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Sample records for neurological assessment mfnu

  1. The effects of neurologic assessment E-learning in nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ji Yeon; Issenberg, S Barry; Roh, Young Sook

    2017-10-01

    A firm understanding of the preliminary assessment of a patient with neurological disorders is needed for ensuring optimal patient outcomes. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of using e-learning on neurologic assessment knowledge, ability, and self-confidence among nurses. This study used a non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design. Nurses working in the neurology and neurosurgery wards, Republic of Korea PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of 50 nurses was assigned to either the experimental group (n=24) or the control group (n=26). The experimental group participated in the self-directed e-learning program related to neurologic assessment, and control group underwent self-directed learning with handout. Knowledge, ability, and self-confidence were measured at pretest and posttest. There were no significant differences in knowledge (U=270, p=0.399) and self-confidence (U=241.5, p=0.171) between the two groups. Nurses in the experimental group showed higher neurologic assessment ability compared with those in the control group (U=199, p=0.028). Self-directed neurologic assessment e-learning induced improvement in the neurologic assessment ability among nurses. Self-directed e-learning can be applied for improving competencies in neurologic assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Neurology Falls. Patient Falls Risk Assessment, Neurology Clinic, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-06

    falls could be attributed to weakness or gait disorders; six in patients using assisted devices; two falls related to syncope or seizures; and two...multidisciplinary staff leading initiatives to facilitate innovative, patient - centered approaches to make Hopkins the safest place to receive patient care...Report 3. DATES COVERED (From July 2008 to Jan 2009 To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Patient Falls Risk Assessment, Neurology Clinic, Johns Hopkins

  3. Neonatal neurological assessment of offspring in maternal phenylketonuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waisbren, SE; Chang, P; Levy, HL; Shifrin, H; Allred, E; Azen, C; de la Cruz, F; Hanley, W; Koch, R; Matalon, R; Rouse, B

    This study assesses the impact of prenatal and postnatal factors in maternal phenylketonuria (PKU). The Dubowitz Neurological Assessment of the Preterm and Full-term Newborn Infant was administered within the first 8 days of life to 56 offspring of women with PKU and 45 controls. Follow-up testing

  4. The assessment of minor neurological dysfunction in infancy using the Touwen Infant Neurological Examination : strengths and limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Heineman, Kirsten R.; Bos, Arend F.; Middelburg, Karin J.

    Aim Little is known of minor neurological dysfunction (MND) in infancy. This study aimed to evaluate the inter-assessor reliability of the assessment of MND with the Touwen Infant Neurological Examination (TINE) and the construct and predictive validity of MND in infancy. Method Inter-assessor

  5. Chiropractic Identity: A Neurological, Professional, and Political Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Rosner, Anthony L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this article is to propose a focused assessment of the identity of chiropractic and its profession, triangulating multiple viewpoints converging upon various aspects and definitions of neurology, manual medicine, and alternative or mainstream medicine. Discussion Over 120 years since its inception, chiropractic has struggled to achieve an identity for which its foundations could provide optimal health care. Despite recognition of the benefits of spinal manipulation in...

  6. Student assessment by objective structured examination in a neurology clerkship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesoye, Taiwo; Smith, Sandy; Blood, Angela; Brorson, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We evaluated the reliability and predictive ability of an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) in the assessment of medical students at the completion of a neurology clerkship. Methods: We analyzed data from 195 third-year medical students who took the OSCE. For each student, the OSCE consisted of 2 standardized patient encounters. The scores obtained from each encounter were compared. Faculty clinical evaluations of each student for 2 clinical inpatient rotations were also compared. Hierarchical regression analysis was applied to test the ability of the averaged OSCE scores to predict standardized written examination scores and composite clinical scores. Results: Students' OSCE scores from the 2 standardized patient encounters were significantly correlated with each other (r = 0.347, p neurology clerkship. PMID:22855865

  7. Chiropractic Identity: A Neurological, Professional, and Political Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Anthony L

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to propose a focused assessment of the identity of chiropractic and its profession, triangulating multiple viewpoints converging upon various aspects and definitions of neurology, manual medicine, and alternative or mainstream medicine. Over 120 years since its inception, chiropractic has struggled to achieve an identity for which its foundations could provide optimal health care. Despite recognition of the benefits of spinal manipulation in various government guidelines, advances in US military and Veterans Administration, and persistently high levels of patient satisfaction, the chiropractic profession remains underrepresented in most discussions of health care delivery. Distinguishing characteristics of doctors of chiropractic include the following: (1) they embrace a model of holistic, preventive medicine (wellness); (2) they embrace a concept of neurological imbalance in which form follows function, disease follows disturbed biochemistry, and phenomenology follows physiology; (3) they diagnose, and their institutions of training are accredited by a body recognized by the US Department of Education; (4) they manage patients on a first-contact basis, often as primary care providers in geographical areas that are underserved; (5) the spine is their primary-but not exclusive-area of interaction; (6) they deliver high-velocity, low-amplitude adjustments with a superior safety record compared with other professions; and (7) they use a network of institutions worldwide that have shown increasing commitments to research. This article provides an overview of chiropractic identity from 6 points of view: (1) concepts of manual medicine; (2) areas of interest beyond the spine; (3) concepts of the chiropractic subluxation; (4) concepts of neurology; (5) concepts of mainstream or alternative health care; and (6) concepts of primary care, first-contact provider, or specialist.

  8. Milestone-compatible neurology resident assessments: A role for observable practice activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lyell K; Dimberg, Elliot L; Boes, Christopher J; Eggers, Scott D Z; Dodick, David W; Cutsforth-Gregory, Jeremy K; Leep Hunderfund, Andrea N; Capobianco, David J

    2015-06-02

    Beginning in 2014, US neurology residency programs were required to report each trainee's educational progression within 29 neurology Milestone competency domains. Trainee assessment systems will need to be adapted to inform these requirements. The primary aims of this study were to validate neurology resident assessment content using observable practice activities (OPAs) and to develop assessment formats easily translated to the Neurology Milestones. A modified Delphi technique was used to establish consensus perceptions of importance of 73 neurology OPAs among neurology educators and trainees at 3 neurology residency programs. A content validity score (CVS) was derived for each neurology OPA, with scores ≥4.0 determined in advance to indicate sufficient content validity. The mean CVS for all OPAs was 4.4 (range 3.5-5.0). Fifty-seven (78%) OPAs had a CVS ≥4.0, leaving 16 (22%) below the pre-established threshold for content validity. Trainees assigned a higher importance to individual OPAs (mean CVS 4.6) compared to faculty (mean 4.4, p = 0.016), but the effect size was small (η(2) = 0.10). There was no demonstrated effect of length of education experience on perceived importance of neurology OPAs (p = 0.23). Two sample resident assessment formats were developed, one using neurology OPAs alone and another using a combination of neurology OPAs and the Neurology Milestones. This study provides neurology training programs with content validity evidence for items to include in resident assessments, and sample assessment formats that directly translate to the Neurology Milestones. Length of education experience has little effect on perceptions of neurology OPA importance. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  9. Multimodality evoked responses in the neurological assessment of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercuri, E; von Siebenthal, K; Daniëls, H; Guzzetta, F; Casaer, P

    1994-09-01

    In recent years increased attention has been devoted to evoked potentials (EP) in newborns. This paper reviews the literature and data from our research group in an attempt to assess the diagnostic and prognostic value of evoked responses in the first weeks of life and their use in different age-specific clinical conditions. The results show that EP are a very sensitive measure of the integrity of the sensory pathways. They make it possible to follow normal physiological maturation and the abnormalities of development resulting from neurological lesions. Repeated measurements of visual evoked potentials and somatosensorial evoked potential are prognostically useful in term infants, but seem much more limited in preterm newborns in predicting neurodevelopmental outcome.

  10. 76 FR 1621 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; NIH Toolbox for Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function SUMMARY: In compliance with the requirement of Section... Neurological and Behavioral Function. Type of Information Collection Request: New. Need and Use of Information... measures of four domains of neurological and behavioral functioning (cognitive, emotional, motor and...

  11. 75 FR 22596 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; NIH Toolbox for Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function SUMMARY: In compliance with the requirement of Section... Neurological and Behavioral Function. Type of Information Collection Request: New. Need and Use of Information... four domains of neurological and behavioral functioning (cognitive, emotional, motor and sensory) for...

  12. Activities of daily living instruments:optimizing scales for neurologic assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, R.; Vermeulen, M.; Holman, R.; de Haan, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    The ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL) is an important part of assessment in neurologic patients. A literature search was carried out to identify multi-item ADL scales developed for the assessment of neurologic patients, comparing item content, range, and detail of ADL scales. Of

  13. Epidemiology of neurological manifestations in Sjögren's syndrome: data from the French ASSESS Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal Alegria, Guillermo; Guellec, Dewi; Mariette, Xavier; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Dernis, Emmanuelle; Dubost, Jean-Jacques; Trouvin, Anne-Priscille; Hachulla, Eric; Larroche, Claire; Le Guern, Veronique; Cornec, Divi; Devauchelle-Pensec, Valérie; Saraux, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Neurological manifestations seem common in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) but their reported prevalences vary. We investigated the prevalence and epidemiology of neurological manifestations in a French nationwide multicentre prospective cohort of patients with pSS, the Assessment of Systemic Signs and Evolution in Sjögren's syndrome (ASSESS) cohort. Methods The ASSESS cohort, established in 2006, includes 395 patients fulfilling American–European Consensus Group criteria for pSS. Demographic and clinical data were compared between patient groups with and without neurological manifestations, and across patient groups with peripheral nervous system (PNS) manifestations, central nervous system (CNS) manifestations and no neurological manifestations. Results Data at inclusion were available for 392 patients, whose mean age was 58±12 years. Mean follow-up was 33.9 months. Neurological manifestations were present in 74/392 (18.9%) patients, including 63 (16%) with PNS manifestations and 14 (3.6%) with CNS manifestations. Prevalences were 9.2% for pure sensory neuropathy, 5.3% for sensorimotor neuropathy, 1.3% for cerebral vasculitis and 1.0% for myelitis. Neurological manifestations were associated with greater pSS activity as assessed using the ESSDAI (9.4±6.8 vs 4.3±4.8; p<0.001) and proportion of patients taking immunomodulatory/immunosuppressive drugs (32.4% (24/74) versus 13.8% (44/318), p=0003). New neurological symptoms were more common in patients with than without prior neurological manifestations (RR=3.918 (95% CI 1.91 to 8.05); p<0.001). Conclusions Prevalences of peripheral and central neurological manifestations in pSS are about 15% and 5%, respectively. Neurological manifestations are associated with greater pSS activity. New neurological manifestations are more common in patients with prior neurological involvement. PMID:27110384

  14. The Script Concordance Test: a new tool assessing clinical judgement in neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubarsky, Stuart; Chalk, Colin; Kazitani, Driss; Gagnon, Robert; Charlin, Bernard

    2009-05-01

    Clinical judgment, the ability to make appropriate decisions in uncertain situations, is central to neurological practice, but objective measures of clinical judgment in neurology trainees are lacking. The Script Concordance Test (SCT), based on script theory from cognitive psychology, uses authentic clinical scenarios to compare a trainee's judgment skills with those of experts. The SCT has been validated in several medical disciplines, but has not been investigated in neurology. We developed an Internet-based neurology SCT (NSCT) comprising 24 clinical scenarios with three to four questions each. The scenarios were designed to reflect the uncertainty of real-life clinical encounters in adult neurology. The questions explored aspects of the scenario in which several responses might be acceptable; trainees were asked to judge which response they considered to be best. Forty-one PGY1-PGY5 neurology residents and eight medical students from three North American neurology programs (McGill, Calgary, and Mayo Clinic) completed the NSCT. The responses of trainees to each question were compared with the aggregate responses of an expert panel of 16 attending neurologists. The NSCT demonstrated good reliability (Cronbach alpha = 0.79). Neurology residents scored higher than medical students and lower than attending neurologists, supporting the test's construct validity. Furthermore, NSCT scores discriminated between senior (PGY3-5) and junior residents (PGY1-2). Our NSCT is a practical and reliable instrument, and our findings support its construct validity for assessing judgment in neurology trainees. The NSCT has potentially widespread applications as an evaluation tool, both in neurology training and for licensing examinations.

  15. Clinical assessment of social cognitive function in neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Julie D; von Hippel, William; Molenberghs, Pascal; Lee, Teresa; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2016-01-01

    Social cognition broadly refers to the processing of social information in the brain that underlies abilities such as the detection of others' emotions and responding appropriately to these emotions. Social cognitive skills are critical for successful communication and, consequently, mental health and wellbeing. Disturbances of social cognition are early and salient features of many neuropsychiatric, neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders, and often occur after acute brain injury. Its assessment in the clinic is, therefore, of paramount importance. Indeed, the most recent edition of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) introduced social cognition as one of six core components of neurocognitive function, alongside memory and executive control. Failures of social cognition most often present as poor theory of mind, reduced affective empathy, impaired social perception or abnormal social behaviour. Standard neuropsychological assessments lack the precision and sensitivity needed to adequately inform treatment of these failures. In this Review, we present appropriate methods of assessment for each of the four domains, using an example disorder to illustrate the value of these approaches. We discuss the clinical applications of testing for social cognitive function, and finally suggest a five-step algorithm for the evaluation and treatment of impairments, providing quantitative evidence to guide the selection of social cognitive measures in clinical practice.

  16. Formal faculty observation and assessment of bedside skills for 3rd-year neurology clerks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson Stone, Robert; Mooney, Christopher; Wexler, Erika; Mink, Jonathan; Post, Jennifer; Jozefowicz, Ralph F

    2016-11-22

    To evaluate the feasibility and utility of instituting a formalized bedside skills evaluation (BSE) for 3rd-year medical students on the neurology clerkship. A neurologic BSE was developed for 3rd - year neurology clerks at the University of Rochester for the 2012-2014 academic years. Faculty directly observed 189 students completing a full history and neurologic examination on real inpatients. Mock grades were calculated utilizing the BSE in the final grade, and number of students with a grade difference was determined when compared to true grade. Correlation was explored between the BSE and clinical scores, National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) scores, case complexity, and true final grades. A survey was administered to students to assess their clinical skills exposure and the usefulness of the BSE. Faculty completed and submitted a BSE form for 88.3% of students. There was a mock final grade change for 13.2% of students. Correlation coefficients between BSE score and clinical score/NBME score were 0.36 and 0.35, respectively. A statistically significant effect of BSE was found on final clerkship grade (F 2,186 = 31.9, p neurology clerkship was feasible. Low correlation between BSE score and other evaluations indicated a unique measurement to contribute to student grade. Using real patients with differing case complexity did not alter the grade. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  17. Consequences of neurologic lesions assessed by Barthel Index after Botox® injection may be underestimated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionyssiotis Y

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Y Dionyssiotis,1,2 D Kiourtidis,3 A Karvouni,3 A Kaliontzoglou,3 I Kliafas31Medical Department, Rehabilitation Center Amyntaio, General Hospital of Florina, Amyntaio, Florina, 2Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department, Rhodes General Hospital, Rhodes, Dodecanese, 3Neurologic Department, Rhodes General Hospital, Rhodes, Dodecanese, GreecePurpose: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the consequences of neurologic lesions are underestimated when the Barthel Index (BI is used to assess the clinical outcome of botulinum toxin injection.Patients and methods: The records for all in- and outpatients with various neurologic lesions (stroke, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, and so forth who had been referred to the authors’ departments and who had received botulinum toxin type A (Botox® for spasticity within a 4-year period (2008–2011 were examined retrospectively. BI data were collected and analyzed.Results: The BI score was found to have increased in follow-up assessments (P = 0.048. No correlation was found between the degree of spasticity and the BI score.Conclusion: The specific injection of Botox in patients with neurologic lesions was not strongly correlated with a significant functional outcome according to the BI. The results of this study suggest that clinicians need to look at other measurement scales for the assessment of significant outcomes of Botox in the rehabilitation process after neurologic lesions.Keywords: botulinum toxin type A, spasticity, stroke, multiple sclerosis

  18. Conventional spinal radiography as a supplement to the neurologic assessment in myelomeningocele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuelsson, L.; Ekloef, O.; Karolinska Sjukhuset, Stockholm; Sankt Goreans Sjukhus, Stockholm

    1987-01-01

    In patients born with a myelomeningocele early assessment of the severity of the anomaly is mandatory for planning of therapy. Conventional spinal radiography, although a routine examination, in may hospitals has been regarded as less rewarding. However, in this retrospective investigation of 92 patients, a reasonable conformity was found between conventional radiograms and neurologic deficit at follow-up. There was no significant difference between the results of radiologic examinations carried out during the first 1 to 10 weeks after birth and the later neurologic findings. Hence, the simple radiologic assessment has proved a valuable baseline examination in these patients. In cases with discrepancy between the conventional radiologic and the neurologic findings, and in cases with a course diverging from the anticipated, more sophisticated methods of imaging are recommended. (orig.)

  19. Assessment of Psychopharmacology on the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juul, Dorthea; Winstead, Daniel K.; Sheiber, Stephen C.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report the assessment of psychopharmacology on the certification and recertification exams in general psychiatry and in the subspecialties administered by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN). METHODS: The ABPN's core competencies for psychiatrists were reviewed. The number of items addressing psychopharmacology or…

  20. [Assessment in a urological department of nurses' workload for neurological patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamé, X; Castel-Lacanal, E; Bastié, J-P; Guillotreau, J; Doumerc, N; De Boissezon, X; Mouzin, M; Sallusto, F; Marque, P; Malavaud, B; Salanove, S; Rischmann, P

    2009-02-01

    To assess the nurses' workload in care of the neurological patients operated in a department of urology and compare it to the nurses' workload of oncological patients. Between 2006 and 2007, a prospective study was realized in 15 consecutive patients with neurogenic voiding dysfunction managed by laparoscopic cystectomy and ileal conduit urinary diversion. The nurses' workload was assessed by the soins infirmiers individualisés à la personne soignée (SIIPS) indicator. Three types of care were so estimated: basic care, technical care and relational care. Results were compared with the first 15 patients in whom, during the same period, a laparoscopic cystectomy and ileal conduit urinary diversion was performed to treat a bladder cancer. The nurses' workload in basic care was higher for the neurological patient's compared to the oncological patients the day before the intervention and from the third postoperative day until the 8th postoperative day. The nurses' workload in relational care was higher in the neurological patient's the 2nd, 3rd, 6th and 7th postoperative days. No difference was noted in terms of technical care between both groups. Except the operative day and the first postoperative day, the nurses' workload in relational and basic care is higher in the neurological patient's than in the oncological patients. No difference was noted in terms of technical care between both groups.

  1. International Survey of Critically Ill Children With Acute Neurologic Insults: The Prevalence of Acute Critical Neurological Disease in Children: A Global Epidemiological Assessment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Ericka L; Kochanek, Patrick M; Tasker, Robert C; Beca, John; Bell, Michael J; Clark, Robert S B; Hutchison, Jamie; Vavilala, Monica S; Fabio, Anthony; Angus, Derek C; Watson, R Scott

    2017-04-01

    The international scope of critical neurologic insults in children is unknown. Our objective was to assess the prevalence and outcomes of children admitted to PICUs with acute neurologic insults. Prospective study. Multicenter (n = 107 PICUs) and multinational (23 countries, 79% in North America and Europe). Children 7 days to 17 years old admitted to the ICU with new traumatic brain injury, stroke, cardiac arrest, CNS infection or inflammation, status epilepticus, spinal cord injury, hydrocephalus, or brain mass. None. We evaluated the prevalence and outcomes of children with predetermined acute neurologic insults. Child and center characteristics were recorded. Unfavorable outcome was defined as change in pre-post insult Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category score greater than or equal to 2 or death at hospital discharge or 3 months, whichever came first. Screening data yielded overall prevalence of 16.2%. Of 924 children with acute neurologic insults, cardiac arrest (23%) and traumatic brain injury (19%) were the most common. All-cause mortality at hospital discharge was 12%. Cardiac arrest subjects had highest mortality (24%), and traumatic brain injury subjects had the most unfavorable outcomes (49%). The most common neurologic insult was infection/inflammation in South America, Asia, and the single African site but cardiac arrest in the remaining regions. Neurologic insults are a significant pediatric international health issue. They are frequent and contribute substantial morbidity and mortality. These data suggest a need for an increased focus on acute critical neurologic diseases in infants and children including additional research, enhanced availability of clinical resources, and the development of new therapies.

  2. The Early Functional Abilities (EFA) scale to assess neurological and neurosurgical early rehabilitation patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankemeier, Ariane; Rollnik, Jens D

    2015-10-19

    It is difficult to assess neurological and neurosurgical early rehabilitation patients comprehensively. Available scales focus on activities of daily living (Barthel (BI) and Early Rehabilitation Barthel Index (ERBI)) or wakefulness (Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), Coma Remission Scale (CRS)) while cognitive items are missing. The Early Functional Abilities (EFA) scale comprises 20 items referring to activities of daily living (ADL), wakefulness and cognitive abilities. To evaluate its validity, n = 623 early neurological and neurosurgical rehabilitation patients (most of them after ischemic stroke or cerebral bleeding) were assessed on admission using the EFA, ERBI, GCS, CRS and measures of morbidity (co-diagnoses). The more co-diagnoses the lower EFA sum scores were obtained (Spearman-Rho rs = -0.509, p < 0.001). EFA predicted length of stay (LOS, rs = -0.565, p < 0.001) and BI at discharge (rs = 0.571, p < 0.001). The results suggest that EFA is a valid instrument to assess critically ill neurological and neurosurgical early rehabilitation patients. It may be used as a measure of morbidity and a predictor of LOS and outcome. Further studies are strongly encouraged.

  3. Education research: case logs in the assessment of medical students in the neurology outpatient clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Dara V; Brorson, James R; Amidei, Christina; Lukas, Rimas V

    2014-04-22

    Using outpatient neurology clinic case logs completed by medical students on neurology clerkships, we examined the impact of outpatient clinical encounter volume per student on outcomes of knowledge assessed by the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) Clinical Neurology Subject Examination and clinical skills assessed by the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). Data from 394 medical students from July 2008 to June 2012, representing 9,791 patient encounters, were analyzed retrospectively. Pearson correlations were calculated examining the relationship between numbers of cases logged per student and performance on the NBME examination. Similarly, correlations between cases logged and performance on the OSCE, as well as on components of the OSCE (history, physical examination, clinical formulation), were evaluated. There was a correlation between the total number of cases logged per student and NBME examination scores (r = 0.142; p = 0.005) and OSCE scores (r = 0.136; p = 0.007). Total number of cases correlated with the clinical formulation component of the OSCE (r = 0.172; p = 0.001) but not the performance on history or physical examination components. The volume of cases logged by individual students in the outpatient clinic correlates with performance on measures of knowledge and clinical skill. In measurement of clinical skill, seeing a greater volume of patients in the outpatient clinic is related to improved clinical formulation on the OSCE. These findings may affect methods employed in assessment of medical students, residents, and fellows.

  4. PRISM: a novel research tool to assess the prevalence of pseudobulbar affect symptoms across neurological conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Rix Brooks

    Full Text Available Pseudobulbar affect (PBA is a neurological condition characterized by involuntary, sudden, and frequent episodes of laughing and/or crying, which can be socially disabling. Although PBA occurs secondary to many neurological conditions, with an estimated United States (US prevalence of up to 2 million persons, it is thought to be under-recognized and undertreated. The PBA Registry Series (PRISM was established to provide additional PBA symptom prevalence data in a large, representative US sample of patients with neurological conditions known to be associated with PBA.Participating clinicians were asked to enroll ≥20 consenting patients with any of 6 conditions: Alzheimer's disease (AD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, multiple sclerosis (MS, Parkinson's disease (PD, stroke, or traumatic brain injury (TBI. Patients (or their caregivers completed the Center for Neurologic Study-Lability Scale (CNS-LS and an 11-point scale measuring impact of the neurological condition on the patient's quality of life (QOL. Presence of PBA symptoms was defined as a CNS-LS score ≥13. Demographic data and current use of antidepressant or antipsychotic medications were also recorded.PRISM enrolled 5290 patients. More than one third of patients (n = 1944; 36.7% had a CNS-LS score ≥13, suggesting PBA symptoms. The mean (SD score measuring impact of neurological condition on QOL was significantly higher (worse in patients with CNS-LS ≥13 vs <13 (6.7 [2.5] vs. 4.7 [3.1], respectively; P<0.0001 two-sample t-test. A greater percentage of patients with CNS-LS ≥13 versus <13 were using antidepressant/antipsychotic medications (53.0% vs 35.4%, respectively; P<0.0001, chi-square test.Data from PRISM, the largest clinic-based study to assess PBA symptom prevalence, showed that PBA symptoms were common among patients with diverse neurological conditions. Higher CNS-LS scores were associated with impaired QOL and greater use of antipsychotic

  5. An eye-tracking controlled neuropsychological battery for cognitive assessment in neurological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Barbara; Carelli, Laura; Solca, Federica; Lafronza, Annalisa; Pedroli, Elisa; Faini, Andrea; Zago, Stefano; Ticozzi, Nicola; Ciammola, Andrea; Morelli, Claudia; Meriggi, Paolo; Cipresso, Pietro; Lulé, Dorothée; Ludolph, Albert C; Riva, Giuseppe; Silani, Vincenzo

    2017-04-01

    Traditional cognitive assessment in neurological conditions involving physical disability is often prevented by the presence of verbal-motor impairment; to date, an extensive motor-verbal-free neuropsychological battery is not available for such purposes. We adapted a set of neuropsychological tests, assessing language, attentional abilities, executive functions and social cognition, for eye-tracking (ET) control, and explored its feasibility in a sample of healthy participants. Thirty healthy subjects performed a neuropsychological assessment, using an ET-based neuropsychological battery, together with standard "paper and pencil" cognitive measures for frontal (Frontal Assessment Battery-FAB) and working memory abilities (Digit Sequencing Task) and for global cognitive efficiency (Montreal Cognitive Assessment-MoCA). Psychological measures of anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Y-STAI-Y) and depression (Beck Depression Inventory-BDI) were also collected, and a usability questionnaire was administered. Significant correlations were observed between the "paper and pencil" screening of working memory abilities and the ET-based neuropsychological measures. The ET-based battery also correlated with the MoCA, while poor correlations were observed with the FAB. Usability aspects were found to be influenced by both working memory abilities and psychological components. The ET-based neuropsychological battery developed could provide an extensive assessment of cognitive functions, allowing participants to perform tasks independently from the integrity of motor or verbal channels. Further studies will be aimed at investigating validity and usability components in neurological populations with motor-verbal impairments.

  6. Neurological Soft Signs in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Standardised Assessment and Comparison with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bolton

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available While several studies have detected raised levels of neurological soft signs in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD, the specificity of these abnormalities remains uncertain. This study used a new standardised measure, the Cambridge Neurological Inventory (CNI, to assess soft signs in 51 subjects with OCD. Comparison was made with data on patients with schizophrenia and a non-clinical control group from a previously reported study. Individuals with OCD showed raised levels of soft signs compared with non-clinical controls in many categories of the CNI: Motor Coordination, Sensory Integration, Primitive Reflexes, Extrapyramidal Signs, and Failure of Suppression. Compared with patients with schizophrenia, the OCD group had lower levels of neurological signs in some CNI categories: Hard Signs, Motor Co-ordination, Tardive Dyskinesia, Catatonic Signs, and Extrapyramidal Signs. However, levels of soft signs in the OCD group did not significantly differ from those in the schizophrenia group in other CNI categories: Sensory Integration, Primitive Reflexes and Failure of Suppression. The significance of these patterns of findings is discussed.

  7. Neurological assessment and nerve conduction study findings in 22 patients with alkaptonuria from Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Alrawashdeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaptonuria is a rare metabolic disease characterised by accumulative deposition of homogentisic acid in the connective tissue of the body. This results in early degeneration of tendons, cartilages, heart valves, and other tissues. The main objective of the study is to examine the possibility of the nervous system involvement in patients with alkaptonuria The sample consists of two groups; 22 patients with AKU and 20 controls. A neurological assessment has been carried out including detailed medical history, neurological examination, and a nerve conduction study of the nerves of the dominant hand. The prevalence of any abnormality was compared between the two groups using chi square test. The mean values of the nerve conduction study were compared between the two groups using student t-test. There was a higher prevalence of low back pain, hearing problems and tinnitus, numbness and neuropathic pain in alkaptonuria patients. There was no significant difference between the two groups in other conditions such as seizures, headache, and syncope. The values of the nerve conduction study did not show significant difference between the two groups. Neurologically related symptoms in alkaptonuria mostly represent complications of the connective tissue degeneration rather than direct involvement of the nervous system. This has been supported further by the normal findings of the neurophysiology study in patients with alkaptonuria.

  8. The Ability of the Eating Assessment Tool-10 to Detect Aspiration in Patients With Neurological Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Selen Serel; Demir, Numan; Kılınç, Hasan E; Karaduman, Aynur A

    2017-10-30

    Dysphagia is common in patients with neurological disorders. There is a need to identify patients at risk early by a useful clinical tool to prevent its serious complications. The study aims to determine the ability of the Turkish version of Eating Assessment Tool-10 (T-EAT-10) to detect aspiration in patients with neurological disorders. Two hundred fifty-nine patients with neurological disorders who had complaints about swallowing difficulty and referred for a swallowing evaluation were included. Oropharyngeal dysphagia was evaluated with the T-EAT-10 and videofluoroscopic swallowing study in the same day. The penetration-aspiration scale (PAS) was used to document the penetration and aspiration severity. The mean age of the patients was 59.72 ± 17.24 years (minimum [min] = 18, maximum [max] = 96), of which 57.1% were male. The mean T-EAT-10 of patients who had aspiration (PAS > 5) was 25.91 ± 10.31 (min = 1, max = 40) and the mean T-EAT-10 of patients who did not have aspiration (PAS EAT-10 score higher than 15 were 2.4 times more likely to aspirate. A linear correlation was found between T-EAT-10 and PAS scores of the patients ( r = 0.416, P EAT-10 higher than 15 in detecting aspiration was 81.0% and the specificity was 58.0%. A T-EAT-10 score of higher than 15 has a positive predictive value of 72.0% and a negative predictive value of 69.0%. The T-EAT-10 can be used to detect unsafe airway protection in neurology clinics to identify and refer dysphagic patients for further evaluation.

  9. The Ability of the Eating Assessment Tool-10 to Detect Aspiration in Patients With Neurological Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Selen Serel; Demir, Numan; Kılınç, Hasan E; Karaduman, Aynur A

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Dysphagia is common in patients with neurological disorders. There is a need to identify patients at risk early by a useful clinical tool to prevent its serious complications. The study aims to determine the ability of the Turkish version of Eating Assessment Tool-10 (T-EAT-10) to detect aspiration in patients with neurological disorders. Methods Two hundred fifty-nine patients with neurological disorders who had complaints about swallowing difficulty and referred for a swallowing evaluation were included. Oropharyngeal dysphagia was evaluated with the T-EAT-10 and videofluoroscopic swallowing study in the same day. The penetration-aspiration scale (PAS) was used to document the penetration and aspiration severity. Results The mean age of the patients was 59.72 ± 17.24 years (minimum [min] = 18, maximum [max] = 96), of which 57.1% were male. The mean T-EAT-10 of patients who had aspiration (PAS > 5) was 25.91 ± 10.31 (min = 1, max = 40) and the mean T-EAT-10 of patients who did not have aspiration (PAS < 6) was 15.70 ± 10.54 (min = 0, max = 40) (P < 0.001). Patients with a T-EAT-10 score higher than 15 were 2.4 times more likely to aspirate. A linear correlation was found between T-EAT-10 and PAS scores of the patients (r = 0.416, P < 0.001). The sensitivity of a T-EAT-10 higher than 15 in detecting aspiration was 81.0% and the specificity was 58.0%. A T-EAT-10 score of higher than 15 has a positive predictive value of 72.0% and a negative predictive value of 69.0%. Conclusion The T-EAT-10 can be used to detect unsafe airway protection in neurology clinics to identify and refer dysphagic patients for further evaluation. PMID:28545185

  10. A wrist-worn biosensor system for assessment of neurological status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, D; Pouyan, M Baran; Nourani, M; Harvey, J

    2014-01-01

    EEG based monitoring for the purpose of assessing a patient's neurological status is conspicuous and uncomfortable at best. We are analyzing a set of physiological signals that may be monitored comfortably by a wrist worn device. We have found that these signals and machine based classification allows us to accurately discriminate among four stress states of individuals. Further, we have found a clear change in these signals during the 70 minutes preceding a single convulsive epileptic seizure. Our classification accuracy on all data has been greater than 90% to date.

  11. Effect of a Multidisciplinary Fall Risk Assessment on Falls Among Neurology Inpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunderfund, Andrea N. Leep; Sweeney, Cynthia M.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Johnson, LeAnn M.; Britton, Jeffrey W.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the addition of a physician assessment of patient fall risk at admission would reduce inpatient falls on a tertiary hospital neurology inpatient unit. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A physician fall risk assessment was added to the existing risk assessment process (clinical nurse evaluation and Hendrich II Fall Risk Model score with specific fall prevention measures for patients at risk). An order to select either “Patient is” or “Patient is not at high risk of falls by physician assessment” was added to the physician electronic admission order set. Nurses and physicians were instructed to reach consensus when assessments differed. Full implementation occurred in second-quarter 2008. Preimplementation (January 1, 2006, to March 31, 2008) and postimplementation (April 1, 2008, to December 31, 2009) rates of falls were compared on the neurology inpatient unit and on 6 other medical units that did not receive intervention. RESULTS: The rate of falls during the 7 quarters after full implementation was significantly lower than that during the 9 preceding quarters (4.12 vs 5.69 falls per 1000 patient-days; P=.04), whereas the rate of falls on other medical units did not significantly change (2.99 vs 3.33 falls per 1000 patient-days; P=.24, Poisson test). The consensus risk assessment at admission correctly identified patients at risk for falls (14/325 at-risk patients fell vs 0/147 low-risk patients; P=.01, χ2 test), but the Hendrich II Fall Risk Model score, nurse, and physician assessments individually did not. CONCLUSION: A multidisciplinary approach to fall risk assessment is feasible, correctly identifies patients at risk, and was associated with a reduction in inpatient falls. PMID:21193651

  12. Causality assessment of serious neurologic adverse events following 2009 H1N1 vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S Elizabeth; Pahud, Barbara A; Vellozzi, Claudia; Donofrio, Peter D; Dekker, Cornelia L; Halsey, Neal; Klein, Nicola P; Baxter, Roger P; Marchant, Colin D; Larussa, Philip S; Barnett, Elizabeth D; Tokars, Jerome I; McGeeney, Brian E; Sparks, Robert C; Aukes, Laurie L; Jakob, Kathleen; Coronel, Silvia; Sejvar, James J; Slade, Barbara A; Edwards, Kathryn M

    2011-10-26

    Adverse events occurring after vaccination are routinely reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). We studied serious adverse events (SAEs) of a neurologic nature reported after receipt of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccine during the 2009-2010 influenza season. Investigators in the Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment (CISA) network sought to characterize these SAEs and to assess their possible causal relationship to vaccination. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) physicians reviewed all SAE reports (as defined by the Code of Federal Regulations, 21CFR§314.80) after receipt of H1N1 vaccine reported to VAERS between October 1, 2009 and March 31, 2010. Non-fatal SAE reports with neurologic presentation were referred to CISA investigators, who requested and reviewed additional medical records and clinical information as available. CISA investigators assessed the causal relationship between vaccination and the event using modified WHO criteria as defined. 212 VAERS reports of non-fatal serious neurological events were referred for CISA review. Case reports were equally distributed by gender (50.9% female) with an age range of 6 months to 83 years (median 38 years). The most frequent diagnoses reviewed were: Guillain-Barré Syndrome (37.3%), seizures (10.8%), cranial neuropathy (5.7%), and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (3.8%). Causality assessment resulted in classification of 72 events as "possibly" related (33%), 108 as "unlikely" related (51%), and 20 as "unrelated" (9%) to H1N1 vaccination; none were classified as "probable" or "definite" and 12 were unclassifiable (6%). The absence of a specific test to indicate whether a vaccine component contributes to the pathogenesis of an event occurring within a biologically plausible time period makes assessing causality difficult. The development of standardized protocols for providers to use in evaluation of adverse events

  13. Functional Performance and Associations between Performance Tests and Neurological Assessment Differ in Men and Women with Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medijainen, Kadri; Pääsuke, Mati; Lukmann, Aet; Taba, Pille

    2015-01-01

    Neurological assessment of a patient with Parkinson's disease (PD) is expected to reflect upon functional performance. As women are known to report more limitations even for same observed functional performance level, present study was designed to examine whether associations between neurological assessments and functional performance differ across genders. 14 men and 14 women with PD participated. Functional performance was assessed by measuring walking speeds on 10-meter walk test (10MWT) and by performing timed-up-and-go-test (TUG). Neurological assessment included Hoehn and Yahr Scale (HY), Movement Disorders Society Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS), Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living Scale (S-E), and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). In women with PD, Kendall's tau-b correlation analyses revealed significant correlations between functional performance tests and neurological assessment measures, with the exception in MMSE. No corresponding associations were found for men, although they demonstrated better functional performance, as expected. Men in similar clinical stage of the PD perform better on functional tests than women. Disease severity reflects upon functional performance differently in men and women with PD. Results indicate that when interpreting the assessment results of both functional performance and neurological assessment tests, the gender of the patient should be taken into consideration.

  14. Functional Performance and Associations between Performance Tests and Neurological Assessment Differ in Men and Women with Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Medijainen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Neurological assessment of a patient with Parkinson’s disease (PD is expected to reflect upon functional performance. As women are known to report more limitations even for same observed functional performance level, present study was designed to examine whether associations between neurological assessments and functional performance differ across genders. Methods. 14 men and 14 women with PD participated. Functional performance was assessed by measuring walking speeds on 10-meter walk test (10MWT and by performing timed-up-and-go-test (TUG. Neurological assessment included Hoehn and Yahr Scale (HY, Movement Disorders Society Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS, Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living Scale (S-E, and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE. Results. In women with PD, Kendall’s tau-b correlation analyses revealed significant correlations between functional performance tests and neurological assessment measures, with the exception in MMSE. No corresponding associations were found for men, although they demonstrated better functional performance, as expected. Conclusion. Men in similar clinical stage of the PD perform better on functional tests than women. Disease severity reflects upon functional performance differently in men and women with PD. Results indicate that when interpreting the assessment results of both functional performance and neurological assessment tests, the gender of the patient should be taken into consideration.

  15. Multidetector computed tomography in the assessment of neurologic complications after carotid endarterectomy

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    M. V. Vishnyakova Jr.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Carotid endarterectomy is a surgical procedure to prevent acute ischemic cerebrovascular accidents. Neurologic complications can occur after surgery. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT is used for their diagnosis in severely ill patients.Aim: To evaluate the potential of MDCT in the diagnosis of neurologic complications after carotid endarterectomy.Materials and methods: We analyzed the results of radiologic assessments in 15 patients with early postoperative neurologic complications which occurred after surgery for internal carotid artery occlusion (595 patients underwent surgery. In stable patients, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was performed (T1, T2, FLAIR, DWI modes with non-contrast MR angiography. In critically ill patients, brain computed tomography, computed tomographic angiography and perfusion computed tomography were performed.Results: Ischemic neurologic complications were found in 11 patients. One patient had no clinical manifestation of an ischemic stroke, and acute stage signs were found in his routine brain MDCT. In 9 patients with acute brain ischemia, MDCT (n = 6 and MRI (n = 3 results were specific for this diagnosis, with no diagnostic problems. There were problems with the diagnosis of the hyperacute ischemia in 1 patient. In this patient, the complication occurred against a background of abnormal carotid blood flow before surgery, therefore, differential diagnosis between the hyperperfusion syndrome on the intervention side and the hyperacute phase of ischemic insult on the opposite side was performed. Hyperperfusion syndrome and hemorrhagic strokes were observed in 4 patients.Conclusion: The most difficult for diagnosis by MDCT is the hyperacute phase of brain ischemia. Further studies are necessary in the area of diagnosis of postoperative complications, with the search for potential specific diagnostic criteria.

  16. The value of neurologic and cardiologic assessment in breath holding spells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Unsal; Doksoz, Onder; Celik, Tanju; Akinci, Gulcin; Mese, Timur; Sevim Yilmaz, Tuba

    2014-01-01

    Objective : To evaluate the value of neurologic and cardiologic assessment and also the frequency of iron deficiency anemia in children with Breath Holding Spells (BHS). Methods : The hospital charts of patients diagnosed with BHS between 2011 and 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. Results : A total of 165 children (90 boys, 75 girls) with BHS comprised the study group. A matched group of 200 children with febrile convulsions served as controls. Among the first-degree relatives, 13.3% had BHS, 1.8% had febrile convulsions and 12.1% had epilepsy. The spells were cyanotic in 140 (84.8%) children and pallid or mixed in the remainder. BNS type was simple in 46.7% of patients and complicated in the remainder. Eighteen patients had abnormalities in electroencephalography, however only one patient was diagnosed with epilepsy. Sixty nine (47.9%) patients were found to have iron deficiency anemia. Conclusion : Referral of children with clinically definite BHS to pediatric neurology or pediatric cardiology clinics and performance of echocardiography and EEG investigations for exclusion of heart disease or epilepsy appear unnecessary. However, performance of an electrocardiogram to search for prolonged QT syndrome should be considered although no patient in our series had any cardiologic abnormalities. PMID:24639832

  17. The value of neurologic and cardiologic assessment in breath holding spells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Unsal; Doksoz, Onder; Celik, Tanju; Akinci, Gulcin; Mese, Timur; Sevim Yilmaz, Tuba

    2014-01-01

    Objective : To evaluate the value of neurologic and cardiologic assessment and also the frequency of iron deficiency anemia in children with Breath Holding Spells (BHS). Methods : The hospital charts of patients diagnosed with BHS between 2011 and 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. Results : A total of 165 children (90 boys, 75 girls) with BHS comprised the study group. A matched group of 200 children with febrile convulsions served as controls. Among the first-degree relatives, 13.3% had BHS, 1.8% had febrile convulsions and 12.1% had epilepsy. The spells were cyanotic in 140 (84.8%) children and pallid or mixed in the remainder. BNS type was simple in 46.7% of patients and complicated in the remainder. Eighteen patients had abnormalities in electroencephalography, however only one patient was diagnosed with epilepsy. Sixty nine (47.9%) patients were found to have iron deficiency anemia. Conclusion : Referral of children with clinically definite BHS to pediatric neurology or pediatric cardiology clinics and performance of echocardiography and EEG investigations for exclusion of heart disease or epilepsy appear unnecessary. However, performance of an electrocardiogram to search for prolonged QT syndrome should be considered although no patient in our series had any cardiologic abnormalities.

  18. The Neurologic Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (NANO) Scale as an Assessment Tool for Survival in Patients With Primary Glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ung, Timothy H; Ney, Douglas E; Damek, Denise; Rusthoven, Chad G; Youssef, A Samy; Lillehei, Kevin O; Ormond, D Ryan

    2018-03-30

    The Neurologic Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (NANO) scale is a standardized objective metric designed to measure neurological function in neuro-oncology. Current neuroradiological evaluation guidelines fail to use specific clinical criteria for progression. To determine if the NANO scale was a reliable assessment tool in glioblastoma (GBM) patients and whether it correlated to survival. Our group performed a retrospective review of all patients with newly diagnosed GBM from January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2012, at our institution. We applied the NANO scale, Karnofsky performance score (KPS), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) scale, Macdonald criteria, and the Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) criteria to patients at the time of diagnosis as well as at 3, 6, and 12 mo. Initial NANO score was correlated with overall survival at time of presentation. NANO progression was correlated with decreased survival in patients at 6 and 12 mo. A decrease in KPS was associated with survival at 3 and 6 mo, an increase in ECOG score was associated only at 3 mo, and radiological evaluation (RANO and Macdonald) was correlated at 3 and 6 mo. Only the NANO scale was associated with patient survival at 1 yr. NANO progression was the only metric that was linked to decreased overall survival when compared to RANO and Macdonald at 6 and 12 mo. The NANO scale is specific to neuro-oncology and can be used to assess patients with glioma. This retrospective analysis demonstrates the usefulness of the NANO scale in glioblastoma.

  19. Evolution of language assessment in patients with acquired neurological disorders in Brazil

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    Maria Alice de Mattos Pimenta Parente

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to describe the evolution of language assessments in patients with acquired neurological diseases over a period of around 45 years from 1970, when interdisciplinarity in Neuropsychology first began in Brazil, to the present day. The first twenty years of data was based on memories of Speech Pathology University Professors who were in charge of teaching aphasia. We then show the contributions of Linguistics, Cognitive Psychology, as well as Psycholinguistic and Psychometric criteria, to language evaluation. Finally, the current panorama of adaptations and creations of validated and standardized instruments is given, based on a search of the databases Pubmed, Scopus and Lilacs. Our closing remarks highlight the diversity in evaluation approaches and the recent tendency of language evaluations linked to new technologies such as brain imaging and computational analysis.

  20. Evolution of language assessment in patients with acquired neurological disorders in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Maria Alice de Mattos Pimenta; Baradel, Roberta Roque; Fonseca, Rochele Paz; Pereira, Natalie; Carthery-Goulart, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to describe the evolution of language assessments in patients with acquired neurological diseases over a period of around 45 years from 1970, when interdisciplinarity in Neuropsychology first began in Brazil, to the present day. The first twenty years of data was based on memories of Speech Pathology University Professors who were in charge of teaching aphasia. We then show the contributions of Linguistics, Cognitive Psychology, as well as Psycholinguistic and Psychometric criteria, to language evaluation. Finally, the current panorama of adaptations and creations of validated and standardized instruments is given, based on a search of the databases Pubmed, Scopus and Lilacs. Our closing remarks highlight the diversity in evaluation approaches and the recent tendency of language evaluations linked to new technologies such as brain imaging and computational analysis.

  1. The assessment and treatment of prosodic disorders and neurological theories of prosody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Joshua J; Paul, Rhea

    2009-08-01

    In this article, we comment on specific aspects of Peppé (Peppé, 2009). In particular, we address the assessment and treatment of prosody in clinical settings and discuss current theory on neurological models of prosody. We argue that in order for prosodic assessment instruments and treatment programs to be clinical effective, we need assessment instruments that: (1) have a representative normative comparison sample and strong psychometric properties; (2) are based on empirical information regarding the typical sequence of prosodic acquisition and are sensitive to developmental change; (3) meaningfully subcategorize various aspects of prosody; (4) use tasks that have ecological validity; and (5) have clinical properties, such as length and ease of administration, that allow them to become part of standard language assessment batteries. In addition, we argue that current theories of prosody processing in the brain are moving toward network models that involve multiple brain areas and are crucially dependent on cortical communication. The implications of these observations for future research and clinical practice are outlined.

  2. [Peculiarities of emotional-cognitive assessment of sensations by patients with neurological diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'eva, V N; Tkhostov, A Sh

    2009-01-01

    To study peculiarities of emotional-cognitive assessment of color sensations and sensation descriptors in patients with autonomic dystonia and cerebrovascular diseases, 70 healthy subjects and 113 patients including 27 with autonomic dystonia, 48 - with discirculatory encephalopathy and 38 - with ischemic stroke have been studied in the rehabilitation period. Clinical-neurological examination, assessment of headache intensity on the Visual-Analogous scale, anxiety and depression levels on the Hospital anxiety and depression scale, the level of mental maladaptation on an author's scale as well as a study of emotional-cognitive assessment of color sensations and sensation descriptors have been carried out. Assessments of color sensations were studied using 20 color standards, indices of positive and negative assessment of all groups of colors and colors of certain categories were determined. The relation to sensation descriptors was studied by showing a list of 50 words; indices of positive and negative ratings of different categories of descriptors (% to the total number of words listed) were determined. It has been shown that the system of assessment of color sensations is most substantially changed in patients with autonomic dystonia that appeared in the more negative, compared to healthy people, perception of cold color tones, dark tones and chromatically non-saturated colors. These changes were less represented in patients with cerebrovascular diseases and disappear after stroke. Changes in the system of sensation descriptors rating are evenly expressed in patients with autonomic dystonia and cerebrovascular diseases: patients' ratings of sensation descriptors are more negative compared to healthy people. These changes are related to the increase of anxiety and depression levels and may contribute to mental health problems of patients.

  3. Identify Normative Values of Balance Tests Toward Neurological Assessment of Sports Related Concussion

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    Samaneh Eimanipure

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Deterioration in postural control mechanisms is termed postural instability and results increased postural sway and many laboratory techniques and instruments are characterized by a wide range of neurological signs and symptoms to the medical management. Thus the current study designed to assess the reliability of commonly used clinical measures of balance and determined normal values. Also, the second purpose was scrutiny of effect age, length weight and body mass index (BMI on perform clinical balance tests. Methods: One hundred and thirty three participants (18-59 years, that have at least three time sports activity in one week, performed three timed tests: Time- up and Go (TUG, Tandem Gait (TG, and Walking on Balance Beam (WOBB on firm surface. Results: Reliability data were produced for each tests of motor performance. We found that the first performance of three trials was slower, and the relationship between some factors and these battery tests were examined. Means(±SD for each measure were averaged across three trials. Time to complete TG was 13.6±1.1s. TUG value was 6.9±1.03 and WOBB was 6.9±1.03s. Discussion: our results revealed that three clinical balance test batteries-TUG, TG and WOBB tests are the stability measures to assess of sports related concussion. Also, the results of current study appeared that the time to perform these tests was slower than the other studies.

  4. Normative Values of Balance Tests in Neurological Assessment of Sports Related Concussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Eemanipure

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Deterioration in postural control mechanisms is termed postural instability and results increased postural sway and many laboratory techniques and instruments are characterized by a wide range of neurological signs and symptoms to the medical management. Thus the current study designed to assess the reliability of commonly used clinical measures of balance and determined normal values. Also, the second purpose was to evaluate the scrutiny of age, length weight and body mass index (BMI effects on performing clinical balance tests. Methods: One hundred and thirty three participants (18-59 years, that have at least three time sports activity in one week, performed three timed tests including Time-up and Go (TUG, Tandem Gait (TG, and Walking on Balance Beam (WOBB on firm surface. Results: Reliability data were produced for each tests of motor performance. We found that the first performance of three trials was slower, and the relationship between some factors and these battery tests were examined. Means(±SD for each measure were averaged across three trials. Time to complete TG was 13.6±1.1s. TUG value was 6.9±1.03 and WOBB was 6.9±1.03s. Discussion: our results revealed that three clinical balance test batteries-TUG, TG and WOBB tests are the stability measures to assess the sports related concussion. Also, the results of current study showed that the time to perform these tests was slower than the other studies.

  5. Biological assessments of multifunctional hydrogel-decorated implantable neural cuff electrode for clinical neurology application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han-Jun; Heo, Dong Nyoung; Lee, Yi Jae; Lee, Sang Jin; Kang, Ji Yoon; Lee, Soo Hyun; Kwon, I I Keun; Do, Sun Hee

    2017-11-10

    The implantable cuff electrode is an effective neuroprosthetic device in current nerve tissue engineering. However, biocompatibility and stability are still a serious dispute in terms of in vivo function and continuous monitoring. In this regard, assessing the host's biological response to biomaterials is one of the key factors of chronic implantation. In this article, we analyzed the peripheral nerve specific-biological responses to the application of multi-functional hydrogel-coated electrodes. The surface of the cuff electrode was modified using a multifunctional hydrogel composed of PEG hydrogel, cyclosporin A(CsA)-microsphere(MS) and electrodeposited PEDOT:PSS. Through our approach, we have found that the multifunctional hydrogel coatings improve the neural electrode function, such as peak-to-peak amplitude increase. Additionally, the multifunctional hydrogel coated electrodes exhibited improved biocompatibility, such as reduced apoptotic properties and increased axonal myelination. Furthermore, 12 genes (BDNF, Gfra1, IL-6, Sox 10, S100B, P75 NTR , GAP43, MBP, MPZ, NrCAM, NE-FL, CB1) were upregulated at 5 weeks post-implant. Finally, double immunofluorescence revealed the effect of endocannabinoid system on neuroprotective properties and tissue remodeling of peripheral nerves during cuff electrode implantation. These results clearly confirmed that multifunctional hydrogel coatings could improve electrode function and biocompatibility by enhancing neuroprotective properties, which may provide a valuable paradigm for clinical neurology application.

  6. Metabolic assessment and enteral tube feeding usage in children with acute neurological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, H P; Fantozzi, G

    1998-01-01

    To report on acquired experience of metabolic support for children with acute neurological diseases, emphasizing enteral tube feeding usage and metabolic assessment, and also to recommend policies aimed towards improving its implementation. Retrospective analysis. Pediatric Intensive Care Unit of Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo. 44 patients consecutively admitted to the Pediatric ICU over a period of 3 years who were given nutrition and metabolic support for at least 72 hours. Head trauma, CNS infections and craniotomy post-operative period following tumor exeresis were the main diagnoses. Records of protein-energy intake, nutrient supply route, nitrogen balance and length of therapy. From a total of 527 days of therapy, single parenteral nutrition was utilized for 34.3% and single enteral tube feeding for 79.1% of that period. 61.4% of the children were fed exclusively via enteral tube feeding, 9.1% via parenteral and 39.5% by both routes. The enteral tube feeding was introduced upon admission and transpyloric placement was successful in 90% of the cases. Feeding was started 48 hours after ICU admission. The caloric goal was achieved on the 7th day after admission, and thereafter parenteral nutrition was interrupted. The maximum energy supply was 104.2 +/- 23.15 kcal/kg. The median length of therapy was 11 days (range 4-38). None of the patients on tube feeding developed GI tract bleeding, pneumonia or bronchoaspiration episodes and, of the 4 patients who were given exclusive TPN, 2 developed peptic ulcer. The initial urinary urea nitrogen was 7.11 g/m2 and at discharge 6.44 g/m2. The protein supply increased from 1.49 g/kg to 3.65 g/kg (p < 0.01). The nitrogen balance increased from--7.05 to 2.2 g (p < 0.01). Children with acute neurological diseases are hypercatabolic and have high urinary nitrogen losses. The initial negative nitrogen balance can be increased by more aggressive feeding regimes than the usual ones. Early tube feeding was

  7. Metabolic assessment and enteral tube feeding usage in children with acute neurological diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heitor Pons Leite

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report on acquired experience of metabolic support for children with acute neurological diseases, emphasizing enteral tube feeding usage and metabolic assessment, and also to recommend policies aimed towards improving its implementation. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. SETTING: Pediatric Intensive Care Unit of Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo. SUBJECTS: 44 patients consecutively admitted to the Pediatric ICU over a period of 3 years who were given nutrition and metabolic support for at least 72 hours. Head trauma, CNS infections and craniotomy post-operative period following tumor exeresis were the main diagnoses. MEASUREMENTS: Records of protein-energy intake, nutrient supply route, nitrogen balance and length of therapy. RESULTS: From a total of 527 days of therapy, single parenteral nutrition was utilized for 34.3% and single enteral tube feeding for 79.1% of that period. 61.4% of the children were fed exclusively via enteral tube feeding, 9.1% via parenteral and 39.5 % by both routes. The enteral tube feeding was introduced upon admission and transpyloric placement was successful in 90% of the cases. Feeding was started 48 hours after ICU admission. The caloric goal was achieved on the 7th day after admission, and thereafter parenteral nutrition was interrupted. The maximum energy supply was 104.2 ± 23.15 kcal/kg. The median length of therapy was 11 days (range 4-38. None of the patients on tube feeding developed GI tract bleeding, pneumonia or bronchoaspiration episodes and, of the 4 patients who were given exclusive TPN, 2 developed peptic ulcer. The initial urinary urea nitrogen was 7.11 g/m2 and at discharge 6.44 g/m2. The protein supply increased from 1.49 g/kg to 3.65 g/kg (p< 0.01. The nitrogen balance increased from -7.05 to 2.2 g (p< 0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Children with acute neurological diseases are hypercatabolic and have high urinary nitrogen losses. The initial negative nitrogen balance can be

  8. Assessing body composition and energy expenditure in children with severe neurological impairment and intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Rieken (Rob)

    2010-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Children with severe neurological impairment and intellectual disability are at increased risk of developing malnutrition. While in recent years increased use of gastrostomy feeding has turned this trend, children receiving tube feeding run the opposite risk of

  9. Neurological assessment and its relationship to CSF biomarkers in amateur boxers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Neselius

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mild traumatic brain injury (TBI or concussion is common in many sports. Today, neuropsychological evaluation is recommended in the monitoring of a concussion and in return-to-play considerations. To investigate the sensitivity of neuropsychological assessment, we tested amateur boxers post bout and compared with controls. Further the relationship between neuropsychological test results and brain injury biomarkers in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF were investigated. METHOD: Thirty amateur boxers on high elite level with a minimum of 45 bouts and 25 non-boxing matched controls were included. Memory tests (Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure, Listening Span, Digit Span, Controlled Word Association Test, and computerized testing of episodic memory, tests of processing speed and executive functions (Trail Making, Reaction Time, and Finger Tapping were performed and related to previously published CSF biomarker results for the axonal injury marker neurofilament light (NFL. RESULTS: The neurological assessment showed no significant differences between boxers and controls, although elevated CSF NFL, as a sign of axonal injury, was detected in about 80% of the boxers 1-6 days post bout. The investigation of the relationship between neuropsychological evaluation and CSF NFL concentrations revealed that boxers with persisting NFL concentration elevation after at least 14 days resting time post bout, had a significantly poorer performance on Trail Making A (p = 0.041 and Simple Reaction Time (p = 0.042 compared to other boxers. CONCLUSION: This is the first study showing traumatic axonal brain injury can be present without measureable cognitive impairment. The repetitive, subconcussive head trauma in amateur boxing causes axonal injury that can be detected with analysis of CSF NFL, but is not sufficient to produce impairment in memory tests, tests of processing speed, or executive functions. The association of prolonged CSF NFL increase in

  10. Neurological assessment and its relationship to CSF biomarkers in amateur boxers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neselius, Sanna; Brisby, Helena; Marcusson, Jan; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Karlsson, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) or concussion is common in many sports. Today, neuropsychological evaluation is recommended in the monitoring of a concussion and in return-to-play considerations. To investigate the sensitivity of neuropsychological assessment, we tested amateur boxers post bout and compared with controls. Further the relationship between neuropsychological test results and brain injury biomarkers in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were investigated. Thirty amateur boxers on high elite level with a minimum of 45 bouts and 25 non-boxing matched controls were included. Memory tests (Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure, Listening Span, Digit Span, Controlled Word Association Test, and computerized testing of episodic memory), tests of processing speed and executive functions (Trail Making, Reaction Time, and Finger Tapping) were performed and related to previously published CSF biomarker results for the axonal injury marker neurofilament light (NFL). The neurological assessment showed no significant differences between boxers and controls, although elevated CSF NFL, as a sign of axonal injury, was detected in about 80% of the boxers 1-6 days post bout. The investigation of the relationship between neuropsychological evaluation and CSF NFL concentrations revealed that boxers with persisting NFL concentration elevation after at least 14 days resting time post bout, had a significantly poorer performance on Trail Making A (p = 0.041) and Simple Reaction Time (p = 0.042) compared to other boxers. This is the first study showing traumatic axonal brain injury can be present without measureable cognitive impairment. The repetitive, subconcussive head trauma in amateur boxing causes axonal injury that can be detected with analysis of CSF NFL, but is not sufficient to produce impairment in memory tests, tests of processing speed, or executive functions. The association of prolonged CSF NFL increase in boxers with impairment of processing speed is an

  11. Inertial Sensors to Assess Gait Quality in Patients with Neurological Disorders: A Systematic Review of Technical and Analytical Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliénor Vienne

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Gait disorders are major causes of falls in patients with neurological diseases. Understanding these disorders allows prevention and better insights into underlying diseases. InertiaLocoGraphy (ILG –the quantification of gait by using inertial measurement units (IMUs –shows great potential to address this public health challenge, but protocols vary widely and normative values of gait parameters are still unavailable. This systematic review critically compares ILG protocols, questions features extracted from inertial signals and proposes a semeiological analysis of clinimetric characteristics for use in neurological clinical routine. For this systematic review, PubMed, Cochrane and EMBASE were searched for articles assessing gait quality by using IMUs that were published from January 1, 2014 to August 31, 2016. ILG was used to assess gait in a wide range of neurological disorders – including Parkinson disease, mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer disease, cerebral palsy, and cerebellar atrophy – as well as in the faller or frail older population and in people presenting rheumatological pathologies. However, results have not yet been driving changes in clinical practice. One reason could be that studies mainly aimed at comparing pathological gait to healthy gait, but there is stronger need for semiological descriptions of gait perturbation, severity or prognostic assessment. Furthermore, protocols used to assess gait using IMUs are too many. Likely, outcomes are highly heterogeneous and difficult to compare across large panels of studies. Therefore, homogenization is needed to foster the use of ILG to assess gait quality in neurological routine practice. The pros and cons of each protocol are emphasized so that a compromise can be reached. As well, analysis of seven complementary clinical criteria (springiness, sturdiness, smoothness, steadiness, stability, symmetry, synchronization is advocated.

  12. [NeuroCogFX--a computer-based neuropsychological assessment battery for the follow-up examination of neurological patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliessbach, K; Hoppe, C; Schlegel, U; Elger, C E; Helmstaedter, C

    2006-11-01

    Many neurological therapeutic trials require a longitudinal assessment of cognitive functions. An ideal instrument for that purpose should be in accordance to the criteria of classical testing theory and, furthermore, it should be repeatable and economic in administration and interpretation. We developed NeuroCogFX, a computerized assessment battery, according to these criteria. NeuroCogFX comprises subtests for short term memory, working memory, psychomotor speed, selective attention, verbal and figural memory and verbal fluency (mean duration: 25 minutes). Age-related normative data was obtained from 244 subjects without history of neurological or psychiatric disease (age range 16 - 75 years). Forty-two subjects were re-tested after an average of 8 weeks (range: 6 - 10 weeks) in order to assess retest reliability and training effects. Retest-reliabilities were middle-sized in all but one subtest, ranging from r (12) = 0.5 to r (12) = 0.7 (2-back Test: r (12) = 0.37). For construct validation NeuroCogFX was administered in addition to a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment battery in a group of 40 healthy subjects and in 42 patients with chronic epilepsy. The test allows a valid assessment of short-term memory, reaction speed, memory and verbal fluency. NeuroCogFX is an economic, sufficiently reliable and valid instrument for the neuropsychological follow-up examination in single patients and study groups which can be administered if a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment is unavailable.

  13. Patient-specific finite element model of the spine and spinal cord to assess the neurological impact of scoliosis correction: preliminary application on two cases with and without intraoperative neurological complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henao, Juan; Aubin, Carl-Éric; Labelle, Hubert; Arnoux, Pierre-Jean

    2016-01-01

    Scoliosis is a 3D deformation of the spine and rib cage. For severe cases, surgery with spine instrumentation is required to restore a balanced spine curvature. This surgical procedure may represent a neurological risk for the patient, especially during corrective maneuvers. This study aimed to computationally simulate the surgical instrumentation maneuvers on a patient-specific biomechanical model of the spine and spinal cord to assess and predict potential damage to the spinal cord and spinal nerves. A detailed finite element model (FEM) of the spine and spinal cord of a healthy subject was used as reference geometry. The FEM was personalized to the geometry of the patient using a 3D biplanar radiographic reconstruction technique and 3D dual kriging. Step by step surgical instrumentation maneuvers were simulated in order to assess the neurological risk associated to each maneuver. The surgical simulation methodology implemented was divided into two parts. First, a global multi-body simulation was used to extract the 3D displacement of six vertebral landmarks, which were then introduced as boundary conditions into the personalized FEM in order to reproduce the surgical procedure. The results of the FEM simulation for two cases were compared to published values on spinal cord neurological functional threshold. The efficiency of the reported method was checked considering one patient with neurological complications detected during surgery and one control patient. This comparison study showed that the patient-specific hybrid model reproduced successfully the biomechanics of neurological injury during scoliosis correction maneuvers.

