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Sample records for neuroimaging techniques suggest

  1. Does neuroimaging of suggestion elucidate hypnotic trance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Amir

    2011-07-01

    Contemporary studies in the cognitive neuroscience of attention and suggestion shed new light on the underlying neural mechanisms that operationalize these effects. Without adhering to important caveats inherent to imaging of the living human brain, however, findings from brain imaging studies may enthrall more than explain. Scholars, practitioners, professionals, and consumers must realize that the influence words exert on focal brain activity is measurable but that these measurements are often difficult to interpret. While recent brain imaging research increasingly incorporates variations of suggestion and hypnosis, correlating overarching hypnotic experiences with specific brain substrates remains tenuous. This article elucidates the mounting role of cognitive neuroscience, including the relative merits and intrinsic limitations of neuroimaging, in better contextualizing trance-like concepts.

  2. Suggestive techniques in advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Sora, Olena

    2011-01-01

    In my thesis I focused on a detailed analysis of suggestive techniques that appear in contemporary advertising. The issue of the effects of advertising has existed for many years and still staying timely. On the one side there are entrepreneurs and advertising agencies that are trying to influence opinions and suggest motivation for consuming. On the other side there is a potential customer, who is trying to obtain information about the product he needs and at the same time not letting anybod...

  3. Advanced neuroimaging techniques for central neuromodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Angela; Pouratian, Nader

    2014-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation an effective treatment of many neurologic conditions such as Parkinson disease, essential tremor, dystonia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Structural and functional neuroimaging studies provide the opportunity to visualize the dysfunctional nodes and networks underlying neurologic and psychiatric disease, and to thereby realize new targets for neuromodulation as well as personalize current therapy. This article reviews contemporary advances in neuroimaging in the basic sciences and how they can be applied to redirect and propel functional neurosurgery toward a goal of functional localization of targets with individualized maps and identification of novel targets for other neuropsychiatric diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A review of feature reduction techniques in neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, Benson; Tian, Tian Siva; Soares, Jair C

    2014-04-01

    Machine learning techniques are increasingly being used in making relevant predictions and inferences on individual subjects neuroimaging scan data. Previous studies have mostly focused on categorical discrimination of patients and matched healthy controls and more recently, on prediction of individual continuous variables such as clinical scores or age. However, these studies are greatly hampered by the large number of predictor variables (voxels) and low observations (subjects) also known as the curse-of-dimensionality or small-n-large-p problem. As a result, feature reduction techniques such as feature subset selection and dimensionality reduction are used to remove redundant predictor variables and experimental noise, a process which mitigates the curse-of-dimensionality and small-n-large-p effects. Feature reduction is an essential step before training a machine learning model to avoid overfitting and therefore improving model prediction accuracy and generalization ability. In this review, we discuss feature reduction techniques used with machine learning in neuroimaging studies.

  5. Computational Modeling and Neuroimaging Techniques for Targeting during Deep Brain Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Jennifer A.; Pace, Jonathan; Girgis, Fady; Miller, Jonathan P.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate surgical localization of the varied targets for deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a process undergoing constant evolution, with increasingly sophisticated techniques to allow for highly precise targeting. However, despite the fastidious placement of electrodes into specific structures within the brain, there is increasing evidence to suggest that the clinical effects of DBS are likely due to the activation of widespread neuronal networks directly and indirectly influenced by the stimulation of a given target. Selective activation of these complex and inter-connected pathways may further improve the outcomes of currently treated diseases by targeting specific fiber tracts responsible for a particular symptom in a patient-specific manner. Moreover, the delivery of such focused stimulation may aid in the discovery of new targets for electrical stimulation to treat additional neurological, psychiatric, and even cognitive disorders. As such, advancements in surgical targeting, computational modeling, engineering designs, and neuroimaging techniques play a critical role in this process. This article reviews the progress of these applications, discussing the importance of target localization for DBS, and the role of computational modeling and novel neuroimaging in improving our understanding of the pathophysiology of diseases, and thus paving the way for improved selective target localization using DBS. PMID:27445709

  6. [Neuroimaging follow-up of cerebral aneurysms treated with endovascular techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, F; Saiz, A; Hilario, A; Murias, E; San Román Manzanera, L; Lagares Gomez-Abascal, A; Gabarrós, A; González García, A

    2014-01-01

    There are no specific recommendations in clinical guidelines about the best time, imaging tests, or intervals for following up patients with intracranial aneurysms treated with endovascular techniques. We reviewed the literature, using the following keywords to search in the main medical databases: cerebral aneurysm, coils, endovascular procedure, and follow-up. Within the Cerebrovascular Disease Group of the Spanish Society of Neuroradiology, we aimed to propose recommendations and an orientative protocol based on the scientific evidence for using neuroimaging to monitor intracranial aneurysms that have been treated with endovascular techniques. We aimed to specify the most appropriate neuroimaging techniques, the interval, the time of follow-up, and the best approach to defining the imaging findings, with the ultimate goal of improving clinical outcomes while optimizing and rationalizing the use of available resources. Copyright © 2013 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Cholinesterase inhibitors are compatible with psychosocial intervention for Alzheimer disease patients suggested by neuroimaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguro, Kenichi

    2017-01-30

    We previously reported that the frontal lobe was stimulated by psychosocial intervention for dementia patients, and that the parietal lobe was associated with logical judgment. We hypothesized that the combined therapeutic approach with symptomatic drug treatment can directly stimulate not only attention function but also judgment function indirectly to observing other participants' behaviors. Fifty-two patients with Alzheimer disease underwent the group reminiscence approach with reality orientation, as well as the donepezil treatment. The cerebral blood flow (CBF) was assessed with 99m Tc-ECD SPECT. Two analyses were performed: Analysis 1 was to compare Responders vs. Non-responders as shown by MMSE scores, whereas Analysis 2 was to compare Good vs. Poor reminders of the intervention content. We found that the CBF in the frontal lobe was significantly higher in Responders (vs. Non-responders). The CBF in the parietal lobe, especially the left side, was significantly higher in the Good reminders (vs. Poor reminders). The donepezil stimulated the areas similar to where the psychosocial intervention was previously found to be stimulated directly, thus the drug was thought to be compatible for psychosocial intervention. The parietal lobe was stimulated indirectly, suggesting that the indirect effect of the intervention may be based on logical judgment function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Advances in neuroimaging techniques for the evaluation of tumor growth, vascular permeability, and angiogenesis in gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstner, Elizabeth R; Sorensen, A Gregory; Jain, Rakesh K; Batchelor, Tracy T

    2008-12-01

    This review will summarize new neuroimaging techniques, particularly MRI and PET imaging, that can be used to assess brain tumor growth and angiogenesis. Glioma tumor vasculature is abnormal, and advances in MRI now permit visualization of the hemodynamic properties of gliomas including cerebral blood volume and blood flow, vascular permeability, and blood vessel diameter. New radiolabeled PET tracers have allowed more specific interrogation of glioma physiology such as hypoxia assessment or tumor proliferation rate. These two techniques are complementary and will likely yield important information on tumor response to therapy, particularly in the setting of antiangiogenic agents, which confound the interpretation of standard contrast-enhanced MRI scans. These techniques may allow development of patient-specific therapy to improve outcome in patients with gliomas.

  9. Neuroimaging in psychiatry: from bench to bedside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Linden

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This perspective considers the present and the future role of different neuroimaging techniques in the field of psychiatry. After identifying shortcomings of the mainly symptom-focussed diagnostic processes and treatment decisions in modern psychiatry, we suggest topics where neuroimaging methods have the potential to help. These include better understanding of the pathophysiology, improved diagnoses, assistance in therapeutic decisions and the supervision of treatment success by direct assessment of improvement in disease-related brain functions. These different questions are illustrated by examples from neuroimaging studies, with a focus on severe mental and neuropsychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia, depression and dementia. Despite all reservations addressed in the article, we are optimistic, that neuroimaging has a huge potential with regard to the above-mentioned questions. We expect that neuroimaging will play an increasing role in the future refinement of the diagnostic process and aid in the development of new therapies in the field of psychiatry.

  10. Neuroimaging findings in primary insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, J N; Berman Rosa, M; Gouin, J-P; Dang-Vu, T T

    2014-10-01

    State-of-the-art neuroimaging techniques have accelerated progress in the study and understanding of sleep in humans. Neuroimaging studies in primary insomnia remain relatively few, considering the important prevalence of this disorder in the general population. This review examines the contribution of functional and structural neuroimaging to our current understanding of primary insomnia. Functional studies during sleep provided support for the hyperarousal theory of insomnia. Functional neuroimaging also revealed abnormalities in cognitive and emotional processing in primary insomnia. Results from structural studies suggest neuroanatomical alterations in primary insomnia, mostly in the hippocampus, anterior cingulate cortex and orbitofrontal cortex. However, these results are not well replicated across studies. A few magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies revealed abnormalities in neurotransmitter concentrations and bioenergetics in primary insomnia. The inconsistencies among neuroimaging findings on insomnia are likely due to clinical heterogeneity, differences in imaging and overall diversity of techniques and designs employed. Larger samples, replication, as well as innovative methodologies are necessary for the progression of this perplexing, yet promising area of research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. What Enhancement Techniques Suggest about the Good Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul; Andersen, Michael Christian

    2016-01-01

    The contemporary increase in life expectancy in Western countries has led to an intensified focus on good ageing processes as a way to manage ageing populations. We argue that while qualifications of the ageing process such as active and healthy ageing endeavour to compress morbidity through...... enhancement techniques, the idea of the good old age also implicitly tells a tale about the ‘good’ death. We explore how current discourses depict old age as an active, engaged and independent life phase and construct a specific idea of the good death as one that is quick and painless. By engaging...... that through motivation and physical activity orchestrate the good death in a body that has been as healthy as possible for as long as possible. However, when such techniques become a moral injunction rather than a choice, questions arise concerning the relationship between autonomy and death. We argue...

  12. Skin sparing mastectomy: Technique and suggested methods of reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Farahat

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: Skin Sparing mastectomy through a circum-areolar incision has proven to be a safe and feasible option for the management of breast cancer in Egyptian women, offering them adequate oncologic control and optimum cosmetic outcome through preservation of the skin envelope of the breast when ever indicated. Our patients can benefit from safe surgery and have good cosmetic outcomeby applying different reconstructive techniques.

  13. The impacts of cognitive-behavioral therapy on the treatment of phobic disorders measured by functional neuroimaging techniques: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvao-de Almeida, Amanda; Araujo Filho, Gerardo Maria de; Berberian, Arthur de Almeida; Trezsniak, Clarissa; Nery-Fernandes, Fabiana; Araujo Neto, Cesar Augusto; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin; Miranda-Scippa, Angela; Oliveira, Irismar Reis de

    2013-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging techniques represent fundamental tools in the context of translational research integrating neurobiology, psychopathology, neuropsychology, and therapeutics. In addition, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has proven its efficacy in the treatment of anxiety disorders and may be useful in phobias. The literature has shown that feelings and behaviors are mediated by specific brain circuits, and changes in patterns of interaction should be associated with cerebral alterations. Based on these concepts, a systematic review was conducted aiming to evaluate the impact of CBT on phobic disorders measured by functional neuroimaging techniques. A systematic review of the literature was conducted including studies published between January 1980 and April 2012. Studies written in English, Spanish or Portuguese evaluating changes in the pattern of functional neuroimaging before and after CBT in patients with phobic disorders were included. The initial search strategy retrieved 45 studies. Six of these studies met all inclusion criteria. Significant deactivations in the amygdala, insula, thalamus and hippocampus, as well as activation of the medial orbitofrontal cortex, were observed after CBT in phobic patients when compared with controls. In spite of their technical limitations, neuroimaging techniques provide neurobiological support for the efficacy of CBT in the treatment of phobic disorders. Further studies are needed to confirm this conclusion.

  14. The impacts of cognitive-behavioral therapy on the treatment of phobic disorders measured by functional neuroimaging techniques: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Galvao-de Almeida

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Functional neuroimaging techniques represent fundamental tools in the context of translational research integrating neurobiology, psychopathology, neuropsychology, and therapeutics. In addition, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT has proven its efficacy in the treatment of anxiety disorders and may be useful in phobias. The literature has shown that feelings and behaviors are mediated by specific brain circuits, and changes in patterns of interaction should be associated with cerebral alterations. Based on these concepts, a systematic review was conducted aiming to evaluate the impact of CBT on phobic disorders measured by functional neuroimaging techniques. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted including studies published between January 1980 and April 2012. Studies written in English, Spanish or Portuguese evaluating changes in the pattern of functional neuroimaging before and after CBT in patients with phobic disorders were included. Results: The initial search strategy retrieved 45 studies. Six of these studies met all inclusion criteria. Significant deactivations in the amygdala, insula, thalamus and hippocampus, as well as activation of the medial orbitofrontal cortex, were observed after CBT in phobic patients when compared with controls. Conclusion: In spite of their technical limitations, neuroimaging techniques provide neurobiological support for the efficacy of CBT in the treatment of phobic disorders. Further studies are needed to confirm this conclusion.

  15. Neuroimaging of epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cendes, Fernando; Theodore, William H.; Brinkmann, Benjamin H.; Sulc, Vlastimil; Cascino, Gregory D.

    2017-01-01

    Imaging is pivotal in the evaluation and management of patients with seizure disorders. Elegant structural neuroimaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may assist in determining the etiology of focal epilepsy and demonstrating the anatomical changes associated with seizure activity. The high diagnostic yield of MRI to identify the common pathological findings in individuals with focal seizures including mesial temporal sclerosis, vascular anomalies, low-grade glial neoplasms and malformations of cortical development has been demonstrated. Positron emission tomography (PET) is the most commonly performed interictal functional neuroimaging technique that may reveal a focal hypometabolic region concordant with seizure onset. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies may assist performance of ictal neuroimaging in patients with pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy being considered for neurosurgical treatment. This chapter highlights neuroimaging developments and innovations, and provides a comprehensive overview of the imaging strategies used to improve the care and management of people with epilepsy. PMID:27430454

  16. Variability in the use of neuroimaging techniques for diagnosis and follow-up of stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcárcel-Nazco, C; Alonso-Modino, D; Montón-Álvarez, F; Sabatel-Hernández, R; Pastor-Santoveña, M S; Mesa-Blanco, P; López-Fernández, J C; Serrano-Aguilar, P

    2017-04-18

    Imaging diagnosis is essential for treatment planning in stroke patients. However, use of these techniques varies due to uncertainty about their effectiveness. Our purpose was to describe the use of CT and MRI in stroke and transient ischaemic attack (TIA) over 5years in hospitals belonging to the Canary Islands Health Service and analyse interhospital variability based on routinely collected administrative data. We gathered the minimum basic dataset (MBDS) from patients diagnosed with stroke or TIA between 2005 and 2010 in 4hospitals. Patients' age, sex, procedures, secondary diagnoses, and duration of hospital stay were also recorded. We conducted a descriptive analysis of patient characteristics and a bivariate analysis using the t test and the chi square test to detect differences between patients assessed and not assessed with MRI. Logistic regression was used to analyse unequal access to MRI. Our study included 10,487 patients (8,571 with stroke and 1,916 with TIA). The percentage of stroke patients undergoing a CT scan increased from 89.47% in 2005 to 91.50% in 2010. In these patients, use of MRI also increased from 25.41% in 2005 to 36.02% in 2010. Among patients with TIA, use of CT increased from 84.64% to 88.04% and MRI from 32.53% to 39.13%. According to our results, female sex, younger age, and presence of comorbidities increase the likelihood of undergoing MRI. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Combined Acquisition Technique (CAT) for Neuroimaging of Multiple Sclerosis at Low Specific Absorption Rates (SAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biller, Armin; Choli, Morwan; Blaimer, Martin; Breuer, Felix A.; Jakob, Peter M.; Bartsch, Andreas J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare a novel combined acquisition technique (CAT) of turbo-spin-echo (TSE) and echo-planar-imaging (EPI) with conventional TSE. CAT reduces the electromagnetic energy load transmitted for spin excitation. This radiofrequency (RF) burden is limited by the specific absorption rate (SAR) for patient safety. SAR limits restrict high-field MRI applications, in particular. Material and Methods The study was approved by the local Medical Ethics Committee. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. T2- and PD-weighted brain images of n = 40 Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients were acquired by CAT and TSE at 3 Tesla. Lesions were recorded by two blinded, board-certificated neuroradiologists. Diagnostic equivalence of CAT and TSE to detect MS lesions was evaluated along with their SAR, sound pressure level (SPL) and sensations of acoustic noise, heating, vibration and peripheral nerve stimulation. Results Every MS lesion revealed on TSE was detected by CAT according to both raters (Cohen’s kappa of within-rater/across-CAT/TSE lesion detection κCAT = 1.00, at an inter-rater lesion detection agreement of κLES = 0.82). CAT reduced the SAR burden significantly compared to TSE (pCAT were 29.0 (±5.7) % for the T2-contrast and 32.7 (±21.9) % for the PD-contrast (expressed as percentages of the effective SAR limit of 3.2 W/kg for head examinations). Average SPL of CAT was no louder than during TSE. Sensations of CAT- vs. TSE-induced heating, noise and scanning vibrations did not differ. Conclusion T2−/PD-CAT is diagnostically equivalent to TSE for MS lesion detection yet substantially reduces the RF exposure. Such SAR reduction facilitates high-field MRI applications at 3 Tesla or above and corresponding protocol standardizations but CAT can also be used to scan faster, at higher resolution or with more slices. According to our data, CAT is no more uncomfortable than TSE scanning. PMID:24608106

  18. Paediatric Neuroimaging

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paediatric Neuroimaging Quiz Case. S Afr J Rad. 2015;19(2); Art. #873, 3 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajr.v19i2.873. Copyright: © 2015. The Authors. Licensee: AOSIS OpenJournals. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons. Attribution License. Read online: Scan this QR code with your smart phone or.

  19. Consensus paper: combining transcranial stimulation with neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebner, Hartwig R; Bergmann, Til O; Bestmann, Sven

    2009-01-01

    In the last decade, combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-neuroimaging studies have greatly stimulated research in the field of TMS and neuroimaging. Here, we review how TMS can be combined with various neuroimaging techniques to investigate human brain function. When applied during ne...

  20. Neuroimaging in dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkhof, Frederik [VU Univ. Medical Center, Amsterdam (NL). Dept. of Radiology and Image Analysis Center (IAC); Fox, Nick C. [UCL Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom). Dementia Research Centre; VU Univ. Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bastos-Leite, Antonio J. [Porto Univ. (Portugal). Dept. of Medical Imaging; Scheltens, Philip [VU Univ. Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Neurology and Alzheimer Center

    2011-07-01

    Against a background of an ever-increasing number of patients, new management options, and novel imaging modalities, neuroimaging is playing an increasingly important role in the diagnosis of dementia. This up-to-date, superbly illustrated book aims to provide a practical guide to the effective use of neuroimaging in the patient with cognitive decline. It sets out the key clinical and imaging features of the wide range of causes of dementia and directs the reader from clinical presentation to neuroimaging and on to an accurate diagnosis whenever possible. After an introductory chapter on the clinical background, the available ''toolbox'' of structural and functional neuroimaging techniques is reviewed in detail, including CT, MRI and advanced MR techniques, SPECT and PET, and image analysis methods. The imaging findings in normal ageing are then discussed, followed by a series of chapters that carefully present and analyze the key imaging findings in patients with dementias. A structured path of analysis follows the main presenting feature: disorders associated with primary gray matter loss, with white matter changes, with brain swelling, etc. Throughout, a practical approach is adopted, geared specifically to the needs of clinicians (neurologists, radiologists, psychiatrists, geriatricians) working in the field of dementia, for whom this book should prove an invaluable resource. (orig.)

  1. Neuroimaging in Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Yildirim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging has been used in antisocial personality disorder since the invention of computed tomography and new modalities are introduced as technology advances. Magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging and radionuclide imaging are such techniques that are currently used in neuroimaging. Although neuroimaging is an indispensible tool for psychiatric reseach, its clinical utility is questionable until new modalities become more accessible and regularly used in clinical practice. The aim of this paper is to provide clinicians with an introductory knowledge on neuroimaging in antisocial personality disorder including basic physics principles, current contributions to general understanding of pathophysiology in antisocial personality disorder and possible future applications of neuroimaging. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(1: 98-108

  2. Neuroimaging Studies in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: A Narrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Arpit; Sarkar, Siddharth

    2016-01-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a relatively common psychiatric illness with a lifetime prevalence of 2–3% in general population. The pathophysiology of OCD is not yet fully understood, however over the last few decades, evidence for abnormalities of cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortico (CSTC) circuitry in etiopathogenesis of OCD has accumulated. Recent brain imaging techniques have been particularly convincing in suggesting that CSTC circuits are responsible for mediation of OCD symptoms. Neuroimaging studies, especially more recent studies using functional neuroimaging methods have looked for possible changes seen in the brain of patients with OCD, the specificity of the findings (as compared to other psychiatric illnesses) and the effects of treatment (pharmacotherapy/psychotherapy) on such changes were observed. This narrative review discusses the neuroimaging findings seen in patients with OCD with a special focus on relatively more recent neuroimaging modalities such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy and magnetoencephalography. PMID:27833219

  3. The technique of «Subliminal verbal suggestion for the treatment of [pseudo]obsessions»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Danilevska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available [Pseudo]obsessions therapy in patients with endogenous diseases of schizophrenic round accompanied with difficulties, caused by both psycho etio pathogenetic features of the disease. Disadvantages of the existing methods of therapy are associated with therapeutic conflict between two nosologies. Aim: to develop and test etiopsychopathogenetic technique "Subliminal verbal suggestion for the treatment of [pseudo]obsessions" as a subsidiary method of treatment of schizophrenia patients with [pseudo] obsessions in the structure of the disease. Methods and results. 137 patients who underwent hospital treatment 65 schizophrenia patients (F20 with the [pseudo]obsessive symptoms in the structure of the disease were examined on the basis of Public Health Institution «Regional clinical mental hospital» of the Zaporizhzhian regional council. 30 patients received standard pharmacotherapy (antipsychotic drugs according to clinical protocols that was combined with proposed technique "Subliminal verbal suggestion for the treatment of [pseudo]obsessions". The comparison group consisted of 35 patients treated with the use of standard pharmacotherapy: antipsychotic drugs. The next methods were used: medical history assessment, follow-up, clinical-psychopathological, psychodiagnostic. "Subliminal verbal suggestion for the treatment of [pseudo]obsessions" technique was developed. This technique is a combination of suggestion in the waking state and neurolinguistic programming, implemented with specially compiled auditory complex listening. The main therapeutic component s realized through the subthreshold perception of the verbal formulas that are unavailable to awareness. The technique consists of two components – primary and secondary, and three stages. The methodology was tested, its therapeutic efficacy was confirmed. Conclusion. "Subliminal verbal suggestion for the treatment of [pseudo]obsessions" technique was developed as a subsidiary method of the

  4. Neuroimaging studies of social cognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Hironobu; Yassin, Walid; Murai, Toshiya

    2015-05-01

    Impaired social cognition is considered a core contributor to unfavorable psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia. Rather than being a unitary process, social cognition is a collection of multifaceted processes that recruit multiple brain structures, thus structural and functional neuroimaging techniques are ideal methodologies for revealing the underlying pathophysiology of impaired social cognition. Many neuroimaging studies have suggested that in addition to white-matter deficits, schizophrenia is associated with decreased gray-matter volume in multiple brain areas, especially fronto-temporal and limbic regions. However, few schizophrenia studies have examined associations between brain abnormalities and social cognitive disabilities. During the last decade, we have investigated structural brain abnormalities in schizophrenia using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging, and our findings have been confirmed by us and others. By assessing different types of social cognitive abilities, structural abnormalities in multiple brain regions have been found to be associated with disabilities in social cognition, such as recognition of facial emotion, theory of mind, and empathy. These structural deficits have also been associated with alexithymia and quality of life in ways that are closely related to the social cognitive disabilities found in schizophrenia. Here, we overview a series of neuroimaging studies from our laboratory that exemplify current research into this topic, and discuss how it can be further tackled using recent advances in neuroimaging technology. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  5. A technique to improve the spelling suggestion rank in medical queries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Jonathan B; Zeng, Qing T; Kogan, Sandra

    2003-01-01

    Correct spelling is crucial for online search engines to function well, and health information is highly sought after online. We propose a technique for increasing the effectiveness of spell-checking tools for use with medical queries. Our results show a marked improvement in the ranking of the correct term within the suggestion list returned by the spelling correction tool, as well as a lessening of the drawbacks associated with using larger dictionaries.

  6. Functional neuroimaging in specific phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Casale, Antonio; Ferracuti, Stefano; Rapinesi, Chiara; Serata, Daniele; Piccirilli, Massimo; Savoja, Valeria; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Manfredi, Giovanni; Angeletti, Gloria; Tatarelli, Roberto; Girardi, Paolo

    2012-06-30

    Specific phobias (SPs) are common, with lifetime prevalence estimates of 10%. Our current understanding of their pathophysiology owes much to neuroimaging studies, which enabled us to construct increasingly efficient models of the underlying neurocircuitry. We provide an updated, comprehensive review and analyze the relevant literature of functional neuroimaging studies in specific phobias. Findings are presented according to the functional neuroanatomy of patients with SPs. We performed a careful search of the major medical and psychological databases by crossing SP with each neuroimaging technique. Functional neuroimaging, mostly using symptom provocation paradigms, showed abnormal activations in brain areas involved in emotional perception and early amplification, mainly the amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex, thalamus, and insula. The insula, thalamus and other limbic/paralimbic structures are particularly involved in SPs with prominent autonomic arousal. Emotional modulation is also impaired after exposure to phobic stimuli, with abnormal activations reported for the prefrontal, orbitofrontal and visual cortices. Other cortices and the cerebellum also appear to be involved in the pathophysiology of this disorder. Functional neuroimaging identified neural substrates that differentiate SPs from other anxiety disorders and separate SP subtypes from one another; the results support current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition-Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic subtyping of SPs. Functional neuroimaging shows promise as a means of identifying treatment-response predictors. Improvement in these techniques may help in clarifying the neurocircuitry underlying SP, for both research and clinical-therapeutic purposes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging underpinnings of schizoaffective disorder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madre, M; Canales-Rodríguez, E J; Ortiz-Gil, J; Murru, A; Torrent, C; Bramon, E; Perez, V; Orth, M; Brambilla, P; Vieta, E; Amann, B L

    2016-07-01

    The neurobiological basis and nosological status of schizoaffective disorder remains elusive and controversial. This study provides a systematic review of neurocognitive and neuroimaging findings in the disorder. A comprehensive literature search was conducted via PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus and Web of Knowledge (from 1949 to 31st March 2015) using the keyword 'schizoaffective disorder' and any of the following terms: 'neuropsychology', 'cognition', 'structural neuroimaging', 'functional neuroimaging', 'multimodal', 'DTI' and 'VBM'. Only studies that explicitly examined a well defined sample, or subsample, of patients with schizoaffective disorder were included. Twenty-two of 43 neuropsychological and 19 of 51 neuroimaging articles fulfilled inclusion criteria. We found a general trend towards schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder being related to worse cognitive performance than bipolar disorder. Grey matter volume loss in schizoaffective disorder is also more comparable to schizophrenia than to bipolar disorder which seems consistent across further neuroimaging techniques. Neurocognitive and neuroimaging abnormalities in schizoaffective disorder resemble more schizophrenia than bipolar disorder. This is suggestive for schizoaffective disorder being a subtype of schizophrenia or being part of the continuum spectrum model of psychosis, with schizoaffective disorder being more skewed towards schizophrenia than bipolar disorder. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Neuroimaging for psychotherapy research: Current trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    WEINGARTEN, CAROL P.; STRAUMAN, TIMOTHY J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This article reviews neuroimaging studies that inform psychotherapy research. An introduction to neuroimaging methods is provided as background for the increasingly sophisticated breadth of methods and findings appearing in psychotherapy research. Method We compiled and assessed a comprehensive list of neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, along with selected examples of other types of studies that also are relevant to psychotherapy research. We emphasized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) since it is the dominant neuroimaging modality in psychological research. Results We summarize findings from neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, including treatment for depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and schizophrenia. Conclusions The increasing use of neuroimaging methods in the study of psychotherapy continues to refine our understanding of both outcome and process. We suggest possible directions for future neuroimaging studies in psychotherapy research. PMID:24527694

  9. Neuroimaging in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-LoberaBehavioral Sciences Institute and Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, SpainAbstract: Neuroimaging techniques have been useful tools for accurate investigation of brain structure and function in eating disorders. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and voxel-based morphometry have been the most relevant technologies in this regard. The purpose of this review is to update the existing data on neuroimaging in eating disorders. The main brain changes seem to be reversible to some extent after adequate weight restoration. Brain changes in bulimia nervosa seem to be less pronounced than in anorexia nervosa and are mainly due to chronic dietary restrictions. Different subtypes of eating disorders might be correlated with specific brain functional changes. Moreover, anorectic patients who binge/purge may have different functional brain changes compared with those who do not binge/purge. Functional changes in the brain might have prognostic value, and different changes with respect to the binding potential of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, and D2/D3 receptors may be persistent after recovering from an eating disorder.Keywords: neuroimaging, brain changes, brain receptors, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorders

  10. Neuroimaging of consciousness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavanna, Andrea Eugenio [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Neuropsychiatry; UCL Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom). Sobell Dept. of Motor, Neuroscience and Movement Disorders; Nani, Andrea [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom). Research Group BSMHFT; Blumenfeld, Hal [Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States). Depts. of Neurology, Neurobiology and Neurosurgery; Laureys, Steven (ed.) [Liege Univ. (Belgium). Cyclotron Research Centre

    2013-07-01

    An important reference work on a multidisciplinary and rapidly expanding area. Particular focus on the relevance of neuroimaging for the diagnosis and treatment of common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting consciousness. Written by world-class experts in the field. Relevant for clinicians, researchers, and scholars across different specialties. Within the field of neuroscience, the past few decades have witnessed an exponential growth of research into the brain mechanisms underlying both normal and pathological states of consciousness in humans. The development of sophisticated imaging techniques (above all fMRI and PET) to visualize and map brain activity in vivo has opened new avenues in our understanding of the pathological processes involved in common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting consciousness, such as epilepsy, coma, vegetative states, dissociative disorders, and dementia. This book presents the state of the art in neuroimaging exploration of the brain correlates of the alterations in consciousness across these conditions, with a particular focus on the potential applications for diagnosis and management. Although the book has a practical approach and is primarily targeted at neurologists, neuroradiologists, and psychiatrists, a wide range of researchers and health care professionals will find it an essential reference that explains the significance of neuroimaging of consciousness for clinical practice. Within the field of neuroscience, the past few decades have witnessed an exponential growth of research into the brain mechanisms underlying both normal and pathological states of consciousness in humans. The development of sophisticated imaging techniques (above all fMRI and PET) to visualize and map brain activity in vivo has opened new avenues in our understanding of the pathological processes involved in common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting consciousness, such as epilepsy, coma, vegetative states, dissociative disorders, and dementia. This

  11. A frequency-based technique to improve the spelling suggestion rank in medical queries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Jonathan; Zeng, Qing; Ngo, Long; Lacroix, Eve-Marie

    2004-01-01

    There is an abundance of health-related information online, and millions of consumers search for such information. Spell checking is of crucial importance in returning pertinent results, so the authors propose a technique for increasing the effectiveness of spell-checking tools used for health-related information retrieval. A sample of incorrectly spelled medical terms was submitted to two different spell-checking tools, and the resulting suggestions, derived under two different dictionary configurations, were re-sorted according to how frequently each term appeared in log data from a medical search engine. Univariable analysis was carried out to assess the effect of each factor (spell-checking tool, dictionary type, re-sort, or no re-sort) on the probability of success. The factors that were statistically significant in the univariable analysis were then used in multivariable analysis to evaluate the independent effect of each of the factors. The re-sorted suggestions proved to be significantly more accurate than the original list returned by the spell-checking tool. The odds of finding the correct suggestion in the number one rank were increased by 63% after re-sorting using the authors' method. This effect was independent of both the dictionary and the spell-checking tools that were used. Using knowledge about the frequency of a given word's occurrence in the medical domain can significantly improve spelling correction for medical queries.

  12. Finding related functional neuroimaging volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    We describe a content-based image retrieval technique for finding related functional neuroimaging experiments by voxelization of sets of stereotactic coordinates in Talairach space, comparing the volumes and reporting related volumes in a sorted list. Voxelization is accomplished by convolving ea...

