Sample records for neurologic adaptive capacity

  1. Uncertainty in adaptive capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neil Adger, W.; Vincent, K.


    The capacity to adapt is a critical element of the process of adaptation: it is the vector of resources that represent the asset base from which adaptation actions can be made. Adaptive capacity can in theory be identified and measured at various scales, from the individual to the nation. The assessment of uncertainty within such measures comes from the contested knowledge domain and theories surrounding the nature of the determinants of adaptive capacity and the human action of adaptation. While generic adaptive capacity at the national level, for example, is often postulated as being dependent on health, governance and political rights, and literacy, and economic well-being, the determinants of these variables at national levels are not widely understood. We outline the nature of this uncertainty for the major elements of adaptive capacity and illustrate these issues with the example of a social vulnerability index for countries in Africa. (authors)

  2. Building adaptive capacity in Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumyadeep Banerjee


    Full Text Available A starting point for adapting to longer-term climate change could be adaptation to short-term climate variability and extreme events. Making more informed choices about the use of remittances can enhance the adaptive capacity of remittance-receiving households.

  3. Livelihood Resilience and Adaptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulstrup, Andreas Waaben


    This article analyses the implementation and outcomes of national development programs in a mountainous commune in Vietnam. The article traces the history of State intervention and the capacity of households and the community to adapt to change. The assessment reveals unintended consequences of t...

  4. Novelty, Adaptive Capacity, and Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig R. Allen


    Full Text Available We present a conceptual framework that explores some of the forces creating innovation and novelty in complex systems. Understanding the sources of variability and novelty may help us better understand complex systems. Understanding complex phenomena such as invasions, migration, and nomadism may provide insight into the structure of ecosystems and other complex systems, and aid our attempts to cope with and mitigate these phenomena, in the case of invasions, and better understand and or predict them. Our model is broadly applicable to ecological theory, including community ecology, resilience, restoration, and policy. Characterizing the link between landscape change and the composition of species communities may help policymakers in their decision-making processes. Understanding how variability is related to system structure, and how that generates novelty, may help us understand how resilience is generated. We suggest that there are three primary opportunities for the generation of novelty into complex systems. These sources of novelty are inherent in the cross-scale structure of complex systems, and are critical for creating adaptive capacity. Novelty originates from the inherent variability present in cross scale structures, within scale reorganization associated with adaptive cycles, and whole-scale transformations resulting from regime shifts. Although speculative, our ideas are grounded in research and observation, and they may provide insight into the evolution of complex systems.

  5. Understanding climate change adaptation and adaptive capacity: synthesis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patino, L. [Policy Research Initiative, Government of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)


    In 2007, the Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Division (CCIAD) offered its support to research projects that were involved in understanding and improving adaptation and adaptive capacity and contributed to climate change decision-making and policy development in Canada. 20 research projects were commissioned by the CCIAD. With the collaboration of NRCan, the principal findings raised by the commissioned projects were synthesized by the Policy Research Initiative (PRI). Common themes and main messages are introduced in this synthesis report, and policy and program aspects that promote adaptive capacity to climate change in Canada are identified. Common themes and important messages emerging from the research projects, as well as the processes and barriers to adaptation and adaptive capacity identified in the commissioned projects, were discussed during a workshop held in Ottawa in 2009. Five main themes and four common barriers to adaptation were found. 25 refs.

  6. Assessing institutional capacities to adapt to climate change - integrating psychological dimensions in the Adaptive Capacity Wheel (United States)

    Grothmann, T.; Grecksch, K.; Winges, M.; Siebenhüner, B.


    Several case studies show that "soft social factors" (e.g. institutions, perceptions, social capital) strongly affect social capacities to adapt to climate change. Many soft social factors can probably be changed faster than "hard social factors" (e.g. economic and technological development) and are therefore particularly important for building social capacities. However, there are almost no methodologies for the systematic assessment of soft social factors. Gupta et al. (2010) have developed the Adaptive Capacity Wheel (ACW) for assessing the adaptive capacity of institutions. The ACW differentiates 22 criteria to assess six dimensions: variety, learning capacity, room for autonomous change, leadership, availability of resources, fair governance. To include important psychological factors we extended the ACW by two dimensions: "adaptation motivation" refers to actors' motivation to realise, support and/or promote adaptation to climate. "Adaptation belief" refers to actors' perceptions of realisability and effectiveness of adaptation measures. We applied the extended ACW to assess adaptive capacities of four sectors - water management, flood/coastal protection, civil protection and regional planning - in North Western Germany. The assessments of adaptation motivation and belief provided a clear added value. The results also revealed some methodological problems in applying the ACW (e.g. overlap of dimensions), for which we propose methodological solutions.

  7. Assessing institutional capacities to adapt to climate change: integrating psychological dimensions in the Adaptive Capacity Wheel (United States)

    Grothmann, T.; Grecksch, K.; Winges, M.; Siebenhüner, B.


    Several case studies show that social factors like institutions, perceptions and social capital strongly affect social capacities to adapt to climate change. Together with economic and technological development they are important for building social capacities. However, there are almost no methodologies for the systematic assessment of social factors. After reviewing existing methodologies we identify the Adaptive Capacity Wheel (ACW) by Gupta et al. (2010), developed for assessing the adaptive capacity of institutions, as the most comprehensive and operationalised framework to assess social factors. The ACW differentiates 22 criteria to assess 6 dimensions: variety, learning capacity, room for autonomous change, leadership, availability of resources, fair governance. To include important psychological factors we extended the ACW by two dimensions: "adaptation motivation" refers to actors' motivation to realise, support and/or promote adaptation to climate; "adaptation belief" refers to actors' perceptions of realisability and effectiveness of adaptation measures. We applied the extended ACW to assess adaptive capacities of four sectors - water management, flood/coastal protection, civil protection and regional planning - in northwestern Germany. The assessments of adaptation motivation and belief provided a clear added value. The results also revealed some methodological problems in applying the ACW (e.g. overlap of dimensions), for which we propose methodological solutions.

  8. Improving WCDMA netwotk capacity using adaptive sectorisation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A major problem affecting the capacity of Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) is interference. This work focuses on reducing co-channel interference problem by the application of adaptive sectorisation in nonuniform traffic. It considers an isolated areas of congested traffic called Hot Spots (HS).

  9. Farming System Evolution and Adaptive Capacity: Insights for Adaptation Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jami L. Dixon


    Full Text Available Studies of climate impacts on agriculture and adaptation often provide current or future assessments, ignoring the historical contexts farming systems are situated within. We investigate how historical trends have influenced farming system adaptive capacity in Uganda using data from household surveys, semi-structured interviews, focus-group discussions and observations. By comparing two farming systems, we note three major findings: (1 similar trends in farming system evolution have had differential impacts on the diversity of farming systems; (2 trends have contributed to the erosion of informal social and cultural institutions and an increasing dependence on formal institutions; and (3 trade-offs between components of adaptive capacity are made at the farm-scale, thus influencing farming system adaptive capacity. To identify the actual impacts of future climate change and variability, it is important to recognize the dynamic nature of adaptation. In practice, areas identified for further adaptation support include: shift away from one-size-fits-all approach the identification and integration of appropriate modern farming method; a greater focus on building inclusive formal and informal institutions; and a more nuanced understanding regarding the roles and decision-making processes of influential, but external, actors. More research is needed to understand farm-scale trade-offs and the resulting impacts across spatial and temporal scales.

  10. Creating an adaptive healing room for neurology patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daemen, E.M.L; Behere, S.; Cuppen, R.P.G.; Facey, J.; Flinsenberg, I.C.M.; Loenen, van E.J.; Rajae-Joordens, R.J.E.


    Informed by the experiences of patients and medical staff, Philips has designed a room for neurology patients that retains a clinical feel when treatment is being carried out, but can flex to create a moretailored, personal ambiende.

  11. Adaptive tele-application for remote neurology diagnosis. (United States)

    Garcia, E; Guyennet, H; Lapayre, J-C; Moulin, T


    This paper presents the Collaborative Tele-Neurology (TeNeCi) project which allows practitioners to use telecommunication technologies to provide medical information and services for neurological diseases. Specificities of remote neurology are described and the Cooperative Application Framework (CAliF) multimedia platform on which TeNeCi relies is presented. The technical requirements of such a project in terms of communication and consistency management, audio and video transmissions, and network support, as well as implementation of TeNeCi was evaluated. The software used in this application is composed of several services, such as a Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) explorer, a DICOM viewer, and a security service. Tests performed on this first TeNeCi release showed good results, and allowed us to explore a larger collaborative experimentation between hospitals in France and Switzerland.

  12. Adaptability: An Important Capacity for Effective Teachers (United States)

    Collie, Rebecca J.; Martin, Andrew J.


    A defining feature of teaching work is that it involves novelty, change, and uncertainty on a daily basis. Being able to respond effectively to this change is known as adaptability. In this article, we discuss the importance of adaptability for teachers and their healthy and effective functioning in the workplace. We discuss approaches for…

  13. Adapting the neurology area of the Gustavo Fricke Hospital (United States)

    Ankelen, A.; González, S.; Aguirre, L.


    Within the framework of the subject Clinical Engineering taught at Hospital Dr. Gustavo Fricke of Viña del Mar Chile, we were assigned to undertake a detailed study on the quality of the electrical power main supply of the Neurology Department, on account of reported malfunctioning of some equipment used in this unit. The study results indicated that the problems occurred only in a device for auditory evoked potentials device and, contrary to what was expected, the problem was unrelated to the quality of the electrical main supply. It was also found that the cause for the problem was electromagnetic interference (EMI) emitted from the system's very own components. To solve the problem, we built a Faraday Cage for the signal-processing unit and increased the separating distance among the various system components. This approach enhanced system performance and significantly improved the recorded signals of patients. The solution adopted from this experience was suggested to others health care centers of our country that had been experiencing similar difficulties with the same type of medical equipment.

  14. Uncertainty in adaptive capacity; Incertitudes dans la capacite d'adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neil Adger, W.; Vincent, K. [East Anglia Univ., Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, School of Environmental Sciences, Norwich (United Kingdom)


    The capacity to adapt is a critical element of the process of adaptation: it is the vector of resources that represent the asset base from which adaptation actions can be made. Adaptive capacity can in theory be identified and measured at various scales, from the individual to the nation. The assessment of uncertainty within such measures comes from the contested knowledge domain and theories surrounding the nature of the determinants of adaptive capacity and the human action of adaptation. While generic adaptive capacity at the national level, for example, is often postulated as being dependent on health, governance and political rights, and literacy, and economic well-being, the determinants of these variables at national levels are not widely understood. We outline the nature of this uncertainty for the major elements of adaptive capacity and illustrate these issues with the example of a social vulnerability index for countries in Africa. (authors)

  15. Building adaptive capacity to climate change in tropical coastal communities (United States)

    Cinner, Joshua E.; Adger, W. Neil; Allison, Edward H.; Barnes, Michele L.; Brown, Katrina; Cohen, Philippa J.; Gelcich, Stefan; Hicks, Christina C.; Hughes, Terry P.; Lau, Jacqueline; Marshall, Nadine A.; Morrison, Tiffany H.


    To minimize the impacts of climate change on human wellbeing, governments, development agencies, and civil society organizations have made substantial investments in improving people's capacity to adapt to change. Yet to date, these investments have tended to focus on a very narrow understanding of adaptive capacity. Here, we propose an approach to build adaptive capacity across five domains: the assets that people can draw upon in times of need; the flexibility to change strategies; the ability to organize and act collectively; learning to recognize and respond to change; and the agency to determine whether to change or not.

  16. Adaptive Capacity Management in Bluetooth Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Son, L.T.

    , such as limited wireless bandwidth operation, routing, scheduling, network control, etc. Currently Bluetooth specification particularly does not describe in details about how to implement Quality of Service and Resource Management in Bluetooth protocol stacks. These issues become significant, when the number...... of Bluetooth devices is increasing, a larger-scale ad hoc network, scatternet, is formed, as well as the booming of Internet has demanded for large bandwidth and low delay mobile access. This dissertation is to address the capacity management issues in Bluetooth networks. The main goals of the network capacity...... capacity allocation, network traffic control, inter-piconet scheduling, and buffer management. First, after a short presentation about Bluetooth technology, and QoS issues, queueing models and a simulation-based buffer management have been constructed. Then by using analysis and simulation, it shows some...

  17. Building Research Capacity to Understand and Adapt to Climate ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Building Research Capacity to Understand and Adapt to Climate Change in the Indus Basin ... Eleven world-class research teams set to improve livestock vaccine development ... Building resilience through socially equitable climate action.

  18. Mobilizing local safety nets for enhanced adaptive capacity to ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Apr 22, 2016 ... This brief resulted from two projects supported by the Climate Change Adaptation in Africa program: the research project Resilience and the African Smallholder : Enhancing the Capacity of Communities to Adapt to Climate Change and the mentoring project Promoting Participatory Action Research through ...

  19. Multi-level governance and adaptive capacity in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Brockhaus


    Full Text Available In most regions in West Africa, livelihoods depend heavily on forest ecosystem goods and services, often in interplay with agricultural and livestock production systems. Numerous drivers of change are creating a range of fundamental economic, ecological, social and political challenges for the governance of forest commons. Climate change and its impacts on countries’ and regions’ development add a new dimension to an already challenging situation. Governance systems are challenged to set a frame for formulating, financing and implementing adaptation strategies at multiple layers, often in a context of ongoing institutional changes such as decentralisation. A deeper understanding of actors, institutions and networks is needed to overcome barriers in socio-ecological systems to adaptation and enable or enhance adaptive capacity. In this paper, we explore the relationship between governance and adaptive capacity, and characterise and assess the effects of a set of variables and indicators related to two core variables: Institutional flexibility, and individual and organisational understandings and perceptions. We present a comparative analysis with multiple methods based on a number of case studies undertaken at different levels in Burkina Faso and Mali. One of the key findings indicates the importance and influence of discourses and narratives, and how they affect adaptive capacity at different levels. Revealing the ideological character of discourses can help to enable adaptive capacity, as it would break the influence of the actors that employ these narratives to pursuit their own interests.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sam schramski


    Feb 2, 2017 ... such as the authors of Panarchy, state that adaptive capacity is ―the ... with this definition that the ‗potential' represents a society's response to ... closely linked together in case studies on water and health (Ebi ... water insecurity; weak institutions and governance (Füssel and ...... Stockholm, Sweden, 2005.

  1. Determinants of Adaptive Capacity to Climate Change among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants of Adaptive Capacity to Climate Change among Smallholder Rural Households in the Bongo District, Ghana. ... The results of a binary logistic regression model indicates that five predictor variables (education of the household, farming experience, farm size, belief system and training) out of 11 tested ...

  2. Advancing Capacity to Support Climate Change Adaptation : Five ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Chargé(e) de projet. Mamadou Moussa Diakhité. Institution. United Nations Institute for Training and Research. Pays d' institution. Switzerland. Site internet. Extrants. Rapports. Advancing Capacity to Support Climate Change Adaptation (ACCCA) through five pilot actions in Africa : final project report.

  3. Building Research Capacity to Understand and Adapt to Climate ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Building Research Capacity to Understand and Adapt to Climate Change in the Indus Basin ... Site internet ... L'honorable Chrystia Freeland, ministre du Commerce international, a annoncé le lancement d'un nouveau projet financé par le ...

  4. Adaptive dynamic capacity borrowing in road-covering mobile networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ule, A.; Boucherie, Richardus J.; Li, W.; Pan, Y.


    This paper introduces adaptive dynamic capacity borrowing strategies for wireless networks covering a road. In a F/TDMA-based model, road traffic prediction models are used to characterise the movement of hot spots, such as traffic jams, and subsequently to predict the teletraffic load offered to

  5. Promoting evaluation capacity building in a complex adaptive system. (United States)

    Lawrenz, Frances; Kollmann, Elizabeth Kunz; King, Jean A; Bequette, Marjorie; Pattison, Scott; Nelson, Amy Grack; Cohn, Sarah; Cardiel, Christopher L B; Iacovelli, Stephanie; Eliou, Gayra Ostgaard; Goss, Juli; Causey, Lauren; Sinkey, Anne; Beyer, Marta; Francisco, Melanie


    This study provides results from an NSF funded, four year, case study about evaluation capacity building in a complex adaptive system, the Nanoscale Informal Science Education Network (NISE Net). The results of the Complex Adaptive Systems as a Model for Network Evaluations (CASNET) project indicate that complex adaptive system concepts help to explain evaluation capacity building in a network. The NISE Network was found to be a complex learning system that was supportive of evaluation capacity building through feedback loops that provided for information sharing and interaction. Participants in the system had different levels of and sources of evaluation knowledge. To be successful at building capacity, the system needed to have a balance between both centralized and decentralized control, coherence, redundancy, and diversity. Embeddedness of individuals within the system also provided support and moved the capacity of the system forward. Finally, success depended on attention being paid to the control of resources. Implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Adaptive Capacity Wheel : a method to assess the inherent characteristics of institutions to enable the adaptive capacity of society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, Joyeeta; Termeer, Catrien; Klostermann, Judith; Meijerink, Sander; van den Brink, Margo; Jong, Pieter; Nooteboom, Sibout; Bergsma, Emmy


    Climate change potentially brings continuous and unpredictable changes in weather patterns. Consequently, it calls for institutions that promote the adaptive capacity of society and allow society to modify its institutions at a rate commensurate with the rate of environmental change. Institutions,

  7. The Adaptive Capacity Wheel: a method to assess the inherent characteristics of institutions to enable the adaptive capacity of society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.; Termeer, C.; Klostermann, J.; Meijerink, S.; van den Brink, M.; de Jong, P.; Nootebooms, S.; Bergsma, E.J.


    Climate change potentially brings continuous and unpredictable changes in weather patterns. Consequently, it calls for institutions that promote the adaptive capacity of society and allow society to modify its institutions at a rate commensurate with the rate of environmental change. Institutions,

  8. Adaptive capacity and community-based natural resource management. (United States)

    Armitage, Derek


    Why do some community-based natural resource management strategies perform better than others? Commons theorists have approached this question by developing institutional design principles to address collective choice situations, while other analysts have critiqued the underlying assumptions of community-based resource management. However, efforts to enhance community-based natural resource management performance also require an analysis of exogenous and endogenous variables that influence how social actors not only act collectively but do so in ways that respond to changing circumstances, foster learning, and build capacity for management adaptation. Drawing on examples from northern Canada and Southeast Asia, this article examines the relationship among adaptive capacity, community-based resource management performance, and the socio-institutional determinants of collective action, such as technical, financial, and legal constraints, and complex issues of politics, scale, knowledge, community and culture. An emphasis on adaptive capacity responds to a conceptual weakness in community-based natural resource management and highlights an emerging research and policy discourse that builds upon static design principles and the contested concepts in current management practice.

  9. Mapping agricultural landscapes and characterizing adaptive capacity in Central America (United States)

    Holland, M. B.; Imbach, P. A.; Bouroncle, C.; Donatti, C.; Leguia, E.; Martinez, M.; Medellin, C.; Saborio-Rodriguez, M.; Shamer, S.; Zamora, J.


    One of the key challenges in developing adaptation strategies for smallholder farmers in developing countries is that of a data-poor environment, where spatially-explicit information about where the most vulnerable smallholder communities are located is lacking. Developing countries tend to lack consistent and reliable maps on agricultural land use, and have limited information available on smallholder adaptive capacity. We developed a novel participatory and expert mapping process to overcome these barriers and develop detailed national-scale maps that allow for a characterization of unique agricultural landscapes based on profiles of adaptive capacity for smallholder agriculture in each area. This research focuses specifically on the Central American nations of Costa Rica, Guatemala, and Honduras, where our focus is on coffee and basic grains as the two main cropping systems. Here we present the methodology and results of a series of in-depth interviews and participatory mapping sessions with experts working within the broader agricultural sector in each country. We held individual interviews and mapping sessions with approximately thirty experts from each country, and used a detailed survey instrument for each mapping session to both spatially identify distinct agricultural landscapes, and to further characterize each area based on specific farm practices and social context. The survey also included a series of questions to help us assess the relative adaptive capacity of smallholder agriculture within each landscape. After all expert mapping sessions were completed in each country we convened an expert group to assist in both validating and refining the set of landscapes already defined. We developed a characterization of adaptive capacity by aggregating indicators into main assets-based criteria (e.g. land tenure, access to credit, access to technical assistance, sustainable farm practices) derived from further expert weighting of indicators through an online

  10. Adaptive capacity and human cognition: the process of individual adaptation to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grothmann, T. [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam (Germany). Department of Global Change and Social Systems; Patt, A. [Boston University (United States). Department of Geography


    Adaptation has emerged as an important area of research and assessment among climate change scientists. Most scholarly work has identified resource constraints as being the most significant determinants of adaptation. However, empirical research on adaptation has so far mostly not addressed the importance of measurable and alterable psychological factors in determining adaptation. Drawing from the literature in psychology and behavioural economics, we develop a socio-cognitive Model of Private Proactive Adaptation to Climate Change (MPPACC). MPPACC separates out the psychological steps to taking action in response to perception, and allows one to see where the most important bottlenecks occur - including risk perception and perceived adaptive capacity, a factor largely neglected in previous climate change research. We then examine two case studies - one from urban Germany and one from rural Zimbabwe - to explore the validity of MPPACC to explaining adaptation. In the German study, we find that MPPACC provides better statistical power than traditional socio-economic models. In the Zimbabwean case study, we find a qualitative match between MPPACC and adaptive behaviour. Finally, we discuss the important implications of our findings both on vulnerability and adaptation assessments, and on efforts to promote adaptation through outside intervention. (author)

  11. Intermediate Collaborative Adaptive Management Strategies Build Stakeholder Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha C. Monroe


    Full Text Available Efforts to implement collaborative adaptive management (CAM often suffer from challenges, such as an unwillingness of managers to share power, unresolved conflicts between stakeholders, and lack of capacity among stakeholders. Some aspects considered essential to CAM, e.g., trust and stakeholder capacity, may be more usefully viewed as goals for intermediate strategies rather than a set of initial conditions. From this perspective, intermediate steps that focus on social learning and building experience could overcome commonly cited barriers to CAM. An exploration of Springs Basin Working Groups, organized around major clusters of freshwater springs in north Florida, provides a case study of how these intermediate steps enable participants to become more reasonable and engaged. This strategy may be easily implemented by agencies beginning a CAM process.

  12. Uneven adaptive capacity among fishers in a sea of change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua S Stoll

    Full Text Available Fishers worldwide operate in an environment of uncertainty and constant change. Their ability to manage risk associated with such uncertainty and subsequently adapt to change is largely a function of individual circumstances, including their access to different fisheries. However, explicit attention to the heterogeneity of fishers' connections to fisheries at the level of the individual has been largely ignored. We illustrate the ubiquitous nature of these connections by constructing a typology of commercial fishers in the state of Maine based on the different fisheries that fishers rely on to sustain their livelihoods and find that there are over 600 combinations. We evaluate the adaptive potential of each strategy, using a set of attributes identified by fisheries experts in the state, and find that only 12% of fishers can be classified as being well positioned to adapt in the face of changing socioeconomic and ecological conditions. Sensitivity to the uneven and heterogeneous capacity of fishers to manage risk and adapt to change is critical to devising effective management strategies that broadly support fishers. This will require greater attention to the social-ecological connectivity of fishers across different jurisdictions.

  13. The determinants of vulnerability and adaptive capacity at the national level and the implications for adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, N.; Adger, W.N.; Kelly, P.M. [University of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom). School of Environmental Sciences


    We present a set of indicators of vulnerability and capacity to adapt to climate variability, and by extension climate change, derived using a novel empirical analysis of data aggregated at the national level on a decadal timescale. The analysis is based on a conceptual framework in which risk is viewed in terms of outcome, and is a function of physically defined climate hazards and socially constructed vulnerability. Climate outcomes are represented by mortality from climate-related disasters, using the emergency events database data set, statistical relationships between mortality and a shortlist of potential proxies for vulnerability are used to identify key vulnerability indicators. We find that 11 key indicators exhibit a strong relationship with decadally aggregated mortality associated with climate-related disasters. Validation of indicators, relationships between vulnerability and adaptive capacity, and the sensitivity of subsequent vulnerability assessments to different sets of weightings are explored using expert judgement data, collected through a focus group exercise. The data are used to provide a robust assessment of vulnerability to climate-related mortality at the national level, and represent an entry point to more detailed explorations of vulnerability and adaptive capacity. They indicate that the most vulnerable nations are those situated in sub-Saharan Africa and those that have recently experienced conflict. Adaptive capacity - one element of vulnerability - is associated predominantly with governance, civil and political rights, and literacy. (author)

  14. The determinants of vulnerability and adaptive capacity at the national level and the implications for adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, N.; Adger, W.N.; Kelly, P.M.


    We present a set of indicators of vulnerability and capacity to adapt to climate variability, and by extension climate change, derived using a novel empirical analysis of data aggregated at the national level on a decadal timescale. The analysis is based on a conceptual framework in which risk is viewed in terms of outcome, and is a function of physically defined climate hazards and socially constructed vulnerability. Climate outcomes are represented by mortality from climate-related disasters, using the emergency events database data set, statistical relationships between mortality and a shortlist of potential proxies for vulnerability are used to identify key vulnerability indicators. We find that 11 key indicators exhibit a strong relationship with decadally aggregated mortality associated with climate-related disasters. Validation of indicators, relationships between vulnerability and adaptive capacity, and the sensitivity of subsequent vulnerability assessments to different sets of weightings are explored using expert judgement data, collected through a focus group exercise. The data are used to provide a robust assessment of vulnerability to climate-related mortality at the national level, and represent an entry point to more detailed explorations of vulnerability and adaptive capacity. They indicate that the most vulnerable nations are those situated in sub-Saharan Africa and those that have recently experienced conflict. Adaptive capacity - one element of vulnerability - is associated predominantly with governance, civil and political rights, and literacy. (author)

  15. For a better understanding of adaptive capacity to climate change: a research framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnan, Alexandre


    It is generally accepted that there exists a systematic link between a low level of adaptive capacity and a low level of development, which thus implies that the poor inevitably have low adaptive capacities. We argue here that this viewpoint is biased because adaptation to climate change is not solely determined by economic and technological capacities. Many other characteristics of a community can play a major role in its ability to react to and anticipate climate changes (e.g. the territorial identity or the social relationships). From our point of view, this limited view of adaptive capacity is related to a relative immaturity of the science of adaptation, a discipline that analyses the processes and determinants of adaptive capacity. This can be explained by the fact that there are currently few existing frameworks for studying adaptive capacity. This paper consists in a proposal for a research framework which is based upon four main fields of investigation: (i) the influential factors of adaptive capacity and their interactions, (ii) the relevant spatial and temporal scales of adaptive capacity, (iii) the links between adaptive capacity, vulnerability and the level of development and (iv) the theoretical links between adaptation and sustainability. These four fields of research should bring new knowledge on adaptive capacity and feed a more general reflection on the adaptation pathways for dealing with climate change. (author)

  16. Complex adaptive strategy to produce capacity-driven financial improvement. (United States)

    Capuano, Terry; MacKenzie, Richard; Pintar, Kristi; Halkins, Deborah; Nester, Brian


    Managing capacity in hospitals and emergency departments (EDs) is a global problem. This article demonstrates an efficiency model applied to an acute care hospital facing a budget shortfall as a result of capacity constraints that negatively affected admissions and increased ED diversions. Operating on the hypothesis that reducing inpatient length of stay would allow patients access through all service points and would return the admissions growth rate to budget, a turnaround team was quickly assembled and charged by the chief executive officer to fix the primary cause of financial underperformance--the creeping length of stay--within 60 days. This case study is generalizable to all organizations, regardless of size. Deploying an efficiency model based on the complex adaptive systems approach of "swarmware," the hospital's rapid turnaround efforts produced the results necessary to achieve two established goals: (1) length of stay was decreased to 0.1 days below budget in the 60-day time frame, and (2) all admissions and potential admissions were accepted (saying "yes" to patients) through key points of access in the hospital. Transfer Center denials were reduced to 0 in 19 days, and monthly ED diversions decreased from 110 hours to 20 hours in 60 days. By using a swarmware approach, the hospital created additional bed capacity, allowing for community demand to be accommodated, budgeted admissions target to be exceeded, and market share to be stabilized. This article describes this project's processes and outcomes and the lessons learned and applied, which will assist healthcare leaders who are facing capacity issues in their own organization.

  17. Subspace based adaptive denoising of surface EMG from neurological injury patients (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Ying, Dongwen; Zev Rymer, William; Zhou, Ping


    Objective: After neurological injuries such as spinal cord injury, voluntary surface electromyogram (EMG) signals recorded from affected muscles are often corrupted by interferences, such as spurious involuntary spikes and background noises produced by physiological and extrinsic/accidental origins, imposing difficulties for signal processing. Conventional methods did not well address the problem caused by interferences. It is difficult to mitigate such interferences using conventional methods. The aim of this study was to develop a subspace-based denoising method to suppress involuntary background spikes contaminating voluntary surface EMG recordings. Approach: The Karhunen-Loeve transform was utilized to decompose a noisy signal into a signal subspace and a noise subspace. An optimal estimate of EMG signal is derived from the signal subspace and the noise power. Specifically, this estimator is capable of making a tradeoff between interference reduction and signal distortion. Since the estimator partially relies on the estimate of noise power, an adaptive method was presented to sequentially track the variation of interference power. The proposed method was evaluated using both semi-synthetic and real surface EMG signals. Main results: The experiments confirmed that the proposed method can effectively suppress interferences while keep the distortion of voluntary EMG signal in a low level. The proposed method can greatly facilitate further signal processing, such as onset detection of voluntary muscle activity. Significance: The proposed method can provide a powerful tool for suppressing background spikes and noise contaminating voluntary surface EMG signals of paretic muscles after neurological injuries, which is of great importance for their multi-purpose applications.

  18. Coral bleaching--capacity for acclimatization and adaptation. (United States)

    Coles, S L; Brown, Barbara E


    Coral bleaching, i.e., loss of most of the symbiotic zooxanthellae normally found within coral tissue, has occurred with increasing frequency on coral reefs throughout the world in the last 20 years, mostly during periods of El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Experiments and observations indicate that coral bleaching results primarily from elevated seawater temperatures under high light conditions, which increases rates of biochemical reactions associated with zooxanthellar photosynthesis, producing toxic forms of oxygen that interfere with cellular processes. Published projections of a baseline of increasing ocean temperature resulting from global warming have suggested that annual temperature maxima within 30 years may be at levels that will cause frequent coral bleaching and widespread mortality leading to decline of corals as dominant organisms on reefs. However, these projections have not considered the high variability in bleaching response that occurs among corals both within and among species. There is information that corals and their symbionts may be capable of acclimatization and selective adaptation to elevated temperatures that have already resulted in bleaching resistant coral populations, both locally and regionally, in various areas of the world. There are possible mechanisms that might provide resistance and protection to increased temperature and light. These include inducible heat shock proteins that act in refolding denatured cellular and structural proteins, production of oxidative enzymes that inactivate harmful oxygen radicals, fluorescent coral pigments that both reflect and dissipate light energy, and phenotypic adaptations of zooxanthellae and adaptive shifts in their populations at higher temperatures. Such mechanisms, when considered in conjunction with experimental and observational evidence for coral recovery in areas that have undergone coral bleaching, suggest an as yet undefined capacity in corals and zooxanthellae to adapt to

  19. Identifikasi Gangguan Neurologis Menggunakan Metode Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Kusanti


    Abstract             The use of Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS methods in the process of identifying one of neurological disorders in the head, known in medical terms ischemic stroke from the ct scan of the head in order to identify the location of ischemic stroke. The steps are performed in the extraction process of identifying, among others, the image of the ct scan of the head by using a histogram. Enhanced image of the intensity histogram image results using Otsu threshold to obtain results pixels rated 1 related to the object while pixel rated 0 associated with the measurement background. The result used for image clustering process, to process image clusters used fuzzy c-mean (FCM clustering result is a row of the cluster center, the results of the data used to construct a fuzzy inference system (FIS. Fuzzy inference system applied is fuzzy inference model of Takagi-Sugeno-Kang. In this study ANFIS is used to optimize the results of the determination of the location of the blockage ischemic stroke. Used recursive least squares estimator (RLSE for learning. RMSE results obtained in the training process of 0.0432053, while in the process of generated test accuracy rate of 98.66%   Keywords— Stroke Ischemik, Global threshold, Fuzzy Inference System model Sugeno, ANFIS, RMSE

  20. Adapting the capacities and vulnerabilities approach: a gender analysis tool. (United States)

    Birks, Lauren; Powell, Christopher; Hatfield, Jennifer


    Gender analysis methodology is increasingly being considered as essential to health research because 'women's social, economic and political status undermine their ability to protect and promote their own physical, emotional and mental health, including their effective use of health information and services' {World Health Organization [Gender Analysis in Health: a review of selected tools. 2003; pdf (20 February 2008, date last accessed)]}. By examining gendered roles, responsibilities and norms through the lens of gender analysis, we can develop an in-depth understanding of social power differentials, and be better able to address gender inequalities and inequities within institutions and between men and women. When conducting gender analysis, tools and frameworks may help to aid community engagement and to provide a framework to ensure that relevant gendered nuances are assessed. The capacities and vulnerabilities approach (CVA) is one such gender analysis framework that critically considers gender and its associated roles, responsibilities and power dynamics in a particular community and seeks to meet a social need of that particular community. Although the original intent of the CVA was to guide humanitarian intervention and disaster preparedness, we adapted this framework to a different context, which focuses on identifying and addressing emerging problems and social issues in a particular community or area that affect their specific needs, such as an infectious disease outbreak or difficulty accessing health information and resources. We provide an example of our CVA adaptation, which served to facilitate a better understanding of how health-related disparities affect Maasai women in a remote, resource-poor setting in Northern Tanzania. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  1. The adaptive capacity of institutions in Canada, Argentina, and Chile to droughts and floods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurlbert, M.; Gupta, J.

    The increasing evidence of global warming calls on all states to enhance their adaptive capacity to deal with climate change. This paper compares the adaptive capacity of two Canadian provinces, the province of Mendoza, Argentina and the administrative region of Coquimbo, Chile in relation to the

  2. An Evolutionary Approach to Adaptive Capacity Assessment: A Case Study of Soufriere, Saint Lucia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Ryan Hogarth


    Full Text Available This paper assesses the capacity of Soufriere, Saint Lucia to adapt to climate change. A community-based vulnerability assessment was conducted that employed semi-structured interviews with community members. The results were analysed using the Local Adaptive Capacity (LAC framework, which characterises adaptive capacity based on five elements: asset base; institutions and entitlements; knowledge and information; innovation; and flexible forward-looking decision-making and governance. Beyond providing an in-depth analysis of Soufriere’s capacity to adapt to climate change, the paper argues that the elements of the LAC framework largely correspond with an evolutionary perspective on adaptive capacity. However, other evolutionary themes—such as structure, history, path-dependency, scale, agency, conservation of diversity, and the perils of specialisation—should also be taken into account.

  3. Graduate employability capacities, self-esteem and career adaptability among South African young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadika Ismail


    Full Text Available Orientation: Employers expect young graduates to have a well-rounded sense of self, to display a range of graduate employability capacities and to adapt to constant changes they are faced with in order to obtain and maintain employment. Research purpose: The goals of this study are (1 to investigate whether a significant relationship exists between graduate employability capacities, self-esteem and career adaptability, (2 to ascertain if a set of graduate employability capacities, when combined with self-esteem, has a significant relationship with a set of career adaptability capacities and (3 to identify the major variables that contribute to this relationship. Motivation for the study: The potential for career adaptability, graduate employability capacities and self-esteem of young adults promotes employability among graduates, thereby addressing and possibly reducing youth unemployment in South Africa. Research approach, design and method: A quantitative, cross-sectional research design approach was utilised in which descriptive statistics, Pearson product-moment correlations and canonical correlation analysis were employed to accomplish the objectives of this study. Respondents (N = 332 were enrolled at further education and training (FET colleges and were predominantly black (98.5% and female (62% students between the ages of 18 and 29. Main findings: The results displayed positive multivariate relationships between the variables and furthermore showed that graduate employability capacities contributed the most in terms of clarifying the respondents’ career adaptability as compared to their self-esteem. Practical and managerial implications: This study proposes that young adults’ career adaptability can be enhanced through the development of their self-esteem and particularly their graduate employability capacities, thus making them more employable. Contributions: Theoretically, this study proves useful because of the significant

  4. Moroccan Coastal Management : Building Capacity to Adapt to ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Impacts from rising sea levels, coastal flooding and storm surges are becoming a challenging policy issue for planners, local authorities and stakeholders in areas such as Morocco's northeastern coast. This project will support capacity building and the development of tools and methods to underpin preparation for and ...

  5. Building Capacity to Adapt to Climate Change in Southeast Asia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will endeavor to meet this need by measuring vulnerability to climate change in selected communities; mapping each community's vulnerability to climate change; analyzing the social vulnerability of local communities to climate change; identifying locally appropriate adaptation options; conducting an economic ...

  6. Capacity for teaching climate change adaptation in the university ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The teaching materials employed included textbooks (83.3%), journal (78.3%), conference proceedings (66.7%), articles on Climate Change and agricultural adaptation (80.8%) and lectures/teaching notes (44.2%). The major teaching methods used to communicate climate change concepts were lecture (63.3%) and field ...

  7. Climate Change Adaptation Research and Capacity Development in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to improve the quality of research, teaching and learning in climate change science at the University of Ghana. It will do so by building staff and ... La gestion de l'eau dans les milieux urbains et ruraux, élément fondamental des villes qui savent s'adapter aux changements climatiques. Les changements ...

  8. Strengthening Local Capacity for Adaptation to Climate Change in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers will then couple these scenarios with hydrological models and projected trends in land use and agriculture to identify the areas and populations most vulnerable to water-related climate change. The government of the province of Oruro has expressed an interest in pioneering adaptation plans and has already ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Nantui Mabe


    Full Text Available This study estimated the adaptive capacities of farmers to climate change adaptation strategies and their effects on rice production in the Northern Region of Ghana. The adaptive capacities of rice farmers were estimated quantitatively and categorized into high, moderate and low adaptive capacities. Double logarithmic regression model of Cobb-Douglas production function was used to quantity the effects of adaptive capacities of farmers on rice production. On the average, the farmers interviewed are moderately adaptive to climate change. Also, high adaptive farmers obtain nine more bags of 50 kg bag of paddy rice than farmers with low adaptive capacities. Therefore, the more a farmer has the ability to adjust to climate change, the more the number of bags of rice he or she obtains. Rice farmers should be empowered through better extension services in order to attain high adaptive capacity status so as to help them obtain more rice output.

  10. Assessing the components of adaptive capacity to improve conservation and management efforts under global change. (United States)

    Nicotra, Adrienne B; Beever, Erik A; Robertson, Amanda L; Hofmann, Gretchen E; O'Leary, John


    Natural-resource managers and other conservation practitioners are under unprecedented pressure to categorize and quantify the vulnerability of natural systems based on assessment of the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of species to climate change. Despite the urgent need for these assessments, neither the theoretical basis of adaptive capacity nor the practical issues underlying its quantification has been articulated in a manner that is directly applicable to natural-resource management. Both are critical for researchers, managers, and other conservation practitioners to develop reliable strategies for assessing adaptive capacity. Drawing from principles of classical and contemporary research and examples from terrestrial, marine, plant, and animal systems, we examined broadly the theory behind the concept of adaptive capacity. We then considered how interdisciplinary, trait- and triage-based approaches encompassing the oft-overlooked interactions among components of adaptive capacity can be used to identify species and populations likely to have higher (or lower) adaptive capacity. We identified the challenges and value of such endeavors and argue for a concerted interdisciplinary research approach that combines ecology, ecological genetics, and eco-physiology to reflect the interacting components of adaptive capacity. We aimed to provide a basis for constructive discussion between natural-resource managers and researchers, discussions urgently needed to identify research directions that will deliver answers to real-world questions facing resource managers, other conservation practitioners, and policy makers. Directing research to both seek general patterns and identify ways to facilitate adaptive capacity of key species and populations within species, will enable conservation ecologists and resource managers to maximize returns on research and management investment and arrive at novel and dynamic management and policy decisions. © 2015 Society for

  11. Assessing the components of adaptive capacity to improve conservation and management efforts under global change (United States)

    Nicotra, Adrienne; Beever, Erik; Robertson, Amanda; Hofmann, Gretchen; O’Leary, John


    Natural-resource managers and other conservation practitioners are under unprecedented pressure to categorize and quantify the vulnerability of natural systems based on assessment of the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of species to climate change. Despite the urgent need for these assessments, neither the theoretical basis of adaptive capacity nor the practical issues underlying its quantification has been articulated in a manner that is directly applicable to natural-resource management. Both are critical for researchers, managers, and other conservation practitioners to develop reliable strategies for assessing adaptive capacity. Drawing from principles of classical and contemporary research and examples from terrestrial, marine, plant, and animal systems, we examined broadly the theory behind the concept of adaptive capacity. We then considered how interdisciplinary, trait- and triage-based approaches encompassing the oft-overlooked interactions among components of adaptive capacity can be used to identify species and populations likely to have higher (or lower) adaptive capacity. We identified the challenges and value of such endeavors and argue for a concerted interdisciplinary research approach that combines ecology, ecological genetics, and eco-physiology to reflect the interacting components of adaptive capacity. We aimed to provide a basis for constructive discussion between natural-resource managers and researchers, discussions urgently needed to identify research directions that will deliver answers to real-world questions facing resource managers, other conservation practitioners, and policy makers. Directing research to both seek general patterns and identify ways to facilitate adaptive capacity of key species and populations within species, will enable conservation ecologists and resource managers to maximize returns on research and management investment and arrive at novel and dynamic management and policy decisions.

  12. The adaptive capacity of smallholder farmers to climate change in the Northern Region of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majeed Abdul-Razak


    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to adversely affect agricultural production, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where the agricultural sector forms the backbone of most countries’ economies. This thus holds true for the agriculture sector of the Northern Region of Ghana which is largely rain-fed and dominated by smallholder farmers with minimal livelihood alternatives. The main research question of this paper is how the adaptive capacity to climate change of smallholder farmers in the Northern Region of Ghana can be characterised? The paper proposes an indicator-based framework for assessing the adaptive capacity of smallholder farmers in the Northern Region of Ghana along six main determinants of adaptive capacity: economic resources, social capital, awareness and training, technology, infrastructure and institutions. Based on a thorough literature review and qualitative interviews with experts for rural livelihoods and agriculture in the study region, the determinants were ranked and three to five indicators per determinant were selected. The results of the expert interviews show that economic resources, awareness and training as well as technological capacities seem most relevant for smallholder farmers’ adaptive capacity while infrastructure, social capital, and institutions were ranked least important. The study operationalized the indicators in a standardized survey questionnaire and tested it in two agrarian communities in the Northern Region of Ghana. The survey results show the aggregate adaptive capacity of respondents is low. However, disparities in adaptive capacity were recorded among respondents in terms of gender and education. Differentiating between the determinants women farmer show significantly lower capacities in fields of economic resources, technology and knowledge and awareness. This paper recommends resilience building interventions in the study area that target individuals with low adaptive capacities, especially women

  13. Using ECC DRAM to Adaptively Increase Memory Capacity


    Luo, Yixin; Ghose, Saugata; Li, Tianshi; Govindan, Sriram; Sharma, Bikash; Kelly, Bryan; Boroumand, Amirali; Mutlu, Onur


    Modern DRAM modules are often equipped with hardware error correction capabilities, especially for DRAM deployed in large-scale data centers, as process technology scaling has increased the susceptibility of these devices to errors. To provide fast error detection and correction, error-correcting codes (ECC) are placed on an additional DRAM chip in a DRAM module. This additional chip expands the raw capacity of a DRAM module by 12.5%, but the applications are unable to use any of this extra c...

  14. Developing an Instrument to Measure Autonomous Adaptive Capacity to Climate Change among Urban Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn R. Selm


    Full Text Available The capacity of households in urban environments to adapt and react to climate change can affect the resilience of the whole community, and instruments for systematically measuring that capacity are needed. We used Raleigh, NC as a case study to explore the dimensions of autonomous adaptive capacity of urban households and to create a scale and associated survey instrument to measure them. Our approach was guided by four capitals that support human livelihoods: social, human, physical, and financial. We surveyed 200 households in Raleigh, NC, and used a principal components analysis to test the scale and survey instrument. Results suggest the scale is a useful and concise tool. Three major dimensions were present among the scale items: financial capital, political awareness, and access to resources. Together, these three dimensions can be used to measure adaptive capacity among different households. These findings are supported by similar work illustrating the value of income inequality and political awareness as indicators of adaptive capacity. Our results also demonstrate that complex relationships among the livelihood capitals may confound our ability to measure financial, physical, and human capitals separately. This framework for assessing adaptive capacity of households, with further refinement and testing, may be used in urban areas to evaluate programs designed to impact resilience to climate change.

  15. Adaptive capacity of geographical clusters: Complexity science and network theory approach (United States)

    Albino, Vito; Carbonara, Nunzia; Giannoccaro, Ilaria

    This paper deals with the adaptive capacity of geographical clusters (GCs), that is a relevant topic in the literature. To address this topic, GC is considered as a complex adaptive system (CAS). Three theoretical propositions concerning the GC adaptive capacity are formulated by using complexity theory. First, we identify three main properties of CAS s that affect the adaptive capacity, namely the interconnectivity, the heterogeneity, and the level of control, and define how the value of these properties influence the adaptive capacity. Then, we associate these properties with specific GC characteristics so obtaining the key conditions of GCs that give them the adaptive capacity so assuring their competitive advantage. To test these theoretical propositions, a case study on two real GCs is carried out. The considered GCs are modeled as networks where firms are nodes and inter-firms relationships are links. Heterogeneity, interconnectivity, and level of control are considered as network properties and thus measured by using the methods of the network theory.

  16. Capacities for population-genetic variation and ecological adaptations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Dragoslav


    Full Text Available In contemporary science of population genetics it is equally complex and important to visualize how adaptive limits of individual variation are determined, as well as to describe the amount and sort of this variation. Almost all century the scientists devoted their efforts to explain the principles and structure of biological variation (genetic, developmental, environmental, interactive, etc., basing its maintenance within existing limits mostly on equilibria proclaimed by Hardy-Weinberg rules. Among numerous model-organisms that have been used to prove these rules and demonstrate new variants within mentioned concepts, Drosophila melanogaster is a kind of queen that is used in thousands of experiments for almost exactly 100 years (CARPENTER 1905, with which numerous discoveries and principles were determined that later turned out to be applicable to all other organisms. It is both, in nature and in laboratory, that Drosophilids were used to demonstrate the basic principles of population-genetic variation that was later applied to other species of animals. In ecological-genetic variation their richness in different environments could be used as an exact indicator of the status of a determined habitat, and its population-genetic structure may definitely point out to a possibility that specific resources of the environment start to be in danger to deteriorate, or to disappear in the near future. This paper shows clear-cut differences among environmental habitats, when populations of Drosophilidae are quantitatively observed in different wild, semi-domestic and domestic environments, demonstrating a highly expressed mutual dependence of these two parameters. A crucial approach is how to estimate the causes that determine the limits of biological, i.e. of individual and population-genetic variation. The realized, i.e. adaptive variation, is much lesser than a total possible variation of a polygenic trait, and in this study, using a moderately

  17. Qualification of the adaptive capacities of livestock farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Dedieu


    Full Text Available This paper aims at exploring what is covered by « adapting to last » with a farming systems approach. Long term dynamics can be analysed as adaptive cycles, the system being permanently exposed to disturbances and shocks. Mobilizing the concept of resilience, we analyse the factors that differentiate the principles for long term action the livestock farmers have, principles which give consistency to the family - farms trajectories. With the concept of operational flexibilty, we qualify the sources of flexibility the livestock farmers maintain to cope with hazards. They are internal, related to the production process regulation properties, to the technical (adaptive or rigid specifications, to the sales policies, or external related to the information and commercial networks. Understanding the production process regulation properties require livestock farming systems models (i.e. combining decisional and biological sub-systems that can simulate how herd dynamics operate under fluctuant rules or productive parameters. It also require to evaluate the room for manoeuvre the work organization let to the farmer. All these aspects are illsutrated with on farm studies in herbivore systems (sheep, dairy, beef.Este artigo busca explorar "adaptações a mudanças" sob a ótica de sistemas de produção animal. Dinâmicas de longo prazo podem ser analisadas como ciclos adaptativos, sendo o sistema permanentemente exposto a distúrbios e choques. Utilizando o conceito de resiliência, analisam-se os fatores que diferenciam os princípios para ações de longo prazo tomadas por produtores rurais, princípios estes que dão consistência à família - trajetórias da propriedade rural. Com o conceito de flexibilidade operacional, qualificam-se as fontes de flexibilidade que os produtores mantêm para lidar com riscos. Eles são internos, relacionados a propriedades de regulação do processo produtivo, a especificações técnicas (adaptáveis ou rígidas, a

  18. Coping capacities for improving adaptation pathways for flood protection in Can Tho, Vietnam (United States)

    Pathirana, A.; Radhakrishnan, M.; Quan, N. H.; Gersonius, B.; Ashley, R.; Zevenbergen, C.


    Studying the evolution of coping and adaptation capacities is a prerequisite for preparing an effective flood management plan for the future, especially in the dynamic and fast changing cities of developing countries. The objectives, requirements, targets, design and performance of flood protection measures will have to be determined after taking into account, or in conjunction with, the coping capacities. A methodology is presented based on adaptation pathways to account for coping capacities and to assess the effect on flood protection measures. The adaptation pathways method determines the point of failure of a particular strategy based on the change in an external driver, a point in time or a socio economic situation where / at which the strategy can no longer meet its objective. Pathways arrived at based on this methodology reflect future reality by considering changing engineering standards along with future uncertainties, risk taking abilities and adaptation capacities. This pathways based methodology determines the Adaptation tipping points (ATP), `time of occurrence of ATP' of flood protection measures after accounting for coping capacities, evaluates the measures and then provides the means to determine the adaptation pathways. Application of this methodology for flood protection measures in Can Tho city in the Mekong delta reveals the effect of coping capacity on the usefulness of flood protection measures and the delay in occurrence of tipping points. Consideration of coping capacity in the system owing to elevated property floor levels lead to the postponement of tipping points and improved the adaptation pathways comprising flood protection measures such as dikes. This information is useful to decision makers for planning and phasing of investments in flood protection.

  19. Assessing employability capacities and career adaptability in a sample of human resource professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinde Coetzee


    Full Text Available Orientation: Employers have come to recognise graduates’ employability capacities and their ability to adapt to new work demands as important human capital resources for sustaining a competitive business advantage. Research purpose: The study sought (1 to ascertain whether a significant relationship exists between a set of graduate employability capacities and a set of career adaptability capacities and (2 to identify the variables that contributed the most to this relationship. Motivation for the study: Global competitive markets and technological advances are increasingly driving the demand for graduate knowledge and skills in a wide variety of jobs. Contemporary career theory further emphasises career adaptability across the lifespan as a critical skill for career management agency. Despite the apparent importance attached to employees’ employability and career adaptability, there seems to be a general lack of research investigating the association between these constructs. Research approach, design and method: A cross-sectional, quantitative research design approach was followed. Descriptive statistics, Pearson product-moment correlations and canonical correlation analysis were performed to achieve the objective of the study. The participants (N = 196 were employed in professional positions in the human resource field and were predominantly early career black people and women. Main findings: The results indicated positive multivariate relationships between the variables and showed that lifelong learning capacities and problem solving, decision-making and interactive skills contributed the most to explaining the participants’ career confidence, career curiosity and career control. Practical/managerial implications: The study suggests that developing professional graduates’ employability capacities may strengthen their career adaptability. These capacities were shown to explain graduates’ active engagement in career management

  20. Climate Change, Adaptation, and Formal Education: the Role of Schooling for Increasing Societies' Adaptive Capacities in El Salvador and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Wamsler


    Full Text Available With a worldwide increase in disasters, the effects of climate change are already being felt, and it is the urban poor in developing countries who are most at risk. There is an urgent need to better understand the factors that determine people's capacity to cope with and adapt to adverse climate conditions. This paper examines the influence of formal education in determining the adaptive capacity of the residents of two low-income settlements: Los Manantiales in San Salvador (El Salvador and Rocinha in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil, where climate-related disasters are recurrent. In both case study areas, it was found that the average levels of education were lower for households living at high risk, as opposed to residents of lower risk areas. In this context, the influence of people's level of education was identified to be twofold due to (a its direct effect on aspects that reduce risk, and (b its mitigating effect on aspects that increase risk. The results further suggest that education plays a more determinant role for women than for men in relation to their capacity to adapt. In light of these results, the limited effectiveness of institutional support identified by this study might also relate to the fact that the role of formal education has so far not been sufficiently explored. Promoting (improved access to and quality of formal education as a way to increase people's adaptive capacity is further supported with respect to the negative effects of disasters on people's level of education, which in turn reduce their adaptive capacity, resulting in a vicious circle of increasing risk.

  1. Criteria for Determining the Adaptive Capacity of Students of Higher Medical Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M V Yoltukhivskyi


    Full Text Available The article focuses on the importance of the adaptive capacity of students of higher medical institutions in the process of their professional training. The criteria for evaluating the adaptive capacity of students depending on their age were determined. The main mechanisms of forming the adaptive capacity at the organism level were found to be: 1 biochemical mechanisms which manifest themselves in the intracellular processes, e.g. the change in enzyme activity or their number; 2 physiological mechanisms, e.g. increased sweating as the body temperature rises; 3 morphofunctional mechanisms, i.e. the features of body structure and functions which are associated with lifestyle; 4 behavioural mechanisms – e.g. the creation of comfortable living conditions, etc.; 5 ontogenetic mechanisms, i.e. the acceleration of individual development or its slowdown contributing to the survival when conditions change.

  2. Public Sector Reform and Governance for Adaptation: Implications of New Public Management for Adaptive Capacity in Mexico and Norway (United States)

    Eakin, Hallie; Eriksen, Siri; Eikeland, Per-Ove; Øyen, Cecilie


    Although many governments are assuming the responsibility of initiating adaptation policy in relation to climate change, the compatibility of "governance-for-adaptation" with the current paradigms of public administration has generally been overlooked. Over the last several decades, countries around the globe have embraced variants of the philosophy of administration broadly called "New Public Management" (NPM) in an effort to improve administrative efficiencies and the provision of public services. Using evidence from a case study of reforms in the building sector in Norway, and a case study of water and flood risk management in central Mexico, we analyze the implications of the adoption of the tenets of NPM for adaptive capacity. Our cases illustrate that some of the key attributes associated with governance for adaptation—namely, technical and financial capacities; institutional memory, learning and knowledge; and participation and accountability—have been eroded by NPM reforms. Despite improvements in specific operational tasks of the public sector in each case, we show that the success of NPM reforms presumes the existence of core elements of governance that have often been found lacking, including solid institutional frameworks and accountability. Our analysis illustrates the importance of considering both longer-term adaptive capacities and short-term efficiency goals in public sector administration reform.

  3. An Integrated Approach to Evaluate Urban Adaptive Capacity to Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiangsheng Hu


    Full Text Available Climate change and accelerated urbanization have posed severe challenges to urban development, resulting in a growing series of climate and environmental problems that have a significant impact on industrial production and urban life. In a developing country such as China, more than 57% of the population lives in urban areas. It is vital for these cities to adapt to climate-induced risks. A better understanding of how to improve adaptive capacity could enhance the ability to achieve a desirable state when the city experiences stress. This paper used an integrated approach for evaluating the urban adaptive capacity to climate change. It developed the evaluation index system of urban adaptive capacity (UAC based on the driver–pressure–state–impact–response model (DPSIR, and adopted grey relational analysis (GRA and the entropy method to analyze the level of UAC in Changsha, the capital city of Hunan Province, from 2006 to 2015. The results revealed that the UAC of Changsha showed a significant increase from 2006 to 2015. Among the five first-grade indicators, the response dimension had the greatest influence on the improvement of UAC. The study may provide suggestions for adaptive capacity building and sustainable development in other urban areas.

  4. Prospects for climate change on three Polynesian outliers in Solomon Islands: Exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kjeld; May, Wilhelm; Birk, Thomas Ladegaard Kümmel


    -physical conditions, economic base and social organization – the exposure, sensitivity and adaptation options of island populations are analyzed. It is argued that the three islands are likely to be very differently affected for reasons related to all three categories of characteristics. Local adaptive capacity...... is likely to be insufficient, especially in the case of Ontong Java (which is an atoll), and economic, social, institutional and political factors, external to the islands, will be of increasing importance....

  5. Adaptive capacity based water quality resilience transformation and policy implications in rapidly urbanizing landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yi; Degener, Jan; Gaudreau, Matthew; Li, Yangfan; Kappas, Martin


    Resilience-based management focuses on specific attributes or drivers of complex social-ecological systems, in order to operationalize and promote guiding principles for water quality management in urban systems. We therefore propose a resilience lens drawing on the theory of adaptive capacity and adaptive cycle to evaluate the urban resilience between water quality and land use type. Our findings show that the resilience of water quality variables, which were calculated based on their adaptive capacities, showed adaptive and sustainable trends with dramatic fluctuation. NH_3-N, Cadmium and Total Phosphorus experienced the most vulnerable shifts in the built-up area, agricultural areas, and on bare land. Our framework provided a consistent and repeatable approach to address uncertainty inherent in the resilience of water quality in different landscapes, as well as an approach to monitor variables over time with respect to national water quality standards. Ultimately, we pointed to the political underpinnings for risk mitigation and managing resilient urban system in a particular coastal urban setting. - Highlights: • Integrated framework to analyze the resilience of urban land-water systems • Addressed the changes of adaptive capacity based resilience and transitions • Applied four transition phases of adaptive cycle to water quality management

  6. Adaptive capacity based water quality resilience transformation and policy implications in rapidly urbanizing landscapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yi, E-mail: [Department of Cartography, GIS and Remote Sensing, Institute of Geography, Georg-August University of Goettingen, Goettingen 37077 (Germany); Key Laboratory of Coastal and Wetland Ecosystems (Ministry of Education), College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); Degener, Jan [Department of Cartography, GIS and Remote Sensing, Institute of Geography, Georg-August University of Goettingen, Goettingen 37077 (Germany); Gaudreau, Matthew [Balsillie School of International Affairs, Faculty of Environment, University of Waterloo, 67 Erb Street West, Waterloo, ON N2L 6C2 (Canada); Li, Yangfan, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Coastal and Wetland Ecosystems (Ministry of Education), College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); Kappas, Martin [Department of Cartography, GIS and Remote Sensing, Institute of Geography, Georg-August University of Goettingen, Goettingen 37077 (Germany)


    Resilience-based management focuses on specific attributes or drivers of complex social-ecological systems, in order to operationalize and promote guiding principles for water quality management in urban systems. We therefore propose a resilience lens drawing on the theory of adaptive capacity and adaptive cycle to evaluate the urban resilience between water quality and land use type. Our findings show that the resilience of water quality variables, which were calculated based on their adaptive capacities, showed adaptive and sustainable trends with dramatic fluctuation. NH{sub 3}-N, Cadmium and Total Phosphorus experienced the most vulnerable shifts in the built-up area, agricultural areas, and on bare land. Our framework provided a consistent and repeatable approach to address uncertainty inherent in the resilience of water quality in different landscapes, as well as an approach to monitor variables over time with respect to national water quality standards. Ultimately, we pointed to the political underpinnings for risk mitigation and managing resilient urban system in a particular coastal urban setting. - Highlights: • Integrated framework to analyze the resilience of urban land-water systems • Addressed the changes of adaptive capacity based resilience and transitions • Applied four transition phases of adaptive cycle to water quality management.