  14. Current neurology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, S.H.

    1988-01-01

    The topics covered in this book include: Duchenne muscular dystrophy: DNA diagnosis in practice; Central nervous system magnetic resonance imaging; and Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of neurologic diseases

  15. Neurological assessment of 38 late-diagnosed children with classic phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeliha Haytoglu

    2016-03-01

    Material and Methods: Thirty-eight late-diagnosed classic phenylketonuria patients were enrolled in the study. Plasma phenylalanine levels were measured by spectrofluorometric method. MRI was evaluated by a pediatric neuroradiologist. Ankara developmental screening inventory (ADSI and Wechsler intelligence scale for Turkish children (WISC-R test were performed to detect IQ scores. Porteus Mazo test adapted for Turkish children intelligence test were performed to all children. The EEG of all patients were recorded. VEP was used to measure the electrical activity in the brain to visual stimulus. Results: The high plasma phenylalanine levels and late-diagnosis were associated with low IQ scores, pathological EEG, and pathological VEP patterns. High PA levels were also associated with more serious white matter signal abnormalities. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated the impact of early diagnosis and low levels of phenylalanine at diagnosis on the intellectual, neurological development and visual outcomes. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(1.000: 21-27

  16. Adult neurology training during child neurology residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schor, Nina F

    2012-08-21

    As it is currently configured, completion of child neurology residency requires performance of 12 months of training in adult neurology. Exploration of whether or not this duration of training in adult neurology is appropriate for what child neurology is today must take into account the initial reasons for this requirement and the goals of adult neurology training during child neurology residency.

  17. 75 FR 5335 - Workshop on Pediatric Neurological and Neurocognitive Assessments for Cardiovascular Devices...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... to clinical research investigators involved in pediatric clinical device trials, health care givers... understand and review the current clinical practices for these assessments in the pediatric population and to... restricted growth in the field. Several peer-reviewed journal articles acknowledge that there are no...

  18. Electrical and percussive stunning of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.): Neurological and behavioural assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, E.; Pilarczyk, M.; Bialowas, H.; Boogaart, van den J.G.M.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2007-01-01

    The overall objective of the study was to evaluate electrical and percussive stunning methods under laboratory conditions in common carps. The electrical current needed to induce a general epileptiform insult was assessed in 13 carps. The insult was obtained by delivering a current of 0.24 ± 0.03 A

  19. Essential elements for assessment of persons with severe neurological impairments for computer access utilizing assistive technology devices: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppestad, Brian Scott

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine prospective elements that should comprise a comprehensive and valid assessment of persons with severe disabilities for access to computers utilizing assistive technology (AT). Currently, there is a lack of guidelines regarding areas that permit a satisfactory measure of a person's need for AT devices to enable computer access, resulting in substandard services. A list of criteria for elements that should be incorporated into an instrument for determining AT for computer access was compiled from a literature review in the areas of neuroscience, rehabilitation, and education; and a Delphi study using an electronic survey form that was e-mailed to a panel of experts in the field of AT. Only those areas rated as essential to the assessment process ('very important' or 'important' by 80% of the respondents) were chosen as important criteria for an assessment instrument. The initial Delphi survey contained 22 categories (54 subcategories or elements) for incorporation into an assessment for computer access. The second round of the survey completed the Delphi process resulting in a consensus for inclusion of 39 of the elements in an assessment instrument. There are inherent obstacles to prescribing the proper AT device to assist disabled persons with computer access due to the complexity of his/her condition, and the multitude of technological devices available to aid persons in accomplishing diverse tasks. This study reveals the intricacy of the assessment process, especially in persons with severe disabilities associated with neurological conditions. An assessment instrument should be broad ranging, integrating both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, considering the multidimensional nature of AT prescription for computer access.

  20. Potential of robots as next-generation technology for clinical assessment of neurological disorders and upper-limb therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Stephen H; Dukelow, Sean P

    2011-01-01

    Robotic technologies have profoundly affected the identification of fundamental properties of brain function. This success is attributable to robots being able to control the position of or forces applied to limbs, and their inherent ability to easily, objectively, and reliably quantify sensorimotor behavior. Our general hypothesis is that these same attributes make robotic technologies ideal for clinically assessing sensory, motor, and cognitive impairments in stroke and other neurological disorders. Further, they provide opportunities for novel therapeutic strategies. The present opinionated review describes how robotic technologies combined with virtual/augmented reality systems can support a broad range of behavioral tasks to objectively quantify brain function. This information could potentially be used to provide more accurate diagnostic and prognostic information than is available from current clinical assessment techniques. The review also highlights the potential benefits of robots to provide upper-limb therapy. Although the capital cost of these technologies is substantial, it pales in comparison with the potential cost reductions to the overall healthcare system that improved assessment and therapeutic interventions offer.

  1. NeuroVRAC--a comprehensive approach to virtual reality-based neurological assessment and treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valvoda, Jakob T; Assenmacher, Ingo; Dohle, Christian; Kuhlen, Torsten; Bischof, Christian

    2003-01-01

    We describe a comprehensive software-oriented approach to virtual reality-based neuroscientific systems in order to establish an easy to use framework for neuroscientific assessment and treatment. We have defined a process model and implemented the NeuroVRAC authoring tool for design and execution of experiments in virtual environments. Our system enables the modeling of virtual world objects and the definition of events, which are used to control the experimental process. We have included the virtual test person concept to enhance the sense of presence during the execution of virtual reality-based neuroscientific experiments.

  2. Conversion Disorder, Functional Neurological Symptom Disorder, and Chronic Pain: Comorbidity, Assessment, and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Patricia; Deptula, Andrew; Yuan, Derek Y

    2017-06-01

    This paper examines the overlap of conversion disorder with chronic pain conditions, describes ways to assess for conversion disorder, and provides an overview of evidence-based treatments for conversion disorder and chronic pain, with a focus on conversion symptoms. Conversion disorder is a significant problem that warrants further study, given that there are not many well-established guidelines. Accurate and timely assessment should help move treatment in a more fruitful direction and avoid unnecessary medical interventions. Advances in neuroimaging may also help further our understanding of conversion disorder. Creating a supportive environment and a collaborative treatment relationship and improving understanding of conversion symptoms appear to help individuals diagnosed with conversion disorder engage in appropriate treatments. Novel uses of earlier treatments, such as hypnosis and psychodynamic approaches, could potentially be beneficial and require a more vigorous and systematic study. There are treatments that produce significant improvements in functioning and reduction of physical symptoms from conversion disorder even for very severe cases. Hypnotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, and inpatient multidisciplinary treatment with intensive physiotherapy for severe cases have the most evidence to support reduction of symptoms. Components of treatment for conversion disorder overlap with treatments for chronic pain and can be used together to produce therapeutic effects for both conditions. Treatment needs to be tailored for each individual's specific symptoms.

  3. Neurological Assessment Using a Quantitative Sensory Test in Patients with Chronic Unilateral Orofacial Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salame, Talal H; Blinkhorn, Antony; Karami, Zahra

    2018-01-01

    Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) has been used in clinical and experimental settings to establish sensory assessment for different types of pains, and may be a useful tool for the assessment of orofacial pain, but this premise needs to be tested. The aim of the study was to evaluate responses to thermal stimuli between painful and non-painful facial sites in subjects with orofacial pain using QST. A total of 60 participants (5o females: 28-83 years; 10 males: 44-81 years) with unilateral orofacial pain were recruited from the Orofacial Pain Clinic at the Pain Management and Research Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, Australia. The study followed the methods of limits of the German Research Network testing four modalities of thermal thresholds, the Warm Sensation, the Cold Sensation, the Heat Pain and the Cold Pain using a TSA-II Neurosensory Analyser. The results were compared to the results from the unaffected side of the same patient on the same area and a single t test statistical analysis was performed, where a p value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. The Mean Difference for Cold Sensation between the pain side and the non-pain side was 0.48 °C ± 1.5 (t= 2.466, p=0.017), 0.68 °C ± 2.04 for Warm Sensation (t= -2.573, p= 0.013), 2.56 °C ± 2.74 for Cold Pain (t= 7.238, pcool and warm sensation, and cold and hot pain.

  4. Neurologic disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakeres, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    There is a wide range of indications for radiographic evaluation of possible cerebrovascular disease, since a wide range of neurologic symptoms can be encountered secondary to ischemia. Frequently the diagnosis of cerebrovascular disease is clear on clinical grounds, but radiographic evaluation is essential both to quantify the extent of disease and establish the underlying cause (e.g., vasculitis, embolus) while excluding other causes so that the proper therapy can follow

  5. Vascular dementia Cognitive, functional and behavioral assessment Recommendations of the Scientific Department of Cognitive Neurology and Aging of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology. Part II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasz Engelhardt

    Full Text Available Abstract Vascular dementia (VaD is the most prevalent form of secondary dementia and the second most common of all dementias. The present paper aims to define guidelines on the basic principles for treating patients with suspected VaD (and vascular cognitive impairment - no dementia using an evidence-based approach. The material was retrieved and selected from searches of databases (Medline, Scielo, Lilacs, preferentially from the last 15 years, to propose a systematic way to assess cognition, function and behavior, and disease severity staging, with instruments adapted for our milieu, and diagnosis disclosure. The present proposal contributes to the definition of standard diagnostic criteria for VaD based on various levels of evidence. It is noteworthy that only around half of the population of patients with vascular cognitive impairment present with dementia, which calls for future proposals defining diagnostic criteria and procedures for this condition.

  6. Papaverine is a confounding factor in neurological assessment after cerebral aneurysm clipping: Report of three cases and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena Sheshadri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracisternal papaverine instillation is being used across many centers after cerebral aneurysm clipping to prevent and treat cerebral vasospasm. Pupillary dilatation secondary to papaverine can interfere with the neurological assessment postoperatively. This report describes pupillary changes in three patients following the papaverine application after craniotomy and aneurysm clipping, with one patient developing contralateral pupillary dilatation and the other two having bilateral pupillary dilatation. The pupillary changes resolved over 30 min to 4 h postoperatively. We conclude that pupillary changes following papaverine instillation could be a transient phenomenon and should not be considered ominous in absence of new onset neurological deficits. Intraoperative somatosensory evoked potential monitoring also helped in postoperative decision making in all our cases.

  7. Assessment: symptomatic treatment for muscle cramps (an evidence-based review): report of the therapeutics and technology assessment subcommittee of the American academy of neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzberg, Hans D; Khan, Ahmir H; So, Yuen T

    2010-02-23

    A Food and Drug Administration advisory in 2006 warned against the off-label use of quinine sulfate and its derivatives in the treatment of muscle cramps. Physicians are faced with a difficult scenario in choosing a treatment regimen for patients with muscle cramps. This American Academy of Neurology assessment systematically reviews the available evidence on the symptomatic treatment of muscle cramps. A total of 563 potential articles were reviewed, of which 24 met the inclusion criteria of prospective trials evaluating the efficacy of a particular treatment on muscle cramps as a primary or secondary outcome. There are Class I studies showing the efficacy of quinine derivatives for treatment of muscle cramps. However, the benefit is modest and there are adverse effects from published prospective trials as well as case reports. There is one Class II study each to support the use of Naftidrofuryl, vitamin B complex, lidocaine, and diltiazem in the treatment of muscle cramps. Although likely effective (Level A), quinine derivatives should be avoided for routine use in the management of muscle cramps because of the potential of toxicity, but in select patients they can be considered for an individual therapeutic trial once potential side effects are taken into account. Vitamin B complex, Naftidrofuryl, and calcium channel blockers such as diltiazem are possibly effective and may be considered in the management of muscle cramps (Level C). Further studies are needed to identify agents that are effective and safe for the treatment of muscle cramps.

  8. Palliative care and neurology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, Isabel; Miyasaki, Janis; Kutner, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Palliative care is an approach to the care of patients and families facing progressive and chronic illnesses that focuses on the relief of suffering due to physical symptoms, psychosocial issues, and spiritual distress. As neurologists care for patients with chronic, progressive, life-limiting, and disabling conditions, it is important that they understand and learn to apply the principles of palliative medicine. In this article, we aim to provide a practical starting point in palliative medicine for neurologists by answering the following questions: (1) What is palliative care and what is hospice care? (2) What are the palliative care needs of neurology patients? (3) Do neurology patients have unique palliative care needs? and (4) How can palliative care be integrated into neurology practice? We cover several fundamental palliative care skills relevant to neurologists, including communication of bad news, symptom assessment and management, advance care planning, caregiver assessment, and appropriate referral to hospice and other palliative care services. We conclude by suggesting areas for future educational efforts and research. PMID:24991027

  9. Frequency and Pathological Phenotype of Bovine Astrovirus CH13/NeuroS1 Infection in Neurologically-Diseased Cattle: Towards Assessment of Causality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senija Selimovic-Hamza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Next-generation sequencing (NGS has opened up the possibility of detecting new viruses in unresolved diseases. Recently, astrovirus brain infections have been identified in neurologically diseased humans and animals by NGS, among them bovine astrovirus (BoAstV CH13/NeuroS1, which has been found in brain tissues of cattle with non-suppurative encephalitis. Only a few studies are available on neurotropic astroviruses and a causal relationship between BoAstV CH13/NeuroS1 infections and neurological disease has been postulated, but remains unproven. Aiming at making a step forward towards assessing the causality, we collected brain samples of 97 cases of cattle diagnosed with unresolved non-suppurative encephalitis, and analyzed them by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, to determine the frequency and neuropathological distribution of the BoAstV CH13/NeuroS1 and its topographical correlation to the pathology. We detected BoAstV CH13/NeuroS1 RNA or proteins in neurons throughout all parts of the central nervous system (CNS in 34% of all cases, but none were detected in cattle of the control group. In general, brain lesions had a high correlation with the presence of the virus. These findings show that a substantial proportion of cattle with non-suppurative encephalitis are infected with BoAstV CH13/NeuroS1 and further substantiate the causal relationship between neurological disease and astrovirus infections.

  10. Neurological Manifestations of Dengue Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Hong Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dengue counts among the most commonly encountered arboviral diseases, representing the fastest spreading tropical illness in the world. It is prevalent in 128 countries, and each year >2.5 billion people are at risk of dengue virus infection worldwide. Neurological signs of dengue infection are increasingly reported. In this review, the main neurological complications of dengue virus infection, such as central nervous system (CNS, peripheral nervous system, and ophthalmic complications were discussed according to clinical features, treatment and possible pathogenesis. In addition, neurological complications in children were assessed due to their atypical clinical features. Finally, dengue infection and Japanese encephalitis were compared for pathogenesis and main clinical manifestations.

  11. Traumatic atlantooccipital dislocation: comprehensive assessment of mortality, neurologic improvement, and patient-reported outcomes at a Level 1 trauma center over 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, Stephen K; Sivaganesan, Ahilan; Mistry, Akshitkumar; Sivasubramaniam, Priya; McGirt, Matthew J; Devin, Clinton J

    2015-11-01

    Only Level 3 evidence exists for the diagnosis and treatment of atlantooccipital dislocation (AOD) with few studies examining mortality, neurologic improvement, and patient-reported outcomes (PROs). First, the aim was to determine: the incidence of AOD, 90-day surgical morbidity and mortality after AOD, patient factors that may be associated with delayed or missed diagnosis, and factors that were associated with mortality and neurologic improvement after AOD. Secondly, the aim was to quantify the pain, disability, and quality of life experienced by patients surviving AOD. This was a retrospective cohort study. A total of 5,337 consecutive spine computed tomography traumagrams from 1997 to 2012 were included. Mortality, neurologic improvement, complications, EuroQol five dimensions (EQ-5D), Neck Disability Index (NDI), Numeric Rating Scale (NRS)-neck, NRS-arm, and return-to-work were the outcome measures. Patients were considered to have AOD if they met one of the following radiographic criteria: basion-dens interval greater than 10 mm; basion-axial interval: anterior displacement greater than 12 mm or posterior displacement greater than 4 mm between the basion and posterior C2 line; and condyle to C1 interval greater than 1.4 mm. Linear regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with 90-day mortality, neurologic improvement, and missed diagnosis. Patient-reported outcomes were assessed via phone interview. Thirty-one patients met radiographic criteria for AOD; an incidence of 0.6% over 15 years. Twenty-one (68%) patients were treated with occipital cervical fusion. At 90 days postoperatively, there were no new neurologic deficits or reoperations. Eight (26%) patients died within 90 days. All patients who died had no documented AOD diagnosis and were not treated surgically. Missed AOD diagnosis was the strongest predictor of mortality. Younger age, lower Glasgow Coma Score, lower Injury Severity Score (ISS) score, and worse initial American

  12. Neurology and neurologic practice in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Fu-Dong; Jia, Jian-Ping

    2011-11-29

    In the wake of dramatic economic success during the past 2 decades, the specialized field of neurology has undergone a significant transformation in China. With an increase in life expectancy, the problems of aging and cognition have grown. Lifestyle alterations have been associated with an epidemiologic transition both in the incidence and etiology of stroke. These changes, together with an array of social issues and institution of health care reform, are creating challenges for practicing neurologists throughout China. Notable problems include overcrowded, decrepit facilities, overloaded physician schedules, deteriorating physician-patient relationships, and an insufficient infrastructure to accommodate patients who need specialized neurologic care. Conversely, with the creation of large and sophisticated neurology centers in many cities across the country, tremendous opportunities exist. Developments in neurologic subspecialties enable delivery of high-quality care. Clinical and translational research based on large patient populations as well as highly sophisticated technologies are emerging in many neurologic centers and pharmaceutical companies. Child neurology and neurorehabilitation will be fast-developing subdisciplines. Given China's extensive population, the growth and progress of its neurology complex, and its ever-improving quality control, it is reasonable to anticipate that Chinese neurologists will contribute notably to unraveling the pathogenic factors causing neurologic diseases and to providing new therapeutic solutions.

  13. Comparison of the four proposed Apgar scoring systems in the assessment of birth asphyxia and adverse early neurologic outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Dalili

    Full Text Available To compare the Conventional, Specified, Expanded and Combined Apgar scoring systems in predicting birth asphyxia and the adverse early neurologic outcomes.This prospective cohort study was conducted on 464 admitted neonates. In the delivery room, after delivery the umbilical cord was double clamped and a blood samples was obtained from the umbilical artery for blood gas analysis, meanwhile on the 1- , 5- and 10- minutes Conventional, Specified, Expanded, and Combined Apgar scores were recorded. Then the neonates were followed and intracranial ultrasound imaging was performed, and the following information were recorded: the occurrence of birth asphyxia, hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH, and neonatal seizure.The Combined-Apgar score had the highest sensitivity (97% and specificity (99% in predicting birth asphyxia, followed by the Specified-Apgar score that was also highly sensitive (95% and specific (97%. The Expanded-Apgar score was highly specific (95% but not sensitive (67% and the Conventional-Apgar score had the lowest sensitivity (81% and low specificity (81% in predicting birth asphyxia. When adjusted for gestational age, only the low 5-minute Combined-Apgar score was independently associated with the occurrence of HIE (B = 1.61, P = 0.02 and IVH (B = 2.8, P = 0.01.The newly proposed Combined-Apgar score is highly sensitive and specific in predicting birth asphyxia and also is a good predictor of the occurrence of HIE and IVH in asphyxiated neonates.

  14. Comparison of the Four Proposed Apgar Scoring Systems in the Assessment of Birth Asphyxia and Adverse Early Neurologic Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalili, Hosein; Nili, Firouzeh; Sheikh, Mahdi; Hardani, Amir Kamal; Shariat, Mamak; Nayeri, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To compare the Conventional, Specified, Expanded and Combined Apgar scoring systems in predicting birth asphyxia and the adverse early neurologic outcomes. Methods This prospective cohort study was conducted on 464 admitted neonates. In the delivery room, after delivery the umbilical cord was double clamped and a blood samples was obtained from the umbilical artery for blood gas analysis, meanwhile on the 1- , 5- and 10- minutes Conventional, Specified, Expanded, and Combined Apgar scores were recorded. Then the neonates were followed and intracranial ultrasound imaging was performed, and the following information were recorded: the occurrence of birth asphyxia, hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), and neonatal seizure. Results The Combined-Apgar score had the highest sensitivity (97%) and specificity (99%) in predicting birth asphyxia, followed by the Specified-Apgar score that was also highly sensitive (95%) and specific (97%). The Expanded-Apgar score was highly specific (95%) but not sensitive (67%) and the Conventional-Apgar score had the lowest sensitivity (81%) and low specificity (81%) in predicting birth asphyxia. When adjusted for gestational age, only the low 5-minute Combined-Apgar score was independently associated with the occurrence of HIE (B = 1.61, P = 0.02) and IVH (B = 2.8, P = 0.01). Conclusions The newly proposed Combined-Apgar score is highly sensitive and specific in predicting birth asphyxia and also is a good predictor of the occurrence of HIE and IVH in asphyxiated neonates. PMID:25811904

  15. Infection control assessment after an influenza outbreak in a residential care facility for children and young adults with neurologic and neurodevelopmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azofeifa, Alejandro; Yeung, Lorraine F; Peacock, Georgina; Moore, Cynthia A; Rodgers, Loren; DiOrio, Mary; Page, Shannon L; Fowler, Brian; Stone, Nimalie D; Finelli, Lyn; Jhung, Michael A

    2013-07-01

    To assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of infection control among staff in a residential care facility for children and young adults with neurologic and neurodevelopmental conditions. Self-administered survey. Residential care facility (facility A). Facility A staff ([Formula: see text]). We distributed a survey to staff at facility A. We classified staff with direct care responsibilities as clinical (ie, physicians, nurses, and therapists) or nonclinical (ie, habilitation assistants, volunteers, and teachers) and used χ(2) tests to measure differences between staff agreement to questions. Of 248 surveys distributed, 200 (81%) were completed; median respondent age was 36 years; 85% were female; and 151 were direct care staff (50 clinical, 101 nonclinical). Among direct care staff respondents, 86% agreed they could identify residents with respiratory symptoms, 70% stayed home from work when ill with respiratory infection, 64% agreed that facility administration encouraged them to stay home when ill with respiratory infection, and 72% reported that ill residents with respiratory infections were separated from well residents. Clinical and nonclinical staff differed in agreement about using waterless hand gel as a substitute for handwashing (96% vs 78%; [Formula: see text]) and whether handwashing was done after touching residents (92% vs 75%; [Formula: see text]). Respondents' knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding infection control could be improved, especially among nonclinical staff. Facilities caring for children and young adults with neurologic and neurodevelopmental conditions should encourage adherence to infection control best practices among all staff having direct contact with residents.

  16. Neurological complications of chickenpox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girija A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the neurological complications of chickenpox with prognosis. Background: The neurological complications occur in 0.03% of persons who get chickenpox. There is no universal vaccination against chicken pox in India. Most patients prefer alternate modalities of treatment. Hence these complications of chickenpox are likely to continue to occur. Study Design: A prospective study was conducted for 2 years (from March 2002 on the admitted cases with neurological complications after chickenpox (with rash or scar. Patients were investigated with CT/MRI, CSF study, EEG and nerve conduction studies and hematological workup. They were followed-up for 1 year and outcome assessed using modified Rankin scale. Results: The latency for the neurological complications was 4-32 days (mean: 16.32 days. There were 18 cases: 10 adults (64% and 8 children (36%. Cerebellar ataxia (normal CT/MRI was observed in 7 cases (32% (mean age: 6.85 years. One patient (6 years had acute right hemiparesis in the fifth week due to left capsular infarct. All these cases spontaneously recovered by 4 weeks. The age range of the adult patients was 13-47 years (mean: 27 years. The manifestations included cerebellar and pyramidal signs (n-4 with features of demyelination in MRI who recovered spontaneously or with methylprednisolone by 8 weeks. Patient with encephalitis recovered in 2 weeks with acyclovir. Guillain Barre syndrome of the demyelinating type (n-2 was treated with Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG and they had a slow recovery by a modified Rankin scale (mRs score of 3 and 2 at 6 months and 1 year, respectively. One case died after hemorrhage into the occipital infarct. There were two cases of asymmetrical neuropathy, one each of the seventh cranial and brachial neuritis. Conclusion: Spontaneous recovery occurs in post-chickenpox cerebellar ataxia. Rarely, serious complications can occur in adults. The demyelinating disorders, either of the central or peripheral

  17. Focal neurological deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Brain References Daroff RB, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, Pomeroy SL. Diagnosis of neurological disease. In: Daroff RB, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, Pomeroy SL, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice . 7th ...

  18. Acquired Neurologic Mutism

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1997-01-01

    The behavioral features of four children with acquired neurologic mutism are reported from the Department of Neurology, University Hospital Rotterdam-Dijkzigt, Rotterdam; and Department of Medical Psychology, Ziekenhuis Walcheren, Vlissingen, The Netherlands.

  19. Neurology at the bedside

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondziella, Daniel; Waldemar, Gunhild

    This updated and expanded new edition takes neurology trainees by the hand and guides them through the whole patient encounter - from an efficient neurological history and bedside examination through to differential diagnosis, diagnostic procedures and treatment. At each step the expert authors......, as have new chapters including neurogenetics, neurorehabilitation, neurocritical care and heuristic neurological reasoning. In addition, this second edition now includes more than 100 unique case histories. Neurology at the Bedside, Second Edition is written for neurologists in all stages of training....... Medical students, general practitioners and others with an interest in neurology will also find invaluable information here....

  20. Neurologic emergencies in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Vernon B

    2014-12-01

    Sports neurology is an emerging area of subspecialty. Neurologists and non-neurologists evaluating and managing individuals participating in sports will encounter emergencies that directly or indirectly involve the nervous system. Since the primary specialty of sports medicine physicians and other practitioners involved in the delivery of medical care to athletes in emergency situations varies significantly, experience in recognition and management of neurologic emergencies in sports will vary as well. This article provides a review of information and elements essential to neurologic emergencies in sports for the practicing neurologist, although content may be of benefit to readers of varying background and expertise. Both common neurologic emergencies and less common but noteworthy neurologic emergencies are reviewed in this article. Issues that are fairly unique to sports participation are highlighted in this review. General concepts and principles related to treatment of neurologic emergencies that are often encountered unrelated to sports (eg, recognition and treatment of status epilepticus, increased intracranial pressure) are discussed but are not the focus of this article. Neurologic emergencies can involve any region of the nervous system (eg, brain, spine/spinal cord, peripheral nerves, muscles). In addition to neurologic emergencies that represent direct sports-related neurologic complications, indirect (systemic and generalized) sports-related emergencies with significant neurologic consequences can occur and are also discussed in this article. Neurologists and others involved in the care of athletes should consider neurologic emergencies in sports when planning and providing medical care.

  1. Quality Metrics in Inpatient Neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhand, Amar

    2015-12-01

    Quality of care in the context of inpatient neurology is the standard of performance by neurologists and the hospital system as measured against ideal models of care. There are growing regulatory pressures to define health care value through concrete quantifiable metrics linked to reimbursement. Theoretical models of quality acknowledge its multimodal character with quantitative and qualitative dimensions. For example, the Donabedian model distils quality as a phenomenon of three interconnected domains, structure-process-outcome, with each domain mutually influential. The actual measurement of quality may be implicit, as in peer review in morbidity and mortality rounds, or explicit, in which criteria are prespecified and systemized before assessment. As a practical contribution, in this article a set of candidate quality indicators for inpatient neurology based on an updated review of treatment guidelines is proposed. These quality indicators may serve as an initial blueprint for explicit quality metrics long overdue for inpatient neurology. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  2. [Neurology and the bladder: how to assess and manage neurogenic bladder dysfunction. With particular references to neural control of micturition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, Ryuji; Kishi, Masahiko; Tsuyusaki, Yohei; Tateno, Fuyuki; Uchiyama, Tomoyuki; Yamamoto, Tatsuya

    2013-01-01

    Bladder dysfunctions are one of the most common features seen in the failure of the autonomic nervous system. Among those, overactive bladder (urinary urgency and frequency) worsens quality of life of the patients, and a large amount of post-voiding residual urine or urinary retention causes urinary tract infection, kidney dysfunction, and may bring renal failure. In the present paper we discussed neural control of micturition and how to assess it. Also, we proposed appropriate management of bladder dysfunction in elderly white matter lesions (a common cause of OAB) and diabetic neuropathy (a usual pathology underlying urinary retention). For OAB, anti-cholinergics are the mainstay, whereas for the pathological post-voiding residual urine or urinary retention, alpha-blockers, cholinergic agents and clean, intermittent self-catheterization are the choice. Treatment of bladder dysfunctions is the important target for maximizing patients' quality of life.

  3. [Neurology! Adieau? (Part 2)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szirmai, Imre

    2010-05-30

    The education of neurologists is debilitated worldwide. University professors are engaged in teaching, research and patient-care. This triple challenge is very demanding, and results in permanent insecurity of University employees. To compensate for the insufficient clinical training, some institutes in the USA employ academic staff members exclusively for teaching. The formation of new subspecialties hinders the education and training of general neurologists. At present, four generations of medical doctors are working together in hospitals. The two older generations educate the younger neurologists who have been brought up in the world of limitless network of sterile information. Therefore their manual skills at the bedside and their knowledge of emergency treatment are deficient. Demographics of medical doctors changed drastically. Twice as many women are working in neurology and psychiatry than men. Integrity of neurology is threatened by: (1) Separation of the cerebrovascular diseases from general neurology. Development of "stroke units" was facilitated by the better reimbursement for treatment and by the interest of the pharmaceutical companies. Healthcare politics promoted the split of neurology into two parts. The independent status of "stroke departments" will reduce the rest of clinical neurology to outpatient service. (2) The main argumentation to segregate the rare neurological diseases was that their research will provide benefit for the diseases with high prevalence. This argumentation serves territorial ambitions. The separation of rare diseases interferes with the teaching of differential diagnostics in neurological training. The traditional pragmatic neurology can not be retrieved. The faculty of neurology could retain its integrity by the improvement of diagnostic methods and the ever more effective drugs. Nevertheless, even the progression of neurological sciences induces dissociation of clinical neurology. Neurology shall suffer fragmentation if

  4. Neurology at the bedside

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondziella, Daniel; Waldemar, Gunhild

    , as have new chapters including neurogenetics, neurorehabilitation, neurocritical care and heuristic neurological reasoning. In addition, this second edition now includes more than 100 unique case histories. Neurology at the Bedside, Second Edition is written for neurologists in all stages of training...

  5. Education Research: Neurology training reassessed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Matthew B.; Coleman, Mary; Jozefowicz, Ralph; Engstrom, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the strengths and weaknesses of neurology resident education using survey methodology. Methods: A 27-question survey was sent to all neurology residents completing residency training in the United States in 2011. Results: Of eligible respondents, 49.8% of residents returned the survey. Most residents believed previously instituted duty hour restrictions had a positive impact on resident quality of life without impacting patient care. Most residents rated their faculty and clinical didactics favorably. However, many residents reported suboptimal preparation in basic neuroscience and practice management issues. Most residents (71%) noted that the Residency In-service Training Examination (RITE) assisted in self-study. A minority of residents (14%) reported that the RITE scores were used for reasons other than self-study. The vast majority (86%) of residents will enter fellowship training following residency and were satisfied with the fellowship offers they received. Conclusions: Graduating residents had largely favorable neurology training experiences. Several common deficiencies include education in basic neuroscience and clinical practice management. Importantly, prior changes to duty hours did not negatively affect the resident perception of neurology residency training. PMID:23091077

  6. Neurology in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chong-Tin

    2015-02-10

    Asia is important as it accounts for more than half of the world population. The majority of Asian countries fall into the middle income category. As for cultural traditions, Asia is highly varied, with many languages spoken. The pattern of neurologic diseases in Asia is largely similar to the West, with some disease features being specific to Asia. Whereas Asia constitutes 60% of the world's population, it contains only 20% of the world's neurologists. This disparity is particularly evident in South and South East Asia. As for neurologic care, it is highly variable depending on whether it is an urban or rural setting, the level of economic development, and the system of health care financing. To help remedy the shortage of neurologists, most counties with larger populations have established training programs in neurology. These programs are diverse, with many areas of concern. There are regional organizations serving as a vehicle for networking in neurology and various subspecialties, as well as an official journal (Neurology Asia). The Asian Epilepsy Academy, with its emphasis on workshops in various locations, EEG certification examination, and fellowships, may provide a template of effective regional networking for improving neurology care in the region. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  7. The future of neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, W David; Vatz, Kenneth A

    2010-05-01

    For the past 200 years, neurology has been deeply rooted in the history and neurologic examination, but 21st century advances in neurosurgery, endovascular techniques, and neuropathology, and an explosion in basic neuroscience research and neuroimaging have added exciting new dimensions to the field. Neurology residency training programs face intense governmental regulatory changes and economic pressures, making it difficult to predict the number of neurology residents being trained for the future. The future job outlook for neurologists in the United States, based on recent survey and trends, suggests an increased demand because of the prevalence of neurologic diseases within the aging population, particularly in underserved urban and rural areas. Telemedicine and "teleconsultation" offer a potential solution to bringing virtual subspecialists to underserved areas. The future for neurology and neuroscience research in the United States remains a high priority according to the National Institute of Neurologic Diseases and Stroke, but this may be affected in the long run by budgetary constraints and a growing deficit. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cardiomyopathy in neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterer, Josef; Stöllberger, Claudia; Wahbi, Karim

    2013-01-01

    According to the American Heart Association, cardiomyopathies are classified as primary (solely or predominantly confined to heart muscle), secondary (those showing pathological myocardial involvement as part of a neuromuscular disorder) and those in which cardiomyopathy is the first/predominant manifestation of a neuromuscular disorder. Cardiomyopathies may be further classified as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, restrictive cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, or unclassified cardiomyopathy (noncompaction, Takotsubo-cardiomyopathy). This review focuses on secondary cardiomyopathies and those in which cardiomyopathy is the predominant manifestation of a myopathy. Any of them may cause neurological disease, and any of them may be a manifestation of a neurological disorder. Neurological disease most frequently caused by cardiomyopathies is ischemic stroke, followed by transitory ischemic attack, syncope, or vertigo. Neurological disease, which most frequently manifests with cardiomyopathies are the neuromuscular disorders. Most commonly associated with cardiomyopathies are muscular dystrophies, myofibrillar myopathies, congenital myopathies and metabolic myopathies. Management of neurological disease caused by cardiomyopathies is not at variance from the same neurological disorders due to other causes. Management of secondary cardiomyopathies is not different from that of cardiomyopathies due to other causes either. Patients with neuromuscular disorders require early cardiologic investigations and close follow-ups, patients with cardiomyopathies require neurological investigation and avoidance of muscle toxic medication if a neuromuscular disorder is diagnosed. Which patients with cardiomyopathy profit most from primary stroke prevention is unsolved and requires further investigations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Child Neurology Education for Pediatric Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Dara V F; Patel, Anup D; Behnam-Terneus, Maria; Sautu, Beatriz Cunill-De; Verbeck, Nicole; McQueen, Alisa; Fromme, H Barrett; Mahan, John D

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the current state of child neurology education during pediatric residency provides adequate preparation for pediatric practice. A survey was sent to recent graduates from 3 pediatric residency programs to assess graduate experience, perceived level of competence, and desire for further education in child neurology. Responses from generalists versus subspecialists were compared. The response rate was 32%, half in general pediatric practice. Only 22% feel very confident in approaching patients with neurologic problems. This may represent the best-case scenario as graduates from these programs had required neurology experiences, whereas review of Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education-accredited residency curricula revealed that the majority of residencies do not. Pediatric neurologic problems are common, and pediatric residency graduates do encounter such problems in practice. The majority of pediatricians report some degree of confidence; however, some clear areas for improvement are apparent.

  10. International electives in neurology training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Jennifer L.; Coleman, Mary E.; Engstrom, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain the current status of global health training and humanitarian relief opportunities in US and Canadian postgraduate neurology programs. Background: There is a growing interest among North American trainees to pursue medical electives in low- and middle-income countries. Such training opportunities provide many educational and humanitarian benefits but also pose several challenges related to organization, human resources, funding, and trainee and patient safety. The current support and engagement of neurology postgraduate training programs for trainees to pursue international rotations is unknown. Methods: A survey was distributed to all program directors in the United States and Canada (December 2012–February 2013) through the American Academy of Neurology to assess the training opportunities, institutional partnerships, and support available for international neurology electives. Results: Approximately half of responding programs (53%) allow residents to pursue global health–related electives, and 11% reported that at least 1 trainee participated in humanitarian relief during training (survey response rate 61%, 143/234 program directors). Canadian programs were more likely to allow residents to pursue international electives than US programs (10/11, 91% vs 65/129, 50%, p = 0.023). The number of trainees participating in international electives was low: 0%–9% of residents (55% of programs) and 10%–19% of residents (21% of programs). Lack of funding was the most commonly cited reason for residents not participating in global health electives. If funding was available, 93% of program directors stated there would be time for residents to participate. Most program directors (75%) were interested in further information on global health electives. Conclusions: In spite of high perceived interest, only half of US neurology training programs include international electives, mostly due to a reported lack of funding. By contrast, the majority

  11. Establishing the NeuroRecovery Network Community Fitness and Wellness facilities: multi-site fitness facilities provide activity-based interventions and assessments for evidence-based functional gains in neurologic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolle, Heather; Rapacz, Andrew; Weintraub, Barry; Shogren, Carrie; Harkema, Susan J; Gibson, Jeremy L

    2017-08-17

    Physical fitness is a necessity for those living with a spinal cord injury, yet access to fitness facilities, equipment, and specially trained fitness experts are limited. This article introduces the concept of a network of fitness facilities specially geared towards individuals with spinal cord injury and other neurological disorders. The Community Fitness and Wellness branch of the NeuroRecovery Network was created to provide a continuum of care after traditional rehabilitation for individuals living with a spinal cord injury and other neurological disorders. Community Fitness and Wellness facilities translate activity-based interventions performed during rehabilitation into a community setting as well as provide other fitness and wellness opportunities. Community Fitness and Wellness facilities are staffed by professionals with training on the specialized needs of individuals living with spinal cord injury or other neurological disorders. Standardized assessments evaluate functional, health, and quality of life gains at regular intervals. A national database gathers information on standardized interventions and assessment outcomes providing a mechanism for evaluation of interventions performed in the community setting. The establishment of Community Fitness and Wellness facilities allows for the quick translation and evaluation of novel, effective approaches from research to individuals in the community. Implications for Rehabilitation Fitness needs of individuals with spinal cord injury living in the community necessitate the use of special equipment and trained staff. Community Fitness and Wellness Programs offer specially trained staff and adaptive equipment providing a continuity of care for those with spinal cord injuries and other neurological disorders.

  12. Neurological abnormalities predict disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggesi, Anna; Gouw, Alida; van der Flier, Wiesje

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of neurological abnormalities and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in predicting global functional decline in a cohort of initially independent-living elderly subjects. The Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) Study, involving 11 European centres, was primarily aimed...... at evaluating age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) as an independent predictor of the transition to disability (according to Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale) or death in independent elderly subjects that were followed up for 3 years. At baseline, a standardized neurological examination.......0 years, 45 % males), 327 (51.7 %) presented at the initial visit with ≥1 neurological abnormality and 242 (38 %) reached the main study outcome. Cox regression analyses, adjusting for MRI features and other determinants of functional decline, showed that the baseline presence of any neurological...

  13. Wikipedia and neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigo, Francesco; Igwe, Stanley C; Nardone, Raffaele; Lochner, Piergiorgio; Tezzon, Frediano; Otte, Willem M

    2015-07-01

    Our aim was to evaluate Wikipedia page visits in relation to the most common neurological disorders by determining which factors are related to peaks in Wikipedia searches for these conditions. Millions of people worldwide use the internet daily as a source of health information. Wikipedia is a popular free online encyclopedia used by patients and physicians to search for health-related information. The following Wikipedia articles were considered: Alzheimer's disease; Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Dementia; Epilepsy; Epileptic seizure; Migraine; Multiple sclerosis; Parkinson's disease; Stroke; Traumatic brain injury. We analyzed information regarding the total article views for 90 days and the rank of these articles among all those available in Wikipedia. We determined the highest search volume peaks to identify possible relation with online news headlines. No relation between incidence or prevalence of neurological disorders and the search volume for the related articles was found. Seven out of 10 neurological conditions showed relations in search volume peaks and news headlines. Six out of these seven peaks were related to news about famous people suffering from neurological disorders, especially those from showbusiness. Identification of discrepancies between disease burden and health seeking behavior on Wikipedia is useful in the planning of public health campaigns. Celebrities who publicly announce their neurological diagnosis might effectively promote awareness programs, increase public knowledge and reduce stigma related to diagnoses of neurological disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Commentary: An Introduction to Leadership Self-Assessment at the Society of Neurological Surgeons Post-Graduate Year 1 Boot Camp: Observations and Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Matthew A; Heilman, Carl B; Shutran, Max; Wu, Julian K

    2017-03-01

    Recent trends in graduate medical education have emphasized the mastery of nontechnical skills, especially leadership, for neurosurgical trainees. Accordingly, we introduced leadership development and self-awareness training to interns attending the Society of Neurological Surgeons Post-Graduate Year 1 Boot Camp in the Northeast (New England/New York/New Jersey) region in 2015. Feedback about the session was collected from interns. While neurosurgical interns conveyed a desire to receive more information on improving their leadership skills, most indicated that guidance seemed to be lacking in this critical area. We discuss some of the professional development needs uncovered during this process. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons.

  15. Neurologic manifestations of achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Jacqueline T; Bodensteiner, John B; Butler, Ian J

    2014-01-01

    Achondroplasia is the best described and most common form of the congenital short-limbed dwarfing conditions. Achondroplasia is apparent at birth and has a birth prevalence of 1 in 20000-30000 live-born infants. Achondroplasia is inherited as an autosomal dominant condition, although 80% of cases occur sporadically as new events in their families. Achondroplasia is caused, in virtually all of the cases, by a G380R mutation in fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3). Patients with achondroplasia should be evaluated by a multidisciplinary team of clinicians including geneticists, neurologists, and orthopedists, since there are numerous bony and neurological complications. The most severe complication results from craniocervical stenosis and medullary and upper spinal cord compression, which can have devastating and even lethal sequelae during early childhood. In subsequent decades, including adolescence, spinal cord and nerve compression are more prominent. The neurological complications of achondroplasia have been recognized in adults for more than a century and are attributed to bony defects, connective tissue structures, or both. Similar neurological complications are now appreciated in infants, young children, and teenagers with achondroplasia. Defective connective tissue elements in achondroplasia frequently lead to ligamentous laxity, which can aggravate the complications associated with bony stenosis. Bony abnormalities are known to cause neurological morbidity and lead to a shortened lifespan. Neurological complications associated with achondroplasia are reviewed, including recommendations for the evaluation and management of these clinical problems. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Neurology and Don Quixote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Jose-Alberto; Palma, Fermin

    2012-01-01

    Don Quixote de la Mancha, which is considered one of the most important and influential works of Western modern prose, contains many references of interest for almost all of the medical specialties. In this regard, numerous references to neurology can be found in Cervantes' immortal work. In this study, we aimed to read Don Quixote from a neurologist's point of view, describing the neurological phenomena scattered throughout the novel, including tremors, sleep disturbances, neuropsychiatric symptoms, dementia, epilepsy, paralysis, stroke, syncope, traumatic head injury, and headache; we relate these symptoms with depictions of those conditions in the medical literature of the time. We also review Cervantes' sources of neurological information, including the works by renowned Spanish authors such as Juan Huarte de San Juan, Dionisio Daza Chacón and Juan Valverde de Amusco, and we hypothesize that Don Quixote's disorder was actually a neurological condition. Although Cervantes wrote it four centuries ago, Don Quixote contains plenty of references to neurology, and many of the ideas and concepts reflected in it are still of interest. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. An open-label multicenter study to assess the safety of dextromethorphan/quinidine in patients with pseudobulbar affect associated with a range of underlying neurological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattee, Gary L; Wymer, James P; Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine; Appel, Stanley H; Formella, Andrea E; Pope, Laura E

    2014-11-01

    Pseudobulbar affect (PBA) is associated with neurological disorders or injury affecting the brain, and characterized by frequent, uncontrollable episodes of crying and/or laughing that are exaggerated or unrelated to the patient's emotional state. Clinical trials establishing dextromethorphan and quinidine (DM/Q) as PBA treatment were conducted in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or multiple sclerosis (MS). This trial evaluated DM/Q safety in patients with PBA secondary to any neurological condition affecting the brain. To evaluate the safety and tolerability of DM/Q during long-term administration to patients with PBA associated with multiple neurological conditions. Fifty-two-week open-label study of DM/Q 30/30 mg twice daily. Safety measures included adverse events (AEs), laboratory tests, electrocardiograms (ECGs), vital signs, and physical examinations. #NCT00056524. A total of 553 PBA patients with >30 different neurological conditions enrolled; 296 (53.5%) completed. The most frequently reported treatment-related AEs (TRAEs) were nausea (11.8%), dizziness (10.5%), headache (9.9%), somnolence (7.2%), fatigue (7.1%), diarrhea (6.5%), and dry mouth (5.1%). TRAEs were mostly mild/moderate, generally transient, and consistent with previous controlled trials. Serious AEs (SAEs) were reported in 126 patients (22.8%), including 47 deaths, mostly due to ALS progression and respiratory failure. No SAEs were deemed related to DM/Q treatment by investigators. ECG results suggested no clinically meaningful effect of DM/Q on myocardial repolarization. Differences in AEs across neurological disease groups appeared consistent with the known morbidity of the primary neurological conditions. Study interpretation is limited by the small size of some disease groups, the lack of a specific efficacy measure and the use of a DM/Q dose higher than the eventually approved dose. DM/Q was generally well tolerated over this 52 week trial in patients with PBA

  18. Severe neurological complication following adjustable gastric banding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martines, G; Musa, N; Aquilino, F; Capuano, P

    2018-01-01

    In the last years with the increase of bariatric surgery, first of all as a result of new indications, a rise in the incidence of nutrient-related complications has been observed. Currently little is known about the impact of post-bariatric malnutrition and neurological complications. Wernicke's encephalopathy is a severe neurological syndrome which occurs as a result of thiamine deficiency. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome must be considered a serious neurological complication of bariatric surgery with significant morbidity and mortality, with rapidly progressing neurological symptoms, and must be treated immediately. We report the case of a 35 years-old male patient, affected by morbid obesity, anxious-depressive syndrome and alcohol use disorder, who after adjustable gastric banding implanted in another hospital developed a severe malnutrition and neurological syndrome. The patient showed poor adherence to the follow-up and to the dietary indications and after all, we needed to place a PEG for enteral nutrition in order to resolve the malnutrition condition and the neurological syndrome. Our experience emphasizes that preoperative selection and assessment of a patient's nutritional status according to guidelines, is required to identify potential problems, and that bariatric surgeons or physicians caring for patient who have undergone bariatric surgery should be familiar with the constellation of nutritional and neurological disorder that may occur after surgery. We want to remark the importance of preoperative selection of the patients, the follow-up and the cooperation between patient and physician in order to obtain the best result and avoid severe complications.

  19. Neurocritical care education during neurology residency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drogan, O.; Manno, E.; Geocadin, R.G.; Ziai, W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Limited information is available regarding the current state of neurocritical care education for neurology residents. The goal of our survey was to assess the need and current state of neurocritical care training for neurology residents. Methods: A survey instrument was developed and, with the support of the American Academy of Neurology, distributed to residency program directors of 132 accredited neurology programs in the United States in 2011. Results: A response rate of 74% (98 of 132) was achieved. A dedicated neuroscience intensive care unit (neuro-ICU) existed in 64%. Fifty-six percent of residency programs offer a dedicated rotation in the neuro-ICU, lasting 4 weeks on average. Where available, the neuro-ICU rotation was required in the vast majority (91%) of programs. Neurology residents' exposure to the fundamental principles of neurocritical care was obtained through a variety of mechanisms. Of program directors, 37% indicated that residents would be interested in performing away rotations in a neuro-ICU. From 2005 to 2010, the number of programs sending at least one resident into a neuro-ICU fellowship increased from 14% to 35%. Conclusions: Despite the expansion of neurocritical care, large proportions of US neurology residents have limited exposure to a neuro-ICU and neurointensivists. Formal training in the principles of neurocritical care may be highly variable. The results of this survey suggest a charge to address the variability of resident education and to develop standardized curricula in neurocritical care for neurology residents. PMID:22573636

  20. Measurement properties and feasibility of clinical tests to assess sit-to-stand/stand-to-sit tasks in subjects with neurological disease: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula F. S. Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Subjects with neurological disease (ND usually show impaired performance during sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit tasks, with a consequent reduction in their mobility levels. OBJECTIVE: To determine the measurement properties and feasibility previously investigated for clinical tests that evaluate sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit in subjects with ND. METHOD: A systematic literature review following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses protocol was performed. Systematic literature searches of databases (MEDLINE/SCIELO/LILACS/PEDro were performed to identify relevant studies. In all studies, the following inclusion criteria were assessed: investigation of any measurement property or the feasibility of clinical tests that evaluate sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit tasks in subjects with ND published in any language through December 2012. The COSMIN checklist was used to evaluate the methodological quality of the included studies. RESULTS: Eleven studies were included. The measurement properties/feasibility were most commonly investigated for the five-repetition sit-to-stand test, which showed good test-retest reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient:ICC=0.94-0.99 for subjects with stroke, cerebral palsy and dementia. The ICC values were higher for this test than for the number of repetitions in the 30-s test. The five-repetition sit-to-stand test also showed good inter/intra-rater reliabilities (ICC=0.97-0.99 for stroke and inter-rater reliability (ICC=0.99 for subjects with Parkinson disease and incomplete spinal cord injury. For this test, the criterion-related validity for subjects with stroke, cerebral palsy and incomplete spinal cord injury was, in general, moderate (correlation=0.40-0.77, and the feasibility and safety were good for subjects with Alzheimer's disease. CONCLUSIONS: The five-repetition sit-to-stand test was used more often in subjects with ND, and most of the measurement

  1. The neurology literature 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoujah, Danya; Chang, Wan-Tsu W; Abraham, Michael K

    2017-12-01

    Emergency neurology is a complex and rapidly changing field. Its evolution can be attributed in part to increased imaging options, debates about optimal treatment, and simply the growth of emergency medicine as a specialty. Every year, a number of articles published in emergency medicine or other specialty journals should become familiar to the emergency physician. This review summarizes neurology articles published in 2016, which the authors consider crucial to the practice of emergency medicine. The articles are categorized according to disease process, with the understanding that there can be significant overlap among articles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Contemporary Teaching of Neurology. Teaching Neurological Behavior to General Practitioners: A Fresh Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derouesne, C.; Salamon, R.

    1977-01-01

    Ways in which teaching neurology can be simplified for the nonspecialist practitioner are addressed in this assessment of the state-of-the-art in France. The hypothesis implies simplifying both the diagnoses and symptomatology. (LBH)

  3. Astroglia in neurological diseases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Verkhratsky, Alexei; Rodríguez Arellano, Jose Julio; Parpura, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2013), s. 149-158 ISSN 1479-6708 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/11/0184; GA ČR GA309/09/1696 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : amyotrophic lateral sclerosis * Alzheimer's disease * Alexander disease Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  4. American Academy of Neurology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on draft guideline manuscript on autism and sleep problems. Capitol Hill Report: Opioid Epidemic Declared Public Health Emergency Read the latest news on how the AAN is fighting for neurology in Washington DC. New Study: Virtual Reality Training May Be as Effective as Regular Therapy ...

  5. Neurological aspects of eclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Dejana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The difficult types of preeclampsia and eclampsia are presented with the neurological symptoms. The break of cerebral autoregulation mechanism plays the most important role in pathogenesis of cerebral vasospasm. Nevertheless eclampsia isn’t just an ordinary hypertensive encephalopathy because other pathogenic mechanisms are involved in its appearance. The main neuropathologic changes are multifocal vasogenic edema, perivascular multiple microinfarctions and petechial hemorrhages. Neurological clinical manifestations are convulsions, headache, visual disturbances and rarely other discrete focal neurological symptoms. Eclampsia is a high-risk factor for onset of hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke. This is a reason why neurological diagnostic tests are sometimes needed. The method of choice for evaluation of complicated eclampsia is computerized brain topography that shows multiple areas of hypodensity in occipitoparietal regions. These changes are focal vasogenic cerebral edema. For differential diagnosis of eclampsia and stroke other diagnostic methods can be used - fundoscopic exam, magnetic resonance brain imaging, cerebral angiography and cerebrospinal fluid exam. The therapy of eclampsia considers using of magnesium sulfate, antihypertensive, anticonvulsive and antiedematous drugs.

  6. Wikipedia and neurological disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brigo, Francesco; Igwe, Stanley C.; Nardone, Raffaele; Lochner, Piergiorgio; Tezzon, Frediano; Otte, WM

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate Wikipedia page visits in relation to the most common neurological disorders by determining which factors are related to peaks in Wikipedia searches for these conditions. Millions of people worldwide use the internet daily as a source of health information. Wikipedia is a

  7. Effectiveness of Self Instructional Module on Knowledge and Skills Regarding Use of Glasgow Coma Scale in Neurological Assessment of Patients among Nurses Working in Critical Care Units of KLE Dr. Prabhakar Kore Hospital and Medical Research Centre, Belgaum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milka Madhale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The brain is the central unit that controls all the functions of our body. The brain cannot function all by its self without the neurons. The proper functioning of the brain and its relationship with the world is known as consciousness. The level of consciousness is the sensitive and reliable indicator of the patient’s neurological status. The alteration in the consciousness helps to determine if there is any damage in the nervous system that can occur even without visible damage to the head. There are numerous tools used to determine level of consciousness. The most common tool used to determine level of consciousness is the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS. It was used with ease and helped to standardize clinical observations of the patients with impaired consciousness. A proper neurological assessment using the Glasgow Coma Scale is the essential part of nursing care. It is very essential for the nurse to have knowledge and skills about neurological assessment and the Glasgow Coma Scale.Hence the present study to evaluate the effectiveness of Self Instructional Module (SIM on knowledge and skill regarding Glasgow Coma Scale was undertaken. Aim and Objectives: 1]To assess the knowledge and skills regarding the use of Glasgow Coma Scale in neurological assessment of patients among the staff nurses. 2] To determine the effectiveness of the Self Instructional Module on knowledge and skills regarding the GCS in neurological assessment of patients. 3] To find association between the pre test knowledge and skills scores and demographic variables. 4] To find the correlation between the knowledge score sand the skills scores regarding the GCS in neurological assessment of patients. Material and Methods: The study was evaluative in nature. A purposive sampling technique was used for the study. A total of 55 staff nurses working in Critical Care Units of KLES Hospital and MRC,Belgaum were selected for the study. A structured questionnaire and an

  8. Program Director Survey: Attitudes Regarding Child Neurology Training and Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Ignacio; Feist, Terri B; Gilbert, Donald L

    2016-04-01

    As a result of major clinical and scientific advances and changes in clinical practice, the role of adult neurology training for Child Neurology and Neurodevelopmental Disability (NDD) certification has become controversial. The most recently approved requirements for board eligibility for child neurology and neurodevelopmental disability residents still include 12 months in adult neurology rotations. The objective of this study was to assess United States child neurology and neurodevelopmental disability residency program directors' opinions regarding optimal residency training. The authors developed an 18-item questionnaire and contacted all 80 child neurology and neurodevelopmental disability program directors via e-mail, using SurveyMonkey. A total of 44 program directors responded (55%), representing programs that train 78 categorical and 94 total resident positions, approximately 70% of those filled in the match. Respondents identified multiple areas where child neurology residents need more training, including genetics and neuromuscular disease. A substantial majority (73%) believed child neurology and neurodevelopmental disability residents need less than 12 adult neurology training months; however, most (75%) also believed adult hospital service and man-power needs (55%) and finances (34%) would pose barriers to reducing adult neurology. Most (70%) believed reductions in adult neurology training should be program flexible. A majority believed the written initial certification examination should be modified with more child neurology and fewer basic neuroscience questions. Nearly all (91%) felt the views of child neurology and neurodevelopmental disability program directors are under-represented within the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Residency Review Committee. The requirement for 12 adult neurology months for Child Neurology and Neurodevelopmental Disability certification is not consistent with the views of the majority of program

  9. Neurological diseases and pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Chronic pain is a frequent component of many neurological disorders, affecting 20–40% of patients for many primary neurological diseases. These diseases result from a wide range of pathophysiologies including traumatic injury to the central nervous system, neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation, and exploring the aetiology of pain in these disorders is an opportunity to achieve new insight into pain processing. Whether pain originates in the central or peripheral nervous system, it frequently becomes centralized through maladaptive responses within the central nervous system that can profoundly alter brain systems and thereby behaviour (e.g. depression). Chronic pain should thus be considered a brain disease in which alterations in neural networks affect multiple aspects of brain function, structure and chemistry. The study and treatment of this disease is greatly complicated by the lack of objective measures for either the symptoms or the underlying mechanisms of chronic pain. In pain associated with neurological disease, it is sometimes difficult to obtain even a subjective evaluation of pain, as is the case for patients in a vegetative state or end-stage Alzheimer's disease. It is critical that neurologists become more involved in chronic pain treatment and research (already significant in the fields of migraine and peripheral neuropathies). To achieve this goal, greater efforts are needed to enhance training for neurologists in pain treatment and promote greater interest in the field. This review describes examples of pain in different neurological diseases including primary neurological pain conditions, discusses the therapeutic potential of brain-targeted therapies and highlights the need for objective measures of pain. PMID:22067541

  10. Vaccination and neurological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Gkampeta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Active immunization of children has been proven very effective in elimination of life threatening complications of many infectious diseases in developed countries. However, as vaccination-preventable infectious diseases and their complications have become rare, the interest focuses on immunization-related adverse reactions. Unfortunately, fear of vaccination-related adverse effects can led to decreased vaccination coverage and subsequent epidemics of infectious diseases. This review includes reports about possible side effects following vaccinations in children with neurological disorders and also published recommendations about vaccinating children with neurological disorders. From all international published data anyone can conclude that vaccines are safer than ever before, but the challenge remains to convey this message to society.

  11. Neurology and detective writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempster, Peter A; Lees, Andrew J

    2013-12-01

    When searching for clues to reach a diagnosis, neurologists often empathise with the detective who is trying to solve a case. The premise of this article is that detective stories have been part of the fabric of neurology ever since the time that it evolved into a discrete medical speciality. We will examine how this form of narrative has found expression in detective mystery fiction and popular science publications created by 20th century neurologist physician-writers. We will also investigate the power of the neurologist's alter ego, Sherlock Holmes: his relationship to founders of clinical neuroscience such as Jean-Martin Charcot, William Gowers and Sigmund Freud, and his influences on neurological practice and its literary traditions.

  12. Neurological legal disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhakrishna H

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological disorders with a prolonged course, either remediable or otherwise are being seen increasingly in clinical practice and many such patients are young and are part of some organization or other wherein their services are needed if they were healthy and fit. The neurologists who are on the panel of these organizations are asked to certify whether these subjects are fit to work or how long they should be given leave. These certificates may be produced in the court of law and may be subjected to verification by another neurologist or a medical board. At present there are no standard guidelines in our country to effect such certification unlike in orthopedic specialty or in ophthalmology. The following is a beginning, based on which the neurologist can certify the neurological disability of such subjects and convey the same meaning to all neurologists across the country.

  13. The Neurology of Proverbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Van Lancker

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Although proverb tests are commonly used in the mental status examination surprisingly little is known about either normal comprehension or the interpretation of proverbial expressions. Current proverbs tests have conceptual and linguistic shortcomings, and few studies have been done to investigate the specific effects of neurological and psychiatric disorders on the interpretation of proverbs. Although frontal lobes have traditionally been impugned in patients who are “concrete”, recent studies targeting deficient comprehension of non literal language (e.g. proverbs, idioms, speech formulas, and indirect requests point to an important role of the right hemisphere (RH. Research describing responses of psychiatrically and neurologically classified groups to tests of proverb and idiom usage is needed to clarify details of aberrant processing of nonliteral meanings. Meanwhile, the proverb test, drawing on diverse cognitive skills, is a nonspecific but sensitive probe of mental status.

  14. Post dengue neurological complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hizlinda Tohid

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dengue infection is highly endemic in many tropical countries including Malaysia. However, neurological complications arising from dengue infection is not common; Gullain–Barre syndrome (GBS is one of these infrequent complications. In this paper, we have reported a case in which a 39-year-old woman presented with a neurological complication of dengue infection without typical symptoms and signs of dengue fever. She had a history of acute gastroenteritis (AGE followed by an upper respiratory tract infection (URTI weeks prior to her presentation rendering GBS secondary to the post viral URTI and AGE as the most likely diagnosis. Presence of thrombocytopenia was the only clue for dengue in this case.

  15. Neurology referrals to a liaison psychiatry service.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzgerald, P

    2012-02-03

    The objective of the present study was to assess the activity of the Liaison Psychiatry service of Cork University Hospital in relation to all in-patient neurology referrals over a 12-month period. Of 1685 neurology admissions, 106 (6%) were referred to liaison psychiatry for assessment. 91 referrals (86%) met criteria for a psychiatric disorder according to DSM-IV, the commonest being major depression (24%) and somatoform disorder (23%). Patients with multiple sclerosis or epilepsy comprised nearly half of all referrals (48 cases; 45%). Approximately 20% of M.S. in-patients (21 cases) were referred for psychiatric assessment, with the corresponding figure in epilepsy being 25% (18 cases). Although only 106 (6%) neurology in-patients were referred to liaison psychiatry, psychiatric diagnoses were documented in 327 (20%) discharge forms, presumably reflecting previous diagnosis. The above findings indicate that psychiatric illness is common among neurology inpatients screened by liaison psychiatry yet referral rates are relatively low in terms of the overall number of neurology in-patients. Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed in 86% of referrals indicating high concordance between neurologists and liaison psychiatry regarding the presence of a psychiatric disorder.

  16. Survey of the professors of child neurology: neurology versus pediatrics home for child neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Phillip L; McConnell, Emily R; Fernandez, Rosamary; Brooks-Kayal, Amy

    2014-09-01

    The optimal academic home for child neurology programs between adult neurology versus pediatric departments remains an open question. The Professors of Child Neurology, the national organization of child neurology department chairs, division chiefs, and training program directors, was surveyed to evaluate the placement of child neurology programs. Professors of Child Neurology members were surveyed regarding the placement of child neurology programs within adult neurology versus pediatric departments. Questions explored academic versus clinical lines of reporting and factors that may be advantages and disadvantages of these affiliations. Issues also addressed were the current status of board certification and number of clinics expected in academic child neurology departments. Of 120 surveys sent, 95 responses were received (79% response rate). The primary academic affiliation is in neurology in 54% of programs versus 46% in pediatrics, and the primary clinical affiliation is 45% neurology and 55% pediatrics. Advantages versus disadvantages of one's primary affiliation were similar whether the primary affiliation was in neurology or pediatrics. While 61% of respondents are presently board certified in pediatrics, only 2% of those with time-limited certification in general pediatrics plan to be recertified going forward. Typically six to eight half-day clinics per week are anticipated for child neurologists in academic departments without additional funding sources. Overall, leaders of child neurology departments and training programs would not change their affiliation if given the opportunity. Advantages and disadvantages associated with current affiliations did not change whether child neurology was located in neurology or pediatrics. Board certification by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology in child neurology is virtually universal, whereas pediatric board certification by the American Board of Pediatrics is being maintained by very few. Most academic

  17. Neurological Complications of Cardiac Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Gottesman, Rebecca F.; McKhann, Guy M.; Hogue, Charles W.

