes in hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function may result in cognitive alterations, that in turn contribute to experiencing conversion symptoms. Experimental studies indeed suggest that basal as well as stress-induced changes in HPA axis responding lead to alterations in attentional processing in CD. Although those changes are stronger in traumatized patients, similar patterns have been observed in patients who do not report a history of traumatic events. We conclude that, whereas adverse events may play an important role in many cases of CD, a substantial proportion of patients do not report a history of traumatization or recent stressful events. Studies integrating effects of stress on cognitive functioning in CD are scarce. We propose that, instead of focusing research on defining etiologic events in terms of symptom-eliciting events, future research should work towards an integrated mechanistic account, assessing alterations in cognitive and biologic stress systems in an integrated manner in patients with CD. Such an account may not only serve early symptom detection, it might also provide a starting point for better-targeted interventions. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Centella asiatica Attenuates D-Galactose-Induced Cognitive Impairment, Oxidative and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Prakash, Atish; Dogra, Samrita

    2011-01-01

    D-galactose induced neurotoxicity is well known model for studying aging and related oxidative damage and memory impairment. Aging is a biological process, characterized by the gradual loss of physiological functions by unknown mechanism. Centella asiatica, Indian pennywort has been documented in the treatment of various neurological disorders including aging. Therefore, present study has been conducted in order to explore the possible role of Centella asiatica against D-galactose induced cognitive impairment, oxidative and mitochondrial dysfunction in mice. Chronic administration of D-galactose (100 mg/kg s.c.) for a period of six weeks significantly impaired cognitive task (both in both Morris water maze and elevated plus maze) and oxidative defense (Increased lipid peroxidation, nitrite concentration and decreased activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and non-protein thiols) and impaired mitochondrial complex (I, II and III) enzymes activities as compared to sham group. Six weeks Centella asiatica (150 and 300 mg/kg, p.o) treatment significantly improved behavioral alterations, oxidative damage and mitochondrial enzyme complex activities as compared to contro l (D-galactose). Centella asiatica also attenuated enhanced acetylcholine esterase enzyme level in D-galactose senescence mice. Present study highlights the protective effect of Centella asiatica against D-galactose induced behavioral, biochemical and mitochondrial dysfunction in mice. PMID:21629743

  20. Mental retardation and associated neurological dysfunctions in Down syndrome: a consequence of dysregulation in critical chromosome 21 genes and associated molecular pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachidi, Mohammed; Lopes, Carmela

    2008-05-01

    Down syndrome (DS), affecting 1/700 live births, is the major genetic cause of mental retardation (MR), a cognitive disorder with hard impact on public health. DS brain is characterized by a reduced cerebellar volume and number of granular cells, defective cortical lamination and reduced cortical neurons, malformed dendritic trees and spines, and abnormal synapses. These neurological alterations, also found in trisomic mouse models, result from gene-dosage effects of Human Chromosome 21 (HC21) on the expression of critical developmental genes. HC21 sequencing, mouse ortholog gene identification and DS mouse model generation lead to determine HC21 gene functions and the effects of protein-dosage alterations in neurodevelopmental and metabolic pathways in DS individuals. Trisomic brain transcriptome of DS patients and trisomic mouse models identified some molecular changes determined by gene-overdosage and associated dysregulation of some disomic gene expression in DS brains. These transcriptional variations cause developmental alterations in neural patterning and signal transduction pathways that may lead to defective neuronal circuits responsible for the pathogenesis of MR in DS. Recently, the first altered molecular pathway responsible of some DS phenotypes, including neurological and cognitive disorders has been identified. In this pathway, two critical HC21 genes (DYRK1A and DSCR1) act synergistically to control the phosphorylation levels of NFATc and NFATc-regulated gene expression. Interestingly, the NFATc mice show neurological dysfunctions similar to those seen in DS patients and trisomic mouse models. Treatment of DS mouse model Ts65Dn with GABA(A) antagonists allowed post-drug rescue of cognitive defects, indicating a hopeful direction in clinical therapies for MR in children with DS.

  1. Aerobic exercise to improve cognitive function in adults with neurological disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Michelle N; Smith, Ashleigh E; Mackintosh, Shylie F

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate whether aerobic exercise improves cognition in adults diagnosed with neurologic disorders. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials, MEDLINE, CINAHL, PubMed, EMBASE, PEDro, AMED, SPORTDiscus, PsycINFO, ERIC, and Google Scholar, with the last search performed in December 2010. We included controlled clinical trials and randomized controlled trials with adults diagnosed with a neurologic disorder. Studies were included if they compared a control group with a group involved in an aerobic exercise program to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and if they measured cognition as an outcome. Two reviewers independently extracted data and methodologic quality of the included trials. From the 67 trials reviewed, a total of 7 trials, involving 249 participants, were included. Two trials compared the effectiveness of yoga and aerobic exercise in adults with multiple sclerosis. Two trials evaluated the effect of exercise on patients with dementia, and 2 trials evaluated the effectiveness of exercise to improve cognition after traumatic brain injury. One trial studied the effect of a cycling program in people with chronic stroke. Lack of commonality between measures of cognition limited meta-analyses. Results from individual studies show that aerobic exercise improved cognition in people with dementia, improved attention and cognitive flexibility in patients with traumatic brain injury, improved choice reaction time in people with multiple sclerosis, and enhanced motor learning in people with chronic stroke. There is limited evidence to support the use of aerobic exercise to improve cognition in adults with neurologic disorders. Of the 67 studies retrieved, less than half included cognition as an outcome, and few studies continued the aerobic exercise program long enough to be considered effective. Further studies investigating the effect of aerobic exercise interventions on cognition in people with neurologic conditions are required. Copyright

  2. Apgar score of 0 at 5 minutes and neonatal seizures or serious neurologic dysfunction in relation to birth setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünebaum, Amos; McCullough, Laurence B; Sapra, Katherine J; Brent, Robert L; Levene, Malcolm I; Arabin, Birgit; Chervenak, Frank A

    2013-10-01

    To examine the occurrence of 5-minute Apgar scores of 0 and seizures or serious neurologic dysfunction for 4 groups by birth setting and birth attendant (hospital physician, hospital midwife, free-standing birth center midwife, and home midwife) in the United States from 2007-2010. Data from the United States Centers for Disease Control's National Center for Health Statistics birth certificate data files were used to assess deliveries by physicians and midwives in and out of the hospital for the 4-year period from 2007-2010 for singleton term births (≥37 weeks' gestation) and ≥2500 g. Five-minute Apgar scores of 0 and neonatal seizures or serious neurologic dysfunction were analyzed for 4 groups by birth setting and birth attendant (hospital physician, hospital midwife, freestanding birth center midwife, and home midwife). Home births (relative risk [RR], 10.55) and births in free-standing birth centers (RR, 3.56) attended by midwives had a significantly higher risk of a 5-minute Apgar score of 0 (P Apgar score of 0 and seizures or serious neurologic dysfunction of out-of-hospital births should be disclosed by obstetric practitioners to women who express an interest in out-of-hospital birth. Physicians should address patients' motivations for out-of-hospital delivery by continuously improving safe and compassionate care of pregnant, fetal, and neonatal patients in the hospital setting. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Vestibular dysfunction in patients with chronic pain or underlying neurologic disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilbert, John W; Vogt, Manuel; Windsor, Robert E; Mick, Gregory E; Richardson, Gay B; Storey, Benjamin B; Herder, Stephanie L; Ledford, Susan; Abrams, Dee A; Theobald, Mary Katherine; Cunningham, Dana; Kelly, Louise; Herring, Kimberly V; Maddox, Michael L

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with vestibular dysfunction are at increased risk for falling. In addition, vestibular dysfunction is associated with chronic pain, which could present a serious public health concern as approximately 43...

  4. Current management of the cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson's disease: how far have we come?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Salvador

    2008-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) clinical features comprise both motor and nonmotor manifestations. Among the nonmotor complications, dementia is the most important. Approximately 40% of PD patients are affected by cognitive impairment. Remarkably, in addition to age, dementia is an independent predictor of mortality, whereas age at onset of PD and severity of neurological symptoms are not. In this review, I summarize the current knowledge of the pathogenesis of the PD cognitive impairment in relation to the therapies presently accessible and those that could become strategic in the near future. It is hypothesized that patients with PD show two components of cognitive dysfunction (CD): a generalized profile of subcortical dementia (PDsCD), and an overlapped pattern suggesting specific prefrontal damage with CD (PDpFCD). PDsCD is associated with structural neocortical/subcortical changes in the brain (in frontal, parietal, limbic, and temporal lobes, as well as in midbrain structures). In PDpFCD cognitive deficits comprise impairments in neuropsychological tests sensitive for frontal lobe function (discrete elements of episodic and working memory for instance), which are considered to be the consequence of dysfunction in neuronal loops connecting the prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia. Drugs reviewed for targeting PDsCD include: cholinesterase inhibitors, agents with mixed cholinergic and dopaminergic properties, antiglutamatergic drugs, mixed antiglutamatergic/dopaminergic agents; antioxidants and enhancers of mitochondrial functions, and anti-COX-2, as well as other anti-inflammatory mediators. Preliminary studies with vehicles that may target PDpFCD include piribedil, tolcapone, amantadine, and farampator. Additional agents (citicoline and neuroimmuniphilines, among others) will be outlined. A brief overview on neuroprotection and promising new biological advances in PD (deep brain stimulation, stem cells, gene therapy) also will be summarized.

  5. Cognitive dysfunction in patients with brain metastases: influences on caregiver resilience and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saria, Marlon Garzo; Courchesne, Natasia; Evangelista, Lorraine; Carter, Joshua; MacManus, Daniel A; Gorman, Mary Kay; Nyamathi, Adeline M; Phillips, Linda R; Piccioni, David; Kesari, Santosh; Maliski, Sally

    2017-04-01

    Neurologic deficits that may be manifested as cognitive impairment contribute to the challenges faced by caregivers of patients with brain metastases. To better address their needs, we examined how caregivers respond to these challenges and explore the relationship between the patient's cognitive impairment and caregiver resilience and coping. We conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional study using self-reported data from 56 caregivers of patients with brain metastases. Study participants from a comprehensive cancer center were asked to complete a series of instruments that measured their perception of the patient's cognitive dysfunction (revised memory and behavior problems checklist, RMBC), their own personal resilience (Resilience Scale, RS), and their utilization of a broad range of coping responses (COPE inventory and Emotional-Approach Coping scale). Caregivers reported that memory-related problems occurred more frequently in the patients they cared for compared to depression and disruptive behavior (mean scores 3.52 vs 2.34 vs. 1.32, respectively). Coping strategies most frequently used by caregivers were acceptance (3.28), planning (3.08), and positive reinterpretation and growth (2.95). Most caregivers scored moderate to high on the RS (77%). The coping strategy acceptance correlated significantly with the memory and disruptive behavior subscales of the RMBC. Given the protective effect of problem-focused coping and the high rate of caregivers utilizing less effective coping strategies in instances of worsening cognitive dysfunction, healthcare professionals need to systematically assess the coping strategies of caregivers and deliver a more personalized approach to enhance effective coping among caregivers of patients with brain metastases.

  6. Cognitive complaints in women with fibromyalgia: Are they due to depression or to objective cognitive dysfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelonch, Olga; Garolera, Maite; Valls, Joan; Rosselló, Lluís; Pifarré, Josep

    2017-12-01

    Cognitive complaints are common in fibromyalgia, but it is unclear whether they represent an objective cognitive dysfunction or whether they could be explained by depressive symptoms. Here, we aim to elucidate the frequency of subjective cognitive complaints in a sample of women with fibromyalgia, in addition to analyzing associations between these subjective complaints and objective measures linked to the attention and executive cognitive domains. Finally, we aim to investigate the ability of demographic, clinical, and psychological variables to explain the subjective complaints observed. One hundred and five women aged 30-55 years diagnosed with fibromyalgia completed a neuropsychological assessment, which included measures of attention and executive functions. They also completed self-report inventories of subjective cognitive complaints, depression, anxiety, intensity of pain, sleep quality, everyday physical functioning, and quality of life. Eighty-four percent of the patients reported subjective cognitive complaints. Depression scores, everyday physical functioning, and working memory performance were most strongly associated with subjective cognitive complaints. These three variables were significant predictors for subjective cognitive complaints with a final model explaining 32% of the variance. Cognitive complaints are very frequent in patients with fibromyalgia, and these are related to functional and cognitive impairment as well as to depressive symptoms.

  7. Structural and Genetic Studies Demonstrate Neurologic Dysfunction in Triosephosphate Isomerase Deficiency Is Associated with Impaired Synaptic Vesicle Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roland, Bartholomew P.; Zeccola, Alison M.; Larsen, Samantha B.; Amrich, Christopher G.; Talsma, Aaron D.; Stuchul, Kimberly A.; Heroux, Annie; Levitan, Edwin S.; VanDemark, Andrew P.; Palladino, Michael J.; Pallanck, Leo J.

    2016-03-31

    Triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) deficiency is a poorly understood disease characterized by hemolytic anemia, cardiomyopathy, neurologic dysfunction, and early death. TPI deficiency is one of a group of diseases known as glycolytic enzymopathies, but is unique for its severe patient neuropathology and early mortality. The disease is caused by missense mutations and dysfunction in the glycolytic enzyme, TPI. Previous studies have detailed structural and catalytic changes elicited by disease-associated TPI substitutions, and samples of patient erythrocytes have yielded insight into patient hemolytic anemia; however, the neuropathophysiology of this disease remains a mystery. This study combines structural, biochemical, and genetic approaches to demonstrate that perturbations of the TPI dimer interface are sufficient to elicit TPI deficiency neuropathogenesis. The present study demonstrates that neurologic dysfunction resulting from TPI deficiency is characterized by synaptic vesicle dysfunction, and can be attenuated with catalytically inactive TPI. Collectively, our findings are the first to identify, to our knowledge, a functional synaptic defect in TPI deficiency derived from molecular changes in the TPI dimer interface.

  8. Chronic functional bowel syndrome enhances gut-brain axis dysfunction, neuroinflammation, cognitive impairment, and vulnerability to dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daulatzai, Mak Adam

    2014-04-01

    The irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic functional gastrointestinal disorder world wide that lasts for decades. The human gut harbors a diverse population of microbial organisms which is symbiotic and important for well being. However, studies on conventional, germ-free, and obese animals have shown that alteration in normal commensal gut microbiota and an increase in pathogenic microbiota-termed "dysbiosis", impact gut function, homeostasis, and health. Diarrhea, constipation, visceral hypersensitivity, and abdominal pain arise in IBS from the gut-induced dysfunctional metabolic, immune, and neuro-immune communication. Dysbiosis in IBS is associated with gut inflammation. Gut-related inflammation is pivotal in promoting endotoxemia, systemic inflammation, and neuroinflammation. A significant proportion of IBS patients chronically consume alcohol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, and fatty diet; they may also suffer from co-morbid respiratory, neuromuscular, psychological, sleep, and neurological disorders. The above pathophysiological substrate is underpinned by dysbiosis, and dysfunctional bidirectional "Gut-Brain Axis" pathways. Pathogenic gut microbiota-related systemic inflammation (due to increased lipopolysaccharide and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and barrier dysfunction), may trigger neuroinflammation enhancing dysfunctional brain regions including hippocampus and cerebellum. These as well as dysfunctional vago-vagal gut-brain axis may promote cognitive impairment. Indeed, inflammation is characteristic of a broad spectrum of neurodegenerative diseases that manifest demntia. It is argued that an awareness of pathophysiological impact of IBS and implementation of appropriate therapeutic measures may prevent cognitive impairment and minimize vulnerability to dementia.

  9. LATE NEUROLOGICAL, COGNITIVE AND BEHAVIORAL SEQUELAE OF PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO COUMARINS - A PILOT-STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OLTHOF, E; DEVRIES, TW; TOUWEN, BCL; SMRKOVSKY, M; GEVENBOERE, LM; HEIJMANS, HSA; VANDERVEER, E

    Neurological, cognitive and behavioural development were assessed in a group of 21, 8- to 10-year old children whose mothers took coumarins during pregnancy. Findings were compared with those in a group of 17 control children. The study was performed to test whether it is feasible to carry out a

  10. Distinct brain networks underlie cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson and Alzheimer diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattis, Paul J; Niethammer, Martin; Sako, Wataru; Tang, Chris C; Nazem, Amir; Gordon, Marc L; Brandt, Vicky; Dhawan, Vijay; Eidelberg, David

    2016-11-01

    To determine whether cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease (PD) and Alzheimer disease (AD) derives from the same network pathology. We analyzed 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET scans from 40 patients with AD and 40 age-matched healthy controls from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and scanned an additional 10 patients with AD and 10 healthy controls at The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research to derive an AD-related metabolic pattern (ADRP) analogous to our previously established PD cognition-related pattern (PDCP) and PD motor-related pattern (PDRP). We computed individual subject expression values for ADRP and PDCP in 89 patients with PD and correlated summary scores for cognitive functioning with network expression. We also evaluated changes in ADRP and PDCP expression in a separate group of 15 patients with PD scanned serially over a 4-year period. Analysis revealed a significant AD-related metabolic topography characterized by covarying metabolic reductions in the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and parietal and temporal association regions. Expression of ADRP, but not PDCP, was elevated in both AD groups and correlated with worse cognitive summary scores. Patients with PD showed slight ADRP expression, due to topographic overlap with the network underlying PD motor-related pattern degeneration, but only their PDCP expression values increased as cognitive function and executive performance declined. Longitudinal data in PD disclosed an analogous dissociation of network expression. Cognitive dysfunction in PD is associated with a specific brain network that is largely spatially and functionally distinct from that seen in relation to AD. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  11. A review of postoperative cognitive dysfunction and neuroinflammation associated with cardiac surgery and anaesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Harten, A. E.; Scheeren, T. W. L.; Absalom, A. R.

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction is receiving increasing attention, particularly as it mainly affects the (growing) elderly population. Until recently, cognitive deficits after cardiac surgery were thought to be caused by physiological disturbances associated with the cardiopulmonary bypass

  12. Molecular mechanisms of cognitive dysfunction following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kendall R; Tesco, Giuseppina

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in significant disability due to cognitive deficits particularly in attention, learning and memory, and higher-order executive functions. The role of TBI in chronic neurodegeneration and the development of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and most recently chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is of particular importance. However, despite significant effort very few therapeutic options exist to prevent or reverse cognitive impairment following TBI. In this review, we present experimental evidence of the known secondary injury mechanisms which contribute to neuronal cell loss, axonal injury, and synaptic dysfunction and hence cognitive impairment both acutely and chronically following TBI. In particular we focus on the mechanisms linking TBI to the development of two forms of dementia: AD and CTE. We provide evidence of potential molecular mechanisms involved in modulating Aβ and Tau following TBI and provide evidence of the role of these mechanisms in AD pathology. Additionally we propose a mechanism by which Aβ generated as a direct result of TBI is capable of exacerbating secondary injury mechanisms thereby establishing a neurotoxic cascade that leads to chronic neurodegeneration.

  13. Molecular mechanisms of cognitive dysfunction following traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kendall R.; Tesco, Giuseppina

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in significant disability due to cognitive deficits particularly in attention, learning and memory, and higher-order executive functions. The role of TBI in chronic neurodegeneration and the development of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and most recently chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is of particular importance. However, despite significant effort very few therapeutic options exist to prevent or reverse cognitive impairment following TBI. In this review, we present experimental evidence of the known secondary injury mechanisms which contribute to neuronal cell loss, axonal injury, and synaptic dysfunction and hence cognitive impairment both acutely and chronically following TBI. In particular we focus on the mechanisms linking TBI to the development of two forms of dementia: AD and CTE. We provide evidence of potential molecular mechanisms involved in modulating Aβ and Tau following TBI and provide evidence of the role of these mechanisms in AD pathology. Additionally we propose a mechanism by which Aβ generated as a direct result of TBI is capable of exacerbating secondary injury mechanisms thereby establishing a neurotoxic cascade that leads to chronic neurodegeneration. PMID:23847533

  14. Molecular Mechanisms of Cognitive Dysfunction following Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendall Rae Walker

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI results in significant disability due to cognitive deficits particularly in attention, learning and memory and higher-order executive functions. The role of TBI in chronic neurodegeneration and the development of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease (AD, Parkinson’s disease (PD, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS and most recently chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE is of particular importance. However, despite significant effort very few therapeutic options exist to prevent or reverse cognitive impairment following TBI. In this review we present experimental evidence of the known secondary injury mechanisms which contribute to neuronal cell loss, axonal injury and synaptic dysfunction and hence cognitive impairment both acutely and chronically following TBI. In particular we focus on the mechanisms linking TBI to the development of two forms of dementia: AD and CTE. We provide evidence of potential molecular mechanisms involved in modulating Aβ and Tau following TBI and provide evidence of the role of these mechanisms in AD pathology. Additionally we propose a mechanism by which Aβ generated as a direct result of TBI is capable of exacerbating secondary injury mechanisms thereby establishing a neurotoxic cascade that leads to chronic neurodegeneration.

  15. Cognitive dysfunction is sustained after rescue therapy in experimental cerebral malaria, and is reduced by additive antioxidant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Patricia A; Comim, Clarissa M; Hermani, Fernanda; Silva, Bruno; Barichello, Tatiana; Portella, Aline C; Gomes, Flavia C A; Sab, Ive M; Frutuoso, Valber S; Oliveira, Marcus F; Bozza, Patricia T; Bozza, Fernando A; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Zimmerman, Guy A; Quevedo, João; Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo C

    2010-06-24

    Neurological impairments are frequently detected in children surviving cerebral malaria (CM), the most severe neurological complication of infection with Plasmodium falciparum. The pathophysiology and therapy of long lasting cognitive deficits in malaria patients after treatment of the parasitic disease is a critical area of investigation. In the present study we used several models of experimental malaria with differential features to investigate persistent cognitive damage after rescue treatment. Infection of C57BL/6 and Swiss (SW) mice with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) or a lethal strain of Plasmodium yoelii XL (PyXL), respectively, resulted in documented CM and sustained persistent cognitive damage detected by a battery of behavioral tests after cure of the acute parasitic disease with chloroquine therapy. Strikingly, cognitive impairment was still present 30 days after the initial infection. In contrast, BALB/c mice infected with PbA, C57BL6 infected with Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi and SW infected with non lethal Plasmodium yoelii NXL (PyNXL) did not develop signs of CM, were cured of the acute parasitic infection by chloroquine, and showed no persistent cognitive impairment. Reactive oxygen species have been reported to mediate neurological injury in CM. Increased production of malondialdehyde (MDA) and conjugated dienes was detected in the brains of PbA-infected C57BL/6 mice with CM, indicating high oxidative stress. Treatment of PbA-infected C57BL/6 mice with additive antioxidants together with chloroquine at the first signs of CM prevented the development of persistent cognitive damage. These studies provide new insights into the natural history of cognitive dysfunction after rescue therapy for CM that may have clinical relevance, and may also be relevant to cerebral sequelae of sepsis and other disorders.

  16. Cognitive dysfunction is sustained after rescue therapy in experimental cerebral malaria, and is reduced by additive antioxidant therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A Reis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurological impairments are frequently detected in children surviving cerebral malaria (CM, the most severe neurological complication of infection with Plasmodium falciparum. The pathophysiology and therapy of long lasting cognitive deficits in malaria patients after treatment of the parasitic disease is a critical area of investigation. In the present study we used several models of experimental malaria with differential features to investigate persistent cognitive damage after rescue treatment. Infection of C57BL/6 and Swiss (SW mice with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA or a lethal strain of Plasmodium yoelii XL (PyXL, respectively, resulted in documented CM and sustained persistent cognitive damage detected by a battery of behavioral tests after cure of the acute parasitic disease with chloroquine therapy. Strikingly, cognitive impairment was still present 30 days after the initial infection. In contrast, BALB/c mice infected with PbA, C57BL6 infected with Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi and SW infected with non lethal Plasmodium yoelii NXL (PyNXL did not develop signs of CM, were cured of the acute parasitic infection by chloroquine, and showed no persistent cognitive impairment. Reactive oxygen species have been reported to mediate neurological injury in CM. Increased production of malondialdehyde (MDA and conjugated dienes was detected in the brains of PbA-infected C57BL/6 mice with CM, indicating high oxidative stress. Treatment of PbA-infected C57BL/6 mice with additive antioxidants together with chloroquine at the first signs of CM prevented the development of persistent cognitive damage. These studies provide new insights into the natural history of cognitive dysfunction after rescue therapy for CM that may have clinical relevance, and may also be relevant to cerebral sequelae of sepsis and other disorders.

  17. The Effects of the Cognitive-Behavioral Marriage Enrichment Program on the Dysfunctional Attitudes of Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Melek; Ersanli, Ercumend

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral marriage enrichment program to decrease the level of the dysfunctional attitudes of the couples. Forty participants with dysfunctional attitudes determined by The Dysfunctional Attitude Scale were randomly chosen as experimental and control groups. The results of the…

  18. Maternal Depressive Symptoms, Dysfunctional Cognitions, and Infant Night Waking: The Role of Maternal Nighttime Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teti, Douglas M.; Crosby, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Mechanisms were examined to clarify relations between maternal depressive symptoms, dysfunctional cognitions, and infant night waking among 45 infants (1-24 months) and their mothers. A mother-driven mediational model was tested in which maternal depressive symptoms and dysfunctional cognitions about infant sleep predicted infant night waking via…

  19. Clinical and Neurological Status in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment due to Chronic Cerebral Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokudhon N. Madjidova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our work was to study the neurological status and cognitive function in patients with stage I and II CCI, depending on its nature. Material and Methods: The study included 302 patients (mean age - 61.3±0.3 years; 165/54.6% men and 137/45.4% women with stage I and II CCI. Clinical and neurological examination, study of cognitive function, and MRI were performed in all patients. The degree of cognitive defect was determined by the MMSE (Mini-Mental State Exam test and the Bourdon test (visual perception and vigilance. All the subjects were categorized into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 133 patients with the amnestic type of MCI (AT-MCI; Group 2 consisted of 169 patients with the multifunction type of MCI (MT-MCI. Results: The highest frequency of complaints of a cerebral nature was observed in Group 2 patients with MT-MCI compared to Group 1 patients with AT-MCI. It should be noted that memory impairment occurred in all patients in Group 1. The clinical-neurological examination revealed that the subjective complaints of a cerebral nature occurred significantly more frequently in Group 2 patients compared with Group 1 patients, except for the memory disorders, which prevailed in Group 1 patients with AT-MCI. With regard to the objective symptoms, the focal neurological symptoms occurred with equal frequency in both groups. It should be noted that the symptoms of the carotid region were more frequent in Group 2 patients and the symptoms of the vertebrobasilar region in Group 1 patients. The parameters of the cognitive function related to the concentration and stability of attention were less disturbed in patients with AT-MCI compared with the patients having the MT-MCI, and those parameters correlated with the parameters of the neurological focal symptoms.

  20. Effect of cognitive dysfunction on the relationship between age and health literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Goodman, Melody S; MacMillan, William D; Carpenter, Christopher R; Griffey, Richard T

    2014-05-01

    Age is generally an inverse predictor of health literacy. However, the role of cognitive dysfunction among older adults in this relationship is not understood. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 446 adult patients in a large urban academic level one trauma center, assessing health literacy and cognitive dysfunction. Removing older patients (60 years of age and older) who screened positive for cognitive dysfunction attenuated the relationship between age and health literacy (r=-0.16, p=0.001 vs. r=-0.35, pliteracy than older patients screening negative and patients less than 60 years; health literacy scores did not generally differ significantly between the latter groups. Much of the relationship between age and health literacy was driven by cognitive dysfunction among a subset of older adults. Our findings suggest that older patients with cognitive dysfunction have the greatest need for health literacy interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Structure-Function Relationships behind the Phenomenon of Cognitive Resilience in Neurology: Insights for Neuroscience and Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    David Rudrauf

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of cognitive resilience, that is, the dynamical preservation of normal functions despite neurological disorders, demonstrates that cognition can be highly robust to devastating brain injury. Here, cognitive resilience is considered across a range of neurological conditions. Simple computational models of structure-function relationships are used to discuss hypotheses about the neural mechanisms of resilience. Resilience expresses functional redundancies in brain networks and su...

  2. Perinatal asphyxia in the guinea pig leads to morphologic but not neurologic, cognitive, or behavioral changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeger, Harald; Bubna-Littitz, Herrmann; Engelmann, Mario; Schwerdtner, Ingrid; Schmid, Diethard; Lahoda, Robert; Seidl, Rainer; Lubec, Gert; Lubec, Barbara

    2003-07-01

    In a recent publication, we described neurodegeneration along with neurotransmitter deficits and impaired differentiation in the guinea pig 3 months following severe perinatal asphyxia (PA). We were therefore interested in the clinical features in terms of neurology, cognitive functions, and behavior. We tested the long-term effects of PA in an animal model, which in the rat are well documented and resemble the clinical situation. Examinations consisted of an observational battery for motor and reflex functions and the acoustic startle response setting. We tested cognitive functions in the multiple T-maze and evaluated behavior using the elevated plus maze and open field studies. No neurologic deficits were observed in the observational battery, including the acoustic startle response. Cognitive functions of memory and learning were not impaired in the multiple T-maze. In the open field and in the elevated plus maze, the system to test anxiety-related behavior, guinea pigs performed well. Our findings of patent neurology, cognitive functions, and behavior do not reflect the prominent morphologic findings of neurodegeneration. This is in agreement with corresponding studies on PA in the rat at the identical time point. We learned from this study that both test systems, although representing the standard in neuroscience, are either not sensitive enough or central nervous system lesions are clinically fully compensated.

  3. Malaria with neurological involvement in Ugandan children: effect on cognitive ability, academic achievement and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangirana, Paul; Musisi, Seggane; Boivin, Michael J; Ehnvall, Anna; John, Chandy C; Bergemann, Tracy L; Allebeck, Peter

    2011-11-03

    Malaria is a leading cause of ill health and neuro-disability in children in sub-Saharan Africa. Impaired cognition is a common outcome of malaria with neurological involvement. There is also a possibility that academic achievement may be affected by malaria with neurological involvement given the association between cognitive ability and academic achievement. This study investigated the effect of malaria with neurological involvement on cognitive ability, behaviour and academic achievement. This prospective case-control study was carried out in Kampala City, Uganda between February 2008 and October 2010. Sixty-two children with a history of malaria with neurological involvement were followed up and given assessments for cognitive ability (working memory, reasoning, learning, visual spatial skills and attention), behaviour (internalizing and externalizing problems) and academic achievement (arithmetic, spelling and reading) three months after the illness. Sixty-one community controls recruited from the homes or neighbouring families of the cases were also given the same assessments. Tests scores of the two groups were compared using analysis of covariance with age, sex, level of education, nutritional status and quality of the home environment as covariates. This study was approved by the relevant ethical bodies and informed consent sought from the caregivers. Children in the malaria group had more behavioural problems than the community controls for internalizing problems (estimated mean difference = -3.71, 95% confidence interval (CI), = -6.34 to -1.08, p = 0.007). There was marginal evidence of lower attention scores (0.40, CI = -0.05 to 0.86, p = 0.09). However, excluding one child from the analyses who was unable to perform the tests affected the attention scores to borderline significance (0.32, CI, = 0.01 to 0.62, p = 0.05). No significant differences were observed in other cognitive abilities or in academic achievement scores. Malaria with neurological

  4. Malaria with neurological involvement in Ugandan children: effect on cognitive ability, academic achievement and behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangirana Paul

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a leading cause of ill health and neuro-disability in children in sub-Saharan Africa. Impaired cognition is a common outcome of malaria with neurological involvement. There is also a possibility that academic achievement may be affected by malaria with neurological involvement given the association between cognitive ability and academic achievement. This study investigated the effect of malaria with neurological involvement on cognitive ability, behaviour and academic achievement. Methods This prospective case-control study was carried out in Kampala City, Uganda between February 2008 and October 2010. Sixty-two children with a history of malaria with neurological involvement were followed up and given assessments for cognitive ability (working memory, reasoning, learning, visual spatial skills and attention, behaviour (internalizing and externalizing problems and academic achievement (arithmetic, spelling and reading three months after the illness. Sixty-one community controls recruited from the homes or neighbouring families of the cases were also given the same assessments. Tests scores of the two groups were compared using analysis of covariance with age, sex, level of education, nutritional status and quality of the home environment as covariates. This study was approved by the relevant ethical bodies and informed consent sought from the caregivers. Results Children in the malaria group had more behavioural problems than the community controls for internalizing problems (estimated mean difference = -3.71, 95% confidence interval (CI, = -6.34 to -1.08, p = 0.007. There was marginal evidence of lower attention scores (0.40, CI = -0.05 to 0.86, p = 0.09. However, excluding one child from the analyses who was unable to perform the tests affected the attention scores to borderline significance (0.32, CI, = 0.01 to 0.62, p = 0.05. No significant differences were observed in other cognitive abilities or in academic

  5. An eye-tracking controlled neuropsychological battery for cognitive assessment in neurological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Barbara; Carelli, Laura; Solca, Federica; Lafronza, Annalisa; Pedroli, Elisa; Faini, Andrea; Zago, Stefano; Ticozzi, Nicola; Ciammola, Andrea; Morelli, Claudia; Meriggi, Paolo; Cipresso, Pietro; Lulé, Dorothée; Ludolph, Albert C; Riva, Giuseppe; Silani, Vincenzo

    2017-04-01

    Traditional cognitive assessment in neurological conditions involving physical disability is often prevented by the presence of verbal-motor impairment; to date, an extensive motor-verbal-free neuropsychological battery is not available for such purposes. We adapted a set of neuropsychological tests, assessing language, attentional abilities, executive functions and social cognition, for eye-tracking (ET) control, and explored its feasibility in a sample of healthy participants. Thirty healthy subjects performed a neuropsychological assessment, using an ET-based neuropsychological battery, together with standard "paper and pencil" cognitive measures for frontal (Frontal Assessment Battery-FAB) and working memory abilities (Digit Sequencing Task) and for global cognitive efficiency (Montreal Cognitive Assessment-MoCA). Psychological measures of anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Y-STAI-Y) and depression (Beck Depression Inventory-BDI) were also collected, and a usability questionnaire was administered. Significant correlations were observed between the "paper and pencil" screening of working memory abilities and the ET-based neuropsychological measures. The ET-based battery also correlated with the MoCA, while poor correlations were observed with the FAB. Usability aspects were found to be influenced by both working memory abilities and psychological components. The ET-based neuropsychological battery developed could provide an extensive assessment of cognitive functions, allowing participants to perform tasks independently from the integrity of motor or verbal channels. Further studies will be aimed at investigating validity and usability components in neurological populations with motor-verbal impairments.

  6. A Patient with Interstitial 5q21 Deletion, Familial Adenomatous Polyposis, Dysmorphic Features, and Profound Neurologic Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoochehr Karjoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP is a hereditary autosomal dominant cancer syndrome, results from germ line mutation or deletion of the Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC gene on chromosome 5q21. Patients with FAP suffer from multiple polyps mainly at the colorectal region as well as other parts of the gastrointestinal tract, which has propensity to transform into carcinoma. FAP has also been well described in association with various syndromic extra-gastrointestinal manifestations. Less commonly, patients with FAP present with varying degrees of cognitive dysfunction and developmental delay, though the reason for the association is unclear. Herein, we report the case of a male patient born with an interstitial deletion of chromosome 5q, 46,XY, del(5 (q14q23, presenting with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP, profound developmental delay, cognitive dysfunction, and multiple congenital anomalies including talipes equinovarus, agenesis of the corpus callosum, and dysmorphic facial features.

  7. Altering the Cognitive-Affective Dysfunctions of Psychopathic and Externalizing Offender Subtypes with Cognitive Remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Curtin, John J; Newman, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive remediation is a treatment approach with the potential to translate basic science into more specific, mechanism-based interventions by targeting particular cognitive skills. The present study translated understanding of two well-defined cognitive-emotion dysfunctions into novel deficit-matched interventions and evaluated whether cognitive remediation would demonstrate specific and generalizable change. Two antisocial-subtypes, individuals with psychopathy and externalizing traits, are characterized by cognitive-affective problems that predispose them to engage in significant substance abuse and criminal behavior, culminating in incarceration. Whereas individuals with psychopathy fail to consider important contextual information, individuals with externalizing traits lack the capacity to regulate affective reactions. Training designed to remedy these subtype-specific deficits led to improvement on both trained and non-trained tasks. Such findings offer promise for changing neural and behavioral patterns, even for what many consider to be the most recalcitrant treatment population, and presage a new era of translating cognitive-affective science into increasingly specific and effective interventions.

  8. Arterial Blood Pressure Management during Carotid Endarterectomy and Early Cognitive Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyer, Eric J.; Mergeche, Joanna L.; Anastasian, Zirka H.; Kim, Minjae; Mallon, Kaitlin A.; Connolly, E. Sander

    2014-01-01

    Background A common practice during cross-clamp of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is to manage mean arterial pressure (MAP) above baseline to optimize collateral cerebral blood flow and reduce risk of ischemic stroke. Objective To determine whether MAP management ≥20% above baseline during cross-clamp is associated with lower risk of early cognitive dysfunction, a subtler form of neurologic injury than stroke. Methods One hundred eighty-three patients undergoing CEA were enrolled in this ad hoc study. All patients had radial arterial catheters placed prior to induction of general anesthesia. MAP was managed at the discretion of the anesthesiologist. All patients were evaluated with a battery of neuropsychometric tests pre-operatively and 24hrs post-operatively. Results Overall, 28.4% of CEA patients exhibited early cognitive dysfunction (eCD). Significantly fewer patients with MAP ≥20% above baseline during cross-clamp exhibited eCD than those managed <20% above (11.6% vs. 38.6%, P<0.001). In a multivariate logistic regression model, MAP ≥20% above baseline during the cross-clamp period was associated with significantly lower risk of eCD (OR: 0.18 [0.07–0.40], P<0.001), while diabetes mellitus (OR: 2.73 [1.14–6.61], P=0.03) and each additional year of education (OR: 1.19 [1.06–1.34], P=0.003) were associated with significantly higher risk of eCD. Conclusion The observations of this study suggest MAP management ≥20% above baseline during cross-clamp of the carotid artery may be associated with lower risk of eCD after CEA. More prospective work is necessary to determine whether MAP ≥20% above baseline during cross-clamp can improve the safety of this commonly performed procedure. PMID:24335822

  9. Specificity of Cognitive Impairment in Neurological Disease: A Methodological Critique of Parkinson’s Disease

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    H. J. Sagar

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple cognitive deficits have been recognized in many neurological disorders but the specificity of the findings and the relationship to the underlying neuropathology remain obscure. Definitions of dementia have been proposed based on symptom profiles of the cognitive disorder and qualitative differences have been claimed between dementias of different aetiology. Some conditions have been claimed to show patterns of cognitive deficit that are distinguished from dementia and related to specific neuropathology or psychological processes, e.g. frontal lobe deficits in Parkinson's disease. Sometimes, a relationship has been established between certain cognitive deficits and particular neurochemical deficits which has led to the notion of specific drug treatment, e.g. cholinergic deficits and memory failure in Alzheimer's disease. However, these conclusions are often potentially flawed by methodological inadequacies. This critique presents some methodological issues relevant to the study of brain-behaviour and drug-behaviour relationships in syndromes of multiple cognitive deficit, using Parkinson's disease as the model. The following recommendations are made: rigid diagnostic criteria; representative patient groups; avoidance of arbitrary quantitative criteria to limit definitions of dementia; matching of groups for overall level of cognitive impairment in the search for qualitative cognitive differences related to neuropathology or effects of particular drugs; the use of suitable controls in patient groups, neuropsychological tests and treatment regimes; the use of specific quantitative tests of cognition, affect and motor disability; and longitudinal, compared with cross-sectional, study design.

  10. The role of mitochondrial OXPHOS dysfunction in the development of neurologic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breuer, M.E.; Koopman, W.J.H.; Koene, S.; Nooteboom, M.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.; Willems, P.H.G.M.; Smeitink, J.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    The development of neurologic disease is a complex and multi-faceted process. Several factors, such as physiology, environment and genetics may play key roles in the manifestation of the associated illnesses. During the past decades, it has become clear that, at the cellular level, mitochondria

  11. Green Tea Consumption Affects Cognitive Dysfunction in the Elderly: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Ide

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Green tea is known to have various health benefits for humans. However, the effect of green tea consumption on cognitive dysfunction remains to be clinically verified. We conducted a clinical study to investigate the effects of green tea consumption on cognitive dysfunction. Twelve elderly nursing home residents with cognitive dysfunction (Mini-Mental State Examination Japanese version (MMSE-J score: <28 participated in the study (2 men, 10 women; mean age, 88 years. The participants consumed green tea powder 2 g/day for 3 months. After three months of green tea consumption, the participants’ MMSE-J scores were significantly improved (before, 15.3 ± 7.7; after, 17.0 ± 8.2; p = 0.03. This result suggests that green tea consumption may be effective in improving cognitive function or reducing the progression of cognitive dysfunction; however, long-term large-scale controlled studies are needed to further clarify the effect.

  12. Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratio as a Predictor of Cognitive Dysfunction in Carotid Endarterectomy Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halazun, Hadi J.; Mergeche, Joanna L.; Mallon, Kaitlin A.; Connolly, E. Sander; Heyer, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Systemic inflammation has been implicated in the development of cognitive dysfunction following carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a reliable measure of systemic inflammation. We hypothesize that patients with elevated preoperative NLR have increased risk of cognitive dysfunction 1 day after CEA. Methods Five hundred fifty-one (551) patients scheduled for CEA were enrolled at Columbia University in New York, NY from 1995 to 2012. NLR was retrospectively reviewed; only 432 patients had preoperative NLR values available within 2 weeks of CEA. NLR was analyzed as a continuous variable and categorically with a cutoff of ≥5 and <5 and equal tertiles, as done in previous studies. Results Patients with cognitive dysfunction had significantly higher NLR than those without cognitive dysfunction (4.5±4.0 vs. 3.2±2.6, P<0.001). The incidence of cognitive dysfunction was significantly higher in patients with NLR ≥5 than NLR <5 (34.7% vs. 12.8%, P<0.001). Significantly fewer patients in the low tertile had cognitive dysfunction than in the high tertile (6.9% vs. 25.9%, P<0.001) and middle tertile (6.9% vs. 17.4%, P=0.006). In the final multivariate model, diabetes mellitus (OR: 2.03 [1.08–3.75], P=0.03) and NLR ≥5 (OR: 3.38 [1.81–6.27], P<0.001) were significantly associated with higher odds of cognitive dysfunction, while statin use was significantly associated with lower odds (OR: 0.48 [0.27–0.84], P=0.01). Conclusions Preoperative NLR is associated with cognitive dysfunction 1 day after CEA. NLR ≥5 and diabetes mellitus are significantly associated with increased odds of cognitive dysfunction while statin use is significantly associated with decreased odds. PMID:24571940

  13. Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging correlates of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke-Canadian Stroke Network vascular cognitive impairment neuropsychology protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Adrian; Wang, Defeng; Black, Sandra E; Nyenhuis, David L; Shi, Lin; Chu, Winnie C W; Xiong, Yun-yun; Au, Lisa; Lau, Alexander; Chan, Anne Y Y; Wong, Lawrence K S; Mok, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) refers to the entire spectrum of cognitive dysfunction attributable to vascular changes in the brain. The objective of this study is to evaluate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) correlates of performance on the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke-Canadian Stroke Network (NINDS-CSN) VCI neuropsychology protocols. Fifty ischemic stroke patients and 50 normal elderly persons completed the VCI protocols and MRI. Relationships between the four cognitive domains (executive/activation, language, visuospatial, and memory) and three protocol (60-, 30-, and 5-min) summary scores with MRI measures of volumes of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and global brain and hippocampal atrophy were assessed using linear regression. All cognitive domain scores were associated with WMH volume and, with the exception of language domain, with global atrophy. Additional relationships were found between executive/activation and language domains with left hippocampal volume, visuospatial domain with right hippocampal volume, and memory domain with bilateral hippocampal volumes. All protocol summary scores showed comparable relationships with WMH and hippocampal volumes, with additional relationships found between the 60- and 30-min protocols with global brain volume. Performance on the NINDS-CSN VCI protocols reflects underlying volumetric brain changes implicated in cognitive dysfunctions in VCI.

  14. Neurological soft signs in aging, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer´s disease – the impact of cognitive decline and cognitive reserve

    OpenAIRE

    Nadja eUrbanowitsch; Christina eDegen; Pablo eToro; Johannes eSchröder

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Neurological soft signs (NSS), i.e. minor motor and sensory changes, are a common feature in severe psychiatric disorders. We sought to establish the frequency of NSS in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) on basis of a large population based sample and to identify their neuropsychological correlates including cognitive reserve.Methods: NSS were examined using an abbreviated version of the Heidelberg NSS Scale in 221 old participants born bet...

  15. The association between cognition and academic performance in Ugandan children surviving malaria with neurological involvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Bangirana

    Full Text Available The contribution of different cognitive abilities to academic performance in children surviving cerebral insult can guide the choice of interventions to improve cognitive and academic outcomes. This study's objective was to identify which cognitive abilities are associated with academic performance in children after malaria with neurological involvement.62 Ugandan children with a history of malaria with neurological involvement were assessed for cognitive ability (working memory, reasoning, learning, visual spatial skills, attention and academic performance (reading, spelling, arithmetic three months after the illness. Linear regressions were fit for each academic score with the five cognitive outcomes entered as predictors. Adjusters in the analysis were age, sex, education, nutrition, and home environment. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA and structural equation models (SEM were used to determine the nature of the association between cognition and academic performance. Predictive residual sum of squares was used to determine which combination of cognitive scores was needed to predict academic performance.In regressions of a single academic score on all five cognitive outcomes and adjusters, only Working Memory was associated with Reading (coefficient estimate = 0.36, 95% confidence interval = 0.10 to 0.63, p<0.01 and Spelling (0.46, 0.13 to 0.78, p<0.01, Visual Spatial Skills was associated with Arithmetic (0.15, 0.03 to 0.26, p<0.05, and Learning was associated with Reading (0.06, 0.00 to 0.11, p<0.05. One latent cognitive factor was identified using EFA. The SEM found a strong association between this latent cognitive ability and each academic performance measure (P<0.0001. Working memory, visual spatial ability and learning were the best predictors of academic performance.Academic performance is strongly associated with the latent variable labelled "cognitive ability" which captures most of the variation in the individual specific

  16. An epigenetic hypothesis of aging-related cognitive dysfunction

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    Marsha R Penner

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This brief review will focus on a new hypothesis for the role of epigenetic mechanisms in aging-related disruptions of synaptic plasticity and memory. Epigenetics refers to a set of potentially self-perpetuating, covalent modifications of DNA and post-translational modifications of nuclear proteins that produce lasting alterations in chromatin structure. These mechanisms, in turn, result in alterations in specific patterns of gene expression. Aging-related memory decline is manifest prominently in declarative/episodic memory and working memory, memory modalities anatomically based largely in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, respectively. The neurobiological underpinnings of age-related memory deficits include aberrant changes in gene transcription that ultimately affect the ability of the aged brain to be “plastic”. The molecular mechanisms underlying these changes in gene transcription are not currently known, but recent work points toward a potential novel mechanism, dysregulation of epigenetic mechanisms. This has led us to hypothesize that dysregulation of epigenetic control mechanisms and aberrant epigenetic “marks” drive aging-related cognitive dysfunction. Here we focus on this theme, reviewing current knowledge concerning epigenetic molecular mechanisms, as well as recent results suggesting disruption of plasticity and memory formation during aging. Finally, several open questions will be discussed that we believe will fuel experimental discovery.

  17. Evaluation of the effects of group psychotherapy on cognitive function in patients with multiple sclerosis with cognitive dysfunction and depression

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    Emine Bilgi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study will evaluate how decreasing depression severity via group psychotherapy affects the cognitive function of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS who are also diagnosed with depression and cognitive dysfunction. Method MS patients completed the Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. The group members diagnosed with depression and cognitive dysfunction underwent group psychotherapy for 3 months. Upon completion of psychotherapy, both tests were readministered. Results Depression and cognitive dysfunction were comorbid in 15 (13.9% of patients. Although improvement was detected at the end of the 3-month group psychotherapy intervention, it was limited to the BDI and the Paced Auditory Test. Conclusion Group psychotherapy might decrease cognitive impairment in MS patients.

  18. Architects of the genome: CHD dysfunction in cancer, developmental disorders and neurological syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wangzhi; Mills, Alea A

    2014-01-01

    Chromatin is vital to normal cells, and its deregulation contributes to a spectrum of human ailments. An emerging concept is that aberrant chromatin regulation culminates in gene expression programs that set the stage for the seemingly diverse pathologies of cancer, developmental disorders and neurological syndromes. However, the mechanisms responsible for such common etiology have been elusive. Recent evidence has implicated lesions affecting chromatin-remodeling proteins in cancer, developmental disorders and neurological syndromes, suggesting a common source for these different pathologies. Here, we focus on the chromodomain helicase DNA binding chromatin-remodeling family and the recent evidence for its deregulation in diverse pathological conditions, providing a new perspective on the underlying mechanisms and their implications for these prevalent human diseases.

  19. Prognostic value of ICU-acquired hypernatremia in patients with neurological dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bei; Han, Qianpeng; Mengke, Nashun; He, Kairan; Zhang, Yiqin; Nie, Zhiqiang; Zeng, Hongke

    2016-08-01

    Many studies have indicated that hypernatremia is associated with increased mortality. In this study, we aimed to explore the relationship between intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired hypernatremia and the prognosis of critically neurological patients.Based on serum sodium level in the ICU, 450 patients were divided into 3 groups: 222 had normal serum sodium, 142 had mild hypernatremia, and 86 had severe hypernatremia. Kaplan-Meier and multivariable binary logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the prognostic value of hypernatremia in critically neurological patients. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed for serum sodium levels to determine their roles in predicting ICU mortality.Hypernatremia was significantly related with age, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, serum sodium, APACHE II score, and serum creatinine. Moreover, the different treatment outcome including mechanical ventilation, the days of stayed in ICU, and Glasgow Outcome Scale score had correlation with serum sodium levels. Old ages, GCS score, therapeutic intervention scoring system (TISS) score, APACHE II score, serum sodium peak, and so on were all associated with the mortality. In addition, hypernatremia was an independent prognostic factor for critically neurological patients by logistic regression analysis (odds ratio = 1.192, 95% confidence interval = 1.135-1.252, P = 0.000). Moreover, we got the sensitivity of 79.4% and specificity of 74.5% in the ROC analysis between peak serum sodium and the mortality. The area under the ROC curve was 0.844, and the optimal cutoff value was 147.55.Our results showed that ICU-acquired hypernatremia may be a potential prognosis marker for critically neurological patients.

  20. The relationship between insight and neurological dysfunction in first-episode psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hill, M

    2012-04-01

    Impaired insight is commonly seen in psychosis and some studies have proposed that is a biologically based deficit. Support for this view comes from the excess of neurological soft signs (NSS) observed in patients with psychoses and their neural correlates which demonstrate a degree of overlap with the regions of interest implicated in neuroimaging studies of insight. The aim was to examine the relationship between NSS and insight in a sample of 241 first-episode psychosis patients.

  1. Prognostic value of ICU-acquired hypernatremia in patients with neurological dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Bei; Han, Qianpeng; Mengke, Nashun; He, Kairan; Zhang, Yiqin; Nie, Zhiqiang; Zeng, Hongke

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Many studies have indicated that hypernatremia is associated with increased mortality. In this study, we aimed to explore the relationship between intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired hypernatremia and the prognosis of critically neurological patients. Based on serum sodium level in the ICU, 450 patients were divided into 3 groups: 222 had normal serum sodium, 142 had mild hypernatremia, and 86 had severe hypernatremia. Kaplan?Meier and multivariable binary logistic regression analyses...

  2. Cognitive impairment and memory dysfunction after a stroke diagnosis: a post-stroke memory assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Qazzaz NK

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Noor Kamal Al-Qazzaz,1,5 Sawal Hamid Ali,1 Siti Anom Ahmad,2 Shabiul Islam,3 Khairiyah Mohamad41Department of Electrical, Electronic and Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 3Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics (IMEN, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia; 4Neurology Unit, Department of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 5Department of Biomedical Engineering, Al-Khwarizmi College of Engineering, Baghdad University, Baghdad, IraqAbstract: Cognitive impairment and memory dysfunction following stroke diagnosis are common symptoms that significantly affect the survivors’ quality of life. Stroke patients have a high potential to develop dementia within the first year of stroke onset. Currently, efforts are being exerted to assess stroke effects on the brain, particularly in the early stages. Numerous neuropsychological assessments are being used to evaluate and differentiate cognitive impairment and dementia following stroke. This article focuses on the role of available neuropsychological assessments in detection of dementia and memory loss after stroke. This review starts with stroke types and risk factors associated with dementia development, followed by a brief description of stroke diagnosis criteria and the effects of stroke on the brain that lead to cognitive impairment and end with memory loss. This review aims to combine available neuropsychological assessments to develop a post-stroke memory assessment (PSMA scheme based on the most recognized and available studies. The proposed PSMA is expected to assess different types of memory functionalities that are related to different parts of the brain according to stroke location. An

  3. Effectiveness of music-based interventions on motricity or cognitive functioning in neurological populations: a systematic review.