  13. Comparison of eye-lens doses imparted during interventional and non-interventional neuroimaging techniques for assessment of intracranial aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guberina, N; Dietrich, U; Forsting, M; Ringelstein, A

    2017-02-27

    A neurointerventional examination of intracranial aneurysms often involves the eye lens in the primary beam of radiation. To assess and compare eye-lens doses imparted during interventional and non-interventional imaging techniques for the examination of intracranial aneurysms. We performed a phantom study on an anthropomorphic phantom (ATOM dosimetry phantom 702-D; CIRS, Norfolk, Virginia, USA) and assessed eye-lens doses with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) type 100 (LiF:Mg, Ti) during (1) interventional (depiction of all cerebral arteries with triple 3D-rotational angiography and twice 2-plane DSA anteroposterior and lateral projections) and (2) non-interventional (CT angiography (CTA)) diagnosis of intracranial aneurysms. Eye-lens doses were calculated following recommendations of the ICRP 103. Image quality was analysed in retrospective by two experienced radiologists on the basis of non-interventional and interventional pan-angiography examinations of patients with incidental aneurysms (n=50) on a five-point Likert scale. The following eye-lens doses were assessed: (1) interventional setting (triple 3D-rotational angiography and twice 2-plane DSA anteroposterior and lateral projections) 12 mGy; (2) non-interventional setting (CTA) 4.1 mGy. Image quality for depiction of intracranial aneurysms (>3 mm) was evaluated as good by both readers for both imaging techniques. Eye-lens doses are markedly higher during the interventional than during the non-interventional diagnosis of intracranial aneurysms. For the eye-lens dose, CTA offers considerable radiation dose savings in the diagnosis of intracranial aneurysms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Neuroimaging evaluation in refractory epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, Ana M; Orejuela, Juan F; Rodriguez-Takeuchi, Sara Y

    2015-10-01

    To describe the application of neuroimaging analysis, compared to neuropsychological tests and video-electroencephalogram, for the evaluation of refractory epilepsy in a reference centre in Cali, Colombia. Between March 2013 and November 2014, 29 patients, 19 men and 10 women, aged 9-65 years and with refractory epilepsy, were assessed by structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing tasks related to language, verbal and non-verbal memory. Also, volumetric evaluation was performed. A 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner was used in all cases. Neuroimaging evaluation identified 13 patients with mesial temporal sclerosis. The remaining patients were classified as: 10 patients with neoplastic masses, two patients with cortical atrophy, two patients with scarring lesions and two patients with non-structural aetiology. Among patients with mesial temporal sclerosis, comparison between techniques for lateralising the epileptogenic foci was made; the κ index between functional magnetic resonance imaging and hippocampi volumetry was κ=1.00, agreement between neuroimaging and video-electroencephalogram was good (κ=0.78) and comparison with a neuropsychological test was mild (κ=0.24). Neuroimaging studies allow the assessment of functional and structural damage related to epileptogenic lesions and foci, and are helpful to select surgical treatment, conduct intraoperative neuronavigation techniques, predict surgical deficits and evaluate patient recovery. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. A Frequency-based Technique to Improve the Spelling Suggestion Rank in Medical Queries

    OpenAIRE

    Crowell, Jonathan; Zeng, Qing; Ngo, Long; Lacroix, Eve-Marie

    2004-01-01

    Objective: There is an abundance of health-related information online, and millions of consumers search for such information. Spell checking is of crucial importance in returning pertinent results, so the authors propose a technique for increasing the effectiveness of spell-checking tools used for health-related information retrieval.

  16. Techniques of tumour bed boost irradiation in breast conserving therapy: Current evidence and suggested guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalali, Rakesh; Singh, Suruchi; Budrukkar, Ashwini [Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)

    2007-10-15

    Breast conservation surgery followed by external beam radiotherapy to breast has become the standard of care in management of early carcinoma breast. A boost to the tumour bed after whole breast radiotherapy is employed in view of the pattern of tumour bed recurrences in the index quadrant and was particularly considered in patients with some adverse histopathological characteristics such as positive margins, extensive intraductal carcinoma (EIC), lymphovascular invasion (LVI), etc. There is however, now, a conclusive evidence of improvement in local control rates after a boost radiotherapy dose in patients even without such factors and for all age groups. The maximum absolute reduction of local recurrences by the addition of boost is especially seen in young premenopausal patients. At the same time, the addition of boost is associated with increased risk of worsening of cosmesis and no clear cut survival advantage. Radiological modalities such as fluoroscopy, ultrasound and CT scan have aided in accurate delineation of tumour bed with increasing efficacy. A widespread application of these techniques might ultimately translate into improved local control with minimal cosmetic deficit. The present article discusses the role of radiotherapy boost and the means to delineate and deliver the same, identify the high risk group, optimal technique and the doses and fractionations to be used. It also discusses the extent of adverse cosmetic outcome after boost delivery, means to minimise it and relevance of tumour bed in present day scenario of advanced radiotherapy delivery techniques like (IMRT)

  17. [Suggestion of an improved technique of general anaesthesia for ophthalmological experiments on rabbits (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtmann, H W; Stein, H J

    1975-02-01

    The potentiated general anaesthesia with ethyl urethane and propionylpromazine for long-time ophthalmological experiments on rabbits is not adequate. It is suggested to apply additional ketamin (i.v. and i.m.). With this procedure a satisfactory position of rest is obtained for more than two hours.

  18. Current Practice in the Referral of Individuals with Suspected Dementia for Neuroimaging by General Practitioners in Ireland and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciblis, Aurelia S.; Butler, Marie-Louise; Quinn, Catherine; Clare, Linda; Bokde, Arun L. W.; Mullins, Paul G.; McNulty, Jonathan P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives While early diagnosis of dementia is important, the question arises whether general practitioners (GPs) should engage in direct referrals. The current study investigated current referral practices for neuroimaging in dementia, access to imaging modalities and investigated related GP training in Ireland and North Wales. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to GPs in the programme regions which included approximately two thirds of all GPs in the Republic of Ireland and all general practitioners in North Wales. A total of 2,093 questionnaires were issued. Results 48.6% of Irish respondents and 24.3% of Welsh respondents directly referred patients with suspected dementia for neuroimaging. Irish GPs reported greater direct access to neuroimaging than their Welsh counterparts. A very small percentage of Irish and Welsh GPs (4.7% and 10% respectively) had received training in neuroimaging and the majority who referred patients for neuroimaging were not aware of any dementia-specific protocols for referrals (93.1% and 95% respectively). Conclusions The benefits of direct GP access to neuroimaging investigations for dementia have yet to be established. Our findings suggest that current GP speciality training in Ireland and Wales is deficient in dementia-specific and neuroimaging training with the concern being that inadequate training will lead to inadequate referrals. Further training would complement guidelines and provide a greater understanding of the role and appropriateness of neuroimaging techniques in the diagnosis of dementia. PMID:27007435

  19. Current Practice in the Referral of Individuals with Suspected Dementia for Neuroimaging by General Practitioners in Ireland and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciblis, Aurelia S; Butler, Marie-Louise; Quinn, Catherine; Clare, Linda; Bokde, Arun L W; Mullins, Paul G; McNulty, Jonathan P

    2016-01-01

    While early diagnosis of dementia is important, the question arises whether general practitioners (GPs) should engage in direct referrals. The current study investigated current referral practices for neuroimaging in dementia, access to imaging modalities and investigated related GP training in Ireland and North Wales. A questionnaire was distributed to GPs in the programme regions which included approximately two thirds of all GPs in the Republic of Ireland and all general practitioners in North Wales. A total of 2,093 questionnaires were issued. 48.6% of Irish respondents and 24.3% of Welsh respondents directly referred patients with suspected dementia for neuroimaging. Irish GPs reported greater direct access to neuroimaging than their Welsh counterparts. A very small percentage of Irish and Welsh GPs (4.7% and 10% respectively) had received training in neuroimaging and the majority who referred patients for neuroimaging were not aware of any dementia-specific protocols for referrals (93.1% and 95% respectively). The benefits of direct GP access to neuroimaging investigations for dementia have yet to be established. Our findings suggest that current GP speciality training in Ireland and Wales is deficient in dementia-specific and neuroimaging training with the concern being that inadequate training will lead to inadequate referrals. Further training would complement guidelines and provide a greater understanding of the role and appropriateness of neuroimaging techniques in the diagnosis of dementia.

  20. Update on neuroimaging phenotypes of mid-hindbrain malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jissendi-Tchofo, Patrice [University Hospital of Lille (CHRU), Department of Neuroradiology, MRI 3T Research, Plateforme Imagerie du vivant, IMPRT-IFR 114, Lille-Cedex (France); CHU Saint-Pierre, Radiology Department, Pediatric Neuroradiology Section, Brussels (Belgium); Severino, Mariasavina [Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Neuroradiology Unit, Genoa (Italy); Nguema-Edzang, Beatrice; Toure, Cisse; Soto Ares, Gustavo [University Hospital of Lille (CHRU), Department of Neuroradiology, MRI 3T Research, Plateforme Imagerie du vivant, IMPRT-IFR 114, Lille-Cedex (France); Barkovich, Anthony James [University of California, Neuroradiology Section, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-10-23

    Neuroimaging techniques including structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional positron emission tomography (PET) are useful in categorizing various midbrain-hindbrain (MHB) malformations, both in allowing diagnosis and in helping to understand the developmental processes that were disturbed. Brain imaging phenotypes of numerous malformations are characteristic features that help in guiding the genetic testing in case of direct neuroimaging-genotype correlation or, at least, to differentiate among MHB malformations entities. The present review aims to provide the reader with an update of the use of neuroimaging applications in the fine analysis of MHB malformations, using a comprehensive, recently proposed developmental and genetic classification. We have performed an extensive systematic review of the literature, from the embryology main steps of MHB development through the malformations entities, with regard to their molecular and genetic basis, conventional MRI features, and other neuroimaging characteristics. We discuss disorders in which imaging features are distinctive and how these features reflect the structural and functional impairment of the brain. Recognition of specific MRI phenotypes, including advanced imaging features, is useful to recognize the MHB malformation entities, to suggest genetic investigations, and, eventually, to monitor the disease outcome after supportive therapies. (orig.)

  1. Neuroimaging and electroconvulsive therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolwig, Tom G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the 1970s, a number of neuroimaging studies of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) have been conducted to elucidate the working action of this highly efficacious treatment modality. The technologies used are single photon emission tomography, positron emission tomography, magnetic...... resonance imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and quantitative electroencephalography. METHODS: A PubMed literature search with focus on clinical studies was made from the inception of the database until December 2013 using the search terms electroconvulsive therapy and neuroimaging. RESULTS: Early...

  2. Neuroimaging creativity: a psychometric view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arden, Rosalind; Chavez, Robert S; Grazioplene, Rachael; Jung, Rex E

    2010-12-25

    Many studies of creative cognition with a neuroimaging component now exist; what do they say about where and how creativity arises in the brain? We reviewed 45 brain-imaging studies of creative cognition. We found little clear evidence of overlap in their results. Nearly as many different tests were used as there were studies; this test diversity makes it impossible to interpret the different findings across studies with any confidence. Our conclusion is that creativity research would benefit from psychometrically informed revision, and the addition of neuroimaging methods designed to provide greater spatial localization of function. Without such revision in the behavioral measures and study designs, it is hard to see the benefit of imaging. We set out eight suggestions in a manifesto for taking creativity research forward. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Neuroimaging studies of aggressive and violent behavior: current findings and implications for criminology and criminal justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufkin, Jana L; Luttrell, Vickie R

    2005-04-01

    With the availability of new functional and structural neuroimaging techniques, researchers have begun to localize brain areas that may be dysfunctional in offenders who are aggressive and violent. Our review of 17 neuroimaging studies reveals that the areas associated with aggressive and/or violent behavioral histories, particularly impulsive acts, are located in the prefrontal cortex and the medial temporal regions. These findings are explained in the context of negative emotion regulation, and suggestions are provided concerning how such findings may affect future theoretical frameworks in criminology, crime prevention efforts, and the functioning of the criminal justice system.

  4. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy--neuroimaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepp, Matthias J; Woermann, Friedrich; Savic, Ivanka; Wandschneider, Britta

    2013-07-01

    Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) has been classified as a syndrome of idiopathic generalized epilepsy and is characterized by specific types of seizures, showing a lack of pathology using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography scanning. However, JME is associated with a particular personality profile, and behavioral and neuropsychological studies have suggested the possible involvement of frontal lobe dysfunction. The development of highly sensitive neuroimaging techniques has provided a means of elucidating the underlying mechanisms of JME. Positron emission tomography demonstrated metabolic and neurotransmitter changes in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex reflecting the particular cognitive and behavioral profile of JME patients. (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy has shown evidence of thalamic dysfunction, which appears to be progressive. Such techniques provide evidence of multi-focal disease mechanisms, suggesting that JME is a frontal lobe variant of a multi-regional, thalamocortical 'network' epilepsy, rather than a generalized epilepsy syndrome. Quantitative MRI revealed significant abnormalities of cortical gray matter in medial frontal areas close to the supplementary motor area and diffusion abnormalities with increased functional coupling between the motor and prefrontal cognitive systems. This altered structural connectivity of the supplementary motor area provides an explanatory framework for the particular imaging findings, seizure type, and seizure-provoking mechanisms in JME. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Big Data and Neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb-Vargas, Yenny; Chen, Shaojie; Fisher, Aaron; Mejia, Amanda; Xu, Yuting; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Caffo, Brian; Lindquist, Martin A

    2017-12-01

    Big Data are of increasing importance in a variety of areas, especially in the biosciences. There is an emerging critical need for Big Data tools and methods, because of the potential impact of advancements in these areas. Importantly, statisticians and statistical thinking have a major role to play in creating meaningful progress in this arena. We would like to emphasize this point in this special issue, as it highlights both the dramatic need for statistical input for Big Data analysis and for a greater number of statisticians working on Big Data problems. We use the field of statistical neuroimaging to demonstrate these points. As such, this paper covers several applications and novel methodological developments of Big Data tools applied to neuroimaging data.

  6. Methodological review on functional neuroimaging using positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hae Jeong [Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Advance of neuroimaging technique has greatly influenced recent brain research field. Among various neuroimaging modalities, positron emission tomography has played a key role in molecular neuroimaging though functional MRI has taken over its role in the cognitive neuroscience. As the analysis technique for PET data is more sophisticated, the complexity of the method is more increasing. Despite the wide usage of the neuroimaging techniques, the assumption and limitation of procedures have not often been dealt with for the clinician and researchers, which might be critical for reliability and interpretation of the results. In the current paper, steps of voxel-based statistical analysis of PET including preprocessing, intensity normalization, spatial normalization, and partial volume correction will be revisited in terms of the principles and limitations. Additionally, new image analysis techniques such as surface-based PET analysis, correlational analysis and multimodal imaging by combining PET and DTI, PET and TMS or EEG will also be discussed.

  7. Model sparsity and brain pattern interpretation of classification models in neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Churchill, Nathan W

    2012-01-01

    Interest is increasing in applying discriminative multivariate analysis techniques to the analysis of functional neuroimaging data. Model interpretation is of great importance in the neuroimaging context, and is conventionally based on a ‘brain map’ derived from the classification model. In this ......Interest is increasing in applying discriminative multivariate analysis techniques to the analysis of functional neuroimaging data. Model interpretation is of great importance in the neuroimaging context, and is conventionally based on a ‘brain map’ derived from the classification model...... encoding of the experiment. For a support vector machine, logistic regression and Fisher's discriminant analysis we demonstrate that selection of model regularization parameters has a strong but consistent impact on the generalizability and both the reproducibility and interpretable sparsity of the models....... This supports the view that the quality of spatial patterns extracted from models cannot be assessed purely by focusing on prediction accuracy. Our results instead suggest that model regularization parameters must be carefully selected, so that the model and its visualization enhance our ability to interpret...

  8. Neuroimaging of Fear-Associated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, John A; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-01-01

    Fear conditioning has been commonly used as a model of emotional learning in animals and, with the introduction of functional neuroimaging techniques, has proven useful in establishing the neurocircuitry of emotional learning in humans. Studies of fear acquisition suggest that regions such as amygdala, insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and hippocampus play an important role in acquisition of fear, whereas studies of fear extinction suggest that the amygdala is also crucial for safety learning. Extinction retention testing points to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex as an essential region in the recall of the safety trace, and explicit learning of fear and safety associations recruits additional cortical and subcortical regions. Importantly, many of these findings have implications in our understanding of the pathophysiology of psychiatric disease. Recent studies using clinical populations have lent insight into the changes in regional activity in specific disorders, and treatment studies have shown how pharmaceutical and other therapeutic interventions modulate brain activation during emotional learning. Finally, research investigating individual differences in neurotransmitter receptor genotypes has highlighted the contribution of these systems in fear-associated learning. PMID:26294108

  9. Internet and Gaming Addiction: A Systematic Literature Review of Neuroimaging Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Kuss, DJ; Griffiths, MD

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, research has accumulated suggesting that excessive Internet use can lead to the development of a behavioral addiction. Internet addiction has been considered as a serious threat to mental health and the excessive use of the Internet has been linked to a variety of negative psychosocial consequences. The aim of this review is to identify all empirical studies to date that used neuroimaging techniques to shed light upon the emerging mental health problem of Internet and gami...

  10. Retrospective study on structural neuroimaging in first-episode psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Coentre

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. No consensus between guidelines exists regarding neuroimaging in first-episode psychosis. The purpose of this study is to assess anomalies found in structural neuroimaging exams (brain computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in the initial medical work-up of patients presenting first-episode psychosis. Methods. The study subjects were 32 patients aged 18–48 years (mean age: 29.6 years, consecutively admitted with first-episode psychosis diagnosis. Socio-demographic and clinical data and neuroimaging exams (CT and MRI were retrospectively studied. Diagnostic assessments were made using the Operational Criteria Checklist +. Neuroimaging images (CT and MRI and respective reports were analysed by an experienced consultant psychiatrist. Results. None of the patients had abnormalities in neuroimaging exams responsible for psychotic symptoms. Thirty-seven percent of patients had incidental brain findings not causally related to the psychosis (brain atrophy, arachnoid cyst, asymmetric lateral ventricles, dilated lateral ventricles, plagiocephaly and falx cerebri calcification. No further medical referral was needed for any of these patients. No significant differences regarding gender, age, diagnosis, duration of untreated psychosis, in-stay and cannabis use were found between patients who had neuroimaging abnormalities versus those without. Discussion. This study suggests that structural neuroimaging exams reveal scarce abnormalities in young patients with first-episode psychosis. Structural neuroimaging is especially useful in first-episode psychosis patients with neurological symptoms, atypical clinical picture and old age.

  11. [Exploring dream contents by neuroimaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Tomoyasu; Kamitani, Yukiyasu

    2014-04-01

    Dreaming is a subjective experience during sleep that is often accompanied by vivid perceptual and emotional contents. Because of its fundamentally subjective nature, the objective study of dream contents has been challenging. However, since the discovery of rapid eye movements during sleep, scientific knowledge on the relationship between dreaming and physiological measures including brain activity has accumulated. Recent advances in neuroimaging analysis methods have made it possible to uncover direct links between specific dream contents and brain activity patterns. In this review, we first give a historical overview on dream researches with a focus on the neurophysiological and behavioral signatures of dreaming. We then discuss our recent study in which visual dream contents were predicted, or decoded, from brain activity during sleep onset periods using machine learning-based pattern recognition of functional MRI data. We suggest that advanced analytical tools combined with neural and behavioral databases will reveal the relevance of spontaneous brain activity during sleep to waking experiences.

  12. Functional Neuroimaging in Psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Casale, Antonio; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Rapinesi, Chiara; Di Pietro, Simone; Alessi, Maria Chiara; Di Cesare, Gianluigi; Criscuolo, Silvia; De Rossi, Pietro; Tatarelli, Roberto; Girardi, Paolo; Ferracuti, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Psychopathy is associated with cognitive and affective deficits causing disruptive, harmful and selfish behaviour. These have considerable societal costs due to recurrent crime and property damage. A better understanding of the neurobiological bases of psychopathy could improve therapeutic interventions, reducing the related social costs. To analyse the major functional neural correlates of psychopathy, we reviewed functional neuroimaging studies conducted on persons with this condition. We searched the PubMed database for papers dealing with functional neuroimaging and psychopathy, with a specific focus on how neural functional changes may correlate with task performances and human behaviour. Psychopathy-related behavioural disorders consistently correlated with dysfunctions in brain areas of the orbitofrontal-limbic (emotional processing and somatic reaction to emotions; behavioural planning and responsibility taking), anterior cingulate-orbitofrontal (correct assignment of emotional valence to social stimuli; violent/aggressive behaviour and challenging attitude) and prefrontal-temporal-limbic (emotional stimuli processing/response) networks. Dysfunctional areas more consistently included the inferior frontal, orbitofrontal, dorsolateral prefrontal, ventromedial prefrontal, temporal (mainly the superior temporal sulcus) and cingulated cortices, the insula, amygdala, ventral striatum and other basal ganglia. Emotional processing and learning, and several social and affective decision-making functions are impaired in psychopathy, which correlates with specific changes in neural functions. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Auditory Neuroimaging with fMRI and PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talavage, Thomas M.; Gonzalez-Castillo, Javier; Scott, Sophie K.

    2013-01-01

    For much of the past 30 years, investigations of auditory perception and language have been enhanced or even driven by the use of functional neuroimaging techniques that specialize in localization of central responses. Beginning with investigations using positron emission tomography (PET) and gradually shifting primarily to usage of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), auditory neuroimaging has greatly advanced our understanding of the organization and response properties of brain regions critical to the perception of and communication with the acoustic world in which we live. As the complexity of the questions being addressed has increased, the techniques, experiments and analyses applied have also become more nuanced and specialized. A brief review of the history of these investigations sets the stage for an overview and analysis of how these neuroimaging modalities are becoming ever more effective tools for understanding the auditory brain. We conclude with a brief discussion of open methodological issues as well as potential clinical applications for auditory neuroimaging. PMID:24076424

  14. Neuroimaging in childhood headache: a systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexiou, George A. [University of Ioannina, Department of Neurosurgery, Medical School, P.O. Box 103, Ioannina (Greece); Argyropoulou, Maria I. [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece)

    2013-07-15

    Headache is a common complaint in children, one that gives rise to considerable parental concern and fear of the presence of a space-occupying lesion. The evaluation and diagnosis of headache is very challenging for paediatricians, and neuroimaging by means of CT or MRI is often requested as part of the investigation. CT exposes children to radiation, while MRI is costly and sometimes requires sedation or general anaesthesia, especially in children younger than 6 years. This review of the literature on the value of neuroimaging in children with headache showed that the rate of pathological findings is generally low. Imaging findings that led to a change in patient management were in almost all cases reported in children with abnormal signs on neurological examination. Neuroimaging should be limited to children with a suspicious clinical history, abnormal neurological findings or other physical signs suggestive of intracranial pathology. Well-designed prospective studies are needed to better define the clinical findings that warrant neuroimaging in children with headache. (orig.)

  15. Data sharing in neuroimaging research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste ePoline

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Significant resources around the world have been invested in neuroimaging studies of brain function and disease. Easier access to this large body of work should have profound impact on research in cognitive neuroscience and psychiatry, leading to advances in the diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric and neurological disease. A trend toward increased sharing of neuroimaging data has emerged in recent years. Nevertheless, a number of barriers continue to impede momentum. Many researchers and institutions remain uncertain about how to share data or lack the tools and expertise to participate in data sharing. The use of electronic data capture methods for neuroimaging greatly simplifies the task of data collection and has the potential to help standardize many aspects of data sharing. We review here the motivations for sharing neuroimaging data, the current data sharing landscape, and the sociological or technical barriers that still need to be addressed. The INCF Task Force on Neuroimaging Datasharing, in conjunction with several collaborative groups around the world, has started work on several tools to ease and eventually automate the practice of data sharing. It is hoped that such tools will allow researchers to easily share raw, processed, and derived neuroimaging data, with appropriate metadata and provenance records, and will improve the reproducibility of neuroimaging studies. By providing seamless integration of data sharing and analysis tools within a commodity research environment, the Task Force seeks to identify and minimize barriers to data sharing in the field of neuroimaging.

  16. Interactive Information Visualization in Neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Hansen, Lars Kai

    1998-01-01

    We describe a virtual environment for interactive visualization of 3D neuroimages. The environment is implemented in VRML and we will discuss the viability and limitation of this platform......We describe a virtual environment for interactive visualization of 3D neuroimages. The environment is implemented in VRML and we will discuss the viability and limitation of this platform...

  17. Hand Motion Detection in fNIRS Neuroimaging Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abtahi, Mohammadreza; Amiri, Amir Mohammad; Byrd, Dennis; Mankodiya, Kunal

    2017-04-15

    As the number of people diagnosed with movement disorders is increasing, it becomes vital to design techniques that allow the better understanding of human brain in naturalistic settings. There are many brain imaging methods such as fMRI, SPECT, and MEG that provide the functional information of the brain. However, these techniques have some limitations including immobility, cost, and motion artifacts. One of the most emerging portable brain scanners available today is functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). In this study, we have conducted fNIRS neuroimaging of seven healthy subjects while they were performing wrist tasks such as flipping their hand with the periods of rest (no movement). Different models of support vector machine is applied to these fNIRS neuroimaging data and the results show that we could classify the action and rest periods with the accuracy of over 80% for the fNIRS data of individual participants. Our results are promising and suggest that the presented classification method for fNIRS could further be applied to real-time applications such as brain computer interfacing (BCI), and into the future steps of this research to record brain activity from fNIRS and EEG, and fuse them with the body motion sensors to correlate the activities.

  18. Provenance in neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie-Graham, Allan J; Van Horn, John D; Woods, Roger P; Crawford, Karen L; Toga, Arthur W

    2008-08-01

    Provenance, the description of the history of a set of data, has grown more important with the proliferation of research consortia-related efforts in neuroimaging. Knowledge about the origin and history of an image is crucial for establishing data and results quality; detailed information about how it was processed, including the specific software routines and operating systems that were used, is necessary for proper interpretation, high fidelity replication and re-use. We have drafted a mechanism for describing provenance in a simple and easy to use environment, alleviating the burden of documentation from the user while still providing a rich description of an image's provenance. This combination of ease of use and highly descriptive metadata should greatly facilitate the collection of provenance and subsequent sharing of data.

  19. Neuroimaging of autism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoeven, Judith S.; Cock, Paul de; Lagae, Lieven [University Hospitals of the Catholic University of Leuven, Department of Pediatrics, Leuven (Belgium); Sunaert, Stefan [University Hospitals of the Catholic University of Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium)

    2010-01-15

    Neuroimaging studies done by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have provided important insights into the neurobiological basis for autism. The aim of this article is to review the current state of knowledge regarding brain abnormalities in autism. Results of structural MRI studies dealing with total brain volume, the volume of the cerebellum, caudate nucleus, thalamus, amygdala and the area of the corpus callosum are summarised. In the past 5 years also new MRI applications as functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging brought considerable new insights in the pathophysiological mechanisms of autism. Dysfunctional activation in key areas of verbal and non-verbal communication, social interaction, and executive functions are revised. Finally, we also discuss white matter alterations in important communication pathways in the brain of autistic patients. (orig.)

  20. Opening up the Window into “Chemobrain”: A Neuroimaging Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andra Smith

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available As more chemotherapy-treated cancer patients are reaching survivorship, side-effects such as cognitive impairment warrant research attention. The advent of neuroimaging has helped uncover a neural basis for these deficits. This paper offers a review of neuroimaging investigations in chemotherapy-treated adult cancer patients, discussing the benefits and limitations of each technique and study design. Additionally, despite the assumption given by the chemobrain label that chemotherapy is the only causative agent of these deficits, other factors will be considered. Suggestions are made on how to more comprehensively study these cognitive changes using imaging techniques, thereby promoting generalizability of the results to clinical applications. Continued investigations may yield better long-term quality of life outcomes by supporting patients’ self-reports, and revealing brain regions being affected by chemotherapy.

  1. Neuroimaging, culture, and forensic psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Neil K

    2009-01-01

    The spread of neuroimaging technologies around the world has led to diverse practices of forensic psychiatry and the emergence of neuroethics and neurolaw. This article surveys the neuroethics and neurolegal literature on the use of forensic neuroimaging within the courtroom. Next, the related literature within medical anthropology and science and technology studies is reviewed to show how debates about forensic neuroimaging reflect cultural tensions about attitudes regarding the self, mental illness, and medical expertise. Finally, recommendations are offered on how forensic psychiatrists can add to this research, given their professional interface between law and medicine. At stake are the fundamental concerns that surround changing conceptions of the self, sickness, and expectations of medicine.

  2. Source counting in MEG neuroimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Tianhu; Dell, John; Magee, Ralphy; Roberts, Timothy P. L.

    2009-02-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a multi-channel, functional imaging technique. It measures the magnetic field produced by the primary electric currents inside the brain via a sensor array composed of a large number of superconducting quantum interference devices. The measurements are then used to estimate the locations, strengths, and orientations of these electric currents. This magnetic source imaging technique encompasses a great variety of signal processing and modeling techniques which include Inverse problem, MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC), Beamforming (BF), and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) method. A key problem with Inverse problem, MUSIC and ICA methods is that the number of sources must be detected a priori. Although BF method scans the source space on a point-to-point basis, the selection of peaks as sources, however, is finally made by subjective thresholding. In practice expert data analysts often select results based on physiological plausibility. This paper presents an eigenstructure approach for the source number detection in MEG neuroimaging. By sorting eigenvalues of the estimated covariance matrix of the acquired MEG data, the measured data space is partitioned into the signal and noise subspaces. The partition is implemented by utilizing information theoretic criteria. The order of the signal subspace gives an estimate of the number of sources. The approach does not refer to any model or hypothesis, hence, is an entirely data-led operation. It possesses clear physical interpretation and efficient computation procedure. The theoretical derivation of this method and the results obtained by using the real MEG data are included to demonstrates their agreement and the promise of the proposed approach.

  3. The blood-brain barrier is intact after levodopa-induced dyskinesias in parkinsonian primates--evidence from in vivo neuroimaging studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astradsson, Arnar; Jenkins, Bruce G; Choi, Ji-Kyung

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested, based on rodent studies, that levodopa (L-dopa) induced dyskinesia is associated with a disrupted blood-brain barrier (BBB). We have investigated BBB integrity with in vivo neuroimaging techniques in six 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) lesioned primates ...

  4. Practical management of heterogeneous neuroimaging metadata by global neuroimaging data repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, Scott C.; Crawford, Karen L.; Toga, Arthur W.