    2008-01-01

    Neurological injury resulting from cardiac surgery has a range of manifestations from focal neurological deficit to encephalopathy or coma. As the safety of drug-eluting stents comes into question, more patients will likely undergo coronary artery bypass graft surgery. These projections, along with the growing proportions of elderly patients and those with comorbidities, portend the potential for rising rates of perioperative neurological complications. The risk for neurological injury may be...

  18. Neurologic Complications of Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Patients with celiac disease (CD [n=l 11] and controls (n=211 were questioned regarding neurologic disorders, their charts were reviewed, and they received neurologic evaluations, including brain imaging or EEG if indicated, in a study of neurologic complications of CD at Carmel Medical Center, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.

  19. African Journal of Neurological Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Neurological Sciences (AJNS) is owned and controlled by the Pan African Association of Neurological Sciences (PAANS). The AJNS's aim is to publish scientific papers of any aspects of Neurological Sciences. AJNS is published quarterly. Articles submitted exclusively to the AJNS are accepted if neither ...

  20. Neurology and literature 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iniesta, I

    2014-05-01

    Good literary fiction has the potential to move us, extend our sense of life, transform our prospective views and help us in the face of adversity. A neurological disorder is likely to be the most challenging experience a human being may have to confront in a lifetime. As such, literary recreations of illnesses have a doubly powerful effect. Study the synergies between neurology and fictional literature with particular reference to narrative based medicine (NBM). Doctors establish boundaries between the normal and the abnormal. Taking a clinical history is an act of interpretation in which the doctor integrates the science of objective signs and measurable quantities with the art of subjective clinical judgment. The more discrepancy there is between the patient's experience with the illness and the doctor's interpretation of that disease, the less likely the doctor-patient interaction is to succeed. NBM contributes to a better discernment of the meanings, thus considering disease as a biographical event rather than just a natural fact. Drawing from their own experience with disease, writers of fiction provide universal insights through their narratives, whilst neuroscientists, like Cajal, have occasionally devoted their scientific knowledge to literary narratives. Furthermore, neurologists from Alzheimer to Oliver Sacks remind us of the essential value of NBM in the clinic. Integrating NBM (the narrative of patients) and the classic holistic approach to patients with our current paradigm of evidence based medicine represents a challenge as relevant to neurologists as keeping up with technological and scientific advances. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Education Research: Neurology resident education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayans, David; Schneider, Logan; Adams, Nellie; Khawaja, Ayaz M.; Engstrom, John

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To survey US-trained graduating neurology residents who are American Academy of Neurology members, in an effort to trend perceived quality and completeness of graduate neurology education. Methods: An electronic survey was sent to all American Academy of Neurology members graduating from US neurology residency programs in the Spring of 2014. Results: Of 805 eligible respondents, 24% completed the survey. Ninety-three percent of adult neurology residents and 56% of child neurology residents reported plans to pursue fellowship training after residency. Respondents reported a desire for additional training in neurocritical care, neuro-oncology, neuromuscular diseases, botulinum toxin injection, and nerve blocks. There remains a clear deficit in business training of neurology residents, although there was notable improvement in knowledge of coding and office management compared to previous surveys. Discussion: Although there are still areas of perceived weakness in neurology training, graduating neurology residents feel generally well prepared for their chosen careers. However, most still pursue fellowship training for reasons that are little understood. In addition to certain subspecialties and procedures, practice management remains deficient in neurology training and is a point of future insecurity for most residents. Future curriculum changes should consider resident-reported gaps in knowledge, with careful consideration of improving business training. PMID:26976522

  2. Medical marijuana in neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbadis, Selim R; Sanchez-Ramos, Juan; Bozorg, Ali; Giarratano, Melissa; Kalidas, Kavita; Katzin, Lara; Robertson, Derrick; Vu, Tuan; Smith, Amanda; Zesiewicz, Theresa

    2014-12-01

    Constituents of the Cannabis plant, cannabinoids, may be of therapeutic value in neurologic diseases. The most abundant cannabinoids are Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, which possesses psychoactive properties, and cannabidiol, which has no intrinsic psychoactive effects, but exhibits neuroprotective properties in preclinical studies. A small number of high-quality clinical trials support the safety and efficacy of cannabinoids for treatment of spasticity of multiple sclerosis, pain refractory to opioids, glaucoma, nausea and vomiting. Lower level clinical evidence indicates that cannabinoids may be useful for dystonia, tics, tremors, epilepsy, migraine and weight loss. Data are also limited in regards to adverse events and safety. Common nonspecific adverse events are similar to those of other CNS 'depressants' and include weakness, mood changes and dizziness. Cannabinoids can have cardiovascular adverse events and, when smoked chronically, may affect pulmonary function. Fatalities are rare even with recreational use. There is a concern about psychological dependence, but physical dependence is less well documented. Cannabis preparations may presently offer an option for compassionate use in severe neurologic diseases, but at this point, only when standard-of-care therapy is ineffective. As more high-quality clinical data are gathered, the therapeutic application of cannabinoids will likely expand.

  3. [Neonatal asphyxia: neurologic outcome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allemand, A; Stanca, M; Sposato, M; Santoro, F; Danti, F R; Dosi, C; Allemand, F

    2013-08-01

    The neonatal asphyxia is recognized as an important cause of morbidity and mortality during the pediatric age. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between some neonatal variables and neurological outcome at two years of life in infants with asphyxia, in order to produce a correct prognosis and to grant a rapid and targeted therapy. We have recruited 63 patients whose history and neuroimages suggested a neonatal asphyxia, and we have analysed their clinical- instrumental parameters every three months until two years of life. A correlation study was carried out in order to find a statistical significance indicated by p-value Neonatal seizures are not related to an increased risk to develop epilepsy. Epilepsy alone is a rare event and it usually complicates CP picture. Most subject with both epilepsy and CP are term infants with adequate weight. Preterm VLBW infants have a greater risk to develop a psychomotor delay. Clinical conditions at birth are related to CP severity (several neonatal neurological signs are the greater risk factors). Severely pathological neonatal EEG (background activity) is related to CP severity and an early symptomatic epilepsy onset is related with both epilepsy and CP severity.

  4. Neurological complications of solid organ transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Pedroso

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Solid organ transplantation is a significant development in the treatment of chronic kidney, liver, heart and lung diseases. This therapeutic approach has increased patient survival and improved quality of life. New surgical techniques and immunosuppressive drugs have been developed to achieve better outcomes. However, the variety of neurological complications following solid organ transplantation is broad and carries prognostic significance. Patients may have involvement of the central or peripheral nervous system due to multiple causes that can vary depending on time of onset after the surgical procedure, the transplanted organ, and the intensity and type of immunosuppressive therapy. Neurological manifestations following solid organ transplantation pose a diagnostic challenge to medical specialists despite extensive investigation. This review aimed to provide a practical approach to help neurologists and clinicians assess and manage solid organ transplant patients presenting with acute or chronic neurological manifestations.

  5. Nuclear Medicine Imaging in Pediatric Neurology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Ümit Özgür; Atay Kapucu, Lütfiye Özlem

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging can provide important complementary information in the management of pediatric patients with neurological diseases. Pre-surgical localization of the epileptogenic focus in medically refractory epilepsy patients is the most common indication for nuclear medicine imaging in pediatric neurology. In patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, nuclear medicine imaging is particularly useful when magnetic resonance imaging findings are normal or its findings are discordant with electroencephalogram findings. In pediatric patients with brain tumors, nuclear medicine imaging can be clinically helpful in the diagnosis, directing biopsy, planning therapy, differentiating tumor recurrence from post-treatment sequelae, and assessment of response to therapy. Among other neurological diseases in which nuclear medicine has proved to be useful are patients with head trauma, inflammatory-infectious diseases and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. PMID:27299282

  6. Primary care perceptions of neurology and neurology services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Angela M; Wade, Carrie; McCarron, Mark O

    2016-06-01

    Neurophobia (fear of neural sciences) and evaluation of independent sector contracts in neurology have seldom been examined among general practitioners (GPs). A questionnaire determined GPs' perceptions of neurology compared with other medical specialties. GP experiences of neurology services with independent sector companies and the local National Health Service (NHS) were compared. Areas of potential improvement in NHS neurology services were recorded from thematic analyses. Among 76 GPs neurology was perceived to be as interesting as other medical specialties. GPs reported less knowledge, more difficulty and less confidence in neurology compared with other medical specialties. There was a preference for a local NHS neurology service (pneurology services provided better patient satisfaction. GPs prefer local NHS neurology services to independent sector contracts. GPs' evaluations should inform commissioning of neurology services. Combating neurophobia should be an integral part of responsive commissioning. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Are the French neurology residents satisfied with their training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codron, P; Roux, T; Le Guennec, L; Zuber, M

    2015-11-01

    There have been dramatic changes in neurology over the past decade; these advances require a constant adaptation of residents' theoretical and practical training. The French Association of Neurology Residents and the College of Neurology Teachers conducted a national survey to assess the French neurology residents' satisfaction about their training. A 16-item questionnaire was sent via e-mail to French neurology residents completing training in 2014. Data were collected and processed anonymously. Of eligible respondents, 126 returned the survey, representing approximately 40% of all the French neurology residents. Most residents (78%) rated their clinical training favorably. Seventy-two percent reported good to excellent quality teaching of neurology courses from their faculty. However, many residents (40%) felt insufficient their doctoral thesis supervision. All residents intended to enter fellowship training after their residency, and most of them (68%) planned to practice in a medical center. French neurology residents seemed satisfied with the structure and quality of their training program. However, efforts are required to improve management of the doctoral thesis and make private practice more attractive and accessible during the residency. In the future, similar surveys should be scheduled to regularly assess neurology residents' satisfaction and the impact of the forthcoming national and European reforms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Pediatric neurology and neuroradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diebler, C.

    1987-01-01

    In this book, a neuroradiologist and a neuropediatrician have combined forces to provide the widest possible knowledge in investigating cranial and cerebral disorders in infancy and childhood. Based on more than 20,000 pediatric CT examinations, with a follow-up time often exceeding ten years, the book aims to bridge interdisciplinary gaps and help radiologists, pediatricians and neurosurgeons solve the various problems of pediatric neuroradiology that frequently confront them. For each disease, the etiology, clinical manifestations, pathological lesions and radiological presentations are discussed, supported by extensive illustrations. Malformative, vascular, traumatic, tumoral, infectious and metabolic diseases are reviewed. Miscellaneous conditions presenting particular symptoms or syndromes are also studied, such as hydrocephalus and neurological complications of leukemia. The combined expertise and experience contained in this volume make it an outstanding reference work in the field of pediatric neuroradiology. (orig./MG)

  9. Consciousness: A Neurological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea E. Cavanna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Consciousness is a state so essentially entwined with human experience, yet so difficult to conceptually define and measure. In this article, we explore how a bidimensional model of consciousness involving both level of arousal and subjective awareness of the contents of consciousness can be used to differentiate a range of healthy and altered conscious states. These include the different sleep stages of healthy individuals and the altered states of consciousness associated with neurological conditions such as epilepsy, vegetative state and coma. In particular, we discuss how arousal and awareness are positively correlated in normal physiological states with the exception of REM sleep, while a disturbance in this relationship is characteristic of vegetative state, minimally conscious state, complex partial seizures and sleepwalking.

  10. Neurology of ciguatera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, J

    2001-01-01

    Ciguatera is a widespread ichthyosarcotoxaemia with dramatic and clinically important neurological features. This severe form of fish poisoning may present with either acute or chronic intoxication syndromes and constitutes a global health problem. Ciguatera poisoning is little known in temperate countries as a potentially global problem associated with human ingestion of large carnivorous fish that harbour the bioaccumulated ciguatoxins of the photosynthetic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus. This neurotoxin is stored in the viscera of fish that have eaten the dinoflagellate and concentrated it upwards throughout the food chain towards progressively larger species, including humans. Ciguatoxin accumulates in all fish tissues, especially the liver and viscera, of "at risk" species. Both Pacific (P-CTX-1) and Caribbean (C-CTX-1) ciguatoxins are heat stable polyether toxins and pose a health risk at concentrations above 0.1 ppb. The presenting signs of ciguatera are primarily neurotoxic in more than 80% of cases. Such include the pathognomonic features of postingestion paraesthesiae, dysaesthesiae, and heightened nociperception. Other sensory abnormalities include the subjective features of metallic taste, pruritis, arthralgia, myalgia, and dental pain. Cerebellar dysfunction, sometimes diphasic, and weakness due to both neuropathy and polymyositis may be encountered. Autonomic dysfunction leads to hypotension, bradycardia, and hypersalivation in severe cases. Ciguatoxins are potent, lipophilic sodium channel activator toxins which bind to the voltage sensitive (site 5) sodium channel on the cell membranes of all excitable tissues. Treatment depends on early diagnosis and the early administration of intravenous mannitol. The early identification of the neurological features in sentinel patients has the potential to reduce the number of secondary cases in cluster outbreaks.

 PMID:11118239

  11. History of neurologic examination books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boes, Christopher J

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to create an annotated list of textbooks dedicated to teaching the neurologic examination. Monographs focused primarily on the complete neurologic examination published prior to 1960 were reviewed. This analysis was limited to books with the word "examination" in the title, with exceptions for the texts of Robert Wartenberg and Gordon Holmes. Ten manuals met the criteria. Works dedicated primarily to the neurologic examination without a major emphasis on disease description or treatment first appeared in the early 1900s. Georg Monrad-Krohn's "Blue Book of Neurology" ("Blue Bible") was the earliest success. These treatises served the important purpose of educating trainees on proper neurologic examination technique. They could make a reputation and be profitable for the author (Monrad-Krohn), highlight how neurology was practiced at individual institutions (McKendree, Denny-Brown, Holmes, DeJong, Mayo Clinic authors), and honor retiring mentors (Mayo Clinic authors).

  12. Affective disorders in neurological diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, F M; Kessing, L V; Sørensen, T M

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the temporal relationships between a range of neurological diseases and affective disorders. METHOD: Data derived from linkage of the Danish Psychiatric Central Register and the Danish National Hospital Register. Seven cohorts with neurological index diagnoses and two...... of affective disorder was lower than the incidence in the control groups. CONCLUSION: In neurological diseases there seems to be an increased incidence of affective disorders. The elevated incidence was found to be particularly high for dementia and Parkinson's disease (neurodegenerative diseases)....

  13. Standards in Neurological Rehabilitation, June 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Barnes

    1997-01-01

    neurological services. We believe that disabled individuals should have access to a regional specialist service as well as a local community service. The regional specialist service would cater for people with more complicated and severe disabilities, including spinal injury and severe brain injury. The regional centres would provide specialist expertise for wheelchairs and special seating, orthotics, continence and urological services, aids and equipment including communication aids and environmental controls, prosthetics and driving assessment. The Task Force additionally endorses the development of local and community based rehabilitation teams with clear links to the regional centre. (6 The Task Force recognizes the limited amount of rehabilitation research and encourages individuals, universities and governments to invest more in rehabilitation research. Such investment should produce benefits for disabled people and their carers and in the long term benefits for the national economy. (7 The Task Force realizes that neurological rehabilitation is poorly developed both in Europe and the world as a whole. We firmly endorse international co-operation in this field and are happy to co-operate with any international organization in order to develop such links for clinical, educational or research initiatives. (8 The Task Force encourages individual countries to produce a document summarizing their own situation with regard to these standards and to produce a timetable for action to improve their situation. The EFNS Task Force would be pleased to assist in the publication of such deliberations or to act as a focus for international education and research or for sharing of examples of good practice.

  14. Perioperative Management of Neurological Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjeet Singh Dhallu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Perioperative care of the patients with neurological diseases can be challenging. Most important consideration is the management and understanding of pathophysiology of these disorders and evaluation of new neurological changes that occur perioperatively. Perioperative generally refers to 3 phases of surgery: preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative. We have tried to address few commonly encountered neurological conditions in clinical practice, such as delirium, stroke, epilepsy, myasthenia gravis, and Parkinson disease. In this article, we emphasize on early diagnosis and management strategies of neurological disorders in the perioperative period to minimize morbidity and mortality of patients.

  15. Cannabinoids in neurology – Brazilian Academy of Neurology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia M. D. Brucki

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of cannabidiol in some neurological conditions was allowed by Conselho Regional de Medicina de São Paulo and by Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA. Specialists on behalf of Academia Brasileira de Neurologia prepared a critical statement about use of cannabidiol and other cannabis derivatives in neurological diseases.

  16. Does the Brief-BESTest Meet Classical Test Theory and Rasch Analysis Requirements for Balance Assessment in People With Neurological Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravini, Elisabetta; Nardone, Antonio; Godi, Marco; Guglielmetti, Simone; Franchignoni, Franco; Giordano, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    The Brief Balance Evaluation Systems Test (Brief-BESTest) was recently proposed as a clinical tool for quickly measuring balance disorders, but its measurement properties warrant investigation. The study objective was to perform a detailed analysis of the psychometric properties of the Brief-BESTest by means of Classical Test Theory and Rasch analysis. This was an observational measurement study. Brief-BESTest data were collected from a sample of 244 participants. Internal consistency was analyzed with the Cronbach α and item-to-total correlations. Test-retest reliability and interrater reliability were investigated in a subgroup of 21 participants. The minimum detectable change at the 95% confidence level was calculated. Scale dimensionality was examined through Horn parallel analysis; this step was followed by exploratory factor analysis for ordinal data. Finally, data were examined using Rasch analysis (rating scale model). The Cronbach α was .89, and all item-to-total correlations were greater than .40. Test-retest reliability had an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) (2,1) of .94, and interrater reliability had an ICC (2,1) of .90. The minimum detectable change at the 95% confidence level was 4.30 points. The unidimensionality of the test was confirmed, but 1 item showed low communality. Rasch analysis revealed the inadequacy of response categories, 5 misfitting items, minor mistargeting, moderate person reliability (.80), and 2 pairs of locally dependent items. The sample was a cross-section of people who had balance disorders from different neurological etiologies and were recruited consecutively at a single rehabilitation facility. The Brief-BESTest was confirmed to have some acceptable-to-good reliability indexes when calculated according to Classical Test Theory, but the scale showed fairly limited sensitivity to change. Rasch analysis indicated that item selection should be improved from a psychometric point of view. Item redundancy needs to be

  17. [History of neurology and education on neurology in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzuhara, Shigeki

    2009-11-01

    The first medical society of Japanese neurologists and psychiatrists was founded in 1902, but psychiatrists gradually dominated in number. New "Japanese Society of Neurology" (JSN) was founded in 1960. The number of members was only 643 in 1960, while it rose up to 8,555 in 2009, including regular, junior, senior and associate members. JSN contributed much to solve the causes and treatment of the medicosocial and iatrogenic diseases such as Minamata disease and SMON (subacute myelopticoneuropathy) at its early period. In undergraduate education at medical school neurology is one of the core subjects in the curriculum, and almost all the 80 medical schools have at least one faculty neurologist. The Board of neurology of JSN was started in 1975, as the third earliest of the Japanese Medical Associations. It takes at least 6 years' clinical training after graduating from the medical school to take the neurology Board examinations. By 2009, 4,000 members passed the Board examinations. In 2002 JSN published evidence-based "Treatment Guidelines 2002" of 6 diseases: Parkinson's disease, stroke, chronic headache, dementia and ALS. As to the international issues, JSN hosted the 12th World Congress of Neurology in 1981, and international activities markedly increased after that. The first informal meeting with JSN and Korean Neurological Association (KNA) was held at the 48th JSN Annual Meeting in Nagoya in May 2007. In May 2008 the KNA-JSN 1st Joint symposium was held at the 49th Annual Meeting of JSN in Yokohama on "International comparison of neurological disorders: focusing on spinocerebellar atrophies (SCA) and epilepsies". In May 2009, KNA-JNS 2 nd Joint Symposium was held at the 50th JSN Annual Meeting in Sendai, inviting a speaker from Taiwan Neurological Society, on the subject "History and Education of Neurology in Japan, Korea and Taiwan". In this symposium, a strategy to make up the Northeast Asian Neurological Association was discussed.

  18. [Music and neurology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias Gómez, M

    2007-01-01

    Music perception and output are special functions of the human brain. Investigation in this field is growing with the support of modern neuroimaging techniques (functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography). Interest in the music phenomenon and the disorders regarding its processing has been limited. Music is not just an artistic activity but a language to communicate, evoke and reinforce several emotions. Although the subject is still under debate, processing of music is independent of common language and each one uses independent circuits. One may be seriously affected and the other practically unharmed. On the other hand, there may be separate channels within the processing of music for the temporary elements (rhythm), melodic elements (pitch, timbre, and melody), memory and emotional response. The study of subjects with absolute pitch, congenital and acquired amusias, musicogenic epilepsy and musical hallucinations has greatly contributed to the knowledge of how the brain processes music. Music training involves some changes in morphology and physiology of professional musicians' brains. Stress, chronic pain and professional dystonias constitute a special field of musicians' disturbances that concerns neurological practice. Listening to and playing music may have some educational and therapeutic benefits.

  19. [Neurological interpretation of dreams] .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, J A; Gil-Nagel, A

    2000-10-01

    Cerebral cortical activity is constant throughout the entire human life, but substantially changes during the different phases of the sleep-wake cycle (wakefulness, non-REM sleep and REM sleep), as well as in relation to available information. In particular, perception of the environment is closely linked to the wake-state, while during sleep perception turns to the internal domain or endogenous cerebral activity. External and internal information are mutually exclusive. During wakefulness a neuronal mechanism allows attention to focus on the environment whereas endogenous cortical activity is ignored. The opposite process is provided during sleep. The function external attention-internal attention is coupled with the two modes of brain function during wakefulness and during sleep, providing two possible cortical status: thinking and dreaming. Several neurological processes may influence the declaration of the three states of being or may modify their orderly oscillation through the sleep-wake cycle. In addition, endogenous information and its perception (dreams) may be modified. Disturbances of dreaming may configurate in different general clinical scenarios: lack of dreaming, excess of dreaming (epic dreaming), paroxysmal dreaming (epileptic), nightmares, violent dreaming, daytime-dreaming (hallucinations), and lucid dreaming. Sensorial deprivation, as well as the emergence of internal perception may be the underlying mechanism of hallucinations. The probable isomorphism between hallucinations and dreaming is postulated, analyzed and discussed.

  20. Neurologic manifestations of malabsorption syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Ronald F

    2014-01-01

    Although malabsorption is generally considered to be a gastrointestinal problem, the effects of malabsorption extend far beyond the gastrointestinal tract and can include neurologic dysfunction. Malabsorption may occur by a variety of mechanisms, both genetic and acquired, that interfere with the absorption of basic nutrients, vitamins, minerals, and trace elements. Disorders that interfere with fat absorption can lead to neurologic dysfunction as a consequence of associated impairment of fat-soluble vitamin absorption. Thus, individuals with genetic vitamin E deficiency and the familial hypocholesterolemias may develop symptoms of peripheral neuropathy, cerebellar ataxia, and other neurologic signs and symptoms. Disease processes that damage the enteric mucosa and produce malabsorption can trigger neurologic dysfunction both by immune-related processes, as in celiac disease, and by impairing absorption of essential vitamins and other nutrients, as in tropical sprue. Deficiencies of water-soluble vitamins, such as thiamine and niacin, can also develop in the setting of malabsorption and lead to neurologic dysfunction. Neurologists are aware of the neurologic damage that copper excess can cause in Wilson's disease, but copper deficiency due to malabsorption can also produce neurologic dysfunction in the form of myelopathy. It is vitally important for neurologists to be aware of the potential for malabsorptive processes to produce neurologic dysfunction, because effective treatment for such disorders is often available. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A Review of Women's Neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Mary Angela

    2017-12-27

    Concern about what is best practice when caring for women with neurologic disease is a common clinical scenario. Therefore, knowledge about women's health issues and their intersection with neurologic disorders is imperative. This review will discuss the appropriate gender-based considerations in epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, migraine, autoimmune disease, sleep disorders, stroke, and paraneoplastic disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Neurology Research in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algahtani, Hussein; Shirah, Bader; Boker, Faisal; Algamdi, Albaraa; Alkahtani, Abdulah

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Research activities in Saudi Arabia are promoted at the governmental and institutional levels. However, the output and quality of research conducted in the field of neurology has not yet been measured quantitatively. This study therefore aimed to analyse neurology-related publications from Saudi Arabia. Methods This study was conducted in January 2016. A systematic search using the PubMed® search engine (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland, USA) was conducted to identify all neurology-related articles published from Saudi Arabia between January 1996 and December 2015. Results A total of 1,292 neurology-related publications were identified. Neurology research increased linearly with time, with most publications originating from Riyadh (67%) and the university sector (≈47%). However, most neurology-related articles were published in journals which had an impact factor of <1 (55%). Conclusion Neurology research in Saudi Arabia has increased substantially over the last 20 years. However, as most articles were published in low-impact journals, the quality of research remains inadequate and should be improved. It is important that an official research culture be established in both governmental and private universities as well as colleges and health institutions in Saudi Arabia. The formation of clinical academic departments staffed by research experts is recommended to ensure the quality of neurology research output. PMID:29062556

  3. Neurologic complications of metronidazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarna, Justyna R; Furtado, Sarah; Brownell, A Keith W

    2013-11-01

    Metronidazole (Flagyl®) is an antimicrobial agent commonly used in clinical practice. Although it is generally well tolerated with minimal side effects, there are a host of still under-recognized neurologic complications of metronidazole treatment. The following review is aimed at summarizing current literature pertaining to metronidazole-induced neurotoxicity including clinical syndromes, neuroradiological findings, prognosis and proposed pathophysiology. Recognition of the neurotoxic effects of metronidazole is critical as prompt discontinuation is generally associated with full clinical recovery and radiological resolution. Complications neurologiques du métronidazole. Le métronidazole (Flagyl®) est un agent antimicrobien utilisé couramment en pratique clinique. Bien qu'il soit généralement bien toléré et que ses effets secondaires soient minimes, il existe une myriade de complications neurologiques du traitement par le métronidazole qui ne sont pas toujours reconnues. Le but de cette revue constitue un sommaire de la littérature actuelle concernant la neurotoxicité induite par le métronidazole dont les syndromes cliniques, les constatations neuroradiologiques, le pronostic et l'hypothèse physiopathologique expliquant cette neurotoxicité. Il est important d'identifier ces effets neurotoxiques du métronidazole étant donné que l'arrět immédiat du traitement est généralement associé à une guérison clinique complète et à la disparition des signes radiologiques.

  4. The child neurology clinical workforce in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, James F.; Mintz, Mark; Joshi, Sucheta M.; Gilbert, Donald L.; Radabaugh, Carrie; Ruch-Ross, Holly

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: More than a decade has passed since the last major workforce survey of child neurologists in the United States; thus, a reassessment of the child neurology workforce is needed, along with an inaugural assessment of a new related field, neurodevelopmental disabilities. Methods: The American Academy of Pediatrics and the Child Neurology Society conducted an electronic survey in 2015 of child neurologists and neurodevelopmental disabilities specialists. Results: The majority of respondents participate in maintenance of certification, practice in academic medical centers, and offer subspecialty care. EEG reading and epilepsy care are common subspecialty practice areas, although many child neurologists have not had formal training in this field. In keeping with broader trends, medical school debts are substantially higher than in the past and will often take many years to pay off. Although a broad majority would choose these fields again, there are widespread dissatisfactions with compensation and benefits given the length of training and the complexity of care provided, and frustrations with mounting regulatory and administrative stresses that interfere with clinical practice. Conclusions: Although not unique to child neurology and neurodevelopmental disabilities, such issues may present barriers for the recruitment of trainees into these fields. Creative approaches to enhance the recruitment of the next generation of child neurologists and neurodevelopmental disabilities specialists will benefit society, especially in light of all the exciting new treatments under development for an array of chronic childhood neurologic disorders. PMID:27566740

  5. Neurological examination in small animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Paluš

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This clinical review about the neurological examination in small animals describes the basics about the first steps of investigation when dealing with neurological patients. The knowledge of how to perform the neurological examination is important however more important is how to correctly interpret these performed tests. A step-by-step approach is mandatory and examiners should master the order and the style of performing these tests. Neurological conditions can be sometimes very distressing for owners and for pets that might not be the most cooperating. The role of a veterinary surgeon, as a professional, is therefore to collect the most relevant history, to examine a patient in a professional manner and to give to owners an educated opinion about the further treatment and prognosis. However neurological examinations might look challenging for many. But it is only the clinical application of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology to an every-day situation for practicing veterinarians and it does not require any specific in-to-depth knowledge. This clinical review is aimed not only to provide the information on how to perform the neurological examination but it is also aimed to appeal on veterinarians to challenge their daily routine and to start practicing on neurologically normal patients. This is the best and only way to differentiate between the normal and abnormal in a real situation.

  6. Neurology check list. 5. rev. and enl. ed.; Checkliste Neurologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grehl, Holger [Evangelisches und Johanniter Klinikum, Duisburg (Germany). Neurologische Klinik; Reinhardt, Frank

    2013-02-01

    The neurology check list covers the following issues, organized in four parts: Grey part - diagnostic fundamentals, therapeutic principles: clinical neurological examination, liquor puncture, specific laboratory diagnostics, neurophysical diagnostics, imaging techniques, therapeutic principles, legal aspects, neurological assessment. Green Part - leading syndromes and leading symptoms. Blue part - neurological disease appearance: pains in head and face, pain syndrome, congenital and development disturbances, liquor circulation disturbances, ZNS hemorrhages, tumors and neoplasm, paraneoplastic syndromes, inflammatory diseases of the nervous system, dementia diseases, metabolic and other encephalopathy, cerebellum diseases and system surmounting processes, movement degeneration, basal ganglion diseases, epilepsy, non-epileptic attacks, medulla diseases, brain nerve diseases, plexus lesions, radicular lesions, peripheric neuropathy, neuromuscular transfer disturbances, muscular diseases. Red part: neurological intensive medicine.

  7. Neurology check list. 5. rev. and enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grehl, Holger; Reinhardt, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The neurology check list covers the following issues, organized in four parts: Grey part - diagnostic fundamentals, therapeutic principles: clinical neurological examination, liquor puncture, specific laboratory diagnostics, neurophysical diagnostics, imaging techniques, therapeutic principles, legal aspects, neurological assessment. Green Part - leading syndromes and leading symptoms. Blue part - neurological disease appearance: pains in head and face, pain syndrome, congenital and development disturbances, liquor circulation disturbances, ZNS hemorrhages, tumors and neoplasm, paraneoplastic syndromes, inflammatory diseases of the nervous system, dementia diseases, metabolic and other encephalopathy, cerebellum diseases and system surmounting processes, movement degeneration, basal ganglion diseases, epilepsy, non-epileptic attacks, medulla diseases, brain nerve diseases, plexus lesions, radicular lesions, peripheric neuropathy, neuromuscular transfer disturbances, muscular diseases. Red part: neurological intensive medicine.

  8. Neurologic complications of bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Neeraj

    2014-06-01

    The increasing utilization of bariatric surgery has been accompanied by an increased incidence and awareness of related neurologic complications. The purpose of this review is to provide up-to-date information on the neurologic complications related to bariatric surgery. Neurologic complications related to bariatric surgery are predominantly due to nutrient deficiencies. Common early complications include Wernicke encephalopathy due to thiamine deficiency, and late complications include myelopathy or myeloneuropathy due to vitamin B12 or copper deficiency. Early recognition and prompt institution of treatment is essential to prevent long-term disability. Often, life-long supplementation may be required.

  9. Why neurology? Factors which influence career choice in neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Dara V; Hoyle, Chad; Yin, Han; McCoyd, Matthew; Lukas, Rimas V

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the factors which influence the decision to pursue a career in neurology. An anonymous survey was developed using a Likert scale to rate responses. The survey was sent to adult and child neurology faculty, residents and fellows, as well as medical students applying for neurology. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the factors of influence. Respondents were subsequently categorized into pre-neurology trainees, neurology trainees, child neurologists and adult neurologists, and differences between the groups were analysed using Pearson's chi-square test. One hundred and thirty-three anonymous responses were received. The respondents were neurologists across all levels of training and practice. Across all respondents, the most common factor of high importance was intellectual content of specialty, challenging diagnostic problems, type of patient encountered and interest in helping people. Responses were similar across the groups; however, the earliest trainees cited interest in helping people as most important, while those in neurology training and beyond cite intellectual content of the specialty as most important. As trainees transition from their earliest levels of clinical experience into working as residents and faculty, there is a shift in the cited important factors. Lifestyle and financial factors seem to be the least motivating across all groups. Encouragement from peers, mentors, faculty and practicing physicians is considered high influences in a smaller number of neurologists. This may present an opportunity for practicing neurologists to make connections with medical students early in their education in an effort to encourage and mentor candidates.

  10. Endocannabinoid System in Neurological Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, Roberta; Laezza, Chiara; Bifulco, Maurizio; Marasco, Daniela; Malfitano, Anna M

    2016-01-01

    Several studies support the evidence that the endocannabinoid system and cannabimimetic drugs might have therapeutic potential in numerous pathologies. These pathologies range from neurological disorders, atherosclerosis, stroke, cancer to obesity/metabolic syndrome and others. In this paper we review the endocannabinoid system signaling and its alteration in neurodegenerative disorders like multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease and discuss the main findings about the use of cannabinoids in the therapy of these pathologies. Despite different etiologies, neurodegenerative disorders exhibit similar mechanisms like neuro-inflammation, excitotoxicity, deregulation of intercellular communication, mitochondrial dysfunction and disruption of brain tissue homeostasis. Current treatments ameliorate the symptoms but are not curative. Interfering with the endocannabinoid signaling might be a valid therapeutic option in neuro-degeneration. To this aim, pharmacological intervention to modulate the endocannabinoid system and the use of natural and synthetic cannabimimetic drugs have been assessed. CB1 and CB2 receptor signaling contributes to the control of Ca2+ homeostasis, trophic support, mitochondrial activity, and inflammatory conditions. Several studies and patents suggest that the endocannabinoid system has neuro-protective properties and might be a target in neurodegenerative diseases.

  11. [Emotional behaviors as a neurological dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Alvarez, F; Timoneda-Gallart, C

    The hypothesis of the emotional component of behaviors can be explained by a specific neurological mechanism was stated. A sample of 749 cases, all between 5 and 14 year old, with different behavioral and cognitive problems was selected from attendance to the Neuropediatric/Neuropsychopedagogic Unit from 1994 to 2000. A sub sample of 20 cases with PASS planning processing scoring less than 1SD was also selected. A design of mainly qualitative research according to case analysis was followed, behavioral data being provided by patients and their parents and analyzed with video recorder assistance. To avoid the study to be biased techniques as triangulation were applied. Quantitative cognitive data were obtained by using DN:CAS battery for diagnosis of PASS processing. A procedure for diagnosis and treatment of behaviors, previously reported, was followed. The cases of the sub sample were tested before and after emotional treatment without cognitive remediation, the results being tested by Student t. The responders were 82% according to not only the criterion of solution of the behavioral problem, for example, anorexia, psychosomatism, non neurological paroxysm an so on, but also, the sufficient amelioration assessed by the patients, their parents and the researchers. All cases, however, were required the disappearance of observable defensive behaviors in enough quantity to deduce an important maturation change. Significant difference was observed in planning. Defensive behaviors as masquerade behaviors are explained in the light of neurological reasons. The neurological processing of the sensibility of danger is emphasized according to the most recent knowledge. All behaviors can activate the neurological processing of danger feeling

  12. Paediatric neurological melioidosis: a rehabilitation case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Meagan E; Hunt, Jacqueline; Connell, Cheraine; Langdon, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    understanding of natural history and treatment of this rare disease. Occasions of service and functional assessments were recorded prospectively. Inpatient therapy (932 hours, with 934 occasions of service) was delivered across physiotherapy, occupational therapy and speech pathology over 9 months of an inpatient admission. Initial paediatric functional independence measure (WeeFIM) was 18/126, indicating complete dependence in all physical and cognitive domains. Following 9 months of intensive rehabilitation the WeeFIM was 53/126, indicating significant residual disability. This proved to be a challenge for discharge planning back to a remote region of Western Australia. Paediatric neurological melioidosis can lead to significant disability and long-term dependence, despite the provision of lengthy intensive rehabilitation. This case report highlights the challenges and complexity of the rehabilitation services required to optimise outcomes for this patient and achieve a safe discharge to a remote community where limited support services are available.

  13. [The problem of suicide in neurologic rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallert, T W

    1994-05-01

    Associations between somatic as well as, in particular, neurological diseases and suicidal acts are outlined, with studies of different diseases having shown that they represent only one factor in motivating the suicidal act. Biographical predispositions and stressful variables from the current social situation are always added. Depressive and organic brain syndromes that can often be found during neurological rehabilitation are discussed in their significance as risk factors for suicidal behavior, also seeking to identify distinct phases of the rehabilitation process afflicted with high suicide risk. An active and carefully directed approach to exploration as well as grasping the psychopathological symptomatology are fundamental elements in the assessment of suicide risk. In this respect, observations of the patient's behaviour and information obtained from relatives are of special importance in neurological rehabilitation clinics. The "presuicidal syndrome" (Ringel) continues to be of high clinical value in assessing the psychodynamics of the individual patient in his development towards the suicidal act. Reflections of suicidal tendencies in countertransference reactions and the communication pathology of suicidal behaviour are more recent aspects that enrich the assessment of suicide risk. Therapeutic management of suicidal patients can firstly be characterized by the principle of specific diagnosis and treatment of the underlying disease; this means that optimum medical care even has a suicide-preventive function. The other principle considers the establishment of a therapeutical relationship as a must, and some critical points in the personal contact with suicidal patients are dealt with in some detail. Especially in neurological rehabilitation clinics, custodial aspects must not be neglected.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Neurological complication in HIV patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritarwan, K.

    2018-03-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is neurotropic and immunotropic, making themassive destruction of both systems. Although their amount has been reduced, there is still neurological presentations and complications of HIV remain common in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Neurological opportunistic infections (OI) occur in advanced HIV diseases such as primary cerebral lymphoma, cryptococcal meningitis, cerebral toxoplasmosis, and progressive multifocal encephalopathy. Neurological problem directly related to HIV appear at any stage in the progress of HIV disease, from AIDS-associated dementia to the aseptic meningitis of primary HIV infection observed in subjects with an immune deficiency. The replication of peripheral HIV viral is able to be controlled in the era of effective antiretroviral therapy. Non-HIV-related neurological disease such as stroke increased important as the HIV population ages.

  15. Neurologic disorder and criminal responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaffe, Gideon

    2013-01-01

    Sufferers from neurologic and psychiatric disorders are not uncommonly defendants in criminal trials. This chapter surveys a variety of different ways in which neurologic disorder bears on criminal responsibility. It discusses the way in which a neurologic disorder might bear on the questions of whether or not the defendant acted voluntarily; whether or not he or she was in the mental state that is required for guilt for the crime; and whether or not he or she is deserving of an insanity defense. The discussion demonstrates that a just determination of whether a sufferer from a neurologic disorder is diminished in his or her criminal responsibility for harmful conduct requires equal appreciation of the nature of the relevant disorder and its impact on behavior, on the one hand, and of the legal import of facts about the psychologic mechanisms through which behavior is generated, on the other. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Neurological Complications of Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Jerry Clay

    2015-12-01

    Obesity has attained pandemic proportions, and bariatric surgery is increasingly being employed resulting in turn to more neurological complications which must be recognized and managed. Neurological complications may result from mechanical or inflammatory mechanisms but primarily result from micro-nutritional deficiencies. Vitamin B12, thiamine, and copper constitute the most frequent deficiencies. Neurological complications may occur at reasonably predictable times after bariatric surgery and are associated with the type of surgery used. During the early post-operative period, compressive or stretch peripheral nerve injury, rhabdomyolysis, Wernicke's encephalopathy, and inflammatory polyradiculoneuropathy may occur. Late complications ensue after months to years and include combined system degeneration (vitamin B12 deficiency) and hypocupric myelopathy. Bariatric surgery patients require careful nutritional follow-up with routine monitoring of micronutrients at 6 weeks and 3, 6, and 12 months post-operatively and then annually after surgery and multivitamin supplementation for life. Sustained vigilance for common and rare neurological complications is essential.

  17. African Journal of Neurological Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Neurological Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 30, No 1 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  18. African Journal of Neurological Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Neurological Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 31, No 2 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. African Journal of Neurological Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Neurological Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 31, No 1 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  20. African Journal of Neurological Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Neurological Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 29, No 2 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  1. Historical perspective of Indian neurology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikant Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To chronicle the history of medicine and neurology in India with a focus on its establishment and evolution. Background: The history of neurology in India is divided into two periods: ancient and modern. The ancient period dates back to the mid-second millennium Before Christ (B.C. during the creation of the Ayurvedic Indian system of Medicine, which detailed descriptions of neurological disorders called Vata Vyadhi. The early 20 th century witnessed the birth of modern Indian medicine with the onset of formal physician training at the nation′s first allopathic medical colleges located in Madras (1835, Calcutta (1835 and Mumbai (1848. Prior to India′s independence from Britain in 1947, only 25 medical schools existed in the entire country. Today, there are over 355. In 1951, physicians across the field of neurology and neurosurgery united to create the Neurological Society of India (NSI. Four decades later in 1991, neurologists branched out to establish a separate organization called the Indian Academy of Neurology (IAN. Design/Methods: Information was gathered through literature review using PubMed, MD Consult, OVID, primary texts and research at various academic institutions in India. Results: Neurological disorders were first described in ancient India under Ayurveda. The transition to modern medicine occurred more recently through formal training at medical schools beginning in the 1930′s. Early pioneers and founders of the NSI (1951 include Dr. Jacob Chandy, Dr. B Ramamurthi, Dr. S. T. Narasimhan and Dr. Baldev Singh. Later, Dr. J. S. Chopra, a prominent neurologist and visionary, recognized the need for primary centers of collaboration and subsequently established the IAN (1991. The future of Neurology in India is growing rapidly. Currently, there are 1100 practicing neurologists and more than 150 post-graduate trainees who join the ranks every year. As the number of neurologists rises across India, there is an increase in

  2. Hippocrates: the forefather of neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitenfeld, T; Jurasic, M J; Breitenfeld, D

    2014-09-01

    Hippocrates is one of the most influential medical doctors of all times. He started observing and experimenting in times of mysticism and magic. He carried a holistic and humanitarian approach to the patient with examination as the principal approach-inspection, palpation and auscultation are still the most important tools in diagnosing algorithms of today. He had immense experience with the human body most likely due to numerous wound treatments he had performed; some even believe he performed autopsies despite the negative trend at the time. Hippocrates identified the brain as the analyst of the outside world, the interpreter of consciousness and the center of intelligence and willpower. Interestingly, Hippocrates was aware of many valid concepts in neurology; his treatise On the Sacred Disease was the most important for understanding neurology and epilepsy. His other ideas pioneered modern day neurology mentioning neurological diseases like apoplexy, spondylitis, hemiplegia, and paraplegia. Today, 10 % of neurological Pubmed and 7 % of neuroscience Scopus reviews mention Corpus Hippocraticum as one of the sources. Therefore, Hippocrates may be considered as the forefather of neurology.

  3. Remote Physical Activity Monitoring in Neurological Disease: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Valerie A. J.; Pitsch, Erica; Tahir, Peggy; Cree, Bruce A. C.; Allen, Diane D.; Gelfand, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To perform a systematic review of studies using remote physical activity monitoring in neurological diseases, highlighting advances and determining gaps. Methods Studies were systematically identified in PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL and SCOPUS from January 2004 to December 2014 that monitored physical activity for ≥24 hours in adults with neurological diseases. Studies that measured only involuntary motor activity (tremor, seizures), energy expenditure or sleep were excluded. Feasibility, findings, and protocols were examined. Results 137 studies met inclusion criteria in multiple sclerosis (MS) (61 studies); stroke (41); Parkinson's Disease (PD) (20); dementia (11); traumatic brain injury (2) and ataxia (1). Physical activity levels measured by remote monitoring are consistently low in people with MS, stroke and dementia, and patterns of physical activity are altered in PD. In MS, decreased ambulatory activity assessed via remote monitoring is associated with greater disability and lower quality of life. In stroke, remote measures of upper limb function and ambulation are associated with functional recovery following rehabilitation and goal-directed interventions. In PD, remote monitoring may help to predict falls. In dementia, remote physical activity measures correlate with disease severity and can detect wandering. Conclusions These studies show that remote physical activity monitoring is feasible in neurological diseases, including in people with moderate to severe neurological disability. Remote monitoring can be a psychometrically sound and responsive way to assess physical activity in neurological disease. Further research is needed to ensure these tools provide meaningful information in the context of specific neurological disorders and patterns of neurological disability. PMID:27124611

  4. Educational interventions in neurology: a comprehensive systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColgan, P; McKeown, P P; Selai, C; Doherty-Allan, R; McCarron, M O

    2013-07-01

    A fear of neurology and neural sciences (neurophobia) may have clinical consequences. There is therefore a need to formulate an evidence-based approach to neurology education. A comprehensive systematic review of educational interventions in neurology was performed. BEI, Cochrane Library, Dialog Datastar, EBSCO Biomedical, EBSCO Psychology & Behavioral Sciences, EMBASE, ERIC, First Search, MDConsult, Medline, Proquest Medical Library and Web of Knowledge databases were searched for all published studies assessing interventions in neurology education among undergraduate students, junior medical doctors and residents up to and including July 2012. Two independent literature searches were performed for relevant studies, which were then classified for level of evidence using the Centre of Evidence-based Medicine criteria and four levels of Kirkpatrick educational outcomes. One systematic review, 16 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), nine non-randomized cohort/follow-up studies, 33 case series or historically controlled studies and three mechanism-based reasoning studies were identified. Educational interventions showed favourable evaluation or assessment outcomes in 15 of 16 (94%) RCTs. Very few studies measured subsequent clinical behaviour (two studies) and patient outcomes (one study). There is very little high quality evidence of demonstrably effective neurology education. However, RCTs are emerging, albeit without meeting comprehensive educational criteria. An improving evidence base in the quality of neurology education will be important to reduce neurophobia. © 2013 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2013 EFNS.

  5. Remote Physical Activity Monitoring in Neurological Disease: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Valerie A J; Pitsch, Erica; Tahir, Peggy; Cree, Bruce A C; Allen, Diane D; Gelfand, Jeffrey M

    2016-01-01

    To perform a systematic review of studies using remote physical activity monitoring in neurological diseases, highlighting advances and determining gaps. Studies were systematically identified in PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL and SCOPUS from January 2004 to December 2014 that monitored physical activity for ≥24 hours in adults with neurological diseases. Studies that measured only involuntary motor activity (tremor, seizures), energy expenditure or sleep were excluded. Feasibility, findings, and protocols were examined. 137 studies met inclusion criteria in multiple sclerosis (MS) (61 studies); stroke (41); Parkinson's Disease (PD) (20); dementia (11); traumatic brain injury (2) and ataxia (1). Physical activity levels measured by remote monitoring are consistently low in people with MS, stroke and dementia, and patterns of physical activity are altered in PD. In MS, decreased ambulatory activity assessed via remote monitoring is associated with greater disability and lower quality of life. In stroke, remote measures of upper limb function and ambulation are associated with functional recovery following rehabilitation and goal-directed interventions. In PD, remote monitoring may help to predict falls. In dementia, remote physical activity measures correlate with disease severity and can detect wandering. These studies show that remote physical activity monitoring is feasible in neurological diseases, including in people with moderate to severe neurological disability. Remote monitoring can be a psychometrically sound and responsive way to assess physical activity in neurological disease. Further research is needed to ensure these tools provide meaningful information in the context of specific neurological disorders and patterns of neurological disability.

  6. Music-based interventions in neurological rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihvonen, Aleksi J; Särkämö, Teppo; Leo, Vera; Tervaniemi, Mari; Altenmüller, Eckart; Soinila, Seppo

    2017-08-01

    During the past ten years, an increasing number of controlled studies have assessed the potential rehabilitative effects of music-based interventions, such as music listening, singing, or playing an instrument, in several neurological diseases. Although the number of studies and extent of available evidence is greatest in stroke and dementia, there is also evidence for the effects of music-based interventions on supporting cognition, motor function, or emotional wellbeing in people with Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, or multiple sclerosis. Music-based interventions can affect divergent functions such as motor performance, speech, or cognition in these patient groups. However, the psychological effects and neurobiological mechanisms underlying the effects of music interventions are likely to share common neural systems for reward, arousal, affect regulation, learning, and activity-driven plasticity. Although further controlled studies are needed to establish the efficacy of music in neurological recovery, music-based interventions are emerging as promising rehabilitation strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationships among neurological functioning, intelligence quotients, and physical anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, J; Hans, S L; Byhouwer, B; Norem, J

    1985-01-01

    The relationships among IQ, neurological signs, and minor physical anomalies--all measures of central nervous system status--were assessed in the index and control children of the study. The strongest correlation was found between neurological functioning and IQ; the relationship between anomalies and neurological functioning was less strong; and no relationship was found between anomalies and IQ. Consistently, the most poorly functioning children tended to be offspring of schizophrenic patients (index cases), although the same children did not always perform poorly on all tests. What emerges is a set of clusters of individuals with varying combinations of functional/developmental problems.

  8. Avaliação neurológica de recém-nascidos pré-termo de muito baixo peso com displasia broncopulmonar Neurological assessment of very low birth weight infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathiana Ghisi de Souza

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever e comparar a avaliação neurológica e comportamental de recém-nascidos pré-termos com e sem displasia broncopulmonar (DBP. MÉTODOS: Recém-nascidos prematuros com peso ao nascer inferior a 1500g e idade gestacional menor de 32 semanas foram avaliados com 40 semanas de idade gestacional corrigida, no Centro de Atenção Integral à Saúde da Mulher da Universidade Estadual de Campinas. Utilizou-se a Avaliação Neurológica de Dubowitz, com 29 itens divididos em seis categorias: tônus, padrões de tônus, reflexos, movimentos, sinais anormais e comportamento. O estado de consciência do recém-nascido foi graduado segundo Brazelton (1973. Utilizaram-se os testes do qui-quadrado e exato de Fischer para variáveis qualitativas e o de Mann-Whitney para as numéricas não-paramétricas, com nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: No período de janeiro de 2005 a setembro de 2007, 24 recém-nascidos, 12 com DBP e 12 controles, com idade gestacional ao nascer de 28±1 semana e peso de 884±202g no grupo com DBP e 31±1 semana e 1156±216g no Grupo Controle foram avaliados. Dos 29 itens avaliados, 18 foram homogêneos entre os grupos e a pontuação geral dos dois grupos não apresentou diferença (p=0,30. Observou-se maior anormalidade neurológica no grupo com DBP em oito itens e, no Grupo Controle, em três itens. CONCLUSÕES: A comparação da avaliação neurológica de Dubowitz de recém-nascidos pré-termos com e sem DBP não apresentou diferença significante com 40 semanas de idade gestacional corrigida. Nas categorias reflexos e postura/tônus, observou-se tendência a anormalidade no grupo DBP.OBJECTIVE: To compare the neurological assessment of preterm newborn infants with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. METHODS: Preterm newborn infants with birth weight less than 1,500g and gestational age less than 32 weeks were evaluated by Dubowitz Method at 40 weeks of corrected gestational age. All infants

  9. A hyperacute neurology team - transforming emergency neurological care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitkunan, Arani; MacDonald, Bridget K; Boodhoo, Ajay; Tomkins, Andrew; Smyth, Caitlin; Southam, Medina; Schon, Fred

    2017-07-01

    We present the results of an 18-month study of a new model of how to care for emergency neurological admissions. We have established a hyperacute neurology team at a single district general hospital. Key features are a senior acute neurology nurse coordinator, an exclusively consultant-delivered service, acute epilepsy nurses, an acute neurophysiology service supported by neuroradiology and acute physicians and based within the acute medical admissions unit. Key improvements are a major increase in the number of patients seen, the speed with which they are seen and the percentage seen on acute medical unit before going to the general wards. We have shown a reduced length of stay and readmission rates for patients with epilepsy. Epilepsy accounted for 30% of all referrals. The cost implications of running this service are modest. We feel that this model is worthy of widespread consideration. © Royal College of Physicians 2017. All rights reserved.

  10. Cannabinoids in neurology – Brazilian Academy of Neurology

    OpenAIRE

    Brucki, Sonia M. D.; Frota, Norberto Anísio; Schestatsky, Pedro; Souza, Adélia Henriques; Carvalho, Valentina Nicole; Manreza, Maria Luiza Giraldes; Mendes, Maria Fernanda; Comini-Frota, Elizabeth; Vasconcelos, Cláudia; Tumas, Vitor; Ferraz, Henrique B.; Barbosa, Egberto; Jurno, Mauro Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The use of cannabidiol in some neurological conditions was allowed by Conselho Regional de Medicina de São Paulo and by Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA). Specialists on behalf of Academia Brasileira de Neurologia prepared a critical statement about use of cannabidiol and other cannabis derivatives in neurological diseases. O uso do canabidiol em algumas condições neurológicas foi liberado pelo Conselho Regional de Medicina de São Paulo e pela Agência Nacional de Vigilância...

  11. Standard operating procedures improve acute neurologic care in a sub-Saharan African setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiteh, Lamin E S; Helwig, Stefan A; Jagne, Abubacarr; Ragoschke-Schumm, Andreas; Sarr, Catherine; Walter, Silke; Lesmeister, Martin; Manitz, Matthias; Blaß, Sebastian; Weis, Sarah; Schlund, Verena; Bah, Neneh; Kauffmann, Jil; Fousse, Mathias; Kangankan, Sabina; Ramos Cabrera, Asmell; Kronfeld, Kai; Ruckes, Christian; Liu, Yang; Nyan, Ousman; Fassbender, Klaus

    2017-07-11

    Quality of neurologic emergency management in an under-resourced country may be improved by standard operating procedures (SOPs). Neurologic SOPs were implemented in a large urban (Banjul) and a small rural (Brikama) hospital in the Gambia. As quality indicators of neurologic emergency management, performance of key procedures was assessed at baseline and in the first and second implementation years. At Banjul, 100 patients of the first-year intervention group exhibited higher rates of general procedures of emergency management than 105 control patients, such as neurologic examination (99.0% vs 91.4%; p process quality of neurologic emergency management in under-resourced settings. This study provides Class IV evidence that, for patients with suspected neurologic emergencies in sub-Saharan Africa, neurologic SOPs increase the rate of performance of guideline-recommended procedures. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  12. [Deficiency, disability, neurology and literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vázquez, Susana; Cano-de-la-Cuerda, Roberto; Jiménez-Antona, Carmen; Muñoz-Hellín, Elena

    2012-08-01

    Literature has always been attracted to neurological pathologies and the numerous works published on the subject are proof of this. Likewise, a number of physicians have been fiction writers and have drawn on their scientific knowledge to help develop their stories. The study addresses the appearance of neurological pathologies in a sample of literary works and examines the description of the disease, its treatment, the patient's view and the relationship between healthcare professionals and the socio-familial milieu. We review some of the greatest literary works of all times that deal with neurological pathologies, such as Don Quixote, Julius Caesar, David Copperfield, The Idiot or Miau, and many of them are seen to offer a very faithful portrayal of the disease. Similarly, we have also reviewed works that provide a personal account of life with neurological diseases and the ensuing disability written either by the patients themselves or by their relatives, examples being The Diving Bell and the Butterfly, My Left Foot or One Chance in a Thousand. Literature has helped to offer a realistic vision of neurologically-based pathologies and the healthcare professionals who work with them; there are many examples that portray the experiences of the patients themselves and the importance of support from the family is a feature that is constantly underlined.

  13. Neurological complications of cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottesman, Rebecca F; McKhann, Guy M; Hogue, Charles W

    2008-11-01

    Neurological injury resulting from cardiac surgery has a range of manifestations from focal neurological deficit to encephalopathy or coma. As the safety of drug-eluting stents comes into question, more patients will likely undergo coronary artery bypass graft surgery. These projections, along with the growing proportions of elderly patients and those with comorbidities, portend the potential for rising rates of perioperative neurological complications. The risk for neurological injury may be determined by the type of procedure, by patient-specific characteristics, and by the extent of cerebral embolization and hypoperfusion during and after surgery. Changes in surgical techniques, including the use of off-pump surgery, have not decreased rates of brain injury from cardiac surgery. When appropriate, modern neuroimaging techniques should be used in postoperative patients to confirm diagnosis, to provide information on potential etiology, to direct appropriate therapy, and to help in prognostication. Management of postoperative medications and early use of rehabilitation services is a recommended strategy to optimize the recovery for individuals with neurological injury after cardiac surgery.

  14. Neurologic considerations in propionic acidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, John; Chapman, Kimberly A; Summar, Marshall L; Ah Mew, Nicholas; Sutton, V Reid; MacLeod, Erin; Stagni, Kathy; Ueda, Keiko; Franks, Jill; Island, Eddie; Matern, Dietrich; Peña, Loren; Smith, Brittany; Urv, Tiina; Venditti, Charles; Chakarapani, Anupam; Gropman, Andrea L

    2012-01-01

    Propionic acidemia (PA) is an organic acidemia which has a broad range of neurological complications, including developmental delay, intellectual disability, structural abnormalities, metabolic stroke-like episodes, seizures, optic neuropathy, and cranial nerve abnormalities. As the PA consensus conference hosted by Children's National Medical Center progressed from January 28 to 30, 2011, it became evident that neurological complications were common and a major component of morbidity, but the role of imaging and the basis for brain pathophysiology were unclear. This paper reviews the hypothesized pathophysiology, presentation and uses the best available evidence to suggest programs for treatment, imaging, and monitoring the neurological complications of PA. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Acupuncture application for neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyangsook; Park, Hi-Joon; Park, Jongbae; Kim, Mi-Ja; Hong, Meesuk; Yang, Jongsoo; Choi, Sunmi; Lee, Hyejung

    2007-01-01

    Acupuncture has been widely used for a range of neurological disorders. Despite its popularity, the evidence to support the use of acupuncture is contradictory. This review was designed to summarize and to evaluate the available evidence of acupuncture for neurological disorders. Most of the reviewed studies suffer from lack of methodological rigor. Owing to paucity and poor quality of the primary studies, no firm conclusion could be drawn on the use of acupuncture for epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, ataxic disorders, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal cord injury. For stroke rehabilitation, the evidence from recent high-quality trials and previous systematic reviews is not convincing. More rigorous trials are warranted to establish acupuncture's role in neurological disorders.

  16. Mealtimes in a neurological ward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Malene; Martinsen, Bente; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To examine the environment surrounding hospital meals for patients with neurological diseases. BACKGROUND: A determined effort has been made to optimise the nutrition of hospitalised patients. However, the organisation of mealtimes and their relational and aesthetic aspects...... challenged by the design of the physical space and institutional structures. CONCLUSION: This study contributes to our understanding of the environment surrounding hospital meals for patients with neurological diseases. Based on this study, it can be concluded that meals were at a high risk of being served...... as a mindless task without the recognition that mealtimes are sensed with the whole body of the patient and not only by the mouth. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: The importance of the mealtime environment must be acknowledged because it serves as a communicative aspect for neurological patients by letting them...

  17. Pattern Of Neurological Disorders In Child Neurology Clinic Of The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The management and rehabilitation of children with neurological disorders is not only expensive but challenging due to lack of adequate facilities and personnel in various relevant disciplines. Allocation of resources for the management of these disorders especially in resource poor countries demands an audit of the ...

  18. Neurological manifestation of colonic adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzair Chaudhary

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Paraneoplastic neurologic disorders are extremely rare in cancer patients and are most commonly associated with certain tumors, such as ovarian cancer, small cell lung cancer, and breast cancer. We report here a paraneoplastic neurological syndrome in a 53-year-old man with colonic adenocarcinoma with a solitary liver metastasis. His paraneoplastic syndrome was successfully treated by methylprednisolone and primary oncologic therapies including neoadjuvant chemotherapy and definitive surgery. This is also the first documented case of simultaneous manifestation of a sensory neuropathy and limbic encephalitis with colon cancer.

  19. Neurological manifestations in Fabry's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anette Torvin; Jensen, Troels Staehelin

    2007-01-01

    . Neurological symptoms, such as burning sensations (occasionally accompanied by acroparesthesia) and stroke, are among the first to appear, and occur in both male and female patients. A delay in establishing the diagnosis of Fabry's disease can cause unnecessary problems, especially now that enzyme replacement...... treatment is available to prevent irreversible organ damage. Females with Fabry's disease who present with pain have often been ignored and misdiagnosed because of the disorder's X-linked inheritance. This Review will stress the importance of recognizing neurological symptoms for the diagnosis of Fabry...

  20. [Neurological complication of influenza infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brydak, Lidia B

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present neurological complications of influenza infections. Infections caused by influenza viruses can be very serious and may lead even to death resulted from the post-infectious complications. The most often occurring complications are pneumonia, bronchitis, bronchiolitis, myocarditis and otitis media. The other group is neurological post-influenza complications, including dementia, epileptic disorders, cerebrovascular disease, febrile convulsions, toxic encephalopathy, encephalitis, meningitis, subarachnoid hemorrhages, lethargic encephalitis, psychosis or increase in the number of cases of Parkinson's disease. The first way of prevention of influenza is vaccination that results in healthy, social and economic benefits.

  1. Neurological complications following measles vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allerdist, H

    1979-01-01

    In Hamburg 18 cases of neurological complications following vaccination with live measles virus vaccine (including 2 cases of abortive encephalopathy) have been observed between 1971--1978. A causal connection was assumed in 14 cases, that means an incidence of 1 neurological complication per 2,500 vaccinees and an incidence of 1 abortive encephalopathy per 17,650 vaccinees. These results differ from studies of various countries which used the same vaccine strain (Schwarz). Clinical symptoms, age distribution and incubation period are demonstrated. The prognosis seems to be good; the risk of vaccination compared to the risk following original measles is between 1:10 (convulsions) and 1:18 (encephalopathy).

  2. Complicações neurológicas em anemia falciforme: avaliação neuropsicológica do desenvolvimento com o NEPSY Neurological complications in sickle cell anemia: a developmental neuropsychological assessment using NEPSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Nunest

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudo de caso de duas crianças portadoras de anemia falciforme, com complicações neurológicas. Utilizou-se uma ampla bateria neuropsicológica - NEPSY. Uma criança apresentou acidente vascular cerebral com paresia de hemicorpo esquerdo, e a outra, ataque isquêmico transitório. As avaliações neuropsicológicas demonstraram que havia extenso prejuízo cognitivo no primeiro caso, em contraste com comprometimento leve no segundo. Baixas pontuações nas funções de atenção visual, memória operacional, linguagem, flexibilidade cognitiva, habilidades sensório-motora, visoespacial e viso-construtiva. Rebaixamento intelectual e no desempenho acadêmico foram encontrados no paciente que sofreu o acidente isquêmico. A criança que foi acometida por ataque isquêmico transitório apresentou dispraxia motora e oromotora, diminuição da atenção visual e memória verbal. Estes achados corroboram com os dados encontrados na literatura e reforçam a relevância de conhecer a tipologia destas alterações para intervir precocemente na deficiência cognitiva, minimizando as repercussões no desenvolvimento cognitivo, acadêmico e psicossocial.This is a case study of two children with sickle cell anemia and neurological complications. An extensive series of neuropsychological tests - NEPSY was used in the evaluation of the children. One child had suffered an ischemic stroke with left hemiparesis and the other, transient ischemic attack. The neuropsychological assessment showed extensive cognitive damage in the first case, in contrast to mild impairment in the second. Low scores were found for tasks of visual attention, operational memory, language, cognitive flexibility and for sensory-motor, visuospatial and visuoconstructive skills. Low intellectual and academic performance was found in the patient who suffered ischemic stroke. The child who suffered transient ischemic attack showed motor and oromotor dyspraxia, and decreased visual attention

  3. Education research: neurology training reassessed. The 2011 American Academy of Neurology Resident Survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas E; Maas, Matthew B; Coleman, Mary; Jozefowicz, Ralph; Engstrom, John

    2012-10-23

    To assess the strengths and weaknesses of neurology resident education using survey methodology. A 27-question survey was sent to all neurology residents completing residency training in the United States in 2011. Of eligible respondents, 49.8% of residents returned the survey. Most residents believed previously instituted duty hour restrictions had a positive impact on resident quality of life without impacting patient care. Most residents rated their faculty and clinical didactics favorably. However, many residents reported suboptimal preparation in basic neuroscience and practice management issues. Most residents (71%) noted that the Residency In-service Training Examination (RITE) assisted in self-study. A minority of residents (14%) reported that the RITE scores were used for reasons other than self-study. The vast majority (86%) of residents will enter fellowship training following residency and were satisfied with the fellowship offers they received. Graduating residents had largely favorable neurology training experiences. Several common deficiencies include education in basic neuroscience and clinical practice management. Importantly, prior changes to duty hours did not negatively affect the resident perception of neurology residency training.