    OpenAIRE

    Moumdjian, Lousin; Sarkamo, Teppo; Leone, Carmela; Leman, Marc; Feys, Peter

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Motor and cognitive symptoms are frequent in persons with neurological disorders and often require extensive long-term rehabilitation. Recently, a variety of musicbased interventions have been introduced into neurological rehabilitation as training tools. AIM: This review aims to a) describe and define music-based intervention modalities and content which are applied in experimental studies, and b) describe the effects of these interventions on motor and/or cognitive symptoms...

  4. Neurological soft signs in persons with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and the relationships to neuropsychological functions

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    Li Hui-jie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurological abnormalities have been reported in people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI. The current study aimed to examine the prevalence of neurological soft signs (NSS in this clinical group and to examine the relationship of NSS to other neuropsychological performances. Methods Twenty-nine people with aMCI and 28 cognitively healthy elderly people were recruited for the present study. The NSS subscales (motor coordination, sensory integration, and disinhibition of the Cambridge Neurological Inventory and a set of neuropsychological tests were administered to all the participants. Results People with aMCI exhibited significantly more motor coordination signs, disinhibition signs, and total NSS than normal controls. Correlation analysis showed that the motor coordination subscale score and total score of NSS were significantly inversely correlated with the combined Z-score of neuropsychological tests in aMCI group. Conclusions These preliminary findings suggested that people with aMCI demonstrated a higher prevalence of NSS compared to healthy elderly people. Moreover, NSS was found to be inversely correlated with the neuropsychological performances in persons with aMCI. When taken together, these findings suggested that NSS may play a potential important role and serve as a tool to assist in the early detection of aMCI.

  5. COGNOS : Care for People With Cognitive Dysfunction A National Observational Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mets, Tony; De Deyn, Peter P.; Pals, Philippe; De Lepeleire, Jan; Vandewoude, Maurits; Ventura, Manfredi; Ivanoiu, Adrian; Albert, Adelin; Seghers, An-Katrien

    2013-01-01

    Care plans are intended to improve the independence and functioning of patients with cognitive dysfunction and support the caregivers involved. They are an integral part of the Belgian reimbursement procedure for cholinesterase inhibitors. This nationwide, multicenter, observational study examined

  6. Reducing dysfunctional beliefs about sleep does not significantly improve insomnia in cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okajima, Isa; Nakajima, Shun; Ochi, Moeko; Inoue, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined to examine whether improvement of insomnia is mediated by a reduction in sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs through cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. In total, 64 patients with chronic insomnia received cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia consisting of 6 biweekly individual treatment sessions of 50 minutes in length. Participants were asked to complete the Athens Insomnia Scale and the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep scale both at the baseline and at the end of treatment. The results showed that although cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia greatly reduced individuals' scores on both scales, the decrease in dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep with treatment did not seem to mediate improvement in insomnia. The findings suggest that sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs endorsed by patients with chronic insomnia may be attenuated by cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, but changes in such beliefs are not likely to play a crucial role in reducing the severity of insomnia.

  7. Reducing dysfunctional beliefs about sleep does not significantly improve insomnia in cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Okajima

    Full Text Available The present study examined to examine whether improvement of insomnia is mediated by a reduction in sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs through cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. In total, 64 patients with chronic insomnia received cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia consisting of 6 biweekly individual treatment sessions of 50 minutes in length. Participants were asked to complete the Athens Insomnia Scale and the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep scale both at the baseline and at the end of treatment. The results showed that although cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia greatly reduced individuals' scores on both scales, the decrease in dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep with treatment did not seem to mediate improvement in insomnia. The findings suggest that sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs endorsed by patients with chronic insomnia may be attenuated by cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, but changes in such beliefs are not likely to play a crucial role in reducing the severity of insomnia.

  8. Efficiently Assessing Negative Cognition in Depression: An Item Response Theory Analysis of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beevers, Christopher G.; Strong, David R.; Meyer, Bjorn; Pilkonis, Paul A.; Miller, Ivan R.

    2007-01-01

    Despite a central role for dysfunctional attitudes in cognitive theories of depression and the widespread use of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, form A (DAS-A; A. Weissman, 1979), the psychometric development of the DAS-A has been relatively limited. The authors used nonparametric item response theory methods to examine the DAS-A items and…

  9. Prevalence and predictors of cognitive dysfunction in opioid-treated patients with cancer: a multinational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurita, Geana P; Sjøgren, Per; Ekholm, Ola

    2011-01-01

    (scores > 26). Factors potentially associated with cognitive dysfunction were assessed. Associations between MMSE and explanatory variables were analyzed by ordinal logistic regression models. Results We included 1,915 patients with cancer from 17 centers. MMSE scores less than 27 were observed in 32...... higher odds of having lower MMSE scores compared with those receiving daily doses less than 80 mg. Other risk factors for cognitive dysfunction were older age, low Karnofsky performance status (KPS), time since diagnosis (

  10. Cognitive-analytical therapy for a patient with functional neurological symptom disorder-conversion disorder (psychogenic myopia: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Nasiri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional neurological symptom disorder commonly presents with symptoms and defects of sensory and motor functions. Therefore, it is often mistaken for a medical condition. It is well known that functional neurological symptom disorder more often caused by psychological factors. There are three main approaches namely analytical, cognitive and biological to manage conversion disorder. Any of such approaches can be applied through short-term treatment programs. In this case, study a 12-year-old boy with the diagnosed functional neurological symptom disorder (psychogenic myopia was put under a cognitive-analytical treatment. The outcome of this treatment modality was proved successful.

  11. Effects of Short-Term Cognitive Remediation on Cognitive Dysfunction in Partially or Fully Remitted Individuals with Bipolar Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Kirsa M; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars V

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cognitive dysfunction is common in bipolar disorder (BD) but is not sufficiently addressed by current treatments. Cognitive remediation (CR) may improve cognitive function in schizophrenia but no randomised controlled trial has investigated this intervention in BD. The present study...... aimed to investigate the effects of CR on persistent cognitive dysfunction in BD. METHOD: Patients with BD in partial remission with cognitive complaints were randomised to 12 weeks group-based CR (n=23) or standard treatment (ST) (n=23). Outcomes were improved verbal memory (primary), sustained...... attention, executive and psychosocial function (secondary) and additional measures of cognitive and psychosocial function (tertiary). Participants were assessed at baseline and weeks 12 and 26. RESULTS: Of the 46 randomised participants five dropped out and one was excluded after baseline. CR (n=18) had...

  12. Active exergames to improve cognitive functioning in neurological disabilities: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Gioia; Carta, Mauro G; Sancassiani, Federica; Machado, Sergio; Prosperini, Luca

    2017-10-25

    Exergames represent a way to perform physical activity through active video games, serving as potentially useful tool in the field of neurorehabilitation. However, little is known regarding the possible role of exergames in improving cognitive functions in persons suffering from neurological disabilities. A search for relevant articles was carried out on PubMed/Medline, Scopus, PEDro, and Google Scholar. Only randomized controlled studies and non-randomized but controlled studies were retained. The following additional inclusion criteria were applied: studies focused on physical activity interventions carried out by means of exergames; populations targeted were affected by neurological disabilities; and reported results were related to cognitive outcomes. We calculated standardized mean differences (SMD) and pooled results using a random effects meta-analysis. Of 520 abstracts screened, thirteen studies met the criteria to be included yielding a total of 465 participants, 233 randomized to exergames, and 232 allocated to the alternative or no intervention. The included studies varied in terms of studied populations (e.g., multiple sclerosis, post-stroke hemiparesis, Parkinson's disease, dementia, dyslexia, Down syndrome), type and duration of interventions, and cognitive outcome measures. Exergames significantly improved executive functions (SMD=0.53, p=0.005; 8 studies, n=380) and visuo-spatial perception (SMD=0.65, phome.

  13. Developing Interventions for Cancer-Related Cognitive Dysfunction in Childhood Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Nicole J.; Whelen, Megan J.; Lange, Beverly J.

    2014-01-01

    Survivors of childhood cancer frequently experience cancer-related cognitive dysfunction, commonly months to years after treatment for pediatric brain tumors, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), or tumors involving the head and neck. Risk factors for cancer-related cognitive dysfunction include young age at diagnosis, treatment with cranial irradiation, use of parenteral or intrathecal methotrexate, female sex, and pre-existing comorbidities. Limiting use and reducing doses and volume of cranial irradiation while intensifying chemotherapy have improved survival and reduced the severity of cognitive dysfunction, especially in leukemia. Nonetheless, problems in core functional domains of attention, processing speed, working memory and visual-motor integration continue to compromise quality of life and performance. We review the epidemiology, pathophysiology and assessment of cancer-related cognitive dysfunction, the impact of treatment changes for prevention, and the broad strategies for educational and pharmacological interventions to remediate established cognitive dysfunction following childhood cancer. The increased years of life saved after childhood cancer warrants continued study toward the prevention and remediation of cancer-related cognitive dysfunction, using uniform assessments anchored in functional outcomes. PMID:25080574

  14. Dysfunctional cognitions of depressive inpatients and their relationship with treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Stephan; Unger, Theresa; Hoffmann, Sabine; Mackert, Arthur; Ross, Barbara; Fydrich, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Dysfunctional cognitions can contribute to depression and its maintenance. They may be related to a higher relapse rate and a longer duration of the depressive episode. The relevance of dysfunctional cognitions for acute inpatient treatment of unipolar depression is examined in this study and its variability by cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). 222 patients suffering from Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) were evaluated during their inpatient treatment by assessing admission and discharge depression scores and their relationship to dysfunctional cognitions, using the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS). The relationship between dysfunctional cognitions and treatment outcome was examined. Primary outcome measures were the Hamilton-Rating-Scale (HRSD) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Higher age, depression severity at admission, comorbid personality disorders and recurrent depressive disorders are related with higher DAS-scores at admission. DAS-Scores declined during treatment but to a lower extend than depressive symptom scales (effect size dDAS-G t1-t2 = .31; dHRSD t1-t2 = 2.88; dBDI t1-t2 = 1.38). Higher DAS-scores at admission correlated negatively with the improvement of depressive symptoms during treatment (HRSD: r = -.62; p depressive symptoms and are associated with poorer treatment outcome even in combined treatment of antidepressant medication and CBT during inpatient treatment. Changes of dysfunctional cognitions seem to be a long-term treatment goal, especially because of their association with comorbid personality disorders and recurrent depressive disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevention of cerebrovascular diseases and cognitive impairment in psychiatric and neurological practice: A literature review

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    A. G. Merkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased life expectancy and related demographic changes, as well as lifestyle modification in the population enhance a steady rise in the incidence of disorders in middle and later life. It increases the burden of diseases and overloads healthcare systems. Therefore prevention strategies are currently on the cutting edge and becoming more and more essential. The article discusses approaches to preventing the most common mental and neurological disorders in middle and old age. It also describes cerebrovascular disease, dementia, cognitive impairment, and stroke and outlines some state-of-the-art prevention strategies.

  16. Change in Dysfunctional Beliefs About Sleep in Behavior Therapy, Cognitive Therapy, and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidelman, Polina; Talbot, Lisa; Ivers, Hans; Bélanger, Lynda; Morin, Charles M; Harvey, Allison G

    2016-01-01

    As part of a larger randomized controlled trial, 188 participants were randomized to behavior therapy (BT), cognitive therapy (CT), or cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia. The aims of this study were threefold: (a) to determine whether change in dysfunctional beliefs about sleep was related to change in sleep, insomnia symptoms, and impairment following treatment; (b) to determine whether BT, CT, and CBT differ in their effects on dysfunctional beliefs; and (c) to determine whether the treatments differ in their effects on particular kinds of dysfunctional beliefs. Beliefs, sleep, insomnia symptoms, and sleep-related psychosocial impairment were assessed at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 6- and 12-month follow-up. Greater change in dysfunctional beliefs occurring over the course of BT, CT, or CBT was associated with greater improvement in insomnia symptoms and impairment at posttreatment and both follow-ups. All groups experienced a significant decrease in dysfunctional beliefs during treatment, which were sustained through 6- and 12-month follow-up. Compared with the BT group, a greater proportion of participants in the CT and/or CBT groups endorsed dysfunctional beliefs below a level considered clinically significant at posttreatment and 12-month follow-up. The results demonstrate the importance of targeting dysfunctional beliefs in insomnia treatment, suggest that beliefs may be significantly modified with BT alone, and indicate that cognitive interventions may be particularly powerful in enhancing belief change. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. History of alcohol abuse after major non-cardiac surgery and postoperative cognitive dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvozdenović, Ljiljana; Antanasković, Ana

    2015-11-01

    The risk factors for postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) after non-cardiac surgery include advanced age and preexisting cognitive impairment. Data was collected in a prospective manner on 220 patients of both genders. Patients were triaged into three groups, with American Society of Anesthesiologists-ASA Physical Classification System levels I-IV. Patients were 55 years of age and older, with self-reported alcohol abuse and were matched to age-, sex-, and education-matched nonalcoholic controls. They were tested using a neurocognitive battery before and two weeks after elective surgery or after a corresponding time interval without surgery. Verbal memory, visuospatial memory, and executive functions were assessed. Neurologic examination was performed in order to exclude subjects with potential cerebrovascular damage. Standard laboratory analyses were done and findings recorded. Significant predisposing factors for developing POCD were noted. From the total number of participants involved in the study, 135 (67.5%) patients belonged to ASA class III. Among all patients, 168 (84%) patients were chronic alcohol users. Pearson's χ(2) test shows a statistically significant difference regarding the use of alcohol (χ(2)=19.220, df=1, p=0.000, palcoholic group decreased after surgery. In the study by Mason which involved 255 elderly patients that were postoperatively admitted to the intensive care unit following a major abdominal surgery, development of POCD was two times greater in urgent cases (~40% of cases), when compared to elective interventions. Our results complement the data given by the World Health Organization and results of similar studies. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The relationship between Impulse Control Disorders and cognitive dysfunctions in Parkinson's Disease: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Gabriella; Raimo, Simona; Barone, Paolo

    2017-06-01

    Impulse Control Disorders (ICD) are associated with impairment in cognitive flexibility and cortical inhibition. In Parkinson's Disease (PD) the relationship between ICD and cognitive dysfunctions is still unclear: some studies found different cognitive profiles between Parkinsonians with and without ICD, whereas others did not. Moreover, findings from studies on ICD in PD are conflicting on which cognitive function is altered. A meta-analysis of 34 studies was performed to shed light on relationship between ICD and cognitive dysfunctions and to reveal the cognitive function compromised in Parkinsonians with ICD. Data were analysed in global cognitive functioning, memory, executive functions, attention/working memory, language, and visuospatial functions. Significant relationship between ICD and dysfunction of abstraction ability/concept formation, set-shifting, visuospatial/constructional abilities and decision-making was found. These findings suggested that people affected by PD with specific frontal dysfunctions are more vulnerable to develop ICD when they take antiparkinsonian drug. Evaluation of specific cognitive functions in routine clinical practice might help to detect those people with PD susceptible to ICD before treating them with antiparkinsonian drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dysfunctional beliefs in the process of change of cognitive treatment in obsessive compulsive checkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polman, Annemiek; Bouman, Theo K.; van Geert, Paul L. C.; de Jong, Peter J.; den Boer, Johan A.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is considered to be effective in the reduction of obsessive compulsive symptoms. However, questions remain as to how CBT works. Cognitive-behavioural models postulate that negative appraisals of intrusive thoughts and dysfunctional beliefs that give rise to them

  20. Dysfunctional cognitions and their emotional, behavioral, and functional correlates in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): is the cognitive-behavioral model valid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrente, Fernando; López, Pablo; Alvarez Prado, Dolores; Kichic, Rafael; Cetkovich-Bakmas, Marcelo; Lischinsky, Alicia; Manes, Facundo

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the presence of dysfunctional cognitions in adults with ADHD and to determine whether these cognitions are associated with emotional symptoms, maladaptive coping, and functional impairment, as predicted by the cognitive-behavioral model. A total of 35 adult participants with ADHD, 20 nonclinical controls, and 20 non-ADHD clinical controls were assessed with measures of ADHD symptoms, dysfunctional cognitions, depression and anxiety symptoms, coping strategies, and quality of life. ADHD group showed elevated scores of dysfunctional cognitions relative to nonclinical control group and comparable with clinical control group. Dysfunctional cognitions were strongly associated with emotional symptoms. ADHD group also showed elevated scores in maladaptive coping strategies of the escape-avoidance type. Life impairment was satisfactorily predicted in data analysis when ADHD symptoms, dysfunctional cognitions, and emotional symptoms were fitted into a regression model. Cognitive-behavioral therapy model appears to be a valid complementary model for understanding emotional and life impairment in adults with ADHD. © 2012 SAGE Publications.

  1. Postoperative delirium and postoperative cognitive dysfunction in the elderly - what are the differences?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, L; Rasmussen, L S

    2011-01-01

    of postoperative cognitive decline, delirium and postoperative cognitive dysfunction, which are often reported as being part of the same continuum. Although there are similarities in the predisposing factors, it seems unlikely that they share the same pathophysiology. Both have multifactorial pathogenesis...... but differ in numerous other ways, with delirium being well-defined and acute in onset and postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) being subtler and with longer duration. This review aims to provide an overview of the differences in the diagnosis of the two entities and to illustrate the methodological...

  2. Cognitive Dysfunction Is Associated with Greater Imbalance and Falls in Essential Tremor

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    Elan D. Louis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEssential tremor (ET is not exclusively a tremor disorder; it is also associated with cognitive and gait dysfunction. However, a gap in knowledge is that the relationship between cognitive and gait dysfunction has not been studied in detail in ET. We examined the relationship between cognition and balance and falls in ET and hypothesized that cognitive dysfunction in ET patients would be associated with greater problems with balance and more falls.MethodsET cases were recruited into the Clinical–pathological Study of Cognition in ET. A comprehensive cognitive assessment was performed. This included the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA to measure global cognition, multiple motor-free tests comprehensively assessing performance in each cognitive domain, and an assignment of Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR scores. We collected data on the number of reported falls in the past year, and balance confidence was assessed using the 6-item Activities of Balance Confidence Scale. These cross-sectional analyses utilized baseline data.ResultsThere were 199 ET cases (mean age 78.6 years. In linear regression models that considered the effects of numerous confounding variables, lower global cognition (poorer cognition was associated with greater number of falls and reduced balance confidence (p < 0.05. In similar adjusted linear regression models, higher CDR score (poorer functional cognition was associated with greater number of falls and reduced balance confidence (p < 0.05. We also assessed whether number of falls and balance confidence was associated with performance in specific cognitive domains. Number of falls was most closely linked with performance on tests of executive function, and balance confidence, with executive function, attention, and memory.ConclusionThese data indicate that a correlate of poorer cognition in ET is greater number of falls and lower balance confidence. Cognition should enter the dialog with ET patients

  3. Cognitive dysfunction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease- A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Lone; Østergaard, Birte; Rasmussen, Lars S

    2012-01-01

    Substantial healthcare resources are spent on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In addition, the involvement of patients in monitoring and treatment of their condition has been suggested. However, it is important to maintain a view of self-care that takes differences in cognitive...... ability into account. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence and severity of cognitive dysfunction in COPD patients, and to assess the association between severity of COPD and the level of cognitive function....

  4. Cerebral Oximetry for the Prediction of Neurological Dysfunction in Cardiosurgical Patients

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    A. N. Shepelyuk

    2011-01-01

    in 65.9% of cases, which allowed early activation to be performed without complications. Acute akinesis of the left ventricular walls in 93.8% was a sign of acute myocardial infarction verified later on by X-ray contrast and laboratory studies. Conclusion. Transeosophageal echocardiographic monitoring is a highly effective diagnostic technique that can detect patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction and verify acute ischemia and infarction of the myocardium, which substantially increases the safety of patient activation in the operating room after myocardial revascularization. Key words: ultrasound monitoring, transeosophageal echocardiography, early tracheal extubation, early activation of cardiosurgical patients, myocardial revascularization, aortocoronary bypass surgery.

  5. Clinical and imaging assessment of cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rocca, M.A.; Amato, M.P.; De Stefano, N.; Enzinger, C.; Geurts, J.J.; Penner, I.K.; Rovira, A.; Sumowski, J.F.; Valsasina, P.; Filippi, M.

    2015-01-01

    In patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), grey matter damage is widespread and might underlie many of the clinical symptoms, especially cognitive impairment. This relation between grey matter damage and cognitive impairment has been lent support by findings from clinical and MRI studies. However,

  6. Association between academic performance and cognitive dysfunction in patients with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus

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    Renan Bazuco Frittoli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To determine whether there is an association between the profile of cognitive dysfunction and academic outcomes in patients with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE. Methods Patients aged ≤18 years at the onset of the disease and education level at or above the fifth grade of elementary school were selected. Cognitive evaluation was performed according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR recommendations. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed by Beck scales; disease activity was assessed by Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI; and cumulative damage was assessed by Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC. The presence of autoantibodies and medication use were also assessed. A significance level of 5% (p < 0.05 was adopted. Results 41 patients with a mean age of 14.5 ± 2.84 years were included. Cognitive dysfunction was noted in 17 (41.46% patients. There was a significant worsening in mathematical performance in patients with cognitive dysfunction (p = 0.039. Anxiety symptoms were observed in 8 patients (19.51% and were associated with visual perception (p = 0.037 and symptoms of depression were observed in 1 patient (2.43%. Conclusion Patients with JSLE concomitantly with cognitive dysfunction showed worse academic performance in mathematics compared to patients without cognitive impairment.

  7. Clinical and imaging assessment of cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocca, Maria A; Amato, Maria P; De Stefano, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    In patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), grey matter damage is widespread and might underlie many of the clinical symptoms, especially cognitive impairment. This relation between grey matter damage and cognitive impairment has been lent support by findings from clinical and MRI studies. However......, many aspects of cognitive impairment in patients with MS still need to be characterised. Standardised neuropsychological tests that are easy to administer and sensitive to disease-related abnormalities are needed to gain a better understanding of the factors affecting cognitive performance in patients...... with MS than exists at present. Imaging measures of the grey matter are necessary, but not sufficient to fully characterise cognitive decline in MS. Imaging measures of both lesioned and normal-appearing white matter lend support to the hypothesis of the existence of an underlying disconnection syndrome...

  8. Cognitive-constructivist Approach in Medical Settings: The Use of Personal Meaning Questionnaire for Neurological Patients’ Personality Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Barbara; Carelli, Laura; Lafronza, Annalisa; Solca, Federica; Faini, Andrea; Ciammola, Andrea; Grobberio, Monica; Raimondi, Vanessa; Pezzati, Rita; Ardito, Rita B.; Silani, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The cognitive-constructivist psychotherapy approach considers the self as a continuous regulation process between present and past experience, in which attributions of meaning is characterized by the use of internal rules. In this conception, everyone would be driven by a specific inner coherence called Personal Meaning Organization (PMO). Such approach has never been applied to neurological patients by means of ad hoc developed tools. We performed an explorative study aimed to characterize personality styles in different neurological conditions within the theoretical framework of cognitive-constructivist model. Materials and Methods: Three groups of neurological patients (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Multiple Sclerosis, Primary Headache) and a sample of healthy participants, each composed by 15 participants, for a total of 60 participants, were recruited. The Personal Meaning Questionnaire (PMQ), an Italian questionnaire assessing PMOs construct, and other clinical tools for psychological and quality of life assessment were administered to all subjects. Results: The main finding concerned the detection, across all clinical conditions, of a higher prevalence of phobic personality style, with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis showing a relevant prevalence of such PMO with respect to all other neurological conditions and controls. However, with respect to controls, in all clinical conditions, PMQ highlighted a tendency, even if not statistically significant, to codify experience by means of specific cognitive and emotional patterns. Conclusion: Our findings represent the first contribution towards understanding the personality profiles of patients affected by neurological conditions according to cognitive-constructivist theory. PMID:28443057

  9. Choice reaction time in patients with post-operative cognitive dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinmetz, J.; Rasmussen, L.S.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is detected by administration of a neuropsychological test battery. Reaction time testing is at present not included as a standard test. Choice reaction time (CRT) data from the first International Study of Post-operative Cognitive Dysfunction...... in nine countries. CRT was measured 52 times using the four boxes test. Patients performed the test before surgery (n=1083), at 1 week (n=926) and at 3 months (n=852) post-operatively. CRT for the individual patient was determined as the median time of correct responses. The usefulness of the CRT...... had a significantly longer CRT. ROC curves revealed that a reaction time of 813 ms was the most appropriate cut-off at 1 week and 762 ms at 3 months but the positive predictive value for POCD was low: 34.4% and 14.7%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Post-operative cognitive dysfunction is associated...

  10. Beyond Emotional and Spatial Processes: Cognitive Dysfunction in a Depressive Phenotype Produced by Long Photoperiod Exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail K Barnes

    Full Text Available Cognitive dysfunction in depression has recently been given more attention and legitimacy as a core symptom of the disorder. However, animal investigations of depression-related cognitive deficits have generally focused on emotional or spatial memory processing. Additionally, the relationship between the cognitive and affective disturbances that are present in depression remains obscure. Interestingly, sleep disruption is one aspect of depression that can be related both to cognition and affect, and may serve as a link between the two. Previous studies have correlated sleep disruption with negative mood and impaired cognition. The present study investigated whether a long photoperiod-induced depressive phenotype showed cognitive deficits, as measured by novel object recognition, and displayed a cognitive vulnerability to an acute period of total sleep deprivation. Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to a long photoperiod (21L:3D or a normal photoperiod (12L:12D condition. Our results indicate that our long photoperiod exposed animals showed behaviors in the forced swim test consistent with a depressive phenotype, and showed significant deficits in novel object recognition. Three hours of total sleep deprivation, however, did not significantly change novel object recognition in either group, but the trends suggest that the long photoperiod and normal photoperiod groups had different cognitive responses to total sleep deprivation. Collectively, these results underline the extent of cognitive dysfunction present in depression, and suggest that altered sleep plays a role in generating both the affective and cognitive symptoms of depression.

  11. ON THE ROLE OF IMMUNOLOGICAL ABNORMALITIES IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF COGNITIVE DYSFUNCTION IN MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER

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    Roman Aleksandrovich Bekker

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Major depression correlates to several known immune and endocrine abnormalities (e.g. HPA axis hyperactivity, thymus atrophy, thymic hormone hyposecretion, among others and is often leading to diminished resistance to infections and oncologic diseases. On the other hand, major depression is one of the leading causes of cognitive decline, and it is well–known fact that functional and social recovery correlates better to cognitive functioning than to general improvement in depressive symptoms. This article thoroughly reviews different correlations between immune functions and cognition, and the existing evidence base for immune correction of cognitive dysfunctions commonly seen in depressions.

  12. Masticatory Deficiency as a Risk Factor for Cognitive Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Francisco Bruno; de Melo Pereira Fernandes, Luanna; Noronha, Patrycy Assis Tavares; dos Santos, Marcio Antonio Raiol; Gomes-Leal, Walace; do Socorro Ferraz Maia, Cristiane; Lima, Rafael Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that chewing helps to maintain cognitive functions in brain regions including the hippocampus, a central nervous system (CNS) region vital for memory and learning. Epidemiological studies suggest that masticatory deficiency is associated with development of dementia, which is related to spatial memory deficits especially in older animals. The purpose of this paper is to review recent work on the effects of masticatory impairment on cognitive functions both in experimental animals and humans. We show that several mechanisms may be involved in the cognitive deficits associated with masticatory deficiency. The epidemiological data suggest a positive correlation between masticatory deficit and Alzheimer's disease. It may be concluded that chewing has important implications for the mechanisms underlying certain cognitive abilities. PMID:24465167

  13. No Evidence for Cognitive Dysfunction or Depression in Patients with Mild Restless Legs Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver-Dunckley, Erika; Connor, Donald; Hentz, Joe; Sabbagh, Marwan; Silverberg, Nina; Hernandez, Jose; Vedders, Linda; Evidente, Virgilio Gerald; Shill, Holly; Caviness, John; Adler, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome is a common disoder that may interrupt sleep and has been reported to produce daytime fatigue and/or mood changes. This study assessed whether patients with RLS have more cognitive dysfunction and depression than individuals of the same age and education who do not have RLS. The study showed that older individuals with mild RLS for at least 1 year do not have cognitive dysfunction and are not depressed compared with a control group of similar age and education. PMID:19609905

  14. Changes in functional network centrality underlie cognitive dysfunction and physical disability in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonheim, M M; Geurts, Jjg; Wiebenga, O T; De Munck, J C; Polman, C H; Stam, C J; Barkhof, F; Wink, A M

    2014-07-01

    Cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis (MS) has a large impact on the quality of life and is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate functional network integrity in MS, and relate this to cognitive dysfunction and physical disability. Resting state fMRI scans were included of 128 MS patients and 50 controls. Eigenvector centrality mapping (ECM) was applied, a graph analysis technique that ranks the importance of brain regions based on their connectivity patterns. Significant ECM changes were related to physical disability and cognitive dysfunction. In MS patients, ECM values were increased in bilateral thalamus and posterior cingulate (PCC) areas, and decreased in sensorimotor and ventral stream areas. Sensorimotor ECM decreases were related to higher EDSS (rho = -0.24, p = 0.007), while ventral stream decreases were related to poorer average cognition (rho = 0.23, p = 0.009). The thalamus displayed increased connectivity to sensorimotor and ventral stream areas. In MS, areas in the ventral stream and sensorimotor cortex appear to become less central in the entire functional network of the brain, which is associated with clinico-cognitive dysfunction. The thalamus, however, displays increased connectivity with these areas. These findings may aid in further elucidating the function of functional reorganization processes in MS. © The Author(s) 2013.

  15. Criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: Recommendations of the Scientific Department of Cognitive Neurology and Aging of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology

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    Norberto Anízio Ferreira Frota

    Full Text Available Abstract This consensus prepared by the Scientific Department of Cognitive Neurology and Aging of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology is aimed at recommending new criteria for the diagnosis of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD in Brazil. A revision was performed of the proposals of clinical and of research criteria suggested by other institutions and international consensuses. The new proposal for the diagnosis of dementia does not necessarily require memory impairment if the cognitive or behavioral compromise affects at least two of the following domains: memory, executive function, speech, visual-spatial ability and change in personality. For the purpose of diagnosis, AD is divided into three phases: dementia, mild cognitive impairment and pre-clinical phase, where the latter only applies to clinical research. In the dementia picture, other initial forms were accepted which do not involve amnesia and require a neuroimaging examination. Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers are recommended for study, but can be utilized as optional instruments, when deemed appropriate by the clinician.

  16. Cognitive Dysfunction in Major Depressive Disorder. A Translational Review in Animal Models of the Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcet, Flavie; Gardier, Alain M.; Gaillard, Raphael; David, Denis J.; Guilloux, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is the most common psychiatric disease, affecting millions of people worldwide. In addition to the well-defined depressive symptoms, patients suffering from MDD consistently complain about cognitive disturbances, significantly exacerbating the burden of this illness. Among cognitive symptoms, impairments in attention, working memory, learning and memory or executive functions are often reported. However, available data about the heterogeneity of MDD patients and magnitude of cognitive symptoms through the different phases of MDD remain difficult to summarize. Thus, the first part of this review briefly overviewed clinical studies, focusing on the cognitive dysfunctions depending on the MDD type. As animal models are essential translational tools for underpinning the mechanisms of cognitive deficits in MDD, the second part of this review synthetized preclinical studies observing cognitive deficits in different rodent models of anxiety/depression. For each cognitive domain, we determined whether deficits could be shared across models. Particularly, we established whether specific stress-related procedures or unspecific criteria (such as species, sex or age) could segregate common cognitive alteration across models. Finally, the role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in rodents in cognitive dysfunctions during MDD state was also discussed. PMID:26901205

  17. Cognitive Dysfunction in Major Depressive Disorder. A Translational Review in Animal Models of the Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavie Darcet

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Major Depressive Disorder (MDD is the most common psychiatric disease, affecting millions of people worldwide. In addition to the well-defined depressive symptoms, patients suffering from MDD consistently complain about cognitive disturbances, significantly exacerbating the burden of this illness. Among cognitive symptoms, impairments in attention, working memory, learning and memory or executive functions are often reported. However, available data about the heterogeneity of MDD patients and magnitude of cognitive symptoms through the different phases of MDD remain difficult to summarize. Thus, the first part of this review briefly overviewed clinical studies, focusing on the cognitive dysfunctions depending on the MDD type. As animal models are essential translational tools for underpinning the mechanisms of cognitive deficits in MDD, the second part of this review synthetized preclinical studies observing cognitive deficits in different rodent models of anxiety/depression. For each cognitive domain, we determined whether deficits could be shared across models. Particularly, we established whether specific stress-related procedures or unspecific criteria (such as species, sex or age could segregate common cognitive alteration across models. Finally, the role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in rodents in cognitive dysfunctions during MDD state was also discussed.

  18. Cognitive dysfunction in unipolar depression: implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Madhukar H; Greer, Tracy L

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this review is to examine the literature assessing abnormalities in neural circuitry and cognition early in the course of major depressive disorder (MDD) and the impact of these features on treatment selection and long-term outcomes. English language and peer-reviewed publications were obtained by PubMed/Medline (www.pubmed.org) searches using combinations of major depressive disorder, major depression, or unipolar depression and "first episode", early, cognition, cognitive, executive function and memory. The terms bipolar and psychosis were excluded from the searches. These searches yielded 409 records. A total of 12 studies, systematic reviews and meta-analyses were selected that evaluated learning, memory and executive function in individuals with major depressive disorder. Additional publications meeting these criteria were identified from the bibliographies of the 12 selected articles and from the "related citations" section of PubMed. Difficulty in concentrating and indecisiveness are reported as among the most troubling symptoms by patients with MDD and may limit functional recovery. Cognitive deficits in memory and decision-making are present early in the course of MDD and may be accompanied by structural abnormalities in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex involved in cognitive functions. Although resolution of cognitive symptoms of depression lags behind recovery from mood symptoms in many patients, preliminary evidence suggests they may improve with antidepressant therapy, but can also persist residually. New strategies that target cognitive symptoms of depression in addition to mood symptoms are needed to improve long-term outcomes, particularly functional recovery. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Acute, transient hemorrhagic hypotension does not aggravate structural damage or neurologic motor deficits but delays the long-term cognitive recovery following mild to moderate traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, Christian; Stover, John F.; Thompson, Hilaire J.; Hoover, Rachel C.; Morales, Diego M.; Schouten, Joost W.; McMillan, Asenia; Soltesz, Kristie; Motta, Melissa; Spangler, Zachery; Neugebauer, Edmund; McIntosh, Tracy K.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Posttraumatic hypotension is believed to increase morbidity and mortality in traumatically brain-injured patients. Using a clinically relevant model of combined traumatic brain injury with superimposed hemorrhagic hypotension in rats, the present study evaluated whether a reduction in mean arterial blood pressure aggravates regional brain edema formation, regional cell death, and neurologic motor/cognitive deficits associated with traumatic brain injury. Design Experimental prospective, randomized study in rodents. Setting Experimental laboratory at a university hospital. Subjects One hundred nineteen male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 350-385 g. Interventions Experimental traumatic brain injury of mild to moderate severity was induced using the lateral fluid percussion brain injury model in anesthetized rats (n = 89). Following traumatic brain injury, in surviving animals one group of animals was subjected to pressure-controlled hemorrhagic hypotension, maintaining the mean arterial blood pressure at 50-60 mm Hg for 30 mins (n = 47). The animals were subsequently either resuscitated with lactated Ringer’s solution (three times shed blood volume, n = 18) or left uncompensated (n = 29). Other groups of animals included those with isolated traumatic brain injury (n = 34), those with isolated hemorrhagic hypotension (n = 8), and sham-injured control animals receiving anesthesia and surgery alone (n = 22). Measurements and Main Results The withdrawal of 6-7 mL of arterial blood significantly reduced mean arterial blood pressure by 50% without decreasing arterial oxygen saturation or Pao2. Brain injury induced significant cerebral edema (p hypotension. Brain injury-induced neurologic deficits persisted up to 20 wks after injury and were also not aggravated by the hemorrhagic hypotension. Cognitive dysfunction persisted for up to 16 wks postinjury. The superimposition of hemorrhagic hypotension significantly delayed the time course of cognitive recovery

  20. Cognitive Dysfunctions in Patients with Alcohol Dependence Syndrome in a Tertiary Hospital in Kathmandu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirjana Adhikari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alcohol dependence is a chronic disorder, accompanied by neuropsychological deficits. Patients with alcohol dependence were evaluated to identify the cognitive dysfunctions. Method: The study followed descriptive design and recruited participants (N=62 from inpatient services of the Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health by convenient sampling. Participants were evaluated with the Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire, Frontal Assessment Battery and PGI Memory Scale for the severity of alcohol dependence, executive impairments and memory dysfunctions respectively once they had completed alcohol detoxification. Results: Total duration of alcohol consumption was 13.93±8.74 years, period of dependence was 2.97±2.23 years and 56.5% had moderate level of dependence. 33.9% of the participants had executive impairments particularly in conceptualization, programming and mental flexibility. 38% of variance in executive dysfunction was explained by illness variables, where period of alcohol dependence and education were significant predictors. 54.8% had significant memory dysfunction particularly in visual retention, remote memory, verbal retention of dissimilar pairs and delayed recall. Memory dysfunction differed significantly among the age groups (F=10.22, p<0.01 and age was a significant predictor (β=.542, p<0.001. 19% variance in memory dysfunction was explained by illness variables, where duration of alcohol consumption was a significant predictor (β = .485, p<0.01. Conclusion: Findings indicate that cognitive dysfunctions are prevalent among patients with alcohol dependence. Hence, routine neuropsychological assessment is of particular importance for early detection and remediation of underlying deficits, which completes the treatment of alcohol dependence. Keywords: alcohol dependence: cognitive dysfunctions; executive functions; memory. | PubMed

  1. The cognitive neuroscience of memory function and dysfunction in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganath, Charan; Minzenberg, Michael J; Ragland, J Daniel

    2008-07-01

    Patients with schizophrenia have pronounced deficits in memory for events--episodic memory. These deficits severely affect patients' quality of life and functional outcome, and current medications have only a modest effect, making episodic memory an important domain for translational development of clinical trial paradigms. The current article provides a brief review of the significant progress that cognitive neuroscience has made in understanding basic mechanisms of episodic memory formation and retrieval that were presented and discussed at the first CNTRICS (Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia) meeting in Washington, D.C. During that meeting a collaborative decision was made that measures of item-specific and relational memory were the most promising constructs for immediate translational development. A brief summary of research on episodic memory in schizophrenia is presented to provide a context for investigating item-specific and relational memory processes. Candidate brain regions are also discussed.

  2. PiB fails to map amyloid deposits in cerebral cortex of aged dogs with Canine Cognitive Dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Rikke; Rodell, Anders; Gjedde, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Dogs with Canine Cognitive Dysfunction (CCD) accumulate amyloid beta (Aβ) in the brain. As the cognitive decline and neuropathology of these old dogs share features with Alzheimer's disease (AD), the relation between Aβ and cognitive decline in animal models of cognitive decline is of interest...

  3. PBA regulates neurogenesis and cognition dysfunction after repeated electroconvulsive shock in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhao-Hui; Kang, Xiang; Yang, Liu; Niu, Yi; Lu, Ye; Nie, Li

    2015-12-15

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) was widely used to treat the refractory depression. But ECT led to the cognitive deficits plaguing the depression patients. The underlying mechanisms of the cognitive deficits remain elusive. Repeated electroconvulsive shock (rECS) was used to simulate ECT and explore the mechanisms of ECT during the animal studies. Previous studies showed rECS could lead to neurogenesis and cognitive impairment. But it was well known that neurogenesis could improve the cognition. So these suggested that the mechanism of the cognitive deficit after rECS was very complex. In present study, we explored the probable mechanisms of the cognitive deficit after rECS from neurogenesis aspect. We found the cognitive deficit was reversible and neurogenesis could bring a long-term beneficial effect on cognition. Astrogliosis and NR1 down-regulation probably participated in the reversible cognitive deficits after rECS. Phenylbutyric acid (PBA), generally as an agent to investigate the roles of histone acetylation, could prevent the reversible cognitive dysfunction, but PBA could diminish the long-term effect of enhanced cognition by rECS. These suggested that ECT could possibly bring the long-term beneficial cognitive effect by regulating neurogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cognitive Dysfunction Survey of the Japanese Patients with Moyamoya Disease (COSMO-JAPAN Study): study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Yasushi; Miyamoto, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Moyamoya disease is a cerebrovascular occlusive disease characterized by progressive stenosis or by occlusion at the terminal portion of the bilateral internal carotid arteries. The unusual vascular network (moyamoya vessels) at the base of the brain with this disease as collateral channels is developed in this disease. Social independence because of cognitive impairment has recently been recognized as an important unsolved social issue with adult moyamoya disease. The patients with cognitive impairment have difficulty in proving their status because the standard neuroradiological and neuropsychological methods to define cognitive impairment with moyamoya disease are not determined. These patients with cognitive impairment should be supported by social welfare as psychologically handicapped persons. Thus Cognitive Dysfunction Survey of the Japanese Patients with Moyamoya Disease (COSMO-JAPAN study) is planned. In this study, we want to establish a standard finding of the cognitive impairment in patients with moyamoya disease.

  5. Myopia and cognitive dysfunction: The Singapore Malay eye study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.-Y. Ong (Shin-Yeu); M.K. Ikram (Kamran); B.A. Haaland (Benjamin Adam); C-Y. Cheng (Ching-Yu); S-M. Saw (Seang-Mei); T.Y. Wong (Tien Yin); C.Y.-L. Cheung (Carol Yim-Lui)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE. To investigate a possible relationship between refractive error and cognitive function. METHODS. This population-based, cross-sectional study included 1032 persons aged 60 to 79 who participated in the Singapore Malay Eye Study. Refraction (sphere, cylinder, and axis) was

  6. Vortioxetine: A Review in Cognitive Dysfunction in Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frampton, James E

    2016-11-01

    Vortioxetine (Brintellix ® ; Trintellix ® ), a generally efficacious and well tolerated antidepressant agent, is approved in the EU and USA for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults. The drug has a distinctive pharmacological profile (combining inhibition of the serotonin transporter with modulation of multiple serotonin receptors) and has been shown to enhance cognitive performance in various animal models and clinical trials. Across three large, placebo-controlled studies in adults with recurrent MDD, short-term treatment with vortioxetine almost always resulted in statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvements in performance on two objective measures (the Digit Symbol Substitution Test and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test) that together cover a broad range of cognitive domains, including executive function, attention, processing speed, learning and memory. Vortioxetine also significantly improved a subjective measure of cognitive function (the Perceived Deficits Questionnaire) and an objective measure of functional capacity (the University of San Diego performance-based skills assessment). In general, the beneficial effects of vortioxetine on these measures were largely independent of its effect on improving depressive symptoms. Based on the available data, therefore, vortioxetine is a useful treatment option in patients with MDD where impaired cognitive function is apparent.

  7. Predictors of Cognitive Dysfunction among Patients with Moderate to Severe Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uduak Effiong Williams

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive dysfunction including dementia is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD that has just been recently appreciated. It has negative outcomes in the management of patients with CKD. This study explored the possible biochemical and clinical features of patients with CKD that can predict the occurrence of cognitive impairment in patients with moderate to severe CKD. We evaluate patients with stages 3-5 CKD for the occurrence and predictors of cognitive impairment. Multiple areas of cognitive function were tested in this single-center study using Community Screening Interview for Dementia (CSID and Trial-Making Test A (TMTA/Trial-Making Test B (TMTB. Cognitive impairment was correlated with patients’ routine biochemical, hematological, and selected clinical parameters. We observed a negative correlation between cognitive impairment and patient’s serum calcium (r = 0.240; p = 0.033 and estimated Glomerular filtration rate (eGFR (r = 0.379; p = 0.0006. Therefore, eGFR is an accurate predictor of cognitive dysfunction in patients with moderate to severe CKD. Early evaluation of cognitive function in CKD is indeed advised for optimal outcome in the management of patients with CKD.

  8. Risk Factors for Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunctions in Elderly Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yu. Ibragimov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the impact of a wide spectrum of factors on the development of postoperative delirium in elderly patients in relation to the changes in their cognitive functions depending on the type of anesthesia and period after surgery. Subjects and methods. The study covered 100 patients aged 65—90 years who had been electively operated on under general, regional, and combined anesthesia. Their cognitive status was elevated before and 1, 4, and 7 days after surgery, by using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE schedule. The diagnosis was postoperatively established on the basis of interviews, by applying the diagnostic criteria of ICD-10 and DSM-IV (American Psychiatric Association, 1994 and verified by a psychiatrist’s consultation. Results. Seventeen patients developed delirium within the first two days following surgery. Elevated plasma sodium (p<0.000001, leukocytosis (p<0.00002, and postoperative analgesia mode (p<0.02 proved to be statistically significant risk factors for delirium. Worse results of MMSE tests at all postoperative stages than those obtained prior to surgery were significant (p<0.05. Comparing the results obtained on days 1, 4, and 7 showed a significant cognitive improvement. Analysis indicated no significant differences in MMSE changes between the groups of general, regional, and combined anesthesia at all study stages. Conclusion. In elderly patients, surgery and anesthesia lead to a considerable deterioration of cognitive functions even if the development of delirium can be avoided. There is a significant correlation of the development of delirium with leukocytosis, hypernatremia, and postoperative analgesia mode. Key words: anesthesia, postoperative delirium, cognitive status, MMSE, elderly age.

  9. Reflections on "Dysfunctional Cognitions Associated with Adolescent Depression: Findings across Special Populations."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, John T.; Maag, John W.

    1992-01-01

    This commentary reflects on the research methods used in EC 602 984 and suggests an alternative approach for investigating dysfunctional cognitions associated with depression in special populations. The paper recommends a multimeasure approach to depression, abandonment of reporting mean differences as significant or nonsignificant, and focusing…

  10. Cognitive Dysfunctions in Patients with Alcohol Dependence Syndrome in a Tertiary Hospital in Kathmandu

    OpenAIRE

    Sirjana Adhikari; Mita Rana; Suraj Shakya; Saroj Prasad Ojha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Alcohol dependence is a chronic disorder, accompanied by neuropsychological deficits. Patients with alcohol dependence were evaluated to identify the cognitive dysfunctions. Method: The study followed descriptive design and recruited participants (N=62) from inpatient services of the Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health by convenient sampling. Participants were evaluated with the Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire, Frontal Assessment Battery and PGI Memory Sc...

  11. Dysfunctional beliefs in group and individual cognitive behavioral therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Hjalti; Hougaard, Esben; Bennedsen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of the study was to investigate dysfunctional beliefs in the form of inflated responsibility (IR) and thought action fusion (TAF) as predictive and mediating variables in Individual (n = 33) and Group (n = 37) Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD...

  12. Changes in functional network centrality underlie cognitive dysfunction and physical disability in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonheim, M.M.; Geurts, J.J.G.; Wiebenga, O.T.; de Munck, J.C.; Polman, C.H.; Stam, C.J.; Barkhof, F.; Wink, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis (MS) has a large impact on the quality of life and is poorlyunderstood.Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate functional network integrity in MS, and relate this to cognitivedysfunction and physical disability.Methods: Resting

  13. Cognitive dysfunction in young men following head injury in childhood and adolescence: a population study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teasdale, T W; Engberg, A W

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence of cognitive dysfunction among young men who had suffered a head injury during childhood or adolescence, in particular focusing upon the effects of age and the severity of the injury. METHODS: By cross linkage of Danish national registers for hospital...... admissions and the draft board, 3091 young men were identified who had been injured before age 18 and tested at age 18 or shortly thereafter: 970 had suffered a single concussion and were in hospital for one day only; 521 had two concussions at separate times and were in hospital for one day only on each...... Danish men appearing before the draft board had a score classified as dysfunctional). RESULTS: For young men who had suffered a single concussion, cranial fracture, or cerebral lesion before 12 years of age, resulting in less than 12 days of hospital admission (n = 376), rates of cognitive dysfunction...

  14. Effect of clinical autonomic dysfunction on cognitive functions in Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dursun Aygun

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Parkinson’s disease (PD is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability. PD also involves nonmotor manifestations such as autonomic failure, cognitive disorders, and sleep disorders. These clinical characteristics are not identical in severity, frequency, and onset time in all PD patients. We assessed whether there is a negative effect on cognition of clinical autonomic dysfunction in PD patients. Methods: This prospective study includes 37 PD patients with autonomic failure. From each patient, a questionnaire (SCOPA-AUT including symptoms associated with clinical autonomic dysfunction such as constipation, urinary incontinence, orthostatic hypotension, and hyperhydrosis was obtained and the patient’s clinical condition was rated on the Hoehn and Yahr (H-Y scale in the ON-medication state. The patients’ cognitive function was assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, Blessed score, Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB, and Digid Span Test (DST (forward, reverse. Cognitive test scores were compared with SCOPA-OUT scores. Results: Mean age was 66,5±11.2 years. There was no correlation between cognitive test scores and SCOPA -OUT scores (p>0.05. However, H-Y scores were negatively correlated with the DSTf, DSTr, FAB, and MMSE scores (p50.005, r:-0.451; p50.025, r: -0.367; p50.040, r: -0.340; p50.044, r5-0.333, respectively. Conclusions: According to our results, clinical autonomic dysfunction did not seem to ha ve an effect on cognition. In addition, severity of cognitive dysfunction showed a strong negative correlation with the stage of disease.

  15. Evolution of brain and culture: the neurological and cognitive journey from Australopithecus to Albert Einstein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Dean

    2016-06-20

    Fossil and comparative primatological evidence suggest that alterations in the development of prehistoric hominin infants kindled three consecutive evolutionary-developmental (evo-devo) trends that, ultimately, paved the way for the evolution of the human brain and cognition. In the earliest trend, infants' development of posture and locomotion became delayed because of anatomical changes that accompanied the prolonged evolution of bipedalism. Because modern humans have inherited these changes, our babies are much slower than other primates to reach developmental milestones such as standing, crawling, and walking. The delay in ancestral babies' physical development eventually precipitated an evolutionary reversal in which they became increasing unable to cling independently to their mothers. For the first time in prehistory, babies were, thus, periodically deprived of direct physical contact with their mothers. This prompted the emergence of a second evo-devo trend in which infants sought contact comfort from caregivers using evolved signals, including new ways of crying that are conserved in modern babies. Such signaling stimulated intense reciprocal interactions between prehistoric mothers and infants that seeded the eventual emergence of motherese and, subsequently, protolanguage. The third trend was for an extreme acceleration in brain growth that began prior to the last trimester of gestation and continued through infants' first postnatal year (early "brain spurt"). Conservation of this trend in modern babies explains why human brains reach adult sizes that are over three times those of chimpanzees. The fossil record of hominin cranial capacities together with comparative neuroanatomical data suggest that, around 3 million years ago, early brain spurts began to facilitate an evolutionary trajectory for increasingly large adult brains in association with neurological reorganization. The prehistoric increase in brain size eventually caused parturition to become

  16. Serum glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor levels and postoperative cognitive dysfunction after surgery for rheumatic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaoxia; Zhu, Tao; Chen, Chan; Zhang, Guanpeng; Zhang, Junhui; Wang, Lin; Zhang, Luye; Wang, Maohua; Wang, Xiaobin

    2018-03-01

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction is an important complication of cardiac surgery with poor outcomes. Serum glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor levels are decreased in patients with Alzheimer's disease, but the association between glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor levels and postoperative cognitive dysfunction is poorly understood. The present study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of postoperative serum glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor levels to predict postoperative cognitive dysfunction in patients with rheumatic heart disease undergoing heart valve replacement. This was a prospective observational study of 80 patients undergoing elective heart valve replacement surgery from June 2015 to June 2016 at the Affiliated Hospital of Southeast Medical University. Cognitive functions were assessed 1 day before and 7 days after surgery. Serum glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay before (T1) and 1 (T2), 2 (T3), and 7 (T4) days after surgery. Perioperative parameters were evaluated to assess the relationship between glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factors and postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction was identified in 38 patients (47.5%) 7 days after surgery. Average glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor levels at 2 and 7 days after surgery in the postoperative cognitive dysfunction group were lower than in the nonpostoperative cognitive dysfunction group at the same time points (P derived neurotrophic factor (T1-T3) and Δglial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (T1-T4) were identified as good predictors of postoperative cognitive dysfunction with threshold for postoperative cognitive dysfunction detection of 49.10 and 60.90, respectively. The perioperative glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor levels in patients with postoperative cognitive dysfunction were lower than in patients without postoperative

  17. Association between academic performance and cognitive dysfunction in patients with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frittoli, Renan Bazuco; de Oliveira Peliçari, Karina; Bellini, Bruna Siqueira; Marini, Roberto; Fernandes, Paula Teixeira; Appenzeller, Simone

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether there is an association between the profile of cognitive dysfunction and academic outcomes in patients with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE). Patients aged ≤18 years at the onset of the disease and education level at or above the fifth grade of elementary school were selected. Cognitive evaluation was performed according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) recommendations. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed by Beck scales; disease activity was assessed by Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI); and cumulative damage was assessed by Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC). The presence of autoantibodies and medication use were also assessed. A significance level of 5% (pperformance in patients with cognitive dysfunction (p=0.039). Anxiety symptoms were observed in 8 patients (19.51%) and were associated with visual perception (p=0.037) and symptoms of depression were observed in 1 patient (2.43%). Patients with JSLE concomitantly with cognitive dysfunction showed worse academic performance in mathematics compared to patients without cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. [Peculiarities of emotional-cognitive assessment of sensations by patients with neurological diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'eva, V N; Tkhostov, A Sh

    2009-01-01

    To study peculiarities of emotional-cognitive assessment of color sensations and sensation descriptors in patients with autonomic dystonia and cerebrovascular diseases, 70 healthy subjects and 113 patients including 27 with autonomic dystonia, 48 - with discirculatory encephalopathy and 38 - with ischemic stroke have been studied in the rehabilitation period. Clinical-neurological examination, assessment of headache intensity on the Visual-Analogous scale, anxiety and depression levels on the Hospital anxiety and depression scale, the level of mental maladaptation on an author's scale as well as a study of emotional-cognitive assessment of color sensations and sensation descriptors have been carried out. Assessments of color sensations were studied using 20 color standards, indices of positive and negative assessment of all groups of colors and colors of certain categories were determined. The relation to sensation descriptors was studied by showing a list of 50 words; indices of positive and negative ratings of different categories of descriptors (% to the total number of words listed) were determined. It has been shown that the system of assessment of color sensations is most substantially changed in patients with autonomic dystonia that appeared in the more negative, compared to healthy people, perception of cold color tones, dark tones and chromatically non-saturated colors. These changes were less represented in patients with cerebrovascular diseases and disappear after stroke. Changes in the system of sensation descriptors rating are evenly expressed in patients with autonomic dystonia and cerebrovascular diseases: patients' ratings of sensation descriptors are more negative compared to healthy people. These changes are related to the increase of anxiety and depression levels and may contribute to mental health problems of patients.