    2012-01-01

    Rapidly evolving neuroimaging techniques are producing unprecedented quantities of digital data at the same time that many research studies are evolving into global, multi-disciplinary collaborations between geographically distributed scientists. While networked computers have made it almost trivial to transmit data across long distances, collecting and analyzing this data requires extensive metadata if the data is to be maximally shared. Though it is typically straightforward to encode text and numerical values into files and send content between different locations, it is often difficult to attach context and implicit assumptions to the content. As the number of and geographic separation between data contributors grows to national and global scales, the heterogeneity of the collected metadata increases and conformance to a single standardization becomes implausible. Neuroimaging data repositories must then not only accumulate data but must also consolidate disparate metadata into an integrated view. In this article, using specific examples from our experiences, we demonstrate how standardization alone cannot achieve full integration of neuroimaging data from multiple heterogeneous sources and why a fundamental change in the architecture of neuroimaging data repositories is needed instead. PMID:22470336

  5. Functional neuroimaging in Tourette syndrome: recent perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debes NM

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanette Mol Debes, Marie Préel, Liselotte Skov Pediatric Department, Tourette Clinic, Herlev University Hospital, Herlev, DenmarkAbstract: The most recent functional neuroimaging studies on Tourette syndrome (TS are reviewed in this paper. Although it can be difficult to compare functional neuroimaging studies due to differences in methods, differences in age of the included subjects, and differences in the extent to which the presence of comorbidity, medical treatment, and severity of tics are considered in the various studies; most studies show that the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit seems to be involved in the generation of tics. Changes in this circuit seem to be correlated with tic severity. Correlations have been found between the presence of tics and hypermetabolism in various brain regions. Abnormalities of GABAergic, serotonergic, and dopaminergic neurotransmission in patients with TS have been suggested. During tic suppression, increased activity in the inferior frontal gyrus is seen. The premotor cortex might be involved in inhibition of motor control in subjects with TS. The right anterior insula is suggested to be a part of the urge–tic network. Several studies have shown altered motor network activations and sensorimotor gating deficits in subjects with TS. In future studies, inclusion of more well-defined subjects and further examination of premonitory urge and tic suppression is needed in order to increase the knowledge about the pathophysiology and treatment possibilities of TS. Keywords: functional neuroimaging, Tourette syndrome

  6. Functional neuroimaging of traumatic brain injury: advances and clinical utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irimia A

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Andrei Irimia, John Darrell Van Horn USC Stevens Neuroimaging and Informatics Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Functional deficits due to traumatic brain injury (TBI can have significant and enduring consequences upon patients’ life quality and expectancy. Although functional neuroimaging is essential for understanding TBI pathophysiology, an insufficient amount of effort has been dedicated to the task of translating functional neuroimaging findings into information with clinical utility. The purpose of this review is to summarize the use of functional neuroimaging techniques – especially functional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and electroencephalography – for advancing current knowledge of TBI-related brain dysfunction and for improving the rehabilitation of TBI patients. We focus on seven core areas of functional deficits, namely consciousness, motor function, attention, memory, higher cognition, personality, and affect, and, for each of these, we summarize recent findings from neuroimaging studies which have provided substantial insight into brain function changes due to TBI. Recommendations are also provided to aid in setting the direction of future neuroimaging research and for understanding brain function changes after TBI. Keywords: cognitive decline, personality change, magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging

  7. Neuroimaging findings in treatment-resistant schizophrenia: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Shinichiro; Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Plitman, Eric; Fervaha, Gagan; Gerretsen, Philip; Caravaggio, Fernando; Chung, Jun Ku; Iwata, Yusuke; Remington, Gary; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent developments in neuroimaging have advanced understanding biological mechanisms underlying schizophrenia. However, neuroimaging correlates of treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) and superior effects of clozapine on TRS remain unclear. Methods Systematic search was performed to identify neuroimaging characteristics unique to TRS and ultra-resistant schizophrenia (i.e. clozapine-resistant [URS]), and clozapine's efficacy in TRS using Embase, Medline, and PsychInfo. Search terms included (schizophreni*) and (resistan* OR refractory OR clozapine) and (ASL OR CT OR DTI OR FMRI OR MRI OR MRS OR NIRS OR PET OR SPECT). Results 25 neuroimaging studies have investigated TRS and effects of clozapine. Only 5 studies have compared TRS and non-TRS, collectively providing no replicated neuroimaging finding specific to TRS. Studies comparing TRS and healthy controls suggest hypometabolism in the prefrontal cortex, hypermetabolism in the basal ganglia, and structural anomalies in the corpus callosum contribute to TRS. Clozapine may increase prefrontal hypoactivation in TRS although this was not related to clinical improvement; in contrast, evidence has suggested a link between clozapine efficacy and decreased metabolism in the basal ganglia and thalamus. Conclusion Existing literature does not elucidate neuroimaging correlates specific to TRS or URS, which, if present, might also shed light on clozapine's efficacy in TRS. This said, leads from other lines of investigation, including the glutamatergic system can prove useful in guiding future neuroimaging studies focused on, in particular, the frontocortical-basal ganglia-thalamic circuits. Critical to the success of this work will be precise subtyping of study subjects based on treatment response/nonresponse and the use of multimodal neuroimaging. PMID:25684554

  8. Neuroimaging findings in treatment-resistant schizophrenia: A systematic review: Lack of neuroimaging correlates of treatment-resistant schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Shinichiro; Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Plitman, Eric; Fervaha, Gagan; Gerretsen, Philip; Caravaggio, Fernando; Chung, Jun Ku; Iwata, Yusuke; Remington, Gary; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2015-05-01

    Recent developments in neuroimaging have advanced the understanding of biological mechanisms underlying schizophrenia. However, neuroimaging correlates of treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) and superior effects of clozapine on TRS remain unclear. Systematic search was performed to identify neuroimaging characteristics unique to TRS and ultra-resistant schizophrenia (i.e. clozapine-resistant [URS]), and clozapine's efficacy in TRS using Embase, Medline, and PsychInfo. Search terms included (schizophreni*) and (resistan* OR refractory OR clozapine) and (ASL OR CT OR DTI OR FMRI OR MRI OR MRS OR NIRS OR PET OR SPECT). 25 neuroimaging studies have investigated TRS and effects of clozapine. Only 5 studies have compared TRS and non-TRS, collectively providing no replicated neuroimaging finding specific to TRS. Studies comparing TRS and healthy controls suggest that hypometabolism in the prefrontal cortex, hypermetabolism in the basal ganglia, and structural anomalies in the corpus callosum contribute to TRS. Clozapine may increase prefrontal hypoactivation in TRS although this was not related to clinical improvement; in contrast, evidence has suggested a link between clozapine efficacy and decreased metabolism in the basal ganglia and thalamus. Existing literature does not elucidate neuroimaging correlates specific to TRS or URS, which, if present, might also shed light on clozapine's efficacy in TRS. This said, leads from other lines of investigation, including the glutamatergic system can prove useful in guiding future neuroimaging studies focused on, in particular, the frontocortical-basal ganglia-thalamic circuits. Critical to the success of this work will be precise subtyping of study subjects based on treatment response/nonresponse and the use of multimodal neuroimaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Early neuroimaging diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jianling; Liu, Timon C.; Li, Yan; Liu, Songhao

    2002-04-01

    Neuroimaging has played an important role in evaluating the Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, and its uses are growing. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may show the presence of cerebral infarcts and white matter disease. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET), which visualize such cerebral functions as glucose metabolism and blood flow, may provide positive evidence to support the diagnosis of AD. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a recently developed technique which enables the internal impedance of an object to be imaged noninvasively.

  10. Molecular neuroimaging in degenerative dementias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez Bonilla, J F; Carril Carril, J M

    2013-01-01

    In the context of the limitations of structural imaging, brain perfusion and metabolism using SPECT and PET have provided relevant information for the study of cognitive decline. The introduction of the radiotracers for cerebral amyloid imaging has changed the diagnostic strategy regarding Alzheimer's disease, which is currently considered to be a "continuum." According to this new paradigm, the increasing amyloid load would be associated to the preclinical phase and mild cognitive impairment. It has been possible to observe "in vivo" images using 11C-PIB and PET scans. The characteristics of the 11C-PIB image include specific high brain cortical area retention in the positive cases with typical distribution pattern and no retention in the negative cases. This, in combination with 18F-FDG PET, is the basis of molecular neuroimaging as a biomarker. At present, its prognostic value is being evaluated in longitudinal studies. 11C-PIB-PET has become the reference radiotracer to evaluate the presence of cerebral amyloid. However, its availability is limited due to the need for a nearby cyclotron. Therefore, 18F labeled radiotracers are being introduced. Our experience in the last two years with 11C-PIB, first in the research phase and then as being clinically applied, has shown the utility of the technique in the clinical field, either alone or in combination with FDG. Thus, amyloid image is a useful tool for the differential diagnosis of dementia and it is a potentially useful method for early diagnosis and evaluation of future treatments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  11. Neuroimaging in Iran: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ali Hossein-Zadeh

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTNeuroimaging allows noninvasive evaluation of the anatomy, physiology, and function of the brain. It is widely used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and treatment evaluation of neurological disorders as well as understanding functions of the brain in health and disease. Neuroimaging modalities include X-ray computed tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, positron emission tomography (PET, electroencephalography (EEG, and magnetoencephalography (MEG. This paper presents an overview of the neuroimaging research in Iran in recent years, partitioned into three categories: anatomical imaging; anatomical image analysis; and functional imaging and analysis. Published papers reflect considerable progress in development of neuroimaging infrastructure, hardware installation and software development. However, group work and research collaborations among engineers, scientists, and clinicians need significant enhancement to optimize utility of the resources and maximize productivity. This is a challenge that cannot be solved without specific plans, policies, and funding.

  12. Functional Neuroimaging of Appetite and Gut–Brain Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.A.M.; Preissl, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    Ultimately, eating decisions are made in the brain, based on the integration
    of multiple neural and hormonal signals. Since the early 1990s the use of
    functional
    neuroimaging techniques has continued to increase. Their application
    in the study of the regulation of food intake and

  13. Near-infrared neuroimaging with NinPy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary E Strangman

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been substantial recent growth in the use of non-invasive optical brain imaging in studies of human brain function in health and disease. Near-infrared neuroimaging (NIN is one of the most promising of these techniques and, although NIN hardware continues to evolve at a rapid pace, software tools supporting optical data acquisition, image processing, statistical modeling and visualization remain less refined. Python, a modular and computationally efficient development language, can support functional neuroimaging studies of diverse design and implementation. In particular, Python's easily readable syntax and modular architecture allow swift prototyping followed by efficient transition to stable production systems. As an introduction to our ongoing efforts to develop Python software tools for structural and functional neuroimaging, we discuss: (i the role of noninvasive diffuse optical imaging in measuring brain function, (ii the key computational requirements to support NIN experiments, (iii our collection of software tools to support near-infrared neuroimaging, called NinPy, and (iv future extensions of these tools that will allow integration of optical with other structural and functional neuroimaging data sources. Source code for the software discussed here will be made available at www.nmr.mgh.harvard.edu/Neural_SystemsGroup/software.html.

  14. Neuroimaging in Parkinson disease: from research setting to clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, Marios

    2014-12-01

    Over the past three decades, neuroimaging studies-including structural, functional and molecular modalities-have provided invaluable insights into the mechanisms underlying Parkinson disease (PD). Observations from multimodal neuroimaging techniques have indicated changes in brain structure and metabolic activity, and an array of neurochemical changes that affect receptor sites and neurotransmitter systems. Characterization of the neurobiological alterations that lead to phenotypic heterogeneity in patients with PD has considerably aided the in vivo investigation of aetiology and pathophysiology, and the identification of novel targets for pharmacological or surgical treatments, including cell therapy. Although PD is now considered to be very complex, no neuroimaging modalities are specifically recommended for routine use in clinical practice. However, conventional MRI and dopamine transporter imaging are commonly used as adjuvant tools in the differential diagnosis between PD and nondegenerative causes of parkinsonism. First-line neuroimaging tools that could have an impact on patient prognosis and treatment strategies remain elusive. This Review discusses the lessons learnt from decades of neuroimaging research in PD, and the promising new approaches with potential applicability to clinical practice.

  15. Uncovering the etiology of conversion disorder: insights from functional neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ejareh dar M

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maryam Ejareh dar, Richard AA Kanaan Department of Psychiatry, University of Melbourne, Austin Health, Heidelberg, VIC, Australia Abstract: Conversion disorder (CD is a syndrome of neurological symptoms arising without organic cause, arguably in response to emotional stress, but the exact neural substrates of these symptoms and the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood with the hunt for a biological basis afoot for centuries. In the past 15 years, novel insights have been gained with the advent of functional neuroimaging studies in patients suffering from CDs in both motor and nonmotor domains. This review summarizes recent functional neuroimaging studies including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT, and positron emission tomography (PET to see whether they bring us closer to understanding the etiology of CD. Convergent functional neuroimaging findings suggest alterations in brain circuits that could point to different mechanisms for manifesting functional neurological symptoms, in contrast with feigning or healthy controls. Abnormalities in emotion processing and in emotion-motor processing suggest a diathesis, while differential reactions to certain stressors implicate a specific response to trauma. No comprehensive theory emerges from these clues, and all results remain preliminary, but functional neuroimaging has at least given grounds for hope that a model for CD may soon be found. Keywords: conversion disorder, neuroimaging, functional neurology, hysteria, mechanisms 

  16. Looking inside the brain the power of neuroimaging

    CERN Document Server

    Le Bihan, Denis

    2014-01-01

    It is now possible to witness human brain activity while we are talking, reading, or thinking, thanks to revolutionary neuroimaging techniques like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These groundbreaking advances have opened infinite fields of investigation—into such areas as musical perception, brain development in utero, and faulty brain connections leading to psychiatric disorders—and have raised unprecedented ethical issues. In Looking Inside the Brain, one of the leading pioneers of the field, Denis Le Bihan, offers an engaging account of the sophisticated interdisciplinary research in physics, neuroscience, and medicine that have led to the remarkable neuroimaging methods that give us a detailed look into the human brain. Introducing neurological anatomy and physiology, Le Bihan walks readers through the historical evolution of imaging technology—from the x-ray and CT scan to the PET scan and MRI—and he explains how neuroimaging uncovers afflictions like stroke or cancer and the workings of high...

  17. Neuroimaging for drug addiction and related behaviors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvaz M. A.; Parvaz, M.A.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik,P.A.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2011-10-01

    In this review, we highlight the role of neuroimaging techniques in studying the emotional and cognitive-behavioral components of the addiction syndrome by focusing on the neural substrates subserving them. The phenomenology of drug addiction can be characterized by a recurrent pattern of subjective experiences that includes drug intoxication, craving, bingeing, and withdrawal with the cycle culminating in a persistent preoccupation with obtaining, consuming, and recovering from the drug. In the past two decades, imaging studies of drug addiction have demonstrated deficits in brain circuits related to reward and impulsivity. The current review focuses on studies employing positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate these behaviors in drug-addicted human populations. We begin with a brief account of drug addiction followed by a technical account of each of these imaging modalities. We then discuss how these techniques have uniquely contributed to a deeper understanding of addictive behaviors.

  18. Neuroimaging and illness progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frey, Benicio N.; Minuzzi, L; Haarman, Bartholomeus; Sassi, R; Kapczinski, Flávio; Vieta, Eduard; Magalhães, Pedro V. S.; Berk, Michael

    2015-01-01

    •Asymptomatic children at high-risk to develop BD have shown gray matter volume changes in several prefrontal cortical areas and reduced frontal and increased amygdala activation; Preliminary evidence suggests that development of BD may be associated with lower amygdala volumes •Initial studies

  19. Neuroimaging after coma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tshibanda, Luaba [University and University Hospital of Liege, Coma Science Group, Cyclotron Research Center, Liege (Belgium); University Hospital of Liege, Department of Neuroradiology, Liege (Belgium); Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Soddu, Andrea; Bruno, Marie-Aurelie; Noirhomme, Quentin [University and University Hospital of Liege, Coma Science Group, Cyclotron Research Center, Liege (Belgium); Boly, Melanie; Laureys, Steven [University and University Hospital of Liege, Coma Science Group, Cyclotron Research Center, Liege (Belgium); University Hospital of Liege, Department of Neuroradiology, Liege (Belgium); University Hospital of Liege, Department of Neurology, Liege (Belgium); Moonen, Gustave [University Hospital of Liege, Department of Neurology, Liege (Belgium)

    2010-01-15

    Following coma, some patients will recover wakefulness without signs of consciousness (only showing reflex movements, i.e., the vegetative state) or may show non-reflex movements but remain without functional communication (i.e., the minimally conscious state). Currently, there remains a high rate of misdiagnosis of the vegetative state (Schnakers et. al. BMC Neurol, 9:35, 8) and the clinical and electrophysiological markers of outcome from the vegetative and minimally conscious states remain unsatisfactory. This should incite clinicians to use multimodal assessment to detect objective signs of consciousness and validate para-clinical prognostic markers in these challenging patients. This review will focus on advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging, and functional MRI (fMRI studies in both ''activation'' and ''resting state'' conditions) that were recently introduced in the assessment of patients with chronic disorders of consciousness. (orig.)

  20. Single subject prediction of brain disorders in neuroimaging: Promises and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbabshirani, Mohammad R; Plis, Sergey; Sui, Jing; Calhoun, Vince D

    2017-01-15

    Neuroimaging-based single subject prediction of brain disorders has gained increasing attention in recent years. Using a variety of neuroimaging modalities such as structural, functional and diffusion MRI, along with machine learning techniques, hundreds of studies have been carried out for accurate classification of patients with heterogeneous mental and neurodegenerative disorders such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. More than 500 studies have been published during the past quarter century on single subject prediction focused on a multiple brain disorders. In the first part of this study, we provide a survey of more than 200 reports in this field with a focus on schizophrenia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer's disease (AD), depressive disorders, autism spectrum disease (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Detailed information about those studies such as sample size, type and number of extracted features and reported accuracy are summarized and discussed. To our knowledge, this is by far the most comprehensive review of neuroimaging-based single subject prediction of brain disorders. In the second part, we present our opinion on major pitfalls of those studies from a machine learning point of view. Common biases are discussed and suggestions are provided. Moreover, emerging trends such as decentralized data sharing, multimodal brain imaging, differential diagnosis, disease subtype classification and deep learning are also discussed. Based on this survey, there is extensive evidence showing the great potential of neuroimaging data for single subject prediction of various disorders. However, the main bottleneck of this exciting field is still the limited sample size, which could be potentially addressed by modern data sharing models such as the ones discussed in this paper. Emerging big data technologies and advanced data-intensive machine learning methodologies such as deep learning have coincided with an increasing need

  1. Neuroimaging of herpesvirus infections in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baskin, Henry J. [Cincinnati Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Hedlund, Gary [Primary Children' s Medical Center, Department of Medical Imaging, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2007-10-15

    Six members of the herpesvirus family cause well-described neurologic disease in children: herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2), varicella-zoster (VZV), Epstein-Barr (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6). When herpesviruses infect the central nervous system (CNS), the clinical presentation is non-specific and often confounding. The clinical urgency is often underscored by progressive neurologic deficits, seizures, or even death, and prompt diagnosis and treatment rely heavily on neuroimaging. This review focuses on the spectrum of cerebral manifestations caused by these viruses, particularly on non-congenital presentations. Recent advances in our understanding of these viruses are discussed, including new polymerase chain reaction techniques that allow parallel detection, which has improved our recognition that the herpesviruses are neurotropic and involve the CNS more often than previously thought. Evolving knowledge has also better elucidated viral neuropathology, particularly the role of VZV vasculitis in the brain, HHV-6 in febrile seizures, and herpesvirus reactivation in immunosuppressed patients. The virology, clinical course, and CNS manifestations of each virus are reviewed, followed by descriptions of neuroimaging findings when these agents infect the brain. Characteristic but often subtle imaging findings are discussed, as well as technical pearls covering appropriate use of MRI and MRI adjuncts to help differentiate viral infection from mimics. (orig.)

  2. Neuroimaging. Recent issues and future progresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuyama, Hidenao [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine

    2002-07-01

    Recent advances in the technology of non-invasive neuroimaging techniques, include X-ray CT, magnetic resonance imaging, positron CT, etc. The trend of neuroimaging is from the diagnosis of the brain structural change to the functional localization of the brain function with accurate topographical data. Brain activation studies disclosed the responsible regions in the brain for various kinds of paradigms, including motor, sensory, cognitive functions. Another aspect of brain imaging shows the pathophysiological changes of the neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease by abnormal CBF or metabolism changes. It is very important to note that the neurotransmitter receptor imaging is now available for various kinds of transmitters. We recently developed a new tracer for nicotinic type acetylcholine receptor, which might be involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease and its treatment. In the near future, we will be able to visualize the proteins in the brain such as amyloid protein, which will make us to diagnose Alzheimer's patients accurately, and with respect to neuroscience research, not only neuronal functional localizations but also relationship between them will become important to disclose the functional aspects of the brain. (author)

  3. Reduction of pollutants in painting operation and suggestion of an optimal technique for extracting titanium dioxide from paint sludge in car manufacturing industries--case study (SAIPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khezri, Seyed Mostafa; Shariat, Seyed Mahmood; Tabibian, Sahar

    2012-06-01

    Paint sludge of car manufacturing industries are not disposed in landfills, since they contain hazardous materials with a high concentration of chromium, aluminum, titanium, barium, copper, Iron, magnesium, strontium, and so on. Thus, it is essential to find solutions in order to neutralize them or suggest cost-effective techniques, which are also environmentally acceptable. Because, this sludge contains considerable amounts of Ti pigments and unbaked resins, recycling these pigments--which could be used in a variety of industries such as paint factories--is an appropriate subject for further research. In this article, with the aim of identification of main pollutants in order to eliminate them and suggest a cost-effective solution to recover the sludge, a large number of tests including X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, X ray diffraction spectroscopy, and diffusion thermal analysis are conducted to determine types and concentration of elements, and combinations of paint sludge in car manufacturing industries. As titanium dioxide (TiO₂) is widely used as the main pigment of automobile paints, an optimal technique is suggested for extracting TiO₂ with high purity percentage through adopting scientific methods such as membrane and electrolysis.

  4. Neuroimaging studies of antisocial behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassarath, L

    2001-10-01

    To review recent neuroimaging studies of antisocial behaviour, including criminality, psychopathy, sexual offending, aggression, and violence. Using OVID software, Psycinfo and Medline were searched for studies undertaken in the last 15 years. A brief outline of each technology is followed by a survey of published reports from refereed journals. Where indicated, critical appraisal is offered. Converging evidence from multiple studies of structure and function indicates that abnormal prefrontal (and probably subcortical) circuitry are very likely involved in antisocial behaviour. Clinicians should be aware of emerging findings from biological studies of antisociality. Future neuroimaging and other biologically based work, especially when combined with psychosocial initiatives, should yield fruit in attempts to better understand, treat, and prevent such socially devastating and destructive behaviour.

  5. Neuroimaging and advanced social living

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    of the application of neuroimaging findings to guide multidisciplinary collaboration in a randomized controlled trial on integrated home care for stroke patients. This approach may be termed double-objectivism. Results: 1. In classical neurology CNS is a dual system of ANS and Cortex. The new neuroeconomic...... understanding is that of a reciprocal balance of interacting Limbic System (L(x)) and Neocortex (NC). This favours integrated homecare as relaxation of LS at home (BP declines 5 mmHg) in itself improves cognitive integration to the benefit of rehabilitation i.e. reduced risk of ‘death or disability’ for stroke...... is basal knowledge for collaborative self-management. 3. Values of an integrative logic are derived as patience to both positivist prediction and client-centered implementation. Conclusion: Modern neuroimaging presents a positivistic guidance towards modern values of multidisciplinary collaboration...

  6. Suggestions for improving the long-term effects of treatments for stuttering: A Review and synthesis of frequency-shifted feedback and operant techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil; Howell, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The present article outlines the potential benefits to the treatment of stuttering, if altered auditory feedback methods, especially frequency-shifted feedback, were to be combined with behaviour modification techniques. A potential framework for understanding the integration of these approaches is presented in the context of assessing the limitations of each approach in isolation. A number of suggestions concerning the use of partial prompting and partial reinforcement, drawn from the animal conditioning literature, that may promote the efficacy of such a treatment are also made. PMID:18259587

  7. 25 years of neuroimaging in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, Bradley R.; Welsh, Robert C.; Feldman, Eva L.

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal motor neuron disease for which a precise cause has not yet been identified. Standard CT or MRI evaluation does not demonstrate gross structural nervous system changes in ALS, so conventional neuroimaging techniques have provided little insight into the pathophysiology of this disease. Advanced neuroimaging techniques—such as structural MRI, diffusion tensor imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy—allow evaluation of alterations of the nervous system in ALS. These alterations include focal loss of grey and white matter and reductions in white matter tract integrity, as well as changes in neural networks and in the chemistry, metabolism and receptor distribution in the brain. Given their potential for investigation of both brain structure and function, advanced neuroimaging methods offer important opportunities to improve diagnosis, guide prognosis, and direct future treatment strategies in ALS. In this article, we review the contributions made by various advanced neuroimaging techniques to our understanding of the impact of ALS on different brain regions, and the potential role of such measures in biomarker development. PMID:23917850

  8. Attention to spoken word planning : Chronometric and neuroimaging evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, A.P.A.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews chronometric and neuroimaging evidence on attention to spoken word planning, using the WEAVER++ model as theoretical framework. First, chronometric studies on the time to initiate vocal responding and gaze shifting suggest that spoken word planning may require some attention,

  9. When Should Neuroimaging be Applied in the Criminal Court?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    When does neuroimaging constitute a sufficiently developed technology to be put into use in the work of determining whether or not a defendant is guilty of crime? This question constitutes the starting point of the present paper. First, it is suggested that an overall answer is provided by what i...

  10. Autismo: neuroimagem Autism: neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Zilbovicius

    2006-05-01

    and stereotyped and repetitive behaviors. Thanks to recent brain imaging studies, scientists are getting a better idea of the neural circuits involved in autism spectrum disorders. Indeed, functional brain imaging, such as positron emission tomography, single foton emission tomographyand functional MRI have opened a new perspective to study normal and pathological brain functioning. Three independent studies have found anatomical and rest functional temporal lobe abnormalities in autistic patients. These alterations are localized in the superior temporal sulcus bilaterally, an area which is critical for perception of key social stimuli. In addition, functional studies have shown hypoactivation of most areas implicated in social perception (face and voice perception and social cognition (theory of mind. These data suggest an abnormal functioning of the social brain network in autism. The understanding of the functional alterations of this important mechanism may drive the elaboration of new and more adequate social re-educative strategies for autistic patients.

  11. Disorders of Consciousness: Painless or Painful Conditions?—Evidence from Neuroimaging Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Pistoia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The experience of pain in disorders of consciousness is still debated. Neuroimaging studies, using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI, Positron Emission Tomography (PET, multichannel electroencephalography (EEG and laser-evoked potentials, suggest that the perception of pain increases with the level of consciousness. Brain activation in response to noxious stimuli has been observed in patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS, which is also referred to as a vegetative state (VS, as well as those in a minimally conscious state (MCS. However, all of these techniques suggest that pain-related brain activation patterns of patients in MCS more closely resemble those of healthy subjects. This is further supported by fMRI findings showing a much greater functional connectivity within the structures of the so-called pain matrix in MCS as compared to UWS/VS patients. Nonetheless, when interpreting the results, a distinction is necessary between autonomic responses to potentially harmful stimuli and conscious experience of the unpleasantness of pain. Even more so if we consider that the degree of residual functioning and cortical connectivity necessary for the somatosensory, affective and cognitive-evaluative components of pain processing are not yet clear. Although procedurally challenging, the particular value of the aforementioned techniques in the assessment of pain in disorders of consciousness has been clearly demonstrated. The study of pain-related brain activation and functioning can contribute to a better understanding of the networks underlying pain perception while addressing clinical and ethical questions concerning patient care. Further development of technology and methods should aim to increase the availability of neuroimaging, objective assessment of functional connectivity and analysis at the level of individual cases as well as group comparisons. This will enable neuroimaging to truly become a clinical tool to

  12. Neuroimaging of child abuse: A critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heledd eHart

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Childhood maltreatment is a severe stressor that can lead to the development of behaviour problems and affect brain structure and function. This review summarizes the current evidence for the effects of early childhood maltreatment on behavior, cognition and the brain in adults and children. Neuropsychological studies suggest an association between child abuse and deficits in IQ, memory, executive function and emotion discrimination. Structural neuroimaging studies provide evidence for deficits in brain volume, grey and white matter of several regions, most prominently the dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex but also hippocampus, amygdala, and corpus callosum. Diffusion tensor imaging studies show evidence for deficits in structural interregional connectivity between these areas, suggesting neural network abnormalities. Functional imaging studies support this evidence by reporting atypical activation in the same brain regions during executive function and emotion processing. There are, however, several limitations of the abuse research literature which are discussed, most prominently the lack of control for co-morbid psychiatric disorders, which make it difficult to disentangle which of the above effects are due to maltreatment, the associated psychiatric conditions or a combination or interaction between both. Overall, the better controlled studies that show a direct correlation between childhood abuse and brain measures suggest that the most prominent deficits associated with early childhood abuse are in the function and structure of lateral and ventromedial fronto-limbic brain areas and networks that mediate behavioural and affect control. Future, large scale multimodal neuroimaging studies in medication-naïve subjects, however, are needed that control for psychiatric co-morbidities in order to elucidate the structural and functional brain sequelae that are associated with early environmental adversity, independently of secondary

  13. Neuroimaging Endophenotypes in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Rajneesh; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that has a strong genetic basis, and is heterogeneous in its etiopathogenesis and clinical presentation. Neuroimaging studies, in concert with neuropathological and clinical research, have been instrumental in delineating trajectories of development in children with ASD. Structural neuroimaging has revealed ASD to be a disorder with general and regional brain enlargement, especially in the frontotemporal cortices, while functional neuroimaging studies have highlighted diminished connectivity, especially between frontal-posterior regions. The diverse and specific neuroimaging findings may represent potential neuroendophenotypes, and may offer opportunities to further understand the etiopathogenesis of ASD, predict treatment response and lead to the development of new therapies. PMID:26234701

  14. Running Neuroimaging Applications on Amazon Web Services: How, When, and at What Cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhyastha, Tara M; Koh, Natalie; Day, Trevor K M; Hernández-Fernández, Moises; Kelley, Austin; Peterson, Daniel J; Rajan, Sabreena; Woelfer, Karl A; Wolf, Jonathan; Grabowski, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    The contribution of this paper is to identify and describe current best practices for using Amazon Web Services (AWS) to execute neuroimaging workflows "in the cloud." Neuroimaging offers a vast set of techniques by which to interrogate the structure and function of the living brain. However, many of the scientists for whom neuroimaging is an extremely important tool have limited training in parallel computation. At the same time, the field is experiencing a surge in computational demands, driven by a combination of data-sharing efforts, improvements in scanner technology that allow acquisition of images with higher image resolution, and by the desire to use statistical techniques that stress processing requirements. Most neuroimaging workflows can be executed as independent parallel jobs and are therefore excellent candidates for running on AWS, but the overhead of learning to do so and determining whether it is worth the cost can be prohibitive. In this paper we describe how to identify neuroimaging workloads that are appropriate for running on AWS, how to benchmark execution time, and how to estimate cost of running on AWS. By benchmarking common neuroimaging applications, we show that cloud computing can be a viable alternative to on-premises hardware. We present guidelines that neuroimaging labs can use to provide a cluster-on-demand type of service that should be familiar to users, and scripts to estimate cost and create such a cluster.

  15. Running Neuroimaging Applications on Amazon Web Services: How, When, and at What Cost?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara M. Madhyastha

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of this paper is to identify and describe current best practices for using Amazon Web Services (AWS to execute neuroimaging workflows “in the cloud.” Neuroimaging offers a vast set of techniques by which to interrogate the structure and function of the living brain. However, many of the scientists for whom neuroimaging is an extremely important tool have limited training in parallel computation. At the same time, the field is experiencing a surge in computational demands, driven by a combination of data-sharing efforts, improvements in scanner technology that allow acquisition of images with higher image resolution, and by the desire to use statistical techniques that stress processing requirements. Most neuroimaging workflows can be executed as independent parallel jobs and are therefore excellent candidates for running on AWS, but the overhead of learning to do so and determining whether it is worth the cost can be prohibitive. In this paper we describe how to identify neuroimaging workloads that are appropriate for running on AWS, how to benchmark execution time, and how to estimate cost of running on AWS. By benchmarking common neuroimaging applications, we show that cloud computing can be a viable alternative to on-premises hardware. We present guidelines that neuroimaging labs can use to provide a cluster-on-demand type of service that should be familiar to users, and scripts to estimate cost and create such a cluster.

  16. Neuroimaging in repetitive brain trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Thomas Sc; Lin, Alexander P; Koerte, Inga K; Pasternak, Ofer; Liao, Huijun; Merugumala, Sai; Bouix, Sylvain; Shenton, Martha E

    2014-01-01

    Sports-related concussions are one of the major causes of mild traumatic brain injury. Although most patients recover completely within days to weeks, those who experience repetitive brain trauma (RBT) may be at risk for developing a condition known as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). While this condition is most commonly observed in athletes who experience repetitive concussive and/or subconcussive blows to the head, such as boxers, football players, or hockey players, CTE may also affect soldiers on active duty. Currently, the only means by which to diagnose CTE is by the presence of phosphorylated tau aggregations post-mortem. Non-invasive neuroimaging, however, may allow early diagnosis as well as improve our understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of RBT. The purpose of this article is to review advanced neuroimaging methods used to investigate RBT, including diffusion tensor imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, functional magnetic resonance imaging, susceptibility weighted imaging, and positron emission tomography. While there is a considerable literature using these methods in brain injury in general, the focus of this review is on RBT and those subject populations currently known to be susceptible to RBT, namely athletes and soldiers. Further, while direct detection of CTE in vivo has not yet been achieved, all of the methods described in this review provide insight into RBT and will likely lead to a better characterization (diagnosis), in vivo, of CTE than measures of self-report.

  17. The utility of neuroimaging in the management of dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uduak E Williams

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is a syndrome of progressive dysfunction of two or more cognitive domains associated with impairment of activities of daily living. An understanding of the pathophysiology of dementia and its early diagnosis is important in the pursuit of possible disease modifying therapy for dementia. Neuroimaging has greatly transformed this field of research as its function has changed from a mere tool for diagnosing treatable causes of dementia to an instrument for pre-symptomatic diagnosis of dementia. This review focuses on the diagnostic utility of neuroimaging in the management of progressive dementias. Structural imaging techniques like computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging highlights the anatomical, structural and volumetric details of the brain; while functional imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography, arterial spin labeling, single photon emission computerized tomography and blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging focuses on chemistry, circulatory status and physiology of the different brain structures and regions.