  7. A spatially explicit scenario-driven model of adaptive capacity to global change in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acosta, L.; Klein, R.J.T.; Reidsma, P.; Metzger, M.J.; Rounsevell, M.D.A.; Leemans, R.


    Traditional impact models combine exposure in the form of scenarios and sensitivity in the form of parameters, providing potential impacts of global change as model outputs. However, adaptive capacity is rarely addressed in these models. This paper presents the first spatially explicit

  8. Enhancing Adaptive Capacity in Food Systems: Learning at Farmers' Markets in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecka Milestad


    Full Text Available This article examines how local food systems in the form of farmers' markets can enhance adaptive capacity and build social-ecological resilience. It does this by exploring the learning potential among farmers and customers. Learning can enable actors to adapt successfully and thus build adaptive capacity. Three forms of learning are investigated: instrumental, communicative, and emancipatory. These forms of learning constitute the foundation for lasting changes of behaviors. Local food systems are characterized by close links and opportunities for face-to-face interactions between consumers and producers of food, and are also institutions where farmers and customers can express and act upon their ethical values concerning food. However, local food systems are still a marginal phenomenon and cannot be accessed by all consumers. Interviews were held with customers and farmers, and the interactions between farmers and customers were observed at two farmers' markets in Sweden. Customers and farmers were found to learn and adapt to each other due to the opportunities offered by the farmers' markets. We found that farmers and customers learned in the instrumental and communicative domains, but could not confirm emancipatory learning. We concluded that the feedback between customers and farmers offers the potential for learning, which in turn contributes to adaptive capacity. This can be a driving force for building resilience in the food system.

  9. Ranking the adaptive capacity of nations to climate change when socio-political goals are explicit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, B.M.


    The typical categories for measuring national adaptive capacity to climate change include a nation's wealth, technology, education, information, skills, infrastructure, access to resources, and management capabilities. Resulting rankings predictably mirror more general rankings of economic development, such as the Human Development Index. This approach is incomplete since it does not consider the normative or motivational context of adaptation. For what purpose or toward what goal does a nation aspire, and in that context, what is its adaptive capacity? This paper posits 11 possible national socio-political goals that fall into the three categories of teleological legitimacy, procedural legitimacy, and norm-based decision rules. A model that sorts nations in terms of adaptive capacity based on national socio-political aspirations is presented. While the aspiration of maximizing summed utility matches typical existing rankings, alternative aspirations, including contractarian liberalism, technocratic management, and dictatorial/religious rule alter the rankings. An example describes how this research can potentially inform how priorities are set for international assistance for climate change adaptation. (author)

  10. Ranking the adaptive capacity of nations to climate change when socio-political goals are explicit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, B.M. [University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)


    The typical categories for measuring national adaptive capacity to climate change include a nation's wealth, technology, education, information, skills, infrastructure, access to resources, and management capabilities. Resulting rankings predictably mirror more general rankings of economic development, such as the Human Development Index. This approach is incomplete since it does not consider the normative or motivational context of adaptation. For what purpose or toward what goal does a nation aspire, and in that context, what is its adaptive capacity? This paper posits 11 possible national socio-political goals that fall into the three categories of teleological legitimacy, procedural legitimacy, and norm-based decision rules. A model that sorts nations in terms of adaptive capacity based on national socio-political aspirations is presented. While the aspiration of maximizing summed utility matches typical existing rankings, alternative aspirations, including contractarian liberalism, technocratic management, and dictatorial/religious rule alter the rankings. An example describes how this research can potentially inform how priorities are set for international assistance for climate change adaptation. (author)

  11. Operationalizing analysis of micro-level climate change vulnerability and adaptive capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiao, Xi; Moinuddin, Hasan


    This paper explores vulnerability and adaptive capacity of rural communities in Southern Laos, where households are highly dependent on climate-sensitive natural resources and vulnerable to seasonal weather fluctuations. The speed and magnitude of climate-induced changes may seriously challenge...... their ability to adapt. Participatory group discussions and 271 household surveys in three villages highlight the current level of vulnerability and adaptive capacity towards climatic variability and risks. This paper visualizes three dimensions of the vulnerability framework at two levels using the Community...... Climate Vulnerability Index and household climate vulnerability cube. Results show that not only poor households are most at risk from climate change challenges, but also those better-off households highly dependent on specialized agricultural production are locally exposed to climate change risks...

  12. Rapid ecosystem change challenges the adaptive capacity of Local Environmental Knowledge. (United States)

    Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Díaz-Reviriego, Isabel; Luz, Ana C; Cabeza, Mar; Pyhälä, Aili; Reyes-García, Victoria


    The use of Local Environmental Knowledge has been considered as an important strategy for adaptive management in the face of Global Environmental Change. However, the unprecedented rates at which global change occurs may pose a challenge to the adaptive capacity of local knowledge systems. In this paper, we use the concept of the shifting baseline syndrome to examine the limits in the adaptive capacity of the local knowledge of an indigenous society facing rapid ecosystem change. We conducted semi-structured interviews regarding perceptions of change in wildlife populations and in intergenerational transmission of knowledge amongst the Tsimane', a group of hunter-gatherers of Bolivian Amazonia ( n = 300 adults in 13 villages). We found that the natural baseline against which the Tsimane' measure ecosystem changes might be shifting with every generation as a result of (a) age-related differences in the perception of change and (b) a decrease in the intergenerational sharing of environmental knowledge. Such findings suggest that local knowledge systems might not change at a rate quick enough to adapt to conditions of rapid ecosystem change, hence potentially compromising the adaptive success of the entire social-ecological system. With the current pace of Global Environmental Change, widening the gap between the temporal rates of on-going ecosystem change and the timescale needed for local knowledge systems to adjust to change, efforts to tackle the shifting baseline syndrome are urgent and critical for those who aim to use Local Environmental Knowledge as a tool for adaptive management.

  13. Adaptive Capacity Mapping of Semarang Offshore Territory by the Increasing of Water Level and Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifan Ridlo Suhelm


    Full Text Available Tidal inundation, flood and land subsidence are the problems faced by Semarang city related to climate change. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC predicted the increase of sea level rise 18-59 cm during 1990-2100 while the temperature increase 0,6°C to 4°C during the same period. The Semarang coastal city was highly vulnerable to sea level rise and it increased with two factors, topography and land subsidence. The purpose of this study was to map the adaptive capacity of coastal areas in the face of the threat of disasters caused by climate change. The parameters used are Network Number, Employee based educational background, Source Main Livelihoods, Health Facilities, and Infrastructure Road. Adaptive capacity of regions classified into 3 (three classes, namely low, medium and high. The results of the study showed that most of the coastal area of Semarang have adaptive capacities ranging from low to moderate, while the village with low capacity totaling 58 villages (58.62% of the total coastal district in the city of Semarang.

  14. Beyond Vulnerability Assessment: Impact of Developments toward Local Adaptive Capacity in Kemijen City Village, Semarang City (United States)

    Jayanimitta, M. E.; Puspasari, D. A.; Widyahantari, R.; Kristina, D.; Ratnaningtyas, T.; Setionurjaya, A.; Anindita, Y. A.


    Vulnerability Assessment is usually used for assessing the ability of an area on facing disaster. In previous studies, the study of Vulnerability Assessment applied only quantitative method to show the vulnerability level. Therefore, this study attempts to add information reviews using qualitative method. Kemijen City Village is one of the administrative areas in the northern part of Semarang City affected by climate change. The residents have to adapt it by renovating and elevating their houses and other infrastructures to avoid floods. There are some development programs held by government, NGOs, and corporations such as Banger Polder Development, PLPBK, etc. It is interesting to know how big the vulnerability level of Kemijen on facing flood disasters, then how the projects can affect local adaptive capacity. To answer it, this research uses mixed-method approach. Vulnerability Assessment uses quantitative method by scoring indicators of Exposure, Sensitivity, and Adaptive Capacity, while the development impact uses qualitative method. The data were collected through interviews and FGD conducted in Joint Studio Course between Diponegoro University and University of Hawaii in October 2016. Non-physical programs such as community empowerment have more positive impacts on local adaptive capacity in Kemijen. Community participation is important for environmental sustainability that can not be done in a short time to educate the people.

  15. Economic performance of irrigation capacity development to adapt to climate in the American Southwest (United States)

    Ward, Frank A.; Crawford, Terry L.


    Growing demands for food security to feed increasing populations worldwide have intensified the search for improved performance of irrigation, the world's largest water user. These challenges are raised in the face of climate variability and from growing environmental demands. Adaptation measures in irrigated agriculture include fallowing land, shifting cropping patterns, increased groundwater pumping, reservoir storage capacity expansion, and increased production of risk-averse crops. Water users in the Gila Basin headwaters of the U.S. Lower Colorado Basin have faced a long history of high water supply fluctuations producing low-valued defensive cropping patterns. To date, little research grade analysis has investigated economically viable measures for irrigation development to adjust to variable climate. This gap has made it hard to inform water resource policy decisions on workable measures to adapt to climate in the world's dry rural areas. This paper's contribution is to illustrate, formulate, develop, and apply a new methodology to examine the economic performance from irrigation capacity improvements in the Gila Basin of the American Southwest. An integrated empirical optimization model using mathematical programming is developed to forecast cropping patterns and farm income under two scenarios (1) status quo without added storage capacity and (2) with added storage capacity in which existing barriers to development of higher valued crops are dissolved. We find that storage capacity development can lead to a higher valued portfolio of irrigation production systems as well as more sustained and higher valued farm livelihoods. Results show that compared to scenario (1), scenario (2) increases regional farm income by 30%, in which some sub regions secure income gains exceeding 900% compared to base levels. Additional storage is most economically productive when institutional and technical constraints facing irrigated agriculture are dissolved. Along with

  16. Using a social learning configuration to increase Vietnamese smallholder farmers’ adaptive capacity to respond to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phuong, Le Thi Hong; Wals, Arjen; Sen, Le Thi Hoa; Hoa, Nguyen Quoc; Lu, Van Phan; Biesbroek, Robbert


    Social learning is crucial for local smallholder farmers in developing countries to improve their adaptive capacity and to adapt to the current and projected impacts of climate change. While it is widely acknowledged that social learning is a necessary condition for adaptation, few studies have

  17. Acclimatization and Adaptive Capacity of Marine Species in a Changing Ocean. (United States)

    Foo, S A; Byrne, M

    To persist in an ocean changing in temperature, pH and other stressors related to climate change, many marine species will likely need to acclimatize or adapt to avoid extinction. If marine populations possess adequate genetic variation in tolerance to climate change stressors, species might be able to adapt to environmental change. Marine climate change research is moving away from single life stage studies where individuals are directly placed into projected scenarios ('future shock' approach), to focus on the adaptive potential of populations in an ocean that will gradually change over coming decades. This review summarizes studies that consider the adaptive potential of marine invertebrates to climate change stressors and the methods that have been applied to this research, including quantitative genetics, laboratory selection studies and trans- and multigenerational experiments. Phenotypic plasticity is likely to contribute to population persistence providing time for genetic adaptation to occur. Transgenerational and epigenetic effects indicate that the environmental and physiological history of the parents can affect offspring performance. There is a need for long-term, multigenerational experiments to determine the influence of phenotypic plasticity, genetic variation and transgenerational effects on species' capacity to persist in a changing ocean. However, multigenerational studies are only practicable for short generation species. Consideration of multiple morphological and physiological traits, including changes in molecular processes (eg, DNA methylation) and long-term studies that facilitate acclimatization will be essential in making informed predictions of how the seascape and marine communities will be altered by climate change. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bolstering resilience in the coconut kingdom: Improving adaptive capacity to climate change in Vanuatu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richmond, Noah; Sovacool, Benjamin K.


    This communication discusses climate change adaptation efforts underway in Vanuatu. In particular, it uncovers why community-based approaches to adaptation are more likely to bear fruit than ones driven from the top-down at the national level. The authors make this claim based on early evidence that small-scale projects (a) support community ownership over adaptation, (b) provide ongoing technical learning lessons (c) relieve pressure from capacity constraints at national administrative bodies, and (d) expedite implementation by avoiding cumbersome multilateral procedures. The first section discusses its research methods and presents important characteristics of the Vanuatu economy, people and geography. The communication then moves on to discuss Vanuatu’s vulnerability to the effects of climate change. It specifically investigates on-going efforts to adapt to natural climatic hazards in Vanuatu. Early evidence and analysis reveals lessons salient for energy and climate policy. - Highlights: ► The island state of Vanuatu is especially vulnerable to natural climatic hazards and climate change. ► Community-based approaches to climate change adaptation have unique benefits in Vanuatu. ► This note provides lessons salient for energy and climate policy in Vanuatu.

  19. Socio-ecological Typologies for Understanding Adaptive Capacity of a Region to Natural Disasters (United States)

    Surendran Nair, S.; Preston, B. L.; King, A. W.; Mei, R.


    It is expected that the frequency and magnitude of extreme climatic events will increase in coming decades with an anticipated increase in losses from climate hazards. In the Gulf Coastal region of the United States, climate hazards/disasters are common including hurricanes, drought and flooding. However, the capacity to adapt to extreme climatic events varies across the region. This adaptive capacity is linked to the magnitude of the extreme event, exposed infrastructure, and the socio-economic conditions across the region. This study uses hierarchical clustering to quantitatively integrates regional socioeconomic and biophysical factors and develop socio-ecological typologies (SET). The biophysical factors include climatic and topographic variables, and the socio-economic variables include human capital, social capital and man-made resources (infrastructure) of the region. The types of the SET are independent variables in a statistical model of a regional variable of interest. The methodology was applied to US Gulf States to evaluate the social and biophysical determinants of the regional variation in social vulnerability and economic loss to climate hazards. The results show that the SET explains much of the regional variation in social vulnerability, effectively capturing its determinants. In addition, the SET also explains of the variability in economic loss to hazards across of the region. The approach can thus be used to prioritize adaptation strategies to reduce vulnerability and loss across the region.

  20. Community based Adaptation (CBA) as a source of conflict in strengthening local adaptive capacity and resilience in semi-arid regions in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoomers, E.B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073723592; Soeters, S.R.


    This article, based on fieldwork in Ghana, Burkina Faso and Kenya, provides an overview of different types of climate change adaptation interventions that are currently being implemented to enhance local community’s adaptive capacity and resilience. We show that CBA interventions, whilst measurably


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.O. Ogunbameru


    Full Text Available Basically, climate change refers to any change in climate overtime, generally caused by natural variability and/or human activities. It has great devastating impact, particularly on agriculture and by extrapolation on farmers and the national economy. The frontline agricultural extension workers are expected to be among the principal stakeholders to teach farmers how to cope with climate change. Consequently, there is a need to develop appropriate teaching package for the training of the frontline agricultural extension workers, based on the myriad of adaptation strategies and practices available in the literature. This paper synthesizes the rationale for capacity building in climate change and the adaptation or coping strategies. The modules (train-the-trainer for teaching agricultural extension workers and farmers are documented in the paper.

  2. Resilience, Adaptive Capacity, and the "Lock-in Trap" of the Western Australian Agricultural Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen E. Allison


    Full Text Available Using the Western Australian (WA agricultural region as an example of a large-scale social-ecological system (SES, this paper applies a framework based on resilience theory to examine the region's resilience and capacity for change and renewal. Despite numerous policies directed at controlling natural resource degradation in this SES, sustainable natural resource management (NRM has not been achieved. Disparities between the scale and complexity of the problem, the design of management policies, and region's history have all contributed to policy resistance. Historically, when considered as an integrated system, changes may be described by two iterations of the adaptive cycle. These cycles are also synchronous with the third and fourth Kondratiev long-wave economic cycles. The WA agricultural region has experienced sequential periods of growth and accumulation followed by reorganization and renewal, and currently is in the backloop (reorganization to exploitation phases of the adaptive cycle. A region's adaptive capacity is achieved by substituting direct reliance on regional factors with institutional intervention and sophisticated technology, often generated at the global scale. This substitution alters the thresholds of the commodity system and gives the perception of an adaptive system. In contrast, however, if resource depletion, environmental pollution, and population decline, also effects of the commodity system, are included within the model then the region may be considered to be in a "Lock-in" pathological trap. We propose that the dynamics of land-use change between 1900-2003 were driven by macroeconomics at the global scale, mediated by institutions at the national and state scale. Also, the SES, which is composed of relatively fast-moving variables, is largely decoupled from the slow-moving ecological variables.

  3. Do adapted vignettes improve medical decision-making capacity for individuals with Alzheimer's disease? (United States)

    Thalén, Liv; Heimann Mühlenbock, Katarina; Almkvist, Ove; Eriksdotter, Maria; Sundström, Erik; Tallberg, Ing-Mari


    Medical decision-making capacity (MDC) is known to decline in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The vignette method uses hypothetical information as a prerequisite for measuring the capacity to make well-informed decisions to clinical trials. Our aim was to investigate if adapted vignettes can help individuals with mild AD to assimilate information, make decisions and express them in an understandable way, compared to corresponding decisions based on linguistically more demanding vignettes, as measured by the Swedish Linguistic Instrument for Medical Decision-making (LIMD). Two vignettes from LIMD were altered linguistically with the aim to facilitate understanding for individuals with AD. An experimental within-subject design was used to study the influence on MDC of readability (original/adapted vignettes) and content (two different clinical trials). We included 24 patients with mild AD in this prospective study, which read all four vignettes along with a few other tests. This allowed us to investigate the association between MDC and cognitive function. Adapted vignettes did not yield significant differences regarding MDC as compared with original vignettes using a two-way repeated measures analysis of variance. A difference was found between the two clinical trials where LIMD score was significantly higher for Kidney disease than hypertension vignettes. Our results indicate that adapted vignettes may not improve MDC for individuals with mild AD. MDC was affected by which clinical trial the vignettes regarded, which implies that other factors affecting MDC need to be investigated, like length of text and vocabulary used. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Cross case analysis of institutions and adaptive capacity in The Netherlands: Do institutions for spatial planning, water and nature management in The Netherlands enhance the capacity of society to adapt to climate change?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, S.; Bergsma, E.; Gupta, J.; Jong, P.; Klostermann, J.E.M.; Termeer, C.J.A.M.


    In this working document we aim to answer the following question: Do institutions for spatial planning, water and nature management in the Netherlands enhance the capacity of society to adapt to climate change? To answer this question we have first reviewed the literature on adaptive governance and

  5. Socio-hydrological modelling of floods: investigating community resilience, adaptation capacity and risk (United States)

    Ciullo, Alessio; Viglione, Alberto; Castellarin, Attilio


    Changes in flood risk occur because of changes in climate and hydrology, and in societal exposure and vulnerability. Research on change in flood risk has demonstrated that the mutual interactions and continuous feedbacks between floods and societies has to be taken into account in flood risk management. The present work builds on an existing conceptual model of an hypothetical city located in the proximity of a river, along whose floodplains the community evolves over time. The model reproduces the dynamic co-evolution of four variables: flooding, population density of the flooplain, amount of structural protection measures and memory of floods. These variables are then combined in a way to mimic the temporal change of community resilience, defined as the (inverse of the) amount of time for the community to recover from a shock, and adaptation capacity, defined as ratio between damages due to subsequent events. Also, temporal changing exposure, vulnerability and probability of flooding are also modelled, which results in a dynamically varying flood-risk. Examples are provided that show how factors such as collective memory and risk taking attitude influence the dynamics of community resilience, adaptation capacity and risk.

  6. Leveraging modern climatology to increase adaptive capacity across protected area networks (United States)

    Davison, J.E.; Graumlich, L.J.; Rowland, E.L.; Pederson, G.T.; Breshears, D.D.


    Human-driven changes in the global environment pose an increasingly urgent challenge for the management of ecosystems that is made all the more difficult by the uncertain future of both environmental conditions and ecological responses. Land managers need strategies to increase regional adaptive capacity, but relevant and rapid assessment approaches are lacking. To address this need, we developed a method to assess regional protected area networks across biophysically important climatic gradients often linked to biodiversity and ecosystem function. We plot the land of the southwestern United States across axes of historical climate space, and identify landscapes that may serve as strategic additions to current protected area portfolios. Considering climate space is straightforward, and it can be applied using a variety of relevant climate parameters across differing levels of land protection status. The resulting maps identify lands that are climatically distinct from existing protected areas, and may be utilized in combination with other ecological and socio-economic information essential to collaborative landscape-scale decision-making. Alongside other strategies intended to protect species of special concern, natural resources, and other ecosystem services, the methods presented herein provide another important hedging strategy intended to increase the adaptive capacity of protected area networks. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Land-based approach to evaluate sustainable land management and adaptive capacity of ecosystems/lands (United States)

    Kust, German; Andreeva, Olga


    A number of new concepts and paradigms appeared during last decades, such as sustainable land management (SLM), climate change (CC) adaptation, environmental services, ecosystem health, and others. All of these initiatives still not having the common scientific platform although some agreements in terminology were reached, schemes of links and feedback loops created, and some models developed. Nevertheless, in spite of all these scientific achievements, the land related issues are still not in the focus of CC adaptation and mitigation. The last did not grow much beyond the "greenhouse gases" (GHG) concept, which makes land degradation as the "forgotten side of climate change" The possible decision to integrate concepts of climate and desertification/land degradation could be consideration of the "GHG" approach providing global solution, and "land" approach providing local solution covering other "locally manifesting" issues of global importance (biodiversity conservation, food security, disasters and risks, etc.) to serve as a central concept among those. SLM concept is a land-based approach, which includes the concepts of both ecosystem-based approach (EbA) and community-based approach (CbA). SLM can serve as in integral CC adaptation strategy, being based on the statement "the more healthy and resilient the system is, the less vulnerable and more adaptive it will be to any external changes and forces, including climate" The biggest scientific issue is the methods to evaluate the SLM and results of the SLM investments. We suggest using the approach based on the understanding of the balance or equilibrium of the land and nature components as the major sign of the sustainable system. Prom this point of view it is easier to understand the state of the ecosystem stress, size of the "health", range of adaptive capacity, drivers of degradation and SLM nature, as well as the extended land use, and the concept of environmental land management as the improved SLM approach

  8. Lake eutrophication and environmental change: A viability framework for resilience, vulnerability and adaptive capacity (United States)

    Mathias, Jean-Denis; Rougé, Charles; Deffuant, Guillaume


    We present a simple stochastic model of lake eutrophication to demonstrate how the mathematical framework of viability theory fosters operational definitions of resilience, vulnerability and adaptive capacity, and then helps understand which response one should bring to environmental changes. The model represents the phosphorus dynamics, given that high concentrations trigger a regime change from oligotrophic to eutrophic, and causes ecological but also economic losses, for instance from tourism. Phosphorus comes from agricultural inputs upstream of the lake, and we will consider a stochastic input. We consider the system made of both the lake and its upstream region, and explore how to maintain the desirable ecological and economic properties of this system. In the viability framework, we translate these desirable properties into state constraints, then examine how, given the dynamics of the model and the available policy options, the properties can be kept. The set of states for which there exists a policy to keep the properties is called the viability kernel. We extend this framework to both major perturbations and long-term environmental changes. In our model, since the phosphorus inputs and outputs from the lake depend on rainfall, we will focus on extreme rainfall events and long-term changes in the rainfall regime. They can be described as changes in the state of the system, and may displace it outside the viability kernel. Its response can then be described using the concepts of resilience, vulnerability and adaptive capacity. Resilience is the capacity to recover by getting back to the viability kernel where the dynamics keep the system safe, and in this work we assume it to be the first objective of management. Computed for a given trajectory, vulnerability is a measure of the consequence of violating a property. We propose a family of functions from which cost functions and other vulnerability indicators can be derived for any trajectory. There can be

  9. Impact of bile salt adaptation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis 200 on its interaction capacity with the gut. (United States)

    Burns, Patricia; Reinheimer, Jorge; Vinderola, Gabriel


    In a previous work, bile-salt-resistant derivatives were obtained from non-intestinal lactobacilli. The aim of this work was to investigate the impact of bile adaptation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis 200 on morphology, surface properties, in vivo interaction capacity with the gut and ability to activate the gut immune response. Electron microscopy studies, growth kinetics in the presence of bovine and porcine bile, the capacity to deconjugate bile acids, hydrophobicity, autoaggregation and co-aggregation capacities were studied for the parental strain and its bile-resistant derivative in vitro. Additionally, survival in intestinal fluid, the interaction with the gut and the immunomodulating capacities were studied in mice. Bile salt adaptation conferred upon the adapted strain a higher capacity to withstand physiological concentrations of bile salts and greater survival capacity in intestinal fluid. However, bile salt exposure reduced cell hydrophobicity, autoaggregation and adhesion capacities, resulting in reduced persistence in the intestinal lumen and delayed capacity to activate the gut immune response. Insight into the effects of bile salts upon the interaction and immunomodulating capacity of lactobacilli with the gut is provided, relating in vitro and in vivo results. Copyright © 2011 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. City of Iqaluit's climate change impacts, infrastructure risks and adaptive capacity project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, D.; Kronenberger, J.


    The City of Iqaluit is an Arctic community that is very susceptible to the stresses of climate change. The city is challenged by increased flooding, coastal erosion and ground instability caused by melting of the permafrost layer. In response, the City of Iqaluit has created policies to reduce greenhouse gases and act on climate change. A project has also been launched to develop adaptation strategies, with particular focus on infrastructure vulnerability given the environmental and climate change in the Canadian Arctic. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the biophysical exposure and hazards on Arctic coasts subject to effects of climate change, identify past and current management strategies used to manage risks in coastal communities which have already experienced environmental change, and to evaluate the adaptive capacity of communities for dealing with coastal hazards throughout the Arctic. This document identified the risks to Iqaluit's infrastructure, including buildings, roads, water supply, wastewater treatment and waste disposal systems. Adaptation options were also developed. These ranged from educational programs and retrofits to policy changes and building standard amendments. refs., tabs., figs

  11. Modelling and adaptive control of small capacity chillers for HVAC applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beghi, A.; Cecchinato, Luca


    An adaptive controller for single and uneven tandem scroll compressor, packaged air-cooled water chillers is described. The designed controller allows to substantially increase the energy performance of the system, as well as to achieve excellent regulation performances in process applications. The controller parameters are adapted on the basis of estimates of the plant thermal load, that are computed by using a Kalman filter. An ad hoc approach is used to define a relay control logic, which is based on a numerical optimization procedure. To support controller design, a detailed simulation environment is developed and validated on an experimental facility. Performance of the algorithm is described with both simulation and experimental data. At low part load ratio values the proposed algorithm grants a 0.6-0.7 K improvement in the regulation performance in terms of supply water temperature standard deviation and mean supply water temperature deviation. The unit energy efficiency improvement with respect to supply water temperature control varies from 7.3% to 3.0% while the experimental seasonal energy efficiency rating improvement is 9.1%. - Research highlights: → Design of an advanced control algorithms for small capacity chillers. → Matlab/Simulink simulation environment development and experimental validation. → Development of an adaptive control algorithm for scroll compressor chillers, which allows to increase both control accuracy and energy performance. → New load estimation scheme based on a Kalman filter.

  12. [Assessment of sociocognitive functions in neurological patients Presentation of a French adaptation of two tools and implementation in frontal dementia]. (United States)

    Ehrlé, Nathalie; Henry, Audrey; Pesa, Audrey; Bakchine, Serge


    This paper presents a French battery designed to assess emotional and sociocognitive abilities in neurological patients in clinical practice. The first part of this battery includes subtests assessing emotions: a recognition task of primary facial emotions, a discrimination task of facial emotions, a task of expressive intensity judgment, a task of gender identification, a recognition task of musical emotions. The second part intends to assess some sociocognitive abilities, that is mainly theory of mind (attribution tasks of mental states to others: false believe tasks of first and second order, faux-pas task) and social norms (moral/conventional distinction task, social situations task) but also abstract language and humour. We present a general description of the battery with special attention to specific methodological constraints for the assessment of neurological patients. After a brief introduction to moral and conventional judgments (definition and current theoretical basis), the French version of the social norm task from RJR Blair (Blair and Cipolotti, 2000) is developed. The relevance of these tasks in frontal variant of frontotemporal dementia (fvFTD is illustrated by the report of the results of a study conducted in 18 patients by the Cambridge group and by the personal study of a patient with early stage of vfFTD. The relevance of the diagnostic of sociocognitive impairment in neurological patients is discussed.

  13. Adaptive Capacity: An Evolutionary Neuroscience Model Linking Exercise, Cognition, and Brain Health. (United States)

    Raichlen, David A; Alexander, Gene E


    The field of cognitive neuroscience was transformed by the discovery that exercise induces neurogenesis in the adult brain, with the potential to improve brain health and stave off the effects of neurodegenerative disease. However, the basic mechanisms underlying exercise-brain connections are not well understood. We use an evolutionary neuroscience approach to develop the adaptive capacity model (ACM), detailing how and why physical activity improves brain function based on an energy-minimizing strategy. Building on studies showing a combined benefit of exercise and cognitive challenge to enhance neuroplasticity, our ACM addresses two fundamental questions: (i) what are the proximate and ultimate mechanisms underlying age-related brain atrophy, and (ii) how do lifestyle changes influence the trajectory of healthy and pathological aging? Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The capacity to adapt?: communities in a changing climate, environment, and economy on the northern Andaman coast of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan J. Bennett


    Full Text Available The health and productivity of marine ecosystems, habitats, and fisheries are deteriorating on the Andaman coast of Thailand. Because of their high dependence on natural resources and proximity to the ocean, coastal communities are particularly vulnerable to climate-induced changes in the marine environment. These communities must also adapt to the impacts of management interventions and conservation initiatives, including marine protected areas, which have livelihood implications. Further, communities on the Andaman coast are also experiencing a range of new economic opportunities associated in particular with tourism and agriculture. These complex and ongoing changes require integrated assessment of, and deliberate planning to increase, the adaptive capacity of communities so that they may respond to: (1 environmental degradation and fisheries declines through effective management interventions or conservation initiatives, (2 new economic opportunities to reduce dependence on fisheries, and (3 the increasing impacts of climate change. Our results are from a mixed methods study, which used surveys and interviews to examine multiple dimensions of the adaptive capacity of seven island communities near marine protected areas on the Andaman coast of Thailand. Results show that communities had low adaptive capacity with respect to environmental degradation and fisheries declines, and to management and conservation interventions, as well as uneven levels of adaptive capacity to economic opportunities. Though communities and households were experiencing the impacts of climate change, especially storm events, changing seasons and weather patterns, and erosion, they were reacting to these changes with limited knowledge of climate change per se. We recommend interventions, in the form of policies, programs, and actions, at multiple scales for increasing the adaptive capacity of Thailand's coastal communities to change. The analytical and methodological

  15. A High-Capacity Image Data Hiding Scheme Using Adaptive LSB Substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Yang


    Full Text Available Many existing steganographic methods hide more secret data into edged areas than smooth areas in the host image, which does not differentiate textures from edges and causes serious degradation in actual edge areas. To avoid abrupt changes in image edge areas, as well as to achieve better quality of the stego-image, a novel image data hiding technique by adaptive Least Significant Bits (LSBs substitution is proposed in this paper. The scheme exploits the brightness, edges, and texture masking of the host image to estimate the number k of LSBs for data hiding. Pixels in the noise non-sensitive regions are embedded by a k-bit LSB substitution with a lager value of k than that of the pixels in noise sensitive regions. Moreover, an optimal pixel adjustment process is used to enhance stego-image visual quality obtained by simple LSB substitution method. To ensure that the adaptive number k of LSBs remains unchanged after pixel modification, the LSBs number is computed by the high-order bits rather than all the bits of the image pixel value. The theoretical analyses and experiment results show that the proposed method achieves higher embedding capacity and better stegoimage quality compared with some existing LSB methods.

  16. Climate Change Perceptions of NY State Farmers: The Role of Risk Perceptions and Adaptive Capacity (United States)

    Takahashi, Bruno; Burnham, Morey; Terracina-Hartman, Carol; Sopchak, Amanda R.; Selfa, Theresa


    Climate change is expected to severely impact agricultural practices in many important food-producing regions, including the Northeast United States. Changing climate conditions, such as increases in the amount of rainfall, will require farmers to adapt. Yet, little is known with regard to farmers' perceptions and understandings about climate change, especially in the industrialized country context. This paper aims at overcoming this research limitation, as well as determining the existing contextual, cognitive, and psychological barriers that can prevent adoption of sustainable practices of farmers in New York State. The study is framed within the adaptive capacity and risk perception literature, and is based on a qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews with farmers in 21 farms in two counties in Central New York. The results reveal diverging views about the long-term consequences of climate change. Results also reveal that past experience remains as the most important source of information that influences beliefs and perceptions about climate change, confirming previous research.

  17. Cell-Gazing Into the Future: What Genes, Homo heidelbergensis, and Punishment Tell Us About Our Adaptive Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Andrews


    Full Text Available If we wish to understand how our species can adapt to the coming tide of environmental change, then understanding how we have adapted throughout the course of evolution is vital. Evolutionary biologists have been exploring these questions in the last forty years, establishing a solid record of evidence that conventional, individual-based models of natural selection are insufficient in explaining social evolution. More recently, this work has supported a growing consensus that our evolution, in which we have expressed extra-ordinary adaptive capacities, can best be explained by “Multi-level Selection”, a theory that includes the influence of both genes and culture to support unique adaptive capacities premised on pro-social behaviours and group selection, not individual-level competition for survival. Applying this scholarship to contemporary concerns about adapting to environmental change may be quite fruitful for identifying sources of vulnerability and adaptive capacity, thereby informing efforts to enhance the likelihood for sustainable futures. Doing so, however, requires that we bridge the gap between evolutionary biology, and the social sciences study of sustainability.

  18. Adaptation of Microplate-based Respirometry for Hippocampal Slices and Analysis of Respiratory Capacity (United States)

    Schuh, Rosemary A.; Clerc, Pascaline; Hwang, Hyehyun; Mehrabian, Zara; Bittman, Kevin; Chen, Hegang; Polster, Brian M.


    Multiple neurodegenerative disorders are associated with altered mitochondrial bioenergetics. Although mitochondrial O2 consumption is frequently measured in isolated mitochondria, isolated synaptic nerve terminals (synaptosomes), or cultured cells, the absence of mature brain circuitry is a remaining limitation. Here we describe the development of a method that adapts the Seahorse Extracellular Flux Analyzer (XF24) for the microplate-based measurement of hippocampal slice O2 consumption. As a first evaluation of the technique, we compared whole slice bioenergetics to previous measurements made with synaptosomes or cultured neurons. We found that mitochondrial respiratory capacity and O2 consumption coupled to ATP synthesis could be estimated in cultured or acute hippocampal slices with preserved neural architecture. Mouse organotypic hippocampal slices oxidizing glucose displayed mitochondrial O2 consumption that was well-coupled, as determined by the sensitivity to the ATP synthase inhibitor oligomycin. However stimulation of respiration by uncoupler was modest (<120% of basal respiration) compared to previous measurements in cells or synaptosomes, although enhanced slightly (to ~150% of basal respiration) by the acute addition of the mitochondrial complex I-linked substrate pyruvate. These findings suggest a high basal utilization of respiratory capacity in slices and a limitation of glucose-derived substrate for maximal respiration. The improved throughput of microplate-based hippocampal respirometry over traditional O2 electrode-based methods is conducive to neuroprotective drug screening. When coupled with cell type-specific pharmacology or genetic manipulations, the ability to efficiently measure O2 consumption from whole slices should advance our understanding of mitochondrial roles in physiology and neuropathology. PMID:21520220

  19. Adaptive Planning: Understanding Organizational Workload to Capability/ Capacity through Modeling and Simulation (United States)

    Hase, Chris


    In August 2003, the Secretary of Defense (SECDEF) established the Adaptive Planning (AP) initiative [1] with an objective of reducing the time necessary to develop and revise Combatant Commander (COCOM) contingency plans and increase SECDEF plan visibility. In addition to reducing the traditional plan development timeline from twenty-four months to less than twelve months (with a goal of six months)[2], AP increased plan visibility to Department of Defense (DoD) leadership through In-Progress Reviews (IPRs). The IPR process, as well as the increased number of campaign and contingency plans COCOMs had to develop, increased the workload while the number of planners remained fixed. Several efforts from collaborative planning tools to streamlined processes were initiated to compensate for the increased workload enabling COCOMS to better meet shorter planning timelines. This paper examines the Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan (JSCP) directed contingency planning and staffing requirements assigned to a combatant commander staff through the lens of modeling and simulation. The dynamics of developing a COCOM plan are captured with an ExtendSim [3] simulation. The resulting analysis provides a quantifiable means by which to measure a combatant commander staffs workload associated with development and staffing JSCP [4] directed contingency plans with COCOM capability/capacity. Modeling and simulation bring significant opportunities in measuring the sensitivity of key variables in the assessment of workload to capability/capacity analysis. Gaining an understanding of the relationship between plan complexity, number of plans, planning processes, and number of planners with time required for plan development provides valuable information to DoD leadership. Through modeling and simulation AP leadership can gain greater insight in making key decisions on knowing where to best allocate scarce resources in an effort to meet DoD planning objectives.

  20. Current neurology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, S.H.


    The topics covered in this book include: Duchenne muscular dystrophy: DNA diagnosis in practice; Central nervous system magnetic resonance imaging; and Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of neurologic diseases

  1. Water security and adaptive capacity for climate: Learning lessons from drought decision making in U.S. urban contexts (United States)

    Dilling, L.


    Cities in the U.S. have been adapting to drought for many years, implementing a combination of mechanisms to cope with climate and water variability and increasing population. Cities are also at the frontline for making decisions about adaptation to climate change. Are decisions made to cope with drought helping cities to build the adaptive capacity necessary for adapting to climate change? We examined this question by conducting interviews with practitioners involved in drought management at urban water utilities across the U.S. to understand responses to drought and perceptions of their effectiveness. We then drew on established criteria for evaluating successful adaptation (effectiveness, efficiency, equity and legitimacy) to analyze whether these drought policies would build adaptive capacity for climate change. We find that drought responses overall are seen as successful in helping cities balance the demand and supply of water, and maintain system reliability as well as improve water awareness, but can have unintended consequences and shift vulnerability in unexpected ways. For example, even though cities are successful at reducing water use when needed, some are concerned with the increasing difficulty of finding new water savings during a future drought. Secondly, water conservation can affect revenue, impacting the ability of cities to plan for maintenance and capital costs. Third, the social acceptability of policy options is critical and depends on perceived fairness and other factors. Water managers are also challenged by "no fail" expectations that make it difficult to experiment. Moreover some measures can shift vulnerability from one risk, such as running out of water, to another risk, such as water becoming too expensive, lowering quality, or not meeting other key infrastructure design requirements. These findings demonstrate that adaptation measures that seek to reduce exposure to water scarcity can impact aspects of adaptive capacity, and shift

  2. Assessing existing drought monitoring and forecasting capacities, mitigation and adaptation practices in Africa (United States)

    Nyabeze, W. R.; Dlamini, L.; Lahlou, O.; Imani, Y.; Alaoui, S. B.; Vermooten, J. S. A.


    Drought is one of the major natural hazards in many parts of the world, including Africa and some regions in Europe. Drought events have resulted in extensive damages to livelihoods, environment and economy. In 2011, a consortium consisting of 19 organisations from both Africa and Europe started a project (DEWFORA) aimed at developing a framework for the provision of early warning and response through drought impact mitigation for Africa. This framework covers the whole chain from monitoring and vulnerability assessment to forecasting, warning, response and knowledge dissemination. This paper presents the first results of the capacity assessment of drought monitoring and forecasting systems in Africa, the existing institutional frameworks and drought mitigation and adaptation practices. Its focus is particularly on the historical drought mitigation and adaptation actions identified in the North Africa - Maghreb Region (Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia) and in the Southern Africa - Limpopo Basin. This is based on an extensive review of historical drought experiences. From the 1920's to 2009, the study identified 37 drought seasons in the North African - Maghreb Region and 33 drought seasons in the Southern Africa - Limpopo Basin. Existing literature tends to capture the spatial extent of drought at national and administrative scale in great detail. This is driven by the need to map drought impacts (food shortage, communities affected) in order to inform drought relief efforts (short-term drought mitigation measures). However, the mapping of drought at catchment scale (hydrological unit), required for longer-term measures, is not well documented. At regional level, both in North Africa and Southern Africa, two organisations are involved in drought monitoring and forecasting, while at national level 22 organisations are involved in North Africa and 37 in Southern Africa. Regarding drought related mitigation actions, the inventory shows that the most common actions

  3. Flood risk perception and adaptation capacity: a contribution to the socio-hydrology debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fuchs


    Full Text Available Dealing with flood hazard and risk requires approaches rooted in both natural and social sciences, which provided the nexus for the ongoing debate on socio-hydrology. Various combinations of non-structural and structural flood risk reduction options are available to communities. Focusing on flood risk and the information associated with it, developing risk management plans is required but often overlooks public perception of a threat. The perception of risk varies in many different ways, especially between the authorities and the affected public. It is because of this disconnection that many risk management plans concerning floods have failed in the past. This paper examines the private adaptation capacity and willingness with respect to flooding in two different catchments in Greece prone to multiple flood events during the last 20 years. Two studies (East Attica and Evros were carried out, comprised of a survey questionnaire of 155 and 157 individuals, from a peri-urban (East Attica and a rural (Evros area, respectively, and they focused on those vulnerable to periodic (rural area and flash floods (peri-urban area. Based on the comparisons drawn from these responses, and identifying key issues to be addressed when flood risk management plans are implemented, improvements are being recommended for the social dimension surrounding such implementation. As such, the paper contributes to the ongoing discussion on human–environment interaction in socio-hydrology.

  4. Flood risk perception and adaptation capacity: a contribution to the socio-hydrology debate (United States)

    Fuchs, Sven; Karagiorgos, Konstantinos; Kitikidou, Kyriaki; Maris, Fotios; Paparrizos, Spyridon; Thaler, Thomas


    Dealing with flood hazard and risk requires approaches rooted in both natural and social sciences, which provided the nexus for the ongoing debate on socio-hydrology. Various combinations of non-structural and structural flood risk reduction options are available to communities. Focusing on flood risk and the information associated with it, developing risk management plans is required but often overlooks public perception of a threat. The perception of risk varies in many different ways, especially between the authorities and the affected public. It is because of this disconnection that many risk management plans concerning floods have failed in the past. This paper examines the private adaptation capacity and willingness with respect to flooding in two different catchments in Greece prone to multiple flood events during the last 20 years. Two studies (East Attica and Evros) were carried out, comprised of a survey questionnaire of 155 and 157 individuals, from a peri-urban (East Attica) and a rural (Evros) area, respectively, and they focused on those vulnerable to periodic (rural area) and flash floods (peri-urban area). Based on the comparisons drawn from these responses, and identifying key issues to be addressed when flood risk management plans are implemented, improvements are being recommended for the social dimension surrounding such implementation. As such, the paper contributes to the ongoing discussion on human-environment interaction in socio-hydrology.

  5. Old wine in new bottles: The adaptive capacity of the hydraulic mission in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen F. Warner


    Full Text Available Despite a widely embraced ecological turn and strident critique of megastructures in the 1990s, construction of large infrastructure has been reignited worldwide. While Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM and River Basin Management (RBM have at least discursively held sway as the dominant paradigm in water management since the late 1990s, we argue that the 'hydraulic mission' never really went away and has in some places energetically re-emerged. The development discourse that justified many dams in the past is now supplemented by a new set of appealing justifiers. With the help of the case of Ecuador we show that the hegemonic project of the hydraulic mission has a great discursive adaptive capacity and a new set of allies. The rise of the BRICS (especially China, South-South cooperation and private investors provides non-traditional sources of funding, making the construction of hydraulic infrastructure less dependent on Western conditionalities. The resulting governance picture highlights the disconnect between the still widely embraced policy discourse of IWRM/RBM and the drivers and practices of the hydraulic mission; questioning what value international calls for 'good water governance' have in the midst of new discourses, broader transnational political projects and the powerful dam-building alliances that underlie them.

  6. Improving conservation outcomes with a new paradigm for understanding species’ fundamental and realized adaptive capacity (United States)

    Beever, Erik; O’Leary, John; Mengelt, Claudia; West, Jordan M.; Julius, Susan; Green, Nancy; Magness, Dawn; Petes, Laura E.; Stein, Bruce A.; Nicotra, Adrienne B; Hellmann, Jessica J; Robertson, Amanda L; Staudinger, Michelle D.; Rosenberg, Andrew A.; Babij, Eleanora; Brennan, Jean; Schuurman, Gregor W.; Hofmann, Gretchen E


    Worldwide, many species are responding to ongoing climate change with shifts in distribution, abundance, phenology, or behavior. Consequently, natural-resource managers face increasingly urgent conservation questions related to biodiversity loss, expansion of invasive species, and deteriorating ecosystem services. We argue that our ability to address these questions is hampered by the lack of explicit consideration of species’ adaptive capacity (AC). AC is the ability of a species or population to cope with climatic changes and is characterized by three fundamental components: phenotypic plasticity, dispersal ability, and genetic diversity. However, few studies simultaneously address all elements; often, AC is confused with sensitivity or omitted altogether from climate-change vulnerability assessments. Improved understanding, consistent definition, and comprehensive evaluations of AC are needed. Using classic ecological-niche theory as an analogy, we propose a new paradigm that considers fundamental and realized AC: the former reflects aspects inherent to species, whereas the latter denotes how extrinsic factors constrain AC to what is actually expressed or observed. Through this conceptualization, we identify ecological attributes contributing to AC, outline areas of research necessary to advance understanding of AC, and provide examples demonstrating how the inclusion of AC can better inform conservation and natural-resource management.

  7. Analysis of farm performance in Europe under different climate and management conditions to improve understanding of adaptive capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, P.; Ewert, F.; Oude Lansink, A.


    The aim of this paper is to improve understanding of the adaptive capacity of European agriculture to climate change. Extensive data on farm characteristics of individual farms from the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN) have been combined with climatic and socio-economic data to analyze the

  8. The vulnerability of Australian rural communities to climate variability and change: Part II—Integrating impacts with adaptive capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelson, R.; Kokic, P.; Crimp, S.; Martin, P.; Meinke, H.B.; Howden, S.M.; DeVoil, P.; McKeon, G.; Nidumolu, U.


    In the first paper in this series [Nelson, R., Kokic, P., Crimp, S., Martin, P., Meinke, H., Howden, S.M. (2010, this issue)], we concluded that hazard/impact modelling needs to be integrated with holistic measures of adaptive capacity in order to provide policy-relevant insights into the multiple

  9. Developing adaptive capacity in times of climate change in central rural Vietnam: exploring smallholders’ learning and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, Thi Hong Phuong


    Climate change already affects Vietnam in virtually all sectors. Agriculture in small communities is particularly vulnerable to current and projected climate change impacts. Many of the smallholder farmers in Vietnam have limited adaptive capacity to deal with these impacts. Increasingly social

  10. Child Neurology Services in Africa (United States)

    Wilmshurst, Jo M.; Badoe, Eben; Wammanda, Robinson D.; Mallewa, Macpherson; Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Venter, Andre; Newton, Charles R.


    The first African Child Neurology Association meeting identified key challenges that the continent faces to improve the health of children with neurology disorders. The capacity to diagnose common neurologic conditions and rare disorders is lacking. The burden of neurologic disease on the continent is not known, and this lack of knowledge limits the ability to lobby for better health care provision. Inability to practice in resource-limited settings has led to the migration of skilled professionals away from Africa. Referral systems from primary to tertiary are often unpredictable and chaotic. There is a lack of access to reliable supplies of basic neurology treatments such as antiepileptic drugs. Few countries have nationally accepted guidelines either for the management of epilepsy or status epilepticus. There is a great need to develop better training capacity across Africa in the recognition and management of neurologic conditions in children, from primary health care to the subspecialist level. PMID:22019842

  11. Forest management under climatic and social uncertainty: trade-offs between reducing climate change impacts and fostering adaptive capacity. (United States)

    Seidl, Rupert; Lexer, Manfred J


    The unabated continuation of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and the lack of an international consensus on a stringent climate change mitigation policy underscore the importance of adaptation for coping with the all but inevitable changes in the climate system. Adaptation measures in forestry have particularly long lead times. A timely implementation is thus crucial for reducing the considerable climate vulnerability of forest ecosystems. However, since future environmental conditions as well as future societal demands on forests are inherently uncertain, a core requirement for adaptation is robustness to a wide variety of possible futures. Here we explicitly address the roles of climatic and social uncertainty in forest management, and tackle the question of robustness of adaptation measures in the context of multi-objective sustainable forest management (SFM). We used the Austrian Federal Forests (AFF) as a case study, and employed a comprehensive vulnerability assessment framework based on ecosystem modeling, multi-criteria decision analysis, and practitioner participation. We explicitly considered climate uncertainty by means of three climate change scenarios, and accounted for uncertainty in future social demands by means of three societal preference scenarios regarding SFM indicators. We found that the effects of climatic and social uncertainty on the projected performance of management were in the same order of magnitude, underlining the notion that climate change adaptation requires an integrated social-ecological perspective. Furthermore, our analysis of adaptation measures revealed considerable trade-offs between reducing adverse impacts of climate change and facilitating adaptive capacity. This finding implies that prioritization between these two general aims of adaptation is necessary in management planning, which we suggest can draw on uncertainty analysis: Where the variation induced by social-ecological uncertainty renders measures aiming to

  12. Building Adaptive Capacity with the Delphi Method and Mediated Modeling for Water Quality and Climate Change Adaptation in Lake Champlain Basin (United States)

    Coleman, S.; Hurley, S.; Koliba, C.; Zia, A.; Exler, S.


    Eutrophication and nutrient pollution of surface waters occur within complex governance, social, hydrologic and biophysical basin contexts. The pervasive and perennial nutrient pollution in Lake Champlain Basin, despite decades of efforts, exemplifies problems found across the world's surface waters. Stakeholders with diverse values, interests, and forms of explicit and tacit knowledge determine water quality impacts through land use, agricultural and water resource decisions. Uncertainty, ambiguity and dynamic feedback further complicate the ability to promote the continual provision of water quality and ecosystem services. Adaptive management of water resources and land use requires mechanisms to allow for learning and integration of new information over time. The transdisciplinary Research on Adaptation to Climate Change (RACC) team is working to build regional adaptive capacity in Lake Champlain Basin while studying and integrating governance, land use, hydrological, and biophysical systems to evaluate implications for adaptive management. The RACC team has engaged stakeholders through mediated modeling workshops, online forums, surveys, focus groups and interviews. In March 2014,, an interactive online forum to source and identify adaptive interventions from a group of stakeholders across sectors was launched. The forum, based on the Delphi Method, brings forward the collective wisdom of stakeholders and experts to identify potential interventions and governance designs in response to scientific uncertainty and ambiguity surrounding the effectiveness of any strategy, climate change impacts, and the social and natural systems governing water quality and eutrophication. A Mediated Modeling Workshop followed the forum in May 2014, where participants refined and identified plausible interventions under different governance, policy and resource scenarios. Results from the online forum and workshop can identify emerging consensus across scales and sectors

  13. Farmer Health and Adaptive Capacity in the Face of Climate Change and Variability. Part 2: Contexts, Personal Attributes and Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Berry


    Full Text Available This study extends the emerging body of research on farmer adaptation to climate change, by segmenting farmers on the basis of specific attributes (health, values, belief about climate change, sense of responsibility for climate change, desire to change, social, human and financial capitals and farmer demographics and considering such attributes as critical social aspects of the contextualized capacity to adapt. The segmental analysis was based on a nationally representative sample of 3,993 farmers concerned with farmer adaptation of climate risks. The resulting data were subjected to two-step cluster analysis to identify homogenous groups of farmers based on factors related to climate change adaptation. A three-cluster solution was identified wherein farmers were distinguishable on the basis of belief in climate change, desire for financial assistance and advice, social connectedness, information seeking, and adverse farm conditions. The largest group (Cluster 1: 55% was characterized by farmers who recognized being affected by drought and drying and who were actively engaged in adaptive practices, despite the fact that they had little income and poor farm resources. One third of these farmers reported that their health was a barrier to sustained activity in farming. Cluster 2 (26% was characterized by farmers not readily affected by drying, who enjoyed good incomes, good health and better farming conditions. They expressed little desire to adapt. The smallest cluster (Cluster 3: 19% was also characterized by farmers who recognized that they were affected by drying. However, despite a desire to adapt, they had very little means to do so. They reported the poorest natural resources and the poorest health, despite being younger. The findings suggest that it is the intent to adapt, starting from where people are at, which is a more important indicator of the capacity to work towards sustainable practices than assets tests alone.

  14. Spatially Representing Vulnerability to Extreme Rain Events Using Midwestern Farmers' Objective and Perceived Attributes of Adaptive Capacity. (United States)

    Gardezi, Maaz; Arbuckle, J Gordon


    Potential climate-change-related impacts to agriculture in the upper Midwest pose serious economic and ecological risks to the U.S. and the global economy. On a local level, farmers are at the forefront of responding to the impacts of climate change. Hence, it is important to understand how farmers and their farm operations may be more or less vulnerable to changes in the climate. A vulnerability index is a tool commonly used by researchers and practitioners to represent the geographical distribution of vulnerability in response to global change. Most vulnerability assessments measure objective adaptive capacity using secondary data collected by governmental agencies. However, other scholarship on human behavior has noted that sociocultural and cognitive factors, such as risk perceptions and perceived capacity, are consequential for modulating people's actual vulnerability. Thus, traditional assessments can potentially overlook people's subjective perceptions of changes in climate and extreme weather events and the extent to which people feel prepared to take necessary steps to cope with and respond to the negative effects of climate change. This article addresses this knowledge gap by: (1) incorporating perceived adaptive capacity into a vulnerability assessment; (2) using spatial smoothing to aggregate individual-level vulnerabilities to the county level; and (3) evaluating the relationships among different dimensions of adaptive capacity to examine whether perceived capacity should be integrated into vulnerability assessments. The result suggests that vulnerability assessments that rely only on objective measures might miss important sociocognitive dimensions of capacity. Vulnerability indices and maps presented in this article can inform engagement strategies for improving environmental sustainability in the region. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. Closed-form Capacity Expressions for the α-μ Fading Channel with SC Diversity under Different Adaptive Transmission Strategies (United States)

    Mohamed, Refaat; Ismail, Mahmoud H.; Newagy, Fatma; Mourad, Heba M.


    Stemming from the fact that the α-μ fading distribution is one of the very general fading models used in the literature to describe the small scale fading phenomenon, in this paper, closed-form expressions for the Shannon capacity of the α-μ fading channel operating under four main adaptive transmission strategies are derived assuming integer values for μ. These expressions are derived for the case of no diversity as well as for selection combining diversity with independent and identically distributed branches. The obtained expressions reduce to those previously derived in the literature for the Weibull as well as the Rayleigh fading cases, which are both special cases of the α-μ channel. Numerical results are presented for the capacity under the four adaptive transmission strategies and the effect of the fading parameter as well as the number of diversity branches is studied.

  16. Integrated System Design: Promoting the Capacity of Sociotechnical Systems for Adaptation through Extensions of Cognitive Work Analysis. (United States)

    Naikar, Neelam; Elix, Ben


    This paper proposes an approach for integrated system design, which has the intent of facilitating high levels of effectiveness in sociotechnical systems by promoting their capacity for adaptation. Building on earlier ideas and empirical observations, this approach recognizes that to create adaptive systems it is necessary to integrate the design of all of the system elements, including the interfaces, teams, training, and automation, such that workers are supported in adapting their behavior as well as their structure, or organization, in a coherent manner. Current approaches for work analysis and design are limited in regard to this fundamental objective, especially in cases when workers are confronted with unforeseen events. A suitable starting point is offered by cognitive work analysis (CWA), but while this framework can support actors in adapting their behavior, it does not necessarily accommodate adaptations in their structure. Moreover, associated design approaches generally focus on individual system elements, and those that consider multiple elements appear limited in their ability to facilitate integration, especially in the manner intended here. The proposed approach puts forward the set of possibilities for work organization in a system as the central mechanism for binding the design of its various elements, so that actors can adapt their structure as well as their behavior-in a unified fashion-to handle both familiar and novel conditions. Accordingly, this paper demonstrates how the set of possibilities for work organization in a system may be demarcated independently of the situation, through extensions of CWA, and how it may be utilized in design. This lynchpin, conceptualized in the form of a diagram of work organization possibilities (WOP), is important for preserving a system's inherent capacity for adaptation. Future research should focus on validating these concepts and establishing the feasibility of implementing them in industrial contexts.

  17. Enhancing adaptive capacity for restoring fire-dependent ecosystems: the Fire Learning Network's Prescribed Fire Training Exchanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G. Spencer


    Full Text Available Prescribed fire is a critical tool for promoting restoration and increasing resilience in fire-adapted ecosystems, but there are barriers to its use, including a shortage of personnel with adequate ecological knowledge and operational expertise to implement prescribed fire across multijurisdictional landscapes. In the United States, recognized needs for both professional development and increased use of fire are not being met, often because of institutional limitations. The Fire Learning Network has been characterized as a multiscalar, collaborative network that works to enhance the adaptive capacity of fire management institutions, and this network developed the Prescribed Fire Training Exchanges (TREXs to address persistent challenges in increasing the capacity for prescribed fire implementation. Our research was designed to investigate where fire professionals face professional barriers, how the TREX addresses these, and in what ways the TREX may be contributing to the adaptive capacity of fire management institutions. We evaluated the training model using surveys, interviews, focus groups, and participant observation. We found that, although the training events cannot overcome all institutional barriers, they incorporate the key components of professional development in fire; foster collaboration, learning, and network building; and provide flexible opportunities with an emphasis on local context to train a variety of professionals with disparate needs. The strategy also offers an avenue for overcoming barriers faced by contingent and nonfederal fire professionals in attaining training and operational experience, thereby increasing the variety of actors and resources involved in fire management. Although it is an incremental step, the TREX is contributing to the adaptive capacity of institutions in social-ecological systems in which fire is a critical ecological process.