  19. Hippocampal dysfunction and cognitive impairment in Fragile-X Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostrom, Crystal; Yau, Suk-Yu; Majaess, Namat; Vetrici, Mariana; Gil-Mohapel, Joana; Christie, Brian R

    2016-09-01

    Fragile-X Syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited intellectual disability and the leading genetic cause of autism spectrum disorder. FXS is caused by transcriptional silencing of the Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 (Fmr1) gene due to a CGG repeat expansion, resulting in the loss of Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP). FMRP is involved in transcriptional regulation and trafficking of mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and distal sites both in pre- and post-synaptic terminals. Consequently, FXS is a multifaceted disorder associated with impaired synaptic plasticity. One region of the brain that is significantly impacted by the loss of FMRP is the hippocampus, a structure that plays a critical role in the regulation of mood and cognition. This review provides an overview of the neuropathology of Fragile-X Syndrome, highlighting how structural and synaptic deficits in hippocampal subregions, including the CA1 exhibiting exaggerated metabotropic glutamate receptor dependent long-term depression and the dentate gyrus displaying hypofunction of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors, contribute to cognitive impairments associated with this neurodevelopmental disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Decreased physical activity predicts cognitive dysfunction and reduced cerebral blood flow in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alosco, Michael L; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Cohen, Ronald; Raz, Naftali; Sweet, Lawrence H; Josephson, Richard; Hughes, Joel; Rosneck, Jim; Gunstad, John

    2014-04-15

    Cognitive impairment in heart failure (HF) is believed to result from brain hypoperfusion subsequent to cardiac dysfunction. Physical inactivity is prevalent in HF and correlated with reduced cardiac and cognitive function. Yet, no longitudinal studies have examined the neurocognitive effects of physical inactivity in HF. The current study examined whether reduced physical activity increases risk for cognitive impairment and brain hypoperfusion over time in HF. At baseline and 12 months later, 65 HF patients underwent neuropsychological testing, transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, and were asked to wear an accelerometer for seven days. Lower baseline step count and less time spent in moderate free-living activity best predicted worse attention/executive function and decreased cerebral perfusion at the 12-month follow-up. Decreased baseline cerebral perfusion also emerged as a strong predictor of poorer 12-month attention/executive function. Lower physical activity predicted worse cognition and cerebral perfusion 12 months later in HF. Physical inactivity in HF may contribute to cognitive impairment and exacerbate risk for conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. Larger studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms by which physical inactivity leads to cognitive dysfunction in HF, including clarification of the role of cerebral hypoperfusion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Interictal epileptic discharge correlates with global and frontal cognitive dysfunction in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkelacker, Vera; Xin, Xu; Baulac, Michel; Samson, Séverine; Dupont, Sophie

    2016-09-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with hippocampal sclerosis has widespread effects on structural and functional connectivity and often entails cognitive dysfunction. EEG is mandatory to disentangle interactions in epileptic and physiological networks which underlie these cognitive comorbidities. Here, we examined how interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs) affect cognitive performance. Thirty-four patients (right TLE=17, left TLE=17) were examined with 24-hour video-EEG and a battery of neuropsychological tests to measure intelligence quotient and separate frontal and temporal lobe functions. Hippocampal segmentation of high-resolution T1-weighted imaging was performed with FreeSurfer. Partial correlations were used to compare the number and distribution of clinical interictal spikes and sharp waves with data from imagery and psychological tests. The number of IEDs was negatively correlated with executive functions, including verbal fluency and intelligence quotient (IQ). Interictal epileptic discharge affected cognitive function in patients with left and right TLE differentially, with verbal fluency strongly related to temporofrontal spiking. In contrast, IEDs had no clear effects on memory functions after corrections with partial correlations for age, age at disease onset, disease duration, and hippocampal volume. In patients with TLE of long duration, IED occurrence was strongly related to cognitive deficits, most pronounced for frontal lobe function. These data suggest that IEDs reflect dysfunctional brain circuitry and may serve as an independent biomarker for cognitive comorbidity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Perioperative plasma concentrations of stable nitric oxide products are predictive of cognitive dysfunction after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Iohom, G

    2012-02-03

    In this study our objectives were to determine the incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) after laparoscopic cholecystectomy under sevoflurane anesthesia in patients aged >40 and <85 yr and to examine the associations between plasma concentrations of i) S-100beta protein and ii) stable nitric oxide (NO) products and POCD in this clinical setting. Neuropsychological tests were performed on 42 ASA physical status I-II patients the day before, and 4 days and 6 wk after surgery. Patient spouses (n = 13) were studied as controls. Cognitive dysfunction was defined as deficit in one or more cognitive domain(s). Serial measurements of serum concentrations of S-100beta protein and plasma concentrations of stable NO products (nitrate\\/nitrite, NOx) were performed perioperatively. Four days after surgery, new cognitive deficit was present in 16 (40%) patients and in 1 (7%) control subject (P = 0.01). Six weeks postoperatively, new cognitive deficit was present in 21 (53%) patients and 3 (23%) control subjects (P = 0.03). Compared with the "no deficit" group, patients who demonstrated a new cognitive deficit 4 days postoperatively had larger plasma NOx at each perioperative time point (P < 0.05 for each time point). Serum S-100beta protein concentrations were similar in the 2 groups. In conclusion, preoperative (and postoperative) plasma concentrations of stable NO products (but not S-100beta) are associated with early POCD. The former represents a potential biochemical predictor of POCD.

  3. Rational Pharmacological Approaches for Cognitive Dysfunction and Depression in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Rincón, Maritza; Sáenz-Farret, Michel; Miguel-Puga, Adán; Micheli, Federico; Arias-Carrión, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is not a single entity but rather a heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder. The present study aims to conduct a critical systematic review of the literature to describe the main pharmacological strategies to treat cognitive dysfunction and major depressive disorder in PD patients. We performed a search of articles cited in PubMed from 2004 to 2014 using the following MeSH terms (Medical subject headings) “Parkinson disease”; “Delirium,” “Dementia,” “Amnestic,” “Cognitive disorders,” and “Parkinson disease”; “depression,” “major depressive disorder,” “drug therapy.” We found a total of 71 studies related to pharmacological treatment in cognitive dysfunction and 279 studies for pharmacological treatment in major depressive disorder. After fulfillment of all the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 13 articles remained for cognitive dysfunction and 11 for major depressive disorder, which are presented and discussed in this study. Further research into non-motor symptoms of PD may provide insights into mechanisms of neurodegeneration, and provide better quality of life by using rational drugs. PMID:25873910

  4. Myopia and cognitive dysfunction among elderly Chinese adults: a propensity score matching analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong-Peng; Liu, Hu; Xu, Yong; Pan, Chen-Wei

    2016-03-01

    The association between myopia and cognitive dysfunction among elderly adults was assessed by applying a Propensity Score Matching (PSM) approach. This is a statistical method which allows investigators to estimate causal treatment effects using observational or nonrandomised data. The study was designed as a community-based cross-sectional study based on a Chinese cohort aged 60 years or older in China. Objective refraction was measured using an autorefractor and subjective refraction was used to refine vision, using the results of the objective refraction as the starting point. Myopia was defined as a spherical equivalent value of less than -0.50 dioptre (D) in the right eye. The Abbreviated Mental Test (AMT) was used for cognitive assessment. The propensity scores for myopia were formulated using 13 potential confounders. We matched the propensity scores for subjects with and without myopia within a caliper of 0.01 of logit function of propensity scores. About 4123 elderly adults who successfully completed the AMT were included in this analysis. The odds ratio (OR) of cognitive dysfunction for myopia before matching was 1.98 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.61, 2.44; p Myopia was associated with a higher prevalence of cognitive dysfunction among elderly Chinese aged 60 years or older in China. The PSM approach may be a useful method to address selection bias in observational studies when randomised trials cannot ethically be conducted. © 2015 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2015 The College of Optometrists.

  5. Exendin-4 Protected against Cognitive Dysfunction in Hyperglycemic Mice Receiving an Intrahippocampal Lipopolysaccharide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Keng-Chen; Jheng, Yu-Syuan; Jhao, Jhih-Jhen; Su, Ming-Tsan; Lee-Chen, Guey-Jen; Hsieh-Li, Hsiu Mei

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic hyperglycemia-associated inflammation plays critical roles in disease initiation and the progression of diabetic complications, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the association of chronic hyperglycemia with acute inflammation of the central nervous system in the progression of AD still needs to be elucidated. In addition, recent evidence suggests that Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) protects against neuronal damage in the brain. Therefore, the neuroprotective effects of the GLP-1R agonist exendin-4 (EX-4) against hyperglycemia/lipopolysaccharides (LPS) damage were also evaluated in this study. Methodology/Principal Findings Ten days after streptozotocin (STZ) or vehicle (sodium citrate) treatment in mice, EX-4 treatment (10 µg/kg/day) was applied to the mice before intrahippocampal CA1 injection of LPS or vehicle (saline) and continued for 28 days. This study examined the molecular alterations in these mice after LPS and EX4 application, respectively. The mouse cognitive function was evaluated during the last 6 days of EX-4 treatment. The results showed that the activation of NF-κB-related inflammatory responses induced cognitive dysfunction in both the hyperglycemic mice and the mice that received acute intrahippocampal LPS injection. Furthermore, acute intrahippocampal LPS injection exacerbated the impairment of spatial learning and memory through a strong decrease in monoaminergic neurons and increases in astrocytes activation and apoptosis in the hyperglycemic mice. However, EX-4 treatment protected against the cognitive dysfunction resulting from hyperglycemia or/and intrahippocampal LPS injection. Conclusions/Significance These findings reveal that both hyperglycemia and intrahippocampal LPS injection induced cognitive dysfunction via activation of NF-κB-related inflammatory responses. However, acute intrahippocampal LPS injection exacerbated the progression of cognitive dysfunction in the hyperglycemic mice via a

  6. Multifocal cognitive dysfunction in high-dose benzodiazepine users: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, Angela; Tamburin, Stefano; Maier, Alice; Faccini, Marco; Casari, Rebecca; Morbioli, Laura; Lugoboni, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are the most widely prescribed drug class in developed countries, but they have high potential for tolerance, dependence and abuse. Cognitive deficits in long-term BZD users have long been known, but previous results might have been biased by patients' old age, coexisting neurological or psychiatric conditions or concurrent alcohol or psychotropic drug dependence. The study was aimed to explore the neuropsychological effect of high-dose BZD dependence, which represents an emerging addiction phenomenon. We recruited a group of high-dose BZD users with neither neurological or psychiatric comorbidity except anxiety or depression nor concurrent alcohol or psychotropic drug dependence. They underwent a battery of cognitive tests to explore verbal, visuospatial memory, working memory, attention, and executive functions. All the neuropsychological measures were significantly worse in patients than controls, and some of them were influenced by the BZD cumulative dose. The severity of depression and anxiety had a minimal influence on cognitive tests. Patients with high-dose BZD intake show profound changes in cognitive function. The impact of cognition should be considered in this population of patients, who may be involved in risky activities or have high work responsibilities.

  7. Cognitive Dysfunctions in Patients with Alcohol Dependence Syndrome in a Tertiary Hospital in Kathmandu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, S; Rana, M; Shakya, S; Ojha, S P

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is a chronic disorder, accompanied by neuropsychological deficits. Patients with alcohol dependence were evaluated to identify the cognitive dysfunctions. The study followed descriptive design and recruited participants (N=62) from inpatient services of the Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health by convenient sampling. Participants were evaluated with the Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire, Frontal Assessment Battery and PGI Memory Scale for the severity of alcohol dependence, executive impairments and memory dysfunctions respectively once they had completed alcohol detoxification. Total duration of alcohol consumption was 13.93 ± 8.74 years, period of dependence was 2.97 ± 2.23 years and 56.5% had moderate level of dependence. 33.9% of the participants had executive impairments particularly in conceptualization, programming and mental flexibility. 38% of variance in executive dysfunction was explained by illness variables, where period of alcohol dependence and education were significant predictors. 54.8% had significant memory dysfunction particularly in visual retention, remote memory, verbal retention of dissimilar pairs and delayed recall. Memory dysfunction differed significantly among the age groups (F=10.22, pmemory dysfunction was explained by illness variables, where duration of alcohol consumption was a significant predictor (β = .485, palcohol dependence. Hence, routine neuropsychological assessment is of particular importance for early detection and remediation of underlying deficits, which completes the treatment of alcohol dependence.

  8. [A Study on the Cognitive Learning Effectiveness of Scenario-Based Concept Mapping in a Neurological Nursing Course].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hui-Ching; Hsieh, Suh-Ing; Hsu, Li-Ling

    2015-12-01

    The multiple levels of knowledge related to the neurological system deter many students from pursuing studies on this topic. Thus, in facing complicated and uncertain medical circumstances, nursing students have diffi-culty adjusting and using basic neurological-nursing knowledge and skills. Scenario-based concept-mapping teaching has been shown to promote the integration of complicated data, clarify related concepts, and increase the effectiveness of cognitive learning. To investigate the effect on the neurological-nursing cognition and learning attitude of nursing students of a scenario-based concept-mapping strategy that was integrated into the neurological nursing unit of a medical and surgical nursing course. This quasi-experimental study used experimental and control groups and a pre-test / post-test design. Sopho-more (2nd year) students in a four-year program at a university of science and technology in Taiwan were convenience sampled using cluster randomization that was run under SPSS 17.0. Concept-mapping lessons were used as the intervention for the experimental group. The control group followed traditional lesson plans only. The cognitive learning outcome was measured using the neurological nursing-learning examination. Both concept-mapping and traditional lessons significantly improved post-test neurological nursing learning scores (p learning attitude with regard to the teaching material. Furthermore, a significant number in the experimental group expressed the desire to add more lessons on anatomy, physiology, and pathology. These results indicate that this intervention strategy may help change the widespread fear and refusal of nursing students with regard to neurological lessons and may facilitate interest and positively affect learning in this important subject area. Integrating the concept-mapping strategy and traditional clinical-case lessons into neurological nursing lessons holds the potential to increase post-test scores significantly

  9. Anatomical brain connectivity can assess cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzali, M; Spanò, B; Parker, G J M; Giulietti, G; Castelli, M; Basile, B; Rossi, S; Serra, L; Magnani, G; Nocentini, U; Caltagirone, C; Centonze, D; Cercignani, M

    2013-08-01

    Brain disconnection plays a major role in determining cognitive disabilities in multiple sclerosis (MS). We recently developed a novel diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) tractography approach, namely anatomical connectivitity mapping (ACM), that quantifies structural brain connectivity. Use of ACM to assess structural connectivity modifications in MS brains and ascertain their relationship with the patients' Paced-Auditory-Serial-Addition-Test (PASAT) scores. Relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients (n = 25) and controls (n = 25) underwent MRI at 3T, including conventional images, T1-weighted volumes and DW-MRI. Volumetric scans were coregistered to fractional anisotropy (FA) images, to obtain parenchymal FA maps for both white and grey matter. We initiated probabilistic tractography from all parenchymal voxels, obtaining ACM maps by counting the number of streamlines passing through each voxel, then normalizing by the total number of streamlines initiated. The ACM maps were transformed into standard space, for statistical use. RRMS patients had reduced grey matter volume and FA, consistent with previous literature. Also, we showed reduced ACM in the thalamus and in the head of the caudate nucleus, bilaterally. In our RRMS patients, ACM was associated with PASAT scores in the corpus callosum, right hippocampus and cerebellum. ACM opens a new perspective, clarifying the contribution of anatomical brain disconnection to clinical disabilities in MS.

  10. Neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction: Clinical management recommendations of the Neurologic Incontinence committee of the fifth International Consultation on Incontinence 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Marcus John; Apostolidis, Apostolos; Cocci, Andrea; Emmanuel, Anton; Gajewski, Jerzy B; Harrison, Simon C W; Heesakkers, John P F A; Lemack, Gary E; Madersbacher, Helmut; Panicker, Jalesh N; Radziszewski, Piotr; Sakakibara, Ryuji; Wyndaele, Jean Jacques

    2016-08-01

    Evidence-based guidelines for the management of neurological disease and lower urinary tract dysfunction have been produced by the International Consultations on Incontinence (ICI). These are comprehensive guidelines, and were developed to have world-wide relevance. To update clinical management of neurogenic bladder dysfunction from the recommendations of the fourth ICI, 2009. A series of evidence reviews and updates were performed by members of the working group. The resulting guidelines were presented at the 2012 meeting of the European Association of Urology for consultation, and consequently amended to deliver evidence-based conclusions and recommendations in 2013. The current review is a synthesis of the conclusions and recommendations, including the algorithms for initial and specialized management of neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction. The pathophysiology is categorized according to the nature of onset of neurological disease and the part(s) of the nervous system affected. Assessment requires clinical evaluation, general investigations, and specialized testing. Treatment primarily focuses on ensuring safety of the patient and optimizing quality of life. Symptom management covers conservative and interventional measures to aid urine storage and bladder emptying, along with containment of incontinence. A multidisciplinary approach to management is essential. The review offers a pragmatic review of management in the context of complex pathophysiology and varied evidence base. Neurourol. Urodynam. 35:657-665, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Optimising screening for cognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder: Validation and evaluation of objective and subjective tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Johan Høy; Støttrup, Mette Marie; Nayberg, Emilie

    2015-01-01

    and socio-occupational capacity. Methods Patients with bipolar disorder in partial or full remission (n=84) and healthy controls (n=68) were assessed with the Screen for Cognitive Impairment in Psychiatry (SCIP), Cognitive Complaints in Bipolar Disorder Rating Scale (COBRA), and established...... neuropsychological tests and subjective rating scales. Socio-occupational function and affective symptoms were evaluated with the Functional Assessment Short Test, and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale 17-items and Young Mania Rating Scale, respectively. Concurrent validity of the SCIP and COBRA were assessed......, and socio-occupational difficulties. Results The SCIP and COBRA correlated strongly with established objective and subjective cognitive measures, respectively. The SCIP yielded higher sensitivity and specificity for detection of cognitive dysfunction than the COBRA or a combined SCIP-COBRA measure...

  12. Differential diagnosis between dementia and psychiatric disorders: Diagnostic criteria and supplementary exams. Recommendations of the Scientific Department of Cognitive Neurology and Aging of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottino, Cássio M C; de Pádua, Analuiza Camozzato; Smid, Jerusa; Areza-Fegyveres, Renata; Novaretti, Tânia; Bahia, Valeria S

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, the Scientific Department of Cognitive Neurology and Aging of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology published recommendations for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease These recommendations were updated following a review of evidence retrieved from national and international studies held on PUBMED, SCIELO and LILACS medical databases. The main aims of this review article are as follows: 1) to present the evidence found on Brazilian (LILACS, SCIELO) and International (MEDLINE) databases from articles published up to May 2011, on the differential diagnosis of these psychiatric disorders and dementia, with special focus on Dementia due to Alzheimer's and vascular dementia, including a review of supplementary exams which may facilitate the diagnostic process; and2) to propose recommendations for use by clinicians and researchers involved in diagnosing patients with dementia. Differential diagnosis between dementia and other neuropsychiatric disorders should always include assessments for depression, delirium, and use of psychoactive substances, as well as investigate the use of benzodiazepines, anti-epileptics and pattern of alcohol consumption.

  13. Differential diagnosis between dementia and psychiatric disorders: Diagnostic criteria and supplementary exams Recommendations of the Scientific Department of Cognitive Neurology and Aging of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássio M.C. Bottino

    Full Text Available Abstract In 2005, the Scientific Department of Cognitive Neurology and Aging of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology published recommendations for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease These recommendations were updated following a review of evidence retrieved from national and international studies held on PUBMED, SCIELO and LILACS medical databases. The main aims of this review article are as follows: 1 to present the evidence found on Brazilian (LILACS, SCIELO and International (MEDLINE databases from articles published up to May 2011, on the differential diagnosis of these psychiatric disorders and dementia, with special focus on Dementia due to Alzheimer's and vascular dementia, including a review of supplementary exams which may facilitate the diagnostic process; and 2 to propose recommendations for use by clinicians and researchers involved in diagnosing patients with dementia. Differential diagnosis between dementia and other neuropsychiatric disorders should always include assessments for depression, delirium, and use of psychoactive substances, as well as investigate the use of benzodiazepines, anti-epileptics and pattern of alcohol consumption.

  14. Emerging evidence of insulin-like growth factor 2 as a memory enhancer: a unique animal model of cognitive dysfunction with impaired adult neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Takashi; Ouchi, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    In the current aging society, cognitive dysfunction is one of the most serious issues that should be urgently resolved. It also affects a wide range of age groups harboring neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. Although the molecular mechanism of memory impairment still remains to be determined, neuronal loss and dysfunction has been revealed to mainly attribute to its pathology. The discovery of neural stem cells in the adult brain that are proliferating and able to generate functional neurons has given rise to the idea that neuronal loss could be rescued by manipulating endogenous neural progenitor and stem cells. To this end, we must characterize them in detail and their developmental programming must be better understood. A growing body of evidence has indicated that insulin-like peptides are involved in learning and memory and maintenance of neural progenitor and stem cells, and clinical trials of insulin as a memory enhancer have begun. In contrast to the expectation of insulin and IGF1, the roles of IGF2 in cognitive ability have been poorly understood. However, recent evidence demonstrated in rodents suggests that IGF2 may play a pivotal role in adult neurogenesis and cognitive function. Here, we would like to review the rapidly growing world of IGF2 in cognitive neuroscience and introduce the evidence that its deficit is indeed involved in the impairment of the hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive dysfunction in the model mouse of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, which deletes Dgcr8, a critical gene for microRNA processing.

  15. Neurological complications in chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ria Arnold

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD are frequently afflicted with neurological complications. These complications can potentially affect both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Common neurological complications in CKD include stroke, cognitive dysfunction, encephalopathy, peripheral and autonomic neuropathies. These conditions have significant impact not only on patient morbidity but also on mortality risk through a variety of mechanisms. Understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms of these conditions can provide insights into effective management strategies for neurological complications. This review describes clinical management of neurological complications in CKD with reference to the contributing physiological and pathological derangements. Stroke, cognitive dysfunction and dementia share several pathological mechanisms that may contribute to vascular impairment and neurodegeneration. Cognitive dysfunction and dementia may be differentiated from encephalopathy which has similar contributing factors but presents in an acute and rapidly progressive manner and may be accompanied by tremor and asterixis. Recent evidence suggests that dietary potassium restriction may be a useful preventative measure for peripheral neuropathy. Management of painful neuropathic symptoms can be achieved by pharmacological means with careful dosing and side effect considerations for reduced renal function. Patients with autonomic neuropathy may respond to sildenafil for impotence. Neurological complications often become clinically apparent at end-stage disease, however early detection and management of these conditions in mild CKD may reduce their impact at later stages.

  16. Structure-Function Relationships behind the Phenomenon of Cognitive Resilience in Neurology: Insights for Neuroscience and Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rudrauf

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of cognitive resilience, that is, the dynamical preservation of normal functions despite neurological disorders, demonstrates that cognition can be highly robust to devastating brain injury. Here, cognitive resilience is considered across a range of neurological conditions. Simple computational models of structure-function relationships are used to discuss hypotheses about the neural mechanisms of resilience. Resilience expresses functional redundancies in brain networks and suggests a process of dynamic rerouting of brain signals. This process is underlined by a global renormalization of effective connectivity, capable of restoring information transfer between spared brain structures via alternate pathways. Local mechanisms of synaptic plasticity mediate the renormalization at the lowest level of implementation, but it is also driven by top-down cognition, with a key role of self-awareness in fostering resilience. The presence of abstraction layers in brain computation and networking is hypothesized to account for the renormalization process. Future research directions and challenges are discussed regarding the understanding and control of resilience based on multimodal neuroimaging and computational neuroscience. The study of resilience will illuminate ways by which the brain can overcome adversity and help inform prevention and treatment strategies. It is relevant to combating the negative neuropsychological impact of aging and fostering cognitive enhancement.

  17. An Observational Study with Long-Term Follow-Up of Canine Cognitive Dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, R.; Schutt, T.; Toft, N.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Canine cognitive dysfunction (CCD) is a neurodegenerative condition affecting geriatric dogs and sharing several characteristics with human Alzheimer's disease (AD). CCD manifests as alterations of behavioral patterns and daily routines. Clinical signs are associated with neurodegener......Background: Canine cognitive dysfunction (CCD) is a neurodegenerative condition affecting geriatric dogs and sharing several characteristics with human Alzheimer's disease (AD). CCD manifests as alterations of behavioral patterns and daily routines. Clinical signs are associated...... = .99). Conclusions and Clinical Importance: A few key questions addressing sleep-wake cycle, interaction, and signs of confusion and anxiety can be used as a clinical marker of CCD. Special attention should be paid to anxiety in dogs with CCD because it may be especially stressful to both dog and owner...

  18. Cognitive dysfunction in hereditary spastic paraplegias and other motor neuron disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Faber

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP is a diverse group of single-gene disorders that share the predominant clinical feature of progressive lower limb spasticity and weakness. More than 70 different genetic subtypes have been described and all modes of inheritance are possible. Intellectual dysfunction in HSP is frequent in recessive forms but rare in dominant families. It may manifest by either mental retardation and/or cognitive decline. The latter may be subtle, restricted to executive dysfunction or may evolve to severe dementia. The cognitive profile is thought to depend largely on the genetic subtype of HSP, although wide phenotypic variability within the same genetic subtype and also within the same family can be found.

  19. Cognitive dysfunction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Lone; Østergaard, Birte; Rasmussen, Lars S

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Substantial healthcare resources are spent on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In addition, the involvement of patients in monitoring and treatment of their condition has been suggested. However, it is important to maintain a view of self-care that takes differences....... RESULTS: Fifteen studies were included, involving 655 COPD patients and 394 controls. Cognitive function was impaired in COPD patients as compared to healthy controls, but the level of functioning was better than in patients with Alzheimer's disease. There was a significant association between severity...... on the consequences of cognitive dysfunction for daily living in these patients, and solutions involving a high degree of self-care might require special support....

  20. The Link Between Physical Activity and Cognitive Dysfunction in Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Cristy; Baktir, Mehmet Akif; Das, Devsmita; Lin, Bill; Salehi, Ahmad

    2015-07-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a primary cause of cognitive dysfunction in the elderly population worldwide. Despite the allocation of enormous amounts of funding and resources to studying this brain disorder, there are no effective pharmacological treatments for reducing the severity of pathology and restoring cognitive function in affected people. Recent reports on the failure of multiple clinical trials for AD have highlighted the need to diversify further the search for new therapeutic strategies for cognitive dysfunction. Thus, studies detailing the neuroprotective effects of physical activity (PA) on the brain in AD were reviewed, and mechanisms by which PA might mitigate AD-related cognitive decline were explored. A MEDLINE database search was used to generate a list of studies conducted between January 2007 and September 2014 (n=394). These studies, along with key references, were screened to identify those that assessed the effects of PA on AD-related biomarkers and cognitive function. The search was not limited on the basis of intensity, frequency, duration, or mode of activity. However, studies in which PA was combined with another intervention (eg, diet, pharmacotherapeutics, ovariectomy, cognitive training, behavioral therapy), and studies not written in English were excluded. Thirty-eight animal and human studies met entry criteria. Most of the studies suggested that PA attenuates neuropathology and positively affects cognitive function in AD. Although the literature lacked sufficient evidence to support precise PA guidelines, convergent evidence does suggest that the incorporation of regular PA into daily routines mitigates AD-related symptoms, especially when deployed earlier in the disease process. Here the protocols used to alter the progression of AD-related neuropathology and cognitive decline are highlighted, and the implications for physical therapist practice are discussed. © 2015 American Physical Therapy Association.

  1. Cognitive outcomes after psychotherapeutic interventions for major depression in older adults with executive dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackin, R Scott; Nelson, J Craig; Delucchi, Kevin; Raue, Patrick; Byers, Amy; Barnes, Deborah; Satre, Derek D; Yaffe, Kristine; Alexopoulos, George S; Arean, Patricia A

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of psychotherapy on cognitive functioning in older adults with late-life depression (LLD) and executive dysfunction. Two hundred twenty-one adults aged 60 years and older participated in a randomized clinical trial comparing the efficacy of Problem Solving Therapy (PST) and Supportive Therapy (ST) for LLD. Cognitive performance on seven tests of executive functioning, verbal learning, and memory was evaluated at baseline, after 12 weeks of treatment, and at 24 weeks after the completion of treatment. Performance on a measure of executive functioning with a significant information processing speed component (Stroop Color and Word Test) improved after treatment, F (1, 312) = 8.50, p = 0.002, and improved performance was associated with a reduction in depressive symptoms but not treatment type. Performance on other measures of executive functioning, verbal learning, and memory did not change significantly after 12 weeks of psychotherapy treatment. Our results suggest that improvements in cognitive functioning after psychotherapy treatment for depression in older adults with executive dysfunction are likely focal and not distributed across all cognitive domains. Although previous analyses reported that PST was superior to ST in the treatment of depression, this analysis indicated no difference between the two treatments with regard to improvements in cognitive functioning. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Genetic variation and cognitive dysfunction in opioid-treated patients with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurita, Geana Paula; Ekholm, Ola; Kaasa, Stein

    2016-01-01

    of 10% for determining associations (Benjamini-Hochberg method). Co-dominant, dominant, and recessive models were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. RESULTS: In the co-dominant model significant associations (P ... sample. After correction for multiple testing, no SNPs were significant in the discovery sample. Dominant and recessive models also did not confirm significant associations. CONCLUSIONS: The findings did not support influence of those SNPs analyzed to explain cognitive dysfunction in opioid...

  3. Cerebral dysfunctions of emotion-cognition interactions in adolescent-onset schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Katharina; Seiferth, Nina Y; Kellermann, Thilo; Backes, Volker; Vloet, Timo D; Shah, N Jon; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute; Kircher, Tilo T

    2008-11-01

    Schizophrenia is among the most severe of psychiatric disorders, leading to impairments of affective and cognitive abilities. These dysfunctions affect each other mutually. Adolescent-onset schizophrenia (AOS) constitutes a particularly severe form of the disorder. In this study, possible dysfunctions of the neural correlates underlying the interaction of negative emotion and working memory in AOS were investigated. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, 12 patients with AOS and 12 non-AOS adolescents performed a verbal n-back task. Intermittently, negative and neutral emotions were induced by olfactory stimulation. Group differences in working memory, emotion, and their interaction were evaluated. In patients with AOS, lower performance sensitivity was observed, along with dorsolateral prefrontal, anterior cingulate, and inferior parietal hypoactivation during working memory demands. For negative versus neutral emotion induction, patients with AOS mainly showed increased brain activation compared with control subjects in widespread brain regions including the left orbitofrontal cortex and the medial frontal gyrus. Finally, during the interaction of emotion and cognition, altered patterns of activation in patients with AOS were found in the thalamocortical network, including the angular and the middle cingulate gyri extending to the precuneus. These activation differences were further decomposed by parameter estimates. Our results provide new insights into the neural correlates underlying the mutual influence of affective and cognitive symptoms in AOS. During the n-back task, areas typically associated with working memory performance were found hypoactivated in patients relative to the control subjects, including the dorsolateral prefrontal and parietal cortex and the anterior cingulate. However, patients with AOS mainly demonstrated increased activation in key areas of emotion processing, such as the left orbitofrontal cortex and medial frontal areas

  4. Vascular dementia Cognitive, functional and behavioral assessment Recommendations of the Scientific Department of Cognitive Neurology and Aging of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology. Part II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasz Engelhardt

    Full Text Available Abstract Vascular dementia (VaD is the most prevalent form of secondary dementia and the second most common of all dementias. The present paper aims to define guidelines on the basic principles for treating patients with suspected VaD (and vascular cognitive impairment - no dementia using an evidence-based approach. The material was retrieved and selected from searches of databases (Medline, Scielo, Lilacs, preferentially from the last 15 years, to propose a systematic way to assess cognition, function and behavior, and disease severity staging, with instruments adapted for our milieu, and diagnosis disclosure. The present proposal contributes to the definition of standard diagnostic criteria for VaD based on various levels of evidence. It is noteworthy that only around half of the population of patients with vascular cognitive impairment present with dementia, which calls for future proposals defining diagnostic criteria and procedures for this condition.

  5. Therapeutic agents for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction syndrome in senior dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberg, Gary

    2005-03-01

    With increasing age, dogs develop a form of neurodegenerative disease which has many similarities to age related cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease in humans. A decline in learning and memory can be demonstrated in dogs beginning as young as 7 years of age using a variety of neuropsychological tests. However, clinical cases of cognitive dysfunction syndrome are seldom identified until the age of 11 years or older. This is likely due to the fact that the owners are relying on clinical observations such as house-soiling, sleep-wake cycles and disorientation, rather than tests of learning and memory. On the other hand, dogs that are trained to more exacting tasks such as guide dogs for the visually impaired, or bomb detection and agility trained dogs might be noticed to have a decline in performance at a much earlier age. Through the use of standardized neuropsychological testing protocols, a number of drugs, natural products and supplement formulations have been developed for use in dogs with cognitive dysfunction and, in some cases clinical trials have validated their efficacy. Furthermore, the testing of products currently licensed and in the pipeline for the treatment of cognitive decline and Alzheimer's in humans, may provide additional therapeutic agents for the treatment of senior dogs, as well as provide insight as to the potential for the efficacy of these compounds in humans. This review will examine those products that are now marketed along with some that might be considered for use in senior dogs with cognitive dysfunction as well as the research that has been used to validate the efficacy (or lack thereof) of these compounds.

  6. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Trichostatin A Ameliorated Endotoxin-Induced Neuroinflammation and Cognitive Dysfunction

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    Chung-Hsi Hsing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive production of cytokines by microglia may cause cognitive dysfunction and long-lasting behavioral changes. Activating the peripheral innate immune system stimulates cytokine secretion in the central nervous system, which modulates cognitive function. Histone deacetylases (HDACs modulate cytokine synthesis and release. Trichostatin A (TSA, an HDAC inhibitor, is documented to be anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective. We investigated whether TSA reduces lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced neuroinflammation and cognitive dysfunction. ICR mice were first intraperitoneally (i.p. injected with vehicle or TSA (0.3 mg/kg. One hour later, they were injected (i.p. with saline or Escherichia coli LPS (1 mg/kg. We analyzed the food and water intake, body weight loss, and sucrose preference of the injected mice and then determined the microglia activation and inflammatory cytokine expression in the brains of LPS-treated mice and LPS-treated BV-2 microglial cells. In the TSA-pretreated mice, microglial activation was lower, anhedonia did not occur, and LPS-induced cognitive dysfunction (anorexia, weight loss, and social withdrawal was attenuated. Moreover, mRNA expression of HDAC2, HDAC5, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO, TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-1β in the brain of LPS-challenged mice and in the LPS-treated BV-2 microglial cells was lower. TSA diminished LPS-induced inflammatory responses in the mouse brain and modulated the cytokine-associated changes in cognitive function, which might be specifically related to reducing HDAC2 and HDAC5 expression.

  7. The Role of Cognitive Dysfunction and Behavioral Activation System on Life Quality Life of Employees in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Darkhor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of cognitive dysfunction and Behavioral Activation System on the quality of life of employees has been tried to understand. In this study, we considered all the employees of Azad University of Bandar Abbas working in the year 2016 as subject. Using simple random sampling method, 90 employees of Azad University, Bandar Abbas were selected and data were collected by using Cognitive dysfunction, behavioral activation system and quality of life questionnaires. Obtained data were analyzed by using Pearson correlation coefficient and using SPSS software and the result revealed a significant and negative relationship between the quality of life with cognitive dysfunctions, including distraction, memory problems, unintentional mistakes and inability to memorize the names. Nevertheless, a significant and positive relationship between these cases and Behavioral Activation System has also been evidenced. Our results concluded that cognitive dysfunction and Behavioral Activation System are factors that affecting the quality of life.

  8. The role of processing speed in post-stroke cognitive dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chwen-Yng; Wuang, Yee-Pay; Lin, Yueh-Hsien; Su, Jui-Hsing

    2015-03-01

    The association between speed of information processing and cognition has been extensively validated in normal aging and other neurocognitive disorders. Our aim was to determine whether such a relationship exists in stroke. Thirty patients and 30 age- and education-matched healthy individuals were administered a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests divided into the following six cognitive domains: processing speed (PS), verbal memory, visual memory, visuoperceptual function, language, and cognitive flexibility. The results demonstrate that stroke patients were characterized by cognitive deficits in almost all of these domains, but have the most pronounced deficits in PS. After adjusting for symbol digit modalities test score, all significant group differences in cognitive functioning disappeared. However, group differences remained significant after controlling for the influence of other cognitive factors. These findings suggest that decreased PS appears to underlie post-stroke cognitive dysfunction and may serve as a potential target for intervention. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Shared dimensions of performance and activation dysfunction in cognitive control in females with mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Kelly A; Dawson, Erica L; Kassel, Michelle T; Weldon, Anne L; Marshall, David F; Meyers, Kortni K; Gabriel, Laura B; Vederman, Aaron C; Weisenbach, Sara L; McInnis, Melvin G; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Langenecker, Scott A

    2015-05-01

    Major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder share symptoms that may reflect core mood disorder features. This has led to the pursuit of intermediate phenotypes and a dimensional approach to understand neurobiological disruptions in mood disorders. Executive dysfunction, including cognitive control, may represent a promising intermediate phenotype across major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. This study examined dimensions of cognitive control in women with major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder in comparison to healthy control subjects using two separate, consecutive experiments. For Experiment 1, participants completed a behavioural cognitive control task (healthy controls = 150, major depressive disorder = 260, bipolar disorder = 202; age range 17-84 years). A sample of those participants (healthy controls = 17, major depressive disorder = 19, and bipolar disorder = 16) completed a similar cognitive control task in an event-related design functional magnetic resonance imaging protocol for Experiment 2. Results for Experiment 1 showed greater impairments on the cognitive control task in patients with mood disorders relative to healthy controls (P mood disorder group falling into the 'impaired' range when using clinical cut-offs (mood disorder greater than healthy controls. Activation analyses using performance as a regressor, irrespective of diagnosis, revealed within and extra-network areas that were more active in poor performers. In summary, performance and activation during cognitive control tasks may represent an intermediate phenotype for mood disorders. However, cognitive control dysfunction is not uniform across women with mood disorders, and activation is linked to performance more so than disease. These findings support subtype and dimensional approaches to understanding risk and expression of mood disorders and are a promising area of inquiry, in line with the Research Domain Criteria initiative of NIMH. © The Author (2015

  10. Adenosine kinase inhibition protects against cranial radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munjal M Acharya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Clinical radiation therapy for the treatment of CNS cancers leads to unintended and debilitating impairments in cognition. Radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction is long lasting, however, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms are still not well established. Since ionizing radiation causes microglial and astroglial activation, we hypothesized that maladaptive changes in astrocyte function might be implicated in radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction. Among other gliotransmitters, astrocytes control the availability of adenosine, an endogenous neuroprotectant and modulator of cognition, via metabolic clearance through adenosine kinase (ADK. Adult rats exposed to cranial irradiation (10 Gy showed significant declines in performance of hippocampal-dependent cognitive function tasks (novel place recognition, novel object recognition, and contextual fear conditioning 1 month after exposure to ionizing radiation using a clinically relevant regimen. Irradiated rats spent less time exploring a novel place or object. Cranial irradiation also led to reduction in freezing behavior compared to controls in the fear conditioning task. Importantly, immunohistochemical analyses of irradiated brains showed significant elevation of ADK immunoreactivity in the hippocampus that was related to astrogliosis and increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP. Conversely, rats treated with the ADK inhibitor 5-iodotubercidin (5-ITU, 3.1 mg/kg, i.p., for 6 days prior to cranial irradiation showed significantly improved behavioral performance in all cognitive tasks 1 month post exposure. Treatment with 5-ITU attenuated radiation-induced astrogliosis and elevated ADK immunoreactivity in the hippocampus. These results confirm an astrocyte-mediated mechanism where preservation of extracellular adenosine can exert neuroprotection also against radiation-induced pathology. These innovative findings link radiation-induced changes in cognition and CNS

  11. The role of objective cognitive dysfunction in subjective cognitive complaints after stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijsbergen, M.W.A.; Mark, R E; Kop, W J; de Kort, P L M; Sitskoorn, M M

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose: Objective cognitive performance (OCP) is often impaired in patients post-stroke but the consequences of OCP for patient-reported subjective cognitive complaints (SCC) are poorly understood. We performed a detailed analysis on the association between post-stroke OCP and SCC.

  12. Regulatory RNAs and control of epigenetic mechanisms: expectations for cognition and cognitive dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Anderson A; Webb, William M; Lubin, Farah D

    2016-01-01

    The diverse functions of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) can influence virtually every aspect of the transcriptional process including epigenetic regulation of genes. In the CNS, regulatory RNA networks and epigenetic mechanisms have broad relevance to gene transcription changes involved in long-term memory formation and cognition. Thus, it is becoming increasingly clear that multiple classes of ncRNAs impact neuronal development, neuroplasticity, and cognition. Currently, a large gap exists in our knowledge of how ncRNAs facilitate epigenetic processes, and how this phenomenon affects cognitive function. In this review, we discuss recent findings highlighting a provocative role for ncRNAs including lncRNAs and piRNAs in the control of epigenetic mechanisms involved in cognitive function. Furthermore, we discuss the putative roles for these ncRNAs in cognitive disorders such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26366811

  13. Regulatory RNAs and control of epigenetic mechanisms: expectations for cognition and cognitive dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Anderson A; Webb, William M; Lubin, Farah D

    2016-01-01

    The diverse functions of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) can influence virtually every aspect of the transcriptional process including epigenetic regulation of genes. In the CNS, regulatory RNA networks and epigenetic mechanisms have broad relevance to gene transcription changes involved in long-term memory formation and cognition. Thus, it is becoming increasingly clear that multiple classes of ncRNAs impact neuronal development, neuroplasticity, and cognition. Currently, a large gap exists in our knowledge of how ncRNAs facilitate epigenetic processes, and how this phenomenon affects cognitive function. In this review, we discuss recent findings highlighting a provocative role for ncRNAs including lncRNAs and piRNAs in the control of epigenetic mechanisms involved in cognitive function. Furthermore, we discuss the putative roles for these ncRNAs in cognitive disorders such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease.

  14. Early postoperative cognitive dysfunction and blood pressure during coronary artery bypass graft operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottesman, Rebecca F; Hillis, Argye E; Grega, Maura A; Borowicz, Louis M; Selnes, Ola A; Baumgartner, William A; McKhann, Guy M

    2007-08-01

    To determine the relationship between change in blood pressure during coronary artery bypass graft operations and early cognitive dysfunction. Cohort study. Quaternary care facility. Patients Fifteen patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft operations who were at high risk for postoperative stroke. Preoperative and intraoperative mean arterial pressures (MAPs) were measured in all patients. Intervention A subset of patients underwent preoperative and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging. Main Outcome Measure Change in cognitive performance, using the Mini-Mental State Examination and other simple cognitive tests. A drop in MAP (preoperatively to intraoperatively) predicted a decrease in Mini-Mental State Examination score. When change in MAP was dichotomized (after excluding an outlier), subjects with a small decrease improved on the Mini-Mental State Examination by 1 point, whereas those with a large drop in MAP worsened by 1.4 points (P = .04). A drop in MAP from a preoperative baseline may put patients at risk for early cognitive dysfunction after a coronary artery bypass graft operation.

  15. The Effect of Cognitive-Behavioral Counseling on Anxiety and Aggression Women with Sexual Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Nemati

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aim: According to the American Psychiatric Association female sexual dysfunction are classified in four categories: sexual desire disorders, arousal, orgasm and pain. Having chronic Sexual dysfunction can lead to anxiety, depression, aggression and create problems in other aspects of life. The aim of this study was to Investigate the effect of cognitive-behavior counseling on anxiety and aggression in women with sexual dysfunction. Methods: In this clinical trial, 20 women were referred to Taleghani Hospital in Tehran with anxiety and aggression of sexual problems selected to measure sexual satisfaction. Glombok Rust questionnaire was used to measured the sexual satisfaction and Spielberger Questionnaire 40-item for Anxiety and Buss and Mark Perry questionnaire for aggression. Data were statistically analyzed by t test. Results: in general, the mean total of sexual satisfaction decreased from 79.05 at pretest to 7.35 at posttest p <0.05. the mean pretest of physical aggression from 28.2 and verbal aggression from 17.3 and nervous aggression from 28.95 followed by the aggression of the enemy from 29.95, have declined in post test to 12. 55 , 7.8, 12.3, and 3/12 respectively ( p <0.05. the results of Spielberger questionnaire showed that the mean pre-test state and trait anxiety were decreased from 63 and 62.5 to 35.1 and 34.15 respectively (p <0.05. Conclusion: Cognitive-behavioral counseling may not only have a significant effect in reducing sexual dysfunction in women, but also a significant role in reducing anxiety and aggression as reactions with this disorder. Key words: Sexual Dysfunction, Anxiety, Aggression, Women

  16. Chronic Alcohol Exposure is Associated with Decreased Neurogenesis, Aberrant Integration of Newborn Neurons, and Cognitive Dysfunction in Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Haleigh M; Zhou, Qi-Gang; Zucker, Hannah; McMullen, Megan R; Kokiko-Cochran, Olga Nicole; Ro, Eun Jeoung; Nagy, Laura E; Suh, Hoonkyo

    2015-10-01

    Neurological deficits of alcohol use disorder (AUD) have been attributed to dysfunctions of specific brain structures. Studies of alcoholic patients and chronic alcohol exposure animal models consistently identify reduced hippocampal mass and cogntive dysfunctions as a key alcohol-induced brain adaptation. However, the precise substrate of chronic alcohol exposure that leads to structural and functional impairments of the hippocampus is largely unknown. Using a calorie-matched alcohol feeding method, we tested whether chronic alcohol exposure targets neural stem cells and neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus. The effect of alcohol on proliferation of neural stem cells as well as cell fate determination and survival of newborn cells was evaluated via bromodeoxyuridine pulse and chase methods. A retrovirus-mediated single-cell labeling method was used to determine the effect of alcohol on the morphological development and circuitry incorporation of individual hippocampal newborn neurons. Finally, novel object recognition (NOR) and Y-maze tests were performed to examine whether disrupted neurogenesis is associated with hippocampus-dependent functional deficits in alcohol-fed mice. Chronic alcohol exposure reduced proliferation of neural stem cells and survival rate of newborn neurons; however, the fate determination of newborn cells remained unaltered. Moreover, the dendritic spine density of newborn neurons significantly decreased in alcohol-fed mice. Impaired spine formation indicates that alcohol interfered the synaptic connectivity of newborn neurons with excitatory neurons originating from various areas of the brain. In the NOR test, alcohol-fed mice displayed deficits in the ability to discriminate the novel object. Our study revealed that chronic alcohol exposure disrupted multiple steps of neurogenesis, including the production and development of newborn neurons. In addition, chronic alcohol exposure altered connectivity of newborn neurons with other input

  17. Acute cognitive dysfunction after hip fracture: frequency and risk factors in an optimized, multimodal, rehabilitation program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bitsch, Martin; Foss, Nicolai Bang; Kristensen, Billy Bjarne

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing hip fracture surgery often experience acute post-operative cognitive dysfunction (APOCD). The pathogenesis of APOCD is probably multifactorial, and no single intervention has been successful in its prevention. No studies have investigated the incidence of APOCD after...... hip fracture surgery in an optimized, multimodal, peri-operative rehabilitation regimen. METHODS: One hundred unselected hip fracture patients treated in a well-defined, optimized, multimodal, peri-operative rehabilitation regimen were included. Patients were tested upon admission and on the second......, fourth and seventh post-operative days with the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) score. RESULTS: Thirty-two per cent of patients developed a significant post-operative cognitive decline, which was associated with several pre-fracture patient characteristics, including age and cognitive function...

  18. Iron Metabolism Dysregulation and Cognitive Dysfunction in Pediatric Obesity: Is There a Connection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grandone

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and iron deficiency (ID are two of the most common nutritional disorders in the world. In children both conditions deserve particular attention. Several studies revealed an association between obesity and iron deficiency in children and, in some cases, a reduced response to oral supplementation. The connecting mechanism, however, is not completely known. This review is focused on: (1 iron deficiency in obese children and the role of hepcidin in the connection between body fat and poor iron status; (2 iron status and consequences on health, in particular on cognitive function; (3 cognitive function and obesity; (4 suggestion of a possible link between cognitive dysfunction and ID in pediatric obesity; and implications for therapy and future research.

  19. Depressive symptoms and cognitive dysfunctions in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavić Slađana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pronounced symptoms of depression and disorders of cognitive functions can be observed in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Objective. The objective of the study was evaluation of the severity of symptoms and predictive factors for depression and the existence of cognitive disorders in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Methods. A total of 150 respondents were included in this prospective study (50 patients with chronic hepatitis B, 50 patients with other chronic liver diseases and 50 healthy persons. The patients with chronic hepatitis B were homogeneous by age compared to healthy subjects (p=0.566 and patients with other chronic liver diseases (p=0.528. Assessment of intensity of depression was determined by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD. A Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE test was used to investigate the presence of cognitive disorders. Results. Significantly expressed depression was observed in patients with chronic hepatitis B compared with healthy persons as well as the occurrence of cognitive dysfunction (p=0.00, while in comparison with the patients with chronic nonviral liver diseases, depression was statistically significantly less markedly expressed (p=0.003. Depression and cognitive dysfunction were more noticeable in patients with chronic hepatitis B in the stage of liver cirrhosis in relation to the early stage of the disease. Multivariate analysis of variables related to the sociodemographic characteristics showed that the most significant positive predictor of depression was more expressed in older age (over 50 years (B=0.276; SE=0.092; p=0.004. Conclusion. Patients with chronic hepatitis B have a higher intensity of depression compared to healthy people, which is intensified with the progression of the disease. The highest expression of depression is expected in the elderly. Patients with chronic hepatitis B have a lower intensity of depression and fewer disorders of cognitive functions than

  20. [Depressive symptoms and cognitive dysfunctions in patients with chronic hepatitis B].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Pronounced symptoms of depression and disorders of cognitive functions can be observed in patients with chronic hepatitis B. The objective of the study was evaluation of the severity of symptoms and predictive factors for depression and the existence of cognitive disorders in patients with chronic hepatitis B. A total of 150 respondents were included in this prospective study (50 patients with chronic hepatitis B, 50 patients with other chronic liver diseases and 50 healthy persons). The patients with chronic hepatitis B were homogeneous by age compared to healthy subjects (p = 0.566) and patients with other chronic liver diseases (p = 0.528). Assessment of intensity of depression was determined by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD). A Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) test was used to investigate the presence of cognitive disorders. Significantly expressed depression was observed in patients with chronic hepatitis B compared with healthy persons as well as the occurrence of cognitive dysfunction (p = 0.00), while in comparison with the patients with chronic nonviral liver diseases, depression was statistically significantly less markedly expressed (p = 0.003). Depression and cognitive dysfunction were more noticeable in patients with chronic hepatitis B in the stage of liver cirrhosis in relation to the early stage of the disease. Multivariate analysis of variables related to the sociodemographic characteristics showed that the most significant positive predictor of depression was more expressed in older age (over 50 years) (B = 0.276; SE = 0.092; p = 0.004). Patients with chronic hepatitis B have a higher intensity of depression compared to healthy people, which is intensified with the progression of the disease. The highest expression of depression is expected in the elderly. Patients with chronic hepatitis B have a lower intensity of depression and fewer disorders of cognitive functions than patients with other chronic liver diseases.