  18. Diagnostic and therapeutic utility of neuroimaging in depression: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wise T

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Toby Wise,1 Anthony J Cleare,1 Andrés Herane,1,2 Allan H Young,1 Danilo Arnone1 1King’s College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Department of Psychological Medicine, Centre for Affective Disorders, London, United Kingdom; 2Clínica Psiquiátrica Universitaria, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile Abstract: A growing number of studies have used neuroimaging to further our understanding of how brain structure and function are altered in major depression. More recently, these techniques have begun to show promise for the diagnosis and treatment of depression, both as aids to conventional methods and as methods in their own right. In this review, we describe recent neuroimaging findings in the field that might aid diagnosis and improve treatment accuracy. Overall, major depression is associated with numerous structural and functional differences in neural systems involved in emotion processing and mood regulation. Furthermore, several studies have shown that the structure and function of these systems is changed by pharmacological and psychological treatments of the condition and that these changes in candidate brain regions might predict clinical response. More recently, “machine learning” methods have used neuroimaging data to categorize individual patients according to their diagnostic status and predict treatment response. Despite being mostly limited to group-level comparisons at present, with the introduction of new methods and more naturalistic studies, neuroimaging has the potential to become part of the clinical armamentarium and may improve diagnostic accuracy and inform treatment choice at the patient level. Keywords: depression, mood disorder, neuroimaging, diagnosis, treatment

  19. Nonhuman Primate Positron Emission Tomography Neuroimaging in Drug Abuse Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnane, Kevin Sean

    2011-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) neuroimaging in nonhuman primates has led to significant advances in our current understanding of the neurobiology and treatment of stimulant addiction in humans. PET neuroimaging has defined the in vivo biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of abused drugs and related these findings to the time course of behavioral effects associated with their addictive properties. With novel radiotracers and enhanced resolution, PET neuroimaging techniques have also characterized in vivo drug interactions with specific protein targets in the brain, including neurotransmitter receptors and transporters. In vivo determinations of cerebral blood flow and metabolism have localized brain circuits implicated in the effects of abused drugs and drug-associated stimuli. Moreover, determinations of the predisposing factors to chronic drug use and long-term neurobiological consequences of chronic drug use, such as potential neurotoxicity, have led to novel insights regarding the pathology and treatment of drug addiction. However, similar approaches clearly need to be extended to drug classes other than stimulants. Although dopaminergic systems have been extensively studied, other neurotransmitter systems known to play a critical role in the pharmacological effects of abused drugs have been largely ignored in nonhuman primate PET neuroimaging. Finally, the study of brain activation with PET neuroimaging has been replaced in humans mostly by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). There has been some success in implementing pharmacological fMRI in awake nonhuman primates. Nevertheless, the unique versatility of PET imaging will continue to complement the systems-level strengths of fMRI, especially in the context of nonhuman primate drug abuse research. PMID:21317354

  20. Neuroimaging of aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Sterzer

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of functional and structural neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural bases of aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents. Most functional neuroimaging studies have persued the hypothesis that pathological aggression is a consequence of deficits in the neural circuits involved in emotion processing. There is converging evidence for deficient neural responses to emotional stimuli in youths with a propensity towards aggressive behaviour. In addition, recent neuroimaging work has suggested that aggressive behaviour is also associated with abnormalities in neural processes that subserve both the inhibitory control of behaviour and the flexible adaptation of behaviour in accord with reinforcement information. Structural neuroimaging studies in children and adolescents with conduct problems are still scarce, but point to deficits in brain structures in volved in the processing of social information and in the regulation of social and goal directed behaviour. The indisputable progress that this research field has made in recent years notwithstanding, the overall picture is still rather patchy and there are inconsistencies between studies that await clarification. Despite this, we attempt to provide an integrated view on the neural abnormalities that may contribute to various forms of juvenile aggression and violence, and discuss research strategies that may help to provide a more profound understanding of these important issues in the future.

  1. A Review of Neuroimaging Findings in Repetitive Brain Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerte, Inga K.; Lin, Alexander P.; Willems, Anna; Muehlmann, Marc; Hufschmidt, Jakob; Coleman, Michael J.; Green, Isobel; Liao, Huijun; Tate, David F.; Wilde, Elisabeth A.; Pasternak, Ofer; Bouix, Sylvain; Rathi, Yogesh; Bigler, Erin D.; Stern, Robert A.; Shenton, Martha E.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease confirmed at post-mortem. Those at highest risk are professional athletes who participate in contact sports and military personnel who are exposed to repetitive blast events. All neuropathologically-confirmed CTE cases, to date, have had a history of repetitive head impacts. This suggests that repetitive head impacts may be necessary for the initiation of the pathogenetic cascade that, in some cases, leads to CTE. Importantly, while all CTE appears to result from repetitive brain trauma, not all repetitive brain trauma results in CTE. Magnetic resonance imaging has great potential for understanding better the underlying mechanisms of repetitive brain trauma. In this review we provide an overview of advanced imaging techniques currently used to investigate brain anomalies. We also provide an overview of neuroimaging findings in those exposed to repetitive head impacts in the acute/subacute and chronic phase of injury and in more neurodegenerative phases of injury, as well as in military personnel exposed to repetitive head impacts. Finally, we discuss future directions for research that will likely lead to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms separating those who recover from repetitive brain trauma versus those who go on to develop CTE. PMID:25904047

  2. [Neuroimaging in mild cognitive impairment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2006-11-01

    I summarized the present status of Neuroimaging studies in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Nation wide multi-center study with regard to single photon emission study had been started 3 year before and it is now going on in a good cooperation of many institute, covering 319 cases. This study was name as J-COSMIC (Japan Cooperative SPECT Study on Assessment of Mild Impairment of Cognitive Function). After one-year follow-up, 30 out of 120 cases were converted to Alzheimer's disease from MCI. Since last year, ADNI (Alzheimer' disease Neuroimaging Initiative) had started in US, very similar to J-COSMIC, but they adopted PET and MRI as the examination tool. The findings based on J-COSMIC is still unclear, but, we can say that the general cognitive evaluation methods such as MMSE is better than WMS-R, which measures the memory function itself with wide variation in each case. Similar to small size previous works, converter from MCI to Alzheimer's disease tended to show hypoperfusion in the parietal and frontal regions. Recent advance in the molecular imaging enabled us to visualize the deposition of amyloid protein in the brain parenchyma. It is still controversial as to application of the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease or MCI. S. Minoshima reported the hypometabolism in the early stage of Alzheimer's disease in the posterior cingulate gyrus or precuneus, but it has been still unknown why these areas showed hypoperfusion or hypometabolism in early phase of Alzheimer's disease. We examined the fiber connection of posterior cingulate region with other brain structures using diffusion weighted images. It was very surprising that such kind of small structures had a lot of connections, not only contralateral side, but also, parietal and temporal lobes, as well as anterior cigulate cortex. The function has been still been unclear, but we will be able to disclose their functions in the human brain in the future, which will be helpful for understanding the

  3. Effects of bariatric surgery on the central nervous system and eating behavior in humans: a systematic review on the neuroimaging studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Tonelli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Neuroimaging studies suggest that obese people might show hyperactivity of brain areas regarding reward processing, and hypoactivity of brain areas concerning cognitive control, when exposed to food cues. Although the effects of bariatric surgery on the central nervous system and eating behavior are well known, few studies have used neuroimage techniques with the aim of investigating the central effects of bariatric surgery in humans. OBJECTIVES: This paper systematically and critically reviews studies using functional neuroimaging to investigate changes on the patterns of activation of central areas related to the regulation of eating behavior after bariatric surgery. METHOD: A search on the databases Medline, Web of Science, Lilacs and Science Direct on Line, was conducted in February 2013, using the keywords "Neuroimaging", "Positron-Emission Tomography", "Magnetic Resonance Imaging", "Gastric Bypass", "Gastroplasty", "Jejunoileal Bypass", "Bariatric Surgery". RESULTS: Seven manuscripts were included; the great majority studied the central effects of Roux en Y gastric bypass, using positron emission tomography or functional magnetic resonance. CONCLUSIONS: Bariatric surgery might normalize the activity of central areas concerned with reward and incentive salience processing, as the nucleus accumbens and mesencephalic tegmental ventral area, as well as circuitries processing behavioral inhibition, as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

  4. Pattern Recognition in NeuroImaging: What can machine learning classifiers bring to the analysis of functional brain imaging?

    OpenAIRE

    Schrouff, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    The study of the brain development and functioning raises many question that are tracked using neuroimaging techniques such as positron emission tomography or (functional) magnetic resonance imaging. During the last decades, various techniques have been developed to analyse neuroimaging data. These techniques brought valuable insight on neuroscientific questions, but encounter limitations which make them unsuitable to tackle more complex problems. More recently, machine learning based models,...

  5. Visualization of nonlinear kernel models in neuroimaging by sensitivity maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, P.M.; Madsen, Kristoffer H; Lund, T.E.

    There is significant current interest in decoding mental states from neuroimages. In this context kernel methods, e.g., support vector machines (SVM) are frequently adopted to learn statistical relations between patterns of brain activation and experimental conditions. In this paper we focus...... on visualization of such nonlinear kernel models. Specifically, we investigate the sensitivity map as a technique for generation of global summary maps of kernel classification methods. We illustrate the performance of the sensitivity map on functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) data based on visual stimuli. We...... discriminant, and the SVM, and conclude that the sensitivity map is a versatile and computationally efficient tool for visualization of nonlinear kernel models in neuroimaging...

  6. Understanding the impact of TV commercials: electrical neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchiato, Giovanni; Kong, Wanzeng; Maglione, Anton Giulio; Wei, Daming

    2012-01-01

    Today, there is a greater interest in the marketing world in using neuroimaging tools to evaluate the efficacy of TV commercials. This field of research is known as neuromarketing. In this article, we illustrate some applications of electrical neuroimaging, a discipline that uses electroencephalography (EEG) and intensive signal processing techniques for the evaluation of marketing stimuli. We also show how the proper usage of these methodologies can provide information related to memorization and attention while people are watching marketing-relevant stimuli. We note that temporal and frequency patterns of EEG signals are able to provide possible descriptors that convey information about the cognitive process in subjects observing commercial advertisements (ads). Such information could be unobtainable through common tools used in standard marketing research. Evidence of this research shows how EEG methodologies could be employed to better design new products that marketers are going to promote and to analyze the global impact of video commercials already broadcast on TV.

  7. Multiple comparison procedures for neuroimaging genomewide association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Wen-Yu; Nichols, Thomas E; Ghosh, Debashis

    2015-01-01

    Recent research in neuroimaging has focused on assessing associations between genetic variants that are measured on a genomewide scale and brain imaging phenotypes. A large number of works in the area apply massively univariate analyses on a genomewide basis to find single nucleotide polymorphisms that influence brain structure. In this paper, we propose using various dimensionality reduction methods on both brain structural MRI scans and genomic data, motivated by the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) study. We also consider a new multiple testing adjustment method and compare it with two existing false discovery rate (FDR) adjustment methods. The simulation results suggest an increase in power for the proposed method. The real-data analysis suggests that the proposed procedure is able to find associations between genetic variants and brain volume differences that offer potentially new biological insights. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Neuroimaging, a new tool for investigating the effects of early diet on cognitive and brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth B Isaacs

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is crucial to the initial development of the central nervous system, and then to its maintenance, because both depend on dietary intake to supply the elements required to develop and fuel the system. Diet in early life is often seen in the context of programming where a stimulus occurring during a vulnerable period can have long-lasting or even lifetime effects on some aspect of the organism’s structure or function. Nutrition was first shown to be a programing stimulus for growth, and then for cognitive behaviour, in animal studies that were also able to employ methods that allowed the demonstration of neural effects of early nutrition. Such research raised the question of whether nutrition could also programme cognition/brain structure in humans. Initial studies of cognitive effects were observational, usually in developing countries where the presence of confounding factors made it difficult to interpret the role of nutrition in the cognitive deficits that were seen. Attributing causality to nutrition required randomised controlled trials and these, often in developed countries, started to appear around 30 years ago. Most demonstrated convincingly that early nutrition could affect subsequent cognition. Until the advent of neuroimaging techniques that allowed in vivo examination of the brain, however, we could determine very little about the neural effects of early diet in humans. The combination of well-designed trials with neuroimaging tools means that we are now able to pose and answer questions that would have seemed impossible only recently. This review discusses various neuroimaging methods that are suitable for use in nutrition studies, while pointing out some of the limitations that they may have. The existing literature is small, but examples of studies that have used these methods are presented. Finally, some considerations that have arisen from previous studies, as well as suggestions for future research, are discussed.

  9. Neuroimaging, a new tool for investigating the effects of early diet on cognitive and brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Elizabeth B

    2013-01-01

    Nutrition is crucial to the initial development of the central nervous system (CNS), and then to its maintenance, because both depend on dietary intake to supply the elements required to develop and fuel the system. Diet in early life is often seen in the context of "programming" where a stimulus occurring during a vulnerable period can have long-lasting or even lifetime effects on some aspect of the organism's structure or function. Nutrition was first shown to be a programming stimulus for growth, and then for cognitive behavior, in animal studies that were able to employ methods that allowed the demonstration of neural effects of early nutrition. Such research raised the question of whether nutrition could also programme cognition/brain structure in humans. Initial studies of cognitive effects were observational, usually conducted in developing countries where the presence of confounding factors made it difficult to interpret the role of nutrition in the cognitive deficits that were seen. Attributing causality to nutrition required randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and these, often in developed countries, started to appear around 30 years ago. Most demonstrated convincingly that early nutrition could affect subsequent cognition. Until the advent of neuroimaging techniques that allowed in vivo examination of the brain, however, we could determine very little about the neural effects of early diet in humans. The combination of well-designed trials with neuroimaging tools means that we are now able to pose and answer questions that would have seemed impossible only recently. This review discusses various neuroimaging methods that are suitable for use in nutrition studies, while pointing out some of the limitations that they may have. The existing literature is small, but examples of studies that have used these methods are presented. Finally, some considerations that have arisen from previous studies, as well as suggestions for future research, are discussed.

  10. Partial Least Squares tutorial for analyzing neuroimaging data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Van Roon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Partial least squares (PLS has become a respected and meaningful soft modeling analysis technique that can be applied to very large datasets where the number of factors or variables is greater than the number of observations. Current biometric studies (e.g., eye movements, EKG, body movements, EEG are often of this nature. PLS eliminates the multiple linear regression issues of over-fitting data by finding a few underlying or latent variables (factors that account for most of the variation in the data. In real-world applications, where linear models do not always apply, PLS can model the non-linear relationship well. This tutorial introduces two PLS methods, PLS Correlation (PLSC and PLS Regression (PLSR and their applications in data analysis which are illustrated with neuroimaging examples. Both methods provide straightforward and comprehensible techniques for determining and modeling relationships between two multivariate data blocks by finding latent variables that best describes the relationships. In the examples, the PLSC will analyze the relationship between neuroimaging data such as Event-Related Potential (ERP amplitude averages from different locations on the scalp with their corresponding behavioural data. Using the same data, the PLSR will be used to model the relationship between neuroimaging and behavioural data. This model will be able to predict future behaviour solely from available neuroimaging data. To find latent variables, Singular Value Decomposition (SVD for PLSC and Non-linear Iterative PArtial Least Squares (NIPALS for PLSR are implemented in this tutorial. SVD decomposes the large data block into three manageable matrices containing a diagonal set of singular values, as well as left and right singular vectors. For PLSR, NIPALS algorithms are used because it provides amore precise estimation of the latent variables. Mathematica notebooks are provided for each PLS method with clearly labeled sections and subsections. The

  11. Using neuroimaging to understand the cortical mechanisms of auditory selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Adrian K C; Larson, Eric; Maddox, Ross K; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G

    2014-01-01

    Over the last four decades, a range of different neuroimaging tools have been used to study human auditory attention, spanning from classic event-related potential studies using electroencephalography to modern multimodal imaging approaches (e.g., combining anatomical information based on magnetic resonance imaging with magneto- and electroencephalography). This review begins by exploring the different strengths and limitations inherent to different neuroimaging methods, and then outlines some common behavioral paradigms that have been adopted to study auditory attention. We argue that in order to design a neuroimaging experiment that produces interpretable, unambiguous results, the experimenter must not only have a deep appreciation of the imaging technique employed, but also a sophisticated understanding of perception and behavior. Only with the proper caveats in mind can one begin to infer how the cortex supports a human in solving the "cocktail party" problem. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Human Auditory Neuroimaging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Providing traceability for neuroimaging analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClatchey, Richard; Branson, Andrew; Anjum, Ashiq; Bloodsworth, Peter; Habib, Irfan; Munir, Kamran; Shamdasani, Jetendr; Soomro, Kamran

    2013-09-01

    With the increasingly digital nature of biomedical data and as the complexity of analyses in medical research increases, the need for accurate information capture, traceability and accessibility has become crucial to medical researchers in the pursuance of their research goals. Grid- or Cloud-based technologies, often based on so-called Service Oriented Architectures (SOA), are increasingly being seen as viable solutions for managing distributed data and algorithms in the bio-medical domain. For neuroscientific analyses, especially those centred on complex image analysis, traceability of processes and datasets is essential but up to now this has not been captured in a manner that facilitates collaborative study. Few examples exist, of deployed medical systems based on Grids that provide the traceability of research data needed to facilitate complex analyses and none have been evaluated in practice. Over the past decade, we have been working with mammographers, paediatricians and neuroscientists in three generations of projects to provide the data management and provenance services now required for 21st century medical research. This paper outlines the finding of a requirements study and a resulting system architecture for the production of services to support neuroscientific studies of biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease. The paper proposes a software infrastructure and services that provide the foundation for such support. It introduces the use of the CRISTAL software to provide provenance management as one of a number of services delivered on a SOA, deployed to manage neuroimaging projects that have been studying biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease. In the neuGRID and N4U projects a Provenance Service has been delivered that captures and reconstructs the workflow information needed to facilitate researchers in conducting neuroimaging analyses. The software enables neuroscientists to track the evolution of workflows and datasets. It also tracks the outcomes of

  13. Learning Neuroimaging. 100 essential cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asis Bravo-Rodriguez, Francisco de [Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain). Diagnostic and Therapeutics Neuroradiology; Diaz-Aguilera, Rocio [Alto Guadalquivir Hospital, Andujar, Jaen (Spain). Dept. of Radiology; Hygino da Cruz, Luiz Celso [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). CDPI and IRM Ressonancia Magnetica

    2012-07-01

    Neuroradiology is the branch of radiology that comprises both imaging and invasive procedures related to the brain, spine and spinal cord, head, neck, organs of special sense (eyes, ears, nose), cranial and spinal nerves, and cranial, cervical, and spinal vessels. Special training and skills are required to enable the neuroradiologist to function as an expert diagnostic and therapeutic consultant and practitioner. In addition to knowledge of imaging findings, the neuroradiologist is required to learn the fundamentals of structural and functional neuroanatomy, neuropathology, and neuropathophysiology as well as the clinical manifestations of diseases of the brain, spine and spinal cord, head, neck, and organs of special sense. This book is intended as an introduction to neuroradiology and aims to provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of this highly specialized radiological subspecialty. One hundred illustrated cases from clinical practice are presented in a standard way. Each case is supported by representative images and is divided into three parts: a brief summary of the patient's medical history, a discussion of the disease, and a description of the most characteristic imaging features of the disorder. The focus is not only on common neuroradiological entities such as stroke and acute head trauma but also on less frequent disorders that the practitioner should recognize. Learning Neuroimaging: 100 Essential Cases is an ideal resource for neuroradiology and radiology residents, neurology residents, neurosurgery residents, nurses, radiology technicians, and medical students. (orig.)

  14. Neuroimaging Evidence of Comprehension Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Baker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to synthesize the emerging neuroimaging literature that reveals how the brain responds when readers and listeners encounter texts that demand monitoring of their ongoing comprehension processes. Much of this research has been undertaken by cognitive scientists who do not frame their work in metacognitive terms, and therefore it is less likely to be familiar to psychologists who study metacognition in educational contexts. The important role of metacognition in the development and use of academic skills is widely recognized. Metacognition is typically defined as the awareness and control of one's own cognitive processes. In the domain of reading, the most important metacognitive skill is comprehension monitoring, the evaluation and regulation of comprehension. Readers who monitor their understanding realize when they have encountered difficulty making sense of the text, and they apply error correction procedures to attempt to resolve the difficulty. Metacognition depends on executive control skills that continue to develop into early adulthood, in parallel with the maturation of the executive control regions of the prefrontal cortex. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and event-related potentials (ERP have been used for some time to study neural correlates of basic reading processes such as word identification, but it is only within recent years that researchers have turned to the higher-level processes of text comprehension. The article describes illustrative studies that reveal changes in neural activity when adults apply lexical, syntactic, or semantic standards to evaluate their understanding.

  15. Neuroimaging in pre-motor Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Barber

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease begins long before the onset of clinical motor symptoms, resulting in substantial cell loss by the time a diagnosis can be made. The period between the onset of neurodegeneration and the development of motoric disease would be the ideal time to intervene with disease modifying therapies. This pre-motor phase can last many years, but the lack of a specific clinical phenotype means that objective biomarkers are needed to reliably detect prodromal disease. In recent years, recognition that patients with REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD are at particularly high risk of future parkinsonism has enabled the development of large prodromal cohorts in which to investigate novel biomarkers, and neuroimaging has generated some of the most promising results to date. Here we review investigations undertaken in RBD and other pre-clinical cohorts, including modalities that are well established in clinical Parkinson's as well as novel imaging methods. Techniques such as high resolution MRI of the substantia nigra and functional imaging of Parkinsonian brain networks have great potential to facilitate early diagnosis. Further longitudinal studies will establish their true value in quantifying prodromal neurodegeneration and predicting future Parkinson's.

  16. The role of neuroimaging in children and adolescents with recurrent headaches--multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, Young-Il; Chung, Hee-Jung; Suh, Eun-Sook; Lee, Kon-Hee; Eun, Baik-Lin; Nam, Sang-Ook; Kim, Won-Seop; Eun, So-Hee; Kim, Young-Ok

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the role of neuroimaging and to estimate the prevalence of significant and treatable intracranial lesions in children and adolescents with recurrent headaches. Neuroimaging studies are commonly performed in children and adolescent patients with headache because of increasing demands by parents and physicians, although objective data and studies to support this widespread practice are minimal. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all 1562 (male 724, female 838) new patients presenting with recurrent headaches to 9 Pediatric Neurology Clinics of tertiary Hospitals. Data regarding age of onset, duration of symptoms before presentation, frequency, duration of each episode, intensity, location and quality of headache, associated neurologic symptoms and a comprehensive neurological examination were obtained for each patient. The International Classification of Headache Disorders, second edition, was used to classify headache types. Neuroimaging procedures were performed in 77.1% of the patients. Overall, 9.3% (112/1204) of the patients had abnormal findings from neuroimaging. The highest yield was in patients with an abnormal neurological examination wherein abnormal findings on neuroimaging were seen in 50.0% (9/18) of patients (P parent and physicians (10.1% [21/208]). Eleven patients underwent surgery based on neuroimaging results. There was no significant relation between abnormality on neuroimaging and age, sex, headache type, age of onset of headache, duration of symptoms before presentation, duration, frequency, location and intensity of headache (P > .05). Neuroimaging procedures in children and adolescents with headaches, although not always required, are very commonly performed. We suggest that more strict guidelines for rational use of neuroimaging are needed for pediatric headache patients. © 2011 American Headache Society.

  17. Incidental Findings in Neuroimaging: Ethical and Medicolegal Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Leung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid advances in neurosciences in the last three decades, there has been an exponential increase in the use of neuroimaging both in basic sciences and clinical research involving human subjects. During routine neuroimaging, incidental findings that are not part of the protocol or scope of research agenda can occur and they often pose a challenge as to how they should be handled to abide by the medicolegal principles of research ethics. This paper reviews the issue from various ethical (do no harm, general duty to rescue, and mutual benefits and owing and medicolegal perspectives (legal liability, fiduciary duties, Law of Tort, and Law of Contract with a suggested protocol of approach.

  18. [Psychoanalysis and suggestion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomä, H

    1977-01-01

    In the history of psychoanalysis the problem of suggestion has been a central one. At first it involved the necessity to establish the psychoanalytic technique as independent scientific paradigm in contrast to persuasion and hypnosis. However, it was not only the symptom-oriented suggestion that had to be given up for scientific reasons and reasons of treatment technique. Since professional and human factors as well could have influenced the psychoanalytic situation to revert to the traditional "suggestion", Freud has given some technical considerations (e.g. the mirror-analogy), that were meant to counteract the confusion of the psychoanalytic technique with the persuasive one that had to come up to late. The discovery of the transference phenomena has further complicated the problem. It became obvious that the capacity of the analyst to exert an influence and to have impact, originated in very basic human categories and their specific psychogenetic developments and distortions. This understanding contributed to the development of psychoanalytic theories of suggestibility. Until the present day the discovery of the transference phenomena has determined the discussions of psychoanalytic technique in term of the relationship between the special and general therapeutic factors (i.e. interpretation versus relationship). The departure from the therapeutic mode of persuasive suggestion and the introduction of psychoanalytic technique signaled the revolutionary paradigm of Sigmund Freud, i.e. the active participation of the patient and the process of observation. Often scientific problems related to this pradigm and suggestion are discussed concurrently.

  19. Human fear conditioning and extinction in neuroimaging: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Sehlmeyer

    Full Text Available Fear conditioning and extinction are basic forms of associative learning that have gained considerable clinical relevance in enhancing our understanding of anxiety disorders and facilitating their treatment. Modern neuroimaging techniques have significantly aided the identification of anatomical structures and networks involved in fear conditioning. On closer inspection, there is considerable variation in methodology and results between studies. This systematic review provides an overview of the current neuroimaging literature on fear conditioning and extinction on healthy subjects, taking into account methodological issues such as the conditioning paradigm. A Pubmed search, as of December 2008, was performed and supplemented by manual searches of bibliographies of key articles. Two independent reviewers made the final study selection and data extraction. A total of 46 studies on cued fear conditioning and/or extinction on healthy volunteers using positron emission tomography or functional magnetic resonance imaging were reviewed. The influence of specific experimental factors, such as contingency and timing parameters, assessment of conditioned responses, and characteristics of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli, on cerebral activation patterns was examined. Results were summarized descriptively. A network consisting of fear-related brain areas, such as amygdala, insula, and anterior cingulate cortex, is activated independently of design parameters. However, some neuroimaging studies do not report these findings in the presence of methodological heterogeneities. Furthermore, other brain areas are differentially activated, depending on specific design parameters. These include stronger hippocampal activation in trace conditioning and tactile stimulation. Furthermore, tactile unconditioned stimuli enhance activation of pain related, motor, and somatosensory areas. Differences concerning experimental factors may partly explain the variance

  20. [Neuroimaging and Blood Biomarkers in Functional Prognosis after Stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, João Paulo; Costa, Joana Santos; Sargento-Freitas, João; Oliveira, Sandra; Mendes, Bruno; Laíns, Jorge; Pinheiro, João

    2016-11-01

    Stroke remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality around the world and it is associated with an important long-term functional disability. Some neuroimaging resources and certain peripheral blood or cerebrospinal fluid proteins can give important information about etiology, therapeutic approach, follow-up and functional prognosis in acute ischemic stroke patients. However, among the scientific community, there is currently more interest in the stroke vital prognosis over the functional prognosis. Predicting the functional prognosis during acute phase would allow more objective rehabilitation programs and better management of the available resources. The aim of this work is to review the potential role of acute phase neuroimaging and blood biomarkers as functional recovery predictors after ischemic stroke. Review of the literature published between 2005 and 2015, in English, using the terms "ischemic stroke", "neuroimaging" e "blood biomarkers". We included nine studies, based on abstract reading. Computerized tomography, transcranial doppler ultrasound and diffuse magnetic resonance imaging show potential predictive value, based on the blood flow study and the evaluation of stroke's volume and localization, especially when combined with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. Several biomarkers have been studied as diagnostic, risk stratification and prognostic tools, namely the S100 calcium binding protein B, C-reactive protein, matrix metalloproteinases and cerebral natriuretic peptide. Although some biomarkers and neuroimaging techniques have potential predictive value, none of the studies were able to support its use, alone or in association, as a clinically useful functionality predictor model. All the evaluated markers were considered insufficient to predict functional prognosis at three months, when applied in the first hours after stroke. Additional studies are necessary to identify reliable predictive markers for functional

  1. Neuroimaging characteristics of dementia with Lewy bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This review summarises the findings and applications from neuroimaging studies in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), highlighting key differences between DLB and other subtypes of dementia. We also discuss the increasingly important role of imaging biomarkers in differential diagnosis and outline promising areas for future research in DLB. DLB shares common clinical, neuropsychological and pathological features with Parkinson’s disease dementia and other dementia subtypes, such as Alzheimer’s disease. Despite the development of consensus diagnostic criteria, the sensitivity for differential diagnosis of DLB in clinical practice remains low and many DLB patients will be misdiagnosed. The importance of developing accurate imaging markers in dementia is highlighted by the potential for treatments targeting specific molecular abnormalities as well as the responsiveness to cholinesterase inhibitors and marked neuroleptic sensitivity of DLB. We review various brain imaging techniques that have been applied to investigate DLB, including the characteristic nigrostriatal degeneration in DLB using positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) tracers. Dopamine transporter loss has proven to reliably differentiate DLB from other dementias and has been incorporated into the revised clinical diagnostic criteria for DLB. To date, this remains the 'gold standard' for diagnostic imaging of DLB. Regional cerebral blood flow, 18 F-fluorodeoxygluclose-PET and SPECT have also identified marked deficits in the occipital regions with relative sparing of the medial temporal lobe when compared to Alzheimer’s disease. In addition, structural, diffusion, and functional magnetic resonance imaging techniques have shown alterations in structure, white matter integrity, and functional activity in DLB. We argue that the multimodal identification of DLB-specific biomarkers has the potential to improve ante-mortem diagnosis and contribute to our

  2. Neuroimaging studies in people with gender incongruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Guillamon, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The current review gives an overview of brain studies in transgender people. First, we describe studies into the aetiology of feelings of gender incongruence, primarily addressing the sexual differentiation hypothesis: does the brain of transgender individuals resemble that of their natal sex, or that of their experienced gender? Findings from neuroimaging studies focusing on brain structure suggest that the brain phenotypes of trans women (MtF) and trans men (FtM) differ in various ways from control men and women with feminine, masculine, demasculinized and defeminized features. The brain phenotypes of people with feelings of gender incongruence may help us to figure out whether sex differentiation of the brain is atypical in these individuals, and shed light on gender identity development. Task-related imaging studies may show whether brain activation and task performance in transgender people is sex-atypical. Second, we review studies that evaluate the effects of cross-sex hormone treatment on the brain. This type of research provides knowledge on how changes in sex hormone levels may affect brain structure and function.

  3. Propionic acidemia: diagnosis and neuroimaging findings of this neurometabolic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Parvaneh; Jafari, Narjes; Ahmad Abadi, Farzad; Jabbedari, Sayena; Taghdiri, Mohammad-Mahdi; Alaee, Mohammad-Reza; Ghofrani, Mohammad; Tonekaboni, Seyed Hassan; Nejad Biglari, Habibeh

    2014-01-01

    Propionic acidemia is one of the rare congenital neurometabolic disorders with autosomal recessive inheritance. This disorder is caused by a defect in the propionyl-CoA carboxylase enzyme and can be presented with life-threatening ketoacidosis, lethargy, failure to thrive, and developmental delay. The patients diagnosed as having propionic acidemia in Neurology Department of Mofid Children's Hospital in Tehran, Iran, between 2002 and 2012 were include in our study. This disorder was confirmed by clinical manifestations, neuroimaging findings, and neurometabolic assessment in the reference laboratory in Germany. Our study was conducted to define the sex, age, gender, past medical history, developmental status, clinical findings, and neuroimaging manifestations in 10 patients with propionic acidemia. Seventy percent of patients were offspring of consanguineous marriages. In this study, only one patient had microcephaly at birth, but at detection time, 30% of patients had head circumference and weight below the 3rd percentile. The patients were followed for approximately 5 years and this follow-up showed that the patients with early diagnosis had a more favorable clinical response. Neuroimaging findings included brain atrophy, white matter and globus pallidus involvement. Finally we suggest that early diagnosis and treatment have an important role in the prevention of disease progression.

  4. Cross-View Neuroimage Pattern Analysis for Alzheimer's Disease Staging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidong eLiu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The research on staging of pre-symptomatic and prodromal phase of neurological disorders, e.g., Alzheimer's disease (AD, is essential for prevention of dementia. New strategies for AD staging with a focus on early detection, are demanded to optimize potential efficacy of disease-modifying therapies that can halt or slow the disease progression. Recently, neuroimaging are increasingly used as additional research-based markers to detect AD onset and predict conversion of MCI and normal control (NC to AD. Researchers have proposed a variety of neuroimaging biomarkers to characterize the patterns of the pathology of AD and MCI, and suggested that multi-view neuroimaging biomarkers could lead to better performance than single-view biomarkers in AD staging. However, it is still unclear what leads to such synergy and how to preserve or maximize. In an attempt to answer these questions, we proposed a cross-view pattern analysis framework for investigating the synergy between different neuroimaging biomarkers. We quantitatively analyzed 9 types of biomarkers derived from FDG-PET and T1-MRI, and evaluated their performance in a task of classifying AD, MCI and NC subjects obtained from the ADNI baseline cohort. The experiment results showed that these biomarkers could depict the pathology of AD from different perspectives, and output distinct patterns that are significantly associated with the disease progression. Most importantly, we found that these features could be separated into clusters, each depicting a particular aspect; and the inter-cluster features could always achieve better performance than the intra-cluster features in AD staging.