  18. Role of institutional entrepreneurship in building adaptive capacity in community-based healthcare organisations: realist review protocol. (United States)

    Iyengar, Sweatha; Katz, Aaron; Durham, Jo


    Over the past 3 decades, there has been a substantial shift to the marketisation of government-funded health services. For organisations traditionally buffered from the competitive pressures of for-profit enterprises, such as community-based organisations, this means developing the capacity to adapt to competitive tendering processes, shifting client expectations, and increasing demands for greater accountability. Drawing on ideas of institutional entrepreneurship, we believe that attempts to build adaptive capacity require the transformation of existing institutional arrangements. Key in this may be identifying and fostering institutional entrepreneurs--actors who take the lead in being the impetus for, and giving direction to, structural change. This study focuses on the strategies used by institutional entrepreneurs to build adaptive capacity in the community-based healthcare sector. The research will use an adapted rapid realist review. The review will find underlying theories that explain the circumstances surrounding the implementation of capacity-building strategies that shape organisational response and generate outcomes by activating causal mechanisms. An early scoping of the literature, and consultations with key stakeholders, will be undertaken to identify an initial programme theory. We will search for relevant journal articles and grey literature. Data will be extracted based on contextual factors, mechanisms and outcomes, and their configurations. The analysis will seek patterns and regularities in these configurations and will focus on confirming, refuting or refining our programme theory. The study does not involve primary research and, therefore, does not require formal ethical approval. However, ethical standards of utility, usefulness, feasibility, propriety, accuracy and accountability will be followed. The results will be written up according to the Realist and Meta-Review Evidence Synthesis: Evolving Standards guidelines. Once completed

  19. Low robustness of increasing reservoir capacity for adaptation to climate change: A case study for an agricultural river basin (United States)

    Kim, Daeha; Eum, Hyung-Il


    With growing concerns of the uncertain climate change, investments in water infrastructures are considered as adaptation policies for water managers and stakeholders despite their negative impacts on the environment. Particularly in regions with limited water availability or conflicting demands, building reservoirs and/or augmenting their storage capacity were already adopted for alleviating influences of the climate change. This study provides a probabilistic assessment of climate change impacts on water scarcity in a river system regulated by an agricultural reservoir in South Korea, which already increased its storage capacity for water supply. For the assessment, we developed the climate response functions (CRFs) defined as relationships between bi-decadal system performance indicators (reservoir reliability and vulnerability) and corresponding climatic conditions, using hydrological models with 10,000-year long stochastic generation of daily precipitation and temperatures. The climate change impacts were assessed by plotting 52 downscaled climate projections of general circulation models (GCMs) on the CRFs. Results indicated that augmented reservoir capacity makes the reservoir system more sensitive to changes in long-term averages of precipitation and temperatures despite improved system performances. Increasing reservoir capacity is unlikely to be "no regret" adaptation policy for the river system. On the other hand, converting the planting strategy from transplanting to direct sowing (i.e., a demand control) could be a more robust to bi-decadal climatic changes based on CRFs and thus could be good to be a no-regret policy.

  20. Adult neurology training during child neurology residency. (United States)

    Schor, Nina F


    As it is currently configured, completion of child neurology residency requires performance of 12 months of training in adult neurology. Exploration of whether or not this duration of training in adult neurology is appropriate for what child neurology is today must take into account the initial reasons for this requirement and the goals of adult neurology training during child neurology residency.

  1. Community capacity to acquire, assess, adapt, and apply research evidence: a survey of Ontario's HIV/AIDS sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rourke Sean B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based organizations (CBOs are important stakeholders in health systems and are increasingly called upon to use research evidence to inform their advocacy, program planning, and service delivery. To better support CBOs to find and use research evidence, we sought to assess the capacity of CBOs in the HIV/AIDS sector to acquire, assess, adapt, and apply research evidence in their work. Methods We invited executive directors of HIV/AIDS CBOs in Ontario, Canada (n = 51 to complete the Canadian Health Services Research Foundation's "Is Research Working for You?" survey. Findings Based on responses from 25 organizations that collectively provide services to approximately 32,000 clients per year with 290 full-time equivalent staff, we found organizational capacity to acquire, assess, adapt, and apply research evidence to be low. CBO strengths include supporting a culture that rewards flexibility and quality improvement, exchanging information within their organization, and ensuring that their decision-making processes have a place for research. However, CBO Executive Directors indicated that they lacked the skills, time, resources, incentives, and links with experts to acquire research, assess its quality and reliability, and summarize it in a user-friendly way. Conclusion Given the limited capacity to find and use research evidence, we recommend a capacity-building strategy for HIV/AIDS CBOs that focuses on providing the tools, resources, and skills needed to more consistently acquire, assess, adapt, and apply research evidence. Such a strategy may be appropriate in other sectors and jurisdictions as well given that CBO Executive Directors in the HIV/AIDS sector in Ontario report low capacity despite being in the enviable position of having stable government infrastructure in place to support them, benefiting from long-standing investment in capacity building, and being part of an active provincial network. CBOs in other

  2. [The adaptive capacities of the cardiovascular system in miners exposed to vibration]. (United States)

    Konevskikh, L A; Oranskiĭ, I E; Makogon, I S


    Diagnostics criteria for work-related adaptation disorders in respect of cardiovascular system factors have been developed; the stages of disadaptation have been characterized through the example of vibration exposed miners working under the conditions of cool microclimate.

  3. Long-term fat diet adaptation effects on performance, training capacity, and fat utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff


    It is well known that adaptation to a fat-rich carbohydrate-poor diet results in lower resting muscle glycogen content and a higher rate of fat oxidation during exercise when compared with a carbohydrate-rich diet. The net effect of such an adaptation could potentially be a sparing of muscle...... glycogen, and because muscle glycogen storage is coupled to endurance performance, it is possible that adaptation to a high-fat diet potentially could enhance endurance performance. Therefore, the first issue in this review is to critically evaluate the available evidence for a potential endurance...... performance enhancement after long-term fat-rich diet adaptation. Attainment of optimal performance is among other factors dependent also on the quality and quantity of the training performed. When exercise intensity is increased, there is an increased need for carbohydrates. On the other hand, consumption...

  4. Envelope as Climate Negotiator: Evaluating adaptive building envelope's capacity to moderate indoor climate and energy (United States)

    Erickson, James

    Through manipulation of adaptable opportunities available within a given environment, individuals become active participants in managing personal comfort requirements, by exercising control over their comfort without the assistance of mechanical heating and cooling systems. Similarly, continuous manipulation of a building skin's form, insulation, porosity, and transmissivity qualities exerts control over the energy exchanged between indoor and outdoor environments. This research uses four adaptive response variables in a modified software algorithm to explore an adaptive building skin's potential in reacting to environmental stimuli with the purpose of minimizing energy use without sacrificing occupant comfort. Results illustrate that significant energy savings can be realized with adaptive envelopes over static building envelopes even under extreme summer and winter climate conditions; that the magnitude of these savings are dependent on climate and orientation; and that occupant thermal comfort can be improved consistently over comfort levels achieved by optimized static building envelopes. The resulting adaptive envelope's unique climate-specific behavior could inform designers in creating an intelligent kinetic aesthetic that helps facilitate adaptability and resiliency in architecture.

  5. Farmer Health and Adaptive Capacity in the Face of Climate Change and Variability. Part 1: Health as a Contributor to Adaptive Capacity and as an Outcome from Pressures Coping with Climate Related Adversities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Parkinson


    Full Text Available This paper examines the role farmers’ health plays as an element of adaptive capacity. The study examines which of twenty aspects of adaptation may be related to overall health outcomes, controlling for demographic and on-farm-factors in health problems. The analysis is based on 3,993 farmers’ responses to a national survey of climate risk and adaptation. Hierarchical linear regression modelling was used examine the extent to which, in a multivariate analysis, the use of adaptive practices was predictively associated with self-assessed health, taking into account the farmer’s rating of whether their health was a barrier to undertaking farm work. We present two models, one excluding pre-existing health (model 1 and one including pre-existing health (model 2. The first model accounted for 21% of the variance. In this model better health was most strongly predicted by an absence of on-farm risk, greater financial viability, greater debt pressures, younger age and a desire to continue farming. Social capital (trust and reciprocity was moderately associated with health as was the intention to adopt more sustainable practices. The second model (including the farmers’ health as a barrier to undertaking farm work accounted for 43% of the variance. Better health outcomes were most strongly explained, in order of magnitude, by the absence of pre-existing health problems, greater access to social support, greater financial viability, greater debt pressures, a desire to continue farming and the condition of on-farm resources. Model 2 was a more parsimonious model (only nine predictors, compared with 15 in model 1, and explained twice as much variance in health outcomes. These results suggest that (i pre-existing health problems are a very important factor to consider when designing adaptation programs and policies and (ii these problems may mediate or modify the relationship between adaptation and health.

  6. Proceedings of the adapting to climate change in Canada 2005 conference : understanding risks and building capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This four-day conference provided a national forum for researchers and decision-makers from a variety of disciplines to share information and results on climate change. Sponsored by Natural Resources Canada's Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Program, the conference explored ways to improve knowledge of Canada's vulnerability to climate change, to better assess the benefits and risks of climate change and to examine policies and options through which decisions on adaptation can be made. Conference topics included issues such as global warming; sustainable development; climate change and agriculture; adaptation strategies; water, coastline and marine management and climate change; municipal level management and climate change; climate change and health issues; and many other topics related to climate change. The conference featured paper and poster presentations, opening remarks, and panel discussions. A total of 118 conference papers and 46 conference posters were presented at the conference of which 17 have been catalogued separately in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  7. Neurologic disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakeres, D.W.


    There is a wide range of indications for radiographic evaluation of possible cerebrovascular disease, since a wide range of neurologic symptoms can be encountered secondary to ischemia. Frequently the diagnosis of cerebrovascular disease is clear on clinical grounds, but radiographic evaluation is essential both to quantify the extent of disease and establish the underlying cause (e.g., vasculitis, embolus) while excluding other causes so that the proper therapy can follow

  8. In Hac Vita: Increasing Nordic Homeowners' Adaptive Capacity to Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neset, Tina; Linnér, Björn-Ola; Navarra, carlo


    The NordForsk funded research project In Hac Vita project is a collaboration between the Nordic insurance companies If, Gjensidige, Trygg-Hansa/ Codan and Tryg Insurance, and the Top-level Research Initiative the Nordic Centre of Excellence NORD-STAR. The project concerns climate change adaptatio...... to adapt to climate change and extreme weather effects....

  9. Building Turnaround Capacity for Urban School Improvement: The Role of Adaptive Leadership and Defined Autonomy (United States)

    Conrad, Jill K.


    This dissertation examines the levels of and relationships between technical leadership, adaptive leadership, and defined autonomy among Denver school leaders along with their combined effects on school growth gains over time. Thirty principals provided complete responses to an online survey that included existing scales for technical leadership,…

  10. Strengthening the Capacity to Adapt to Climate Change in Rural Bénin

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A device for relaying meteorological information will be set up for each of the three levels (department, commune and field-school). In this way the project hopes to encourage optimal use of water and agricultural potential, available research results, and local knowledge, as well as stimulate experimentation on adaptation ...

  11. The relevance of a coproductive capacity framework to climate change adaptation: investigating the health and water sectors in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn J. Bowen


    Full Text Available Multiple active partnerships in the health and water sectors in Cambodia exist to address climate change adaptation, operating beyond typical sectoral and organizational divides. Decisions around national adaptation policy are made predominantly by the relevant lead ministry, contrasting with where funding originates from (i.e., major donors, multilaterals, United Nation agencies. Adaptation policy is thus the result of a process of coproduction by state and nonstate actors. The research we present sought to understand the relationships that exist between knowledge- and decision-makers with respect to climate change adaptation in the health and water sectors in Cambodia, and the factors that enabled or constrained these relationships. Forty-four interviews were conducted with representatives of 32 organizations. We found that coproductive relationships were most effective when there were clearly defined roles and responsibilities, coordination of technical and financial resources, and trust. The two key factors of coproductive capacity that enabled and supported these partnerships were scientific resources and governance capability. Ultimately, the roles and responsibilities given to various actors requires commensurate funding and greater consideration of existing relationships and power dynamics. The reliance on international scientific expertise also needs to be challenged so that local research capabilities can be developed and locally relevant, problem-specific information can be provided. The ongoing funding, codevelopment, and sharing of such knowledge would significantly enhance trust and cooperation.

  12. Beyond exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity: A response based ecological framework to assess species climate change vulnerability (United States)

    Fortini, Lucas B.; Schubert, Olivia


    As the impacts of global climate change on species are increasingly evident, there is a clear need to adapt conservation efforts worldwide. Species vulnerability assessments (VAs) are increasingly used to summarize all relevant information to determine a species’ potential vulnerability to climate change and are frequently the first step in informing climate adaptation efforts. VAs commonly integrate multiple sources of information by utilizing a framework that distinguishes factors relevant to species exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. However, this framework was originally developed for human systems, and its use to evaluate species vulnerability has serious practical and theoretical limitations. By instead defining vulnerability as the degree to which a species is unable to exhibit any of the responses necessary for persistence under climate change (i.e., toleration of projected changes, migration to new climate-compatible areas, enduring in microrefugia, and evolutionary adaptation), we can bring VAs into the realm of ecological science without applying borrowed abstract concepts that have consistently challenged species-centric research and management. This response-based framework to assess species vulnerability to climate change allows better integration of relevant ecological data and past research, yielding results with much clearer implications for conservation and research prioritization.

  13. Motor adaptation capacity as a function of age in carrying out a repetitive assembly task at imposed work paces. (United States)

    Gilles, Martine Annie; Guélin, Jean-Charles; Desbrosses, Kévin; Wild, Pascal


    The working population is getting older. Workers must adapt to changing conditions to respond to the efforts required by the tasks they have to perform. In this laboratory-based study, we investigated the capacities of motor adaptation as a function of age and work pace. Two phases were identified in the task performed: a collection phase, involving dominant use of the lower limbs; and an assembly phase, involving bi-manual motor skills. Results showed that senior workers were mainly limited during the collection phase, whereas they had less difficulty completing the assembly phase. However, senior workers did increase the vertical force applied while assembling parts, whatever the work pace. In younger and middle-aged subjects, vertical force was increased only for the faster pace. Older workers could adapt to perform repetitive tasks under different time constraints, but adaptation required greater effort than for younger workers. These results point towards a higher risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders among seniors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Climate change and the UK house building sector: perceptions, impacts and adaptive capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertin, J.; Berkhout, F.; Gann, D.; Barlow, J.


    This paper explores how climate change could affect the UK house-building sector, focusing on the question of how companies can adapt to changing climatic conditions. It presents the results of in-depth interviews in five house-building companies in the UK. We start from the assumption that climate change is only one driver among many, including technological innovation, shifting consumer expectations and changing regulation, that the industry faces. This approach draws on insights that are well established in the management and innovation literatures, but have often been neglected in studies of climate change. We report research about the perceptions of house builders about future impacts of climate change, potential adaptation measures that may be open to them and their ability to carry out these measures. The paper draws conclusions about the challenges that climate change presents to the UK house building industry. (author)

  15. Perception and Interpretation of Climate Change among Quechua Farmers of Bolivia: Indigenous Knowledge as a Resource for Adaptive Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Boillat


    Full Text Available We aim to explore how indigenous peoples observe and ascribe meaning to change. The case study involves two Quechua-speaking farmer communities from mountainous areas near Cochabamba, Bolivia. Taking climate change as a starting point, we found that, first, farmers often associate their observations of climate change with other social and environmental changes, such as value change in the community, population growth, out-migration, urbanization, and land degradation. Second, some of the people interpret change as part of a cycle, which includes a belief in the return of some characteristics of ancient or mythological times. Third, environmental change is also perceived as the expression of "extra-human intentionalities," a reaction of natural or spiritual entities that people consider living beings. On the basis of these interpretations of change and their adaptive strategies, we discuss the importance of indigenous knowledge as a component of adaptive capacity. Even in the context of living with modern science and mass media, indigenous patterns of interpreting phenomena tend to be persistent. Our results support the view that indigenous knowledge must be acknowledged as process, emphasizing ways of observing, discussing, and interpreting new information. In this case, indigenous knowledge can help address complex relationships between phenomena, and help design adaptation strategies based on experimentation and knowledge coproduction.

  16. Aerobic capacity of Peruvian Quechua: a test of the developmental adaptation hypothesis. (United States)

    Kiyamu, Melisa; Rivera-Chira, María; Brutsaert, Tom D


    High altitude natives are reported to have outstanding work capacity in spite of the challenge of oxygen transport and delivery in hypoxia. To evaluate the developmental effect of lifelong exposure to hypoxia on aerobic capacity, VO2peak was measured on two groups of Peruvian Quechua subjects (18-35 years), who differed in their developmental exposure to altitude. Male and female volunteers were recruited in Lima, Peru (150 m), and were divided in two groups, based on their developmental exposure to hypoxia, those: a) Born at sea-level individuals (BSL), with no developmental exposure to hypoxia (n = 34) and b) Born at high-altitude individuals (BHA) with full developmental exposure to hypoxia (n = 32), but who migrated to sea-level as adults (>16-years-old). Tests were conducted both in normoxia (BP = 750 mm Hg) and normobaric hypoxia at sea-level (BP = 750 mm Hg, FiO2  = 0.12, equivalent to 4,449 m), after a 2-month training period (in order to control for initial differences in physical fitness) at sea-level. BHA had a significantly higher VO2peak at hypoxia (40.31 ± 1.0 ml/min/kg) as compared to BSL (35.78 ± 0.96 ml/min/kg, P = 0.001), adjusting for sex. The decrease of VO2peak at HA relative to SL (ΔVO2peak ) was not different between groups, controlling for baseline levels (VO2peak at sea-level) and sex (BHA = 0.35 ± 0.04 l/min, BSL = 0.44 ± 0.04 l/min; P = 0.12). Forced vital capacity (controlling for height) and the residuals of VO2peak (controlling for weight) had a significant association in the BHA group only (r = 0.155; P = 0.031). In sum, results indicate that developmental exposure to altitude constitutes an important factor to determine superior exercise performance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Climate Change Adaptation in a Mediterranean Semi-Arid Catchment: Testing Managed Aquifer Recharge and Increased Surface Reservoir Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Guyennon


    Full Text Available Among different uses of freshwater, irrigation is the most impacting groundwater resource, leading to water table depletion and possible seawater intrusion. The unbalance between the availability of water resources and demand is currently exacerbated and could become worse in the near future in accordance with climate change observations and scenarios provided by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC. In this context, Increasing Maximum Capacity of the surface reservoir (IMC and Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR are adaptation measures that have the potential to enhance water supply systems resiliency. In this paper, a multiple-users and multiple-resources-Water Supply System (WSS model is implemented to evaluate the effectiveness of these two adaptation strategies in a context of overexploited groundwater under the RCP 4.5 and the RCP 8.5 IPCC scenarios. The presented a case study that is located in the Puglia, a semi-arid region of South Italy characterized by a conspicuous water demand for irrigation. We observed that, although no significant long-term trend affects the proposed precipitation scenarios, the expected temperature increase highly impacts the WSS resources due to the associated increase of water demand for irrigation purposes. Under the RCP 4.5 the MAR scenario results are more effective than the IMC during long term wet periods (typically 5 years and successfully compensates the impact on the groundwater resources. Differently, under RCP 8.5, due to more persistent dry periods, both adaptation scenarios fail and groundwater resource become exposed to massive sea water intrusion during the second half of the century. We conclude that the MAR scenario is a suitable adaptation strategy to face the expected future changes in climate, although mitigation actions to reduce green-house gases are strongly required.

  18. Role of DNA damage repair capacity in radiation induced adaptive response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Dexiao; Pan Yan; Zhao Meijia; Chen Honghong; Shao Cunlin


    This work was to explore γ-ray induced radioadaptive response (RAR) in Chinese hamster ovary(CHO) cell lines of different DNA damage repair capacities. CHO-9 cells and the two repair-deficient strains, EM-C11(DNA single strand break repair deficient) and XR-C1(DNA double strand break repair deficient), were irradiated with a priming dose of 0.08 Gy or 0.016 Gy. After 4 or 7 hours, they were irradiated again with a challenging dose of 1 Gy. The micronucleus induction and plating efficiency of the cells were assayed. Under 0.08 Gy priming dose and 4-h interval, just the CHO-9 cells showed RAR, while with the 7-h interval the CHO-9 and EM-C11 showed RAR, but XR-C1 did not. When the cells were pretreated with a lower priming dose of 0.016 Gy in a 4-h time interval, all the three cell lines showed RAR to subsequent 1 Gy irradiation. It can be concluded that RAR is not only related to the priming dose and time interval, but also has close dependence on the ability of DNA damage repair. (authors)

  19. [Estimation of adaptive capacities in Magnitogorsk children from the activity of some detoxification enzymes]. (United States)

    koganova, Z I; Ingel', F I; Antipanova, N A; Legostoeva, T B; Poliakova, O V


    The paper provides the first fragment of a multiparameter study analyzing the influence of environmental pollution, the social and psychological features of a family, and some endogenous factors on genome stability and sensitivity in a developed ferrous metallurgy town. It also gives data on the urine and serum activity of the lysosomal enzyme N-acetyl-b-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and the serum activity of catalase in an organized contingent of apparently healthy children (n = 178; 6 kindergartens) aged 5-7 years, who live permanently in Magnitogorsk at different distances from the metallurgical works. More than 70% of children selected for examination were found to have average normal levels of activity of the enzymes studied. According to the average levels of enzyme activity, there were only 2 kindergartens (both from the left-bank region). In the children from the left-bank area, enzyme activities varied more greatly, which suggests the higher prevalence of tense adaptation. Correlation analysis revealed association between the children's serum activity of enzymes and some components of snow pollution. It is anticipated that the found changes in serum activities of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase and catalase may be determined by individual differences in a child's response to ambient air pollutants.

  20. Effect of reservoir zones and hedging factor dynamism on reservoir adaptive capacity for climate change impacts (United States)

    Adeloye, Adebayo J.; Soundharajan, Bankaru-Swamy


    When based on the zones of available water in storage, hedging has traditionally used a single hedged zone and a constant rationing ratio for constraining supply during droughts. Given the usual seasonality of reservoir inflows, it is also possible that hedging could feature multiple hedged zones and temporally varying rationing ratios but very few studies addressing this have been reported especially in relation to adaptation to projected climate change. This study developed and tested Genetic Algorithms (GA) optimised zone-based operating policies of various configurations using data for the Pong reservoir, Himachal Pradesh, India. The results show that hedging does lessen vulnerability, which dropped from ≥ 60 % without hedging to below 25 % with the single stage hedging. More complex hedging policies, e.g. two stage and/or temporally varying rationing ratios only produced marginal improvements in performance. All this shows that water hedging policies do not have to be overly complex to effectively offset reservoir vulnerability caused by water shortage resulting from e.g. projected climate change.

  1. Uplink capacity of multi-class IEEE 802.16j relay networks with adaptive modulation and coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua; Xiong, C; Iversen, Villy Bæk


    The emerging IEEE 802.16j mobile multi-hop relay (MMR) network is currently being developed to increase the user throughput and extend the service coverage as an enhancement of existing 802.16e standard. In 802.16j, the intermediate relay stations (RSs) help the base station (BS) communicate...... with those mobile stations (MSs) that are either too far away from the BS or placed in an area where direct communication with BS experiences unsatisfactory level of service. In this paper, we investigate the uplink Erlang capacity of a two-hop 802.16j relay system supporting both voice and data traffics...... with adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) scheme applied in the physical layer. We first develop analytical models to calculate the blocking probability in the access zone and the outage probability in the relay zone, respectively. Then a joint algorithm is proposed to determine the bandwidth distribution...

  2. Local adaptive capacity as an alternative approach in dealing with hydrometeorological risk at Depok Peri-Urban City (United States)

    Fitrinitia, I. S.; Junadi, P.; Sutanto, E.; Nugroho, D. A.; Zubair, A.; Suyanti, E.


    Located in a tropical area, cities in Indonesia are vulnerable to hydrometeorological risks such as flood and landslide and thus become prone to the climate change effects. Moreover, peri-urban cities had double burden as the consequences of main city spill over and also lack of urban facilities in overcoming the disaster. In another perspective, the city has many alternative resources to recover, so its create urban resiliency. Depok city becomes a case study of this research regarding with its development following the impact of Jakarta growth. This research purposes to capture how the local city dwellers could anticipate and adaptive with flood and landslide with their own mitigation version. Through mix method and spatial analysis using GIS techniques, it derives the two comparison approach, the normative and alternative that had been done by the city dwellers. It uses a spatial analysis to have a big picture of Depok and its environmental changing. It also divided into 4 local group of communities as a representative of city dwellers regarding the characteristic of a settlement with their level of risk. The result found type or characteristic of settlement which influenced the local adaptive capacity, from the establishment of infrastructure, health fulfillment and social livelihood with different kind of methods.

  3. Capacity to adapt to environmental change: evidence from a network of organizations concerned with increasing wildfire risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Paige. Fischer


    Full Text Available Because wildfire size and frequency are expected to increase in many forested areas in the United States, organizations involved in forest and wildfire management could arguably benefit from working together and sharing information to develop strategies for how to adapt to this increasing risk. Social capital theory suggests that actors in cohesive networks are positioned to build trust and mutual understanding of problems and act collectively to address these problems, and that actors engaged with diverse partners are positioned to access new information and resources that are important for innovation and complex problem solving. We investigated the patterns of interaction within a network of organizations involved in forest and wildfire management in Oregon, USA, for evidence of structural conditions that create opportunities for collective action and learning. We used descriptive statistical analysis of social network data gathered through interviews to characterize the structure of the network and exponential random graph modeling to identify key factors in the formation of network ties. We interpreted our findings through the lens of social capital theory to identify implications for the network's capacity to engage in collective action and complex problem-solving about how to adapt to environmental change. We found that tendencies to associate with others with similar management goals, geographic emphases, and attitudes toward wildfire were strong mechanisms shaping network structure, potentially constraining interactions among organizations with diverse information and resources and limiting opportunities for learning and complex problem-solving needed for adaptation. In particular, we found that organizations with fire protection and forest restoration goals comprised distinct networks despite sharing concern about the problem of increasing wildfire risk.

  4. Assessing water resources adaptive capacity to climate change impacts in the Pacific Northwest Region of North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Hamlet


    infrastructure and institutional arrangements provide a reasonably solid foundation for coping with climate change impacts, and that the mandates of existing water resources policy and water resources management institutions are at least consistent with the fundamental objectives of climate change adaptation. A deeper inquiry into the underlying nature of PNW water resources systems, however, reveals significant and persistent obstacles to climate change adaptation, which will need to be overcome if effective use of the region's extensive water resources management capacity can be brought to bear on this problem. Primary obstacles include assumptions of stationarity as the fundamental basis of water resources system design, entrenched use of historical records as the sole basis for planning, problems related to the relatively short time scale of planning, lack of familiarity with climate science and models, downscaling procedures, and hydrologic models, limited access to climate change scenarios and hydrologic products for specific water systems, and rigid water allocation and water resources operating rules that effectively block adaptive response. Institutional barriers include systematic loss of technical capacity in many water resources agencies following the dam building era, jurisdictional fragmentation affecting response to drought, disconnections between water policy and practice, and entrenched bureaucratic resistance to change in many water management agencies. These factors, combined with a federal agenda to block climate change policy in the US during the Bush administration have (with some exceptions contributed to widespread institutional "gridlock" in the PNW over the last decade or so despite a growing awareness of climate change as a significant threat to water management. In the last several years, however, significant progress has been made in surmounting some of these obstacles, and the region's water resources agencies at all levels of governance are making

  5. Assessing water resources adaptive capacity to climate change impacts in the Pacific Northwest Region of North America (United States)

    Hamlet, A. F.


    provide a reasonably solid foundation for coping with climate change impacts, and that the mandates of existing water resources policy and water resources management institutions are at least consistent with the fundamental objectives of climate change adaptation. A deeper inquiry into the underlying nature of PNW water resources systems, however, reveals significant and persistent obstacles to climate change adaptation, which will need to be overcome if effective use of the region's extensive water resources management capacity can be brought to bear on this problem. Primary obstacles include assumptions of stationarity as the fundamental basis of water resources system design, entrenched use of historical records as the sole basis for planning, problems related to the relatively short time scale of planning, lack of familiarity with climate science and models, downscaling procedures, and hydrologic models, limited access to climate change scenarios and hydrologic products for specific water systems, and rigid water allocation and water resources operating rules that effectively block adaptive response. Institutional barriers include systematic loss of technical capacity in many water resources agencies following the dam building era, jurisdictional fragmentation affecting response to drought, disconnections between water policy and practice, and entrenched bureaucratic resistance to change in many water management agencies. These factors, combined with a federal agenda to block climate change policy in the US during the Bush administration have (with some exceptions) contributed to widespread institutional "gridlock" in the PNW over the last decade or so despite a growing awareness of climate change as a significant threat to water management. In the last several years, however, significant progress has been made in surmounting some of these obstacles, and the region's water resources agencies at all levels of governance are making progress in addressing the fundamental

  6. A Comparative Survey of Adaptive Codec Solutions for VoIP over Multirate WLANs: A Capacity versus Quality Performance Trade-Off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sfairopoulou A


    Full Text Available In multi-rate WLANs, users can suffer transmission rate changes due to the link adaptation mechanism. This results in a variable capacity channel, which is very hostile for VoIP and can cause serious quality of service (QoS degradation in all active calls. Various codec adaptation mechanisms have been proposed as a solution to this, as well as to solve congestion problems on WLAN environments. Here, these solutions are presented, categorized according to the adaptation policy and scenario they implement, and evaluated at call-level in terms of the resulting blocking and dropping probabilities, as well as the perceived voice quality. To define a common performance metric, a new index named VGoS-factor is presented, which, by combining these capacity and quality indicators, can provide an overall view of the capacity versus quality trade-off of the proposed mechanisms and consequently help in choosing the adequate policy for each scenario.

  7. [Neurologic vigor of term newborns according to the type of delivery and obstetric maneuvers]. (United States)

    Riesgo, Rudimar dos Santos; Ohlweiler, Lygia; Winckler, Maria Isabel Bragatti; Ranzan, Josiane; Riesgo, Itamar Dos Santos; Rotta, Newra Tellechea


    to evaluate the effect of delivery type and usual obstetric procedures on the neurologic condition of a sample of consecutive term and healthy neonates, in the first 48 hours of life, using the Neurologic Adaptative Capacity Score (NACS) system. cohort prospective study with 313 neonates, from a neonatology unit: Unidade de Neonatologia e Alojamento Conjunto. The variables analyzed were obstetric variables; clinical outcome: low neurologic vigor phase, evaluated by NACS, at 4, 24 and 48 hours of life. The data have been assessed twice: once with the whole sample and the other comparing the Vigorous Group, whose neonates kept a score of 35 or more during the three evaluations, and the Low Vigor Group, with less than 35 scores during the three consecutive evaluations. Bivariate and multivariate analyses have been done. Possible associations between low neurologic vigor phase and the type of delivery, as well between the low neurologic vigor phase and obstetric variables have been searched. in the bivariate analysis, the delivery type and the obstetric variables were not associated with the low neurologic vigor phase. Nevertheless, the association between the amniotic fluid and the low neurologic vigor phase reached values very close to significance and, then, it was included in the multivariate analysis. In the multivariate analysis, the only variable associated with low neurologic vigor was the presence of meconium stained amniotic fluid, which has shown to be 8.1 times more risky for the neurologic scoring, when Vigorous Group and Low Vigor Group were compared. In the analysis of the whole sample, the same risk was 1.7. neither the delivery type, nor the usual obstetric procedures were associated with low neurologic vigor phase. This is useful information, clinically or legally speaking, mainly for obstetricians. According to this sample data, when the term neonate is healthy, the delivery type and the usual obstetric procedures have no impact in the neurologic

  8. Varying geospatial analyses to assess climate risk and adaptive capacity in a hotter, drier Southwestern United States (United States)

    Elias, E.; Reyes, J. J.; Steele, C. M.; Rango, A.


    perspectives. In addition, we found that spatial analysis supports informed adaptation, within and outside the SW United States. The persistence and adaptive capacity of agriculture in the water-limited Southwest serves as an instructive example and may offer solutions to reduce future climate risk.

  9. Assessing the adaptive capacity of maize hybrids to climate change in an irrigated district of Southern Italy (United States)

    Monaco, Eugenia; Bonfante, Antonello; De Mascellis, Roberto; Alfieri, Silvia Maria; Menenti, Massimo; De Lorenzi, Francesca


    Climate change will cause significant changes in water distribution and availability; as a consequence the water resources in some areas (like Mediterranean regions) will be limiting factors to the cultivation of some species, included cereals. So the perspective of climate change requires an analysis of the adaptation possibilities of food and fiber species currently cultivated. A powerful tool for adaptation is the relevant intra-specific biodiversity of crops. The knowledge, for different crop cultivars, of the responses to different environmental conditions (e.g. yield response functions to water regime) can be a tool to identify adaptation options to future climate. Moreover, simulation models of water flow in the soil-plant-atmosphere system can be coupled with future climate scenarios to predict the soil water regime also accounting for different irrigation scheduling options. In this work the adaptive capacity of maize hybrids (Zea mays L.) was evaluated in an irrigated district of Southern Italy (the "Destra Sele" plain, an area of about 18.000 ha), where maize is extensively grown for water buffalo feeding. Horticultural crops (tomato, fennel, artichoke) are grown, as well. The methodology applied is based on two complementary elements: - a database on climatic requirements of 30 maize hybrids: the yield response functions to water availability were determined from experimental data derived both from scientific literature and from field trials carried out by ISAFOM-CNR. These functions were applied to describe the behaviour of the hybrids with respect to the relative evapotranspiration deficit; - the simulation performed by the agro-hydrological model SWAP (soil-water-plant and atmosphere), to determine the future soil water regime at landscape scale. Two climate scenarios were studied: "past" (1961-1990) and "future" (2021-2050). Future climate scenarios were generated within the Italian National Project AGROSCENARI. Climate scenarios at low spatial

  10. Adaptive estimation of state of charge and capacity with online identified battery model for vanadium redox flow battery (United States)

    Wei, Zhongbao; Tseng, King Jet; Wai, Nyunt; Lim, Tuti Mariana; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria


    Reliable state estimate depends largely on an accurate battery model. However, the parameters of battery model are time varying with operating condition variation and battery aging. The existing co-estimation methods address the model uncertainty by integrating the online model identification with state estimate and have shown improved accuracy. However, the cross interference may arise from the integrated framework to compromise numerical stability and accuracy. Thus this paper proposes the decoupling of model identification and state estimate to eliminate the possibility of cross interference. The model parameters are online adapted with the recursive least squares (RLS) method, based on which a novel joint estimator based on extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is formulated to estimate the state of charge (SOC) and capacity concurrently. The proposed joint estimator effectively compresses the filter order which leads to substantial improvement in the computational efficiency and numerical stability. Lab scale experiment on vanadium redox flow battery shows that the proposed method is highly authentic with good robustness to varying operating conditions and battery aging. The proposed method is further compared with some existing methods and shown to be superior in terms of accuracy, convergence speed, and computational cost.

  11. Adaptive capacity and social-environmental change: theoretical and operational modeling of smallholder coffee systems response in Mesoamerican Pacific Rim. (United States)

    Eakin, Hallie; Bojórquez-Tapia, Luis A; Monterde Diaz, Rafael; Castellanos, Edwin; Haggar, Jeremy


    Communities who rely directly on the natural environment for their survival typically have developed risk management strategies to enable them to avoid dangerous thresholds of change to their livelihoods. Development policy appropriate for natural resource-based communities requires an understanding of the primary drivers of social-ecological change, the ways in which affected households autonomously respond to such drivers, and the appropriate avenues for intervention to reduce vulnerability. Coffee has been, and still remains, one of the most important commodities of the Mesoamerican region, and hundreds of thousands of smallholder households in the region are dependent in some way on the coffee industry for their livelihood stability. We used the Analytical Network Process to synthesize expert knowledge on the primary drivers of livelihood change in the region as well as the most common household strategies and associated capacities necessary for effective response. The assessment identified both gradual systemic processes as well as specific environmental and market shocks as significant drivers of livelihood change across the region. Agronomic adjustments and new forms of social organization were among the more significant responses of farmers to these changes. The assessment indicates that public interventions in support of adaptation should focus on enhancing farmers' access to market and technical information and finance, as well as on increasing the viability of farmers' organizations and cooperatives.

  12. Adaptive Capacity and Social-Environmental Change: Theoretical and Operational Modeling of Smallholder Coffee Systems Response in Mesoamerican Pacific Rim (United States)

    Eakin, Hallie; Bojórquez-Tapia, Luis A.; Diaz, Rafael Monterde; Castellanos, Edwin; Haggar, Jeremy


    Communities who rely directly on the natural environment for their survival typically have developed risk management strategies to enable them to avoid dangerous thresholds of change to their livelihoods. Development policy appropriate for natural resource-based communities requires an understanding of the primary drivers of social-ecological change, the ways in which affected households autonomously respond to such drivers, and the appropriate avenues for intervention to reduce vulnerability. Coffee has been, and still remains, one of the most important commodities of the Mesoamerican region, and hundreds of thousands of smallholder households in the region are dependent in some way on the coffee industry for their livelihood stability. We used the Analytical Network Process to synthesize expert knowledge on the primary drivers of livelihood change in the region as well as the most common household strategies and associated capacities necessary for effective response. The assessment identified both gradual systemic processes as well as specific environmental and market shocks as significant drivers of livelihood change across the region. Agronomic adjustments and new forms of social organization were among the more significant responses of farmers to these changes. The assessment indicates that public interventions in support of adaptation should focus on enhancing farmers' access to market and technical information and finance, as well as on increasing the viability of farmers' organizations and cooperatives.

  13. A bottom-up approach to identifying the maximum operational adaptive capacity of water resource systems to a changing climate (United States)

    Culley, S.; Noble, S.; Yates, A.; Timbs, M.; Westra, S.; Maier, H. R.; Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.


    Many water resource systems have been designed assuming that the statistical characteristics of future inflows are similar to those of the historical record. This assumption is no longer valid due to large-scale changes in the global climate, potentially causing declines in water resource system performance, or even complete system failure. Upgrading system infrastructure to cope with climate change can require substantial financial outlay, so it might be preferable to optimize existing system performance when possible. This paper builds on decision scaling theory by proposing a bottom-up approach to designing optimal feedback control policies for a water system exposed to a changing climate. This approach not only describes optimal operational policies for a range of potential climatic changes but also enables an assessment of a system's upper limit of its operational adaptive capacity, beyond which upgrades to infrastructure become unavoidable. The approach is illustrated using the Lake Como system in Northern Italy—a regulated system with a complex relationship between climate and system performance. By optimizing system operation under different hydrometeorological states, it is shown that the system can continue to meet its minimum performance requirements for more than three times as many states as it can under current operations. Importantly, a single management policy, no matter how robust, cannot fully utilize existing infrastructure as effectively as an ensemble of flexible management policies that are updated as the climate changes.

  14. Brief Communication: CATALYST - a multi-regional stakeholder Think Tank for fostering capacity development in disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwisscha van Scheltinga, C.T.H.M.; Hare, M.P.; Bers, van C.; Keur, van der P.


    This brief communication presents the work and objectives of the CATALYST project on "Capacity Development for Hazard Risk Reduction and Adaptation" funded by the European Commission (October 2011–September 2013). CATALYST set up a multi-regional think tank covering four regions (Central America and

  15. Building Adaptive Capacity in Changing Social-Ecological Systems: Integrating Knowledge in Communal Land-Use Planning in the Peruvian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily O. Rodríguez


    Full Text Available Building resilient sustainable social-ecological systems (SES requires communities to enhance their adaptive capacities. Communal participative land-use planning (Zonificación Participativa Comunal—ZPC is a tool designed for communities to integrating local and scientific knowledge to sustainably organize and manage their SES. Between 2006 and 2011, a ZPC was developed with communities in the buffer zone of Cordillera Azul National Park (Peru, where rapid demographic changes are converting pre-montane seasonally dry forest into agricultural land. Herein, we analyse how the ZPC enhanced adaptive capacity, enabling the SES to cope with environmental, political and economic changes. Based on qualitative, semi-structured interviews, communities are analysed along their capacities in the dimensions social capital, learning, adaptive management and governance. An analysis of yearly high-resolution forest cover data supports our findings. Deforestation activities in biologically sensitive zones decreased rapidly during the time of the ZPC implementation. We find that particularly the long-term presence of the bridging institution and the continuous testing and reflection of the integrated “hybrid knowledge” enabled communities to develop adaptive capacities. The analysis of ZPC our results reveals the enabling conditions for promoting the learning process to develop a sustainable land-use management in the context of migration and rapid changes.

  16. Building Adaptive Capacity of Pathways in Technology Early College High School Stakeholders: A Multiple-Case Study on the Influence of Performance, Leadership, and Organizational Learning (United States)

    Michaud-Wells, Amy


    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the perceptions and beliefs of Pathways in Technology Early College High School (P-TECH) leaders and stakeholders regarding the personal and professional experiences that contributed to the development of adaptive capacity. This embedded multiple-case study was anchored by the interrelated…

  17. Institutional perceptions, adaptive capacity and climate change response in a post-conflict country: a case study from Central African Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, H.C.P.; Smit, B.; Somorin, O.A.; Sonwa, D.J.; Ngana, F.


    The Central African Republic (CAR) faces increased vulnerability to climate change because it is a low-income country with low adaptive capacity; a situation that is exacerbated by recent civil conflict. This research analysed the perceptions of decision-makers within, and the response of diverse

  18. Understanding Institutional Adaptation to Climate Change: Social Resilience and Adaptive Governance Capacities of the Nature Based Tourism Institutions in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal


    Lama, Anu Kumari


    The global-local sustainable development and climate change adaptation policy, and the emerging political discourse on the value of local Adaptation, have positioned the local institutions and their governance space within the strategic enclaves of multilevel governance system. Such shifts have transformed the context for sustainable Nature Based Tourism (NBT) development and adaptation in Nepal in general, and its protected areas, in particular. The emerging institutional adaptation discours...

  19. The life cycles of six multi-center adaptive clinical trials focused on neurological emergencies developed for the Advancing Regulatory Science initiative of the National Institutes of Health and US Food and Drug Administration: Case studies from the Adaptive Designs Accelerating Promising Treatments Into Trials Project. (United States)

    Guetterman, Timothy C; Fetters, Michael D; Mawocha, Samkeliso; Legocki, Laurie J; Barsan, William G; Lewis, Roger J; Berry, Donald A; Meurer, William J


    Clinical trials are complicated, expensive, time-consuming, and frequently do not lead to discoveries that improve the health of patients with disease. Adaptive clinical trials have emerged as a methodology to provide more flexibility in design elements to better answer scientific questions regarding whether new treatments are efficacious. Limited observational data exist that describe the complex process of designing adaptive clinical trials. To address these issues, the Adaptive Designs Accelerating Promising Treatments Into Trials project developed six, tailored, flexible, adaptive, phase-III clinical trials for neurological emergencies, and investigators prospectively monitored and observed the processes. The objective of this work is to describe the adaptive design development process, the final design, and the current status of the adaptive trial designs that were developed. To observe and reflect upon the trial development process, we employed a rich, mixed methods evaluation that combined quantitative data from visual analog scale to assess attitudes about adaptive trials, along with in-depth qualitative data about the development process gathered from observations. The Adaptive Designs Accelerating Promising Treatments Into Trials team developed six adaptive clinical trial designs. Across the six designs, 53 attitude surveys were completed at baseline and after the trial planning process completed. Compared to baseline, the participants believed significantly more strongly that the adaptive designs would be accepted by National Institutes of Health review panels and non-researcher clinicians. In addition, after the trial planning process, the participants more strongly believed that the adaptive design would meet the scientific and medical goals of the studies. Introducing the adaptive design at early conceptualization proved critical to successful adoption and implementation of that trial. Involving key stakeholders from several scientific domains early

  20. Adaptation. (United States)

    Broom, Donald M


    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  1. Genome-guided analysis of physiological capacities of Tepidanaerobacter acetatoxydans provides insights into environmental adaptations and syntrophic acetate oxidation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Müller

    Full Text Available This paper describes the genome-based analysis of Tepidanaerobacter acetatoxydans strain Re1, a syntrophic acetate-oxidising bacterium (SAOB. Principal issues such as environmental adaptations, metabolic capacities, and energy conserving systems have been investigated and the potential consequences for syntrophic acetate oxidation discussed. Briefly, in pure culture, T. acetatoxydans grows with different organic compounds and produces acetate as the main product. In a syntrophic consortium with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen, it can also reverse its metabolism and instead convert acetate to formate/H2 and CO2. It can only proceed if the product formed is continuously removed. This process generates a very small amount of energy that is scarcely enough for growth, which makes this particular syntrophy of special interest. As a crucial member of the biogas-producing community in ammonium-rich engineered AD processes, genomic features conferring ammonium resistance, bacterial defense, oxygen and temperature tolerance were found, as well as attributes related to biofilm formation and flocculation. It is likely that T. acetatoxydans can form an electrochemical gradient by putative electron-bifurcating Rnf complex and [Fe-Fe] hydrogenases, as observed in other acetogens. However, genomic deficiencies related to acetogenic metabolism and anaerobic respiration were discovered, such as the lack of formate dehydrogenase and F1F0 ATP synthase. This has potential consequences for the metabolic pathways used under SAO and non-SAO conditions. The two complete sets of bacteriophage genomes, which were found to be encoded in the genome, are also worthy of mention.

  2. Modeling the Effects of Trait Diversity on Short-term Adaptive Capacity and Long-term Productivity of Phytoplankton Communities (United States)

    Smith, S. L.; Vallina, S. M.; Merico, A.


    We examine Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function (BEF) in a model phytoplankton community, using two recently developed mechanisms for sustaining diversity. The Trait Diffusion (TD) formulation represents the maintenance of diversity via endogenous mechanisms, such as inter-generational trait plasticity and rapid evolution. The 'Kill-the-Winner' (KTW) formulation for grazing sustains prey biodiversity via the exogenous mechanism of active prey switching. We implement both TD and KTW in a continuous trait-distribution model using simplified size-scalings to define a gleaner-opportunist trade-off for a phytoplankton community. By simulating semi-continuous culture experiments with periodic external dilutions, we test the dynamic response of the phytoplankton community to different scenarios of pulsed nutrient supply. We quantify the short-term Adaptive Capacity (AC) of the community by the specific growth rate averaged over the first 3 days of perturbations, and the Long-term Productivity (LP) by its average over the entire 120 day period of perturbations. When either the frequency or intensity of pulses is low, both AC and LP tend to decrease with diversity (and vice versa). Trait diversity has more impact on AC, particularly for pulses of high frequency or intensity, for which it tends to increase gradually at first, then steeply, and then to saturate with increasing diversity. For pulses of moderate intensity and frequency, increasing trait diversity from low to moderate levels leads to a trade-off between enhancing AC while slightly decreasing LP. Ultimately, we find that sustaining diversity increases the speed at which the phytoplankton community changes its composition in terms of size and hence nutrient acquisition traits, which may have implications for the transfer of productivity through the foodweb.

  3. Prioritizing forest fuels treatments based on the probability of high-severity fire restores adaptive capacity in Sierran forests. (United States)

    Krofcheck, Daniel J; Hurteau, Matthew D; Scheller, Robert M; Loudermilk, E Louise


    In frequent fire forests of the western United States, a legacy of fire suppression coupled with increases in fire weather severity have altered fire regimes and vegetation dynamics. When coupled with projected climate change, these conditions have the potential to lead to vegetation type change and altered carbon (C) dynamics. In the Sierra Nevada, fuels reduction approaches that include mechanical thinning followed by regular prescribed fire are one approach to restore the ability of the ecosystem to tolerate episodic fire and still sequester C. Yet, the spatial extent of the area requiring treatment makes widespread treatment implementation unlikely. We sought to determine if a priori knowledge of where uncharacteristic wildfire is most probable could be used to optimize the placement of fuels treatments in a Sierra Nevada watershed. We developed two treatment placement strategies: the naive strategy, based on treating all operationally available area and the optimized strategy, which only treated areas where crown-killing fires were most probable. We ran forecast simulations using projected climate data through 2,100 to determine how the treatments differed in terms of C sequestration, fire severity, and C emissions relative to a no-management scenario. We found that in both the short (20 years) and long (100 years) term, both management scenarios increased C stability, reduced burn severity, and consequently emitted less C as a result of wildfires than no-management. Across all metrics, both scenarios performed the same, but the optimized treatment required significantly less C removal (naive=0.42 Tg C, optimized=0.25 Tg C) to achieve the same treatment efficacy. Given the extent of western forests in need of fire restoration, efficiently allocating treatments is a critical task if we are going to restore adaptive capacity in frequent-fire forests. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Adaptation

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    building skills, knowledge or networks on adaptation, ... the African partners leading the AfricaAdapt network, together with the UK-based Institute of Development Studies; and ... UNCCD Secretariat, Regional Coordination Unit for Africa, Tunis, Tunisia .... 26 Rural–urban Cooperation on Water Management in the Context of.

  5. [The adaptation and validation to Spanish of the questionnaire Aid to Capacity Evaluation (ACE), for the assessment of the ability of patients in medical decision-making]. (United States)

    Moraleda Barba, Sandra; Ballesta Rodríguez, M Isabel; Delgado Quero, Antonio Luis; Lietor Villajos, Norberto; Moreno Corredor, Andrés; Delgado Rodríguez, Miguel


    To adapt and validate the Spanish version of the Aid to Capacity Evaluation scale, designed to assess the capacity of the adult in medical decision-making, both in diagnosis and treatment processes. Observational study of prospective validation. Primary and hospital care of the basic health area of Jaen. One hundred twenty-nine patients. Questionnaire which included sociodemographic variables, concerning the decision (scope, type of decision, the need for written informed consent), assessment of the capacity to the Aid to Capacity Evaluation scale and other related comorbidity (hearing loss, alcoholism, cognitive level variables with the Mini-Mental State Examination and depression by Goldberg or Yesavage test). The tool is considered viable. The conclusions of the expert panel were favorable. The result of the criteria' validity, comparing the results with the assessment of the experts (forensic and psychiatrist) was very satisfying (P<.001). The intra-observer reliability was low (kappa=0,135). Interobserver reliability remained high (kappa=0.74). The internal consistency was awarded an alpha of Cronbach's 0,645 for the reduced model of 6 items. The Aid to Capacity Evaluation scale was adapted to Spanish, demonstrating adequate internal consistency and construct validity. Its use in clinical practice could contribute to the identification of patients unable to make a particular medical decision and/or to give an informed consent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Neurology and neurologic practice in China. (United States)

    Shi, Fu-Dong; Jia, Jian-Ping


    In the wake of dramatic economic success during the past 2 decades, the specialized field of neurology has undergone a significant transformation in China. With an increase in life expectancy, the problems of aging and cognition have grown. Lifestyle alterations have been associated with an epidemiologic transition both in the incidence and etiology of stroke. These changes, together with an array of social issues and institution of health care reform, are creating challenges for practicing neurologists throughout China. Notable problems include overcrowded, decrepit facilities, overloaded physician schedules, deteriorating physician-patient relationships, and an insufficient infrastructure to accommodate patients who need specialized neurologic care. Conversely, with the creation of large and sophisticated neurology centers in many cities across the country, tremendous opportunities exist. Developments in neurologic subspecialties enable delivery of high-quality care. Clinical and translational research based on large patient populations as well as highly sophisticated technologies are emerging in many neurologic centers and pharmaceutical companies. Child neurology and neurorehabilitation will be fast-developing subdisciplines. Given China's extensive population, the growth and progress of its neurology complex, and its ever-improving quality control, it is reasonable to anticipate that Chinese neurologists will contribute notably to unraveling the pathogenic factors causing neurologic diseases and to providing new therapeutic solutions.

  7. The adaptive capacity of smallholder mixed-farming systems to the impact of climate change: The case of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa


    Nonhlanzeko N. Mthembu; Elliot M. Zwane


    Climate change poses a serious threat to efforts by developing countries to ensure food security and poverty reduction. The National Development goals of South Africa envisage the agricultural sector as a key driver for job creation and economic growth. This article seeks to investigate the adaptive capacity of the Ncunjane farming community in Msinga, KwaZulu-Natal in response to drought spells of 2010 and 2014. This article draws on data collected using both qualitative and quantitative met...

  8. A new battery capacity indicator for nickel-metal hydride battery powered electric vehicles using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, K.T.; Wu, K.C.; Chan, C.C.; Shen, W.X.


    This paper describes a new approach to estimate accurately the battery residual capacity (BRC) of the nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery for modern electric vehicles (EVs). The key to this approach is to model the Ni-MH battery in EVs by using the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) with newly defined inputs and output. The inputs are the temperature and the discharged capacity distribution describing the discharge current profile, while the output is the state of available capacity (SOAC) representing the BRC. The estimated SOAC from ANFIS model and the measured SOAC from experiments are compared, and the results confirm that the proposed approach can provide an accurate estimation of the SOAC under variable discharge currents

  9. Adapt (United States)

    Bargatze, L. F.


    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  10. Neurology at the bedside

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondziella, Daniel; Waldemar, Gunhild

    This updated and expanded new edition takes neurology trainees by the hand and guides them through the whole patient encounter - from an efficient neurological history and bedside examination through to differential diagnosis, diagnostic procedures and treatment. At each step the expert authors......, as have new chapters including neurogenetics, neurorehabilitation, neurocritical care and heuristic neurological reasoning. In addition, this second edition now includes more than 100 unique case histories. Neurology at the Bedside, Second Edition is written for neurologists in all stages of training....... Medical students, general practitioners and others with an interest in neurology will also find invaluable information here....

  11. Neurologic emergencies in sports. (United States)

    Williams, Vernon B


    Sports neurology is an emerging area of subspecialty. Neurologists and non-neurologists evaluating and managing individuals participating in sports will encounter emergencies that directly or indirectly involve the nervous system. Since the primary specialty of sports medicine physicians and other practitioners involved in the delivery of medical care to athletes in emergency situations varies significantly, experience in recognition and management of neurologic emergencies in sports will vary as well. This article provides a review of information and elements essential to neurologic emergencies in sports for the practicing neurologist, although content may be of benefit to readers of varying background and expertise. Both common neurologic emergencies and less common but noteworthy neurologic emergencies are reviewed in this article. Issues that are fairly unique to sports participation are highlighted in this review. General concepts and principles related to treatment of neurologic emergencies that are often encountered unrelated to sports (eg, recognition and treatment of status epilepticus, increased intracranial pressure) are discussed but are not the focus of this article. Neurologic emergencies can involve any region of the nervous system (eg, brain, spine/spinal cord, peripheral nerves, muscles). In addition to neurologic emergencies that represent direct sports-related neurologic complications, indirect (systemic and generalized) sports-related emergencies with significant neurologic consequences can occur and are also discussed in this article. Neurologists and others involved in the care of athletes should consider neurologic emergencies in sports when planning and providing medical care.

  12. A randomised controlled trial investigating the benefits of adaptive working memory training for working memory capacity and attentional control in high worriers. (United States)

    Hotton, Matthew; Derakshan, Nazanin; Fox, Elaine


    The process of worry has been associated with reductions in working memory capacity and availability of resources necessary for efficient attentional control. This, in turn, can lead to escalating worry. Recent investigations into working memory training have shown improvements in attentional control and cognitive performance in high trait-anxious individuals and individuals with sub-clinical depression. The current randomised controlled trial investigated the effects of 15 days of adaptive n-back working memory training, or an active control task, on working memory capacity, attentional control and worry in a sample of high worriers. Pre-training, post-training and one-month follow-up measures of working memory capacity were assessed using a Change Detection task, while a Flanker task was used to assess attentional control. A breathing focus task was used as a behavioural measure of worry in addition to a number of self-report assessments of worry and anxiety. Overall there was no difference between the active training and the active control condition with both groups demonstrating similar improvements in working memory capacity and worry, post-training and at follow-up. However, training-related improvements on the n-back task were associated with gains in working memory capacity and reductions in worry symptoms in the active training condition. These results highlight the need for further research investigating the role of individual differences in working memory training. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Online Capacity Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on Novel Feature Extraction and Adaptive Multi-Kernel Relevance Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang


    Full Text Available Prognostics is necessary to ensure the reliability and safety of lithium-ion batteries for hybrid electric vehicles or satellites. This process can be achieved by capacity estimation, which is a direct fading indicator for assessing the state of health of a battery. However, the capacity of a lithium-ion battery onboard is difficult to monitor. This paper presents a data-driven approach for online capacity estimation. First, six novel features are extracted from cyclic charge/discharge cycles and used as indirect health indicators. An adaptive multi-kernel relevance machine (MKRVM based on accelerated particle swarm optimization algorithm is used to determine the optimal parameters of MKRVM and characterize the relationship between extracted features and battery capacity. The overall estimation process comprises offline and online stages. A supervised learning step in the offline stage is established for model verification to ensure the generalizability of MKRVM for online application. Cross-validation is further conducted to validate the performance of the proposed model. Experiment and comparison results show the effectiveness, accuracy, efficiency, and robustness of the proposed approach for online capacity estimation of lithium-ion batteries.

  14. Influence of training intensity on adaptations in acid/base transport proteins, muscle buffer capacity, and repeated-sprint ability in active men. (United States)

    McGinley, Cian; Bishop, David J


    McGinley C, Bishop DJ. Influence of training intensity on adaptations in acid/base transport proteins, muscle buffer capacity, and repeated-sprint ability in active men. J Appl Physiol 121: 1290-1305, 2016. First published October 14, 2016; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00630.2016-This study measured the adaptive response to exercise training for each of the acid-base transport protein families, including providing isoform-specific evidence for the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)1/4 chaperone protein basigin and for the electrogenic sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe)1. We investigated whether 4 wk of work-matched, high-intensity interval training (HIIT), performed either just above the lactate threshold (HIITΔ20; n = 8), or close to peak aerobic power (HIITΔ90; n = 8), influenced adaptations in acid-base transport protein abundance, nonbicarbonate muscle buffer capacity (βm in vitro ), and exercise capacity in active men. Training intensity did not discriminate between adaptations for most proteins measured, with abundance of MCT1, sodium/hydrogen exchanger (NHE) 1, NBCe1, carbonic anhydrase (CA) II, and CAXIV increasing after 4 wk, whereas there was little change in CAIII and CAIV abundance. βm in vitro also did not change. However, MCT4 protein content only increased for HIITΔ20 [effect size (ES): 1.06, 90% confidence limits × / ÷ 0.77], whereas basigin protein content only increased for HIITΔ90 (ES: 1.49, × / ÷ 1.42). Repeated-sprint ability (5 × 6-s sprints; 24 s passive rest) improved similarly for both groups. Power at the lactate threshold only improved for HIITΔ20 (ES: 0.49; 90% confidence limits ± 0.38), whereas peak O 2 uptake did not change for either group. Detraining was characterized by the loss of adaptations for all of the proteins measured and for repeated-sprint ability 6 wk after removing the stimulus of HIIT. In conclusion, 4 wk of HIIT induced improvements in each of the acid-base transport protein families, but, remarkably, a 40

  15. [Neurology! Adieau? (Part 2)]. (United States)

    Szirmai, Imre


    The education of neurologists is debilitated worldwide. University professors are engaged in teaching, research and patient-care. This triple challenge is very demanding, and results in permanent insecurity of University employees. To compensate for the insufficient clinical training, some institutes in the USA employ academic staff members exclusively for teaching. The formation of new subspecialties hinders the education and training of general neurologists. At present, four generations of medical doctors are working together in hospitals. The two older generations educate the younger neurologists who have been brought up in the world of limitless network of sterile information. Therefore their manual skills at the bedside and their knowledge of emergency treatment are deficient. Demographics of medical doctors changed drastically. Twice as many women are working in neurology and psychiatry than men. Integrity of neurology is threatened by: (1) Separation of the cerebrovascular diseases from general neurology. Development of "stroke units" was facilitated by the better reimbursement for treatment and by the interest of the pharmaceutical companies. Healthcare politics promoted the split of neurology into two parts. The independent status of "stroke departments" will reduce the rest of clinical neurology to outpatient service. (2) The main argumentation to segregate the rare neurological diseases was that their research will provide benefit for the diseases with high prevalence. This argumentation serves territorial ambitions. The separation of rare diseases interferes with the teaching of differential diagnostics in neurological training. The traditional pragmatic neurology can not be retrieved. The faculty of neurology could retain its integrity by the improvement of diagnostic methods and the ever more effective drugs. Nevertheless, even the progression of neurological sciences induces dissociation of clinical neurology. Neurology shall suffer fragmentation if

  16. Adaptive capacity of the Adjusted Clinical Groups Case-Mix System to the cost of primary healthcare in Catalonia (Spain): a observational study. (United States)

    Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Velasco-Velasco, Soledad; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth; Prados-Torres, Alexandra; Bolibar-Ribas, Buenaventura; Violan-Fors, Concepción


    To describe the adaptive capacity of the Adjusted Clinical Groups (ACG) system to the cost of care in primary healthcare centres in Catalonia (Spain). Retrospective study (multicentres) conducted using computerised medical records. 13 primary care teams in 2008 were included. All patients registered in the study centres who required care between 1 January and 31 December 2008 were finally studied. Patients not registered in the study centres during the study period were excluded. Demographic (age and sex), dependent (cost of care) and case-mix variables were studied. The cost model for each patient was established by differentiating the fixed and variable costs. To evaluate the adaptive capacity of the ACG system, Pearson's coefficient of variation and the percentage of outliers were calculated. To evaluate the explanatory power of the ACG system, the authors used the coefficient of determination (R(2)). The number of patients studied was 227 235 (frequency: 5.9 visits per person per year), with a mean of 4.5 (3.2) episodes and 8.1 (8.2) visits per patient per year. The mean total cost was €654.2. The explanatory power of the ACG system was 36.9% for costs (56.5% without outliers). 10 ACG categories accounted for 60.1% of all cases and 19 for 80.9%. 5 categories represented 71% of poor performance (N=78 887, 34.7%), particularly category 0300-Acute Minor, Age 6+ (N=26 909, 11.8%), which had a coefficient of variation =139% and 6.6% of outliers. The ACG system is an appropriate manner of classifying patients in routine clinical practice in primary healthcare centres in Catalonia, although improvements to the adaptive capacity through disaggregation of some categories according to age groups and, especially, the number of acute episodes in paediatric patients would be necessary to reduce intra-group variation.