  1. A Clinical Research Study of Cognitive Dysfunction and Affective Impairment after Isolated Brainstem Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujuan Fu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the function of the cerebellum in neurocognition has been well-documented, the similar role of the brainstem has yet to be fully elucidated. This clinical research study aimed to combine data relating to neuropsychological assessments and P300 to explore cognitive dysfunction and affective impairment following brainstem stroke. Thirty-four patients with isolated brainstem stroke and twenty-six healthy controls were recruited; for each patient, we collated data pertaining to the P300, Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination III (ACE-III, Montreal Cognitive Assessment Chinese version (MoCA, trail-making test (TMT, Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Digit Spans (DS, Stroop test, Self Rating Depression Scale (SDS, and Self Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS. Significance was analyzed using an independent T-test or the Mann-Whitney U-test. Correlation was analyzed using Pearson's correlation analysis or Spearman's correlation analysis. Collectively, data revealed that brainstem stroke caused mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and that visuospatial, attention, linguistic, and emotional disturbances may occur after isolated brainstem stroke. Cognitive decline was linked to P300 latency, ACE-III, and MoCA; P300 latency was correlated with ACE-III. Patients with right brainstem lesions were more likely to suffer memory decline. The present study provides initial data relating to the role of the brainstem in neurocognition, and will be useful for further understanding of vascular cognitive and affective impairment.

  2. Effect of age and severity of cognitive dysfunction on two simple tasks in pet dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martínez, A; Rosado, B; Pesini, P; García-Belenguer, S; Palacio, J; Villegas, A; Suárez, M-L; Santamarina, G; Sarasa, M

    2013-10-01

    Dogs exhibit age-dependent losses in learning and memory as well as a progressive accumulation of neuropathology that parallels that observed in normal human aging and early Alzheimer's disease. These deficits have been extensively studied using a number of standard cognitive tasks in the laboratory; however, appropriate tools for their assessment in veterinary clinics are still lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of age and the severity of cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CDS) on two simple tests conducted in a clinical setting. A food searching (FS) task and a problem-solving (PS) task were administered to young (1-4 years, n=9), middle-aged (5-8 years, n=10), cognitively unimpaired aged (≥9 years, n=31), and cognitively impaired aged (≥ 9 years, n=37) dogs. Cognitive status was classified using an owner-based questionnaire, and in the impaired group, dogs were categorized as having either mild or severe CDS. During the FS task, younger dogs (Dogs with severe CDS exhibited poorer performance than those with mild CDS or their healthy counterparts. In the PS task, younger dogs performed better than the aged dogs in obtaining food, but there were no differences related to CDS severity. The FS task might help to better characterize cognitively affected dogs in the clinical setting than the PS task. These and similar tasks require further investigations in the field. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Objective measurement of daytime napping, cognitive dysfunction and subjective sleepiness in Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel J Bolitho

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Sleep-wake disturbances and concomitant cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD contribute significantly to morbidity in patients and their carers. Subjectively reported daytime sleep disturbance is observed in over half of all patients with PD and has been linked to executive cognitive dysfunction. The current study used daytime actigraphy, a novel objective measure of napping and related this to neuropsychological performance in a sample of PD patients and healthy, age and gender-matched controls. Furthermore this study aimed to identify patients with PD who may benefit from pharmacologic and behavioural intervention to improve these symptoms. METHODS: Eighty-five PD patients and 21 healthy, age-matched controls completed 14 days of wrist actigraphy within two weeks of neuropsychological testing. Objective napping measures were derived from actigraphy using a standardised protocol and subjective daytime sleepiness was recorded by the previously validated Epworth Sleepiness Scale. RESULTS: Patients with PD had a 225% increase in the mean nap time per day (minutes as recorded by actigraphy compared to age matched controls (39.2 ± 35.2 vs. 11.5 ± 11.0 minutes respectively, p < 0.001. Significantly, differences in napping duration between patients, as recorded by actigraphy were not distinguished by their ratings on the subjective measurement of excessive daytime sleepiness. Finally, those patients with excessive daytime napping showed greater cognitive deficits in the domains of attention, semantic verbal fluency and processing speed. CONCLUSION: This study confirms increased levels of napping in PD, a finding that is concordant with subjective reports. However, subjective self-report measures of excessive daytime sleepiness do not robustly identify excessive napping in PD. Fronto-subcortical cognitive dysfunction was observed in those patients who napped excessively. Furthermore, this study suggests that daytime

  4. Objective Measurement of Daytime Napping, Cognitive Dysfunction and Subjective Sleepiness in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolitho, Samuel J.; Naismith, Sharon L.; Salahuddin, Pierre; Terpening, Zoe; Grunstein, Ron R.; Lewis, Simon J. G.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Sleep-wake disturbances and concomitant cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease (PD) contribute significantly to morbidity in patients and their carers. Subjectively reported daytime sleep disturbance is observed in over half of all patients with PD and has been linked to executive cognitive dysfunction. The current study used daytime actigraphy, a novel objective measure of napping and related this to neuropsychological performance in a sample of PD patients and healthy, age and gender-matched controls. Furthermore this study aimed to identify patients with PD who may benefit from pharmacologic and behavioural intervention to improve these symptoms. Methods Eighty-five PD patients and 21 healthy, age-matched controls completed 14 days of wrist actigraphy within two weeks of neuropsychological testing. Objective napping measures were derived from actigraphy using a standardised protocol and subjective daytime sleepiness was recorded by the previously validated Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Results Patients with PD had a 225% increase in the mean nap time per day (minutes) as recorded by actigraphy compared to age matched controls (39.2 ± 35.2 vs. 11.5 ± 11.0 minutes respectively, p napping duration between patients, as recorded by actigraphy were not distinguished by their ratings on the subjective measurement of excessive daytime sleepiness. Finally, those patients with excessive daytime napping showed greater cognitive deficits in the domains of attention, semantic verbal fluency and processing speed. Conclusion This study confirms increased levels of napping in PD, a finding that is concordant with subjective reports. However, subjective self-report measures of excessive daytime sleepiness do not robustly identify excessive napping in PD. Fronto-subcortical cognitive dysfunction was observed in those patients who napped excessively. Furthermore, this study suggests that daytime actigraphy, a non-invasive and inexpensive objective measure of

  5. Objective measurement of daytime napping, cognitive dysfunction and subjective sleepiness in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolitho, Samuel J; Naismith, Sharon L; Salahuddin, Pierre; Terpening, Zoe; Grunstein, Ron R; Lewis, Simon J G

    2013-01-01

    Sleep-wake disturbances and concomitant cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD) contribute significantly to morbidity in patients and their carers. Subjectively reported daytime sleep disturbance is observed in over half of all patients with PD and has been linked to executive cognitive dysfunction. The current study used daytime actigraphy, a novel objective measure of napping and related this to neuropsychological performance in a sample of PD patients and healthy, age and gender-matched controls. Furthermore this study aimed to identify patients with PD who may benefit from pharmacologic and behavioural intervention to improve these symptoms. Eighty-five PD patients and 21 healthy, age-matched controls completed 14 days of wrist actigraphy within two weeks of neuropsychological testing. Objective napping measures were derived from actigraphy using a standardised protocol and subjective daytime sleepiness was recorded by the previously validated Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Patients with PD had a 225% increase in the mean nap time per day (minutes) as recorded by actigraphy compared to age matched controls (39.2 ± 35.2 vs. 11.5 ± 11.0 minutes respectively, p napping duration between patients, as recorded by actigraphy were not distinguished by their ratings on the subjective measurement of excessive daytime sleepiness. Finally, those patients with excessive daytime napping showed greater cognitive deficits in the domains of attention, semantic verbal fluency and processing speed. This study confirms increased levels of napping in PD, a finding that is concordant with subjective reports. However, subjective self-report measures of excessive daytime sleepiness do not robustly identify excessive napping in PD. Fronto-subcortical cognitive dysfunction was observed in those patients who napped excessively. Furthermore, this study suggests that daytime actigraphy, a non-invasive and inexpensive objective measure of daytime sleep, can identify patients with PD

  6. Oxidative Stress Mediated Hippocampal Neuron Apoptosis Participated in Carbon Disulfide-Induced Rats Cognitive Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Irving, Gleniece; Jiang, Lulu; Wang, Hui; Li, Ming; Wang, Xujing; Han, Wenting; Xu, Yongpeng; Yang, Yilin; Zeng, Tao; Song, Fuyong; Zhao, Xiulan; Xie, Keqin

    2017-02-01

    Occupational exposure to carbon disulfide (CS2) exhibits central nervous systems toxicity. But the mechanism is unclear. The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between the CNS damage and cognitive dysfunction caused by CS2, and eventually reveal the possible oxidative-related mechanism of hippocampus pathological changes in CS2 exposed rats. Male Wistar rats were administrated with CS2 at dosage of 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg for consecutive 20 days, respectively. Cognitive performances were evaluated by Morris water maze tests. Thionin and immunohistochemical analysis were used to investigate the hippocampal neuron damage, and the expression of apoptosis related proteins (cleaved-caspase 3, Bax and Bcl-2) were detected to explore the possible mechanisms of neuronal loss. Oxidative stress parameters were checked by commercial assay kits. Rats exposed to CS2 displayed cognitive dysfunction manifested as decreased spatial learning ability and memory lesion. Pathological changes and significant neuron loss were observed in hippocampus, especially in CA1 and CA3 sub-regions. Mitochondria-dependent apoptosis pathway was implicated in the CS2-induced neuronal loss which was demonstrated by the up-regulation of cleaved-caspase 3 and Bax accompanied with down-regulation of Bcl-2. Furthermore, extensive oxidative stress induced by CS2 was also revealed by the measurement of ROS, RNS, MDA, GSH&GSSG and antioxidant enzymes (CAT, T-SOD, and GSH-Px). Our study suggested that oxidative stress mediated hippocampal neuron apoptosis might play an important role in CS2 induced CNS damage and cognitive dysfunction.

  7. Memory Loss and Frontal Cognitive Dysfunction in a Patient with Adult-onset Neuronal Intranuclear Inclusion Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Kunihiko; Sone, Jun; Fujioka, Yusuke; Masuda, Michihito; Ohdake, Reiko; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Sobue, Gen

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID) is an uncommon progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Adult-onset NIID can result in prominent dementia. We herein describe the case of a 74-year-old man who presented with dementia, cerebellar ataxia, neuropathy, and autonomic dysfunction. Diffusion-weighted imaging showed hyperintensity of the corticomedullary junction. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images showed frontal-dominant white matter hyperintensity. NIID was diagnosed from the presence of intranuclear inclusions in a skin biopsy sample. Neuropsychological testing revealed memory loss and frontal cognitive dysfunction, especially in relation to language and executive functions. We were therefore able to confirm the association of NIID with cognitive dysfunction.

  8. Cerebrospinal fluid matrix metalloproteinases are elevated in cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy and correlate with MRI severity and neurologic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibert, Kathryn A; Raymond, Gerald V; Nascene, David R; Miller, Weston P; Tolar, Jakub; Orchard, Paul J; Lund, Troy C

    2012-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy results from mutations in the ABCD1 gene disrupting the metabolism of very-long-chain fatty acids. The most serious form of ALD, cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy (cALD), causes neuroinflammation and demyelination. Neuroimaging in cALD shows inflammatory changes and indicates blood-brain-barrier (BBB) disruption. We hypothesize that disruption may occur through the degradation of the extracellular matrix defining the BBB by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). MMPs have not been evaluated in the setting of cALD. We used a multiplex assay to correlate the concentration of MMPs in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma to the severity of brain inflammation as determined by the ALD MRI (Loes) score and the neurologic function score. There were significant elevations of MMP2, MMP9, MMP10, TIMP1, and total protein in the CSF of boys with cALD compared to controls. Levels of MMP10, TIMP1, and total protein in CSF showed significant correlation [p<0.05 for each with pre-transplant MRI Loes Loes scores (R(2) = 0.34, 0.20, 0.55 respectively). Levels of TIMP1 and total protein in CSF significantly correlated with pre-transplant neurologic functional scores (R(2) = 0.22 and 0.48 respectively), and levels of MMP10 and total protein in CSF significantly correlated with one-year post-transplant functional scores (R(2) = 0.38 and 0.69). There was a significant elevation of MMP9 levels in plasma compared to control, but did not correlate with the MRI or neurologic function scores. MMPs were found to be elevated in the CSF of boys with cALD and may mechanistically contribute to the breakdown of the blood-brain-barrier. MMP concentrations directly correlate to radiographic and clinical neurologic severity. Interestingly, increased total protein levels showed superior correlation to MRI score and neurologic function score before and at one year after transplant.

  9. Fronto-cerebellar dysfunction and dysconnectivity underlying cognition in friedreich ataxia: The IMAGE-FRDA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Ian H; Corben, Louise A; Storey, Elsdon; Egan, Gary F; Stagnitti, Monique R; Poudel, Govinda R; Delatycki, Martin B; Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie

    2016-01-01

    Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder defined by pathology within the cerebellum and spinal tracts. Although FRDA is most readily linked to motor and sensory dysfunctions, reported impairments in working memory and executive functions indicate that abnormalities may also extend to associations regions of the cerebral cortex and/or cerebello-cerebral interactions. To test this hypothesis, 29 individuals with genetically confirmed FRDA and 34 healthy controls performed a verbal n-back working memory task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. No significant group differences were evident in task performance. However, individuals with FRDA had deficits in brain activations both in the lateral cerebellar hemispheres, principally encompassing lobule VI, and the prefrontal cortex, including regions of the anterior insular and rostrolateral prefrontal cortices. Functional connectivity between these brain regions was also impaired, supporting a putative link between primary cerebellar dysfunction and subsequent cerebral abnormalities. Disease severity and genetic markers of disease liability were correlated specifically with cerebellar dysfunction, while correlations between behavioural performance and both cerebral activations and cerebello-cerebral connectivity were observed in controls, but not in the FRDA cohort. Taken together, these findings support a diaschisis model of brain dysfunction, whereby primary disease effects in the cerebellum result in functional changes in downstream fronto-cerebellar networks. These fronto-cerebellar disturbances provide a putative biological basis for the nonmotor symptoms observed in FRDA, and reflect the consequence of localized cerebellar pathology to distributed brain function underlying higher-order cognition. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Dysfunctional posttraumatic cognitions as a mediator of symptom reduction in Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy with children and adolescents: Results of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Elisa; Sachser, Cedric; de Haan, Anke; Tutus, Dunja; Goldbeck, Lutz

    2017-10-01

    To investigate whether the change in dysfunctional posttraumatic cognitions (PTC) during Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) is a mediator of posttraumatic stress symptom (PTSS) reduction in a sample of children and adolescents. A bootstrap mediation analysis was performed to investigate the indirect effect of dysfunctional PTC on treatment outcome in a recently completed RCT study with children and adolescents (n = 123; 7-17 years old) that investigated the effectiveness of TF-CBT. The mediation model revealed that changes in dysfunctional PTC mediated the relationship between the group (TF-CBT vs. waitlist) and PTSS at the end of treatment. Change in dysfunctional PTC is an important mechanism mediating the reduction of PTSS in TF-CBT. Monitoring dysfunctional PTC throughout treatment might, therefore, be an important factor in optimizing treatment outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cognitive dysfunction is associated with poor socioeconomic status in patients with cirrhosis: an international multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Jasmohan S; Riggio, Oliviero; Allampati, Sanath; Prakash, Ravi; Gioia, Stefania; Onori, Eugenia; Piazza, Nicole; Noble, Nicole A; White, Melanie B; Mullen, Kevin D

    2013-11-01

    In patients with cirrhosis, cognitive dysfunction most often results from covert hepatic encephalopathy (HE). These patients are not tested routinely for cognitive dysfunction despite single-center evidence that it could be associated with poor socioeconomic status (SES). We investigated the association between SES and cognition in a multicenter study of cirrhosis. In a cross-sectional study, 236 cirrhotic patients from 3 centers (84 subjects from Virginia, 102 from Ohio, and 50 from Rome, Italy; age 57.7 ± 8.6 y; 14% with prior overt HE) were given recommended cognitive tests and a validated SES questionnaire that included questions about employment, personal and family income, and overall financial security. Comparisons were made among centers and between subjects who were employed or not. Regression analysis was performed using employment and personal income as outcomes. Only 37% of subjects had been employed in the past year. Subjects had substantial financial insecurity-their yearly personal income ranged from $16,000 to $24,999, and their family income ranged from $25,000 to $49,999. They would be able to maintain a residence for only 3 to 6 months if their income stopped, and their current liquid assets were $500 to $4999 (<$500 if debt was subtracted). Cognition and SES were worst in Ohio and best in Virginia. Cognition correlated with personal and family income, within and between centers. On regression analysis, cognitive performance (digit symbol, lures, and line tracing) was associated with personal yearly income, after controlling for demographics, country, employment, and overt HE. Unemployed subjects had a higher rate of overt HE, worse cognition, and lower personal income than employed subjects. On regression analysis, performance on digit symbol, line tracing, inhibitory control test lures, and serial dotting tests remained associated with employment, similar to income. In an international multicenter study of patients with cirrhosis

  12. The effects of false physiological feedback on tumescence and cognitive domains in sexually functional and dysfunctional men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Jay M; Clark, Robert; Sbrocco, Tracy; Lewis, Evelyn L

    2009-08-01

    A false feedback paradigm was used to produce a discrepancy between expected and "actual" tumescence among 57 sexually dysfunctional and 58 sexually functional men randomly assigned to one of four false tumescence feedback conditions: negative (NEG), neutral (NEU), positive (POS), or no (NO) feedback. Participants predicted an erection score before viewing an erotic film and then received false tumescence feedback based on this score. Tumescence and cognitive ratings were obtained before and after the feedback. It was predicted that discrepancies would differ between dysfunctional and functional participants such that functional participants would have the ability to overcome discrepancies, whereas dysfunctional participants would not. As expected, POS decreased tumescence for dysfunctional participants and NO did not influence tumescence for either group. Unexpectedly, NEU decreased tumescence for dysfunctional participants and NEG decreased tumescence for functional participants. Despite tumescence changes, cognitive ratings generally followed the feedback that was given. These results only partially support current models of sexual dysfunction and behavioral regulation. Anxiety, self-focused attention, cognitive interference, and unexpectedness of the feedback could not account for the partial support. However, most feedback that was outside of the realm of the status quo for both functional and dysfunctional participants did decrease tumescence, despite outcome expectancies. These results suggest that both functional and dysfunctional men may be at risk for erectile failure should feedback about their performance be discrepant from what they expect. Prevention and treatment should focus on preparing men for occasional erectile failure and on helping them overcome discrepant feedback.

  13. Is previous hyperthyroidism associated with long-term cognitive dysfunction? A twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillevang-Johansen, Mads; Petersen, Inge; Christensen, Kaare; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Brix, Thomas Heiberg

    2014-02-01

    Hyperthyroidism has been suggested to adversely affect cognitive function. However, this association could also be caused by genetic and environmental factors affecting both the development of hyperthyroidism and cognitive functioning. By investigating twin pairs discordant for hyperthyroidism, this potential confounding can be minimized. The aim of the study was to examine whether hyperthyroidism is associated with long-term cognitive dysfunction. Twin case-control study. Twin pairs discordant for hyperthyroidism were identified by record linkage between The Danish National Patient Registry and 3036 twin pairs from The Danish Twin Registry, who had participated in nationwide surveys on health conditions. Among other investigations, survey participants had carried out cognitive tests including a Mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and six separate cognitive tests. Based on five of the tests, a composite cognitive score was calculated. Fifty-five of 3036 twin pairs were discordant for hyperthyroidism. The mean time from diagnosis until survey participation was 7·3 years (range: 0-24·1 years). In both the intrapair and individual-level analyses, the hyperthyroid twin scored significantly better in the MMSE than did the healthy co-twin (P = 0·023 and P = 0·038, respectively). The same tendency was found in the other cognitive tests, and after analysing twins diagnosed with hyperthyroidism more than 2 years before participating, although none were statistically significant. Utilizing discordant twin pairs to control for genetic as well as early environmental factors, we could not demonstrate any clinically relevant negative impact of previous hyperthyroidism on long-term cognitive function. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. [Study on early intervention of compound nutrition for cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Xie, Wei; Zhu, Jinfeng; Dang, Rui; Wang, Decai

    2014-01-01

    To observe the early prevention effect of the compound nutrients recipe for cognitive dysfunction of Alzheimer' s disease model-APP-PSN transgenic mouse. 36 APP-PSN transgenic mice aged two months randomly were divided into the intervention group supplied with compound recipe in the diet and the control group fed based feed, the former had high dose and low dose, 12 APP-PSN transgenic negative mice aged two months as the negative control were fed based feed. After 3 months' intervention, four groups' cognitive functions were evaluated using the Morris water maze, active avoidance experiment and jumping stair experiment. There was not statistically different between all the four groups for the weight and food intake. Compared with the control group, Morris water maze's incubation period of the intervention group was lower obviously, and jumping stair experiment's incubation period of the intervention group was higher obviously. In the active avoidance experiment, the high and low dose intervention group' s conditioned response accounted about 46.67% and 45.00% respectively, and the control group's conditioned response accounted about 20.83%. The differences of the three behavioral experiments between control group and intervention group had the statistical significance (P nutrition could postpone the occurrence and development of Alzheimer' s disease mice model's cognitive dysfunction.

  15. Nocturnal hypoxia in ALS is related to cognitive dysfunction and can occur as clusters of desaturations.

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    Su-Yeon Park

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a neurodegenerative disease that leads to progressive weakness of the respiratory and limb muscles. Consequently, most patients with ALS exhibit progressive hypoventilation, which worsens during sleep. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between nocturnal hypoxia and cognitive dysfunction and to assess the pattern of nocturnal hypoxia in patients with ALS. METHOD: Twenty-five patients with definite or probable ALS underwent neuropsychologic testing, nocturnal pulse oximetry, and capnography. Patients were grouped according to the presence of nocturnal hypoxia (SpO2<95% for ≥10% of the night and their clinical characteristics and cognitive function were compared. RESULTS: Compared to patients without nocturnal hypoxia, those with nocturnal hypoxia (n = 10, 40% had poor memory retention (p = 0.039 and retrieval efficiency (p = 0.045. A cluster-of-desaturation pattern was identified in 7 patients (70% in the Hypoxia Group. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that nocturnal hypoxia can be related to cognitive dysfunction in ALS. In addition, a considerable number of patients with ALS may be exposed to repeated episodes of deoxygenation-reoxygenation (a cluster-of-desaturation pattern during sleep, which could be associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species. Further studies are required to define the exact causal relationships between these phenomena, the exact manifestations of nocturnal cluster-of-desaturation patterns, and the effect of clusters of desaturation on ALS progression.

  16. Combination of Spirulina with glycyrrhizin prevents cognitive dysfunction in aged obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavadas, Sowmya; Subramanian, Sarada

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the cognition enhancing effect of the combination of Spirulina and glycyrrhizin in monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced obese aged rats. Obesity was induced in rats by administration of MSG (intraperitoneally, 4 mg/g body weight) for 14 consecutive days from day 1 after birth. Subsequently, the animals were allowed to grow for 18 months with food and water ad libitum. Hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, leptin resistance, were monitored in these animals. Cognitive status was assessed by Barne's maze task and hippocampal acetylcholinesterase (AChE) levels. Further, the animals were treated with Spirulina (Sp) (oral route, 1 g/Kg body weight, for 30 days) alone or glycyrrhizin (Gly) alone (intraperitoneal route, 0.1 mg/Kg, on day 15 and day 21), or their combination (SpGly). Counting of the treatment days was done by considering first day of Sp administration as day 1. After the completion of 30 days of Spirulina treatment or 2 doses of Gly administration or the combination (SpGly) treatment, the animals were left for 3 weeks. They were then were assessed for their biochemical and cognitive changes. The combination of Sp with Gly showed a significant reduction (P < 0.0001) in glucose, cholesterol, leptin levels in the serum with improvement in cognitive functions with concomitant reduction in AChE activity in the hippocampal tissue homogenates (P < 0.0001) of the obese rats. SpGly combination has a potential role in reversing cognitive dysfunctions associated with aging and obesity.

  17. Relationship between olfactory dysfunction and cognitive impairment in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanke, Haruna; Mita, Tomoya; Yoshii, Hidenori; Yokota, Ayako; Yamashiro, Keiko; Ingaki, Noriko; Onuma, Tomio; Someya, Yuki; Komiya, Koji; Tamura, Yoshifumi; Shimizu, Tomoaki; Ohmura, Chie; Kanazawa, Akio; Fujitani, Yoshio; Watada, Hirotaka

    2014-12-01

    Recent clinical studies identified the relation between olfactory dysfunction and cognitive impairment in the elderly without type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present study was to define the relation between olfactory function and cognition in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The study participants comprised 250 elderly (age, 68-77, median 72) Japanese outpatient with type 2 diabetes mellitus free of clinically-evident cognitive impairment. Olfactory and cognitive functions were evaluated by the Open Essence (OE) test and Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE), respectively. Based on the MMSE score, 62.0%, 24.4%, and 13.6% of the participants were considered to have no impairment, possible cognitive impairment and probable dementia, respectively. The OE test score of the probable dementia group was significantly lower than other groups. Furthermore, age and serum uric acid were significantly higher in the probable dementia group than other groups. Simple correlation analysis showed positive correlation between the MMSE score and diastolic blood pressure, education, OE test score, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, folic acid, and negative correlation with age, HbA1c, aspartate aminotransferase, serum adiponectin and urinary albumin excretion. Multivariate regression analysis showed that OE test score correlated significantly and independently with MMSE score (standardized coefficients β=0.542, R(2)=0.478, Pdiabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Involvement of decreased neuroglobin protein level in cognitive dysfunction induced by 1-bromopropane in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Yuan, Hua; Jiang, Lulu; Yang, Junlin; Zeng, Tao; Xie, Keqin; Zhang, Cuili; Zhao, Xiulan

    2015-03-10

    1-Bromopropane (1-BP) is used as a substitute for ozone-depleting solvents (ODS) in industrial applications. 1-BP could display central nervous system (CNS) neurotoxicity manifested by cognitive dysfunction. Neuroglobin (Ngb) is an endogenous neuroprotectant and is predominantly expressed in the nervous system. The present study aimed to investigate Ngb involvement in CNS neurotoxicity induced by 1-BP in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=14) and treated with 0, 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg bw 1-BP, respectively, by gavage for consecutive 12 days. Rats displayed cognitive dysfunction dose-dependently through Morris water maze (MWM) test. Significant neuron loss in layer 5 of the prelimbic cortex (PL) was observed. Moreover, 1-BP decreased Ngb protein level in cerebral cortex and Ngb decrease was significantly positively correlated with cognitive dysfunction. Glutathione (GSH) content, GSH/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio and glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) activity decreased in cerebral cortex, coupled with the increase in GSSG content. GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio decrease were significantly positively correlated with cortical Ngb decrease. Additionally, levels of N-epsilon-hexanoyl-lysine (HEL) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) modified proteins in cerebral cortex of 1-BP-treated rats increased significantly. In conclusion, it was suggested that 1-BP resulted in decreased endogenous neuroprotectant Ngb in cerebral cortex, which might play an important role in CNS neurotoxicity induced by 1-BP and that 1-BP-induced oxidative stress in cerebral cortex might partly be responsible for Ngb decrease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Executive cognitive dysfunction and ADHD in cocaine dependence: searching for a common cognitive endophenotype for addictive disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Jannuzzi Cunha

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cocaine dependent individuals (CDI present executive cognitive function (ECF deficits, but the impact of psychiatric comorbidities such as Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD on neuropsychological functioning is still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate if CDI with ADHD (CDI+ADHD would have a distinct pattern of executive functioning when compared with CDI without ADHD (CDI. Methods: we evaluated 101 adults, including 69 cocaine dependent subjects and 32 controls. ECF domains were assessed with Digits Forward (DF, Digits Backward (DB, Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST, and the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB. DSM-IV criteria for ADHD were used for diagnosis and previous ADHD symptoms (in the childhood were retrospectively assessed by the Wender-Utah Rating Scale (WURS. Results: there were no significant differences between CDI+ADHD, CDI and controls in estimated IQ, socioeconomic background, education (in years and premorbid IQ (p>0.05. SCWT and WCST scores did not differ across groups. Nevertheless, CDI and CDI+ADHD performed more poorly than controls in total score of the FAB. Also, CDI+ADHD did worse than CDI on DF, DB, Conceptualization/FAB, and Mental flexibility/FAB. We did not find correlations between cocaine use variables and neuropsychological functioning, but previous ADHD symptoms assessed by WURS were negatively associated with DF (p=0.016 and with the total score of the FAB. Conclusion: CDI+TDAH presented more pronounced executive alterations than CDI and CDI exhibited poorer cognitive functioning than controls. Pre-existing ADHD symptoms may have a significant negative impact on executive dysfunction in CDI. It remains to be investigated by future studies if symptoms such as impulsivity or a pre-existing ECF dysfunction could represent underlying cognitive endophenotypes that would substantially increase the risk for acquiring addictive disorders.

  20. Primary Sjögren's Syndrome White Matter Changes and Cognitive Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dess, Mary; Heidenreich, Wayne F

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes a 52-year-old, female applicant for long term-care insurance with a history of an autoimmune connective tissue disease initially diagnosed as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Over several years, the signs and symptoms evolved into a clear diagnosis of primary Sjögren's syndrome (PSS). The specific criteria for this diagnosis are reviewed including the symptoms, antinuclear antibodies (ANA), extractable nuclear antigen antibodies (ENA), abnormal salivary scintigraphy and positive Schirmer test. Symptoms of neuropathy and the possibility of a cognitive dysfunction are discussed as part of PSS. The association of white matter lesions (WML) with PSS is significant for underwriting consideration.

  1. Neural substrates of motor and cognitive dysfunctions in SCA2 patients: A network based statistics analysis

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    G. Olivito

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, the network-based statistics (NBS approach was used to assess differences in functional connectivity between specific cerebellar and cerebral “nodes” in SCA2 patients. Altered inter-nodal connectivity was found between more posterior regions in the cerebellum and regions in the cerebral cortex clearly related to cognition and emotion. Furthermore, more anterior cerebellar lobules showed altered inter-nodal connectivity with motor and somatosensory cerebral regions. The present data suggest that in SCA2 a cerebellar dysfunction affects long-distance cerebral regions and that the clinical symptoms may be specifically related with connectivity changes between motor and non-motor cerebello-cortical nodes.

  2. The Association Between Insomnia-related Sleep Disruptions and Cognitive Dysfunction during the Inter-episode Phase of Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kanady, Jennifer Christine

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbance and cognitive dysfunction are two key domains of impairment during the inter-episode phase of bipolar disorder. Despite considerable evidence demonstrating the importance of sleep for cognition in healthy and sleep-disordered samples, this link has been minimally examined in bipolar disorder. Thus, the present study tested the association between insomnia-related sleep disruptions and cognitive functioning during inter-episode bipolar disorder. Forty-seven participants with ...

  3. Cognitive dysfunction in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with or without Long-Term Oxygen Therapy (LTOT)

    OpenAIRE

    Dal Negro, Roberto W; Bonadiman, Luca; Bricolo, Fernanda P; Tognella, Silvia; Turco, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a progressive respiratory condition which can lead to comorbidities of variable severity, cognitive dysfunction included. The role of supplemental oxygen in preventing COPD-induced cognitive deterioration is still debated, but only episodically investigated. The aim of this study was to compare the cognitive pattern of hypoxemic COPD subjects treated with long-term oxygen (LTOT) to that of patients of comparable severity assuming oxyg...

  4. Cerebrospinal fluid matrix metalloproteinases are elevated in cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy and correlate with MRI severity and neurologic dysfunction.

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    Kathryn A Thibert

    Full Text Available X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy results from mutations in the ABCD1 gene disrupting the metabolism of very-long-chain fatty acids. The most serious form of ALD, cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy (cALD, causes neuroinflammation and demyelination. Neuroimaging in cALD shows inflammatory changes and indicates blood-brain-barrier (BBB disruption. We hypothesize that disruption may occur through the degradation of the extracellular matrix defining the BBB by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs. MMPs have not been evaluated in the setting of cALD.We used a multiplex assay to correlate the concentration of MMPs in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma to the severity of brain inflammation as determined by the ALD MRI (Loes score and the neurologic function score. There were significant elevations of MMP2, MMP9, MMP10, TIMP1, and total protein in the CSF of boys with cALD compared to controls. Levels of MMP10, TIMP1, and total protein in CSF showed significant correlation [p<0.05 for each with pre-transplant MRI Loes Loes scores (R(2 = 0.34, 0.20, 0.55 respectively. Levels of TIMP1 and total protein in CSF significantly correlated with pre-transplant neurologic functional scores (R(2 = 0.22 and 0.48 respectively, and levels of MMP10 and total protein in CSF significantly correlated with one-year post-transplant functional scores (R(2 = 0.38 and 0.69. There was a significant elevation of MMP9 levels in plasma compared to control, but did not correlate with the MRI or neurologic function scores.MMPs were found to be elevated in the CSF of boys with cALD and may mechanistically contribute to the breakdown of the blood-brain-barrier. MMP concentrations directly correlate to radiographic and clinical neurologic severity. Interestingly, increased total protein levels showed superior correlation to MRI score and neurologic function score before and at one year after transplant.

  5. Mismatch Negativity as an Indicator of Cognitive Sub-Domain Dysfunction in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

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    Parameswaran Mahadeva Iyer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo evaluate the utility of mismatch negativity (MMN, a neurophysiologic marker of non-motor cognitive processing, in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS.Methods89 patients, stratified into 4 different phenotypic presentations of ALS (67 spinal-onset, 15 bulbar-onset, 7 ALS-FTD, 7 C9ORF72 gene careers, and 19 matched controls underwent 128-channel EEG data recording. Subjects were presented with standard auditory tones interleaved with pitch-deviant tones in three recording blocks. The MMN response was quantified by peak amplitude, peak delay, average amplitude, and average delay, 100–300 ms after stimuli. 64 patients underwent cognitive screening using the Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS, and 38 participants underwent contemporaneous cognitive assessment using the Stroop Color–Word Interference test (CWIT, which measures attention shift, inhibitory control, and error monitoring.ResultsThe MMN response was observed in frontal and frontocentral regions of patient and control groups. Compared to controls, waveforms were attenuated in early onset, and the average delay was significantly increased in all of the ALS subgroups, with no significant difference between subgroups. Comparing with the control response, the ALS MMN response clustered into four new subgroups characterized by differences in response latency. The increased average delay correlated with changes in the Stroop CWIT; however, it did not show a direct relationship with age, gender, traditional phenotypes, revised ALS Functional Rating Scale, or ECAS scores.Conclusion and significanceThe MMN response in ALS patients reflects the cognitive dysfunction in specific sub-domains, as the new patient subgroups, identified by cluster analysis, do not segregate with existing clinical or cognitive classifications. Event-related potentials can provide additional quantitative neurophysiologic measures of impairment in specific cognitive sub-domains from which it

  6. Stress-induced cognitive dysfunction: hormone-neurotransmitter interactions in the prefrontal cortex

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    Rebecca M Shansky

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms and neural circuits that drive emotion and cognition are inextricably linked. Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis as a result of stress or other causes of arousal initiates a flood of hormone and neurotransmitter release throughout the brain, affecting the way we think, decide, and behave. This review will focus on factors that influence the function of the prefrontal cortex (PFC, a brain region that governs higher-level cognitive processes and executive function. The PFC becomes markedly impaired by stress, producing measurable deficits in working memory. These deficits arise from the interaction of multiple neuromodulators, including glucocorticoids, catecholamines, and gonadal hormones; here we will discuss the non- human primate and rodent literature that has furthered our understanding of the circuitry, receptors, and signaling cascades responsible for stress-induced prefrontal dysfunction.

  7. Adenosine receptor antagonists for cognitive dysfunction: a review of animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Reinaldo Naoto; Pamplona, Fabricio Alano; Prediger, Rui Daniel Schroder

    2008-01-01

    Over the last decade, adenosine receptors in the central nervous system have been implicated in the modulation of cognitive functions. Despite the general view that endogenous adenosine modulates cognition through the activation of adenosine A1 receptors, evidence is now emerging on a possible role of A2A receptors in learning and memory. The present review attempts to examine results reported in different studies using diverse animal models, to provide a comprehensive picture of the recent evidence of a relationship between adenosinergic function and memory deficits. The present data suggest that caffeine (a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist) and selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonists can improve memory performance in rodents evaluated through different tasks. They might also afford protection against memory dysfunction elicited in experimental models of aging, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and, in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), a putative genetic model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

  8. Cognitive dysfunction at baseline predicts symptomatic 1-year outcome in first-episode schizophrenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, S; Krausz, M; Gottwalz, E; Lambert, M; Perro, C; Ganzer, S; Naber, D

    2000-01-01

    The present study addresses the consequences of cognitive disturbances on symptomatic outcome. Fifty-three first-episode schizophrenics were reassessed (n = 32) 1 year after admission. Simple regression analyses revealed that several self-perceived cognitive deficits at baseline as measured with the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire significantly predicted increased Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale global scores at follow-up (p = 0.05 to p = 0.005). A stepwise regression analysis proved memory dysfunction to be the strongest predictor of symptomatic worsening (p = 0.005). It is suggested that the exploration and treatment of neuropsychological deficits in schizophrenia is of great clinical importance with regard to its impact on both functional and symptomatic outcome in schizophrenia. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. A comparison of 2 screening questionnaires for clinical assessment of canine cognitive dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schütt, Trine; Toft, Nils; Berendt, Mette

    2015-01-01

    questionnaires. The ability to identify dogs with multiple and severe signs of CCD were equally good. This is of importance for research studying CCD case definitions and for comparisons between studies using different questionnaires. If evaluation for longitudinal changes is needed, the canine cognitive rating......Canine cognitive dysfunction (CCD) is a neurobehavioral syndrome occurring in some senior dogs. The diagnosis is currently primarily dependent on owner-based questionnaires addressing changes in behavior and daily routines and the exclusion of other conditions which may display clinical signs...... mimicking CCD. A number of CCD screening questionnaires have been published, but whether the choice of questionnaire might influence the diagnosis of CCD or not, is unclear. The objective of the present study was to correlate the total scores from 2 CCD screening questionnaires which were developed...

  10. Frontal lobe dysfunction in schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease--a meeting point for neurology, psychology and psychiatry: discussion paper.

    OpenAIRE

    Reading, P J

    1991-01-01

    The psychotic features of schizophrenia and the motor problems of Parkinson's disease, respectively, allow striking contrasts to be made between the two disorders. However, it has recently become apparent that the two groups of patients share problems of mentation that are best explained by some dysfunction of the prefrontal cortical areas of the brain. These commonalities are addressed in terms of neurobiological fact and psychological theory, providing possible insight into the neuropsychol...

  11. Cognitive dysfunction, negative symptoms, and tardive dyskinesia in schizophrenia. Their association in relation to topography of involuntary movements and criterion of their abnormality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, J L; Youssef, H A; Dolphin, C; Kinsella, A

    1987-10-01

    Little is known of factors that, on an individual basis, confer vulnerability to the emergence of involuntary movements (tardive dyskinesia) during long-term neuroleptic treatment. In this study of 88 chronic schizophrenic inpatients, 22 variables (four demographic, 14 medication history, and four features of illness) were compared for any association(s) with the presence, by differing topographies and criteria of abnormality, and severity of involuntary movements. Irrespective of the criterion used, the presence of marked cognitive dysfunction-muteness bore a consistent and highly significant primary association with both the presence and the overall severity of orofacial dyskinesia; no such association was found in relation to the presence of limb-truncal dyskinesia. Flattening of affect was the only other variable consistently associated with the presence of orofacial movements. The reliability and prominence of the association between the presence of orofacial, but not of limb-truncal, movements and cognitive dysfunction-negative symptoms suggest that these varying topographies may not constitute a unitary syndrome. This strong association, not with indexes of neuroleptic exposure but rather with features of the illness for which that treatment was prescribed, suggests some neurologic process, more subtle than may previously have been appreciated, as a vulnerability factor of some importance. In schizophrenia it appears to be intimately related to the disease process.

  12. Do sedation and analgesia contribute to long-term cognitive dysfunction in critical care survivors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Gonzalo, S; Turon, M; De Haro, C; López-Aguilar, J; Jodar, M; Blanch, L

    2017-08-26

    Deep sedation during stay in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) may have deleterious effects upon the clinical and cognitive outcomes of critically ill patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. Over the last decade a vast body of literature has been generated regarding different sedation strategies, with the aim of reducing the levels of sedation in critically ill patients. There has also been a growing interest in acute brain dysfunction, or delirium, in the ICU. However, the effect of sedation during ICU stay upon long-term cognitive deficits in ICU survivors remains unclear. Strategies for reducing sedation levels in the ICU do not seem to be associated with worse cognitive and psychological status among ICU survivors. Sedation strategy and management efforts therefore should seek to secure the best possible state in the mechanically ventilated patient and lower the prevalence of delirium, in order to prevent long-term cognitive alterations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  13. Cognitive Dysfunction and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Hepatitis C Virus-Infected Persons: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Tatiana Lins; Lima, Raul Emídio; Góes, Gustavo Henrique Belarmino; Pereira, Lívio Amaro; Fernandes, Matheus Santos de Sousa; Moura, Patrícia Muniz Mendes Freire; Vasconcelos, Luydson Richardson Silva; Correia, Carolina Cunha

    2017-10-10

    The aim of this study was to realize a systematic review to identify data reported in the literature involving people infected by hepatitis C virus (HCV) with cognitive dysfunctions and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The research was realized in six databases and the selection of studies was performed in two stages. Initially, we searched indexed articles from the following electronic databases: SciELO, MEDLINE, PubMed, HighWire, LILACS, and ScienceDirect. Then the articles were completely read and those that did not meet the eligibility criteria were excluded. Therefore, 5,669 articles were obtained and, of these, 25 were selected. Finally, one article involving people with HCV and cognitive impairment was included in the review. The frequency of the APOE-ɛ4 allele in people with HCV and mild liver disease was significantly lower in those with work memory impairment (p = 0.003) and attention (p = 0.008). This situation differs from other studies that showed an association between ɛ4 allele high frequency and cognitive decline. Thus, studies with larger samples involving people with HCV, cognitive alterations, and SNPs are necessary, in view of the lack of this theme in the literature and the divergences in the findings.

  14. Asenapine Effects on Cognitive and Monoamine Dysfunction Elicited by Subchronic Phencyclidine Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsworth, John D.; Groman, Stephanie; Jentsch, J. David; Valles, Rodrigo; Shahid, Mohammed; Wong, Erik; Marston, Hugh; Roth, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Repeated, intermittent administration of the psychotropic NMDA antagonist phencyclidine (PCP) to laboratory animals causes impairment in cognitive and executive functions, modeling important sequelae of schizophrenia; these effects are thought to be due to a dysregulation of neurotransmission within the prefrontal cortex. Atypical antipsychotic drugs have been reported to have measurable, if incomplete, effects on cognitive dysfunction in this model, and these effects may be due to their ability to normalize a subset of the physiological deficits occurring within the prefrontal cortex. Asenapine is an atypical antipsychotic approved in the US for the treatment of schizophrenia and for the treatment, as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy to lithium or valproate, of acute manic or mixed episodes associated bipolar I disorder. To understand its cognitive and neurochemical actions more fully, we explored the effects of short- and long-term dosing with asenapine on measures of cognitive and motor function in normal monkeys and in those previously exposed for 2 weeks to PCP; we further studied the impact of treatment with asenapine on dopamine and serotonin turnover in discrete brain regions from the same cohort. Methods Monkeys were trained to perform reversal learning and object retrieval procedures before twice-daily administration of PCP (0.3 mg/kg intramuscular) or saline for 14 days. Tests confirmed cognitive deficits in PCP-exposed animals before beginning twice-daily administration of saline (control) or asenapine (50, 100, or 150 μg/kg, intramuscular). Dopamine and serotonin turnover were assessed in 15 specific brain regions by high-pressure liquid chromatography measures of the ratio of parent amine to its major metabolite. Results On average, PCP-treated monkeys made twice as many errors in the reversal task as did control monkeys. Asenapine facilitated reversal learning performance in PCP-exposed monkeys, with improvements at trend level after 1 week

  15. ROLE OF NEUROSPECIFIC PROTEINS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF COGNITIVE DYSFUNCTION IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 1 DIABETES

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    M. V. Novosyolova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 (type 1 DM diabetes mellitus is one of the common chronic metabolic diseases, which currently is a significant problem due to disability at a young age and reduce life expectancy. Despite the fact that type 1 diabetes accounts for only 10% of all patients with diabetes, it occurs particularly hard, with a tendency to progression. One of the targets of type 1 diabetes is the central nervous system with the further formation of cognitive dysfunction in young age leads to diminished quality of life. Cognitive deficits may be the result not only of structural lesions of the brain, but it may be due to the development of metabolic disorders. In the case of timely diagnosis and treatment of cognitive impairment associated with metabolic changes that can partially or completely regress. The aim of this study was to identify biomarkers of the brain damage in young patients with type 1 diabetes. The study involved 58 patients with  type  1  diabetes,  the  control  group  comprised  29  healthy  controls.  The  complex  included a neuropsychological examination which was used for testing the Montreal scale (MoCA test rapid screening of cognitive impairment, assessment of quality of life using a common questionnaire Medical Outcomes Study Short Form (MOS SF-36 and the specific audit – dependent quality of life (ADDQoL. To evaluateearly markersin the developmentof cognitive dysfunctionwere identifiedneurospecific proteins – S100 protein and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, myelin basic protein (MBP. Found an increased level of neurospecific protein that was correlated with parameters of carbohydrate metabolism, poor quality of life and severe cognitive deficiency (MoCA test lower than 26 points.

  16. Neuroticism in child sex offenders and its association with sexual dysfunctions, cognitive distortions, and psychological complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boillat, Coralie; Deuring, Gunnar; Pflueger, Marlon O; Graf, Marc; Rosburg, Timm

    Studies in child sex offenders (CSO) often report deviant personality characteristics. In our study, we investigated neuroticism in CSO and tested the hypothesis that CSO with high neuroticism show more serious abuse behavior and are more likely to exhibit sexual dysfunction and cognitive distortions, as compared to CSO with low neuroticism. A sample of 40 CSO (both child sexual abusers and child sexual material users) was split into two subsamples based on their neuroticism scores, obtained by the NEO-Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R) questionnaire. Subsequently, we compared their scores in the Multiphasic Sex Inventory (MSI) questionnaire and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). Our results show that CSO exhibited higher levels of neuroticism than controls, but were still in the normal range. In CSO, neuroticism was associated with sexual dysfunction and cognitive distortions, rather than with more severe abuse behavior. Moreover, neuroticism in this group was linked to a broad range of psychological problems and psychopathological symptoms, such as somatization or anxiety. Our findings suggest that neuroticism even below the level of personality disorder is associated with a broader range of psychological problems in CSO, which should be addressed in therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Serious adverse neonatal outcomes such as 5-minute Apgar score of zero and seizures or severe neurologic dysfunction are increased in planned home births after cesarean delivery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Grünebaum

    Full Text Available The United States is with 37,451 home births in 2014 the country with the largest absolute number of home births among all developed countries. The purpose of this study was to examine the occurrence and risks of a 5-minute Apgar score of zero and neonatal seizures or serious neurologic dysfunction in women with a history of prior cesarean delivery for planned home vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC, compared to hospital VBAC and hospital birth cesarean deliveries for term normal weight infants in the United States from 2007-2014. We report in this study outcomes of women who had one or more prior cesarean deliveries and included women who had a successful vaginal birth after a trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC at home and in the hospital, and a repeat cesarean delivery in the hospital. We excluded preterm births (<37 weeks and infants weighing under 2500 g. Hospital VBACS were the reference. Women with a planned home birth VBAC had an approximately 10-fold and higher increase in adverse neonatal outcomes when compared to hospital VBACS and hospital repeat cesarean deliveries, a significantly higher incidence and risk of a 5-minute Apgar score of 0 of 1 in 890 (11.24/10,000, relative risk 9.04, 95% confidence interval 4-20.39, p<.0001 and an incidence of neonatal seizures or severe neurologic dysfunction of 1 in 814 (Incidence: 12.27/10,000, relative risk 11.19, 95% confidence interval 5.13-24.29, p<.0001. Because of the significantly increased neonatal risks, obstetric providers should therefore not offer or perform planned home TOLACs and for those desiring a VBAC should strongly recommend a planned TOLAC in the appropriate hospital setting. We emphasize that this stance should be accompanied by effective efforts to make TOLAC available in the appropriate hospital setting.

  18. Heavy cannabis use prior psychosis in schizophrenia: clinical, cognitive and neurological evidences for a new endophenotype?

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    Mallet, Jasmina; Ramoz, Nicolas; Le Strat, Yann; Gorwood, Philip; Dubertret, Caroline

    2017-02-11

    Cannabis use is associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia, and is considered to impact late neurodevelopment. Neurological soft signs (NSS) associated with schizophrenia are considered as markers of early neurodevelopmental impairment. Our study examines the association between heavy cannabis use before the onset of psychosis and clinical, neuropsychological and neurological symptoms, including NSS. In a cross-sectional study, we consecutively included 61 patients with schizophrenia (34 reporting heavy cannabis use before the onset of psychosis and 27 not reporting such use), in the setting of a University Hospital and a Medical Center. Symptoms assessment and substance use disorder were evaluated with the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies. NSS were assessed with the Neurological Evaluation Scale. Psychopathology was assessed with the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale. All patients underwent a battery of neurocognitive tests evaluating attention, memory and executive functions domains. Patients with heavy cannabis use before the onset of psychosis showed significantly less NSS (p cannabis before the onset of schizophrenia. Patients with heavy cannabis use before the onset of schizophrenia may exhibit later neurodevelopmental impairment than those who do not report such use. Schizophrenia associated with heavy cannabis use could represent a specific phenotype.

  19. [Effects of cerebral oxygen changes during coronary bypass surgery on postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients: a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahan, Cenk; Sungur, Zerrin; Çamcı, Emre; Sivrikoz, Nükhet; Sayin, Ömer; Gurvit, Hakan; Şentürk, Mert

    2017-12-26

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction is common after cardiac surgery. Adequate cerebral perfusion is essential and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can measure cerebral oxygenation. Aim of this study is to compare incidence of early and late postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients treated with conventional or near infrared spectroscopy monitoring. Patients undergoing coronary surgery above 60 years, were included and randomized to 2 groups; control and NIRS groups. Peroperative management was NIRS guided in GN; and with conventional approach in control group. Test battery was performed before surgery, at first week and 3 rd month postoperatively. The battery comprised clock drawing, memory, word list generation, digit spam and visuospatial skills subtests. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction was defined as drop of 1 SD (standard deviation) from baseline on two or more tests. Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of quantitative measurements; Chi-square exact test to compare quantitative data. Twenty-one patients in control group and 19 in NIRS group completed study. Demographic and operative data were similar. At first week postoperative cognitive dysfunction were present in 9 (45%) and 7 (41%) of patients in control group and NIRS group respectively. At third month 10 patients (50%) were assessed as postoperative cognitive dysfunction; incidence was 4 (24%) in NIRS group (p:0.055). Early and late postoperative cognitive dysfunction group had significantly longer ICU stay (1.74+0.56 vs. 2.94+0.95; p<0.001; 1.91+0.7 vs. 2.79+1.05; p<0.01) and longer hospital stay (9.19+2.8 vs. 11.88+1.7; p<0.01; 9.48+2.6 vs. 11.36+2.4; p<0.05). In this pilot study conventional monitoring and near infrared spectroscopy resulted in similar rates of early postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Late cognitive dysfunction tended to ameliorate with near infrared spectroscopy. Early and late cognitive declines were associated with prolonged ICU and hospital stays

  20. Smart drugs and synthetic androgens for cognitive and physical enhancement: revolving doors of cosmetic neurology.

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    Frati, Paola; Kyriakou, Chrystalla; Del Rio, Alessandro; Marinelli, Enrico; Vergallo, Gianluca Montanari; Zaami, Simona; Busardò, Francesco P

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive enhancement can be defined as the use of drugs and/or other means with the aim to improve the cognitive functions of healthy subjects in particular memory, attention, creativity and intelligence in the absence of any medical indication. Currently, it represents one of the most debated topics in the neuroscience community. Human beings always wanted to use substances to improve their cognitive functions, from the use of hallucinogens in ancient civilizations in an attempt to allow them to better communicate with their gods, to the widespread use of caffeine under various forms (energy drinks, tablets, etc.), to the more recent development of drugs such as stimulants and glutamate activators. In the last ten years, increasing attention has been given to the use of cognitive enhancers, but up to now there is still only a limited amount of information concerning the use, effect and functioning of cognitive enhancement in daily life on healthy subjects. The first aim of this paper was to review current trends in the misuse of smart drugs (also known as Nootropics) presently available on the market focusing in detail on methylphenidate, trying to evaluate the potential risk in healthy individuals, especially teenagers and young adults. Moreover, the authors have explored the issue of cognitive enhancement compared to the use of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) in sports. Finally, a brief overview of the ethical considerations surrounding human enhancement has been examined.

  1. Activated brain mast cells contribute to postoperative cognitive dysfunction by evoking microglia activation and neuronal apoptosis.