  4. [Neurological soft signs in early onset schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgou Gaha, S; Halayem Dhouib, S; Amado, I; Bouden, A

    2015-06-01

    Neurological soft signs (NSS) are subtle neurological abnormalities that cannot be linked to the achievement of a specific region of the central nervous system and which are not part of a particular neurological syndrome. These signs are observed in the case of diseases supporting the neurodevelopmental model such as schizophrenia in general and its early form defined notably by an age of onset of less than 18 years. Indeed, the NSS belong to a set of clinical, cognitive, electrophysiological and neuroanatomical markers reflecting neurodevelopmental brain abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia. The objectives of our study were to determine the prevalence, the scores, and the nature of neurological soft signs (NSS) in adolescent patients suffering from early onset schizophrenia diagnosis in comparison to healthy controls, and to explore the correlations between NSS and the demographic, clinical and therapeutic features of these patients. Twelve adolescents were recruited in the Child Psychiatry Department at the Razi Hospital (Tunisia), with the diagnosis of schizophrenia according to the DSM-IV supplemented by the Kiddie SAD PL. They were matched by age and educational level with twelve healthy controls without psychiatric family or personal history. The clinical status of the patients was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Neurological soft signs (NSS) were rated with the Neurological Soft Signs Examination (NSSE) by Krebs et al. (2000) for the two groups. This scale is composed of 23 items exploring motor coordination, motor integrative function, sensory integration, involuntary movements and quality of lateralization. The mean age of our population was 14.7 years. The average age of onset of the disease was 12.2 years. The sex-ratio was 1.4. Educational level was 7.4 years. The PANSS mean total score was 74.3. The mean daily dose, in chlorpromazine equivalents, was 523.9 mg/day. Four patients received a strict monotherapy of

  5. Suicide and patients with neurologic diseases. Methodologic problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E N; Stenager, Egon

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The suicide risk in patients with many neurologic diseases has been reported to be greater than that in the general population. Studies on the subject are, however, often encumbered with methodologic problems. We appraised these problems and, based on an evaluation, reappraised knowledge...... of the suicide risk in patients with specific neurologic diseases. DATA SOURCE: Using the computerized database MEDLINE, we identified all published reports with the key words suicide, attempted suicide, and neurologic diseases. STUDY SELECTION: We assessed and reviewed studies concerning the most common...... neurologic diseases for methodologic problems in the study design. DATA EXTRACTION: The following methodologic problems emerged during our review: (1) choice of study type, ie, autopsy study or follow-up study; (2) choice of study population; (3) choice of control groups; (4) epidemiologic...

  6. Autism spectrum symptoms in children with neurological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryland Hilde K

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of the present study were to assess symptoms associated with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD in children with neurological disorders as reported by parents and teachers on the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ, as well as the level of agreement between informants for each child. Methods The ASSQ was completed by parents and teachers of the 5781 children (11–13 years who participated in the second wave of the Bergen Child Study (BCS, an on-going longitudinal population-based study. Out of these children, 496 were reported to have a chronic illness, including 99 whom had a neurological disorder. The neurological disorder group included children both with and without intellectual disabilities. Results Children with neurological disorders obtained significantly higher parent and teacher reported ASSQ scores than did non-chronically ill children and those with other chronic illnesses (p Conclusions The ASSQ identifies a high rate of ASD symptoms in children with neurological disorders, and a large number of children screened in the positive range for ASD. Although a firm conclusion awaits further clinical studies, the present results suggest that health care professionals should be aware of potential ASD related problems in children with neurological disorders, and should consider inclusion of the ASSQ or similar screening instruments as part of their routine assessment of this group of children.

  7. [Neurology in medieval regimina sanitatis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Frutos González, V; Guerrero Peral, A L

    2011-09-01

    In medical medieval literature some works about dietetics stand out. Dietetics, as a separate branch of medicine, includes not only food or drinks, but other environmental factors influencing on health. They are known as regimina sanitatis or salutis, and specially developed in the Christian west. They generally consisted of a balance between the Galenic "six non-natural things"; factors regulating health and its protection: environment, exercise, food, sleep, bowel movements and emotions. After reviewing the sources and defining the different stages of this genre, we have considered three of the most out-standing medieval regimina, the anonymous Regimen sanitatis salernitanum, Arnaldo de Vilanova's Regimen sanitatis ad regem aragonum and Bernardo de Gordon's Tractatus of conservatione vite humane. In them we review references to neurological disease. Though not independently considered, there is a significant presence of neurological diseases in the regimina. Dietetics measures are proposed to preserve memory, nerves, or hearing, as well as for the treatment of migraine, epilepsy, stroke or dizziness. Regimina are quiet representative among medical medieval literature, and they show medieval physicians vision of neurological diseases. Dietetics was considered useful to preserve health, and therapeutics was based on natural remedies. 2010 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. [Neurology of hysteria (conversion disorder)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoo, Masahiro

    2014-07-01

    Hysteria has served as an important driving force in the development of both neurology and psychiatry. Jean Martin Charcot's devotion to mesmerism for treating hysterical patients evoked the invention of psychoanalysis by Sigmund Freud. Meanwhile, Joseph Babinski took over the challenge to discriminate between organic and hysterical patients from Charcot and found Babinski's sign, the greatest milestone in modern neurological symptomatology. Nowadays, the usage of the term hysteria is avoided. However, new terms and new classifications are complicated and inconsistent between the two representative taxonomies, the DSM-IV and ICD-10. In the ICD-10, even the alternative term conversion disorder, which was becoming familiar to neurologists, has also disappeared as a group name. The diagnosis of hysteria remains important in clinical neurology. Extensive exclusive diagnoses and over investigation, including various imaging studies, should be avoided because they may prolong the disease course and fix their symptoms. Psychological reasons that seem to explain the conversion are not considered reliable. Positive neurological signs suggesting nonorganic etiologies are the most reliable measures for diagnosing hysteria, as Babinski first argued. Hysterical paresis has several characteristics, such as giving-way weakness or peculiar distributions of weakness. Signs to uncover nonorganic paresis utilizing synergy include Hoover's test and the Sonoo abductor test.

  9. Edgar Allan Poe and neurology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Afonso Ghizoni Teive

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Edgar Allan Poe was one of the most celebrated writers of all time. He published several masterpieces, some of which include references to neurological diseases. Poe suffered from recurrent depression, suggesting a bipolar disorder, as well as alcohol and drug abuse, which in fact led to his death from complications related to alcoholism. Various hypotheses were put forward, including Wernicke's encephalopathy.

  10. Edgar Allan Poe and neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teive, Hélio Afonso Ghizoni; Paola, Luciano de; Munhoz, Renato Puppi

    2014-06-01

    Edgar Allan Poe was one of the most celebrated writers of all time. He published several masterpieces, some of which include references to neurological diseases. Poe suffered from recurrent depression, suggesting a bipolar disorder, as well as alcohol and drug abuse, which in fact led to his death from complications related to alcoholism. Various hypotheses were put forward, including Wernicke's encephalopathy.

  11. Digital Footprint of Neurological Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Christopher; Gupta, Raghav; Shah, Aakash; Madill, Evan; Prabhu, Arpan V; Agarwal, Nitin

    2018-02-07

    Patients are increasingly turning to online resources to inquire about individual physicians and to gather health information. However, little research exists studying the online presence of neurosurgeons across the country. This study aimed to characterize these online profiles and assess the scope of neurosurgeons' digital identities. Medicare-participating neurologic surgeons from the United States and Puerto Rico were identified using the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Physician Comparable Downloadable File. Each physician was characterized by his or her medical education, graduation year, city of practice, gender, and affiliation with an academic institution. Using a Google-based custom search tool, the top 10 search results for each physician were extracted and categorized as 1 of the following: 1) physician, hospital, or healthcare system controlled, 2) third-party or government controlled, 3) social media-based, 4) primary journal article, or 5) other. Among the physicians within the CMS database, 4751 self-identified as being neurosurgeons, yielding a total of 45,875 uniform resource locator search results pertinent to these physicians. Of the 4751 neurosurgeons, 2317 (48.8%) and 2434 (51.2%) were classified as academic and nonacademic neurosurgeons, respectively. At least 1 search result was obtained for every physician. Hospital, healthcare system, or physician-controlled websites (18,206; 39.7%) and third-party websites (17,122; 37.3%) were the 2 most commonly observed domain types. Websites belonging to social media platforms accounted for 4843 (10.6%) search results, and websites belonging to peer-reviewed academic journals accounted for 1888 (4.1%) search results. The frequency with which a third-party domain appeared as the first search result was higher for nonacademic neurosurgeons than for academic neurosurgeons. In general, neurosurgeons lacked a controllable online presence within their first page of Google Search results

  12. Prevalence and Distribution of Neurological Disease in a Neurology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uche

    65. Table 3: Top 10 Conditions Seen in a Neurological Out-Patient Clinic in the UK. 5. Rank. Disorder. %. 1. Blackouts. 12.5. Epilepsy. 10.4. Vasovagal attacks. 2.1. 2. Headache. 12.5. Tension headache. 7.5. Migraine. 5.0. 3. Cerebrovascular disease. 7.4. 4. Entrapment neuropathy. 4.4. 5. Conversion hysteria. 3.8. 6.

  13. [Epidemiology of urological symptoms in neurological disorders. A prospective analysis in a center for neurological rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, M

    2008-06-01

    The frequency of urological symptoms and malfunctions was determined in a representative group of patients in a neurological rehabilitation center in Northern Bavaria. All 225 consecutive inpatients between October 2002 and April 2003 were questioned by an experienced neuro-urologist about relevant urological symptoms. The Barthel index, IPSS, and a simple quality of life score were ascertained in addition. We tried to analyze indication, frequency, and quality of any treatment for previous urological symptoms in the assigning institution. An assessment of the known therapy of urological symptoms in pretreating facilities was documented in 190 patients (84.4%). In 105 cases (55.3%) treatment was appraised as sufficient (including all patients without urological symptoms) and not sufficient in 85 cases (44.7%). At the time of admission into the rehabilitation center no urological symptoms were seen in 78 cases (35.1%); 144 patients (64.9%) presented with relevant urological symptoms. It could be pointed out that patients with urological symptoms without adequate treatment lost quality of life significantly, both at medical and at subjective assessment. Total morbidity of patients with urological symptoms was shown to be worse regarding Barthel index, IPSS, and quality of life assessed by IPSS. By providing continuous neuro-urologically qualified support, deficits due to inadequate pretreatment could be compensated in comparison to the group with appropriate pretreatment. A further optimization of the rehabilitation potential of neurologically ill patients seems possible by an implementation of urological base measures into the neurological treatment routine and improved urological training of neurological treatment teams.

  14. Neurologic manifestations of hypothyroidism in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertalan, Abigail; Kent, Marc; Glass, Eric

    2013-03-01

    Hypothyroidism is a common endocrine disease in dogs. A variety of clinicopathologic abnormalities may be present; however, neurologic deficits are rare. In some instances, neurologic deficits may be the sole manifestation of hypothyroidism. Consequent ly, the diagnosis and management of the neurologic disorders associated with hypothyroidism can be challenging. This article describes several neurologic manifestations of primary hypothyroidism in dogs; discusses the pathophysiology of hypothyroidism-induced neurologic disorders affecting the peripheral and central nervous systems; and reviews the evidence for the neurologic effects of hypothyroidism.

  15. PET and SPECT in neurology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Ghent Univ.; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van; Otte, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    PET and SPECT in Neurology highlights the combined expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the investigation of neurological disorders through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. Classical neurodegenerative disorders are discussed as well as cerebrovascular disorders, brain tumors, epilepsy, head trauma, coma, sleeping disorders, and inflammatory and infectious diseases of the CNS. The latest results in nuclear brain imaging are detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical neurologist and a nuclear medicine specialist to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state-of-the-art compendium will be valuable to anybody in the field of neuroscience, from the neurologist and the radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested general practitioner and geriatrician. It is the second volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences, the other volumes covering PET and SPECT in psychiatry and in neurobiological systems.

  16. PET and SPECT in neurology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [Groningen University Medical Center (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Ghent Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van [Groningen University Medical Center (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Otte, Andreas (ed.) [Univ. of Applied Sciences Offenburg (Germany). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology

    2014-07-01

    PET and SPECT in Neurology highlights the combined expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the investigation of neurological disorders through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. Classical neurodegenerative disorders are discussed as well as cerebrovascular disorders, brain tumors, epilepsy, head trauma, coma, sleeping disorders, and inflammatory and infectious diseases of the CNS. The latest results in nuclear brain imaging are detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical neurologist and a nuclear medicine specialist to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state-of-the-art compendium will be valuable to anybody in the field of neuroscience, from the neurologist and the radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested general practitioner and geriatrician. It is the second volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences, the other volumes covering PET and SPECT in psychiatry and in neurobiological systems.

  17. Neurologic Manifestations of Vitamin B Deficiency after Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punchai, Suriya; Hanipah, Zubaidah Nor; Meister, Katherine M; Schauer, Philip R; Brethauer, Stacy A; Aminian, Ali

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the incidence, clinical presentation, and outcomes of neurologic disorders secondary to vitamin B deficiencies following bariatric surgery. Patients at a single academic institution who underwent bariatric surgery and developed neurologic complications secondary to low levels of vitamins B1, B2, B6, and B12 between the years 2004 and 2015 were studied. In total, 47 (0.7%) bariatric surgical patients (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass n = 36, sleeve gastrectomy n = 9, and duodenal switch n = 2) developed neurologic manifestations secondary to vitamin B deficiencies. Eleven (23%) patients developed postoperative anatomical complications contributed to poor oral intake. Median duration to onset of neurologic manifestation following surgery was 12 months (IQR, 5-32). Vitamin deficiencies reported in the cohort included B1 (n = 30), B2 (n = 1), B6 (n = 12), and B12 (n = 12) deficiency. The most common manifestations were paresthesia (n = 31), muscle weakness (n = 15), abnormal gait (n = 11), and polyneuropathy (n = 7). Four patients were diagnosed with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) which was developed after gastric bypass (n = 3) and sleeve gastrectomy (n = 1). Seven patients required readmission for management of severe vitamin B deficiencies. Overall, resolution of neurologic symptoms with nutritional interventions and pharmacotherapy was noted in 40 patients (85%). The WKS was not reversible, and all four patients had residual mild ataxia and nystagmus at the last follow-up time. Nutritional neurologic disorders secondary to vitamin B deficiency are relatively uncommon after bariatric surgery. While neurologic disorders are reversible in most patients (85%) with vitamin replacements, persistent residual neurologic symptoms are common in patients with WKS.

  18. Neurology clerkship goals and their effect on learning and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strowd, Roy E; Salas, Rachel Marie E; Cruz, Tiana E; Gamaldo, Charlene E

    2016-02-16

    To define medical student goals in the neurology clerkship and explore the association between goal setting and student performance, clerkship satisfaction, self-directed learning (SDL), and interest in neurology. A 4-year prospective study of consecutive second- to fourth-year medical students rotating through a required 4-week neurology clerkship was conducted. A goal-generating cohort (first 2 years) was enrolled to describe the breadth of student-derived goals. A goal-evaluating cohort (second 2 years) was used to evaluate the frequency of goal achievement and assess associations with performance (e.g., National Board of Medical Examiners [NBME], examination), satisfaction, and SDL behaviors (both based on 5-point Likert scale). Of 440 evaluable students, 201 were goal-generating and 239 goal-evaluating. The top 3 goals were (1) improvement in neurologic examination, (2) understanding neurologic disease, and (3) deriving a differential diagnosis. More than 90% (n = 216/239) of students reported achieving goals. Achievers reported significantly higher clerkship satisfaction (4.2 ± 0.8 vs. 2.8 ± 1.0, p neurology (71% vs. 35%, p = 0.001), and higher observed tendency toward SDL (4.5 ± 0.5 vs. 4.1 ± 0.8, p neurology clerkship. Goal achievers had better adjusted standardized test scores, higher satisfaction, and greater tendency toward SDL. This student-generated, goal-setting program may be particularly appealing to clinicians, educators, and researchers seeking resource-lean mechanisms to improve student experience and performance in the clinical clerkships. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  19. [Deficiency, disability, neurology and cinema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vázquez, Susana; Cano de la Cuerda, Roberto; Jiménez-Antona, Carmen

    2010-12-16

    Cinema has been defined in many different ways, but most of them agree that it should be considered both a technique and an art. Although films often depict fantasy stories, in many cases they also reflect day-to-day realities. In its earliest days cinema was already attracted to the world of health and sickness, and frequently addressed topics like medical practice, how patients lived with their illnesses, bioethical issues, the relationship between physician and patient or research. To review the presence of neurological pathologies in the cinema with a view to identifying the main neurological disorders that have been portrayed in films. Likewise it also intends to describe the medical praxis that is employed, the relationship between physician and patient, how the experiences of the patient and the family are represented, the adaptation to social and occupational situations, and the intervention of other health care professionals related with neurological patients. Some of the most significant films that have addressed these topics were reviewed and it was seen that in some of them the illness is dealt with in a very true-to-life manner, whereas others tend to include a greater number of inaccuracies and a larger degree of fiction. Cinema has helped to shape certain ways of thinking about the health care professionals who work with neurological patients, the importance of support from the family and the social role, among other things. This confirms that resorting to cinematographic productions is a fruitful tool for stimulating a critical interest in the past and present of medical practice.

  20. Legal challenges in neurological practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sita Jayalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical neuroscience has made tremendous advances over the last century. Neurology as a discipline is still considered challenging and at times risky due to the natural history and progressive course of few of the neurological diseases. Encouragingly, the patient and their caregivers are now increasingly willing to be actively involved in making decisions. The patients' relationship with the doctor is a reflection of the society. A society that is orienting itself toward “rating” and “feedback” has made this doctor–patient relationship, a consumer–service provider relationship. This perhaps is due to commercialization of health that usually accompanies globalization. Moreover, a rapid influx of information from potential erroneous sources such as the Internet has also made patient and caregivers not being hesitant to taking legal course in the case of adverse events during treatment or simply because of dissatisfaction. The purpose of the legal process initiated by patients with neurological ailments is more often to compensate for the income lost, physical and psychological anguish that accompanies disease and its treatment, and to fund treatment or rehabilitation requirements. However, it is not clearly established if monetary benefits acquired lead to better opportunities for recovery of the patient. The consumer protection act and commercialization of medical services may well have an adverse effect on the doctor and patient relationship. Hence, there is a great need for all medical professionals to mutually complement and update each other. This review examines legal (litigation processes with special interest on medicolegal system in patients with neurological ailments and the challenges faced by the neurologist during day-to-day clinical practice.

  1. Legal challenges in neurological practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayalakshmi, Sita; Vooturi, Sudhindra

    2016-10-01

    Clinical neuroscience has made tremendous advances over the last century. Neurology as a discipline is still considered challenging and at times risky due to the natural history and progressive course of few of the neurological diseases. Encouragingly, the patient and their caregivers are now increasingly willing to be actively involved in making decisions. The patients' relationship with the doctor is a reflection of the society. A society that is orienting itself toward "rating" and "feedback" has made this doctor-patient relationship, a consumer-service provider relationship. This perhaps is due to commercialization of health that usually accompanies globalization. Moreover, a rapid influx of information from potential erroneous sources such as the Internet has also made patient and caregivers not being hesitant to taking legal course in the case of adverse events during treatment or simply because of dissatisfaction. The purpose of the legal process initiated by patients with neurological ailments is more often to compensate for the income lost, physical and psychological anguish that accompanies disease and its treatment, and to fund treatment or rehabilitation requirements. However, it is not clearly established if monetary benefits acquired lead to better opportunities for recovery of the patient. The consumer protection act and commercialization of medical services may well have an adverse effect on the doctor and patient relationship. Hence, there is a great need for all medical professionals to mutually complement and update each other. This review examines legal (litigation) processes with special interest on medicolegal system in patients with neurological ailments and the challenges faced by the neurologist during day-to-day clinical practice.

  2. Disease mongering in neurological disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Kochen, Sara Silvia; Córdoba, Marta

    2017-01-01

    “Diseases mongering”, than a simple definition would be enforced "to promote or sell disease". The main and common characteristhics of all these "diseases" is that they are amenable to treatment with drugs. So, the pharmaceutical industry redefining the concept of disease, the normal and pathological. In Neurology exploits the deepest atavistic fears of suffering and death. We select some diseases, the choise was based on lack or weak evidence in definition of disease; or cost benefit of trea...

  3. Neurological Findings in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Paydas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN arise from genetic deficiencies at the level of pluripotent stem cells. Each of these neoplasms is a clonal stem cell disorder with specific phenotypic, genetic and clinical properties. Age is one of the most important factors in the development of symptoms and complications associated with MPNs.High white blood cell counts in chronic myelocytic leukemia also known as leukocytosis may lead to central nervous system findings. Tumors developing outside the bone marrow named as extramedullary myeloid tumors (EMMT could be detected at the initial diagnosis or during the prognosis of the disease, which may cause neurological symptoms due to pressure of leukemic cell mass on various tissues along with spinal cord. Central nervous system involvement and thrombocytopenic hemorrhage may lead to diverse neurological symptoms and findings.Transient ischemic attack and thrombotic stroke are the most common symptoms in polycythemia vera. Besides thrombosis and hemorrage, transformation to acute leukemia can cause neurological symptoms and findings. Transient ischemic attack, thrombotic stroke and specifically hemorrage can give rise to neurological symptoms similar to MPN in essential thrombocytosis.Extramedullary hematopoiesis refers to hematopoietic centers arise in organ/tissues other than bone marrow in myelofibrosis. Extramedullar hematopoietic centers may cause intracranial involvement, spinal cord compression, seizures and hydrocephalia. Though rare, extramedullary hematopoiesis can be detected in cranial/spinal meninges, paraspinal tissue and intracerebral regions. Extramedullary hematopoiesis has been reported in peripheral neurons, choroid plexus, pituitary, orbits, orbital and lacrimal fossa and in sphenoidal sinuses. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(2.000: 157-169

  4. Torture and its neurological sequelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, A; Grodin, M A

    2002-05-01

    Refugees and asylum seekers continue to enter the United States and the European Union in record numbers. Some have estimated that between 5-35% of all refugees have suffered torture in their countries of origin. Although general practitioners and specialized physicians are likely to encounter victims of torture as patients, few providers are familiar with the health problems that may affect this patient population. :To provide neurologists, neurosurgeons, and rehabilitation medicine physicians with basic knowledge about survivors of torture that can help in the diagnosis, treatment, and referral of such patients. A MEDLINE (1966-October 2001) search using keywords torture and sequelae (nervous system diseases and brain injuries) was conducted. Other data sources included books, reference lists, online resources and expert opinion. :Forms of torture that may affect the nervous system include beatings, gunshot wounds, stab wounds, asphyxiation, prolonged suspension and electrocution. Victims of torture commonly experience neurological symptoms such as headaches, vertigo, loss of consciousness and dizziness during and after torture. A successful and meaningful clinical interaction with a survivor of torture includes avoiding retraumatization, building trust, spelling out any limits on confidentiality, and above anything else, establishing empathy with the patient. Neurological sequelae of torture can be devastating physically and psychologically. The treatment of these neurological conditions does not differ from other patient populations. However, the clinical approach is unique and must focus on avoiding retraumatization and helping the victim reintegrate into society as quickly as possible.

  5. Neurological complications of Schistosoma infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carod-Artal, Francisco Javier

    2008-02-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma. Currently more than 200 million people worldwide are affected. Neuroschistosomiasis constitutes a severe presentation of the disease. Neurological symptoms result from the inflammatory response of the host to egg deposition in the brain and spinal cord. Neurological complications of cerebral schistosomiasis include delirium, loss of consciousness, seizures, dysphasia, visual field impairment, focal motor deficits and ataxia. Cerebral and cerebellar tumour-like neuroschistosomiasis can present with increased intracranial pressure, headache, nausea and vomiting, and seizures. Myelopathy (acute transverse myelitis and subacute myeloradiculopathy) is the most common neurological complication of Schistosoma mansoni infection. Schistosomal myelopathy tends to occur early after infection and is more likely to be symptomatic than cerebral schistosomiasis. The conus medullaris and cauda equina are the most common sites of involvement. Severe schistosomal myelopathy can provoke a complete flaccid paraplegia with areflexia, sphincter dysfunction and sensory disturbances. Schistosomicidal drugs, steroids and surgery are the currently available treatments for neuroschistosomiasis. Rehabilitation and multidisciplinary team care are needed in severely disabled patients.

  6. VEGF Signaling in Neurological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon W. Shim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is a potent growth factor playing diverse roles in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. In the brain, VEGF mediates angiogenesis, neural migration and neuroprotection. As a permeability factor, excessive VEGF disrupts intracellular barriers, increases leakage of the choroid plexus endothelia, evokes edema, and activates the inflammatory pathway. Recently, we discovered that a heparin binding epidermal growth factor like growth factor (HB-EGF—a class of EGF receptor (EGFR family ligands—contributes to the development of hydrocephalus with subarachnoid hemorrhage through activation of VEGF signaling. The objective of this review is to entail a recent update on causes of death due to neurological disorders involving cerebrovascular and age-related neurological conditions and to understand the mechanism by which angiogenesis-dependent pathological events can be treated with VEGF antagonisms. The Global Burden of Disease study indicates that cancer and cardiovascular disease including ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke are two leading causes of death worldwide. The literature suggests that VEGF signaling in ischemic brains highlights the importance of concentration, timing, and alternate route of modulating VEGF signaling pathway. Molecular targets distinguishing two distinct pathways of VEGF signaling may provide novel therapies for the treatment of neurological disorders and for maintaining lower mortality due to these conditions.

  7. Clinical trials in neurology: design, conduct, analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ravina, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    .... Clinical Trials in Neurology aims to improve the efficiency of clinical trials and the development of interventions in order to enhance the development of new treatments for neurologic diseases...

  8. Medical Marijuana in Certain Neurological Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Systematic Review for PATIENTS and their FAMILIES MEDICAL MARIJUANA IN CERTAIN NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS This fact sheet presents the current research on medical marijuana (cannabis) for treating certain neurological disorders. The American ...

  9. African Journal of Neurological Sciences: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Neurological Sciences: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > African Journal of Neurological Sciences: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  10. Cervical spinal canal narrowing and cervical neurologi-cal injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Ling

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Cervical spinal canal narrowing can lead to injury of the spinal cord and neurological symptoms in-cluding neck pain, headache, weakness and parasthesisas. According to previous and recent clinical researches, we investigated the geometric parameters of normal cervical spinal canal including the sagittal and transverse diameters as well as Torg ratio. The mean sagittal diameter of cervical spinal canal at C 1 to C 7 ranges from 15.33 mm to 20.46 mm, the mean transverse diameter at the same levels ranges from 24.45 mm to 27.00 mm and the mean value of Torg ratio is 0.96. With respect to narrow cervical spinal canal, the following charaterstics are found: firstly, extension of the cervical spine results in statistically significant stenosis as compared with the flexed or neutral positions; secondly, females sustain cervical spinal canal narrowing more easily than males; finally, the consistent narrowest cervical canal level is at C 4 for all ethnicity, but there is a slight variation in the sagittal diameter of cervical spinal stenosis (≤14 mm in Whites, ≤ 12 mm in Japanese, ≤13.7 mm in Chinese. Narrow sagittal cervical canal diameter brings about an increased risk of neurological injuries in traumatic, degenerative and inflam-matory conditions and is related with extension of cervical spine, gender, as well as ethnicity. It is hoped that this re-view will be helpful in diagnosing spinal cord and neuro-logical injuries with the geometric parameters of cervical spine in the future. Key words: Spinal cord injuries; Spinal stenosis; Trauma, nervous system

  11. Results of the American Academy of Neurology resident survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, W D; Nolte, C M; Matthews, B R; Coleman, M; Corboy, J R

    2011-03-29

    To assess the effect of neurology residency education as trainees advance into independent practice, the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) elected to survey all graduating neurology residents at time of graduation and in 3-year cycles thereafter. A 22-question survey was sent to all neurology residents completing residency training in the United States in 2007. Of 523 eligible residents, 285 (54.5%) responded. Of these, 92% reported good to excellent quality teaching of basic neurology from their faculty; however, 47% noted less than ideal training in basic neuroscience. Two-thirds indicated that the Residency In-service Training Examination was used only as a self-assessment tool, but reports of misuse were made by some residents. After residency, 78% entered fellowships (with 61% choosing a fellowship based on interactions with a mentor at their institution), whereas 20% entered practice directly. After adjustment for the proportion of residents who worked before the duty hour rules were implemented and after their implementation, more than half reported improvement in quality of life (87%), education (60%), and patient care (62%). The majority of international medical graduates reported wanting to stay in the United States to practice rather than return to their country of residence. Neurology residents are generally satisfied with training, and most entered a fellowship. Duty hour implementation may have improved resident quality of life, but reciprocal concerns were raised about impact on patient care and education. Despite the majority of international trainees wishing to stay in the United States, stricter immigration laws may limit their entry into the future neurology workforce.

  12. Neurological manifestaions among Sudanese patients with multiple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study demonstrated that the most common non- neurological symptoms was locomotor symptoms (24%) ,while the most common neurological symptoms were backache and neck pain .The most common neurological findings were cord compression (8%) followed by peripheral neuropathy (2%) and CVA (2%). 22% of ...

  13. African Journal of Neurological Sciences: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Neurological Sciences (AJNS) is owned and controlled by the Pan African Association of Neurological Sciences (PAANS). The AJNS's aim is to publish scientific papers of any aspects of Neurological Sciences. AJNS is published quarterly. Articles submitted exclusively to the AJNS are accepted if neither ...

  14. Paediatric Neurological Conditions Seen at the Physiotherapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paediatric neurological conditions constitute a major cause of disability in childhood. However there seems to be an apparent dearth of published works on the patterns of neurological conditions seen in Nigerian physiotherapy clinics of rural locations. This study aimed at describing the spectrum of neurological conditions ...

  15. Neurology is psychiatry--and vice versa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, Adam

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the relationship between neurology and psychiatry. It marshals evidence that disorders of the brain typically have neurological and psychological-cognitive, affective, behavioural-manifestations, while disorders of the psyche are based in the brain. Given the inseparability of neurological and psychiatric disorders, their disease classifications should eventually fuse, and joint initiatives in training, service and research should be strongly encouraged.

  16. Caffeinated energy drinks: neurological and cardiovascular effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manrique, Clara Inés

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy caffeinated beverages are composed mainly of caffeine, carbohydrates and dietary supplements. Although manufacturers claim that these drinks are safe and many consumers perceive that also, there is concern about the possibility that adverse events may occur with their consumption. This led us to review the literature with emphasis on the cardiovascular and neurological risks. It was found that the major health complaints (headache, sleep disorders, irritation and fatigue were more frequent in consumers than in non-consumers. Emergency room visits motivated by the use of energy drinks were more frequent when there was co-ingestion of ethanol and other drugs. The main cause of cardiovascular emergency consultation was arrhythmia and the neurological one, seizure. The evidence found was of poor quality, which prevented establishing a causal link between the consumption of these drinks and such risks. On the other hand, interpretation of the toxicity of these preparations is complicated because several variables should considered such as dose, individual sensibility, consumption habits, smoking, and co-ingestion of other substances, etc., in order to assess their real risk. Despite this, concomitant consumption of these beverages and ethanol seems to be a risk factor for toxicity.

  17. The need for a Global Neurology Alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, William M

    2017-08-15

    With increasing rapidity of advances in neuroscience and widening gaps in the accessibility to quality neurological care the risks of unpreparedness are growing. To summarise the potential risks to the equal provision of neurological care and the resources available to improve the ability to plan and respond to the unexpected. To describe three examples of cooperative effort involving the World Federation of Neurology acting in concert with other neurological organisations. A global alliance of neurological organisations meeting and communicating regularly and willing to act rapidly and in concert is an essential prerequisite to managing emergent crises. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Awareness Of The Neurological Diseases: Comparisons Of The Attendies At Secondary and Tertiary Neurological Oupatient Centers In The Sample Of Ankara City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah Aytaç

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Both neurological diseases and related disabilities are growing all over the world and in our country. Awareness of the neurological diseases is thought to be less than the expected. METHODS: The aim of this study is; to investigate the awareness of the neurological diseases in the secondary and tertiary neurological outpatient service attendies and to assess its correlations between the patient’s demographics. RESULTS: A total of 540 patients were included in the study. Alzheimer disease was found to be most known neurological disease and Multiple sclerosis was the least one. The awareness of the diseases correlated with the level of education. Younger patients were seem to be more aware about the neurological diseases than the older patients. Although currently widespread usage of internet/media, we found that patients prefer mostly to take advice from their family practitioners for being to attend to the neurological outpatient services. We comment that this result is a positive finding in terms of usage of health care system and patient-physician relationships. CONCLUSION: There is need for increasing the awareness of the neurological diseases for both early diagnosis of neurological diseases and to decrease the related disability

  19. Neurology objective structured clinical examination reliability using generalizability theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Angela D; Park, Yoon Soo; Lukas, Rimas V; Brorson, James R

    2015-11-03

    This study examines factors affecting reliability, or consistency of assessment scores, from an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) in neurology through generalizability theory (G theory). Data include assessments from a multistation OSCE taken by 194 medical students at the completion of a neurology clerkship. Facets evaluated in this study include cases, domains, and items. Domains refer to areas of skill (or constructs) that the OSCE measures. G theory is used to estimate variance components associated with each facet, derive reliability, and project the number of cases required to obtain a reliable (consistent, precise) score. Reliability using G theory is moderate (Φ coefficient = 0.61, G coefficient = 0.64). Performance is similar across cases but differs by the particular domain, such that the majority of variance is attributed to the domain. Projections in reliability estimates reveal that students need to participate in 3 OSCE cases in order to increase reliability beyond the 0.70 threshold. This novel use of G theory in evaluating an OSCE in neurology provides meaningful measurement characteristics of the assessment. Differing from prior work in other medical specialties, the cases students were randomly assigned did not influence their OSCE score; rather, scores varied in expected fashion by domain assessed. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  20. Advance care planning for patients with advanced neurology diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Ka-Chi; Lau, Vikki Wai-Kee; Un, Ka-Chun; Wong, Man-Sheung; Chan, Kwok-Ying

    2017-10-13

    Advanced neurology diseases including motor neuron disease (MND) are usually progressive life-limiting illness and could be devastating for patients, families and caregivers. Although medical technologies, such as enteral feeding and non-invasive ventilation, may prolong life expectancy of the patients, their utilization prompts important ethical questions in regard to their quality of life (QoL). Little attention had been paid on how ACP practice would practically help with patients suffering from different neurology diseases. We are unaware of any published studies on ACP practice among patients with different neurology diseases. In our study, we assessed end-of-life (EOL) care preferences, documentation, and communication in patients with various types of advanced neurology diseases. This was a retrospective chart review of all patients referred to the neuro-palliative care team (NPCT) in a local acute hospital in Hong Kong. The study was approved by the institutional review board of the University of Hong Kong. NPCT consultation was hand abstracted from the electronic health record if there was a subspecialty palliative care (PC) consultation note during the study period. Hand abstraction of data also included any content related to advance care planning (ACP) [advance directive (AD), resuscitation order, ventilator support, artificial feeding, patient wishes, legacy]. For patient who signed AD, items including cardiopulmonary resuscitation (100%), mechanical ventilation (100%), artificial nutrition and hydration (80%) were mentioned more frequently than other EOL interventions. For patients who had ACP but without AD, the most common diagnosis is bad stroke (60%). Place of death, artificial nutrition and hydration were most mentioned EOL interventions. EOL decision making in patients with advanced neurology disease is often delayed. This study showed that MND patients are readier to discuss their EOL issues and signed their AD. The NPCT can play a valuable

  1. [Deficiency, disability, neurology and art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano de la Cuerda, Roberto; Collado-Vazquez, Susana

    2010-07-16

    Disability is a complex phenomenon, and the ways it has been conceived, explained and treated have varied notably throughout history. As the years go by, human beings have evolved and, at the same time, so have medicine and art. And therein lies the extraordinary value, from the ontological point of view, of many works of art, which would never have been produced without the intervention of disease and the practice of the medical art. The aim of this work is to address the study of some deficiencies, disabilities and neurological pathologies that have been represented in paintings at different times in history. This article begins with the study of pictures that deal with dwarves and other misnamed freaks of nature that have been represented by painters from Velazquez to Titian or Rubens. The study looks at paintings of cripples, pictures containing the mentally disabled, with examples by Bruegel the Elder or Munch, as well as certain neurological disorders that have been portrayed in paintings, such as Escaping criticism by Pere Borrell or Sad inheritance by Sorolla. Likewise, we also reflect on the trite concept of disease and artistic creativity. The artistic representation of deficiency and disability has evolved in parallel to the feelings of men and women in each period of history and, at the same time, their social evolution. Nowadays, this concept continues to advance and some artists no longer represent the sick person, but instead the illness itself.

  2. Neurological complications in hyperemesis gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zara, Gabriella; Codemo, Valentina; Palmieri, Arianna; Schiff, Sami; Cagnin, Annachiara; Citton, Valentina; Manara, Renzo

    2012-02-01

    Hyperemesis gravidarum can impair correct absorption of an adequate amount of thiamine and can cause electrolyte imbalance. This study investigated the neurological complications in a pregnant woman with hyperemesis gravidarum. A 29-year-old pregnant woman was admitted for hyperemesis gravidarum. Besides undernutrition, a neurological examination disclosed weakness with hyporeflexia, ophthalmoparesis, multidirectional nystagmus and optic disks swelling; the patient became rapidly comatose. Brain MRI showed symmetric signal hyperintensity and swelling of periaqueductal area, hypothalamus and mammillary bodies, medial and posterior portions of the thalamus and columns of fornix, consistent with Wernicke encephalopathy (WE). Neurophysiological studies revealed an axonal sensory-motor polyneuropathy, likely due to thiamine deficiency or critical illness polyneuropathy. Sodium and potassium supplementation and parenteral thiamine were administered with improvement of consciousness state in a few days. WE evolved in Korsakoff syndrome. A repeat MRI showed a marked improvement of WE-related alterations and a new hyperintense lesion in the pons, suggestive of central pontine myelinolysis. No sign or symptom due to involvement of the pons was present.

  3. Atypical Neurological Manifestations Of Hypokalemia

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    pal P K

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A part from the well-established syndrome of motor paralysis, hypokalemia may present with atypical neurological manifestations, which are not well documented in literature. Methods: We treated 30 patients of hypokalemia whose neurological manifestations improved after corrections of hypokalemia. A retrospective chart review of the clinical profile was done with emphasis on the evolution of symptoms and occurrence of unusual manifestations. Results: Twenty-eight patients had subacute quadriparesis with duration of symptoms varying from 10hrs to 7 days and two had slowly progressive quadriparesis. Fifty percent of patients had more than one attack of paralysis. Early asymmetric weakness (11, stiffness and abnormal posture of hands (7, predominant bibrachial weakness (4, distal paresthesias (4, hemiparesthesia (1, hyperreflexia(4, early severe weakness of neck muscles (3, chorea (1, trismus (1,and, retention of urine (1 were the unusual features observed. The means level of serum potassium on admission was 2.1+0.6mEq/L.and the serum creatine kinase was elevated in 14 out of 17 patients. All patients except two had complete recovery.

  4. Neurological disorders in hypertensive patients

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    N. V. Vakhnina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is one of the most common vascular diseases. The brain as target organs in hypertension is damaged more often and earlier. Neurological complications due to hypertension are frequently hyperdiagnosed in Russian neurological practice. Thus, headache, dizziness, impaired recall of recent events, nocturnal sleep disorders, and many other complaints in a hypertensive patient are usually regarded as a manifestation of dyscirculatory encephalopathy. At the same time headaches (tension headache and migraine in hypertensive patients are predominantly primary; headache associated with dramatic marked elevations in blood pressure is encountered in only a small number of patients. The role of cerebrovascular diseases in the development of dizziness in hypertensive patients is also overestimated. The vast majority of cases, patients with this complaint are in fact identified to have benign paroxysmal postural vertigo, Mеniеre’s disease, vestibular neuronitis, or vestibular migraine. Psychogenic disorders or multisensory insufficiency are generally responsible for non-systemic vertigo in hypertensive patients. Chronic cerebral circulatory insufficiency may cause non-systemic vertigo as a subjective equivalent of postural instability.Cognitive impairments (CIs are the most common and earliest manifestation of cerebrovascular lesion in hypertension. In most cases, CIs in hypertension were vascular and associated with cerebrovascular lesion due to lacunar infarcts and leukoaraiosis. However, mixed CIs frequently occur when hypertensive patients are also found to have signs of a degenerative disease, most commonly in Alzheimer’s disease.

  5. [Oliver Sacks and literary neurology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiola, Elena; Banos, Josep E

    2014-03-16

    Popular medical literature attempts to discuss medical topics using a language that is, as far as possible, free of all medical jargon so as to make it more easily understandable by the general public. The very complexity of neurology makes it more difficult for the stories dealing with this specialty to be understood easily by an audience without any kind of medical training. This paper reviews the works written by Oliver Sacks involving the field of neurology aimed at the general public, and the main characteristics and the clinical situation discussed by the author are presented. Some biographical notes about Oliver Sacks are also included and the 11 books published by this author over the last 40 years are also analysed. In each case they are put into a historical context and the most outstanding aspects justifying what makes them an interesting read are commented on. In most cases, the genesis of the work is explained together with its most significant features. The works of Sacks contain a wide range of very interesting clinical situations that are usually explained by means of a language that is readily comprehensible to the general public. It also provides neurologists with a holistic view of different clinical situations, together with a discussion of their biographical, historical and developmental components.

  6. Neurologic Evaluation and Management of Perioperative Nerve Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, James C; Huntoon, Marc A

    2015-01-01

    Neurologic injury after regional anesthesia or pain medicine procedures is rare. Postprocedural neurologic deficits may create high levels of anxiety for the patient and practitioner, although most deficits are limited in severity and can be expected to fully resolve with time. Postoperative anesthesia-related neuraxial and peripheral nerve injuries are reviewed to define an efficient, structured approach to these complications. Emphasis is placed on acutely stratifying the urgency and scope of diagnostic testing or consultation necessity, initiating appropriate definitive treatments, and defining appropriate out-of-hospital follow-up and symptom management. Studies pertinent to the recognition, evaluation, and treatment of neurologic assessment of perioperative nerve injury and published since the last advisory on the topic are reviewed and a new structured algorithmic approach is proposed. The evolving literature on postoperative inflammatory neuropathies is reviewed to help define the clinical criteria and to identify patients who would benefit from early neurological evaluation. New sections review potential acute interventions to improve neurologic outcome and long-term management of neuropathic pain resulting from perioperative nerve injury.

  7. [Nationwide evaluation of German university teaching methods in neurology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesalski, A-S; Zupanic, M; Isenmann, S

    2015-06-01

    Germany is confronted with a lack of medical doctors and an increasing need for neurologists in particular. In order to recruit future doctors in neurology it is essential to attract young students when still at university. This article presents the first German national survey of medical students' acceptance of teaching methods in neurology. The participants evaluated teaching methods and examination formats and were asked about their preferences. The survey was based on a questionnaire distributed to 22 German medical schools and 1245 participating students. Interactive teaching methods, especially courses in practical examinations, clinical internships and bedside teaching were highly rated among the students. In contrast, multiple choice tests, as one of the most widespread examination methods, were poorly rated compared to practical and oral examinations. For most of the students it was not decisive, in which semester teaching of neurology took place, while the majority asked for additional and more intensive neurological education. The data give an overview of teaching of neurology in Germany and students' assessment of various approaches. The results should be utilized towards reorientation of future curricula that should aim at innovative and even more practically oriented teaching.

  8. PET molecular imaging in stem cell therapy for neurological diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jiachuan; Zhang, Hong; Tian, Mei

    2011-01-01

    Human neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis are caused by loss of different types of neurons and glial cells in the brain and spinal cord. At present, there are no effective therapies against these disorders. Discovery of the therapeutic potential of stem cells offers new strategies for the treatment of neurological diseases. Direct assessment of stem cells' survival, interaction with the host and impact on neuronal functions after transplantation requires advanced in vivo imaging techniques. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a potential molecular imaging modality to evaluate the viability and function of transplanted tissue or stem cells in the nervous system. This review focuses on PET molecular imaging in stem cell therapy for neurological diseases. (orig.)

  9. PET molecular imaging in stem cell therapy for neurological diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jiachuan; Zhang, Hong [Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Zhejiang University, Medical PET Center, Hangzhou (China); Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Imaging of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou (China); Tian, Mei [University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Experimental Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Human neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis are caused by loss of different types of neurons and glial cells in the brain and spinal cord. At present, there are no effective therapies against these disorders. Discovery of the therapeutic potential of stem cells offers new strategies for the treatment of neurological diseases. Direct assessment of stem cells' survival, interaction with the host and impact on neuronal functions after transplantation requires advanced in vivo imaging techniques. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a potential molecular imaging modality to evaluate the viability and function of transplanted tissue or stem cells in the nervous system. This review focuses on PET molecular imaging in stem cell therapy for neurological diseases. (orig.)

  10. Neurology of foreign language aptitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Biedroń

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This state-of-the art paper focuses on the poorly explored issue of foreign language aptitude, attempting to present the latest developments in this field and reconceptualizations of the construct from the perspective of neuroscience. In accordance with this goal, it first discusses general directions in neurolinguistic research on foreign language aptitude, starting with the earliest attempts to define the neurological substrate for talent, sources of difficulties in the neurolinguistic research on foreign language aptitude and modern research methods. This is followed by the discussion of the research on the phonology of foreign language aptitude with emphasis on functional and structural studies as well as their consequences for the knowledge of the concept. The subsequent section presents the studies which focus on lexical and morphosyntactic aspects of foreign language aptitude. The paper ends with a discussion of the limitations of contemporary research, the future directions of such research and selec ed methodological issues.

  11. Aphasia, Just a Neurological Disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ozdemir

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Hashimoto%u2019s encephalopathy (HE is a rare disorder associated with autoimmune thyroiditis. Etiology of HE is not completely understood. High levels of serum antithyroid antibodies are seen in HE. Presentation with otoimmune thyroiditis, cognitive impairment, psychiatric and neurologic symptoms and absence of bacterial or viral enfections are characteristics of HE. HE is a steroid responsive encephalopathy. 60 years old male patient admitted to hospital with forget fulness continuing for 9 months and speech loss starting 2 days ago. Strong positivity of antithyroid antibodies increases the odds for HE. Thyroid function tests showed severe hypothyroidism. Electroencephalography and magnetic resonance imaging results were compatible with HE. HE is diagnosed with differantial diagnosis and exclusion of other reasons. This uncommon disorder is not recognised enough. High titres of serum antithyroid antiboides are always needed for diagnosis. Correct diagnosis requires awareness of wide range of cognitive and clinical presentations of HE.

  12. Neuroimaging distinction between neurological and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Nicolas A; Scott, Jessica; Ellison-Wright, Ian; Mechelli, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    It is unclear to what extent the traditional distinction between neurological and psychiatric disorders reflects biological differences. To examine neuroimaging evidence for the distinction between neurological and psychiatric disorders. We performed an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis on voxel-based morphometry studies reporting decreased grey matter in 14 neurological and 10 psychiatric disorders, and compared the regional and network-level alterations for these two classes of disease. In addition, we estimated neuroanatomical heterogeneity within and between the two classes. Basal ganglia, insula, sensorimotor and temporal cortex showed greater impairment in neurological disorders; whereas cingulate, medial frontal, superior frontal and occipital cortex showed greater impairment in psychiatric disorders. The two classes of disorders affected distinct functional networks. Similarity within classes was higher than between classes; furthermore, similarity within class was higher for neurological than psychiatric disorders. From a neuroimaging perspective, neurological and psychiatric disorders represent two distinct classes of disorders. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  13. Endocrine disorders and the neurologic manifestations

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    Jeesuk Yu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system and the endocrine system are closely interrelated and both involved intimately in maintaining homeostasis. Endocrine dysfunctions may lead to various neurologic manifestations such as headache, myopathy, and acute encephalopathy including coma. It is important to recognize the neurologic signs and symptoms caused by the endocrine disorders while managing endocrine disorders. This article provides an overview of the neurologic manifestations found in various endocrine disorders that affect pediatric patients. It is valuable to think about 'endocrine disorder' as a cause of the neurologic manifestations. Early diagnosis and treatment of hormonal imbalance can rapidly relieve the neurologic symptoms. Better understanding of the interaction between the endocrine system and the nervous system, combined with the knowledge about the pathophysiology of the neurologic manifestations presented in the endocrine disorders might allow earlier diagnosis and better treatment of the endocrine disorders.

  14. Differentiating cerebral ischemia from functional neurological symptom disorder: a psychosomatic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The differential diagnosis of pseudo-neurological symptoms often represents a clinical challenge. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, DSM-5, made an attempt to improve diagnostic criteria of conversion disorder (functional neurological symptom disorder). Incongruences of the neurological examination, i.e. positive neurological signs, indicate a new approach - whereas psychological factors are not necessary anymore. As the DSM-5 will influence the International Classification of Diseases, ICD-11, this is of importance. In the case presented, a history of psychological distress and adverse childhood experiences coexisted with a true neurological disorder. We discuss the relevance of an interdisciplinary assessment and of operationalized diagnostic criteria. Case presentation A 32-year-old man presented twice with neurological symptoms without obvious pathological organic findings. A conversion disorder was considered early on at the second admission by the neurology team. Sticking to ICD-10, this diagnosis was not supported by a specialist for psychosomatic medicine, due to missing hints of concurrent psychological distress in temporal association with neurological symptoms. Further investigations then revealed a deep vein thrombosis (though D-dimers had been negative), which had probably resulted in a crossed embolus. Conclusion The absence of a clear proof of biological dysfunction underlying neurological symptoms should not lead automatically to the diagnosis of a conversion disorder. In contrast, at least in more complex patients, the work-up should include repeated psychological and neurological assessments in close collaboration. According to ICD-10 positive signs of concurrent psychological distress are required, while DSM-5 emphasizes an incongruity between neurological symptoms and neurophysiological patterns of dysfunction. In the case presented, an extensive medical work-up was initially negative, and neither positive

  15. Pediatric neurology of the dog and cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavely, James A

    2006-05-01

    The neurologic examination in the puppy or kitten can be a challenging experience. Understanding the development of behavior reflexes and movement in puppies and kittens enables us to overcome some of these challenges and to recognize the neurologically abnormal patient. Subsequently,we can identify the neuroanatomic localization and generate a differential diagnosis list. This article first reviews the pediatric neurologic examination and then discusses diseases unique to these individuals.

  16. Neurological Conditions Network - Engagement exercise summary report

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2011-01-01

    This is the summary report of the Speak out for Change engagement exercise carried out by the Neurological Conditions Network. This engagement undertook to ask people's experiences of living with a neurological condition and caring for someone with a neurological condition. Across the wide range of conditions represented,� the 142 patient experiences gathered to date, have consistently revealed issues around information, choice and control, independence and the emotional impact of neurologica...

  17. Challenges in neurological practice in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay Pandey

    2012-01-01

    The burden of neurological illness is much higher in developing countries. Neurological disorders in these countries are mainly due to poverty and malnutrition. Spectrums of diseases are also different in comparison with developed countries. Lack of resources, ignorance, and overpopulation make it very difficult and challenging to tackle this problem. Majority of the patients are seen by general practitioners who have little knowledge about neurological illnesses. Most of the countries have v...

  18. Condições mais frequentes em um ambulatório de perícia neurológica The most common disorders in neurological clinic for medico-legal assessment of labour capacity at the Brazilian Social Security System (INSS in Florianópolis - SC, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Trevisol-Bittencourt

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar as condições nosológicas vistas em perícia neurológica em um ambulatório de referência estadual do Instituto Nacional de Seguridade Social (INSS, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil, durante o período de outubro de 97 a maio de 98. MÉTODO: Revisão dos relatórios especializados das perícias solicitadas ao especialista em neurologia, com identificação dos diagnósticos finais dos 108 pacientes encaminhados para avaliação. RESULTADOS: Os diagnósticos mais comuns em ordem decrescente de frequência foram: epilepsia, doenças reumatológicas, distúrbios psiquiátricos, alterações neurológicas associadas a alcoolismo crônico, síndrome pós TCE e doença vascular cerebral. CONCLUSÕES: Doenças neurológicas podem determinar importante grau de incapacidade no trabalhador catarinense. Contudo, existe um subestimado potencial de recuperação funcional. Além disso, diversas condições não genuinamente neurológicas são encaminhadas para avaliação especializada.OBJECTIVE: To present the most frequent diagnosis among patients refered for neurological evaluation to estimate their labour capacities at the unit of National Institute of Social Security (INSS, Florianópolis-SC, southern Brazil. METHOD: Review of all medical records of 108 patients evaluated between October 97 and May 98. The sample was submited to judicious medico-legal assessment to define their final diagnosis. RESULTS: Neurological evaluation disclosed as the commonest disorders, in decreasing order of frequency: epilepsy, rheumatic diseases, psychiatric illnesses, neurological disorders related to chronic alcoholism, head trauma syndrome and cerebrovascular diseases. CONCLUSION: Neurological disorders may be responsible for important disability among workers in our society. However, the potential for social rehabilitation, often underestimated, must be considered. Moreover, diverse non-neurological conditions used to be sent for

  19. Sleep Disorders in Childhood Neurological Diseases

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    Abdullah Tolaymat

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sleep problems are frequently addressed as a primary or secondary concern during the visit to the pediatric neurology clinic. Sleep disorders can mimic other neurologic diseases (e.g., epilepsy and movement disorders, and this adds challenges to the diagnostic process. Sleep disorders can significantly affect the quality of life and functionality of children in general and those with comorbid neurological diseases in particular. Understanding the pathophysiology of sleep disorders, recognizing the implications of sleep disorder in children with neurologic diseases and behavioral difficulties, and early intervention continue to evolve resulting in better neurocognitive outcomes.

  20. Early school outcomes for extremely preterm infants with transient neurological abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Heidi M; Taylor, H Gerry; Minich, Nori; Wilson-Costello, Deanne; Hack, Maureen

    2015-09-01

    To determine if transient neurological abnormalities (TNA) at 9 months corrected age predict cognitive, behavioral, and motor outcomes at 6 years of age in extremely preterm infants. A cohort of 124 extremely preterm infants (mean gestational age 25.5wks; 55 males, 69 females), admitted to our unit between 2001 and 2003, were classified based on the Amiel-Tison Neurological Assessment at 9 months and 20 months corrected age as having TNA (n=17), normal neurological assessment (n=89), or neurologically abnormal assessment (n=18). The children were assessed at a mean age of 5 years 11 months (SD 4mo) on cognition, academic achievement, motor ability, and behavior. Compared with children with a normal neurological assessment, children with TNA had higher postnatal exposure to steroids (35% vs 9%) and lower adjusted mean scores on spatial relations (84 [standard error {SE} 5] vs 98 [SE 2]), visual matching (79 [SE 5] vs 91 [SE 2]), letter-word identification (97 [SE 4] vs 108 [SE 1]), and spelling (76 [SE 4] vs 96 [SE 2]) (all p<0.05). Despite a normalized neurological assessment, extremely preterm children with a history TNA are at higher risk for lower cognitive and academic skills than those with normal neurological findings during their first year of school. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  1. Palliative care and neurology: time for a paradigm shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, Isabel; Miyasaki, Janis; Kutner, Jean; Kluger, Benzi

    2014-08-05

    Palliative care is an approach to the care of patients and families facing progressive and chronic illnesses that focuses on the relief of suffering due to physical symptoms, psychosocial issues, and spiritual distress. As neurologists care for patients with chronic, progressive, life-limiting, and disabling conditions, it is important that they understand and learn to apply the principles of palliative medicine. In this article, we aim to provide a practical starting point in palliative medicine for neurologists by answering the following questions: (1) What is palliative care and what is hospice care? (2) What are the palliative care needs of neurology patients? (3) Do neurology patients have unique palliative care needs? and (4) How can palliative care be integrated into neurology practice? We cover several fundamental palliative care skills relevant to neurologists, including communication of bad news, symptom assessment and management, advance care planning, caregiver assessment, and appropriate referral to hospice and other palliative care services. We conclude by suggesting areas for future educational efforts and research. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  2. Neurological symptoms among dental assistants: a cross-sectional study

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    Hollund BE

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental assistants help the dentist in preparing material for filling teeth. Amalgam was the filling material mostly commonly used in Norway before 1980, and declined to about 5% of all fillings in 2005. Amalgam is usually an alloy of silver, copper, tin and mercury. Copper amalgam, giving particularly high exposure to mercury was used in Norway until 1994. Metallic mercury is neurotoxic. Few studies of the health of dental assistants exist, despite their exposure to mercury. There are questions about the existence of possible chronic neurological symptoms today within this working group, due to this exposure. The aim of this study was to compare the occurrence of neurological symptoms among dental assistants likely to be exposed to mercury from work with dental filling material, compared to similar health personnel with no such exposure. Methods All dental assistants still at work and born before 1970 registered in the archives of a trade union in Hordaland county of Norway were invited to participate (response rate 68%, n = 41, as well as a similar number of randomly selected assistant nurses (response rate 87%, n = 64 in the same age group. The participants completed a self-administered, mailed questionnaire, with questions about demographic variables, life-style factors, musculoskeletal, neurological and psychosomatic symptoms (Euroquest. Results The dental assistants reported significant higher occurrence of neurological symptoms; psychosomatic symptoms, problems with memory, concentration, fatigue and sleep disturbance, but not for mood. This was found by analyses of variance, adjusting for age, education, alcohol consumption, smoking and personality traits. For each specific neurological symptom, adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed, showing that these symptoms were mainly from arms, hands, legs and balance organs. Conclusion There is a possibility that the higher occurrence of neurological symptoms

  3. Head Impact Exposure and Neurologic Function of Youth Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munce, Thayne A; Dorman, Jason C; Thompson, Paul A; Valentine, Verle D; Bergeron, Michael F

    2015-08-01

    Football players are subjected to repetitive impacts that may lead to brain injury and neurologic dysfunction. Knowledge about head impact exposure (HIE) and consequent neurologic function among youth football players is limited. This study aimed to measure and characterize HIE of youth football players throughout one season and explore associations between HIE and changes in selected clinical measures of neurologic function. Twenty-two youth football players (11-13 yr) wore helmets outfitted with a head impact telemetry (HIT) system to quantify head impact frequency, magnitude, duration, and location. Impact data were collected for each practice (27) and game (9) in a single season. Selected clinical measures of balance, oculomotor performance, reaction time, and self-reported symptoms were assessed before and after the season. The median individual head impacts per practice, per game, and throughout the entire season were 9, 12, and 252, respectively. Approximately 50% of all head impacts (6183) had a linear acceleration between 10g and 20g, but nearly 2% were greater than 80g. Overall, the head impact frequency distributions in this study population were similar in magnitude and location as in high school and collegiate football, but total impact frequency was lower. Individual changes in neurologic function were not associated with cumulative HIE. This study provides a novel examination of HIE and associations with short-term neurologic function in youth football and notably contributes to the limited HIE data currently available for this population. Whereas youth football players can experience remarkably similar head impact forces as high school players, cumulative subconcussive HIE throughout one youth football season may not be detrimental to short-term clinical measures of neurologic function.

  4. Diffusion-weighted imaging in chronic Behcet patients with and without neurological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baysal, T.; Dogan, M.; Bulut, T.; Sarac, K. [Inonu University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Malatya (Turkey); Karlidag, R. [Inonu University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Malatya (Turkey); Ozisik, H.I. [Inonu University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Malatya (Turkey); Baysal, O. [Inonu University School of Medicine, Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, Malatya (Turkey)

    2005-06-01

    Our aim was to investigate whether neurological impairment in chronic Behcet's disease (BD) patients with normal appearing brain can be assessed by means of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). The averaged apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were calculated in 22 different radiologically normal appearing brain regions in 32 patients with and without neurological findings and 20 control subjects. The ADC values in bilateral frontal, temporal and occipital normal appearing white matter were significantly higher in the patient groups compared with the control subjects (p<0.05). In these brain regions, DWI revealed differences in the ADC values between patients with neurological findings (including symptomatic and neuro-Behcet patients) and the asymptomatic patient group. The similarity of the ADC values of patients without symptoms to those of the control group allowed clear discrimination between patients with and without neurological findings. DWI may serve to assess subclinical neurological involvement in BD, even when structural changes are absent. (orig.)

  5. Diffusion-weighted imaging in chronic Behcet patients with and without neurological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baysal, T.; Dogan, M.; Bulut, T.; Sarac, K.; Karlidag, R.; Ozisik, H.I.; Baysal, O.

    2005-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate whether neurological impairment in chronic Behcet's disease (BD) patients with normal appearing brain can be assessed by means of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). The averaged apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were calculated in 22 different radiologically normal appearing brain regions in 32 patients with and without neurological findings and 20 control subjects. The ADC values in bilateral frontal, temporal and occipital normal appearing white matter were significantly higher in the patient groups compared with the control subjects (p<0.05). In these brain regions, DWI revealed differences in the ADC values between patients with neurological findings (including symptomatic and neuro-Behcet patients) and the asymptomatic patient group. The similarity of the ADC values of patients without symptoms to those of the control group allowed clear discrimination between patients with and without neurological findings. DWI may serve to assess subclinical neurological involvement in BD, even when structural changes are absent. (orig.)

  6. Teleneurology applications: Report of the Telemedicine Work Group of the American Academy of Neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Lawrence R; Tsao, Jack W; Levine, Steven R; Swain-Eng, Rebecca J; Adams, Robert J; Demaerschalk, Bart M; Hess, David C; Moro, Elena; Schwamm, Lee H; Steffensen, Steve; Stern, Barney J; Zuckerman, Steven J; Bhattacharya, Pratik; Davis, Larry E; Yurkiewicz, Ilana R; Alphonso, Aimee L

    2013-02-12

    To review current literature on neurology telemedicine and to discuss its application to patient care, neurology practice, military medicine, and current federal policy. Review of practice models and published literature on primary studies of the efficacy of neurology telemedicine. Teleneurology is of greatest benefit to populations with restricted access to general and subspecialty neurologic care in rural areas, those with limited mobility, and those deployed by the military. Through the use of real-time audio-visual interaction, imaging, and store-and-forward systems, a greater proportion of neurologists are able to meet the demand for specialty care in underserved communities, decrease the response time for acute stroke assessment, and expand the collaboration between primary care physicians, neurologists, and other disciplines. The American Stroke Association has developed a defined policy on teleneurology, and the American Academy of Neurology and federal health care policy are beginning to follow suit. Teleneurology is an effective tool for the rapid evaluation of patients in remote locations requiring neurologic care. These underserved locations include geographically isolated rural areas as well as urban cores with insufficient available neurology specialists. With this technology, neurologists will be better able to meet the burgeoning demand for access to neurologic care in an era of declining availability. An increase in physician awareness and support at the federal and state level is necessary to facilitate expansion of telemedicine into further areas of neurology.