  5. Visualization of nonlinear kernel models in neuroimaging by sensitivity maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, P.M.; Madsen, Kristoffer H; Lund, T.E.

    There is significant current interest in decoding mental states from neuroimages. In this context kernel methods, e.g., support vector machines (SVM) are frequently adopted to learn statistical relations between patterns of brain activation and experimental conditions. In this paper we focus...... on visualization of such nonlinear kernel models. Specifically, we investigate the sensitivity map as a technique for generation of global summary maps of kernel classification methods. We illustrate the performance of the sensitivity map on functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) data based on visual stimuli. We...

  6. Heads in the Cloud: A Primer on Neuroimaging Applications of High Performance Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatil, Anwar S; Younas, Sohail; Pourreza, Hossein; Figley, Chase R

    2015-01-01

    With larger data sets and more sophisticated analyses, it is becoming increasingly common for neuroimaging researchers to push (or exceed) the limitations of standalone computer workstations. Nonetheless, although high-performance computing platforms such as clusters, grids and clouds are already in routine use by a small handful of neuroimaging researchers to increase their storage and/or computational power, the adoption of such resources by the broader neuroimaging community remains relatively uncommon. Therefore, the goal of the current manuscript is to: 1) inform prospective users about the similarities and differences between computing clusters, grids and clouds; 2) highlight their main advantages; 3) discuss when it may (and may not) be advisable to use them; 4) review some of their potential problems and barriers to access; and finally 5) give a few practical suggestions for how interested new users can start analyzing their neuroimaging data using cloud resources. Although the aim of cloud computing is to hide most of the complexity of the infrastructure management from end-users, we recognize that this can still be an intimidating area for cognitive neuroscientists, psychologists, neurologists, radiologists, and other neuroimaging researchers lacking a strong computational background. Therefore, with this in mind, we have aimed to provide a basic introduction to cloud computing in general (including some of the basic terminology, computer architectures, infrastructure and service models, etc.), a practical overview of the benefits and drawbacks, and a specific focus on how cloud resources can be used for various neuroimaging applications.

  7. Hindrances for rational energy utilization techniques and suggestions to overcoming them; Hemmnisse fuer Techniken zur rationellen Energienutzung und Vorschlaege fuer deren Abbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krug, N. [DESA Deutsche Energie-Spar-Arbeitsgemeinschaft e.V., Essen (Germany); Yigit, Z. [DESA Deutsche Energie-Spar-Arbeitsgemeinschaft e.V., Essen (Germany); Gruber, E. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Jochem, E. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Reichert, J. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Koewener, D.

    1994-11-01

    Based on case studies taken from the practice of energy consultants and manufacturers of energy saving products and equipment, united in the DESA (Deutsche Energiespar-Arbeitsgemeinschaft), reasons for rejecting energy saving measures in trade and industry have been analysed. The examples chosen for the analysis are cases, where amortisation time would have been limited to only a few years and a profit should have been possible to realize within the period of write down. Out of quite number of projects 22 cases have been chosen, where the energy saving potential is particular high and where economical competitive techniques have not been put into action instead. These projects, espacially the reasons for not realizing them, have been discussed in interviews with managing operators and suppliers. In the course of these interviews hindrances have been identified, which are common to all branches and techniques: Lack of information and motivation, remaning financial risks, but also uncertain scope data. On the other hand there are hindrances within the target groups, which are specific for certain objects and branches: Deficiencies in energy engineering knowledge and low equity capital disposal in small and medium size companies, unsufficient information on the level of the responsable management and not enough incentives for innovations in branches with a low fraction of relative energy costs. In the domain of public service additional obstacles are: Traditional views, technology refusal, separation of budgets for first and running costs or dual financing directives respectively. By means of 20 strategic points practical solution proposals have been made containing the necessary scope of time and responsbilities. These comprise as well legal as economic instruments. (orig.) [Deutsch] Aufgrund von Fallstudien aus der Praxis von Energieberatern, Herstellern energiesparender Produkte und Geraete, die sich in der DESA (Deutsche Energie

  8. Mathematical modeling and visualization of functional neuroimages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup

    This dissertation presents research results regarding mathematical modeling in the context of the analysis of functional neuroimages. Specifically, the research focuses on pattern-based analysis methods that recently have become popular within the neuroimaging community. Such methods attempt...... to predict or decode experimentally defined cognitive states based on brain scans. The topics covered in the dissertation are divided into two broad parts: The first part investigates the relative importance of model selection on the brain patterns extracted form analysis models. Typical neuroimaging data...... sets are characterized by relatively few data observations in a high dimensional space. The process of building models in such data sets often requires strong regularization. Often, the degree of model regularization is chosen in order to maximize prediction accuracy. We focus on the relative influence...

  9. Mathematical modeling and visualization of functional neuroimages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation presents research results regarding mathematical modeling in the context of the analysis of functional neuroimages. Specifically, the research focuses on pattern-based analysis methods that recently have become popular analysis tools within the neuroimaging community. Such methods...... attempt to predict or decode experimentally defined cognitive states based on brain scans. The topics covered in the dissertation are divided into two broad parts: The first part investigates the relative importance of model selection on the brain patterns extracted form analysis models. Typical...... neuroimaging data sets are characterized by relatively few data observations in a high dimensional space. The process of building models in such data sets often requires strong regularization. Often, the degree of model regularization is chosen in order to maximize prediction accuracy. We focus on the relative...

  10. The 100 most-cited articles in neuroimaging: A bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Jeong; Yoon, Dae Young; Kim, Eun Soo; Lee, Kwanseop; Bae, Jong Seok; Lee, Ju-Hun

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of our study was to identify and characterize the 100 most-cited articles in neuroimaging. Based on the database of Journal Citation Reports, we selected 669 journals that were considered as potential outlets for neuroimaging articles. The Web of Science search tools were used to identify the 100 most-cited articles relevant to neuroimaging within the selected journals. The following information was recorded for each article: publication year, journal, category and impact factor of journal, number of citations, number of annual citations, authorship, department, institution, country, article type, imaging technique used, and topic. The 100 most-cited articles in neuroimaging were published between 1980 and 2012, with 1995-2004 producing 69 articles. Citations ranged from 4384 to 673 and annual citations ranged from 313.1 to 24.9. The majority of articles were published in radiology/imaging journals (n=75), originated in the United States (n=58), were original articles (n=63), used MRI as imaging modality (n=85), and dealt with imaging technique (n=45). The Oxford Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain at John Radcliffe Hospital (n=10) was the leading institutions and Karl J. Friston (n=11) was the most prolific author. Our study presents a detailed list and an analysis of the 100 most-cited articles in the field of neuroimaging, which provides an insight into historical developments and allows for recognition of the important advances in this field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Turner syndrome: neuroimaging findings: structural and functional.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mullaney, Ronan

    2009-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of Turner syndrome can advance our understanding of the X chromosome in brain development, and the modulatory influence of endocrine factors. There is increasing evidence from neuroimaging studies that TX individuals have significant differences in the anatomy, function, and metabolism of a number of brain regions; including the parietal lobe; cerebellum, amygdala, hippocampus; and basal ganglia; and perhaps differences in "connectivity" between frontal and parieto-occipital regions. Finally, there is preliminary evidence that genomic imprinting, sex hormones and growth hormone have significant modulatory effects on brain maturation in TS.

  12. Answer and discussion paediatric neuroimaging quiz case

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-30

    Jun 30, 2016 ... Dr Samuel Mannikam, Dr Thandi Buthelezi, Dr Philip Janse van Rensburg and Dr Ian. Haynes, however, the prize of R2000 was awarded to Dr Richard Busayo Ulatunji for the most inclusive answer. Answer and discussion paediatric neuroimaging quiz case. Read online: Scan this QR code with your.

  13. Online open neuroimaging mass meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Kempton, Matthew J.; Williams, Steven C. R.

    We describe a system for meta-analysis where a wiki stores numerical data in a simple format and a web service performs the numerical computation. We initially apply the system on multiple meta-analyses of structural neuroimaging data results. The described system allows for mass meta-analysis, e...

  14. ORIGINAL ARTICLE EEG changes and neuroimaging abnormalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    salah

    Background:Autism is currently viewed as a genetically determined neurode- velopmental disorder although its definite underlying etiology remains to be established. Aim of the Study: Our purpose was to assess autism related morphological neuroimaging changes of the brain and EEG abnormalities in correlation to the.

  15. Neuroimaging resilience to stress: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werff, S J A; van den Berg, S M; Pannekoek, J N; Elzinga, B M; van der Wee, N J A

    2013-01-01

    There is a high degree of intra-individual variation in how individuals respond to stress. This becomes evident when exploring the development of posttraumatic symptoms or stress-related disorders after exposure to trauma. Whether or not an individual develops posttraumatic symptoms after experiencing a traumatic event is partly dependent on a person's resilience. Resilience can be broadly defined as the dynamic process encompassing positive adaptation within the context of significant adversity. Even though research into the neurobiological basis of resilience is still in its early stages, these insights can have important implications for the prevention and treatment of stress-related disorders. Neuroimaging studies contribute to our knowledge of intra-individual variability in resilience and the development of posttraumatic symptoms or other stress-related disorders. This review provides an overview of neuroimaging findings related to resilience. Structural, resting-state, and task-related neuroimaging results associated with resilience are discussed. There are a limited number of studies available and neuroimaging research of resilience is still in its infancy. The available studies point at brain circuitries involved in stress and emotion regulation, with more efficient processing and regulation associated with resilience.

  16. PET radioligand injection for pig neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Munk, Ole Lajord; Landau, Anne M.

    2018-01-01

    Pigs are useful models in neuroimaging studies with positron emission tomography. Radiolabeled ligands are injected intravenously at the start of the scan and in pigs, the most easily accessible route of administration is the ear vein. However, in brain studies the short distance between the brai...

  17. Traumatic Brain Injury: Nuclear Medicine Neuroimaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-Catasús, Carlos A; Vállez Garcia, David; Le Riverend Morales, Eloísa; Galvizu Sánchez, Reinaldo; Dierckx, Rudi; Dierckx, Rudi AJO; Otte, Andreas; de Vries, Erik FJ; van Waarde, Aren; Leenders, Klaus L

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an up-to-date review of nuclear medicine neuroimaging in traumatic brain injury (TBI). 18F-FDG PET will remain a valuable tool in researching complex mechanisms associated with early metabolic dysfunction in TBI. Although evidence-based imaging studies are needed, 18F-FDG PET

  18. Neuroimaging and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Andria L.; Crocker, Nicole; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.

    2009-01-01

    The detrimental effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developing brain include structural brain anomalies as well as cognitive and behavioral deficits. Initial neuroimaging studies of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed previous autopsy reports of overall reduction in brain volume and…

  19. Meeting Curation Challenges in a Neuroimaging Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angus Whyte

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The SCARP project is a series of short studies with two aims; firstly to discover more about disciplinary approaches and attitudes to digital curation through ‘immersion’ in selected cases; secondly to apply known good practice, and where possible, identify new lessons from practice in the selected discipline areas. The study summarised here is of the Neuroimaging Group in the University of Edinburgh’s Division of Psychiatry, which plays a leading role in eScience collaborations to improve the infrastructure for neuroimaging data integration and reuse. The Group also aims to address growing data storage and curation needs, given the capabilities afforded by new infrastructure. The study briefly reviews the policy context and current challenges to data integration and sharing in the neuroimaging field. It then describes how curation and preservation risks and opportunities for change were identified throughout the curation lifecycle; and their context appreciated through field study in the research site. The results are consistent with studies of neuroimaging eInfrastructure that emphasise the role of local data sharing and reuse practices. These sustain mutual awareness of datasets and experimental protocols through sharing peer to peer, and among senior researchers and students, enabling continuity in research and flexibility in project work. This “human infrastructure” is taken into account in considering next steps for curation and preservation of the Group’s datasets and a phased approach to supporting data documentation.

  20. Data mining a functional neuroimaging database for functional segregation in brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Balslev, Daniela; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2006-01-01

    We describe a specialized neuroinformatic data mining technique in connection with a meta-analytic functional neuroimaging database: We mine for functional segregation within brain regions by identifying journal articles that report brain activations within the regions and clustering the abstract...

  1. The hallucinating brain : A review of structural and functional neuroimaging studies of hallucinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, Paul; Laroi, Frank; McGuire, Philip K.; Aleman, Andre

    2008-01-01

    Hallucinations remains one of the most intriguing phenomena in psychopathology. In the past two decades the advent of neuroimaging techniques have allowed researchers to investigate what is happening in the brain of those who experience hallucinations. In this article we review both structural and

  2. Neural correlates of dysfunctional emotion regulation in major depressive disorder. A systematic review of neuroimaging studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rive, Maria M.; van Rooijen, Geeske; Veltman, Dick J.; Phillips, Mary L.; Schene, Aart H.; Ruhe, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal emotion processing is a core feature of major depressive disorder (MDD). Since the emergence of functional neuroimaging techniques, many studies have been conducted in MDD subjects to elucidate the underlying abnormalities in the neural systems involved in emotion regulation. In this

  3. ANIMA: A data-sharing initiative for neuroimaging meta-analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reid, A.T.; Bzdok, D.; Genon, S.; Langner, R.; Mueller, V.I.; Eickhoff, C.R.; Hoffstaedter, F.; Cieslik, E.C.; Fox, P.T.; Laird, A.R.; Amunts, K.; Caspers, S.; Eickhoff, S.B.

    2016-01-01

    Meta-analytic techniques allow cognitive neuroscientists to pool large amounts of data across many individual task-based functional neuroimaging experiments. These methods have been aided by the introduction of online databases such as Brainmap.org or Neurosynth.org, which collate peak activation

  4. EP 36. Archives of Neuroimaging Meta-Analyses (ANIMA): A datasharing initiative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reid, A.T.; Bzdok, D.; Genon, S.; Langner, R.; Müller, V.I.; Eickhoff, C.R.; Hoffstaedter, F.; Cieslik, E.C.; Fox, P.T.; Laird, A.R.; Amunts, K.; Eickhoff, S.B.

    2016-01-01

    Meta-analytic techniques allow cognitive neuroscientists to pool large amounts of data across many individual task-based functional neuroimaging experiments. These methods have been aided by the introduction of online databases such as Brainmap.org or Neurosynth.org, which collate peak activation

  5. Functional neuroanatomy of meditation: A review and meta-analysis of 78 functional neuroimaging investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kieran C R; Dixon, Matthew L; Nijeboer, Savannah; Girn, Manesh; Floman, James L; Lifshitz, Michael; Ellamil, Melissa; Sedlmeier, Peter; Christoff, Kalina

    2016-06-01

    Meditation is a family of mental practices that encompasses a wide array of techniques employing distinctive mental strategies. We systematically reviewed 78 functional neuroimaging (fMRI and PET) studies of meditation, and used activation likelihood estimation to meta-analyze 257 peak foci from 31 experiments involving 527 participants. We found reliably dissociable patterns of brain activation and deactivation for four common styles of meditation (focused attention, mantra recitation, open monitoring, and compassion/loving-kindness), and suggestive differences for three others (visualization, sense-withdrawal, and non-dual awareness practices). Overall, dissociable activation patterns are congruent with the psychological and behavioral aims of each practice. Some brain areas are recruited consistently across multiple techniques-including insula, pre/supplementary motor cortices, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and frontopolar cortex-but convergence is the exception rather than the rule. A preliminary effect-size meta-analysis found medium effects for both activations (d=0.59) and deactivations (d=-0.74), suggesting potential practical significance. Our meta-analysis supports the neurophysiological dissociability of meditation practices, but also raises many methodological concerns and suggests avenues for future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mind-Body Practices and the Adolescent Brain: Clinical Neuroimaging Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anup; Newberg, Andrew B

    Mind-Body practices constitute a large and diverse group of practices that can substantially affect neurophysiology in both healthy individuals and those with various psychiatric disorders. In spite of the growing literature on the clinical and physiological effects of mind-body practices, very little is known about their impact on central nervous system (CNS) structure and function in adolescents with psychiatric disorders. This overview highlights findings in a select group of mind-body practices including yoga postures, yoga breathing techniques and meditation practices. Mind-body practices offer novel therapeutic approaches for adolescents with psychiatric disorders. Findings from these studies provide insights into the design and implementation of neuroimaging studies for adolescents with psychiatric disorders. Clinical neuroimaging studies will be critical in understanding how different practices affect disease pathogenesis and symptomatology in adolescents. Neuroimaging of mind-body practices on adolescents with psychiatric disorders will certainly be an open and exciting area of investigation.

  7. Neuroimaging chronic pain: what have we learned and where are we going?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martucci, Katherine T; Ng, Pamela; Mackey, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Advances in neuroimaging have helped illuminate our understanding of how the brain works in the presence of chronic pain, which often persists with unknown etiology or after the painful stimulus has been removed and any wounds have healed. Neuroimaging has enabled us to make great progress in identifying many of the neural mechanisms that contribute to chronic pain, and to pinpoint the specific regions of the brain that are activated in the presence of chronic pain. It has provided us with a new perception of the nature of chronic pain in general, leading researchers to move toward a whole-brain approach to the study and treatment of chronic pain, and to develop novel technologies and analysis techniques, with real potential for developing new diagnostics and more effective therapies. We review the use of neuroimaging in the study of chronic pain, with particular emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:28163658

  8. Neurosonology and neuroimaging of stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdueza, Jose M. [Segeberger Clinic Group, Bad Segeberg (Germany). Center for Neurology; Schreiber, Stephan J.; Roehl, Jens-Eric [Charite University Hospital, Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Neurology; Klingebiel, Randolf [Charite University Hospital, Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology

    2008-07-01

    The monograph is systematically organized: the first part contains the basic principles of neurosonology and cerebrovascular diseases. Ultrasound principles are described and illustrated with diagrams and images. The anatomy, pathophysiology (intracranial hemodynamics and functional tests, pathogenesis of stroke, vascular pathology) and the cervico-cranial arteries are discussed. Other vascular imaging techniques (CT and MR angiography and dye contrast catheter angiography) are also discussed and compared. The second part contains 30 case scenarios grouped according to the expected difficulty of neurosonology exploration and interpretation.

  9. Molecular approaches in experimental neuroimaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavitian, B. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2009-07-01

    We quantified and compared six parameters (resolution, depth, sensitivity, portability, quantification and cost) of four molecular imaging techniques (MRI, optics, ultrasound and TEP), with the three types of electromagnetic radiation used in vivo (Frequencies (10{sup 6} to 10{sup 22} Hz), Photonic Energy (10{sup -4} to 10{sup 9} eV) and Wavelengths (10{sup -2} to 10{sup -15} m)). This form of molecular imaging demands the most sensitive technique available (Pl. 26-2 to 26-4). Four examples of experimental in vivo approaches on small animals are shown: molecular passage through the blood-brain barrier (endothelial cells, astrocytes and occludin, pharmacokinetics, studied with PET) (Pl. 2-5 to 2-11); imaging of receptors and ligands, especially peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBR) by PET and MRI in the rat (Pl. 2-12 to Pl. 2-15); neuro-pathology of neuro-degenerative and inflammatory diseases and stroke by PET and MRI in the rat (Pl. 2-16 to 2-17); and the study of responses to stimulation explored with in vivo imaging of calcium signals and their variations by photonic analysis, as on the scale of mitochondrial calcium (Pl.2-18 to Pl.2-22). (author)

  10. Multimodal neuroimaging-informed clinical applications in neuropsychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael eO'Halloran

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in neuroimaging data acquisition and analysis hold the promise to enhance the ability to make diagnostic and prognostic predictions and perform treatment planning in neuropsychiatric disorders. Prior research using a variety of types of neuroimaging techniques has confirmed that neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with dysfunction in anatomical and functional brain circuits. We first discuss current challenges associated with the identification of reliable neuroimaging markers for diagnosis and prognosis in mood disorders and for neurosurgical treatment planning for deep brain stimulation (DBS. We then present data on the use of neuroimaging for the diagnosis and prognosis of mood disorders and for DBS treatment planning. We demonstrate how multivariate analyses of functional activation and connectivity parameters can be used to differentiate patients with bipolar disorder from those with major depressive disorder and non-affective psychosis. We also present data on connectivity parameters that mediate acute treatment response in affective and non-affective psychosis. We then focus on precision mapping of functional connectivity in native space. We describe the benefits of integrating anatomical fiber reconstruction with brain functional parameters and cortical surface measures to derive anatomically-informed connectivity metrics within the morphological context of each individual brain. We discuss how this approach may be particularly promising in psychiatry, given the clinical and etiological heterogeneity of the disorders, and particularly in treatment response prediction and planning. Precision mapping of connectivity is essential for DBS. In DBS, treatment electrodes are inserted into positions near key grey matter nodes within the circuits considered relevant to disease expression. However, targeting white matter tracts that underpin connectivity within these circuits may increase treatment efficacy and tolerability

  11. Functional neuroimaging in Tourette syndrome:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debes, Nanette Marinette Monique Mol; Preel, Marie; Skov, Liselotte

    2017-01-01

    the presence of comorbidity, medical treatment, and severity of tics are considered in the various studies; most studies show that the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit seems to be involved in the generation of tics. Changes in this circuit seem to be correlated with tic severity. Correlations have been...... found between the presence of tics and hypermetabolism in various brain regions. Abnormalities of GABAergic, serotonergic, and dopaminergic neurotransmission in patients with TS have been suggested. During tic suppression, increased activity in the inferior frontal gyrus is seen. The premotor cortex...... might be involved in inhibition of motor control in subjects with TS. The right anterior insula is suggested to be a part of the urge–tic network. Several studies have shown altered motor network activations and sensorimotor gating deficits in subjects with TS. In future studies, inclusion of more well...

  12. Attention to pain! A neurocognitive perspective on attentional modulation of pain in neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torta, D M; Legrain, V; Mouraux, A; Valentini, E

    2017-04-01

    Several studies have used neuroimaging techniques to investigate brain correlates of the attentional modulation of pain. Although these studies have advanced the knowledge in the field, important confounding factors such as imprecise theoretical definitions of attention, incomplete operationalization of the construct under exam, and limitations of techniques relying on measuring regional changes in cerebral blood flow have hampered the potential relevance of the conclusions. Here, we first provide an overview of the major theories of attention and of attention in the study of pain to bridge theory and experimental results. We conclude that load and motivational/affective theories are particularly relevant to study the attentional modulation of pain and should be carefully integrated in functional neuroimaging studies. Then, we summarize previous findings and discuss the possible neural correlates of the attentional modulation of pain. We discuss whether classical functional neuroimaging techniques are suitable to measure the effect of a fluctuating process like attention, and in which circumstances functional neuroimaging can be reliably used to measure the attentional modulation of pain. Finally, we argue that the analysis of brain networks and spontaneous oscillations may be a crucial future development in the study of attentional modulation of pain, and why the interplay between attention and pain, as examined so far, may rely on neural mechanisms shared with other sensory modalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Neuromarketing: the hope and hype of neuroimaging in business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariely, Dan; Berns, Gregory S

    2010-04-01

    The application of neuroimaging methods to product marketing - neuromarketing - has recently gained considerable popularity. We propose that there are two main reasons for this trend. First, the possibility that neuroimaging will become cheaper and faster than other marketing methods; and second, the hope that neuroimaging will provide marketers with information that is not obtainable through conventional marketing methods. Although neuroimaging is unlikely to be cheaper than other tools in the near future, there is growing evidence that it may provide hidden information about the consumer experience. The most promising application of neuroimaging methods to marketing may come before a product is even released - when it is just an idea being developed.

  14. Neuroimaging of amblyopia and binocular vision: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier eJoly

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Amblyopia is a cerebral visual impairment considered to derive from abnormal visual experience (e.g., strabismus, anisometropia. Amblyopia, first considered as a monocular disorder, is now often seen as a primarily binocular disorder resulting in more and more studies examining the binocular deficits in the patients. The neural mechanisms of amblyopia are not completely understood even though they have been investigated with electrophysiological recordings in animal models and more recently with neuroimaging techniques in humans. In this review, we summarise the current knowledge about the brain regions that underlie the visual deficits associated with amblyopia with a focus on binocular vision using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. The first studies focused on abnormal responses in the primary and secondary visual areas whereas recent evidence show that there are also deficits at higher levels of the visual pathways within the parieto-occipital and temporal cortices. These higher level areas are part of the cortical network involved in 3D vision from binocular cues. Therefore, reduced responses in these areas could be related to the impaired binocular vision in amblyopic patients. Promising new binocular treatments might at least partially correct the activation in these areas. Future neuroimaging experiments could help to characterise the brain response changes associated with these treatments and help devise them.

  15. Multimodal neuroimaging based classification of autism spectrum disorder using anatomical, neurochemical, and white matter correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libero, Lauren E; DeRamus, Thomas P; Lahti, Adrienne C; Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Kana, Rajesh K

    2015-05-01

    Neuroimaging techniques, such as fMRI, structural MRI, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) have uncovered evidence for widespread functional and anatomical brain abnormalities in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suggesting it to be a system-wide neural systems disorder. Nevertheless, most previous studies have focused on examining one index of neuropathology through a single neuroimaging modality, and seldom using multiple modalities to examine the same cohort of individuals. The current study aims to bring together multiple brain imaging modalities (structural MRI, DTI, and 1H-MRS) to investigate the neural architecture in the same set of individuals (19 high-functioning adults with ASD and 18 typically developing (TD) peers). Morphometry analysis revealed increased cortical thickness in ASD participants, relative to typical controls, across the left cingulate, left pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, left inferior temporal cortex, and right precuneus, and reduced cortical thickness in right cuneus and right precentral gyrus. ASD adults also had reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) and increased radial diffusivity (RD) for two clusters on the forceps minor of the corpus callosum, revealed by DTI analyses. 1H-MRS results showed a reduction in the N-acetylaspartate/Creatine ratio in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) in ASD participants. A decision tree classification analysis across the three modalities resulted in classification accuracy of 91.9% with FA, RD, and cortical thickness as key predictors. Examining the same cohort of adults with ASD and their TD peers, this study found alterations in cortical thickness, white matter (WM) connectivity, and neurochemical concentration in ASD. These findings underscore the potential for multimodal imaging to better inform on the neural characteristics most relevant to the disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Internet and Gaming Addiction: A Systematic Literature Review of Neuroimaging Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria J. Kuss

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, research has accumulated suggesting that excessive Internet use can lead to the development of a behavioral addiction. Internet addiction has been considered as a serious threat to mental health and the excessive use of the Internet has been linked to a variety of negative psychosocial consequences. The aim of this review is to identify all empirical studies to date that used neuroimaging techniques to shed light upon the emerging mental health problem of Internet and gaming addiction from a neuroscientific perspective. Neuroimaging studies offer an advantage over traditional survey and behavioral research because with this method, it is possible to distinguish particular brain areas that are involved in the development and maintenance of addiction. A systematic literature search was conducted, identifying 18 studies. These studies provide compelling evidence for the similarities between different types of addictions, notably substance-related addictions and Internet and gaming addiction, on a variety of levels. On the molecular level, Internet addiction is characterized by an overall reward deficiency that entails decreased dopaminergic activity. On the level of neural circuitry, Internet and gaming addiction led to neuroadaptation and structural changes that occur as a consequence of prolonged increased activity in brain areas associated with addiction. On a behavioral level, Internet and gaming addicts appear to be constricted with regards to their cognitive functioning in various domains. The paper shows that understanding the neuronal correlates associated with the development of Internet and gaming addiction will promote future research and will pave the way for the development of addiction treatment approaches.

  17. Internet and Gaming Addiction: A Systematic Literature Review of Neuroimaging Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Daria J.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, research has accumulated suggesting that excessive Internet use can lead to the development of a behavioral addiction. Internet addiction has been considered as a serious threat to mental health and the excessive use of the Internet has been linked to a variety of negative psychosocial consequences. The aim of this review is to identify all empirical studies to date that used neuroimaging techniques to shed light upon the emerging mental health problem of Internet and gaming addiction from a neuroscientific perspective. Neuroimaging studies offer an advantage over traditional survey and behavioral research because with this method, it is possible to distinguish particular brain areas that are involved in the development and maintenance of addiction. A systematic literature search was conducted, identifying 18 studies. These studies provide compelling evidence for the similarities between different types of addictions, notably substance-related addictions and Internet and gaming addiction, on a variety of levels. On the molecular level, Internet addiction is characterized by an overall reward deficiency that entails decreased dopaminergic activity. On the level of neural circuitry, Internet and gaming addiction led to neuroadaptation and structural changes that occur as a consequence of prolonged increased activity in brain areas associated with addiction. On a behavioral level, Internet and gaming addicts appear to be constricted with regards to their cognitive functioning in various domains. The paper shows that understanding the neuronal correlates associated with the development of Internet and gaming addiction will promote future research and will pave the way for the development of addiction treatment approaches. PMID:24961198

  18. Internet and gaming addiction: a systematic literature review of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Daria J; Griffiths, Mark D

    2012-09-05

    In the past decade, research has accumulated suggesting that excessive Internet use can lead to the development of a behavioral addiction. Internet addiction has been considered as a serious threat to mental health and the excessive use of the Internet has been linked to a variety of negative psychosocial consequences. The aim of this review is to identify all empirical studies to date that used neuroimaging techniques to shed light upon the emerging mental health problem of Internet and gaming addiction from a neuroscientific perspective. Neuroimaging studies offer an advantage over traditional survey and behavioral research because with this method, it is possible to distinguish particular brain areas that are involved in the development and maintenance of addiction. A systematic literature search was conducted, identifying 18 studies. These studies provide compelling evidence for the similarities between different types of addictions, notably substance-related addictions and Internet and gaming addiction, on a variety of levels. On the molecular level, Internet addiction is characterized by an overall reward deficiency that entails decreased dopaminergic activity. On the level of neural circuitry, Internet and gaming addiction led to neuroadaptation and structural changes that occur as a consequence of prolonged increased activity in brain areas associated with addiction. On a behavioral level, Internet and gaming addicts appear to be constricted with regards to their cognitive functioning in various domains. The paper shows that understanding the neuronal correlates associated with the development of Internet and gaming addiction will promote future research and will pave the way for the development of addiction treatment approaches.

  19. Energy landscape analysis of neuroimaging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezaki, Takahiro; Watanabe, Takamitsu; Ohzeki, Masayuki; Masuda, Naoki

    2017-05-01

    Computational neuroscience models have been used for understanding neural dynamics in the brain and how they may be altered when physiological or other conditions change. We review and develop a data-driven approach to neuroimaging data called the energy landscape analysis. The methods are rooted in statistical physics theory, in particular the Ising model, also known as the (pairwise) maximum entropy model and Boltzmann machine. The methods have been applied to fitting electrophysiological data in neuroscience for a decade, but their use in neuroimaging data is still in its infancy. We first review the methods and discuss some algorithms and technical aspects. Then, we apply the methods to functional magnetic resonance imaging data recorded from healthy individuals to inspect the relationship between the accuracy of fitting, the size of the brain system to be analysed and the data length. This article is part of the themed issue `Mathematical methods in medicine: neuroscience, cardiology and pathology'.

  20. Deep learning for neuroimaging: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plis, Sergey M; Hjelm, Devon R; Salakhutdinov, Ruslan; Allen, Elena A; Bockholt, Henry J; Long, Jeffrey D; Johnson, Hans J; Paulsen, Jane S; Turner, Jessica A; Calhoun, Vince D

    2014-01-01

    Deep learning methods have recently made notable advances in the tasks of classification and representation learning. These tasks are important for brain imaging and neuroscience discovery, making the methods attractive for porting to a neuroimager's toolbox. Success of these methods is, in part, explained by the flexibility of deep learning models. However, this flexibility makes the process of porting to new areas a difficult parameter optimization problem. In this work we demonstrate our results (and feasible parameter ranges) in application of deep learning methods to structural and functional brain imaging data. These methods include deep belief networks and their building block the restricted Boltzmann machine. We also describe a novel constraint-based approach to visualizing high dimensional data. We use it to analyze the effect of parameter choices on data transformations. Our results show that deep learning methods are able to learn physiologically important representations and detect latent relations in neuroimaging data.

  1. Deep learning for neuroimaging: a validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey M Plis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Deep learning methods have recently made notable advances in the tasks of classification and representation learning. These tasks are important for brain imaging and neuroscience discovery, making the methods attractive for porting to a neuroimager's toolbox. Success of these methods is, in part, explained by the flexibility of deep learning models. However, this flexibility makes the process of porting to new areas a difficult parameter optimization problem. In this work we demonstrate our results (and feasible parameter ranges in application of deep learning methods to structural and functional brain imaging data. These methods include deep belief networks and their building block the restricted Boltzmann machine. We also describe a novel constraint-based approach to visualizing high dimensional data. We use it to analyze the effect of parameter choices on data transformations. Our results show that deep learning methods are able to learn physiologically important representations and detect latent relations in neuroimaging data.