  17. Climate Change Adaptation in Dutch Local Communities. Risk Perception, Institutional Capacity and the Role of Local Government.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Maya Marieke


    This report explains the outcomes of the research project Analysing local climate vulnerability and local adaptation strategies which was carried out from 2005 up till 2009 at the Twente Centre for Studies in Technology and Sustainable Development (CSTM), University of Twente. This project is funded

  18. Climate-proof planning for flood-prone areas : assessing the adaptive capacity of planning institutions in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, Margo; Meijerink, Sander; Termeer, Catrien; Gupta, Joyeeta

    It is generally acknowledged that adapting low-lying, flood-prone deltas to the projected impacts of climate change is of great importance. Deltas are densely populated and often subject to high risk. Climate-proof planning is, however, not only a new but also a highly complex task that poses

  19. Climate-proof planning for flood-prone areas: assessing the adaptive capacity of planning institutions in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den M.A.; Meijerink, S.; Termeer, C.J.A.M.; Gupta, J.


    It is generally acknowledged that adapting lowlying, flood-prone deltas to the projected impacts of climate change is of great importance. Deltas are densely populated and often subject to high risk. Climate-proof planning is, however, not only a new but also a highly complex task that poses

  20. Using AgMIP Regional Integrated Assessment Methods to Evaluate Vulnerability, Resilience and Adaptive Capacity for Climate Smart Agricultural Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antle, John M.; Homann-Kee Tui, S.; Descheemaeker, K.K.E.; Masikati, Patricia; Valdivia, Roberto O.


    The predicted effects of climate change call for a multi-dimensional method to assess the performance of various agricultural systems across economic, environmental and social dimensions. Climate smart agriculture (CSA) recognizes that the three goals of climate adaptation, mitigation and resilience

  1. Does individual responsibility increase the adaptive capacity of society? The case of local water management in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergsma, E.; Gupta, J.; Jong, P.


    In different parts of the world, neo-liberal politics is shifting responsibilities from the nation state to other governmental and non-governmental actors. This is also evident in the governance of adaptation to the impacts of climate change, where the responsibility of the individual is

  2. Managing small-scale commercial fisheries for adaptive capacity: insights from dynamic social-ecological drivers of change in Monterey Bay. (United States)

    Aguilera, Stacy E; Cole, Jennifer; Finkbeiner, Elena M; Le Cornu, Elodie; Ban, Natalie C; Carr, Mark H; Cinner, Joshua E; Crowder, Larry B; Gelcich, Stefan; Hicks, Christina C; Kittinger, John N; Martone, Rebecca; Malone, Daniel; Pomeroy, Carrie; Starr, Richard M; Seram, Sanah; Zuercher, Rachel; Broad, Kenneth


    Globally, small-scale fisheries are influenced by dynamic climate, governance, and market drivers, which present social and ecological challenges and opportunities. It is difficult to manage fisheries adaptively for fluctuating drivers, except to allow participants to shift effort among multiple fisheries. Adapting to changing conditions allows small-scale fishery participants to survive economic and environmental disturbances and benefit from optimal conditions. This study explores the relative influence of large-scale drivers on shifts in effort and outcomes among three closely linked fisheries in Monterey Bay since the Magnuson-Stevens Fisheries Conservation and Management Act of 1976. In this region, Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax), northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax), and market squid (Loligo opalescens) fisheries comprise a tightly linked system where shifting focus among fisheries is a key element to adaptive capacity and reduced social and ecological vulnerability. Using a cluster analysis of landings, we identify four modes from 1974 to 2012 that are dominated (i.e., a given species accounting for the plurality of landings) by squid, sardine, anchovy, or lack any dominance, and seven points of transition among these periods. This approach enables us to determine which drivers are associated with each mode and each transition. Overall, we show that market and climate drivers are predominantly attributed to dominance transitions. Model selection of external drivers indicates that governance phases, reflected as perceived abundance, dictate long-term outcomes. Our findings suggest that globally, small-scale fishery managers should consider enabling shifts in effort among fisheries and retaining existing flexibility, as adaptive capacity is a critical determinant for social and ecological resilience.

  3. Cooperation, complexity and adaptation: higher education capacity initiatives in international development assistance programmes in sub-Saharan Africa.


    McEvoy, Peter


    At a time when global relations are characterised by great complexity, uncertainty and inequality, the role of higher education is crucial for a balanced and coherent development strategy, and achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This is especially true for countries of sub-Saharan Africa, where there is a critical need to generate knowledge that can be used in the service of social and economic development, human rights and climate change adaptation. The study concern...

  4. Neurology at the bedside

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondziella, Daniel; Waldemar, Gunhild

    , as have new chapters including neurogenetics, neurorehabilitation, neurocritical care and heuristic neurological reasoning. In addition, this second edition now includes more than 100 unique case histories. Neurology at the Bedside, Second Edition is written for neurologists in all stages of training...

  5. Adaptive estimation of the electromotive force of the lithium-ion battery after current interruption for an accurate state-of-charge and capacity determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waag, Wladislaw; Sauer, Dirk Uwe


    Highlights: • New adaptive approach for the EMF estimation. • The EMF is estimated by observing the voltage change after the current interruption. • The approach enables an accurate SoC and capacity determination. • Real-time capable algorithm. - Abstract: The online estimation of battery states and parameters is one of the challenging tasks when battery is used as a part of the pure electric or hybrid energy system. For the determination of the available energy stored in the battery, the knowledge of the present state-of-charge (SOC) and capacity of the battery is required. For SOC and capacity determination often the estimation of the battery electromotive force (EMF) is employed. The electromotive force can be measured as an open circuit voltage (OCV) of the battery when a significant time has elapsed since the current interruption. This time may take up to some hours for lithium-ion batteries and is needed to eliminate the influence of the diffusion overvoltages. This paper proposes a new approach to estimate the EMF by considering the OCV relaxation process within only some first minutes after the current interruption. The approach is based on an online fitting of an OCV relaxation model to the measured OCV relaxation curve. This model is based on an equivalent circuit consisting of a voltage source (represents the EMF) in series with the parallel connection of the resistance and a constant phase element (CPE). Based on this fitting the model parameters are determined and the EMF is estimated. The application of this method is exemplarily demonstrated for the state-of-charge and capacity estimation of the lithium-ion battery in an electrical vehicle. In the presented example the battery capacity is determined with the maximal inaccuracy of 2% using the EMF estimated at two different levels of state-of-charge. The real-time capability of the proposed algorithm is proven by its implementation on a low-cost 16-bit microcontroller (Infineon XC2287)

  6. Developing Capacity for Cities to Adapt to a Changing Climate-a Case Study in Boulder, Colorado (United States)

    Sands, R.; Groves, D. G.; Nason, M.; Pandya, R.


    The City of Boulder in Colorado has undertaken many progressive climate-related initiatives, from signing the Kyoto protocol to passing a Climate Action Tax. But as the city prepared to launch its Climate Commitment document and lead a community process, it realized that one critical group that had not been fully engaged in the process was its own staff. It became clear that for organizational change to occur and for the city to meet its goals, city staff needed to develop a deeper understanding of the importance of the climate goals while also learning better how to use these goals to guide their long-term planning. In early 2016, the city launched a year-long "Climate Leaders" initiative which comprised of a series of workshops that brought together over 70 staff members with climate scientists and experts in climate adaptation planning. The first two workshops, billed as Climate 101 and 201, reviewed the best available scientific information about climate threats and potential impacts, and worked with participants to understand how climate changes could affect diverse city functions. These interactive workshops also explored ways to help city staff feel comfortable preparing for a significantly different climate and discussed ways to communicate this information to the public. From there the group split into two tracks. A "mitigation" track focused on the ways in which Boulder could meet its aggressive emissions reduction targets. The "adaptation" track developed integrated scenarios for citywide planning to highlight Boulder's vulnerability to climate change and guide adaptation planning. Bringing these two conversations together is helping city staff to explore critical linkages between mitigation and adaptation, develop common messages to build community support for climate action, and inform comprehensive climate resiliency planning. We will describe how Boulder successfully partnered with scientists and planning experts to program a year of interactive

  7. The menagerie of neurology (United States)

    Beh, Shin C.; Frohman, Teresa; Frohman, Elliot M.


    Summary Neurology is a field known for “eponymophilia.” While eponym use has been a controversial issue in medicine, animal-related metaphoric descriptions continue to flourish in neurologic practice, particularly with the advent of neuroimaging. To provide practicing and trainee neurologists with a useful reference for all these colorful eponyms, we performed a literature review and summarized the various animal eponyms in the practice of neurology (and their etiologic implications) to date. We believe that the ability to recognize animal-like attributes in clinical neurology and neuroradiology may be attributed to a visual phenomenon known as pareidolia. We propose that animal eponyms are a useful method of recognizing clinical and radiologic patterns that aid in the diagnostic process and therefore are effective aidesmémoire and communicative tools that enliven and improve the practice of neurology. PMID:29473555

  8. Teaching and Learning Resilience: Building Adaptive Capacity for Rural Practice. A Report and Subsequent Analysis of a Workshop Conducted at the Rural Medical Educators Conference, Savannah, Georgia, May 18, 2010 (United States)

    Longenecker, Randall; Zink, Therese; Florence, Joseph


    Purpose: Resilience, the capacity to endure and overcome hardship, has been suggested as a basic competency for rural medical practice. Unfortunately for physician educators, the medical education literature offers only limited guidance for nurturing this adaptive capacity. We describe the process and subsequent analysis of a daylong curriculum…

  9. [Deficiency, disability, neurology and cinema]. (United States)

    Collado-Vázquez, Susana; Cano de la Cuerda, Roberto; Jiménez-Antona, Carmen


    Cinema has been defined in many different ways, but most of them agree that it should be considered both a technique and an art. Although films often depict fantasy stories, in many cases they also reflect day-to-day realities. In its earliest days cinema was already attracted to the world of health and sickness, and frequently addressed topics like medical practice, how patients lived with their illnesses, bioethical issues, the relationship between physician and patient or research. To review the presence of neurological pathologies in the cinema with a view to identifying the main neurological disorders that have been portrayed in films. Likewise it also intends to describe the medical praxis that is employed, the relationship between physician and patient, how the experiences of the patient and the family are represented, the adaptation to social and occupational situations, and the intervention of other health care professionals related with neurological patients. Some of the most significant films that have addressed these topics were reviewed and it was seen that in some of them the illness is dealt with in a very true-to-life manner, whereas others tend to include a greater number of inaccuracies and a larger degree of fiction. Cinema has helped to shape certain ways of thinking about the health care professionals who work with neurological patients, the importance of support from the family and the social role, among other things. This confirms that resorting to cinematographic productions is a fruitful tool for stimulating a critical interest in the past and present of medical practice.

  10. Neurologic complications of vaccinations. (United States)

    Miravalle, Augusto A; Schreiner, Teri


    This chapter reviews the most common neurologic disorders associated with common vaccines, evaluates the data linking the disorder with the vaccine, and discusses the potential mechanism of disease. A literature search was conducted in PubMed using a combination of the following terms: vaccines, vaccination, immunization, and neurologic complications. Data were also gathered from publications of the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious Diseases, the World Health Organization, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System. Neurologic complications of vaccination are rare. Many associations have been asserted without objective data to support a causal relationship. Rarely, patients with a neurologic complication will have a poor outcome. However, most patients recover fully from the neurologic complication. Vaccinations have altered the landscape of infectious disease. However, perception of risk associated with vaccinations has limited the success of disease eradication measures. Neurologic complications can be severe, and can provoke fear in potential vaccines. Evaluating whether there is causal link between neurologic disorders and vaccinations, not just temporal association, is critical to addressing public misperception of risk of vaccination. Among the vaccines available today, the cost-benefit analysis of vaccinations and complications strongly argues in favor of vaccination. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cardiomyopathy in neurological disorders. (United States)

    Finsterer, Josef; Stöllberger, Claudia; Wahbi, Karim


    According to the American Heart Association, cardiomyopathies are classified as primary (solely or predominantly confined to heart muscle), secondary (those showing pathological myocardial involvement as part of a neuromuscular disorder) and those in which cardiomyopathy is the first/predominant manifestation of a neuromuscular disorder. Cardiomyopathies may be further classified as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, restrictive cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, or unclassified cardiomyopathy (noncompaction, Takotsubo-cardiomyopathy). This review focuses on secondary cardiomyopathies and those in which cardiomyopathy is the predominant manifestation of a myopathy. Any of them may cause neurological disease, and any of them may be a manifestation of a neurological disorder. Neurological disease most frequently caused by cardiomyopathies is ischemic stroke, followed by transitory ischemic attack, syncope, or vertigo. Neurological disease, which most frequently manifests with cardiomyopathies are the neuromuscular disorders. Most commonly associated with cardiomyopathies are muscular dystrophies, myofibrillar myopathies, congenital myopathies and metabolic myopathies. Management of neurological disease caused by cardiomyopathies is not at variance from the same neurological disorders due to other causes. Management of secondary cardiomyopathies is not different from that of cardiomyopathies due to other causes either. Patients with neuromuscular disorders require early cardiologic investigations and close follow-ups, patients with cardiomyopathies require neurological investigation and avoidance of muscle toxic medication if a neuromuscular disorder is diagnosed. Which patients with cardiomyopathy profit most from primary stroke prevention is unsolved and requires further investigations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Neurology in Asia. (United States)

    Tan, Chong-Tin


    Asia is important as it accounts for more than half of the world population. The majority of Asian countries fall into the middle income category. As for cultural traditions, Asia is highly varied, with many languages spoken. The pattern of neurologic diseases in Asia is largely similar to the West, with some disease features being specific to Asia. Whereas Asia constitutes 60% of the world's population, it contains only 20% of the world's neurologists. This disparity is particularly evident in South and South East Asia. As for neurologic care, it is highly variable depending on whether it is an urban or rural setting, the level of economic development, and the system of health care financing. To help remedy the shortage of neurologists, most counties with larger populations have established training programs in neurology. These programs are diverse, with many areas of concern. There are regional organizations serving as a vehicle for networking in neurology and various subspecialties, as well as an official journal (Neurology Asia). The Asian Epilepsy Academy, with its emphasis on workshops in various locations, EEG certification examination, and fellowships, may provide a template of effective regional networking for improving neurology care in the region. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  13. Quantification In Neurology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netravati M


    Full Text Available There is a distinct shift of emphasis in clinical neurology in the last few decades. A few years ago, it was just sufficient for a clinician to precisely record history, document signs, establish diagnosis and write prescription. In the present context, there has been a significant intrusion of scientific culture in clinical practice. Several criteria have been proposed, refined and redefined to ascertain accurate diagnosis for many neurological disorders. Introduction of the concept of impairment, disability, handicap and quality of life has added new dimension to the measurement of health and disease and neurological disorders are no exception. "Best guess" treatment modalities are no more accepted and evidence based medicine has become an integral component of medical care. Traditional treatments need validation and new therapies require vigorous trials. Thus, proper quantification in neurology has become essential, both in practice and research methodology in neurology. While this aspect is widely acknowledged, there is a limited access to a comprehensive document pertaining to measurements in neurology. This following description is a critical appraisal of various measurements and also provides certain commonly used rating scales/scores in neurological practice.

  14. Neurology and international organizations. (United States)

    Mateen, Farrah J


    A growing number of international stakeholders are engaged with neurologic diseases. This article provides a brief overview of important international stakeholders in the practice of neurology, including global disease-specific programs, United Nations agencies, governmental agencies with international influence, nongovernmental organizations, international professional organizations, large private donors, private-public partnerships, commercial interests, armed forces, and universities and colleges. The continued engagement of neurologists is essential for the growing number of international organizations that can and should incorporate neurologic disease into their global agendas.

  15. William Shakespeare's neurology. (United States)

    Paciaroni, Maurizio; Bogousslavsky, Julien


    Many of Shakespeare's plays contain characters who appear to be afflicted by neurological or psychiatric disorders. Shakespeare, in his descriptive analysis of his protagonists, was contributing to the understanding of these disorders. In fact, Charcot frequently used Shakespearean references in his neurological teaching sessions, stressing how acute objective insight is essential to achieving expert clinical diagnosis. Charcot found in Shakespeare the same rigorous observational techniques for which he himself became famous. This chapter describes many of Shakespearean characters suffering from varied neurological disorders, including Parkinsonism, epilepsy, sleeping disturbances, dementia, headache, prion disease, and paralyses. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Age-related changes in predictive capacity versus internal model adaptability: electrophysiological evidence that individual differences outweigh effects of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina eBornkessel-Schlesewsky


    Full Text Available Hierarchical predictive coding has been identified as a possible unifying principle of brain function, and recent work in cognitive neuroscience has examined how it may be affected by age–related changes. Using language comprehension as a test case, the present study aimed to dissociate age-related changes in prediction generation versus internal model adaptation following a prediction error. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs were measured in a group of older adults (60–81 years; n=40 as they read sentences of the form The opposite of black is white/yellow/nice. Replicating previous work in young adults, results showed a target-related P300 for the expected antonym (white; an effect assumed to reflect a prediction match, and a graded N400 effect for the two incongruous conditions (i.e. a larger N400 amplitude for the incongruous continuation not related to the expected antonym, nice, versus the incongruous associated condition, yellow. These effects were followed by a late positivity, again with a larger amplitude in the incongruous non-associated versus incongruous associated condition. Analyses using linear mixed-effects models showed that the target-related P300 effect and the N400 effect for the incongruous non-associated condition were both modulated by age, thus suggesting that age-related changes affect both prediction generation and model adaptation. However, effects of age were outweighed by the interindividual variability of ERP responses, as reflected in the high proportion of variance captured by the inclusion of by-condition random slopes for participants and items. We thus argue that – at both a neurophysiological and a functional level – the notion of general differences between language processing in young and older adults may only be of limited use, and that future research should seek to better understand the causes of interindividual variability in the ERP responses of older adults and its relation to cognitive

  17. Neurological sequelae of bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucas, Marjolein J.; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van de Beek, Diederik


    We reported on occurrence and impact of neurological sequelae after bacterial meningitis. We reviewed occurrence of neurological sequelae in children and adults after pneumococcal and meningococcal meningitis. Most frequently reported sequelae are focal neurological deficits, hearing loss, cognitive

  18. Neurological abnormalities predict disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggesi, Anna; Gouw, Alida; van der Flier, Wiesje


    To investigate the role of neurological abnormalities and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in predicting global functional decline in a cohort of initially independent-living elderly subjects. The Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) Study, involving 11 European centres, was primarily aimed...... at evaluating age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) as an independent predictor of the transition to disability (according to Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale) or death in independent elderly subjects that were followed up for 3 years. At baseline, a standardized neurological examination.......0 years, 45 % males), 327 (51.7 %) presented at the initial visit with ≥1 neurological abnormality and 242 (38 %) reached the main study outcome. Cox regression analyses, adjusting for MRI features and other determinants of functional decline, showed that the baseline presence of any neurological...

  19. Neurologic complications in oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pace


    Full Text Available Neurologic side effects related to cancer therapy are a common problem in oncology practice. These complications can negatively affect the management of the patient, because they can inhibit treatment and diminish quality of life. Therefore specific skills are required to recognise symptoms and clinical manifestations. This review focuses on the most common neurologic complications to improve physician’s familiarity in determining the aetiology of these symptoms.

  20. Condições mais frequentes em um ambulatório de perícia neurológica The most common disorders in neurological clinic for medico-legal assessment of labour capacity at the Brazilian Social Security System (INSS in Florianópolis - SC, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Trevisol-Bittencourt


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar as condições nosológicas vistas em perícia neurológica em um ambulatório de referência estadual do Instituto Nacional de Seguridade Social (INSS, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil, durante o período de outubro de 97 a maio de 98. MÉTODO: Revisão dos relatórios especializados das perícias solicitadas ao especialista em neurologia, com identificação dos diagnósticos finais dos 108 pacientes encaminhados para avaliação. RESULTADOS: Os diagnósticos mais comuns em ordem decrescente de frequência foram: epilepsia, doenças reumatológicas, distúrbios psiquiátricos, alterações neurológicas associadas a alcoolismo crônico, síndrome pós TCE e doença vascular cerebral. CONCLUSÕES: Doenças neurológicas podem determinar importante grau de incapacidade no trabalhador catarinense. Contudo, existe um subestimado potencial de recuperação funcional. Além disso, diversas condições não genuinamente neurológicas são encaminhadas para avaliação especializada.OBJECTIVE: To present the most frequent diagnosis among patients refered for neurological evaluation to estimate their labour capacities at the unit of National Institute of Social Security (INSS, Florianópolis-SC, southern Brazil. METHOD: Review of all medical records of 108 patients evaluated between October 97 and May 98. The sample was submited to judicious medico-legal assessment to define their final diagnosis. RESULTS: Neurological evaluation disclosed as the commonest disorders, in decreasing order of frequency: epilepsy, rheumatic diseases, psychiatric illnesses, neurological disorders related to chronic alcoholism, head trauma syndrome and cerebrovascular diseases. CONCLUSION: Neurological disorders may be responsible for important disability among workers in our society. However, the potential for social rehabilitation, often underestimated, must be considered. Moreover, diverse non-neurological conditions used to be sent for

  1. Wikipedia and neurological disorders. (United States)

    Brigo, Francesco; Igwe, Stanley C; Nardone, Raffaele; Lochner, Piergiorgio; Tezzon, Frediano; Otte, Willem M


    Our aim was to evaluate Wikipedia page visits in relation to the most common neurological disorders by determining which factors are related to peaks in Wikipedia searches for these conditions. Millions of people worldwide use the internet daily as a source of health information. Wikipedia is a popular free online encyclopedia used by patients and physicians to search for health-related information. The following Wikipedia articles were considered: Alzheimer's disease; Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Dementia; Epilepsy; Epileptic seizure; Migraine; Multiple sclerosis; Parkinson's disease; Stroke; Traumatic brain injury. We analyzed information regarding the total article views for 90 days and the rank of these articles among all those available in Wikipedia. We determined the highest search volume peaks to identify possible relation with online news headlines. No relation between incidence or prevalence of neurological disorders and the search volume for the related articles was found. Seven out of 10 neurological conditions showed relations in search volume peaks and news headlines. Six out of these seven peaks were related to news about famous people suffering from neurological disorders, especially those from showbusiness. Identification of discrepancies between disease burden and health seeking behavior on Wikipedia is useful in the planning of public health campaigns. Celebrities who publicly announce their neurological diagnosis might effectively promote awareness programs, increase public knowledge and reduce stigma related to diagnoses of neurological disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The adaptive capacity of smallholder mixed-farming systems to the impact of climate change: The case of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonhlanzeko N. Mthembu


    Full Text Available Climate change poses a serious threat to efforts by developing countries to ensure food security and poverty reduction. The National Development goals of South Africa envisage the agricultural sector as a key driver for job creation and economic growth. This article seeks to investigate the adaptive capacity of the Ncunjane farming community in Msinga, KwaZuluNatal in response to drought spells of 2010 and 2014. This article draws on data collected using both qualitative and quantitative methods in 2011 and later in 2015 with the data analysed through the Statistical Package for Social Science to determine significant correlations between variables. Analysis of the vulnerability and adaptive capacity is performed using conceptual framework. This study found that both smallholder farmers who engaged in livestock and crop production have experienced high cattle mortalities and stagnant crop productivity, which in turn put pressure on already constrained disposable household income because of increased food costs and agricultural input costs, particularly supplementary animal feed. Cattle owners were more vulnerable to drought because of poor risk management and thus became highly dependent on government to provide drought relief. Application for government drought relief was found not to be effective in cases of large herds of cattle. Variability of rainfall and prolonged heat spells has a significant impact on the sustainability of smallholder mixed-farming systems, leaving agriculture as a highly questionable form of livelihood for rural farming communities such as Msinga. The article recommends strengthened institutional mechanisms so that stakeholders should play a more meaningful role within provincial and local agriculture in leveraging government support but places emphasis on the adoption of innovative strategies that can potentially yield significantly resilient smallholder mixed-farming systems in the wake of climate variability.

  3. Crop advisors as climate information brokers: Building the capacity of US farmers to adapt to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carmen Lemos


    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of crop advisors as brokers of climate information to support US corn farmers to adapt to climatic change. It uses quantitative data collected from a broad survey of crop advisors in the US Corn Belt to examine the factors that shape advisors’ use of (and willingness to provide climate information to their clients. Building upon a general model of climate information usability we argue that advisors’ willingness to provide climate advice to farmers is influenced by three main factors: their information seeking habits and behavior, their experience with innovation in the past, and how climate information interplays with other kinds of information that they provide—especially agronomic advice. We find that advisors’ willingness to provide climate related information depends both on factors at the individual and organizational level and on the type of advice they provide. First, at the individual and organizational levels, advisors who work in supportive organizations and who collaborate with other advisors are more likely to provide climate information. Second, advisors are more likely to provide climate information if it does not interfere with their main profit making business (e.g. provision of agronomic advice. Third, there is a significant positive relationship between trust in a greater number or sources of information and use of climate information. Fourth, the way advisors perceive short- and long-term risk also influences their willingness to provide climate information; the more concerned they are about long-term climate-related risks to farming, the more likely they are to provide (or want to provide advice based on climate information. Differently from other empirical work in the literature, our analytical model suggests that neither negative experiences with climate information in the past nor the high level of uncertainty characteristic of climate information appear to influence advisors

  4. Neurologic manifestations of achondroplasia. (United States)

    Hecht, Jacqueline T; Bodensteiner, John B; Butler, Ian J


    Achondroplasia is the best described and most common form of the congenital short-limbed dwarfing conditions. Achondroplasia is apparent at birth and has a birth prevalence of 1 in 20000-30000 live-born infants. Achondroplasia is inherited as an autosomal dominant condition, although 80% of cases occur sporadically as new events in their families. Achondroplasia is caused, in virtually all of the cases, by a G380R mutation in fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3). Patients with achondroplasia should be evaluated by a multidisciplinary team of clinicians including geneticists, neurologists, and orthopedists, since there are numerous bony and neurological complications. The most severe complication results from craniocervical stenosis and medullary and upper spinal cord compression, which can have devastating and even lethal sequelae during early childhood. In subsequent decades, including adolescence, spinal cord and nerve compression are more prominent. The neurological complications of achondroplasia have been recognized in adults for more than a century and are attributed to bony defects, connective tissue structures, or both. Similar neurological complications are now appreciated in infants, young children, and teenagers with achondroplasia. Defective connective tissue elements in achondroplasia frequently lead to ligamentous laxity, which can aggravate the complications associated with bony stenosis. Bony abnormalities are known to cause neurological morbidity and lead to a shortened lifespan. Neurological complications associated with achondroplasia are reviewed, including recommendations for the evaluation and management of these clinical problems. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Neurology and literature]. (United States)

    Iniesta, I


    Literature complements medical literature in the academic and clinical development of neurologists. The present article explores the contributions of writers of fiction on neurology. Literary works of fiction with particular reference to neurology. A symbiosis between writers of fiction and doctors has been well recognised. From Shakespeare to Cervantes by way of Dickens and Cela to writer - physicians such as Anton Chekhov or António Lobo Antunes have contributed through their medically informed literature to the better understanding of neurology. Some writers like Dostoevsky, Machado de Assis and Margiad Evans have written about their own experiences with disease thus bringing new insights to medicine. Furthermore, some neurological disorders have been largely based on literary descriptions. For instance, Dostoevsky's epilepsy has been retrospectively analysed by famous neurologists including Freud, Alajouanine or Gastaut, whilst his writings and biography have prompted others like Waxman and Geschwind to describe typical behavioural changes in temporal lobe epilepsy, finding their source of inspiration in Dostoevsky. Likewise, Cirignotta et al have named an unusual type of seizure after the Russian novelist. Inspired by Lewis Carroll, Todd introduced the term Alice in Wonderland Syndrome to refer to visual distortions generally associated with migraine. Writers of fiction offer a humanised perception of disease by contributing new insights into the clinical history, informing about the subjective experience of the illness and helping to eradicate the stigma associated to neurological disorders.

  6. Neurologic Complications of Transplantation. (United States)

    Dhar, Rajat


    Neurologic disturbances including encephalopathy, seizures, and focal deficits complicate the course 10-30% of patients undergoing organ or stem cell transplantation. While much or this morbidity is multifactorial and often associated with extra-cerebral dysfunction (e.g., graft dysfunction, metabolic derangements), immunosuppressive drugs also contribute significantly. This can either be through direct toxicity (e.g., posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome from calcineurin inhibitors such as tacrolimus in the acute postoperative period) or by facilitating opportunistic infections in the months after transplantation. Other neurologic syndromes such as akinetic mutism and osmotic demyelination may also occur. While much of this neurologic dysfunction may be reversible if related to metabolic factors or drug toxicity (and the etiology is recognized and reversed), cases of multifocal cerebral infarction, hemorrhage, or infection may have poor outcomes. As transplant patients survive longer, delayed infections (such as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy) and post-transplant malignancies are increasingly reported.

  7. American Academy of Neurology (United States)

    ... on draft guideline manuscript on autism and sleep problems. Capitol Hill Report: Opioid Epidemic Declared Public Health Emergency Read the latest news on how the AAN is fighting for neurology in Washington DC. New Study: Virtual Reality Training May Be as Effective as Regular Therapy ...

  8. Wikipedia and neurological disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brigo, Francesco; Igwe, Stanley C.; Nardone, Raffaele; Lochner, Piergiorgio; Tezzon, Frediano; Otte, WM


    Our aim was to evaluate Wikipedia page visits in relation to the most common neurological disorders by determining which factors are related to peaks in Wikipedia searches for these conditions. Millions of people worldwide use the internet daily as a source of health information. Wikipedia is a

  9. Neurological aspects of eclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Dejana


    Full Text Available The difficult types of preeclampsia and eclampsia are presented with the neurological symptoms. The break of cerebral autoregulation mechanism plays the most important role in pathogenesis of cerebral vasospasm. Nevertheless eclampsia isn’t just an ordinary hypertensive encephalopathy because other pathogenic mechanisms are involved in its appearance. The main neuropathologic changes are multifocal vasogenic edema, perivascular multiple microinfarctions and petechial hemorrhages. Neurological clinical manifestations are convulsions, headache, visual disturbances and rarely other discrete focal neurological symptoms. Eclampsia is a high-risk factor for onset of hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke. This is a reason why neurological diagnostic tests are sometimes needed. The method of choice for evaluation of complicated eclampsia is computerized brain topography that shows multiple areas of hypodensity in occipitoparietal regions. These changes are focal vasogenic cerebral edema. For differential diagnosis of eclampsia and stroke other diagnostic methods can be used - fundoscopic exam, magnetic resonance brain imaging, cerebral angiography and cerebrospinal fluid exam. The therapy of eclampsia considers using of magnesium sulfate, antihypertensive, anticonvulsive and antiedematous drugs.

  10. Astroglia in neurological diseases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Verkhratsky, Alexei; Rodríguez Arellano, Jose Julio; Parpura, V.


    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2013), s. 149-158 ISSN 1479-6708 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/11/0184; GA ČR GA309/09/1696 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : amyotrophic lateral sclerosis * Alzheimer's disease * Alexander disease Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  11. Neurology of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. (United States)

    Mulder, M; Geocadin, R G


    This chapter aims to provide an up-to-date review of the science and clinical practice pertaining to neurologic injury after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The past two decades have seen a major shift in the science and practice of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, with a major emphasis on postresuscitation neurologic care. This chapter provides a nuanced and thoughtful historic and bench-to-bedside overview of the neurologic aspects of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. A particular emphasis is made on the anatomy and pathophysiology of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, up-to-date management of survivors of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and a careful discussion on neurologic outcome prediction. Guidance to practice evidence-based clinical care when able and thoughtful, pragmatic suggestions for care where evidence is lacking are also provided. This chapter serves as both a useful clinical guide and an updated, thorough, and state-of-the-art reference on the topic for advanced students and experienced practitioners in the field. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Neurologic abnormalities in murderers. (United States)

    Blake, P Y; Pincus, J H; Buckner, C


    Thirty-one individuals awaiting trial or sentencing for murder or undergoing an appeal process requested a neurologic examination through legal counsel. We attempted in each instance to obtain EEG, MRI or CT, and neuropsychological testing. Neurologic examination revealed evidence of "frontal" dysfunction in 20 (64.5%). There were symptoms or some other evidence of temporal lobe abnormality in nine (29%). We made a specific neurologic diagnosis in 20 individuals (64.5%), including borderline or full mental retardation (9) and cerebral palsy (2), among others. Neuropsychological testing revealed abnormalities in all subjects tested. There were EEG abnormalities in eight of the 20 subjects tested, consisting mainly of bilateral sharp waves with slowing. There were MRI or CT abnormalities in nine of the 19 subjects tested, consisting primarily of atrophy and white matter changes. Psychiatric diagnoses included paranoid schizophrenia (8), dissociative disorder (4), and depression (9). Virtually all subjects had paranoid ideas and misunderstood social situations. There was a documented history of profound, protracted physical abuse in 26 (83.8%) and of sexual abuse in 10 (32.3%). It is likely that prolonged, severe physical abuse, paranoia, and neurologic brain dysfunction interact to form the matrix of violent behavior.

  13. [Deficiency, disability, neurology and television series]. (United States)

    Collado-Vázquez, Susana; Martínez-Martínez, Ariadna; Cano-de-la-Cuerda, Roberto


    The portrayal of neurological disability and deficiency on television has not always been approached in the same way, but has instead tended to reflect the standpoint taken by society with regard to these issues and how they are dealt with according to the prevailing conceptions and values at each particular time. To address the appearance of neurological pathologies in television series and to ponder on the image they have in such contexts. Deficiency and disability of neurological origin have often been depicted on television in series, telefilms and documentaries, and in a wide variety of ways. Here we examine different television series and how they have dealt with neurological pathology, its diagnosis and its treatment, as well as the figure of the healthcare professional and social-familial adaptation. Examples cited include series such as House MD, Glee, American Horror Story, Homeland or Game of Thrones. Television series are a useful tool for making some neurological pathologies better known to the public and for dispelling the myths surrounding others, provided that the pathologies are dealt with in a realistic manner, which is not always the case. More care should be taken with regard to the way in which health professionals are portrayed in television series, as it is not always done correctly and may mislead viewers, who take what they see on the TV as being real.

  14. Post dengue neurological complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hizlinda Tohid


    Full Text Available Dengue infection is highly endemic in many tropical countries including Malaysia. However, neurological complications arising from dengue infection is not common; Gullain–Barre syndrome (GBS is one of these infrequent complications. In this paper, we have reported a case in which a 39-year-old woman presented with a neurological complication of dengue infection without typical symptoms and signs of dengue fever. She had a history of acute gastroenteritis (AGE followed by an upper respiratory tract infection (URTI weeks prior to her presentation rendering GBS secondary to the post viral URTI and AGE as the most likely diagnosis. Presence of thrombocytopenia was the only clue for dengue in this case.

  15. Neurological legal disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhakrishna H


    Full Text Available Neurological disorders with a prolonged course, either remediable or otherwise are being seen increasingly in clinical practice and many such patients are young and are part of some organization or other wherein their services are needed if they were healthy and fit. The neurologists who are on the panel of these organizations are asked to certify whether these subjects are fit to work or how long they should be given leave. These certificates may be produced in the court of law and may be subjected to verification by another neurologist or a medical board. At present there are no standard guidelines in our country to effect such certification unlike in orthopedic specialty or in ophthalmology. The following is a beginning, based on which the neurologist can certify the neurological disability of such subjects and convey the same meaning to all neurologists across the country.

  16. Vaccination and neurological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Gkampeta


    Full Text Available Active immunization of children has been proven very effective in elimination of life threatening complications of many infectious diseases in developed countries. However, as vaccination-preventable infectious diseases and their complications have become rare, the interest focuses on immunization-related adverse reactions. Unfortunately, fear of vaccination-related adverse effects can led to decreased vaccination coverage and subsequent epidemics of infectious diseases. This review includes reports about possible side effects following vaccinations in children with neurological disorders and also published recommendations about vaccinating children with neurological disorders. From all international published data anyone can conclude that vaccines are safer than ever before, but the challenge remains to convey this message to society.

  17. The Neurology of Proverbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Van Lancker


    Full Text Available Although proverb tests are commonly used in the mental status examination surprisingly little is known about either normal comprehension or the interpretation of proverbial expressions. Current proverbs tests have conceptual and linguistic shortcomings, and few studies have been done to investigate the specific effects of neurological and psychiatric disorders on the interpretation of proverbs. Although frontal lobes have traditionally been impugned in patients who are “concrete”, recent studies targeting deficient comprehension of non literal language (e.g. proverbs, idioms, speech formulas, and indirect requests point to an important role of the right hemisphere (RH. Research describing responses of psychiatrically and neurologically classified groups to tests of proverb and idiom usage is needed to clarify details of aberrant processing of nonliteral meanings. Meanwhile, the proverb test, drawing on diverse cognitive skills, is a nonspecific but sensitive probe of mental status.

  18. Prevalence and Distribution of Neurological Disease in a Neurology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research – January 2011 – Vol. 1 N0.1. >>>63<<<. Prevalence and Distribution of Neurological Disease in a. Neurology Clinic in Enugu, Nigeria. Onwuekwe IO* and Ezeala-Adikaibe B*. *Neurology Unit, Department of Medicine,. University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, ...

  19. Survey of the professors of child neurology: neurology versus pediatrics home for child neurology. (United States)

    Pearl, Phillip L; McConnell, Emily R; Fernandez, Rosamary; Brooks-Kayal, Amy


    The optimal academic home for child neurology programs between adult neurology versus pediatric departments remains an open question. The Professors of Child Neurology, the national organization of child neurology department chairs, division chiefs, and training program directors, was surveyed to evaluate the placement of child neurology programs. Professors of Child Neurology members were surveyed regarding the placement of child neurology programs within adult neurology versus pediatric departments. Questions explored academic versus clinical lines of reporting and factors that may be advantages and disadvantages of these affiliations. Issues also addressed were the current status of board certification and number of clinics expected in academic child neurology departments. Of 120 surveys sent, 95 responses were received (79% response rate). The primary academic affiliation is in neurology in 54% of programs versus 46% in pediatrics, and the primary clinical affiliation is 45% neurology and 55% pediatrics. Advantages versus disadvantages of one's primary affiliation were similar whether the primary affiliation was in neurology or pediatrics. While 61% of respondents are presently board certified in pediatrics, only 2% of those with time-limited certification in general pediatrics plan to be recertified going forward. Typically six to eight half-day clinics per week are anticipated for child neurologists in academic departments without additional funding sources. Overall, leaders of child neurology departments and training programs would not change their affiliation if given the opportunity. Advantages and disadvantages associated with current affiliations did not change whether child neurology was located in neurology or pediatrics. Board certification by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology in child neurology is virtually universal, whereas pediatric board certification by the American Board of Pediatrics is being maintained by very few. Most academic

  20. Palliative care and neurology (United States)

    Boersma, Isabel; Miyasaki, Janis; Kutner, Jean


    Palliative care is an approach to the care of patients and families facing progressive and chronic illnesses that focuses on the relief of suffering due to physical symptoms, psychosocial issues, and spiritual distress. As neurologists care for patients with chronic, progressive, life-limiting, and disabling conditions, it is important that they understand and learn to apply the principles of palliative medicine. In this article, we aim to provide a practical starting point in palliative medicine for neurologists by answering the following questions: (1) What is palliative care and what is hospice care? (2) What are the palliative care needs of neurology patients? (3) Do neurology patients have unique palliative care needs? and (4) How can palliative care be integrated into neurology practice? We cover several fundamental palliative care skills relevant to neurologists, including communication of bad news, symptom assessment and management, advance care planning, caregiver assessment, and appropriate referral to hospice and other palliative care services. We conclude by suggesting areas for future educational efforts and research. PMID:24991027

  1. Are the French neurology residents satisfied with their training? (United States)

    Codron, P; Roux, T; Le Guennec, L; Zuber, M


    There have been dramatic changes in neurology over the past decade; these advances require a constant adaptation of residents' theoretical and practical training. The French Association of Neurology Residents and the College of Neurology Teachers conducted a national survey to assess the French neurology residents' satisfaction about their training. A 16-item questionnaire was sent via e-mail to French neurology residents completing training in 2014. Data were collected and processed anonymously. Of eligible respondents, 126 returned the survey, representing approximately 40% of all the French neurology residents. Most residents (78%) rated their clinical training favorably. Seventy-two percent reported good to excellent quality teaching of neurology courses from their faculty. However, many residents (40%) felt insufficient their doctoral thesis supervision. All residents intended to enter fellowship training after their residency, and most of them (68%) planned to practice in a medical center. French neurology residents seemed satisfied with the structure and quality of their training program. However, efforts are required to improve management of the doctoral thesis and make private practice more attractive and accessible during the residency. In the future, similar surveys should be scheduled to regularly assess neurology residents' satisfaction and the impact of the forthcoming national and European reforms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of policy makers' individual and organizational capacity to acquire, assess, adapt and apply research evidence for maternal and child health policy making in Nigeria: a cross-sectional quantitative survey. (United States)

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Sombie, Issiaka; Keita, Namoudou; Lokossou, Virgil; Johnson, Ermel; Ongolo-Zogo, Pierre; Uro-Chukwu, Henry Chukwuemeka


    Throughout the world, there is increasing awareness and acknowledgement of the value of research evidence in the development of effective health policy and in quality health care practice and administration. Among the major challenges associated with the lack of uptake of research evidence into policy and practice in Nigeria is the capacity constraints of policymakers to use research evidence in policy making. To assess the capacity of maternal and child health policy makers to acquire, access, adapt and apply available research evidence. This cross-sectional quantitative survey was conducted at a national maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) stakeholders' engagement event. An evidence to policy self-assessment questionnaire was used to assess the capacity of forty MNCH policy makers to acquire, assess, adapt and apply research evidence for policy making. Low mean ratings were observed ranging from 2.68-3.53 on a scale of 5 for knowledge about initiating/conducting research and capacity to assess authenticity, validity, reliability, relevance and applicability of research evidence and for organizational capacity for promoting and using of research for policy making. There is need to institute policy makers' capacity development programmes to improve evidence-informed policymaking.

  3. African Journal of Neurological Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Neurological Sciences (AJNS) is owned and controlled by the Pan African Association of Neurological Sciences (PAANS). The AJNS's aim is to publish scientific papers of any aspects of Neurological Sciences. AJNS is published quarterly. Articles submitted exclusively to the AJNS are accepted if neither ...

  4. Reclaimed water as a main resource to enhance the adaptive capacity to climate change in semi-arid Mediterranean agricultural areas using Earth Observation products (United States)

    Pavia Rico, Ana; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Matieu, Pierre-Philippe; Hernandez Sancho, Francesc; Loarte, Edwin

    Lack of water is being a big problem in semi-arid areas to make agricultural profits. Most of Mediterranean countries like Spain, Italy, Greece or Cyprus and other countries like Morocco, the Arab United Emirates, South-American countries or China are starting to reuse wastewater as adaptation to climate change water scarcity. Drought areas are nowadays increasing, thus making fertile areas unproductive. For this reason, the European trend is to work on reusing wastewater as a solution to water scarcity in agriculture. Moreover, since population is growing fast, wastewater production is increasing as well as drinkable water demand, thus making reclaimed water as the water guarantee for irrigation and better agricultural management. This work represents a preliminary initiative to check, analyse and monitor the land by using remote sensing techniques to identify and determine the potential lands that used to be productive in the past, are now abandoned, and we want to recuperate to obtain socio-economic benefits. On top of this, this initiative will clearly enhance the adaption capacity of rural/agricultural lands to climate change. Alternatively to reclaimed water, greenhouses, desalination plants or transboarding water do not really eliminate the problem but only offer a temporary solution, make spending plenty of money and always provoking irreversible damages to the environment. The pilot area to first develop this research is the Valencia and Murcia Autonomous Communities located in the Spanish Mediterranean Coastline. An added value of this work will be to develop a methodology transferable to other potential countries with similar climatic characteristics and difficulties for irrigation, by using remote sensing methods and techniques. The remote sensing products obtained provide full information about the current state of the potential lands to grow crops. Potential areas are then being selected to carry out a socio-economic analysis leading to: (i

  5. Revisiting Absorptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Araújo, Ana Luiza Lara; Ulhøi, John Parm; Lettl, Christopher

    Absorptive capacity has mostly been perceived as a 'passive' outcome of R&D investments. Recently, however, a growing interest into its 'proactive' potentials has emerged. This paper taps into this development and proposes a dynamic model for conceptualizing the determinants of the complementary...... learning processes of absorptive capacity, which comprise combinative and adaptive capabilities. Drawing on survey data (n=169), the study concludes that combinative capabilities primarily enhance transformative and exploratory learning processes, while adaptive capabilities strengthen all three learning...

  6. Neurology and literature 2. (United States)

    Iniesta, I


    Good literary fiction has the potential to move us, extend our sense of life, transform our prospective views and help us in the face of adversity. A neurological disorder is likely to be the most challenging experience a human being may have to confront in a lifetime. As such, literary recreations of illnesses have a doubly powerful effect. Study the synergies between neurology and fictional literature with particular reference to narrative based medicine (NBM). Doctors establish boundaries between the normal and the abnormal. Taking a clinical history is an act of interpretation in which the doctor integrates the science of objective signs and measurable quantities with the art of subjective clinical judgment. The more discrepancy there is between the patient's experience with the illness and the doctor's interpretation of that disease, the less likely the doctor-patient interaction is to succeed. NBM contributes to a better discernment of the meanings, thus considering disease as a biographical event rather than just a natural fact. Drawing from their own experience with disease, writers of fiction provide universal insights through their narratives, whilst neuroscientists, like Cajal, have occasionally devoted their scientific knowledge to literary narratives. Furthermore, neurologists from Alzheimer to Oliver Sacks remind us of the essential value of NBM in the clinic. Integrating NBM (the narrative of patients) and the classic holistic approach to patients with our current paradigm of evidence based medicine represents a challenge as relevant to neurologists as keeping up with technological and scientific advances. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Neurological Consequences of Obesity (United States)

    O’Brien, Phillipe D.; Hinder, Lucy M.; Callaghan, Brian C.; Feldman, Eva L.


    Obesity, primarily a consequence of poor dietary choices and an increased sedentary lifestyle, has become a global pandemic that brings with it enormous medical, social, and economic challenges. Not only does obesity increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and certain cancers, but it is also recognized as a key driver of other metabolic syndrome (MetS) components. These components include insulin resistance, hyperglycemia with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, and are underlying contributors to systemic metabolic dysfunction. More recently, obesity and diet-induced metabolic dysfunction have been identified as risk factors for the development of a wide variety of neurological disorders in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. An abundance of literature has shown that obesity is associated with mild cognitive impairment and altered hippocampal structure and function, and there is a robust correlation between obesity and Alzheimer’s type dementia. Similarly, many reports show that both the autonomic and somatic components of the peripheral nervous system are impacted by obesity. The autonomic nervous system, under control of the hypothalamus, displays altered catabolic and anabolic processes in obese individuals attributed to sympathetic-parasympathetic imbalances. A close association also exists between obesity and polyneuropathy, a complication most commonly found in prediabetic and diabetic patients, and is likely secondary to a combination of obesity-induced dyslipidemia with hyperglycemia. This review will outline the pathophysiological development of obesity and dyslipidemia, discuss the adverse impact of these conditions on the nervous system, and provide evidence for lipotoxicity and metabolic inflammation as the drivers underlying the neurological consequences of obesity. In addition, this review will examine the benefits of lifestyle and surgical interventions in obesity-induced neurological disorders. PMID

  8. Neurological Respiratory Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Rudrappa


    Full Text Available West Nile virus infection in humans is mostly asymptomatic. Less than 1% of neuro-invasive cases show a fatality rate of around 10%. Acute flaccid paralysis of respiratory muscles leading to respiratory failure is the most common cause of death. Although the peripheral nervous system can be involved, isolated phrenic nerve palsy leading to respiratory failure is rare and described in only two cases in the English literature. We present another case of neurological respiratory failure due to West Nile virus-induced phrenic nerve palsy. Our case reiterates the rare, but lethal, consequences of West Nile virus infection, and the increase of its awareness among physicians.

  9. Education Research: Neurology resident education (United States)

    Mayans, David; Schneider, Logan; Adams, Nellie; Khawaja, Ayaz M.; Engstrom, John


    Objective: To survey US-trained graduating neurology residents who are American Academy of Neurology members, in an effort to trend perceived quality and completeness of graduate neurology education. Methods: An electronic survey was sent to all American Academy of Neurology members graduating from US neurology residency programs in the Spring of 2014. Results: Of 805 eligible respondents, 24% completed the survey. Ninety-three percent of adult neurology residents and 56% of child neurology residents reported plans to pursue fellowship training after residency. Respondents reported a desire for additional training in neurocritical care, neuro-oncology, neuromuscular diseases, botulinum toxin injection, and nerve blocks. There remains a clear deficit in business training of neurology residents, although there was notable improvement in knowledge of coding and office management compared to previous surveys. Discussion: Although there are still areas of perceived weakness in neurology training, graduating neurology residents feel generally well prepared for their chosen careers. However, most still pursue fellowship training for reasons that are little understood. In addition to certain subspecialties and procedures, practice management remains deficient in neurology training and is a point of future insecurity for most residents. Future curriculum changes should consider resident-reported gaps in knowledge, with careful consideration of improving business training. PMID:26976522

  10. Need for palliative care for neurological diseases. (United States)

    Provinciali, Leandro; Carlini, Giulia; Tarquini, Daniela; Defanti, Carlo Alberto; Veronese, Simone; Pucci, Eugenio


    The new concept of palliative care supports the idea of palliation as an early approach to patients affected by disabling and life-limiting disease which focuses on the patient's quality of life along the entire course of disease. This model moves beyond the traditional concept of palliation as an approach restricted to the final stage of disease and widens the fields of intervention. There is a growing awareness of the importance of palliative care not only in oncological diseases but also in many other branches of medicine, and it appears particularly evident in the approach to many of the most frequent neurological diseases that are chronic, incurable and autonomy-impairing illnesses. The definition and implementation of palliative goals and procedures in neurology must take into account the specific features of these conditions in terms of the complexity and variability of symptoms, clinical course, disability and prognosis. The realization of an effective palliative approach to neurological diseases requires specific skills and expertise to adapt the concept of palliation to the peculiarities of these diseases; this approach should be realized through the cooperation of different services and the action of a multidisciplinary team in which the neurologist should play a central role to identify and face the patient's needs. In this view, it is paramount for the neurologist to be trained in these issues to promote the integration of palliative care in the care of neurological patients.

  11. History of Neurology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xinde


    @@In 1921, the first independent department of neurology was established in Beijing. Before 1949, all over China only 12 professional doctors lectured neurology in medical colleges. Only 30 medically trained personnel were engaged in the neurological departments. The neurological departments contained roughly 200 beds. The thesis on stroke was written by Zhang Shanlei and published in 1922. Author discussed the cerebral stroke on basis of Chinese traditional medicine and European medicine. The first Textbook of Neurology in China was written by Professor Cheng Yu-lin and was published in 1939. In 1952, the Chinese Society of Neurology and Psychiatry of Chinese Medical Association was established. In 1955, the first issue of the Chinese Journal of Neurology and Psychiatry was published.

  12. Gluten sensitivity and neurological manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostino Berio


    Full Text Available The authors report on six cases of gluten-sensitivity, also defined non-celiac gluten sensitivity, characterized by abdominal features (diarrhea, bloating, pain, genetic positivity for predisposition to celiac disease (DQB1* 02 in all cases; DQA1*05 in three; DQA1*02 in two, DQB1*03 in two, negative anti-t-Transglutaminase antibodies, normal mucosa on biopsy in four cases, type 1 of Marsh in one case. The subjects presented frequent central nervous system (CNS symptoms: headache in three patients, somnolence in one, electroencephalogram aspecific alterations in three (in two of them with previous seizures, leptomeningeal cyst in one, intracranial calcification in one, cerebral gliosis in two. After a gluten-free diet, all intestinal and clinical CNS features remitted, but re-appeared after gluten reintroduction. On the basis of the neurological signs, the authors stress the relevance of immune innate system in the pathogenesis of these cases with possible subsequent evolution on immune adaptive system involvement.

  13. Primary care perceptions of neurology and neurology services. (United States)

    Loftus, Angela M; Wade, Carrie; McCarron, Mark O


    Neurophobia (fear of neural sciences) and evaluation of independent sector contracts in neurology have seldom been examined among general practitioners (GPs). A questionnaire determined GPs' perceptions of neurology compared with other medical specialties. GP experiences of neurology services with independent sector companies and the local National Health Service (NHS) were compared. Areas of potential improvement in NHS neurology services were recorded from thematic analyses. Among 76 GPs neurology was perceived to be as interesting as other medical specialties. GPs reported less knowledge, more difficulty and less confidence in neurology compared with other medical specialties. There was a preference for a local NHS neurology service (pneurology services provided better patient satisfaction. GPs prefer local NHS neurology services to independent sector contracts. GPs' evaluations should inform commissioning of neurology services. Combating neurophobia should be an integral part of responsive commissioning. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  14. Molecular genetics in neurology. (United States)

    Martin, J B


    There has been remarkable progress in the identification of mutations in genes that cause inherited neurological disorders. Abnormalities in the genes for Huntington disease, neurofibromatosis types 1 and 2, one form of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, fragile X syndrome, myotonic dystrophy, Kennedy syndrome, Menkes disease, and several forms of retinitis pigmentosa have been elucidated. Rare disorders of neuronal migration such as Kallmann syndrome, Miller-Dieker syndrome, and Norrie disease have been shown to be due to specific gene defects. Several muscle disorders characterized by abnormal membrane excitability have been defined as mutations of the muscle sodium or chloride channels. These advances provide opportunity for accurate molecular diagnosis of at-risk individuals and are the harbinger of new approaches to therapy of these diseases.

  15. Neurological complications of alcoholism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Nikiforov


    Full Text Available Nervous system lesions associated with chronic alcohol intoxication are common in clinical practice. They lead to aggravated alcoholic disease, its more frequent recurrences, and intensified pathological craving for alcohol. Neurological pathology in turn occurs with frequent exacerbations. The interaction of diseases, age, and medical  pathomorphism modifies the clinical presentation and course of the  major pathology, as well as comorbidity, the nature and severity of  complications, worsens quality of life in a patient, and makes the  diagnostic and treatment process difficult. The paper discusses the  classification, clinical variants, biochemical and molecular biological  aspects of various complications of alcoholic disease. It considers its  most common form, in particular alcoholic polyneuropathy, as well as its rarer variants, such as hemorrhagic encephalopathy with a subacute course (Gayet–Wernicke encephalopathy.

  16. Deja vu in neurology. (United States)

    Wild, Edward


    The significance of deja vu is widely recognised in the context of temporal lobe epilepsy, and enquiry about deja vu is frequently made in the clinical assessment of patients with possible epilepsy. Deja vu has also been associated with several psychiatric disorders. The historical context of current understanding of deja vu is discussed. The literature reveals deja vu to be a common phenomenon consistent with normality. Several authors have suggested the existence of a "pathological" form of deja vu that differs, qualitatively or quantitatively, from "non-pathological" deja vu. The features of deja vu suggesting neurological or psychiatric pathology are discussed. Several neuroanatomical and psychological models of the deja vu experience are highlighted, implicating the perceptual, mnemonic and affective regions of the lateral temporal cortex, hippocampus and amygdala in the genesis of deja vu. A possible genetic basis for a neurochemical model of deja vu is discussed. Clinical approaches to the patient presenting with possible deja vu are proposed.

  17. Neurology of ciguatera (United States)

    Pearn, J


    Ciguatera is a widespread ichthyosarcotoxaemia with dramatic and clinically important neurological features. This severe form of fish poisoning may present with either acute or chronic intoxication syndromes and constitutes a global health problem. Ciguatera poisoning is little known in temperate countries as a potentially global problem associated with human ingestion of large carnivorous fish that harbour the bioaccumulated ciguatoxins of the photosynthetic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus. This neurotoxin is stored in the viscera of fish that have eaten the dinoflagellate and concentrated it upwards throughout the food chain towards progressively larger species, including humans. Ciguatoxin accumulates in all fish tissues, especially the liver and viscera, of "at risk" species. Both Pacific (P-CTX-1) and Caribbean (C-CTX-1) ciguatoxins are heat stable polyether toxins and pose a health risk at concentrations above 0.1 ppb. The presenting signs of ciguatera are primarily neurotoxic in more than 80% of cases. Such include the pathognomonic features of postingestion paraesthesiae, dysaesthesiae, and heightened nociperception. Other sensory abnormalities include the subjective features of metallic taste, pruritis, arthralgia, myalgia, and dental pain. Cerebellar dysfunction, sometimes diphasic, and weakness due to both neuropathy and polymyositis may be encountered. Autonomic dysfunction leads to hypotension, bradycardia, and hypersalivation in severe cases. Ciguatoxins are potent, lipophilic sodium channel activator toxins which bind to the voltage sensitive (site 5) sodium channel on the cell membranes of all excitable tissues. Treatment depends on early diagnosis and the early administration of intravenous mannitol. The early identification of the neurological features in sentinel patients has the potential to reduce the number of secondary cases in cluster outbreaks.


  18. Affective disorders in neurological diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, F M; Kessing, L V; Sørensen, T M


    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the temporal relationships between a range of neurological diseases and affective disorders. METHOD: Data derived from linkage of the Danish Psychiatric Central Register and the Danish National Hospital Register. Seven cohorts with neurological index diagnoses and two...... of affective disorder was lower than the incidence in the control groups. CONCLUSION: In neurological diseases there seems to be an increased incidence of affective disorders. The elevated incidence was found to be particularly high for dementia and Parkinson's disease (neurodegenerative diseases)....