  7. Association Between Pemphigus and Neurologic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kridin, Khalaf; Zelber-Sagi, Shira; Comaneshter, Doron; Cohen, Arnon D

    2018-03-01

    .36-2.33). Parkinson disease was seen in 175 cases (8.8%) vs 437 controls (4.4%), with an OR of 2.09 (95% CI, 1.74-2.51). Multiple sclerosis was present in 2 cases (0.1%) vs 6 controls (0.01%), with an OR of 1.65 (95% CI, 0.34-8.22). Study findings were robust to sensitivity analysis that included patients receiving pemphigus-specific treatments. Estimates were not altered significantly after controlling for comorbidities and overuse of health care. An association was observed between pemphigus and specific neurologic diseases, including dementia, Parkinson disease, and epilepsy. Physicians treating patients with pemphigus should be aware of this possible association. Patients with pemphigus should be carefully assessed for comorbid neurologic disorders and receive appropriate treatment.

  8. PYRITINOL USAGE IN PEDIATRIC NEUROLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Zavadenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of developmental disorders, correction of learning disabilities and behavioral problems in children should be prompt, complex and include pharmacotherapy with nootropic agents. The results of recent studies shown in this review proved effectiveness of pharmacotherapy with pyritinol in children with perinatal injury of central nervous system and its consequences, psychomotor and speech development delay, dyslexia, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, cognitive disorders and learning disabilities (including manifestations of epilepsy, chronic tic disorders and Tourette syndrome. Due to its ability to optimize metabolic processes in central nervous system, pyritinol is used in treatment of vegetative dysfunction in children and adolescents, especially associated with asthenical manifestations, as well as in complex therapy of exertion headache and migraine. The drug is effective in treatment of cognitive disorders in children and adolescents with epilepsy, pyritinol was administered without changing of the basic anticonvulsive therapy and no deterioration (increase of severity of seizures or intensity of epileptiform activity on electroencephalogramms was observed. Significant nootropic effect of pyritinol, including neurometabolic, neuroprotective, neurodynamic and other mechanisms, in association with safety and rare side effects of this drug determines its wide usage in pediatric neurology.

  9. Gluten sensitivity and neurological manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostino Berio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors report on six cases of gluten-sensitivity, also defined non-celiac gluten sensitivity, characterized by abdominal features (diarrhea, bloating, pain, genetic positivity for predisposition to celiac disease (DQB1* 02 in all cases; DQA1*05 in three; DQA1*02 in two, DQB1*03 in two, negative anti-t-Transglutaminase antibodies, normal mucosa on biopsy in four cases, type 1 of Marsh in one case. The subjects presented frequent central nervous system (CNS symptoms: headache in three patients, somnolence in one, electroencephalogram aspecific alterations in three (in two of them with previous seizures, leptomeningeal cyst in one, intracranial calcification in one, cerebral gliosis in two. After a gluten-free diet, all intestinal and clinical CNS features remitted, but re-appeared after gluten reintroduction. On the basis of the neurological signs, the authors stress the relevance of immune innate system in the pathogenesis of these cases with possible subsequent evolution on immune adaptive system involvement.

  10. Task analysis in neurosciences programme design - neurological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Defining educational objectives is the key to achieving the goal of professional competence in students. The technique of task analysis was selected to determine components of competence in clinical neurology appropriate to the needs of primary care. A survey of neurological problems in general practice revealed that ...

  11. THE NEUROLOGICAL FACE OF CELIAC DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat IŞIKAY

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSeveral neurological disorders have also been widely described in celiac disease patients.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to determine the incidence of accompanying different neurologic manifestations in children with celiac disease at the time of diagnosis and to discuss these manifestations in the light of the recent literature.MethodsThis prospective cross sectional study included 297 children diagnosed with celiac disease. The medical records of all patients were reviewed.ResultsIn neurological evaluation, totally 40 (13. 5% of the 297 celiac patients had a neurological finding including headache, epilepsy, migraine, mental retardation, breath holding spells, ataxia, cerebral palsy, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Down syndrome and Turner syndrome in order of frequency. There was not any significant difference between the laboratory data of the patients with and without neurological manifestations. However; type 3a biopsy was statistically significantly more common among patients without neurological manifestations, while type 3b biopsy was statistically significantly more common among patients with neurological manifestations.ConclusionIt is important to keep in mind that in clinical course of celiac disease different neurological manifestations may be reported.

  12. [Neurological syndromes associated with homocystein dismetabolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirokov, E A; Leonova, S F

    2006-01-01

    The article summarizes the results of clinical, neurological, and laboratory examination of patients with hyperhomocysteinemia. The data obtained suggest the existence of common pathobiochemical mechanisms of homocystein, cholesterol, and myelin dysmetabolism. The authors demonstrate that neurological manifestations of hyperhomocysteinemia are associated with the processes of demyelinization in the central and peripheral nervous systems.

  13. Management of male neurologic patients with infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Sønksen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Many aspects of fertility rely on intact neurologic function and thus neurologic diseases can result in infertility. While research into general female fertility and alterations in male semen quality is limited, we have an abundance of knowledge regarding ejaculatory dysfunction following nerve...

  14. Suspecting Neurological Dysfunction From E Mail Messages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A non medical person suspected and confirmed neurological dysfunction in an individual, based only on e mail messages sent by the individual. With email communication becoming rampant “peculiar” email messages may raise the suspicion of neurological dysfunction. Organic pathology explaining the abnormal email ...

  15. Diverse Neurological Manifestations of Lead Encephalopathy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three patients with lead encephalopathy due to industrial poisoning are presented. They all showed a wide spectrum of neurological manifestations, which mimic other neurological presentations. It is emphasised that lead poisoning still occurs in industry, despite efforts at prevention. S. Afr. Med. J., 48, 1721 (1974) ...

  16. MRI and neurological findings in patients with spinal metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Switlyk, M.D.; Hole, K.H.; Knutstad, K.; Skjeldal, S.; Zaikova, O.; Hald, J.K.; Seierstad, T.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the recommended primary investigation method for metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC). Initiating treatment before the development of motor deficits is essential to preserve neurological function. However, the relationship between MRI-assessed grades of spinal metastatic disease and neurological status has not been widely investigated. Purpose. To analyze the association between neurological function and MRI-based assessment of the extent of spinal metastases using two different grading systems. Material and Methods. A total of 284 patients admitted to our institution for initial radiotherapy or surgery for symptomatic spinal metastases were included in the study. Motor and sensory deficits were categorized according to the Frankel classification system. Pre-treatment MRI evaluations of the entire spine were scored for the extent of spinal metastases, presence and severity of spinal cord compression, and nerve root compression. Two MRI-based scales were used to evaluate the degree of cord compression and spinal canal narrowing and relate these findings to neurological function. Results. Of the patients included in the study, 28 were non-ambulatory, 49 were ambulatory with minor motor deficits, and 207 had normal motor function. Spinal cord compression was present in all patients with Frankel scores of B or C, 23 of 35 patients with a Frankel score of D (66%), and 48 of 152 patients with a Frankel score of E (32%). The percentage of patients with severe spinal canal narrowing increased with increasing Frankel grades. The grading according to the scales showed a significant association with the symptoms according to the Frankel scale (P < 0.001). Conclusion. In patients with neurological dysfunction, the presence and severity of impairment was associated with the epidural tumor burden. A significant number of patients had radiological spinal cord compression and normal motor function (occult MSCC)

  17. Neurology advanced practice providers: A position paper of the American Academy of Neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Heidi B; Fritz, Joseph V; Govindarajan, Raghav; Penfold Murray, Rebecca; Boyle, Kathryn B; Getchius, Thomas S D; Freimer, Miriam

    2015-08-01

    There are many factors driving health care reform, including unsustainable costs, poor outcomes, an aging populace, and physician shortages. These issues are particularly relevant to neurology. New reimbursement models are based on value and facilitated by the use of multidisciplinary teams. Integration of advanced practice providers (APPs) into neurology practice offers many advantages with new models of care. Conversely, there are many and varied challenges financially and logistically with these practice models. The American Academy of Neurology has formed a Work Group to address the needs of both neurologists and neurologic APPs and monitor the effect of APPs on quality and cost of neurologic care.

  18. Neurology in the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Carl H; Daroff, Robert B

    2016-01-01

    Between December 1965 and December 1971, the United States maintained armed forces in Vietnam never less than 180,000 men and women in support of the war. At one time, this commitment exceeded half a million soldiers, sailors, and airmen from both the United States and its allies. Such forces required an extensive medical presence, including 19 neurologists. All but two of the neurologists had been drafted for a 2-year tour of duty after deferment for residency training. They were assigned to Vietnam for one of those 2 years in two Army Medical Units and one Air Force facility providing neurological care for American and allied forces, as well as many civilians. Their practice included exposure to unfamiliar disorders including cerebral malaria, Japanese B encephalitis, sleep deprivation seizures, and toxic encephalitis caused by injection or inhalation of C-4 explosive. They and neurologists at facilities in the United States published studies on all of these entities both during and after the war. These publications spawned the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Study, which was conceived during the Korean War and continues today as the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Center. It initially focused on post-traumatic epilepsy and later on all effects of brain injury. The Agent Orange controversy arose after the war; during the war, it was not perceived as a threat by medical personnel. Although soldiers in previous wars had developed serious psychological impairments, post-traumatic stress disorder was formally recognized in the servicemen returning from Vietnam. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. The Anxiety Level of Caregivers of Neurological Patients with Dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serel Arslan, Selen; Demir, Numan; Karaduman, A Ayşe

    2017-08-01

    We aimed to investigate anxiety level of caregivers of neurological patients with dysphagia, and the relationship of patient-related factors to anxiety level of dysphagia caregivers. A total of 103 adult neurological patients with dysphagia (study group), 30 without dysphagia (control group), and their primary caregivers were included. Types of feeding, condition of dependency in eating and drinking, dysphagia duration, and history of previous dysphagia treatment were recorded for study group. In study group, the Turkish version of the Eating Assessment Tool-10 (T-EAT-10) was used to determine dysphagia symptom severity. Penetration and aspiration severity was determined with the penetration-aspiration scale (PAS). The Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) that has two subscales including state anxiety (S-STAI) and trait anxiety (T-STAI) was used to determine anxiety level of caregivers. There was no difference between groups in terms of age, gender, weight, and height. The mean S-STAI was 42.56 ± 10.10 for the study group and 29.20 ± 6.64 for the control group (p  0.05). Caregivers of neurological patients with dysphagia have greater anxiety level than caregivers of neurological patients without dysphagia.

  20. Visual Loss from Choroidal Melanoma Mimicking Neurological Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Hammamji

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma of the eye is rare, but can mimic a range of disorders. This report highlights 2 cases of choroidal melanoma with vision loss mimicking neurological diagnoses. The first patient is a 41-year-old white male with a known history of multiple sclerosis and a previous episode of optic neuritis in the right eye, who presented with a 6-month history of decreased vision in the same eye, and occasional photopsiae. He was treated with 2 courses of oral steroids for presumed recurrent optic neuritis. After a temporary improvement in his symptoms, his vision worsened, following which he had a head MRI, which revealed a solid intraocular mass. He was subsequently diagnosed with a choroidal melanoma for which he was treated successfully with ruthenium-106 plaque brachytherapy. The second patient is a 57-year-old female, who presented with a progressive cerebellar syndrome under investigation by the neurology service, as well as decreased vision in the right eye. Her visual acuity gradually deteriorated and her neurological assessment, which included a PET-CT, revealed uptake in the right eye. The diagnosis of a choroidal melanoma was made, and following conservative treatment with proton beam radiotherapy, she had an enucleation of the eye. Intraocular tumours can masquerade as many different entities. Unexplained unilateral visual loss, especially if it is atypical for a neurological syndrome, should prompt dilated fundoscopy and referral to an ophthalmologist.

  1. Minor neurological dysfunction and cognition in 9-year-olds born at term

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikkert, Hedwig K; de Jong, Corina; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    BACKGROUND: In children with developmental disorders, motor problems often co-occur with cognitive difficulties. Associations between specific cognitive deficits underlying learning problems and minor neurological dysfunction (MND) are still unknown. AIMS: To assess associations between specific

  2. Proton MRS in Behcet's disease with and without neurological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baysal, T.; Sarac, K.; Dusak, A.; Ozisik, H.I.; Ozcan, C.; Karlidag, R.; Baysal, O.; Hazneci, E.

    2003-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate whether neurological impairment in Behcet's disease (BD) can be assessed by means of proton MRS and whether it can assist in prognosis. We used single-voxel MRS to measure metabolites in regions of normal-appearing pons, basal ganglia and periventricular white matter (PWM) in 32 patients with chronic BD patients with and without neurological deficits and 29 control subjects. Patients had significantly higher N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr) and choline (Cho)/Cr ratios in the basal ganglia than the controls. The Cho/Cr ratio in the PWM was also significantly higher in the patients. MRS enabled clear discrimination of patients and controls and also revealed spectral differences between non-neuro-Behcet's disease and neuro-Behcet's disease in the basal ganglia. MRS can be used to assess brain involvement in BD even if structural changes are absent. (orig.)

  3. Chapter 44: history of neurology in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentivoglio, Marina; Mazzarello, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    The chapter starts from the Renaissance (although the origins of Italian neurology can be traced back to the Middle Ages), when treatises of nervous system physiopathology still followed Hippocratic and Galenic "humoral" theories. In Italy, as elsewhere in Europe, the concepts of humoral pathology were abandoned in the 18th century, when neurology was influenced by novel trends. Neurology acquired the status of clinical discipline (as "clinic of mental diseases") after national reunification (declared in 1861 but completed much later). At the end of the 19th and first decades of the 20th century, eminent Italian "neuropsychiatrists" (including, among many others, Ugo Cerletti, who introduced electroconvulsive shock therapy in 1938) stimulated novel knowledge and approaches, "centers of excellence" flourished, and "Neurological Institutes" were founded. In the first half of the 20th century, the history of Italian neurology was dominated by World Wars I and II (which stimulated studies on the wounded) and the fascist regime in-between the Wars (when the flow of information was instead very limited). Italy became a republic in 1946, and modern neurology and its distinction from psychiatry were finally promoted. The chapter also provides detailed accounts of scientific societies and journals dedicated to the neurological sciences in Italy.

  4. [Neurologic vigor of term newborns according to the type of delivery and obstetric maneuvers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesgo, Rudimar dos Santos; Ohlweiler, Lygia; Winckler, Maria Isabel Bragatti; Ranzan, Josiane; Riesgo, Itamar Dos Santos; Rotta, Newra Tellechea

    2009-06-01

    to evaluate the effect of delivery type and usual obstetric procedures on the neurologic condition of a sample of consecutive term and healthy neonates, in the first 48 hours of life, using the Neurologic Adaptative Capacity Score (NACS) system. cohort prospective study with 313 neonates, from a neonatology unit: Unidade de Neonatologia e Alojamento Conjunto. The variables analyzed were obstetric variables; clinical outcome: low neurologic vigor phase, evaluated by NACS, at 4, 24 and 48 hours of life. The data have been assessed twice: once with the whole sample and the other comparing the Vigorous Group, whose neonates kept a score of 35 or more during the three evaluations, and the Low Vigor Group, with less than 35 scores during the three consecutive evaluations. Bivariate and multivariate analyses have been done. Possible associations between low neurologic vigor phase and the type of delivery, as well between the low neurologic vigor phase and obstetric variables have been searched. in the bivariate analysis, the delivery type and the obstetric variables were not associated with the low neurologic vigor phase. Nevertheless, the association between the amniotic fluid and the low neurologic vigor phase reached values very close to significance and, then, it was included in the multivariate analysis. In the multivariate analysis, the only variable associated with low neurologic vigor was the presence of meconium stained amniotic fluid, which has shown to be 8.1 times more risky for the neurologic scoring, when Vigorous Group and Low Vigor Group were compared. In the analysis of the whole sample, the same risk was 1.7. neither the delivery type, nor the usual obstetric procedures were associated with low neurologic vigor phase. This is useful information, clinically or legally speaking, mainly for obstetricians. According to this sample data, when the term neonate is healthy, the delivery type and the usual obstetric procedures have no impact in the neurologic

  5. Effectiveness of radiation therapy for metastatic spinal tumors producing neurologic impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Nomoto, Satoshi; Imada, Hajime; Nakata, Hajime

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of radiation therapy (RT) for treating neurological impairment and improving quality of life (QOL) in patients with metastatic spinal tumors. From 1985 through 2001, 75 patients with metastatic spinal tumors were treated with RT. Neurologic status and Karnofsky performance status were assessed before and after RT. The rate of neurologic improvement was significantly higher in patients with radio-sensitive tumors (75%) than in patients with radio-resistant tumors (37%). Few patients with Karnofsky performance status less than 40% before RT had good QOL after RT. The response to RT did not differ significantly on the basis of duration of paralysis before RT. RT is useful for treating neurologic impairment caused by metastatic spinal tumors, particularly those that are radiosensitive. To have good QOL after RT, treatment should be started in the early stage of neurological impairment. (author)

  6. Molecular imaging in neurology and neuroscience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreckenberger, M.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular imaging in neurology and neuroscience is a suspenseful and fast developing tool in order to quantitatively image genomics and proteomics by means of direct and indirect markers. Because of its high-sensitive tracer principle, nuclear medicine imaging has the pioneering task for the methodical progression of molecular imaging. The current development of molecular imaging in neurology changes from the use of indirect markers of gene and protein expression to the direct imaging of the molecular mechanisms. It is the aim of this article to give a short review on the status quo of molecular imaging in neurology with emphasis on clinically relevant aspects. (orig.)

  7. Neurological examination: pioneering authors and their books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péricles Maranhão-Filho

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to highlight some of the most important pioneering books specifically focused on the neurological examination and their authors. During the XIX Century, Alexander Hammond, William Gowers and Charles Mills pioneered the neurological literature, followed in the XX Century by Aloysio de Castro, Monrad-Krohn, Derek Denny-Brown, Robert Wartenberg, Gordon Holmes, and Russel DeJong. With determination and a marked sense of observation and research, they competently developed and spread the technique and art of the neurological exam.

  8. Neurological aspects of acute radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torubarov, F.S.; Bushmanov, A.Yu.

    1999-01-01

    Results of the most important clinical studies of human nervous system reactions to acute radiation, carried out at Neurology Clinic of the State Research Center of Russia - Institute of Biophysics are presented. Clinical picture of changes in the nervous system in acute radiation disease caused by homologous and heterologous external irradiation is described. Main neurological syndrome of extremely severe acute radiation disease: acute radiation encephalopathy, radiation toxic encephalopathy, and hemorrhagic syndrome of the central nervous system is distinguished. Relationship between neurological disorders and the geometry of exposure are considered [ru

  9. MR angiography in pediatric neurological disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.C.P.; Park, T.S.; Kaufman, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    MR angiography using 3D and 2D time-of-flight techniques were used to evaluate pediatric neurological disorders. MRA (arteriography) and MRV (venography) were abnormal in 63 and 45 cases, respectively. Conventional cerebral angiography was performed in 30 cases. These techniques were compared with MRI and conventional angiography. In addition, the value of MR angiography for surgical planning was subjectively evaluated. Our results showed that intracranial vessels were invariably better shown on MR angiography than on MRI. MRA and MRV were most useful in evaluating vascular distortions related to congenital brain malformations and intracranial tumors. MRA was valuable in detecting arterial narrowing but overestimated the degree of stenosis compared with conventional angiography. MRV was the technique of choice for evaluation of dural sinus and cerebral venous thrombosis and compression. MRA played little to no role in preoperative planning of vascular malformations and aneurysms. It did not appear to be accurate in assessing tumor vascularity or lesions in small arteries and arteritis. (orig.)

  10. Insomnia in central neurologic diseases--occurrence and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Geert; Jennum, Poul; Riemann, Dieter; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this review is to highlight the impact of insomnia in central neurological disorders by providing information on its prevalence and give recommendations for diagnosis and treatment. Insomnia in neurological disorders is a frequent, but underestimated symptom. Its occurrence may be a direct consequence of the disease itself or may be secondary to pain, depression, other sleep disorders or the effects of medications. Insomnia can have a significant impact on the patient's cognitive and physical function and may be associated with psychological distress and depression. Diagnosis of insomnia is primarily based on medical history and validated questionnaires. Actigraphy is a helpful diagnostic tool for assessing the circadian sleep-wake rhythm. For differential diagnosis and to measure the duration of sleep full polysomnography may be recommended. Prior to initiating treatment the cause of insomnia must be clearly identified. First line treatment aims at the underlying neurologic disease. The few high quality treatment studies show that short term treatment with hypnotics may be recommended in most disorders after having ruled out high risk for adverse effects. Sedating antidepressants may be an effective treatment for insomnia in stroke and Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Melatonin and light treatment can stabilize the sleep-wake circadian rhythm and shorten sleep latency in dementias and PD. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) can be effective in treating insomnia symptoms associated with most of the central neurological diseases. The prevalence and treatment of insomnia in neurological diseases still need to be studied in larger patient groups with randomized clinical trials to a) better understand their impact and causal relationship and b) to develop and improve specific evidence-based treatment strategies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Liaison neurologists facilitate accurate neurological diagnosis and management, resulting in substantial savings in the cost of inpatient care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Costelloe, L

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite understaffing of neurology services in Ireland, the demand for liaison neurologist input into the care of hospital inpatients is increasing. This aspect of the workload of the neurologist is often under recognised. AIMS\\/METHODS: We prospectively recorded data on referral and service delivery patterns to a liaison neurology service, the neurological conditions encountered, and the impact of neurology input on patient care. RESULTS: Over a 13-month period, 669 consults were audited. Of these, 79% of patients were seen within 48 h and 86% of patients were assessed by a consultant neurologist before discharge. Management was changed in 69% cases, and discharge from hospital expedited in 50%. If adequate resources for neurological assessment had been available, 28% could have been seen as outpatients, with projected savings of 857 bed days. CONCLUSIONS: Investment in neurology services would facilitate early accurate diagnosis, efficient patient and bed management, with substantial savings.

  12. LEARNERS SATISFACTION FACTORS IN NEUROLOGY RELATED MOOCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela MANIU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to investigate the factors that are influencing student satisfaction in case of neurology related massive open online courses (MOOCs. We analyzed data collected from learners enrolled in 40 neurology related MOOCs, by manually looking for information in these courses reviews. The main identified satisfaction factors can be grouped into the following categories: content related factors: course content, additional materials, assignments, external research and teaching - learning related factors (teacher presentation techniques / style: engaging, clear, coherent, knowledgeable, sharing / explanation, interactive, excitement, considering student’s needs, inspiring, sense of humor. Competences, skills and objectives pursued by neurology related MOOCs are also discussed. Analyzing these factors can be useful in new courses management (design and implementation and also in understanding the needs (motivation, behaviors, perception of 21st century learners interested in neurology related fields.

  13. Transient Neurological Symptoms after Spinal Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Hatipoglu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Lidocaine has been used for more than 50 years for spinal anesthesia and has a remarkable safety record. In 1993, a new adverse effect, transient neurologic toxicity was described in patients recovering from spinal anesthesia with lidocaine. Transient neurological symptoms have been defined as pain in the lower extremities (buttocks, thighs and legs after an uncomplicated spinal anesthesia and after an initial full recovery during the immediate postoperative period (less than 24 h. The incidence of transient neurological symptoms reported in prospective, randomized trials varies from 4% to 37%. The etiology of transient neurological symptoms remains unkonwn. Despite the transient nature of this syndrome, it has proven to be difficult to treat effectively. Drug or some interventional therapy may be necessary. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(1.000: 33-44

  14. Editorial | Dechambenoit | African Journal of Neurological Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Neurological Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 34, No 2 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. Neurologic deficit after resection of the sacrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagini, R; Ruggieri, P; Mercuri, M; Capanna, R; Briccoli, A; Perin, S; Orsini, U; Demitri, S; Arlecchini, S

    1997-01-01

    The authors describe neurologic deficit (sensory, motor, and sphincteral) resulting from sacrifice of the sacral nerve roots removed during resection of the sacrum. The anatomical and functional bases of sphincteral continence and the amount of neurologic deficit are discussed based on level of sacral resection. A large review of the literature on the subject is reported and discussed. The authors emphasize how the neurophysiological bases of sphincteral continence (rectum and bladder) and of sexual ability are still not well known, and how the literature reveals disagreement on the subject. A score system is proposed to evaluate neurologic deficit. The clinical model of neurologic deficit caused by resection of the sacrum may be extended to an evaluation of post-traumatic deficit.

  16. Dermatology referrals in a neurological set up

    OpenAIRE

    Deeptara Pathak Thapa; Amit Thapa

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Dermatology is a specialty, which not only deals with dermatological problems with outpatient but also inpatients referrals. The importances of Dermatologist in hospital setting are rising due to changing condition of medical care. Since no peer-reviewed articles are available for dermatological problems in a neurological set up, we conducted this study to know about pattern of skin disorders in neurological patients. Material and Methods: The present study was a prospectiv...

  17. Nuclear Medicine Imaging in Pediatric Neurology

    OpenAIRE

    Akdemir, ?mit ?zg?r; Atay Kapucu, L?tfiye ?zlem

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging can provide important complementary information in the management of pediatric patients with neurological diseases. Pre-surgical localization of the epileptogenic focus in medically refractory epilepsy patients is the most common indication for nuclear medicine imaging in pediatric neurology. In patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, nuclear medicine imaging is particularly useful when magnetic resonance imaging findings are normal or its findings are discordant with e...

  18. Temperature management in acute neurologic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Yekaterina K; Diringer, Michael N

    2006-10-01

    Temperature management in acute neurologic disorders has received considerable attention in the last 2 decades. Numerous trials of hypothermia have been performed in patients with head injury, stroke, and cardiac arrest. This article reviews the physiology of thermoregulation and mechanisms responsible for hyperpyrexia. Detrimental effects of fever and benefits of normalizing elevated temperature in experimental models are discussed. This article presents a detailed analysis of trails of induced hypothermia in patients with acute neurologic insults and describes methods of fever control.

  19. An Unusual Triad in Pediatric Neurology

    OpenAIRE

    Hendriksen, Ruben G. F.; Aalbers, Marlien W.; Hendriksen, Jos G. M.; de Die-Smulders, Christine E. M.; Hoogland, Govert; Vles, Johan S. H.

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of an unusual triad in pediatric neurology: a currently 12-year-old boy with cerebral palsy and epilepsy who was later also diagnosed with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We describe the clinical path that resulted in this exceptional diagnosis. This case report illustrates how different neurological disorders may overshadow each other. In addition, it demonstrates that every child with cerebral palsy and either an atypical clinical course or with inexplicable laboratory values...

  20. Functional MRT in psychiatry and neurology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, F.; Fink, G.R.

    2007-01-01

    Almost no other method has reach such an interest as the functional imaging in psychiatric and neurological science; it is fascinating to observe the brain at work. The fundamentals of functional magnetic resonance tomography (fMRT) and the interpretation of MRT images are explained; the state-of-the-art is discussed. The book is focussed on the functional imaging within psychiatry and neurology. The book contains 45 contributions within the following chapters: fundamentals, higher brain accomplishments, disease pattern, examinatory examples, perspectives

  1. Neurological Disorders in Adult Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh J Freeman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease may initially present as a neurological disorder. Alternatively, celiac disease may be complicated by neurological changes. With impaired nutrient absorption, different deficiency syndromes may occur and these may be manifested clinically with neurological changes. However, in patients with deficiency syndromes, extensive involvement of the small intestine with celiac disease is often evident. There are a number of reports of celiac disease associated with neuropathy, ataxia, dementia and seizure disorder. In these reports, there is no clear relationship with nutrient deficiency and a precise mechanism for the neurological changes has not been defined. A small number of patients have been reported to have responded to vitamin E administration, but most do not. In some, gluten antibodies have also been described, especially in those with ataxia, but a consistent response to a gluten-free diet has not been defined. Screening for celiac disease should be considered in patients with unexplained neurological disorders, including ataxia and dementia. Further studies are needed, however, to determine if a gluten-free diet will lead to improvement in the associated neurological disorder.

  2. Approaching neurological diseases to reduce mobility limitations in older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauretani, Fulvio; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Pelliccioni, Pio; Ruffini, Livia; Nardelli, Anna; Cherubini, Antonio; Maggio, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    The rapidly increasing elderly population poses a major challenge for future health-care systems. Neurological diseases in older persons are particularly common and coexist with other clinical conditions. This is not surprising given that, for example, even patients with Alzheimer Disease (AD) could have relevant extrapyramidal signs at the moment of the diagnosis with motor signs having more negative prognostic value. Longitudinal studies conducted on Parkinson Disease (PD) showed that, after 20 years, dementia is not only present in almost all survivors but is also the main factor influencing nursing home admission. Recently, it has been reported the importance of Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA: comprehensive evaluation of cognition, depressive symptoms, mobility and functional assessment) as a tool reducing morbidity in frail older patients admitted to any acute hospital unit. The CGA should be considered as a technological device, for physicians who take care of older persons affected by overlapping neurological diseases. CGA is an extraordinary and cost effective instrument even in patients with advanced neurological diseases where allows to collect valuable information for an effective plan of management.

  3. Neurology in a globalizing world: World Congress of Neurology, Vienna, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachinski, Vladimir

    2013-06-11

    The World Congress of Neurology (figure 1) theme "Neurology in a Globalizing World" acknowledges that science and increasingly medicine and neurology are becoming globalized. The best way to manage change is to shape it. It is becoming increasingly clear that brain diseases, particularly stroke and dementia, are projected to rise at a rate that could overwhelm our clinics and hospitals. Hence a new emphasis on prevention and the need to work across disciplines beyond our traditional roles. Neurologists are the guardians of the brain and need to take the lead role in advancing new approaches in stemming the tide of neurologic diseases.

  4. [Epilepsy, vertigo, dizziness, headache, emesis as neurological manifestation in a Giteleman's Sindrome case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delsere, Mirco; Campogiani, Vincenzo; Carletti, Vincenzo; Mancini, Stefania; Piccinini, Nadia; Castelli, Paolo; Sopranzi, Franco

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a woman presenting the recent onset of multiple seizure and epilepsy episodes combined with other neurological symptoms (e.g. vertigo, dizziness, vomiting, headache). She was resistant to antiepileptic and symptomatic therapy, having been first admitted to the neurology ward and subsequently to the general medicine ward. In this case, several patient assessments and imaging exams were not conclusive evidence of specific etiopathogenesis, or definitive neurological illness; however, the patient showed laboratory indexes compatible with Gitelmans Syndrome. The correction of the electrolytic imbalances of tubulopathy (including low magnesium and potassium levels) led to the progressive improvement of clinical manifestations and the eventual interruption of the antiepileptic therapy.

  5. Neurology training in sub-Saharan Africa: A survey of people in training from 19 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateen, Farrah J; Clark, Sarah J; Borzello, Mia; Kabore, Jean; Seidi, Osheik

    2016-06-01

    To provide a comprehensive understanding of neurology training from the sub-Saharan African perspective. A 40-question survey was distributed to attendees of the 7th annual sub-Saharan African neurology teaching course in Khartoum, Sudan (2015). Themes included the student body, faculty, curriculum, assessment and examinations, technology, and work hours and compensation. Of 19 responding countries, 10 had no formal neurology training programs; Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Republic of the Congo, and Mozambique had an adult neurology program; Ethiopia, Madagascar, Nigeria, Senegal, and South Africa had adult and pediatric neurology programs (training duration range = 3-6 years). There was a median of 2.5 full-time neurologists on the teaching faculty at the respondents' training institutions (neurologists on-faculty:in-country ratio = 0.48), with the lowest ratios in Sudan and Nigeria. Neurology was perceived to be a competitive specialty for entrance in 57% of countries, with 78% of respondents reporting a requisite entrance examination. Ninety-five percent had access to a personal smartphone, 62% used the Internet more than occasionally, and 60% had access to online neurology journals. The average number of weekly work hours was 51 (range = 40-75), and average monthly salary among those earning income was 1,191 USD (range = 285-3,560). Twenty percent of respondents reported paying for training. The most common barriers to neurology postgraduate education were few training programs and lack of training in neurodiagnostic tests. Among 17 reporting countries, there is an estimated average of 0.6 neurologists per million people. Neurology training programs in sub-Saharan Africa are relatively limited in number and have several unmet needs including a small cadre of faculty and an opportunity to standardize curricula and financing of programs. Ann Neurol 2016;79:871-881. © 2016 American Neurological Association.

  6. Status of neurology medical school education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Imran I.; Isaacson, Richard S.; Safdieh, Joseph E.; Finney, Glen R.; Sowell, Michael K.; Sam, Maria C.; Anderson, Heather S.; Shin, Robert K.; Kraakevik, Jeff A.; Coleman, Mary; Drogan, Oksana

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To survey all US medical school clerkship directors (CDs) in neurology and to compare results from a similar survey in 2005. Methods: A survey was developed by a work group of the American Academy of Neurology Undergraduate Education Subcommittee, and sent to all neurology CDs listed in the American Academy of Neurology database. Comparisons were made to a similar 2005 survey. Results: Survey response rate was 73%. Neurology was required in 93% of responding schools. Duration of clerkships was 4 weeks in 74% and 3 weeks in 11%. Clerkships were taken in the third year in 56%, third or fourth year in 19%, and fourth year in 12%. Clerkship duration in 2012 was slightly shorter than in 2005 (fewer clerkships of ≥4 weeks, p = 0.125), but more clerkships have moved into the third year (fewer neurology clerkships during the fourth year, p = 0.051). Simulation training in lumbar punctures was available at 44% of schools, but only 2% of students attempted lumbar punctures on patients. CDs averaged 20% protected time, but reported that they needed at least 32%. Secretarial full-time equivalent was 0.50 or less in 71% of clerkships. Eighty-five percent of CDs were “very satisfied” or “somewhat satisfied,” but more than half experienced “burnout” and 35% had considered relinquishing their role. Conclusion: Trends in neurology undergraduate education since 2005 include shorter clerkships, migration into the third year, and increasing use of technology. CDs are generally satisfied, but report stressors, including inadequate protected time and departmental support. PMID:25305155

  7. Syncope causes transient focal neurological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, D J; Harbison, J A; Meaney, J F; Rice, C P; King-Kallimanis, B; Kenny, R A

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of focal neurology (FN) as a consequence of syncope is unknown. The aim of the study was to determine its prevalence, risk factors and short-term consequences. A consecutive sample of syncope-unit attendees during a 9-month period had detailed diagnostic syncope evaluation as per European Cardiac Society guidelines coupled with assessment for FN present during syncope/pre-syncope by screening questionnaire, follow-up interview and neuroimaging (1.5T magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]). All participants were followed up for 24 months. Risk factors for FN were identified by comparing FN cases with syncope controls without FN (3:1 ratio). Five-hundred and forty consecutively attended for investigation of syncope (n = 401) and pre-syncope (n = 139). Thirty-one (5.7%) had FN events during hypotensive symptoms, mean age 49 years (19-85). The majority of FN cases had vasovagal syncope (VVS); 22 (71%), whereas eight had OH (25.8%) and one (3.2%) had cardiac arrhythmia. Median duration of FN was 15 min (IQR: 34.5). MRI in 28 (90%) was normal and in 3, old cerebral infarction was evident. Risk factors for FN/syncope were frequent syncope (P = 0·008), childhood syncope (P syncope/pre-syncope have co-extant FN, which during 24-month follow-up, does not progress to a persistent deficit (>24 h). Awareness of co-occurrence of FN and syncope is important as stroke misdiagnosis results in aggressive anti-hypertensive management and future events may ensue. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Autoimmune channelopathies in paraneoplastic neurological syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Bastien; Honnorat, Jérôme

    2015-10-01

    Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes and autoimmune encephalitides are immune neurological disorders occurring or not in association with a cancer. They are thought to be due to an autoimmune reaction against neuronal antigens ectopically expressed by the underlying tumour or by cross-reaction with an unknown infectious agent. In some instances, paraneoplastic neurological syndromes and autoimmune encephalitides are related to an antibody-induced dysfunction of ion channels, a situation that can be labelled as autoimmune channelopathies. Such functional alterations of ion channels are caused by the specific fixation of an autoantibody upon its target, implying that autoimmune channelopathies are usually highly responsive to immuno-modulatory treatments. Over the recent years, numerous autoantibodies corresponding to various neurological syndromes have been discovered and their mechanisms of action partially deciphered. Autoantibodies in neurological autoimmune channelopathies may target either directly ion channels or proteins associated to ion channels and induce channel dysfunction by various mechanisms generally leading to the reduction of synaptic expression of the considered channel. The discovery of those mechanisms of action has provided insights on the regulation of the synaptic expression of the altered channels as well as the putative roles of some of their functional subdomains. Interestingly, patients' autoantibodies themselves can be used as specific tools in order to study the functions of ion channels. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane channels and transporters in cancers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Ambulatory neurological care in a prison population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, V; Mallada-Frechin, J; Delibes, C; Fernandez-Izquierdo, S; Piqueras-Rodriguez, L

    Some of the users attended in a Neurology service consist of the inmate population in a prison. The aim of this study is to analyse all the proposals referred from the Alicante II Prison Centre to a Neurology service. We analyse and describe the clinical characteristics of patients referred from the Alicante II Prison Centre to the Neurology service at the Centro Sanitario Integrado in Villena between the years 2003 and 2006. This analysis involved the following variables: age, sex, personal history, reason for visiting and diagnosis. A total of 88 proposals were recorded. The mean age of the patients was 35 years (84 males/4 females). A total of 15 patients did not attend their appointment (17%). Positive serology for the human immunodeficiency virus was found in 18% of patients. The most frequent reason for visiting was headache (32%), followed by seizures (25%) and, thirdly, vascular pathologies (13%). In a group of 16 patients (18%) the main diagnosis was established as being some kind of psychiatric disorder (anxiety, depression, simulation). No studies have been published in the literature that analyse the clinical characteristics of patients from prisons referred to a Neurology service. The high percentage of patients who do not attend their appointment and the high percentage of psychiatric disorders that are diagnosed within this group of patients are especially noteworthy. However, and as can be observed in the general population, headache is still the most common reason for visiting. Nevertheless, the group of neurological diagnoses that are most frequently attended is epilepsy.

  10. Intervertebral Disc Characteristic on Progressive Neurological Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Yudoyono

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the intervertebral disc characteristic on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in lumbar herniated disc (LHD patients with progressive neurological deficit. Methods: Patients were collected retrospectively from Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Database from 2011–2013 with LHD, had neurological deficit such as radiculopathy and cauda equine syndrome for less than four weeks with a positive sign confirmed by neurological examination and confirmatory with MRI examination. Results: A total of 14 patients with lumbar herniated disc disease (10 males, 4 females suffered from progressive neurological deficit with an average age of (52.07±10.9 years old. Early disc height was 9.38±0.5 mm and progressive neurological deficit state disc height was 4.03±0.53 mm, which were significantly different statisticaly (p<0.01. Symptoms of radiculopathy were seen in 11 patients and cauda equine syndrome in three patients. Modic changes grade 1 was found in five patients, grade 2 in eight patients,grade 3 in one patient, Pfirmman grade 2 in eleven patients and grade 3 in three patients. Thecal sac compression 1/3 compression was seen in four patients and 2/3 compression in ten patients. Conclusions: Neurosurgeon should raise concerns on the characteristic changes of intervertebral disc in magnetic resonance imaging examination to avoid further neural injury in lumbar herniated disc patients.

  11. Neurology and the Internet: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moccia, Marcello; Brigo, Francesco; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Bonavita, Simona; Lavorgna, Luigi

    2018-03-28

    Nowadays, the Internet is the major source to obtain information about diseases and their treatments. The Internet is gaining relevance in the neurological setting, considering the possibility of timely social interaction, contributing to general public awareness on otherwise less-well-known neurological conditions, promoting health equity and improving the health-related coping. Neurological patients can easily find several online opportunities for peer interactions and learning. On the other hand, neurologist can analyze user-generated data to better understand patient needs and to run epidemiological studies. Indeed, analyses of queries from Internet search engines on certain neurological diseases have shown a strict temporal and spatial correlation with the "real world." In this narrative review, we will discuss how the Internet is radically affecting the healthcare of people with neurological disorders and, most importantly, is shifting the paradigm of care from the hands of those who deliver care, into the hands of those who receive it. Besides, we will review possible limitations, such as safety concerns, financial issues, and the need for easy-to-access platforms.

  12. [Deficiency, disability, neurology and television series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vázquez, Susana; Martínez-Martínez, Ariadna; Cano-de-la-Cuerda, Roberto

    2015-06-01

    The portrayal of neurological disability and deficiency on television has not always been approached in the same way, but has instead tended to reflect the standpoint taken by society with regard to these issues and how they are dealt with according to the prevailing conceptions and values at each particular time. To address the appearance of neurological pathologies in television series and to ponder on the image they have in such contexts. Deficiency and disability of neurological origin have often been depicted on television in series, telefilms and documentaries, and in a wide variety of ways. Here we examine different television series and how they have dealt with neurological pathology, its diagnosis and its treatment, as well as the figure of the healthcare professional and social-familial adaptation. Examples cited include series such as House MD, Glee, American Horror Story, Homeland or Game of Thrones. Television series are a useful tool for making some neurological pathologies better known to the public and for dispelling the myths surrounding others, provided that the pathologies are dealt with in a realistic manner, which is not always the case. More care should be taken with regard to the way in which health professionals are portrayed in television series, as it is not always done correctly and may mislead viewers, who take what they see on the TV as being real.

  13. Neurological Manifestations of Medical Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Katharine; Rood, Corey; Patel, Anup; Thackeray, Jonathan D; Brink, Farah W

    2016-01-01

    Medical child abuse occurs when a child receives unnecessary and harmful, or potentially harmful, medical care at the instigation of a caretaker through exaggeration, falsification, or induction of symptoms of illness in a child. Neurological manifestations are common with this type of maltreatment. We sought to review common reported neurological manifestations that may alert the clinician to consider medical child abuse. In addition, the possible sequelae of this form of child maltreatment is discussed, as well as practice recommendations for establishing the diagnosis and stopping the abuse once it is identified. A review of the medical literature was conducted regarding the reported neurological presentations of this entity. Neurological manifestations of medical child abuse include false reports of apparent life-threatening events and seizures and reports of induction of symptoms from poisoning. Failure to correlate objective findings with subjective complaints may lead to unnecessary and potentially harmful testing or treatment. This form of child maltreatment puts a child at significant risk of long-term morbidity and mortality. A wide variety of neurological manifestations have been reported in cases of medical child abuse. It is important for the practicing neurologist to include medical child abuse on the differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Brazilian Academy of Neurology (2006 - 2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Fernando Morgadinho; Castro, Luiz Henrique de; Fukujima, Marcia Maiumi; Adoni, Tarso; Rieder, Carlos Roberto de Mello; Bichuetti, Denis Bernardi; Prado, Gilmar Fernandes do; Gagliardi, Rubens Jose

    2017-09-01

    Brazil is a heterogeneous country with continental dimensions. The different characteristics of cultural, socioeconomic, and demographic status of the population drive different strategies for neurological care. This knowledge helps the understanding of the current scenario with the consequent possibility of preparing for future challenges. We used data from annual internal forms of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology (BAN) since 2006 and the survey for all BAN members (3,240) in 2016. The geographic distribution of BAN members in Brazil follows the demographic concentration of the population. Participation of members from big cities was the most prevalent, 18.7% of participants were young neurologists, and 36.7% of neurologists had more than of 20 years of neurological practice. The improvement of knowledge of neurological practice in Brazil will be useful for BAN leadership in planning future actions. The BAN must make an effort to aggregate a greater number of neurologists, offering updating support contributing to health policies to disseminate neurological care in Brazil.

  15. Problem neurology residents: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabby, David S; Majeed, Muhammed H; Schwartzman, Robert J

    2011-06-14

    Problem residents are found across most medical specialties at a prevalence of about 10%. This study was designed to explore the prevalence and causes of problem neurology residents and to compare neurology programs' responses and outcomes. Directors of 126 US neurology residency programs were sent an electronic survey. We collected data on demographics, first and all "identifiers" of problem residents, and year of training in which the problem was found. We asked about observable signs, etiology, and who performed remediation. We asked what resources were used and what outcomes occurred. Ninety-five program directors completed surveys (75% response rate). Almost all neurology programs have problem residents (81%). Age, sex, marital status, being a US native, or attending a US medical school had no effect on problem status. Being a parent carried a lower likelihood of problems (32%). Most commonly the problem is acted on during the first year of training. Faculty members without defined educational roles were the most frequent first identifiers. Program directors were the most common remediators. The most common remediation techniques were increasing supervision and assigning a faculty mentor. Graduate medical education office and psychiatric or psychological counseling services were most often used. Eleven percent of problem residents required a program for impaired physicians and 14% required a leave of absence. Sixteen percent were dismissed from their programs. The prevalence of problem residents in neurology is similar to other disciplines, and various resources are available to remediate them.

  16. Dengue: a new challenge for neurology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Puccioni-Sohler

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dengue infection is a leading cause of illness and death in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Forty percent of the world’s population currently lives in these areas. The clinical picture resulting from dengue infection can range from relatively minor to catastrophic hemorrhagic fever. Recently, reports have increased of neurological manifestations. Neuropathogenesis seems to be related to direct nervous system viral invasion, autoimmune reaction, metabolic and hemorrhagic disturbance. Neurological manifestations include encephalitis, encephalopathy, meningitis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, myelitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, polyneuropathy, mononeuropathy, and cerebromeningeal hemorrhage. The development of neurological symptoms in patients with positive Immunoglobulin M (IgM dengue serology suggests a means of diagnosing the neurological complications associated with dengue. Viral antigens, specific IgM antibodies, and the intrathecal synthesis of dengue antibodies have been successfully detected in cerebrospinal fluid. However, despite diagnostic advancements, the treatment of neurological dengue is problematic. The launch of a dengue vaccine is expected to be beneficial.

  17. Avaliação neurológica pelo método Dubowitz em recém-nascidos prematuros com idade corrigida de termo comparada a de nascidos a termo Neonatal neurological assessment by the Dubowitz method in preterm infants at term corrected age compared with term infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ortega Golin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a avaliação neurológica de recém-nascidos pré-termo em idade de termo com a de recém-nascidos a termo e verificar a presença de associação entre alterações na avaliação neurológica e características e intercorrências clínicas nos prematuros. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal de 60 nascidos a termo e 30 prematuros do Hospital Estadual Mário Covas, em Santo André (SP, avaliados pelo método Dubowitz. Os pontos de corte da pontuação total foram 30,5 e 26 para comparar recém-nascidos pré-termo e a termo, respectivamente. Os prematuros foram avaliados com idade correspondente ao termo, na 37ª semana, e os do grupo controle, 48 horas após o nascimento. Todos os neonatos foram avaliados pela mesma examinadora, entre as mamadas, nos estágios 4 e 5 de sono e vigília. Para análise estatística, utilizaram-se testes de associação. RESULTADOS: 90% dos nascidos pré-termo não atingiram a pontuação esperada para a idade de termo (pOBJECTIVE: To compare neonatal neurological assessment of preterm newborn infants at term corrected age with term infants, and to identify the presence of association between neurologic abnormalities in preterm infants and demographic characteristics and neonatal clinical conditions. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 60 term and 30 preterm infants born at the Mario Covas State Hospital in Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil. The Dubowitz method was applied to assess neurobehavior. The total score cut-offs of 30.5 and 26 were used to compare respectively preterm and term infants and to analyze the variables related to performance in the preterm group. Preterm newborns were evaluated at 37 post-conceptual weeks and the control group was evaluated 48 hours after birth. All newborns were evaluated by the same neurologist, between feedings and at sleep-awake stages 4 or 5. Statistical analysis was performed by association tests. RESULTS: 90% of the preterm infants did not reach the

  18. [POSITIONING OF IMMOBALE NEUROLOGIC PATIENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maček, Z; Mandić, M

    2016-01-01

    Damage to the central nervous system leads to the loss of motor control, loss of consciousness, sensory, cognitive and perceptive dysfunction. Patients are immobile in the early phase of recovery, therefore therapeutic approach demands appropriate methods of patient positioning in bed. The positioning has to ensure conditions that will stimulate and promote functional rehabilitation and prevent complications of immobility. The positioning has to rely on functional assessment of the patient problem, while it should also be therapeutic and individually adjusted to the patient needs. In the methods of positioning an immobile patient, all medical team members take part, especially nurses, physical therapists and occupational therapists. Results of positioning are better if mobilization and integration of the abilities regained by the patient are included.

  19. Neurologic and neuromuscular functional disorders of the pharynx and esophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuttge-Hannig, A.; Hannig, C.

    2007-01-01

    Neurologic swallowing disorders are an increasing diagnostic problem in our overaged population. Undiagnosed chronic aspiration pneumonia is the cause of death in 20-40% of all inhabitants of nursing homes. In neurologic diseases of the pharynx, the physiologic interaction of pharyngeal contraction, closure of the pharynx, and esophageal motility are frequently disturbed. This may be due to cortical, bulbar, or cerebellar brain damage of ischemic or traumatic origin. Furthermore diseases or peripheral nerves, muscles, and synapses cause disturbances. The most life-threatening complication of these disturbances is tracheal aspiration, which requires an iso-osmolar contrast medium for imaging studies that cause no or minimal pulmonary problems. Utilizing fast dynamic documentation we can analyze the swallowing act in 35 images within the passage time of 0.7 s. This requires digital frame sequences from 15-50 images/s, which can be provided by DSI or videofluoroscopy. Neurologic and neuromuscular patterns are demonstrated with and without tracheal aspiration. The differentiation of aspiration in a so-called pre-, intra-, and postdeglutitive form is possible. We distinguish four grades of severity of aspiration, which is also of great clinical impact for the differential rehabilitation therapy. The efficiency of the rehabilitation protocol can be assessed by the dynamic swallowing studies. (orig.) [de

  20. Spasmodic dysphonia: description of the disease and associated neurologic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coelho, Marina Serrato

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Spasmodic dysphonia (SD is a problem that affects speech and vocalization, one of the most devastating disorders of oral communication. It is characterized by vocal quality tensaestrangulada, harshly and / or interspersed with abrupt vocal attack and a great tension in the vocal tract. The etiology of spasmodic dysphonia is unclear. Some authors point to psychogenic causes, neurological or even unknown. Objective: To assess the prevalence of muscular dystonias and other neurological symptoms in patients with ED. Method: A retrospective study of 10 cases with diagnosis of ED for symptoms and neurological disorders associated. Results: There was a significant predominance of the disease in females (9:1. The average age of onset of symptoms was 32 years, ranging between 14 and 60 years. The mean disease duration was 10 years. Among the patients, 87.5% had a diagnosis of disorders of movement made by a neurologist, including orofacial dystonias (50%, essential tremor (50% and spastic paraparesis (12%. Conclusion: The presence of movement disorders followed almost all cases of spasmodic dysphonia. More studies are needed to clarify the pathophysiological basis of disease.

  1. [Domestic violence in patients and caregivers dyads in neurological diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Guzmán, María Alejandra; Paz-Rodríguez, Francisco; Espinola-Nadurille, Mariana; Trujillo-De Los Santos, Zoila

    2015-01-01

    Patients with neurological diseases are susceptible to abuse and neglect. Studies on violence in this context have mainly focused on abuse perpetrated by a caregiver to the patient directionally. In this study we describe violence in dyads of caregivers and patients with neurological disorders according to frequency, directionality, and type of relation. One-hundred-and-eighty-five caregiver-patient dyads were assessed by means of the National Survey of Violence Against Women (NSVAW) guidelines and the Zarit and Pfeiffer questionnaires. Bivariate analysis and Spearman correlation tests were performed. Violence was reported by 32.5% of caregivers and 33.5% of patients. In both groups, psychological abuse was the most common. Mutual violence (54.5%) is the most common type of abuse and the caregiver reported as having more violent behavior is the intimate partner. Epilepsy was the neurological disorder where violence was more prevalent (47.6%). The prevalence of violence in our sample is higher than the one for the general population of 21%, as reported by the NSVAW. Clinical neurologists and healthcare services are key elements for the detection of abuse in this context.

  2. Prenatal DHA Status and Neurological Outcome in Children at Age 5.5 Years Are Positively Associated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Victoria Escolano-Margarit, M.; Ramos, Rosa; Beyer, Jeannette; Csabi, Gyoergyi; Parrilla-Roure, Montserrat; Cruz, Francisco; Perez-Garcia, Miguel; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Gil, Angel; Decsi, Tamas; Koletzko, Berthold V.; Campoy, Cristina

    Beneficial effects of perinatal DHA supply on later neurological development have been reported. We assessed the effects of maternal DHA supplementation on the neurological development of their children. Healthy pregnant women from Spain, Germany, and Hungary were randomly assigned to a dietary

  3. Neurocritical care education during neurology residency: AAN survey of US program directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, K N; Drogan, O; Manno, E; Geocadin, R G; Ziai, W

    2012-05-29

    Limited information is available regarding the current state of neurocritical care education for neurology residents. The goal of our survey was to assess the need and current state of neurocritical care training for neurology residents. A survey instrument was developed and, with the support of the American Academy of Neurology, distributed to residency program directors of 132 accredited neurology programs in the United States in 2011. A response rate of 74% (98 of 132) was achieved. A dedicated neuroscience intensive care unit (neuro-ICU) existed in 64%. Fifty-six percent of residency programs offer a dedicated rotation in the neuro-ICU, lasting 4 weeks on average. Where available, the neuro-ICU rotation was required in the vast majority (91%) of programs. Neurology residents' exposure to the fundamental principles of neurocritical care was obtained through a variety of mechanisms. Of program directors, 37% indicated that residents would be interested in performing away rotations in a neuro-ICU. From 2005 to 2010, the number of programs sending at least one resident into a neuro-ICU fellowship increased from 14% to 35%. Despite the expansion of neurocritical care, large proportions of US neurology residents have limited exposure to a neuro-ICU and neurointensivists. Formal training in the principles of neurocritical care may be highly variable. The results of this survey suggest a charge to address the variability of resident education and to develop standardized curricula in neurocritical care for neurology residents.

  4. Emergency Neurologic Life Support: Meningitis and Encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaieski, David F; Nathan, Barnett R; O'Brien, Nicole F

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial meningitis and viral encephalitis, particularly herpes simplex encephalitis, are severe neurological infections that, if not treated promptly and effectively, lead to poor neurological outcome or death. Because treatment is more effective if given early, the topic of meningitis and encephalitis was chosen as an Emergency Neurological Life Support protocol. This protocol provides a practical approach to recognition and urgent treatment of bacterial meningitis and encephalitis. Appropriate imaging, spinal fluid analysis, and early empiric treatment is discussed. Though uncommon in its full form, the typical clinical triad of headache, fever, and neck stiffness should alert the clinical practitioner to the possibility of a central nervous system infection. Early attention to the airway and maintaining normotension is crucial in treatment of these patients, as is rapid treatment with anti-infectives and, in some cases, corticosteroids.

  5. A national neurological excellence centers network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzi, S; Cristiani, P; Cavallini, A

    1998-02-01

    The most relevant problems related to the management of neurological disorders are (i) the frequent hospitalization in nonspecialist departments, with the need for neurological consultation, and (ii) the frequent requests of GPs for highly specialized investigations that are very expensive and of little value in arriving at a correct diagnosis. In 1996, the Consorzio di Bioingegneria e Informatica Medica in Italy realized the CISNet project (in collaboration with the Consorzio Istituti Scientifici Neuroscienze e Tecnologie Biomediche and funded by the Centro Studi of the National Public Health Council) for the implementation of a national neurological excellence centers network (CISNet). In the CISNet project, neurologists will be able to give on-line interactive consultation and off-line consulting services identifying correct diagnostic/therapeutic procedures, evaluating the need for both examination in specialist centers and admission to specialized centers, and identifying the most appropriate ones.

  6. The History of Reimbursements in Neurology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheen E Lakhan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA addresses consumer protection, employer-provided insurance coverage, as well as the government's role in providing health care access to the most vulnerable populations. Within the practice of neurology, the PPACA has the challenging goal of reconciling the needs of the growing elderly population with the financial barriers to costly yet available health care services. To bridge that gap, all health care professionals working in the field of neurology must reflect on the effect previous Medicare reimbursement policies have had on the current practice of neurology, and utilize lessons learned in recent years. The test of time will tell whether the PPACA will achieve the goal of decreasing in health care spending while ensuring quality universal healthcare services.

  7. The Profile of Neurology Patients Evaluated in the Emergency Department

    OpenAIRE

    Ufuk Emre; Ayşe Semra Demir; Esra Acıman; Nejla Çabuk; Sibel Kıran; Aysun Ünal

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Early, rapid, and multidisciplinary approaches are very important in the diagnosis of neurological disorders in emergency departments. The present study aimed to investigate the features of patients that presented for neurology consultation in the emergency department. METHODS: The present study included 780 patients. Patient demographic features, reasons for emergent treatment and neurological consultation, neurological diagnosis by the neurologist, and laboratory (total blood...

  8. Neurosurgical management in children with bleeding diathesis: auditing neurological outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Zaitun; Kaliaperumal, Chandrasekaran; Crimmins, Darach; Caird, John

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of neurosurgical treatment in children with bleeding diathesis and also to evaluate the current management plan applied in the authors' service. METHODS The authors retrospectively analyzed all cases in which neurosurgical procedures were performed in pediatric patients presenting with intracranial hematoma due to an underlying bleeding tendency over a 5-year period at their institution. They evaluated the patients' neurological symptoms from the initial referral, hematological abnormalities, surgical treatment, neurological outcome, and scores on the Pediatric Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOS-E Peds) obtained 1 year after the last operation. RESULTS Five patients with a bleeding diathesis who underwent surgery for intracranial hematoma were identified; the diagnosis was hemophilia A in 3 cases, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura in 1 case, and severe aplastic anemia in 1 case. Intracerebral hematoma (ICH) (n = 4) and acute subdural hematoma (n = 1) were confirmed on radiological investigations. In 2 of the 4 patients with ICH, the diagnosis of bleeding diathesis was made for the first time on presentation. Four patients (all male) were younger than 2 years; the patient with severe aplastic anemia and spontaneous ICH was 15 years old and female. The duration of symptoms varied from 24 hours to 5 days. Neurological examination at 1 year's follow-up showed complete recovery (GOS-E Peds score of 1) in 3 cases and mild weakness (GOS-E Peds score of 2) in 2 cases. CONCLUSIONS Neurosurgical management of patients with bleeding diathesis should be carried out in a tertiary-care setting with multidisciplinary team management, including members with expertise in neuroimaging and hematology, in addition to neurosurgery. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of a bleeding diathesis is crucial for full neurological recovery.

  9. Autoimmune Neurology of the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, W Oliver; Pittock, Sean J

    2017-06-01

    This article reviews the rapidly evolving spectrum of autoimmune neurologic disorders with a focus on those that involve the central nervous system, providing an understanding of how to approach the diagnostic workup of patients presenting with central nervous system symptoms or signs that could be immune mediated, either paraneoplastic or idiopathic, to guide therapeutic decision making. The past decade has seen a dramatic increase in the discovery of novel neural antibodies and their targets. Many commercial laboratories can now test for these antibodies, which serve as diagnostic markers of diverse neurologic disorders that occur on an autoimmune basis. Some are highly specific for certain cancer types, and the neural antibody profiles may help direct the physician's cancer search. The diagnosis of an autoimmune neurologic disorder is aided by the detection of an objective neurologic deficit (usually subacute in onset with a fluctuating course), the presence of a neural autoantibody, and improvement in the neurologic status after a course of immunotherapy. Neural autoantibodies should raise concern for a paraneoplastic etiology and may inform a targeted oncologic evaluation (eg, N-methyl-D-aspartate [NMDA] receptor antibodies are associated with teratoma, antineuronal nuclear antibody type 1 [ANNA-1, or anti-Hu] are associated with small cell lung cancer). MRI, EEG, functional imaging, videotaped evaluations, and neuropsychological evaluations provide objective evidence of neurologic dysfunction by which the success of immunotherapy may be measured. Most treatment information emanates from retrospective case series and expert opinion. Nonetheless, early intervention may allow reversal of deficits in many patients and prevention of future disability.

  10. Rare Neurological Complications After Sleeve Gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, Malek; Carandina, Sergio; Bossi, Manuela; Polliand, Claude; Genser, Laurent; Barrat, Christophe

    2016-12-01

    Bariatric surgery is considered to be the most effective treatment of morbid obesity and improvement of obesity-related comorbidities, such as type II diabetes. However, both peripheral and central neurological complications can occur after bariatric surgery. Such complications tend to occur more frequently after bypass surgery than after sleeve gastrectomy (SG). The objective of this study was to identify the patients that presented post-operative neurological complications after undergoing SG and describe the incidence, presentation, and management of these complications. This was a retrospective study of 592 cases of SG performed between 2009 and 2014 with a special focus on patients who presented neurological complications. Of the 592 SG cases, only seven (1.18 %) patients presented neurological complications. All patients had uneventful post-operative course, but all reported feeding difficulties, accompanied by severe dysphagia, and rapid weight loss, with a mean weight loss of 35 kg (30-40 kg) 3 months after SG. All patients were readmitted owing to neurological symptoms that included paresthesia, abolition of deep tendon reflexes of the lower limbs, muscle pain, and motor and sensitive deficits in some cases. There were two cases of Wernicke's encephalopathy. All patients were treated for neuropathy secondary to vitamin B1 deficiency and had a significant improvement and/or resolution of their symptoms. Neurological complications after SG are rare and are often preceded by gastrointestinal symptoms, rapid weight loss, and lack of post-operative vitamin supplementation. Re-hospitalization and multidisciplinary team management are crucial to establish the diagnosis and initiate treatment.

  11. Postmalaria Neurologic Syndrome: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Fang Hsieh

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurologic signs and symptoms are common in acute malarial infection. However, after the parasites have been cleared from the blood and patients recover full consciousness, neurologic or psychiatric symptoms may occur or recur within 2 months after the acute illness. This phenomenon is called “postmalaria neurologic syndrome” (PMNS. We present a 50-year-old man who returned from the Republic of Malawi and soon developed Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Cerebral malaria, renal failure, hepatic failure, diffuse intravascular coagulation with thrombocytopenia, and upper gastrointestinal bleeding were noted during the acute stage. He was admitted to the infectious diseases ward and treated for 3 weeks. He was free from clinical general symptoms and parasites in blood smear when discharged. However, 2 weeks after discharge, he began to experience severe headache, dizziness, diplopia, mild hand tremor, unsteady gait, and easy falling. When readmitted to the neurologic ward, he presented with irritability, delirium, visual hallucination, and strange behavior. Neurologic examination was normal except for mild general weakness and evident truncal ataxia when walking. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed no structural lesions, and electroencephalography showed diffuse cortical dysfunction. Cerebral spinal fluid profile exhibited cytoalbuminologic dissociation. Brain single photon emission computed tomography showed diffuse cerebral parenchymal disorder. Nerve conduction studies revealed early sensory predominant polyneuropathy. The unsteadiness persisted for the initial 2 weeks of hospitalization until corticosteroid was administered. Intravenous methylprednisolone (80 mg/day was continued for 3 days, followed by oral prednisolone (45 mg/day. His unsteadiness improved gradually after medication, and he absconded from the hospital on the 9th day of corticosteroid treatment with clear consciousness and free ambulation. The manifestation of PMNS is

  12. [Sir William Richard Gowers: author of the "bible of neurology"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Genjiro

    2014-11-01

    William Richard Gowers is one of the great pioneers in neurology and the author of the well-known neurology textbook, "A Manual of Diseases of the Nervous System." His concepts of neurology are based on meticulously and carefully accumulated knowledge of history, observations, and neurological examinations of patients with various neurological diseases. He is not only a great neurologist but also a great teacher who loves teaching students and physicians through well-prepared lectures. We can glean the essence of the field of neurology through his life story and numerous writings concerning neurological diseases.