  2. On small sample experiments in neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril; Hansen, Lars Kai

    1998-01-01

    Most human brain imaging experiments involve a number of subjects that is unusually low by accepted statistical standards. Although there are anumber of practical reasons for using small samples in neuroimaging we need to face the question regarding whether results obtained with only a fewsubject...... will generalise to a larger population. In this contribution we address this issue using a Bayesian framework, derive confidence intervals forsmall samples experiments, and discuss the issue of the prior.......Most human brain imaging experiments involve a number of subjects that is unusually low by accepted statistical standards. Although there are anumber of practical reasons for using small samples in neuroimaging we need to face the question regarding whether results obtained with only a fewsubjects...

  3. Neuroimaging Endpoints in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, Ricarda A L; Agosta, Federica; Grosskreutz, Julian; Filippi, Massimo; Turner, Martin R

    2017-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative, clinically heterogeneous syndrome pathologically overlapping with frontotemporal dementia. To date, therapeutic trials in animal models have not been able to predict treatment response in humans, and the revised ALS Functional Rating Scale, which is based on coarse disability measures, remains the gold-standard measure of disease progression. Advances in neuroimaging have enabled mapping of functional, structural, and molecular aspects of ALS pathology, and these objective measures may be uniquely sensitive to the detection of propagation of pathology in vivo. Abnormalities are detectable before clinical symptoms develop, offering the potential for neuroprotective intervention in familial cases. Although promising neuroimaging biomarker candidates for diagnosis, prognosis, and disease progression have emerged, these have been from the study of necessarily select patient cohorts identified in specialized referral centers. Further multicenter research is now needed to establish their validity as therapeutic outcome measures.

  4. Neuroimaging Measures as Endophenotypes in Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith N. Braskie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Late onset Alzheimer's disease (AD is moderately to highly heritable. Apolipoprotein E allele ε4 (APOE4 has been replicated consistently as an AD risk factor over many studies, and recently confirmed variants in other genes such as CLU, CR1, and PICALM each increase the lifetime risk of AD. However, much of the heritability of AD remains unexplained. AD is a complex disease that is diagnosed largely through neuropsychological testing, though neuroimaging measures may be more sensitive for detecting the incipient disease stages. Difficulties in early diagnosis and variable environmental contributions to the disease can obscure genetic relationships in traditional case-control genetic studies. Neuroimaging measures may be used as endophenotypes for AD, offering a reliable, objective tool to search for possible genetic risk factors. Imaging measures might also clarify the specific mechanisms by which proposed risk factors influence the brain.

  5. Energy landscape analysis of neuroimaging data

    CERN Document Server

    Ezaki, Takahiro; Ohzeki, Masayuki; Masuda, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Computational neuroscience models have been used for understanding neural dynamics in the brain and how they may be altered when physiological or other conditions change. We review and develop a data-driven approach to neuroimaging data called the energy landscape analysis. The methods are rooted in statistical physics theory, in particular, the Ising model, also known as the (pairwise) maximum entropy model and Boltzmann machine. The methods have been applied to fitting electrophysiological data in neuroscience for a decade, but its use in neuroimaging data is still in its infancy. We first review the methods and discuss some algorithms and technical aspects. Then, we apply the methods to functional magnetic resonance imaging data recorded from healthy individuals to inspect the relationship between the accuracy of fitting, the size of the brain system to be analyzed, and the data length.

  6. Traumatic brain injury, neuroimaging, and neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin D. Bigler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Depending on severity, traumatic brain injury (TBI induces immediate neuropathological effects that in the mildest form may be transient but as severity increases results in neural damage and degeneration. The first phase of neural degeneration is explainable by the primary acute and secondary neuropathological effects initiated by the injury; however, neuroimaging studies demonstrate a prolonged period of pathological changes that progressively occur even during the chronic phase. This review examines how neuroimaging may be used in TBI to understand (1 the dynamic changes that occur in brain development relevant to understanding the effects of TBI and how these relate to developmental stage when the brain is injured, (2 how TBI interferes with age-typical brain development and the effects of aging thereafter, and (3 how TBI results in greater frontotemporolimbic damage, results in cerebral atrophy, and is more disruptive to white matter neural connectivity. Neuroimaging quantification in TBI demonstrates degenerative effects from brain injury over time. An adverse synergistic influence of TBI with aging may predispose the brain injured individual for the development of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders long after surviving the brain injury.

  7. Neuroimaging in nuclear medicine: drug addicted brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong-An; Kim, Dae-Jin [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15

    Addiction to illicit drugs in one of today's most important social issues. Most addictive drugs lead to irreversible parenchymal changes in the human brain. Neuroimaging data bring to light the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the abused drugs, and demonstrate that addiction is a disease of the brain. Continuous researches better illustrate the neurochemical alterations in brain function, and attempt to discover the links to consequent behavioral changes. Newer hypotheses and theories follow the numerous results, and more rational methods of approaching therapy are being developed. Substance abuse is on the rise in Korea, and social interest in the matter as well. On the other hand, diagnosis and treatment of drug addiction is still very difficult, because how the abused substance acts in the brain, or how it leads to behavioral problems in not widely known. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of drug addiction can improve the process of diagnosing addict patients, planning therapy, and predicting the prognosis . Neuroimaging approaches by nuclear medicine methods are expected to objectively judge behavioral and neurochemical changes, and response to treatment. In addition, as genes associated with addictive behavior are discovered, functional nuclear medicine images will aid in the assessment of individuals. Reviewing published literature on neuroimaging regarding nuclear medicine is expected to be of assistance to the management of drug addict patients. What's more, means of applying nuclear medicine to the care of drug addict patients should be investigated further.

  8. Neuroimaging of Wernicke's encephalopathy and Korsakoff's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Young-Chul; Chanraud, Sandra; Sullivan, Edith V

    2012-06-01

    There is considerable evidence that neuroimaging findings can improve the early diagnosis of Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) in clinical settings. The most distinctive neuroimaging finding of acute WE are cytotoxic edema and vasogenic edema, which are represented by bilateral symmetric hyperintensity alterations on T2-weighted MR images in the periphery of the third ventricle, periaqueductal area, mammillary bodies and midbrain tectal plate. An initial bout of WE can result in Korsakoff's syndrome (KS), but repeated bouts in conjunction with its typical comorbidity, chronic alcoholism, can result in signs of tissue degeneration in vulnerable brain regions. Chronic abnormalities identified with neuroimaging enable examination of brain damage in living patients with KS and have expanded the understanding of the neuropsychological deficits resulting from thiamine deficiency, alcohol neurotoxicity, and their comorbidity. Brain structure and functional studies indicate that the interactions involving the thalamus, mammillary bodies, hippocampus, frontal lobes, and cerebellum are crucial for memory formation and executive functions, and the interruption of these circuits by WE and chronic alcoholism can contribute substantially to the neuropsychological deficits in KS.

  9. Multimodal Neuroimaging in Schizophrenia: Description and Dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aine, C J; Bockholt, H J; Bustillo, J R; Cañive, J M; Caprihan, A; Gasparovic, C; Hanlon, F M; Houck, J M; Jung, R E; Lauriello, J; Liu, J; Mayer, A R; Perrone-Bizzozero, N I; Posse, S; Stephen, J M; Turner, J A; Clark, V P; Calhoun, Vince D

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we describe an open-access collection of multimodal neuroimaging data in schizophrenia for release to the community. Data were acquired from approximately 100 patients with schizophrenia and 100 age-matched controls during rest as well as several task activation paradigms targeting a hierarchy of cognitive constructs. Neuroimaging data include structural MRI, functional MRI, diffusion MRI, MR spectroscopic imaging, and magnetoencephalography. For three of the hypothesis-driven projects, task activation paradigms were acquired on subsets of ~200 volunteers which examined a range of sensory and cognitive processes (e.g., auditory sensory gating, auditory/visual multisensory integration, visual transverse patterning). Neuropsychological data were also acquired and genetic material via saliva samples were collected from most of the participants and have been typed for both genome-wide polymorphism data as well as genome-wide methylation data. Some results are also presented from the individual studies as well as from our data-driven multimodal analyses (e.g., multimodal examinations of network structure and network dynamics and multitask fMRI data analysis across projects). All data will be released through the Mind Research Network's collaborative informatics and neuroimaging suite (COINS).

  10. Integration of network topological and connectivity properties for neuroimaging classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Biao; Zhang, Daoqiang; Gao, Wei; Wang, Qian; Wee, Chong-Yaw; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-02-01

    Rapid advances in neuroimaging techniques have provided an efficient and noninvasive way for exploring the structural and functional connectivity of the human brain. Quantitative measurement of abnormality of brain connectivity in patients with neurodegenerative diseases, such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), have also been widely reported, especially at a group level. Recently, machine learning techniques have been applied to the study of AD and MCI, i.e., to identify the individuals with AD/MCI from the healthy controls (HCs). However, most existing methods focus on using only a single property of a connectivity network, although multiple network properties, such as local connectivity and global topological properties, can potentially be used. In this paper, by employing multikernel based approach, we propose a novel connectivity based framework to integrate multiple properties of connectivity network for improving the classification performance. Specifically, two different types of kernels (i.e., vector-based kernel and graph kernel) are used to quantify two different yet complementary properties of the network, i.e., local connectivity and global topological properties. Then, multikernel learning (MKL) technique is adopted to fuse these heterogeneous kernels for neuroimaging classification. We test the performance of our proposed method on two different data sets. First, we test it on the functional connectivity networks of 12 MCI and 25 HC subjects. The results show that our method achieves significant performance improvement over those using only one type of network property. Specifically, our method achieves a classification accuracy of 91.9%, which is 10.8% better than those by single network-property-based methods. Then, we test our method for gender classification on a large set of functional connectivity networks with 133 infants scanned at birth, 1 year, and 2 years, also demonstrating very promising results.

  11. Functional neuroimaging and childhood autism

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    Boddaert, Nathalie [Service de Radiologie Pediatrique, Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital, Paris (France); Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, DRM, DSV, CEA, Orsay (France); Zilbovicius, Monica [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, DRM, DSV, CEA, Orsay (France); INSERM, Tours (France)

    2002-01-01

    Childhood autism is now widely viewed as being of developmental neurobiological origin. Yet, localised structural and functional brain correlates of autism have to be established. Structural brain-imaging studies performed in autistic patients have reported abnormalities such as increased total brain volume and cerebellar abnormalities. However, none of these abnormalities fully account for the full range of autistic symptoms. Functional brain imaging, such as positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and functional MRI (fMRI) have added a new perspective to the study of normal and pathological brain functions. In autism, functional studies have been performed at rest or during activation. However, first-generation functional imaging devices were not sensitive enough to detect any consistent dysfunction. Recently, with improved technology, two independent groups have reported bilateral hypoperfusion of the temporal lobes in autistic children. In addition, activation studies, using perceptive and cognitive paradigms, have shown an abnormal pattern of cortical activation in autistic patients. These results suggest that different connections between particular cortical regions could exist in autism. The purpose of this review is to present the main results of rest and activation studies performed in autism. (orig.)

  12. Identifying Predictors, Moderators, and Mediators of Antidepressant Response in Major Depressive Disorder: Neuroimaging Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Mary L.; Chase, Henry W.; Sheline, Yvette I.; Etkin, Amit; Almeida, Jorge R.C.; Deckersbach, Thilo; Trivedi, Madhukar H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Despite significant advances in neuroscience and treatment development, no widely accepted biomarkers are available to inform diagnostics or identify preferred treatments for individuals with major depressive disorder. Method In this critical review, the authors examine the extent to which multimodal neuroimaging techniques can identify biomarkers reflecting key pathophysiologic processes in depression and whether such biomarkers may act as predictors, moderators, and mediators of treatment response that might facilitate development of personalized treatments based on a better understanding of these processes. Results The authors first highlight the most consistent findings from neuroimaging studies using different techniques in depression, including structural and functional abnormalities in two parallel neural circuits: serotonergically modulated implicit emotion regulation circuitry, centered on the amygdala and different regions in the medial prefrontal cortex; and dopaminergically modulated reward neural circuitry, centered on the ventral striatum and medial prefrontal cortex. They then describe key findings from the relatively small number of studies indicating that specific measures of regional function and, to a lesser extent, structure in these neural circuits predict treatment response in depression. Conclusions Limitations of existing studies include small sample sizes, use of only one neuroimaging modality, and a focus on identifying predictors rather than moderators and mediators of differential treatment response. By addressing these limitations and, most importantly, capitalizing on the benefits of multimodal neuroimaging, future studies can yield moderators and mediators of treatment response in depression to facilitate significant improvements in shorter- and longer-term clinical and functional outcomes. PMID:25640931

  13. Neuropsychiatric deep brain stimulation for translational neuroimaging.

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    Höflich, Anna; Savli, Markus; Comasco, Erika; Moser, Ulrike; Novak, Klaus; Kasper, Siegfried; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2013-10-01

    From a neuroimaging point of view, deep brain stimulation (DBS) in psychiatric disorders represents a unique source of information to probe results gained in functional, structural and molecular neuroimaging studies in vivo. However, the implementation has, up to now, been restricted by the heterogeneity of the data reported in DBS studies. The aim of the present study was therefore to provide a comprehensive and standardized database of currently used DBS targets in selected psychiatric disorders (obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), treatment-resistant depression (TRD), Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS)) to enable topological comparisons between neuroimaging results and stimulation areas. A systematic literature research was performed and all peer-reviewed publications until the year 2012 were included. Literature research yielded a total of 84 peer-reviewed studies including about 296 psychiatric patients. The individual stimulation data of 37 of these studies meeting the inclusion criteria which included a total of 202 patients (63 OCD, 89 TRD, 50 GTS) was translated into MNI stereotactic space with respect to AC origin in order to identify key targets. The created database can be used to compare DBS target areas in MNI stereotactic coordinates with: 1) activation patterns in functional brain imaging (fMRI, phfMRI, PET, MET, EEG); 2) brain connectivity data (e.g., MR-based DTI/tractography, functional and effective connectivity); 3) quantitative molecular distribution data (e.g., neuroreceptor PET, post-mortem neuroreceptor mapping); 4) structural data (e.g., VBM for neuroplastic changes). Vice versa, the structural, functional and molecular data may provide a rationale to define new DBS targets and adjust/fine-tune currently used targets in DBS based on this overview in stereotactic coordinates. Furthermore, the availability of DBS data in stereotactic space may facilitate the investigation and interpretation of treatment effects and side effect of DBS by

  14. Understanding face perception by means of prosopagnosia and neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossion, Bruno

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the human neuro-anatomy of face recognition is a long-standing goal of Cognitive Neuroscience. Studies of patients with face recognition impairment following brain damage (i.e., acquired prosopagnosia) have revealed the specificity of face recognition, the importance and nature of holistic/configural perception of individual faces, and the distribution of this function in the ventral occipito-temporal (VOT) cortex, with a right hemispheric dominance. Yet, neuroimaging studies in this field have essentially focused on a single face-selective area of the VOT and underestimated the right hemisphere superiority. Findings in these studies have also been taken as supporting a hierarchical view of face perception, according to which a face is decomposed into parts in early face-selective areas, these parts being subsequently integrated into a whole representation in higher-order areas. This review takes a historical and current perspective on the study of acquired prosopagnosia and neuroimaging that challenges this latter view. It argues for a combination of these methods, an approach suggesting a coarse-to-fine emergence of the holistic face percept in a non-hierarchical network of cortical face-selective areas.

  15. Clinical functional MRI. Persurgical functional neuroimaging. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stippich, Christoph (ed.) [Univ. Hospitals Basel (Switzerland). Division of Diagnostic and Inventional Neuroradiology

    2015-06-01

    The second, revised edition of this successful textbook provides an up-to-date description of the use of preoperative fMRI in patients with brain tumors and epilepsies. State of the art fMRI procedures are presented, with detailed consideration of practical aspects, imaging and data processing, normal and pathological findings, and diagnostic possibilities and limitations. Relevant information on brain physiology, functional neuroanatomy, imaging technique, and methodology is provided by recognized experts in these fields. Compared with the first edition, chapters have been updated to reflect the latest developments and in particular the current use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and resting-state fMRI. Entirely new chapters are included on resting-state presurgical fMRI and the role of DTI and tractography in brain tumor surgery. Further chapters address multimodality functional neuroimaging, brain plasticity, and pitfalls, tips, and tricks.

  16. Human Neuroimaging of Oxytocin and Vasopressin in Social Cognition

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    Zink, Caroline F; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin have increasingly been identified as modulators of human social behaviors and associated with neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by social dysfunction, such as autism. Identifying the human brain regions that are impacted by oxytocin and vasopressin in a social context is essential to fully characterize the role of oxytocin and vasopressin in complex human social cognition. Advances in human non-invasive neuroimaging techniques and genetics have enabled scientists to begin to elucidate the neurobiological basis of the influence of oxytocin and vasopressin on human social behaviors. Here we review the findings to-date from investigations of the acute and chronic effects of oxytocin and vasopressin on neural activity underlying social cognitive processes using “pharmacological fMRI” and “imaging genetics”, respectively. PMID:22326707

  17. Genetics and neuroimaging of attention and hypnotizability may elucidate placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Amir

    2008-01-01

    Attention binds psychology to the techniques of neuroscience and exemplifies the links between brain and behavior. Associated with attentional networks, at least 3 brain modules govern control processes by drawing on disparate functional neuroanatomy, neuromodulators, and psychological substrates. Guided by data-driven brain theories, researchers have related specific genetic polymorphisms to well-defined phenotypes, including those associated with different attentional efficiencies and hypnosis. Because attention can modulate both cognitive and affective processes, genetic assays together with neuroimaging data have begun to elucidate individual differences. Findings from genetic assays of both attention and hypnotizability pave the way to answering questions such as how high hypnotizable individuals may differ from less-hypnotizable persons. These exploratory findings may extend to the identification of placebo responders.

  18. Understanding other minds: linking developmental psychology and functional neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxe, R; Carey, S; Kanwisher, N

    2004-01-01

    Evidence from developmental psychology suggests that understanding other minds constitutes a special domain of cognition with at least two components: an early-developing system for reasoning about goals, perceptions, and emotions, and a later-developing system for representing the contents of beliefs. Neuroimaging reinforces and elaborates upon this view by providing evidence that (a) domain-specific brain regions exist for representing belief contents, (b) these regions are apparently distinct from other regions engaged in reasoning about goals and actions (suggesting that the two developmental stages reflect the emergence of two distinct systems, rather than the elaboration of a single system), and (c) these regions are distinct from brain regions engaged in inhibitory control and in syntactic processing. The clear neural distinction between these processes is evidence that belief attribution is not dependent on either inhibitory control or syntax, but is subserved by a specialized neural system for theory of mind.

  19. GENE X ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA AND BIPOLAR DISORDER:EVIDENCE FROM NEUROIMAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Alexis Geoffroy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Schizophrenia (SZ and Bipolar disorder (BD are considered as severe multifactorial diseases, stemming from genetic and environmental influences. Growing evidence supports gene x environment (GxE interactions in these disorders and neuroimaging studies can help us to understand how those factors mechanistically interact. No reviews synthesized the existing data of neuroimaging studies in these issues.Methods: We conduct a systematic review on the neuroimaging studies exploring GxE interactions relative to SZ or BD in PubMed.Results: First results of the influence of genetic and environmental risks on brain structures came from monozygotic twin pairs concordant and discordant for SZ or BD. Few structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI studies have explored the GxE interactions. No other imaging methods were found. Two main GxE interactions on brain volumes have arisen. First, an interaction between genetic liability to SZ and obstetric complications on gray matter, cerebrospinal fluid and hippocampal volumes. Second, cannabis use and genetic liability interaction effects on cortical thickness and white matter volumes.Conclusion: Combining GxE interactions and neuroimaging domains is a promising approach. Genetic risk and environmental exposures such as cannabis or obstetrical complications seem to interact leading to specific neuroimaging cerebral alterations in SZ. They are suggestive of GxE interactions that confer phenotypic abnormalities in SZ and possibly BD. We need further, larger neuroimaging studies of GxE interactions for which we may propose a framework focusing on GxE interactions data already known to have a clinical effect such as infections, early stress, urbanicity and substance abuse.

  20. LSTGEE: longitudinal analysis of neuroimaging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yimei; Zhu, Hongtu; Chen, Yasheng; An, Hongyu; Gilmore, John; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2009-02-01

    Longitudinal imaging studies are essential to understanding the neural development of neuropsychiatric disorders, substance use disorders, and normal brain. Using appropriate image processing and statistical tools to analyze the imaging, behavioral, and clinical data is critical for optimally exploring and interpreting the findings from those imaging studies. However, the existing imaging processing and statistical methods for analyzing imaging longitudinal measures are primarily developed for cross-sectional neuroimaging studies. The simple use of these cross-sectional tools to longitudinal imaging studies will significantly decrease the statistical power of longitudinal studies in detecting subtle changes of imaging measures and the causal role of time-dependent covariate in disease process. The main objective of this paper is to develop longitudinal statistics toolbox, called LSTGEE, for the analysis of neuroimaging data from longitudinal studies. We develop generalized estimating equations for jointly modeling imaging measures with behavioral and clinical variables from longitudinal studies. We develop a test procedure based on a score test statistic and a resampling method to test linear hypotheses of unknown parameters, such as associations between brain structure and function and covariates of interest, such as IQ, age, gene, diagnostic groups, and severity of disease. We demonstrate the application of our statistical methods to the detection of the changes of the fractional anisotropy across time in a longitudinal neonate study. Particularly, our results demonstrate that the use of longitudinal statistics can dramatically increase the statistical power in detecting the changes of neuroimaging measures. The proposed approach can be applied to longitudinal data with multiple outcomes and accommodate incomplete and unbalanced data, i.e., subjects with different number of measurements.

  1. Neural correlates of fear: insights from neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garfinkel SN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sarah N Garfinkel,1,2 Hugo D Critchley1,2 1Sackler Centre for Consciousness Science, 2Department of Psychiatry, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK Abstract: Fear anticipates a challenge to one's well-being and is a reaction to the risk of harm. The expression of fear in the individual is a constellation of physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and experiential responses. Fear indicates risk and will guide adaptive behavior, yet fear is also fundamental to the symptomatology of most psychiatric disorders. Neuroimaging studies of normal and abnormal fear in humans extend knowledge gained from animal experiments. Neuroimaging permits the empirical evaluation of theory (emotions as response tendencies, mental states, and valence and arousal dimensions, and improves our understanding of the mechanisms of how fear is controlled by both cognitive processes and bodily states. Within the human brain, fear engages a set of regions that include insula and anterior cingulate cortices, the amygdala, and dorsal brain-stem centers, such as periaqueductal gray matter. This same fear matrix is also implicated in attentional orienting, mental planning, interoceptive mapping, bodily feelings, novelty and motivational learning, behavioral prioritization, and the control of autonomic arousal. The stereotyped expression of fear can thus be viewed as a special construction from combinations of these processes. An important motivator for understanding neural fear mechanisms is the debilitating clinical expression of anxiety. Neuroimaging studies of anxiety patients highlight the role of learning and memory in pathological fear. Posttraumatic stress disorder is further distinguished by impairment in cognitive control and contextual memory. These processes ultimately need to be targeted for symptomatic recovery. Neuroscientific knowledge of fear has broader relevance to understanding human and societal behavior. As yet, only some of

  2. Neuroimaging findings in Mowat-Wilson syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garavelli, Livia; Ivanovski, Ivan; Caraffi, Stefano Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    of the ZEB2 gene. To date, no characteristic pattern of brain dysmorphology in MWS has been defined. METHODS: Through brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis, we delineated a neuroimaging phenotype in 54 MWS patients with a proven ZEB2 defect, compared it with the features identified in a thorough...... review of published cases, and evaluated genotype-phenotype correlations. RESULTS: Ninety-six percent of patients had abnormal MRI results. The most common features were anomalies of corpus callosum (79.6% of cases), hippocampal abnormalities (77.8%), enlargement of cerebral ventricles (68.5%), and white...

  3. Vitamin D and Risk of Neuroimaging Abnormalities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Littlejohns

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency has been linked with an increased risk of incident all-cause dementia and Alzheimer's disease. The aim of the current study was to explore the potential mechanisms underlying these associations by determining whether low vitamin D concentrations are associated with the development of incident cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative neuroimaging abnormalities. The population consisted of 1,658 participants aged ≥65 years from the US-based Cardiovascular Health Study who were free from prevalent cardiovascular disease, stroke and dementia at baseline in 1992-93. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry from blood samples collected at baseline. The first MRI scan was conducted between 1991-1994 and the second MRI scan was conducted between 1997-1999. Change in white matter grade, ventricular grade and presence of infarcts between MRI scan one and two were used to define neuroimaging abnormalities. During a mean follow-up of 5.0 years, serum 25(OHD status was not significantly associated with the development of any neuroimaging abnormalities. Using logistic regression models, the multivariate adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval for worsening white matter grade in participants who were severely 25(OHD deficient (<25 nmol/L and deficient (≥25-50 nmol/L were 0.76 (0.35-1.66 and 1.09 (0.76-1.55 compared to participants with sufficient concentrations (≥50 nmol/L. The multivariate adjusted odds ratios for ventricular grade in participants who were severely 25(OHD deficient and deficient were 0.49 (0.20-1.19 and 1.12 (0.79-1.59 compared to those sufficient. The multivariate adjusted odds ratios for incident infarcts in participants who were severely 25(OHD deficient and deficient were 1.95 (0.84-4.54 and 0.73 (0.47-1.95 compared to those sufficient. Overall, serum vitamin D concentrations could not be shown to be associated with the development of

  4. Progress of neuroimaging research on Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-cheng LI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease is the most common neurodegenerative disease which gives rise to senile dementia. High morbidity and poor efficacy of Alzheimer's disease have brought about much pressure to the aging society. However, based on early diagnosis, early clinical intervention may slow down the progression of disease and improve its prognosis. In this review, we attempt to introduce the progress of early neuroimaging diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.03.006

  5. Neuroimaging Features of San Luis Valley Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T. Whitehead

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 14-month-old Hispanic female with a history of double-outlet right ventricle and developmental delay in the setting of recombinant chromosome 8 syndrome was referred for neurologic imaging. Brain MR revealed multiple abnormalities primarily affecting midline structures, including commissural dysgenesis, vermian and brainstem hypoplasia/dysplasia, an interhypothalamic adhesion, and an epidermoid between the frontal lobes that enlarged over time. Spine MR demonstrated hypoplastic C1 and C2 posterior elements, scoliosis, and a borderline low conus medullaris position. Presented herein is the first illustration of neuroimaging findings from a patient with San Luis Valley syndrome.

  6. Emerging neuroimaging contribution to the diagnosis and management of the ring chromosome 20 syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudano, Anna Elisabetta; Ruggieri, Andrea; Vignoli, Aglaia; Canevini, Maria Paola; Meletti, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    Ring chromosome 20 [r(20)] syndrome is an underdiagnosed chromosomal anomaly characterized by severe epilepsy, behavioral problems, and mild-to-moderate cognitive deficits. Since the cognitive and behavioral decline follows seizure onset, this syndrome has been proposed as an epileptic encephalopathy (EE). The recent overwhelming development of advanced neuroimaging techniques has opened a new era in the investigation of the brain networks subserving the EEs. In particular, functional neuroimaging tools are well suited to show alterations related to epileptiform discharges at the network level and to build hypotheses about the mechanisms underlying the cognitive disruption observed in these conditions. This paper reviews the brain circuits and their disruption as revealed by functional neuroimaging studies in patients with [r(20)] syndrome. It discusses the clinical consequences of the neuroimaging findings on the management of patients with [r(20)] syndrome, including their impact to an earlier diagnosis of this disorder. Based on the available lines of evidences, [r(20)] syndrome is characterized by interictal and ictal dysfunctions within basal ganglia-prefrontal lobe networks and by long-lasting effects of the peculiar theta-delta rhythm, which represents an EEG marker of the syndrome on integrated brain networks that subserve cognitive functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Visualization and unsupervised predictive clustering of high-dimensional multimodal neuroimaging data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, Benson; Soares, Jair C; Hasan, Khader M

    2014-10-30

    Neuroimaging machine learning studies have largely utilized supervised algorithms - meaning they require both neuroimaging scan data and corresponding target variables (e.g. healthy vs. diseased) to be successfully 'trained' for a prediction task. Noticeably, this approach may not be optimal or possible when the global structure of the data is not well known and the researcher does not have an a priori model to fit the data. We set out to investigate the utility of an unsupervised machine learning technique; t-distributed stochastic neighbour embedding (t-SNE) in identifying 'unseen' sample population patterns that may exist in high-dimensional neuroimaging data. Multimodal neuroimaging scans from 92 healthy subjects were pre-processed using atlas-based methods, integrated and input into the t-SNE algorithm. Patterns and clusters discovered by the algorithm were visualized using a 2D scatter plot and further analyzed using the K-means clustering algorithm. t-SNE was evaluated against classical principal component analysis. Remarkably, based on unlabelled multimodal scan data, t-SNE separated study subjects into two very distinct clusters which corresponded to subjects' gender labels (cluster silhouette index value=0.79). The resulting clusters were used to develop an unsupervised minimum distance clustering model which identified 93.5% of subjects' gender. Notably, from a neuropsychiatric perspective this method may allow discovery of data-driven disease phenotypes or sub-types of treatment responders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Is advanced neuroimaging for neuroradiologists? A systematic review of the scientific literature of the last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocozza, Sirio; Russo, Camilla; Pontillo, Giuseppe; Ugga, Lorenzo; Macera, Antonio; Cervo, Amedeo; De Liso, Maria; Di Paolo, Nilde; Ginocchio, Maria Isabella; Giordano, Flavio; Leone, Giuseppe; Rusconi, Giovanni; Stanzione, Arnaldo; Briganti, Francesco; Quarantelli, Mario; Caranci, Ferdinando; D'Amico, Alessandra; Elefante, Andrea; Tedeschi, Enrico; Brunetti, Arturo

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate if advanced neuroimaging research is mainly conducted by imaging specialists, we investigated the number of first authorships by radiologists and non-radiologist scientists in articles published in the field of advanced neuroimaging in the past 10 years. Articles in the field of advanced neuroimaging identified in this retrospective bibliometric analysis were divided in four groups, depending on the imaging technique used. For all included studies, educational background of the first authors was recorded (based on available online curriculum vitae) and classified in subgroups, depending on their specialty. Finally, journal impact factors were recorded and comparatively assessed among subgroups as a metric of research quality. A total number of 3831 articles were included in the study. Radiologists accounted as first authors for only 12.8 % of these publications, while 56.9 % of first authors were researchers without a medical degree. Mean impact factor (IF) of journals with non-MD researchers as first authors was significantly higher than the MD subgroup (p articles authored by other MD specialists (p articles was the lowest among all subgroups. These results, taken together, should question the radiology community about its future role in the development of advanced neuroimaging.

  9. A review of longitudinal electroconvulsive therapy: neuroimaging investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Christopher C; Gallegos, Patrick; Rediske, Nathan; Lemke, Nicholas T; Quinn, Davin K

    2014-03-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most effective treatment for a depressive episode but the mechanism of action and neural correlates of response are poorly understood. Different theories have suggested that anticonvulsant properties or neurotrophic effects are related to the unique mechanism of action of ECT. This review assessed longitudinal imaging investigations (both structural and functional) associated with ECT response published from 2002 to August 2013. We identified 26 investigations that used a variety of different imaging modalities and data analysis methods. Despite these methodological differences, we summarized the major findings of each investigation and identified common patterns that exist across multiple investigations. The ECT response is associated with decreased frontal perfusion, metabolism, and functional connectivity and increased volume and neuronal chemical metabolites. The general collective of longitudinal neuroimaging investigations support both the anticonvulsant and the neurotrophic effects of ECT. We propose a conceptual framework that integrates these seemingly contradictory hypotheses.

  10. Reproducibility of neuroimaging analyses across operating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatard, Tristan; Lewis, Lindsay B; Ferreira da Silva, Rafael; Adalat, Reza; Beck, Natacha; Lepage, Claude; Rioux, Pierre; Rousseau, Marc-Etienne; Sherif, Tarek; Deelman, Ewa; Khalili-Mahani, Najmeh; Evans, Alan C

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging pipelines are known to generate different results depending on the computing platform where they are compiled and executed. We quantify these differences for brain tissue classification, fMRI analysis, and cortical thickness (CT) extraction, using three of the main neuroimaging packages (FSL, Freesurfer and CIVET) and different versions of GNU/Linux. We also identify some causes of these differences using library and system call interception. We find that these packages use mathematical functions based on single-precision floating-point arithmetic whose implementations in operating systems continue to evolve. While these differences have little or no impact on simple analysis pipelines such as brain extraction and cortical tissue classification, their accumulation creates important differences in longer pipelines such as subcortical tissue classification, fMRI analysis, and cortical thickness extraction. With FSL, most Dice coefficients between subcortical classifications obtained on different operating systems remain above 0.9, but values as low as 0.59 are observed. Independent component analyses (ICA) of fMRI data differ between operating systems in one third of the tested subjects, due to differences in motion correction. With Freesurfer and CIVET, in some brain regions we find an effect of build or operating system on cortical thickness. A first step to correct these reproducibility issues would be to use more precise representations of floating-point numbers in the critical sections of the pipelines. The numerical stability of pipelines should also be reviewed.