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    Zhang, Xiang; Dong, Hongquan; Li, Nana; Zhang, Susu; Sun, Jie; Zhang, Shu; Qian, Yanning

    2016-05-31

    Neuroinflammation plays a key role in the occurrence and development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Microglia, the resident immune cells in the brain, has been increasingly recognized to contribute to neuroinflammation. Although brain mast cells (MCs) are the "first responder" in the brain injury rather than microglia, little is known about the functional aspects of MCs-microglia interactions. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were injected intracerebroventricular with MC stabilizer Cromolyn (100 μg/μl), MC stimulator C48/80 (1 μg/μl), or sterile saline 30 min before open tibial fracture surgery, and the levels of neuroinflammation and memory dysfunction were tested 1 and 3 days after surgery. In addition, the effect of activated MCs on microglia and neurons was determined in vitro. Tibial fracture surgery induced MCs degranulation, microglia activation, and inflammatory factors production, which initiated the acute brain inflammatory response and neuronal death and exhibited cognitive deficit. Site-directed preinjection of the "MCs stabilizer" disodium cromoglycate (Cromolyn) inhibited this effect, including decrease of inflammatory cytokines, reduced MCs degranulation, microglia activation, neuronal death, and improved cognitive function 24 h after the surgery. In vitro study, we found that the conditioned medium from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mast cells line (P815) could induce primary microglia activation through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway signaling and subsequent production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). In addition, the activated P815 could directly induce neuronal apoptosis and synapse injury with microglia independently. Cromolyn could inhibit P815 activation following improved microglia activation and neuronal loss. These results implicate that activated MCs could trigger microglia activation and neuronal damage, resulting in central nervous system (CNS) inflammation, and

  2. Innate Immune Signalling Genetics of Pain, Cognitive Dysfunction and Sickness Symptoms in Cancer Pain Patients Treated with Transdermal Fentanyl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T Barratt

    Full Text Available Common adverse symptoms of cancer and chemotherapy are a major health burden; chief among these is pain, with opioids including transdermal fentanyl the mainstay of treatment. Innate immune activation has been implicated generally in pain, opioid analgesia, cognitive dysfunction, and sickness type symptoms reported by cancer patients. We aimed to determine if genetic polymorphisms in neuroimmune activation pathways alter the serum fentanyl concentration-response relationships for pain control, cognitive dysfunction, and other adverse symptoms, in cancer pain patients. Cancer pain patients (468 receiving transdermal fentanyl were genotyped for 31 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 19 genes: CASP1, BDNF, CRP, LY96, IL6, IL1B, TGFB1, TNF, IL10, IL2, TLR2, TLR4, MYD88, IL6R, OPRM1, ARRB2, COMT, STAT6 and ABCB1. Lasso and backward stepwise generalised linear regression were used to identify non-genetic and genetic predictors, respectively, of pain control (average Brief Pain Inventory < 4, cognitive dysfunction (Mini-Mental State Examination ≤ 23, sickness response and opioid adverse event complaint. Serum fentanyl concentrations did not predict between-patient variability in these outcomes, nor did genetic factors predict pain control, sickness response or opioid adverse event complaint. Carriers of the MYD88 rs6853 variant were half as likely to have cognitive dysfunction (11/111 than wild-type patients (69/325, with a relative risk of 0.45 (95% CI: 0.27 to 0.76 when accounting for major non-genetic predictors (age, Karnofsky functional score. This supports the involvement of innate immune signalling in cognitive dysfunction, and identifies MyD88 signalling pathways as a potential focus for predicting and reducing the burden of cognitive dysfunction in cancer pain patients.

  3. Site differences in mild cognitive dysfunction (MCD) among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

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    Kozora, E; Erkan, D; West, S G; Filley, C M; Zhang, L; Ramon, G; Duggan, E; Lockshin, M D

    2013-01-01

    Mild cognitive dysfunction (MCD) is common in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (MCD-SLE) but few studies have investigated potential site differences. SLE patients from Denver, CO, and New York, NY, were enrolled in two different cognition studies employing similar screening methods. Using the resulting neuropsychological scores, cognitive impairment was calculated using a cognitive impairment index (CII). The rate of MCD-SLE was 24% at the Denver, CO, site and 60% at the New York, NY, site. The mean CII was 2.6 ± 2.3 versus 4.4 ± 2.7, respectively (p = 0.005). The NY participants had a significantly longer disease duration (p = 0.13) and higher American College of Rheumatology SLE criteria scores (p > 0.001). NY participants had a higher frequency of impairment in semantic verbal fluency (p = 0.005), visuomotor speed (p = 0.013), and motor sequencing (p = 0.001). A correlation was found between cognitive impairment and SLE disease duration (p = 0.03). The rate of MCD-SLE was greater in SLE patients from New York, NY, compared to patients in the Denver, CO, area. The greater duration of disease and higher prevalence of medical complications in the NY group might contribute to this difference. Findings suggest that MCD-SLE may differ by site, but future studies that better evaluate site or selection bias are recommended.

  4. Comparison of a gratitude-based and cognitive restructuring intervention for body dissatisfaction and dysfunctional eating behavior in college women.

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    Wolfe, Wendy L; Patterson, Kaitlyn

    2017-01-01

    Researchers have investigated the efficacy of a gratitude intervention for decreasing body dissatisfaction (BD) in an internet treatment-seeking sample and demonstrated it worked equally well to decrease BD as cognitive restructuring. We extend this research by testing the efficacy of a gratitude intervention on BD, along with common sequelae of BD: dysfunctional eating, negative mood, and depressive symptoms. Females were randomly assigned to Gratitude, Cognitive Restructuring, or Control conditions. Pre- to post-intervention period comparisons found the gratitude intervention to perform better than the other conditions at increasing body esteem, decreasing BD, reducing dysfunctional eating, and reducing depressive symptoms.

  5. Predictors of outcome in residential cognitive and interpersonal treatment for social phobia: do cognitive and social dysfunction moderate treatment outcome?

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    Borge, Finn-Magnus; Hoffart, Asle; Sexton, Harold

    2010-09-01

    The predictors of residential cognitive (RCT) and residential interpersonal Treatment (RIPT) for social phobia were explored. (1) Sotsky et al. (1991) found differential effects of CT and IPT for depression, suggesting that the level of cognitive or social dysfunction predicted differential outcome. We examined whether an analogous effect could be demonstrated in 10 weeks of residential treatment of 80 social phobia subjects. (2) We also included expectations, age of onset, severity of illness, concurrent anxiety, mood, avoidant personality disorder, and body dysmorphic disorder as predictors in this exploratory study. Main outcome was the social phobia subscale of Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SPAI SP). DSM-IV axis I and II interviews were completed. (1) Sotsky et al. (1991) findings were not reproduced. However, RIPT subjects with poor general functioning were less improved following treatment. Subjects with concurrent agoraphobia responded better with RCT than subjects without agoraphobia. (2) Age of onset and expectations were the most powerful predictors of post treatment outcome. Some patient characteristics appear to impact outcome with RIPT and RCT differentially. The findings are discussed. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cognitive impairment and memory dysfunction after a stroke diagnosis: a post-stroke memory assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qazzaz, Noor Kamal; Ali, Sawal Hamid; Ahmad, Siti Anom; Islam, Shabiul; Mohamad, Khairiyah

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive impairment and memory dysfunction following stroke diagnosis are common symptoms that significantly affect the survivors' quality of life. Stroke patients have a high potential to develop dementia within the first year of stroke onset. Currently, efforts are being exerted to assess stroke effects on the brain, particularly in the early stages. Numerous neuropsychological assessments are being used to evaluate and differentiate cognitive impairment and dementia following stroke. This article focuses on the role of available neuropsychological assessments in detection of dementia and memory loss after stroke. This review starts with stroke types and risk factors associated with dementia development, followed by a brief description of stroke diagnosis criteria and the effects of stroke on the brain that lead to cognitive impairment and end with memory loss. This review aims to combine available neuropsychological assessments to develop a post-stroke memory assessment (PSMA) scheme based on the most recognized and available studies. The proposed PSMA is expected to assess different types of memory functionalities that are related to different parts of the brain according to stroke location. An optimal therapeutic program that would help stroke patients enjoy additional years with higher quality of life is presented.

  7. Novel application of brain-targeting polyphenol compounds in sleep deprivation-induced cognitive dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Wang, Jun; Bi, Weina; Ferruzzi, Mario; Yemul, Shrishailam; Freire, Daniel; Mazzola, Paolo; Ho, Lap; Dubner, Lauren; Pasinetti, Giulio Maria

    2015-10-01

    Sleep deprivation produces deficits in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and hippocampal-dependent memory storage. Recent evidence suggests that sleep deprivation disrupts memory consolidation through multiple mechanisms, including the down-regulation of the cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) and of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. In this study, we tested the effects of a Bioactive Dietary Polyphenol Preparation (BDPP), comprised of grape seed polyphenol extract, Concord grape juice, and resveratrol, on the attenuation of sleep deprivation-induced cognitive impairment. We found that BDPP significantly improves sleep deprivation-induced contextual memory deficits, possibly through the activation of CREB and mTOR signaling pathways. We also identified brain-available polyphenol metabolites from BDPP, among which quercetin-3-O-glucuronide activates CREB signaling and malvidin-3-O-glucoside activates mTOR signaling. In combination, quercetin and malvidin-glucoside significantly attenuated sleep deprivation-induced cognitive impairment in -a mouse model of acute sleep deprivation. Our data suggests the feasibility of using select brain-targeting polyphenol compounds derived from BDPP as potential therapeutic agents in promoting resilience against sleep deprivation-induced cognitive dysfunction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Hydrogen-Rich Saline on Hepatectomy-Induced Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction in Old Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yue; Guo, Shanbin; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Ying; Zhao, Ping; Zhao, Xiaochun

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to investigate the protective effects and underlying mechanisms of hydrogen-rich saline on the cognitive functions of elder mice with partial hepatectomy-induced postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Ninety-six old male Kunming mice were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 24 each): control group (group C), hydrogen-rich saline group (group H), POCD group (group P), and POCD + hydrogen-rich saline group (group PH). Cognitive function was subsequently assessed using Morris water-maze (MWM) test. TNF-α and IL-1β levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunohistochemistry, along with NF-κB activity determined by ELISA. The morphology of hippocampal tissues were further observed by HE staining. Learning and memory abilities of mice were significantly impaired at day 10 and day 14 post-surgery, as partial hepatectomy significantly prolonged the escape latency, decreased time at the original platform quadrant and frequency of crossing in group P when compared to group C (p hydrogen-rich saline (group PH) partially rescued spatial memory and learning as it shortened escape latency and increased time and crossing frequency of original platform compared to group P (p hydrogen-rich saline. Hydrogen-rich saline can alleviate POCD via inhibiting NF-κB activity in the hippocampus and reducing inflammatory response.

  9. Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy (JME: Neuropsychological Profile and Related Factors with Cognitive Dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Motamedi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to verify possible cognitive dysfunction in the patients with Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy (JME and its correlation to factors related to epilepsy and patients demographic variables.Thirty two consecutive patients with JME and 32 healthy controls were evaluated in neuropsychological domains including orientation, mental control, logical memory, forward and backward digit spans, visual memory, associative learning, and memory quotient (using Persian version of Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-Revised, preservative errors (using Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST, Stroop Test (color and word, IQ score (using Raven's Progressive Matrices test, and depression (using the Persian version of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. SPSS 11.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA software was used for statistical analysis. Student's t-test and the Mann-Whitney U-test were used for independent normally and non-normally distributed continuous variables, respectively.Our study showed significant differences between patients with JME and control group with respect to scores of mental control (p=0.015, forward digit span (p=0.004, total digit span (p=0.008 and IQ (p=0.003. In addition, age, education level, duration of epilepsy and medication showed an impact on several cognitive functions in the patients with JME.It is indicated that JME is associated with impairment in specific cognitive domains, despite any evidence in favor of depression.

  10. Music intervention on cognitive dysfunction in healthy older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bing; Sui, Yi; Zhu, Chunyan; Yang, Xiaomei; Zhou, Jin; Li, Li; Ren, Li; Wang, Xu

    2017-06-01

    The background of this study is to determine whether there is an association between music intervention and cognitive dysfunction therapy in healthy older adults, and if so, whether music intervention can be used as first-line non-pharmacological treatment. The method used in this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials that examined the effects of music intervention on patient-relevant and disease-specific outcomes. A comprehensive literature was performed on PubMed, EMbase and the Cochrane Library from inception to September 2016. A total of 10 studies (14 analyses, 966 subjects) were included; all of them had an acceptable quality based on the PEDro scale score and CASP scale score. Compared with control group, the standardized mean difference was 0.03 (-0.18 to 0.24) for cognitive function as primary outcome by random effect model; secondary outcomes were included disruptive behavior, depressive score, anxiety and quality of life. No evidence of publication bias could be found in funnel plots, Begg's test and Egger's test. Subgroup analyses showed that intervention method, comparator, trial design, trial period and outcome measure instruments made little difference in outcomes. Meta-regression might not identify cause of heterogeneity. This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD442016036264. There was positive evidence to support the use of music intervention on treatment of cognitive function.

  11. Cognitive dysfunction in body dysmorphic disorder: new implications for nosological systems and neurobiological models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies-Sewell, Kiri; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Fineberg, Naomi A; Laws, Keith R

    2017-02-01

    Introduction Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a debilitating disorder, characterized by obsessions and compulsions relating specifically to perceived appearance, and which has been newly classified within the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders grouping. Until now, little research has been conducted into the cognitive profile of this disorder. Participants with BDD (n=12) and participants without BDD (n=16) were tested using a computerized neurocognitive battery investigating attentional set-shifting (Intra/Extra Dimensional Set Shift Task), decision-making (Cambridge Gamble Task), motor response-inhibition (Stop-Signal Reaction Time Task), and affective processing (Affective Go-No Go Task). The groups were matched for age, IQ, and education. In comparison to controls, patients with BDD showed significantly impaired attentional set-shifting, abnormal decision-making, impaired response inhibition, and greater omission and commission errors on the emotional processing task. Despite the modest sample size, our results showed that individuals with BDD performed poorly compared to healthy controls on tests of cognitive flexibility, reward and motor impulsivity, and affective processing. Results from separate studies in OCD patients suggest similar cognitive dysfunction. Therefore, these findings are consistent with the reclassification of BDD alongside OCD. These data also hint at additional areas of decision-making abnormalities that might contribute specifically to the psychopathology of BDD.

  12. Cognitive dysfunction in Body Dysmorphic Disorder: New implications for nosological systems & neurobiological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies-Sewell, K; Chamberlain, SR; Fineberg, NA; Laws, KR

    2017-01-01

    Background Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a debilitating disorder, characterised by obsessions and compulsions relating specifically to perceived appearance, newly classified within the DSM-5 Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders grouping. Until now, little research has been conducted into the cognitive profile of this disorder. Materials and Methods Participants with BDD (n=12) and healthy controls (n=16) were tested using a computerised neurocognitive battery investigating attentional set-shifting (Intra/Extra Dimensional Set Shift Task), decision-making (Cambridge Gamble Task), motor response-inhibition (Stop-Signal Reaction Time Task) and affective processing (Affective Go-No Go Task). The groups were matched for age, IQ and education. Results In comparison to controls, patients with BDD showed significantly impaired attentional set shifting, abnormal decision-making, impaired response inhibition and greater omission and commission errors on the emotional processing task. Conclusions Despite the modest sample size, our results showed that individuals with BDD performed poorly compared to healthy controls on tests of cognitive flexibility, reward and motor impulsivity and affective processing. Results from separate studies in OCD patients suggest similar cognitive dysfunction. Therefore, these findings are consistent with the re-classification of BDD alongside OCD. These data also hint at additional areas of decision-making abnormalities that might contribute specifically to the psychopathology of BDD. PMID:27899165

  13. Functional correlates of cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis: A multicenter fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Maria A; Valsasina, Paola; Hulst, Hanneke E; Abdel-Aziz, Khaled; Enzinger, Christian; Gallo, Antonio; Pareto, Debora; Riccitelli, Gianna; Muhlert, Nils; Ciccarelli, Olga; Barkhof, Frederik; Fazekas, Franz; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Arévalo, Maria J; Filippi, Massimo

    2014-12-01

    In this multicenter study, we applied functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to define the functional correlates of cognitive dysfunction in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). fMRI scans during the performance of the N-back task were acquired from 42 right-handed relapsing remitting (RR) MS patients and 52 sex-matched right-handed healthy controls, studied at six European sites using 3.0 Tesla scanners. Patients with at least two abnormal (function of increasing task difficulty, CI MS patients had reduced activations of several areas located in the fronto-parieto-temporal lobes as well as reduced deactivations of regions which are part of the default mode network compared to the other two groups. Significant correlations were found between abnormal fMRI patterns of activations and deactivations and behavioral measures, cognitive performance, and brain T2 and T1 lesion volumes. This multicenter study supports the theory that a preserved fMRI activity of the frontal lobe is associated with a better cognitive profile in MS patients. It also indicates the feasibility of fMRI to monitor disease evolution and treatment effects in future studies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Executive Cognitive Dysfunction and ADHD in Cocaine Dependence: Searching for a Common Cognitive Endophenotype for Addictive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Paulo Jannuzzi; Gonçalves, Priscila Dib; Ometto, Mariella; dos Santos, Bernardo; Nicastri, Sergio; Busatto, Geraldo F.; de Andrade, Arthur Guerra

    2013-01-01

    executive dysfunction in CDI. It remains to be investigated by future studies if symptoms such as impulsivity or a pre-existing ECF dysfunction could represent underlying cognitive endophenotypes that would substantially increase the risk for acquiring addictive disorders. PMID:24155725

  15. Susceptibility of the MMPI-2-RF neurological complaints and cognitive complaints scales to over-reporting in simulated head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolinger, Elizabeth; Reese, Caitlin; Suhr, Julie; Larrabee, Glenn J

    2014-02-01

    We examined the effect of simulated head injury on scores on the Neurological Complaints (NUC) and Cognitive Complaints (COG) scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF). Young adults with a history of mild head injury were randomly assigned to simulate head injury or give their best effort on a battery of neuropsychological tests, including the MMPI-2-RF. Simulators who also showed poor effort on performance validity tests (PVTs) were compared with controls who showed valid performance on PVTs. Results showed that both scales, but especially NUC, are elevated in individuals simulating head injury, with medium to large effect sizes. Although both scales were highly correlated with all MMPI-2-RF over-reporting validity scales, the relationship of Response Bias Scale to both NUC and COG was much stronger in the simulators than controls. Even accounting for over-reporting on the MMPI-2-RF, NUC was related to general somatic complaints regardless of group membership, whereas COG was related to both psychological distress and somatic complaints in the control group only. Neither scale was related to actual neuropsychological performance, regardless of group membership. Overall, results provide further evidence that self-reported cognitive symptoms can be due to many causes, not necessarily cognitive impairment, and can be exaggerated in a non-credible manner.

  16. Early post-surgical cognitive dysfunction is a risk factor for mortality among hip fracture hospitalized older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, C; Bonamassa, L; Pelini, L; Prioletta, I; Cianferotti, L; Metozzi, A; Benvenuti, E; Brandi, G; Guazzini, A; Santoro, G C; Mecocci, P; Black, D; Brandi, M L

    2017-02-01

    This study investigates the relationship between cognitive dysfunction or delirium detected in the early post-surgical phase and the 1-year mortality among 514 hip fracture hospitalized older persons. Patients with early cognitive dysfunction or delirium experienced a 2-fold increased mortality risk. Early post-operative cognitive dysfunction and delirium are negative prognostic factors for mortality. Premorbid cognitive impairment and dementia in older individuals negatively affect functional recovery after hip fracture. Additionally, post-operative delirium is an established risk factor for negative outcomes among hip fracture patients. While the majority of hip fracture patients experience minor post-surgical cognitive dysfunction, the prognostic value of this phenomenon is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between minor cognitive dysfunction or delirium detected in the early post-surgical phase and the 1-year mortality after index hip fracture. We enrolled 514 patients with hip fracture (77.4 % women), aged 65 years or older (mean age 83.1 ± 7.3 years), who underwent surgical hip fracture repair. Patients were assessed daily from the second to the fourth post-operative day and at 3, 6, and 12 months thereafter. All participants underwent comprehensive assessment, including detection of delirium by using the confusion assessment method and evaluation of cognitive function by using mini-mental state examination (MMSE; score range 0 to 30, with lower scores indicating poorer performance). In the absence of delirium, post-surgical cognitive dysfunction was defined as having low performance on MMSE. Vital status of 1 year after the index fracture and date of death were gathered from local registries. The observed 1-year mortality rate was 14.8 %. Men were more likely to die than women within 1 year of the index fracture (p post-surgical phase is a negative prognostic factor for mortality among elderly hip fracture patients. The burden

  17. Evidence of Cognitive Dysfunction after Soccer Playing with Ball Heading Using a Novel Tablet-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Angela H.; Patel, Saumil S.; Sereno, Anne B.

    2013-01-01

    Does frequent head-to-ball contact cause cognitive dysfunctions and brain injury to soccer players? An iPad-based experiment was designed to examine the impact of ball-heading among high school female soccer players. We examined both direct, stimulus-driven, or reflexive point responses (Pro-Point) as well as indirect, goal-driven, or voluntary point responses (Anti-Point), thought to require cognitive functions in the frontal lobe. The results show that soccer players were significantly slower than controls in the Anti-Point task but displayed no difference in Pro-Point latencies, indicating a disruption specific to voluntary responses. These findings suggest that even subconcussive blows in soccer can result in cognitive function changes that are consistent with mild traumatic brain injury of the frontal lobes. There is great clinical and practical potential of a tablet-based application for quick detection and monitoring of cognitive dysfunction. PMID:23460843

  18. Defects in tRNA modification associated with neurological and developmental dysfunctions in Caenorhabditis elegans elongator mutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changchun Chen

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Elongator is a six subunit protein complex, conserved from yeast to humans. Mutations in the human Elongator homologue, hELP1, are associated with the neurological disease familial dysautonomia. However, how Elongator functions in metazoans, and how the human mutations affect neural functions is incompletely understood. Here we show that in Caenorhabditis elegans, ELPC-1 and ELPC-3, components of the Elongator complex, are required for the formation of the 5-carbamoylmethyl and 5-methylcarboxymethyl side chains of wobble uridines in tRNA. The lack of these modifications leads to defects in translation in C. elegans. ELPC-1::GFP and ELPC-3::GFP reporters are strongly expressed in a subset of chemosensory neurons required for salt chemotaxis learning. elpc-1 or elpc-3 gene inactivation causes a defect in this process, associated with a posttranscriptional reduction of neuropeptide and a decreased accumulation of acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft. elpc-1 and elpc-3 mutations are synthetic lethal together with those in tuc-1, which is required for thiolation of tRNAs having the 5'methylcarboxymethyl side chain. elpc-1; tuc-1 and elpc-3; tuc-1 double mutants display developmental defects. Our results suggest that, by its effect on tRNA modification, Elongator promotes both neural function and development.

  19. The cognitive process of identity reconstruction after the onset of a neurological disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendreau, Anne; de la Sablonnière, Roxane

    2014-01-01

    Rehabilitation professionals and researchers underscore the impact of an acquired disability on identity. However, the cognitive process by which identity is transformed is understudied. The present study aims to explore the cognitive process by which personal identity is reconstructed following disability onset. A template organizing style of interpretation was used to perform a qualitative analysis based on the Cognitive-Developmental Model of Social Identity Integration (CDMSII) using interview data from 10 participants with traumatic brain injury or traumatic spinal cord injury. As suggested by the CDMSII, following the accident, participants initially tend to emphasize distinctions between their pre- and post-injury conditions. Eventually, individuals are able to create cognitive connections between pre-injury self-knowledge and how they understand their new condition. Finally, in the last stage of the identity integration process, the various identity components are recognized as part of the self. Organizing data based on the three stages of this theory was found to resonate with participants and aided the comprehension of how every stage in the identity reconstruction process is intertwined with the need for continuity through life. The CDMSII offers a useful heuristic for understanding long-term identity reconstruction and the present research emphasizes the importance of a sense of continuity following disability onset.

  20. Obesity and cognitive dysfunction in heart failure: the role of hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and physical fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alosco, Michael L; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Cohen, Ronald; Sweet, Lawrence H; Josephson, Richard; Hughes, Joel; Rosneck, Jim; Gunstad, John

    2015-08-01

    Cognitive impairment is common in heart failure. Obesity is a known risk factor for cognitive dysfunction in heart failure, though the mechanisms remain unclear. Obesity increases risk for conditions like hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as well as poor fitness levels, and this may serve as one possible pathway accounting for association between obesity and cognitive dysfunction. We used structural equation modeling to test whether the combination of hypertension, T2DM, and reduced fitness mediate the association between obesity and cognitive dysfunction. Two hundred heart failure patients completed neuropsychological testing and a physical fitness assessment. Hypertension and T2DM were ascertained via self-report and medical records. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Forty-three percent of the sample was obese. Hypertension (70%) and T2DM (36%) were common, and fitness levels were reduced. The structural equation model with these factors as mediators between BMI and cognitive function demonstrated excellent fit (comparative fit index = 0.98; root mean-square error of approximations = 0.03). Higher BMI correlated with hypertension, T2DM, and poorer fitness. Each of these factors predicted worse cognition. Models that isolated medical comorbidities and physical fitness as the mediator were weaker than the full model. Increased risk for medical comorbidities and reduced fitness levels helped to explain the negative effects of obesity on cognitive dysfunction in heart failure. Prospective studies should confirm this pattern and examine how weight loss benefits cognitive function in heart failure. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  1. A new ethical and medico-legal issue: vascular surgery and the postoperative cognitive dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setacci, C; Sirignano, A; Ricci, G; Spagnolo, A G; Pugliese, F; Speziale, F

    2015-08-01

    Patients undergoing major surgery are at risk for postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). The consciousness of the POCD arises new ethical and medico-legal issues that should be identified, managed and, if possible, prevented. Elderly patients still represent a real challenge for physicians and medical science. This challenge can be surmounted not only through technical progress but also by safeguarding the correct ethical behavior at the base of each relationship between a patient and his physician. Effective communication with the elderly patient is a prerequisite for clear and complete information, involving family members and caregivers when necessary. In every case, the identification of patients with pre-existing risk factors of POCD, shortening the period of time preceding the surgery and a proper technique of the procedure as well as physical and intellectual exercises, nutrition and medication play an important role in decreasing the incidence of neurocognitive deficits in the elderly.

  2. State of cerebral hemodynamics in patients with cognitive dysfunction associated with atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Stadnik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to cerebral hemodynamics in patients with cognitive dysfunction associated with atrial fibrillation (AF. Patients and methods. Fifty-six patients aged 40–75 years (the mean age was 62.7±6.3 years with nonvalvular AF caused by ischemic heart disease were examined. In 30 (53.6% patients AF was permanent; in 26 (46.4% patients, it was either persistent or paroxysmal. The exclusion criteria were as follows: past transient ischemic attacks, stroke or myocardial infarction, and severe somatic diseases. All patients with AF were evaluated for cognitive functions (using the short scale for assessing the mental status, auditory memory and associative memory (using the Schulte test, and emotional background (using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Ultrasonography of the extracranial and intracranial vessels and registration of the average linear blood flow velocity (LBFV was performed. Results. Cognitive impairments (CI were diagnosed in 38 patients who entered the main group; patients with AF without CI comprised the control group. 82.6% of patients of the main group were diagnosed with constrictive lesion of the carotid (CA and vertebral (VA arteries of various severity; the isolated lesion of the CA was observed in 23.7% of patients, the isolated lesion of the VA in 18.4%; multiple lesions of the CA and VA in 69.4%; and the hemodynamically significant lesion, in 30.3%. In patients of the control group, constrictive lesions of the extracranial arteries were observed in 65.5% of cases. Condition of the major arteries of the head (MAH significantly affects the LBFV parameters of the intracranial arteries. In patients with multiple lesions of the CA and VA, the LBFV in the intracranial vessels was much lower than that in patients with isolated lesions of the CA and VA.The relation between the rate and severity of constrictive lesions of the MAH and the presence of AF accompanied with CI was noted in patients. Cerebral

  3. Seeking a unified framework for cerebellar function and dysfunction: from circuit operations to cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Egidio; Casali, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Following the fundamental recognition of its involvement in sensory-motor coordination and learning, the cerebellum is now also believed to take part in the processing of cognition and emotion. This hypothesis is recurrent in numerous papers reporting anatomical and functional observations, and it requires an explanation. We argue that a similar circuit structure in all cerebellar areas may carry out various operations using a common computational scheme. On the basis of a broad review of anatomical data, it is conceivable that the different roles of the cerebellum lie in the specific connectivity of the cerebellar modules, with motor, cognitive, and emotional functions (at least partially) segregated into different cerebro-cerebellar loops. We here develop a conceptual and operational framework based on multiple interconnected levels (a meta-levels hypothesis): from cellular/molecular to network mechanisms leading to generation of computational primitives, thence to high-level cognitive/emotional processing, and finally to the sphere of mental function and dysfunction. The main concept explored is that of intimate interplay between timing and learning (reminiscent of the "timing and learning machine" capabilities long attributed to the cerebellum), which reverberates from cellular to circuit mechanisms. Subsequently, integration within large-scale brain loops could generate the disparate cognitive/emotional and mental functions in which the cerebellum has been implicated. We propose, therefore, that the cerebellum operates as a general-purpose co-processor, whose effects depend on the specific brain centers to which individual modules are connected. Abnormal functioning in these loops could eventually contribute to the pathogenesis of major brain pathologies including not just ataxia but also dyslexia, autism, schizophrenia, and depression.

  4. SPM analysis and cognitive dysfunctions in patients with transient global amnesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Young Jin; Kang, Do Young; Yun, Go Un; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Jae Woo [School of Medicine, Donga University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is known as a disease of benign nature characterized with clinically transient global antegrade amnesia and a variable degree of global retrograde memory impairment, but it usually resolved within 24 hours. The aims of this study are to assess the alterations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT imaging with statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis and to verify the cognitive deficits by neuropsychological test in TGA patients. Twelve patients with TGA and age-matched normal control subjects participated in this study. Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT was performed within 1 to 19 days (mean duration: 7.3:{+-}5.2 days) after the events to measure the rCBF. SPECT images were analyzed using SPM (SPM99) with Matlab 5.3. Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery test was also done within 2 to 8 days (mean duration 3.8{+-}2.2 days) for cognitive functions in 8 of 12 patients with TGA. The SPM analysis of SPECT images showed significantly decreased rCBF in the left inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 9), the left supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann area 40), the left postcentral gyrus (Brodmann area 40) and the left precentral gyrus (Brodmann area 4) in patients with TGA (uncorrected p<0.01). Neuropsychological test findings represented that several cognitive functions. such as, verbal memory, visual memory, phonemic fluency and confrontational naming, were impaired in patients with TGA compared with normal control. Additionally, on SPM analysis, we found lesions of hyperperfusion in contralateral cerebral hemisphere. Our study shows perfusion deficits in the left cerebral hemisphere in patients with TGA and several cognitive dysfunctions. And we found after clinical symptoms were completely resolved, the lesions of hypoperfusion were still remained. We found that functional quantitative neuroimaging study and neuropsychological test are useful to understand underlying pathomachanism of TGA.

  5. Seeking a unified framework for cerebellar function and dysfunction: from circuit operations to cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidio eD‘Angelo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the fundamental recognition of its involvement in sensory-motor coordination and learning, the cerebellum is now also believed to take part in the processing of cognition and emotion. This hypothesis is recurrent in numerous papers reporting anatomical and functional observations, and it requires an explanation. We argue that a similar circuit structure in all cerebellar areas may carry out various operations using a common computational scheme. On the basis of a broad review of anatomical data, it is conceivable that the different roles of the cerebellum lie in the specific connectivity of the cerebellar modules, with motor, cognitive and emotional functions (at least partially segregated into different cerebro-cerebellar loops. We here develop a conceptual and operational framework based on multiple interconnected levels (a meta-levels hypothesis: from cellular/molecular to network mechanisms leading to generation of computational primitives, thence to high-level cognitive/emotional processing, and finally to the sphere of mental function and dysfunction. The main concept explored is that of intimate interplay between timing and learning (reminiscent of the timing and learning machine capabilities long attributed to the cerebellum, which reverberates from cellular to circuit mechanisms. Subsequently, integration within large-scale brain loops could generate the disparate cognitive/emotional and mental functions in which the cerebellum has been implicated. We propose, therefore, that the cerebellum operates as a general-purpose co-processor, whose effects depend on the specific brain centers to which individual modules are connected. Abnormal functioning in these loops could eventually contribute to the pathogenesis of major brain pathologies including not just ataxia but also dyslexia, autism, schizophrenia and depression.

  6. The association between insomnia-related sleep disruptions and cognitive dysfunction during the inter-episode phase of bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanady, Jennifer C; Soehner, Adriane M; Klein, Alexandra B; Harvey, Allison G

    2017-05-01

    Sleep disturbance and cognitive dysfunction are two domains of impairment during inter-episode bipolar disorder. Despite evidence demonstrating the importance of sleep for cognition in healthy and sleep-disordered samples, this link has been minimally examined in bipolar disorder. The present study tested the association between insomnia-related sleep disruptions and cognitive dysfunction during inter-episode bipolar disorder. Forty-seven participants with bipolar disorder and a comorbid insomnia diagnosis (BD-Insomnia) and 19 participants with bipolar disorder without sleep disturbance in the last six months (BD-Control) participated in the study. Two domains of cognition were assessed: working memory and verbal learning. Insomnia-related sleep disruptions were assessed both categorically (i.e., insomnia diagnosis) and dimensionally (i.e., total wake time, total sleep time, total wake time variability, and total sleep time variability). Hierarchical linear regressions, adjusting for participant age, demonstrated that insomnia diagnosis did not have an independent or interactive effect on cognition. However, regardless of insomnia diagnosis, greater total sleep time variability predicted poorer working memory and verbal learning performance. Further, following sleep treatment, a reduction in total wake time predicted improved working memory performance and a reduction in total sleep time variability predicted improved verbal learning performance. These findings raise the possibility that sleep disturbance may contribute to cognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder and highlight the importance of treating sleep disturbance in bipolar disorder. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction: An experimental model in the old rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamproglou, I. [Laboratoire de Biophysique, Paris (France); Chen, Q.M.; Poisson, M. [Hopital de la Salpetriere, Paris (France)] [and others

    1995-01-01

    To develop a model of radiation-induced behavioral dysfunction. A course of whole brain radiation therapy (30 Gy/10 fractions/12 days) was administered to 26 Wistar rats ages 16-27 months, while 26 control rats received sham irradiation. Sequential behavioral studies including one-way avoidance, two-way avoidance, and a standard operant conditioning method (press-lever avoidance) were undertaken. In addition, rats were studied in a water maze 7 months postradiation therapy. Prior to radiation therapy, both groups were similar. No difference was found 1 and 3 months postradiation therapy. At 6-7 months postradiation therapy, irradiated rats had a much lower percentage of avoidance than controls for one-way avoidance (23% vs. 55%, p {le} 0.001) and two-way avoidance (18% vs. 40%, p {le} 0.01). Seven months postradiation therapy the reaction time was increased (press-lever avoidance, 11.20 s vs. 8.43 s, p {le} 0.05) and the percentage of correct response was lower (water maze, 53% vs. 82%) in irradiated rats compared with controls. Pathological examination did not demonstrate abnormalities of the irradiated brains at the light microscopic level. Behavioral dysfunction affecting mainly memory can be demonstrated following conventional radiation therapy in old rats. This model can be used to study the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cognitive changes. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Are all models susceptible to dysfunctional cognitions about eating and body image? The moderating role of personality styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasczyk-Schiep, Sybilla; Sokoła, Kaja; Fila-Witecka, Karolina; Kazén, Miguel

    2016-06-01

    We investigated dysfunctional cognitions about eating and body image in relation to personality styles in a group of professional models. Dysfunctional cognitions in professional models (n = 43) and a control group (n = 43) were assessed with the 'Eating Disorder Cognition Questionnaire' (EDCQ), eating attitudes with the 'Eating Attitudes Test' (EAT), and personality with the 'Personality Styles and Disorders Inventory' (PSDI-S). Models had higher scores than controls on the EDCQ and EAT and on nine scales of the PSDI-S. Moderation analyses showed significant interactions between groups and personality styles in predicting EDCQ scales: The ambitious/narcissistic style was related to "negative body and self-esteem", the conscientious/compulsive style to "dietary restraint", and the spontaneous/borderline style to "loss of control in eating". The results indicate that not all models are susceptible to dysfunctional cognitions about eating and body image. Models are at a higher risk of developing negative automatic thoughts and dysfunctional assumptions relating to body size, shape and weight, especially if they have high scores on the above personality styles.

  9. Medial temporal lobe atrophy and memory dysfunction as preditors for dementia in subjects with mild cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, P.J.; Scheltens, P.; Verhey, F.R.J.; Schmand, B.A.; Launer, L.L.J.; Jolles, J.; Jonker, C.

    1999-01-01

    To determine whether the medial temporal lobe is atrophic in subjects with mild cognitive impairment, and whether atrophy of this structure is a better predictor of dementia than memory dysfunction. Forty-five noninstitutionalized subjects aged 65-85 years were randomly selected from a population

  10. Medial temporal lobe atrophy and memory dysfunction as predictors for dementia in subjects with mild cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, P.J.; Scheltens, P.; Verhey, F.R.J.; Schmand, B.A.; Launer, L.L.J.; Jolles, J.; Jonker, C.

    1999-01-01

    To determine whether the medial temporal lobe is atrophic in subjects with mild cognitive impairment, and whether atrophy of this structure is a better predictor of dementia than memory dysfunction. Forty-five noninstitutionalized subjects aged 65-85 years were randomly selected from a population

  11. Predictive value of general movements' quality in low-risk infants for minor neurological dysfunction and behavioural problems at preschool age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennema, Anne N; Schendelaar, Pamela; Seggers, Jorien; Haadsma, Maaike L; Heineman, Maas Jan; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2016-03-01

    General movement (GM) assessment is a well-established tool to predict cerebral palsy in high-risk infants. Little is known on the predictive value of GM assessment in low-risk populations. To assess the predictive value of GM quality in early infancy for the development of the clinically relevant form of minor neurological dysfunction (complex MND) and behavioral problems at preschool age. Prospective cohort study. A total of 216 members of the prospective Groningen Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART) cohort study were included in this study. ART did not affect neurodevelopmental outcome of these relatively low-risk infants born to subfertile parents. GM quality was determined at 2 weeks and 3 months. At 18 months and 4 years, the Hempel neurological examination was used to assess MND. At 4 years, parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist; this resulted in the total problem score (TPS), internalizing problem score (IPS), and externalizing problem score (EPS). Predictive values of definitely (DA) and mildly (MA) abnormal GMs were calculated. DA GMs at 2 weeks were associated with complex MND at 18 months and atypical TPS and IPS at 4 years (all pvalue of DA GMs at 2 weeks were rather low (13%-60%); specificity and negative predictive value were excellent (92%-99%). DA GMs at 3 months occurred too infrequently to calculate prediction. MA GMs were not associated with outcome. GM quality as a single predictor for complex MND and behavioral problems at preschool age has limited clinical value in children at low risk for developmental disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cognitive dysfunction and histological findings in adult rats one year after whole brain irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, Katsuhiko; Tanaka, Ryuichi; Sato, Mitsuya; Takeda, Norio [Niigata Univ. (Japan). Brain Research Inst.

    2001-12-01

    Cognitive dysfunction and histological changes in the brain were investigated following irradiation in 20 Fischer 344 rats aged 6 months treated with whole brain irradiation (WBR) (25 Gy/single dose), and compared with the same number of sham-irradiated rats as controls. Performance of the Morris water maze task and the passive avoidance task were examined one year after WBR. Finally, histological and immunohistochemical examinations using antibodies to myelin basic protein (MBP), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and neurofilament (NF) were performed of the rat brains. The irradiated rats continued to gain weight 7 months after WBR whereas the control rats stopped gaining weight. Cognitive functions in both the water maze task and the passive avoidance task were lower in the irradiated rats than in the control rats. Brain damage consisting of demyelination only or with necrosis was found mainly in the body of the corpus callosum and the parietal white matter near the corpus callosum in the irradiated rats. Immunohistochemical examination of the brains without necrosis found MBP-positive fibers were markedly decreased in the affected areas by irradiation; NF-positive fibers were moderately decreased and irregularly dispersed in various shapes in the affected areas; and GFAP-positive fibers were increased, with gliosis in those areas. These findings are similar to those in clinically accelerated brain aging in conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, Binswanger's disease, and multiple sclerosis. (author)

  13. Effects of galangal extract on cognitive dysfunction and nerve pathological change in rats with diabetic encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao-Rui Yu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of galangal extract on cognitive dysfunction and nerve pathological change in rats with diabetic encephalopathy. Methods: Sixty male SD rats were given high sugar and fat diet except the control group. Fifty days later, the animals were injected with STZ 30 mg/kg through intraperitoneal to establish type 2 diabetes model. Rats were divided into control group, model group, Metformin group, oxiracetam group, galangal extract high and low dose group. After 4-week administration, Morris water maze was utilized to investigate the effects of different galangal extract on learning and memory ability in rats. After behavioral testing, the blood sugar level was detected. Meanwhile, spectrophotometer was used to measure the superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and maleic dialdehyde (MDA content of brain tissue. HE staining was used to observe the morphological changes in the hippocampus. Results: Galangal extract can significantly reduce swimming time and swimming distance of diabetic encephalopathy rat model, lower fasting blood glucose while increase body weight. At the same time, SOD activity and MDA content of rat brain were reduced. The morphology of neurons in hippocampus was improved and neuronal nuclear condensation was reduced correspondingly. Conclusions: Galangal extract can significantly improve cognitive ability in diabetic rats, reduce hippocampal pathological changes and have some prevention or treatment effects on of diabetes encephalopathy

  14. Cognitive dysfunction in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: a possible role for neuromodulatory immune molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Mark G; O'Malley, Dervla

    2016-09-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X chromosome-linked disease characterized by progressive physical disability, immobility, and premature death in affected boys. Underlying the devastating symptoms of DMD is the loss of dystrophin, a structural protein that connects the extracellular matrix to the cell cytoskeleton and provides protection against contraction-induced damage in muscle cells, leading to chronic peripheral inflammation. However, dystrophin is also expressed in neurons within specific brain regions, including the hippocampus, a structure associated with learning and memory formation. Linked to this, a subset of boys with DMD exhibit nonprogressing cognitive dysfunction, with deficits in verbal, short-term, and working memory. Furthermore, in the genetically comparable dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse model of DMD, some, but not all, types of learning and memory are deficient, and specific deficits in synaptogenesis and channel clustering at synapses has been noted. Little consideration has been devoted to the cognitive deficits associated with DMD compared with the research conducted into the peripheral effects of dystrophin deficiency. Therefore, this review focuses on what is known about the role of full-length dystrophin (Dp427) in hippocampal neurons. The importance of dystrophin in learning and memory is assessed, and the potential importance that inflammatory mediators, which are chronically elevated in dystrophinopathies, may have on hippocampal function is also evaluated. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Innate Immune Signalling Genetics of Pain, Cognitive Dysfunction and Sickness Symptoms in Cancer Pain Patients Treated with Transdermal Fentanyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Daniel T.; Klepstad, Pål; Dale, Ola; Kaasa, Stein; Somogyi, Andrew A.

    2015-01-01

    Common adverse symptoms of cancer and chemotherapy are a major health burden; chief among these is pain, with opioids including transdermal fentanyl the mainstay of treatment. Innate immune activation has been implicated generally in pain, opioid analgesia, cognitive dysfunction, and sickness type symptoms reported by cancer patients. We aimed to determine if genetic polymorphisms in neuroimmune activation pathways alter the serum fentanyl concentration-response relationships for pain control, cognitive dysfunction, and other adverse symptoms, in cancer pain patients. Cancer pain patients (468) receiving transdermal fentanyl were genotyped for 31 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 19 genes: CASP1, BDNF, CRP, LY96, IL6, IL1B, TGFB1, TNF, IL10, IL2, TLR2, TLR4, MYD88, IL6R, OPRM1, ARRB2, COMT, STAT6 and ABCB1. Lasso and backward stepwise generalised linear regression were used to identify non-genetic and genetic predictors, respectively, of pain control (average Brief Pain Inventory fentanyl concentrations did not predict between-patient variability in these outcomes, nor did genetic factors predict pain control, sickness response or opioid adverse event complaint. Carriers of the MYD88 rs6853 variant were half as likely to have cognitive dysfunction (11/111) than wild-type patients (69/325), with a relative risk of 0.45 (95% CI: 0.27 to 0.76) when accounting for major non-genetic predictors (age, Karnofsky functional score). This supports the involvement of innate immune signalling in cognitive dysfunction, and identifies MyD88 signalling pathways as a potential focus for predicting and reducing the burden of cognitive dysfunction in cancer pain patients. PMID:26332828

  16. Favorable effects of vildagliptin on metabolic and cognitive dysfunctions in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Batsh, Maha M; El Batch, Manal M; Shafik, Noha M; Younos, Ibrahim H

    2015-12-15

    Progression of diabetes mellitus is accompanied by metabolic disorders together with psychological deficits including cognitive dysfunctions. Herein, we used a murine streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes to investigate the beneficial effects of vildagliptin not only on metabolic abnormalities, but also on diabetes-induced cognitive decline. Sixty rats were divided randomly and equally into 2 groups; one remains normal and the other serves as STZ- induced diabetic. Both groups were further divided equally into 2 groups; one received vehicle and the other received oral vildagliptin for 8 weeks. Cognitive behavior was assessed using novel object recognition test. Blood samples were collected to measure metabolic parameters and dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-IV activity. Brains were removed and investigated for the levels of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), in addition to brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and relative expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)/p65. Treatment of STZ-induced diabetic rats with vildagliptin increased their body weight and corrected diabetes-induced memory and learning impairment. Moreover, vildagliptin significantly decreased serum levels of glucose and lipids (except high density lipoprotein) together with brain MDA, TNF-α, serum DPP-IV activities and NF-κB/p65 gene expression. On the other hand, vildagliptin significantly increased brain BDNF, SOD as well as serum insulin. Results suggested that vildagliptin has a protective role in counteracting both metabolic abnormalities and memory deficits in diabetic rats, possibly via its anti-hyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant effects, together with reduction of brain NF-κB/p65 over expression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of TLR4 on behavioral and cognitive dysfunctions associated with alcohol-induced neuroinflammatory damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, María; Baliño, Pablo; Alfonso-Loeches, Silvia; Aragón, Carlos M G; Guerri, Consuelo

    2011-06-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in the innate immune response, and emerging evidence indicates their role in brain injury and neurodegeneration. Our recent results have demonstrated that ethanol is capable of activating glial TLR4 receptors and that the elimination of these receptors in mice protects against ethanol-induced glial activation, induction of inflammatory mediators and apoptosis. This study was designed to assess whether ethanol-induced inflammatory damage causes behavioral and cognitive consequences, and if behavioral alterations are dependent of TLR4 functions. Here we show in mice drinking alcohol for 5months, followed by a 15-day withdrawal period, that activation of the astroglial and microglial cells in frontal cortex and striatum is maintained and that these events are associated with cognitive and anxiety-related behavioral impairments in wild-type (WT) mice, as demonstrated by testing the animals with object memory recognition, conditioned taste aversion and dark and light box anxiety tasks. Mice lacking TLR4 receptors are protected against ethanol-induced inflammatory damage, and behavioral associated effects. We further assess the possibility of the epigenetic modifications participating in short- or long-term behavioral effects associated with neuroinflammatory damage. We show that chronic alcohol treatment decreases H4 histone acetylation and histone acetyltransferases activity in frontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus of WT mice. Alterations in chromatin structure were not observed in TLR4(-/-) mice. These results provide the first evidence of the role that TLR4 functions play in the behavioral consequences of alcohol-induced inflammatory damage and suggest that the epigenetic modifications mediated by TLR4 could contribute to short- or long-term alcohol-induced behavioral or cognitive dysfunctions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A mouse model of weight-drop closed head injury: emphasis on cognitive and neurological deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Khalin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a leading cause of death and disability in individuals worldwide. Producing a clinically relevant TBI model in small-sized animals remains fairly challenging. For good screening of potential therapeutics, which are effective in the treatment of TBI, animal models of TBI should be established and standardized. In this study, we established mouse models of closed head injury using the Shohami weight-drop method with some modifications concerning cognitive deficiency assessment and provided a detailed description of the severe TBI animal model. We found that 250 g falling weight from 2 cm height produced severe closed head injury in C57BL/6 male mice. Cognitive disorders in mice with severe closed head injury could be detected using passive avoidance test on day 7 after injury. Findings from this study indicate that weight-drop injury animal models are suitable for further screening of brain neuroprotectants and potentially are similar to those seen in human TBI.

  19. Does Chronic Administration of Sodium Valproate to Juvenile Rats Induce Movement Disorder and Cognitive Dysfunction during Adulthood?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namitha Nair

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with seizure disorder are often treated with sodium valproate (SV on long-term basis. SV acts mainly through gamma amino butyric acid pathways, reducing the excitatory neurotransmission and modifying the monoamine concentration. Altered monoamine concentration by SV is expected to cause movement disorder and cognitive dysfunction, considered reversible after the withdrawal of treatment, but some claim it to be irreversible. It is not clear whether such adverse effects continue during adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chronic administration of SV in juvenile rats causes movement disorder and cognitive dysfunction during their early adulthood. Methods: Sixteen-day-old male Wistar rats from the central animal house, KMC, Mangalore, India in 2015, received either 200 or 400 mg/kg dose of SV for 45 consecutive days and another group served as control. Thirty days after discontinuation of the drug, at postnatal day 90, the rats were tested for movement disorder and cognitive function. Results: Chronic SV treatment in juvenile rats resulted in slow movement, tremors during adulthood but did not affect muscle tone, locomotor and exploratory activities. It also caused cognitive dysfunction in adult rats. Conclusion: Despite the reported safety of chronic SV therapy, its adverse effects such as Parkinsonism symptoms or cognitive dysfunctions should be of concern in all young patients treated with SV for many years. Persistence of cognitive impairment, tremors and generalized slow movement during adulthood after cessation of treatment that was observed in this study, warrants a close monitoring system in children who receive long-term sodium valproate.

  20. Relationships linking emotional, motor, cognitive and GABAergic dysfunctions in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillend, Cyrille; Chaussenot, Rémi

    2017-03-15

    Alterations in the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene have been associated with enhanced stress reactivity in vertebrate species, suggesting a role for brain dystrophin in fear-related behavioral and cognitive processes. Because the loss of dystrophin (Dp427) reduces clustering of central γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptors, it is suspected that local inhibitory tuning and modulation of neuronal excitability are perturbed in a distributed brain circuit that normally controls such critical behavioral functions. In this study, we undertook a large-scale behavioral study to evaluate fear-related behavioral disturbances in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. We first characterized the behavioral determinants of the enhanced fearfulness displayed by mdx mice following mild acute stress and its association with increased anxiety and altered fear memories. We further demonstrated that this enhanced fearfulness induces long-lasting motor inhibition, suggesting that neurobehavioral dysfunctions significantly influence motor outcome measures in this model. We also found that mdx mice are more sensitive to the sedative and hypnotic effects of 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol hydrochlorid (THIP), a selective pharmacological activator of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors involved in central tonic inhibition. Our results highlight that information on the emotional aspects of mdx mice are important to better understand the bases of intellectual and neuropsychiatric defects in DMD and to better define valuable functional readouts for preclinical studies. Our data also support the hypothesis that altered spatial localization of GABAA receptors due to Dp427 loss is a pathological mechanism associated with brain dysfunction in DMD, suggesting that extrasynaptic GABAA receptors might be candidate targets for future therapeutic developments. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Erythropoietin Attenuates Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction by Shifting Macrophage Activation toward the M2 Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hoon Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD may be driven by transference of the innate immune response to the brain after aseptic surgical damage. Macrophages are key mediators of innate immunity that can display a pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype or an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype. Erythropoietin (EPO is a hematopoietic hormone that exerts anti-inflammatory effects by influencing macrophage function. We hypothesized that EPO would prevent POCD by promoting macrophage phenotype switching to the M2 phenotype post-surgery. To evaluate the effects of EPO on POCD and macrophage polarization post-surgery, we administered EPO (5,000 U/kg with or without an arginase inhibitor (amino-6-boronohexanoic acid, 10 mg/kg to ICR mice before and after abdominal surgery. Forty-eight hours post-surgery, we assessed memory, synapse function, and macrophage/microglial phenotypes in the spleen and hippocampus. We also investigated M1/M2 phenotypes in RAW264.7 and BV2 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ (M1 inducers in the presence or absence of EPO. EPO prevented POCD, decreased surgery-related synaptic dysfunction, and attenuated pro-inflammatory cytokine generation in the hippocampus. Moreover, EPO suppressed M1-related genes expression and promoted M2 genes expression in the spleen and hippocampus post-surgery. Furthermore, EPO decreased the proportions of macrophages/microglia expressing an M1 surface marker (CD40 and increased those expressing an M2 surface marker (CD206. Arginase inhibition abolished the beneficial effects of EPO on POCD. In vitro, EPO treatment promoted switching of RAW264.7 and BV2 cells stimulated with M1 inducers to an M2 phenotype. In conclusion, EPO prevents POCD by promoting macrophage phenotype switching toward the M2 phenotype.