  13. Richard Bright and his neurological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J M S

    2009-01-01

    Richard Bright was one of the famous triumvirate of Guy's Hospital physicians in the Victorian era. Remembered for his account of glomerulonephritis (Bright's disease) he also made many important and original contributions to medicine and neurology. These included his work on cortical epileptogenesis, descriptions of simple partial (Jacksonian) seizures, infantile convulsions, and a variety of nervous diseases. Most notable were his reports of neurological studies including papers on traumatic tetanus, syringomyelia, arteries of the brain, contractures of spinal origin, tumours of the base of the brain, and narcolepsy. His career and these contributions are outlined. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Neurological Complications in Controlled HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Kate M; Brew, Bruce J

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, there have been great advances in therapies for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that have allowed suppression of the virus and its effects on the body. Despite this progress, neurological complications persist in HIV-infected individuals. In this review we consider the possible ways that HIV might cause neurotoxicity and neuroinflammation. We discuss the spectrum of neurological disorders caused by HIV and its treatment, with a particular focus on both HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders and peripheral neuropathies. Since there has been a shift to HIV being a chronic illness, we also review the increasing prevalence of cerebrovascular disease and neurodegenerative disorders.

  15. Stem-cell therapy for neurologic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of research on stem cell therapy for various diseases, an important need was felt in the field of neurological diseases. While congenital lesion may not be amenable to stem cell therapy completely, there is a scope of partial improvement in the lesions and halt in further progression. Neuro degenerative lesions like Parkinson′s disease, multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis have shown improvement with stem cell therapy. This article reviews the available literature and summarizes the current evidence in the various neurologic diseases amenable to stem cell therapy, the plausible mechanism of action, ethical concerns with insights into the future of stem cell therapy.

  16. How to write a neurology case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rison, Richard A

    2016-04-06

    Neurology case reports have a long history of transmitting important medical information across many generations for the improvement of patient care. Case reports contribute much to the physician's knowledge base from which treatment hypotheses and ideas form. Elements of a modern case report, as presented in the CARE (CAse REport) guidelines, include the abstract, introduction, case presentation, discussion, conclusion, patient's perspective, and consent statement. The sections are described here, as well as the application of CARE guidelines to a published neuromuscular case report. Writing case reports offer an ideal opportunity for neurologists to publish interesting case findings and carry on the tradition of neurologic case reporting.

  17. Neurological complications of renal dialysis and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunaratne, Kushan; Taube, David; Khalil, Nofal; Perry, Richard; Malhotra, Paresh A

    2018-04-01

    Neurological complications from renal replacement therapy contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality in patients with renal failure. Such complications can affect either the central or peripheral nervous systems. Most neurological disturbances associated with the uraemic state do not respond fully to renal replacement therapy. There are also complications specifically associated with dialysis and transplantation. A multidisciplinary approach, involving both nephrologists and neurologists, is critical for the diagnosis and effective management of these disorders. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Neurology Case Reporting: a call for all

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rison Richard A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract From antiquity to present day, the act of recording and publishing our observations with patients remains essential to the art of medicine and the care of patients. Neurology is rich with case reports over the centuries. They contribute to our understanding and knowledge of disease entities, and are a cornerstone of our professional development as physicians and the care of our patients. This editorial seeks to enthuse and invigorate house staff and practicing physicians everywhere to continue the long and time-honored tradition of neurology case reporting.

  19. Neurologic aspects of lymphoma and leukemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoyd, Matthew; Gruener, Gregory; Foy, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The lymphomas and leukemias are a heterogenous group of hematologic malignancies with protean manifestations. Neurologic sequelae of the diseases have been recognized since the time the conditions were first described in the mid-1800s. Although our understanding of the various presentations of these blood disorders evolved along with our knowledge of malignancies, accurate diagnosis can still be difficult. It is critical for neurologists to have a high index of clinical suspicion to appropriately recognize their heralding features. This review's focus is the relevant clinical neurologic features and diagnostic studies that identify leukemias and lymphomas affecting the nervous system. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Burden of neurological illnesses in a pediatric intensive care unit of developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Qalab; Shabbir, Amber; Siddiqui, Naveedur Rehman; Kumar, Raman; Haque, Anwarul

    2014-01-01

    To assess the burden and spectrum of neurological illness in a pediatric intensive care unit and review the associated mortality. Retrospective review of medical records of children (1 mo-16 years) with acute neurological diagnosis admitted in PICU in Aga Khan University hospital from January 2008 to December 2011 was done. Basic demographic, diagnosis, neuro diagnostic procedures performed, therapies and outcomes were done on a structured datasheet. During study period, 231 (19.3%) patients were admitted with acute neurological illnesses in PICU. The mean age was 67 ±50 months, 54% (n=125) was under-five and 138 (59.7%) were males. Out of total, 144 (62.3%) had neurological illness and 87 (37.7%) had neurosurgical diagnosis. In acute neurological illness, 51.5% (n=119) had non-traumatic-coma (NTC) and 10.8% (n=25) had neuromuscular illness. CNS infection (26%, n=60) in structural cause and status epilepticus (10%, n=23) were the most common cause of structural and metabolic type of NTC respectively. Severe traumatic brain injury (21.2%, n=49) and postoperative neurosurgical illness (16.5%, n=38) were common neurosurgical cases in our cohort. The intensive care resources were utilized as mechanical ventilation in 78% (n=180), inotropic support in 29.4% (n=67) and therapeutic hypothermia in 33% (n=76). Fifty children (21.6%) required PICU care for observation only. More than 500 neurodiagnostic tests/procedures were performed in this cohort of children with acute neurological disorders in PICU. The mortality rate in neurological cases was 18% (42/231) as compared to the overall mortality rate was 12% in PICU. Acute neurological disorders were common in PICU, and were associated with higher mortality. CNS infections, status epilepticus and severe traumatic brain injuries were the most common acute neurological illnesses in our cohort.

  1. A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Study to Assess the Effect of Anodal and Cathodal Electrical Stimulation on Periwound Skin Blood Flow and Pressure Ulcer Size Reduction in Persons with Neurological Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Anna; Kucio, Cezary; Kloth, Luther C; Paczula, Malgorzata; Hordynska, Ewa; Ickowicz, Tomasz; Blaszczak, Edward; Kucio, Ewa; Oleszczyk, Krystian; Ficek, Krzysztof; Franek, Andrzej

    2018-02-01

    The use of electrical stimulation (ES) should be considered for treating nonhealing pressure ulcers (PUs), but optimal ES wound treatment protocols have yet to be established. A randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical study was conducted to evaluate the effects of cathodal and anodal high-voltage monophasic pulsed current (HVMPC) on periwound skin blood flow (PSBF) and size reduction of Stage 2 to Stage 4 PUs of at least 4 weeks' duration. Persons >18 years of age, hospitalized with neurological injuries, at high risk for PU development (Norton scale 15 points), and with at least 1 Stage 2 to Stage 4 PU were eligible to participate in the study. Persons with necrotic wounds, osteomyelitis, electronic or metal implants in the PU area, PUs in need of surgical intervention, acute wound inflammation, diabetes (HBA1c >7%), diabetic neuropathy, cancer, and/or allergies to standard wound treatments were excluded. Patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: anodal (AG), cathodal (CG), or placebo (PG) ES. All groups received individualized PU prevention and standard wound care. In the PG, sham ES was applied; the AG and CG were treated with anodal and cathodal HVMPC, respectively (154 μs 100 Hz; 360 µC/second; 1.08 C/day), 50 minutes per day, 5 days per week, for a maximum of 8 weeks. PSBF was measured using laser Doppler flowmetry at baseline, week 2, and week 4, and wound surface area measurements were obtained and analyzed using a digitizer connected to a personal computer. Data analysis utilized the maximum-likelihood chi-squared test, the analysis of variance Kruskal-Wallis test, the Kruskal-Wallis post-hoc test, and Spearman's rank order correlation. Nonlinear approximation based on exponential function was used to calculate treatment time needed to reduce the wound area by 50%. In all tests, the level of significance was set at P ≤.05. Of the 61 participating patients, 20 were in the AG (mean age 53.2 ± 13.82 years), 21 in the CG (mean age 55.67

  2. Neurological and functional outcomes of subdural hematoma evacuation in patients over 70 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Mulligan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Subdural hematoma (SDH is a common disease entity treated by neurosurgical intervention. Although the incidence increases in the elderly population, there is a paucity of studies examining their surgical outcomes. Objectives: To determine the neurological and functional outcomes of patients over 70 years of age undergoing surgical decompression for subdural hematoma. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed data on 45 patients above 70 years who underwent craniotomy or burr holes for acute, chronic or mixed subdural hematomas. We analyzed both neurological and functional status before and after surgery. Results: Forty-five patients 70 years of age or older were treated in our department during the study period. There was a significant improvement in the neurological status of patients from admission to follow up as assessed using the Markwalder grading scale (1.98 vs. 1.39; P =0.005, yet no improvement in functional outcome was observed as assessed by Glasgow Outcome Score. Forty-one patients were admitted from home, however only 20 patients (44% were discharged home, 16 (36% discharged to nursing home or rehab, 6 (13% to hospice and 3 (7% died in the postoperative period. Neurological function improved in patients who were older, had a worse pre-operative neurological status, were on anticoagulation and had chronic or mixed acute and chronic hematoma. However, no improvement in functional status was observed. Conclusion: Surgical management of SDH in patients over 70 years of age provides significant improvement in neurological status, but does not change functional status.

  3. Education research: a case-based bioethics curriculum for neurology residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolchin, Benjamin; Willey, Joshua Z; Prager, Kenneth

    2015-03-31

    In 2012, the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) updated and expanded its ethics curriculum into Practical Ethics in Clinical Neurology, a case-based ethics curriculum for neurologists. We piloted a case-based bioethics curriculum for neurology residents using the framework and topics recommended by the AAN, matched to clinical cases drawn from Columbia's neurologic services. Our primary outcome was residents' ability to analyze and manage ethically complex cases as measured on precurriculum and postcurriculum multiple-choice quizzes. Secondary outcomes included precurriculum and postcurriculum self-assessed comfort in discussing and managing ethically complex cases, as well as attendance at ethics discussion sessions as compared to attendance at other didactic sessions. Resident performance on quizzes improved from 75.8% to 86.7% (p = 0.02). Comfort in discussing ethically complex cases improved from 6.4 to 7.4 on a 10-point scale (p = 0.03). Comfort in managing such cases trended toward improvement but did not reach statistical significance. Attendance was significantly better at ethics discussions (73.5%) than at other didactic sessions (61.7%, p = 0.04). Our formal case-based ethics curriculum for neurology residents, based on core topics drawn from the AAN's published curricula, was successfully piloted. Our study showed a statistically significant improvement in residents' ability to analyze and manage ethically complex cases as measured by multiple-choice tests and self-assessments. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  4. DYSLEXIA--READING DISABILITY WITH NEUROLOGICAL INVOLVEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GEHRING, KATHRYN B.

    THE SYMPTOMATOLOGY AND TREATMENT OF DYSLEXIA ARE DISCUSSED. A DESCRIPTION OF THE DYNAMIC NATURE OF DYSLEXIA, INCLUDING VISUAL PERCEPTION, AUDITORY PERCEPTION AND SPEECH, NEUROLOGICAL ABNORMALITIES, AND AUDITORY-VISUAL RELATIONSHIPS, IS PRESENTED. TREATMENT FOR DYSLEXIC CHILDREN IS DEPENDENT ON DIAGNOSIS AND CONSTANT EVALUATION. SOME METHODS OF…

  5. Diabetic cachectic neuropathy: An uncommon neurological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetic patients can be affected by a wide variety of neurological complications which may involve the peripheral or autonomic nervous system, or both. These complications significantly impair the quality of life of patients, with impact on morbidity and mortality outcomes. Diabetic cachectic neuropathy, also called diabetic ...

  6. Minor neurological dysfunction in children with dyslexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, Marja; De Jong, Marianne; De Groot, Erik; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2010-01-01

    AIM To improve understanding of brain function in children with severe dyslexia in terms of minor neurological dysfunctions (MNDs). METHOD One hundred and four children (81 males, 23 females; age range 7-12y; mean age 9y 7mo, SD 1y 2mo;) with severe dyslexia (the presence of a Full-scale IQ score of

  7. Interactive drama in complex neurological disability management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenech, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Purpose. To establish whether interactive drama has any effect on the responses of people with complex neurological disabilities resident in a long term care facility. Method. This was a service evaluation using interviews with a group of 31 independently consenting long term care residents, and 27

  8. Neurological disorders in children with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Zavadenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During a clinical examination of children with autistic spectrum disorders, attention should be drawn to both their major clinical manifestations and neurological comorbidities. The paper considers the mechanisms of autism-induced neurological disorders, the spectrum of which may include manifestations, such as retarded and disharmonic early psychomotor development; the specific features of sensory perception/processing; rigidity and monotony of motor and psychic reactions; motor disinhibition and hyperexcitability; motor stereotypies; uncoordinated movements; developmental coordination disorders (dyspraxia; impaired expressive motor skills; speech and articulation disorders; tics; epilepsy. It describes the specific features of neurological symptoms in Asperger’s syndrome, particularly in semantic-pragmatic language disorders, higher incidence rates of hyperlexia, motor and vocal tics. The incidence rate of epilepsy in autistic spectrum disorders is emphasized to be greater than the average population one. At the same time, the risk of epilepsy is higher in mentally retarded patients with autism. Identification of neurological disorders is of great importance in determining the tactics of complex care for patients with autistic spectrum disorders. 

  9. Prevention of Neurologic Injuries in Equestrian Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, William H.; Bixby-Hammett, Doris M.

    1988-01-01

    Risk of neurological injuries accompanies horseback riding, especially for children and adolescents. This article describes the mechanisms of craniospinal injuries and suggests measures to lessen risks. Measures include: identifying individuals who should not ride, developing criteria for resumption of riding after injury, developing protective…

  10. Thoracic myelocystomeningocele in a neurologically intact infant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This case is an example of a high congenital spinal lesion with very minimal or negligible neurological deficits, with no other congenital malformations. Key Words: Thoracic spine, Myelocystomeningocele, Intact nervous system. Résumé Rapporter un cas peu commun et un cas rare d'une anomalie congenitale vertébrale ...

  11. Neurologic complications after solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senzolo, Marco; Marco, Senzolo; Ferronato, Cecilia; Cecilia, Ferronato; Burra, Patrizia; Patrizia, Burra

    2009-03-01

    Neurologic complications are common after solid organ transplantation and are associated with significant morbidity. Approximately one-third of transplant recipients experiences neurologic alterations with incidence ranging from 10% to 59%. The complications can be divided into such of those common to all types of transplant and others of those specific to transplanted organ. The most common complication seen with all types of transplanted organ is neurotoxicity attributable to immunosuppressive drugs, followed by seizures, opportunistic central nervous system (CNS) infections, cardiovascular events, encephalopathy and de novo CNS neoplasms. Amongst immunosuppressants, calcineurin inhibitors are the main drugs involved in neurotoxicity, leading to complications which ranges from mild symptoms, such as tremors and paresthesia to severe symptoms, such as disabling pain syndrome and leukoencephalopathy. Neurologic complications of liver transplantation are more common than that of other solid organ transplants (13-47%); encephalopathy is the most common CNS complication, followed by seizures; however, central pontine myelinolysis can appear in 1-8% of the patients leading to permanent disabilities or death. In kidney transplanted patients, stroke is the most common neurologic complication, whereas cerebral infarction and bleeding are more typical after heart transplantation. Metabolic, electrolyte and infectious anomalies represent common risk factors; however, identification of specific causes and early diagnosis are still difficult, because of patient's poor clinical status and concomitant systemic and metabolic disorders, which may obscure symptoms.

  12. Neuroprotective and neurological properties of Melissa officinalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López, Víctor; Martín, Sara; Gómez-Serranillos, Maria Pilar

    2009-01-01

    Melissa officinalis has traditionally been used due to its effects on nervous system. Both methanolic and aqueous extracts were tested for protective effects on the PC12 cell line, free radical scavenging properties and neurological activities (inhibition of MAO-A and acetylcholinesterase enzymes...

  13. Neurology of widely embedded free will

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Bauke M.

    2011-01-01

    Free will is classically attributed to the prefrontal cortex. In clinical neurology, prefrontal lesions have consistently been shown to cause impairment of internally driven action and increased reflex-like behaviour. Recently, parietal contributions to both free selection at early stages of

  14. Distinguishing neurological from non-organic conditions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    visual field. • problems with swallowing or speech. • association with seizures or absences. A thorough neurological examination should always be part of the workup of any patient complaining of dizziness. Also check eye-sight in the elderly, the neck for presence of bruits and the external ear canal for the presence of wax ...

  15. The challenges of residents teaching neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Samuel A; Józefowicz, Ralph F

    2004-07-01

    Teaching is integrated into the daily practice of residents, and it is a skill necessary for practice as well as academics. The settings in which teaching and learning take place are ubiquitous but include classrooms, small groups, bedside rounds, and grand rounds. Given the learning environment of residency, neurology residents should have working knowledge of basic principles of effective teaching to make learning successful. Teaching also reinforces knowledge, and residents will likely be better practitioners if some basic skills of teaching are practiced. Neurology teaching techniques for residents are rarely addressed in the medical literature. Although information regarding teaching principles in medicine exists, there is little information regarding how residents teach. We examine and review some of the more effective methods and appreciated qualities in teachers, with a particular emphasis for the neurology resident. We also review whom neurologists need to teach and the various settings in which teaching may take place. Neurology residents encounter a variety of audiences in a variety of settings that require diverse teaching skills to effectively convey information to other providers as well as patients. The majority of these skills should be learned in residency to establish a foundation for teaching, regardless of future practice settings.

  16. [Cinema and neurology: early educational applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vázquez, Susana; Carrillo, Jesús M

    2015-03-01

    Since its earliest days, cinema has been used in the teaching of neurology both to illustrate the professor's explanations and to make learning easier for students. To analyse some of the first applications of cinema to the teaching and learning of neurology. Shortly after the birth of the film projector it became apparent that it could be a valuable aid in teaching medicine, and especially neurology. Initially, actual recordings made by doctors themselves were used, and later documentaries, short films and feature films were employed as means of showing diagnostic and therapeutic methods, as well as different pathological signs, such as movement disorders. The intention was not to replace other methodologies but instead to complement them and to make the process of acquiring knowledge easier. Applying cinema in teaching is a useful way to portray the contents of different subjects, especially in the field of neurology, and to favour the acquisition of both specific and cross-disciplinary competences, with very positive results being obtained among students.

  17. Neurological complications of Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carod-Artal, Francisco Javier

    2018-04-26

    Zika virus (ZIKV) disease is a vector-borne infectious disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Recently, ZIKV has caused outbreaks in most American countries. Areas covered: Publications about neurological complications of ZIKV infection retrieved from pubmed searchers were reviewed, and reference lists and relevant articles from review articles were also examined. Vertical/intrauterine transmission leads to congenital infection and causes microcephaly and congenital ZIKV syndrome. ZIKV preferentially infects human neural progenitor cells and triggers cell apoptosis. ZIKV RNA has been identified in foetal brain tissue and brains of microcephalic infants who died; amniotic fluid and placentas of pregnant mothers; and umbilical cord, cerebro-spinal fluid and meninges of newborns. The increase in the number of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) cases during the ZIKV outbreak in the Americas provides epidemiological evidence for the link between ZIKV infection and GBS. Less frequently reported ZIKV neurological complications include encephalitis/meningoencephalitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, myelitis, cerebrovascular complications (ischemic infarction; vasculopathy), seizures and encephalopathy, sensory polyneuropathy and sensory neuronopathy. Analysis of GBS incidence could serve as an epidemiological 'marker' or sentinel for ZIKV disease and other neurological complications associated to ZIKV. Expert commentary: An expanding spectrum of neurological complications associated with ZIKV infection is being recognised.

  18. PSYCHIATRIC MORBIDITY IN A NIGERIAN NEUROLOGY CLINIC

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-05-28

    May 28, 2013 ... East African Medical Journal Vol. 89 No. 2 February 2012. PSYCHIATRIC MORBIDITY IN A NIGERIAN NEUROLOGY CLINIC. P. O. Ajiboye, FWACP, Senior Lecturer/ Consultant Psychiatrist, Department of Behavioural Sciences, University of Ilorin/. University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Kwara State, ...

  19. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF HOSPITALIZED PATIENTS IN NEUROLOGY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EPIDEMIOLOGY OF HOSPITALIZED PATIENTS IN NEUROLOGY: EXPERIENCE OF COCODY TEACHING HOSPITAL AT ABIDJAN (CÔTE-D\\'IVOIRE). Pascale Cowppli-Bony, Thérèse Sounan-Douayoua, François Akani, Ange-Michel Datie, Berthe Assi, Evelyne Aka-Diarra, Félix Boa Yapo, Ernest Beugré Kouassi ...

  20. The Neurologic Manifestations of Mitochondrial Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Sumit

    2010-01-01

    The nervous system contains some of the body's most metabolically demanding cells that are highly dependent on ATP produced via mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Thus, the neurological system is consistently involved in patients with mitochondrial disease. Symptoms differ depending on the part of the nervous system affected. Although almost…

  1. Astrocytes : a central element in neurological diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pekny, Milos; Pekna, Marcela; Messing, Albee; Steinhäuser, Christian; Lee, Jin Moo; Parpura, Vladimir; Hol, Elly M.; Sofroniew, Michael V.; Verkhratsky, Alexei

    The neurone-centred view of the past disregarded or downplayed the role of astroglia as a primary component in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases. As this concept is changing, so is also the perceived role of astrocytes in the healthy and diseased brain and spinal cord. We have started to

  2. Nutrition of patients with severe neurologic impairment

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    Orel Anija

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Commercial enteral formulas are generally recommended for gastrostomy feeding in patients with severe neurologic impairment. However, pureed food diets are still widely used and even gaining popularity among certain groups. We tried to compare the effectiveness of gastrostomy feeding for treatment of severe malnutrition with either enteral formulas or pureed feeds.

  3. Episodic neurological dysfunction in hereditary peripheral neuropathy

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    Girish Baburao Kulkarni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Episodic transient neurological symptoms are an important set of problems presenting to a neurologist in his routine practice. Occasionally, detailed clinical history including past and family history supplemented with focused examination can bring out a rare cause for such symptoms. We describe in this report in a young male presenting with episodic focal neurological dysfunction, with family history of similar episodes in mother and brother. Examination showed features of pes cavus and peripheral neuropathy for which patient was asymptomatic. Mother and brother were established cases of hereditary neuropathy. Imaging on multiple occasions showed reversible white matter abnormalities. Clinical suspicion of X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1 (CMT1X was confirmed with detection of mutation in Gap Junction B1 (GJB1 gene, which codes for connexin 32 protein (c.425G>A; p.R142Q hemizygous mutation. Though this mutation has been already reported in CMTX patients, it has not been associated with transient neurological dysfunctions. This is probably the first reported case of CMTX patient with transient neurological dysfunction from India, whose family members had similar episodes.

  4. Advanced Practice Clinician Training for Neurology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Lori; Ahmed, Aiesha

    2017-01-01

    Background The specialty of Neurology is faced with a fundamental problem of economics: supply and demand. The projected increase in provider supply is unlikely to keep up with projected increases in patient-care demand. Many large academic centers have used residents to meet this patient-care demand. However, the conflict between education of residents and patient-care needs has created a hindrance to both of those missions. Many specialties have been using advanced practice clinicians (APCs) to help address the need for patient care. In the setting of a residency program, this availability of APCs can help to alleviate patient-care demands for the resident and allow for better allocated educational time. Neurology has not historically been a popular choice for APCs and a standardized educational curriculum for a Neurology APC has not been established. Methods The authors share an example curriculum recently implemented for training new inpatient Neurology APCs. This curriculum includes a 12-week program complete with rotations through various subspecialties and proposes fundamental lecture topics for use in education. The authors share their expectations for clinical duties that evolve over the course of the 12-week program in conjunction with expectations for increasing clinical knowledge as well as efficiency in system utilization. Conclusion The addition of APCs to support a busy inpatient Neurology practice has obvious beneficial implications but the integration and education of this new staff must be structured and well-designed to support the confidence of the APC in both their knowledge and their role as an indispensable member of the care team. PMID:28560122

  5. Dermatology referrals in a neurological set up

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    Deeptara Pathak Thapa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dermatology is a specialty, which not only deals with dermatological problems with outpatient but also inpatients referrals. The importances of Dermatologist in hospital setting are rising due to changing condition of medical care. Since no peer-reviewed articles are available for dermatological problems in a neurological set up, we conducted this study to know about pattern of skin disorders in neurological patients. Material and Methods: The present study was a prospective study in a neurological setup, which included data from hospital dermatology consultation request forms over a period of one year. The data included demographic profile of the patient investigation where needed, neurological diagnosis and final dermatological diagnosis. The data was analyzed using SPSS. Results: A total of 285 patients who were requested for consultation were included in the study. Face was the commonest site of involvement (19.6%. Laboratory examination of referred patients revealed abnormal blood counts in 2% cases, renal function tests in 0.7% and urine in 0.4% cases. CT scan showed abnormal findings in 65.6% patients. The most common drug used in these patients was phenytoin (29.1%. The most common dermatological diagnosis was Infection and Infestation (34.7% followed by eczema (46.6%. Drug rash was seen in 3.9% cases. Out of which one had phenytoin induced Steven Johnson syndrome. Skin biopsy was done in 5 patients. Topicals was advised in 80%. Upon discharge 10% of inpatients didn’t require any follow-up. The patients who were followed up after 4 weeks, about 48% had their symptoms resolved with topicals and oral treatment as required. About 38% required more than two follow ups due to chronic course of the diseases. Conclusions: This present study discussed about various manifestations of skin disorders in a neurological set up and emphasizes the role of dermatologist in treating skin problems both in outpatient as well as inpatient

  6. Long-term neurological conditions: management at the interface between neurology, rehabilitation and palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Stokes, Lynne; Sykes, Nigel; Silber, Eli

    2008-04-01

    Long-term neurological conditions (LTNCs) comprise a diverse set of conditions resulting from injury or disease of the nervous system that will affect an individual for life. Some 10 million people in the UK are living with a neurological condition which has a significant impact on their lives, and they make up 19% of hospital admissions. These guidelines build on the Quality Requirements in the National Service Framework for Long-term (Neurological) Conditions to explore the interaction between specialist neurology, rehabilitation and palliative care services, and how they may best work together to provide long-term support for people with LTNCs and the family members who care for them. The guidelines also provide some practical advice for other clinicians when caring for someone with an LTNC, and outline indications for specialist referral. This article provides a brief summary. Full details of the methods and literature evaluation, as well as tools for implementation, are available in the full guideline.

  7. [Nutritional and metabolic aspects of neurological diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas Vilà, Mercè

    2014-01-01

    The central nervous system regulates food intake, homoeostasis of glucose and electrolytes, and starts the sensations of hunger and satiety. Different nutritional factors are involved in the pathogenesis of several neurological diseases. Patients with acute neurological diseases (traumatic brain injury, cerebral vascular accident hemorrhagic or ischemic, spinal cord injuries, and cancer) and chronic neurological diseases (Alzheimer's Disease and other dementias, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's Disease) increase the risk of malnutrition by multiple factors related to nutrient ingestion, abnormalities in the energy expenditure, changes in eating behavior, gastrointestinal changes, and by side effects of drugs administered. Patients with acute neurological diseases have in common the presence of hyper metabolism and hyper catabolism both associated to a period of prolonged fasting mainly for the frequent gastrointestinal complications, many times as a side effect of drugs administered. During the acute phase, spinal cord injuries presented a reduction in the energy expenditure but an increase in the nitrogen elimination. In order to correct the negative nitrogen balance increase intakes is performed with the result of a hyper alimentation that should be avoided due to the complications resulting. In patients with chronic neurological diseases and in the acute phase of cerebrovascular accident, dysphagia could be present which also affects intakes. Several chronic neurological diseases have also dementia, which lead to alterations in the eating behavior. The presence of malnutrition complicates the clinical evolution, increases muscular atrophy with higher incidence of respiratory failure and less capacity to disphagia recuperation, alters the immune response with higher rate of infections, increases the likelihood of fractures and of pressure ulcers, increases the incapacity degree and is an independent factor to increase mortality. The periodic nutritional

  8. Trends in American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology specialties and neurologic subspecialties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, L.R.; Juul, D.; Pascuzzi, R.M.; Aminoff, M.J.; Crumrine, P.K.; DeKosky, S.T.; Jozefowicz, R.F.; Massey, J.M.; Pirzada, N.; Tilton, A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To review the current status and recent trends in the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN) specialties and neurologic subspecialties and discuss the implications of those trends for subspecialty viability. Methods: Data on numbers of residency and fellowship programs and graduates and ABPN certification candidates and diplomates were drawn from several sources, including ABPN records, Web sites of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and the American Medical Association, and the annual medical education issues of the Journal of the American Medical Association. Results: About four-fifths of neurology graduates pursue fellowship training. While most recent neurology and child neurology graduates attempt to become certified by the ABPN, many clinical neurophysiologists elect not to do so. There appears to have been little interest in establishing fellowships in neurodevelopmental disabilities. The pass rate for fellowship graduates is equivalent to that for the “grandfathers” in clinical neurophysiology. Lower percentages of clinical neurophysiologists than specialists participate in maintenance of certification, and maintenance of certification pass rates are high. Conclusion: The initial enthusiastic interest in training and certification in some of the ABPN neurologic subspecialties appears to have slowed, and the long-term viability of those subspecialties will depend upon the answers to a number of complicated social, economic, and political questions in the new health care era. PMID:20855855

  9. Can repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation increase muscle strength in functional neurological paresis? A proof-of-principle study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, M; Koops, E A; Vroomen, Patrick; Van der Hoeven, J H; Aleman, A; Leenders, K L; Maurits, N M; van Beilen, M

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Therapeutic options are limited in functional neurological paresis disorder. Earlier intervention studies did not control for a placebo effect, hampering assessment of effectivity. A proof-of-principle investigation was conducted into the therapeutic potential of repetitive

  10. Cortical arousal in children and adolescents with functional neurological symptoms during the auditory oddball task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowska, Kasia; Melkonian, Dmitriy; Spooner, Chris J; Scher, Stephen; Meares, Russell

    2017-01-01

    Stress, pain, injury, and psychological trauma all induce arousal-mediated changes in brain network organization. The associated, high level of arousal may disrupt motor-sensory processing and result in aberrant patterns of motor function, including functional neurological symptoms. We used the auditory oddball paradigm to assess cortical arousal in children and adolescents with functional neurological symptom disorder. Electroencephalogram (EEG) data was collected in fifty-seven children and adolescents (41 girls; 16 boys, aged 8.5-18 years) with acute functional neurological symptoms and age- sex- matched controls during a conventional auditory oddball task. The high-resolution fragmentary decomposition technique was used to analyse the amplitude of event-related potentials (ERPs) to target tones at midline sites (Fz, Cz, and Pz). Compared to age- and sex-matched controls, and across all three midline sites, children and adolescents with functional neurological symptoms showed increased amplitude of all ERP components (P50, N100, P200, N200, and P300) (t-value range 2.28-8.20; p value-range 0.023 to physiological stressors can trigger functional neurological symptoms in some patients. Interventions that target cortical arousal may be central to the treatment of paediatric patients with functional neurological symptom disorder.

  11. Neurological soft signs in juvenile patients with Asperger syndrome, early-onset psychosis, and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoral, María; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; Rapado, Marta; Leiva, Marta; Moreno, Carmen; Giráldez, Marisa; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2010-11-01

    The study of neurological soft signs (NSS) in patients with Asperger syndrome may help us to elucidate the neurological basis of this disorder and to clarify its relationship with other neurodevelopmental disorders. The goal of this study was to compare the prevalence of NSS in a sample of patients with Asperger syndrome, early-onset psychosis and healthy controls. NSS were assessed by means of the Neurological Evaluation Scale in a sample of 29 patients with Asperger syndrome (mean age = 12.86 ± 2.58 years), 30 patients with first-episode early-onset psychoses (mean age 14.17 ± 1.02 years) and 30 healthy controls (mean age 12.33 ± 2.69 years). Significant group differences were found between Asperger syndrome patients and healthy controls both in all the Neurological Evaluation Scale subscales and in the Neurological Evaluation Scale total score. There were no significant differences between both groups of patients in any of the Neurological Evaluation Scale scores. NSS are more prevalent in Asperger syndrome than in healthy controls. The NSS profile was not disorder-specific in our samples of patients with Asperger syndrome and early-onset psychoses. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Neurological manifestations of Chikungunya and Zika infections

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    Talys J. Pinheiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The epidemics of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV and Zika virus (ZIKV infections have been considered the most important epidemiological occurrences in the Americas. The clinical picture of CHIKV infection is characterized by high fever, exanthema, myalgia, headaches, and arthralgia. Besides the typical clinical picture of CHIKV, atypical manifestations of neurological complications have been reported: meningo-encephalitis, meningoencephalo-myeloradiculitis, myeloradiculitis, myelitis, myeloneuropathy, Guillain-Barré syndrome and others. The diagnosis is based on clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory criteria. The most common symptoms of ZIKV infection are skin rash (mostly maculopapular, fever, arthralgia, myalgia, headache, and conjunctivitis. Some epidemics that have recently occurred in French Polynesia and Brazil, reported the most severe conditions, with involvement of the nervous system (Guillain-Barré syndrome, transverse myelitis, microcephaly and meningitis. The treatment for ZIKV and CHIKV infections are symptomatic and the management for neurological complications depends on the type of affliction. Intravenous immunoglobulin, plasmapheresis, and corticosteroid pulse therapy are options.

  13. Neuroelectrophysiological studies on neurological autoimmune diseases

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    Yin-hong LIU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The neuroelectrophysiological manifestations of four clinical typical neurological autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS, Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS, myasthenia gravis (MG, and polymyositis and dermatomyositis were reviewed in this paper. The diagnostic value of evoked potentials for multiple sclerosis, nerve conduction studies (NCS for Guillain-Barré syndrome, repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS and single-fiber electromyography (SFEMG for myasthenia gravis, and needle electromyography for polymyositis and dermatomyositis were respectively discussed. This review will help to have comprehensive understanding on electrophysiological examinations and their clinical significance in the diagnosis of neurological autoimmune diseases. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.09.004

  14. The neurology of aretaeus: radix pedis neurologia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J M S

    2013-01-01

    Aretaeus (Aretaios) was a physician born in Cappadocia in about the 2nd century AD, a student of medicine and physician in Alexandria. His works are found in eight books which espoused the physiological and pathological views of the Hippocratic principles derived from the pneumatists and the eclectic schools. Though he has been called the forgotten physician, it has been said that: 'after Hippocrates no single Greek author has equalled Aretaios'. In order to give an indication of his neurological legacy, this paper offers a summary of and quotations from his principal neurological contributions: migraine, vertigo, tetanus, epilepsy, melancholia, strokes and paralysis. One of his most important discoveries was the notion that the pyramidal tract decussates. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. [Neurological manifestations in atypical Kawasaki disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Guzmán, Edgar; Gámez-González, Luisa Berenise; Rivas-Larrauri, Francisco; Sorcia-Ramírez, Giovanni; Yamazaki-Nakashimada, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a type of systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology. Atypical Kawasaki disease is defined as that where there are signs and symptoms not corresponding to the classical criteria for this nosological entity. Children with atypical Kawasaki disease may present with acute abdominal symptoms, meningeal irritation, pneumonia or renal failure. We describe 4 children with ages ranging from 2 to 12 years who had atypical Kawasaki disease, with neurological and gastrointestinal symptoms as part of the systemic presentation of the disease. Treatment consisted of immunoglobulin and corticosteroids with good evolution. KD is a systemic vasculitis that can involve many territories. Atypical manifestations can mislead the clinician and delay diagnosis. Pediatricians and sub-specialists should be aware of these neurological manifestations in order to provide adequate and opportune treatment.

  16. Psychiatry and neurology: from dualism to integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobański, Jerzy A; Dudek, Dominika

    2013-01-01

    The two objectives of the following paper are: to make few remarks on the topic absorbing neurologists, psychiatrists, and neuropsychiatrists - integration and division of their specialties; and to describe the situation in Poland, reflected in the latest literature. The authors describe the former and present processes of approaches and divisions in psychiatry and neurology. They indicate dissemination of mutual methods of structural and action brain neuroimaging, neurophysiology, neurogenetics, and advanced neurophysiology diagnostics. As it seems, even the effectiveness of psychotherapy, has recently been associated with changes in brain in functional and even structural markers. The authors indicate the value of the strive to join the still divided specialties, reflected worldwide in attempts of common education and clinical cooperation of physicians. It can be expected that subsequent years will bring further triumphs of neuropsychiatry - a field that combines psychiatry and neurology.

  17. Neurology as career option among postgraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Namit B; Khadilkar, Satish V; Bangar, Sachin S; Patil, Tukaram R; Chaudhari, Chetan R

    2013-10-01

    In the context of inadequacy of neurology workforce in India, it is important to understand factors that post-graduate medical students consider for and against choosing neurology as their career option. Understanding these factors will help in planning strategies to encourage students to pursue a career in neurology. At present, there is a paucity of studies addressing this issue in India. (1) To analyze factors, which post-graduate students consider for and against choosing neurology as a career specialty. (2) To access the level and quality of neurology exposure in the current MBBS and MD curricula. Statewide questionnaire based study was conducted in the state of Maharashtra for students eligible to take DM neurology entrance examination (MD Medicine and MD Pediatrics). In this survey, 243 students were enrolled. Factors bringing students to neurology were - intellectual challenge and logical reasoning (72%), inspired by role model teachers (63%), better quality-of-life (51%) and scope for independent practice without expensive infrastructure (48%). Factors preventing students from taking neurology were - perception that most neurological diseases are degenerative (78%), neurology is mainly an academic specialty (40%), neurophobia (43%) and lack of procedures (57%). Inadequate exposure and resultant lack of self-confidence were common (31%, 70-80%). 84% of the students felt the need for a short term certification course in neurology after MD. To attract more students to neurology, "role model" teachers of neurology could interact and teach students extensively. Neurologists' efforts to shed their diagnostician's image and to shift their focus to therapeutics will help change the image of neurology. Out-patient neurology clinics should be incorporated early in the student's career. Procedures attract students; hence, they should be made conversant with procedures and interventions. Increasing the level of neurological exposure in our current MBBS and MD

  18. Neurology as career option among postgraduate medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namit B Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the context of inadequacy of neurology workforce in India, it is important to understand factors that post-graduate medical students consider for and against choosing neurology as their career option. Understanding these factors will help in planning strategies to encourage students to pursue a career in neurology. At present, there is a paucity of studies addressing this issue in India. Aims and Objectives: (1 To analyze factors, which post-graduate students consider for and against choosing neurology as a career specialty. (2 To access the level and quality of neurology exposure in the current MBBS and MD curricula. Materials and Methods: Statewide questionnaire based study was conducted in the state of Maharashtra for students eligible to take DM neurology entrance examination (MD Medicine and MD Pediatrics. Results: In this survey, 243 students were enrolled. Factors bringing students to neurology were - intellectual challenge and logical reasoning (72%, inspired by role model teachers (63%, better quality-of-life (51% and scope for independent practice without expensive infrastructure (48%. Factors preventing students from taking neurology were - perception that most neurological diseases are degenerative (78%, neurology is mainly an academic specialty (40%, neurophobia (43% and lack of procedures (57%. Inadequate exposure and resultant lack of self-confidence were common (31%, 70-80%. 84% of the students felt the need for a short term certification course in neurology after MD. Conclusions: To attract more students to neurology, "role model" teachers of neurology could interact and teach students extensively. Neurologists′ efforts to shed their diagnostician′s image and to shift their focus to therapeutics will help change the image of neurology. Out-patient neurology clinics should be incorporated early in the student′s career. Procedures attract students; hence, they should be made conversant with procedures and

  19. Effects of music and music therapy on mood in neurological patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raglio, Alfredo; Attardo, Lapo; Gontero, Giulia; Rollino, Silvia; Groppo, Elisabetta; Granieri, Enrico

    2015-03-22

    Mood disorder and depressive syndromes represent a common comorbid condition in neurological disorders with a prevalence rate that ranges between 20% and 50% of patients with stroke, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson's disease. Notwithstanding, these conditions are often under-diagnosed and under-treated in the clinical practice and negatively affect the functional recovery, the adherence to treatment, the quality of life, and even the mortality risk. In addition, a bidirectional association between depression and neurological disorders may be possible being that depressive syndromes may be considered as a risk factor for certain neurological diseases. Despite the large amount of evidence regarding the effects of music therapy (MT) and other musical interventions on different aspects of neurological disorders, no updated article reviewing outcomes such as mood, emotions, depression, activity of daily living and so on is actually available; for this reason, little is known about the effectiveness of music and MT on these important outcomes in neurological patients. The aim of this article is to provide a narrative review of the current literature on musical interventions and their effects on mood and depression in patients with neurological disorders. Searching on PubMed and PsycInfo databases, 25 studies corresponding to the inclusion criteria have been selected; 11 of them assess the effects of music or MT in Dementia, 9 explore the efficacy on patients with Stroke, and 5 regard other neurological diseases like Multiple Sclerosis, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/motor neuron disease, Chronic quadriplegia, Parkinson's Disease, and Acquired Brain dysfunctions. Selected studies are based on relational and rehabilitative music therapy approaches or concern music listening interventions. Most of the studies support the efficacy of MT and other musical interventions on mood, depressive syndromes, and quality of life on neurological patients.

  20. Chest physiotherapy techniques in neurological intensive care units of India: A survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Anup; Chakravarthy, Kalyana; Rao, Bhamini K

    2014-06-01

    Neurological intensive care units (ICUs) are a rapidly developing sub-specialty of neurosciences. Chest physiotherapy techniques are of great value in neurological ICUs in preventing, halting, or reversing the impairments caused due to neurological disorder and ICU stay. However, chest physiotherapy techniques should be modified to a greater extent in the neurological ICU as compared with general ICUs. The aim of this study is to obtain data on current chest physiotherapy practices in neurological ICUs of India. A tertiary care hospital in Karnataka, India, and cross-sectional survey. A questionnaire was formulated and content validated to assess the current chest physiotherapy practices in neurological ICUs of India. The questionnaire was constructed online and a link was distributed via E-mail to 185 physiotherapists working in neurological ICUs across India. Descriptive statistics. The response rate was 44.3% (n = 82); 31% of the physiotherapists were specialized in cardiorespiratory physiotherapy and 30% were specialized in neurological physiotherapy. Clapping, vibration, postural drainage, aerosol therapy, humidification, and suctioning were used commonly used airway clearance (AC) techniques by the majority of physiotherapists. However, devices for AC techniques such as Flutter, Acapella, and standard positive expiratory pressure devices were used less frequently for AC. Techniques such as autogenic drainage and active cycle of breathing technique are also frequently used when appropriate for the patients. Lung expansion therapy techniques such as breathing exercises, incentive spirometry exercises, and positioning, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation of breathing are used by majority of physiotherapists. Physiotherapists in this study were using conventional chest physiotherapy techniques more frequently in comparison to the devices available for AC.

  1. Brain MRI and SPECT in the diagnosis of early neurological involvement in Wilson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piga, Mario; Satta, Loredana; Serra, Alessandra; Loi, Gianluigi; Murru, Alessandra; Demelia, Luigi; Sias, Alessandro; Marrosu, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of brain MRI and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in early detection of central nervous system abnormalities in patients affected by Wilson's disease (WD) with or without neurological involvement. Out of 25 consecutive WD patients, 13 showed hepatic involvement, ten hepatic and neurological manifestations, and twp hepatic, neurological, and psychiatric symptoms, including mainly movement disorders, major depression, and psychosis. Twenty-four healthy, age-gender matched subjects served as controls. All patients underwent brain MRI and 99m Tc-ethyl-cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT before starting specific therapy. Voxel-by-voxel analyses were performed using statistical parametric mapping to compare differences in 99m Tc-ECD brain uptake between the two groups. Brain MRI showed T2-weighted hyperintensities in seven patients (28%), six of whom were affected by hepatic and neurological forms. Brain perfusion SPECT showed pathological data in 19 patients (76%), revealing diffuse or focal hypoperfusion in superior frontal (Brodmann area (BA) 6), prefrontal (BA 9), parietal (BA 40), and occipital (BA 18, BA 39) cortices in temporal gyri (BA 37, BA 21) and in caudatus and putamen. Moreover, hepatic involvement was detected in nine subjects; eight presented both hepatic and neurological signs, while two exhibited WD-correlated hepatic, neurological, and psychiatric alterations. All but one patient with abnormal MRI matched with abnormal ECD SPECT. Pathologic MRI findings were obtained in six out of ten patients with hepatic and neurological involvement while abnormal ECD SPECT was revealed in eight patients. Both patients with hepatic, neurological, and psychiatric involvement displayed abnormal ECD SPECT and one displayed an altered MRI. These findings suggest that ECD SPECT might be useful in detecting early brain damage in WD, not only in the perspective of assessing and treating motor impairment but also in evaluating better the

  2. [German neurology and neurologists during the Third Reich: Preconditions and general framework before and after 1933].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, M; Karenberg, A; Fangerau, H

    2016-08-01

    This article focuses on the institutional development of neurology in Germany up to the rise to power of the National Socialists and the radical sociopolitical changes after 1933. A wide range of scattered secondary literature was assessed and evaluated. Additionally, some original sources are literally quoted and interpreted according to the context. Since the end of the nineteenth century a complicated process of separation from internal medicine and psychiatry led to the formation of a self-conscious discipline of neurology. The first generation of German neurologists succeeded in founding the German Journal for Neurology ("Deutsche Zeitschrift für Nervenheilkunde") in 1890 and their own neurological association, the Society of German Neurologists ("Gesellschaft Deutscher Nervenärzte", GDN) in 1907. On an international scale, however, the institutional implementation of neurology with only a small number of chairs and few neurology departments remained more than modest. The ambitions for autonomy ended 2 years after the change of power in 1933. Regulatory interventions by the government and psychiatric interests led to the fusion of the GDN with the psychiatric specialist society, the new association being called the Society of German Neurologists and Psychiatrists ("Gesellschaft Deutscher Neurologen und Psychiater", GDNP) in 1935. In this group psychiatrists dominated the discourse. The expulsion, imprisonment and murder of physicians declared as non-Aryan or Jewish along with the forced consolidation ("Gleichschaltung") at the universities prompted profound changes in medical and academic life. It remains an ongoing challenge of neurological historical research to measure the impact of this upheaval on the few neurology departments in hospitals and private practices.

  3. Neurologic outcome of surgical and conservative treatment of rheumatoid cervical spine subluxation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfs, Jasper F C; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Fehlings, Michael G; van Tulder, Maurits W; Boers, Maarten; Peul, Wilco C

    2009-12-15

    Rheumatoid arthritis commonly involves the upper cervical spine and can cause significant neurologic morbidity and mortality. However, there is no consensus on the optimal timing for surgical intervention: whether surgery should be performed prophylactically or once neurologic deficits have become apparent. A systematic review of the literature was performed to analyze neurologic outcome (Ranawat) and survival time (Kaplan-Meier) after surgical or conservative treatment using the MOOSE (Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) and GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation system) criteria. Twenty-five observational studies were selected. No randomized controlled trials (RCTs) could be found. All of the studies had a high risk of bias. Twenty-three studies reported the neurologic outcome after surgery for 752 patients. Neurologic deterioration rarely occurred in Ranawat I and II patients. Ranawat III patients did not fully recover. The 10-year survival rates were 77%, 63%, 47%, and 30% for Ranawat I, II, IIIA, and IIIB, respectively. The Ranawat IIIB patients had a significantly worse outcome. Another 185 patients treated conservatively were described in 7 studies. Neurologic deterioration rarely occurred in Ranawat I patients, but was almost inevitable in Ranawat II, IIIA, and IIIB patients. The Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a 10-year overall survival rate of 40%. There are no RCTs that compared surgery with conservative treatment. In observational studies, surgical neurologic outcomes were better than conservative treatment in all patients with cervical spine involvement, and in asymptomatic patients with no neurologic impairment (Ranawat I) the outcomes were similar; however, the evidence is weak. Survival time of surgical and conservative treatment could not be compared.

  4. Exergaming for individuals with neurological disability: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Rosly, Maziah; Mat Rosly, Hadi; Davis Oam, Glen M; Husain, Ruby; Hasnan, Nazirah

    2017-04-01

    Exergames have the potential to enable persons with disabilities to take part in physical activities that are of appropriate "dose-potency" and enjoyable within a relatively safe home environment. It overcomes some of the challenges regarding transportation difficulties in getting to commercial gymnasium facilities, reducing physical activities perceived as "boring" or getting access into the built environment that may be "wheelchair unfriendly". This systematic review assessed available evidence whether "exergaming" could be a feasible modality for contributing to a recommended exercise prescription according to current ACSM™ or WHO guidelines for physical activity. Strategies used to search for published articles were conducted using separate search engines (Google Scholar™, PubMed™ and Web of Science™) on cardiometabolic responses and perceived exertion during exergaming among neurologically-disabled populations possessing similar physical disabilities. Each study was categorized using the SCIRE-Pedro evidence scale. Ten of the 144 articles assessed were identified and met specific inclusion criteria. Key outcome measures included responses, such as energy expenditure, heart rate and perceived exertion. Twelve out of the 17 types of exergaming interventions met the ACSM™ or WHO recommendations of "moderate intensity" physical activity. Exergames such as Wii Jogging, Bicycling, Boxing, DDR and GameCycle reported moderate physical activity intensities. While Wii Snowboarding, Skiing and Bowling only produced light intensities. Preliminary cross-sectional evidence in this review suggested that exergames have the potential to provide moderate intensity physical activity as recommended by ACSM™ or WHO in populations with neurological disabilities. However, more research is needed to document exergaming's efficacy from longitudinal observations before definitive conclusions can be drawn. Implications for Rehabilitation Exergaming can be deployed as

  5. Minor Neurological Dysfunction in Children with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punt, Marja; de Jong, Marianne; de Groot, Erik; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To improve understanding of brain function in children with severe dyslexia in terms of minor neurological dysfunctions (MNDs). Method: One hundred and four children (81 males, 23 females; age range 7-12y; mean age 9y 7mo, SD 1y 2mo;) with severe dyslexia (the presence of a Full-scale IQ score of greater than or equal to 85, retardation in…

  6. Are neurology residents interested in headache?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gago-Veiga, A B; Santos-Lasaosa, S; Viguera Romero, J; Pozo-Rosich, P

    The years of residency are the pillars of the subsequent practice in every medical specialty. The aim of our study is to evaluate the current situation, degree of involvement, main interests, and perceived quality of the training received by Spanish residents of neurology, specifically in the area of headache. A self-administered survey was designed by the Headache Study Group of the Spanish Society of Neurology (GECSEN) and was sent via e-mail to all residents who were members of the Society as of May 2015. Fifty-three residents completed the survey (N = 426, 12.4%): 6% were first year residents, 25.5% second year, 23.5% third year, and 45% fourth year residents, all from 13 different Spanish autonomous communities. The areas of greatest interest are, in this order: Vascular neurology, headache, and epilepsy. Of them, 85% believe that the area of headache is undervalued. More than half of residents (52.8%) do not rotate in specific Headache Units and only 35.8% complete their training dominating anaesthetic block and toxin infiltration techniques. Of them, 81.1% believe that research is scarce or absent; 69.8% have never made a poster/presentation, 79.3% have not published and only 15% collaborate on research projects in this area. Lastly, 40% believe that they have not received adequate training. Headache is among the areas that interest our residents the most; however, we believe that we must improve their training both at a patient healthcare level and as researchers. Thus, increasing the number of available courses, creating educational web pages, involving residents in research, and making a rotation in a specialised unit mandatory are among the fundamental objectives of the GECSEN. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Emergency Neurological Life Support: Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauch, Edward C; Pineda, Jose A; Hemphill, J Claude

    2015-12-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a subset of stroke due to bleeding within the parenchyma of the brain. It is potentially lethal, and survival depends on ensuring an adequate airway, reversal of coagulopathy, and proper diagnosis. ICH was chosen as an Emergency Neurological Life Support protocol because intervention within the first critical hour may improve outcome, and it is critical to have site-specific protocols to drive care quickly and efficiently.

  8. Music therapy in neurological rehabilitation settings

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbieta Galińska

    2015-01-01

    The neurologic music therapy is a new scope of music therapy. Its techniques deal with dysfunctions resulting from diseases of the human nervous system. Music can be used as an alternative modality to access functions unavailable through non-musical stimulus. Processes in the brain activated by the influence of music can be generalized and transferred to non-musical functions. Therefore, in clinical practice, the translation of non-musical therapeutic exercises into analogous, isomorphic ...

  9. Complementary and Integrative Medicine for Neurologic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Rebecca Erwin; Baute, Vanessa; Wahbeh, Helané

    2017-09-01

    Although many neurologic conditions are common, cures are rare and conventional treatments are often limited. Many patients, therefore, turn to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The use of selected, evidence-based CAM therapies for the prevention and treatment of migraine, carpal tunnel syndrome, and dementia are presented. Evidence is growing many of modalities, including nutrition, exercise, mind-body medicine, supplements, and acupuncture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Neurological manifestations of excessive alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas-Ballvé, Anna; Grau-López, Laia; Morillas, Rosa María; Planas, Ramón

    2017-12-01

    This article reviews the different acute and chronic neurological manifestations of excessive alcohol consumption that affect the central or peripheral nervous system. Several mechanisms can be implicated depending on the disorder, ranging from nutritional factors, alcohol-related toxicity, metabolic changes and immune-mediated mechanisms. Recognition and early treatment of these manifestations is essential given their association with high morbidity and significantly increased mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U., AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  11. Results and tasks of radiation neurology at the present-day stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torubarov, F.S.

    1991-01-01

    The main stage are presented of development of radiation clinical neurology, paying attention to the contribution of Soviet clinicals in connection with assessment of possible responses at the Chernobyl accident. Neurological disorders in ARS of various degrees of severity at different periods of diseases as well as during irradiation at doses, not causing ARS development were described. The importance of clinicophysiological investigations for assessment of CNS function during the development of disease and its aftereffects was shown. The role of psychological investigations on mental abilities of persons, exposed to acute ionizing radiation was emphasized

  12. Quality of life and psychological problems in patients undergoing neurological rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Anupam; Deepika, S.; Taly, A. B.; Srivastava, Abhishek; Surender, Vishal; Thyloth, Murali

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To assess the quality of life (QoL) and prevalence of psychological problems (PP) in patients with neurological illness, and their correlation with functional abilities. Materials and Methods: Prospective cross-sectional study conducted in the neurological rehabilitation unit of tertiary research hospital in 30 consecutive hospitalized patients (21 men), age 16-55 years (34.63?11.87). Outcome Measure: WHOQoL-BREF was used to assess QoL. The prevalence of PP was recorded using Hospital An...

  13. Nanotechnology based diagnostics for neurological disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurek, Nicholas S.; Chandra, Sathees B.

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology involves probing and manipulating matter at the molecular level. Nanotechnology based molecular diagnostics have the potential to alleviate the suffering caused by many diseases, including neurological disorders, due to the unique properties of nanomaterials. Most neurological illnesses are multifactorial conditions and many of these are also classified as neurobehavioral disorders. Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington disease, cerebral ischemia, epilepsy, schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders like Rett syndrome are some examples of neurological disorders that could be better treated, diagnosed, prevented and possibly cured using nanotechnology. In order to improve the quality of life for disease afflicted people, a wide range of nanomaterials that include gold and silica nanoparticles, quantum dots and DNA along with countless other forms of nanotechnology have been investigated regarding their usefulness in advancing molecular diagnostics. Other small scaled materials like viruses and proteins also have potential for use as molecular diagnostic tools. Information obtained from nanotechnology based diagnostics can be stored and manipulated using bioinformatics software. More advanced nanotechnology based diagnostic procedures for the acquisition of even greater proteomic and genomic knowledge can then be developed along with better ways to fight various diseases. Nanotechnology also has numerous applications besides those related to biotechnology and medicine. In this article, we will discuss and analyze many novel nanotechnology based diagnostic techniques at our disposal today. (author)

  14. Sparring And Neurological Function In Professional Boxers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W Stiller

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDespite increased interest regarding the potentially long-term negative impact of chronic traumatic brain injury (CTBI, limited research had been conducted regarding such injuries and neurological outcomes in real world settings. To increase understanding regarding the relationship between sparring (e.g., number of years actively training for professional boxing and neurological functioning, professional boxers (n = 237 who competed in Maryland between 2003 to 2008 completed measures regarding sparring exposure (Cumulative Sparring Index; CSI and performance on tests of cognition (Symbol Digit Modalities Test; SDMT and balance (Sharpened Romberg Test; SRT. Measures were completed prior to boxing matches. Higher scores on the CSI (increased sparring exposure were associated with poorer performance on both tests of cognition (SDMT and balance (SRT. A threshold effect was noted regarding performance on the SDMT, with those reporting CSI values greater than about 150 experiencing a decline in cognition. A history of frequent and/or intense sparring may pose a significant risk for developing boxing associated neurological sequelae. Implementing administration of clinically meaningful tests before bouts, such as the CSI, SDMT, and/or the SRT, as well as documentation of results into the boxer’s physicals or medical profiles may be an important step for improving boxing safety.

  15. Neurological Involvement in Behcet’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşen Akman-Demir

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most dreaded organ involvement in Behcet’s disease is neurological involvement. The majority of the cases present with parenchymal CNS involvement characterized as a brainstem meningoencephalitis; a rarer presentation is dural sinus thrombosis. Both situations very rarely occur in the same patient. Since parenchymal neurological involvement in Behcet’s disease is associated with severe sequelae or mortality, it is a poor prognostic organ involvement. In contrast, dural sinus thrombosis in Behcet’s disease has a much better prognosis as compared to the parenchymal involvement, as well as dural sinus thromboses due to other etiologies. There are no randomized controlled treatment trials carried out in neuro-Behcet disease. Mostly accepted approach is to give high dose intravenous steroids at the atack, with a very slow tapering of steroid dose, and adding a long term immunosuppresant. One of the most critical points in neuro-Behcet treatment is not to stop steroids prematurely, and abruptly. It is notable that with the present treatment options, prognosis of neurological involvement in Behcet’s disease is not as grave as it was in the previous years.

  16. Nanotechnology based diagnostics for neurological disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurek, Nicholas S.; Chandra, Sathees B., E-mail: schandra@roosevelt.edu [Department of Biological, Chemical and Physical Sciences, Roosevelt University, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Nanotechnology involves probing and manipulating matter at the molecular level. Nanotechnology based molecular diagnostics have the potential to alleviate the suffering caused by many diseases, including neurological disorders, due to the unique properties of nanomaterials. Most neurological illnesses are multifactorial conditions and many of these are also classified as neurobehavioral disorders. Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington disease, cerebral ischemia, epilepsy, schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders like Rett syndrome are some examples of neurological disorders that could be better treated, diagnosed, prevented and possibly cured using nanotechnology. In order to improve the quality of life for disease afflicted people, a wide range of nanomaterials that include gold and silica nanoparticles, quantum dots and DNA along with countless other forms of nanotechnology have been investigated regarding their usefulness in advancing molecular diagnostics. Other small scaled materials like viruses and proteins also have potential for use as molecular diagnostic tools. Information obtained from nanotechnology based diagnostics can be stored and manipulated using bioinformatics software. More advanced nanotechnology based diagnostic procedures for the acquisition of even greater proteomic and genomic knowledge can then be developed along with better ways to fight various diseases. Nanotechnology also has numerous applications besides those related to biotechnology and medicine. In this article, we will discuss and analyze many novel nanotechnology based diagnostic techniques at our disposal today. (author)

  17. [Neurology in mediaeval medical poetry in Latin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Frutos-González, V; Guerrero-Peral, A L

    Medical poems written in Latin during the Middle Ages constitute an important part of mediaeval literature on medicine and offer the advantage of making it easier for the reader to memorise their contents. They were to exert a notable influence of later medical literature. An analysis of works such as Medicinalis liber by Benedictus Crispus of Milan; De cultura hortorum by Walahfrid Strabo; the anonymous work known as Macer floridus; De pulsibus, De urinis, and De signis et symptomatibus aegritudinum, three treatises by Aegidius of Corbeil or the Poema anatomicum, belonging to the Salerno Medical School, reveals what neurological aspects were known in the Middle Ages and how important this medical discipline was in that period. References to pathologies in the field of neurology are very frequent in mediaeval medical poems in Latin. They deal with diseases involving the nerves, cephalea, tremors, epilepsy, vertigos and disorders affecting memory or the sense organs. These mediaeval medical works in Latin offer us an interesting insight into the way neurological diseases were viewed by western physicians in the Middle Ages, as well as describing the remedies that were employed at that time to treat them, most of which involved the use of plants that were considered to have medicinal properties.

  18. Human endogenous retroviruses in neurologic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Tove

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses are pathogenic - in other species than the human. Disease associations for Human Endogenous RetroViruses (HERVs) are emerging, but so far an unequivocal pathogenetic cause-effect relationship has not been established. A role for HERVs has been proposed in neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases as diverse as multiple sclerosis (MS) and schizophrenia (SCZ). Particularly for MS, many aspects of the activation and involvement of specific HERV families (HERV-H/F and HERV-W/MSRV) have been reported, both for cells in the circulation and in the central nervous system. Notably envelope genes and their gene products (Envs) appear strongly associated with the disease. For SCZ, for ALS, and for HIV-associated dementia (HAD), indications are accumulating for involvement of the HERV-K family, and also HERV-H/F and/or HERV-W. Activation is reasonably a prerequisite for causality as most HERV sequences remain quiescent in non-pathological conditions, so the importance of regulatory pathways and epigenetics involved in regulating HERV activation, derepression, and also involvement of retroviral restriction factors, is emerging. HERV-directed antiretrovirals have potential as novel therapeutic paradigms in neurologic disease, particularly in MS. The possible protective or ameliorative effects of antiretroviral therapy in MS are substantiated by reports that treatment of HIV infection may be associated with a significantly decreased risk of MS. Further studies of HERVs, their role in neurologic diseases, and their potential as therapeutic targets are essential. © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Residency Training: Work engagement during neurology training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zis, Panagiotis; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Artemiadis, Artemios K

    2016-08-02

    Work engagement, defined as a positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption, can ameliorate patient care and reduce medical errors. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate work engagement among neurology residents in the region of Attica, Greece. In total, 113 residents participated in this study. Demographic and work-related characteristics, as well as emotional exhaustion and personality traits (neuroticism), were examined via an anonymous questionnaire. Work engagement was measured by the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. The study sample had a mean age of 34.6 ± 3.6 years, ranging from 26 to 45 years. Sixty-two (54.9%) participants were women and 45 (39.8%) were married. After adjusting for sex, emotional exhaustion, and neuroticism, the main factors associated with work engagement were autonomy and chances for professional development. Providing more chances for trainees' professional development as well as allowing for and supporting greater job autonomy may improve work engagement during neurology training. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  20. Neurological Manifestations In Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    youssef HNACH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe purpose of this retrospective study was to report neurological manifestations noted in patients who were monitored for inflammatory bowel disease, in order to document the pathophysiological, clinical, progressive, and therapeutic characteristics of this entity.Material and methodsWe conducted a retrospective study on patients monitored -in the gastroenterology service in Ibn Sina Hospital in Rabat, Morocco- for inflammatory bowel disease from 1992 till 2013 and who developed neurological manifestations during its course. Patients with iatrogenic complications were excluded, as well as patients with cerebrovascular risk factors.ResultsThere were 6 patients, 4 of whom have developed peripheral manifestations. Electromyography enabled the diagnosis to be made and the outcome was favorable with disappearance of clinical manifestations and normalization of the electromyography.The other 2 patients, monitored for Crohn’s disease, developed ischemic stroke. Cerebral computed tomography angiography provided positive and topographic diagnosis. Two patients were admitted to specialized facilities.ConclusionNeurological manifestations in inflammatory bowel disease are rarely reported.  Peripheral neuropathies and stroke remain the most common manifestations. The mechanisms of these manifestations are not clearly defined yet. Currently, we hypothesize the interaction of immune mediators.