  11. The Washington University Central Neuroimaging Data Archive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Jenny; Olsen, Timothy; Flavin, John; Ramaratnam, Mohana; Archie, Kevin; Ransford, James; Herrick, Rick; Wallace, Lauren; Cline, Jeanette; Horton, Will; Marcus, Daniel S

    2017-01-01

    Since the early 2000's, much of the neuroimaging work at Washington University (WU) has been facilitated by the Central Neuroimaging Data Archive (CNDA), an XNAT-based imaging informatics system. The CNDA is uniquely related to XNAT, as it served as the original codebase for the XNAT open source platform. The CNDA hosts data acquired in over 1000 research studies, encompassing 36,000 subjects and more than 60,000 imaging sessions. Most imaging modalities used in modern human research are represented in the CNDA, including magnetic resonance (MR), positron emission tomography (PET), computed tomography (CT), nuclear medicine (NM), computed radiography (CR), digital radiography (DX), and ultrasound (US). However, the majority of the imaging data in the CNDA are MR and PET of the human brain. Currently, about 20% of the total imaging data in the CNDA is available by request to external researchers. CNDA's available data includes large sets of imaging sessions and in some cases clinical, psychometric, tissue, or genetic data acquired in the study of Alzheimer's disease, brain metabolism, cancer, HIV, sickle cell anemia, and Tourette syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Neuroimaging of Muscle Pain in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Niddam

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging has provided important information on how acute and chronic pain is processed in the human brain. The pain experience is now known to be the final product of activity in distributed networks consisting of multiple cortical and subcortical areas. Due to the complex nature of the pain experience, a single cerebral representation of pain does not exist. Instead, pain depends on the context in which it is experienced and is generated through variable expression of the different aspects of pain in conjunction with modulatory influences. While considerable data have been generated about the supraspinal organization of cutaneous pain, little is known about how nociceptive information from musculoskeletal tissue is processed in the brain. This is in spite of the fact that pain from musculoskeletal tissue is more frequently encountered in clinical practice, poses a bigger diagnostic problem and is insufficiently treated. Differences are known to exist between acute pain from cutaneous and muscular tissue in both psychophysical responses as well as in physiological characteristics. The 2 tissue types also differ in pain sensitivity to the same stimuli and in their response to analgesic substances. In this review, characteristics of acute and chronic muscle pain will be presented together with a brief overview of the methods of induction and psychophysical assessment of muscle pain. Results from the neuroimaging literature concerned with phasic and tonic muscle pain will be reviewed.

  13. Integrating Theoretical Models with Functional Neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratte, Michael S; Tong, Frank

    2017-02-01

    The development of mathematical models to characterize perceptual and cognitive processes dates back almost to the inception of the field of psychology. Since the 1990s, human functional neuroimaging has provided for rapid empirical and theoretical advances across a variety of domains in cognitive neuroscience. In more recent work, formal modeling and neuroimaging approaches are being successfully combined, often producing models with a level of specificity and rigor that would not have been possible by studying behavior alone. In this review, we highlight examples of recent studies that utilize this combined approach to provide novel insights into the mechanisms underlying human cognition. The studies described here span domains of perception, attention, memory, categorization, and cognitive control, employing a variety of analytic and model-inspired approaches. Across these diverse studies, a common theme is that individually tailored, creative solutions are often needed to establish compelling links between multi-parameter models and complex sets of neural data. We conclude that future developments in model-based cognitive neuroscience will have great potential to advance our theoretical understanding and ability to model both low-level and high-level cognitive processes.

  14. In Vivo Neuroimaging of Exosomes Using Gold Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betzer, Oshra; Perets, Nisim; Angel, Ariel; Motiei, Menachem; Sadan, Tamar; Yadid, Gal; Offen, Daniel; Popovtzer, Rachela

    2017-11-28

    Exosomes are emerging as effective therapeutic tools for various pathologies. These extracellular vesicles can bypass biological barriers, including the blood-brain barrier, and can serve as powerful drug and gene therapy transporters. However, the progress of therapy development is impeded by several challenges, including insufficient data on exosome trafficking and biodistribution and the difficulty to image deep brain structures in vivo. Herein, we established a method for noninvasive in vivo neuroimaging and tracking of exosomes, based on glucose-coated gold nanoparticle (GNP) labeling and computed tomography imaging. Labeling of exosomes with the GNPs was achieved directly, as opposed to the typical and less efficient indirect labeling mode through parent cells. On the mechanistic level, we found that the glucose-coated GNPs were uptaken into MSC-derived exosomes via an active, energy-dependent mechanism that is mediated by the glucose transporter GLUT-1 and involves endocytic proteins. Next, we determined optimal parameters of size and administration route; we demonstrated that 5 nm GNPs enabled improved exosome labeling and that intranasal, compared to intravenous, administration led to superior brain accumulation and thus enhanced in vivo neuroimaging. Furthermore, using a mouse model of focal brain ischemia, we noninvasively tracked intranasally administered GNP-labeled exosomes, which showed increased accumulation at the lesion site over 24 h, as compared to nonspecific migration and clearance from control brains over the same period. Thus, this exosome labeling technique can serve as a powerful diagnostic tool for various brain disorders and could potentially enhance exosome-based treatments for neuronal recovery.

  15. Neural correlates of the LSD experience revealed by multimodal neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, Robin L; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh; Roseman, Leor; Kaelen, Mendel; Droog, Wouter; Murphy, Kevin; Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Schenberg, Eduardo E; Nest, Timothy; Orban, Csaba; Leech, Robert; Williams, Luke T; Williams, Tim M; Bolstridge, Mark; Sessa, Ben; McGonigle, John; Sereno, Martin I; Nichols, David; Hellyer, Peter J; Hobden, Peter; Evans, John; Singh, Krish D; Wise, Richard G; Curran, H Valerie; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J

    2016-04-26

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is the prototypical psychedelic drug, but its effects on the human brain have never been studied before with modern neuroimaging. Here, three complementary neuroimaging techniques: arterial spin labeling (ASL), blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) measures, and magnetoencephalography (MEG), implemented during resting state conditions, revealed marked changes in brain activity after LSD that correlated strongly with its characteristic psychological effects. Increased visual cortex cerebral blood flow (CBF), decreased visual cortex alpha power, and a greatly expanded primary visual cortex (V1) functional connectivity profile correlated strongly with ratings of visual hallucinations, implying that intrinsic brain activity exerts greater influence on visual processing in the psychedelic state, thereby defining its hallucinatory quality. LSD's marked effects on the visual cortex did not significantly correlate with the drug's other characteristic effects on consciousness, however. Rather, decreased connectivity between the parahippocampus and retrosplenial cortex (RSC) correlated strongly with ratings of "ego-dissolution" and "altered meaning," implying the importance of this particular circuit for the maintenance of "self" or "ego" and its processing of "meaning." Strong relationships were also found between the different imaging metrics, enabling firmer inferences to be made about their functional significance. This uniquely comprehensive examination of the LSD state represents an important advance in scientific research with psychedelic drugs at a time of growing interest in their scientific and therapeutic value. The present results contribute important new insights into the characteristic hallucinatory and consciousness-altering properties of psychedelics that inform on how they can model certain pathological states and potentially treat others.

  16. Neural correlates of the LSD experience revealed by multimodal neuroimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, Robin L.; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh; Roseman, Leor; Kaelen, Mendel; Droog, Wouter; Murphy, Kevin; Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Schenberg, Eduardo E.; Nest, Timothy; Orban, Csaba; Leech, Robert; Williams, Luke T.; Williams, Tim M.; Bolstridge, Mark; Sessa, Ben; McGonigle, John; Sereno, Martin I.; Nichols, David; Hobden, Peter; Evans, John; Singh, Krish D.; Wise, Richard G.; Curran, H. Valerie; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is the prototypical psychedelic drug, but its effects on the human brain have never been studied before with modern neuroimaging. Here, three complementary neuroimaging techniques: arterial spin labeling (ASL), blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) measures, and magnetoencephalography (MEG), implemented during resting state conditions, revealed marked changes in brain activity after LSD that correlated strongly with its characteristic psychological effects. Increased visual cortex cerebral blood flow (CBF), decreased visual cortex alpha power, and a greatly expanded primary visual cortex (V1) functional connectivity profile correlated strongly with ratings of visual hallucinations, implying that intrinsic brain activity exerts greater influence on visual processing in the psychedelic state, thereby defining its hallucinatory quality. LSD’s marked effects on the visual cortex did not significantly correlate with the drug’s other characteristic effects on consciousness, however. Rather, decreased connectivity between the parahippocampus and retrosplenial cortex (RSC) correlated strongly with ratings of “ego-dissolution” and “altered meaning,” implying the importance of this particular circuit for the maintenance of “self” or “ego” and its processing of “meaning.” Strong relationships were also found between the different imaging metrics, enabling firmer inferences to be made about their functional significance. This uniquely comprehensive examination of the LSD state represents an important advance in scientific research with psychedelic drugs at a time of growing interest in their scientific and therapeutic value. The present results contribute important new insights into the characteristic hallucinatory and consciousness-altering properties of psychedelics that inform on how they can model certain pathological states and potentially treat others. PMID:27071089

  17. What can functional neuroimaging tell the experimental psychologist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Richard

    2005-02-01

    I argue here that functional neuroimaging data--which I restrict to the haemodynamic techniques of fMRI and PET--can inform psychological theorizing, provided one assumes a "systematic" function-structure mapping in the brain. In this case, imaging data simply comprise another dependent variable, along with behavioural data, that can be used to test competing theories. In particular, I distinguish two types of inference: function-to-structure deduction and structure-to-function induction. With the former inference, a qualitatively different pattern of activity over the brain under two experimental conditions implies at least one different function associated with changes in the independent variable. With the second type of inference, activity of the same brain region(s) under two conditions implies a common function, possibly not predicted a priori. I illustrate these inferences with imaging studies of recognition memory, short-term memory, and repetition priming. I then consider in greater detail what is meant by a "systematic" function-structure mapping and argue that, particularly for structure-to-function induction, this entails a one-to-one mapping between functional and structural units, although the structural unit may be a network of interacting regions and care must be taken over the appropriate level of functional/structural abstraction. Nonetheless, the assumption of a systematic function-structure mapping is a "working hypothesis" that, in common with other scientific fields, cannot be proved on independent grounds and is probably best evaluated by the success of the enterprise as a whole. I also consider statistical issues such as the definition of a qualitative difference and methodological issues such as the relationship between imaging and behavioural data. I finish by reviewing various objections to neuroimaging, including neophrenology, functionalism, and equipotentiality, and by observing some criticisms of current practice in the imaging

  18. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  19. Evaluating Graph Signal Processing for Neuroimaging Through Classification and Dimensionality Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Ménoret, Mathilde; Farrugia, Nicolas; Pasdeloup, Bastien; Gripon, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Graph Signal Processing (GSP) is a promising framework to analyze multi-dimensional neuroimaging datasets, while taking into account both the spatial and functional dependencies between brain signals. In the present work, we apply dimensionality reduction techniques based on graph representations of the brain to decode brain activity from real and simulated fMRI datasets. We introduce seven graphs obtained from a) geometric structure and/or b) functional connectivity between brain areas at re...

  20. Neuroimaging of Central Sensitivity Syndromes: Key Insights from the Scientific Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walitt, Brian; Čeko, Marta; Gracely, John L.; Gracely, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    Central sensitivity syndromes are characterized by distressing symptoms, such as pain and fatigue, in the absence of clinically obvious pathology. The scientific underpinnings of these disorders are not currently known. Modern neuroimaging techniques promise new insights into mechanisms mediating these postulated syndromes. We review the results of neuroimaging applied to five central sensitivity syndromes: fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, temporomandibular joint disorder, and vulvodynia syndrome. Neuroimaging studies of basal metabolism, anatomic constitution, molecular constituents, evoked neural activity, and treatment effect are compared across all of these syndromes. Evoked sensory paradigms reveal sensory augmentation to both painful and non-painful stimulation. This is a transformative observation for these syndromes, which were historically considered to be completely of hysterical or feigned in origin. However, whether sensory augmentation represents the cause of these syndromes, a predisposing factor, an endophenotype, or an epiphenomenon cannot be discerned from the current literature. Further, the result from cross-sectional neuroimaging studies of basal activity, anatomy, and molecular constituency are extremely heterogeneous within and between the syndromes. A defining neuroimaging “signature” cannot be discerned for any of the particular syndromes or for an over-arching central sensitization mechanism common to all of the syndromes. Several issues confound initial attempts to meaningfully measure treatment effects in these syndromes. At this time, the existence of “central sensitivity syndromes” is based more soundly on clinical and epidemiological evidence. A coherent picture of a “central sensitization” mechanism that bridges across all of these syndromes does not emerge from the existing scientific evidence. PMID:26717948

  1. Schizophrenia: What do we know from neuroimaging research?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Bosch, M.P.C.; Zedlitz, A.M.E.E.; Hadzibeganovic, T.; Kralingen, R.B.A.S. van

    2009-01-01

    Objectives - A summary of the main neuroimaging findings in the field of schizophrenia will be given in order to get a better understanding of this disorder. Methods - The authors conducted an extensive literature review, using PubMed and the internet. Results - Neuroimaging research on

  2. Neuroimaging in contact sports: Determining brain fitness before ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neuroimaging may also be carried out to assess for evidence of structural brain injury which may make a combatant more likely to express late-life neuropsychiatric sequelae of brain injury, such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy. As such, neuroimaging plays a prognostic role and aids in the determination of whether the ...

  3. Neural correlates of dysfunctional emotion regulation in major depressive disorder. A systematic review of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rive, Maria M; van Rooijen, Geeske; Veltman, Dick J; Phillips, Mary L; Schene, Aart H; Ruhé, Henricus G

    2013-12-01

    Abnormal emotion processing is a core feature of major depressive disorder (MDD). Since the emergence of functional neuroimaging techniques, many studies have been conducted in MDD subjects to elucidate the underlying abnormalities in the neural systems involved in emotion regulation. In this systematic review, we discuss this research in the context of the neural model of emotion regulation previously described by Phillips et al. (2008). This model differentiates between automatic and voluntary emotion regulation subprocesses. Automatic regulation subprocesses were shown to involve predominantly medial prefrontal cortical structures, in addition to the hippocampus and parahippocampus, while voluntary regulation processes additionally recruited lateral prefrontal cortical regions. In conclusion, although the available data is limited, findings suggest that MDD subjects demonstrate abnormally reduced activity in lateral prefrontal cortices during explicit voluntary control of emotional experience. During early, automatic stages of emotion regulation, on the other hand, MDD subjects appear to achieve successful emotion regulation by recruiting additional lateral prefrontal neural regions, that may be mediated by medial prefrontal, especially rostral/dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG) functioning. Dysfunctional automatic regulation may impair successful voluntary emotion regulation, and may present a target for novel therapeutic approaches in MDD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. An Overview of Multimodal Neuroimaging Using Nanoprobes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram Sridhar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials have gained tremendous significance as contrast agents for both anatomical and functional preclinical bio-imaging. Contrary to conventional medical practices, molecular imaging plays an important role in exploring the affected cells, thus providing precision medical solutions. It has been observed that incorporating nanoprobes improves the overall efficacy of the diagnosis and treatment processes. These nano-agents and tracers are therefore often incorporated into preclinical therapeutic and diagnostic applications. Multimodal imaging approaches are well equipped with nanoprobes to explore neurological disorders, as they can display more than one type of characteristic in molecular imaging. Multimodal imaging systems are explored by researchers as they can provide both anatomical and functional details of tumors and affected tissues. In this review, we present the state-of-the-art research concerning multimodal imaging systems and nanoprobes for neuroimaging applications.

  5. Diphtheric encephalitis and brain neuroimaging features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Jen Chun; Rahmat, Kartini; Mumin, Nazimah Ab; Koh, Mia Tuang; Gan, Chin Seng; Ramli, Norlisah; Fong, Choong Yi

    2017-11-01

    We report a rare case of paediatric diphtheria complicated with encephalitis. A 6-year-old boy who did not receive his scheduled diptheria-tetanus-pertusis vaccination presented with one episode of generalised convulsive seizure. His illness was preceded by a 3day history of fever associated with enlarged exudative tonsils with a pseudomembrane. He was commenced on intravenous penicillin and oral erythromycin. However, he developed progressive encephalopathy with focal neurological deficit which required intubation on day 5 of illness. Throat swab polymerase chain reaction for diphtheria toxin A and B were positive and diphtheria antitoxin was given. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain showed T2-weighted hyperintensities over the anterior cingulate gyri, insular cortex and cerebellum. This is the first reported MRI finding of diphtheric encephalitis. Our report highlights the importance of neuroimaging in diagnosing diphtheric encephalitis particularly in cases with unremarkable cerebrospinal findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A simple tool for neuroimaging data sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselgrove, Christian; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Kennedy, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Data sharing is becoming increasingly common, but despite encouragement and facilitation by funding agencies, journals, and some research efforts, most neuroimaging data acquired today is still not shared due to political, financial, social, and technical barriers to sharing data that remain. In particular, technical solutions are few for researchers that are not a part of larger efforts with dedicated sharing infrastructures, and social barriers such as the time commitment required to share can keep data from becoming publicly available. We present a system for sharing neuroimaging data, designed to be simple to use and to provide benefit to the data provider. The system consists of a server at the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility (INCF) and user tools for uploading data to the server. The primary design principle for the user tools is ease of use: the user identifies a directory containing Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) data, provides their INCF Portal authentication, and provides identifiers for the subject and imaging session. The user tool anonymizes the data and sends it to the server. The server then runs quality control routines on the data, and the data and the quality control reports are made public. The user retains control of the data and may change the sharing policy as they need. The result is that in a few minutes of the user’s time, DICOM data can be anonymized and made publicly available, and an initial quality control assessment can be performed on the data. The system is currently functional, and user tools and access to the public image database are available at http://xnat.incf.org/. PMID:24904398

  7. Neuroimaging features of Cornelia de Lange syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, Matthew T. [Department of Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Nagaraj, Usha D. [Department of Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Cincinnati Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Pearl, Phillip L. [Department of Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Neurology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome is a rare genetic disease characterized by distinctive facial dysmorphia and dwarfism. Multiple organ system involvement is typical. Various central nervous system (CNS) aberrations have been described in the pathology literature; however, the spectrum of neuroimaging manifestations is less well documented. To present neuroimaging findings from a series of eight patients with Cornelia de Lange syndrome. The CT/MR database at a single academic children's hospital was searched for the terms ''Cornelia'', ''Brachmann'' and ''de Lange.'' The search yielded 18 exams from 16 patients. Two non-CNS and six exams without available images were excluded. Ten exams from eight patients were evaluated by a board-certified neuroradiologist. All patients had skull base dysplasia, most with an unusual coronal basioccipital cleft (7/8). All brain MR exams showed microcephaly, volume loss and gyral simplification (5/5). Six patients had an absent massa intermedia. Four patients had small globe anterior segments; three had optic pathway hypoplasia. Basilar artery fenestration was present in two patients; vertebrobasilar hypoplasia was present in one patient. The inner ear vestibules were dysplastic in two patients. One patient had pachymeningeal thickening. Spinal anomalies included scoliosis, segmentation anomalies, endplate irregularities, basilar invagination, foramen magnum stenosis and tethered spinal cord. Typical imaging manifestations of Cornelia de Lange syndrome include skull base dysplasia with coronal clival cleft, cerebral and brainstem volume loss, and gyral simplification. Membranous labyrinth dysplasia, anterior segment and optic pathway hypoplasia, basilar artery fenestration, absent massa intermedia and spinal anomalies may also be present. (orig.)

  8. Gray Matter Pathology in MS: Neuroimaging and Clinical Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honce, Justin Morris

    2013-01-01

    It is abundantly clear that there is extensive gray matter pathology occurring in multiple sclerosis. While attention to gray matter pathology was initially limited to studies of autopsy specimens and biopsies, the development of new MRI techniques has allowed assessment of gray matter pathology in vivo. Current MRI techniques allow the direct visualization of gray matter demyelinating lesions, the quantification of diffuse damage to normal appearing gray matter, and the direct measurement of gray matter atrophy. Gray matter demyelination (both focal and diffuse) and gray matter atrophy are found in the very earliest stages of multiple sclerosis and are progressive over time. Accumulation of gray matter damage has substantial impact on the lives of multiple sclerosis patients; a growing body of the literature demonstrates correlations between gray matter pathology and various measures of both clinical disability and cognitive impairment. The effect of disease modifying therapies on the rate accumulation of gray matter pathology in MS has been investigated. This review focuses on the neuroimaging of gray matter pathology in MS, the effect of the accumulation of gray matter pathology on clinical and cognitive disability, and the effect of disease-modifying agents on various measures of gray matter damage. PMID:23878736

  9. Neuroimaging of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: current neuroscience-informed perspectives for clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Samuele; Castellanos, F Xavier

    2012-10-01

    The neuroimaging literature on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is growing rapidly. Here, we provide a critical overview of neuroimaging studies published recently, highlighting perspectives that may be of relevance for clinicians. After a comprehensive search of PubMed, Ovid, Web of Science, and EMBASE, we located 41 pertinent papers published between January 2011 and April 2012, comprising both structural and functional neuroimaging studies. This literature is increasingly contributing to the notion that the pathophysiology of ADHD reflects abnormal interplay among large-scale brain circuits. Moreover, recent studies have begun to reveal the mechanisms of action of pharmacological treatment. Finally, imaging studies with a developmental perspective are revealing the brain correlates of ADHD over the lifespan, complementing clinical observations on the phenotypic continuity and discontinuity of the disorder. However, despite the increasing potential to eventually inform clinical practice, current imaging studies do not have validated applications in day-to-day clinical practice. Although novel analytical techniques are likely to accelerate the pace of translational applications, at the present we advise caution regarding inappropriate commercial misuse of imaging techniques in ADHD.

  10. Combining non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation with neuroimaging and electrophysiology: Current approaches and future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, Til Ole; Karabanov, Anke; Hartwigsen, Gesa

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation (NTBS) techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial current stimulation (TCS) are important tools in human systems and cognitive neuroscience because they are able to reveal the relevance of certain brain structures...... are technically demanding. We argue that the benefit from this combination is twofold. Firstly, neuroimaging and electrophysiology can inform subsequent NTBS, providing the required information to optimize where, when, and how to stimulate the brain. Information can be achieved both before and during the NTBS...... experiment, requiring consecutive and concurrent applications, respectively. Secondly, neuroimaging and electrophysiology can provide the readout for neural changes induced by NTBS. Again, using either concurrent or consecutive applications, both "online" NTBS effects immediately following the stimulation...

  11. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy for neuroimaging in cochlear implant recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliba, Joe; Bortfeld, Heather; Levitin, Daniel J.; Oghalai, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging can provide insight into the neurobiological factors that contribute to the variations in individual hearing outcomes following cochlear implantation. To date, measuring neural activity within the auditory cortex of cochlear implant (CI) recipients has been challenging, primarily because the use of traditional neuroimaging techniques is limited in people with CIs. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an emerging technology that offers benefits in this population because it is non-invasive, compatible with CI devices, and not subject to electrical artifacts. However, there are important considerations to be made when using fNIRS to maximize the signal to noise ratio and to best identify meaningful cortical responses. This review considers these issues, the current data, and future directions for using fNIRS as a clinical application in individuals with CIs. PMID:26883143

  12. Open to Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Reading, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Offers (1) suggestions for improving college students' study skills; (2) a system for keeping track of parent, teacher, and community contacts; (3) suggestions for motivating students using tic tac toe; (4) suggestions for using etymology to improve word retention; (5) a word search grid; and (6) suggestions for using postcards in remedial reading…

  13. Ethical and Legal Implications of the Methodological Crisis in Neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellmeyer, Philipp

    2017-10-01

    Currently, many scientific fields such as psychology or biomedicine face a methodological crisis concerning the reproducibility, replicability, and validity of their research. In neuroimaging, similar methodological concerns have taken hold of the field, and researchers are working frantically toward finding solutions for the methodological problems specific to neuroimaging. This article examines some ethical and legal implications of this methodological crisis in neuroimaging. With respect to ethical challenges, the article discusses the impact of flawed methods in neuroimaging research in cognitive and clinical neuroscience, particularly with respect to faulty brain-based models of human cognition, behavior, and personality. Specifically examined is whether such faulty models, when they are applied to neurological or psychiatric diseases, could put patients at risk, and whether this places special obligations on researchers using neuroimaging. In the legal domain, the actual use of neuroimaging as evidence in United States courtrooms is surveyed, followed by an examination of ways that the methodological problems may create challenges for the criminal justice system. Finally, the article reviews and promotes some promising ideas and initiatives from within the neuroimaging community for addressing the methodological problems.

  14. Oxytocin and Social Adaptation: Insights from Neuroimaging Studies of Healthy and Clinical Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yina; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone; Han, Shihui; Zink, Caroline F

    2016-02-01

    Adaptation to the social environment is critical for human survival. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT), implicated in social cognition and emotions pivotal to sociality and well-being, is a promising pharmacological target for social and emotional dysfunction. We suggest here that the multifaceted role of OT in socio-affective processes improves the capability for social adaptation. We review OT effects on socio-affective processes, with a focus on OT-neuroimaging studies, to elucidate neuropsychological mechanisms through which OT promotes social adaptation. We also review OT-neuroimaging studies of individuals with social deficits and suggest that OT ameliorates impaired social adaptation by normalizing hyper- or hypo-brain activity. The social adaption model (SAM) provides an integrative understanding of discrepant OT effects and the modulations of OT action by personal milieu and context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Bayesian Optimization for Neuroimaging Pre-processing in Brain Age Classification and Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenessa Lancaster

    2018-02-01

    optimization framework to the new dataset, out-performing the parameters optimized for the initial training dataset. Our study outlines the proof-of-principle that neuroimaging models for brain-age prediction can use Bayesian optimization to derive case-specific pre-processing parameters. Our results suggest that different pre-processing parameters are selected when optimization is conducted in specific contexts. This potentially motivates use of optimization techniques at many different points during the experimental process, which may improve statistical sensitivity and reduce opportunities for experimenter-led bias.

  16. Resonant Dynamics of Grounded Cognition: Explanation of Behavioral and Neuroimaging Data Using the ART Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Domijan, Dražen; Šetić, Mia

    2016-01-01

    Research on grounded cognition suggests that the processing of a word or concept reactivates the perceptual representations that are associated with the referent object. The objective of this work is to demonstrate how behavioral and functional neuroimaging data on grounded cognition can be understood as different manifestations of the same cortical circuit designed to achieve stable category learning, as proposed by the adaptive resonance theory (ART). We showed that the ART neural network p...

  17. Neuroimaging of resilience to stress: current state of affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werff, Steven J A; Pannekoek, J Nienke; Stein, Dan J; van der Wee, Nic J A

    2013-09-01

    Resilience is defined as a dynamic, multidimensional process encompassing positive adaptation within the context of significant adversity. The complex nature of this construct makes it a difficult topic to study in neuroimaging research; however, in this article, we propose ways to operationalize resilience. The limited amount of structural and functional neuroimaging studies specifically designed to examine resilience have mainly focused on investigating alterations in regions of the brain involved in emotion and stress regulation circuitry. In the future, neuroimaging of resilience is expected to benefit from functional and structural connectivity approaches and the use of novel imaging task paradigms. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Developing neuroimaging phenotypes of the default mode network in PTSD: integrating the resting state, working memory, and structural connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Noah S; Carpenter, S Louisa; Sweet, Lawrence H

    2014-07-01

    Complementary structural and functional neuroimaging techniques used to examine the Default Mode Network (DMN) could potentially improve assessments of psychiatric illness severity and provide added validity to the clinical diagnostic process. Recent neuroimaging research suggests that DMN processes may be disrupted in a number of stress-related psychiatric illnesses, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although specific DMN functions remain under investigation, it is generally thought to be involved in introspection and self-processing. In healthy individuals it exhibits greatest activity during periods of rest, with less activity, observed as deactivation, during cognitive tasks, e.g., working memory. This network consists of the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus, lateral parietal cortices and medial temporal regions. Multiple functional and structural imaging approaches have been developed to study the DMN. These have unprecedented potential to further the understanding of the function and dysfunction of this network. Functional approaches, such as the evaluation of resting state connectivity and task-induced deactivation, have excellent potential to identify targeted neurocognitive and neuroaffective (functional) diagnostic markers and may indicate illness severity and prognosis with increased accuracy or specificity. Structural approaches, such as evaluation of morphometry and connectivity, may provide unique markers of etiology and long-term outcomes. Combined, functional and structural methods provide strong multimodal, complementary and synergistic approaches to develop valid DMN-based imaging phenotypes in stress-related psychiatric conditions. This protocol aims to integrate these methods to investigate DMN structure and function in PTSD, relating findings to illness severity and relevant clinical factors.

  19. A systematic review of temporal discounting in eating disorders and obesity: Behavioural and neuroimaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Jessica; Dalton, Bethan; Kekic, Maria; Bartholdy, Savani; Campbell, Iain C; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2016-12-01

    Eating Disorders (ED) and obesity are suggested to involve a spectrum of self-regulatory control difficulties. Temporal discounting (TD) tasks have been used to explore this idea. This systematic review examines behavioural and neuroimaging TD data in ED and obesity. Using PRISMA guidelines, we reviewed relevant articles in MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Embase from inception until 17th August 2016. Studies that reported behavioural differences in TD and/or TD neuroimaging data in ED/obesity were included. Thirty-one studies were included. Limited data suggest that BN, BED and obesity are associated with increased TD, whilst data in AN are mixed. Aberrant neural activity in frontostriatal circuitry is implicated. TD tasks vary widely and TD in ED/obesity may vary according to factors such as illness stage. Our findings suggest altered self-regulatory control in ED and obesity. TD tasks are heterogeneous, limiting generalisability of findings. Research into whether TD is multidimensional, along with transdiagnostic neuroimaging research is needed. Assessment of TD may be useful in psychoeducation, outcome prediction and treatment of ED/obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The diagnostic yield of neuroimaging in sixth nerve palsy - Sankara Nethralaya Abducens Palsy Study (SNAPS: Report 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay Gopinathan Nair

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim was to assess the etiology of sixth nerve palsy and on the basis of our data, to formulate a diagnostic algorithm for the management in sixth nerve palsy. Design: Retrospective chart review. Results: Of the 104 neurologically isolated cases, 9 cases were attributable to trauma, and 95 (86.36% cases were classified as nontraumatic, neurologically isolated cases. Of the 95 nontraumatic, isolated cases of sixth nerve palsy, 52 cases were associated with vasculopathic risk factors, namely diabetes and hypertension and were classified as vasculopathic sixth nerve palsy (54.7%, and those with a history of sixth nerve palsy from birth (6 cases were classified as congenital sixth nerve palsy (6.3%. Of the rest, neuroimaging alone yielded a cause in 18 of the 37 cases (48.64%. Of the other 19 cases where neuroimaging did not yield a cause, 6 cases were attributed to preceding history of infection (3 upper respiratory tract infection and 3 viral illnesses, 2 cases of sixth nerve palsy were found to be a false localizing sign in idiopathic intracranial hypertension and in 11 cases, the cause was undetermined. In these idiopathic cases of isolated sixth nerve palsy, neuroimaging yielded no positive findings. Conclusions: In the absence of risk factors, a suggestive history, or positive laboratory and clinical findings, neuroimaging can serve as a useful diagnostic tool in identifying the exact cause of sixth nerve palsy. Furthermore, we recommend an algorithm to assess the need for neuroimaging in sixth nerve palsy.

  1. Sleep neuroimaging and models of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo eTagliazucchi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Human deep sleep is characterized by reduced or absent sensory activity, responsiveness to stimuli and conscious awareness. Given its ubiquity and reversible nature, it represents an attractive paradigm to study the neural changes which accompany the loss of consciousness in humans. In particular, the deepest stages of sleep can serve as an empirical test for the predictions of theoretical models relating the phenomenology of consciousness with underlying neural activity. A relatively recent shift of attention from the analysis of evoked responses towards spontaneous (or ``resting state'' activity has taken place in the neuroimaging community, together with the development of tools suitable to study distributed functional interactions. In this review we focus on recent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI studies of spontaneous activity during sleep and their relationship with theoretical models for human consciousness generation, considering the global workspace theory, the information integration theory and the dynamical core hypothesis. We discuss the venues of research opened by these results, emphasizing the need to extend the analytic methodology in order to obtain a dynamical picture of how functional interactions change over time and how their evolution is modulated during different conscious states. Finally, we discuss the need to experimentally establish absent or reduced conscious content, even when studying the deepest sleep stages.