  2. Comparing the effects of subchronic phencyclidine and medial prefrontal cortex dysfunction on cognitive tests relevant to schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, K A L; Mar, A C; Theobald, D E; Saksida, L M; Bussey, T J

    2015-11-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that the development of treatments for cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia requires urgent attention, and that valid animal models of relevant impairments are required. With subchronic psychotomimetic agent phencyclidine (scPCP), a putative model of such impairment, the extent to which changes following scPCP do or do not resemble those following dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex is of importance. The present study carried out a comparison of the most common scPCP dosing regimen with excitotoxin-induced medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) dysfunction in rats, across several cognitive tests relevant to schizophrenia. ScPCP subjects were dosed intraperitoneal with 5 mg/kg PCP or vehicle twice daily for 1 week followed by 1 week washout prior to behavioural testing. mPFC dysfunction was induced via fibre-sparing excitotoxin infused into the pre-limbic and infralimbic cortex. Subjects were tested on spontaneous novel object recognition, touchscreen object-location paired-associates learning and touchscreen reversal learning. A double-dissociation was observed between object-location paired-associates learning and object recognition: mPFC dysfunction impaired acquisition of the object-location task but not spontaneous novel object recognition, while scPCP impaired spontaneous novel object recognition but not object-location associative learning. Both scPCP and mPFC dysfunction resulted in a similar facilitation of reversal learning. The pattern of impairment following scPCP raises questions around its efficacy as a model of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia, particularly if importance is placed on faithfully replicating the effects of mPFC dysfunction.

  3. Relationship between apathy and cognitive dysfunctions in de novo untreated Parkinson's disease: a prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, G; Vitale, C; Trojano, L; Picillo, M; Moccia, M; Pisano, G; Pezzella, D; Cuoco, S; Erro, R; Longo, K; Pellecchia, M T; Amboni, M; De Rosa, A; De Michele, G; Barone, P

    2015-02-01

    Apathy may be either a symptom of major depression or a behavioral disturbance occurring in concomitance with depression or alone in Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of the present study was to determine the progression of cognitive impairment in drug-naïve untreated PD patients with or without clinically significant apathy. Sixty-two PD patients with a disease duration Apathy Evaluation Scale (S-AES), a clinical interview based on diagnostic criteria for apathy and a comprehensive neuropsychological battery to assess memory, frontal functions and visuospatial functions. Two years after the first assessment, all patients were re-evaluated on the S-AES, a clinical interview and neuropsychological tests. According to the cut-off value of the S-AES and diagnostic criteria for apathy, eight patients experienced apathy at both baseline and follow-up (A+A+), nine patients had apathy only at follow-up (A-A+), 37 patients never experienced apathy (A-A-) and eight patients showed apathy at the baseline only (A+A-). Cognitive performance significantly declined in all four groups. At both baseline and follow-up A+A+ performed worse than A-A- on visuospatial and frontal tests; A-A+ had lower scores than A-A- on the interference task of the Stroop test (IT-ST). Regression analysis showed that poor performance on the IT-ST at baseline was the only independent predictor of onset of apathy at follow-up. The results indicated a relationship between apathy and dysexecutive syndrome in early PD. Reduced scores on the IT-ST may predict development of apathy in PD patients. © 2014 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2014 EAN.

  4. Comparison of two cognitive interventions for adults experiencing executive dysfunction post-stroke: a pilot study.

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    Poulin, Valérie; Korner-Bitensky, Nicol; Bherer, Louis; Lussier, Maxime; Dawson, Deirdre R

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This pilot partially randomised controlled trial compared the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of two promising interventions for persons with executive dysfunction post-stroke: (1) occupation-based strategy training using an adapted version of the Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) approach; and (2) Computer-based EF training (COMPUTER training). Method Participants received 16 h of either CO-OP or COMPUTER training. We assessed feasibility and acceptability of each intervention, and change in intervention outcomes at baseline, post-intervention and one-month follow-up. Performance and satisfaction with performance in self-selected everyday life goals were measured by the participant and the significant other-rated Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). Other intervention outcomes included changes in EF impairment, participation in daily life and self-efficacy. Results Six participants received CO-OP and five received COMPUTER training: one in each group discontinued the intervention for medical reasons unrelated to the intervention. The remaining nine participants completed all 16 sessions. Participants expressed high levels of satisfaction with both interventions. Both treatment groups showed large improvements in self and significant other-rated performance and satisfaction with performance on their goals immediately post-intervention and at follow-up (CO-OP: effect sizes (ES) = 1.6-3.5; COMPUTER: ES = 0.9-4.0), with statistically significant within-group differences in CO-OP (p CO-OP group demonstrated large improvements in self-efficacy for performing everyday activities (ES = 1.5). Conclusions Our findings provide preliminary evidence supporting the feasibility of using both CO-OP and COMPUTER training with patients with executive dysfunction post-stroke. Implications for Rehabilitation Computerised executive function training and occupation-based strategy training are feasible to deliver and

  5. Using the cognitive orientation to occupational performance (CO-OP) with adults with executive dysfunction following traumatic brain injury.

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    Dawson, Deirdre R; Gaya, Arvinder; Hunt, Anne; Levine, Brian; Lemsky, Carolyn; Polatajko, Helene J

    2009-04-01

    Meta-cognitive strategies have a positive effect on the rehabilitation of executive dysfunction. However, achieving generalization to daily life remains a challenge. We believe that providing rehabilitation in the person's own physical environment and using self-identified tasks will enhance the benefits of meta-cognitive training and promote generalization. This pilot study tested the applicability of the Cognitive Orientation to Occupational Performance (CO-OP) approach for use with adults with executive dysfunction arising from traumatic brain injury (TBI). A single-case design was used with 3 adults, 5 to 20 years post-TBI and their self-identified significant others. Assessments included neuropsychological tests and the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. The intervention entailed guiding participants to use a meta-cognitive problem-solving strategy to perform self-identified daily tasks that they needed and wanted to do and with which they were having difficulties. The intervention occurred over 20 one-hour sessions in participants' environments. Performance improved to criterion (2-point positive change) on 7 of 9 trained goals and on 4 of 7 untrained goals (self-report). Improvement was maintained at a 3-month follow-up assessment. The CO-OP approach has the potential to improve performance in daily functioning for adults with executive dysfunction following TBI.

  6. Senegenin attenuates hepatic ischemia-reperfusion induced cognitive dysfunction by increasing hippocampal NR2B expression in rats.

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    Weibin Xie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The root of Polygala tenuifolia, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been used to improve memory and intelligence, while the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of senegenin, an component of Polygala tenuifolia root extracts, on cognitive dysfunction induced by hepatic ischemia-reperfusion. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Initially, we constructed a rat model of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (HIR and found that the memory retention ability of rats in the step-down and Y maze test was impaired after HIR, paralleled by a decrease of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor NR2B subunit mRNA and protein expressions in hippocampus. Furthermore, we found that administration of senegenin by gavage attenuated HIR-induced cognitive impairment in a dose and time dependent manner, and its mechanisms might partly due to the increasing expression of NR2B in rat hippocampus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Cognitive dysfunction induced by HIR is associated with reduction of NR2B expression. Senegenin plays a neuroprotective role in HIR via increasing NR2B expression in rat hippocampus. These findings suggest that senegenin might be a potential agent for prevention and treatment of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD or other neurodegenerative diseases.

  7. Transcranial LED therapy for cognitive dysfunction in chronic, mild traumatic brain injury: two case reports

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    Naeser, Margaret A.; Saltmarche, Anita; Krengel, Maxine H.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Knight, Jeffrey A.

    2010-02-01

    Two chronic, traumatic brain injury (TBI) cases are presented, where cognitive function improved following treatment with transcranial light emitting diodes (LEDs). At age 59, P1 had closed-head injury from a motor vehicle accident (MVA) without loss of consciousness and normal MRI, but unable to return to work as development specialist in internet marketing, due to cognitive dysfunction. At 7 years post-MVA, she began transcranial LED treatments with cluster heads (2.1" diameter with 61 diodes each - 9x633nm, 52x870nm; 12-15mW per diode; total power, 500mW; 22.2 mW/cm2) on bilateral frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital and midline sagittal areas (13.3 J/cm2 at scalp, estimated 0.4 J/cm2 to brain cortex per area). Prior to transcranial LED, focused time on computer was 20 minutes. After 2 months of weekly, transcranial LED treatments, increased to 3 hours on computer. Performs nightly home treatments (now, 5 years, age 72); if stops treating >2 weeks, regresses. P2 (age 52F) had history of closed-head injuries related to sports/military training and recent fall. MRI shows fronto-parietal cortical atrophy. Pre-LED, was not able to work for 6 months and scored below average on attention, memory and executive function. Performed nightly transcranial LED treatments at home (9 months) with similar LED device, on frontal and parietal areas. After 4 months of LED treatments, returned to work as executive consultant, international technology consulting firm. Neuropsychological testing (post- 9 months of transcranial LED) showed significant improvement in memory and executive functioning (range, +1 to +2 SD improvement). Case 2 reported reduction in PTSD symptoms.

  8. COGNOS: care for people with cognitive dysfunction: a national observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mets, Tony; De Deyn, Peter P; Pals, Philippe; De Lepeleire, Jan; Vandewoude, Maurits; Ventura, Manfredi; Ivanoiu, Adrian; Albert, Adelin; Seghers, An-Katrien

    2013-01-01

    Care plans are intended to improve the independence and functioning of patients with cognitive dysfunction and support the caregivers involved. They are an integral part of the Belgian reimbursement procedure for cholinesterase inhibitors. This nationwide, multicenter, observational study examined the content and implementation of the care plan along with patient satisfaction in community-dwelling patients newly diagnosed with Alzheimer disease in Belgium. The patients' opinion of their quality of life was measured using Anamnestic Comparative Self-Assessment (ACSA) scale. A total of 720 participants (453 female) were enrolled with 86.0% (619/719) living at home alone or with their spouse/partner. Cognitive problems (627/717, 87.4%) were the main reason for initiation of the consultation. Most patients had a caregiver (646/719, 89.8%): generally the spouse/partner (351/646, 54.3%) or a child (232/646, 35.9%). A total of 511 patients (71.0%) were prescribed a cholinesterase inhibitor after the initial consultation. A total of 236 care plans were advised with 169 (71.6%) realized and 157 of these (92.9%) considered adequate. Most patients were satisfied with the help received in the care plan (service satisfaction range, 80.0% to 98.6% of patients). Quality of life as rated by the patient significantly increased between baseline (average ACSA score: 5.2±2.4) and follow-up (5.8±2.1). The use of care plans appears to improve management of care for Alzheimer disease patients.

  9. Cognitive dysfunction, elevated anxiety and reduced cocaine response in circadian clock-deficient cryptochrome knockout mice

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    Dimitri eDe Bundel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The circadian clock comprises a set of genes involved in cell-autonomous transcriptional feedback loops that orchestrate the expression of a range of downstream genes, driving circadian patterns of behavior. Cognitive dysfunction, mood disorders, anxiety disorders and substance abuse disorders have been associated with disruptions in circadian rhythm and circadian clock genes, but the causal relationship of these associations is still poorly understood. In the present study, we investigate the effect of genetic disruption of the circadian clock, through deletion of both paralogs of the core gene cryptochrome (Cry1 and Cry2. Mice lacking Cry1 and Cry2 (Cry1-/-Cry2-/- displayed attenuated dark phase and novelty-induced locomotor activity. Moreover, they showed impaired recognition memory but intact fear memory. Depression-related behaviors in the forced swim test or sucrose preference tests were unaffected but Cry1-/-Cry2-/- mice displayed increased anxiety in the open field and elevated plus maze tests. Finally, hyperlocomotion and striatal phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK induced by a single cocaine administration are strongly reduced in Cry1-/-Cry2-/- mice. Interestingly, only some behavioral measures were affected in mice lacking either Cry1 or Cry2. Notably, recognition memory was impaired in both Cry1-/-Cry2+/+ and Cry1+/+Cry2-/- mice. Moreover, we further observed elevated anxiety in Cry1-/-Cry2+/+ and Cry1+/+Cry2-/- mice. Our data indicate that beyond their role in the control of circadian rhythm, cryptochrome genes have a direct influence in cognitive function, anxiety-related behaviors and sensitivity to psychostimulant drugs.

  10. Temporal Cerebral Microbleeds Are Associated With Radiation Necrosis and Cognitive Dysfunction in Patients Treated for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

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    Shen, Qingyu [Department of Neurology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Department of Neurology, Zengcheng People' s Hospital, Guangzhou (China); Lin, Focai; Rong, Xiaoming [Department of Neurology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Yang, Wuyang [Department of Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Li, Yi; Cai, Zhaoxi; Xu, Pengfei; Xu, Yongteng [Department of Neurology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Tang, Yamei, E-mail: yameitang@hotmail.com [Department of Neurology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Key Laboratory of Malignant Tumor Gene Regulation and Target Therapy of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Brain Function and Disease, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China)

    2016-04-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) may be complicated with radiation-induced brain necrosis (RN), resulting in deteriorated cognitive function. However, the underlying mechanism of this phenomenon remains unclear. This study attempts to elucidate the association between cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) and radiation necrosis and cognitive dysfunction in NPC patients treated with radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: This cross-sectional study included 106 NPC patients who were exposed to radiation therapy (78 patients with RN and 28 without RN). Sixty-six patients without discernable intracranial pathology were included as the control group. CMBs were confirmed using susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Cognitive function was accessed using Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Patients with a total score below 26 were defined as cognitively dysfunction. Results: Seventy-seven patients (98.7%) in the RN group and 12 patients (42.9%) in the non-RN group had at least 1 CMB. In contrast, only 14 patients (21.2%) in the control group had CMBs. In patients with a history of radiation therapy, CMBs most commonly presented in temporal lobes (76.4%) followed by cerebellum (23.7%). Patients with RN had more temporal CMBs than those in the non-RN group (37.7 ± 51.9 vs 3.8 ± 12.6, respectively; P<.001). The number of temporal lobe CMBs was predictive for larger volume of brain necrosis (P<.001) in multivariate linear regression analysis. Although cognitive impairment was diagnosed in 55.1% of RN patients, only 7.1% of non-RN patients sustained cognitive impairment (P<.001). After adjusting for age, sex, education, period after radiation therapy, CMBs in other lobes, and RN volume, the number of temporal CMBs remained an independent risk factor for cognitive dysfunction (odds ratio [OR]: 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-1.04; P=.003). Conclusions: CMBs is a common radiological manifestation in NPC patients with RN

  11. Mindfulness-based stress reduction for older adults with worry symptoms and co-occurring cognitive dysfunction.

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    Lenze, Eric J; Hickman, Steven; Hershey, Tamara; Wendleton, Leah; Ly, Khanh; Dixon, David; Doré, Peter; Wetherell, Julie Loebach

    2014-10-01

    Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) has the potential to reduce worry and improve cognitive functioning. In this treatment development project, we examined MBSR in older adults with worry symptoms and co-occurring cognitive dysfunction. We examined (i) acceptability of MBSR, (ii) whether MBSR needs to be lengthened providing more repetition, (iii) MBSR's benefits for worry reduction and cognitive improvements, and (iv) continued use of MBSR techniques during follow-up. Two sites (St. Louis and San Diego) enrolled individuals aged 65 years or older with significant anxiety-related distress plus subjective cognitive dysfunction, into traditional 8-session MBSR groups and 12-session groups that had the same content but more repetition of topics and techniques. We examined measures of mindfulness, worry, and a neuropsychological battery focused on memory and executive function before and after the MBSR program, and we followed up participants for 6 months after the completion of MBSR regarding their continued use of its techniques. Participants (N = 34) showed improvements in worry severity, increases in mindfulness, and improvements in memory as measured by paragraph learning and recall after a delay, all with a large effect size. Most participants continued to use MBSR techniques for 6 months post-instruction and found them helpful in stressful situations. There was no evidence that the extended 12-week MBSR produced superior cognitive or clinical outcomes, greater satisfaction, or greater continuation of MBSR techniques than 8-week MBSR. These preliminary findings are promising for the further testing and use of MBSR in older adults suffering from clinical worry symptoms and co-occurring cognitive dysfunction. These are common problems in a broad range of older adults, many of whom have anxiety and mood disorders; therefore, stress reduction intervention for them may have great public health value. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Cognitive sequelae of methanol poisoning involve executive dysfunction and memory impairment in cross-sectional and long-term perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezdicek, O; Michalec, J; Vaneckova, M; Klempir, J; Liskova, I; Seidl, Z; Janikova, B; Miovsky, M; Hubacek, J; Diblik, P; Kuthan, P; Pilin, A; Kurcova, I; Fenclova, Z; Petrik, V; Navratil, T; Pelclova, D; Zakharov, S; Ruzicka, E

    2017-03-01

    Methanol poisoning leads to lesions in the basal ganglia and subcortical white matter, as well as to demyelination and atrophy of the optic nerve. However, information regarding cognitive deficits in a large methanol sample is lacking. The principal aim of the present study was to identify the cognitive sequelae of methanol poisoning and their morphological correlates. A sample of 50 patients (METH; age 48 ± 13 years), 3-8 months after methanol poisoning, and 57 control subjects (CS; age 49 ± 13 years) were administered a neuropsychological battery. Forty-six patients were followed in 2 years' perspective. Patients additionally underwent 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three biochemical and toxicological metabolic markers and a questionnaire regarding alcohol abuse facilitated the classification of 24 patients with methanol poisoning without alcohol abuse (METHna) and 22 patients with methanol poisoning and alcohol abuse (METHa). All groups were compared to a control group of similar size, and matched for age, education, premorbid intelligence level, global cognitive performance, and level of depressive symptoms. Using hierarchical multiple regression we found significant differences between METH and CS, especially in executive and memory domains. METHa showed a similar pattern of cognitive impairment with generally more severe executive dysfunction. Moreover, all METH patients with extensive involvement on brain MRI (lesions in ≥2 anatomical regions) had a more severe cognitive impairment. From a longitudinal perspective, we did not find any changes in their cognitive functioning after 2 years' follow-up. Our findings suggest that methanol poisoning is associated with executive dysfunction and explicit memory impairment, supposedly due to basal ganglia dysfunction and disruption of frontostriatal circuitry proportional to the number of brain lesions, and that these changes are persistent after 2 years' follow-up. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All

  13. A History of Alcohol Dependence Increases the Incidence and Severity of Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction in Cardiac Surgical Patients

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    Paul S. Pagel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD commonly occurs after cardiac surgery. We tested the hypothesis that a history of alcohol dependence is associated with an increased incidence and severity of POCD in male patients undergoing cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass. Recent verbal and nonverbal memory and executive functions were assessed before and one week after surgery in patients with or without a history of alcohol dependence. Cognitive function was significantly reduced after cardiac surgery in patients with versus without a history of alcohol dependence. The results suggest that a history of alcohol dependence increases the incidence and severity of POCD after cardiac surgery.

  14. [The effect of two different glycemic management protocols on postoperative cognitive dysfunction in coronary artery bypass surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnaz, Pinar; Sungur, Zerrin; Camci, Emre; Sivrikoz, Nukhet; Orhun, Gunseli; Senturk, Mert; Sayin, Omer; Tireli, Emin; Gurvit, Hakan

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is an adverse outcome of surgery that is more common after open heart procedures. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of tightly controlled blood glucose levels during coronary artery surgery on early and late cognitive decline. 40 patients older than 50 years undergoing elective coronary surgery were randomized into two groups. In the "Tight Control" group (GI), the glycemia was maintained between 80 and 120mg·dL-1 while in the "Liberal" group (GII), it ranged between 80-180mg·dL-1. A neuropsychological test battery was performed three times: baseline before surgery and follow-up first and 12th weeks, postoperatively. POCD was defined as a drop of one standard deviation from baseline on two or more tests. At the postoperative first week, neurocognitive tests showed that 10 patients in the GI and 11 patients in GII had POCD. The incidence of early POCD was similar between groups. However the late assessment revealed that cognitive dysfunction persisted in five patients in the GII whereas none was rated as cognitively impaired in GI (p=0.047). We suggest that tight perioperative glycemic control in coronary surgery may play a role in preventing persistent cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. The cardinal features of cognitive and noncognitive dysfunction and the differential efficacy of tacrine in Alzheimer's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwalker, S

    1996-11-01

    The Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS), frequently used in clinical trials to assess overall pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), comprises two subscales. The cognitive subscale (ADAS-COG) consists of 11 items, and the noncognitive subscale consists of 9 items. Factor analyses were carried out on ADAS-COG and ADAS-NONCOG item scores from the most recent and largest (n = 663) placebo-controlled, multicenter, 30-week study (970-61) of tacrine in patients with AD conducted by the clinical research group at Parke-Davis Pharmaceutical Research. Through factor analyses the primary dimensions of variation in the ADAS-COG and ADAS-NONCOG were defined. Obliquely rotated three principal factors of ADAS-COG and three principal factors of ADAS-NONCOG have been interpreted as three cardinal features of cognitive function corresponding to memory, language, and praxis, and three cardinal features of noncognitive function corresponding to agitation, depression, and lack of concentration. Reliably defined factors of ADAS-COG enabled comparisons of longitudinal changes in cognitive dysfunction. Factor scores at week 30, adjusted to baseline factor scores, were used to compare the effects of tacrine with those of placebo on cognitive cardinal features. Additionally, the effect of concurrent depression on cardinal features of cognitive dysfunction was evaluated by gender.

  16. A comparative study on the therapeutic effect of TRPV1, TRPA1, and TRPM8 agonists on swallowing dysfunction associated with aging and neurological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Berdugo, D; Rofes, L; Arreola, V; Martin, A; Molina, L; Clavé, P

    2017-08-11

    Oropharyngeal sensory impairment is a potential target to treat swallowing dysfunction in patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD). To assess the therapeutic effect of stimulating oropharyngeal sensory afferents with TRPV1, TRPA1, or TRPM8 agonists vs increasing bolus viscosity in older and neurologic patients with OD by comparing four studies of similar experimental design. Swallow function of 142 older patients with impaired safety of swallow at nectar ([50-350] mPa·s) viscosity was evaluated with videofluoroscopy (VFS) while treated with TRPV1 (150 μmol/L), TRPV1/A1 (150 μmol/L and 1 mmol/L), or TRPM8 (1 mmol/L or 10 mmol/L) agonists or modified starch (MS) at spoon thick viscosity (>1750 mPa·s). TRPV1 stimulation with capsaicinoids reduced penetrations by 50%, pharyngeal residue by 80%, and LVC time by 24.38% and increased bolus velocity by 36.51%. TRPV1/A1 stimulation with piperine reduced penetrations by 56.32%, LVC time by 25.55% and increased bolus velocity by 23.63%. TRPM8 stimulation with menthol 1 mmol/L reduced penetrations by 37.5% while 10 mmol/L reduced LVC time by 18.44%. Thickeners reduced penetrations by 77.11%, but increased pharyngeal residue by 19.89%, delayed LVC by 41.73%, and reduced bolus velocity by 13.44%. Natural capsaicinoids have a stronger therapeutic effect on VFS signs and swallow response by stimulating TRPV1 than TRPV1/A1 or TRPM8 agonists. While TRP stimulants increased bolus velocity and reduced swallow response times, thickeners reduced bolus velocity and further delayed the swallow response. This study sets the bases to develop new pharmacologic strategies for older patients with OD, moving away from compensation toward the recovery of swallow function. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Sports neurology topics in neurologic practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conidi, Francis X.; Drogan, Oksana; Giza, Christopher C.; Kutcher, Jeffery S.; Alessi, Anthony G.; Crutchfield, Kevin E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary We sought to assess neurologists' interest in sports neurology and learn about their experience in treating sports-related neurologic conditions. A survey was sent to a random sample of American Academy of Neurology members. A majority of members (77%) see at least some patients with sports-related neurologic issues. Concussion is the most common sports-related condition neurologists treat. More than half of survey participants (63%) did not receive any formal or informal training in sports neurology. At least two-thirds of respondents think it is very important to address the following issues: developing evidence-based return-to-play guidelines, identifying risk factors for long-term cognitive-behavioral sequelae, and developing objective diagnostic criteria for concussion. Our findings provide an up-to-date view of the subspecialty of sports neurology and identify areas for future research. PMID:24790800

  18. Effects of early adolescent environmental enrichment on cognitive dysfunction, prefrontal cortex development, and inflammatory cytokines after early life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Prado, Carine H; Narahari, Tanya; Holland, Freedom H; Lee, Ha-Neul; Murthy, Shashi K; Brenhouse, Heather C

    2016-05-01

    Early postnatal stress such as maternal separation causes cognitive dysfunction later in life, including working memory deficits that are largely mediated by the prefrontal cortex. Maternal separation in male rats also yields a loss of parvalbumin-containing prefrontal cortex interneurons in adolescence, which may occur via inflammatory or oxidative stress mechanisms. Environmental enrichment can prevent several effects of maternal separation; however, effects of enrichment on prefrontal cortex development are not well understood. Here, we report that enrichment prevented cognitive dysfunction in maternally separated males and females, and prevented elevated circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines that was evident in maternally separated males, but not females. However, enrichment did not prevent parvalbumin loss or adolescent measures of oxidative stress. Significant correlations indicated that adolescents with higher oxidative damage and less prefrontal cortex parvalbumin in adolescence committed more errors on the win-shift task; therefore, maternal separation may affect cognitive dysfunction via aberrant interneuron development. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 482-491, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The Brewed Rice Vinegar Kurozu Increases HSPA1A Expression and Ameliorates Cognitive Dysfunction in Aged P8 Mice.

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    Hiroaki Kanouchi

    Full Text Available Kurozu is a traditional Japanese rice vinegar. During fermentation and aging of the Kurozu liquid in an earthenware jar over 1 year, a solid residue called Kurozu Moromi is produced. In the present study, we evaluated whether concentrated Kurozu or Kurozu Moromi could ameliorate cognitive dysfunction in the senescence-accelerated P8 mouse. Senescence-accelerated P8 mice were fed 0.25% (w/w concentrated Kurozu or 0.5% (w/w Kurozu Moromi for 4 or 25 weeks. Kurozu suppressed cognitive dysfunction and amyloid accumulation in the brain, while Kurozu Moromi showed a tendency to ameliorate cognitive dysfunction, but the effect was not significant. We hypothesize that concentrated Kurozu has an antioxidant effect; however, the level of lipid peroxidation in the brain did not differ in senescence-accelerated P8 mice. DNA microarray analysis indicated that concentrated Kurozu increased HSPA1A mRNA expression, a protein that prevents protein misfolding and aggregation. The increase in HSPA1A expression by Kurozu was confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblotting methods. The suppression of amyloid accumulation by concentrated Kurozu may be associated with HSPA1A induction. However, concentrated Kurozu could not increase HSPA1A expression in mouse primary neurons, suggesting it may not directly affect neurons.

  20. Effects of green tea consumption on cognitive dysfunction in an elderly population: a randomized placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Kazuki; Yamada, Hiroshi; Takuma, Norikata; Kawasaki, Yohei; Harada, Shohei; Nakase, Junpei; Ukawa, Yuuichi; Sagesaka, Yuko M

    2016-05-04

    Green tea is a beverage with potential effects on cognitive dysfunction, as indicated by results of experimental studies. However, its effects in humans, especially at real-world (typical) consumption levels, are unclear. A double-blind, randomized controlled study was conducted to assess the effects of green tea consumption on cognitive dysfunction (Mini-Mental State Examination Japanese version (MMSE-J) score placebo group, and consumed either 2 g/day of green tea powder (containing 220.2 mg of catechins) or placebo powder (containing 0.0 mg of catechins), respectively, for 12 months. Cognitive function assessments were performed every 3 months using the MMSE-J and laboratory tests. Thirty-three nursing home residents with cognitive dysfunction were enrolled (four men, 29 women; mean age ± SD, 84.8 ± 9.3; mean MMSE-J score ± SD, 15.8 ± 5.4), of whom 27 completed the study. Changes of MMSE-J score after 1 year of green tea consumption were not significantly different compared with that of the placebo group (-0.61 [-2.97, 1.74], least square mean (LSM) difference [95 % CI]; P = 0.59). However, levels of malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (U/L), a marker of oxidative stress, was significantly lower in the green tea group (-22.93 [-44.13, -1.73], LSM difference [95 % CI]; P = 0.04). Our results suggest that 12 months green tea consumption may not significantly affect cognitive function assessed by MMSE-J, but prevent an increase of oxidative stress in the elderly population. Additional long-term controlled studies are needed to clarify the effects. UMIN000011668.

  1. Dogs with Cognitive Dysfunction as a Spontaneous Model for Early Alzheimer's Disease: A Translational Study of Neuropathological and Inflammatory Markers.

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    Schütt, Trine; Helboe, Lone; Pedersen, Lars Østergaard; Waldemar, Gunhild; Berendt, Mette; Pedersen, Jan Torleif

    2016-03-15

    Aged companion dogs with canine cognitive dysfunction (CCD) spontaneously develop varying degrees of progressive cognitive decline and particular neuropathological features correspondent to the changes associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in humans. The aim of the present study was to characterize certain aspects of neuropathology and inflammatory markers related to aging and CCD in dogs in comparison with human AD. Fifteen brains from aged dogs with normal cognitive function, mild cognitive impairment, or CCD were investigated and compared with two control brains from young dogs and brain sections from human AD subjects. The neuropathological investigations included evaluation of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaque deposition (N-terminally truncated and pyroglutamyl-modified Aβ included), tau pathology, and inflammatory markers in prefrontal cortex. Cortical Aβ deposition was found to be only of the diffuse subtype as no dense-core or neuritic plaques were found. The Aβ deposition followed a progressive pattern in four maturation stages. Accumulation of the Aβ peptide was also observed in the vessel walls. Both immunohistochemically and biochemically measured levels of Aβ pathology in prefrontal cortex showed a consistent positive correlation to age but not to cognitive deficit severity. No evidence of neurofibrillary tau pathology was found. The level of pro-inflammatory cytokines was generally low and showed no significant association to cognitive status. The findings of the present study support the senescent dog with spontaneous cognitive dysfunction as a valuable non-transgenic model for further investigations of the molecular events involved in the neurodegenerative processes associated with aging and early stage AD, especially the Aβ-related pathology.

  2. Cognitive dysfunction in early multiple sclerosis: altered centrality derived from resting-state functional connectivity using magneto-encephalography.

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    Hardmeier, Martin; Schoonheim, Menno M; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Hillebrand, Arjan; Polman, Chris H; Barkhof, Frederik; Stam, Cornelis J

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis (MS) is frequent. Insight into underlying mechanisms would help to develop therapeutic strategies. To explore the relationship of cognitive performance to patterns of nodal centrality derived from magneto-encephalography (MEG). 34 early relapsing-remitting MS patients (median EDSS 2.0) and 28 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC) had a MEG, a neuropsychological assessment and structural MRI. Resting-state functional connectivity was determined by the synchronization likelihood. Eigenvector Centrality (EC) was used to quantify for each sensor its connectivity and importance within the network. A cognition-score was calculated, and normalized grey and white matter volumes were determined. EC was compared per sensor and frequency band between groups using permutation testing, and related to cognition. Patients had lower grey and white matter volumes than HC, male patients lower cognitive performance than female patients. In HC, EC distribution showed highest nodal centrality over bi-parietal sensors ("hubs"). In patients, nodal centrality was even higher bi-parietally (theta-band) but markedly lower left temporally (upper alpha- and beta-band). Lower cognitive performance correlated to decreased nodal centrality over left temporal (lower alpha-band) and right temporal (beta-band) sensors, and to increased nodal centrality over right parieto-temporal sensors (beta-band). Network changes were most pronounced in male patients. Partial functional disconnection of the temporal regions was associated with cognitive dysfunction in MS; increased centrality in parietal hubs may reflect a shift from temporal to possibly less efficient parietal processing. To better understand patterns and dynamics of these network changes, longitudinal studies are warranted, also addressing the influence of gender.

  3. Cognitive dysfunction in early multiple sclerosis: altered centrality derived from resting-state functional connectivity using magneto-encephalography.

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    Martin Hardmeier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis (MS is frequent. Insight into underlying mechanisms would help to develop therapeutic strategies. OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship of cognitive performance to patterns of nodal centrality derived from magneto-encephalography (MEG. METHODS: 34 early relapsing-remitting MS patients (median EDSS 2.0 and 28 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC had a MEG, a neuropsychological assessment and structural MRI. Resting-state functional connectivity was determined by the synchronization likelihood. Eigenvector Centrality (EC was used to quantify for each sensor its connectivity and importance within the network. A cognition-score was calculated, and normalized grey and white matter volumes were determined. EC was compared per sensor and frequency band between groups using permutation testing, and related to cognition. RESULTS: Patients had lower grey and white matter volumes than HC, male patients lower cognitive performance than female patients. In HC, EC distribution showed highest nodal centrality over bi-parietal sensors ("hubs". In patients, nodal centrality was even higher bi-parietally (theta-band but markedly lower left temporally (upper alpha- and beta-band. Lower cognitive performance correlated to decreased nodal centrality over left temporal (lower alpha-band and right temporal (beta-band sensors, and to increased nodal centrality over right parieto-temporal sensors (beta-band. Network changes were most pronounced in male patients. CONCLUSIONS: Partial functional disconnection of the temporal regions was associated with cognitive dysfunction in MS; increased centrality in parietal hubs may reflect a shift from temporal to possibly less efficient parietal processing. To better understand patterns and dynamics of these network changes, longitudinal studies are warranted, also addressing the influence of gender.

  4. Comorbidities in Neurology: Is Adenosine the Common Link?

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    Boison, Detlev; Aronica, Eleonora

    2015-01-01

    Comorbidities in Neurology represent a major conceptual and therapeutic challenge. For example, temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a syndrome comprised of epileptic seizures and comorbid symptoms including memory and psychiatric impairment, depression, and sleep dysfunction. Similarly, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) are accompanied by various degrees of memory dysfunction. Patients with AD have an increased likelihood for seizures, whereas all four conditions share certain aspects of psychosis, depression, and sleep dysfunction. This remarkable overlap suggests common pathophysiological mechanisms, which include synaptic dysfunction and synaptotoxicity, as well as glial activation and astrogliosis. Astrogliosis is linked to synapse function via the tripartite synapse, but astrocytes also control the availability of gliotransmitters and adenosine. Here we will specifically focus on the ‘adenosine hypothesis of comorbidities’ implying that astrocyte activation, via overexpression of adenosine kinase (ADK), induces a deficiency in the homeostatic tone of adenosine. We present evidence from patient-derived samples showing astrogliosis and overexpression of ADK as common pathological hallmark of epilepsy, AD, PD, and ALS. We discuss a transgenic ‘comorbidity model’, in which brain-wide overexpression of ADK and resulting adenosine deficiency produces a comorbid spectrum of seizures, altered dopaminergic function, attentional impairment, and deficits in cognitive domains and sleep regulation. We conclude that dysfunction of adenosine signaling is common in neurological conditions, that adenosine dysfunction can explain comorbid phenotypes, and that therapeutic adenosine augmentation might be effective for the treatment of comorbid symptoms in multiple neurological conditions. PMID:25979489

  5. Role of peripheral inflammatory markers in postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD: a meta-analysis.

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    Linying Peng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD is common following cardiac and non-cardiac surgery, but the pathogenic mechanisms remain unknown. Many studies suggest that an inflammatory response is a key contributor to POCD. The current meta-analysis shows that the levels of peripheral inflammatory markers are associated with POCD. METHODS: An online search was performed to identify peer-reviewed studies without language restriction that measured peripheral inflammatory markers of patients with and without POCD, using PubMed, ScienceDirect, SinoMed and the National Knowledge Infrastructure database. Extracted data were analyzed with STATA (version 12.The standardized mean difference (SMD and the 95% confidence interval (95%CI were calculated for each outcome using a random effect model. Tests of heterogeneity assessment of bias, and meta-regression were performed in the meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 13 studies that measured the concentrations of peripheral inflammatory markers were included. The current meta-analysis found significantly higher concentrations of S-100β(SMD[95%CI] (1.377 [0.423, 2.331], p-value < 0.001, N [POCD/non-POCD] =178/391, 7 studies, and interleukin(IL-6 (SMD[95%CI] (1.614 [0.603,2.624], p-value < 0.001, N[POCD/non-POCD] = 91/99, 5 studies, but not of neuron specific enolase, interleukin-1β, or tumor necrosis factor-α , in POCD compared with patients without POCD. In meta-regression analyses, a significant positive association was found between the SMD and the preoperative interleukin-6 peripheral blood concentration in patients with POCD (Coef.= 0.0587, p-value=0.038, 5 studies. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that POCD is indeed correlated with the concentrations of peripheral inflammatory markers, particularly interleukin-6 and S-100β.

  6. Screening for Cognitive Dysfunction Helped to Unmask Silent Cerebrovascular Disease in a Hypertensive Diabetic Patient — Case Report

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    Germán-Salló Márta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The current guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension recommend screening for cognitive impairment in all hypertensive patients as part of the clinical assessment. However, the implementation of this recommendation in clinical practice is still unsatisfactory. We present the case of an elderly hypertensive female patient in order to highlight the importance of screening for cognitive impairment. A patient with a history of poorly controlled hypertension for the last 12 years and recently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus is admitted complaining of asthenia, dizziness, visual acuity impairment, and difficulty to remember recent information. Cardiovascular imaging showed 70% internal carotid artery stenosis in a neurologically asymptomatic patient. Cognitive testing showed mild cognitive impairment. Retinal imaging identified stage III hypertensive retinopathy accompanied by irreversible end-organ damage due to microvascular changes. At this point brain MRI was performed, which identified both macro- and microvascular brain lesions in the periventricular white matter and sequelae of a former ischemic stroke in the territory of the left posterior cerebral artery. Cognitive testing helped to unmask silent cerebrovascular disease in an otherwise oligosymptomatic hypertensive diabetic patient. Cognitive function testing should be introduced in routine clinical practice in order to help unmask silent cerebrovascular disease.

  7. Does True Neurocognitive Dysfunction Contribute to Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2nd Edition-Restructured Form Cognitive Validity Scale Scores?

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    Martin, Phillip K; Schroeder, Ryan W; Heinrichs, Robin J; Baade, Lyle E

    2015-08-01

    Previous research has demonstrated RBS and FBS-r to identify non-credible reporters of cognitive symptoms, but the extent that these scales might be influenced by true neurocognitive dysfunction has not been previously studied. The present study examined the relationship between these cognitive validity scales and neurocognitive performance across seven domains of cognitive functioning, both before and after controlling for PVT status in 120 individuals referred for neuropsychological evaluations. Variance in RBS, but not FBS-r, was significantly accounted for by neurocognitive test performance across most cognitive domains. After controlling for PVT status, however, relationships between neurocognitive test performance and validity scales were no longer significant for RBS, and remained non-significant for FBS-r. Additionally, PVT failure accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in both RBS and FBS-r. Results support both the convergent and discriminant validity of RBS and FBS-r. As neither scale was impacted by true neurocognitive dysfunction, these findings provide further support for the use of RBS and FBS-r in neuropsychological evaluations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Cognitive dysfunction and poor health literacy are common in veterans presenting with acute coronary syndrome: insights from the MEDICATION study

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    Marzec LN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lucas N Marzec,1 Evan P Carey,1 Anne C Lambert-Kerzner,1 Eric J Del Giacco,2 Stephanie D Melnyk,3 Chris L Bryson,4 Ibrahim E Fahdi,2 Hayden B Bosworth,3 Fran Fiocchi,5 P Michael Ho11Division of Cardiology, Denver VA Medical Center, Denver, CO, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Little Rock VA Medical Center, Little Rock, AR, USA; 3Department of Medicine, Durham VA Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 4Department of Medicine, Puget Sound VA Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA; 5American College of Cardiology, Washington, DC, USABackground: Patient nonadherence to cardiac medications following acute coronary syndrome (ACS is associated with increased risk of recurrent events. However, the prevalence of cognitive dysfunction and poor health literacy among ACS patients and their association with medication nonadherence are poorly understood.Methods: We assessed rates of cognitive dysfunction and poor health literacy among participants of a clinical trial that tested the effectiveness of an intervention to improve medication adherence in patients hospitalized with ACS. Of 254 patients, 249 completed the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine, Revised (REALM-R survey, an assessment of risk for poor literacy, and the St Louis University Mental Status (SLUMS exam, a tool assessing for neurocognitive deficits, during ACS hospitalization. We assessed if SLUMS or REALM-R scores were associated with medication adherence.Results: Based on SLUMS score, 14% of patients were categorized as having dementia, and 52% with mild neurocognitive disorder (MNCD. Based on REALM-R score of ≤6, 34% of patients were categorized as at risk for poor health literacy. There was no association between poor health literacy and medication nonadherence. Of those with MNCD, 35.5% were nonadherent, compared to 17.5% with normal cognitive function and 6.7% with dementia. In multivariable analysis, cognitive dysfunction was associated with medication nonadherence (P=0.007, mainly due to

  9. Treatment resistant schizophrenia and neurological soft signs may converge on the same pathology: Evidence from explanatory analysis on clinical, psychopathological, and cognitive variables.

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    de Bartolomeis, Andrea; Prinzivalli, Emiliano; Callovini, Gemma; D'Ambrosio, Luigi; Altavilla, Benedetta; Avagliano, Camilla; Iasevoli, Felice

    2018-02-02

    Here, we investigated neurological soft signs (NSSs) in treatment resistant schizophrenia (TRS) vs treatment responder schizophrenia (SZ) patients. TRS is a severe condition, affecting approximately one-third of schizophrenia patients and representing a relevant clinical challenge. NSSs are neurological abnormalities reportedly described in schizophrenia patients and linked to dysregulated network connections. We explored the possibility that NSSs may be: i) more severe in TRS patients; ii) differentially associated to clinical/cognitive variables in TRS vs SZ; iii) predictive of having TRS. In addition, we evaluated whether diagnosis may mediate NSSs associations with the above-mentioned variables. Consecutive patients with schizophrenia diagnosis underwent stringent assessment for TRS diagnosis. Demographics and clinical variables were recorded. Psychopathology (by Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, PANSS), cognitive performances, and NSSs (by Neurological Evaluation Scale, NES) were tested. TRS had higher scores than SZ patients in total NES score and in almost all NES subscales, even after correction for duration of illness and antipsychotic dose (ANCOVA, pvariables (above all: duration of disease and negative symptoms) in TRS but not in SZ patients. Two-way ANOVA showed NSS-x-diagnosis interaction in determining outcomes on multiple cognitive performances, but not in other clinical variables. However, simple main effect analysis detected a significant relationship between high severity NSSs and TRS diagnosis on multiple clinical and cognitive outcomes. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that diagnosis was among a discrete number of predictors yielding significant increases in variance explained on NES total, Sensory Integration and Other Signs subscales' scores. NSSs, together with antipsychotic dose and disease severity, were found to be significantly predictive of TRS diagnosis in a binary logistic regression model. These results suggest a stringent

  10. Efficacy of early administration of escitalopram on depressive and emotional symptoms and neurological dysfunction after stroke: a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study.

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    Kim, Jong S; Lee, Eun-Jae; Chang, Dae-Il; Park, Jong-Ho; Ahn, Seong Hwan; Cha, Jae-Kwan; Heo, Ji Hoe; Sohn, Sung-Il; Lee, Byung-Chul; Kim, Dong-Eog; Kim, Hahn Young; Kim, Seongheon; Kwon, Do-Young; Kim, Jei; Seo, Woo-Keun; Lee, Jun; Park, Sang-Won; Koh, Seong-Ho; Kim, Jin Young; Choi-Kwon, Smi

    2017-01-01

    Mood and emotional disturbances are common in patients with stroke, and adversely affect the clinical outcome. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of early administration of escitalopram to reduce moderate or severe depressive symptoms and improve emotional and neurological dysfunction in patients with stroke. This was a placebo controlled, double-blind trial done at 17 centres in South Korea. Patients who had had an acute stroke within the past 21 days were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive oral escitalopram (10 mg/day) or placebo for 3 months. Randomisation was done with permuted blocks stratified by centre, via a web-based system. The primary endpoint was the frequency of moderate or severe depressive symptoms (Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale [MADRS] ≥16). Endpoints were assessed at 3 months after randomisation in the full analysis set (patients who took study medication and underwent assessment of primary endpoint after randomisation), in all patients who were enrolled and randomly assigned (intention to treat), and in all patients who completed the trial (per-protocol analysis). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01278498. Between Jan 27, 2011, and June 30, 2014, 478 patients were assigned to placebo (n=237) or escitalopram (n=241); 405 were included in the full analysis set (195 in the placebo group, 210 in the escitalopram group). The primary outcome did not differ by study group in the full analysis set (25 [13%] patients in the placebo group vs 27 [13%] in the escitalopram group; odds ratio [OR] 1·00, 95% CI 0·56-1·80; p>0·99) or in the intention-to-treat analysis (34 [14%] vs 35 [15%]; OR 1·01, 95% CI 0·61-1·69, p=0·96). The study medication was generally well tolerated; the most common adverse events were constipation (14 [6%] patients who received placebo vs 14 [6%] who received escitalopram), muscle pain (16 [7%] vs ten [4%]), and insomnia (12 [5%] vs 12 [5%]). Diarrhoea was more common in the

  11. Sexual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis: II. Correlation analysis.

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    Zivadinov, R; Zorzon, M; Bosco, A; Bragadin, L M; Moretti, R; Bonfigli, L; Iona, L G; Cazzato, G

    1999-12-01

    Sexual dysfunction affects a large part of patients suffering from multiple sclerosis, but some aspects of its clinical presentation and aetiology are not clearly defined yet. In an unselected sample of 108 patients with definite multiple sclerosis we investigated the relationship between symptoms of sexual dysfunctioning and sphincteric dysfunction, patients' and disease characteristics, disability and neurological impairment, psychological and cognitive functioning. Sexual dysfunction directly correlated with presence of physical disorders (r=0.37, P=0.0004), low educational level (r=0.32, Pcognitive deterioration (r=0.26, Pmasturbation, and fertility. In conclusion, the association between sexual dysfunction and sphincteric dysfunction indicates a common aetiology corresponding to the frequent involvement of the spinal cord in multiple sclerosis, but the concomitant correlation between sexual dysfunction and other variables suggests the possible aetiological role of physical, psychological and sociological factors as well.

  12. Chapter 38: American neurology.

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    Freemon, Frank R

    2010-01-01

    The great formative event in the history of North America, the Civil War of 1861 to 1865, was the stimulus for the development of clinical neurology and the neurosciences. The first neurological research center on the continent was the US Army hospital at Turner's Lane, Philadelphia, PA. Silas Weir Mitchell and his colleagues described causalgia (reflex sympathetic dystrophy), phantom limb sensation, and Horner's syndrome (before Horner). The medical leader of the Northern army was William Hammond. After the conclusion of hostilities, he began a huge clinical practice in New York City. In the United States, clinical neurology began in private practice, unlike Europe, where neurology began in institutions. Hammond's textbook, which first used the term athetosis, was used by a generation of physicians who encountered patients with neurological signs and symptoms. Early in the 20th century, neurological institutions were formed around universities; probably the most famous was the Montreal Neurological Institute founded by Wilder Penfield. The US federal government sponsored extensive research into the function and dysfunction of the nervous system through the Neurological Institute of Neurological Diseases and Blindness, later called the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke. The government officially classified the final 10 years of the 20th century as the Decade of the Brain and provided an even greater level of research funding.

  13. Duration of Type 2 Diabetes and Very Low Density Lipoprotein Levels Are Associated with Cognitive Dysfunction in Metabolic Syndrome

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    Divya Yogi-Morren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D is now recognized as an independent risk factor for accelerated cognitive decline and neurological conditions like Alzheimer’s disease. Less is known about the neurocognitive function of T2D patients with comorbid metabolic syndrome, despite their elevated risk for impairment. Computerized testing in 47 adults with T2D that met criteria for NCEP metabolic syndrome revealed that cognitive impairment was prevalent, including 13% in tests of memory, 50% in attention, and 35% in executive function. Partial correlations showed that longer duration of diabetes was associated with poorer performance on tests of basic attention (r=-0.43, working memory (r=0.43, and executive function (r=0.42. Strong associations between very low density lipoprotein and poor cognitive function also emerged, including tests of set shifting (r=0.47 and cognitive inhibition (r=-0.51. Findings suggest that patients with T2D that meet criteria for metabolic syndrome are at high risk for cognitive impairment. Prospective studies should look to replicate these findings and examine the possible neuroprotective effects of lipid-lowering medication in this population.

  14. The Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Group Therapy in Reducing Negative Automatic Thoughts and Dysfunctional Attitudes in Cancer Patients

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    Fatemeh Mehdipour

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive group therapy (MBCT in reducing negative automatic thoughts and dysfunctional attitudes in cancer patients. Methods The study was an applied and quasi-experimental research conducted by pre- and post-testing. The sample consisted of 30 cancer patients selected by purposive sampling and randomly placed in the control and the experimental group (15 individuals per group. The members of both groups filled out the automatic thoughts questionnaire (ATQ and the dysfunctional attitudes scale (DAS-26 at the pre- and the post-test stage. The collected data were analyzed by the SPSS software and multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA tests. Results The results indicated that MBCT significantly reduced negative automatic thoughts (F = 126.15, P < 0.01 and dysfunctional attitudes (F = 179.53, P < 0.01 in the experimental group at the post-test stage in comparison to the control group. Conclusions Based on the results of this study, it is essential that therapeutic centers and support forums related to patients with refractory disorders use MBCT in their programs for reducing negative automatic thoughts and dysfunctional attitudes.

  15. Prevalence and impact of incompetence of internal jugular valve on postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients undergoing robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.

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    Roh, Go Un; Kim, Won Oak; Rha, Koon Ho; Lee, Byung Ho; Jeong, Hae Won; Na, Sungwon

    2016-01-01

    Internal jugular vein (IJV) is the main pathway of cerebral venous drainage and its valves prevent regurgitation of blood to the brain. IJV valve incompetence (IJVVI) is known to be associated with cerebral dysfunctions. It occurs more often in male over 50 years old, conditions elevating intra-abdominal or intra-thoracic pressure. In robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALRP), elderly male undergoes surgery in Trendelenburg position with pneumoperitoneum applied. Therefore, we assessed the IJVVI during RALRP and its influence on postoperative cognitive function. 57 patients undergoing RALRP were enrolled. Neurocognitive tests including Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Digit Symbol Substitution Test, Color Word Stroop Test, digit span test, and grooved pegboard test were performed the day before and 2 days after surgery. During surgery, IJVVI was assessed with ultrasonography in supine position with and without pneumoperitoneum, and Trendelenburg position with pneumoperitoneum. 50 patients underwent sonographic assessment and 41 patients completed neurocognitive examination. A total of 27 patients presented IJVVI, 19 patients in supine position without pneumoperitoneum, 7 patients in supine position with pneumoperitoneum and 1 patient in Trendelenburg position with pneumoperitoneum. In neurocognitive tests, patients with IJVVI showed statistically significant decline of score in MMSE postoperatively (p<0.05). IJVVI occurred in 38% in supine position but the incidence was increased to 54% after Trendelenburg position and pneumoperitoneum. Patients with IJVVI did not show significant differences in cognitive function tests except MMSE. Clinical and neurological significance of physiologic changes associated RALRP should be studied further. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of age and severity of cognitive dysfunction on spontaneous activity in pet dogs - part 1: locomotor and exploratory behaviour.

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    Rosado, B; González-Martínez, A; Pesini, P; García-Belenguer, S; Palacio, J; Villegas, A; Suárez, M-L; Santamarina, G; Sarasa, M

    2012-11-01

    Age-related cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CDS) has been reported in dogs and it is considered a natural model for Alzheimer's disease in humans. Changes in spontaneous activity (including locomotor and exploratory behaviour) and social responsiveness have been related to the age and cognitive status of kennel-reared Beagle dogs. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of age and severity of CDS on locomotor and exploratory behaviour of privately owned dogs. This is the first part of a two-part report on spontaneous activity in pet dogs. An open-field (OF) test and a curiosity test were administered at baseline and 6 months later to young (1-4 years, n=9), middle-aged (5-8 years, n=9), cognitively unimpaired aged (≥ 9 years, n=31), and cognitively impaired aged ( ≥ 9 years, n=36) animals. Classification of cognitive status was carried out using an owner-based observational questionnaire, and in the cognitively impaired group, the dogs were categorised as having either mild or severe cognitive impairment. Dogs were recorded during sessions in the testing room and the video-recordings were subsequently analysed. The severity of CDS (but not age) influenced locomotion and exploratory behaviour so that the more severe the impairment, the higher the locomotor activity and frequency of corner-directed (aimless) behaviours, and the lower the frequency of door-aimed activities. Curiosity directed toward novel stimuli exhibited an age-dependent decline although severely affected animals displayed more sniffing episodes directed towards the objects. OF activity did not change after 6 months. Testing aged pet dogs for spontaneous behaviour might help to better characterise cognitively affected individuals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Preliminary investigation of the influence of CREB1 gene polymorphisms on cognitive dysfunction in Chinese patients with major depression.

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    Guo, Junhui; Liu, Zhongchun; Dai, Hong; Zhu, Zhixian; Wang, Huiling; Yang, Can; Xiao, Ling; Huang, Yonglan; Wang, Gaohua

    2014-01-01

    Research has increasingly focused on the role of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element binding (CREB) protein in learning and memory, particularly its role in cognitive disorders and neurodegeneration, such as Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, and Coffin-Lowry syndrome. The cognitive dysfunction of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), which is widely recognized, is not completely in accordance with depressive severity, and the dysfunction persists upon clinical remission in some patients. However, few studies have focused on the role of CREB on cognitive function in patients with MDD. This study aimed to investigate the influence of CREB1 polymorphism on cognitive function in patients with MDD. The current study comprised 113 patients with MDD. The severity of depression was measured using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and cognitive function was assessed using the Stroop Neuropsychological Screening Test, verbal fluency test, and tests of immediate logical memory and visual reproduction. All subjects were genotyped with regard to CREB1 polymorphisms (rs10932201, rs2551645, rs2254137, rs6740584, and rs2551640). For the verbal fluency test, the results showed significant differences for all single-nucleotide polymorphism genotypic groups. For the Stroop color-word task, a significant difference was found only for rs6740584. No significant differences were found for the Stroop color task, the immediate logical memory test or the visual reproduction test. In conclusion, there was an effect of CREB1 polymorphism on selective attention and retrieval of long-term memory, but not on immediate memory.