  19. Perioperative Management of Neurological Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjeet Singh Dhallu


    Full Text Available Perioperative care of the patients with neurological diseases can be challenging. Most important consideration is the management and understanding of pathophysiology of these disorders and evaluation of new neurological changes that occur perioperatively. Perioperative generally refers to 3 phases of surgery: preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative. We have tried to address few commonly encountered neurological conditions in clinical practice, such as delirium, stroke, epilepsy, myasthenia gravis, and Parkinson disease. In this article, we emphasize on early diagnosis and management strategies of neurological disorders in the perioperative period to minimize morbidity and mortality of patients.

  20. Neuromuscular adaptations to long-term progressive resistance training translates to improved functional capacity for people with multiple sclerosis and is maintained at follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjolhede, T.; Vissing, K.; de Place, L.


    BACKGROUND: Progressive resistance training (PRT) is acknowledged to effectively improve muscle strength for people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS), but diverging results exist regarding whether such improvements translates to improved functional capacity, possibly relating to insufficient duration......: This study was a randomised controlled trial, with a training group and a waitlist group undergoing supervised PRT for 24 weeks initially or after 24 weeks of habitual lifestyle, respectively. Functional capacity, isometric muscle strength of knee extensors and flexors, neural drive and thigh muscle cross......-sectional area was measured at baseline, after 24 and 48 weeks. RESULTS: The training group significantly improved neuromuscular function of the knee extensors and flexors, which translated to improvements in functional capacity. Furthermore, the improved functional capacity was maintained after 24 weeks of self...

  1. Trends in neurology fellowship training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jordan S.A. Williams; Trent S. Hodgson; Fernando D. Goldenberg; Rimas V. Lukas


    Aim:Aneed for Neurologists exists in the USA.The majority of Neurology residency graduates go on to additional subspecialty training. Methods: Data from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education from 2001-2014 and the United Council for Neurologic Subspecialties from was analyzed for trends in the number of Neurology subspecialty training programs and their composition. Results: There has been an overall trend of growth in the number of accredited Neurology subspecialty training programs and fellows. These trends vary between specific subspecialties. Conclusion: The authors provide an overview of the contemporary state of Neurology subspecialty training in the USA. A clearer understanding of subspecialty training allows for anticipation of workforce surpluses and deficits.

  2. "Climate change impact on water resources - a challenge for IWRM". BRAHMATWINN - Twinning European and South Asian River Basins to enhance capacity and implement adaptive management approaches (United States)

    Bartosch, A.; Pechstädt, J.; Müller Schmied, H.; Flügel, W.-A.


    BRAHMATWINN addresses climate change impact of the hydrology of two macro-scale river basins having headwaters in alpine mountain massifs. The project will elaborate on the consequential vulnerability of present IWRM and river basin management that have been persistent in these basins during the past decades and will develop tested approaches and technologies for adaptive IWRM and resilience. The overall objective of BRAHMATWINN is to enhance and improve capacity to carry out a harmonized integrated water resources management (IWRM) approach as addressed by the European Water Initiative (EWI) in headwater river systems of alpine mountain massifs in respect to impacts from likely climate change, and to transfer professional IWRM expertise, approaches and tools based on case studies carried out in twinning European and Asian river basins, the Upper Danube River Basin (UDRB) and the Upper Brahmaputra River Basin (UBRB). Sustainable IWRM in river basins of such kind face common problems: (i) floods e.g. during spring melt or heavy storms and droughts during summer; (ii) competing water demands for agriculture, hydropower, rural, urban and industrial development, and the environment; (iii) pollution from point as well as diffuse sources; and (iv) socio-economic and legal issues related to water allocation. Besides those common topics both basins also differ in other issues requiring the adaptation of the IWRM tools; these are for example climate conditions, the density of monitoring network, political framework and trans-boundary conflicts. An IWRM has to consider all water-related issues like the securing of water supply for the population in sufficient quantity and quality, the protection of the ecological function of water bodies and it has to consider the probability of natural hazards like floods and droughts. Furthermore the resource water should be threatened in a way that the needs of future generations can be satisfied. Sustainable development is one of the

  3. Visual attention capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Starrfelt, Randi


    Psychophysical studies have identified two distinct limitations of visual attention capacity: processing speed and apprehension span. Using a simple test, these cognitive factors can be analyzed by Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention (TVA). The method has strong specificity and sensitivity......, and measurements are highly reliable. As the method is theoretically founded, it also has high validity. TVA-based assessment has recently been used to investigate a broad range of neuropsychological and neurological conditions. We present the method, including the experimental paradigm and practical guidelines...... to patient testing, and review existing TVA-based patient studies organized by lesion anatomy. Lesions in three anatomical regions affect visual capacity: The parietal lobes, frontal cortex and basal ganglia, and extrastriate cortex. Visual capacity thus depends on large, bilaterally distributed anatomical...

  4. Neurological examination in small animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Paluš


    Full Text Available This clinical review about the neurological examination in small animals describes the basics about the first steps of investigation when dealing with neurological patients. The knowledge of how to perform the neurological examination is important however more important is how to correctly interpret these performed tests. A step-by-step approach is mandatory and examiners should master the order and the style of performing these tests. Neurological conditions can be sometimes very distressing for owners and for pets that might not be the most cooperating. The role of a veterinary surgeon, as a professional, is therefore to collect the most relevant history, to examine a patient in a professional manner and to give to owners an educated opinion about the further treatment and prognosis. However neurological examinations might look challenging for many. But it is only the clinical application of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology to an every-day situation for practicing veterinarians and it does not require any specific in-to-depth knowledge. This clinical review is aimed not only to provide the information on how to perform the neurological examination but it is also aimed to appeal on veterinarians to challenge their daily routine and to start practicing on neurologically normal patients. This is the best and only way to differentiate between the normal and abnormal in a real situation.

  5. Locomotor adaptability in persons with unilateral transtibial amputation. (United States)

    Darter, Benjamin J; Bastian, Amy J; Wolf, Erik J; Husson, Elizabeth M; Labrecque, Bethany A; Hendershot, Brad D


    Locomotor adaptation enables walkers to modify strategies when faced with challenging walking conditions. While a variety of neurological injuries can impair locomotor adaptability, the effect of a lower extremity amputation on adaptability is poorly understood. Determine if locomotor adaptability is impaired in persons with unilateral transtibial amputation (TTA). The locomotor adaptability of 10 persons with a TTA and 8 persons without an amputation was tested while walking on a split-belt treadmill with the parallel belts running at the same (tied) or different (split) speeds. In the split condition, participants walked for 15 minutes with the respective belts moving at 0.5 m/s and 1.5 m/s. Temporal spatial symmetry measures were used to evaluate reactive accommodations to the perturbation, and the adaptive/de-adaptive response. Persons with TTA and the reference group of persons without amputation both demonstrated highly symmetric walking at baseline. During the split adaptation and tied post-adaptation walking both groups responded with the expected reactive accommodations. Likewise, adaptive and de-adaptive responses were observed. The magnitude and rate of change in the adaptive and de-adaptive responses were similar for persons with TTA and those without an amputation. Furthermore, adaptability was no different based on belt assignment for the prosthetic limb during split adaptation walking. Reactive changes and locomotor adaptation in response to a challenging and novel walking condition were similar in persons with TTA to those without an amputation. Results suggest persons with TTA have the capacity to modify locomotor strategies to meet the demands of most walking conditions despite challenges imposed by an amputation and use of a prosthetic limb.

  6. Neurological Manifestations of Dengue Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Hong Li


    Full Text Available Dengue counts among the most commonly encountered arboviral diseases, representing the fastest spreading tropical illness in the world. It is prevalent in 128 countries, and each year >2.5 billion people are at risk of dengue virus infection worldwide. Neurological signs of dengue infection are increasingly reported. In this review, the main neurological complications of dengue virus infection, such as central nervous system (CNS, peripheral nervous system, and ophthalmic complications were discussed according to clinical features, treatment and possible pathogenesis. In addition, neurological complications in children were assessed due to their atypical clinical features. Finally, dengue infection and Japanese encephalitis were compared for pathogenesis and main clinical manifestations.

  7. A century of Dutch neurology. (United States)

    Koehler, P J; Bruyn, G W; Moffie, D


    The Netherlands Society of Neurology evolved from the Society of Psychiatry founded in 1871. The name was changed into Netherlands Society of Psychiatry and Neurology (NSPN) in 1897. In the same year, the word neurology was also added to the name of the journal. The Society steadily blossomed, but in 1909 the first signs of dissatisfaction occurred: the Amsterdam Neurologists Society was founded. A few split-offs would follow. The number of members of the NSPN increased from 205 in 1920 to 585 in 1960. In the early 1960s, the Society was reorganised and would consist of two sections, one for psychiatry and one for neurology. However, this would not last, as a full separation was established in 1974. For several reasons, the name of the journal was changed four times until it assumed its present name in 1974. The 100th volume of CNN was not published, as expected. in 1996, but in 1998, because of two skipped publication years, one during WWII and another in the 1970s. During the last decades of the nineteenth century, teaching of neurology was mostly given within the frame of psychiatry, following the German tradition of 'brainpsychiatry' (organic or biologic psychiatry). The first official chair of psychiatry was founded at Utrecht, 1893 (Winkler). In Amsterdam, private teachers such as Delprat taught 'electro-therapy and nervous diseases' since the 1880s. The first extraordinary chair of neurology and electrotherapy was founded for his successor, Wertheim Salomonson in 1899. The first university clinic for psychiatry and neurology started at the Amsterdam Municipal University, when Winkler became professor of psychiatry and neurology in Amsterdam in 1896. Around the turn of the century, chairs of psychiatry and neurology were also founded in Groningen and Leiden. Separate chairs for neurology and psychiatry appeared in Amsterdam in 1923 and in Utrecht in 1936. Following an initiative of Brouwer, the first neurological university clinic opened its doors in

  8. Why neurology? Factors which influence career choice in neurology. (United States)

    Albert, Dara V; Hoyle, Chad; Yin, Han; McCoyd, Matthew; Lukas, Rimas V


    To evaluate the factors which influence the decision to pursue a career in neurology. An anonymous survey was developed using a Likert scale to rate responses. The survey was sent to adult and child neurology faculty, residents and fellows, as well as medical students applying for neurology. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the factors of influence. Respondents were subsequently categorized into pre-neurology trainees, neurology trainees, child neurologists and adult neurologists, and differences between the groups were analysed using Pearson's chi-square test. One hundred and thirty-three anonymous responses were received. The respondents were neurologists across all levels of training and practice. Across all respondents, the most common factor of high importance was intellectual content of specialty, challenging diagnostic problems, type of patient encountered and interest in helping people. Responses were similar across the groups; however, the earliest trainees cited interest in helping people as most important, while those in neurology training and beyond cite intellectual content of the specialty as most important. As trainees transition from their earliest levels of clinical experience into working as residents and faculty, there is a shift in the cited important factors. Lifestyle and financial factors seem to be the least motivating across all groups. Encouragement from peers, mentors, faculty and practicing physicians is considered high influences in a smaller number of neurologists. This may present an opportunity for practicing neurologists to make connections with medical students early in their education in an effort to encourage and mentor candidates.

  9. Milestone-compatible neurology resident assessments: A role for observable practice activities. (United States)

    Jones, Lyell K; Dimberg, Elliot L; Boes, Christopher J; Eggers, Scott D Z; Dodick, David W; Cutsforth-Gregory, Jeremy K; Leep Hunderfund, Andrea N; Capobianco, David J


    Beginning in 2014, US neurology residency programs were required to report each trainee's educational progression within 29 neurology Milestone competency domains. Trainee assessment systems will need to be adapted to inform these requirements. The primary aims of this study were to validate neurology resident assessment content using observable practice activities (OPAs) and to develop assessment formats easily translated to the Neurology Milestones. A modified Delphi technique was used to establish consensus perceptions of importance of 73 neurology OPAs among neurology educators and trainees at 3 neurology residency programs. A content validity score (CVS) was derived for each neurology OPA, with scores ≥4.0 determined in advance to indicate sufficient content validity. The mean CVS for all OPAs was 4.4 (range 3.5-5.0). Fifty-seven (78%) OPAs had a CVS ≥4.0, leaving 16 (22%) below the pre-established threshold for content validity. Trainees assigned a higher importance to individual OPAs (mean CVS 4.6) compared to faculty (mean 4.4, p = 0.016), but the effect size was small (η(2) = 0.10). There was no demonstrated effect of length of education experience on perceived importance of neurology OPAs (p = 0.23). Two sample resident assessment formats were developed, one using neurology OPAs alone and another using a combination of neurology OPAs and the Neurology Milestones. This study provides neurology training programs with content validity evidence for items to include in resident assessments, and sample assessment formats that directly translate to the Neurology Milestones. Length of education experience has little effect on perceptions of neurology OPA importance. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  10. Neurologic Complications of Smallpox Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available Smallpox and smallpox vaccination is reviewed from the Departments of Neurology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, and University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque.

  11. Neurological complication in HIV patients (United States)

    Ritarwan, K.


    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is neurotropic and immunotropic, making themassive destruction of both systems. Although their amount has been reduced, there is still neurological presentations and complications of HIV remain common in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Neurological opportunistic infections (OI) occur in advanced HIV diseases such as primary cerebral lymphoma, cryptococcal meningitis, cerebral toxoplasmosis, and progressive multifocal encephalopathy. Neurological problem directly related to HIV appear at any stage in the progress of HIV disease, from AIDS-associated dementia to the aseptic meningitis of primary HIV infection observed in subjects with an immune deficiency. The replication of peripheral HIV viral is able to be controlled in the era of effective antiretroviral therapy. Non-HIV-related neurological disease such as stroke increased important as the HIV population ages.

  12. Neurological complications following bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Dadalti Fragoso


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: It was to report on Brazilian cases of neurological complications from bariatric surgery. The literature on the subject is scarce. METHOD: Cases attended by neurologists in eight different Brazilian cities were collected and described in the present study. RESULTS: Twenty-six cases were collected in this study. Axonal polyneuropathy was the most frequent neurological complication, but cases of central demyelination, Wernicke syndrome, optical neuritis, radiculits, meralgia paresthetica and compressive neuropathies were also identified. Twenty-one patients (80% had partial or no recovery from the neurological signs and symptoms. CONCLUSION: Bariatric surgery, a procedure that is continuously increasing in popularity, is not free of potential neurological complications that should be clearly presented to the individual undergoing this type of surgery. Although a clear cause-effect relation cannot be established for the present cases, the cumulative literature on the subject makes it important to warn the patient of the potential risks of this procedure.

  13. Neurologic disorder and criminal responsibility. (United States)

    Yaffe, Gideon


    Sufferers from neurologic and psychiatric disorders are not uncommonly defendants in criminal trials. This chapter surveys a variety of different ways in which neurologic disorder bears on criminal responsibility. It discusses the way in which a neurologic disorder might bear on the questions of whether or not the defendant acted voluntarily; whether or not he or she was in the mental state that is required for guilt for the crime; and whether or not he or she is deserving of an insanity defense. The discussion demonstrates that a just determination of whether a sufferer from a neurologic disorder is diminished in his or her criminal responsibility for harmful conduct requires equal appreciation of the nature of the relevant disorder and its impact on behavior, on the one hand, and of the legal import of facts about the psychologic mechanisms through which behavior is generated, on the other. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. African Journal of Neurological Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Neurological Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 28, No 1 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. African Journal of Neurological Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Neurological Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 31, No 2 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. African Journal of Neurological Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Neurological Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 29, No 2 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  17. African Journal of Neurological Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Neurological Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 31, No 1 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  18. African Journal of Neurological Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Neurological Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 30, No 1 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. Historical perspective of Indian neurology. (United States)

    Mishra, Shrikant; Trikamji, Bhavesh; Singh, Sandeep; Singh, Parampreet; Nair, Rajasekharan


    To chronicle the history of medicine and neurology in India with a focus on its establishment and evolution. THE HISTORY OF NEUROLOGY IN INDIA IS DIVIDED INTO TWO PERIODS: ancient and modern. The ancient period dates back to the mid-second millennium Before Christ (B.C.) during the creation of the Ayurvedic Indian system of Medicine, which detailed descriptions of neurological disorders called Vata Vyadhi. The early 20(th) century witnessed the birth of modern Indian medicine with the onset of formal physician training at the nation's first allopathic medical colleges located in Madras (1835), Calcutta (1835) and Mumbai (1848). Prior to India's independence from Britain in 1947, only 25 medical schools existed in the entire country. Today, there are over 355. In 1951, physicians across the field of neurology and neurosurgery united to create the Neurological Society of India (NSI). Four decades later in 1991, neurologists branched out to establish a separate organization called the Indian Academy of Neurology (IAN). Information was gathered through literature review using PubMed, MD Consult, OVID, primary texts and research at various academic institutions in India. Neurological disorders were first described in ancient India under Ayurveda. The transition to modern medicine occurred more recently through formal training at medical schools beginning in the 1930's. Early pioneers and founders of the NSI (1951) include Dr. Jacob Chandy, Dr. B Ramamurthi, Dr. S. T. Narasimhan and Dr. Baldev Singh. Later, Dr. J. S. Chopra, a prominent neurologist and visionary, recognized the need for primary centers of collaboration and subsequently established the IAN (1991). The future of Neurology in India is growing rapidly. Currently, there are 1100 practicing neurologists and more than 150 post-graduate trainees who join the ranks every year. As the number of neurologists rises across India, there is an increase in the amount of basic, clinical and epidemiological research being

  20. Historical perspective of Indian neurology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikant Mishra


    Full Text Available Objective: To chronicle the history of medicine and neurology in India with a focus on its establishment and evolution. Background: The history of neurology in India is divided into two periods: ancient and modern. The ancient period dates back to the mid-second millennium Before Christ (B.C. during the creation of the Ayurvedic Indian system of Medicine, which detailed descriptions of neurological disorders called Vata Vyadhi. The early 20 th century witnessed the birth of modern Indian medicine with the onset of formal physician training at the nation′s first allopathic medical colleges located in Madras (1835, Calcutta (1835 and Mumbai (1848. Prior to India′s independence from Britain in 1947, only 25 medical schools existed in the entire country. Today, there are over 355. In 1951, physicians across the field of neurology and neurosurgery united to create the Neurological Society of India (NSI. Four decades later in 1991, neurologists branched out to establish a separate organization called the Indian Academy of Neurology (IAN. Design/Methods: Information was gathered through literature review using PubMed, MD Consult, OVID, primary texts and research at various academic institutions in India. Results: Neurological disorders were first described in ancient India under Ayurveda. The transition to modern medicine occurred more recently through formal training at medical schools beginning in the 1930′s. Early pioneers and founders of the NSI (1951 include Dr. Jacob Chandy, Dr. B Ramamurthi, Dr. S. T. Narasimhan and Dr. Baldev Singh. Later, Dr. J. S. Chopra, a prominent neurologist and visionary, recognized the need for primary centers of collaboration and subsequently established the IAN (1991. The future of Neurology in India is growing rapidly. Currently, there are 1100 practicing neurologists and more than 150 post-graduate trainees who join the ranks every year. As the number of neurologists rises across India, there is an increase in

  1. Hippocrates: the forefather of neurology. (United States)

    Breitenfeld, T; Jurasic, M J; Breitenfeld, D


    Hippocrates is one of the most influential medical doctors of all times. He started observing and experimenting in times of mysticism and magic. He carried a holistic and humanitarian approach to the patient with examination as the principal approach-inspection, palpation and auscultation are still the most important tools in diagnosing algorithms of today. He had immense experience with the human body most likely due to numerous wound treatments he had performed; some even believe he performed autopsies despite the negative trend at the time. Hippocrates identified the brain as the analyst of the outside world, the interpreter of consciousness and the center of intelligence and willpower. Interestingly, Hippocrates was aware of many valid concepts in neurology; his treatise On the Sacred Disease was the most important for understanding neurology and epilepsy. His other ideas pioneered modern day neurology mentioning neurological diseases like apoplexy, spondylitis, hemiplegia, and paraplegia. Today, 10 % of neurological Pubmed and 7 % of neuroscience Scopus reviews mention Corpus Hippocraticum as one of the sources. Therefore, Hippocrates may be considered as the forefather of neurology.

  2. Adaptive steganography (United States)

    Chandramouli, Rajarathnam; Li, Grace; Memon, Nasir D.


    Steganalysis techniques attempt to differentiate between stego-objects and cover-objects. In recent work we developed an explicit analytic upper bound for the steganographic capacity of LSB based steganographic techniques for a given false probability of detection. In this paper we look at adaptive steganographic techniques. Adaptive steganographic techniques take explicit steps to escape detection. We explore different techniques that can be used to adapt message embedding to the image content or to a known steganalysis technique. We investigate the advantages of adaptive steganography within an analytical framework. We also give experimental results with a state-of-the-art steganalysis technique demonstrating that adaptive embedding results in a significant number of bits embedded without detection.

  3. Neurological and ocular fascioliasis in humans. (United States)

    Mas-Coma, Santiago; Agramunt, Verónica H; Valero, María Adela


    Fascioliasis is a food-borne parasitic disease caused by the trematode species Fasciola hepatica, distributed worldwide, and Fasciola gigantica, restricted to given regions of Africa and Asia. This disease in humans shows an increasing importance, which relies on its recent widespread emergence related to climate and global changes and also on its pathogenicity in the invasive, biliary, and advanced chronic phases in the human endemic areas, mainly of developing countries. In spite of the large neurological affection capacity of Fasciola, this important pathogenic aspect of the disease has been pronouncedly overlooked in the past decades and has not even appear within the numerous reviews on the parasitic diseases of the central nervous system. The aim of this wide retrospective review is an in-depth analysis of the characteristics of neurological and ocular fascioliasis caused by these two fasciolid species. The terms of neurofascioliasis and ophthalmofascioliasis are restricted to cases in which the direct affection of the central nervous system or the eye by a migrant ectopic fasciolid fluke is demonstrated by an aetiological diagnosis of recovered flukes after surgery or spontaneous moving-out of the fluke through the orbit. Cases in which the ectopic fluke is not recovered and the symptoms cannot be explained by an indirect affection at distance may also be included in these terms. Neurofascioliasis and ophthalmofascioliasis cases are reviewed and discussed. With regard to fascioliasis infection giving an indirect rise to neurological affection, the distribution and frequency of cases are analysed according to geography, sex, and age. Minor symptoms and major manifestations are discussed. Three main types of cases are distinguished depending on the characteristics of their manifestations: genuine neurological, meningeal, and psychiatric or neuropsychic. The impressive symptoms and signs appearing in each type of these cases are included. Brain examination

  4. Systematic analysis of adaptations in aerobic capacity and submaximal energy metabolism provides a unique insight into determinants of human aerobic performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollaard, Niels B J; Constantin-Teodosiu, Dimitru; Fredriksson, Katarina


    It has not been established which physiological processes contribute to endurance training-related changes (Delta) in aerobic performance. For example, the relationship between intramuscular metabolic responses at the intensity used during training and improved human functional capacity has...... not been examined in a longitudinal study. In the present study we hypothesized that improvements in aerobic capacity (Vo(2max)) and metabolic control would combine equally to explain enhanced aerobic performance. Twenty-four sedentary males (24 +/- 2 yr; 1.81 +/- 0.08 m; 76.6 +/- 11.3 kg) undertook...... unrelated to the change in aerobic performance. The maximal parameters DeltaVe(max) and DeltaVeq(max) (DeltaVe/Vo(2max)) accounted for 64% of the variance in DeltaVo(2max) (P

  5. The French capacity mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The French capacity mechanism has been design to ensure security of supply in the context of the energy transition. This energy transition challenges the electricity market design with several features: peak load growth, the development of renewables, demand response,... To ensure security of supply in this context, a capacity mechanism is being implemented in France. It is a market wide capacity obligation on electricity suppliers, based on market principles. Suppliers are responsible for forecasting their obligation, which corresponds to their contribution to winter peak load, and must procure enough capacity certificates to meet their obligations. Capacity certificates are granted to capacities through a certification process, which assesses their contribution to security of supply on the basis of availability commitments. This certification process is technology neutral and performance based, associated with controls and penalties in case of non compliance. Demand Side is fully integrated in the market, either through the reduction of suppliers' capacity obligation or direct participation after certification. In addition to the expected benefits in terms of security of supply, the French capacity market will foster the development of demand response. The participation of foreign capacities will require adaptations which are scheduled in a road-map, and could pave the way for further European integration of energy policies. (authors)

  6. A hyperacute neurology team - transforming emergency neurological care. (United States)

    Nitkunan, Arani; MacDonald, Bridget K; Boodhoo, Ajay; Tomkins, Andrew; Smyth, Caitlin; Southam, Medina; Schon, Fred


    We present the results of an 18-month study of a new model of how to care for emergency neurological admissions. We have established a hyperacute neurology team at a single district general hospital. Key features are a senior acute neurology nurse coordinator, an exclusively consultant-delivered service, acute epilepsy nurses, an acute neurophysiology service supported by neuroradiology and acute physicians and based within the acute medical admissions unit. Key improvements are a major increase in the number of patients seen, the speed with which they are seen and the percentage seen on acute medical unit before going to the general wards. We have shown a reduced length of stay and readmission rates for patients with epilepsy. Epilepsy accounted for 30% of all referrals. The cost implications of running this service are modest. We feel that this model is worthy of widespread consideration. © Royal College of Physicians 2017. All rights reserved.

  7. The neurological basis of occupation. (United States)

    Gutman, Sharon A; Schindler, Victoria P


    The purpose of the present paper was to survey the literature about the neurological basis of human activity and its relationship to occupation and health. Activities related to neurological function were organized into three categories: those that activate the brain's reward system; those that promote the relaxation response; and those that preserve cognitive function into old age. The results from the literature review correlating neurological evidence and activities showed that purposeful and meaningful activities could counter the effects of stress-related diseases and reduce the risk for dementia. Specifically, it was found that music, drawing, meditation, reading, arts and crafts, and home repairs, for example, can stimulate the neurogical system and enhance health and well-being, Prospective research studies are needed to examine the effects of purposeful activities on reducing stress and slowing the rate of cognitive decline.

  8. [Neurologic aspects of vibration syndrome]. (United States)

    Langauer-Lewowicka, H; Zajac-Nedza, M


    The authors present divergent opinions on the pathogenesis of vibratory syndrome, and primarily on its angio-neurological form, i.e. vascular, neurogenic and immunological theory. In the light of these concepts the clinical manifestations of vibratory syndrome are discussed in view of both systemic and local developments. The issues concerning neurological diagnostics with reference to the usefulness of electrophysiological methods are thoroughly analysed. Difficulties in early diagnosis and identification of symptoms that distinguish vibratory syndrome from other syndromes with similar manifestations are highlighted.

  9. Neurological manifestations in Fabry's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anette Torvin; Jensen, Troels Staehelin


    . Neurological symptoms, such as burning sensations (occasionally accompanied by acroparesthesia) and stroke, are among the first to appear, and occur in both male and female patients. A delay in establishing the diagnosis of Fabry's disease can cause unnecessary problems, especially now that enzyme replacement...... treatment is available to prevent irreversible organ damage. Females with Fabry's disease who present with pain have often been ignored and misdiagnosed because of the disorder's X-linked inheritance. This Review will stress the importance of recognizing neurological symptoms for the diagnosis of Fabry...

  10. Neurological manifestation of colonic adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzair Chaudhary


    Full Text Available Paraneoplastic neurologic disorders are extremely rare in cancer patients and are most commonly associated with certain tumors, such as ovarian cancer, small cell lung cancer, and breast cancer. We report here a paraneoplastic neurological syndrome in a 53-year-old man with colonic adenocarcinoma with a solitary liver metastasis. His paraneoplastic syndrome was successfully treated by methylprednisolone and primary oncologic therapies including neoadjuvant chemotherapy and definitive surgery. This is also the first documented case of simultaneous manifestation of a sensory neuropathy and limbic encephalitis with colon cancer.

  11. Challenges to neurology residency education in today's health care environment. (United States)

    Bega, Danny; Krainc, Dimitri


    Residency training has had to adapt to higher patient volumes, increased complexity of medical care, and the commercialized system of health care. These changes have led to a concerning culture shift in neurology. We review the relationship between the emerging health care delivery system and residency training, highlighting issues related to duty hours and work-life balance, the changing technological landscape, high patient volumes, and complex service obligations. We propose that the current challenges in health care delivery offer the opportunity to improve neurology residency through faculty development programs, bringing teaching back to the bedside, increasing resident autonomy, utilizing near-peer teaching, and rewarding educators who facilitate an environment of inquiry and scholarship, with the ultimate goal of better alignment between education and patient care. Ann Neurol 2016;80:315-320. © 2016 American Neurological Association.

  12. Protective Effects of Ginseng on Neurological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Yi eOng


    Full Text Available Ginseng (Order: Apiales, Family: Araliaceae, Genus: Panax has been used as a traditional herbal medicine for over 2000 years, and is recorded to have antianxiety, antidepressant and cognition enhancing properties. The protective effect of ginseng on neurological disorders is discussed in this review. Ginseng species and ginsenosides, and their intestinal metabolism and bioavailability are briefly introduced. This is followed by molecular mechanisms of effects of ginseng on the brain, including glutamatergic transmission, monoamine transmission, estrogen signaling, nitric oxide production, the Keap1/Nrf2 adaptive cellular stress pathway, neuronal survival, apoptosis, neural stem cells and neuroregeneration, microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and cerebral microvessels. The molecular mechanisms of the neuroprotective effects of ginseng in Alzheimer’s disease including Aβ formation, tau hyperphosphorylation and oxidative stress, major depression, stroke, Parkinson’s disease and multiple sclerosis / experimental allergic encephalitis are then presented. It is hoped that this discussion will stimulate more studies on the use of ginseng in these disorders.

  13. An ‘innovation-cycle framework’ of integrated agricultural knowledge system and innovation for improving farmers’climate change adaptation and risk mitigation capacities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Md Zillur


    and the increased risks of safe agricultural food production, sustainable environment and health, it will be unprecedented challenges due to increasing demand for safe food supply for future growing population in Bangladesh. Studies show that producers (farmers) are still lagging behind with lack of necessary...... capacities including shortage of adequate knowledge of understanding in both ‘environmental’ and ‘health’ risks, which are contributing to excessive use of pesticides, fertilizers and agrochemicals for agricultural production, mixing of prohibited or hazardous chemicals with foods and foodstuffs for food...... adulteration, post-harvest preservation, and processing without being sufficiently aware of health and environmental consequences. To address the issue, very little investigations were done to understand how producers’ perception and ignorance of risks are interconnected to the ways of their risky behaviour...

  14. Livelihood asset maps: a multidimensional approach to measuring risk-management capacity and adaptation policy targeting—a case study in Bhutan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian Thor


    to the fact that some areas facing increased level of climate-related risks lack access to productive and human capital, while other areas facing a similar situation have relatively insufficient access to financial assets. This again shows that any non-targeted policy aiming at improving households’ risk-management......The application of a livelihood asset-based approach to adaptation policy targeting is presented through the creation of maps highlighting the spatial contrasts of access to various types of livelihood assets utilizing primary household data. Thus, the livelihood maps provide policy......-makers with a tool to quickly identify areas with limited access to certain types of assets, making the latter less able to react to a changing level of climaterelated risks. In the case of Bhutan, distinct spatial patterns of asset endowments is identified using five different asset indicators drawing attention...

  15. Hypnosis as therapy for functional neurologic disorders. (United States)

    Deeley, Q


    treatment approaches, such as cognitive-behavioral, rehabilitative, or psychodynamic therapy. Suggestions are generally symptom-focused (designed to resolve a symptom) or exploratory (using methods such as revivification or age regression to explore experiences associated with symptom onset). The evidence base is dominated by case studies and series, with a paucity of randomized controlled trials. Future evaluation studies should allow for the fact that suggestion with or without hypnosis is a component of broader treatment interventions adapted to a wide range of symptoms and presentations. An important role of the concept of suggestion in the management of functional neurologic symptoms is to raise awareness of how interactions with clinicians and wider clinical contexts can alter expectancies and beliefs of patients in ways that influence the onset, course, and remission of symptoms. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Education Research: Neurology training reassessed (United States)

    Maas, Matthew B.; Coleman, Mary; Jozefowicz, Ralph; Engstrom, John


    Objective: To assess the strengths and weaknesses of neurology resident education using survey methodology. Methods: A 27-question survey was sent to all neurology residents completing residency training in the United States in 2011. Results: Of eligible respondents, 49.8% of residents returned the survey. Most residents believed previously instituted duty hour restrictions had a positive impact on resident quality of life without impacting patient care. Most residents rated their faculty and clinical didactics favorably. However, many residents reported suboptimal preparation in basic neuroscience and practice management issues. Most residents (71%) noted that the Residency In-service Training Examination (RITE) assisted in self-study. A minority of residents (14%) reported that the RITE scores were used for reasons other than self-study. The vast majority (86%) of residents will enter fellowship training following residency and were satisfied with the fellowship offers they received. Conclusions: Graduating residents had largely favorable neurology training experiences. Several common deficiencies include education in basic neuroscience and clinical practice management. Importantly, prior changes to duty hours did not negatively affect the resident perception of neurology residency training. PMID:23091077

  17. Edgar Allan Poe and neurology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Afonso Ghizoni Teive


    Full Text Available Edgar Allan Poe was one of the most celebrated writers of all time. He published several masterpieces, some of which include references to neurological diseases. Poe suffered from recurrent depression, suggesting a bipolar disorder, as well as alcohol and drug abuse, which in fact led to his death from complications related to alcoholism. Various hypotheses were put forward, including Wernicke's encephalopathy.

  18. [Neurology in medieval regimina sanitatis]. (United States)

    de Frutos González, V; Guerrero Peral, A L


    In medical medieval literature some works about dietetics stand out. Dietetics, as a separate branch of medicine, includes not only food or drinks, but other environmental factors influencing on health. They are known as regimina sanitatis or salutis, and specially developed in the Christian west. They generally consisted of a balance between the Galenic "six non-natural things"; factors regulating health and its protection: environment, exercise, food, sleep, bowel movements and emotions. After reviewing the sources and defining the different stages of this genre, we have considered three of the most out-standing medieval regimina, the anonymous Regimen sanitatis salernitanum, Arnaldo de Vilanova's Regimen sanitatis ad regem aragonum and Bernardo de Gordon's Tractatus of conservatione vite humane. In them we review references to neurological disease. Though not independently considered, there is a significant presence of neurological diseases in the regimina. Dietetics measures are proposed to preserve memory, nerves, or hearing, as well as for the treatment of migraine, epilepsy, stroke or dizziness. Regimina are quiet representative among medical medieval literature, and they show medieval physicians vision of neurological diseases. Dietetics was considered useful to preserve health, and therapeutics was based on natural remedies. 2010 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. [Neurology of hysteria (conversion disorder)]. (United States)

    Sonoo, Masahiro


    Hysteria has served as an important driving force in the development of both neurology and psychiatry. Jean Martin Charcot's devotion to mesmerism for treating hysterical patients evoked the invention of psychoanalysis by Sigmund Freud. Meanwhile, Joseph Babinski took over the challenge to discriminate between organic and hysterical patients from Charcot and found Babinski's sign, the greatest milestone in modern neurological symptomatology. Nowadays, the usage of the term hysteria is avoided. However, new terms and new classifications are complicated and inconsistent between the two representative taxonomies, the DSM-IV and ICD-10. In the ICD-10, even the alternative term conversion disorder, which was becoming familiar to neurologists, has also disappeared as a group name. The diagnosis of hysteria remains important in clinical neurology. Extensive exclusive diagnoses and over investigation, including various imaging studies, should be avoided because they may prolong the disease course and fix their symptoms. Psychological reasons that seem to explain the conversion are not considered reliable. Positive neurological signs suggesting nonorganic etiologies are the most reliable measures for diagnosing hysteria, as Babinski first argued. Hysterical paresis has several characteristics, such as giving-way weakness or peculiar distributions of weakness. Signs to uncover nonorganic paresis utilizing synergy include Hoover's test and the Sonoo abductor test.

  20. International electives in neurology training (United States)

    Lyons, Jennifer L.; Coleman, Mary E.; Engstrom, John W.


    Objective: To ascertain the current status of global health training and humanitarian relief opportunities in US and Canadian postgraduate neurology programs. Background: There is a growing interest among North American trainees to pursue medical electives in low- and middle-income countries. Such training opportunities provide many educational and humanitarian benefits but also pose several challenges related to organization, human resources, funding, and trainee and patient safety. The current support and engagement of neurology postgraduate training programs for trainees to pursue international rotations is unknown. Methods: A survey was distributed to all program directors in the United States and Canada (December 2012–February 2013) through the American Academy of Neurology to assess the training opportunities, institutional partnerships, and support available for international neurology electives. Results: Approximately half of responding programs (53%) allow residents to pursue global health–related electives, and 11% reported that at least 1 trainee participated in humanitarian relief during training (survey response rate 61%, 143/234 program directors). Canadian programs were more likely to allow residents to pursue international electives than US programs (10/11, 91% vs 65/129, 50%, p = 0.023). The number of trainees participating in international electives was low: 0%–9% of residents (55% of programs) and 10%–19% of residents (21% of programs). Lack of funding was the most commonly cited reason for residents not participating in global health electives. If funding was available, 93% of program directors stated there would be time for residents to participate. Most program directors (75%) were interested in further information on global health electives. Conclusions: In spite of high perceived interest, only half of US neurology training programs include international electives, mostly due to a reported lack of funding. By contrast, the majority

  1. Developing adaptive capacity for responding to environmental change in the Arab Gulf States: Uncertainties to linking ecosystem conservation, sustainable development and society in authoritarian rentier economies (United States)

    Spiess, Andy


    The recent assessment by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has emphasized that understanding the institutional context in which policies are made and implemented is critical to define sustainable development paths from a climate change perspective. Nevertheless, while the importance of social, political and cultural factors is getting more recognition in some parts of the world, little is known about the human dimensions or the contexts in which they operate in the affluent oil economies of the Arabian Peninsula. Policies that implicitly subsidize or support a wasteful and environmentally destructive use of resources are still pervasive, while noteworthy environmental improvements still face formidable political and institutional constraints to the adaptation of the necessary far reaching and multisectoral approach. The principal aim of this paper is to identify some of the major shortcomings within the special context of the Arab Gulf states' socio-cultural environment in support of appropriate development pathways. Conclusions highlight that past and current policy recommendations for mitigating environmental threats are likely to be ineffective. This is because they are based on the unverified assumption that Western-derived standards of conduct, specifically the normative concept of "good governance" and "democracy", will be adopted in non-Western politico-cultural contexts.

  2. [Depression in children at the beginning of school education. Prevalence of the phenomenon and its relation to the child's adaptive capacity]. (United States)

    Bomba, J; Jaklewicz, H


    Depression in children has an unfavourable influence on the psychosocial development of the individual, therefore it requires suitable therapeutic and prophylactic approach. The dependencies between school-age immaturity and the prevalence of depression in children were evaluated in the prospective study. The school maturity, and one year later the prevalence of depression were studied in a representative sample of 502 "0"-grade children from the large urban population. The school immaturity was found in 10.56% of probands. More common symptoms were: withdrawal and antisocial behaviour. Depression was found in 32.79% of first-grade students, more frequent children with adaptation difficulties, especially among school-immature boys. The premature biological development, the symptoms of organic brain damage, and low I.Q. do not explain sufficiently neither the school-immaturity nor the prevalence of depression in children. It was found that emotional and social immaturity to the school duties facilitates the onset of depression among I grade students, while the role of the family and school in the genesis of both phenomena studied requires further investigations.

  3. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex


    the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimal platform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station......Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore...... for platform tracks and the probability that arriving trains will not get a platform track immediately at arrival. The third method is a scalable method that analyzes the conflicts in the switch zone(s). In its simplest stage, the method just analyzes the track layout while the more advanced stages also take...

  4. Hotter and drier conditions in the near future (2010-2035) might paradoxically improve the general adaptive capacity of a viticultural social-ecological system in Roussillon, southern France, exposed to long-term climatic and economic changes (United States)

    Lereboullet, Anne-Laure; Beltrando, Gérard


    Background: Wine production in Roussillon, southern France, has been subjected to deep structural changes in cultural practices since the 1970's, due to changes in demand and market organization. In this Mediterranean region, temperature and rainfall parameters have long been adapted to fortified wine production, but might be less suited to dry wine production, which is nowadays prevailing. The wine industry in Roussillon can be studied as a social-ecological system where local economical and social characteristics are strongly linked to physical inputs. Thus changes in climate, especially warming and drying trends that have been detected and projected by the IPCC in the Mediterranean basin, may disrupt the local economy and social organization in the long term. The aim of our study is to assess the role played by recent (1956-2010) and near-future (2010-2035) changes in temperature and rainfall inputs in the evolution of the system's adaptive capacity to combined long term climatic and economic changes. Methods: Our study combined quantitative and qualitative data. We first assessed recent exposure to climate change by analysing change in daily data of temperature and rainfall observed in Perpignan weather station from 1956 to 2010. Thirty-nine in-depth interviews with local producers and key stakeholders of the local wine industry helped us understand the impacts of recent climatic conditions in the system's adaptive capacity. Then, we measured future changes in temperature and rainfall based on daily data simulated by ARPEGE-Climat (SCRATCH10 dataset) at an 8-km spatial scale, for emission scenarios A2, A1B and B1, up to 2060. Based on the impacts of recent changes in the system, we inferred the possible impacts of future climate change on the system's equilibrium. Results and discussion: Climate data analyses show that changes in temperatures and rainfall patterns have occurred in Perpignan since the mid-1980's, and that current (2001-2010) conditions are

  5. Neurology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubin, E.; Thom, A.F.


    The most used radiopharmaceuticals in encephaloscintigraphy are analysed, such as: sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate, sup(113m)In- DTPA, 203 Hg-or 197 Hg-clormerodrine and 131 I-albumin. A comparative study is made of scintiscanning of normal brain and that of pathological states. The uses of 131 I-albumin, sup(113m)In-DTPA an 169 Y - DTPA are commented in liquor spaces scintiscanning and clinical indications are given [pt

  6. Farmer innovation driven by needs and understanding: building the capacities of farmer groups for improved cooking stove construction and continued adaptation (United States)

    Uckert, G.; Hafner, J.; Graef, F.; Hoffmann, H.; Kimaro, A.; Sererya, O.; Sieber, S.


    Enhancing food security is one of the main goals of subsistence farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study investigates the implementation of improved loam-made cooking stoves and its contribution to coping and livelihood strategies. Controlled combustion, air as well as smoke flue, and heat insulation facilitate the more efficient fuel consumption of improved cooking stoves compared to traditional stoves—namely three stone fires. Although the majority of small-scale farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa rely on the free public good of firewood, the increasing time needed for collecting firewood implies high opportunity costs for productive members of the family. The primary outcomes for users of improved stoves are reduced fuel consumption, greater safety, saved time, and reduced smoke in the kitchen. The paper illustrates part of the output, outcome, and impact of a participatory action research approach for implementing improved cooking stoves. Special emphasis was put on enabling the villagers to construct their stoves without external support, hence having locally manufactured stoves made of mud, bricks, and dried grass. The impact pathway of improved cooking stoves followed the training-of-trainers concept, where members of the initially established farmer groups were trained to construct stoves on their own. Special focus was given to knowledge exchange and knowledge transfer in order to increase firewood efficiency and overall satisfaction of users of improved cook stoves. Encouraging the members to further adapt the stoves enabled them to scale-up the construction of improved cooked stoves into a business model and increase dissemination while creating income. Although many important benefits, like time and knowledge gain, were identified by the farmers after adoption of the new technology, we found adoption rates differed significantly between regions.

  7. PET and SPECT in neurology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [Groningen University Medical Center (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Ghent Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van [Groningen University Medical Center (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Otte, Andreas (ed.) [Univ. of Applied Sciences Offenburg (Germany). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology


    PET and SPECT in Neurology highlights the combined expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the investigation of neurological disorders through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. Classical neurodegenerative disorders are discussed as well as cerebrovascular disorders, brain tumors, epilepsy, head trauma, coma, sleeping disorders, and inflammatory and infectious diseases of the CNS. The latest results in nuclear brain imaging are detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical neurologist and a nuclear medicine specialist to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state-of-the-art compendium will be valuable to anybody in the field of neuroscience, from the neurologist and the radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested general practitioner and geriatrician. It is the second volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences, the other volumes covering PET and SPECT in psychiatry and in neurobiological systems.

  8. PET and SPECT in neurology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Ghent Univ.; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van; Otte, Andreas


    PET and SPECT in Neurology highlights the combined expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the investigation of neurological disorders through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. Classical neurodegenerative disorders are discussed as well as cerebrovascular disorders, brain tumors, epilepsy, head trauma, coma, sleeping disorders, and inflammatory and infectious diseases of the CNS. The latest results in nuclear brain imaging are detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical neurologist and a nuclear medicine specialist to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state-of-the-art compendium will be valuable to anybody in the field of neuroscience, from the neurologist and the radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested general practitioner and geriatrician. It is the second volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences, the other volumes covering PET and SPECT in psychiatry and in neurobiological systems.

  9. Neurological complications of infective endocarditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Sonia A.A.; Yaqub, Basim A.; Al-Deeb, Saleh M.


    We reviewed the files of 80 successive patients with native and prosthetic valve endocarditis admitted to Riyadh Armed Forces Hospital. Neurolological complications (NC) occurred in 28 (35%) patients. The valves involved were mitral in 12 (43%), aortic in eight (29%), combined mitral and aortic lesions in six (21%) and others in two (7%). The common causative organisms were Streptococci in 12 (43%), Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermides, both occurring in four (14%). Compared to the 52 infective endocarditis patients with no neurological complications (NNC), the NC occurred more frequently in male patients, those with aortic valve lesion, those with atrial fibrillation, those with delayed therapy and those with causative organisms being Streptococci or Staphylococci. Eleven patients died (39%), 12 (43%) recovered with motor sequelae, six (21%) had seizure disorder and five (18%) had full recovery. The frequency of neurological complications and mortality is comparable to those reported in the literature: however, the frequency was higher in our patients. (author)

  10. Disease mongering in neurological disorders


    Kochen, Sara Silvia; Córdoba, Marta


    “Diseases mongering”, than a simple definition would be enforced "to promote or sell disease". The main and common characteristhics of all these "diseases" is that they are amenable to treatment with drugs. So, the pharmaceutical industry redefining the concept of disease, the normal and pathological. In Neurology exploits the deepest atavistic fears of suffering and death. We select some diseases, the choise was based on lack or weak evidence in definition of disease; or cost benefit of trea...

  11. Neurological Findings in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Paydas


    Full Text Available Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN arise from genetic deficiencies at the level of pluripotent stem cells. Each of these neoplasms is a clonal stem cell disorder with specific phenotypic, genetic and clinical properties. Age is one of the most important factors in the development of symptoms and complications associated with MPNs.High white blood cell counts in chronic myelocytic leukemia also known as leukocytosis may lead to central nervous system findings. Tumors developing outside the bone marrow named as extramedullary myeloid tumors (EMMT could be detected at the initial diagnosis or during the prognosis of the disease, which may cause neurological symptoms due to pressure of leukemic cell mass on various tissues along with spinal cord. Central nervous system involvement and thrombocytopenic hemorrhage may lead to diverse neurological symptoms and findings.Transient ischemic attack and thrombotic stroke are the most common symptoms in polycythemia vera. Besides thrombosis and hemorrage, transformation to acute leukemia can cause neurological symptoms and findings. Transient ischemic attack, thrombotic stroke and specifically hemorrage can give rise to neurological symptoms similar to MPN in essential thrombocytosis.Extramedullary hematopoiesis refers to hematopoietic centers arise in organ/tissues other than bone marrow in myelofibrosis. Extramedullar hematopoietic centers may cause intracranial involvement, spinal cord compression, seizures and hydrocephalia. Though rare, extramedullary hematopoiesis can be detected in cranial/spinal meninges, paraspinal tissue and intracerebral regions. Extramedullary hematopoiesis has been reported in peripheral neurons, choroid plexus, pituitary, orbits, orbital and lacrimal fossa and in sphenoidal sinuses. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(2.000: 157-169

  12. Aphasia, Just a Neurological Disorder?


    Mehmet Ozdemir


    Hashimoto%u2019s encephalopathy (HE) is a rare disorder associated with autoimmune thyroiditis. Etiology of HE is not completely understood. High levels of serum antithyroid antibodies are seen in HE. Presentation with otoimmune thyroiditis, cognitive impairment, psychiatric and neurologic symptoms and absence of bacterial or viral enfections are characteristics of HE. HE is a steroid responsive encephalopathy. 60 years old male patient admitted to hospital with forget fulness continuing for ...

  13. Assessing the capacity of growth, survival, and acid adaptive response of Listeria monocytogenes during storage of various cheeses and subsequent simulated gastric digestion. (United States)

    Kapetanakou, Anastasia E; Gkerekou, Maria A; Vitzilaiou, Eirini S; Skandamis, Panagiotis N


    Different physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of cheeses may affect Listeria monocytogenes potential to grow, survive, or exhibit an acid adaptive response during storage and digestion. The objectives of the present study were to assess: i) the survival or growth potential of L.monocytogenes on various cheeses during storage, ii) the effect of initial indigenous microbiota on pathogen growth in comparison to expected growth curves retrieved by existing predictive models, and iii) the impact of habituation on/in cheeses surfaces on the subsequent acid resistance during simulated gastric digestion. Portions of cream (Cottage and Mascarpone), soft (Anthotyros, Camembert, Mastelo®, Manouri, Mozzarella, Ricotta), and semi-hard (Edam, Halloumi, Gouda) cheeses were inoculated with ca. 100CFU/g or cm 2 of L.monocytogenes and stored under vacuum or aerobic conditions at 7°C (n=4). The impact of varying (initial) levels of starter culture or indigenous spoilage microbiota on pathogen growth was evaluated by purchasing cheese packages on different dates in relation to production and expiration date (subsequently reflecting to different batches) mimicking a potential situation of cheese contamination with L.monocytogenes during retail display. Values of pH and a w were also monitored and used to simulate growth of L. monocytogenes by existing models and compare it with the observed data of the study. Survival in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) (pH1.5; HCl; max. 120min) was assessed at three time points during storage. Mascarpone, Ricotta, Mozzarella, Camembert, and Halloumi supported L.monocytogenes growth by 0.5-0.8logCFU/g or cm 2 per day, since low initial levels of total viable counts (TVC) (1.8-3.8logCFU/g or cm 2 ) and high pH/a w values (ca. 6.23-6.64/0.965-0.993) were recorded. On Cottage, Anthotyros, Manouri, Mastelo®, Edam, and Gouda, the pathogen survived at populations similar or lower than the inoculation level due to the high reported competition

  14. VEGF Signaling in Neurological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon W. Shim


    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is a potent growth factor playing diverse roles in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. In the brain, VEGF mediates angiogenesis, neural migration and neuroprotection. As a permeability factor, excessive VEGF disrupts intracellular barriers, increases leakage of the choroid plexus endothelia, evokes edema, and activates the inflammatory pathway. Recently, we discovered that a heparin binding epidermal growth factor like growth factor (HB-EGF—a class of EGF receptor (EGFR family ligands—contributes to the development of hydrocephalus with subarachnoid hemorrhage through activation of VEGF signaling. The objective of this review is to entail a recent update on causes of death due to neurological disorders involving cerebrovascular and age-related neurological conditions and to understand the mechanism by which angiogenesis-dependent pathological events can be treated with VEGF antagonisms. The Global Burden of Disease study indicates that cancer and cardiovascular disease including ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke are two leading causes of death worldwide. The literature suggests that VEGF signaling in ischemic brains highlights the importance of concentration, timing, and alternate route of modulating VEGF signaling pathway. Molecular targets distinguishing two distinct pathways of VEGF signaling may provide novel therapies for the treatment of neurological disorders and for maintaining lower mortality due to these conditions.

  15. History of pediatric neurology in Poland. (United States)

    Steinborn, Barbara; Józwiak, Sergiusz


    This review presents the past and the present of pediatric neurology in Poland. Pediatric neurology has its roots in Polish general neurology represented by many outstanding scientists. The founder of Polish school of neurology at the end of 19th century was Edward Flatau, known as the author of Flatau's law. The most famous Polish neurologist was Joseph Babiński, recognized for the first description of pathological plantar reflex. First Polish publication related to child neurology was Brudziński's report on a new meningeal symptom (the flexion of lower limbs during passive neck flexion with pain in neck). Contemporary child neurology in Poland was created by Professor Zofia Majewska after the Second World War. Now 10 academic centers of child neurology exist in Poland fulfilling educational, scientific, and therapeutic roles. Polish Society of Child Neurology was established in 1991 and now there are about 580 members, including 300 child neurologists.

  16. African Journal of Neurological Sciences: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Neurological Sciences: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > African Journal of Neurological Sciences: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  17. Clinical trials in neurology: design, conduct, analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ravina, Bernard


    .... Clinical Trials in Neurology aims to improve the efficiency of clinical trials and the development of interventions in order to enhance the development of new treatments for neurologic diseases...

  18. Adaptation in Collaborative Governance Regimes (United States)

    Emerson, Kirk; Gerlak, Andrea K.


    Adaptation and the adaptive capacity of human and environmental systems have been of central concern to natural and social science scholars, many of whom characterize and promote the need for collaborative cross-boundary systems that are seen as flexible and adaptive by definition. Researchers who study collaborative governance systems in the public administration, planning and policy literature have paid less attention to adaptive capacity specifically and institutional adaptation in general. This paper bridges the two literatures and finds four common dimensions of capacity, including structural arrangements, leadership, knowledge and learning, and resources. In this paper, we focus on institutional adaptation in the context of collaborative governance regimes and try to clarify and distinguish collaborative capacity from adaptive capacity and their contributions to adaptive action. We posit further that collaborative capacities generate associated adaptive capacities thereby enabling institutional adaptation within collaborative governance regimes. We develop these distinctions and linkages between collaborative and adaptive capacities with the help of an illustrative case study in watershed management within the National Estuary Program.

  19. Cervical spinal canal narrowing and cervical neurologi-cal injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Ling


    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Cervical spinal canal narrowing can lead to injury of the spinal cord and neurological symptoms in-cluding neck pain, headache, weakness and parasthesisas. According to previous and recent clinical researches, we investigated the geometric parameters of normal cervical spinal canal including the sagittal and transverse diameters as well as Torg ratio. The mean sagittal diameter of cervical spinal canal at C 1 to C 7 ranges from 15.33 mm to 20.46 mm, the mean transverse diameter at the same levels ranges from 24.45 mm to 27.00 mm and the mean value of Torg ratio is 0.96. With respect to narrow cervical spinal canal, the following charaterstics are found: firstly, extension of the cervical spine results in statistically significant stenosis as compared with the flexed or neutral positions; secondly, females sustain cervical spinal canal narrowing more easily than males; finally, the consistent narrowest cervical canal level is at C 4 for all ethnicity, but there is a slight variation in the sagittal diameter of cervical spinal stenosis (≤14 mm in Whites, ≤ 12 mm in Japanese, ≤13.7 mm in Chinese. Narrow sagittal cervical canal diameter brings about an increased risk of neurological injuries in traumatic, degenerative and inflam-matory conditions and is related with extension of cervical spine, gender, as well as ethnicity. It is hoped that this re-view will be helpful in diagnosing spinal cord and neuro-logical injuries with the geometric parameters of cervical spine in the future. Key words: Spinal cord injuries; Spinal stenosis; Trauma, nervous system

  20. Interobserver variability of the neurological optimality score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monincx, W. M.; Smolders-de Haas, H.; Bonsel, G. J.; Zondervan, H. A.


    To assess the interobserver reliability of the neurological optimality score. The neurological optimality score of 21 full term healthy, neurologically normal newborn infants was determined by two well trained observers. The interclass correlation coefficient was 0.31. Kappa for optimality (score of

  1. Paediatric Neurological Conditions Seen at the Physiotherapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paediatric neurological conditions constitute a major cause of disability in childhood. However there seems to be an apparent dearth of published works on the patterns of neurological conditions seen in Nigerian physiotherapy clinics of rural locations. This study aimed at describing the spectrum of neurological conditions ...

  2. African Journal of Neurological Sciences: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Neurological Sciences (AJNS) is owned and controlled by the Pan African Association of Neurological Sciences (PAANS). The AJNS's aim is to publish scientific papers of any aspects of Neurological Sciences. AJNS is published quarterly. Articles submitted exclusively to the AJNS are accepted if neither ...

  3. Carrying Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente


    A spatial planning act was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive....../cities. Four different sectors (water, food production, waste, and forests) were selected as core areas for decentralised spatial planning. Indicators for SCC and ACC were identified and assessed with regard to relevance and quantifiability. For each of the indicators selected, a legal threshold or guiding...... was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative...

  4. Quality improvement in neurology: AAN Parkinson disease quality measures (United States)

    Cheng, E.M.; Tonn, S.; Swain-Eng, R.; Factor, S.A.; Weiner, W.J.; Bever, C.T.


    Background: Measuring the quality of health care is a fundamental step toward improving health care and is increasingly used in pay-for-performance initiatives and maintenance of certification requirements. Measure development to date has focused on primary care and common conditions such as diabetes; thus, the number of measures that apply to neurologic care is limited. The American Academy of Neurology (AAN) identified the need for neurologists to develop measures of neurologic care and to establish a process to accomplish this. Objective: To adapt and test the feasibility of a process for independent development by the AAN of measures for neurologic conditions for national measurement programs. Methods: A process that has been used nationally for measure development was adapted for use by the AAN. Topics for measure development are chosen based upon national priorities, available evidence base from a systematic literature search, gaps in care, and the potential impact for quality improvement. A panel composed of subject matter and measure development methodology experts oversees the development of the measures. Recommendation statements and their corresponding level of evidence are reviewed and considered for development into draft candidate measures. The candidate measures are refined by the expert panel during a 30-day public comment period and by review by the American Medical Association for Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) II codes. All final AAN measures are approved by the AAN Board of Directors. Results: Parkinson disease (PD) was chosen for measure development. A review of the medical literature identified 258 relevant recommendation statements. A 28-member panel approved 10 quality measures for PD that included full specifications and CPT II codes. Conclusion: The AAN has adapted a measure development process that is suitable for national measurement programs and has demonstrated its capability to independently develop quality measures. GLOSSARY

  5. Neurological aspects of lead intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehner, H


    This study gives a survey over the medical and scientific literature on lead intoxications, which were published until 1979. Neurologic aspects are of particular interest. At present dramatic cases of lead intoxications occur only rarely. However, there are numerous studies about cases of chronical, partly subclinical intoxications. This chronical type of lead intoxication can become manifest clinically as relatively vague symptoms, for example vertigos, insomnia, headaches and weakness. Contrary to this, serious encephalopathies, even with fatal outcome, and polyneuropathies with typical paresis of the radial nerve are preferably observed in acute lead intoxications. Besides the numerous sources of intoxication, also the different opinions found in literature are discussed, concerning the effects of lead on the human body. The fact that there are differing opinions about the limiting value of the blood-lead level at which intoxication symptoms have to be expected, becomes apparent when the determined blood-lead level values are compared and evaluated. Besides the description of general intoxication effects, the discussion of the neurologic aspects found in literature - not only those concerning the central, but also the peripheral system - are preferably concerned. Reports about neuropsychical alterations due to lead exposure, which are mainly found in children, supplement the numerous descriptions of the macroscopic and microscopic alterations of the nervous system provoked by lead. Finally the therapeutic and prophylactic measures given in the literature are discussed.