  1. [Chronic subdural hematoma and transient neurologic deficits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoli, F; Milandre, L; Lemarquis, P; Bazan, M; Jau, P

    1990-01-01

    Three cases of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) revealed by transient neurological accidents are reported. Although well-known this condition is rare: 1 to 9 p. 100 of CSDHs. Questioning may bring out a history of cranial injury and headache, even minor ones, which are unusual in transient ischemic accidents (TIA). Transient phenomena, such as motor aphasia or speech interruption, point to the diagnosis, especially in male patients over 60 years of age. The finding at electroencephalography of a delta activity more than 48 hours after a TND should exclude the diagnosis of TIA until a CT scan is performed. Since the causes of neurological deficits regressing within less than 24 hours may be ischemia as well a hemorrhage or tumour, the term of transient neurological accident (TNA) should preferably be used, and an emergency CT scan should be performed for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Owing to the possibility of another concomitant cause of TNA, the finding of a subdural haematoma should not deter from pursuing cardiovascular examinations. The mechanism of TNA probably involves a vascular factor, as suggested by I-123 IMP cerebral SPECT which shows an intercritical decrease in cerebral blood flow and/or an epileptic factor.

  2. The role of neurosciences intensive care in neurological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Ahmed-Ramadan; Damian, Maxwell; Eynon, C Andy

    2013-10-01

    The neurosciences intensive care unit provides specialized medical and nursing care to both the neurosurgical and neurological patient. This second of two articles describes the role it plays in the management of patients with neurological conditions.

  3. The Clinical Spectrum of Neurological Manifestations in HIV/AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is primarily neurotrophic and lymphotrophic. Diverse neurologic sequealae have been documented with variations based on disease severity, but geographic variation may determine the distribution of these neurological complications. Objective: This study was ...

  4. The treatment of neurological diseases under a new light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokaia, M; Sørensen, A T

    2011-01-01

    brain and during various neurological conditions. The clinical perspectives of adopting optogenetics as a novel treatment strategy for human neurological disorders have generated considerable interest, largely because of the enormous potential demonstrated in recent rodent and nonhuman primate studies...

  5. Pattern of neurological diseases as seen in outpatient children: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    : This was a prospective cohort study of paediatric patients reporting to the Paediatric Neurological Clinic at Orotta Referral Hospital with neurological diseases. The systematic evaluation of patients was carried out from 2002 to 2005. Results: ...

  6. Informal caregivers of clients with neurological conditions: profiles, patterns and risk factors for distress from a home care prevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Lori A; Hirdes, John; Poss, Jeff W; Slegers-Boyd, Caroline; Caldarelli, Hilary; Martin, Lynn

    2015-08-28

    Individuals living in the community with neurological conditions receive the majority of their care from informal caregivers. The purpose of this project was to provide a profile of caregivers of home care clients with neurological conditions. The study also examined prevalence of caregiver distress and the association between neurological conditions and other client and caregiver characteristics with distress. The study population included Canadian home care clients in the Winnipeg Regional Health Authority in Manitoba and in the province of Ontario. Clients with RAI-Home Care (RAI-HC) assessment data from 2003 to 2010 were examined. Neurological conditions of interest included Alzheimer's disease and related dementias, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Huntington disease, epilepsy, muscular dystrophy, cerebral palsy, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, and stroke. Descriptive statistics were analyzed to describe home care client characteristics and caregiver characteristics for each neurological condition. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors associated with caregiver distress. A substantial proportion of home care clients were found to have one or more of the neurological conditions (38.8% to 41.9%). Caregiver distress was twice as prevalent among caregivers of clients with neurological conditions (28.0%). The largest associations with caregiver distress were the amount of informal care hours provided in a week and the MAPLe algorithm, an indicator of a client's level of priority for care. After adjustment for client characteristics, Huntington disease was the neurological condition most strongly associated with caregiver distress. However, clients' clinical characteristics and informal care hours had a stronger association with caregiver distress than the presence of a neurological condition. Provision of formal home care services provided a protective effect from caregiver distress

  7. Neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience: contributions to neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javor, Andrija; Koller, Monika; Lee, Nick; Chamberlain, Laura; Ransmayr, Gerhard

    2013-02-06

    'Neuromarketing' is a term that has often been used in the media in recent years. These public discussions have generally centered around potential ethical aspects and the public fear of negative consequences for society in general, and consumers in particular. However, positive contributions to the scientific discourse from developing a biological model that tries to explain context-situated human behavior such as consumption have often been neglected. We argue for a differentiated terminology, naming commercial applications of neuroscientific methods 'neuromarketing' and scientific ones 'consumer neuroscience'. While marketing scholars have eagerly integrated neuroscientific evidence into their theoretical framework, neurology has only recently started to draw its attention to the results of consumer neuroscience. In this paper we address key research topics of consumer neuroscience that we think are of interest for neurologists; namely the reward system, trust and ethical issues. We argue that there are overlapping research topics in neurology and consumer neuroscience where both sides can profit from collaboration. Further, neurologists joining the public discussion of ethical issues surrounding neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience could contribute standards and experience gained in clinical research. We identify the following areas where consumer neuroscience could contribute to the field of neurology:First, studies using game paradigms could help to gain further insights into the underlying pathophysiology of pathological gambling in Parkinson's disease, frontotemporal dementia, epilepsy, and Huntington's disease.Second, we identify compulsive buying as a common interest in neurology and consumer neuroscience. Paradigms commonly used in consumer neuroscience could be applied to patients suffering from Parkinson's disease and frontotemporal dementia to advance knowledge of this important behavioral symptom.Third, trust research in the medical context lacks

  8. Neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience: contributions to neurology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background ‘Neuromarketing’ is a term that has often been used in the media in recent years. These public discussions have generally centered around potential ethical aspects and the public fear of negative consequences for society in general, and consumers in particular. However, positive contributions to the scientific discourse from developing a biological model that tries to explain context-situated human behavior such as consumption have often been neglected. We argue for a differentiated terminology, naming commercial applications of neuroscientific methods ‘neuromarketing’ and scientific ones ‘consumer neuroscience’. While marketing scholars have eagerly integrated neuroscientific evidence into their theoretical framework, neurology has only recently started to draw its attention to the results of consumer neuroscience. Discussion In this paper we address key research topics of consumer neuroscience that we think are of interest for neurologists; namely the reward system, trust and ethical issues. We argue that there are overlapping research topics in neurology and consumer neuroscience where both sides can profit from collaboration. Further, neurologists joining the public discussion of ethical issues surrounding neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience could contribute standards and experience gained in clinical research. Summary We identify the following areas where consumer neuroscience could contribute to the field of neurology: First, studies using game paradigms could help to gain further insights into the underlying pathophysiology of pathological gambling in Parkinson’s disease, frontotemporal dementia, epilepsy, and Huntington’s disease. Second, we identify compulsive buying as a common interest in neurology and consumer neuroscience. Paradigms commonly used in consumer neuroscience could be applied to patients suffering from Parkinson’s disease and frontotemporal dementia to advance knowledge of this important behavioral symptom

  9. "Triggers" for referral to neurology palliative care service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Richard Shek-Kwan; Poon, Wai Shuen

    2017-08-31

    In neurology, many diseases are still incurable and have a fatal outcome. Palliative care (PC) definitely has a role in neurology. We discuss the screening criteria for PC referral, known as 'triggers' in different neurological diseases. Different clinical settings including in-patient and out-patient are covered. We hope this review can remind clinicians to involve PC in the appropriate patient group. Further clinical studies are expected to validate the triggers and trajectories of various neurological diseases.

  10. [Comparative analysis of the neurological status in patients with lumbar discopathy receiving conservative or operative therapies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziszewski, Krzysztof Roch

    2007-03-01

    Neurological examination is one of basic assessment methods of the patients with discopathy of the lumbar spine. Neurological status of the patients can significantly change depending on progression of the disease of the intervertebral disc. It often determines a selection of the treatment method; it is also important criterion for assessment of efficacy of the accepted procedure. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate neurological status in the patients with lumbar discopathy receiving only conservative therapy as well as undergoing surgical procedures. 665 patients aged between 16 and 76 years with discopathy at L4-L5 and L5-S1 levels have been enrolled to the study. In estimated group 348 patients received only a conservative therapy whereas 317 patients undergone an operative procedure. Study included hospitalization period and more than ten year period after discharge from the Clinic. Collected material has been analyzed in tree age groups: young persons (up to 30), mid age persons (31-50 years) and older persons (at the age of above 50). Neurological examination included analysis of the following parameters: cough symptom, Laségue's sign, stretch reflexes (patellar, ankle), superficial perception and vibration, function of sphincters, muscular power). No significant progression of the neurological symptoms up to the fifth year of treatment has been seen in group of patients receiving conservative therapy. In group of operated patients starting the second year after surgical procedure, number of diagnosed pathological neurological symptoms systematically was increasing. Patients at the age above 50 presented significantly higher level of neurological disturbances than young and patients in mid age. In the baseline study, level of diagnosed neurological disturbances in group of patients referred to surgical procedure was significantly higher than in group of patients receiving only conservative therapy. Conservative treatment and operative

  11. Effect of acupuncture on pain and quality of life in canine neurological and musculoskeletal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Nuno E O F; Luna, Stelio P L; Joaquim, Jean G F; Coutinho, Heloisa D; Possebon, Fábio S

    2017-09-01

    This prospective study investigated the effects of acupuncture alone or combined with analgesics in chronic pain and quality of life assessed by owners for up to 24 weeks in 181 dogs with neurological and musculoskeletal diseases. The scores before and after the onset of treatment were evaluated using the Wilcoxon test and the evolution of success was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier curves. Differences were considered significant at P quality of life assessment, and visual analog scales (VAS) for pain and locomotion were 79%, 84%, 78%, and 78% of the animals, respectively, when both diseases and groups of treatment were combined. Dogs with musculoskeletal disorders had greater improvement in HCPI ( P = 0.003) and VAS locomotion ( P = 0.045) than those with neurological disorders. Use of acupuncture alone or in combination with analgesics reduced pain and improved quality of life in dogs with neurological and musculoskeletal diseases.

  12. Feasibility of the collection of patient-reported outcomes in an ambulatory neurology clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Lidia M V R; Schwamm, Eli; Moura Junior, Valdery; Seitz, Michael P; Hsu, John; Cole, Andrew J; Schwamm, Lee H

    2016-12-06

    To determine whether patients could self-report physical and mental health assessments in the waiting room and whether these assessments would be associated with modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and Quality of Life in Epilepsy (QOLIE-10) scores. We offered iPad-based surveys to consecutive adult neurology patients at check-in to collect patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). We collected demographic and clinical data on 6,075 patients through survey or administrative claims and PROMs from participating patients. We compared demographic characteristics of participants and nonparticipants and tested associations between physical and mental health scores and mRS and QOLIE-10. Of 6,075 patients seen by neurologists during the study period, 2,992 (49.3%) participated in the survey. Compared to nonparticipating patients, participating patients more often were privately insured (53.5% vs 42.7%, p neurology (nonsubspecialty) clinics (53.1% vs 46.6%, p Neurology.

  13. The Pattern Of Neurological Admissions At The Lagos University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the profile of neurological admissions at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital Methods: Neurological admission at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria between 1995 and 1999 were reviewed using medical records. Result: Neurological admissions accounted for 19.635 of total ...

  14. Profile of Neurological admissions at the University of Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The burden of Neurological diseases may be on the increase especially in developing countries. Improved outcome in these settings may require appreciation of the spectrum of Neurological diseases and the impediments to their management. We aim to determine the profile of neurological admissions and ...

  15. Morbidity and Mortality Patterns among Neurological Patients in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Objective: The morbidity and mortality of neurological patients managed in the intensive care unit reflect the causes of neurological disorders and the effectiveness of management. Method: The morbidity and mortality patterns of neurological patients admitted into the intensive care unit of the University of Benin ...

  16. Human gene therapy and imaging in neurological diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Andreas H.; Winkler, Alexandra; Castro, Maria G.; Lowenstein, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Molecular imaging aims to assess non-invasively disease-specific biological and molecular processes in animal models and humans in vivo. Apart from precise anatomical localisation and quantification, the most intriguing advantage of such imaging is the opportunity it provides to investigate the time course (dynamics) of disease-specific molecular events in the intact organism. Further, molecular imaging can be used to address basic scientific questions, e.g. transcriptional regulation, signal transduction or protein/protein interaction, and will be essential in developing treatment strategies based on gene therapy. Most importantly, molecular imaging is a key technology in translational research, helping to develop experimental protocols which may later be applied to human patients. Over the past 20 years, imaging based on positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been employed for the assessment and “phenotyping” of various neurological diseases, including cerebral ischaemia, neurodegeneration and brain gliomas. While in the past neuro-anatomical studies had to be performed post mortem, molecular imaging has ushered in the era of in vivo functional neuro-anatomy by allowing neuroscience to image structure, function, metabolism and molecular processes of the central nervous system in vivo in both health and disease. Recently, PET and MRI have been successfully utilised together in the non-invasive assessment of gene transfer and gene therapy in humans. To assess the efficiency of gene transfer, the same markers are being used in animals and humans, and have been applied for phenotyping human disease. Here, we review the imaging hallmarks of focal and disseminated neurological diseases, such as cerebral ischaemia, neurodegeneration and glioblastoma multiforme, as well as the attempts to translate gene therapy’s experimental knowledge into clinical applications and the way in which this process is being promoted through the use

  17. Recent trends in Molecular Imaging : PET/CT in Neurology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R P Tripathi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available PET/CT is an important molecular imaging technique for the assessment ofneurological disorders. The most widely used radiopharmaceutical for both clinical and research purposes is [18F] 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG. It is extensively used owing to its favourable physical characteristics. It enables depiction of cerebral glucose metabolism, and has thus been used to study various pathological states. Despite this, FDG has its own limitations. This is owing to its limited specificity and high cortical uptake. This has paved the way for the development of several non-FDG PET radiopharmaceuticals. We present the insights gained at our institution, using these radiotracers in the assessment of neurological disease. Our study shows that the use of FDG and non-FDG novel PET radiopharmaceuticals facilitates the early diagnosis, delineation of extent, prognostication and monitoring of therapeutic response in several neuropathological states.PET/CT is an important molecular imaging technique for the assessment ofneurological disorders. The most widely used radiopharmaceutical for both clinicaland research purposes is [18F] 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG. It is extensivelyused owing to its favourable physical characteristics. It enables depiction of cerebralglucose metabolism, and has thus been used to study various pathological states.Despite this, FDG has its own limitations. This is owing to its limited specificity andhigh cortical uptake. This has paved the way for the development of several non-FDGPET radiopharmaceuticals. We present the insights gained at our institution, usingthese radiotracers in the assessment of neurological disease. Our study shows that theuse of FDG and non-FDG novel PET radiopharmaceuticals facilitates the earlydiagnosis, delineation of extent, prognostication and monitoring of therapeuticresponse in several neuropathological states.

  18. Posterior instrumented fusion without neural decompression for incomplete neurological deficits following vertebral collapse in the osteoporotic thoracolumbar spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataka, Hiromi; Tanno, Takaaki

    2008-01-01

    Previous reports have emphasized the importance of neural decompression through either an anterior or posterior approach when reconstruction surgery is performed for neurological deficits following vertebral collapse in the osteoporotic thoracolumbar spine. However, the contribution of these decompression procedures to neurological recovery has not been fully established. In the present study, we investigated 14 consecutive patients who had incomplete neurological deficits following vertebral collapse in the osteoporotic thoracolumbar spine and underwent posterior instrumented fusion without neural decompression. They were radiographically and neurologically assessed during an average follow-up period of 25 months. The mean local kyphosis angle was 14.6° at flexion and 4.1° at extension preoperatively, indicating marked instability at the collapsed vertebrae. The mean spinal canal occupation by bone fragments was 21%. After surgery, solid bony fusion was obtained in all patients. The mean local kyphosis angle became 5.8° immediately after surgery and 9.9° at the final follow-up. There was no implant dislodgement, and no additional surgery was required. In all patients, back pain was relieved, and neurological improvement was obtained by at least one modified Frankel grade. The present series demonstrate that the posterior instrumented fusion without neural decompression for incomplete neurological deficits following vertebral collapse in the osteoporotic thoracolumbar spine can provide neurological improvement and relief of back pain without major complications. We suggest that neural decompression is not essential for the treatment of neurological impairment due to osteoporotic vertebral collapse with dynamic mobility. PMID:19005689

  19. Acute postoperative neurological deterioration associated with surgery for ruptured intracranial aneurysm: incidence, predictors, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaney, Kelly B; Todd, Michael M; Bayman, Emine O; Torner, James C

    2012-06-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) results in significant morbidity and mortality, even among patients who reach medical attention in good neurological condition. Many patients have neurological decline in the perioperative period, which contributes to long-term outcomes. The focus of this study is to characterize the incidence of, characteristics predictive of, and outcomes associated with acute postoperative neurological deterioration in patients undergoing surgery for ruptured intracranial aneurysm. The Intraoperative Hypothermia for Aneurysm Surgery Trial (IHAST) was a multicenter randomized clinical trial that enrolled 1001 patients and assesssed the efficacy of hypothermia as neuroprotection during surgery to secure a ruptured intracranial aneurysm. All patients had a radiographically confirmed SAH, were classified as World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) Grade I-III immediately prior to surgery, and underwent surgery to secure the ruptured aneurysm within 14 days of SAH. Neurological assessment with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) was performed preoperatively, at 24 and 72 hours postoperatively, and at time of discharge. The primary outcome variable was a dichotomized scoring based on an IHAST version of the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) in which a score of 1 represents a good outcome and a score > 1 a poor outcome, as assessed at 90-days' follow-up. Data from IHAST were analyzed for occurrence of a postoperative neurological deterioration. Preoperative and intraoperative variables were assessed for associations with occurrence of postoperative neurological deterioration. Differences in baseline, intraoperative, and postoperative variables and in outcomes between patients with and without postoperative neurological deterioration were compared with Fisher exact tests. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare variables reported as means. Multiple logistic regression was used to adjust for covariates associated with occurrence

  20. Encaminhamentos da atenção primária para avaliação neurológica em Porto Alegre, Brasil Referrals from primary care to neurological assessment in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Finkelsztejn

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available No Sistema Único de Saúde do Brasil (SUS, os níveis de atenção à saúde se inserem no modelo hierárquico através do sistema de referência e contrarreferência. Em um projeto para atender às demandas represadas do nível primário ao secundário, denominado "Mutirão da Saúde", realizado em Porto Alegre, os médicos neurologistas do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, após cada atendimento realizado, responderam a um instrumento para avaliar os encaminhamentos realizados pela rede de atenção primária à saúde (APS. A avaliação foi positiva, mostrando que os encaminhamentos foram realmente necessários em 85% dos casos; entretanto, foi parcialmente contraditória, tendo em vista que 41,7% dos encaminhamentos eram situações clínicas que deveriam ser manejadas no atendimento primário. A avaliação também revelou que 50% dos casos necessitavam de exames complementares. Devido a uma possível regionalização aleatória dos encaminhamentos, o resultado não nos possibilitou uma estimativa apropriada da prevalência por territórios das unidades de APS, informação esta importante para a organização do fluxo de encaminhamentos e planejamento dos recursos alocados pelos gestores, tanto locais quanto municipais.In the Unified Health System in Brazil (SUS, the levels of health care fall within the hierarchical model with the reference and counter-reference systems. In a project to meet the repressed demands of primary and secondary levels, called "Mutirão da Saúde", held in Porto Alegre, the neurologists of the Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, after each call made, answered a questionnaire to assess referrals performed by the network of primary health care (PHC. The evaluation was positive, showing that the referrals were really needed in 85% of cases; however, it was partially contradictory, given that 41.7% of referrals were medical conditions that should be managed in primary care. The evaluation also revealed that

  1. Telerehabilitation, Virtual Therapists, and Acquired Neurologic Speech and Language Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherney, Leora R.; van Vuuren, Sarel

    2013-01-01

    Telerehabilitation (telererehab) offers cost effective services that potentially can improve access to care for those with acquired neurologic communication disorders. However, regulatory issues including licensure, reimbursement, and threats to privacy and confidentiality hinder the routine implementation of telerehab services into the clinical setting. Despite these barriers, rapid technological advances and a growing body of research regarding the use of telerehab applications support its use. This article reviews the evidence related to acquired neurologic speech and language disorders in adults, focusing on studies that have been published since 2000. Research studies have used telerehab systems to assess and treat disorders including dysarthria, apraxia of speech, aphasia, and mild Alzheimer’s disease. They show that telerehab is a valid and reliable vehicle for delivering speech and language services. The studies represent a progression of technological advances in computing, Internet, and mobile technologies. They range on a continuum from working synchronously (in real-time) with a speech-language pathologist to working asynchronously (offline) with a stand-in virtual therapist. One such system that uses a virtual therapist for the treatment of aphasia, the Web-ORLA™ (Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL) system, is described in detail. Future directions for the advancement of telerehab for clinical practice are discussed. PMID:22851346

  2. Neurological soft signs in Chinese adolescents with antisocial personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Cai, Lin; Li, Lingyan; Yang, Yanjie; Yao, Shuqiao; Zhu, Xiongzhao

    2016-09-30

    The current study was designed to explore the specific relationship between neurologic soft signs (NSSs) and characteristics of antisocial personality traits in adolescents, and to investigate particular NSSs linked to certain brain regions in adolescents with antisocial personality traits. The research was conducted on 96 adolescents diagnosed with ASP traits (ASP trait group) using the ASPD subscale of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire for the DSM-IV (PDQ-4+) and 96 adolescents without traits of any personality disorder (control group). NSSs were assessed using the soft sign subscales of the Cambridge Neurological Inventory. Adolescents with ASP traits showed more motor coordination, sensory integration, disinhibition, and total NSSs than the control group. Seven NSSs, including stereognosia in right hand, finger agnosia and graphesthesia in both hands, left-right orientation, and go/no go stimulus, were significantly more frequent in teenagers with ASP traits. Sensory integration was positively associated with ASP traits. Adolescents with antisocial personality traits might have abnormalities in the central nervous system, and sensory integration might be the particular indicator of antisocial personality disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Neurological outcome in road traffic accidents with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslavac, Sasa; Dzidić, Ivan; Kejla, Zvonko

    2008-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate neurological outcome in road traffic accidents (RTA) with spinal cord injury (SCI). The study was undertaken in National Spinal Unit of Special Medical Rehabilitation Hospital, in Varazdinske Toplice, Croatia. Hospital records of 154 inpatient RTA SCI patients, in years 1991-2001 were reviewed. Six groups of patients were formed: car drivers, co-drivers, back seat passengers, motorcycle drivers, bicycle drivers and pedestrians. Neurological assessments at admission to rehabilitation and before discharge were done according to American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) impairment scale. Methods of descriptive statistics were used. Overall 49% of RTA SCI patients presented with complete injury (ASIA A) at admission to rehabilitation, 93% of initially complete spinal cord injured patients remained complete at discharge and 72% previously non-ambulatory incomplete (ASIA B-E) patients achieved ambulation. Complete injury was acquired more often in motorcycle drivers and car drivers group (67% and 54%, respectively). Road traffic spinal cord injuries are, and will remain the leading cause of traumatic SCI, with high proportion of complete injury at rehabilitation onset, especially in motorcycle drivers and car drivers groups.

  4. Dietary Intakes and Nutritional Issues in Neurologically Impaired Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Penagini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Neurologically impaired (NI children are at increased risk of malnutrition due to several nutritional and non-nutritional factors. Among the nutritional factors, insufficient dietary intake as a consequence of feeding difficulties is one of the main issues. Feeding problems are frequently secondary to oropharyngeal dysphagia, which usually correlates with the severity of motor impairment and presents in around 90% of preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP during the first year of life. Other nutritional factors are represented by excessive nutrient losses, often subsequent to gastroesophageal reflux and altered energy metabolism. Among the non-nutritional factors, the type and severity of neurological impairment, ambulatory status, the degree of cognitive impairment, and use of entiepileptic medication altogether concur to determination of nutritional status. With the present review, the current literature is discussed and a practical approach for nutritional assessment in NI children is proposed. Early identification and intervention of nutritional issues of NI children with a multidisciplinary approach is crucial to improve the overall health and quality of life of these complex children.

  5. Community-Acquired Pneumonia Hospitalization among Children with Neurologic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millman, Alexander J.; Finelli, Lyn; Bramley, Anna M.; Peacock, Georgina; Williams, Derek J.; Arnold, Sandra R.; Grijalva, Carlos G.; Anderson, Evan J.; McCullers, Jonathan A.; Ampofo, Krow; Pavia, Andrew T.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Jain, Seema

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe and compare the clinical characteristics, outcomes, and etiology of pneumonia among children hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) with neurologic disorders, non-neurologic underlying conditions, and no underlying conditions. Study design Children <18 years old hospitalized with clinical and radiographic CAP were enrolled at 3 US children’s hospitals. Neurologic disorders included cerebral palsy, developmental delay, Down syndrome, epilepsy, non-Down syndrome chromosomal abnormalities, and spinal cord abnormalities. We compared the epidemiology, etiology, and clinical outcomes of CAP in children with neurologic disorders with those with non-neurologic underlying conditions, and those with no underlying conditions using bivariate, age-stratified, and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results From January 2010–June 2012, 2358 children with radiographically confirmed CAP were enrolled; 280 (11.9%) had a neurologic disorder (52.1% of these individuals also had non-neurologic underlying conditions), 934 (39.6%) had non-neurologic underlying conditions only, and 1144 (48.5%) had no underlying conditions. Children with neurologic disorders were older and more likely to require intensive care unit (ICU) admission than children with non-neurologic underlying conditions and children with no underlying conditions; similar proportions were mechanically ventilated. In age-stratified analysis, children with neurologic disorders were less likely to have a pathogen detected than children with non-neurologic underlying conditions. In multivariate analysis, having a neurologic disorder was associated with ICU admission for children ≥2 years of age. Conclusions Children with neurologic disorders hospitalized with CAP were less likely to have a pathogen detected and more likely to be admitted to the ICU than children without neurologic disorders. PMID:27017483

  6. Vitamin D and ageing: neurological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annweiler, Cédric; Schott, Anne-Marie; Berrut, Gilles; Chauviré, Valérie; Le Gall, Didier; Inzitari, Marco; Beauchet, Olivier

    2010-08-01

    Vitamin D has been shown to have multiple biological targets mediated by the vitamin D receptor present in many cells. Specific actions on the central nervous system (CNS) have been described. The objective of this review was to describe the relationship between vitamin D and the nervous system throughout the different stages of life. A bibliographical search was performed in the MedLine and Cochrane library databases. The keywords used were: 'vitamin D' and 'nervous system' and/or 'central nervous system' and/or 'nervous system diseases' and/or 'psychological tests' and/or 'neuropsychological tests' and/or 'mental disorders'. The search period ranged from 01/01/1988 to 31/10/2009. Two hundred and ninety-five abstracts were first identified after screening. A final selection of 127 articles was used for the purpose of this review. The studies published over the past 20 years provide an increasing number of arguments in favor of a life-long role of vitamin D on the nervous system as a whole, and in particular on the CNS. During cerebral development, vitamin D may act like a neurosteroid hormone in the areas of neurotransmission, neuroprotection, and neuroimmunomodulation. Moreover, vitamin D deficiency has been associated with neurological and psychiatric disorders. In older adults, hypovitaminosis D has been associated with neuromuscular disorders, dementia, and Parkinson's disease. Thus, vitamin D supplementation might have a protective effect against these neurological disorders. Vitamin D has been associated with many neurological functions and its deficiency with dysfunction. Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations can potentially be reversed. This simple and low-cost correction might contribute to the primo-secondary prevention of various neuropsychiatric disorders. (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Behavioural and psychiatric symptoms in cognitive neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles Bayón, A; Gude Sampedro, F

    2017-03-01

    Behavioural and psychiatric symptoms (BPS) are frequent in neurological patients, contribute to disability, and decrease quality of life. We recorded BPS prevalence and type, as well as any associations with specific diagnoses, brain regions, and treatments, in consecutive outpatients examined in a cognitive neurology clinic. A retrospective analysis of 843 consecutive patients was performed, including a review of BPS, diagnosis, sensory impairment, lesion topography (neuroimaging), and treatment. The total sample was considered, and the cognitive impairment (CI) group (n=607) was compared to the non-CI group. BPS was present in 59.9% of the patients (61.3% in the CI group, 56.4% in the non-CI group). One BPS was present in 31.1%, two in 17.4%, and three or more in 11.4%. BPS, especially depression and anxiety, are more frequent in women than in men. Psychotic and behavioural symptoms predominate in subjects aged 65 and older, and anxiety in those younger than 65. Psychotic symptoms appear more often in patients with sensory impairment. Psychotic and behavioural symptoms are more prevalent in patients with degenerative dementia; depression and anxiety in those who suffer a psychiatric disease or adverse effects of substances; emotional lability in individuals with a metabolic or hormonal disorder; hypochondria in those with a pain syndrome; and irritability in subjects with chronic hypoxia. Behavioural symptoms are more frequent in patients with anomalies in the frontal or right temporal or parietal lobes, and antipsychotics constitute the first line of treatment. Leaving standard treatments aside, associations were observed between dysthymia and opioid analgesics, betahistine and statins, and between psychotic symptoms and levodopa, piracetam, and vasodilators. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Paraneoplastic neurologic syndrome: A practical approach

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    Sudheeran Kannoth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS are rare disorders associated with cancer, not caused by direct invasion, metastasis or consequences of treatment. They are usually autoimmune in nature. Often, PNS precedes the manifestations of cancer. Onconeural antibodies are important in the diagnosis and management of these disorders. These antibodies are specific for the malignancy rather than for a particular neurological syndrome. Often, there are different antibodies associated with the same syndrome. Multiple antibodies are also known to coexist in a given patient with malignancy. While investigating a patient for suspected PNS, the entire gamut of onconeural antibodies should be investigated so as not to miss the diagnosis. In 30-40% of the cases, PNS can occur without antibodies. Investigations for identifying the underlying cancer can be directed by the antibody panel. If conventional screening for cancer is negative, a positron emission scanning/computed tomography scan can be useful. Patients need follow-up surveillance for cancer if not detected in the first instance. Cancer detection and treatment, immunotherapy and supportive care are important components of treatment of PNS. Immunotherapy is very effective in PNS associated with cell membrane-associated antibodies like voltage-gated potassium channel complex, NMDA receptor antibodies and voltage-gated calcium channel antibodies. Immunotherapy includes steroids, IVIgG, plasmaphereis, cytotoxic medications and rituximab. Supportive therapy includes symptomatic treatment with antiepileptic and analgesic medications, physiotherapy, speech therapy and occupational therapy. PNS can mimic any neurologic syndrome. A high index of clinical suspicion is important for early diagnosis and prompt management and better outcome.

  9. Outline of metabolic diseases in adult neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochel, F

    2015-01-01

    Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) are traditionally defined by enzymatic deficiencies or defects in proteins involved in cellular metabolism. Historically discovered and characterized in children, a growing number of IEM are described in adults, and especially in the field of neurology. In daily practice, it is important to recognize emergency situations as well as neurodegenerative diseases for which a metabolic disease is likely, especially when therapeutic interventions are available. Here, the goal is to provide simple clinical, imaging and biochemical tools that can first orientate towards and then confirm the diagnosis of IEM. General guidelines are presented to treat the most common IEM during metabolic crises - acute encephalopathies with increased plasma ammonia, lactate or homocystein, as well as rhabdomyolysis. Examples of therapeutic strategies currently applied to chronic neurometabolic diseases are also provided - GLUT1 deficiency, adrenoleukodystrophy, cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis, Niemann-Pick type C and Wilson disease. Genetic counseling is mandatory in some X-linked diseases - ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency and adrenoleukodystrophy - and recommended in maternally inherited mitochondrial diseases - mutations of mitochondrial DNA. Besides these practical considerations, the contribution of metabolism to the field of adult neurology and neurosciences is much greater: first, with the identification of blood biomarkers that are progressively changing our diagnostic strategies thanks to lipidomic approaches, as illustrated in the field of spastic paraplegia and atypical psychiatric presentations; and second, through the understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms involved in common neurological diseases thanks to the study of these rare diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Neurological disorders of purine and pyrimidine metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, Vanna; Camici, Marcella; Tozzi, Maria G; Ipata, Piero L; Sestini, Sylvia; Bertelli, Matteo; Pompucci, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Purines and pyrimidines, regarded for a long time only as building blocks for nucleic acid synthesis and intermediates in the transfer of metabolic energy, gained increasing attention since genetically determined aberrations in their metabolism were associated clinically with various degrees of mental retardation and/or unexpected and often devastating neurological dysfunction. In most instances the molecular mechanisms underlying neurological symptoms remain undefined. This suggests that nucleotides and nucleosides play fundamental but still unknown roles in the development and function of several organs, in particular central nervous system. Alterations of purine and pyrimidine metabolism affecting brain function are spread along both synthesis (PRPS, ADSL, ATIC, HPRT, UMPS, dGK, TK), and breakdown pathways (5NT, ADA, PNP, GCH, DPD, DHPA, TP, UP), sometimes also involving pyridine metabolism. Explanations for the pathogenesis of disorders may include both cellular and mitochondrial damage: e.g. deficiency of the purine salvage enzymes hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase and deoxyguanosine kinase are associated to the most severe pathologies, the former due to an unexplained adverse effect exerted on the development and/or differentiation of dopaminergic neurons, the latter due to impairment of mitochondrial functions. This review gathers the presently known inborn errors of purine and pyrimidine metabolism that manifest neurological syndromes, reporting and commenting on the available hypothesis on the possible link between specific enzymatic alterations and brain damage. Such connection is often not obvious, and though investigated for many years, the molecular basis of most dysfunctions of central nervous system associated to purine and pyrimidine metabolism disorders are still unexplained.

  11. Speech and Language Disturbances in Neurology Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oğuz Tanrıdağ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the well-known facts discerned from interesting cases of speech and language disturbances over thousands of years, the scientific background and the limitless discussions for nearly 150 years, this field has been considered one of the least important subjects in neurological sciences. In this review, we first analyze the possible causes for this “stepchild” attitude towards this subject and we then summarize the practical aspects concerning speech and language disturbances. Our underlying expectation with this review is to explain the facts concerning those disturbances that might offer us opportunities to better understand the nervous system and the affected patients

  12. Clinical neurogenetics: neurologic presentations of metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jennifer M; D'Aco, Kristin E

    2013-11-01

    This article reviews aspects of the neurologic presentations of selected treatable inborn errors of metabolism within the category of small molecule disorders caused by defects in pathways of intermediary metabolism. Disorders that are particularly likely to be seen by neurologists include those associated with defects in amino acid metabolism (organic acidemias, aminoacidopathies, urea cycle defects). Other disorders of small molecule metabolism are discussed as additional examples in which early treatments have the potential for better outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The neurologic complications of bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joseph R; Singhal, Divya

    2014-01-01

    Bariatric surgery has been increasingly employed to manage morbid obesity. Approximately 150000 bariatric procedures are performed in the US annually. Neurologic complications arise in as many as 5% of individuals having this surgery. Although the etiology of some of these complications remains obscure, the majority are the consequence of vitamin (most commonly thiamine and vitamin B12) or mineral (most commonly copper) deficiency and familiarity with these disorders is essential. Their rapid diagnosis and appropriate treatment is essential to avoid long-term, irreversible consequences including, in some instances, death. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Hypnosis as therapy for functional neurologic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeley, Q

    2016-01-01

    Suggestion in hypnosis has been applied to the treatment of functional neurologic symptoms since the earliest descriptions of hypnosis in the 19th century. Suggestion in this sense refers to an intentional communication of beliefs or ideas, whether verbally or nonverbally, to produce subjectively convincing changes in experience and behavior. The recognition of suggestion as a psychologic process with therapeutic applications was closely linked to the derivation of hypnosis from earlier healing practices. Animal magnetism, the immediate precursor of hypnosis, arrived at a psychologic concept of suggestion along with other ideas and practices which were then incorporated into hypnosis. Before then, other forms of magnetism and ritual healing practices such as exorcism involved unintentionally suggestive verbal and nonverbal stimuli. We consider the derivation of hypnosis from these practices not only to illustrate the range of suggestive processes, but also the consistency with which suggestion has been applied to the production and removal of dissociative and functional neurologic symptoms over many centuries. Nineteenth-century practitioners treated functional symptoms with induction of hypnosis per se; imperative suggestions, or commands for specific effects; "medical clairvoyance" in hypnotic trance, in which patients diagnosed their own condition and predicted the time and manner of their recovery; and suggestion without prior hypnosis, known as "fascination" or "psychotherapeutics." Modern treatments largely involve different types of imperative suggestion with or without hypnosis. However, the therapeutic application of suggestion in hypnosis to functional and other symptoms waned in the first half of the 20th century under the separate pressures of behaviorism and psychoanalysis. In recent decades suggestion in hypnosis has been more widely applied to treating functional neurologic symptoms. Suggestion is typically applied within the context of other

  15. [Psychogenetic neurological disorders in draft age personnel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetianov, L A; Ovchinnikov, A V

    2012-07-01

    The tendency of psychogenetic neurological disorders increases with predominance in young persons being students of high schools, students of military, technical and other lyceum was shown. The origin of diseases are psychotraumas (family, work), stress. Also genetic and hereditary factors take place that are indicative for individual rehabilitation organization. The basics of psychosomatic diseases pathogenesis are the disintegration mechanisms in brain structure activity,the disorders of integrative apparatus which provides the relationship between somatic, emotional and vegetative functions. The confirmation of brain work disintegration is achieved by modern computer diagnostic systems. As psychogenic diseases increase the need in methods of computer electroencephalography, evoked potentials, and rheoencephalography application is more actual.

  16. Contribution of positron emission tomography in neurology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, E.; Franck, G.

    1992-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a scanner technique using tracers labelled with shortlived radioisotopes which allows to study and quantify human metabolic processes or drug pharmacology in vivo. The technique is first applied in physiological studies. Sleep, normal brain metabolism or cerebral activations have been studied. The pharmacological approach concerns both drug distribution in the human brain and blood flow or metabolic variations under treatment. Main neurological applications in pathology are cerebrovascular disorders, diseases leading to dementia, epilepsy, movement disorders, and brain tumors. In each field of application, PET gives unique and frequently early informations. It nicely combines both dynamic informations and measurement precision. (author)

  17. Frida Kahlo's neurological deficits and her art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budrys, Valmantas

    2013-01-01

    World-famous Mexican painter Frida Kahlo is an impressive example of a professional artist whose artistic subject matter was extremely influenced by her chronic, severe illness. Many of her best-known works depict her physical and mental suffering. She was one of those very uncommon artists who dared to show their nude, sick body. This chapter describes and explains the biographical events and works of Frida Kahlo that are closely related to neurology: congenital anomaly (spina bifida), poliomyelitis, spine injury, and neuropathic pain. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Psychologic theories in functional neurologic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, A; Ludwig, L; Welch, K

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter we review key psychologic theories that have been mooted as possible explanations for the etiology of functional neurologic symptoms, conversion disorder, and hysteria. We cover Freudian psychoanalysis and later object relations and attachment theories, social theories, illness behavior, classic and operant conditioning, social learning theory, self-regulation theory, cognitive-behavioral theories, and mindfulness. Dissociation and modern cognitive neuroscience theories are covered in other chapters in this series and, although of central importance, are omitted from this chapter. Our aim is an overview with the emphasis on breadth of coverage rather than depth. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ethical Issues in the Neurology of Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Thomas I

    2017-12-01

    Decision making for pregnant women and fetuses who suffer brain injuries is emotionally difficult and conceptually challenging. Occasionally, both the pregnant woman and the fetus have suffered an injury that confers a poor neurological prognosis, and decisions about one of them will have implications for the other-making the process of decision making even more problematic. In this article, decision-making standards and principles are reviewed for both pregnant women and fetuses, using a real case from the author's institution. Practical suggestions are made regarding deliberative processes and consultative models that can help with these difficult cases. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  20. Neurological and Sleep Disturbances in Bronchiectasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Seng Phua

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bronchiectasis unrelated to cystic fibrosis is a chronic lung disease that is increasingly recognised worldwide. While other common chronic lung conditions such as chronic obstructive lung disease have been associated with cardiovascular disease, there is a paucity of data on the relationship between bronchiectasis and cardiovascular risks such as stroke and sleep disturbance. Furthermore, it is unclear whether other neuropsychological aspects are affected, such as cognition, cerebral infection, anxiety and depression. In this review, we aim to highlight neurological and sleep issues in relation to bronchiectasis and their importance to patient care.

  1. [Neurological outcome associated with influenza viral infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, N; Matsuzaka, T; Tsuji, Y

    1997-04-01

    Several neurological complications associated with Influenza virus infection are known as a febrile convulsion, polyneuritis, meningitis, encephalomyelitis and encephalopathy. Influenza encephalopathy is the most severe complication associated with Influenza. It may be classified into several subtypes according to the clinical symptoms and laboratory data. In this review, Reye's syndrome, acute necrotizing encephalopathy and hemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy syndrome (HSE) are described in detail. The 1995 influenza pandemia in Nagasaki prefecture was markedly neurovirulent and lethal. Twelve cases developed influenza encephalopathy, and the mortality rate between them was 50%. Almost all of them had never be inoculated of influenza vaccine before.

  2. The Groningen ART cohort study: ovarian hyperstimulation and the in vitro procedure do not affect neurological outcome in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelburg, K J; Heineman, M J; Bos, A F; Pereboom, M; Fidler, V; Hadders-Algra, M

    2009-12-01

    Due to the growing number of children born following assisted reproduction technology, even subtle changes in the children's health and development are of importance to society at large. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the specific effects of ovarian hyperstimulation and the in vitro procedure on neurological outcome in 4-18-month-old children. In this prospective assessor-blinded cohort study, we included singletons born following controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) (COH-IVF; n = 68) or modified natural cycle-IVF/ICSI (MNC-IVF; n = 57) or naturally conceived singletons of subfertile couples (NC; n = 90). Children were assessed with standardized, age-specific and sensitive neurological assessments (TINE and Hempel assessment) at 4, 10 and 18 months. Neurological examination resulted in a neurological optimality score (NOS), a fluency score and a clinical neurological classification. Fluency of movements is easily affected by neurological dysfunction and is therefore a sensitive measure for minimal changes in neuromotor development. The NOS and the fluency score were similar in COH-IVF, MNC-IVF and NC children. None of the children showed major neurological dysfunction and rates of minor neurological dysfunction at the three ages were not different between the three conception groups. We found no effects of ovarian hyperstimulation or the in vitro procedure itself on neurological outcome in children aged 4-18 months. The findings of our study are reassuring, nevertheless it should be kept in mind that subtle neurodevelopmental disorders may emerge when children grow older. Continuation of follow-up in older and larger groups of children is therefore still needed.

  3. The Profile of Neurology Patients Evaluated in the Emergency Department

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    Ufuk Emre

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Early, rapid, and multidisciplinary approaches are very important in the diagnosis of neurological disorders in emergency departments. The present study aimed to investigate the features of patients that presented for neurology consultation in the emergency department. METHODS: The present study included 780 patients. Patient demographic features, reasons for emergent treatment and neurological consultation, neurological diagnosis by the neurologist, and laboratory (total blood count, serum glucose level, urea, creatine, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and D-dimer levels and imaging findings were retrospectively evaluated based on patient charts. RESULTS: Impaired consciousness was the most frequent reason for neurological consultation (19.7%. Among these patients, ischemic stroke was diagnosed in 27.9%, hypoxic encephalopathy in 18.2%, cerebral hemorrhage in 9.1%, and 11% had no neurological diagnosis. Other common reasons for neurological consultation were vertigo, headache, seizure, and stroke. Clinical findings were related to other systemic causes in 43.7% of the study group. Focal neurological findings were present, especially in patients that presented with ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, epilepsy, and hypoxic encephalopathy. CONCLUSION: In emergency departments, metabolic causes should be ruled out in patients with impaired consciousness and the absence of focal neurological signs. Intracranial structural disorders must be evaluated when focal neurological signs are present. Cautiously prepared algorithms and neurological examination training will help improve the accuracy of emergency department diagnoses

  4. Genetic neurological channelopathies: molecular genetics and clinical phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillane, J; Kullmann, D M; Hanna, M G

    2016-01-01

    Evidence accumulated over recent years has shown that genetic neurological channelopathies can cause many different neurological diseases. Presentations relating to the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerve or muscle mean that channelopathies can impact on almost any area of neurological practice. Typically, neurological channelopathies are inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion and cause paroxysmal disturbances of neurological function, although the impairment of function can become fixed with time. These disorders are individually rare, but an accurate diagnosis is important as it has genetic counselling and often treatment implications. Furthermore, the study of less common ion channel mutation-related diseases has increased our understanding of pathomechanisms that is relevant to common neurological diseases such as migraine and epilepsy. Here, we review the molecular genetic and clinical features of inherited neurological channelopathies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Neurological Complications and Sequelae of Ebola Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billioux, Bridgette Jeanne

    2017-05-01

    The recent 2014-2016 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) has led to many discoveries regarding Ebola. Although neurological symptoms during EVD had been previously described, many reports since this outbreak have made clear that EVD can lead to neurological issues. This article will review the various neurological manifestations of EVD. Recently, many neurological symptoms have been described during acute EVD, including altered mental status, seizures, and meningoencephalitis, among others; survivors of EVD also may develop neurological sequelae, such as persistent headache and memory loss and can exhibit abnormalities on neurological exam. Additionally, it is now evident that in rare cases, survivors may experience relapses of EVD months after recovery, including the central nervous system (CNS). EVD can result in many clinical neurological manifestations, both acutely and after recovery. Research is ongoing to further clarify the nature of Ebola in the CNS.

  6. Neurological soft signs in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Their relationship to executive function and parental neurological soft signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jingbo; Xie, Jingtao; Chen, Gui; Zhang, Yajie; Wang, Suhong

    2015-07-30

    The correlations between neurological soft signs (NSS) in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their executive function, symptoms of inattention, and hyperactivity-impulsivity and the NSS of their parents remain unclear. This study aimed to examine: (1) the prevalence of NSS in children with ADHD and their parents; (2) the correlation between the NSS of children with ADHD and the NSS of their parents; and (3) the correlation between the NSS of children with ADHD and their executive function and symptoms. NSS were assessed with the Cambridge Neurological Inventory (CNI) in 57 children with ADHD (and 80 parents) and 60 healthy children (and 75 parents). Executive function was measured with the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). Children with ADHD and their parents had significantly higher NSS than normal children and their parents, respectively, and the NSS of children with ADHD were correlated more strongly with the NSS of their fathers than their mothers. No correlation was found between NSS and BRIEF executive function, but Disinhibition in children with ADHD was significantly correlated with hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms. Paternal and maternal NSS provided different predictions for child NSS. It may be that NSS are more likely to be genetically transmitted by fathers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Education Research: Bias and poor interrater reliability in evaluating the neurology clinical skills examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, L A.; London, Z; Neel, R; Brock, C; Kissela, B M.; Schultz, L; Gelb, D J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN) has recently replaced the traditional, centralized oral examination with the locally administered Neurology Clinical Skills Examination (NEX). The ABPN postulated the experience with the NEX would be similar to the Mini-Clinical Evaluation Exercise, a reliable and valid assessment tool. The reliability and validity of the NEX has not been established. Methods: NEX encounters were videotaped at 4 neurology programs. Local faculty and ABPN examiners graded the encounters using 2 different evaluation forms: an ABPN form and one with a contracted rating scale. Some NEX encounters were purposely failed by residents. Cohen’s kappa and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated for local vs ABPN examiners. Results: Ninety-eight videotaped NEX encounters of 32 residents were evaluated by 20 local faculty evaluators and 18 ABPN examiners. The interrater reliability for a determination of pass vs fail for each encounter was poor (kappa 0.32; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.11, 0.53). ICC between local faculty and ABPN examiners for each performance rating on the ABPN NEX form was poor to moderate (ICC range 0.14-0.44), and did not improve with the contracted rating form (ICC range 0.09-0.36). ABPN examiners were more likely than local examiners to fail residents. Conclusions: There is poor interrater reliability between local faculty and American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology examiners. A bias was detected for favorable assessment locally, which is concerning for the validity of the examination. Further study is needed to assess whether training can improve interrater reliability and offset bias. GLOSSARY ABIM = American Board of Internal Medicine; ABPN = American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology; CI = confidence interval; HFH = Henry Ford Hospital; ICC = intraclass correlation coefficients; IM = internal medicine; mini-CEX = Mini-Clinical Evaluation Exercise; NEX = Neurology Clinical

  8. LATE NEUROLOGICAL, COGNITIVE AND BEHAVIORAL SEQUELAE OF PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO COUMARINS - A PILOT-STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OLTHOF, E; DEVRIES, TW; TOUWEN, BCL; SMRKOVSKY, M; GEVENBOERE, LM; HEIJMANS, HSA; VANDERVEER, E

    Neurological, cognitive and behavioural development were assessed in a group of 21, 8- to 10-year old children whose mothers took coumarins during pregnancy. Findings were compared with those in a group of 17 control children. The study was performed to test whether it is feasible to carry out a

  9. Factor structure of Guy's Neurological Disability Scale in a sample of Dutch patients with multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokkink, L.B.; Knol, D.L.; Uitdehaag, B.M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Guy's Neurological Disability Scale (GNDS) is designed to assess disability (i.e. activity limitations) in patients with multiple sclerosis. It contains 12 functional domains, each indicating a level of disability. Four domain scores and a total score can be calculated.Objective: The aim

  10. Quality of general movements and the development of minor neurological dysfunction at toddler and school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, M; Mavinkurve-Groothuis, AMC; Stremmelaar, EF; Martijn, A; Butcher, PR; Groen, S.E

    Objective: To evaluate the reliability of assessing infants' general movements (GMs) using a new classification and its validity in predicting complex minor neurological dysfunction (MND) at toddler and at school age. Design: Prospective study of two groups of infants, each consisting of a mix of

  11. Longitudinal Study of Neurological Soft Signs in First-Episode Early-Onset Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoral, M.; Bombin, I.; Castro-Fornieles, J.; Gonzalez-Pinto, A.; Otero, S.; Parellada, M.; Moreno, D.; Baeza, I.; Graell, M.; Rapado, M.; Arango, C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In recent decades, the assessment of neurological soft signs (NSS) in patients with psychosis has become a subject of special interest. The study of the progression of NSS during adolescence will provide valuable information about the role of NSS as endophenotypes or biomarkers and about brain development at a stage in which brain…

  12. Transient neurological attacks in the general population. Prevalence, risk factors, and clinical relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Bots (Michiel); E.C. van der Wilk (Eline); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan); A. Hofman (Albert); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients with typical transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) have a higher risk of stroke but a lower risk of cardiac events than patients with nonspecific transient neurological symptoms. We assessed the prevalences of typical TIAs and nonspecific transient

  13. Neurological complications of dengue fever: Experience from a tertiary center of north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Verma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dengue, an acute viral disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, is highly endemic in many tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Neurological complications of dengue infection have been observed more frequently in the recent past and some studies highlighted varied neurological complications arising in the course of dengue illness. In this retrospective study, we report various neurological complications observed during the last 2 years in patients of dengue fever. Materials and Methods: The patients presenting with neurological complications with positive serology (IgM antibody for dengue infection were consecutively recruited from the Department of Neurology/Medicine from a tertiary center of Lucknow, India. These patients were subjected to a detailed clinical evaluation, laboratory assessment including blood count, hematocrit, coagulation parameters, biochemical assays, serology for dengue fever, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for human immunodeficiency virus and other relevant investigations. Results: Twenty-six patients with neurological complications associated with confirmed dengue infection were observed during the last 2 years. Eighteen of these patients were male. Of the 26 patients, 10 patients were suffering from brachial neuritis, four patients had encephalopathy, three patients were consistent with the diagnosis of Guillain Barre syndrome, three patients had hypokalemic paralysis associated with dengue fever and two patients had acute viral myositis. Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome was diagnosed in two patients, myelitis in one patient and acute disseminated encephalo-myelitis also in one patient. Conclusion: Dengue fever was associated with widespread neurological complications. Brachial neuritis and opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome were observed for the first time in this study.

  14. Neurological complications in late-stage hospitalized patients with HIV disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakendra Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The nervous system is the most frequent and serious targets of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. In spite of a wide prevalence of neurological manifestations in HIV there are not many studies to look into it, especially from this part of the world. We investigated various neurological manifestations of HIV and their association with CD4 and CD8 counts at the time of presentation. Materials and Methods: All HIV-infected patients who presented to 750 bedded teaching hospital in North India were subjected to thorough neurological and neuropsychological evaluation. Wherever indicated, neuroimaging, cerebrospinal fluid study, electromyography, and nerve-conduction studies were performed to confirm the diagnosis. CD4 and CD8 counts were calculated. Results: A total of 416 HIV-positive patients were seen. Of them 269 were males. A total of 312 neurological events were identified in 268 patients having evidence of neurological involvement. HIV-associated dementia (HAD was the most common cause of morbidity (33.65%, followed by CNS infections (21.63%. Most common CNS infection was tuberculosis (65.56%. CD4 counts in CNS infections and HAD were 64.8/ml and 83.52/ml, respectively. Most of the patients in our study had low scores on MMSE (22.32. Conclusions: Even in the absence of overt neurological disease, subclinical involvement in the form of subtle cognitive and motor decline is found to occur with greater frequency. Most of these patients have lower CD4 and CD8 counts, thus substantiating the proposition that neuroAIDS is a late manifestation. Significant correlation exists between CD4 counts and type of neurological manifestation. We concluded that neuropsychological assessment should be mandatory for all HIV-positive patients.

  15. Working the way up in neurological rehabilitation: the holistic approach of nursing care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, Mari Carmen; Cowley, Sarah

    2011-06-01

    To provide understanding of the nurses' role in neurological holistic rehabilitation and identify strategies for the enhancement of rehabilitation services. Although acute and chronic neurological patients and relatives experience emotional and social changes, most rehabilitation programmes do not deal with non-physical needs or involve nurses, leading to a poor definition and specialisation of the nursing role. Action research. The project took place in two neurological wards of a highly specialised hospital in Spain and lasted 30 months. An individualised nurse-led social rehabilitation programme was planned, implemented and evaluated. The nursing role and care in rehabilitation were explored with 37 nurses and 40 neurological patients and 40 relatives (convenience sampling). Semi-structured interviews and participant observations were developed. Content (QSR NUDIST Vivo v.2.0) and statistical (SPSS v. 13.0) analyses were run. The lack of time, knowledge and experience, the poor definition of the nursing role and ineffective communication with users limited holistic care in the wards. Some enhancing nursing strategies were proposed and explored: promotion of acceptance/adaptation of the disease through education, reinforcement of the discharge planning and planning of emotional and social choices based on the assessment of individual needs and resources at home. Nursing professionals are in a privileged position to deal with neurological patients' and carers' holistic needs. Several attributes of the advanced nursing role in rehabilitation teams have been proposed to deal with non-physical aspects of care. • Rehabilitation needs of neurological patients and carers at hospital have been described. • Nurses' perceptions of their work and role in rehabilitation have been presented. • Clinical strategies to develop the advanced nursing role in holistic neurological rehabilitation have been highlighted. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Underlying neurological dysfunction in children with language, speech or learning difficulties and a verbal IQ--performance IQ discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulemans, J; Goeleven, A; Zink, I; Loyez, L; Lagae, L; Debruyne, F

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between possible underlying neurological dysfunction and a significant discrepancy between verbal IQ/performance IQ (VIQ-PIQ) in children with language, speech or learning difficulties. In a retrospective study, we analysed data obtained from intelligence testing and neurological evaluation in 49 children with a significant VIQ-PIQ discrepancy (> or = 25 points) who were referred because of language, speech or learning difficulties to the Multidisciplinary University Centre for Logopedics and Audiology (MUCLA) of the University Hospitals of Leuven, Belgium. The group of children broke down into a group of 35 children with PIQ > VIQ and a group of 14 children with VIQ > PIQ. In the first group, neurological data were present for 24 children. The neurological history and clinical neurological examination were normal in all cases. Brain MRI was performed in 15 cases and proved to be normal in all children. Brain activity was assessed with long-term video EEG monitoring in ten children. In two children, the EEG results were abnormal: there was an epileptic focus in one child and a manifest alteration in the EEG typical of Landau-Kleffner syndrome in the other. In the second group of 14 children whose VIQ was higher than the PIQ, neurological data were available for ten children. Neurological history and clinical neurological examination were normal in all cases. Brain MRI was performed in five cases and was normal in all children. EEG monitoring was performed in one child. This revealed benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes. In a small number of children (9%) with speech, language and learning difficulties and a discrepancy between VIQ and PIQ, an underlying neurological abnormality is present. We recommend referring children with a significant VIQ-PIQ mismatch to a paediatric neurologist. As an epileptic disorder seems to be the most common underlying neurological pathology in this specific group of children, EEG

  17. Caring for Patients With Intractable Neurological Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Nagase

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This is a qualitative descriptive study examining nurses’ attitudes about caring for patients with intractable neurological diseases, with a focus on dedication and conflicts. Semistructured interviews were conducted on 11 nurses with more than 5 years of clinical experience in addition to more than 3 years of experience in neurology wards. Senior nursing officers from each hospital selected the participants. In general, these nurses expressed distress over the inevitable progression of disease. Nurses talked about the “basis of dedication,” “conflicts with dedication,” “reorganization for maintaining dedication,” and “the reason for the change from conflict to commitment.” “Reorganization for maintaining dedication” meant that nurses were able to handle the prospect of rededicating themselves to their patients. Furthermore, “the reason for the change from conflict to commitment” referred to events that changed nurses’ outlooks on nursing care, their pride as nurses, or their learning experiences. They felt dedicated and conflicted both simultaneously and separately. While committing to their patients’ physical care, nurses were empowered to think positively and treat patients with dignity in spite of the care taking much time and effort, as well as entailing considerable risk.

  18. Atropa belladonna neurotoxicity: Implications to neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwakye, Gunnar F; Jiménez, Jennifer; Jiménez, Jessica A; Aschner, Michael

    2018-04-10

    Atropa belladonna, commonly known as belladonna or deadly nightshade, ranks among one of the most poisonous plants in Europe and other parts of the world. The plant contains tropane alkaloids, including atropine, scopolamine, and hyoscyamine, which are used as anticholinergics in Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drugs and homeopathic remedies. These alkaloids can be very toxic at high dose. The FDA has recently reported that Hyland's baby teething tablets contain inconsistent amounts of Atropa belladonna that may have adverse effects on the nervous system and cause death in children, thus recalled the product in 2017. A greater understanding of the neurotoxicity of Atropa belladonna and its modification of genetic polymorphisms in the nervous system is critical in order to develop better treatment strategies, therapies, regulations, education of at-risk populations, and a more cohesive paradigm for future research. This review offers an integrated view of the homeopathy and neurotoxicity of Atropa belladonna in children, adults and animal models, as well as its implications to neurological disorders. Particular attention is dedicated to the pharmaco/toxicodynamics, pharmaco/toxicokinetics, pathophysiology, epidemiological cases, and animal studies associated with the effects of Atropa belladonna on the nervous system. Additionally, we discuss the influence of active tropane alkaloids in Atropa belladonna and other similar plants on FDA-approved therapeutic drugs for treatment of neurological disorders. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. [Physical training for neurological and mental diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, K; Reimers, C D; Knapp, G; Schneider, F

    2014-12-01

    Physical activity has beneficial effects on somatic and mental health factors; therefore, regular exercise has preventive and therapeutic capabilities to improve neurological and mental dysfunction. In this overview of the current literature, the evidence of the effects of exercise on such disorders is summarized. Physical exercise interventions for stroke, Parkinson's disease, dementia, depression, psychoses, anxiety disorders, and chronic pain syndromes are considered in detail. Physical activity reduces the risk of suffering from stroke, dementia and Parkinson's disease. Furthermore, it is negatively correlated with dysthymia and other depressive symptoms and various anxiety and pain disorders as well as headache syndromes. A therapeutic effect of systematic physical exercise was revealed for depression, some symptoms of psychosis and multiple sclerosis, addiction, eating disorders, the fibromyalgia syndrome as well as short-term interventions for anxiety disorders. The concerted integration of physical exercise into prophylactic and therapeutic interventions can lower the burden of neurological and mental diseases; however, scientific evidence is still lacking concerning the optimal duration, type, and intensity as well as potential risks of physical exercise.

  20. Interactive drama in complex neurological disability management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenech, Anne

    2009-01-01

    To establish whether interactive drama has any effect on the responses of people with complex neurological disabilities resident in a long term care facility. This was a service evaluation using interviews with a group of 31 independently consenting long term care residents, and 27 staff, and observations of engagement of 74 residents involved in an Interactive Drama Project (92.4% of those who had the opportunity to participate). Twenty five (81%) of the 31 residents interviewed reported a new atmosphere of community spirit, 29 (93%) enjoyed the rehearsals, 28 (90.5%) reported a state of 'flow' and 17 (54.6%) a perception of achievement. Fifteen (55.7%) of the 27 staff who completed questionnaires felt that the project had had a positive effect on staff-resident relationship. Twenty (64.4%) residents and 14 (51.7%) staff reported learning something new about others. The majority of participants with complex neurological disabilities were able to engage with interactive drama for some of the time. Therefore interactive drama offered residents opportunities for enjoyment, achievement, challenge and experiencing meaningful occupations.

  1. Active citizenship and acquired neurological communication difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Catherine; Bennett, Amanda; Cairney, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    People with communication impairments may face barriers to civic participation, with resulting marginalisation of individuals who wish to be actively involved. The investigation aimed to explore the experience of civically engaged adults with acquired neurological communication difficulties. Six people with acquired neurological communication difficulties were interviewed. Discussion included the definition of active citizenship, their civic involvement, motivations, related barriers and facilitators. Qualitative analysis was undertaken, with data categorised, coded and examined for recurring themes. All participants were active in disability-related organisations and four undertook wider civic roles. Motivations included activity being out with the home and wanting to effect change for themselves and the populations they represented. Disability group meetings were more positive experiences than broader community activities, which were associated with fatigue and frustration, commonly resulting from communication difficulties and unmet support needs. All participants identified a need for professional and public educational about disability and communication and made recommendations on content, methods and priority groups. For these participants civic engagement had positive and negative dimensions. Speech and language therapists should promote reduction of the barriers that impede the active citizenship rights of people with communication support needs. Civic participation may be a relevant measure of outcome in communication impaired populations.

  2. Tackling dipeptidyl peptidase IV in neurological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaith Al-Badri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV is a serine protease best known for its role in inactivating glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP, three stimulators of pancreatic insulin secretion with beneficial effects on glucose disposal. Owing to the relationship between DPP-IV and these peptides, inhibition of DPP-IV enzyme activity is considered as an attractive treatment option for diabetic patients. Nonetheless, increasing studies support the idea that DPP-IV might also be involved in the development of neurological disorders with a neuroinflammatory component, potentially through its non-incretin activities on immune cells. In this review article, we aim at highlighting recent literature describing the therapeutic value of DPP-IV inhibitors for the treatment of such neurological conditions. Finally, we will illustrate some of the promising results obtained using berberine, a plant extract with potent inhibitory activity on DPP-IV.