  18. Impact of general versus epidural anesthesia on early post-operative cognitive dysfunction following hip and knee surgery

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    Mandal Sripurna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Post-operative cognitive dysfunction is the subtle cerebral complication temporally seen following surgery. The aim of this study was to compare the influence of either general anesthesia (GA or epidural anesthesia (EA on the early post-operative neurocognitive outcome in elderly (>59 years subjects undergoing hip and knee surgery. Methods : A total of 60 patients were recruited in a prospective, randomized, parallel-group study, comparable by age and sex. They were enrolled and randomized to receive either EA (n = 30 or GA (n = 30. All of them were screened using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, with components of the Kolkata Cognitive Screening Battery. The operated patients were re-evaluated 1 week after surgery using the same scale. The data collected were analyzed to assess statistical significance. Results : We observed no statistical difference in cognitive behavior in either group pre-operatively, which were comparable with respect to age, sex and type of surgery. Grossly, a significant difference was seen between the two groups with respect to the perioperative changes in verbal fluency for categories and MMSE scores. However, these differences were not significant after the application of the Bonferroni correction for multiple analyses, except the significant differences observed only in the MMSE scores. Conclusions : We observed a difference in cognitive outcome with GA compared with EA. Certain aspects of the cognition were affected to a greater extent in this group of patients undergoing hip and knee surgery.

  19. Centella asiatica Attenuates D-Galactose-Induced Cognitive Impairment, Oxidative and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Mice

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    Anil Kumar

    2011-01-01

    l (D-galactose. Centella asiatica also attenuated enhanced acetylcholine esterase enzyme level in D-galactose senescence mice. Present study highlights the protective effect of Centella asiatica against D-galactose induced behavioral, biochemical and mitochondrial dysfunction in mice.

  20. Neurology and neurologic practice in China.

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    Shi, Fu-Dong; Jia, Jian-Ping

    2011-11-29

    In the wake of dramatic economic success during the past 2 decades, the specialized field of neurology has undergone a significant transformation in China. With an increase in life expectancy, the problems of aging and cognition have grown. Lifestyle alterations have been associated with an epidemiologic transition both in the incidence and etiology of stroke. These changes, together with an array of social issues and institution of health care reform, are creating challenges for practicing neurologists throughout China. Notable problems include overcrowded, decrepit facilities, overloaded physician schedules, deteriorating physician-patient relationships, and an insufficient infrastructure to accommodate patients who need specialized neurologic care. Conversely, with the creation of large and sophisticated neurology centers in many cities across the country, tremendous opportunities exist. Developments in neurologic subspecialties enable delivery of high-quality care. Clinical and translational research based on large patient populations as well as highly sophisticated technologies are emerging in many neurologic centers and pharmaceutical companies. Child neurology and neurorehabilitation will be fast-developing subdisciplines. Given China's extensive population, the growth and progress of its neurology complex, and its ever-improving quality control, it is reasonable to anticipate that Chinese neurologists will contribute notably to unraveling the pathogenic factors causing neurologic diseases and to providing new therapeutic solutions.

  1. Effectiveness of a Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Dysfunctional Eating among Patients Admitted for Bariatric Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hege Gade; Jøran Hjelmesæth; Rosenvinge, Jan H.; Oddgeir Friborg

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To examine whether cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) alleviates dysfunctional eating (DE) patterns and symptoms of anxiety and depression in morbidly obese patients planned for bariatric surgery. Design and Methods. A total of 98 (68 females) patients with a mean (SD) age of 43 (10) years and BMI 43.5 (4.9) kg/m2 were randomly assigned to a CBT-group or a control group receiving usual care (i.e., nutritional support and education). The CBT-group received ten weekly intervention se...

  2. Subtle cognitive dysfunction in adult onset myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) and type 2 (DM2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaul, C; Schmidt, T; Windisch, G; Wieser, T; Müller, T; Vielhaber, S; Zierz, S; Leplow, B

    2006-07-25

    The authors performed neuropsychological testing in 21 patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) and 21 with type 2 (DM2) and healthy controls. They detected no general cognitive deficit in either DM1 or DM2, but compared to controls, both groups of patients were inferior in tests of prefrontal functioning. Patient groups did not differ in any measure. Mood status was not related to neuropsychological performance. This is consistent with findings of executive dysfunction in both DM1 and DM2.

  3. Vascular dementia: Diagnostic criteria and supplementary exams: Recommendations of the Scientific Department of Cognitive Neurology and Aging of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology. Part I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasz Engelhardt

    Full Text Available Abstract Vascular dementia (VaD is the most prevalent form of secondary dementia and the second most common of all dementias. The present paper aims to define guidelines on the basic principles for treating patients with suspected VaD (and vascular cognitive impairment - no dementia using an evidence-based, systematized approach. The knowledge used to define these guidelines was retrieved from searches of several databases (Medline, Scielo, Lilacs containing scientific articles, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, largely published within the last 15 years or earlier when pertinent. Information retrieved and selected for relevance was used to analyze diagnostic criteria and to propose a diagnostic system encompassing diagnostic criteria, anamnesis, as well as supplementary and clinical exams (neuroimaging and laboratory. Wherever possible, instruments were selected that had versions previously adapted and validated for use in Brazil that take into account both schooling and age. This task led to proposed protocols for supplementary exams based on degree of priority, for application in clinical practice and research settings.

  4. Neurological damage arising from intrapartum hypoxia/acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rei, M; Ayres-de-Campos, D; Bernardes, J

    2016-01-01

    Complications occurring at any level of foetal oxygen supply will result in hypoxaemia, and this may ultimately lead to hypoxia/acidosis and neurological damage. Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) is the short-term neurological dysfunction caused by intrapartum hypoxia/acidosis, and this diagnosis requires the presence of a number of findings, including the confirmation of newborn metabolic acidosis, low Apgar scores, early imaging evidence of cerebral oedema and the appearance of clinical signs of neurological dysfunction in the first 48 h of life. Cerebral palsy (CP) consists of a heterogeneous group of nonprogressive movement and posture disorders, frequently accompanied by cognitive and sensory impairments, epilepsy, nutritional deficiencies and secondary musculoskeletal lesions. Although CP is the most common long-term neurological complication associated with intrapartum hypoxia/acidosis, >80% of cases are caused by other phenomena. Data on minor long-term neurological deficits are scarce, but they suggest that less serious intellectual and motor impairments may result from intrapartum hypoxia/acidosis. This chapter focuses on the existing evidence of neurological damage associated with poor foetal oxygenation during labour. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparing the efficacy of combined Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Traditional Cognitive Behavior Therapy in reducing dysfunctional attitudes of patients with Major Depressive Disorder

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    Abdollah omidi

    2014-02-01

    Results: Dysfunctional attitudes scores and depression symptoms significantly decreased in combined MBCT with CBT group, while in the TAU group, there was no significant difference between pre-test and post-test. Conclusion: MBCT combined with CBT has similar effects to classic CBT and it can lead to reducing dysfunctional attitudes and depression symptoms.

  6. Slowing of EEG background activity in Parkinson´s and Alzheimer´s Disease with early cognitive dysfunction

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    Nina eBenz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Slowing of the electroencephalogram (EEG is frequent in Parkinson’s (PD and Alzheimer’s Disease (AD and correlates with cognitive decline. As overlap pathology plays a role in the pathogenesis of dementia, it is likely that demented patients in PD show similar physiological alterations as in AD.Objective: To analyze distinctive quantitative EEG characteristics in early cognitive dysfunction in PD and AD.Methods: Forty patients (20 PD- and 20 AD patients with early cognitive impairment and 20 normal controls (NC were matched for gender, age and education. Resting state EEG was recorded from 256 electrodes. Relative power spectra, median frequency (4-14Hz and neuropsychological outcome were compared between groups.Results: Relative theta power in left temporal region and median frequency separated the three groups significantly (p = .002 and p < .001. Relative theta power was increased and median frequency reduced in patients with both diseases compared to NC. Median frequency was higher in AD than in PD and classified groups significantly (p=.02. Conclusions: Increase of theta power in the left temporal region and a reduction of median frequency were associated with presence of AD or PD. PD patients are characterized by a pronounced slowing as compared to AD patients. Therefore in both disorders EEG slowing might be a useful biomarker for beginning cognitive decline.

  7. The THINC-Integrated Tool (THINC-it) Screening Assessment for Cognitive Dysfunction: Validation in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Roger S; Best, Michael W; Bowie, Christopher R; Carmona, Nicole E; Cha, Danielle S; Lee, Yena; Subramaniapillai, Mehala; Mansur, Rodrigo B; Barry, Harry; Baune, Bernhard T; Culpepper, Larry; Fossati, Philippe; Greer, Tracy L; Harmer, Catherine; Klag, Esther; Lam, Raymond W; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Harrison, John

    2017-07-01

    To validate the THINC-integrated tool (THINC-it)-a freely available, patient-administered, computerized screening tool integrating subjective and objective measures of cognitive function in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD). Subjects aged 18 to 65 years (n = 100) with recurrent MDD experiencing a major depressive episode of at least moderate severity were evaluated and compared to age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls (n = 100). Between January and June 2016, subjects completed the THINC-it, which includes variants of the Choice Reaction Time Identification Task (IDN), One-Back Test, Digit Symbol Substitution Test, Trail Making Test-Part B, and the Perceived Deficits Questionnaire for Depression-5-item (PDQ-5-D). The THINC-it required approximately 10 to 15 minutes for administration and was capable of detecting cognitive deficits in adults with MDD. A total of 44.4% of adults with MDD exhibited cognitive performance at ≥ 1.0 SD below that of healthy controls on standardized mean scores of the THINC-it. Concurrent validity of the overall tool, based on a calculated composite score, was acceptable (r = 0.539, P cognitive dysfunction in adults with MDD that is free, easy to use, and rapidly administered. The THINC-it should be incorporated into the assessment and measurement of all patients with MDD, particularly among those with enduring functional impairment. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02508493.

  8. Transient Cerebral Ischemia Promotes Brain Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Exacerbates Cognitive Impairments in Young 5xFAD Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lin; Guo, Lan; Gauba, Esha; Tian, Jing; Wang, Lu; Tandon, Neha; Shankar, Malini; Beck, Simon J.; Du, Yifeng; Du, Heng

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is heterogeneous and multifactorial neurological disorder; and the risk factors of AD still remain elusive. Recent studies have highlighted the role of vascular factors in promoting the progression of AD and have suggested that ischemic events increase the incidence of AD. However, the detailed mechanisms linking ischemic insult to the progression of AD is still largely undetermined. In this study, we have established a transient cerebral ischemia model on young 5xFAD mice and their non-transgenic (nonTg) littermates by the transient occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries. We have found that transient cerebral ischemia significantly exacerbates brain mitochondrial dysfunction including mitochondrial respiration deficits, oxidative stress as well as suppressed levels of mitochondrial fusion proteins including optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) and mitofusin 2 (MFN2) in young 5xFAD mice resulting in aggravated spatial learning and memory. Intriguingly, transient cerebral ischemia did not induce elevation in the levels of cortical or mitochondrial Amyloid beta (Aβ)1-40 or 1–42 levels in 5xFAD mice. In addition, the glucose- and oxygen-deprivation-induced apoptotic neuronal death in Aβ-treated neurons was significantly mitigated by mitochondria-targeted antioxidant mitotempo which suppresses mitochondrial superoxide levels. Therefore, the simplest interpretation of our results is that young 5xFAD mice with pre-existing AD-like mitochondrial dysfunction are more susceptible to the effects of transient cerebral ischemia; and ischemic events may exacerbate dementia and worsen the outcome of AD patients by exacerbating mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:26632816

  9. Measuring illness insight in patients with alcohol-related cognitive dysfunction using the Q8 questionnaire: a validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walvoort SJW

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Serge JW Walvoort,1–3 Paul T van der Heijden,3,4 Roy PC Kessels,1,2,5 Jos IM Egger1–3,6 1Centre of Excellence for Korsakoff and Alcohol-Related Cognitive Disorders, Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry, Venray, 2Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, 3Behavioural Science Institute, Radboud University, Nijmegen, 4Reinier van Arkel Mental Health Institute, ‘s-Hertogenbosch, 5Department of Medical Psychology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, 6Centre of Excellence for Neuropsychiatry, Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry, Venray, the Netherlands Aim: Impaired illness insight may hamper treatment outcome in patients with alcohol-related cognitive deficits. In this study, a short questionnaire for the assessment of illness insight (eg, the Q8 was investigated in patients with Korsakoff’s syndrome (KS and in alcohol use disorder (AUD patients with mild neurocognitive deficits. Methods: First, reliability coefficients were computed and internal structure was investigated. Then, comparisons were made between patients with KS and patients with AUD. Furthermore, correlations with the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX were investigated. Finally, Q8 total scores were correlated with neuropsychological tests for processing speed, memory, and executive function. Results: Internal consistency of the Q8 was acceptable (ie, Cronbach’s α =0.73. The Q8 items represent one factor, and scores differ significantly between AUD and KS patients. The Q8 total score, related to the DEX discrepancy score and scores on neuropsychological tests as was hypothesized, indicates that a higher degree of illness insight is associated with a higher level of cognitive functioning. Conclusion: The Q8 is a short, valid, and easy-to-administer questionnaire to reliably assess illness insight in patients with moderate-to-severe alcohol-related cognitive dysfunction. Keywords: illness insight, anosognosia, alcohol use disorder, Korsakoff

  10. A longitudinal study of differences in late- and early-onset geriatric depression: depressive symptoms and psychosocial, cognitive, and neurological functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Corsentino, Elizabeth; Moxley, Jerad; Hames, Jennifer L; Rushing, Nicole C; Sawyer, Kathryn; Joiner, Thomas; Selby, Edward A; Zarit, Steven; Gotlib, Ian H; Steffens, David C

    2013-01-01

    Studies suggest early-onset depression (EOD) is associated with a more severe course of the depressive disorder, while late-onset depression (LOD) is associated with more cognitive and neuroimaging changes. This study examined if older adults with EOD, compared with those with LOD, would exhibit more severe symptoms of depression and, consistent with the glucocorticoid cascade hypothesis, have more hippocampal volume loss. A second goal was to determine if LOD, compared with EOD, would demonstrate more cognitive and neuroimaging changes. At regular intervals over a four-year period non-demented, older, depressed adults were assessed on the Mini-Mental Status Examination and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale. They were also assessed on magnetic resonance imaging. Compared with LOD, EOD had more depressive symptoms, more suicidal thoughts, and less social support. Growth curve analyses indicated that EOD demonstrated higher levels of residual depressive symptoms over time. The LOD group exhibited a greater decrement in cognitive scores. Contrary to the glucocorticoid cascade hypothesis, participants with EOD lost right hippocampal volume at a slower rate than did participants with LOD. Right cerebrum gray matter was initially smaller among participants with LOD. EOD is associated with greater severity of depressive illness. LOD is associated with more severe cognitive and neurological changes. These differences are relevant to understanding cognitive impairment in geriatric depression.

  11. Understanding cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis: integrating a first-person perspective with neuropsychological testing, neuroimaging, and cognitive neuroscience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Susan M

    2011-12-01

    This paper gives perspectives on a companion article, the case history of a professional writer who has multiple sclerosis. The patient's first-person account of her illness is combined with clinical summaries about her care. The discussion of this case illustrates the value of combining such subjective and objective reports in evaluating a patient. Furthermore, considering these reports in the context of current research findings on the organization and function of cognitive neural systems can shed light on patients' seemingly contradictory clinical findings. For this patient, a deficit in the ability to select the most important information to achieve her current goals reflected her neuropsychological test results and neuroradiologic findings, and helped to explain her difficulties with her job and her activities of daily living. Because the patient's cognitive impairments have been her primary manifestations of multiple sclerosis, she illustrates the importance of physicians attending to and helping patients manage their cognitive deficits.

  12. Real-time closed-loop control of cognitive load in neurological patients during robot-assisted gait training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Alexander; Novak, Domen; Omlin, Ximena; Pulfer, Michael; Perreault, Eric; Zimmerli, Lukas; Mihelj, Matjaz; Riener, Robert

    2011-08-01

    Cognitively challenging training sessions during robot-assisted gait training after stroke were shown to be key requirements for the success of rehabilitation. Despite a broad variability of cognitive impairments amongst the stroke population, current rehabilitation environments do not adapt to the cognitive capabilities of the patient, as cognitive load cannot be objectively assessed in real-time. We provided healthy subjects and stroke patients with a virtual task during robot-assisted gait training, which allowed modulating cognitive load by adapting the difficulty level of the task. We quantified the cognitive load of stroke patients by using psychophysiological measurements and performance data. In open-loop experiments with healthy subjects and stroke patients, we obtained training data for a linear, adaptive classifier that estimated the current cognitive load of patients in real-time. We verified our classification results via questionnaires and obtained 88% correct classification in healthy subjects and 75% in patients. Using the pre-trained, adaptive classifier, we closed the cognitive control loop around healthy subjects and stroke patients by automatically adapting the difficulty level of the virtual task in real-time such that patients were neither cognitively overloaded nor under-challenged. © 2011 IEEE

  13. Capillary dysfunction in Alzheimer’s disease correlates with cognitive decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Gyldensted, Louise; Nagenthiraja, Kartheeban

    Aim: We hypothesized that capillary dysfunction exists in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and this can be determined by a relative increase in capillary transit time heterogeneity (CTH) in cortical gray matter compared to age-matched controls. Methods: We used dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) magne...

  14. [Comparison of different doses of escitalopram in the prevention of dementia in patients with depression and moderate cognitive dysfunction associated with chronic brain ischemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhitkova, J V

    2015-01-01

    to compare different doses of escitalopram (cipralex) in the prevention of dementia in patients with depression and moderate cognitive dysfunction associated with chronic brain ischemia. Two groups of patients, aged 65-78 years, with chronic brain ischemia and mild or moderate depression with moderate cognitive dysfunction were treated with different doses of escitalopram: 30 patients received 5 mg daily during all treatment period; 42 patients - 5 mg daily during the first week and 10 mg from the second week of treatment. The treatment lasted for 6 months; the period of observation was 8 months. The efficacy of escitalopram is demonstrated not only for the treatment of depression associated with cognitive dysfunction in patients with chronic brain ischemia but for decrease of the risk of dementia in long-term period.

  15. Stem Cell Therapy in Pediatric Neurological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Torabian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric neurological disorders including muscular dystrophy, cerebral palsy, and spinal cord injury are defined as a heterogenous group of diseases, of which some are known to be genetic. The two significant features represented for stem cells, leading to distinguish them from other cell types are addressed as below: they can renew themselves besides the ability to differentiate into cells with special function as their potency. Researches about the role of stem cells in repair of damaged tissues in different organs like myocardium, lung, wound healing, and others are developing. In addition, the use of stem cells in the treatment and improving symptoms of neurological diseases such as autism are known. Many epigenetic and immunological studies on effects of stem cells have been performed. The action of stem cells in tissue repair is a need for further studies. The role of these cells in the secretion of hormones and growth factors in the niche, induction of cell division and differentiation in local cells and differentiation of stem cells in damaged tissue is the samples of effects of tissue repair by stem cells.Cognitive disorders, epilepsy, speech and language disorders, primary sensory dysfunction, and behavioral challenges are symptoms of non-neuromotor dysfunction in half of pediatrics with CP. Occupational therapy, oral medications, and orthopedic surgery for supportive and rehabilitative approaches are part of Conventional remedy for cerebral palsy. This paper summarizes the clinical world wide experience about stem cell based therapeutic procedures for pediatric neurological disorders.

  16. Stem cell therapy in pediatric neurological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Torabian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric neurological disorders including muscular dystrophy, cerebral palsy, and spinal cord injury are defined as a heterogenous group of diseases, of which some are known to be genetic. The two significant features represented for stem cells, leading to distinguish them from other cell types are addressed as below: they can renew themselves besides the ability to differentiate into cells with special function as their potency. Researches about the role of stem cells in repair of damaged tissues in different organs like myocardium, lung, wound healing, and others are developing. In addition, the use of stem cells in the treatment and improving symptoms of neurological diseases such as autism are known. Many epigenetic and immunological studies on effects of stem cells have been performed. The action of stem cells in tissue repair is a need for further studies. The role of these cells in the secretion of hormones and growth factors in the niche, induction of cell division and differentiation in local cells and differentiation of stem cells in damaged tissue is the samples of effects of tissue repair by stem cells.Cognitive disorders, epilepsy, speech and language disorders, primary sensory dysfunction, and behavioral challenges are symptoms of non-neuromotor dysfunction in half of pediatrics with CP. Occupational therapy, oral medications, and orthopedic surgery for supportive and rehabilitative approaches are part of Conventional remedy for cerebral palsy. This paper summarizes the clinical world wide experience about stem cell based therapeutic procedures for pediatric neurological disorders.

  17. Cognitive dysfunction in adolescents with chronic fatigue: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulheim, Dag; Fagermoen, Even; Sivertsen, Øyvind Stople; Winger, Anette; Wyller, Vegard Bruun; Øie, Merete Glenne

    2015-09-01

    To compare cognitive function in adolescents with chronic fatigue with cognitive function in healthy controls (HC). Cross-sectional study. Paediatric department at Oslo University Hospital, Norway. 120 adolescents with chronic fatigue (average age 15.4 years; range 12-18) and 39 HC (average age 15.2 years; range 12-18). The adolescents completed a neurocognitive test battery measuring processing speed, working memory, cognitive inhibition, cognitive flexibility, verbal learning and verbal memory, and questionnaires addressing demographic data, depression symptoms, anxiety traits, fatigue and sleep problems. Parents completed the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), which measures the everyday executive functions of children. Adolescents with chronic fatigue had impaired cognitive function compared to HC regarding processing speed (mean difference 3.3, 95% CI 1.1 to 5.5, p=0.003), working memory (-2.4, -3.7 to -1.1, pchronic fatigue group compared to the HC (11.2, 8.2 to 14.3, pchronic fatigue had impaired cognitive function of clinical relevance, measured by objective cognitive tests, in comparison to HC. Working memory and processing speed may represent core difficulties. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Cognitive dysfunction, affective states and vulnerability to nicotine addiction: a multifactorial perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Forget

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although smoking prevalence has declined in recent years, certain subpopulations continue to smoke at disproportionately high rates and show resistance to cessation treatments. Individuals showing cognitive and affective impairments such as emotional distress and deficits in attention, memory and inhibitory control, particularly in the context of psychiatric conditions such as ADHD, schizophrenia and mood disorders, are at higher risk for tobacco addiction. Nicotine has been shown to improve cognitive and emotional processing in some conditions, including during tobacco abstinence. Self-medication of cognitive deficits or negative affect has been proposed to underlie high rates of tobacco smoking among people with psychiatric disorders. However, pre-existing cognitive and mood disorders may also influence the development and maintenance of nicotine dependence, by biasing nicotine-induced alterations in information processing and associative learning, decision making, and inhibitory control. Here we discuss the potential forms of contribution of cognitive and affective deficits to nicotine addiction-related processes, by reviewing major clinical and preclinical studies investigating either the pro-cognitive and therapeutic action of nicotine or the putative primary role of cognitive and emotional impairments in addiction-like features.

  19. White matter tract abnormalities are associated with cognitive dysfunction in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Kim A; Muhlert, Nils; Cercignani, Mara; Sethi, Varun; Ron, Maria A; Thompson, Alan J; Miller, David H; Chard, Declan; Geurts, Jeroen Jg; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2016-10-01

    While our knowledge of white matter (WM) pathology underlying cognitive impairment in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) is increasing, equivalent understanding in those with secondary progressive (SP) MS lags behind. The aim of this study is to examine whether the extent and severity of WM tract damage differ between cognitively impaired (CI) and cognitively preserved (CP) secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) patients. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion MRI were acquired from 30 SPMS patients and 32 healthy controls (HC). Cognitive domains commonly affected in MS patients were assessed. Linear regression was used to predict cognition. Diffusion measures were compared between groups using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). A total of 12 patients were classified as CI, and processing speed was the most commonly affected domain. The final regression model including demographic variables and radial diffusivity explained the greatest variance of cognitive performance (R(2) = 0.48, p = 0.002). SPMS patients showed widespread loss of WM integrity throughout the WM skeleton when compared with HC. When compared with CP patients, CI patients showed more extensive and severe damage of several WM tracts, including the fornix, superior longitudinal fasciculus and forceps major. Loss of WM integrity assessed using TBSS helps to explain cognitive decline in SPMS patients. © The Author(s), 2016.

  20. Diabetes-related cognitive dysfunction:Hyperglycemia in the early stage may be a key?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umegaki, Hiroyuki

    2018-01-29

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus has been an established risk factor for cognitive decline, which is recently recognized as a new type of diabetes-related complication. Although wide-range of cognitive domains are impaired in type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects, executive function and processing speed are the most frequently reported to be impaired in older type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects. The mechanisms by which type 2 diabetes mellitus affects cognitive function, however, largely remain to be elucidated. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Possible nitric oxide mechanism in the protective effect of hesperidin against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindling and associated cognitive dysfunction in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Lalitha, Sree; Mishra, Jitendriya

    2013-10-01

    Epilepsy is a complex neurological disorder manifested by recurrent episodes of convulsive seizures, loss of consciousness, and sensory disturbances. Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindling primarily represents a model of generalized epilepsy. The present study has been undertaken to evaluate the neuroprotective potential of hesperidin and its interaction with nitric oxide modulators against PTZ-induced kindling and associated cognitive dysfunction in mice. The experimental protocol comprised of eleven groups (n=6), where a subconvulsive dose of PTZ (40 mg/kg, i.p.) had been administered every other day for a period of 12 days, and seizure episodes were noted after each PTZ injection over a period of 30 min. The memory performance tests were carried out on days 13 and 14 followed by the estimation of biochemical and mitochondrial parameters. Chronic administration of a subconvulsive dose of PTZ resulted in an increase in convulsive activity culminating in generalized clonic-tonic seizures, as revealed by a progressive increase in seizure score as well as alteration in antioxidant enzyme levels (lipid peroxidation, nitrite, glutathione, super oxide dismutase, and catalase) and mitochondrial complex (I, II, and IV) activities, whereas chronic treatment with hesperidin (200 mg/kg) significantly attenuated these behavioral, biochemical, and mitochondrial alterations. Further, treatment with l-arginine (100 mg/kg) or l-NAME (10 mg/kg) in combination with hesperidin significantly modulated the protective effect of hesperidin which was significant as compared to their effects per se in PTZ-treated animals. Thus, the present study suggests a possible involvement of the NO-cGMP pathway in the neuroprotective effect of hesperidin in PTZ-kindled mice. © 2013.

  2. Dogs with cognitive dysfunction as a spontaneous model for early Alzheimer's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schütt, Trine; Helboe, Lone; Pedersen, Lars Østergaard

    2016-01-01

    was to characterize certain aspects of neuropathology and inflammatory markers related to aging and CCD in dogs in comparison with human AD. Fifteen brains from aged dogs with normal cognitive function, mild cognitive impairment, or CCD were investigated and compared with two control brains from young dogs and brain...... sections from human AD subjects. The neuropathological investigations included evaluation of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaque deposition (N-terminally truncated and pyroglutamyl-modified Aβ included), tau pathology, and inflammatory markers in prefrontal cortex. Cortical Aβ deposition was found to be only...... cortex showed a consistent positive correlation to age but not to cognitive deficit severity. No evidence of neurofibrillary tau pathology was found. The level of pro-inflammatory cytokines was generally low and showed no significant association to cognitive status. The findings of the present study...

  3. Disrupted sleep without sleep curtailment induces sleepiness and cognitive dysfunction via the tumor necrosis factor-α pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Vijay

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleepiness and cognitive dysfunction are recognized as prominent consequences of sleep deprivation. Experimentally induced short-term sleep fragmentation, even in the absence of any reductions in total sleep duration, will lead to the emergence of excessive daytime sleepiness and cognitive impairments in humans. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α has important regulatory effects on sleep, and seems to play a role in the occurrence of excessive daytime sleepiness in children who have disrupted sleep as a result of obstructive sleep apnea, a condition associated with prominent sleep fragmentation. The aim of this study was to examine role of the TNF-α pathway after long-term sleep fragmentation in mice. Methods The effect of chronic sleep fragmentation during the sleep-predominant period on sleep architecture, sleep latency, cognitive function, behavior, and inflammatory markers was assessed in C57BL/6 J and in mice lacking the TNF-α receptor (double knockout mice. In addition, we also assessed the above parameters in C57BL/6 J mice after injection of a TNF-α neutralizing antibody. Results Mice subjected to chronic sleep fragmentation had preserved sleep duration, sleep state distribution, and cumulative delta frequency power, but also exhibited excessive sleepiness, altered cognitive abilities and mood correlates, reduced cyclic AMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation and transcriptional activity, and increased phosphodiesterase-4 expression, in the absence of AMP kinase-α phosphorylation and ATP changes. Selective increases in cortical expression of TNF-α primarily circumscribed to neurons emerged. Consequently, sleepiness and cognitive dysfunction were absent in TNF-α double receptor knockout mice subjected to sleep fragmentation, and similarly, treatment with a TNF-α neutralizing antibody abrogated sleep fragmentation-induced learning deficits and increases in sleep propensity. Conclusions Taken together

  4. PTSD symptom severity relates to cognitive and psycho-social dysfunctioning - a study with Congolese refugees in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainamani, Herbert E; Elbert, Thomas; Olema, David K; Hecker, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Background: In the ongoing conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), civilians have been heavily exposed to traumatic stressors. Traumatizing experiences cumulatively heighten the risk for trauma-related disorders, and with it affect cognitive and psycho-social functioning. Objectives: We aimed at investigating the association between trauma-related disorders and cognitive and psycho-social functioning and hypothesized that PTSD symptom severity would negatively correlate with executive functioning, working memory and psycho-social functioning in everyday life. Method: In total, 323 Congolese refugees (mean age: 31.3 years) who arrived in the Ugandan Nakivale refugee settlement after January 2012 were assessed regarding their exposure to traumatic events, PTSD symptom severity (posttraumatic symptom scale interview), executive functioning (Tower of London), working memory performance (Corsi block tapping task) and psycho-social dysfunctioning (Luo functioning scale). Results: Hierarchical regression analyses indicated a significant negative association between PTSD symptom severity and working memory (β = -0.32, p  0.05). Conclusion: Trauma survivors not only suffer from the core PTSD symptoms but also from impaired cognitive functioning. PTSD symptom severity seems furthermore to be related to impaired psycho-social functioning. Our findings suggest that trauma-related mental health problems may heighten the risk for poverty and lack of prospect and further aggravate the consequences of war and conflict.

  5. Cognitive dysfunction in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA): partial reversibility after continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferini-Strambi, L; Baietto, C; Di Gioia, M R; Castaldi, P; Castronovo, C; Zucconi, M; Cappa, S F

    2003-06-30

    The aims of this study were to assess cognitive function in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients and to evaluate the effect of short- and long-term treatment with continuous positive airway pressure treatment (CPAP). A battery of neuropsychological tests, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and the Beck Inventory Scale were administered to 23 patients with severe OSA (age: 56.5+/-6.13; AHI: 54.9+/-13.37) and to 23 age- and education-matched controls. The OSA patients were evaluated in a baseline condition and in two follow-up treatment sessions (after 15 days and 4 months of CPAP, respectively). At baseline, OSA patients had a significant impairment, compared to controls, in tests of sustained attention, visuospatial learning, executive function, motor performance, and constructional abilities. The longitudinal evaluation showed that after a 15-days CPAP treatment attentive, visuospatial learning, and motor performances returned to normal levels. A 4-months CPAP treatment did not result in any further improvement in cognitive tests. Performance on tests evaluating executive functions and constructional abilities was not affected by short- and long-term treatment with CPAP. The findings of this study confirm the hypothesis of partial reversibility of cognitive dysfunction in OSA patients after CPAP.

  6. Understanding and remediating social-cognitive dysfunctions in patients with serious mental illness using relational frame theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemieke eHendriks

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Impairments in social cognition and perspective-taking play an important role in the psychopathology and social functioning of individuals with social anxiety, autism or schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, among other clinical presentations. Perspective-taking has mostly been studied using the concept of Theory of Mind (ToM, which describes the sequential development of these skills in young children, as well as clinical populations experiencing perspective-taking difficulties. Several studies mention positive results of Theory of Mind based training programs, however, the precise processes involved in the achievement of these improvements are difficult to determine. Relational Frame Theory (RFT is a modern behavioural account of complex cognitive functions, and is argued to provide a more precise approach to the assessment and training of perspective-taking, among other relational skills. Results of RFT-based studies of perspective-taking in developmental and clinical settings are discussed. The development of training methods targeting perspective-taking deficits from an RFT point of view appears to provide promising applications for the enhancement of current treatments of people with social-cognitive dysfunctions.

  7. Cognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia: a systematic review of meta-analyses

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    Bortolato B

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Beatrice Bortolato,1 Kamilla W Miskowiak,2 Cristiano A Köhler,3 Eduard Vieta,4 André F Carvalho3 1Department of Mental Health, ULSS 10 “Veneto Orientale”, Venice, Italy; 2Psychiatric Centre Copenhagen, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Translational Psychiatry Research Group and Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil; 4Bipolar Disorders Program, Institute of Neuroscience, Hospital Clínic Barcelona, IDIBAPS, CIBERSAM, University of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain Abstract: Cognitive impairment is a core feature of schizophrenia (SZ and bipolar disorder (BD. A neurocognitive profile characterized by widespread cognitive deficits across multiple domains in the context of substantial intellectual impairment, which appears to antedate illness onset, is a replicated finding in SZ. There is no specific neuropsychological signature that can facilitate the diagnostic differentiation of SZ and BD, notwithstanding, neuropsychological deficits appear more severe in SZ. The literature in this field has provided contradictory results due to methodological differences across studies. Meta-analytic techniques may offer an opportunity to synthesize findings and to control for potential sources of heterogeneity. Here, we performed a systematic review of meta-analyses of neuropsychological findings in SZ and BD. While there is no conclusive evidence for progressive cognitive deterioration in either SZ or BD, some findings point to more severe cognitive deficits in patients with early illness onset across both disorders. A compromised pattern of cognitive functioning in individuals at familiar and/or clinical risk to psychosis as well as in first-degree relatives of BD patients suggests that early neurodevelopmental factors may play a role in the emergence of cognitive deficits in both disorders. Premorbid intellectual impairment in SZ and at least in a

  8. [Neurological disease and facial recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Mitsuru; Sugimoto, Azusa; Kobayakawa, Mutsutaka; Tsuruya, Natsuko

    2012-07-01

    To discuss the neurological basis of facial recognition, we present our case reports of impaired recognition and a review of previous literature. First, we present a case of infarction and discuss prosopagnosia, which has had a large impact on face recognition research. From a study of patient symptoms, we assume that prosopagnosia may be caused by unilateral right occipitotemporal lesion and right cerebral dominance of facial recognition. Further, circumscribed lesion and degenerative disease may also cause progressive prosopagnosia. Apperceptive prosopagnosia is observed in patients with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), pathologically considered as Alzheimer's disease, and associative prosopagnosia in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Second, we discuss face recognition as part of communication. Patients with Parkinson disease show social cognitive impairments, such as difficulty in facial expression recognition and deficits in theory of mind as detected by the reading the mind in the eyes test. Pathological and functional imaging studies indicate that social cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease is possibly related to damages in the amygdalae and surrounding limbic system. The social cognitive deficits can be observed in the early stages of Parkinson disease, and even in the prodromal stage, for example, patients with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) show impairment in facial expression recognition. Further, patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM 1), which is a multisystem disease that mainly affects the muscles, show social cognitive impairment similar to that of Parkinson disease. Our previous study showed that facial expression recognition impairment of DM 1 patients is associated with lesion in the amygdalae and insulae. Our study results indicate that behaviors and personality traits in DM 1 patients, which are revealed by social cognitive impairment, are attributable to dysfunction of the limbic system.

  9. Cognitive dysfunction in urban elderly people: an exploratory study using neuropsychological and neuroimaging perspective

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    Sreerupa Ghose

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cognitive impairment is an integral part of old age as well as it is a part of many neurodegenerative disorders. Early identification of cognitive impairment is necessary in order to make treatment and rehabilitation possible. Materials and methods: Keeping in mind that early identification of cognitive impairment is necessary, a sample of 20 elderly patients with memory complaints who were referred for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI with symptoms of peripheral nervous system disorder by neurologists have been assessed using neuropsychological tests and MRI, and results have been analysed using IBM SPSS 21 and DICOM software. Results: Neuropsychological test findings suggest that age, sex, and education are related to performance of the participants on different tests of cognitive functions in different ways. Scores on the tests of delayed memory and verbal fluency emerged as positive predictors of activity level. On the basis of MRI, the elderly people were identified with periventricular hyper-intensity of white matter and global cortical atrophy. A comparison of the two groups (on the basis of MRI findings suggest that elderly people with global cortical atrophy were found to be significantly more impaired on visuospatial tasks in comparison to the group with periventricular hyper-intensity of white matter, among other tests of cognitive functions. Conclusion: In spite of the absence of manifestation of dementing illness at clinical level, the participants actually exhibited underlying pathological process which can be detected with neuropsychological testing in conjunction with neuroimaging.

  10. Legal medical consideration of Alzheimer's disease patients' dysgraphia and cognitive dysfunction: a 6 month follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onofri, Emanuela; Mercuri, Marco; Archer, Trevor; Rapp-Ricciardi, Max; Ricci, Serafino

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients to express intentions and desires, and their decision-making capacity. This study examines the findings from a 6-month follow-up of our previous results in which 30 patients participated. The patient's cognition was examined by conducting the tests of 14 questions and letter-writing ability over a period of 19 days, and it was repeated after 6 months. The difference between these two cognitive measures (PQ1 before-PQ2 before), tested previously and later the writing test, was designated DΔ before. The test was repeated after 6 months, and PQ1 after-PQ2 after was designated DΔ after. Several markedly strong relationships between dysgraphia and other measures of cognitive performance in AD patients were observed. The most aged patients (over 86 years), despite less frequency, maintain the cognitive capacity manifested in the graphic expressions. A document, written by an AD patient presents an honest expression of the patient's intention if that document is legible, clear, and comprehensive. The identification of impairment/deficits in writing and cognition during different phases of AD may facilitate the understanding of disease progression and identify the occasions during which the patient may be considered sufficiently lucid to make decisions.

  11. Occlusion and brain function: mastication as a prevention of cognitive dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Y; Yamamoto, T; Kubo, K-ya; Onozuka, M

    2010-08-01

    Research in animals and humans has shown that mastication maintains cognitive function in the hippocampus, a brain area important for learning and memory. Reduced mastication, an epidemiological risk factor for the development of dementia in humans, attenuates spatial memory and causes hippocampal neurons to deteriorate morphologically and functionally, especially in aged animals. Active mastication rescues the stress-attenuated hippocampal memory process in animals and attenuates the perception of stress in humans by suppressing endocrinological and autonomic stress responses. Active mastication further improves the performance of sustained cognitive tasks by increasing the activation of the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex, the brain regions that are essential for cognitive processing. Abnormal mastication caused by experimental occlusal disharmony in animals produces chronic stress, which in turn suppresses spatial learning ability. The negative correlation between mastication and corticosteroids has raised the hypothesis that the suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis by masticatory stimulation contributes, in part, to preserving cognitive functions associated with mastication. In the present review, we examine research pertaining to the mastication-induced amelioration of deficits in cognitive function, its possible relationship with the HPA axis, and the neuronal mechanisms that may be involved in this process in the hippocampus.

  12. Dysfunctional Sensory Modalities, Locus Coeruleus, and Basal Forebrain: Early Determinants that Promote Neuropathogenesis of Cognitive and Memory Decline and Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daulatzai, Mak Adam

    2016-10-01

    Sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder. It is essential to unravel its etiology and pathogenesis. This should enable us to study the presymptomatic stages of the disease and to analyze and reverse the antemortem behavioral, memory, and cognitive dysfunction. Prima facie, an ongoing chronic vulnerability involving neural insult may lead normal elderly to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and then to AD. Development of effective preventive and therapeutic strategies to thwart the disease pathology obviously requires a thorough delineation of underlying disruptive neuropathological processes. Our sensory capacity for touch, smell, taste, hearing, and vision declines with advancing age. Declines in different sensory attributes are considered here to be the primary "first-tier pathologies." Olfactory loss is among the first clinical signs of neurodegenerative diseases including AD and Parkinson's disease (PD). Sensory dysfunction in the aged promotes pathological disturbances in the locus coeruleus, basal forebrain, entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, and several key areas of neocortex and brainstem. Hence, sensory dysfunction is the pivotal factor that may upregulate cognitive and memory dysfunction. The age-related constellation of comorbid pathological factors may include apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, alcohol abuse, head trauma, and obstructive sleep apnea. The concepts and trajectories delineated here are the dynamic pillars of the current hypothesis presented-it postulates that the sensory decline, in conjunction with the above pathologies, is crucial in triggering neurodegeneration and promoting cognitive/memory dysfunction in aging and AD. The application of this thesis can be important in formulating new multifactorial preventive and treatment strategies (suggested here) in order to attenuate cognitive and memory decline and ameliorate pathological dysfunction in aging, MCI, and AD.

  13. Severe cognitive dysfunction and shrinking lung syndrome in systemic lupus erythematous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno José Alencar Pires Barbosa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune disease that can affect any organ or system. Neuropsychiatric and pulmonary involvement can occur in 40 and 50% of patients respectively, and may occur in several different clinical forms. While the main neuropsychiatric manifestations are represented by cognitive impairment, organic cerebral syndromes, delirium, psychosis, seizures, and peripheral neuropathies, the main forms of pulmonary involvement are pleurisy with or without pleural effusion, pneumonitis, interstitial disease, pulmonary hypertension, and alveolar hemorrhage. The authors report the case of a 49-year-old woman whose first manifestation of SLE was represented by two rare manifestations: rapidly progressive cognitive impairment, which was associated with respiratory failure caused by the shrinking lung syndrome. The authors call attention to the under-diagnosis of lupus pulmonary complications and its association with severe cognitive impairment that often necessitates aggressive treatment.

  14. Social dysfunction in schizophrenia: an investigation of the GAF scale's sensitivity to deficits in social cognition.

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    Robertson, Deirdre A; Hargreaves, April; Kelleher, Eric B; Morris, Derek; Gill, Michael; Corvin, Aiden; Donohoe, Gary

    2013-05-01

    Schizophrenia is accompanied by significant impairment in psychosocial functioning, which is only partially explained by clinical symptom severity. Recently, these impairments have been strongly associated with deficits in neurocognition and social cognition. Although the Global Assessment of Function (GAF) scale remains the most widely used measure of psychosocial function in clinical practice, it is unclear whether this instrument is sensitive to changes in cognition, or merely provides a snapshot of symptom severity. To investigate this, we assessed whether variation in GAF score was explained by performance on measures of neurocognitive and social cognition, particularly after variation associated with symptom severity had been accounted for. 216 patients with schizophrenia were assessed using the GAF scale, two theory of mind tasks (the 'Hinting' task and 'Reading the Eyes in the Mind' task), and a neuropsychological battery sensitive to the areas of deficit typically seen in schizophrenia - IQ, episodic memory, working memory and attentional control. Using linear regression analysis, symptom severity explained 24% of the variance in GAF scores (F(3, 188) = 21.14, psocial cognition did not explain any further variance in functioning (r(2)change = .006, Fchange (1, 186) = 1.63, p = .20). These data indicate that GAF scores are primarily sensitive to variation in clinical symptoms severity and not at all sensitive to variation in social cognition, an important determinant of real world outcome. Doing so highlights the need to supplement the measurement of psychosocial function using the GAF in clinical practice with functional measures that are more sensitive to deficits in social cognition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Inflammation and gut-brain axis link obesity to cognitive dysfunction: plausible pharmacological interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solas, Maite; Milagro, Fermin I; Ramírez, María J; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2017-12-01

    Obesity prevalence is increasing steadily throughout the world's population in most countries and in parallel the prevalence of metabolic disorders including cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes is also rising, but less is reported about excessive adiposity relationship with poorer cognitive performance, cognitive decline and dementia. Some human clinical studies have evidenced that obesity is related to the risk of the development of mild cognitive impairment, in the form of short-term memory and executive function deficits, as well as dementia and Alzheimer's disease. The precise mechanisms that underlie the connections between obesity and the risk of cognitive impairment are still largely unknown but potential avenues of further research include insulin resistance, the gut-brain axis, and systemic mediators and central inflammation processes. A common feature of metabolic diseases is a chronic and low-grade activation of the inflammatory system. This inflammation may eventually spread from peripheral tissue to the brain, and recent reports suggest that neuroinflammation is an important causal mechanism in cognitive decline. This inflammatory status could be triggered by changes in the gut microbiota composition. Consumption of diets high in fat and sugar influences the microbiota composition, which may lead to an imbalanced microbial population in the gut. Thus, it has recently been hypothesized that the gut microbiota could be part of a mechanistic link between the consumption of high fat and other unbalanced diets and impaired cognition, termed 'gut-brain axis'. The present review will aim at providing an integrative analysis of the effects of obesity and unbalanced diets on cognitive performance and discusses some of the potential mechanisms involved, namely inflammation and changes in gut-brain axis. Moreover, the review aims to analyze anti-inflammatory drugs that have been tested for the treatment of cognition and obesity, recently approved anti

  16. Social cognition dysfunctions in patients with epilepsy: Evidence from patients with temporal lobe and idiopathic generalized epilepsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realmuto, Sabrina; Zummo, Leila; Cerami, Chiara; Agrò, Luigi; Dodich, Alessandra; Canessa, Nicola; Zizzo, Andrea; Fierro, Brigida; Daniele, Ornella

    2015-06-01

    Despite an extensive literature on cognitive impairments in focal and generalized epilepsy, only a few number of studies specifically explored social cognition disorders in epilepsy syndromes. The aim of our study was to investigate social cognition abilities in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and in patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE). Thirty-nine patients (21 patients with TLE and 18 patients with IGE) and 21 matched healthy controls (HCs) were recruited. All subjects underwent a basic neuropsychological battery plus two experimental tasks evaluating emotion recognition from facial expression (Ekman-60-Faces test, Ek-60F) and mental state attribution (Story-based Empathy Task, SET). In particular, the latter is a newly developed task that assesses the ability to infer others' intentions (i.e., intention attribution - IA) and emotions (i.e., emotion attribution - EA) compared with a control condition of physical causality (i.e., causal inferences - CI). Compared with HCs, patients with TLE showed significantly lower performances on both social cognition tasks. In particular, all SET subconditions as well as the recognition of negative emotions were significantly impaired in patients with TLE vs. HCs. On the contrary, patients with IGE showed impairments on anger recognition only without any deficit at the SET task. Emotion recognition deficits occur in patients with epilepsy, possibly because of a global disruption of a pathway involving frontal, temporal, and limbic regions. Impairments of mental state attribution specifically characterize the neuropsychological profile of patients with TLE in the context of the in-depth temporal dysfunction typical of such patients. Impairments of socioemotional processing have to be considered as part of the neuropsychological assessment in both TLE and IGE in view of a correct management and for future therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evidence that the blood biomarker SNTF predicts brain imaging changes and persistent cognitive dysfunction in mild TBI patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eSiman

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI, or concussion, is not typically associated with abnormalities on computed tomography (CT, it nevertheless causes persistent cognitive dysfunction for many patients. Consequently, new prognostic methods for mTBI are needed to identify at-risk cases, especially at an early and potentially treatable stage. Here, we quantified plasma levels of the neurodegeneration biomarker calpain-cleaved alphaII-spectrin N-terminal fragment (SNTF from 38 participants with CT-negative mTBI, orthopedic injury (OI and normal uninjured controls (age range 12-30 years, and compared them with findings from diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI and long-term cognitive assessment. SNTF levels were at least twice the lower limit of detection in 7 of 17 mTBI cases and in 3 of 13 OI cases, but in none of the uninjured controls. An elevation in plasma SNTF corresponded with significant differences in fractional anisotropy and the apparent diffusion coefficient in the corpus callosum and uncinate fasciculus measured by DTI. Furthermore, increased plasma SNTF on the day of injury correlated significantly with cognitive impairment that persisted for at least 3 months, both across all study participants and also among the mTBI cases by themselves. The elevation in plasma SNTF in the subset of OI cases, accompanied by corresponding white matter and cognitive abnormalities, raises the possibility of identifying undiagnosed cases of mTBI. These data suggest that the blood level of SNTF on the day of a CT-negative mTBI may identify a subset of patients at risk of white matter damage and persistent disability. SNTF could have prognostic and diagnostic utilities in the assessment and treatment of mTBI.