  6. Neurological disorders in hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Vakhnina


    Full Text Available Hypertension is one of the most common vascular diseases. The brain as target organs in hypertension is damaged more often and earlier. Neurological complications due to hypertension are frequently hyperdiagnosed in Russian neurological practice. Thus, headache, dizziness, impaired recall of recent events, nocturnal sleep disorders, and many other complaints in a hypertensive patient are usually regarded as a manifestation of dyscirculatory encephalopathy. At the same time headaches (tension headache and migraine in hypertensive patients are predominantly primary; headache associated with dramatic marked elevations in blood pressure is encountered in only a small number of patients. The role of cerebrovascular diseases in the development of dizziness in hypertensive patients is also overestimated. The vast majority of cases, patients with this complaint are in fact identified to have benign paroxysmal postural vertigo, Mеniеre’s disease, vestibular neuronitis, or vestibular migraine. Psychogenic disorders or multisensory insufficiency are generally responsible for non-systemic vertigo in hypertensive patients. Chronic cerebral circulatory insufficiency may cause non-systemic vertigo as a subjective equivalent of postural instability.Cognitive impairments (CIs are the most common and earliest manifestation of cerebrovascular lesion in hypertension. In most cases, CIs in hypertension were vascular and associated with cerebrovascular lesion due to lacunar infarcts and leukoaraiosis. However, mixed CIs frequently occur when hypertensive patients are also found to have signs of a degenerative disease, most commonly in Alzheimer’s disease.

  7. Neurological complications in hyperemesis gravidarum. (United States)

    Zara, Gabriella; Codemo, Valentina; Palmieri, Arianna; Schiff, Sami; Cagnin, Annachiara; Citton, Valentina; Manara, Renzo


    Hyperemesis gravidarum can impair correct absorption of an adequate amount of thiamine and can cause electrolyte imbalance. This study investigated the neurological complications in a pregnant woman with hyperemesis gravidarum. A 29-year-old pregnant woman was admitted for hyperemesis gravidarum. Besides undernutrition, a neurological examination disclosed weakness with hyporeflexia, ophthalmoparesis, multidirectional nystagmus and optic disks swelling; the patient became rapidly comatose. Brain MRI showed symmetric signal hyperintensity and swelling of periaqueductal area, hypothalamus and mammillary bodies, medial and posterior portions of the thalamus and columns of fornix, consistent with Wernicke encephalopathy (WE). Neurophysiological studies revealed an axonal sensory-motor polyneuropathy, likely due to thiamine deficiency or critical illness polyneuropathy. Sodium and potassium supplementation and parenteral thiamine were administered with improvement of consciousness state in a few days. WE evolved in Korsakoff syndrome. A repeat MRI showed a marked improvement of WE-related alterations and a new hyperintense lesion in the pons, suggestive of central pontine myelinolysis. No sign or symptom due to involvement of the pons was present.

  8. The relationship between social determinants of health, and rehabilitation of neurological conditions: a systematic literature review. (United States)

    Frier, Amanda; Barnett, Fiona; Devine, Sue


    This systematic literature review aims to explore the relationship between social determinants of health (SDH), and the rehabilitation of neurological conditions. In particular, the review will consider relationships between social determinants and peoples' attendance and sustained adherence to rehabilitation programs, and motivation regarding neurological rehabilitation. A systematic search of peer-reviewed literature from electronic databases; MEDLINE, Scopus, CINAHL and Informit health, was conducted. Papers published between 2004 and 2014 were considered. Eleven quantitative studies met the inclusion criteria. There was a lack of research addressing SDH and neurological rehabilitation simultaneously. Cardiac and cancer rehabilitation studies reported employment and income, social support, transport, housing and food security as the most frequent SDH factors influencing attendance, sustained adherence and motivation. Given this association, a similar relationship between neurological rehabilitation and SDH is plausible. Rehabilitation of neurological conditions can be a long and difficult process. To pursue optimal outcomes, an individual's social circumstances should be considered. Understanding how SDH interact with neurological rehabilitation may enhance service delivery, thus maximizing the possible rehabilitation outcomes for individuals. Future research that considers SDH and rehabilitation of neurological conditions jointly may benefit service providers and those requiring neurological rehabilitation. Implications for Rehabilitation Social determinants of health are important to consider in the rehabilitation of neurological conditions. Understanding the interplay between the social determinants of health and neurological rehabilitation may enhance the possible outcomes for those requiring rehabilitation. Increased awareness and capacity of health care professionals involved in neurological rehabilitation may hasten momentum towards decreased health

  9. Vegetative status characteristics in children with neurological pathology on the background of undifferentiated connective tissue dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyazka O.V.


    influence of one or another of the divisions of the ANS, which served as the basis for determining the severity of the impact of the components of autonomic regulation. Autonomic reactivity was assessed on the basis of reflex of samples Danin-Aschner and Chermak-Goering in statistical analysis for Galu. Support for the activities was set according to clinortotation samples. UNDCT diagnosis and severity was Dagestanis on the basis of criteria proposed by T. Milkovsky-Dimitrova (1985 in modification of L. N. Abakumova. Results. Therefore, children with neurological pathology on the background of undifferentiated connective tissue dysplasia have a deeper down-the vegetative, the severity of which correlates with the degree of NDCT (P<0.05. The prevalence parasympathicotonia and low sympathetic reactivity in children with UDCT, perhaps due to metabolic disorders: increased average potassium-calcium ratio, which serves as one of the criteria the predominance of vagotonia, and lower levels of total calcium and inorganic phosphorus, which point to insufficient provision of vitamin D. Inadequate functioning of the sympathetic division of ANS leads to decrease of adaptive&trophic processes in situations requiring intense mental activity, and hence the adaptive capacity of the organism. Patients with insufficient vegetative support amid NDCT form a group of psychological risk, which is characterized by reduced subjective assessment of their own capabilities, emotional instability, and repressive conformism. Conclusion. Deficit vegetative maintenance in children with NDCT is potentially dangerous during physical paranavitana in the untrained conditions, dysplastic modified myocytes, including cardiomyocytes, which may poyasnite ciselements (deficiency of vitamin D3, hypocalcaemia and gphotospace, which, in turn, contributes to a violation of biochemically-colloidal processes and bioenergetic reactions in children and more severe manifestations of the UNDCT. Given the above, children

  10. Narrowing the "adaptive capacity gap" | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Apr 21, 2016 ... Presenting results of an IDRC-supported fast-start climate finance project, Michael Okoti of the Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization told the meeting that ... He also highlighted the importance of strengthening links to markets and collaborating with policymakers and the private sector.

  11. Adaptive Capacity Management in Bluetooth Networks


    Son, L.T.


    With the Internet and mobile wireless development, accelerated by high-speed and low cost VLSI device evolution, short range wireless communications have become more and more popular, especially Bluetooth. Bluetooth is a new short range radio technology that promises to be very convenient, low power, and low cost mobile ad hoc solution for the global interconnection of all mobile devices. To implement Bluetooth network as a true mobile ad hoc wireless network operating in short radio range, h...

  12. Exerting Capacity. (United States)

    Leger, J Michael; Phillips, Carolyn A


    Patient safety has been at the forefront of nursing research since the release of the Institute of Medicine's report estimating the number of preventable adverse events in hospital settings; yet no research to date has incorporated the perspectives of bedside nurses using classical grounded theory (CGT) methodology. This CGT study explored the perceptions of bedside registered nurses regarding patient safety in adult acute care hospitals. Data analysis used three techniques unique to CGT-the constant comparative method, coding, and memoing-to explore the values, realities, and beliefs of bedside nurses about patient safety. The analysis resulted in a substantive theory, Exerting Capacity, which explained how bedside nurses balance the demands of keeping their patients safe. Exerting Capacity has implications for health care organization leaders, nursing leaders, and bedside nurses; it also has indications for future research into the concept of patient safety.

  13. Neurology of foreign language aptitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Biedroń


    Full Text Available This state-of-the art paper focuses on the poorly explored issue of foreign language aptitude, attempting to present the latest developments in this field and reconceptualizations of the construct from the perspective of neuroscience. In accordance with this goal, it first discusses general directions in neurolinguistic research on foreign language aptitude, starting with the earliest attempts to define the neurological substrate for talent, sources of difficulties in the neurolinguistic research on foreign language aptitude and modern research methods. This is followed by the discussion of the research on the phonology of foreign language aptitude with emphasis on functional and structural studies as well as their consequences for the knowledge of the concept. The subsequent section presents the studies which focus on lexical and morphosyntactic aspects of foreign language aptitude. The paper ends with a discussion of the limitations of contemporary research, the future directions of such research and selec ed methodological issues.

  14. Epigenetic mechanisms in neurological disease. (United States)

    Jakovcevski, Mira; Akbarian, Schahram


    The exploration of brain epigenomes, which consist of various types of DNA methylation and covalent histone modifications, is providing new and unprecedented insights into the mechanisms of neural development, neurological disease and aging. Traditionally, chromatin defects in the brain were considered static lesions of early development that occurred in the context of rare genetic syndromes, but it is now clear that mutations and maladaptations of the epigenetic machinery cover a much wider continuum that includes adult-onset neurodegenerative disease. Here, we describe how recent advances in neuroepigenetics have contributed to an improved mechanistic understanding of developmental and degenerative brain disorders, and we discuss how they could influence the development of future therapies for these conditions.

  15. Neurological problems of jazz legends. (United States)

    Pearl, Phillip L


    A variety of neurological problems have affected the lives of giants in the jazz genre. Cole Porter courageously remained prolific after severe leg injuries secondary to an equestrian accident, until he succumbed to osteomyelitis, amputations, depression, and phantom limb pain. George Gershwin resisted explanations for uncinate seizures and personality change and herniated from a right temporal lobe brain tumor, which was a benign cystic glioma. Thelonious Monk had erratic moods, reflected in his pianism, and was ultimately mute and withdrawn, succumbing to cerebrovascular events. Charlie Parker dealt with mood lability and drug dependence, the latter emanating from analgesics following an accident, and ultimately lived as hard as he played his famous bebop saxophone lines and arpeggios. Charles Mingus hummed his last compositions into a tape recorder as he died with motor neuron disease. Bud Powell had severe posttraumatic headaches after being struck by a police stick defending Thelonious Monk during a Harlem club raid.

  16. [Autoantibodies in Paraneoplastic Neurological Syndrome]. (United States)

    Kawachi, Izumi


    Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) are caused by immune responses against neuronal antigens expressed by the tumor. Based on the immunological pathomechanisms and responsiveness of treatments, onconeuronal antibodies are divided into two categories: 1) antibodies against neural intracellular antigens and 2) antibodies against neuronal surface or synaptic antigens. The recent discovery of onconeuronal antibodies have radically changed concepts of CNS autoimmunity, including PNS. The recognition of PNS provides a foundation for the early detection of underlying tumors and initiations of prompt treatments, which can result in substantial improvement. We here review the characteristic onconeuronal antibodies, including anti-Hu, anti-Ma2, and anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, and discuss the algorithm for the diagnosis of PNS.

  17. Aphasia, Just a Neurological Disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ozdemir


    Full Text Available Hashimoto%u2019s encephalopathy (HE is a rare disorder associated with autoimmune thyroiditis. Etiology of HE is not completely understood. High levels of serum antithyroid antibodies are seen in HE. Presentation with otoimmune thyroiditis, cognitive impairment, psychiatric and neurologic symptoms and absence of bacterial or viral enfections are characteristics of HE. HE is a steroid responsive encephalopathy. 60 years old male patient admitted to hospital with forget fulness continuing for 9 months and speech loss starting 2 days ago. Strong positivity of antithyroid antibodies increases the odds for HE. Thyroid function tests showed severe hypothyroidism. Electroencephalography and magnetic resonance imaging results were compatible with HE. HE is diagnosed with differantial diagnosis and exclusion of other reasons. This uncommon disorder is not recognised enough. High titres of serum antithyroid antiboides are always needed for diagnosis. Correct diagnosis requires awareness of wide range of cognitive and clinical presentations of HE.

  18. Prehospital neurological deterioration in stroke. (United States)

    Slavin, Sabreena J; Sucharew, Heidi; Alwell, Kathleen; Moomaw, Charles J; Woo, Daniel; Adeoye, Opeolu; Flaherty, Matthew L; Ferioli, Simona; McMullan, Jason; Mackey, Jason; De Los Rios La Rosa, Felipe; Martini, Sharyl; Kissela, Brett M; Kleindorfer, Dawn O


    Patients with stroke can experience neurological deterioration in the prehospital setting. We evaluated patients with stroke to determine factors associated with prehospital neurological deterioration (PND). Among the Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky region (population ~1.3 million), we screened all 15 local hospitals' admissions from 2010 for acute stroke and included patients aged ≥20. The GCS was compared between emergency medical services (EMS) arrival and hospital arrival, with decrease ≥2 points considered PND. Data obtained retrospectively included demographics, medical history and medication use, stroke subtype (eg, ischaemic stroke (IS), intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH), subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH)) and IS subtype (eg, small vessel, large vessel, cardioembolic), seizure at onset, time intervals between symptom onset, EMS arrival and hospital arrival, EMS level of training, and blood pressure and serum glucose on EMS arrival. Of 2708 total patients who had a stroke, 1092 patients (median (IQR) age 74 (61-83) years; 56% women; 21% black) were analysed. PND occurred in 129 cases (12%), including 9% of IS, 24% of ICH and 16% of SAH. In multivariable analysis, black race, atrial fibrillation, haemorrhagic subtype and ALS level of transport were associated with PND. Haemorrhage and atrial fibrillation is associated with PND in stroke, and further investigation is needed to establish whether PND can be predicted. Further studies are also needed to assess whether preferential transport of patients with deterioration to hospitals equipped with higher levels of care is beneficial, identify why race is associated with deterioration and to test therapies targeting PND. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Neurological Signs and Symptoms in Fibromyalgia (United States)

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Buchwald, Dedra; Goldberg, Jack; Noonan, Carolyn; Ellenbogen, Richard G.


    Objective To determine the type and frequency of neurological signs and symptoms in individuals with fibromyalgia (FM). Methods Persons with FM (n=166) and pain-free controls (n=66) underwent systematic neurological examination by a neurologist blinded to disease status. Neurological symptoms present over the preceding 3 months were assessed with a standard questionnaire. We used logistic regression to evaluate the association of neurological symptoms and examination findings with FM status. Within the FM group we examined the correlation between self-reported symptoms and physical examination findings. Results Compared to the control group, age and gender adjusted estimates revealed the FM group had significantly more neurological abnormalities in multiple categories including: cranial nerves IX and X (42% vs. 8%), sensory (65% vs. 25%), motor (33% vs. 3%), and gait (28% vs. 7%). Similarly, the FM group endorsed significantly more neurological symptoms than the control group in 27 of 29 categories with the biggest differences observed for photophobia (70% vs. 6%), poor balance (63% vs. 4%), and weakness (58% vs. 2%) and tingling (54% vs. 4%) in the arms and legs. Poor balance, coordination, tingling, weakness in the arms and legs, and numbness in any part of body correlated with appropriate neurological exam findings in the FM group. Conclusions This blinded, controlled study demonstrated neurological physical examination findings in persons with FM. The FM group had more neurological symptoms than controls, with moderate correlation between symptoms and signs. These findings have implications for the medical work-up of patients with FM. PMID:19714636

  20. Capacity Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloy, Brian; Mallick, Shahid


    Outcomes & Recommendations: • Significant increase needed in the nuclear workforce both to replace soon-to-retire current generation and to staff large numbers of new units planned • Key message, was the importance of an integrated approach to workforce development. • IAEA and other International Organisations were asked to continue to work on Knowledge Management, Networks and E&T activities • IAEA requested to conduct Global Survey of HR needs – survey initiated but only 50% of operating countries (30% of capacity) took part, so results inconclusive

  1. Diverse Neurological Manifestations of Lead Encephalopathy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three patients with lead encephalopathy due to industrial poisoning are presented. They all showed a wide spectrum of neurological manifestations, which mimic other neurological presentations. It is emphasised that lead poisoning still occurs in industry, despite efforts at prevention. S. Afr. Med. J., 48, 1721 (1974) ...

  2. [Neurological syndromes associated with homocystein dismetabolism]. (United States)

    Shirokov, E A; Leonova, S F


    The article summarizes the results of clinical, neurological, and laboratory examination of patients with hyperhomocysteinemia. The data obtained suggest the existence of common pathobiochemical mechanisms of homocystein, cholesterol, and myelin dysmetabolism. The authors demonstrate that neurological manifestations of hyperhomocysteinemia are associated with the processes of demyelinization in the central and peripheral nervous systems.

  3. Neurological status in severely jaundiced Zimbabwean neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, M. J.; Beunen, G.; Casaer, P.; Wolf, B.


    Neurological status was studied in 50 jaundiced infants with a total serum bilirubin of > 400 mumol/l (23.4 mg/dl). Infants were assessed in the neonatal period with the Neonatal Neurological Examination and 4 months of age with the Infant Motor Screen. Twenty-six (52 per cent) infants were

  4. Neurological complications following adult lung transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateen, F. J.; Dierkhising, R. A.; Rabinstein, A. A.; van de Beek, D.; Wijdicks, E. F. M.


    The full spectrum of neurologic complications and their impact on survival in lung recipients has not been reported. A retrospective cohort review of the Mayo Clinic Lung Transplant Registry (1988-2008) was performed to determine the range of neurologic complications in a cohort of adult lung

  5. Breastfeeding and neurological outcome at 42 months

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patandin, S; Weisglas-Kuperus, N; Touwen, BCL; Boersma, ER


    This study investigated the effect of early feeding mode on the neurological condition at 42 months. For this purpose, healthy pregnant women were recruited in Groningen and Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Children were healthy and born at term. At 42 months, the children were neurologically examined by


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat IŞIKAY


    Full Text Available BackgroundSeveral neurological disorders have also been widely described in celiac disease patients.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to determine the incidence of accompanying different neurologic manifestations in children with celiac disease at the time of diagnosis and to discuss these manifestations in the light of the recent literature.MethodsThis prospective cross sectional study included 297 children diagnosed with celiac disease. The medical records of all patients were reviewed.ResultsIn neurological evaluation, totally 40 (13. 5% of the 297 celiac patients had a neurological finding including headache, epilepsy, migraine, mental retardation, breath holding spells, ataxia, cerebral palsy, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Down syndrome and Turner syndrome in order of frequency. There was not any significant difference between the laboratory data of the patients with and without neurological manifestations. However; type 3a biopsy was statistically significantly more common among patients without neurological manifestations, while type 3b biopsy was statistically significantly more common among patients with neurological manifestations.ConclusionIt is important to keep in mind that in clinical course of celiac disease different neurological manifestations may be reported.

  7. Management of male neurologic patients with infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Sønksen, Jens


    Many aspects of fertility rely on intact neurologic function and thus neurologic diseases can result in infertility. While research into general female fertility and alterations in male semen quality is limited, we have an abundance of knowledge regarding ejaculatory dysfunction following nerve...

  8. Residual neurologic sequelae after childhood cerebral malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hensbroek, M. B.; Palmer, A.; Jaffar, S.; Schneider, G.; Kwiatkowski, D.


    Cerebral malaria is an important cause of pediatric hospital admissions in the tropics. It commonly leads to neurologic sequelae, but the risk factors for this remain unclear and the long-term outcome unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify the common forms of neurologic sequelae that

  9. Suspecting Neurological Dysfunction From E Mail Messages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A non medical person suspected and confirmed neurological dysfunction in an individual, based only on e mail messages sent by the individual. With email communication becoming rampant “peculiar” email messages may raise the suspicion of neurological dysfunction. Organic pathology explaining the abnormal email ...

  10. Task analysis in neurosciences programme design - neurological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Defining educational objectives is the key to achieving the goal of professional competence in students. The technique of task analysis was selected to determine components of competence in clinical neurology appropriate to the needs of primary care. A survey of neurological problems in general practice revealed that ...

  11. Diagnostic Exercise: Neurologic Disorder in a Cat (United States)


    IWORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) Diagnostic Exercise - Neurologic Disorder in a Cat 12...and identify by block number) This report documents the fifth reported occurrance of cerebral phaeophyphomycosis in cats . Because mycotic...Exercise: Neurologic Disorder in a Cat Ronald C. Bell United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), Fort Detrick


    Işikay, Sedat; Kocamaz, Halil


    Several neurological disorders have also been widely described in celiac disease patients. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of accompanying different neurologic manifestations in children with celiac disease at the time of diagnosis and to discuss these manifestations in the light of the recent literature. This prospective cross sectional study included 297 children diagnosed with celiac disease. The medical records of all patients were reviewed. In neurological evaluation, totally 40 (13. 5%) of the 297 celiac patients had a neurological finding including headache, epilepsy, migraine, mental retardation, breath holding spells, ataxia, cerebral palsy, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Down syndrome and Turner syndrome in order of frequency. There was not any significant difference between the laboratory data of the patients with and without neurological manifestations. However; type 3a biopsy was statistically significantly more common among patients without neurological manifestations, while type 3b biopsy was statistically significantly more common among patients with neurological manifestations. It is important to keep in mind that in clinical course of celiac disease different neurological manifestations may be reported.

  13. [The carrier model of neurology in Hungary: a proposal for the solution until 2020]. (United States)

    Bereczki, Dániel; Csiba, László; Komoly, Sámuel; Vécsei, László; Ajtay, András


    Based on our previous survey on the capacities of neurological services and on the predictable changes in the neurologist workforce in Hungary, we present a proposal for the organization of the structure of neurological services in the future. We discuss the diagnostic groups treated by neurologists, the neurological services and their progressive organization. Using the current capacities as baseline, we propose patient groups to be treated by neurologists in the future, and the levels of services. Based on the tendencies seen in the last years we suggest to consider to allocate acute stroke services exclusively to stroke units in neurological departments, and we identify a few other diagnostic groups where neurology should have a larger share in patient care. We define three levels for inpatient care: university departments, regional/county hospitals, city hospitals. Instead of minimum criteria we assign outpatient and inpatient standards that are functional from the economic point of view as well. University departments cover all areas of neurological services, have a function in graduate and postgraduate training, and on a regional basis they participate in professional quality assurance activities at the county and city hospital levels, and would have a more independent role in residency training. As far as patient care is concerned, the task of the regional/county hospitals would be similar to that of university departments - without the exclusively university functions. A general neurological service would be offered at the city hospital level - the representation of all subspecialties of neurology is not required. Neurorehabilitation would be organized at special units of neurological wards at the city hospital level, at independent neurorehabilitation wards in regional/county hospitals, and also as an outpatient service offered at the patients' home. The most significant organizational change would affect the outpatient neurological services. In addition

  14. Child Neurology Education for Pediatric Residents. (United States)

    Albert, Dara V F; Patel, Anup D; Behnam-Terneus, Maria; Sautu, Beatriz Cunill-De; Verbeck, Nicole; McQueen, Alisa; Fromme, H Barrett; Mahan, John D


    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the current state of child neurology education during pediatric residency provides adequate preparation for pediatric practice. A survey was sent to recent graduates from 3 pediatric residency programs to assess graduate experience, perceived level of competence, and desire for further education in child neurology. Responses from generalists versus subspecialists were compared. The response rate was 32%, half in general pediatric practice. Only 22% feel very confident in approaching patients with neurologic problems. This may represent the best-case scenario as graduates from these programs had required neurology experiences, whereas review of Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education-accredited residency curricula revealed that the majority of residencies do not. Pediatric neurologic problems are common, and pediatric residency graduates do encounter such problems in practice. The majority of pediatricians report some degree of confidence; however, some clear areas for improvement are apparent.

  15. ESPEN guideline clinical nutrition in neurology. (United States)

    Burgos, Rosa; Bretón, Irene; Cereda, Emanuele; Desport, Jean Claude; Dziewas, Rainer; Genton, Laurence; Gomes, Filomena; Jésus, Pierre; Leischker, Andreas; Muscaritoli, Maurizio; Poulia, Kalliopi-Anna; Preiser, Jean Charles; Van der Marck, Marjolein; Wirth, Rainer; Singer, Pierre; Bischoff, Stephan C


    Neurological diseases are frequently associated with swallowing disorders and malnutrition. Moreover, patients with neurological diseases are at increased risk of micronutrient deficiency and dehydration. On the other hand, nutritional factors may be involved in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases. Multiple causes for the development of malnutrition in patients with neurological diseases are known including oropharyngeal dysphagia, impaired consciousness, perception deficits, cognitive dysfunction, and increased needs. The present evidence- and consensus-based guideline addresses clinical questions on best medical nutrition therapy in patients with neurological diseases. Among them, management of oropharyngeal dysphagia plays a pivotal role. The guideline has been written by a multidisciplinary team and offers 88 recommendations for use in clinical practice for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, stroke and multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  16. Neurology in the Vietnam War. (United States)

    Gunderson, Carl H; Daroff, Robert B


    Between December 1965 and December 1971, the United States maintained armed forces in Vietnam never less than 180,000 men and women in support of the war. At one time, this commitment exceeded half a million soldiers, sailors, and airmen from both the United States and its allies. Such forces required an extensive medical presence, including 19 neurologists. All but two of the neurologists had been drafted for a 2-year tour of duty after deferment for residency training. They were assigned to Vietnam for one of those 2 years in two Army Medical Units and one Air Force facility providing neurological care for American and allied forces, as well as many civilians. Their practice included exposure to unfamiliar disorders including cerebral malaria, Japanese B encephalitis, sleep deprivation seizures, and toxic encephalitis caused by injection or inhalation of C-4 explosive. They and neurologists at facilities in the United States published studies on all of these entities both during and after the war. These publications spawned the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Study, which was conceived during the Korean War and continues today as the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Center. It initially focused on post-traumatic epilepsy and later on all effects of brain injury. The Agent Orange controversy arose after the war; during the war, it was not perceived as a threat by medical personnel. Although soldiers in previous wars had developed serious psychological impairments, post-traumatic stress disorder was formally recognized in the servicemen returning from Vietnam. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. [Neurological disease and facial recognition]. (United States)

    Kawamura, Mitsuru; Sugimoto, Azusa; Kobayakawa, Mutsutaka; Tsuruya, Natsuko


    To discuss the neurological basis of facial recognition, we present our case reports of impaired recognition and a review of previous literature. First, we present a case of infarction and discuss prosopagnosia, which has had a large impact on face recognition research. From a study of patient symptoms, we assume that prosopagnosia may be caused by unilateral right occipitotemporal lesion and right cerebral dominance of facial recognition. Further, circumscribed lesion and degenerative disease may also cause progressive prosopagnosia. Apperceptive prosopagnosia is observed in patients with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), pathologically considered as Alzheimer's disease, and associative prosopagnosia in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Second, we discuss face recognition as part of communication. Patients with Parkinson disease show social cognitive impairments, such as difficulty in facial expression recognition and deficits in theory of mind as detected by the reading the mind in the eyes test. Pathological and functional imaging studies indicate that social cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease is possibly related to damages in the amygdalae and surrounding limbic system. The social cognitive deficits can be observed in the early stages of Parkinson disease, and even in the prodromal stage, for example, patients with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) show impairment in facial expression recognition. Further, patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM 1), which is a multisystem disease that mainly affects the muscles, show social cognitive impairment similar to that of Parkinson disease. Our previous study showed that facial expression recognition impairment of DM 1 patients is associated with lesion in the amygdalae and insulae. Our study results indicate that behaviors and personality traits in DM 1 patients, which are revealed by social cognitive impairment, are attributable to dysfunction of the limbic system.

  18. Severe neurological complication following adjustable gastric banding. (United States)

    Martines, G; Musa, N; Aquilino, F; Capuano, P


    In the last years with the increase of bariatric surgery, first of all as a result of new indications, a rise in the incidence of nutrient-related complications has been observed. Currently little is known about the impact of post-bariatric malnutrition and neurological complications. Wernicke's encephalopathy is a severe neurological syndrome which occurs as a result of thiamine deficiency. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome must be considered a serious neurological complication of bariatric surgery with significant morbidity and mortality, with rapidly progressing neurological symptoms, and must be treated immediately. We report the case of a 35 years-old male patient, affected by morbid obesity, anxious-depressive syndrome and alcohol use disorder, who after adjustable gastric banding implanted in another hospital developed a severe malnutrition and neurological syndrome. The patient showed poor adherence to the follow-up and to the dietary indications and after all, we needed to place a PEG for enteral nutrition in order to resolve the malnutrition condition and the neurological syndrome. Our experience emphasizes that preoperative selection and assessment of a patient's nutritional status according to guidelines, is required to identify potential problems, and that bariatric surgeons or physicians caring for patient who have undergone bariatric surgery should be familiar with the constellation of nutritional and neurological disorder that may occur after surgery. We want to remark the importance of preoperative selection of the patients, the follow-up and the cooperation between patient and physician in order to obtain the best result and avoid severe complications.

  19. Neurocritical care education during neurology residency (United States)

    Drogan, O.; Manno, E.; Geocadin, R.G.; Ziai, W.


    Objective: Limited information is available regarding the current state of neurocritical care education for neurology residents. The goal of our survey was to assess the need and current state of neurocritical care training for neurology residents. Methods: A survey instrument was developed and, with the support of the American Academy of Neurology, distributed to residency program directors of 132 accredited neurology programs in the United States in 2011. Results: A response rate of 74% (98 of 132) was achieved. A dedicated neuroscience intensive care unit (neuro-ICU) existed in 64%. Fifty-six percent of residency programs offer a dedicated rotation in the neuro-ICU, lasting 4 weeks on average. Where available, the neuro-ICU rotation was required in the vast majority (91%) of programs. Neurology residents' exposure to the fundamental principles of neurocritical care was obtained through a variety of mechanisms. Of program directors, 37% indicated that residents would be interested in performing away rotations in a neuro-ICU. From 2005 to 2010, the number of programs sending at least one resident into a neuro-ICU fellowship increased from 14% to 35%. Conclusions: Despite the expansion of neurocritical care, large proportions of US neurology residents have limited exposure to a neuro-ICU and neurointensivists. Formal training in the principles of neurocritical care may be highly variable. The results of this survey suggest a charge to address the variability of resident education and to develop standardized curricula in neurocritical care for neurology residents. PMID:22573636

  20. Chapter 44: history of neurology in Italy. (United States)

    Bentivoglio, Marina; Mazzarello, Paolo


    The chapter starts from the Renaissance (although the origins of Italian neurology can be traced back to the Middle Ages), when treatises of nervous system physiopathology still followed Hippocratic and Galenic "humoral" theories. In Italy, as elsewhere in Europe, the concepts of humoral pathology were abandoned in the 18th century, when neurology was influenced by novel trends. Neurology acquired the status of clinical discipline (as "clinic of mental diseases") after national reunification (declared in 1861 but completed much later). At the end of the 19th and first decades of the 20th century, eminent Italian "neuropsychiatrists" (including, among many others, Ugo Cerletti, who introduced electroconvulsive shock therapy in 1938) stimulated novel knowledge and approaches, "centers of excellence" flourished, and "Neurological Institutes" were founded. In the first half of the 20th century, the history of Italian neurology was dominated by World Wars I and II (which stimulated studies on the wounded) and the fascist regime in-between the Wars (when the flow of information was instead very limited). Italy became a republic in 1946, and modern neurology and its distinction from psychiatry were finally promoted. The chapter also provides detailed accounts of scientific societies and journals dedicated to the neurological sciences in Italy.

  1. Neurologic signs and symptoms in fibromyalgia. (United States)

    Watson, Nathaniel F; Buchwald, Dedra; Goldberg, Jack; Noonan, Carolyn; Ellenbogen, Richard G


    To determine the type and frequency of neurologic signs and symptoms in individuals with fibromyalgia (FM). Persons with FM (n = 166) and pain-free controls (n = 66) underwent systematic neurologic examination by a neurologist blinded to disease status. Neurologic symptoms lasting at least 3 months were assessed with a standard questionnaire. We used logistic regression to evaluate the association of neurologic symptoms and examination findings with FM status. Within the FM group we examined the correlation between self-reported symptoms and physical examination findings. Age- and sex-adjusted estimates revealed that compared with the control group, the FM group had significantly more neurologic abnormalities in multiple categories, including greater dysfunction in cranial nerves IX and X (42% versus 8%) and more sensory (65% versus 25%), motor (33% versus 3%), and gait (28% versus 7%) abnormalities. Similarly, the FM group had significantly more neurologic symptoms than the control group in 27 of 29 categories, with the greatest differences observed for photophobia (70% versus 6%), poor balance (63% versus 4%), and weakness (58% versus 2%) and tingling (54% versus 4%) in the arms or legs. Poor balance or coordination, tingling or weakness in the arms or legs, and numbness in any part of the body correlated with appropriate neurologic examination findings in the FM group. This blinded, controlled study demonstrated neurologic physical examination findings in persons with FM. The FM group had more neurologic symptoms than did the controls, with moderate correlation between symptoms and signs. These findings have implications for the medical evaluation of patients with FM.

  2. Molecular imaging in neurology and neuroscience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreckenberger, M.


    Molecular imaging in neurology and neuroscience is a suspenseful and fast developing tool in order to quantitatively image genomics and proteomics by means of direct and indirect markers. Because of its high-sensitive tracer principle, nuclear medicine imaging has the pioneering task for the methodical progression of molecular imaging. The current development of molecular imaging in neurology changes from the use of indirect markers of gene and protein expression to the direct imaging of the molecular mechanisms. It is the aim of this article to give a short review on the status quo of molecular imaging in neurology with emphasis on clinically relevant aspects. (orig.)

  3. Neurological aspects of acute radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torubarov, F.S.; Bushmanov, A.Yu.


    Results of the most important clinical studies of human nervous system reactions to acute radiation, carried out at Neurology Clinic of the State Research Center of Russia - Institute of Biophysics are presented. Clinical picture of changes in the nervous system in acute radiation disease caused by homologous and heterologous external irradiation is described. Main neurological syndrome of extremely severe acute radiation disease: acute radiation encephalopathy, radiation toxic encephalopathy, and hemorrhagic syndrome of the central nervous system is distinguished. Relationship between neurological disorders and the geometry of exposure are considered [ru

  4. Digital Footprint of Neurological Surgeons. (United States)

    Kim, Christopher; Gupta, Raghav; Shah, Aakash; Madill, Evan; Prabhu, Arpan V; Agarwal, Nitin


    Patients are increasingly turning to online resources to inquire about individual physicians and to gather health information. However, little research exists studying the online presence of neurosurgeons across the country. This study aimed to characterize these online profiles and assess the scope of neurosurgeons' digital identities. Medicare-participating neurologic surgeons from the United States and Puerto Rico were identified using the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Physician Comparable Downloadable File. Each physician was characterized by his or her medical education, graduation year, city of practice, gender, and affiliation with an academic institution. Using a Google-based custom search tool, the top 10 search results for each physician were extracted and categorized as 1 of the following: 1) physician, hospital, or healthcare system controlled, 2) third-party or government controlled, 3) social media-based, 4) primary journal article, or 5) other. Among the physicians within the CMS database, 4751 self-identified as being neurosurgeons, yielding a total of 45,875 uniform resource locator search results pertinent to these physicians. Of the 4751 neurosurgeons, 2317 (48.8%) and 2434 (51.2%) were classified as academic and nonacademic neurosurgeons, respectively. At least 1 search result was obtained for every physician. Hospital, healthcare system, or physician-controlled websites (18,206; 39.7%) and third-party websites (17,122; 37.3%) were the 2 most commonly observed domain types. Websites belonging to social media platforms accounted for 4843 (10.6%) search results, and websites belonging to peer-reviewed academic journals accounted for 1888 (4.1%) search results. The frequency with which a third-party domain appeared as the first search result was higher for nonacademic neurosurgeons than for academic neurosurgeons. In general, neurosurgeons lacked a controllable online presence within their first page of Google Search results

  5. The CSAICLAWPS project: a multi-scalar, multi-data source approach to providing climate services for both modelling of climate change impacts on crop yields and development of community-level adaptive capacity for sustainable food security (United States)

    Forsythe, N. D.; Fowler, H. J.


    The "Climate-smart agriculture implementation through community-focused pursuit of land and water productivity in South Asia" (CSAICLAWPS) project is a research initiative funded by the (UK) Royal Society through its Challenge Grants programme which is part of the broader UK Global Challenges Research Fund (GCRF). CSAICLAWPS has three objectives: a) development of "added-value" - bias assessed, statistically down-scaled - climate projections for selected case study sites across South Asia; b) investigation of crop failure modes under both present (observed) and future (projected) conditions; and c) facilitation of developing local adaptive capacity and resilience through stakeholder engagement. At AGU we will be presenting both next steps and progress to date toward these three objectives: [A] We have carried out bias assessments of a substantial multi-model RCM ensemble (MME) from the CORDEX South Asia (CORDEXdomain for case studies in three countries - Pakistan, India and Sri Lanka - and (stochastically) produced synthetic time-series for these sites from local observations using a Python-based implementation of the principles underlying the Climate Research Unit Weather Generator (CRU-WG) in order to enable probabilistic simulation of current crop yields. [B] We have characterised present response of local crop yields to climate variability in key case study sites using AquaCrop simulations parameterised based on input (agronomic practices, soil conditions, etc) from smallholder farmers. [C] We have implemented community-based hydro-climatological monitoring in several case study "revenue villages" (panchayats) in the Nainital District of Uttarakhand. The purpose of this is not only to increase availability of meteorological data, but also has the aspiration of, over time, leading to enhanced quantitative awareness of present climate variability and potential future conditions (as projected by RCMs). Next steps in our work will include: 1) future crop yield

  6. Neurologic deficit after resection of the sacrum. (United States)

    Biagini, R; Ruggieri, P; Mercuri, M; Capanna, R; Briccoli, A; Perin, S; Orsini, U; Demitri, S; Arlecchini, S


    The authors describe neurologic deficit (sensory, motor, and sphincteral) resulting from sacrifice of the sacral nerve roots removed during resection of the sacrum. The anatomical and functional bases of sphincteral continence and the amount of neurologic deficit are discussed based on level of sacral resection. A large review of the literature on the subject is reported and discussed. The authors emphasize how the neurophysiological bases of sphincteral continence (rectum and bladder) and of sexual ability are still not well known, and how the literature reveals disagreement on the subject. A score system is proposed to evaluate neurologic deficit. The clinical model of neurologic deficit caused by resection of the sacrum may be extended to an evaluation of post-traumatic deficit.

  7. African Journal of Neurological Sciences: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Neurological Sciences (AJNS) is owned and controlled by ... Decisions about acceptable or rejected manuscripts may take within 8 to 10 weeks. ... The abstract must be clear, precise and concise (no more than 250 words) ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela MANIU


    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to investigate the factors that are influencing student satisfaction in case of neurology related massive open online courses (MOOCs. We analyzed data collected from learners enrolled in 40 neurology related MOOCs, by manually looking for information in these courses reviews. The main identified satisfaction factors can be grouped into the following categories: content related factors: course content, additional materials, assignments, external research and teaching - learning related factors (teacher presentation techniques / style: engaging, clear, coherent, knowledgeable, sharing / explanation, interactive, excitement, considering student’s needs, inspiring, sense of humor. Competences, skills and objectives pursued by neurology related MOOCs are also discussed. Analyzing these factors can be useful in new courses management (design and implementation and also in understanding the needs (motivation, behaviors, perception of 21st century learners interested in neurology related fields.

  9. Neurological Complications Of Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia: Any ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , of the neurological deficits complicating chronic myeloid leukaemia. Method: Using patients\\' case folders and haematological malignancy register all cases of chronic myeloid leukaemia seen in Jos University Teaching Hospital between July ...

  10. Editorial | Dechambenoit | African Journal of Neurological Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Neurological Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 34, No 2 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. Neurological findings in triosephosphate isomerase deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poll-The, B. T.; Aicardi, J.; Girot, R.; Rosa, R.


    Two siblings with hemolytic anemia caused by triosephosphate isomerase deficiency developed a progressive neurological syndrome featuring dystonic movements, tremor, pyramidal tract signs, and evidence of spinal motor neuron involvement. Intelligence was unaffected. The findings in these patients

  12. Functional MRT in psychiatry and neurology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, F.; Fink, G.R.


    Almost no other method has reach such an interest as the functional imaging in psychiatric and neurological science; it is fascinating to observe the brain at work. The fundamentals of functional magnetic resonance tomography (fMRT) and the interpretation of MRT images are explained; the state-of-the-art is discussed. The book is focussed on the functional imaging within psychiatry and neurology. The book contains 45 contributions within the following chapters: fundamentals, higher brain accomplishments, disease pattern, examinatory examples, perspectives

  13. Neurological Disorders in Adult Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh J Freeman


    Full Text Available Celiac disease may initially present as a neurological disorder. Alternatively, celiac disease may be complicated by neurological changes. With impaired nutrient absorption, different deficiency syndromes may occur and these may be manifested clinically with neurological changes. However, in patients with deficiency syndromes, extensive involvement of the small intestine with celiac disease is often evident. There are a number of reports of celiac disease associated with neuropathy, ataxia, dementia and seizure disorder. In these reports, there is no clear relationship with nutrient deficiency and a precise mechanism for the neurological changes has not been defined. A small number of patients have been reported to have responded to vitamin E administration, but most do not. In some, gluten antibodies have also been described, especially in those with ataxia, but a consistent response to a gluten-free diet has not been defined. Screening for celiac disease should be considered in patients with unexplained neurological disorders, including ataxia and dementia. Further studies are needed, however, to determine if a gluten-free diet will lead to improvement in the associated neurological disorder.

  14. The Role of Magnesium in Neurological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E. Kirkland


    Full Text Available Magnesium is well known for its diverse actions within the human body. From a neurological standpoint, magnesium plays an essential role in nerve transmission and neuromuscular conduction. It also functions in a protective role against excessive excitation that can lead to neuronal cell death (excitotoxicity, and has been implicated in multiple neurological disorders. Due to these important functions within the nervous system, magnesium is a mineral of intense interest for the potential prevention and treatment of neurological disorders. Current literature is reviewed for migraine, chronic pain, epilepsy, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and stroke, as well as the commonly comorbid conditions of anxiety and depression. Previous reviews and meta-analyses are used to set the scene for magnesium research across neurological conditions, while current research is reviewed in greater detail to update the literature and demonstrate the progress (or lack thereof in the field. There is strong data to suggest a role for magnesium in migraine and depression, and emerging data to suggest a protective effect of magnesium for chronic pain, anxiety, and stroke. More research is needed on magnesium as an adjunct treatment in epilepsy, and to further clarify its role in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. Overall, the mechanistic attributes of magnesium in neurological diseases connote the macromineral as a potential target for neurological disease prevention and treatment.

  15. Neurological manifestations of dengue viral infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carod-Artal FJ


    Full Text Available Francisco Javier Carod-Artal1,21Neurology Department, Raigmore hospital, Inverness, UK; 2Universitat Internacional de Catalunya (UIC, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Dengue is the most common mosquito-borne viral infection worldwide. There is increased evidence for dengue virus neurotropism, and neurological manifestations could make part of the clinical picture of dengue virus infection in at least 0.5%–7.4% of symptomatic cases. Neurological complications have been classified into dengue virus encephalopathy, dengue virus encephalitis, immune-mediated syndromes (acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, myelitis, Guillain–Barré syndrome, neuritis brachialis, acute cerebellitis, and others, neuromuscular complications (hypokalemic paralysis, transient benign muscle dysfunction and myositis, and dengue-associated stroke. Common neuro-ophthalmic complications are maculopathy and retinal vasculopathy. Pathogenic mechanisms include systemic complications and metabolic disturbances resulting in encephalopathy, direct effect of the virus provoking encephalitis, and postinfectious immune mechanisms causing immune-mediated syndromes. Dengue viruses should be considered as a cause of neurological disorders in endemic regions. Standardized case definitions for specific neurological complications are still needed. Keywords: encephalitis, encephalopathy, dengue fever, neurological complications

  16. Neurologic sequelae associated with foscarnet therapy. (United States)

    Lor, E; Liu, Y Q


    To report three cases of possible foscarnet-induced neurologic sequelae. We report two cases of seizures and one case of hand cramping and finger paresthesia after starting foscarnet therapy with no evidence of predisposing risk factors, such as serum laboratory abnormalities, renal dysfunction, or known central nervous system (CNS) involvement. All three patients had stable laboratory values during therapy and when the neurologic adverse effects occurred. All patients were receiving appropriate dosages of foscarnet. The incidence of seizures in AIDS patients was reviewed. A history of CNS lesions, infections, and/or AIDS per se may increase the risk of a neurologic adverse effect while receiving foscarnet therapy. Acute ionized hypocalcemia may cause these neurologic adverse effects. Ionized hypocalcemia is transitory, is related to the rate of foscarnet infusion, and may not be reflected as a change in total serum calcium concentration. Foscarnet probably contributed to the neurologic adverse effects reported here. Foscarnet may need to be administered at a slower rate than is recommended by the manufacturer. Electrolytes must be monitored closely; however, a neurologic adverse effect may not be foreseen.

  17. Chapter 50: history of tropical neurology. (United States)

    Ogunniyi, Adesola


    Tropical neurology began less than two centuries ago. Consumption of dietary toxins predominated at the beginning and gave birth to the geographic entity. The story moved from lathyrism through Jamaican neuropathy to cassava-induced epidemic neuropathy, which was contrasted with Konzo, also associated with cassava. Other tropical diseases enumerated with chronological details include: Chaga's diseases, kwashiorkor, Madras type of motor neuron disease, atlanto-axial dislocation, Burkitt's lymphoma and Kuru, associated with cannibalism among the Fore linguistic group in New Guinea. More recent documentation includes the Cuban neuropathy in 1991 with an epidemic of visual loss and neuropathy, Anaphe venata entomophagy in Nigeria presenting as seasonal ataxia, and neurological aspects of the human immunodeficiency virus infection complete the picture. With time, professional associations were formed and the pioneers were given prominence. The World Federation of Neurology featured Geographic Neurology as a theme in 1977 and Tropical Neurology was given prominence at its 1989 meeting in New Delhi, India. The situation remains unchanged with regards to rare diseases like Meniere's, multiple sclerosis, hereditary disorders. However, with westernization and continued urbanization, changing disease patterns are being observed and tropical neurology may depart from dietary toxins to more western world-type disorders.

  18. Neurology in a globalizing world: World Congress of Neurology, Vienna, 2013. (United States)

    Hachinski, Vladimir


    The World Congress of Neurology (figure 1) theme "Neurology in a Globalizing World" acknowledges that science and increasingly medicine and neurology are becoming globalized. The best way to manage change is to shape it. It is becoming increasingly clear that brain diseases, particularly stroke and dementia, are projected to rise at a rate that could overwhelm our clinics and hospitals. Hence a new emphasis on prevention and the need to work across disciplines beyond our traditional roles. Neurologists are the guardians of the brain and need to take the lead role in advancing new approaches in stemming the tide of neurologic diseases.

  19. Status of neurology medical school education (United States)

    Ali, Imran I.; Isaacson, Richard S.; Safdieh, Joseph E.; Finney, Glen R.; Sowell, Michael K.; Sam, Maria C.; Anderson, Heather S.; Shin, Robert K.; Kraakevik, Jeff A.; Coleman, Mary; Drogan, Oksana


    Objective: To survey all US medical school clerkship directors (CDs) in neurology and to compare results from a similar survey in 2005. Methods: A survey was developed by a work group of the American Academy of Neurology Undergraduate Education Subcommittee, and sent to all neurology CDs listed in the American Academy of Neurology database. Comparisons were made to a similar 2005 survey. Results: Survey response rate was 73%. Neurology was required in 93% of responding schools. Duration of clerkships was 4 weeks in 74% and 3 weeks in 11%. Clerkships were taken in the third year in 56%, third or fourth year in 19%, and fourth year in 12%. Clerkship duration in 2012 was slightly shorter than in 2005 (fewer clerkships of ≥4 weeks, p = 0.125), but more clerkships have moved into the third year (fewer neurology clerkships during the fourth year, p = 0.051). Simulation training in lumbar punctures was available at 44% of schools, but only 2% of students attempted lumbar punctures on patients. CDs averaged 20% protected time, but reported that they needed at least 32%. Secretarial full-time equivalent was 0.50 or less in 71% of clerkships. Eighty-five percent of CDs were “very satisfied” or “somewhat satisfied,” but more than half experienced “burnout” and 35% had considered relinquishing their role. Conclusion: Trends in neurology undergraduate education since 2005 include shorter clerkships, migration into the third year, and increasing use of technology. CDs are generally satisfied, but report stressors, including inadequate protected time and departmental support. PMID:25305155

  20. Competence building capacity shortage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doorman, Gerard; Wangensteen, Ivar; Bakken, Bjoern


    The objective of the project 'Competence Building Capacity Shortage' has been 'to increase knowledge about central approaches aimed at solving the peaking capacity problem in restructured power systems'. With respect to reserve markets, a model was developed in the project to analyze the relations between reserve requirements and prices in the spot and reserve markets respectively. A mathematical model was also developed and implemented, which also includes the balance market, and has a good ability to predict the relations between these markets under various assumptions. With some further development, this model can be used fore realistic analyses of these markets in a Nordic context. It was also concluded that certain system requirements with respect to frequency and time deviation can be relaxed without adverse effects. However, the requirements to system bias, Frequency Activated Operating Reserves and Frequency Activated Contingency Reserves cannot be relaxed, the latter because they must cover the dimensioning fault in the system. On the other hand, Fast Contingency Reserves can be reduced by removing requirements to national balances. Costs can furthermore be reduced by increasingly adapting a Nordic as opposed to national approach. A model for stepwise power flow was developed in the project, which is especially useful to analyze slow power system dynamics. This is relevant when analysing the effects of reserve requirements. A model for the analysis of the capacity balance in Norway and Sweden was also developed. This model is useful for looking at the future balance under various assumptions regarding e.g. weather conditions, demand growth and the development of the generation system. With respect to the present situation, if there is some price flexibility on the demand side and system operators are able to use reserves from the demand side, the probability for load shedding during the peak load hour is close to zero under the weather conditions after

  1. Standards in Neurological Rehabilitation, June 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Barnes


    Full Text Available The European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS Scientific Panel on Neurorehabilitation established a Task Force on standards in neurological rehabilitation in June 1996. The remit for the Task Force was to: (1 produce a report on the state of neurological rehabilitation across Europe; and (2 recommend standards for the provision of neurological services for disabled people. The main conclusions of the Task Force were as follows: (1 A questionnaire circulated to each European member country has indicated a significant lack of adequate neurological rehabilitation facilities across Europe. Very few countries have any established network of neurological rehabilitation centres. Few countries have adequately trained neurological rehabilitation physicians, therapists or nurses. Such poor facilities should be seen in the context of the large numbers and increasing prevalence of people with neurological disabilities. (2 The Task Force has summarized the significant benefits that can follow from the establishment of a dedicated and cost effective neurological rehabilitation service including functional improvement, reduction of unnecessary complications, better coordination and use of limited resources, improved opportunities for education, training and research and a clear point of contact for the disabled person. (3 The Task Force recommends minimum standards for the prevention of neurological disability including access to health education, genetic counselling and emergency resources. The Task Force also encourages governments to invest in improved legislation for accident prevention. (4 The Task Force has outlined some minimum standards for the staffing of a neurological rehabilitation service including improved training both for neurologists and rehabilitation physicians. Such training could include a cross-national training programme both for physicians and other health care staff. (5 The Task Force supports a two-tier system of

  2. Problem neurology residents: a national survey. (United States)

    Tabby, David S; Majeed, Muhammed H; Schwartzman, Robert J


    Problem residents are found across most medical specialties at a prevalence of about 10%. This study was designed to explore the prevalence and causes of problem neurology residents and to compare neurology programs' responses and outcomes. Directors of 126 US neurology residency programs were sent an electronic survey. We collected data on demographics, first and all "identifiers" of problem residents, and year of training in which the problem was found. We asked about observable signs, etiology, and who performed remediation. We asked what resources were used and what outcomes occurred. Ninety-five program directors completed surveys (75% response rate). Almost all neurology programs have problem residents (81%). Age, sex, marital status, being a US native, or attending a US medical school had no effect on problem status. Being a parent carried a lower likelihood of problems (32%). Most commonly the problem is acted on during the first year of training. Faculty members without defined educational roles were the most frequent first identifiers. Program directors were the most common remediators. The most common remediation techniques were increasing supervision and assigning a faculty mentor. Graduate medical education office and psychiatric or psychological counseling services were most often used. Eleven percent of problem residents required a program for impaired physicians and 14% required a leave of absence. Sixteen percent were dismissed from their programs. The prevalence of problem residents in neurology is similar to other disciplines, and various resources are available to remediate them.

  3. Intervertebral Disc Characteristic on Progressive Neurological Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Yudoyono


    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the intervertebral disc characteristic on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in lumbar herniated disc (LHD patients with progressive neurological deficit. Methods: Patients were collected retrospectively from Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Database from 2011–2013 with LHD, had neurological deficit such as radiculopathy and cauda equine syndrome for less than four weeks with a positive sign confirmed by neurological examination and confirmatory with MRI examination. Results: A total of 14 patients with lumbar herniated disc disease (10 males, 4 females suffered from progressive neurological deficit with an average age of (52.07±10.9 years old. Early disc height was 9.38±0.5 mm and progressive neurological deficit state disc height was 4.03±0.53 mm, which were significantly different statisticaly (p<0.01. Symptoms of radiculopathy were seen in 11 patients and cauda equine syndrome in three patients. Modic changes grade 1 was found in five patients, grade 2 in eight patients,grade 3 in one patient, Pfirmman grade 2 in eleven patients and grade 3 in three patients. Thecal sac compression 1/3 compression was seen in four patients and 2/3 compression in ten patients. Conclusions: Neurosurgeon should raise concerns on the characteristic changes of intervertebral disc in magnetic resonance imaging examination to avoid further neural injury in lumbar herniated disc patients.

  4. Neurology and the Internet: a review. (United States)

    Moccia, Marcello; Brigo, Francesco; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Bonavita, Simona; Lavorgna, Luigi


    Nowadays, the Internet is the major source to obtain information about diseases and their treatments. The Internet is gaining relevance in the neurological setting, considering the possibility of timely social interaction, contributing to general public awareness on otherwise less-well-known neurological conditions, promoting health equity and improving the health-related coping. Neurological patients can easily find several online opportunities for peer interactions and learning. On the other hand, neurologist can analyze user-generated data to better understand patient needs and to run epidemiological studies. Indeed, analyses of queries from Internet search engines on certain neurological diseases have shown a strict temporal and spatial correlation with the "real world." In this narrative review, we will discuss how the Internet is radically affecting the healthcare of people with neurological disorders and, most importantly, is shifting the paradigm of care from the hands of those who deliver care, into the hands of those who receive it. Besides, we will review possible limitations, such as safety concerns, financial issues, and the need for easy-to-access platforms.

  5. Feeding problems in children with neurological disorders. (United States)

    Jamroz, Ewa; Głuszkiewicz, Ewa; Grzybowska-Chlebowczyk, Urszula; Woś, Halina


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of selected risk factors of weight deficiency in children with chronic metabolic diseases. The study group involved 160 children, from 2 months to 15 years (mean age 3.14 years), with diseases of the nervous system and body weight deficiency. According to the type of neurological disease the following groups of patients were separated: static encephalopathies, progressive encephalopathies, disorders of mental development of undetermined etiology, genetically determined diseases. As the exponent of malnutrition, z-score of weight-for-age standards was used. An inclusion criterion for the study group was z-score of weight-for-age children, neurological disorders, oral motor dysfunction, diseases of other organs, gastrointestinal motility disorders (oral cavity, esophagus, intestines) and type of nutritional therapy. The most advanced malnutrition was in children with progressive encephalopathies and genetically determined diseases. Seizures and muscular hypotonia were most common neurological disorders. Oral motor dysfunctions were observed in 40% of patients. Malnutrition in children with neurological disorders is associated mainly with neurological deficits. In this group of children monitoring of somatic development and early nutritional intervention are necessary.

  6. Neurology referrals to a liaison psychiatry service.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzgerald, P


    The objective of the present study was to assess the activity of the Liaison Psychiatry service of Cork University Hospital in relation to all in-patient neurology referrals over a 12-month period. Of 1685 neurology admissions, 106 (6%) were referred to liaison psychiatry for assessment. 91 referrals (86%) met criteria for a psychiatric disorder according to DSM-IV, the commonest being major depression (24%) and somatoform disorder (23%). Patients with multiple sclerosis or epilepsy comprised nearly half of all referrals (48 cases; 45%). Approximately 20% of M.S. in-patients (21 cases) were referred for psychiatric assessment, with the corresponding figure in epilepsy being 25% (18 cases). Although only 106 (6%) neurology in-patients were referred to liaison psychiatry, psychiatric diagnoses were documented in 327 (20%) discharge forms, presumably reflecting previous diagnosis. The above findings indicate that psychiatric illness is common among neurology inpatients screened by liaison psychiatry yet referral rates are relatively low in terms of the overall number of neurology in-patients. Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed in 86% of referrals indicating high concordance between neurologists and liaison psychiatry regarding the presence of a psychiatric disorder.

  7. Dengue: a new challenge for neurology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Puccioni-Sohler


    Full Text Available Dengue infection is a leading cause of illness and death in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Forty percent of the world’s population currently lives in these areas. The clinical picture resulting from dengue infection can range from relatively minor to catastrophic hemorrhagic fever. Recently, reports have increased of neurological manifestations. Neuropathogenesis seems to be related to direct nervous system viral invasion, autoimmune reaction, metabolic and hemorrhagic disturbance. Neurological manifestations include encephalitis, encephalopathy, meningitis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, myelitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, polyneuropathy, mononeuropathy, and cerebromeningeal hemorrhage. The development of neurological symptoms in patients with positive Immunoglobulin M (IgM dengue serology suggests a means of diagnosing the neurological complications associated with dengue. Viral antigens, specific IgM antibodies, and the intrathecal synthesis of dengue antibodies have been successfully detected in cerebrospinal fluid. However, despite diagnostic advancements, the treatment of neurological dengue is problematic. The launch of a dengue vaccine is expected to be beneficial.

  8. The Profile of Neurology Patients Evaluated in the Emergency Department


    Ufuk Emre; Ayşe Semra Demir; Esra Acıman; Nejla Çabuk; Sibel Kıran; Aysun Ünal


    OBJECTIVE: Early, rapid, and multidisciplinary approaches are very important in the diagnosis of neurological disorders in emergency departments. The present study aimed to investigate the features of patients that presented for neurology consultation in the emergency department. METHODS: The present study included 780 patients. Patient demographic features, reasons for emergent treatment and neurological consultation, neurological diagnosis by the neurologist, and laboratory (total blood...

  9. A national neurological excellence centers network. (United States)

    Pazzi, S; Cristiani, P; Cavallini, A


    The most relevant problems related to the management of neurological disorders are (i) the frequent hospitalization in nonspecialist departments, with the need for neurological consultation, and (ii) the frequent requests of GPs for highly specialized investigations that are very expensive and of little value in arriving at a correct diagnosis. In 1996, the Consorzio di Bioingegneria e Informatica Medica in Italy realized the CISNet project (in collaboration with the Consorzio Istituti Scientifici Neuroscienze e Tecnologie Biomediche and funded by the Centro Studi of the National Public Health Council) for the implementation of a national neurological excellence centers network (CISNet). In the CISNet project, neurologists will be able to give on-line interactive consultation and off-line consulting services identifying correct diagnostic/therapeutic procedures, evaluating the need for both examination in specialist centers and admission to specialized centers, and identifying the most appropriate ones.