  3. Integrating cognitive psychology, neurology and neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, L M

    2001-04-01

    In the last decade, there has been a dramatic increase in research effectively integrating cognitive psychology, functional neuroimaging, and behavioral neurology. This new work is typically conducting basic research into aspects of the human mind and brain. The present review features as examples of such integrations two series of studies by the author and his colleagues. One series, employing object recognition, mental motor imagery, and mental rotation paradigms, clarifies the nature of a cognitive process, imagined spatial transformations used in shape recognition. Among other implications, it suggests that when recognizing a hand's handedness, imagining one's body movement depends on cerebrally lateralized sensory-motor structures and deciding upon handedness depends on exact match shape confirmation. The other series, using cutaneous, tactile, and auditory pitch discrimination paradigms, elucidates the function of a brain structure, the cerebellum. It suggests that the cerebellum has non-motor sensory support functions upon which optimally fine sensory discriminations depend. In addition, six key issues for this integrative approach are reviewed. These include arguments for the value and greater use of: rigorous quantitative meta-analyses of neuroimaging studies; stereotactic coordinate-based data, as opposed to surface landmark-based data; standardized vocabularies capturing the elementary component operations of cognitive and behavioral tasks; functional hypotheses about brain areas that are consistent with underlying microcircuitry; an awareness that not all brain areas implicated by neuroimaging or neurology are necessarily directly involved in the associated cognitive or behavioral task; and systematic approaches to integrations of this kind.

  4. [Developmental neurology - networked medicine and new perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacke, U; Weigand-Brunnhölzl, H; Hilgendorff, A; Giese, R M; Flemmer, A W; König, H; Warken-Madelung, B; Arens, M; Hesse, N; Schroeder, A S

    2017-12-01

    Developmental neurology is one of the major areas of neuropediatrics and is among other things (legally) responsible for monitoring the motor, cognitive and psychosocial development of all infants using standardized monitoring investigations. The special focus is on infants born at risk and/or due to premature birth before 32 weeks of gestation or a birth weight less than 1500 g. Early diagnosis of deviations from normal, age-related development is a prerequisite for early interventions, which may positively influence development and the long-term biopsychosocial prognosis of the patients. This article illustrates the available methods in developmental neurology with a focus on recent developments. Particular attention is paid to the predictive value of general movements (GM). The current development of markerless automated detection of spontaneous movements using conventional depth imaging cameras is demonstrated. Differences in spontaneous movements in infants at the age of 12 weeks are illustrated and discussed exemplified by three patients (healthy versus genetic syndrome versus cerebral palsy).

  5. Neurological manifestations of Batch s disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borhani-Haghighi, Afshin; Ashjazadeh, Nahid; Nikseresht, Alireza; Shariat, Abdolhamid; Yousefipour, Gholamali; Samangooie, Shahdokht; Safari, Anahid

    2006-01-01

    To determine the prevalence, clinical manifestations, and laboratory features of Neuro-Behcets disease. This prospective study was carried out in the Behcets Research Clinic in Shiraz (south-west Iran) and included the patients referred from 1990-1999. The patients' clinical records, images, CSF analyses, and electrodiagnostic studies were reviewed. Eighteen (15 males and 3 females) out of 690 Behcet s patients (2.6%, 95% CI = 1.4-3.8%) were found to have neurological involvement. The mean +/- standard deviation age of these patients was 34.7 +/- 8.6 years. All fulfilled the criteria of the International Study Group of Behcet s Disease. Central nervous system involvement was more common than peripheral nervous system manifestations. Headache, weakness, tingling, and numbness were the most common symptoms. Hyperreflexia, upward plantar reflex, and somatosensory findings were the most frequent signs. Hemispheral and brainstem stroke-like syndromes and cerebral venous thrombosis were the major neurologic presentations. There were also cases of myelitic, pure meningoencephalitic, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-like, multiple sclerosis-like, and Guillain Barre syndromes. Neuro-Behcets disease must be considered in the differential diagnosis of stroke in young adults, chronic meningitis, intracranial hypertension, multiple sclerosis, myelopathies, and peripheral neuropathies. (author)

  6. Nurses use of Glasgow coma scale in neurological assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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  7. Psychiatry and the Necker Cube. Neurological and Psychological Conceptions of Psychiatric Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rogers

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological and psychological conceptions of psychiatric disorder are in conflict at the present time. This conflict is considered in the context of the history of psychiatry and the philosophy of science. Its practical consequences are considered for the motor disorder of schizophrenia, the cognitive impairment in psychiatric illnesses, the use of the terms organic and functional and the association of neurological disorder with psychotic and neurotic disorders. The conflict is also examined in individual cases and the implications for treatment assessed.

  8. Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine on Molecular Imaging of Neurological Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yao; Chen, Ting; Huang, Jing; Zhang, Hong; Tian, Mei

    2017-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine has been used to treat a wide variety of neurological disorders including stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. However, its mechanism behind the effectiveness remains unclear. Recently, molecular imaging technology has been applied for this purpose, since it can assess the cellular or molecular function in a living subject by using specific imaging probes and/or radioactive tracers, which enable efficient analysis and monitoring the therapeutic response repetitively. This chapter reviews the in vivo functional and metabolic changes after administration of Chinese herbal medicine in various neurological disorders and provides perspectives on the future evaluations of therapeutic response of Chinese herbal medicine. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Nordic Five to Fifteen questionnaire could provide the basis for a common neurological disability variable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illum, Niels Ove; Gradel, Kim Oren

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Assessing disabilities in children is essential and Danish parents provide increasingly important feedback on how their child's disability affects daily living. The Nordic Five to Fifteen (FTF) parent questionnaire is widely used in Nordic countries to detect atypical or delayed development...... with children with neurological disabilities, and the Rasch scale analysis results indicate that it could form the analytical basis for developing a common disability variable....... in children. Our study evaluated its internal validity and whether it could be used to generate a common disability variable across childhood neurological disorders and severities. METHODS: The 28-statement FTF questionnaire was completed by the parents of children with spina bifida, muscular disorders...

  10. Vinken and Bruyn's Handbook of Clinical Neurology - A witness of late-twentieth century neurological progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koehler, P. J.; Jennekens, F. G. I.

    2008-01-01

    Vinken and Bruyn's Handbook of Clinical Neurology (HCN) is best characterized as an encyclopedia. In this paper we describe the origin, production, and reception of HCN. Data were gathered from a literature search, by screening of HCN-volumes, interviewing key-role persons and a study of an

  11. Pattern of neurological diseases in adult outpatient neurology clinics in tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Safia; Shafqat, Saad; Kamal, Ayeesha Kamran; Sonawalla, Aziz; Siddiqui, Sarwar; Siddiqui, Fowzia; Wasay, Mohammad

    2017-11-02

    The burden of neurological diseases in developing countries is rising although little is known about the epidemiology and clinical pattern of neurological disorders. The objective of this study was to understand the burden of disease faced by neurologists a in tertiary care setting. A prospective observational study was conducted of all presentations to neurology clinics at Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi over a period of 2 years. A total of 16,371 out-patients with neurological diseases were seen during the study period. The mean age of the study participants were 46.2 ± 18.3 years and 8508 (52%) were male. Headache disorders were present in 3058 (18.6%) of patients followed by vascular diseases 2842 (17.4%), nerve and root lesions 2311 (14.1%) and epilepsies 2055 (12.5%). Parkinson's disease was more prevalent in male participants 564 (70.8%) as compared to female 257 (62.1%) (p = 0.002). Migraines and vertigo disease were more diagnosed in females as compared to males. Epilepsies were seen more in younger age groups. Parkinson's disease was seen in 50.9% of participants between the ages of 45 and 65 years, and the frequency increased with age.

  12. Figures and institutions of the neurological sciences in Paris from 1800 to 1950. Part III: neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussolle, E; Poirier, J; Clarac, F; Barbara, J-G

    2012-04-01

    We present a short historical review of the major figures, their administrative functions and their works that contributed to make Paris a renowned centre of physiology and neurology during the xixth and the first half of the xxth century. We purposely chose to focus on the period 1800-1950, as 1800 corresponds to the actual beginning of neurosciences, and 1950 marks their exponential rise. Our presentation is divided into four chapters, matching the main disciplines which have progressed and contributed the most to the knowledge we have of the brain sciences: anatomy, physiology, neurology, and psychiatry-psychology. The present article is the third of four parts of this review, and deals with neurology. A special credit should be given to Jean-Martin Charcot who founded the Salpêtrière School of neurology and became one of the world's most important neurologists of the xixth century. We provide below the biographical sketches of Armand Trousseau, Guillaume Benjamin Amand Duchenne, Jean-Martin Charcot, Alfred Vulpian, Désiré-Magloire Bourneville, Paul Richer, Henri Parinaud, Albert Pitres, Jules Joseph Dejerine, Mrs. Augusta Dejerine-Klumpke, Édouard Brissaud, Pierre Marie, Georges Édouard Brutus Gilles de la Tourette, Joseph Babinski, André Thomas, Georges Marinesco, Achille Alexandre Souques, Georges Guillain and Charles Foix. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Neurological and developmental approaches to poor pitch perception and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loui, Psyche; Demorest, Steven M; Pfordresher, Peter Q; Iyer, Janani

    2015-03-01

    Whereas much of research in music and neuroscience is aimed at understanding the mechanisms by which the human brain facilitates music, emerging interest in the neuromusic community aims to translate basic music research into clinical and educational applications. In the present paper, we explore the problems of poor pitch perception and production from both neurological and developmental/educational perspectives. We begin by reviewing previous and novel findings on the neural regulation of pitch perception and production. We then discuss issues in measuring singing accuracy consistently between the laboratory and educational settings. We review the Seattle Singing Accuracy Protocol--a new assessment tool that we hope can be adopted by cognitive psychologists as well as music educators-and we conclude with some suggestions that the present interdisciplinary approach might offer for future research. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  14. Computed tomography of the head in neurological examination of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeckman, E.; Egg-Olofsson, O.; Raadberg, C.

    1980-01-01

    A total of 247 children from the departments of pediatrics and neurosurgery were examined with computed tomography of the head during a two year period in 1977-78. Pathological changes were demonstrated in 79 per cent. Supplementary neuro-radiological examination - angiography and encephalography - was necessary in 17 per cent. Computed tomography together with the clinical assessment frequently suffices for final diagnosis. Computed tomography greatly reduces the need for previously used neurological examinations including skull radiography. Complications may ensure because of over-sensitivity to intravenously administered contrast medium in connection with anesthesia, and the radiation dose particularly to the crystalline lens of the eye must be taken into account. Computed tomography should therefore be used only on strict indications after careful scrutiny of the case history and the status. (author)

  15. Influence of argon on temperature modulation and neurological outcome in hypothermia treated rats following cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brücken, Anne; Bleilevens, Christian; Föhr, Philipp; Nolte, Kay; Rossaint, Rolf; Marx, Gernot; Fries, Michael; Derwall, Matthias

    2017-08-01

    Combining xenon and mild therapeutic hypothermia (MTH) after cardiac arrest (CA) confers a degree of protection that is greater than either of the two interventions alone. However, xenon is very costly which might preclude a widespread use. We investigated whether the inexpensive gas argon would enhance hypothermia induced neurologic recovery in a similar manner. Following nine minutes of CA and three minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation 21 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to receive MTH (33°C for 6h), MTH plus argon (70% for 1h), or no treatment. A first day condition score assessed behaviour, motor activity and overall condition. A neurological deficit score (NDS) was calculated daily for seven days following the experiment before the animals were killed and the brains harvested for histopathological analysis. All animals survived. Animals that received MTH alone showed best overall neurologic function. Strikingly, this effect was abolished in the argon-augmented MTH group, where animals showed worse neurologic outcome being significant in the first day condition score and on day one to three and five in the NDS in comparison to MTH treated rats. Results were reflected by the neurohistopathological analysis. Our study demonstrates that argon augmented MTH does not improve functional recovery after CA in rats, but may even worsen neurologic function in this model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of neurological complications using who warning signs for dengue disease severity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akmal, A.; Tauseef, A.; Akram, T.

    2015-01-01

    In 2009 a new classification of dengue was proposed by WHO Tropical Disease Research, which classifies dengue into dengue (D), dengue with warning signs (DW) and severe dengue (SD). This classification highlights the warning signs of dengue disease severity. Neurological complications are one of the most serious complications of dengue disease. This study was carried out to see association of neurological complications of dengue patients with WHO warning signs for dengue disease severity, and their outcome. Methods: It was a cross-sectional analytical study and included 180 diagnosed and registered cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever. The participants were subjected to a detailed clinical evaluation, laboratory assessment including blood counts, hematocrit, serology for dengue fever and sonography at 24 hours and 48 hours of their admission. Results: Twenty-six percent patients were suffering from neurological complications due to dengue. The warning signs for dengue disease severity like altered sensorium (85.5%, p=0.001), raised hematocrit (n=47, p=0.029), gall bladder wall thickening, pleural effusion and ascites on sonographic report (n=47, p=0.024), were strongly associated with the neurological complications. Conclusion: Our study reveals significant association of WHO warning signs for dengue disease severity with neurological complications of dengue disease. (author)

  17. The child neurology clinical workforce in 2015: Report of the AAP/CNS Joint Taskforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Peter B; Bale, James F; Mintz, Mark; Joshi, Sucheta M; Gilbert, Donald L; Radabaugh, Carrie; Ruch-Ross, Holly

    2016-09-27

    More than a decade has passed since the last major workforce survey of child neurologists in the United States; thus, a reassessment of the child neurology workforce is needed, along with an inaugural assessment of a new related field, neurodevelopmental disabilities. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the Child Neurology Society conducted an electronic survey in 2015 of child neurologists and neurodevelopmental disabilities specialists. The majority of respondents participate in maintenance of certification, practice in academic medical centers, and offer subspecialty care. EEG reading and epilepsy care are common subspecialty practice areas, although many child neurologists have not had formal training in this field. In keeping with broader trends, medical school debts are substantially higher than in the past and will often take many years to pay off. Although a broad majority would choose these fields again, there are widespread dissatisfactions with compensation and benefits given the length of training and the complexity of care provided, and frustrations with mounting regulatory and administrative stresses that interfere with clinical practice. Although not unique to child neurology and neurodevelopmental disabilities, such issues may present barriers for the recruitment of trainees into these fields. Creative approaches to enhance the recruitment of the next generation of child neurologists and neurodevelopmental disabilities specialists will benefit society, especially in light of all the exciting new treatments under development for an array of chronic childhood neurologic disorders. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  18. [Effect of pharmacologic treatment of the nutritional status of neurologic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro Corrales, Guadalupe; Vázquez López, Cristina; Álvarez Payero, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Clinical manifestations accompanying neurological diseases are diverse and affect multiple organs. Nutritional status of patients with certain neurological diseases such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Epilepsy and Multiple Sclerosis can be altered because of symptoms associated with disease course, including certain micronutrient deficiency (folic acid, zinc, vitamin B6 and B12, vitamin D, vitamin E and vitamin C), changes in energy expenditure, intake decreased, gastrointestinal disorders and dysfunction of the bone mass. Also, we have to take in account other factors as: advanced age, multiple co morbidities, polypharmacy, the use of herbal products, social habits, diet and pharmacological treatments effect. An assessment of the factors related to neurological treatment that cause alterations in metabolic and nutritional status was performed: side effects of anti-Parkinson drugs, antiepileptic drugs, and multiple sclerosis drugs; drug-nutrient interactions; and nutrient-drug interactions.

  19. Neurological function following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion is improved by the Ruyi Zhenbao pill in a rats

    OpenAIRE

    WANG, TIAN; DUAN, SIJIN; WANG, HAIPING; SUN, SHAN; HAN, BING; FU, FENGHUA

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect and underlying mechanisms of the Ruyi Zhenbao pill on neurological function following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion following reperfusion. The rats received intragastrically either sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (control and model groups) or Ruyi Zhenbao pill at doses of 0.2, 0.4 or 0.8 g/kg. Neurological function was assessed by cylinder, adhesive and beam-walking te...

  20. Temperature variability during targeted temperature management is not associated with neurological outcomes following cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayeri, Arash; Bhatia, Nirmanmoh; Holmes, Benjamin; Borges, Nyal; Armstrong, William; Xu, Meng; Farber-Eger, Eric; Wells, Quinn S; McPherson, John A

    2017-06-01

    Recent studies on comatose survivors of cardiac arrest undergoing targeted temperature management (TTM) have shown similar outcomes at multiple target temperatures. However, details regarding core temperature variability during TTM and its prognostic implications remain largely unknown. We sought to assess the association between core temperature variability and neurological outcomes in patients undergoing TTM following cardiac arrest. We analyzed a prospectively collected cohort of 242 patients treated with TTM following cardiac arrest at a tertiary care hospital between 2007 and 2014. Core temperature variability was defined as the statistical variance (i.e. standard deviation squared) amongst all core temperature recordings during the maintenance phase of TTM. Poor neurological outcome at hospital discharge, defined as a Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) score>2, was the primary outcome. Death prior to hospital discharge was assessed as the secondary outcome. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the association between temperature variability and neurological outcome or death at hospital discharge. A poor neurological outcome was observed in 147 (61%) patients and 136 (56%) patients died prior to hospital discharge. In multivariable logistic regression, increased core temperature variability was not associated with increased odds of poor neurological outcomes (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.11-1.38, p=0.142) or death (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.12-1.53, p=0.193) at hospital discharge. In this study, individual core temperature variability during TTM was not associated with poor neurological outcomes or death at hospital discharge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of a framework for the evidence-based choice of outcome measures in neurological physiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Sarah; Watson, Anita; Moss, Sylvia; Troop, Hilary; Dean-Lofthouse, Gill; Jorritsma, Sjoerd; Shannon, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Neurological physiotherapists recognize the need to include standardized outcome measures (OMs) in clinical practice but lack of information about the OMs available hampers utilization. This paper reports on the first stage of a project to identify the most robust OMs for use in neurological physiotherapy. To identify what physiotherapists perceive that they need to measure during a neurological assessment. Three separate workshops were held using patient vignettes to represent the acute, rehabilitation and community settings. Thirty senior neurological physiotherapists participated and were asked: 'What would you observe, test or measure if assessing this patient?' Data were analysed using thematic content analysis performed independently by each of the authors. Internal and external member checking ensured validity. In addition, the authors produced definitions of the items and domains identified in the data collection and subsequent content analysis. Items from the data collection were classified into 16 domains that physiotherapists need to measure: Weakness; range of movement/contracture; pain; muscle tone/spasticity; sensation; ataxia/co-ordination; personal fatigue; oedema; subluxation; postural and balance impairment; walking impairment; upper limb; balance disability; walking disability; mobility disability and falls. The domains that physiotherapists need to measure during clinical assessment were identified. In the second stage of the project these domains will inform systematic reviews to identify the most robust outcome measures for use in clinical practice.

  2. [Neurological soft signs in schizophrenia: correlations with age, sex, educational status and psychopathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotidis, P; Kaprinis, G; Iacovides, A; Fountoulakis, K

    2013-01-01

    Though the pathobiology of schizophrenia can be examined in multiple levels, the organic notion of brain disease suggests that neurological features will be present. One straightforward, inexpensive method of investigating brain dysfunction in schizophrenia is thought the bedside assessment of neurological abnormalities with a standard neurological examination. Neurological abnormalities are traditionally classified as "hard signs" (impairments in basic motor, sensory, and reflex behaviors, which do not appear to be affected in schizophrenia) and "soft signs", which refer to more complex phenomena such as abnormalities in motor control, integrative sensory function, sensorimotor integration, and cerebral laterality. Additionally, neurological soft signs (NSS) are minor motor and sensory abnormalities that are considered to be normal in the course of early development but abnormal when elicited in later life or persist beyond childhood. Soft signs also, have no definitive localizing significance but are indicative of subtle brain dysfunction. Most authors believe that they are a reflection not only of deficient integration between the sensory and motor systems, but also of dysfunctional neuronal circuits linking subcortical brain structures such as the basal ganglia, the brain stem, and the limbic system. Throughout the last four decades, studies have consistently shown that NSS are more frequently present in patients with schizophrenia than in normal subjects and non-psychotic psychiatric patients. However, the functional relevance of NSS remains unclear and their specificity has often been challenged, even though there is indication for a relative specificity with regard to diagnosis, or symptomatology. Many studies have considered soft signs as categorical variables thus hampering the evaluation of fluctuation with symptomatology and/or treatment, whereas other studies included insufficient number of assessed signs, or lacked a comprehensive assessment of

  3. Early Detection and Treatment of Neuroblastic Tumor with Opsoclonus-Myoclonus Syndrome Improve Neurological Outcome: A Review of Five Cases at a Single Institution in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takama, Yuichi; Yoneda, Akihiro; Nakamura, Tetsuro; Nakaoka, Tatsuo; Higashio, Atsushi; Santo, Kenji; Kuki, Ichiro; Kawawaki, Hisashi; Tomiwa, Kiyotaka; Hara, Junichi

    2016-02-01

    Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is a paraneoplastic neurological disorder associated with neuroblastic tumor (NT) in childhood. Half of patients have neurological sequelae after the neurological and oncological treatment. We reviewed the neurological and oncological outcomes of NT with OMS, and discussed whether the treatment of NT would contribute to improving the neurological prognosis. We retrospectively assessed NT patients with OMS from January 2001 to December 2013 at a single institution in Japan. Demographic data, neurological and oncological status, histopathology, treatments, prognosis, and diagnosis and treatment timing were retrospectively reviewed from the records. The timings assessed were the interval between OMS onset and NT detection, initial NT therapy, and initial OMS therapy, the interval between NT therapy and OMS remission, and duration of OMS. A total of 73 patients with NT were treated during the study period, and 5 of 73 patients were diagnosed as having NT with OMS. The median age at onset of OMS was 22 months (range, 18-30 months). The median age at detection of NT was 29 months (range, 21-33 months). Three of five cases showed no uptake on meta-iodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy. The tumor histopathology was neuroblastoma in two patients, ganglioneuroblastoma in two patients, and ganglioneuroma in one patient. Primary resection was performed in three cases. All patients survived. Two of five cases presented with atypical neurological symptoms without opsoclonus. The initial neurological therapy was started within a mean of 20 days (range, 3-76 days) from the onset of OMS in all cases. Four patients received intravenous immunoglobulin, and one with persistent neurological problems received rituximab. Neurological symptoms resolved in three cases. The mean interval between the onset of OMS and the detection of NT in case without neurological sequelae was 57 days (range, 25-113 days), while in case with neurological sequelae it was 365

  4. Protective Effects of Ginseng on Neurological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Yi eOng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng (Order: Apiales, Family: Araliaceae, Genus: Panax has been used as a traditional herbal medicine for over 2000 years, and is recorded to have antianxiety, antidepressant and cognition enhancing properties. The protective effect of ginseng on neurological disorders is discussed in this review. Ginseng species and ginsenosides, and their intestinal metabolism and bioavailability are briefly introduced. This is followed by molecular mechanisms of effects of ginseng on the brain, including glutamatergic transmission, monoamine transmission, estrogen signaling, nitric oxide production, the Keap1/Nrf2 adaptive cellular stress pathway, neuronal survival, apoptosis, neural stem cells and neuroregeneration, microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and cerebral microvessels. The molecular mechanisms of the neuroprotective effects of ginseng in Alzheimer’s disease including Aβ formation, tau hyperphosphorylation and oxidative stress, major depression, stroke, Parkinson’s disease and multiple sclerosis / experimental allergic encephalitis are then presented. It is hoped that this discussion will stimulate more studies on the use of ginseng in these disorders.

  5. Delayed neurological deterioration due to progressive pneumocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal Amit

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pneumocephalus can develop immediately following head trauma or clinical presentation may be delayed for days. We report a case of 35 year male whose initial CT scan brain plain small specks of pneumocephalus in left para-sellar region. However the next day he was complaining of severe headache and had multiple episodes of vomiting. Repeat CT scan showed increase in the size of pneumocephalus including appearance of intraventricular air with mild cerebral edema. The patient recovered well with conservative management. The present case is a gentle reminder that in a subgroup of head injury patients, intracranial air can produce significant mass effect leading to tension pneumocephalus which can can behave like other intracranial mass lesions and causes worsening of the neurological status of these patients.

  6. Automatisms: bridging clinical neurology with criminal law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolnick, Joshua; Parvizi, Josef

    2011-03-01

    The law, like neurology, grapples with the relationship between disease states and behavior. Sometimes, the two disciplines share the same terminology, such as automatism. In law, the "automatism defense" is a claim that action was involuntary or performed while unconscious. Someone charged with a serious crime can acknowledge committing the act and yet may go free if, relying on the expert testimony of clinicians, the court determines that the act of crime was committed in a state of automatism. In this review, we explore the relationship between the use of automatism in the legal and clinical literature. We close by addressing several issues raised by the automatism defense: semantic ambiguity surrounding the term automatism, the presence or absence of consciousness during automatisms, and the methodological obstacles that have hindered the study of cognition during automatisms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The applications of pharmacogenomics to neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, C; McSweeney, C; Mao, Y

    2014-01-01

    The most common neurological disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders, have received recent attention with regards to pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine. Here, we will focus on a neglected neurodegenerative disorder, cerebral ischemic stroke (CIS), and highlight recent advances in two disorders, Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's diseases (AD), that possess both similar and distinct mechanisms in regards to potential therapeutic targets. In the first part of this review, we will focus primarily on mechanisms that are somewhat specific to each disorder which are involved in neurodegeneration (i.e., protease pathways, calcium homeostasis, reactive oxygen species regulation, DNA repair mechanisms, neurogenesis regulation, mitochondrial function, etc.). In the second part of this review, we will discuss the applications of the genome-wide technology on pharmacogenomics of mental illnesses including schizophrenia (SCZ), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD).

  8. Incontinentia pigmenti with neurologic and oculodental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Arturo Avina Fierro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Incontinentia pigmenti is a genodermatosis with X-linked dominant inheritance, characterized by cutaneous, neurologic, ophthalmologic, and dental abnormalities with a pattern suggestive of somatic mosaicism. We describe a 21-month-old girl showing characteristic cutaneous findings of incontinentia pigmenti in chronic evolution of hyperpigmented, hypopigmented, and atrophic stages, linear and whorled pattern involving the Blaschko's lines. The patient has history of seizures, and electroencephalography showed epileptiform discharges at temporal lobule, cranial magnetic resonance imaging revealed cerebral dysgenesis, neuronal migration disorder, and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. She has motor and mental delay with spastic quadriplegia, and ophthalmologic loss of central vision by ischemic optic neuropathy with decreased blood flow to eye's optic nerve. The dermatologic features were confirmed by skin biopsy that showed slight atrophy and some scattered apoptotic cells in the epidermis, epidermal hypopigmentation, and reduced melanocyte number, these histological features confirmed the genodermatosis diagnosis: Bloch-Sulzberger syndrome.

  9. Stem cells in neurology - current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chary Ely Marquez Batista

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS restoration is an important clinical challenge and stem cell transplantation has been considered a promising therapeutic option for many neurological diseases. Objective : The present review aims to briefly describe stem cell biology, as well as to outline the clinical application of stem cells in the treatment of diseases of the CNS. Method : Literature review of animal and human clinical experimental trials, using the following key words: “stem cell”, “neurogenesis”, “Parkinson”, “Huntington”, “amyotrophic lateral sclerosis”, “traumatic brain injury”, “spinal cord injury”, “ischemic stroke”, and “demyelinating diseases”. Conclusion : Major recent advances in stem cell research have brought us several steps closer to their effective clinical application, which aims to develop efficient ways of regenerating the damaged CNS.

  10. Neurological and Vascular Manifestations of Ethylmalonic Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavasoli, Ali Reza; Rostami, Parastoo; Ashrafi, Mahmoud Reza; Karimzadeh, Parvaneh

    2017-01-01

    Objective Ethylmalonic encephalopathy (EE) is a severe mitochondrial disease of early infancy clinically characterized by a combination of developmental delay, progressive pyramidal signs, and vascular lesions including petechial purpura, orthostatic acrocyanosis, and chronic hemorrhagic diarrhea. Biochemical hallmarks of the disease are persistently high level of lactate, and C4-C5-acylcarnitines in blood, markedly elevated urinary excretion of methylsuccinic and ethylmalonic (EMA) acids. Here we report two patients with EE as a 16-months-old male infant and a 2-yr-old boy referred to Pediatric Neurology Clinic in Children's Medical Center, Tehran-Iran that in one patient genetic analysis revealed a homozygous mutation of the ETHE1 gene in favor of ethylmalonic acidemia.

  11. Neurology of microgravity and space travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, M. D.; Patten, B. M.

    1992-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity and space travel produce several neurologic changes, including SAS, ataxia, postural disturbances, perceptual illusions, neuromuscular weakness, and fatigue. Inflight SAS, perceptual illusions, and ocular changes are of more importance. After landing, however, ataxia, perceptual illusions, neuromuscular weakness, and fatigue play greater roles in astronaut health and readaptation to a terrestrial environment. Cardiovascular adjustments to microgravity, bone demineralization, and possible decompression sickness and excessive radiation exposure contribute further to medical problems of astronauts in space. A better understanding of the mechanisms by which microgravity adversely affects the nervous system and more effective treatments will provide healthier, happier, and longer stays in space on the space station Freedom and during the mission to Mars.

  12. Opinion & Special Articles: Mentoring in neurology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    Effective academic mentoring significantly affects a physician's choice of career, academic productivity, and professional trajectory. The mentoring relationship is necessary for the continued success of medical training. It is critical to cultivate a climate in which mentoring can thrive. In order to improve the quality and outcomes of mentoring, we must adopt a comprehensive plan. There are interventions at every level of training that will ensure that the current cohort of neurologists receives the requisite expertise needed to flourish and inspire future trainees. Professional organizations must articulate a comprehensive vision of mentoring. Institutions must create an infrastructure to support mentors. Mentors should work in active partnerships with their mentees to forge sustained, productive relationships. Mentees must actively contribute to their own mentoring. Proper mentorship will ensure a bright future for academic neurology. PMID:24616198

  13. Innovative radiopharmaceuticals in oncology and neurology

    CERN Document Server

    Barbet, Jacques; Chérel, Michel; Guilloteau, Denis

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this Research Topic was to assemble a series of articles describing basic, preclinical and clinical research studies on radiopharmaceuticals and nuclear medicine. The articles were written by attendees of the third Nuclear Technologies for Health Symposium (NTHS, 10th-11th March 2015, Nantes, Frances) under the auspices of the IRON LabEx (Innovative Radiopharmaceuticals for Oncology and Neurology Laboratory of Excellence). This French network, gathering approximately 160 scientists from 12 academic research teams (Funded by “investissements d’Avenir”), fosters transdisciplinary projects between teams with expertise in chemistry, radiochemistry, radiopharmacy, formulation, biology, nuclear medicine and medical physics. The 12 articles within this resulting eBook present a series of comprehensive reviews and original research papers on multimodality imaging and targeted radionuclide therapy; illustrating the different facets of studies currently conducted in these domains.

  14. The early struggles of the fledgling American Academy of Neurology: resistance from the old guard of American neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Elan D

    2013-01-01

    The American Neurological Association, established in 1874, was a small exclusive society comprising senior neurologists at a select number of north-eastern academic institutions. In 1948, an attempt was made to establish a second neurological society in the USA. The American Academy of Neurology was formed around a group of young neurologists who represented the country's Midwest and other regions. The American Academy of Neurology is now the larger of the two organizations, even though the American Academy of Neurology began as a small and politically vulnerable organization, arising in the shadow of the powerful and established American Neurological Association. How did the 75-year-old association react when a second, seemingly redundant, neurological association attempted to organize? This question has not been the focus of historical work, and the purpose of this study was to address this. To do so, the author studied the primary source materials in the American Academy of Neurology Historical Collection and the papers of Dr Henry Alsop Riley, an American neurologist, who was influential in both the American Neurological Association and American Academy of Neurology. On its formation, the American Academy of Neurology did not enter a vacuum. Indeed, the long-existing American Neurological Association actively resisted the new organization. There was reluctance to accept the new idea on a conceptual level, a formal attempt to hijack the new organization and discussions about punitive actions against its founder, while at the same time an attempt to bring him into the American Neurological Association leadership. Although the American Neurological Association attempted to frame itself as the patrician 'upper chamber' of American neurology, the American Academy of Neurology leadership was ultimately savvier at political manoeuvring and use of government agencies and funding organizations. The struggle of the American Academy of Neurology with the American

  15. Neurological outcomes in symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus-infected infants after introduction of newborn urine screening and antiviral treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Kosuke; Morioka, Ichiro; Nakamachi, Yuji; Kobayashi, Yoko; Imanishi, Takamitsu; Kawano, Seiji; Iwatani, Sota; Koda, Tsubasa; Deguchi, Masashi; Tanimura, Kenji; Yamashita, Daisuke; Nibu, Ken-Ichi; Funakoshi, Toru; Ohashi, Masanobu; Inoue, Naoki; Iijima, Kazumoto; Yamada, Hideto

    2016-02-01

    Newborn screening for urinary cytomegalovirus (CMV) and early introduction of antiviral treatment are expected to improve neurological outcomes in symptomatic congenital CMV-infected infants. This cohort study prospectively evaluated neurological outcomes in symptomatic congenital CMV-infected infants following the introduction of hospital-based newborn urinary CMV screening and antiviral treatment. Following institutional review board approval and written informed consent from their parents, newborns were prospectively screened from 2009 to 2014 for urinary CMV-DNA by PCR within 1 week after birth at Kobe University Hospital and affiliated hospitals. CMV-positive newborns were further examined at Kobe University Hospital, and those diagnosed as symptomatic were treated with valganciclovir for 6 weeks plus immunoglobulin. Clinical neurological outcomes were evaluated at age ⩾12 months and categorized by the presence and severity of neurologic sequelae. Urine samples of 6348 newborns were screened, with 32 (0.50%) positive for CMV. Of these, 16 were diagnosed with symptomatic infection and 12 received antiviral treatment. Four infants developed severe impairment (33%), three developed mild impairment (25%), and five developed normally (42%). This is the first Japanese report of neurological assessments in infants with symptomatic congenital CMV infection who received early diagnosis and antiviral treatment. Urinary screening, resulting in early diagnosis and treatment, may yield better neurological outcomes in symptomatic congenital CMV-infected infants. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Neurological outcome after emergency radiotherapy in MSCC of patients with non-small cell lung cancer - a prospective trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rief, Harald; Heinhold, Rita C; Petersen, Lina C; Rieken, Stefan; Bruckner, Thomas; Moghaddam-Alvandi, Arash; Debus, Jürgen; Sterzing, Florian

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this trial was to investigate neurological outcome after emergency RT in MSCC of NSCLC patients with acute neurological deficit. This pilot trial was prospective, non-randomized, and monocentre, ten patients were treated from July 2012 until June 2013. After onset of neurological symptoms RT was started within 12 hours. The neurological outcome was assessed at baseline, and six weeks after RT using the ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS). The results showed an improved neurological outcome in one patient (10%), one patient (10%) had a decreased, and five patients (50%) a constant outcome after six weeks. Three patients (30%) died within the first six weeks following RT, additional 4 patients (40%) died within 4 month due to tumor progression. In this group of NSCLC patients we were able to show that emergency RT in MSCC with acute neurological deficit had no considerable benefit in neurological outcome. Therefore, short-course regime or best supportive care due to poor survival should be considered for these patients with additional distant metastases. Patients with favorable prognosis may be candidates for long-course RT

  17. Blog and Podcast Watch: Neurologic Emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grock, Andrew; Joshi, Nikita; Swaminathan, Anand; Rezaie, Salim; Gaafary, Chris; Lin, Michelle

    2016-11-01

    The WestJEM Blog and Podcast Watch presents high quality open-access educational blogs and podcasts in emergency medicine (EM) based on the ongoing ALiEM Approved Instructional Resources (AIR) and AIR-Professional series. Both series critically appraise resources using an objective scoring rubric. This installment of the Blog and Podcast Watch highlights the topic of neurologic emergencies from the AIR series. The AIR series is a continuously building curriculum that follows the Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Director's (CORD) annual testing schedule. For each module, relevant content is collected from the top 50 Social Media Index sites published within the previous 12 months, and scored by eight board members using five equally weighted measurement outcomes: Best Evidence in Emergency Medicine (BEEM) score, accuracy, educational utility, evidence based, and references. Resources scoring ≥30 out of 35 available points receive an AIR label. Resources scoring 27-29 receive an honorable mention label, if the executive board agrees that the post is accurate and educationally valuable. A total of 125 blog posts and podcasts were evaluated. Key educational pearls from the 14 AIR posts are summarized, and the 20 honorable mentions are listed. The WestJEM Blog and Podcast Watch series is based on the AIR and AIR-Pro series, which attempts to identify high quality educational content on open-access blogs and podcasts. This series provides an expert-based, post-publication curation of educational social media content for EM clinicians with this installment focusing on neurologic emergencies.

  18. Neurological Aspects of Medical Use of Cannabidiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannucci, Carmen; Navarra, Michele; Calapai, Fabrizio; Spagnolo, Elvira V; Busardò, Francesco P; Cas, Roberto D; Ippolito, Francesca M; Calapai, Gioacchino

    2017-01-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is among the major secondary metabolites of Cannabis devoid of the delta-9-tetra-hydrocannabinol psychoactive effects. It is a resorcinol-based compound with a broad spectrum of potential therapeutic properties, including neuroprotective effects in numerous pathological conditions. CBD neuroprotection is due to its antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities and the modulation of a large number of brain biological targets (receptors, channels) involved in the development and maintenance of neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of the present review was to describe the state of art about the pre-clinical research, the potential use and, when existing, the clinical evidence related to CBD in the neurological field. Collection of all the pre-clinical and clinical findings carried out investigating the effects of CBD alone, not in combination with other substances, in the neurological arena with the exclusion of studies on neuropsychiatric disorders. Laboratory and clinical studies on the potential role of CBD in Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), multiple sclerosis (MS), Huntington's disease (HD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ALS), cerebral ischemia, were examined. Pre-clinical evidence largely shows that CBD can produce beneficial effects in AD, PD and MS patients, but its employment for these disorders needs further confirmation from well designed clinical studies. CBD pre-clinical demonstration of antiepileptic activity is supported by recent clinical studies in human epileptic subjects resistant to standard antiepileptic drugs showing its potential use in children and young adults affected by refractory epilepsy. Evidence for use of CBD in PD is still not supported by sufficient data whereas only a few studies including a small number of patients are available. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. The Neurological Complications of Nutritional Deficiency following Bariatric Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Danielle A.; Balcer, Laura J.; Galetta, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    Neurologic complications of bariatric surgery have become increasingly recognized with the rising numbers of procedures and the increasing prevalence of obesity in the US. Deficits are most commonly seen with thiamine, vitamin B12, folate, vitamin D, vitamin E, and copper deficiencies. The neurological findings observed with these nutritional deficiencies are variable and include encephalopathy, optic neuropathy, myelopathy, polyradiculoneuropathy, and polyneuropathy. We review the neurologic...

  20. Neurological eponyms derived from literature and visual art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budrys, Valmantas

    2005-01-01

    Eponyms are common in medicine, and neurology is not an exception. Most neurological eponyms originate from the names of those who first described a disease or pathological condition, as well as from the names of characters from the literature and mythical or biblical heroes. The article describes en block both widespread and nowadays seldom used or even forgotten neurological eponyms derived from literature and visual art. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. CSF HYPOCRETIN CONCENTRATION IN VARIOUS NEUROLOGICAL AND SLEEP DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Tsutsui, Kou; Kanbayashi, Takashi; Sawaishi, Yukio; Tokunaga, Jun; Sato, Masahiro; Shimizu, Tetsuo

    2011-01-01

    Recent CSF and postmortem brain hypocretin measurements in human narcolepsy suggest that hypocretin deficiency is involved in the pathophysiology of the disease. Thus, it is important to study whether neurological disorders also have abnormal CSF hypocretin levels. We therefore measured hypocretins in the CSF of various neurological disorders and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) to identify altered hypocretin levels. CSF hypocretin levels in patients with OSAS and neurological diseases...

  2. Limitations of the Neurological Evolutional Exam (ENE as a motor assessment for first graders Limitações do Exame Neurológico Evolutivo (ENE como um instrumento de avaliação motora para crianças da primeira série

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila M. Caçola

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many clinicians and researchers in Brazil consider the Neurological Developmental Exam (NDE, a valid and reliable assessment for Brazilian school-aged children. However, since its inception, several tests have emerged that, according to some researchers, provide more in-depth evaluation of motor ability and go beyond the detection of general motor status (soft neurological signs. OBJECTIVES: To highlight the limitations of the NDE as a motor skill assessment for first graders. METHODS: Thirty-five children were compared on seven selected items of the NDE, seven of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test (BOT, and seven of the Visual-Motor Integration test (VMI. Participants received a "pass" or "fail" score for each item, as prescribed by the respective test manual. RESULTS: Chi-square and ANOVA results indicated that the vast majority of children (74% passed the NDE items, whereas values for the other tests were 29% (BOT and 20% (VMI. Analysis of specific categories (e.g. visual, fine, and gross motor coordination revealed a similar outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that while the NDE may be a valid and reliable test for the detection of general motor status, its use as a diagnostic/remedial tool for identifying motor ability is questionable. One of our recommendations is the consideration of a revised NDE in light of the current needs of clinicians and researchers.CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Muitos clínicos e pesquisadores brasileiros consideram o Exame Neurológico Evolutivo (ENE, um instrumento válido e confiável para crianças brasileiras em idade escolar. Entretanto, desde a sua criação, surgiram outros testes para uma avaliação mais profunda de habilidade motora, os quais vão além de detectar status motor geral em forma de sinais neurológicos leves. OBJETIVOS: Demonstrar os pontos fracos do ENE como teste de avaliação de habilidade motora para crianças de primeira série. MÉTODOS: Trinta e cinco crianças realizaram 7 itens

  3. Enfermedad neurologica por adenovirus Neurologic disease due to adenovirus infection

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    Cristina L. Lema

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la prevalencia de adenovirus (ADV en las infecciones del sistema nervioso central (SNC. Se analizaron 108 muestras de líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR provenientes de 79 casos de encefalitis, 7 meningitis y 22 de otras patologías neurológicas, recibidas en el período 2000-2002. Cuarenta y nueve (47.35% se obtuvieron de pacientes inmunocomprometidos. La presencia de ADV se investigó mediante reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en formato anidado (Nested-PCR. La identificación del genogrupo se realizó mediante análisis filogenético de la secuencia nucleotídica parcial de la región que codifica para la proteína del hexón. Se detectó la presencia de ADV en 6 de 108 (5.5% muestras de LCR analizadas. Todos los casos positivos pertenecieron a pacientes con encefalitis que fueron 79, (6/79, 7.6%. No se observó diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre los casos de infección por ADV en pacientes inmunocomprometidos e inmunocompetentes (p>0.05. Las cepas de ADV detectadas se agruparon en los genogrupos B1 y C. En conclusión, nuestros resultados describen el rol de los ADV en las infecciones neurológicas en Argentina. La información presentada contribuye al conocimiento de su epidemiología, en particular en casos de encefalitis.The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of adenovirusm (ADV infections in neurological disorders. A total of 108 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples from 79 encephalitis cases, 7 meningitis and 22 other neurological diseases analysed in our laboratory between 2000 and 2002 were studied. Forty nine (47.4% belonged to immunocompromised patients. Viral genome was detected using nested polymerase chain reaction (Nested-PCR and ADV genotypes were identified using partial gene sequence analysis of hexon gene. Adenovirus were detected in 6 of 108 (5.5% CSF samples tested. All of these were from encephalitis cases, 6/79, representing 7.6% of them. No statistically

  4. Male sexual dysfunction and infertility associated with neurological disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Krogh-Jespersen, Sheila; Brackett, Nancy L

    2012-01-01

    Normal sexual and reproductive functions depend largely on neurological mechanisms. Neurological defects in men can cause infertility through erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction and semen abnormalities. Among the major conditions contributing to these symptoms are pelvic and retroperito......Normal sexual and reproductive functions depend largely on neurological mechanisms. Neurological defects in men can cause infertility through erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction and semen abnormalities. Among the major conditions contributing to these symptoms are pelvic...... and retroperitoneal surgery, diabetes, congenital spinal abnormalities, multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury. Erectile dysfunction can be managed by an increasingly invasive range of treatments including medications, injection therapy and the surgical insertion of a penile implant. Retrograde ejaculation...

  5. MAGNESIUM DEFICIENCY IN CHILD NEUROLOGY: WHAT SHOULD A PAEDIATRICIAN KNOW?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. А. Karkashadze

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of micronutrients in a diet of the modern children increases risk of the formation of chronic neurologic and somatic pathology. Magnesium deficiency, which initiates a various neurologic symptomatology, has a particular importance in the progress of nervous system diseases at children. Diagnosis of neurologic manifestations of a micronutrient deficiency requires comprehension of the main mechanisms of their development, and also peculiarities of laboratory diagnostics. In treatment of consequences of a magnesium deficiency the special role belongs to the micronutrient stock replacement (medication, alimentary combined with traditional methods of treatment of neurologic disorders.

  6. Is there an association of vitamin B12 status with neurological function in older people? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Lisa M; Mills, Kerry; Clarke, Robert; Dangour, Alan D

    2015-08-28

    Low vitamin B12 status is common in older people; however, its public health significance in terms of neurological manifestations remains unclear. The present systematic review evaluated the association of vitamin B12 status with neurological function and clinically relevant neurological outcomes in adults aged 50+ years. A systematic search of nine bibliographic databases (up to March 2013) identified twelve published articles describing two longitudinal and ten cross-sectional analyses. The included study populations ranged in size (n 28-2287) and mean/median age (range 65-81 years). Studies reported various neurological outcomes: nerve function; clinically measured signs and symptoms of nerve function; self-reported neurological symptoms. Studies were assessed for risk of bias, and results were synthesised qualitatively. Among the general population groups of older people, one longitudinal study reported no association, and four of seven cross-sectional studies reported limited evidence of an association of vitamin B12 status with some, but not all, neurological outcomes. Among groups with clinical and/or biochemical evidence of low vitamin B12 status, one longitudinal study reported an association of vitamin B12 status with some, but not all, neurological outcomes and three cross-sectional analyses reported no association. Overall, there is limited evidence from observational studies to suggest an association of vitamin B12 status with neurological function in older people. The heterogeneity and quality of the evidence base preclude more definitive conclusions, and further high-quality research is needed to better inform understanding of public health significance in terms of neurological function of vitamin B12 status in older people.

  7. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome: an easily overlooked neurologic emergency

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    Oruch R

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ramadhan Oruch,1 Ian F Pryme,2 Bernt A Engelsen,3 Anders Lund4 1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Benghazi University, Benghazi, Libya; 2Department of Biomedicine, 3Department of Clinical Medicine, Section of Neurology, 4Department of Clinical Medicine, Section of Psychiatry, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway Abstract: Neuroleptic malignant syndrome is an unpredictable iatrogenic neurologic emergency condition, mainly arising as an idiosyncratic reaction to antipsychotic agent use. It is characterized by distinctive clinical features including a change in mental status, generalized rigidity, hyperpyrexia, and dysautonomia. It can be lethal if not diagnosed and treated properly. Mortality and morbidity attributed to this syndrome have recently declined markedly due to greater awareness, earlier diagnosis, and intensive care intervention. In most cases, the syndrome occurs as a result of a rapid increase in a dose of neuroleptic, especially one of the long-acting ones. Pathophysiology behind this syndrome is attributed to a dopamine receptor blockade inside the neurons rendered by the offending drug and excessive calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal myocytes. Laboratory tests, although not diagnostic, may assist in assessing the severity of the syndrome and also the consequent complications. The syndrome has been described in all age groups and occurs more in males than in females. Genetics appears to be central regarding the etiology of the syndrome. Stopping the use of the offending agent, cold intravenous fluids, and removal of the causative agent and its possible active metabolites is the cornerstone of treatment. Periodic observation of psychotic patients recently started on antipsychotic medications, especially those being treated with depot preparations, may aid to an early diagnosis of the syndrome and lead to early treatment. Keywords: neuroleptic malignant syndrome, dopamine

  8. Xenobiotic pulmonary exposure and systemic cardiovascular response via neurological links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Phoebe A; Abukabda, Alaeddin B; Hardy, Steven L; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R

    2015-11-15

    The cardiovascular response to xenobiotic particle exposure has been increasingly studied over the last two decades, producing an extraordinary scope and depth of research findings. With the flourishing of nanotechnology, the term "xenobiotic particles" has expanded to encompass not only air pollution particulate matter (PM) but also anthropogenic particles, such as engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Historically, the majority of research in these fields has focused on pulmonary exposure and the adverse physiological effects associated with a host inflammatory response or direct particle-tissue interactions. Because these hypotheses can neither account entirely for the deleterious cardiovascular effects of xenobiotic particle exposure nor their time course, the case for substantial neurological involvement is apparent. Indeed, considerable evidence suggests that not only is neural involvement a significant contributor but also a reality that needs to be investigated more thoroughly when assessing xenobiotic particle toxicities. Therefore, the scope of this review is several-fold. First, we provide a brief overview of the major anatomical components of the central and peripheral nervous systems, giving consideration to the potential biologic targets affected by inhaled particles. Second, the autonomic arcs and mechanisms that may be involved are reviewed. Third, the cardiovascular outcomes following neurological responses are discussed. Lastly, unique problems, future risks, and hurdles associated with xenobiotic particle exposure are discussed. A better understanding of these neural issues may facilitate research that in conjunction with existing research, will ultimately prevent the untoward cardiovascular outcomes associated with PM exposures and/or identify safe ENMs for the advancement of human health. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  9. The Range of Neurological Complications in Chikungunya Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerny, T; Schwarz, M; Schwarz, U; Lemant, J; Gérardin, P; Keller, E

    2017-12-01

    Chikungunya fever is a globally spreading mosquito-borne disease that shows an unexpected neurovirulence. Even though the neurological complications have been a major cause of intensive care unit admission and death, to date, there is no systematic analysis of their spectrum available. To review evidence of neurological manifestations in Chikungunya fever and map their epidemiology, clinical spectrum, pathomechanisms, diagnostics, therapies and outcomes. Case report and systematic review of the literature followed established guidelines. All cases found were assessed using a 5-step clinical diagnostic algorithm assigning categories A-C, category A representing the highest level of quality. Only A and B cases were considered for further analysis. After general analysis, cases were clustered according to geospatial criteria for subgroup analysis. Thirty-six of 1196 studies were included, yielding 130 cases. Nine were ranked as category A (diagnosis of Neuro-Chikungunya probable), 55 as B (plausible), and 51 as C (disputable). In 15 cases, alternative diagnoses were more likely. Patient age distribution was bimodal with a mean of 49 years and a second peak in infants. Fifty percent of the cases occurred in patients Chikungunya seem to occur particularly in infants and elderly patients, while autoimmune forms have to be also considered in middle-aged, previously healthy patients, especially after an asymptomatic interval. This knowledge will help to identify future Neuro-Chikungunya cases and to improve outcome especially in autoimmune-mediated conditions. The genetics of Chikungunya virus might play a key role in determining the course of neuropathogenesis. With further research, this could prove diagnostically significant.

  10. Utility of Combining a Simulation-Based Method With a Lecture-Based Method for Fundoscopy Training in Neurology Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepak K; Khandker, Namir; Stacy, Kristin; Tatsuoka, Curtis M; Preston, David C

    2017-10-01

    Fundoscopic examination is an essential component of the neurologic examination. Competence in its performance is mandated as a required clinical skill for neurology residents by the American Council of Graduate Medical Education. Government and private insurance agencies require its performance and documentation for moderate- and high-level neurologic evaluations. Traditionally, assessment and teaching of this key clinical examination technique have been difficult in neurology residency training. To evaluate the utility of a simulation-based method and the traditional lecture-based method for assessment and teaching of fundoscopy to neurology residents. This study was a prospective, single-blinded, education research study of 48 neurology residents recruited from July 1, 2015, through June 30, 2016, at a large neurology residency training program. Participants were equally divided into control and intervention groups after stratification by training year. Baseline and postintervention assessments were performed using questionnaire, survey, and fundoscopy simulators. After baseline assessment, both groups initially received lecture-based training, which covered fundamental knowledge on the components of fundoscopy and key neurologic findings observed on fundoscopic examination. The intervention group additionally received simulation-based training, which consisted of an instructor-led, hands-on workshop that covered practical skills of performing fundoscopic examination and identifying neurologically relevant findings on another fundoscopy simulator. The primary outcome measures were the postintervention changes in fundoscopy knowledge, skills, and total scores. A total of 30 men and 18 women were equally distributed between the 2 groups. The intervention group had significantly higher mean (SD) increases in skills (2.5 [2.3] vs 0.8 [1.8], P = .01) and total (9.3 [4.3] vs 5.3 [5.8], P = .02) scores compared with the control group. Knowledge scores (6.8 [3

  11. TREATMENT OF NEUROLOGICAL CONGENITAL HIP LUXATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian ICLEANU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Congenital hip luxation is a disorder which evolves in time. Teratological hip dislocation is a distinct form of hip luxation, which usually appears with other disorders. These hips are dislocated before birth. In this thesis we will try to elaborate a recovery program, through physical exercises, which will help us realize our treatment objectives: diminishing articular stiffness, increasing articular mobility, increasing muscle strength, recalibration of agonist and antagonist balances and reeducating gait. The specific objectives of the study consist of the particularization of the recovery programs based on age, illness stage (dysplasia or luxation and either surgical or non-surgical intervention. To show the importance of physiotherapy in gait rehabilitation of a child with hip dislocation we started from the hypothesis: using an adequate rehabilitation program after an individualized methodology, optimizes the functional recovery and ensures the gains of hip stability and the formation of an engram of gait as close as it could be to the normal one. We present a case of neurological congenital hip dislocation where the treatment initiated early is showing good results. Results obtained are significantly different and we came to the conclusion that starting an untimely analytical kinetic treatment and globally personalizing it to every patient has better biomechanical results for the hip.

  12. Coenzyme Q10 and Neurological Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Siciliano

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, or ubiquinone is a small electron carrier of the mitochondrial respiratory chain with antioxidant properties. CoQ10 supplementation has been widely used for mitochondrial disorders. The rationale for using CoQ10 is very powerful when this compound is primary decreased because of defective synthesis. Primary CoQ10 deficiency is a treatable condition, so heightened “clinical awareness” about this diagnosis is essential. CoQ10 and its analogue, idebenone, have also been widely used in the treatment of other neurodegenerative disorders. These compounds could potentially play a therapeutic role in Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Friedreich’s ataxia, and other conditions which have been linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. This article reviews the physiological roles of CoQ10, as well as the rationale and the role in clinical practice of CoQ10 supplementation in different neurological diseases, from primary CoQ10 deficiency to neurodegenerative disorders.

  13. [Neuro-rehabilitation for neurological disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Yukihiro

    2011-11-01

    Our understanding of motor learning, neuro-plasticity and functional recovery after the occurrence of brain lesion has grown significantly. New findings in basic neuroscience provided stimuli for research in motor rehabilitation. Electrical stimulation can be applied in a variety of ways to the neurological impairment. Especially, electromyography (EMG) initiated electrical muscle stimulation improves motor dysfunction of the hemiparetic arm and hand. Triggered electrical stimulation is reported to be more effective than non-triggered electrical stimulation in facilitating upper extremity motor recovery. Power-assisted FES induces greater muscle contraction by electrical stimulation in proportion to the voluntary integrated EMG signal picked up. Daily power-assisted FES home program therapy with the novel equipment has been able to improve wrist, finger extension and shoulder flexion effectively. Combined modulation of voluntary movement, proprioceptional sensory feedback and electrical stimulation might play an important role to facilitate impaired sensory-motor integration in power-assisted FES therapy. It is recognized that increased cerebral blood flow in the sensory-motor cortex area on the injured side during power-assisted FES session compared to simple active movement or simple electrical stimulation in a multi-channels Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) study to non-invasively and dynamically measure hemoglobin levels in the brain during functional activity.

  14. Brain-computer interfaces in neurological rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Janis J; Wolpaw, Jonathan R

    2008-11-01

    Recent advances in analysis of brain signals, training patients to control these signals, and improved computing capabilities have enabled people with severe motor disabilities to use their brain signals for communication and control of objects in their environment, thereby bypassing their impaired neuromuscular system. Non-invasive, electroencephalogram (EEG)-based brain-computer interface (BCI) technologies can be used to control a computer cursor or a limb orthosis, for word processing and accessing the internet, and for other functions such as environmental control or entertainment. By re-establishing some independence, BCI technologies can substantially improve the lives of people with devastating neurological disorders such as advanced amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. BCI technology might also restore more effective motor control to people after stroke or other traumatic brain disorders by helping to guide activity-dependent brain plasticity by use of EEG brain signals to indicate to the patient the current state of brain activity and to enable the user to subsequently lower abnormal activity. Alternatively, by use of brain signals to supplement impaired muscle control, BCIs might increase the efficacy of a rehabilitation protocol and thus improve muscle control for the patient.

  15. Ketogenic diets, mitochondria, and neurological diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gano, Lindsey B.; Patel, Manisha; Rho, Jong M.

    2014-01-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) is a broad-spectrum therapy for medically intractable epilepsy and is receiving growing attention as a potential treatment for neurological disorders arising in part from bioenergetic dysregulation. The high-fat/low-carbohydrate “classic KD”, as well as dietary variations such as the medium-chain triglyceride diet, the modified Atkins diet, the low-glycemic index treatment, and caloric restriction, enhance cellular metabolic and mitochondrial function. Hence, the broad neuroprotective properties of such therapies may stem from improved cellular metabolism. Data from clinical and preclinical studies indicate that these diets restrict glycolysis and increase fatty acid oxidation, actions which result in ketosis, replenishment of the TCA cycle (i.e., anaplerosis), restoration of neurotransmitter and ion channel function, and enhanced mitochondrial respiration. Further, there is mounting evidence that the KD and its variants can impact key signaling pathways that evolved to sense the energetic state of the cell, and that help maintain cellular homeostasis. These pathways, which include PPARs, AMP-activated kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin, and the sirtuins, have all been recently implicated in the neuroprotective effects of the KD. Further research in this area may lead to future therapeutic strategies aimed at mimicking the pleiotropic neuroprotective effects of the KD. PMID:24847102

  16. Neurophysiologic studies of functional neurologic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, M

    2016-01-01

    Functional neurologic disorders are largely genuine and represent conversion disorders, where the dysfunction is unconscious, but there are some that are factitious, where the abnormality is feigned and conscious. Malingering, which can have the same manifestations, is similarly feigned, but not considered a genuine disease. There are no good methods for differentiating these three entities at the present time. Physiologic studies of functional weakness and sensory loss reveal normal functioning of primary motor and sensory cortex, but abnormalities of premotor cortex and association cortices. This suggests a top-down influence creating the dysfunction. Studies of functional tremor and myoclonus show that these disorders utilize normal voluntary motor structures to produce the involuntary movements, again suggesting a higher-level abnormality. Agency is abnormal and studies shows that dysfunction of the temporoparietal junction may be a correlate. The limbic system is overactive and might initiate involuntary movements, but the mechanism for this is not known. The limbic system would then be the source of top-down dysfunction. It can be speculated that the involuntary movements are involuntary due to lack of proper feedforward signaling. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Neurology of widely embedded free will.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Bauke M

    2011-01-01

    Free will is classically attributed to the prefrontal cortex. In clinical neurology, prefrontal lesions have consistently been shown to cause impairment of internally driven action and increased reflex-like behaviour. Recently, parietal contributions to both free selection at early stages of sensorimotor transformations and perception of specifically self-intended movements were demonstrated in the healthy brain. Such findings generated the concept that 'free will' is not a function restricted to the prefrontal cortex but is more widely embedded in the brain, indeed including the parietal cortex. In this paper, a systematic re-interpretation of parietal symptoms, such as apraxia and reduced sense of agency, is given with reference to the consequences of reduced freedom of selection at early stages of sensorimotor transformation. Failed selection between possible movement options is argued to represent an intrinsic characteristic of apraxia. Paradoxical response facilitation supports this view. Perception of self-intended movement corresponds with a sense of agency. Impaired parietal distinction between predicted and perceived movement sensations may thus equal a restricted repertoire for selection between possible movement options of which intention is attributed to either oneself, others or an alien hand. Sense of agency, and thus perception of free will, logically fits a model of the parietal cortex as a neuronal interface between the internal drive to reach a goal and a body scheme required to select possible effectors for motor preparation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  18. Speech and neurology-chemical impairment correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayre, Harb S.

    2002-05-01

    Speech correlates of alcohol/drug impairment and its neurological basis is presented with suggestion for further research in impairment from poly drug/medicine/inhalent/chew use/abuse, and prediagnosis of many neuro- and endocrin-related disorders. Nerve cells all over the body detect chemical entry by smoking, injection, drinking, chewing, or skin absorption, and transmit neurosignals to their corresponding cerebral subsystems, which in turn affect speech centers-Broca's and Wernick's area, and motor cortex. For instance, gustatory cells in the mouth, cranial and spinal nerve cells in the skin, and cilia/olfactory neurons in the nose are the intake sensing nerve cells. Alcohol depression, and brain cell damage were detected from telephone speech using IMPAIRLYZER-TM, and the results of these studies were presented at 1996 ASA meeting in Indianapolis, and 2001 German Acoustical Society-DEGA conference in Hamburg, Germany respectively. Speech based chemical Impairment measure results were presented at the 2001 meeting of ASA in Chicago. New data on neurotolerance based chemical impairment for alcohol, drugs, and medicine shall be presented, and shown not to fully support NIDA-SAMSHA drug and alcohol threshold used in drug testing domain.

  19. Development of an oximeter for neurology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleinik, A.; Serikbekova, Z.; Zhukova, N.; Zhukova, I.; Nikitina, M.

    2016-06-01

    Cerebral desaturation can occur during surgery manipulation, whereas other parameters vary insignificantly. Prolonged intervals of cerebral anoxia can cause serious damage to the nervous system. Commonly used method for measurement of cerebral blood flow uses invasive catheters. Other techniques include single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Tomographic methods frequently use isotope administration, that may result in anaphylactic reactions to contrast media and associated nerve diseases. Moreover, the high cost and the need for continuous monitoring make it difficult to apply these techniques in clinical practice. Cerebral oximetry is a method for measuring oxygen saturation using infrared spectrometry. Moreover reflection pulse oximetry can detect sudden changes in sympathetic tone. For this purpose the reflectance pulse oximeter for use in neurology is developed. Reflectance oximeter has a definite advantage as it can be used to measure oxygen saturation in any part of the body. Preliminary results indicate that the device has a good resolution and high reliability. Modern applied schematics have improved device characteristics compared with existing ones.

  20. Measles vaccination in children with neurological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Kaplina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The data on the current vaccination process and specific antibody in 212 children with pathology of nervous systems in age from 1 year to 6 years old, vaccinated against measles. The comparison group consisted of 36 children without neurological disease. 86 children (40,6% were vaccinated measles – mumps vaccine, and 126 children (59,4% only measles vaccine. Post-vaccination period in 77,8% immunized against measles, was uneventful, layering intercurrent infections was noted in 22,2% of vaccine’s, and demonstrated the development of viral respiratory infections, bronchitis, otitis media and exacerbation of underlying disease. It is shown that the level of specific antibody to measles in children with pathology of nervous systems at 30 days after vaccination was 5,04±0,16 log 2, which did not differ from the comparison group (5,88±0,31 log 2. No significant differences in the level of antibody in a smooth and complicated course of vaccination period were found. Immunization of children with disorders of the nervous system of live vaccines is quite effective and leads to the formation of protective antibody titers in all vaccinated.