  18. Corpus callosum damage predicts disability progression and cognitive dysfunction in primary-progressive MS after five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodini, Benedetta; Cercignani, Mara; Khaleeli, Zhaleh; Miller, David H; Ron, Maria; Penny, Sophie; Thompson, Alan J; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2013-05-01

    We aim to identify specific areas of white matter (WM) and grey matter (GM), which predict disability progression and cognitive dysfunction after five years in patients with primary-progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS). Thirty-two patients with early PPMS were assessed at baseline and after five years on the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), and EDSS step-changes were calculated. At year five, a subgroup of 25 patients and 31 healthy controls underwent a neuropsychological assessment. Baseline imaging consisted of dual-echo (proton density and T2-weighted), T1-weighted volumetric, and diffusion tensor imaging. Fractional anisotropy (FA) maps were created, and fed into tract-based spatial statistics. To compensate for the potential bias introduced by WM lesions, the T1 volumes underwent a lesion-filling procedure before entering a voxel-based morphometry protocol. To investigate whether FA and GM volume predicted EDSS step-changes over five years and neuropsychological tests scores at five years, voxelwise linear regression analyses were performed. Lower FA in the splenium of the corpus callosum (CC) predicted a greater progression of disability over the follow-up. Lower FA along the entire CC predicted worse verbal memory, attention and speed of information processing, and executive function at five years. GM baseline volume did not predict any clinical variable. Our findings highlight the importance of damage to the interhemispheric callosal pathways in determining physical and cognitive disability in PPMS. Disruption of these pathways, which interconnect motor and cognitive networks between the two hemispheres, may result in a disconnection syndrome that contributes to long-term physical and cognitive disability. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Effect of age and severity of cognitive dysfunction on spontaneous activity in pet dogs - part 2: social responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, B; González-Martínez, A; Pesini, P; García-Belenguer, S; Palacio, J; Villegas, A; Suárez, M-L; Santamarina, G; Sarasa, M

    2012-11-01

    Changes in social interactions with owners and other dogs are frequently observed in dogs with cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CDS). The aim of this work was to assess the effect of age and severity of CDS on social responsiveness. This is the second part of a 2-part report on spontaneous activity in pet dogs. A human interaction test and a mirror test were administered at baseline and 6 months later to assess social responses to humans and conspecifics, respectively, to four groups of privately-owned dogs: young (n=9), middle-aged (n=9), cognitively unimpaired aged (n=31), and cognitively impaired aged (n=36). The severity of cognitive impairment was considered in the last group and dogs were categorised as having either mild or severe CDS. The influence of the person and the mirror on locomotion and exploratory behaviour was also studied. Dogs were recorded in a testing room and the video recordings were subsequently analysed. Young dogs displayed more interactions involving physical contact with a person. Young and middle-aged dogs showed more vocalisations in response to social isolation. In contrast, aged animals spent more time in front of the mirror. Changes in social responsiveness associated with severe CDS included decreased response to social isolation and human interaction and increased time in front of the mirror, suggesting a deficit in habituation. Testing of spontaneous activity might help to characterise CDS in aged dogs, a condition increasingly diagnosed in veterinary clinics and a potentially useful natural model of Alzheimer's disease in humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. F1F0 ATP Synthase–Cyclophilin D Interaction Contributes to Diabetes-Induced Synaptic Dysfunction and Cognitive Decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shijun; Du, Fang; Wu, Long; Zhang, Zhihua; Zhong, Changjia; Yu, Qing; Wang, Yongfu; Lue, Lih-Fen; Walker, Douglas G.; Douglas, Justin T.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial abnormalities are well known to cause cognitive decline. However, the underlying molecular basis of mitochondria-associated neuronal and synaptic dysfunction in the diabetic brain remains unclear. Here, using a mitochondrial single-channel patch clamp and cyclophilin D (CypD)-deficient mice (Ppif −/−) with streptozotocin-induced diabetes, we observed an increase in the probability of Ca2+-induced mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening in brain mitochondria of diabetic mice, which was further confirmed by mitochondrial swelling and cytochrome c release induced by Ca2+ overload. Diabetes-induced elevation of CypD triggers enhancement of F1F0 ATP synthase–CypD interaction, which in turn leads to mPTP opening. Indeed, in patients with diabetes, brain cypD protein levels were increased. Notably, blockade of the F1F0 ATP synthase–CypD interaction by CypD ablation protected against diabetes-induced mPTP opening, ATP synthesis deficits, oxidative stress, and mitochondria dysfunction. Furthermore, the absence of CypD alleviated deficits in synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory in diabetic mice. Thus, blockade of ATP synthase interaction with CypD provides a promising new target for therapeutic intervention in diabetic encephalopathy. PMID:27554467

  1. Modulation of Rho GTPases rescues brain mitochondrial dysfunction, cognitive deficits and aberrant synaptic plasticity in female mice modeling Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, Bianca; Valenti, Daniela; Chiodi, Valentina; Ferrante, Antonella; de Bari, Lidia; Fiorentini, Carla; Domenici, Maria Rosaria; Ricceri, Laura; Vacca, Rosa Anna; Fabbri, Alessia; Laviola, Giovanni

    2015-06-01

    Rho GTPases are molecules critically involved in neuronal plasticity and cognition. We have previously reported that modulation of brain Rho GTPases by the bacterial toxin CNF1 rescues the neurobehavioral phenotype in MeCP2-308 male mice, a model of Rett syndrome (RTT). RTT is a rare X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder and a genetic cause of intellectual disability, for which no effective therapy is available. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been proposed to be involved in the mechanism of the disease pathogenesis. Here we demonstrate that modulation of Rho GTPases by CNF1 rescues the reduced mitochondrial ATP production via oxidative phosphorylation in the brain of MeCP2-308 heterozygous female mice, the condition which more closely recapitulates that of RTT patients. In RTT mouse brain, CNF1 also restores the alterations in the activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) complexes and of ATP synthase, the molecular machinery responsible for the majority of cell energy production. Such effects were achieved through the upregulation of the protein content of those MRC complexes subunits, which were defective in RTT mouse brain. Restored mitochondrial functionality was accompanied by the rescue of deficits in cognitive function (spatial reference memory in the Barnes maze), synaptic plasticity (long-term potentiation) and Tyr1472 phosphorylation of GluN2B, which was abnormally enhanced in the hippocampus of RTT mice. Present findings bring into light previously unknown functional mitochondrial alterations in the brain of female mice modeling RTT and provide the first evidence that RTT brain mitochondrial dysfunction can be rescued by modulation of Rho GTPases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  2. Liraglutide promotes improvements in objective measures of cognitive dysfunction in individuals with mood disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansur, Rodrigo B; Ahmed, Juhie; Cha, Danielle S

    2017-01-01

    score (age and education corrected) (Cohen's d=0.64, p=0.009) and in a composite Z-score comprising multiple cognitive tests (i.e. Digit Symbol Substitution Test, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Stroop test) (Cohen's d=0.77, p

  3. Cognitive Dysfunction Is Worse among Pediatric Patients with Bipolar Disorder Type I than Type II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkel, Lindsay S.; West, Amy E.; Jacobs, Rachel; Sweeney, John A.; Pavuluri, Mani N.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Impaired profiles of neurocognitive function have been consistently demonstrated among pediatric patients with bipolar disorder (BD), and may aid in the identification of endophenotypes across subtypes of the disorder. This study aims to determine phenotypic cognitive profiles of patients with BD Type I and II. Methods: Subjects (N =…

  4. Selective Attention, Working Memory, and Executive Function as Potential Independent Sources of Cognitive Dysfunction in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, James M; Robinson, Benjamin; Leonard, Carly J; Hahn, Britta; Chen, Shuo; McMahon, Robert P; Luck, Steven J

    2017-11-11

    People with schizophrenia demonstrate impairments in selective attention, working memory, and executive function. Given the overlap in these constructs, it is unclear if these represent distinct impairments or different manifestations of one higher-order impairment. To examine this question, we administered tasks from the basic cognitive neuroscience literature to measure visual selective attention, working memory capacity, and executive function in 126 people with schizophrenia and 122 healthy volunteers. Patients demonstrated deficits on all tasks with the exception of selective attention guided by strong bottom-up inputs. Although the measures of top-down control of selective attention, working memory, and executive function were all intercorrelated, several sources of evidence indicate that working memory and executive function are separate sources of variance. Specifically, both working memory and executive function independently contributed to the discrimination of group status and independently accounted for variance in overall general cognitive ability as assessed by the MATRICS battery. These two cognitive functions appear to be separable features of the cognitive impairments observed in schizophrenia. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. HCN channels are a novel therapeutic target for cognitive dysfunction in Neurofibromatosis type 1.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omrani, A.; Van der Vaart, A.; Mientjes, E.; Woerden, G.M.; Hojjati, M.R.; Li, K.W.; Gutmann, D.H.; Levelt, C.N.; Smit, A.B.; Silva, A.J.; Kushner, S.A.; Elgersma, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairments are a major clinical feature of the common neurogenetic disease neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Previous studies have demonstrated that increased neuronal inhibition underlies the learning deficits in NF1, however, the molecular mechanism underlying this cell-type specificity

  6. HCN channels are a novel therapeutic target for cognitive dysfunction in Neurofibromatosis type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omrani, A; van der Vaart, T; Mientjes, E; van Woerden, G M; Hojjati, M R; Li, K W; Gutmann, D H; Levelt, C N; Smit, A B; Silva, A J; Kushner, S A; Elgersma, Y

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairments are a major clinical feature of the common neurogenetic disease neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Previous studies have demonstrated that increased neuronal inhibition underlies the learning deficits in NF1, however, the molecular mechanism underlying this cell-type specificity

  7. Children with chronic lung diseases have cognitive dysfunction as assessed by event-related potential (auditory P300) and Stanford-Binet IQ (SB-IV) test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Terez Boshra; Abd Elmonaem, Mahmoud Tarek; Khalil, Lobna Hamed; Goda, Mona Hamdy; Sanyelbhaa, Hossam; Ramzy, Mourad Alfy

    2016-10-01

    Chronic lung disease (CLD) in children represents a heterogeneous group of many clinico-pathological entities with risk of adverse impact of chronic or intermittent hypoxia. So far, few researchers have investigated the cognitive function in these children, and the role of auditory P300 in the assessment of their cognitive function has not been investigated yet. This study was designed to assess the cognitive functions among schoolchildren with different chronic pulmonary diseases using both auditory P300 and Stanford-Binet test. This cross-sectional study included 40 school-aged children who were suffering from chronic chest troubles other than asthma and 30 healthy children of similar age, gender and socioeconomic state as a control group. All subjects were evaluated through clinical examination, radiological evaluation and spirometry. Audiological evaluation included (basic otological examination, pure-tone, speech audiometry and immittancemetry). Cognitive function was assessed by auditory P300 and psychological evaluation using Stanford-Binet test (4th edition). Children with chronic lung diseases had significantly lower anthropometric measures compared to healthy controls. They had statistically significant lower IQ scores and delayed P300 latencies denoting lower cognitive abilities. Cognitive dysfunction correlated to severity of disease. P300 latencies were prolonged among hypoxic patients. Cognitive deficits in children with different chronic lung diseases were best detected using both Stanford-Binet test and auditory P300. P300 is an easy objective tool. P300 is affected early with hypoxia and could alarm subtle cognitive dysfunction.

  8. Anti-RAGE antibody attenuates isoflurane-induced cognitive dysfunction in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chengmei; Yi, Duan; Li, Zhengqian; Zhou, Yongde; Cao, Yiyun; Sun, Yan; Chui, Dehua; Guo, Xiangyang

    2017-03-30

    Several animal studies demonstrated that the volatile anesthetic isoflurane could influence the blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity, which involved the cognitive impairment. Increasing evidence has also shown that the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) played a major role in maintaining the integrity of BBB. The present study aimed to determine whether the RAGE-specific antibody protects against BBB disruption and cognitive impairment induced by isoflurane exposure in aged rats. 108 aged rats were randomly divided into four groups: (1) control group (Control); (2) 4h of 2% isoflurane exposure group (ISO); (3) RAGE antibody (20μL, 2.5μg/μL) treated+4h of 2% isoflurane exposure group (anti-RAGE+ISO); (4) RAGE antibody (20μL, 2.5μg/μL) treated group (anti-RAGE). The isoflurane anesthesia resulted in the upregulation of hippocampal RAGE expression, disruption of BBB integrity, neuroinflammation, and beta-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation in aged rats. In addition, significant cognitive deficits in the Morris water maze test was also observed. The antibody pretreatment resulted in significant improvements in BBB integrity. Furthermore, the expression of RAGE and proinflammatory mediators, as well as, Aβ accumulation were attenuated. Moreover, the antibody administration attenuated the isoflurane-induced cognitive impairment in aged rats. These results demonstrate that RAGE signaling is involved in BBB damage after isoflurane exposure. Thus, the RAGE antibody represents a novel therapeutic intervention to prevent isoflurane-induced cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cognitive remission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortolato, Beatrice; Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Köhler, Cristiano A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunction in major depressive disorder (MDD) encompasses several domains, including but not limited to executive function, verbal memory, and attention. Furthermore, cognitive dysfunction is a frequent residual manifestation in depression and may persist during the remitte...

  10. Reasoning about Frailty in Neurology: Neurobiological Correlates and Clinical Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canevelli, M; Troili, F; Bruno, G

    2014-01-01

    To date, the frailty syndrome has surprisingly attracted limited attention in the field of neurology and neuroscience. Nevertheless, several concepts closely related to frailty, such as vulnerability, susceptibility, and homeostatic reserves, have been increasingly investigated and documented at level of neuronal cells, brain networks, and functions. Similarly, several aspects commonly assessed in the neurological practice, including cognitive functioning and emotional/affective status, clearly appear to be major determinants of the individual's vulnerability and resiliency to stressors. Therefore, they should be carefully considered in the clinical approach to frail subjects. Moreover, dysfunctions of these domains, if timely detected, may be suitable to be targeted by interventions providing beneficial effects to the overall health status of the individual. In the present article, we discuss the neurobiological processes potentially contributing to frailty. Moreover, we reason about the clinical manifestations allowing the prompt and easy recognition of frail persons in the neurological practice.

  11. The Effects of a Cognitive Information Processing Career Intervention on the Dysfunctional Career Thoughts, Locus of Control, and Career Decision Self-Efficacy of Underprepared College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Kristina M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of a seven-session career intervention in a First Year Experience course on the dysfunctional career thoughts, locus of control, and career decision self-efficacy of underprepared college students. The career intervention was based on the cognitive information processing approach to career decision making…

  12. Urtica dioica leaves modulates hippocampal smoothened-glioma associated oncogene-1 pathway and cognitive dysfunction in chronically stressed mice.

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    Patel, Sita Sharan; Mahindroo, Neeraj; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2016-10-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of Urtica dioica (UD) extract against chronic unpredictable stress (CUS)-induced associative memory dysfunction and attempted to explore the possible mechanism. Male Swiss albino mice (25-30g) were divided into six groups, viz. group-I received 0.3% carboxymethyl cellulose and served as control (CTRL), group II was exposed to CUS (21days) and received vehicle (CUS), group III was subjected to CUS and received Hypericum perforatum extract (350mg/kg, p.o.) (CUS+HYP), group IV received Hypericum perforatum extract (350mg/kg, p.o.) (CTRL+HYP); group V was subjected to CUS and received UD extract (50mg/kg, p.o.) (CUS+UD), group VI received UD extract (50mg/kg, p.o.) (CTRL+UD). CUS significantly induced body weight loss (peffects. UD extract might prove to be effective for stress mediated neurological disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Nicotinic α7 and α4β2 agonists enhance the formation and retrieval of recognition memory: Potential mechanisms for cognitive performance enhancement in neurological and psychiatric disorders.

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    McLean, Samantha L; Grayson, Ben; Marsh, Samuel; Zarroug, Samah H O; Harte, Michael K; Neill, Jo C

    2016-04-01

    Cholinergic dysfunction has been shown to be central to the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease and has also been postulated to contribute to cognitive dysfunction observed in various psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Deficits are found across a number of cognitive domains and in spite of several attempts to develop new therapies, these remain an unmet clinical need. In the current study we investigated the efficacy of donepezil, risperidone and selective nicotinic α7 and α4β2 receptor agonists to reverse a delay-induced deficit in recognition memory. Adult female Hooded Lister rats received drug treatments and were tested in the novel object recognition (NOR) task following a 6h inter-trial interval (ITI). In all treatment groups, there was no preference for the left or right identical objects in the acquisition trial. Risperidone failed to enhance recognition memory in this paradigm whereas donepezil was effective such that rats discriminated between the novel and familiar object in the retention trial following a 6h ITI. Although a narrow dose range of PNU-282987 and RJR-2403 was tested, only one dose of each increased recognition memory, the highest dose of PNU-282987 (10mg/kg) and the lowest dose of RJR-2403 (0.1mg/kg), indicative of enhanced cognitive performance. Interestingly, these compounds were also efficacious when administered either before the acquisition or the retention trial of the task, suggesting an important role for nicotinic receptor subtypes in the formation and retrieval of recognition memory. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Endothelin-1 Mediates Brain Microvascular Dysfunction Leading to Long-Term Cognitive Impairment in a Model of Experimental Cerebral Malaria.

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    Brandi D Freeman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium falciparum infection causes a wide spectrum of diseases, including cerebral malaria, a potentially life-threatening encephalopathy. Vasculopathy is thought to contribute to cerebral malaria pathogenesis. The vasoactive compound endothelin-1, a key participant in many inflammatory processes, likely mediates vascular and cognitive dysfunctions in cerebral malaria. We previously demonstrated that C57BL6 mice infected with P. berghei ANKA, our fatal experimental cerebral malaria model, sustained memory loss. Herein, we demonstrate that an endothelin type A receptor (ETA antagonist prevented experimental cerebral malaria-induced neurocognitive impairments and improved survival. ETA antagonism prevented blood-brain barrier disruption and cerebral vasoconstriction during experimental cerebral malaria, and reduced brain endothelial activation, diminishing brain microvascular congestion. Furthermore, exogenous endothelin-1 administration to P. berghei NK65-infected mice, a model generally regarded as a non-cerebral malaria negative control for P. berghei ANKA infection, led to experimental cerebral malaria-like memory deficits. Our data indicate that endothelin-1 is critical in the development of cerebrovascular and cognitive impairments with experimental cerebral malaria. This vasoactive peptide may thus serve as a potential target for adjunctive therapy in the management of cerebral malaria.

  15. Effectiveness of a cognitive behavioral therapy for dysfunctional eating among patients admitted for bariatric surgery: a randomized controlled trial.

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    Gade, Hege; Hjelmesæth, Jøran; Rosenvinge, Jan H; Friborg, Oddgeir

    2014-01-01

    To examine whether cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) alleviates dysfunctional eating (DE) patterns and symptoms of anxiety and depression in morbidly obese patients planned for bariatric surgery. A total of 98 (68 females) patients with a mean (SD) age of 43 (10) years and BMI 43.5 (4.9) kg/m(2) were randomly assigned to a CBT-group or a control group receiving usual care (i.e., nutritional support and education). The CBT-group received ten weekly intervention sessions. DE, anxiety, and depression were assessed by the TFEQ R-21 and HADS, respectively. Compared with controls, the CBT-patients showed significantly less DE, affective symptoms, and a larger weight loss at follow-up. The effect sizes were large (DE-cognitive restraint, g = -.92, P ≤ .001; DE-uncontrolled eating, g = -.90, P ≤ .001), moderate (HADS-depression, g = -.73, P ≤ .001; DE-emotional eating, g = -.67, P ≤ .001; HADS-anxiety, g = -.62, P = .003), and low (BMI, g = -.24, P = .004). This study supports the use of CBT in helping patients preparing for bariatric surgery to reduce DE and to improve mental health. This clinical trial is registered with NCT01403558.

  16. Effectiveness of a Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Dysfunctional Eating among Patients Admitted for Bariatric Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Hege Gade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine whether cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT alleviates dysfunctional eating (DE patterns and symptoms of anxiety and depression in morbidly obese patients planned for bariatric surgery. Design and Methods. A total of 98 (68 females patients with a mean (SD age of 43 (10 years and BMI 43.5 (4.9 kg/m2 were randomly assigned to a CBT-group or a control group receiving usual care (i.e., nutritional support and education. The CBT-group received ten weekly intervention sessions. DE, anxiety, and depression were assessed by the TFEQ R-21 and HADS, respectively. Results. Compared with controls, the CBT-patients showed significantly less DE, affective symptoms, and a larger weight loss at follow-up. The effect sizes were large (DE-cognitive restraint, g=-.92, P≤.001; DE-uncontrolled eating, g=-.90, P≤.001, moderate (HADS-depression, g=-.73, P≤.001; DE-emotional eating, g=-.67, P≤.001; HADS-anxiety, g=-.62, P=.003, and low (BMI, g=-.24, P=.004. Conclusion. This study supports the use of CBT in helping patients preparing for bariatric surgery to reduce DE and to improve mental health. This clinical trial is registered with NCT01403558.

  17. Western Diet Consumption and Cognitive Impairment: Links to Hippocampal Dysfunction and Obesity

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    Kanoski, Scott E.; Davidson, Terry L.

    2011-01-01

    Intake of saturated fats and simple carbohydrates, two of the primary components of a modern Western diet, is linked with the development of obesity and Alzheimer's Disease. The present paper summarizes research showing that Western diet intake is associated with cognitive impairment, with a specific emphasis on learning and memory functions that are dependent on the integrity of the hippocampus. The paper then considers evidence that saturated fat and simple carbohydrate intake is correlated with neurobiological changes in the hippocampus that may be related to the ability of these dietary components to impair cognitive function. Finally, a model is described proposing that Western diet consumption contributes to the development of excessive food intake and obesity, in part, by interfering with a type of hippocampal-dependent memory inhibition that is critical in the ability of animals to refrain from responding to environmental cues associated with food, and ultimately from consuming energy intake in excess of that driven solely by caloric need. PMID:21167850

  18. The Correlations Between Postmortem Brain Pathologies and Cognitive Dysfunction in Aging and Alzheimer's Disease.

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    Qiu, Wen-Ying; Yang, Qian; Zhang, Wanying; Wang, Naili; Zhang, Di; Huang, Yue; Ma, Chao

    2017-11-06

    Background The pathological diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's disease (AD) updated by National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association (NIA-AA) in 2012 has been widely adopted, but the clinicopathological relevance remained obscure in Chinese population. Objective This study aims to investigate the correlations between the antemortem clinical cognitive performances and the postmortem neuropathological changes in the aging and AD brains collected in a human brain bank in China. Method A total of 52 human brains with antemortem cognitive status information [Everyday Cognition (ECog)] were collected through the willed donation program by CAMS/PUMC Human Brain Bank. Pathological changes were evaluated with the "ABC" score following the guidelines of NIA-AA. The clinicopathological relationship was analyzed with correlation analysis and general linear multivariate model. Results The general ABC score has a significant correlation with global ECog score (r=0.37, p=0.014) and most of ECog domains. The CERAD score of neuritic plaques (C score) has a significant correlation with global ECog score (r=0.40, p=0.007) and the majority of ECog domains, such as memory (r=0.50, p=0.001), language (r=0.45, p=0.002), visuospatial functions (r=0.31, p=0.040), planning (r=0.35, p=0.021) and organization (r=0.39, p=0.010). The Braak stage of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) (B score) has a moderate correlation with memory (r=0.32, p=0.035). The Thal phases of amyloid-β (Aβ) deposits (A score) presents no significant correlation with any of ECog domains. Conclusion In this study, we verified the correlation of postmortem C and B scores, but not the A score with cognition performance in a collection of samples from the Chinese human brain bank. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Enduring cognitive dysfunction in unipolar major depression: a test-retest study using the Stroop paradigm.

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    Hammar, Asa; Sørensen, Lin; Ardal, Guro; Oedegaard, Ketil Joachim; Kroken, Rune; Roness, Atle; Lund, Anders

    2010-08-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate automatic and effortful information processing with the Stroop paradigm in a long term perspective in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Patients were tested at two test occasions: at inclusion with a Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) score >18, and after 6 months, when most patients had experienced symptom reduction. The Stroop paradigm is considered to measure aspects of attention and executive functioning and consists of three conditions/cards: naming the color of the patches (Color), reading of the color-words (Word) and naming the ink color of color-words (Color-Word). The Color-Word condition is proved to be the most cognitive demanding task and requires the proband to actively suppress interference and is therefore considered to require more effortful information processing, whereas naming the color of the patches and reading the color-words are expected to be more automatic and less cognitive demanding. A homogenous group of 19 patients with unipolar recurrent MDD according to DSM-IV and a HDRS score of >18 were included in the study. A control group was individually matched for age, gender and level of education. Depressed patients performed equal to the control group on the Color and Word cards at both test occasions. However, the patients were impaired compared with the control group on the Color-Word card task at both test occasions. Thus, the depressed patients showed no improvement of effortful attention/executive performance as a function of symptom reduction. The results indicate that the depressed patients showed impaired cognitive performance on cognitive demanding tasks when symptomatic and that this impairment prevailed after 6 months, despite significant improvement in their depressive symptoms.

  20. Chronic Stress Contributes to Cognitive Dysfunction and Hippocampal Metabolic Abnormalities in APP/PS1 Mice

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    Bing Han

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Stress response is determined by the brain, and the brain is a sensitive target for stress. Our previous experiments have confirmed that once the stress response is beyond the tolerable limit of the brain, particularly that of the hippocampus, it will have deleterious effects on hippocampal structure and function; however, the metabolic mechanisms for this are not well understood. Methods: Here, we used morris water maze, elisa and gas chromatography-time of flight/mass spectrometry to observe the changes in cognition, neuropathology and metabolomics in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice and wild-type (C57 mice caused by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS, we also further explored the correlation between cognition and metabolomics. Results: We found that 4 weeks of CUMS aggravated cognitive impairment and increased amyloid-β deposition in APP/PS1 mice, but did not affect C57 mice. Under non-stress conditions, compared with C57 mice, there were 8 different metabolites in APP/PS1 mice. However, following CUMS, 3 different metabolites were changed compared with untreated C57 mice. Compared to APP/PS1 mice, there were 7 different metabolites in APP/PS1+CUMS mice. Among these alterations, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, valine, serine, beta-alanine and o-phosphorylethanolamine, which are involved in sphingolipid metabolism, synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies, and amino acid metabolism. Conclusion: The results indicate that APP/PS1 mice are more vulnerable to stress than C57 mice, and the metabolic mechanisms of stress-related cognitive impairment in APP/PS1 mice are related to multiple pathways and networks, including sphingolipid metabolism, synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies, and amino acid metabolism.

  1. Cognitive-motor dysfunction after severe traumatic brain injury: A cerebral interhemispheric disconnection syndrome.

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    Falchook, Adam D; Porges, Eric C; Nadeau, Stephen E; Leon, Susan A; Williamson, John B; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2015-01-01

    In most right-handed people, the left hemisphere is dominant for programming the temporal and spatial "how" (praxis) aspects of purposeful skilled movements, and the right hemisphere is dominant for control of the intentional "when" aspects of actions that mediate initiation, persistence, termination, and inhibition. Since the interhemispheric axons of the corpus callosum are especially susceptible to shearing from torsional forces during traumatic brain injury (TBI), the goal of this study was to learn whether participants with a history of severe traumatic brain injury demonstrate three types of cognitive-motor impairments that may result from callosal injury: ideomotor apraxia of the left hand, limb kinetic apraxia of the left hand, and hypokinesia of the right hand in response to left hemispatial stimuli. Nine participants with severe TBI and nine healthy control participants were studied for the presence of ideomotor apraxia, limb kinetic apraxia, and hypokinesia. When compared to the control participants, the participants with TBI revealed ideomotor apraxia and limb kinetic apraxia of the left hand and hypokinesia in response to left-sided visual stimuli when tested with the right hand. TBI appears to cause unilateral disorders of cognitive-motor functions. Future research is needed to understand how these cognitive-motor disorders are related to interhemispheric disconnection most likely induced by injury to the corpus callosum.

  2. Cognitive and behaviour dysfunction of children with neurocysticercosis: a cross-sectional study.

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    Prasad, Rajniti; Shambhavi; Mishra, Om P; Upadhyay, Shashi K; Singh, Tej B; Singh, Utpal Kant

    2014-10-01

    Eighty-three confirmed cases of neurocysticercosis diagnosed as per modified delBrutto criteria were enrolled in the study (Group-I) to observe cognitive and behavioural changes. Controls consisted of two groups: children with idiopathic generalized tonic-clonic seizure (Group-II) and normal children with non-specific cough (Group-III). Cases and controls were subjected to cognitive and behaviour assessment. There was significant difference in the intelligence quotient (IQ) of cases in domains of visual perception, immediate recall, analysis synthesis and reasoning, verbal ability, memory and spatial ability. In the age group of 6-18 years, cases had significantly more behaviour problems than control without seizure, in domains of anxious depressed, withdrawn depressed, somatic problems, social problems and rule-breaking behaviour. Neurocysticercosis causes decline in cognitive function and behaviours in older children, which should be recognized early for appropriate management and to avoid undue parental anxiety. © The Author [2014]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Ginsennoside rd attenuates cognitive dysfunction in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

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    Liu, Juanfang; Yan, Xiaodong; Li, Ling; Zhu, Yi; Qin, Kefeng; Zhou, Linfu; Sun, Dong; Zhang, Xiaohui; Ye, Ruidong; Zhao, Gang

    2012-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the production of β-amyloid proteins and hyperphosphorylation of tau protein. Inflammation and apoptotic severity were highly correlated with earlier age at onset of Alzheimer's disease and were also associated with cognitive decline. This study aims to examine whether the traditional Chinese medicine ginsennoside Rd could prevent cognitive deficit and take neuroprotective effects in β-amyloid peptide 1-40-induced rat model of Alzheimer's disease. To produce Alzheimer's disease animal model, aggregated β-amyloid peptide 1-40 injected into hippocampus bilaterally. Ginsennoside Rd protected their cognitive impairment and improved their memory function by daily intraperitoneal injection for 30 days consecutively. In addition, ginsennoside Rd alleviated the inflammation induced by β-amyloid peptide 1-40. Furthermore, ginsennoside Rd played a role in the down-regulation of caspase-3 proteins and reduced the apoptosis that normally followed β-amyloid peptide 1-40 injection. The results of this study showed that the pretreatment of ginsennoside Rd had neuroprotective effects in β-amyloid peptide 1-40-induced AD model rat.

  4. Multifunctional neuroprotective effect of Withanone, a compound from Withania somnifera roots in alleviating cognitive dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Anjali; Bani, Sarang; Dutt, Prabhu; Kumar Satti, Naresh; Avtar Suri, Krishan; Nabi Qazi, Ghulam

    2017-11-03

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic disorder that slowly worsens and impairs the person's memory, learning, reasoning, judgment, communication and familiar tasks with loss of orientation. AD is characterized clinically by cognitive deficit and pathologically by the deposition of β amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, associated with degeneration of the cholinergic forebrain. Withanone (WS-2), a compound isolated from root extract of Withania somnifera at doses administered orally/day to wistar rats for duration of 21 days showed significant improvement in the cognitive skill by inhibiting amyloid β-42 and attenuated the elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines like TNF alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, MCP-1, Nitric oxide, lipid peroxidation and both β- and γ- secretase enzymatic activity. Administration of WS-2 also significantly reversed the decline in acetyl choline and Glutathione (GSH) activity. None of the treatments that are available today alter the underlying causes of this terminal disease. Few preliminary clinical treatments have demonstrated that some plant medicines do ameliorate and improve memory and learning in patients with mild-to-moderate AD. WS-2 showed promise in AD treatment because of cognitive benefits and more importantly, mechanisms of action with respect to the fundamental pathophysiology of the disease, not limited to the inhibition of AChE, but also include the modification of Aβ processing, protection against oxidative stress and anti-inflammatory effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. PYRITINOL USAGE IN PEDIATRIC NEUROLOGY

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    N. N. Zavadenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of developmental disorders, correction of learning disabilities and behavioral problems in children should be prompt, complex and include pharmacotherapy with nootropic agents. The results of recent studies shown in this review proved effectiveness of pharmacotherapy with pyritinol in children with perinatal injury of central nervous system and its consequences, psychomotor and speech development delay, dyslexia, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, cognitive disorders and learning disabilities (including manifestations of epilepsy, chronic tic disorders and Tourette syndrome. Due to its ability to optimize metabolic processes in central nervous system, pyritinol is used in treatment of vegetative dysfunction in children and adolescents, especially associated with asthenical manifestations, as well as in complex therapy of exertion headache and migraine. The drug is effective in treatment of cognitive disorders in children and adolescents with epilepsy, pyritinol was administered without changing of the basic anticonvulsive therapy and no deterioration (increase of severity of seizures or intensity of epileptiform activity on electroencephalogramms was observed. Significant nootropic effect of pyritinol, including neurometabolic, neuroprotective, neurodynamic and other mechanisms, in association with safety and rare side effects of this drug determines its wide usage in pediatric neurology.

  6. Blood-Brain Barrier Dysfunction Precedes Cognitive Decline and Neurodegeneration in Diabetic Insulin Resistant Mouse Model: An Implication for Causal Link

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    Ryusuke Takechi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic insulin resistance and pro-diabetic diet are reported to increase dementia risk through unknown mechanisms. Emerging evidence suggests that the integrity of blood-brain barrier (BBB is central to the onset and progression of neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment. Therefore, the current study investigated the effect of pro-diabetic diets on cognitive dysfunction in association to BBB integrity and its putative mechanisms. In C57BL/6J mice chronically ingested with a diet enriched in fat and fructose (HFF, Morris Water Maze (MWM test indicated no significant cognitive decline after 4 weeks of HFF feeding compared to low-fat (LF fed control. However, at this stage, BBB dysfunction accompanied by heightened neuroinflammation in cortex and hippocampal regions was already evident. After 24 weeks, HFF fed mice showed significantly deteriorated cognitive function concomitant with substantial neurodegeneration, which both showed significant associations with increased BBB permeability. In addition, the data indicated that the loss of BBB tight junctions was significantly associated with heightened inflammation and leukocyte infiltration. The data collectively suggest that in mice maintained on pro-diabetic diet, the dysfunctional BBB associated to inflammation and leukocyte recruitment precedes the neurodegeneration and cognitive decline, possibly indicating causal association.

  7. The acute exposure of tetrachloro-p-benzoquinone (a.k.a. chloranil) triggers inflammation and neurological dysfunction via Toll-like receptor 4 signaling: The protective role of melatonin preconditioning.

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    Fu, Juanli; Xia, Xiaomin; Liu, Zixuan; Wang, Yawen; Wang, Yuxin; Shi, Qiong; Song, Xiufang; Song, Erqun; Song, Yang

    2017-04-15

    This study is aimed to investigate the inflammation and neurological dysfunction induced by tetrachloro-p-benzoquinone (TCBQ) through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling. We also investigated the protective role of melatonin as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. In vitro model was established by rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells, meanwhile, TLR4 wild-type (C57BL/6) and knockout mice (C57BL/10ScNJ TLR4(-/-)) were used as in vivo model. In vitro study showed TCBQ exposure enhanced the expression of TLR4, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. By contrast, melatonin decreased TLR4 and MyD88 expressions. Moreover, our result indicated that melatonin disrupted the formation of TLR4/MyD88/MD2/CD14 complex. In addition, melatonin terminated TCBQ-mediated phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, and extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK) signaling and hampered its downstream pro-inflammatory cytokine releases. In vivo result also indicated TLR4 deficiency partially protected against TCBQ-induced morphological and neuropathological changes in mice brain, suggested the role of TLR4. In conclusion, melatonin modulates TCBQ-mediated inflammatory genes through TLR4/MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. Our current study, to the best of our knowledge, is the first time show melatonin not only disrupt the binding of TLR4 and MyD88, but also restricted the formation of TLR4/MD2/CD14 complex, suggesting that melatonin supplementary may represent a valuable therapeutic strategy for inflammatory neurological dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Withania somnifera leaf alleviates cognitive dysfunction by enhancing hippocampal plasticity in high fat diet induced obesity model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchanda, Shaffi; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2017-03-03

    Sedentary lifestyle, psychological stress and labor saving devices in this current society often disrupts the energy gain and expenditure balance leading to obesity. High caloric diet is associated with the high prevalence of cognitive dysfunction and neuropsychiatric disorders in addition to cardiovascular and metabolic abnormalities. The present study was aimed to elucidate the potential beneficial effect of dry leaf powder of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) in preventing the cognitive decline associated with diet induced obesity. Experiments were performed on four groups of young adult female rats: [Low fat diet (LFD) rats fed on regular low fat chow, High fat diet (HFD) rats on feed containing 30% fat by weight, Low fat diet extract (LFDE) rats given regular chow and dry leaf powder of Ashwagandha 1 mg/g of body weight (ASH) and high fat diet extract (HFDE) rats fed on diet containing high fat and dry leaf powder of ASH. All the rats were kept on their respective diet regimen for 12 weeks. ASH treated rats showed significant improvement in their working memory and locomotor coordination during behavioral studies as compared to HFD rats. At the molecular level, ASH treatment was observed to restore the levels of BDNF and its receptor TRKB as well as the expression of other synaptic regulators, which are highly implicated in synaptic plasticity. Further, ASH triggered the activation of PI3/AKT pathway of cell survival and plasticity by enhancing the levels of phosphorylated Akt-1 and immediate early genes viz. c-Jun and c-fos. ASH could be a key regulator in maintaining the synaptic plasticity in HFD induced obesity and can serve as a nootropic candidate against obesity induced cognitive impairments.

  9. A pilot study of cerebral tissue oxygenation and postoperative cognitive dysfunction among patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting randomised to surgery with or without cardiopulmonary bypass*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, W F; van Harten, A E; Koene, B M J A; Mariani, M A; Koerts, J; Tucha, O; Absalom, A R; Scheeren, T W L

    2014-06-01

    Coronary artery bypass surgery, performed with or without cardiopulmonary bypass, is frequently followed by postoperative cognitive decline. Near-infrared spectroscopy is commonly used to assess cerebral tissue oxygenation, especially during cardiac surgery. Recent studies have suggested an association between cerebral desaturation and postoperative cognitive dysfunction. We therefore studied cerebral oxygen desaturation, defined as area under the cerebral oxygenation curve 10 min.%, with respect to cognitive performance at 4 days (early) and 3 months (late) postoperatively, compared with baseline, using a computerised cognitive test battery. We included 60 patients, of mean (SD) age 62.8 (9.4) years, scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass grafting, who were randomly allocated to surgery with or without cardiopulmonary bypass. Cerebral desaturation occurred in only three patients and there was no difference in cerebral oxygenation between the two groups at any time. Among patients who received cardiopulmonary bypass, 18 (62%) had early cognitive decline, compared with 16 (53%) in the group without cardiopulmonary bypass (p = 0.50). Three months after surgery, 11 patients (39%) in the cardiopulmonary bypass group displayed cognitive dysfunction, compared with four (14%) in the non-cardiopulmonary bypass group (p = 0.03). The use of cardiopulmonary bypass was identified as an independent risk factor for the development of late cognitive dysfunction (OR 6.4 (95% CI 1.2-33.0) p = 0.027. In conclusion, although cerebral oxygen desaturation was rare in our population, postoperative cognitive decline was common in both groups, suggesting that factors other than hypoxic neuronal injury are responsible. © 2014 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  10. Thalamic metabolic alterations with cognitive dysfunction in idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia: a multivoxel spectroscopy study

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    Wang, Yuan; Bao, Faxiu; Ma, Shaohui; Guo, Chenguang; Jin, Chenwang; Zhang, Ming [First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University, Department of Medical Imaging, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Li, Dan [First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University, Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China)

    2014-08-15

    Although abnormalities in metabolite compositions in the thalamus are well described in patients with idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (ITN), differences in distinct thalamic subregions have not been measured with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS), and whether there are correlations between thalamic metabolites and cognitive function still remain unknown. Multivoxel MRS was recorded to investigate the metabolic alterations in the thalamic subregions of patients with ITN. The regions of interest were localized in the anterior thalamus (A-Th), intralaminar portion of the thalamus (IL-Th), posterior lateral thalamus (PL-Th), posterior medial thalamus (PM-Th), and medial and lateral pulvinar of the thalamus (PuM-Th and PuL-Th). The N-acetylaspartate to creatine (NAA/Cr) and choline to creatine (Cho/Cr) ratios were measured in the ITN and control groups. Scores of the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) were analyzed to correlate with the neuroradiological findings. The NAA/Cr ratio in the affected side of PM-Th and PL-Th in ITN patients was statistically lower than that in the corresponding regions of the thalamus in controls. The NAA/Cr ratio in the affected PM-Th was negatively associated with VAS and disease duration. Furthermore, decreases of NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr were detected in the affected side of IL-Th, and lower Cho/Cr was positively correlated with MoCA values in the ITN group. Our result of low level of NAA/Cr in the affected PM-Th probably serves as a marker of the pain-rating index, and decreased Cho/Cr in IL-Th may be an indicator of cognitive disorder in patients with ITN. (orig.)

  11. Lesion load may predict long-term cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Patti

    Full Text Available Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI techniques provided evidences into the understanding of cognitive impairment (CIm in Multiple Sclerosis (MS.To investigate the role of white matter (WM and gray matter (GM in predicting long-term CIm in a cohort of MS patients.303 out of 597 patients participating in a previous multicenter clinical-MRI study were enrolled (49.4% were lost at follow-up. The following MRI parameters, expressed as fraction (f of intracranial volume, were evaluated: cerebrospinal fluid (CSF-f, WM-f, GM-f and abnormal WM (AWM-f, a measure of lesion load. Nine years later, cognitive status was assessed in 241 patients using the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT, the Semantically Related Word List Test (SRWL, the Modified Card Sorting Test (MCST, and the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT. In particular, being SRWL a memory test, both immediate recall and delayed recall were evaluated. MCST scoring was calculated based on the number of categories, number of perseverative and non-perseverative errors.AWM-f was predictive of an impaired performance 9 years ahead in SDMT (OR 1.49, CI 1.12-1.97 p = 0.006, PASAT (OR 1.43, CI 1.14-1.80 p = 0.002, SRWL-immediate recall (OR 1.72 CI 1.35-2.20 p<0.001, SRWL-delayed recall (OR 1.61 CI 1.28-2.03 p<0.001, MCST-category (OR 1.52, CI 1.2-1.9 p<0.001, MCST-perseverative error(OR 1.51 CI 1.2-1.9 p = 0.001, MCST-non perseverative error (OR 1.26 CI 1.02-1.55 p = 0.032.In our large MS cohort, focal WM damage appeared to be the most relevant predictor of the long-term cognitive outcome.

  12. Dysfunctional freezing responses to approaching stimuli in persons with a looming cognitive style for physical threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Riskind

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Immobilizing freezing responses are associated with anxiety and may be etiologically related to several anxiety disorders. Although recent studies have sought to investigate the underlying mechanisms in freezing responses that are so problematic in many forms of anxiety, cognitive factors related to anxiety have not been investigated. This study was designed to investigate the potential moderating role of a well-documented cognitive vulnerability to anxiety, the Looming Cognitive Style (i.e., LCS; Riskind et al., 2000, which assesses the extent to which individuals tend to routinely interpret ambiguous threats (e.g., physical or social threats in a biased manner as approaching. We assessed participants’ Reaction Times (RTs when they made judgments about images of animals that differed in threat valence (threat or neutral and motion direction (approach or recede. As expected, LCS for concerns about the approach of physical dangers appeared to moderate freeze reactions. Individuals who were high on this LCS factor tended to generally exhibit a freeze-response (slower RTs and this was independent of the threat valence or motion direction of the animals. These general freezing reactions were in stark contrast to those of individuals who were low on the LCS factor for concerns about the approach of physical dangers. These participants tended to exhibit more selective and functional freezing responses that occurred only to threatening animals with approach motion; they did not exhibit freezing to neutral stimuli or any stimuli with receding motion. These findings did not appear to be explicable by a general slowing of RTs for the participants with high LCS. Moreover, the LCS factor for concerns about social threats (such as rejection or embarrassment was not related to differences in freezing; there was also no additional relationship of freezing to behavioral inhibition scores on the Behavioral Inhibition System and the Behavioral Activation System

  13. Dysfunctional Freezing Responses to Approaching Stimuli in Persons with a Looming Cognitive Style for Physical Threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskind, John H; Sagliano, Laura; Trojano, Luigi; Conson, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    Immobilizing freezing responses are associated with anxiety and may be etiologically related to several anxiety disorders. Although recent studies have sought to investigate the underlying mechanisms in freezing responses that are so problematic in many forms of anxiety, cognitive factors related to anxiety have not been investigated. This study was designed to investigate the potential moderating role of a well-documented cognitive vulnerability to anxiety, the Looming Cognitive Style (i.e., LCS; Riskind et al., 2000), which assesses the extent to which individuals tend to routinely interpret ambiguous threats (e.g., physical or social threats) in a biased manner as approaching. We assessed participants' Reaction Times (RTs) when they made judgments about images of animals that differed in threat valence (threat or neutral) and motion direction (approach or recede). As expected, LCS for concerns about the approach of physical dangers appeared to moderate freeze reactions. Individuals who were high on this LCS factor tended to generally exhibit a freeze-response (slower RTs) and this was independent of the threat valence or motion direction of the animals. These general freezing reactions were in stark contrast to those of individuals who were low on the LCS factor for concerns about the approach of physical dangers. These participants tended to exhibit more selective and functional freezing responses that occurred only to threatening animals with approach motion; they did not exhibit freezing to neutral stimuli or any stimuli with receding motion. These findings did not appear to be explicable by a general slowing of RTs for the participants with high LCS. Moreover, the LCS factor for concerns about social threats (such as rejection or embarrassment) was not related to differences in freezing; there was also no additional relationship of freezing to behavioral inhibition scores on the Behavioral Inhibition System and the Behavioral Activation System Scales (BIS

  14. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease versus anti-LGI1 limbic encephalitis in a patient with progressive cognitive dysfunction, psychiatric symptoms, involuntary facio-brachio-crural movement, and an abnormal electroencephalogram: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun L

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Li Sun, Jie Cao, Chang Liu, Yudan LvDepartment of Neurology, The First Hospital of JiLin University, ChangChun, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD is often challenging in elderly individuals, not only because of its variable clinical features but also because of nonspecific changes on the electroencephalogram (EEG in the early stages of the disease. Here we report on a patient who presented with progressive cognitive dysfunction, psychiatric symptoms, involuntary facio-brachio-crural movement, and an abnormal EEG. We provide a detailed analysis and differential diagnosis between anti-leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1 limbic encephalitis versus CJD, in the hope of providing a new understanding of CJD. A 65-year-old Chinese man presented with slowly progressive cognitive decline with psychiatric symptoms. On admission, he presented with facial grimacing and brief left upper limb dystonic posturing lasting 1–2 seconds, with hyponatremia that was difficult to rectify. Neurological examination showed increased muscle tension in the left limb but without pathological reflexes. His early EEG showed focal periodic wave complexes. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed a suspected “lace sign” in the occipital cortex. His cerebrospinal fluid was negative for LGI1 antibodies and positive for 14-3-3 brain protein. Therefore, we made a presumptive diagnosis of CJD. At the following visit, a second EEG showed paroxysmal sharp wave complexes, but the patient had a poor prognosis. Atypical facio-brachio-crural movement and nonspecific EEG changes may occasionally be found in patients with CJD or anti-LGI1 encephalitis. Clinicians should not be dissuaded from a diagnosis of CJD where the EEG does not show paroxysmal sharp wave complexes in the early stages but abnormal facio-brachio-crural movement is present.Keywords: abnormal facio-brachio-crural movement, hyponatremia, Creutzfeldt

  15. Visual dysfunction in Parkinson disease without dementia.

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    Uc, E Y; Rizzo, M; Anderson, S W; Qian, S; Rodnitzky, R L; Dawson, J D

    2005-12-27

    To determine the profiles of visual dysfunction and their relationship to motor and cognitive dysfunction and to disability in mild to moderate Parkinson disease (PD) without dementia. Seventy-six independently living participants with mild to moderate PD and 161 neurologically normal older adults were studied using a comprehensive battery to assess visual acuity, contrast sensitivity (CS), visual speed of processing and attention, spatial and motion perception, visual and verbal memory, visuoconstructional abilities, executive functions, depression, and motor function. Participants with PD scored significantly worse on all tests of vision and cognition compared with normal elderly persons. Reduced CS contributed to deficits on tests of spatial and motion perception and attention in participants with PD. Impairments in visual attention and spatial perception predicted worse cognitive function. Worse performances on tests of visual speed of processing and attention, spatial and motion perception, visual construction, and executive functions correlated with measures of postural instability and gait difficulty (in the Motor section of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale). Impairments in motor function, visual memory, mood, and executive functions predicted worse disability as measured by Schwab-England Activities of Daily Living Scale. Patients with mild to moderate Parkinson disease showed impaired visual perception and cognition compared with elderly control subjects. Visual dysfunction contributes to parkinsonian disability through its influences on cognition and locomotion.

  16. Sodium Tanshinone IIA Sulfonate Attenuates Scopolamine-Induced Cognitive Dysfunctions via Improving Cholinergic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Qing Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium Tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS is a derivative of Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA. Tan IIA has been reported to possess neuroprotective effects against Alzheimer’s disease (AD. However, whether STS possesses effect on AD remains unclear. This study aims to estimate whether STS could protect against scopolamine- (SCOP- induced learning and memory deficit in Kunming mice. Morris water maze results showed that oral administration of STS (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg and Donepezil shortened escape latency, increased crossing times of the original position of the platform, and increased the time spent in the target quadrant. STS decreased the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE and increased the activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT in the hippocampus and cortex of SCOP-treated mice. Oxidative stress results showed that STS increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and decreased the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and reactive oxygen species (ROS in hippocampus and cortex. In addition, western blot was carried out to detect the expression of apoptosis related proteins (Bcl-2, Bax, and Caspase-3. STS upregulated the protein expression of Bcl-2 and downregulated the proteins expression of Bax and Caspase-3. These results indicated that STS might become a promising therapeutic candidate for attenuating AD-like pathological dysfunction.

  17. Neurological sequelae of bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Marjolein J; Brouwer, Matthijs C; van de Beek, Diederik

    2016-07-01

    We reported on occurrence and impact of neurological sequelae after bacterial meningitis. We reviewed occurrence of neurological sequelae in children and adults after pneumococcal and meningococcal meningitis. Most frequently reported sequelae are focal neurological deficits, hearing loss, cognitive impairment and epilepsy. Adults with pneumococcal meningitis have the highest risk of developing focal neurological deficits, which are most commonly caused by cerebral infarction, but can also be due to cerebritis, subdural empyema, cerebral abscess or intracerebral bleeding. Focal deficits may improve during clinical course and even after discharge, but a proportion of patients will have persisting focal neurological deficits that often interfere in patient's daily life. Hearing loss occurs in a high proportion of patients with pneumococcal meningitis and has been associated with co-existing otitis. Children and adults recovering from bacterial meningitis without apparent neurological deficits are at risk for long-term cognitive deficits. Early identification of neurological sequelae is important for children to prevent additional developmental delay, and for adults to achieve successful return in society after the disease. Neurological sequelae occur in a substantial amount of patients following bacterial meningitis. Most frequently reported sequelae are focal neurological deficits, hearing loss, cognitive impairment and epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. PiB Fails to Map Amyloid Deposits in Cerebral Cortex of Aged Dogs with Canine Cognitive Dysfunction.

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    Fast, Rikke; Rodell, Anders; Gjedde, Albert; Mouridsen, Kim; Alstrup, Aage K; Bjarkam, Carsten R; West, Mark J; Berendt, Mette; Møller, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Dogs with Canine Cognitive Dysfunction (CCD) accumulate amyloid beta (Aβ) in the brain. As the cognitive decline and neuropathology of these old dogs share features with Alzheimer's disease (AD), the relation between Aβ and cognitive decline in animal models of cognitive decline is of interest to the understanding of AD. However, the sensitivity of the biomarker Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) to the presence of Aβ in humans and in other mammalian species is in doubt. To test the sensitivity and assess the distribution of Aβ in dog brain, we mapped the brains of dogs with signs of CCD (n = 16) and a control group (n = 4) of healthy dogs with radioactively labeled PiB ([(11)C]PiB). Structural magnetic resonance imaging brain scans were obtained from each dog. Tracer washout analysis yielded parametric maps of PiB retention in brain. In the CCD group, dogs had significant retention of [(11)C]PiB in the cerebellum, compared to the cerebral cortex. Retention in the cerebellum is at variance with evidence from brains of humans with AD. To confirm the lack of sensitivity, we stained two dog brains with the immunohistochemical marker 6E10, which is sensitive to the presence of both Aβ and Aβ precursor protein (AβPP). The 6E10 stain revealed intracellular material positive for Aβ or AβPP, or both, in Purkinje cells. The brains of the two groups of dogs did not have significantly different patterns of [(11)C]PiB binding, suggesting that the material detected with 6E10 is AβPP rather than Aβ. As the comparison with the histological images revealed no correlation between the [(11)C]PiB and Aβ and AβPP deposits in post-mortem brain, the marked intracellular staining implies intracellular involvement of amyloid processing in the dog brain. We conclude that PET maps of [(11)C]PiB retention in brain of dogs with CCD fundamentally differ from the images obtained in most humans with AD.

  19. Low-Molecular-Weight Fucoidan Attenuates Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Improves Neurological Outcome After Traumatic Brain Injury in Aged Mice: Involvement of Sirt3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Zhu, Mang; He, Zhong-Zheng

    2016-11-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and long-term disability. Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from brown algae, possesses potent anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Considering TBI happens frequently in adults, especially in aged individuals, we herein sought to define the protective effects of low-molecular-weight fucoidan (LMWF) in the aged mice. 16- to 18-month-old mice administered with LMWF (1-50 mg/kg) or vehicle were subjected to TBI using a controlled cortical impact (CCI) model. LMWF at the doses of 10 and 50 mg/kg significantly reduced both cortical and hippocampal lesion volume. This protection was associated with reduced neuronal apoptosis, as evidenced by TUNEL staining. Importantly, LMWF was effective even when administered up to 4 h after TBI. Treatment with LMWF improved long-term neurobehavioral outcomes, including sensorimotor function, and hippocampus-associated spatial learning and memory. In addition, LMWF significantly suppressed protein carbonyl, lipid peroxidation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, as well as mitochondrial dysfunction, which was evidenced by mitochondrial cytochrome c release and collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). To evaluate the underlying molecular mechanisms, the expression of sirtuin 3 (Sirt3) was detected by RT-PCR and Western blot. The results showed that TBI significantly increased the expression of Sirt3, which was further elevated by LMWF treatment. Knockdown of Sirt3 using intracerebroventricular injection of small interfering RNA (siRNA) partially prevented the therapeutic effects of LMWF. Collectively, these findings demonstrated that LMWF exerts neuroprotection against TBI in the aged brain, which may be associated with the attenuation of mitochondrial dysfunction through Sirt3 activation.

  20. Memory outcomes following cognitive interventions in children with neurological deficits: A review with a focus on under-studied populations.

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    Schaffer, Yael; Geva, Ronny

    2016-01-01

    Given the primary role of memory in children's learning and well-being, the aim of this review was to examine the outcomes of memory remediation interventions in children with neurological deficits as a function of the affected memory system and intervention method. Fifty-seven studies that evaluated the outcome of memory interventions in children were identified. Thirty-four studies met the inclusion criteria, and were included in a systematic review. Diverse rehabilitation methods for improving explicit and implicit memory in children were reviewed. The analysis indicates that teaching restoration strategies may improve, and result in the generalisation of, semantic memory and working memory performance in children older than 7 years with mild to moderate memory deficits. Factors such as longer protocols, emotional support, and personal feedback contribute to intervention efficacy. In addition, the use of compensation aids seems to be highly effective in prospective memory tasks. Finally, the review unveiled a lack of studies with young children and the absence of group interventions. These findings point to the importance of future evidence-based intervention protocols in these areas.

  1. Negative Mood States or Dysfunctional Cognitions: Their Independent and Interactional Effects in Influencing Severity of Gambling Among Chinese Problem Gamblers in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Zhuang, Xiao Yu; Jackson, Alun; Dowling, Nicki; Lo, Herman Hay Ming

    2017-09-04

    Gambling-related cognitions and negative psychological states have been proposed as major factors in the initiation and maintenance of problem gambling (PG). While there are a substantial number of studies supporting the role of cognitive dysfunctions in the initiation and maintenance of PG, very few empirical studies have explored the specific role of negative psychological states in influencing PG behaviours. In addition, very few studies have examined the interaction effects of cognitive dysfunctions and negative psychological states in exerting influence on PG behaviours. Therefore, the present study aims to examine the main and interaction effects of gambling-related cognitions and psychological states on the gambling severity among a group of problem gamblers in Hong Kong. A cross-sectional research design was adopted. A purposive sample of 177 problem gamblers who sought treatment from a social service organization in Hong Kong completed a battery of standardised questionnaires. While gambling-related cognitions were found to exert significant effects on gambling severity, negative psychological states (i.e. stress) significantly moderated the relationship between gambling cognitions and gambling severity. In essence, those participants who reported a higher level of stress had more stable and serious gambling problems than those who reported a lower level of stress irrespective of the level of gambling-related cognitions. The findings of the moderating role of negative emotions in the relationship between cognitive distortions and severity of gambling provide insight towards developing an integrated intervention model which includes both cognitive-behavioural and emotion regulation strategies in helping people with PG.

  2. Cost-effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy for dysfunctional fear of progression in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)