  10. Inventory of pediatric neurology "manpower" in Canada. (United States)

    Keene, Daniel L; Humphreys, Peter


    To review the demographics and workload characteristics of pediatric neurology in Canada. A standardized survey questionnaire was mailed out to practicing pediatric neurologists in Canada in 2001. Variables examined were age, gender, hours on call, regular hours worked per week, type of practice and projected changes in practice over next five to ten years. Results were compared to the 1994 Pediatric Neurology Manpower Survey which had used the same survey instrument. Fifty-six (70%) pediatric neurologists practicing in Canada returned the survey. As was the case in 1994, no significant differences in workload were found based on age or gender. The average age of the practicing pediatric neurologist in 2001 was 51 years compared to 45 years in 1994. The proportion of physicians over 55 years in 2001 was 35% compared to 25% in 1994. Pediatric neurology in Canada is an aging specialty needing a significant recruitment of new members

  11. Cotard syndrome in neurological and psychiatric patients. (United States)

    Ramirez-Bermudez, Jesus; Aguilar-Venegas, Luis C; Crail-Melendez, Daniel; Espinola-Nadurille, Mariana; Nente, Francisco; Mendez, Mario F


    The authors describe the frequency and characteristics of Cotard syndrome among neurological and psychiatric inpatients at a tertiary referral center. All inpatients from the National Institute of Neurology of Mexico (March 2007-May 2009) requiring neuropsychiatric consultation were reviewed. Among 1,321 inpatient consultations, 63.7% had neurological disease and one (0.11%) had viral encephalitis and Cotard syndrome. Of inpatients, 36.2% had pure psychiatric disorders and three (0.62%) had Cotard syndrome, associated with psychotic depression, depersonalization, and penile retraction (koro syndrome). This review discusses potential mechanisms for Cotard syndrome, including the role of a perceptual-emotional dissociation in self-misattribution in the deliré des negations.

  12. Perinatal pharmacology: applications for neonatal neurology. (United States)

    Smits, Anne; Allegaert, Karel


    The principles of clinical pharmacology also apply to neonates, but their characteristics warrant a tailored approach. We focus on aspects of both developmental pharmacokinetics (concentration/time relationship) and developmental pharmacodynamics (concentration/effect relationship) in neonates. We hereby aimed to link concepts used in clinical pharmacology with compound-specific observations (anti-epileptics, analgosedatives) in the field of neonatal neurology. Although in part anecdotal, we subsequently illustrate the relevance of developmental pharmacology in the field of neonatal neurology by a specific intervention (e.g. whole body cooling), specific clinical presentations (e.g. short and long term outcome following fetal exposure to antidepressive agents, the development of new biomarkers for fetal alcohol syndrome) and specific clinical needs (e.g. analgosedation in neonates, excitocytosis versus neuro-apoptosis/impaired synaptogenesis). Copyright © 2011 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Rare Neurological Complications After Sleeve Gastrectomy. (United States)

    Tabbara, Malek; Carandina, Sergio; Bossi, Manuela; Polliand, Claude; Genser, Laurent; Barrat, Christophe


    Bariatric surgery is considered to be the most effective treatment of morbid obesity and improvement of obesity-related comorbidities, such as type II diabetes. However, both peripheral and central neurological complications can occur after bariatric surgery. Such complications tend to occur more frequently after bypass surgery than after sleeve gastrectomy (SG). The objective of this study was to identify the patients that presented post-operative neurological complications after undergoing SG and describe the incidence, presentation, and management of these complications. This was a retrospective study of 592 cases of SG performed between 2009 and 2014 with a special focus on patients who presented neurological complications. Of the 592 SG cases, only seven (1.18 %) patients presented neurological complications. All patients had uneventful post-operative course, but all reported feeding difficulties, accompanied by severe dysphagia, and rapid weight loss, with a mean weight loss of 35 kg (30-40 kg) 3 months after SG. All patients were readmitted owing to neurological symptoms that included paresthesia, abolition of deep tendon reflexes of the lower limbs, muscle pain, and motor and sensitive deficits in some cases. There were two cases of Wernicke's encephalopathy. All patients were treated for neuropathy secondary to vitamin B1 deficiency and had a significant improvement and/or resolution of their symptoms. Neurological complications after SG are rare and are often preceded by gastrointestinal symptoms, rapid weight loss, and lack of post-operative vitamin supplementation. Re-hospitalization and multidisciplinary team management are crucial to establish the diagnosis and initiate treatment.

  14. [Sir William Richard Gowers: author of the "bible of neurology"]. (United States)

    Hirose, Genjiro


    William Richard Gowers is one of the great pioneers in neurology and the author of the well-known neurology textbook, "A Manual of Diseases of the Nervous System." His concepts of neurology are based on meticulously and carefully accumulated knowledge of history, observations, and neurological examinations of patients with various neurological diseases. He is not only a great neurologist but also a great teacher who loves teaching students and physicians through well-prepared lectures. We can glean the essence of the field of neurology through his life story and numerous writings concerning neurological diseases.

  15. Modern network science of neurological disorders. (United States)

    Stam, Cornelis J


    Modern network science has revealed fundamental aspects of normal brain-network organization, such as small-world and scale-free patterns, hierarchical modularity, hubs and rich clubs. The next challenge is to use this knowledge to gain a better understanding of brain disease. Recent developments in the application of network science to conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury and epilepsy have challenged the classical concept of neurological disorders being either 'local' or 'global', and have pointed to the overload and failure of hubs as a possible final common pathway in neurological disorders.

  16. Unspecific neurologic symptoms as possible psychogenic complaints. (United States)

    Franz, M; Schepank, H; Schellberg, D


    Prevalence and course of psychogenically influenced symptoms in neurology and their dependence on age and gender are reported. The epidemiological basis of the data is a long-term follow-up investigation of a high-risk population for about 10 years (n = 240): the Mannheim Cohort Study on Epidemiology of Psychogenic Disorders. Seven psychogenic symptoms of neurologic relevance (headache, lumbar and cervical vertebral complaints, functional vertigo, hyperkinesias, pareses, sleep and concentration disturbances) are characterized in regard to frequency, course and diagnostic significance.

  17. Richard Bright and his neurological studies. (United States)

    Pearce, J M S


    Richard Bright was one of the famous triumvirate of Guy's Hospital physicians in the Victorian era. Remembered for his account of glomerulonephritis (Bright's disease) he also made many important and original contributions to medicine and neurology. These included his work on cortical epileptogenesis, descriptions of simple partial (Jacksonian) seizures, infantile convulsions, and a variety of nervous diseases. Most notable were his reports of neurological studies including papers on traumatic tetanus, syringomyelia, arteries of the brain, contractures of spinal origin, tumours of the base of the brain, and narcolepsy. His career and these contributions are outlined. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Neurological complications of renal dialysis and transplantation. (United States)

    Karunaratne, Kushan; Taube, David; Khalil, Nofal; Perry, Richard; Malhotra, Paresh A


    Neurological complications from renal replacement therapy contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality in patients with renal failure. Such complications can affect either the central or peripheral nervous systems. Most neurological disturbances associated with the uraemic state do not respond fully to renal replacement therapy. There are also complications specifically associated with dialysis and transplantation. A multidisciplinary approach, involving both nephrologists and neurologists, is critical for the diagnosis and effective management of these disorders. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Adaptation: Needs, Financing and Institutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Richard J.T.; Kartha, Sivan; Persson, Aasa; Watkiss, Paul; Ackerman, Frank; Downing, Thomas E.; Kjellen, Bo; Schipper, Lisa (Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm (SE))


    Regardless of the efforts put into mitigation, some impacts of climate change are already unavoidable. Adaptation to climate change has therefore become a key component of domestic climate policy, along with mitigation. Adaptation has also become key to the success of global climate policy. Without an agreement on supporting adaptation in developing countries, there will be no agreement on mitigation. Strong mitigation efforts make it more likely that adaptation will be effective and affordable. The world cannot rely on adaptation alone: it would eventually lead to a level of climate change to which adaptation is no longer feasible. Government action is needed to create an enabling environment for adaptation. This includes removing existing financial, legal, institutional and knowledge barriers to adaptation, and strengthening the capacity of people and organisations to adapt. The success of adaptation relies on the success of development, and vice versa. Poverty reduction, good governance, education, environmental protection, health and gender equality all contribute to adaptive capacity. Substantially more money is needed to support adaptation in developing countries. Current levels of funding will soon have to be scaled up by two orders of magnitude (from US$ hundreds of million to US$ tens of billion per year). An agreement on adaptation in Copenhagen in 2009 will need to include concrete steps towards a strengthened knowledge base for adaptation, substantially more funding for developing countries, and enhanced adaptation planning and implementation at the national level. Recommendations: Developed countries should accept a transparent, principle-based allocation of responsibility for adaptation funding, resulting in adequate, new and additional money to support adaptation programmes in developing countries. Levies on carbon market transactions and auctioning emission permits are two existing mechanisms of generating new and additional funds consistent with

  20. Enterovirus 71-induced neurological disorders in young gerbils, Meriones unguiculatus: development and application of a neurological disease model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Ping Yao

    Full Text Available A reliable disease model mimicking Enterovirus 71 (EV71 infection in humans is essential for understanding pathogenesis and for developing a safe and effective vaccine. Commonly used rodent models including mouse or rat models are not suitable for vaccine evaluation because the rodents are resistant to EV71 infection after they reach the age of 6 days. In this study, 21-day-old gerbils inoculated intraperitoneally (IP with a non mouse-adapted EV71 strain developed neurological lesion-related signs including hind limb paralysis, slowness, ataxia and lethargy similar to those of central nervous system (CNS infection of EV71 in humans. The infected gerbils eventually died of the neurological lesions and EV71 could be isolated from lung, liver, spleen, kidney, heart, spinal cord, brain cortex, brainstem and skeletal muscle. Significantly high virus replication was detected in spinal cord, brainstem and skeletal muscle by cellular analysis, real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining. Histopathologic changes such as neuronal degeneration, neuronal loss and neuronophagia were observed in spinal cord, brain cortex, brainstem, and skeletal muscle along with necrotizing myositis and splenic atrophy. Gerbils that received two doses of inactive whole-virus vaccine showed no EV71-specific symptoms after challenged with EV71. In contrast, gerbils that received mock vaccination died of EV71-induced neuropathology after challenged with EV71. The result indicates that gerbils can serve as a reliable disease model for evaluating safety and efficacy of EV71 vaccine.

  1. Disregard of neurological impairments associated with neglected tropical diseases in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Quansah


    Full Text Available Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs affect people in the bottom billion poorest in the world. These diseases are concentrated in rural areas, conflict zones and urban slums in Africa and other tropical areas. While the World Health Organization recognizes seventeen priority NTDs, the list of conditions present in Africa and elsewhere that are eligible to be classified as NTDs is much longer. Although NTDs are generally marginalized, their associated neurological burden has been almost completely disregarded. However, reports indicate that trichuriasis, schistosomiasis and hookworm infection, among others, cause impairments in memory and cognition, negatively affecting school attendance rates and educational performance particularly among children, as well as agricultural productivity among adults. Consequently, the neurological impairments have substantial influence on education and economic productivity, thus aggravating and perpetuating poverty in affected societies. However, inadequate research, policy and public health attention has been paid to the neurological burdens associated with NTDs. In order to appropriately address these burdens, we recommend the development of policy interventions that focus on the following areas: (i the introduction of training programs to develop the capacity of scientists and clinicians in research, diagnostic and treatment approaches (ii the establishment of competitive research grant schemes to fund cutting-edge research into these neurological impairments, and (iii the development of public health interventions to improve community awareness of the NTD-associated neurological problems, possibly enhancing disease prevention and expediting treatment.

  2. The child neurology clinical workforce in 2015 (United States)

    Bale, James F.; Mintz, Mark; Joshi, Sucheta M.; Gilbert, Donald L.; Radabaugh, Carrie; Ruch-Ross, Holly


    Objectives: More than a decade has passed since the last major workforce survey of child neurologists in the United States; thus, a reassessment of the child neurology workforce is needed, along with an inaugural assessment of a new related field, neurodevelopmental disabilities. Methods: The American Academy of Pediatrics and the Child Neurology Society conducted an electronic survey in 2015 of child neurologists and neurodevelopmental disabilities specialists. Results: The majority of respondents participate in maintenance of certification, practice in academic medical centers, and offer subspecialty care. EEG reading and epilepsy care are common subspecialty practice areas, although many child neurologists have not had formal training in this field. In keeping with broader trends, medical school debts are substantially higher than in the past and will often take many years to pay off. Although a broad majority would choose these fields again, there are widespread dissatisfactions with compensation and benefits given the length of training and the complexity of care provided, and frustrations with mounting regulatory and administrative stresses that interfere with clinical practice. Conclusions: Although not unique to child neurology and neurodevelopmental disabilities, such issues may present barriers for the recruitment of trainees into these fields. Creative approaches to enhance the recruitment of the next generation of child neurologists and neurodevelopmental disabilities specialists will benefit society, especially in light of all the exciting new treatments under development for an array of chronic childhood neurologic disorders. PMID:27566740

  3. Neurological disorders in children with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Zavadenko


    Full Text Available During a clinical examination of children with autistic spectrum disorders, attention should be drawn to both their major clinical manifestations and neurological comorbidities. The paper considers the mechanisms of autism-induced neurological disorders, the spectrum of which may include manifestations, such as retarded and disharmonic early psychomotor development; the specific features of sensory perception/processing; rigidity and monotony of motor and psychic reactions; motor disinhibition and hyperexcitability; motor stereotypies; uncoordinated movements; developmental coordination disorders (dyspraxia; impaired expressive motor skills; speech and articulation disorders; tics; epilepsy. It describes the specific features of neurological symptoms in Asperger’s syndrome, particularly in semantic-pragmatic language disorders, higher incidence rates of hyperlexia, motor and vocal tics. The incidence rate of epilepsy in autistic spectrum disorders is emphasized to be greater than the average population one. At the same time, the risk of epilepsy is higher in mentally retarded patients with autism. Identification of neurological disorders is of great importance in determining the tactics of complex care for patients with autistic spectrum disorders. 

  4. Are Students with Developmental Dyslexia Neurologically Different? (United States)

    Goldsmith-Phillips, Josephine


    Reviews the controversy over a biological basis for developmental dyslexia and illustrates it with two case studies of junior high school students. Reviews neurological evidence for developmental dyslexia, and proposes seven signs characteristic of reading disability that may qualify as dyslexia. (SR)

  5. Chapter 17: cognitive assessment in neurology. (United States)

    Henderson, Victor W


    Modern interests in cognitive assessment began with Franz Gall's early 19th century theory of mental organology and Paul Broca's reports in the 1860s on patients with focal brain injury and aphemia. These workers spurred interest in assessing delimited mental abilities in relation to discrete cerebral areas. With roots in experimental and educational psychology, the intelligence testing movement added assessment tools that could be applied to neurological patients. Early- to mid-20th-century landmarks were Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon's intelligence scale, Howard Knox's nonverbal performance tests, and the intelligence quotient conceived by Lewis Terman and refined by David Wechsler. Also developed during this era were Henry Head's Serial Tests for aphasic patients and Kurt Goldstein's tests for brain-injured patients with impairments in "abstract attitude" and concept formation. Other investigators have contributed procedures for the evaluation of language functions, memory, visuospatial and visuoconstructive skills, praxis, and executive functions. A further milestone was the development of short standardized cognitive instruments for dementia assessment. Within a neurological arena, the historical emphasis has been on a flexible, process-driven approach to the service of neurological diagnosis and syndrome identification. Advances in clinical psychology, neurology, and the cognate clinical neurosciences continue to enrich assessment options.

  6. Mind-body interventions: applications in neurology. (United States)

    Wahbeh, Helané; Elsas, Siegward-M; Oken, Barry S


    Half of the adults in the United States use complementary and alternative medicine with mind-body therapy being the most commonly used form. Neurology patients often turn to their physicians for insight into the effectiveness of the therapies and resources to integrate them into their care. The objective of this article is to give a clinical overview of mind-body interventions and their applications in neurology. Medline and PsychInfo were searched on mind-body therapies and neurologic disease search terms for clinical trials and reviews and published evidence was graded. Meditation, relaxation, and breathing techniques, yoga, tai chi, and qigong, hypnosis, and biofeedback are described. Mind-body therapy application to general pain, back and neck pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, headaches, fibromyalgia, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, muscular dysfunction, stroke, aging, Parkinson disease, stroke, and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder are reviewed. There are several conditions where the evidence for mind-body therapies is quite strong such as migraine headache. Mind-body therapies for other neurology applications have limited evidence due mostly to small clinical trials and inadequate control groups.

  7. [Cinema and neurology: early educational applications]. (United States)

    Collado-Vázquez, Susana; Carrillo, Jesús M


    Since its earliest days, cinema has been used in the teaching of neurology both to illustrate the professor's explanations and to make learning easier for students. To analyse some of the first applications of cinema to the teaching and learning of neurology. Shortly after the birth of the film projector it became apparent that it could be a valuable aid in teaching medicine, and especially neurology. Initially, actual recordings made by doctors themselves were used, and later documentaries, short films and feature films were employed as means of showing diagnostic and therapeutic methods, as well as different pathological signs, such as movement disorders. The intention was not to replace other methodologies but instead to complement them and to make the process of acquiring knowledge easier. Applying cinema in teaching is a useful way to portray the contents of different subjects, especially in the field of neurology, and to favour the acquisition of both specific and cross-disciplinary competences, with very positive results being obtained among students.

  8. Interactive drama in complex neurological disability management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenech, Anne


    Purpose. To establish whether interactive drama has any effect on the responses of people with complex neurological disabilities resident in a long term care facility. Method. This was a service evaluation using interviews with a group of 31 independently consenting long term care residents, and 27

  9. Neurological and neurosurgical manifestations of human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neurological and neurosurgical manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Mrica. Adelola Adeloye MS FRCS FRCP. Professor. Department of Surgery, College of Medicine. Blantyre, Malawi. Introduction. AIDS was first recognised in the United States of . America in the late 1970s among homosexual ...

  10. [Anesthesia for patients with neurological diseases]. (United States)

    Kimura, Masafumi; Saito, Shigeru


    Several surgical treatments can be employed for the patients with neurological disorders, such as multiple sclerosis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer disease and spinal cord injury. It is possible that anesthesia related complications are induced in these neurologically complicated patients in the perioperative period. Respiratory dysfunction and autonomic nervous system dysfunction are most common in this population. Respiratory muscle weakness and bulbar palsy may cause aspiration pneumonia. Sometimes, postoperative ventilatory support is mandatory in these patients. Autonomic nervous system dysfunction may cause hypotension secondary to postural changes, blood loss, or positive airway pressure. Some therapeutic agents prescribed for neurological symptoms have drug interaction with anesthetic agents. Patients with motor neuron disease should be considered to be vulnerable to hyperkalemia in response to a depolarizing muscle relaxant. Although perioperative treatment guideline for most neurologic disorders has not been reported to lessen perioperative morbidity, knowledge of the clinical features and the interaction of common anesthetics with the drug therapy is important in planning intraoperative and postoperative management.

  11. Nutrition of patients with severe neurologic impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orel Anija


    Full Text Available Commercial enteral formulas are generally recommended for gastrostomy feeding in patients with severe neurologic impairment. However, pureed food diets are still widely used and even gaining popularity among certain groups. We tried to compare the effectiveness of gastrostomy feeding for treatment of severe malnutrition with either enteral formulas or pureed feeds.

  12. Neurological complications of Zika virus infection. (United States)

    Carod-Artal, Francisco Javier


    Zika virus (ZIKV) disease is a vector-borne infectious disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Recently, ZIKV has caused outbreaks in most American countries. Areas covered: Publications about neurological complications of ZIKV infection retrieved from pubmed searchers were reviewed, and reference lists and relevant articles from review articles were also examined. Vertical/intrauterine transmission leads to congenital infection and causes microcephaly and congenital ZIKV syndrome. ZIKV preferentially infects human neural progenitor cells and triggers cell apoptosis. ZIKV RNA has been identified in foetal brain tissue and brains of microcephalic infants who died; amniotic fluid and placentas of pregnant mothers; and umbilical cord, cerebro-spinal fluid and meninges of newborns. The increase in the number of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) cases during the ZIKV outbreak in the Americas provides epidemiological evidence for the link between ZIKV infection and GBS. Less frequently reported ZIKV neurological complications include encephalitis/meningoencephalitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, myelitis, cerebrovascular complications (ischemic infarction; vasculopathy), seizures and encephalopathy, sensory polyneuropathy and sensory neuronopathy. Analysis of GBS incidence could serve as an epidemiological 'marker' or sentinel for ZIKV disease and other neurological complications associated to ZIKV. Expert commentary: An expanding spectrum of neurological complications associated with ZIKV infection is being recognised.

  13. Working the way up in neurological rehabilitation: the holistic approach of nursing care. (United States)

    Portillo, Mari Carmen; Cowley, Sarah


    To provide understanding of the nurses' role in neurological holistic rehabilitation and identify strategies for the enhancement of rehabilitation services. Although acute and chronic neurological patients and relatives experience emotional and social changes, most rehabilitation programmes do not deal with non-physical needs or involve nurses, leading to a poor definition and specialisation of the nursing role. Action research. The project took place in two neurological wards of a highly specialised hospital in Spain and lasted 30 months. An individualised nurse-led social rehabilitation programme was planned, implemented and evaluated. The nursing role and care in rehabilitation were explored with 37 nurses and 40 neurological patients and 40 relatives (convenience sampling). Semi-structured interviews and participant observations were developed. Content (QSR NUDIST Vivo v.2.0) and statistical (SPSS v. 13.0) analyses were run. The lack of time, knowledge and experience, the poor definition of the nursing role and ineffective communication with users limited holistic care in the wards. Some enhancing nursing strategies were proposed and explored: promotion of acceptance/adaptation of the disease through education, reinforcement of the discharge planning and planning of emotional and social choices based on the assessment of individual needs and resources at home. Nursing professionals are in a privileged position to deal with neurological patients' and carers' holistic needs. Several attributes of the advanced nursing role in rehabilitation teams have been proposed to deal with non-physical aspects of care. • Rehabilitation needs of neurological patients and carers at hospital have been described. • Nurses' perceptions of their work and role in rehabilitation have been presented. • Clinical strategies to develop the advanced nursing role in holistic neurological rehabilitation have been highlighted. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. A focus on adolescence to reduce neurological, mental health and substance-use disability. (United States)

    Davidson, Leslie L; Grigorenko, Elena L; Boivin, Michael J; Rapa, Elizabeth; Stein, Alan


    Globally, there is a crucial need to prioritize research directed at reducing neurological, mental health and substance-use disorders in adolescence, which is a pivotal age for the development of self-control and regulation. In adolescence, behaviour optimally advances towards adaptive long-term goals and suppresses conflicting maladaptive short-lived urges to balance impulsivity, exploration and defiance, while establishing effective societal participation. When self-control fails to develop, violence, injury and neurological, mental health and substance-use disorders can result, further challenging the development of self-regulation and impeding the transition to a productive adulthood. Adolescent outcomes, positive and negative, arise from both a life-course perspective and within a socioecological framework. Little is known about the emergence of self-control and regulation in adolescents in low- and middle-income countries where enormous environmental threats are more common (for example, poverty, war, local conflicts, sex trafficking and slavery, early marriage and/or pregnancy, and the absence of adequate access to education) than in high-income countries and can threaten optimal neurodevelopment. Research must develop or adapt appropriate assessments of adolescent ability and disability, social inclusion and exclusion, normative development, and neurological, mental health and substance-use disorders. Socioecological challenges in low- and middle-income countries require innovative strategies to prevent mental health, neurological and substance-use disorders and develop effective interventions for adolescents at risk, especially those already living with these disorders and the consequent disability.

  15. [Neurological complications of infective endocarditis in Burkina Faso. Clinical features, management and evolutionary profile]. (United States)

    Yaméogo, N V; Seghda, A; Kagambèga, L J; Diallo, O; Millogo, G R C; Toguyéni, B J Y; Samadoulougou, A K; Niakara, A; Simporé, J; Zabsonré, P


    Neurological complications are the most frequent extracardiac complications of infective endocarditis (IE). This study aimed to describe the epidemiological, clinical and paraclinical aspects, and outcome of neurological complications of infective endocarditis in three hospitals in the city of Ouagadougou in Burkina Faso. From 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2012, we included all patients suffering from IE and selected those in whom a neurological complication was objectified. Neurological involvement was sought on clinical examination but especially CT brain (ischemic infarcts, hemorrhages, aneurysms and abscesses). Blood cultures were systematic. Echocardiography was done for vegetations and characteristics. Among 63 cases of IE, neurological complications were found in 14 patients (22.2%). The average age of patients with neurological complications was 37.4 ± 5.8 years. The sex ratio was 1.3 for women. Neurological damage consisted of nine cases of stroke (64.3%), three cases of hemorrhagic stroke (21.4%) and two cases of brain abscess (14.3%). Neurological complications had already occurred before hospitalization in 4 cases. Blood cultures were positive in 8 cases. Germs found were predominantly Staphylococcus aureus (5 cases) and Streptococcus a- viridans (2 cases). All cases of S. aureus were complicated by stroke. At echocardiography, vegetation was found in all cases. It was found on the mitral in 7 cases, the aorta in 3 cases, the mitral and aortic in 2 cases and the mitral and tricuspid in 2 cases also. The EI had occurred on a native valve in 11 cases, prosthesis in 4 cases (2 mitral and 2 aortic). The vegetations average diameter was 11.2 ± 2.1 mm (6.4 and 1 7.7 mm). Vegetations were mobile in 12 cases. The treatment consisted of antibiotics adapted to the antibiogram, neurological and cardiovascular monitoring. The evolution was marked by seven deaths (50%), including 5 deaths related to cerebral complication (71.4% of deaths). This study shows that

  16. Adaptive therapy. (United States)

    Gatenby, Robert A; Silva, Ariosto S; Gillies, Robert J; Frieden, B Roy


    A number of successful systemic therapies are available for treatment of disseminated cancers. However, tumor response is often transient, and therapy frequently fails due to emergence of resistant populations. The latter reflects the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of the tumor microenvironment as well as the evolutionary capacity of cancer phenotypes to adapt to therapeutic perturbations. Although cancers are highly dynamic systems, cancer therapy is typically administered according to a fixed, linear protocol. Here we examine an adaptive therapeutic approach that evolves in response to the temporal and spatial variability of tumor microenvironment and cellular phenotype as well as therapy-induced perturbations. Initial mathematical models find that when resistant phenotypes arise in the untreated tumor, they are typically present in small numbers because they are less fit than the sensitive population. This reflects the "cost" of phenotypic resistance such as additional substrate and energy used to up-regulate xenobiotic metabolism, and therefore not available for proliferation, or the growth inhibitory nature of environments (i.e., ischemia or hypoxia) that confer resistance on phenotypically sensitive cells. Thus, in the Darwinian environment of a cancer, the fitter chemosensitive cells will ordinarily proliferate at the expense of the less fit chemoresistant cells. The models show that, if resistant populations are present before administration of therapy, treatments designed to kill maximum numbers of cancer cells remove this inhibitory effect and actually promote more rapid growth of the resistant populations. We present an alternative approach in which treatment is continuously modulated to achieve a fixed tumor population. The goal of adaptive therapy is to enforce a stable tumor burden by permitting a significant population of chemosensitive cells to survive so that they, in turn, suppress proliferation of the less fit but chemoresistant

  17. Contemporary Teaching of Neurology. Teaching Neurological Behavior to General Practitioners: A Fresh Approach (United States)

    Derouesne, C.; Salamon, R.


    Ways in which teaching neurology can be simplified for the nonspecialist practitioner are addressed in this assessment of the state-of-the-art in France. The hypothesis implies simplifying both the diagnoses and symptomatology. (LBH)

  18. Trends in American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology specialties and neurologic subspecialties (United States)

    Faulkner, L.R.; Juul, D.; Pascuzzi, R.M.; Aminoff, M.J.; Crumrine, P.K.; DeKosky, S.T.; Jozefowicz, R.F.; Massey, J.M.; Pirzada, N.; Tilton, A.


    Objective: To review the current status and recent trends in the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN) specialties and neurologic subspecialties and discuss the implications of those trends for subspecialty viability. Methods: Data on numbers of residency and fellowship programs and graduates and ABPN certification candidates and diplomates were drawn from several sources, including ABPN records, Web sites of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and the American Medical Association, and the annual medical education issues of the Journal of the American Medical Association. Results: About four-fifths of neurology graduates pursue fellowship training. While most recent neurology and child neurology graduates attempt to become certified by the ABPN, many clinical neurophysiologists elect not to do so. There appears to have been little interest in establishing fellowships in neurodevelopmental disabilities. The pass rate for fellowship graduates is equivalent to that for the “grandfathers” in clinical neurophysiology. Lower percentages of clinical neurophysiologists than specialists participate in maintenance of certification, and maintenance of certification pass rates are high. Conclusion: The initial enthusiastic interest in training and certification in some of the ABPN neurologic subspecialties appears to have slowed, and the long-term viability of those subspecialties will depend upon the answers to a number of complicated social, economic, and political questions in the new health care era. PMID:20855855

  19. Neurology as career option among postgraduate medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namit B Gupta


    Full Text Available Background: In the context of inadequacy of neurology workforce in India, it is important to understand factors that post-graduate medical students consider for and against choosing neurology as their career option. Understanding these factors will help in planning strategies to encourage students to pursue a career in neurology. At present, there is a paucity of studies addressing this issue in India. Aims and Objectives: (1 To analyze factors, which post-graduate students consider for and against choosing neurology as a career specialty. (2 To access the level and quality of neurology exposure in the current MBBS and MD curricula. Materials and Methods: Statewide questionnaire based study was conducted in the state of Maharashtra for students eligible to take DM neurology entrance examination (MD Medicine and MD Pediatrics. Results: In this survey, 243 students were enrolled. Factors bringing students to neurology were - intellectual challenge and logical reasoning (72%, inspired by role model teachers (63%, better quality-of-life (51% and scope for independent practice without expensive infrastructure (48%. Factors preventing students from taking neurology were - perception that most neurological diseases are degenerative (78%, neurology is mainly an academic specialty (40%, neurophobia (43% and lack of procedures (57%. Inadequate exposure and resultant lack of self-confidence were common (31%, 70-80%. 84% of the students felt the need for a short term certification course in neurology after MD. Conclusions: To attract more students to neurology, "role model" teachers of neurology could interact and teach students extensively. Neurologists′ efforts to shed their diagnostician′s image and to shift their focus to therapeutics will help change the image of neurology. Out-patient neurology clinics should be incorporated early in the student′s career. Procedures attract students; hence, they should be made conversant with procedures and

  20. Neurological abnormalities associated with CDMA exposure. (United States)

    Hocking, B; Westerman, R


    Dysaesthesiae of the scalp and neurological abnormality after mobile phone use have been reported previously, but the roles of the phone per se or the radiations in causing these findings have been questioned. We report finding a neurological abnormality in a patient after accidental exposure of the left side of the face to mobile phone radiation [code division multiple access (CDMA)] from a down-powered mobile phone base station antenna. He had headaches, unilateral left blurred vision and pupil constriction, unilateral altered sensation on the forehead, and abnormalities of current perception thresholds on testing the left trigeminal ophthalmic nerve. His nerve function recovered during 6 months follow-up. His exposure was 0.015-0.06 mW/cm(2) over 1-2 h. The implications regarding health effects of radiofrequency radiation are discussed.

  1. Music-based interventions in neurological rehabilitation. (United States)

    Sihvonen, Aleksi J; Särkämö, Teppo; Leo, Vera; Tervaniemi, Mari; Altenmüller, Eckart; Soinila, Seppo


    During the past ten years, an increasing number of controlled studies have assessed the potential rehabilitative effects of music-based interventions, such as music listening, singing, or playing an instrument, in several neurological diseases. Although the number of studies and extent of available evidence is greatest in stroke and dementia, there is also evidence for the effects of music-based interventions on supporting cognition, motor function, or emotional wellbeing in people with Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, or multiple sclerosis. Music-based interventions can affect divergent functions such as motor performance, speech, or cognition in these patient groups. However, the psychological effects and neurobiological mechanisms underlying the effects of music interventions are likely to share common neural systems for reward, arousal, affect regulation, learning, and activity-driven plasticity. Although further controlled studies are needed to establish the efficacy of music in neurological recovery, music-based interventions are emerging as promising rehabilitation strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Neuroelectrophysiological studies on neurological autoimmune diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-hong LIU


    Full Text Available The neuroelectrophysiological manifestations of four clinical typical neurological autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS, Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS, myasthenia gravis (MG, and polymyositis and dermatomyositis were reviewed in this paper. The diagnostic value of evoked potentials for multiple sclerosis, nerve conduction studies (NCS for Guillain-Barré syndrome, repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS and single-fiber electromyography (SFEMG for myasthenia gravis, and needle electromyography for polymyositis and dermatomyositis were respectively discussed. This review will help to have comprehensive understanding on electrophysiological examinations and their clinical significance in the diagnosis of neurological autoimmune diseases. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.09.004

  3. Neurological manifestations of Chikungunya and Zika infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talys J. Pinheiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The epidemics of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV and Zika virus (ZIKV infections have been considered the most important epidemiological occurrences in the Americas. The clinical picture of CHIKV infection is characterized by high fever, exanthema, myalgia, headaches, and arthralgia. Besides the typical clinical picture of CHIKV, atypical manifestations of neurological complications have been reported: meningo-encephalitis, meningoencephalo-myeloradiculitis, myeloradiculitis, myelitis, myeloneuropathy, Guillain-Barré syndrome and others. The diagnosis is based on clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory criteria. The most common symptoms of ZIKV infection are skin rash (mostly maculopapular, fever, arthralgia, myalgia, headache, and conjunctivitis. Some epidemics that have recently occurred in French Polynesia and Brazil, reported the most severe conditions, with involvement of the nervous system (Guillain-Barré syndrome, transverse myelitis, microcephaly and meningitis. The treatment for ZIKV and CHIKV infections are symptomatic and the management for neurological complications depends on the type of affliction. Intravenous immunoglobulin, plasmapheresis, and corticosteroid pulse therapy are options.

  4. [Bioethics in Russian neurology and epileptology]. (United States)

    Mikhalkovska-Karlova, E P


    Historical roots and further development of bioethics in domestic neurology and epileptology are considered. The main bioethical principles were established during the formation of the Russian clinical school and neurosciences. It is most distinctly seen in the development of bioethics in neurology and epileptology. In the author's opinion, the Russian scientist V.M. Bekhterev had played a prominent role in the field. In the time when the term "bioethics" was not coined and its principles were not formulated, V.M. Bekhterev had created the Russian league against epilepsy and established the foundations of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) as the organizations working on the problems of medical and social care to patients with epilepsy. In Russia, the Russian society of neurologists has been doing a great work in the field.

  5. Psychiatry and neurology: from dualism to integration. (United States)

    Sobański, Jerzy A; Dudek, Dominika


    The two objectives of the following paper are: to make few remarks on the topic absorbing neurologists, psychiatrists, and neuropsychiatrists - integration and division of their specialties; and to describe the situation in Poland, reflected in the latest literature. The authors describe the former and present processes of approaches and divisions in psychiatry and neurology. They indicate dissemination of mutual methods of structural and action brain neuroimaging, neurophysiology, neurogenetics, and advanced neurophysiology diagnostics. As it seems, even the effectiveness of psychotherapy, has recently been associated with changes in brain in functional and even structural markers. The authors indicate the value of the strive to join the still divided specialties, reflected worldwide in attempts of common education and clinical cooperation of physicians. It can be expected that subsequent years will bring further triumphs of neuropsychiatry - a field that combines psychiatry and neurology.

  6. Neurological manifestations of excessive alcohol consumption. (United States)

    Planas-Ballvé, Anna; Grau-López, Laia; Morillas, Rosa María; Planas, Ramón


    This article reviews the different acute and chronic neurological manifestations of excessive alcohol consumption that affect the central or peripheral nervous system. Several mechanisms can be implicated depending on the disorder, ranging from nutritional factors, alcohol-related toxicity, metabolic changes and immune-mediated mechanisms. Recognition and early treatment of these manifestations is essential given their association with high morbidity and significantly increased mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U., AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  7. Emergency Neurological Life Support: Intracerebral Hemorrhage. (United States)

    Jauch, Edward C; Pineda, Jose A; Hemphill, J Claude


    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a subset of stroke due to bleeding within the parenchyma of the brain. It is potentially lethal, and survival depends on ensuring an adequate airway, reversal of coagulopathy, and proper diagnosis. ICH was chosen as an Emergency Neurological Life Support protocol because intervention within the first critical hour may improve outcome, and it is critical to have site-specific protocols to drive care quickly and efficiently.

  8. Music therapy in neurological rehabilitation settings


    Elżbieta Galińska


    The neurologic music therapy is a new scope of music therapy. Its techniques deal with dysfunctions resulting from diseases of the human nervous system. Music can be used as an alternative modality to access functions unavailable through non-musical stimulus. Processes in the brain activated by the influence of music can be generalized and transferred to non-musical functions. Therefore, in clinical practice, the translation of non-musical therapeutic exercises into analogous, isomorphic ...

  9. [The problem of suicide in neurologic rehabilitation]. (United States)

    Kallert, T W


    Associations between somatic as well as, in particular, neurological diseases and suicidal acts are outlined, with studies of different diseases having shown that they represent only one factor in motivating the suicidal act. Biographical predispositions and stressful variables from the current social situation are always added. Depressive and organic brain syndromes that can often be found during neurological rehabilitation are discussed in their significance as risk factors for suicidal behavior, also seeking to identify distinct phases of the rehabilitation process afflicted with high suicide risk. An active and carefully directed approach to exploration as well as grasping the psychopathological symptomatology are fundamental elements in the assessment of suicide risk. In this respect, observations of the patient's behaviour and information obtained from relatives are of special importance in neurological rehabilitation clinics. The "presuicidal syndrome" (Ringel) continues to be of high clinical value in assessing the psychodynamics of the individual patient in his development towards the suicidal act. Reflections of suicidal tendencies in countertransference reactions and the communication pathology of suicidal behaviour are more recent aspects that enrich the assessment of suicide risk. Therapeutic management of suicidal patients can firstly be characterized by the principle of specific diagnosis and treatment of the underlying disease; this means that optimum medical care even has a suicide-preventive function. The other principle considers the establishment of a therapeutical relationship as a must, and some critical points in the personal contact with suicidal patients are dealt with in some detail. Especially in neurological rehabilitation clinics, custodial aspects must not be neglected.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Neurological complications are avoidable during CABG. (United States)

    Haider, Zulfiqar; Jalal, Anjum; Alamgir, Asif Rashid; Rasheed, Irfan


    To review the incidence of stroke in patients undergoing CABG and the impact of a preventive strategy adopted at tertiary care unit of cardiac surgery. The data of all patients who underwent isolated CABG (N= 722) from July 2016 to August 2017 at Faisalabad Institute of Cardiology was retrieved for this retrospective study. All operations were done on cardiopulmonary bypass and cold blood cardioplegia. Numeric data was summarized as Mean ± Standard Deviation while categoric variables were summarized into frequency and percentage. Mean age of patients was 53.83±8.8 years. Mean Parsonnet and Logistic EuroScore were 4.3±3.2 and 3.3±0.9 respectively. Forty nine patients (6.78%) had significant carotid artery disease. Mean number of grafts was 2.8±0.82. Diabetes was present in 27.8% patients. Neurological complications were noticed in 14 patients (1.94%) who included 12 permanent paralyses. Further subgroup analysis revealed that 67 patients who were operated by single clamp technique remained free of neurological complications. This is clinically remarkable finding but due to small population size it is statistically non- significant. The incidence of neurological complications can be reduced significantly by adopting the appropriate preventing measures. Use of Single Clamp technique may be the reasons of such a low incidence of stroke in this study.

  11. Radiopharmaceutical Stem Cell Tracking for Neurological Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Rosado-de-Castro


    Full Text Available Although neurological ailments continue to be some of the main causes of disease burden in the world, current therapies such as pharmacological agents have limited potential in the restoration of neural functions. Cell therapies, firstly applied to treat different hematological diseases, are now being investigated in preclinical and clinical studies for neurological illnesses. However, the potential applications and mechanisms for such treatments are still poorly comprehended and are the focus of permanent research. In this setting, noninvasive in vivo imaging allows better understanding of several aspects of stem cell therapies. Amongst the various methods available, radioisotope cell labeling has become one of the most promising since it permits tracking of cells after injection by different routes to investigate their biodistribution. A significant increase in the number of studies utilizing this method has occurred in the last years. Here, we review the different radiopharmaceuticals, imaging techniques, and findings of the preclinical and clinical reports published up to now. Moreover, we discuss the limitations and future applications of radioisotope cell labeling in the field of cell transplantation for neurological diseases.

  12. Residency Training: Work engagement during neurology training. (United States)

    Zis, Panagiotis; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Artemiadis, Artemios K


    Work engagement, defined as a positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption, can ameliorate patient care and reduce medical errors. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate work engagement among neurology residents in the region of Attica, Greece. In total, 113 residents participated in this study. Demographic and work-related characteristics, as well as emotional exhaustion and personality traits (neuroticism), were examined via an anonymous questionnaire. Work engagement was measured by the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. The study sample had a mean age of 34.6 ± 3.6 years, ranging from 26 to 45 years. Sixty-two (54.9%) participants were women and 45 (39.8%) were married. After adjusting for sex, emotional exhaustion, and neuroticism, the main factors associated with work engagement were autonomy and chances for professional development. Providing more chances for trainees' professional development as well as allowing for and supporting greater job autonomy may improve work engagement during neurology training. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  13. Human endogenous retroviruses in neurologic disease. (United States)

    Christensen, Tove


    Endogenous retroviruses are pathogenic - in other species than the human. Disease associations for Human Endogenous RetroViruses (HERVs) are emerging, but so far an unequivocal pathogenetic cause-effect relationship has not been established. A role for HERVs has been proposed in neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases as diverse as multiple sclerosis (MS) and schizophrenia (SCZ). Particularly for MS, many aspects of the activation and involvement of specific HERV families (HERV-H/F and HERV-W/MSRV) have been reported, both for cells in the circulation and in the central nervous system. Notably envelope genes and their gene products (Envs) appear strongly associated with the disease. For SCZ, for ALS, and for HIV-associated dementia (HAD), indications are accumulating for involvement of the HERV-K family, and also HERV-H/F and/or HERV-W. Activation is reasonably a prerequisite for causality as most HERV sequences remain quiescent in non-pathological conditions, so the importance of regulatory pathways and epigenetics involved in regulating HERV activation, derepression, and also involvement of retroviral restriction factors, is emerging. HERV-directed antiretrovirals have potential as novel therapeutic paradigms in neurologic disease, particularly in MS. The possible protective or ameliorative effects of antiretroviral therapy in MS are substantiated by reports that treatment of HIV infection may be associated with a significantly decreased risk of MS. Further studies of HERVs, their role in neurologic diseases, and their potential as therapeutic targets are essential. © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Nanotechnology based diagnostics for neurological disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurek, Nicholas S; Chandra, Sathees B., E-mail: [Department of Biological, Chemical and Physical Sciences, Roosevelt University, Chicago, IL (United States)


    Nanotechnology involves probing and manipulating matter at the molecular level. Nanotechnology based molecular diagnostics have the potential to alleviate the suffering caused by many diseases, including neurological disorders, due to the unique properties of nanomaterials. Most neurological illnesses are multifactorial conditions and many of these are also classified as neurobehavioral disorders. Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington disease, cerebral ischemia, epilepsy, schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders like Rett syndrome are some examples of neurological disorders that could be better treated, diagnosed, prevented and possibly cured using nanotechnology. In order to improve the quality of life for disease afflicted people, a wide range of nanomaterials that include gold and silica nanoparticles, quantum dots and DNA along with countless other forms of nanotechnology have been investigated regarding their usefulness in advancing molecular diagnostics. Other small scaled materials like viruses and proteins also have potential for use as molecular diagnostic tools. Information obtained from nanotechnology based diagnostics can be stored and manipulated using bioinformatics software. More advanced nanotechnology based diagnostic procedures for the acquisition of even greater proteomic and genomic knowledge can then be developed along with better ways to fight various diseases. Nanotechnology also has numerous applications besides those related to biotechnology and medicine. In this article, we will discuss and analyze many novel nanotechnology based diagnostic techniques at our disposal today. (author)

  15. Neurological Manifestations In Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    youssef HNACH


    Full Text Available IntroductionThe purpose of this retrospective study was to report neurological manifestations noted in patients who were monitored for inflammatory bowel disease, in order to document the pathophysiological, clinical, progressive, and therapeutic characteristics of this entity.Material and methodsWe conducted a retrospective study on patients monitored -in the gastroenterology service in Ibn Sina Hospital in Rabat, Morocco- for inflammatory bowel disease from 1992 till 2013 and who developed neurological manifestations during its course. Patients with iatrogenic complications were excluded, as well as patients with cerebrovascular risk factors.ResultsThere were 6 patients, 4 of whom have developed peripheral manifestations. Electromyography enabled the diagnosis to be made and the outcome was favorable with disappearance of clinical manifestations and normalization of the electromyography.The other 2 patients, monitored for Crohn’s disease, developed ischemic stroke. Cerebral computed tomography angiography provided positive and topographic diagnosis. Two patients were admitted to specialized facilities.ConclusionNeurological manifestations in inflammatory bowel disease are rarely reported.  Peripheral neuropathies and stroke remain the most common manifestations. The mechanisms of these manifestations are not clearly defined yet. Currently, we hypothesize the interaction of immune mediators.

  16. Nanotechnology based diagnostics for neurological disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurek, Nicholas S.; Chandra, Sathees B., E-mail: [Department of Biological, Chemical and Physical Sciences, Roosevelt University, Chicago, IL (United States)


    Nanotechnology involves probing and manipulating matter at the molecular level. Nanotechnology based molecular diagnostics have the potential to alleviate the suffering caused by many diseases, including neurological disorders, due to the unique properties of nanomaterials. Most neurological illnesses are multifactorial conditions and many of these are also classified as neurobehavioral disorders. Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington disease, cerebral ischemia, epilepsy, schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders like Rett syndrome are some examples of neurological disorders that could be better treated, diagnosed, prevented and possibly cured using nanotechnology. In order to improve the quality of life for disease afflicted people, a wide range of nanomaterials that include gold and silica nanoparticles, quantum dots and DNA along with countless other forms of nanotechnology have been investigated regarding their usefulness in advancing molecular diagnostics. Other small scaled materials like viruses and proteins also have potential for use as molecular diagnostic tools. Information obtained from nanotechnology based diagnostics can be stored and manipulated using bioinformatics software. More advanced nanotechnology based diagnostic procedures for the acquisition of even greater proteomic and genomic knowledge can then be developed along with better ways to fight various diseases. Nanotechnology also has numerous applications besides those related to biotechnology and medicine. In this article, we will discuss and analyze many novel nanotechnology based diagnostic techniques at our disposal today. (author)

  17. [Neurology in mediaeval medical poetry in Latin]. (United States)

    de Frutos-González, V; Guerrero-Peral, A L

    Medical poems written in Latin during the Middle Ages constitute an important part of mediaeval literature on medicine and offer the advantage of making it easier for the reader to memorise their contents. They were to exert a notable influence of later medical literature. An analysis of works such as Medicinalis liber by Benedictus Crispus of Milan; De cultura hortorum by Walahfrid Strabo; the anonymous work known as Macer floridus; De pulsibus, De urinis, and De signis et symptomatibus aegritudinum, three treatises by Aegidius of Corbeil or the Poema anatomicum, belonging to the Salerno Medical School, reveals what neurological aspects were known in the Middle Ages and how important this medical discipline was in that period. References to pathologies in the field of neurology are very frequent in mediaeval medical poems in Latin. They deal with diseases involving the nerves, cephalea, tremors, epilepsy, vertigos and disorders affecting memory or the sense organs. These mediaeval medical works in Latin offer us an interesting insight into the way neurological diseases were viewed by western physicians in the Middle Ages, as well as describing the remedies that were employed at that time to treat them, most of which involved the use of plants that were considered to have medicinal properties.

  18. [Drooling therapy in children with neurological disorders]. (United States)

    Táboas-Pereira, M Andrea; Paredes-Mercado, Cecilia; Alonso-Curcó, Xènia; Badosa-Pagès, Joaquim; Muchart, Jordi; Póo, Pilar


    Drooling is the inability to retain saliva in the mouth and its progression to the digestive tract, being a common problem in pediatric patients with neurological disorders. Three different treatment options are available. To assess the effectiveness and safety of trihexyphenidyl, scopolamine and botulinum toxin infiltration in the treatment of drooling in children with neurological disorders. This is an open and prospective type study. We include patients treated in the Neurology Service that present excessive drooling, affecting their quality of life, between 2009 and 2013. We enrolled 46 patients in the study. The treatment with oral trihexyphenidyl was indicated in 46, obtaining good result in 15 (32.6%), three with temporary effect and the rest with lasting effect. Three patients presented side effects (6.5%). Four out of 11 (36.36%) patients treated with scopolamine patch had beneficial effects. One was withdrawn due to lack of efficacy and six due to side effects. Twenty-five patients were infiltrated with botulinum toxin, with a significant decrease of drooling in 16 patients (64%) after the first injection. We observed no significant changes in nine patients. Only one out of 25 showed side effects (mild dysphagia). Currently there is not a fully effective therapeutic option for drooling. We recommend starting treatment with trihexyphenidyl. A second option could be the scopolamine patch and botulinum toxin as a third option. Botulinum toxin infiltration in salivary glands is shown as an effective and safe alternative in our study.

  19. Nanotechnology based diagnostics for neurological disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurek, Nicholas S.; Chandra, Sathees B.


    Nanotechnology involves probing and manipulating matter at the molecular level. Nanotechnology based molecular diagnostics have the potential to alleviate the suffering caused by many diseases, including neurological disorders, due to the unique properties of nanomaterials. Most neurological illnesses are multifactorial conditions and many of these are also classified as neurobehavioral disorders. Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington disease, cerebral ischemia, epilepsy, schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders like Rett syndrome are some examples of neurological disorders that could be better treated, diagnosed, prevented and possibly cured using nanotechnology. In order to improve the quality of life for disease afflicted people, a wide range of nanomaterials that include gold and silica nanoparticles, quantum dots and DNA along with countless other forms of nanotechnology have been investigated regarding their usefulness in advancing molecular diagnostics. Other small scaled materials like viruses and proteins also have potential for use as molecular diagnostic tools. Information obtained from nanotechnology based diagnostics can be stored and manipulated using bioinformatics software. More advanced nanotechnology based diagnostic procedures for the acquisition of even greater proteomic and genomic knowledge can then be developed along with better ways to fight various diseases. Nanotechnology also has numerous applications besides those related to biotechnology and medicine. In this article, we will discuss and analyze many novel nanotechnology based diagnostic techniques at our disposal today. (author)

  20. Sparring And Neurological Function In Professional Boxers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W Stiller


    Full Text Available AbstractDespite increased interest regarding the potentially long-term negative impact of chronic traumatic brain injury (CTBI, limited research had been conducted regarding such injuries and neurological outcomes in real world settings. To increase understanding regarding the relationship between sparring (e.g., number of years actively training for professional boxing and neurological functioning, professional boxers (n = 237 who competed in Maryland between 2003 to 2008 completed measures regarding sparring exposure (Cumulative Sparring Index; CSI and performance on tests of cognition (Symbol Digit Modalities Test; SDMT and balance (Sharpened Romberg Test; SRT. Measures were completed prior to boxing matches. Higher scores on the CSI (increased sparring exposure were associated with poorer performance on both tests of cognition (SDMT and balance (SRT. A threshold effect was noted regarding performance on the SDMT, with those reporting CSI values greater than about 150 experiencing a decline in cognition. A history of frequent and/or intense sparring may pose a significant risk for developing boxing associated neurological sequelae. Implementing administration of clinically meaningful tests before bouts, such as the CSI, SDMT, and/or the SRT, as well as documentation of results into the boxer’s physicals or medical profiles may be an important step for improving boxing safety.

  1. The Clinical Spectrum of Neurological Manifestations in HIV/AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is primarily neurotrophic and lymphotrophic. Diverse neurologic sequealae have been documented with variations based on disease severity, but geographic variation may determine the distribution of these neurological complications. Objective: This study was ...

  2. Risks and benefits of antireflux operations in neurologically impaired children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgstein, E. S.; Heij, H. A.; Beugelaar, J. D.; Ekkelkamp, S.; Vos, A.


    Gastro-oesophageal reflux (GER) in neurologically impaired children often causes feeding problems and complications of oesophagitis and is frequently resistant to medical treatment. Fifty neurologically impaired children underwent anterior gastropexy as anti-reflux operation, combined with

  3. Neurology in Federico Fellini?s work and life. (United States)

    Teive, Hélio Afonso Ghizoni; Caramelli, Paulo; Cardoso, Francisco Eduardo Costa


    The authors present a historical review of the neurological diseases related to the famous moviemaker Federico Fellini. There is an account of diseases depicted on his movies as well as his ischemic stroke and consequent neurological deficit - left spatial neglect.

  4. Psychiatric morbidity in a Nigerian neurology clinic | Ajiboye | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychiatric morbidity in a Nigerian neurology clinic. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... The study supports previous reports that psychiatric disorders are quite common among patients with neurological disorders.

  5. Neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience: contributions to neurology. (United States)

    Javor, Andrija; Koller, Monika; Lee, Nick; Chamberlain, Laura; Ransmayr, Gerhard


    'Neuromarketing' is a term that has often been used in the media in recent years. These public discussions have generally centered around potential ethical aspects and the public fear of negative consequences for society in general, and consumers in particular. However, positive contributions to the scientific discourse from developing a biological model that tries to explain context-situated human behavior such as consumption have often been neglected. We argue for a differentiated terminology, naming commercial applications of neuroscientific methods 'neuromarketing' and scientific ones 'consumer neuroscience'. While marketing scholars have eagerly integrated neuroscientific evidence into their theoretical framework, neurology has only recently started to draw its attention to the results of consumer neuroscience. In this paper we address key research topics of consumer neuroscience that we think are of interest for neurologists; namely the reward system, trust and ethical issues. We argue that there are overlapping research topics in neurology and consumer neuroscience where both sides can profit from collaboration. Further, neurologists joining the public discussion of ethical issues surrounding neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience could contribute standards and experience gained in clinical research. We identify the following areas where consumer neuroscience could contribute to the field of neurology:First, studies using game paradigms could help to gain further insights into the underlying pathophysiology of pathological gambling in Parkinson's disease, frontotemporal dementia, epilepsy, and Huntington's disease.Second, we identify compulsive buying as a common interest in neurology and consumer neuroscience. Paradigms commonly used in consumer neuroscience could be applied to patients suffering from Parkinson's disease and frontotemporal dementia to advance knowledge of this important behavioral symptom.Third, trust research in the medical context lacks

  6. Neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience: contributions to neurology (United States)


    Background ‘Neuromarketing’ is a term that has often been used in the media in recent years. These public discussions have generally centered around potential ethical aspects and the public fear of negative consequences for society in general, and consumers in particular. However, positive contributions to the scientific discourse from developing a biological model that tries to explain context-situated human behavior such as consumption have often been neglected. We argue for a differentiated terminology, naming commercial applications of neuroscientific methods ‘neuromarketing’ and scientific ones ‘consumer neuroscience’. While marketing scholars have eagerly integrated neuroscientific evidence into their theoretical framework, neurology has only recently started to draw its attention to the results of consumer neuroscience. Discussion In this paper we address key research topics of consumer neuroscience that we think are of interest for neurologists; namely the reward system, trust and ethical issues. We argue that there are overlapping research topics in neurology and consumer neuroscience where both sides can profit from collaboration. Further, neurologists joining the public discussion of ethical issues surrounding neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience could contribute standards and experience gained in clinical research. Summary We identify the following areas where consumer neuroscience could contribute to the field of neurology: First, studies using game paradigms could help to gain further insights into the underlying pathophysiology of pathological gambling in Parkinson’s disease, frontotemporal dementia, epilepsy, and Huntington’s disease. Second, we identify compulsive buying as a common interest in neurology and consumer neuroscience. Paradigms commonly used in consumer neuroscience could be applied to patients suffering from Parkinson’s disease and frontotemporal dementia to advance knowledge of this important behavioral symptom

  7. Program Director Survey: Attitudes Regarding Child Neurology Training and Testing. (United States)

    Valencia, Ignacio; Feist, Terri B; Gilbert, Donald L


    As a result of major clinical and scientific advances and changes in clinical practice, the role of adult neurology training for Child Neurology and Neurodevelopmental Disability (NDD) certification has become controversial. The most recently approved requirements for board eligibility for child neurology and neurodevelopmental disability residents still include 12 months in adult neurology rotations. The objective of this study was to assess United States child neurology and neurodevelopmental disability residency program directors' opinions regarding optimal residency training. The authors developed an 18-item questionnaire and contacted all 80 child neurology and neurodevelopmental disability program directors via e-mail, using SurveyMonkey. A total of 44 program directors responded (55%), representing programs that train 78 categorical and 94 total resident positions, approximately 70% of those filled in the match. Respondents identified multiple areas where child neurology residents need more training, including genetics and neuromuscular disease. A substantial majority (73%) believed child neurology and neurodevelopmental disability residents need less than 12 adult neurology training months; however, most (75%) also believed adult hospital service and man-power needs (55%) and finances (34%) would pose barriers to reducing adult neurology. Most (70%) believed reductions in adult neurology training should be program flexible. A majority believed the written initial certification examination should be modified with more child neurology and fewer basic neuroscience questions. Nearly all (91%) felt the views of child neurology and neurodevelopmental disability program directors are under-represented within the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Residency Review Committee. The requirement for 12 adult neurology months for Child Neurology and Neurodevelopmental Disability certification is not consistent with the views of the majority of program

  8. Resilience thinking: integrating resilience, adaptability and transformability (United States)

    Carl Folke; Stephen R. Carpenter; Brian Walker; Marten Scheffer; Terry Chapin; Johan. Rockstrom


    Resilience thinking addresses the dynamics and development of complex social-ecological systems (SES). Three aspects are central: resilience, adaptability and transformability. These aspects interrelate across multiple scales. Resilience in this context is the capacity of a SES to continually change and adapt yet remain within critical thresholds. Adaptability is part...

  9. Determination of the adaptive response induced In vivo by gamma radiation and its relation with the sensibility to the damage induction in the DNA and with the repairing capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendiola C, M.T.


    The kinetics of damage induction and repair at different doses as well as the adaptive response induced by gamma ray exposure were determined in murine leukocytes in vivo. The damage-repair kinetics were established after the exposure to 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 Gy in a 137 Cs source. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from the tails of mice, the percentage of damaged cells and the DNA migration in each one were analyzed by the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCG) technique or comet assay. Results indicated that there was an induction of approximately 75% comets with the doses of 1.0 and 2.0 Gy, which was considerably reduced to 22% and 42% respectively during the first 15 minutes. This evidences the presence of a rapid repair process and suggests that leucocytes are genetically well prepared to repair this kind of damage. After 15 minutes, a second increase in the percentage of damaged cells that was proportional to dose occurred, which seems to represent the breaks produced during the repair of other kind of lesions. After that a second reduction was observed, reaching values near to the basal ones, except with the dose of 2.0 Gy. The kinetics obtained with the dose of 0.5 Gy was similar to that established with 1.0 Gy, but in this case the initial damage was 50 % lower. Besides, the adaptive response was observed after the exposure of the mice to an adaptive dose of 0.01 Gy and to a challenge dose of 1.0 Gy 60 minutes later. The pretreatment reduced the percentage of damaged cells caused by the challenge dose to one third approximately, and also diminished this parameter produced during the late repair process. This indicates that the early adaptive response is caused, instead of by an increment in repair, by the induction of a process that protects DNA from damage induction by radiation, i.e synthesis of substances that increase the scavenging of free radicals. (Author)

  10. The Adaptation Finance Gap Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    UNEP’s Adaptation Gap Report series focuses on Finance, Technology and Knowledge gaps in climate change adaptation. It compliments the Emissions Gap Report series, and explores the implications of failing to close the emissions gap. The report builds on a 2014 assessment by the United Nations...... Environment Programme (UNEP), which laid out the concept of ‘adaptation gaps’ and outlined three such gaps: technology, finance and knowledge. The 2016 Adaptation Gap Report assesses the difference between the financial costs of adapting to climate change in developing countries and the amount of money...... actually available to meet these costs – a difference known as the “adaptation finance gap”. Like the 2014 report, the 2016 report focuses on developing countries, where adaptation capacity is often the lowest and needs the highest, and concentrates on the period up to 2050. The report identifies trends...

  11. Morbidity and Mortality Patterns among Neurological Patients in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Objective: The morbidity and mortality of neurological patients managed in the intensive care unit reflect the causes of neurological disorders and the effectiveness of management. Method: The morbidity and mortality patterns of neurological patients admitted into the intensive care unit of the University of Benin ...

  12. Neurological sequelae in survivors of cerebral malaria | Oluwayemi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Cerebral malaria is a common cause of neurological sequelae and death in childhood. Information on persistent neurological sequelae post hospital discharge and their predisposing factors are scarce. Methods: This is a prospective study describing persisting neurological impairments post discharge among ...

  13. Profile of Neurological admissions at the University of Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The burden of Neurological diseases may be on the increase especially in developing countries. Improved outcome in these settings may require appreciation of the spectrum of Neurological diseases and the impediments to their management. We aim to determine the profile of neurological admissions and ...

  14. Psychological assessment of malingering in psychogenic neurological disorders and non-psychogenic neurological disorders : relationship to psychopathology levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beilen, M.; Griffioen, B. T.; Gross, A.; Leenders, K. L.


    Background and purpose: It remains unknown whether psychological distress causes malingering in patients with psychogenic symptoms. Methods: We studied 26 patients with psychogenic neurological disorders on psychopathology and malingering in comparison with 26 patients with various neurological

  15. Getting to value in neurological care: a roadmap for academic neurology. (United States)

    Holloway, Robert G; Ringel, Steven P


    Academic neurology is undergoing transformational changes. The public investment in biomedical research and clinical care is enormous and there is a growing perception that the return on this huge investment is insufficient. Hospitals, departments, and individual neurologists should expect more scrutiny as information about their quality of care and financial relationships with industry are increasingly reported to the public. There are unprecedented changes occurring in the financing and delivery of health care and research that will have profound impact on the mission and operation of academic departments of neurology. With the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) there will be increasing emphasis on research that demonstrates value and includes the patient's perspective. Here we review neurological investigations of our clinical and research enterprises that focus on quality of care and comparative effectiveness, including cost-effectiveness. By highlighting progress made and the challenges that lie ahead, we hope to create a clinical, educational, and research roadmap for academic departments of neurology to thrive in today's increasingly regulated environment. Copyright © 2011 American Neurological Association.

  16. Adaptive Education. (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin W.


    Schools have devised several ways to adapt instruction to a wide variety of student abilities and needs. Judged by criteria for what adaptive education should be, most learning for mastery programs look good. (Author/JM)

  17. Left Brain vs. Right Brain: Findings on Visual Spatial Capacities and the Functional Neurology of Giftedness (United States)

    Kalbfleisch, M. Layne; Gillmarten, Charles


    As neuroimaging technologies increase their sensitivity to assess the function of the human brain and results from these studies draw the attention of educators, it becomes paramount to identify misconceptions about what these data illustrate and how these findings might be applied to educational contexts. Some of these "neuromyths" have…

  18. Total iron binding capacity (United States)

    ... page: // Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  19. Air capacity for Sydney


    Forsyth, Peter


    Like most large cities, Sydney has an airport problem. Demand is increasing faster than supply, and additional capacity will be needed if costly rationing, and delays, are to be avoided. However, compared to many cities, the problems facing Sydney are modest. At the moment, demand is only just exceeding capacity. There is a good chance that the available capacity will be rationed efficiently. Options for expanding capacity are being evaluated well. There may be problems in the future- poor op...

  20. Responsibility and Capacities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper


    That responsible moral agency presupposes certain mental capacities, constitutes a widely accepted view among theorists. Moreover, it is often assumed that degrees in the development of the relevant capacities co-vary with degrees of responsibility. In this article it is argued that, the move from...... the view that responsibility requires certain mental capacities to the position that degrees of responsibility co-vary with degrees of the development of the mental capacities, is premature....

  1. OPRA capacity bounds for selection diversity over generalized fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Hanif, Muhammad Fainan


    Channel side information at the transmitter can increase the average capacity by enabling optimal power and rate adaptation. The resulting optimal power and rate adaptation (OPRA) capacity rarely has a closed-form analytic expression. In this paper, lower and upper bounds on OPRA capacity for selection diversity scheme are presented. These bounds hold for variety of fading channels including log-normal and generalized Gamma distributed models and have very simple analytic expressions for easy evaluation even for kth best path selection. Some selected numerical results show that the newly proposed bounds closely approximate the actual OPRA capacity. © 2014 IEEE.

  2. Bridging neuroanatomy, neuroradiology and neurology: three-dimensional interactive atlas of neurological disorders. (United States)

    Nowinski, W L; Chua, B C


    Understanding brain pathology along with the underlying neuroanatomy and the resulting neurological deficits is of vital importance in medical education and clinical practice. To facilitate and expedite this understanding, we created a three-dimensional (3D) interactive atlas of neurological disorders providing the correspondence between a brain lesion and the resulting disorder(s). The atlas contains a 3D highly parcellated atlas of normal neuroanatomy along with a brain pathology database. Normal neuroanatomy is divided into about 2,300 components, including the cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem, spinal cord, arteries, veins, dural sinuses, tracts, cranial nerves (CN), white matter, deep gray nuclei, ventricles, visual system, muscles, glands and cervical vertebrae (C1-C5). The brain pathology database contains 144 focal and distributed synthesized lesions (70 vascular, 36 CN-related, and 38 regional anatomy-related), each lesion labeled with the resulting disorder and associated signs, symptoms, and/or syndromes compiled from materials reported in the literature. The initial view of each lesion was preset in terms of its location and size, surrounding surface and sectional (magnetic resonance) neuroanatomy, and labeling of lesion and neuroanatomy. In addition, a glossary of neurological disorders was compiled and for each disorder materials from textbooks were included to provide neurological description. This atlas of neurological disorders is potentially useful to a wide variety of users ranging from medical students, residents and nurses to general practitioners, neuroanatomists, neuroradiologists and neurologists, as it contains both normal (surface and sectional) brain anatomy and pathology correlated with neurological disorders presented in a visual and interactive way.

  3. Outline of metabolic diseases in adult neurology. (United States)

    Mochel, F


    Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) are traditionally defined by enzymatic deficiencies or defects in proteins involved in cellular metabolism. Historically discovered and characterized in children, a growing number of IEM are described in adults, and especially in the field of neurology. In daily practice, it is important to recognize emergency situations as well as neurodegenerative diseases for which a metabolic disease is likely, especially when therapeutic interventions are available. Here, the goal is to provide simple clinical, imaging and biochemical tools that can first orientate towards and then confirm the diagnosis of IEM. General guidelines are presented to treat the most common IEM during metabolic crises - acute encephalopathies with increased plasma ammonia, lactate or homocystein, as well as rhabdomyolysis. Examples of therapeutic strategies currently applied to chronic neurometabolic diseases are also provided - GLUT1 deficiency, adrenoleukodystrophy, cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis, Niemann-Pick type C and Wilson disease. Genetic counseling is mandatory in some X-linked diseases - ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency and adrenoleukodystrophy - and recommended in maternally inherited mitochondrial diseases - mutations of mitochondrial DNA. Besides these practical considerations, the contribution of metabolism to the field of adult neurology and neurosciences is much greater: first, with the identification of blood biomarkers that are progressively changing our diagnostic strategies thanks to lipidomic approaches, as illustrated in the field of spastic paraplegia and atypical psychiatric presentations; and second, through the understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms involved in common neurological diseases thanks to the study of these rare diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Behavioural and psychiatric symptoms in cognitive neurology. (United States)

    Robles Bayón, A; Gude Sampedro, F


    Behavioural and psychiatric symptoms (BPS) are frequent in neurological patients, contribute to disability, and decrease quality of life. We recorded BPS prevalence and type, as well as any associations with specific diagnoses, brain regions, and treatments, in consecutive outpatients examined in a cognitive neurology clinic. A retrospective analysis of 843 consecutive patients was performed, including a review of BPS, diagnosis, sensory impairment, lesion topography (neuroimaging), and treatment. The total sample was considered, and the cognitive impairment (CI) group (n=607) was compared to the non-CI group. BPS was present in 59.9% of the patients (61.3% in the CI group, 56.4% in the non-CI group). One BPS was present in 31.1%, two in 17.4%, and three or more in 11.4%. BPS, especially depression and anxiety, are more frequent in women than in men. Psychotic and behavioural symptoms predominate in subjects aged 65 and older, and anxiety in those younger than 65. Psychotic symptoms appear more often in patients with sensory impairment. Psychotic and behavioural symptoms are more prevalent in patients with degenerative dementia; depression and anxiety in those who suffer a psychiatric disease or adverse effects of substances; emotional lability in individuals with a metabolic or hormonal disorder; hypochondria in those with a pain syndrome; and irritability in subjects with chronic hypoxia. Behavioural symptoms are more frequent in patients with anomalies in the frontal or right temporal or parietal lobes, and antipsychotics constitute the first line of treatment. Leaving standard treatments aside, associations were observed between dysthymia and opioid analgesics, betahistine and statins, and between psychotic symptoms and levodopa, piracetam, and vasodilators. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Paraneoplastic neurologic syndrome: A practical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudheeran Kannoth


    Full Text Available Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS are rare disorders associated with cancer, not caused by direct invasion, metastasis or consequences of treatment. They are usually autoimmune in nature. Often, PNS precedes the manifestations of cancer. Onconeural antibodies are important in the diagnosis and management of these disorders. These antibodies are specific for the malignancy rather than for a particular neurological syndrome. Often, there are different antibodies associated with the same syndrome. Multiple antibodies are also known to coexist in a given patient with malignancy. While investigating a patient for suspected PNS, the entire gamut of onconeural antibodies should be investigated so as not to miss the diagnosis. In 30-40% of the cases, PNS can occur without antibodies. Investigations for identifying the underlying cancer can be directed by the antibody panel. If conventional screening for cancer is negative, a positron emission scanning/computed tomography scan can be useful. Patients need follow-up surveillance for cancer if not detected in the first instance. Cancer detection and treatment, immunotherapy and supportive care are important components of treatment of PNS. Immunotherapy is very effective in PNS associated with cell membrane-associated antibodies like voltage-gated potassium channel complex, NMDA receptor antibodies and voltage-gated calcium channel antibodies. Immunotherapy includes steroids, IVIgG, plasmaphereis, cytotoxic medications and rituximab. Supportive therapy includes symptomatic treatment with antiepileptic and analgesic medications, physiotherapy, speech therapy and occupational therapy. PNS can mimic any neurologic syndrome. A high index of clinical suspicion is important for early diagnosis and prompt management and better outcome.

  6. Fetal MRI: obstetrical and neurological perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gressens, Pierre [INSERM E 9935 and Service de Neurologie Pediatrique, Hopital Robert Debre, 48 Blvd Serurier, 75019, Paris (France); Luton, Dominique [Maternity Department, Hopital Robert Debre, Paris (France)


    Despite major advances in the understanding and in the genetics of several diseases of the developing brain, early prediction of the neurological prognosis of brain abnormality discovered in utero or of white matter damage discovered in a preterm neonate remains particularly difficult. Advances in prenatal diagnosis and the increased rate of survival of extremely preterm infants who are at higher risk of developing white matter damage underline the critical and urgent need for reliable predictive techniques. New imaging techniques such as diffusion-weighted imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy or functional MRI applied to the fetus represent promising tools in this perspective. (orig.)

  7. Frida Kahlo's neurological deficits and her art. (United States)

    Budrys, Valmantas


    World-famous Mexican painter Frida Kahlo is an impressive example of a professional artist whose artistic subject matter was extremely influenced by her chronic, severe illness. Many of her best-known works depict her physical and mental suffering. She was one of those very uncommon artists who dared to show their nude, sick body. This chapter describes and explains the biographical events and works of Frida Kahlo that are closely related to neurology: congenital anomaly (spina bifida), poliomyelitis, spine injury, and neuropathic pain. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Psychologic theories in functional neurologic disorders. (United States)

    Carson, A; Ludwig, L; Welch, K


    In this chapter we review key psychologic theories that have been mooted as possible explanations for the etiology of functional neurologic symptoms, conversion disorder, and hysteria. We cover Freudian psychoanalysis and later object relations and attachment theories, social theories, illness behavior, classic and operant conditioning, social learning theory, self-regulation theory, cognitive-behavioral theories, and mindfulness. Dissociation and modern cognitive neuroscience theories are covered in other chapters in this series and, although of central importance, are omitted from this chapter. Our aim is an overview with the emphasis on breadth of coverage rather than depth. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Psychogenetic neurological disorders in draft age personnel]. (United States)

    Akhmetianov, L A; Ovchinnikov, A V


    The tendency of psychogenetic neurological disorders increases with predominance in young persons being students of high schools, students of military, technical and other lyceum was shown. The origin of diseases are psychotraumas (family, work), stress. Also genetic and hereditary factors take place that are indicative for individual rehabilitation organization. The basics of psychosomatic diseases pathogenesis are the disintegration mechanisms in brain structure activity,the disorders of integrative apparatus which provides the relationship between somatic, emotional and vegetative functions. The confirmation of brain work disintegration is achieved by modern computer diagnostic systems. As psychogenic diseases increase the need in methods of computer electroencephalography, evoked potentials, and rheoencephalography application is more actual.

  10. The neurologic complications of bariatric surgery. (United States)

    Berger, Joseph R; Singhal, Divya


    Bariatric surgery has been increasingly employed to manage morbid obesity. Approximately 150000 bariatric procedures are performed in the US annually. Neurologic complications arise in as many as 5% of individuals having this surgery. Although the etiology of some of these complications remains obscure, the majority are the consequence of vitamin (most commonly thiamine and vitamin B12) or mineral (most commonly copper) deficiency and familiarity with these disorders is essential. Their rapid diagnosis and appropriate treatment is essential to avoid long-term, irreversible consequences including, in some instances, death. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical neurogenetics: neurologic presentations of metabolic disorders. (United States)

    Kwon, Jennifer M; D'Aco, Kristin E


    This article reviews aspects of the neurologic presentations of selected treatable inborn errors of metabolism within the category of small molecule disorders caused by defects in pathways of intermediary metabolism. Disorders that are particularly likely to be seen by neurologists include those associated with defects in amino acid metabolism (organic acidemias, aminoacidopathies, urea cycle defects). Other disorders of small molecule metabolism are discussed as additional examples in which early treatments have the potential for better outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Computed tomography for neurological intensive care patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodiek, S.; Neu, I.


    The first 100 computed tomographic (CT) examinations of the patients on the neurological intensive care ward are discussed and reported on the basis of selected typical findings. Characteristic patterns of the CT findings in determined cerebral diseases are explained. The possibility and necessity of CT observations of the development of inflammatory and cerebrovascular processes in particular are emphasized. A comparison of our experience with CT and other neuroradiological methods, is made. The clinical diagnoses, including the respective number of cases and the pertinent CT findings, are presented in a Table. (orig.) [de

  13. Contribution of positron emission tomography in neurology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, E.; Franck, G.


    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a scanner technique using tracers labelled with shortlived radioisotopes which allows to study and quantify human metabolic processes or drug pharmacology in vivo. The technique is first applied in physiological studies. Sleep, normal brain metabolism or cerebral activations have been studied. The pharmacological approach concerns both drug distribution in the human brain and blood flow or metabolic variations under treatment. Main neurological applications in pathology are cerebrovascular disorders, diseases leading to dementia, epilepsy, movement disorders, and brain tumors. In each field of application, PET gives unique and frequently early informations. It nicely combines both dynamic informations and measurement precision. (author)

  14. Speech and Language Disturbances in Neurology Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oğuz Tanrıdağ


    Full Text Available Despite the well-known facts discerned from interesting cases of speech and language disturbances over thousands of years, the scientific background and the limitless discussions for nearly 150 years, this field has been considered one of the least important subjects in neurological sciences. In this review, we first analyze the possible causes for this “stepchild” attitude towards this subject and we then summarize the practical aspects concerning speech and language disturbances. Our underlying expectation with this review is to explain the facts concerning those disturbances that might offer us opportunities to better understand the nervous system and the affected patients

  15. Neurological and Sleep Disturbances in Bronchiectasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Seng Phua


    Full Text Available Bronchiectasis unrelated to cystic fibrosis is a chronic lung disease that is increasingly recognised worldwide. While other common chronic lung conditions such as chronic obstructive lung disease have been associated with cardiovascular disease, there is a paucity of data on the relationship between bronchiectasis and cardiovascular risks such as stroke and sleep disturbance. Furthermore, it is unclear whether other neuropsychological aspects are affected, such as cognition, cerebral infection, anxiety and depression. In this review, we aim to highlight neurological and sleep issues in relation to bronchiectasis and their importance to patient care.

  16. CDMA systems capacity engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kiseon


    This new hands-on resource tackles capacity planning and engineering issues that are crucial to optimizing wireless communication systems performance. Going beyond the system physical level and investigating CDMA system capacity at the service level, this volume is the single-source for engineering and analyzing systems capacity and resources.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    The results of the study facilitate the determination and classification of the main sensitivity factors for the payment capacity at sample level, the establishment of general benchmarks for the payment capacity (as no such benchmarks currently exist in the Romanian literature and the identification of the mechanisms through which the variation of different factors impacts the payment capacity.

  18. Cultivating Institutional Capacities for Learning Analytics (United States)

    Lonn, Steven; McKay, Timothy A.; Teasley, Stephanie D.


    This chapter details the process the University of Michigan developed to build institutional capacity for learning analytics. A symposium series, faculty task force, fellows program, research grants, and other initiatives are discussed, with lessons learned for future efforts and how other institutions might adapt such efforts to spur cultural…

  19. Strengthening Environmental Economics Capacity in Research on ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Strengthening Environmental Economics Capacity in Research on Climate Change Adaptation ... They will develop environmental economics methods to address specific climate change challenges caused by extreme weather stressors. ... Initiative Villes ciblées : gestion des déchets urbains à Cochabamba, en Bolivie.

  20. The Profile of Neurology Patients Evaluated in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Emre


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Early, rapid, and multidisciplinary approaches are very important in the diagnosis of neurological disorders in emergency departments. The present study aimed to investigate the features of patients that presented for neurology consultation in the emergency department. METHODS: The present study included 780 patients. Patient demographic features, reasons for emergent treatment and neurological consultation, neurological diagnosis by the neurologist, and laboratory (total blood count, serum glucose level, urea, creatine, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and D-dimer levels and imaging findings were retrospectively evaluated based on patient charts. RESULTS: Impaired consciousness was the most frequent reason for neurological consultation (19.7%. Among these patients, ischemic stroke was diagnosed in 27.9%, hypoxic encephalopathy in 18.2%, cerebral hemorrhage in 9.1%, and 11% had no neurological diagnosis. Other common reasons for neurological consultation were vertigo, headache, seizure, and stroke. Clinical findings were related to other systemic causes in 43.7% of the study group. Focal neurological findings were present, especially in patients that presented with ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, epilepsy, and hypoxic encephalopathy. CONCLUSION: In emergency departments, metabolic causes should be ruled out in patients with impaired consciousness and the absence of focal neurological signs. Intracranial structural disorders must be evaluated when focal neurological signs are present. Cautiously prepared algorithms and neurological examination training will help improve the accuracy of emergency department diagnoses

  1. Residency Training: The need for an integrated diversity curriculum for neurology residency. (United States)

    Rosendale, Nicole; Josephson, S Andrew


    Providing culturally responsive care to an increasingly multicultural population is essential and requires formal cultural humility training for residents. We sought to understand the current prevalence and need for this type of training within neurology programs and to pilot an integrated curriculum locally. We surveyed via email all program directors of academic neurology programs nationally regarding the prevalence of and need for formal cultural responsiveness training. Forty-seven program directors (36%) responded to the survey. The majority of respondents did not have a formalized diversity curriculum in their program (65%), but most (85%) believed that training in cultural responsiveness was important. We developed locally an integrated diversity curriculum as a proof of concept. The curriculum covered topics of diversity in language, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity/expression, and socioeconomic status designed to focus on the needs of the local community. Program evaluation included a pre and post survey of the learner attitudes toward cultural diversity. There is an unmet need for cultural responsiveness training within neurology residencies, and integrating this curriculum is both feasible and efficacious. When adapted to address cultural issues of the local community, this curriculum can be generalizable to both academic and community organizations. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  2. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper


    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial lighting ceases...

  3. Attitudes of neurology specialists toward older adults. (United States)

    Seferoğlu, Meral; Yıldız, Demet; Pekel, Nilüfer Büyükkoyuncu; Güneş, Aygül; Yıldız, Abdülmecit; Tufan, Fatih


    Attitude of healthcare providers toward older people is very important in the aging world. Neurologists contact older adults very frequently. We aimed to investigate the attitudes of neurologists toward older adults. We recorded participants age; sex; duration of clinical practice in neurology; existence of older adult relatives; and history of geriatrics education, nursing home visits, older adult patient density in their clinical practice, and participation in voluntary public activities. UCLA Geriatrics Attitude Scale was used to evaluate participants' attitudes. A total of 100 neurologists participated in this study. Seventy-seven percent had positive, 3 % had neutral, and 20 % had negative attitudes. Twenty-seven percent of the participants had history of geriatrics education, and these participants tended to have a higher rate of positive attitudes. Neurologists with positive attitudes tended to be older than those with negative attitudes. Participants with history of living with older adult relatives had lower rates of positive attitudes. The most common diagnoses of the patients the participants encountered were stroke and dementia. Independent factors associated with positive attitudes were history of geriatrics education and older age. History of living with older relatives tended to have a negative effect. Most of the negative items of the attitude scale were associated with the natural course and behavior of the common diseases in neurology practice. Generalization of geriatrics education may translate into a better understanding and improved care for older patients. Development of instruments and implementation of qualitative studies to assess attitudes of neurologists toward older adults are needed.

  4. Retinitis pigmentosa, pigmentary retinopathies, and neurologic diseases. (United States)

    Bhatti, M Tariq


    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) refers to a group of inherited retinal diseases with phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. The pathophysiologic basis of the progressive visual loss in patients with RP is not completely understood but is felt to be due to a primary retinal photoreceptor cell degenerative process mainly affecting the rods of the peripheral retina. In most cases RP is seen in isolation (nonsyndromic), but in some other cases it may be a part of a genetic, metabolic, or neurologic syndrome or disorder. Nyctalopia, or night blindness, is the most common symptom of RP. The classic fundus appearance of RP includes retinal pigment epithelial cell changes resulting in retinal hypo- or hyperpigmentation ("salt-and-pepper"), retinal granularity, and bone spicule formation. The retinal vessels are often narrowed or attenuated and there is a waxy pallor appearance of the optic nerve head. Electroretinography will demonstrate rod and cone photoreceptor cell dysfunction and is a helpful test in the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with RP. A detailed history with pedigree analysis, a complete ocular examination, and the appropriate paraclinical testing should be performed in patients complaining of visual difficulties at night or in dim light. This review discusses the clinical manifestations of RP as well as describing the various systemic diseases, with a special emphasis on neurologic diseases, associated with a pigmentary retinopathy.

  5. Neurological caricatures since the 15th century. (United States)

    Lorusso, Lorenzo


    During the Renaissance, different artists began to draw medical illustrations from various viewpoints. Leonardo da Vinci was among those who sought to portray the emotional as well as the physical qualities of man. Other European artists described caricatural aspects of medical activities. In Northern Europe, Albrecht Durer, Hieronymus Bosch, and Pieter Brueghel were also famous for drawing caricatures. Later English artists, notably William Hogarth, Thomas Rowlandson, James Gillray, and the Cruikshanks, satirized life in general and the medical profession in particular. In Spain, Francisco Goya's works became increasingly macabre and satirical following his own mysterious illness and, in France, Honore Daumier used satire and humor to expose medical quackery. Also physicians such as Charles Bell and Jean-Martin Charcot were talented caricaturists. Their own personal artistic styles reflected their approach and gave a different "image" of neurology. Caricatures were popular portraits of developments in science and medicine and were frequently used whenever scientific language was too difficult to disseminate, in particular in the field of neurology.

  6. Caring for Patients With Intractable Neurological Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Nagase


    Full Text Available This is a qualitative descriptive study examining nurses’ attitudes about caring for patients with intractable neurological diseases, with a focus on dedication and conflicts. Semistructured interviews were conducted on 11 nurses with more than 5 years of clinical experience in addition to more than 3 years of experience in neurology wards. Senior nursing officers from each hospital selected the participants. In general, these nurses expressed distress over the inevitable progression of disease. Nurses talked about the “basis of dedication,” “conflicts with dedication,” “reorganization for maintaining dedication,” and “the reason for the change from conflict to commitment.” “Reorganization for maintaining dedication” meant that nurses were able to handle the prospect of rededicating themselves to their patients. Furthermore, “the reason for the change from conflict to commitment” referred to events that changed nurses’ outlooks on nursing care, their pride as nurses, or their learning experiences. They felt dedicated and conflicted both simultaneously and separately. While committing to their patients’ physical care, nurses were empowered to think positively and treat patients with dignity in spite of the care taking much time and effort, as well as entailing considerable risk.

  7. Atropa belladonna neurotoxicity: Implications to neurological disorders. (United States)

    Kwakye, Gunnar F; Jiménez, Jennifer; Jiménez, Jessica A; Aschner, Michael


    Atropa belladonna, commonly known as belladonna or deadly nightshade, ranks among one of the most poisonous plants in Europe and other parts of the world. The plant contains tropane alkaloids including atropine, scopolamine, and hyoscyamine, which are used as anticholinergics in Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drugs and homeopathic remedies. These alkaloids can be very toxic at high dose. The FDA has recently reported that Hyland's baby teething tablets contain inconsistent amounts of Atropa belladonna that may have adverse effects on the nervous system and cause death in children, thus recalled the product in 2017. A greater understanding of the neurotoxicity of Atropa belladonna and its modification of genetic polymorphisms in the nervous system is critical in order to develop better treatment strategies, therapies, regulations, education of at-risk populations, and a more cohesive paradigm for future research. This review offers an integrated view of the homeopathy and neurotoxicity of Atropa belladonna in children, adults, and animal models as well as its implications to neurological disorders. Particular attention is dedicated to the pharmaco/toxicodynamics, pharmaco/toxicokinetics, pathophysiology, epidemiological cases, and animal studies associated with the effects of Atropa belladonna on the nervous system. Additionally, we discuss the influence of active tropane alkaloids in Atropa belladonna and other similar plants on FDA-approved therapeutic drugs for treatment of neurological disorders. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Genetics of hereditary neurological disorders in children. (United States)

    Huang, Yue; Yu, Sui; Wu, Zhanhe; Tang, Beisha


    Hereditary neurological disorders (HNDs) are relatively common in children compared to those occurring in adulthood. Recognising clinical manifestations of HNDs is important for the selection of genetic testing, genetic testing results interpretation, and genetic consultation. Meanwhile, advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have significantly enabled the discovery of genetic causes of HNDs and also challenge paediatricians on applying genetic investigation. Combination of both clinical information and advanced technologies will enhance the genetic test yields in clinical setting. This review summarises the clinical presentations as well as genetic causes of paediatric neurological disorders in four major areas including movement disorders, neuropsychiatric disorders, neuron peripheral disorders and epilepsy. The aim of this review is to help paediatric neurologists not only to see the clinical features but also the complex genetic aspect of HNDs in order to utilise genetic investigation confidently in their clinical practice. A smooth transition from research based to clinical use of comprehensive genetic testing in HNDs in children could be foreseen in the near future while genetic testing, genetic counselling and genetic data interpretation are in place appropriately.

  9. Neurological manifestations of Batch s disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borhani-Haghighi, Afshin; Ashjazadeh, Nahid; Nikseresht, Alireza; Shariat, Abdolhamid; Yousefipour, Gholamali; Samangooie, Shahdokht; Safari, Anahid


    To determine the prevalence, clinical manifestations, and laboratory features of Neuro-Behcets disease. This prospective study was carried out in the Behcets Research Clinic in Shiraz (south-west Iran) and included the patients referred from 1990-1999. The patients' clinical records, images, CSF analyses, and electrodiagnostic studies were reviewed. Eighteen (15 males and 3 females) out of 690 Behcet s patients (2.6%, 95% CI = 1.4-3.8%) were found to have neurological involvement. The mean +/- standard deviation age of these patients was 34.7 +/- 8.6 years. All fulfilled the criteria of the International Study Group of Behcet s Disease. Central nervous system involvement was more common than peripheral nervous system manifestations. Headache, weakness, tingling, and numbness were the most common symptoms. Hyperreflexia, upward plantar reflex, and somatosensory findings were the most frequent signs. Hemispheral and brainstem stroke-like syndromes and cerebral venous thrombosis were the major neurologic presentations. There were also cases of myelitic, pure meningoencephalitic, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-like, multiple sclerosis-like, and Guillain Barre syndromes. Neuro-Behcets disease must be considered in the differential diagnosis of stroke in young adults, chronic meningitis, intracranial hypertension, multiple sclerosis, myelopathies, and peripheral neuropathies. (author)

  10. Neurologic complications of radiation therapy and chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenfeld, Myrna


    Radiation induced toxicities are due to the effect of irradiation of normal surrounding tissue which is included in the radiation port. The mechanisms of radiation induced damage have not been completely elucidated. Hypotheses include direct damage to neural cells versus damage to the vascular endothelium with secondary effects on nervous system structures. Another hypothesis is that radiation damaged glial cells release antigens that are able to evoke and antimmune response against the nervous system resulting in both cellular necrosis and vascular damage. The clinical diagnosis of radiation induced neurotoxicity may be difficult especially in patients who had neurologic signs prior to treatment. It is helpful to determine if the clinical signs correlate with the irradiated site and to know the total dose received and the dose per fraction. Prior or concomitant chemotherapy may act to increase the toxicity produced by radiation. The age of the patient at the time of radiation is important as the very young and the elderly are more likely to develop toxicities. Finally, concurrent neurologic diseases such as demyelinating disorders appear to sensitize neural tissue to radiation damage. Radiation injury can occur at almost any time, from immediately after irradiation to years later. The side effects can generally be divided into those that are acute (within days), early -delayed (within 4 weeks to 4 months after treatment) and late- delayed (months to years after treatment). (The author)

  11. Education research: neurology training reassessed. The 2011 American Academy of Neurology Resident Survey results. (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas E; Maas, Matthew B; Coleman, Mary; Jozefowicz, Ralph; Engstrom, John


    To assess the strengths and weaknesses of neurology resident education using survey methodology. A 27-question survey was sent to all neurology residents completing residency training in the United States in 2011. Of eligible respondents, 49.8% of residents returned the survey. Most residents believed previously instituted duty hour restrictions had a positive impact on resident quality of life without impacting patient care. Most residents rated their faculty and clinical didactics favorably. However, many residents reported suboptimal preparation in basic neuroscience and practice management issues. Most residents (71%) noted that the Residency In-service Training Examination (RITE) assisted in self-study. A minority of residents (14%) reported that the RITE scores were used for reasons other than self-study. The vast majority (86%) of residents will enter fellowship training following residency and were satisfied with the fellowship offers they received. Graduating residents had largely favorable neurology training experiences. Several common deficiencies include education in basic neuroscience and clinical practice management. Importantly, prior changes to duty hours did not negatively affect the resident perception of neurology residency training.

  12. Applications of Shape Memory Alloys for Neurology and Neuromuscular Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Pittaccio


    Full Text Available Shape memory alloys (SMAs are a very promising class of metallic materials that display interesting nonlinear properties, such as pseudoelasticity (PE, shape memory effect (SME and damping capacity, due to high mechanical hysteresis and internal friction. Our group has applied SMA in the field of neuromuscular rehabilitation, designing some new devices based on the mentioned SMA properties: in particular, a new type of orthosis for spastic limb repositioning, which allows residual voluntary movement of the impaired limb and has no predetermined final target position, but follows and supports muscular elongation in a dynamic and compliant way. Considering patients in the sub-acute phase after a neurological lesion, and possibly bedridden, the paper presents a mobiliser for the ankle joint, which is designed exploiting the SME to provide passive exercise to the paretic lower limb. Two different SMA-based applications in the field of neuroscience are then presented, a guide and a limb mobiliser specially designed to be compatible with diagnostic instrumentations that impose rigid constraints in terms of electromagnetic compatibility and noise distortion. Finally, the paper discusses possible uses of these materials in the treatment of movement disorders, such as dystonia or hyperkinesia, where their dynamic characteristics can be advantageous.

  13. Adding Behavioural Science Capacity to Document Deterrents and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... psychosocial barriers and motivators to participation and retention in HIV vaccine research ... -promoting government capacity to advocate, support ethical research, ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.

  14. Perception of pediatric neurology among non-neurologists. (United States)

    Jan, Mohammed M S


    Pediatric neurology is considered a relatively new and evolving subspecialty. In Saudi Arabia, neurologic disorders in children are common, and the demand for trained pediatric neurologists is strong. The aim was to study the perception of the pediatric neurology specialty among practicing generalists and their referral practices. Attendees of a symposium on pediatric epilepsy comprehensive review for the generalist were included. A structured 25-item questionnaire was designed to examine their demographics, training, practice, and referral patterns. One hundred nineteen participants attended the symposium, and 90 (76%) questionnaires were returned. Attendees' ages were 22 to 70 years (mean 32 years), with 65.5% female physicians. There were 32% consultants, 51% trainees, and 17% students. Most physicians (67%) were practicing general pediatrics. Only 36% received a structured pediatric neurology rotation during training. Children with neurologic complaints constituted 28.5% of those seen in their practice, and they referred 32.5% of them to pediatric neurology. Only 32% were moderately or highly confident in making the diagnosis or providing the appropriate treatment. Those who received a structured pediatric neurology rotation felt more comfortable in their management (P = .03). Many physicians (38.5%) had no direct access to a pediatric neurologist for referrals. To conclude, pediatric neurologic disorders are common in daily practice. Most generalists did not receive a structured neurology rotation during their training and were not highly confident in diagnosing and treating these children. Given the limited number of pediatric neurologists, I highly recommend that generalists receive appropriate neurologic training.

  15. The tablet device in hospital neurology and in neurology graduate medical education: a preliminary study. (United States)

    George, Pravin; Newey, Christopher R; Bhimraj, Adarsh


    There is limited literature on tablet devices for neurohospitalists and in neurological graduate medical education. This study evaluated utilization, benefits, and limitations of customized tablets on inpatient neurology practice and resident education. The hypothesis was the perception of the tablet would be positive, given their portability, convenience to accessing point-of-care reference, and accessibility to the electronic medical record. Second-generation iPads with neurology-specific applications and literature were provided to our in-hospital general, stroke, and consult neurology teams. After 1 year, residents on these teams were surveyed on demographic data, familiarity, and utilization of the iPad and their perceptions of the device. All 27 residents responded to the survey. Most participants (23 of 27) used a tablet while on inpatient service. Twelve regularly utilized the neurology-specific apps and/or accessed scientific articles. Technologically savvy residents felt significantly more comfortable using tablets and were more quickly acquainted with the features. Thirteen respondents wanted a formal orientation on the advanced features of the tablet independent of their familiarity with the device or level of technological comfort. Overall, the perception was that the tablet was beneficial for inpatient clinical care and as an educational reference. Participants became easily familiarized with the device features quickly, regardless of whether they owned one previously or not. Most physicians indicated interest in advanced features of tablets; however, a formal orientation may be beneficial for optimal utilization. A reliable network connection is essential to in-hospital use of tablet devices. Additional research pertaining to patient outcomes, objective educational benefit, and cost-effectiveness is necessary.

  16. Neurologic signs and symptoms frequently manifest in acute HIV infection (United States)

    Fletcher, James L.K.; Valcour, Victor; Kroon, Eugène; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Intasan, Jintana; Lerdlum, Sukalaya; Narvid, Jared; Pothisri, Mantana; Allen, Isabel; Krebs, Shelly J.; Slike, Bonnie; Prueksakaew, Peeriya; Jagodzinski, Linda L.; Puttamaswin, Suwanna; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Spudich, Serena


    Objective: To determine the incidence, timing, and severity of neurologic findings in acute HIV infection (pre–antibody seroconversion), as well as persistence with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Methods: Participants identified with acute HIV were enrolled, underwent structured neurologic evaluations, immediately initiated cART, and were followed with neurologic evaluations at 4 and 12 weeks. Concurrent brain MRIs and both viral and inflammatory markers in plasma and CSF were obtained. Results: Median estimated HIV infection duration was 19 days (range 3–56) at study entry for the 139 participants evaluated. Seventy-three participants (53%) experienced one or more neurologic findings in the 12 weeks after diagnosis, with one developing a fulminant neurologic manifestation (Guillain-Barré syndrome). A total of 245 neurologic findings were noted, reflecting cognitive symptoms (33%), motor findings (34%), and neuropathy (11%). Nearly half of the neurologic findings (n = 121, 49%) occurred at diagnosis, prior to cART initiation, and most of these (n = 110, 90%) remitted concurrent with 1 month on treatment. Only 9% of neurologic findings (n = 22) persisted at 24 weeks on cART. Nearly all neurologic findings (n = 236, 96%) were categorized as mild in severity. No structural neuroimaging abnormalities were observed. Participants with neurologic findings had a higher mean plasma log10 HIV RNA at diagnosis compared to those without neurologic findings (5.9 vs 5.4; p = 0.006). Conclusions: Acute HIV infection is commonly associated with mild neurologic findings that largely remit while on treatment, and may be mediated by direct viral factors. Severe neurologic manifestations are infrequent in treated acute HIV. PMID:27287217

  17. [Neurological disorders in patients with hypoparathyroidism]. (United States)

    Roztoczyńska, Dorota; Kroczka, Sławomir; Kumorowicz-Czoch, Małgorzata; Dolezal-Ołtarzewska, Katarzyna; Kacińsk, Marek; Starzyk, Jerzy


    The term hypoparathyroidism refers to a group of disorders in which a relative or absolute deficiency of PTH leads to hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. Was to evaluate clinical symptoms in patients with hypoparathyroidism during normocalcemic period and to try to establish its etiology (electrolyte imbalance, organic central nervous system lesions, coincidence of tetany and epilepsy). The analysis included a group of 14 patients with hypoparathyroidism: 3 boys and 11 girls, aged from 12 months to 31 years (median 16.11 years), with duration of the disease 12 months to 26 years (median 10.9 years). In all the patients, the diagnosis was confirmed based on history, physical examination, results of biochemical and hormonal laboratory tests, radiological and neurological examinations. All the patients were followed by endocrinology specialists. Low phosphorus diet, calcium, magnesium, active vitamin D supplementation and management of other endocrine disorders were employed. In 9 patients, pseudo-hypoparathyrodism was diagnosed; of this number, in 8 children, type Ia Albright syndrome was confirmed. Five patients were diagnosed as true hypoparathyroidism, two girls in this group were found to have autoimmune hypoparathyroidism as a component of the autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1, 2 others were diagnosed in infancy as congenital hypoparathyroidism and 1 girl had true hypoparathyroidism as a component of Kearns-Sayre syndrome. Five patients were referred to neurological department with epilepsy suspicion. In the medical history, 9 patients had generalized epileptic seizures, moreover, 1 girl manifested absence attack and balance disturbances. In 3 patients, EEG demonstrated changes typical of generalized seizure activity. In 5 patients on anti-epileptic management, additional calcium and active vitamin D treatment was initiated, allowing for achieving seizure remission. CT of the head and pituitary gland showed calcification foci in the central nervous system

  18. ADAPT Dataset (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Diagnostics and Prognostics Testbed (ADAPT) Project Lead: Scott Poll Subject Fault diagnosis in electrical power systems Description The Advanced...

  19. Neurology of microgravity and space travel (United States)

    Fujii, M. D.; Patten, B. M.


    Exposure to microgravity and space travel produce several neurologic changes, including SAS, ataxia, postural disturbances, perceptual illusions, neuromuscular weakness, and fatigue. Inflight SAS, perceptual illusions, and ocular changes are of more importance. After landing, however, ataxia, perceptual illusions, neuromuscular weakness, and fatigue play greater roles in astronaut health and readaptation to a terrestrial environment. Cardiovascular adjustments to microgravity, bone demineralization, and possible decompression sickness and excessive radiation exposure contribute further to medical problems of astronauts in space. A better understanding of the mechanisms by which microgravity adversely affects the nervous system and more effective treatments will provide healthier, happier, and longer stays in space on the space station Freedom and during the mission to Mars.

  20. Opinion & Special Articles: Mentoring in neurology (United States)

    Lee, Paul R.


    Effective academic mentoring significantly affects a physician's choice of career, academic productivity, and professional trajectory. The mentoring relationship is necessary for the continued success of medical training. It is critical to cultivate a climate in which mentoring can thrive. In order to improve the quality and outcomes of mentoring, we must adopt a comprehensive plan. There are interventions at every level of training that will ensure that the current cohort of neurologists receives the requisite expertise needed to flourish and inspire future trainees. Professional organizations must articulate a comprehensive vision of mentoring. Institutions must create an infrastructure to support mentors. Mentors should work in active partnerships with their mentees to forge sustained, productive relationships. Mentees must actively contribute to their own mentoring. Proper mentorship will ensure a bright future for academic neurology. PMID:24616198

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging in pediatric neurological disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukiyama, Takashi; Nishimoto, Hiroshi; Fujioka, Mutsuhisa; Aihara, Toshinori; Tanaka, Osamu.


    In this paper, we summarize our initial experience with Magnetic Resonance Imaging(MRI) in the evaluation of pediatric neurological disease. 17 children between the ages of 2 month and 8.5 year have been examined with MRI. All subjects tolerated the MRI procedure well, although sedation was necessary for young children. Result as follows : (1) MRI does not utilize ionising radiation to produce an image. (2) MRI images more clearly demonstrate cerebral gray and white matter than X-ray CT. (3) Compared with X-ray CT, MRI proved to be advantageous in detection and characterization of the pathology, especially when the abnormality was located along the posterior fossa and spinal canal. It is suggested that these nature of MRI makes it the ideal diagnostic method for children. (author)

  2. The applications of pharmacogenomics to neurological disorders. (United States)

    Gilman, C; McSweeney, C; Mao, Y


    The most common neurological disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders, have received recent attention with regards to pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine. Here, we will focus on a neglected neurodegenerative disorder, cerebral ischemic stroke (CIS), and highlight recent advances in two disorders, Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's diseases (AD), that possess both similar and distinct mechanisms in regards to potential therapeutic targets. In the first part of this review, we will focus primarily on mechanisms that are somewhat specific to each disorder which are involved in neurodegeneration (i.e., protease pathways, calcium homeostasis, reactive oxygen species regulation, DNA repair mechanisms, neurogenesis regulation, mitochondrial function, etc.). In the second part of this review, we will discuss the applications of the genome-wide technology on pharmacogenomics of mental illnesses including schizophrenia (SCZ), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD).

  3. Incontinentia pigmenti with neurologic and oculodental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Arturo Avina Fierro


    Full Text Available Incontinentia pigmenti is a genodermatosis with X-linked dominant inheritance, characterized by cutaneous, neurologic, ophthalmologic, and dental abnormalities with a pattern suggestive of somatic mosaicism. We describe a 21-month-old girl showing characteristic cutaneous findings of incontinentia pigmenti in chronic evolution of hyperpigmented, hypopigmented, and atrophic stages, linear and whorled pattern involving the Blaschko's lines. The patient has history of seizures, and electroencephalography showed epileptiform discharges at temporal lobule, cranial magnetic resonance imaging revealed cerebral dysgenesis, neuronal migration disorder, and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. She has motor and mental delay with spastic quadriplegia, and ophthalmologic loss of central vision by ischemic optic neuropathy with decreased blood flow to eye's optic nerve. The dermatologic features were confirmed by skin biopsy that showed slight atrophy and some scattered apoptotic cells in the epidermis, epidermal hypopigmentation, and reduced melanocyte number, these histological features confirmed the genodermatosis diagnosis: Bloch-Sulzberger syndrome.

  4. Neurologic Complications of Psychomotor Stimulant Abuse. (United States)

    Sanchez-Ramos, Juan


    Psychomotor stimulants are drugs that act on the central nervous system (CNS) to increase alertness, elevate mood, and produce a sense of well-being. These drugs also decrease appetite and the need for sleep. Stimulants can enhance stamina and improve performance in tasks that have been impaired by fatigue or boredom. Approved therapeutic applications of stimulants include attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity. These agents also possess potent reinforcing properties that can result in excessive self-administration and abuse. Chronic use is associated with adverse effects including psychosis, seizures, and cerebrovascular accidents, though these complications usually occur in individuals with preexisting risk factors. This chapter reviews the adverse neurologic consequences of chronic psychomotor stimulant use and abuse, with a focus on two prototypical stimulants methamphetamine and cocaine. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. PET/MRI for Neurological Applications (United States)

    Catana, Ciprian; Drzezga, Alexander; Heiss, Wolf-Dieter; Rosen, Bruce R.


    PET and MRI provide complementary information in the study of the human brain. Simultaneous PET/MR data acquisition allows the spatial and temporal correlation of the measured signals, opening up opportunities impossible to realize using stand-alone instruments. This paper reviews the methodological improvements and potential neurological and psychiatric applications of this novel technology. We first present methods for improving the performance and information content of each modality by using the information provided by the other technique. On the PET side, we discuss methods that use the simultaneously acquired MR data to improve the PET data quantification. On the MR side, we present how improved PET quantification could be used to validate a number of MR techniques. Finally, we describe promising research, translational and clinical applications that could benefit from these advanced tools. PMID:23143086

  6. PET/MRI for neurologic applications. (United States)

    Catana, Ciprian; Drzezga, Alexander; Heiss, Wolf-Dieter; Rosen, Bruce R


    PET and MRI provide complementary information in the study of the human brain. Simultaneous PET/MRI data acquisition allows the spatial and temporal correlation of the measured signals, creating opportunities impossible to realize using stand-alone instruments. This paper reviews the methodologic improvements and potential neurologic and psychiatric applications of this novel technology. We first present methods for improving the performance and information content of each modality by using the information provided by the other technique. On the PET side, we discuss methods that use the simultaneously acquired MRI data to improve the PET data quantification. On the MRI side, we present how improved PET quantification can be used to validate several MRI techniques. Finally, we describe promising research, translational, and clinical applications that can benefit from these advanced tools.

  7. Automatisms: bridging clinical neurology with criminal law. (United States)

    Rolnick, Joshua; Parvizi, Josef


    The law, like neurology, grapples with the relationship between disease states and behavior. Sometimes, the two disciplines share the same terminology, such as automatism. In law, the "automatism defense" is a claim that action was involuntary or performed while unconscious. Someone charged with a serious crime can acknowledge committing the act and yet may go free if, relying on the expert testimony of clinicians, the court determines that the act of crime was committed in a state of automatism. In this review, we explore the relationship between the use of automatism in the legal and clinical literature. We close by addressing several issues raised by the automatism defense: semantic ambiguity surrounding the term automatism, the presence or absence of consciousness during automatisms, and the methodological obstacles that have hindered the study of cognition during automatisms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Neurologic emergencies and multislice computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eftimov, L.; Morhard, D.; Reiser, M.; Ertl-Wagner, B.


    Modern MSCT with its broad availability and rapid examination times is the preferred modality in the initial evaluation of neurologic emergencies and by its continual development has become more important within recent years. With increased spatial resolution and new post-processing techniques, non-invasive MSCT angiography is seen to increasingly replace diagnostic DSA. Multidetector CTA is a suitable method for the evaluation of intracranial aneurysms, carotid artery stenoses, arterial dissections, as well as cerebral venous and basilar artery thromboses. Multimodal CT (non-enhanced CCT, CTA and perfusion CT) is used more frequently in the assessment of acute stroke patients, it increases the detection rate of early ischemia and is likely to improve the treatment of acute stroke. (orig.) [de

  9. Innovative radiopharmaceuticals in oncology and neurology

    CERN Document Server

    Barbet, Jacques; Chérel, Michel; Guilloteau, Denis


    The aim of this Research Topic was to assemble a series of articles describing basic, preclinical and clinical research studies on radiopharmaceuticals and nuclear medicine. The articles were written by attendees of the third Nuclear Technologies for Health Symposium (NTHS, 10th-11th March 2015, Nantes, Frances) under the auspices of the IRON LabEx (Innovative Radiopharmaceuticals for Oncology and Neurology Laboratory of Excellence). This French network, gathering approximately 160 scientists from 12 academic research teams (Funded by “investissements d’Avenir”), fosters transdisciplinary projects between teams with expertise in chemistry, radiochemistry, radiopharmacy, formulation, biology, nuclear medicine and medical physics. The 12 articles within this resulting eBook present a series of comprehensive reviews and original research papers on multimodality imaging and targeted radionuclide therapy; illustrating the different facets of studies currently conducted in these domains.

  10. [Applications of botulinum toxin in Neurology]. (United States)

    Garcia-Ruiz, Pedro J


    At present, botulinum toxin (BT) is one of the most fundamental available drugs in Neurology, only comparable with levodopa. BT is currently used in those entities characterized by excessive muscle contraction, including dystonia and spasticity. In addition, BT has been used to control pain associated with increased muscle contraction in dystonia and spasticity, but also is useful to control chronic pain not associated with muscle contraction, such as chronic daily headache. Finally, BT is useful in sialorrhoea and bruxism. The mechanism of action is complex, mainly acting on terminal neuromuscular junction, but also exhibiting analgesic properties, probably through inhibition of pain neurotransmitters release. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Capacity planning and management


    Boydell, Briony


    After reading this chapter you should be able to: • Define and measure capacity and appreciate the factors that influence it. • Assess the difficulties of matching capacity to demand. • Evaluate and apply the different strategies for matching capacity with demand in the short, medium and long term. • Analyse the impact of constraints and bottlenecks on a process and consider the Theory of Constraints. • Outline the different strategies available for both manufacturing and service operations. ...

  12. Blog and Podcast Watch: Neurologic Emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Grock


    Full Text Available Introduction: The WestJEM Blog and Podcast Watch presents high quality open-access educational blogs and podcasts in emergency medicine (EM based on the ongoing ALiEM Approved Instructional Resources (AIR and AIR-Professional series. Both series critically appraise resources using an objective scoring rubric. This installment of the Blog and Podcast Watch highlights the topic of neurologic emergencies from the AIR series. Methods: The AIR series is a continuously building curriculum that follows the Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Director’s (CORD annual testing schedule. For each module, relevant content is collected from the top 50 Social Media Index sites published within the previous 12 months, and scored by eight board members using five equally weighted measurement outcomes: Best Evidence in Emergency Medicine (BEEM score, accuracy, educational utility, evidence based, and references. Resources scoring ≥30 out of 35 available points receive an AIR label. Resources scoring 27-29 receive an honorable mention label, if the executive board agrees that the post is accurate and educationally valuable. Results: A total of 125 blog posts and podcasts were evaluated. Key educational pearls from the 14 AIR posts are summarized, and the 20 honorable mentions are listed. Conclusion: The WestJEM Blog and Podcast Watch series is based on the AIR and AIR-Pro series, which attempts to identify high quality educational content on open-access blogs and podcasts. This series provides an expert-based, post-publication curation of educational social media content for EM clinicians with this installment focusing on neurologic emergencies.

  13. Dysfunctional HCN ion channels in neurological diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo C. DiFrancesco


    Full Text Available Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN channels are expressed as four different isoforms (HCN1-4 in the heart and in the central and peripheral nervous systems. HCN channels are activated by membrane hyperpolarization at voltages close to resting membrane potentials and carry the hyperpolarization-activated current, dubbed If (funny current in heart and Ih in neurons. HCN channels contribute in several ways to neuronal activity and are responsible for many important cellular functions, including cellular excitability, generation and modulation of rhythmic activity, dendritic integration, transmission of synaptic potentials and plasticity phenomena. Because of their role, defective HCN channels are natural candidates in the search for potential causes of neurological disorders in humans. Several data, including growing evidence that some forms of epilepsy are associated with HCN mutations, support the notion of an involvement of dysfunctional HCN channels in different experimental models of the disease. Additionally, some anti-epileptic drugs are known to modify the activity of the Ih current. HCN channels are widely expressed in the peripheral nervous system and recent evidence has highlighted the importance of the HCN2 isoform in the transmission of pain. HCN channels are also present in the midbrain system, where they finely regulate the activity of dopaminergic neurons, and a potential role of these channels in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease has recently emerged. The function of HCN channels is regulated by specific accessory proteins, which control the correct expression and modulation of the neuronal Ih current. Alteration of these proteins can severely interfere with the physiological channel function, potentially predisposing to pathological conditions. In this review we address the present knowledge of the association between HCN dysfunctions and neurological diseases, including clinical, genetic and

  14. The beginnings of the Southern Child/Pediatric Neurology Society. (United States)

    Dyken, Paul Richard; Bodensteiner, John B


    The founding and early development of the Southern Pediatric Neurology Society was in many ways parallel to that of the Child Neurology Society. The organization started out as the Southern Child Neurology Society but the name was changed at the time of incorporation so as to avoid confusion of identity and purpose with the larger Child Neurology Society. Although there are archives of early days and the later development of the Southern Pediatric Neurology Society, the details have never been set down in a narrative explaining the events that led to the development of the organization. In this paper, we try to produce a written record of the history of the founding and early development of the Southern Pediatric Neurology Society. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Comparative audit of clinical research in pediatric neurology. (United States)

    Al-Futaisi, Amna; Shevell, Michael


    Clinical research involves direct observation or data collection on human subjects. This study was conducted to evaluate the profile of pediatric neurology clinical research over a decade. Trends in pediatric neurology clinical research were documented through a systematic comparative review of articles published in selected journals. Eleven journals (five pediatric neurology, three general neurology, three general pediatrics) were systematically reviewed for articles involving a majority of human subjects less than 18 years of age for the years 1990 and 2000. Three hundred thirty-five clinical research articles in pediatric neurology were identified in the 11 journals for 1990 and 398 for 2000, a 19% increase. A statistically significant increase in analytic design (21.8% vs 39.5%; P = .01), statistical support (6% vs 16.6%; P neurology over a decade. Trends apparently suggest a more rigorous approach to study design and investigation in this field.



    Tsutsui, Kou; Kanbayashi, Takashi; Sawaishi, Yukio; Tokunaga, Jun; Sato, Masahiro; Shimizu, Tetsuo


    Recent CSF and postmortem brain hypocretin measurements in human narcolepsy suggest that hypocretin deficiency is involved in the pathophysiology of the disease. Thus, it is important to study whether neurological disorders also have abnormal CSF hypocretin levels. We therefore measured hypocretins in the CSF of various neurological disorders and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) to identify altered hypocretin levels. CSF hypocretin levels in patients with OSAS and neurological diseases...

  17. Transient global amnesia and neurological events: the Framingham Heart Study


    Jose Rafael Romero; Jose Rafael Romero; Melissa eMercado; Alexa S Beiser; Alexa S Beiser; Alexa S Beiser; Aleksandra ePikula; Aleksandra ePikula; Sudha eSeshadri; Sudha eSeshadri; Margaret eKelly-Hayes; Philip A Wolf; Philip A Wolf; Carlos S Kase; Carlos S Kase


    Background/ objective: Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a temporary amnestic syndrome characterized by lack of other focal neurological deficits. Cerebrovascular disease, migraine and seizures have been suggested as underlying mechanisms. TGA may be a risk factor for cerebrovascular or other neurological events. We studied the relation of TGA, vascular risk factors, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indices of subclinical ischemia and neurological events in a community-based sample. Des...

  18. Immunization safety review: influenza vaccines and neurological complications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stratton, Kathleen R

    ..., unlike other vaccines. The Immunization Safety Review committee reviewed the data on influenza vaccine and neurological conditions and concluded that the evidence favored rejection of a causal relationship...

  19. [Prevalence of neurological disorders among children with Down syndrome]. (United States)

    Gaete, Beatriz; Mellado, Cecilia; Hernández, Marta


    Neurological disturbances are common problems in children with Down Syndrome (DS). To determine the prevalence of neurological disorders affecting children with Down Syndrome. Review of medical records of 253 children aged from 1 day to 23 years affected with DS, attended at a public hospital and a University clinic. The overall prevalence of neurological disorders was 38.7%. The most common problems were ocular motor disorders in 26% of cases and epilepsy in 12%. Neurological disorders are more common in children with DS than in the general population. Motor ocular disorders and epilepsy are the predominant disturbances detected.

  20. Heat Capacity Analysis Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findikakis, A.


    The purpose of this report is to provide heat capacity values for the host and surrounding rock layers for the waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The heat capacity representations provided by this analysis are used in unsaturated zone (UZ) flow, transport, and coupled processes numerical modeling activities, and in thermal analyses as part of the design of the repository to support the license application. Among the reports that use the heat capacity values estimated in this report are the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' report, the ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' report, the ''Ventilation Model and Analysis Report, the Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Packages and Waste Forms'' report, the ''Dike/Drift Interactions report, the Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and TH Seepage) Models'' report, and the ''In-Drift Natural Convection and Condensation'' report. The specific objective of this study is to determine the rock-grain and rock-mass heat capacities for the geologic stratigraphy identified in the ''Mineralogic Model (MM3.0) Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170031], Table 1-1). This report provides estimates of the heat capacity for all stratigraphic layers except the Paleozoic, for which the mineralogic abundance data required to estimate the heat capacity are not available. The temperature range of interest in this analysis is 25 C to 325 C. This interval is broken into three separate temperature sub-intervals: 25 C to 95 C, 95 C to 114 C, and 114 C to 325 C, which correspond to the preboiling, trans-boiling, and postboiling regimes. Heat capacity is defined as the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of material by one degree (Nimick and Connolly 1991 [DIRS 100690], p. 5). The rock-grain heat capacity is defined as the heat capacity of the rock solids (minerals), and does not include the effect of water that exists in the rock pores. By comparison, the rock-mass heat capacity considers the heat capacity of both solids and pore