  2. Event time analysis of longitudinal neuroimage data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabuncu, Mert R; Bernal-Rusiel, Jorge L; Reuter, Martin; Greve, Douglas N; Fischl, Bruce

    2014-08-15

    This paper presents a method for the statistical analysis of the associations between longitudinal neuroimaging measurements, e.g., of cortical thickness, and the timing of a clinical event of interest, e.g., disease onset. The proposed approach consists of two steps, the first of which employs a linear mixed effects (LME) model to capture temporal variation in serial imaging data. The second step utilizes the extended Cox regression model to examine the relationship between time-dependent imaging measurements and the timing of the event of interest. We demonstrate the proposed method both for the univariate analysis of image-derived biomarkers, e.g., the volume of a structure of interest, and the exploratory mass-univariate analysis of measurements contained in maps, such as cortical thickness and gray matter density. The mass-univariate method employs a recently developed spatial extension of the LME model. We applied our method to analyze structural measurements computed using FreeSurfer, a widely used brain Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) analysis software package. We provide a quantitative and objective empirical evaluation of the statistical performance of the proposed method on longitudinal data from subjects suffering from Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) at baseline. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Neuroimaging findings in pediatric cerebral sinovenous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Matthias W; Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Oshmyansky, Alexander; Poretti, Andrea; Huisman, Thierry A G M

    2015-05-01

    Pediatric cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT) is a potentially life-threatening condition which is usually diagnosed by MRI. We analyzed the signal changes of the thrombus over time and the role of diffusion-weighted/tensor imaging (DWI/DTI) in the diagnosis of CSVT. Clinical histories were reviewed for risk factors for CSVT, neurologic manifestation, and interval from onset of symptoms related to CSVT to the neuroimaging diagnosis. MRI studies were retrospectively evaluated for the appearance of thrombi on T1- and T2-weighted, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), DWI/DTI, susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI), and magnetic resonance venography (MRV) images. Thirty-three children with CSVT were included in this study. Seventy-seven thrombi were found. Seventy-four thrombi could be identified on T1- or T2-weighted images (96 %), 72 thrombi were seen on DWI/DTI (94 %) and 68 on FLAIR (88 %). DWI showed restricted diffusion in 29 thrombi (40 %). Thrombi older than 1 day were more likely to have a T1-hyperintense signal (p = 0.002). No additional correlation between signal intensity and age of the thrombi was found. Intraparenchymal changes secondary to CSVT were seen in 11 children. MR sequences individually are not sensitive enough to provide the diagnosis. DWI/DTI does not provide complementary diagnostic value. Approximation of the age of the thrombus is difficult because of poor correlation between signal intensity and age of the thrombi.

  4. How Shakespeare tempests the brain: neuroimaging insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keidel, James L; Davis, Philip M; Gonzalez-Diaz, Victorina; Martin, Clara D; Thierry, Guillaume

    2013-04-01

    Shakespeare made extensive use of the functional shift (FS), a rhetorical device involving a change in the grammatical status of words, e.g., using nouns as verbs. Previous work using event-related brain potentials showed how FS triggers a surprise effect inviting mental re-evaluation, seemingly independent of semantic processing. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain activation in participants making judgements on the semantic relationship between sentences -some containing a Shakespearean FS- and subsequently presented words. Behavioural performance in the semantic decision task was high and unaffected by sentence type. However, neuroimaging results showed that sentences featuring FS elicited significant activation beyond regions classically activated by typical language tasks, including the left caudate nucleus, the right inferior frontal gyrus and the right inferior temporal gyrus. These findings show how Shakespeare's grammatical exploration forces the listener to take a more active role in integrating the meaning of what is said. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sleep neuroimaging and models of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Behrens, Marion; Laufs, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Human deep sleep is characterized by reduced sensory activity, responsiveness to stimuli, and conscious awareness. Given its ubiquity and reversible nature, it represents an attractive paradigm to study the neural changes which accompany the loss of consciousness in humans. In particular, the deepest stages of sleep can serve as an empirical test for the predictions of theoretical models relating the phenomenology of consciousness with underlying neural activity. A relatively recent shift of attention from the analysis of evoked responses toward spontaneous (or "resting state") activity has taken place in the neuroimaging community, together with the development of tools suitable to study distributed functional interactions. In this review we focus on recent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies of spontaneous activity during sleep and their relationship with theoretical models for human consciousness generation, considering the global workspace theory, the information integration theory, and the dynamical core hypothesis. We discuss the venues of research opened by these results, emphasizing the need to extend the analytic methodology in order to obtain a dynamical picture of how functional interactions change over time and how their evolution is modulated during different conscious states. Finally, we discuss the need to experimentally establish absent or reduced conscious content, even when studying the deepest sleep stages.

  6. Neuroimaging revolutionizes therapeutic approaches to chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borsook David

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An understanding of how the brain changes in chronic pain or responds to pharmacological or other therapeutic interventions has been significantly changed as a result of developments in neuroimaging of the CNS. These developments have occurred in 3 domains : (1 Anatomical Imaging which has demonstrated changes in brain volume in chronic pain; (2 Functional Imaging (fMRI that has demonstrated an altered state in the brain in chronic pain conditions including back pain, neuropathic pain, and complex regional pain syndromes. In addition the response of the brain to drugs has provided new insights into how these may modify normal and abnormal circuits (phMRI or pharmacological MRI; (3 Chemical Imaging (Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy or MRS has helped our understanding of measures of chemical changes in chronic pain. Taken together these three domains have already changed the way in which we think of pain – it should now be considered an altered brain state in which there may be altered functional connections or systems and a state that has components of degenerative aspects of the CNS.

  7. Neuroimaging predictors of AED resistance in new-onset epilepsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cendes, Fernando

    2011-07-01

    The best prognostic factors in early-onset epilepsies are the response to the first antiepileptic drug (AED) trial, age at seizure onset, number of seizures prior to treatment, and the presence of a lesion or abnormal neurologic examination. However, early and adequate response to AED is most likely an epiphenomenon reflecting the nature of underlying epileptogenicity, which may be defined as a complex interaction of underlying pathology, genetics, and environment. Patients with the same type of epileptogenic lesion, for example, hippocampal sclerosis, may have a varying response to AED. Modern neuroimaging, in particular quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques may be helpful to better understand this complex interaction of factors leading to refractoriness. Patients who respond well to AEDs have no or minor MRI abnormalities, and among those with underlying lesions there is an inverse correlation between outcome and the extent of MRI-defined neuronal damage outside the main lesion, which may be undetectable by visual analyses of routine MRI. The extent of neuronal damage appears to be related to the severity of initial precipitating injuries, probably interacts with genetic factors, and may progress over time when seizures are uncontrolled. The presence and extent of abnormalities detected by quantitative MRI may also be helpful to guide AED withdrawal in those patients who are seizure free for >2 years. Combined MRI measures may have potential clinical value for predicting AED response in near future. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2011 International League Against Epilepsy.

  8. Neuroimaging of person perception: A social-visual interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jeffrey A; Freeman, Jonathan B

    2017-12-21

    The visual system is able to extract an enormous amount of socially relevant information from the face, including social categories, personality traits, and emotion. While facial features may be directly tied to certain perceptions, emerging research suggests that top-down social cognitive factors (e.g., stereotypes, social-conceptual knowledge, prejudice) considerably influence and shape the perceptual process. The rapid integration of higher-order social cognitive processes into visual perception can give rise to systematic biases in face perception and may potentially act as a mediating factor for intergroup behavioral and evaluative biases. Drawing on neuroimaging evidence, we review the ways that top-down social cognitive factors shape visual perception of facial features. This emerging work in social and affective neuroscience builds upon work on predictive coding and perceptual priors in cognitive neuroscience and visual cognition, suggesting domain-general mechanisms that underlie a social-visual interface through which social cognition affects visual perception. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Structural neuroimaging in neuropsychology: History and contemporary applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Erin D

    2017-11-01

    Neuropsychology's origins began long before there were any in vivo methods to image the brain. That changed with the advent of computed tomography in the 1970s and magnetic resonance imaging in the early 1980s. Now computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are routinely a part of neuropsychological investigations with an increasing number of sophisticated methods for image analysis. This review examines the history of neuroimaging utilization in neuropsychological investigations, highlighting the basic methods that go into image quantification and the various metrics that can be derived. Neuroimaging methods and limitations for identify what constitutes a lesion are discussed. Likewise, the influence of various demographic and developmental factors that influence quantification of brain structure are reviewed. Neuroimaging is an integral part of 21st Century neuropsychology. The importance of neuroimaging to advancing neuropsychology is emphasized. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Neuroimaging with functional near infrared spectroscopy: From formation to interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Vega, Javier; Treviño-Palacios, Carlos G.; Orihuela-Espina, Felipe

    2017-09-01

    Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is gaining momentum as a functional neuroimaging modality to investigate the cerebral hemodynamics subsequent to neural metabolism. As other neuroimaging modalities, it is neuroscience's tool to understand brain systems functions at behaviour and cognitive levels. To extract useful knowledge from functional neuroimages it is critical to understand the series of transformations applied during the process of the information retrieval and how they bound the interpretation. This process starts with the irradiation of the head tissues with infrared light to obtain the raw neuroimage and proceeds with computational and statistical analysis revealing hidden associations between pixels intensities and neural activity encoded to end up with the explanation of some particular aspect regarding brain function.To comprehend the overall process involved in fNIRS there is extensive literature addressing each individual step separately. This paper overviews the complete transformation sequence through image formation, reconstruction and analysis to provide an insight of the final functional interpretation.

  11. Functional Neuroimaging of Motor Control inParkinson’s Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herz, Damian M; Eickhoff, Simon B; Løkkegaard, Annemette

    2014-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging has been widely used to study the activation patterns of the motor network in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), but these studies have yielded conflicting results. This meta-analysis of previous neuroimaging studies was performed to identify patterns of abnormal...... movement-related activation in PD that were consistent across studies. We applied activation likelihood estimation (ALE) of functional neuroimaging studies probing motor function in patients with PD. The meta-analysis encompassed data from 283 patients with PD reported in 24 functional neuroimaging studies...... and yielded consistent alterations in neural activity in patients with PD. Differences in cortical activation between PD patients and healthy controls converged in a left-lateralized fronto-parietal network comprising the presupplementary motor area, primary motor cortex, inferior parietal cortex...

  12. Bayesian Spatial Point Process Modeling of Neuroimaging Data

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Timothy D.

    2017-01-01

    Talk given during the "Where’s Your Signal? Explicit Spatial Models to Improve Interpretability and Sensitivity of Neuroimaging Results" workshop at the 2012 Organization for Human Brain Mapping (OHBM) conference in in Beijing, 10-14 June.

  13. Modeling Latency and Shape Changes in Trial Based Neuroimaging Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Hansen, Lars Kai; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard

    2011-01-01

    To overcome poor signal-to-noise ratios in neuroimaging, data sets are often acquired over repeated trials that form a three-way array of spacetimetrials. As neuroimaging data contain multiple inter-mixed signal components blind signal separation and decomposition methods are frequently invoked...... representation. We demonstrate how this alleviates degeneracy and helps to extract physiologically plausible components. The resulting convolutive multi-linear decomposition can model realistic trial variability as demonstrated in EEG and fMRI data....

  14. A Knowledge Representation and Reasoning System for Multimodal Neuroimaging Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Coelho; Paulo Marques; Ricardo Magalhães; Nuno Sousa; José Neves; Victor Alves

    2017-01-01

    Multimodal neuroimaging analyses are of major interest for both research and clinical practice, enabling the combined evaluation of the structure and function of the human brain. These analyses generate large volumes of data and consequently increase the amount of possibly useful information. Indeed, BrainArchive was developed in order to organize, maintain and share this complex array of neuroimaging data. It stores all the information available for each participant/patient, being dynamic by...

  15. Paediatric population neuroimaging and the Generation R Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Tonya; Muetzel, Ryan L.; El Marroun, Hanan

    2018-01-01

    over time. Magnetic resonance imaging was included in 2009 with the scanning of 1070 6-to-9-year-old children. The second neuroimaging wave was initiated in April 2013 with a total of 4245 visiting the MRI suite and 4087 9-to-11-year-old children being scanned. The sequences included high...... first wave of neuroimaging, which highlights a diverse array of questions that can be addressed by merging the fields of developmental neuroscience and epidemiology....

  16. Neural Correlates of Developmental Speech and Language Disorders: Evidence from Neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liégeois, Frédérique; Mayes, Angela; Morgan, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Disorders of speech and language arise out of a complex interaction of genetic, environmental, and neural factors. Little is understood about the neural bases of these disorders. Here we systematically reviewed neuroimaging findings in Speech disorders (SD) and Language disorders (LD) over the last five years (2008-2013; 10 articles). In participants with SD, structural and functional anomalies in the left supramarginal gyrus suggest a possible deficit in sensory feedback or integration. In LD, cortical and subcortical anomalies were reported in a widespread language network, with little consistency across studies except in the superior temporal gyri. In summary, both functional and structural anomalies are associated with LD and SD, including greater activity and volumes relative to controls. The variability in neuroimaging approach and heterogeneity within and across participant samples restricts our full understanding of the neurobiology of these conditions- reducing the potential for devising novel interventions targeted at the underlying pathology.

  17. Widespread Structural and Functional Connectivity Changes in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Insights from Advanced Neuroimaging Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojsi, Francesca; Monsurrò, Maria Rosaria; Esposito, Fabrizio; Tedeschi, Gioacchino

    2012-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a severe neurodegenerative disease principally affecting motor neurons. Besides motor symptoms, a subset of patients develop cognitive disturbances or even frontotemporal dementia (FTD), indicating that ALS may also involve extramotor brain regions. Both neuropathological and neuroimaging findings have provided further insight on the widespread effect of the neurodegeneration on brain connectivity and the underlying neurobiology of motor neurons degeneration. However, associated effects on motor and extramotor brain networks are largely unknown. Particularly, neuropathological findings suggest that ALS not only affects the frontotemporal network but rather is part of a wide clinicopathological spectrum of brain disorders known as TAR-DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) proteinopathies. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge concerning the neuropsychological and neuropathological sequelae of TDP-43 proteinopathies, with special focus on the neuroimaging findings associated with cognitive change in ALS. PMID:22720174

  18. A review of neuroimaging findings of apathy in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theleritis, Christos; Politis, Antonios; Siarkos, Kostas; Lyketsos, Costantine G

    2014-01-01

    Background Apathy is one of the most frequent ‘behavioral and psychological signs and symptoms of dementia’ (BPSD) encountered in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). There is a growing interest in the early diagnosis of apathetic elderly patients in the community since apathy has been associated with reduced daily functioning, caregiver distress, and poor outcome. The generalization of neuroimaging techniques might be able to offer help in this domain. Methods Within this context we conducted an extensive electronic search from the databases included in the National Library of Medicine as well as PsychInfo and Google Scholar for neuroimaging findings of apathy in Alzheimer’s Disease. Results Neuroimaging findings lend support to the notion that frontal-subcortical networks are involved in the occurrence of apathy in AD. Conclusions Longitudinal studies comparing patients and normal individuals might allow us to infer on the association between apathy and neurodegenerative diseases and what can brain imaging markers tell us about the characterization of this association, thus revealing disease patterns, helping to distinguish clinically distinct cognitive syndromes, and allowing predictions. PMID:24135083

  19. Combined neurostimulation and neuroimaging in cognitive neuroscience: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestmann, Sven; Feredoes, Eva

    2013-08-01

    Modern neurostimulation approaches in humans provide controlled inputs into the operations of cortical regions, with highly specific behavioral consequences. This enables causal structure-function inferences, and in combination with neuroimaging, has provided novel insights into the basic mechanisms of action of neurostimulation on distributed networks. For example, more recent work has established the capacity of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to probe causal interregional influences, and their interaction with cognitive state changes. Combinations of neurostimulation and neuroimaging now face the challenge of integrating the known physiological effects of neurostimulation with theoretical and biological models of cognition, for example, when theoretical stalemates between opposing cognitive theories need to be resolved. This will be driven by novel developments, including biologically informed computational network analyses for predicting the impact of neurostimulation on brain networks, as well as novel neuroimaging and neurostimulation techniques. Such future developments may offer an expanded set of tools with which to investigate structure-function relationships, and to formulate and reconceptualize testable hypotheses about complex neural network interactions and their causal roles in cognition. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  20. A statistical framework for neuroimaging data analysis based on mutual information estimated via a gaussian copula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Robin A A; Giordano, Bruno L; Kayser, Christoph; Rousselet, Guillaume A; Gross, Joachim; Schyns, Philippe G

    2017-03-01

    We begin by reviewing the statistical framework of information theory as applicable to neuroimaging data analysis. A major factor hindering wider adoption of this framework in neuroimaging is the difficulty of estimating information theoretic quantities in practice. We present a novel estimation technique that combines the statistical theory of copulas with the closed form solution for the entropy of Gaussian variables. This results in a general, computationally efficient, flexible, and robust multivariate statistical framework that provides effect sizes on a common meaningful scale, allows for unified treatment of discrete, continuous, unidimensional and multidimensional variables, and enables direct comparisons of representations from behavioral and brain responses across any recording modality. We validate the use of this estimate as a statistical test within a neuroimaging context, considering both discrete stimulus classes and continuous stimulus features. We also present examples of analyses facilitated by these developments, including application of multivariate analyses to MEG planar magnetic field gradients, and pairwise temporal interactions in evoked EEG responses. We show the benefit of considering the instantaneous temporal derivative together with the raw values of M/EEG signals as a multivariate response, how we can separately quantify modulations of amplitude and direction for vector quantities, and how we can measure the emergence of novel information over time in evoked responses. Open-source Matlab and Python code implementing the new methods accompanies this article. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1541-1573, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A statistical framework for neuroimaging data analysis based on mutual information estimated via a gaussian copula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Bruno L.; Kayser, Christoph; Rousselet, Guillaume A.; Gross, Joachim; Schyns, Philippe G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We begin by reviewing the statistical framework of information theory as applicable to neuroimaging data analysis. A major factor hindering wider adoption of this framework in neuroimaging is the difficulty of estimating information theoretic quantities in practice. We present a novel estimation technique that combines the statistical theory of copulas with the closed form solution for the entropy of Gaussian variables. This results in a general, computationally efficient, flexible, and robust multivariate statistical framework that provides effect sizes on a common meaningful scale, allows for unified treatment of discrete, continuous, unidimensional and multidimensional variables, and enables direct comparisons of representations from behavioral and brain responses across any recording modality. We validate the use of this estimate as a statistical test within a neuroimaging context, considering both discrete stimulus classes and continuous stimulus features. We also present examples of analyses facilitated by these developments, including application of multivariate analyses to MEG planar magnetic field gradients, and pairwise temporal interactions in evoked EEG responses. We show the benefit of considering the instantaneous temporal derivative together with the raw values of M/EEG signals as a multivariate response, how we can separately quantify modulations of amplitude and direction for vector quantities, and how we can measure the emergence of novel information over time in evoked responses. Open‐source Matlab and Python code implementing the new methods accompanies this article. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1541–1573, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27860095

  2. The Java Image Science Toolkit (JIST) for Rapid Prototyping and Publishing of Neuroimaging Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Blake C.; Bogovic, John A.; Carass, Aaron; Bazin, Pierre-Louis; Prince, Jerry L.; Pham, Dzung

    2010-01-01

    Non-invasive neuroimaging techniques enable extraordinarily sensitive and specific in vivo study of the structure, functional response and connectivity of biological mechanisms. With these advanced methods comes a heavy reliance on computer-based processing, analysis and interpretation. While the neuroimaging community has produced many excellent academic and commercial tool packages, new tools are often required to interpret new modalities and paradigms. Developing custom tools and ensuring interoperability with existing tools is a significant hurdle. To address these limitations, we present a new framework for algorithm development that implicitly ensures tool interoperability, generates graphical user interfaces, provides advanced batch processing tools, and, most importantly, requires minimal additional programming or computational overhead. Java-based rapid prototyping with this system is an efficient and practical approach to evaluate new algorithms since the proposed system ensures that rapidly constructed prototypes are actually fully-functional processing modules with support for multiple GUI's, a broad range of file formats, and distributed computation. Herein, we demonstrate MRI image processing with the proposed system for cortical surface extraction in large cross-sectional cohorts, provide a system for fully automated diffusion tensor image analysis, and illustrate how the system can be used as a simulation framework for the development of a new image analysis method. The system is released as open source under the Lesser GNU Public License (LGPL) through the Neuroimaging Informatics Tools and Resources Clearinghouse (NITRC). PMID:20077162

  3. ARIANNA: A research environment for neuroimaging studies in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retico, Alessandra; Arezzini, Silvia; Bosco, Paolo; Calderoni, Sara; Ciampa, Alberto; Coscetti, Simone; Cuomo, Stefano; De Santis, Luca; Fabiani, Dario; Fantacci, Maria Evelina; Giuliano, Alessia; Mazzoni, Enrico; Mercatali, Pietro; Miscali, Giovanni; Pardini, Massimiliano; Prosperi, Margherita; Romano, Francesco; Tamburini, Elena; Tosetti, Michela; Muratori, Filippo

    2017-08-01

    The complexity and heterogeneity of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) require the implementation of dedicated analysis techniques to obtain the maximum from the interrelationship among many variables that describe affected individuals, spanning from clinical phenotypic characterization and genetic profile to structural and functional brain images. The ARIANNA project has developed a collaborative interdisciplinary research environment that is easily accessible to the community of researchers working on ASD (https://arianna.pi.infn.it). The main goals of the project are: to analyze neuroimaging data acquired in multiple sites with multivariate approaches based on machine learning; to detect structural and functional brain characteristics that allow the distinguishing of individuals with ASD from control subjects; to identify neuroimaging-based criteria to stratify the population with ASD to support the future development of personalized treatments. Secure data handling and storage are guaranteed within the project, as well as the access to fast grid/cloud-based computational resources. This paper outlines the web-based architecture, the computing infrastructure and the collaborative analysis workflows at the basis of the ARIANNA interdisciplinary working environment. It also demonstrates the full functionality of the research platform. The availability of this innovative working environment for analyzing clinical and neuroimaging information of individuals with ASD is expected to support researchers in disentangling complex data thus facilitating their interpretation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Neuroimaging in stroke and seizure as neurological emergencies (NISSAN) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Gustavo J; Nasar, Abu; Suri, M Fareed K; Ezzeddine, Mustapha A; Qureshi, Adnan I

    2008-01-01

    To report the current national utilization of neuroimaging in the emergency department for the two most common neurological emergencies; stroke and seizure. Patients were identified using primary International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9-CM codes from the 2004 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS). NHAMCS is designed to collect data on the utilization and provision of care in emergency departments of hospitals in the United States. We analyzed the use of neuroimaging in patients presenting to the emergency department with seizure or stroke. About 60% of 1,190,219 patients with the diagnosis of stroke or seizure had neuroimaging performed emergently. Patients with any type of stroke were more likely to undergo neuroimaging compared to patients with seizure (78% vs. 37%, P emergency department among 100% of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, 79% with ischemic stroke, and 69% with intracerebral hemorrhage. In a nationally representative study, emergent neuroimaging appeared to be underutilized among patients with ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage. There is a need to increase the utilization of neuroimaging in the emergency department in anticipation of new acute stroke treatments.

  5. Introduction and overview of the special issue "Brain imaging and aging": The new era of neuroimaging in aging research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Katsutoshi; Ishiki, Aiko; Tomita, Naoki; Onaka, Yuta; Saito, Haruka; Nakamichi, Tomoko; Hara, Kazunari; Kusano, Yusuke; Ebara, Masamune; Arata, Yuki; Sakota, Miku; Miyazawa, Isabelle; Totsune, Tomoko; Okinaga, Shoji; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Kudo, Yukitsuka; Arai, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-01

    It is well known that the brain is one of the organs particularly affected by aging in terms of function, relative to the gastrointestinal tract and liver, which exhibit less functional decline. There is also a wide range of age-related neurological disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. Therefore, it is very important to understand the relationship between functional age-related change and neurological dysfunction. Neuroimaging techniques including magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography have been significantly improved over recent years. Many physicians and researchers have investigated various mechanisms of age-related cerebral change and associated neurological disorders using neuroimaging techniques. In this special issue of Ageing Research Reviews, we focus on cerebral- and neuro-imaging, which are a range of tools used to visualize structure, functions, and pathogenic molecules in the nervous system. In addition, we summarize several review articles about the history, present values, and future perspectives of neuroimaging modalities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Manufacturer's Suggested Retail Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenkranz, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/157222241

    2003-01-01

    Based on arguments of the `reference- dependent' theory of consumer choice we assume that a retailer's discount of a manufacturer's suggested retail price changes consumers' demand. We can show that the producer benefits from suggesting a retail price. If consumers are additionally sufficiently

  7. How Acute Total Sleep Loss Affects the Attending Brain: A Meta-Analysis of Neuroimaging Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Dinges, David F.; Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Attention is a cognitive domain that can be severely affected by sleep deprivation. Previous neuroimaging studies have used different attention paradigms and reported both increased and reduced brain activation after sleep deprivation. However, due to large variability in sleep deprivation protocols, task paradigms, experimental designs, characteristics of subject populations, and imaging techniques, there is no consensus regarding the effects of sleep loss on the attending brain. The aim of this meta-analysis was to identify brain activations that are commonly altered by acute total sleep deprivation across different attention tasks. Design: Coordinate-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies of performance on attention tasks during experimental sleep deprivation. Methods: The current version of the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach was used for meta-analysis. The authors searched published articles and identified 11 sleep deprivation neuroimaging studies using different attention tasks with a total of 185 participants, equaling 81 foci for ALE analysis. Results: The meta-analysis revealed significantly reduced brain activation in multiple regions following sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness, including bilateral intraparietal sulcus, bilateral insula, right prefrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex, and right parahippocampal gyrus. Increased activation was found only in bilateral thalamus after sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness. Conclusion: Acute total sleep deprivation decreases brain activation in the fronto-parietal attention network (prefrontal cortex and intraparietal sulcus) and in the salience network (insula and medial frontal cortex). Increased thalamic activation after sleep deprivation may reflect a complex interaction between the de-arousing effects of sleep loss and the arousing effects of task performance on thalamic activity. Citation: Ma N, Dinges DF, Basner M, Rao H. How acute total

  8. ANIMA: A data-sharing initiative for neuroimaging meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Andrew T; Bzdok, Danilo; Genon, Sarah; Langner, Robert; Müller, Veronika I; Eickhoff, Claudia R; Hoffstaedter, Felix; Cieslik, Edna-Clarisse; Fox, Peter T; Laird, Angela R; Amunts, Katrin; Caspers, Svenja; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2016-01-01

    Meta-analytic techniques allow cognitive neuroscientists to pool large amounts of data across many individual task-based functional neuroimaging experiments. These methods have been aided by the introduction of online databases such as Brainmap.org or Neurosynth.org, which collate peak activation coordinates obtained from thousands of published studies. Findings from meta-analytic studies typically include brain regions which are consistently activated across studies for specific contrasts, investigating cognitive or clinical hypotheses. These regions can be subsequently used as the basis for seed-based connectivity analysis, or formally compared to neuroimaging data in order to help interpret new findings. To facilitate such approaches, we have developed a new online repository of meta-analytic neuroimaging results, named the Archive of Neuroimaging Meta-analyses (ANIMA). The ANIMA platform consists of an intuitive online interface for querying, downloading, and contributing data from published meta-analytic studies. Additionally, to aid the process of organizing, visualizing, and working with these data, we present an open-source desktop application called Volume Viewer. Volume Viewer allows users to easily arrange imaging data into composite stacks, and save these sessions as individual files, which can also be uploaded to the ANIMA database. The application also allows users to perform basic functions, such as computing conjunctions between images, or extracting regions-of-interest or peak coordinates for further analysis. The introduction of this new resource will enhance the ability of researchers to both share their findings and incorporate existing meta-analytic results into their own research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A neuroimaging study in childhood autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. I. Mullick

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood autism is now widely viewed as being of developmental neurological origin. Abnormality in neuroimaging is reported in autism.Objectives: To delineate the proportion of structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and electro encephalography (EEG abnormality among the children with Autism and to assess any association of MRI and EEG changes with co morbid mental illness.Methods: It was a cross sectional descriptive study done at a child and adolescent consultation centre, Dhaka. The study was Carried out from January 2009 to December 2009. Both boys and girls were included in the study. A total of 42 children with childhood autism aged between two and 12 years partici­pated in this study. Diagnosis of autism was based on ICD-10(DCR criteria. Results: Abnormalities were found to be 35.7% in MRI and 42.9% in EEG. EEG abnormalities were found in the form of defuse slow waves activities, generalized faster activities, epileptogenic discharge and mixed discharge. The abnormalities in MRI was found in the form of diffuse cortical atrophic changes, focal cortical atrophy in frontal and temporal cortex with widening of major sulci, prominent ventricles, periventricular degeneration and abnormal basal ganglia. EEG changes were significantly associated with increased number of co-morbid illness (mental retardation, epilepsy and others. Conclusion: A number of abnom1alities that observed in the present study indicative of relations between structural and physiological dysfunctions and childhood autism. Further exploratory and in-depth researches are certainly required in this field. Intervention of autism needs to address co morbidities for better outcome.

  10. Neuroimaging-Verfahren in der Adipositasforschung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabisch S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In den vergangenen Jahren wurden neurologische Korrelate der Adipositas intensiv diskutiert und erforscht. Der Einsatz neuroradiologischer Verfahren eröffnet der Adipositasforschung neue methodische Ansatzpunkte. Hierbei gelten die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT und die Positronen-Emissionstomographie (PET als die vielversprechendsten. Aufgrund der großen Vielfalt von Einflussfaktoren für Gehirnentwicklung und -funktion müssen für aussagekräftige Neuroimaging-Studien strenge Teilnahmekriterien gelten. Die Zahl leistungsfähiger MRTund PET-Zentren wächst daher gerade in den Großstädten und Ballungszentren, wo gut charakterisierte Probandengruppen rekrutiert werden können. Das menschliche Gehirn empfängt und sendet sowohl homöostatische als auch hedonische Impulse zur Steuerung des Essverhaltens. Hunger und Appetit sind eigenständige Facetten des Essantriebs, die in verschiedenen Hirnarealen entstehen, aber einem gemeinsamen Kontrollzentrum unterstehen. Die verantwortlichen Areale sind bei Adipositas strukturell verändert und in ihrer Funktion beeinträchtigt; insbesondere lassen sich weitreichende Veränderungen im „Belohnungssystem“ erkennen. Frauen und Männer (sowohl normal- als auch übergewichtig scheinen unterschiedlich auf homöostatische und hedonische Sättigungsund Hungerreize zu reagieren. Die „Hungernetzwerke“ stehen unter dem Einfluss genetischer, biochemischer, hormoneller, neuronaler und anderer Faktoren. So stellen z. B. Ghrelin, Peptid YY und Leptin endokrinologische Signale aus dem Verdauungstrakt und dem Fettgewebe dar, die nicht nur Stoffwechselaktivität und Nährstoffverteilung steuern, sondern auch zentralnervöse Effekte haben. Diese Hormone sprechen als Kurz- oder Langzeitmodulatoren Hirnareale mit homöostatischer oder hedonischer Bedeutung an und beeinflussen so die Nahrungsbewertung und das Essverhalten. Die Erkenntnisse über das Zusammenspiel der Hirnregionen bei der Steuerung von Hunger, Appetit

  11. Neuroimaging and the search for a cure for Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrella, Jeffrey R

    2013-12-01

    As radiologists, our role in the workup of the dementia patient has long been limited by the sensitivity of our imaging tools and lack of effective treatment options. Over the past 30 years, we have made tremendous strides in understanding the genetic, molecular, and cellular basis of Alzheimer disease (AD). We now know that the pathologic features of AD are present 1 to 2 decades prior to development of symptoms, though currently approved symptomatic therapies are administered much later in the disease course. The search for true disease-modifying therapy continues and many clinical trials are underway. Current outcome measures, based on cognitive tests, are relatively insensitive to pathologic disease progression, requiring long, expensive trials with large numbers of participants. Biomarkers, including neuroimaging, have great potential to increase the power of trials by matching imaging methodology with therapeutic mechanism. One of the most important advances over the past decade has been the development of in vivo imaging probes targeted to amyloid beta protein, and one agent is already available for clinical use. Additional advances include automated volumetric imaging methods to quantitate cerebral volume loss. Use of such techniques in small, early phase trials are expected to significantly increase the number and quality of candidate drugs for testing in larger trials. In addition to a critical role in trials, structural, molecular, and functional imaging techniques can give us a window on the etiology of AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. This combination of developments has potential to bring diagnostic radiology to the forefront in AD research, therapeutic trials, and patient care. ©RSNA, 2013.

  12. Suggestive Objects at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene Gad

    2009-01-01

    In Western secular societies, spiritual life is no longer limited to classical religious institutions but can also be found at workplace organizations. While spirituality is conventionally understood as a subjective and internal process, this paper proposes the concept of ‘suggestive objects’, co...... scaffolding. This has deep implications for our understanding of the sacred, including a better appreciation of the way that suggestive objects make the sacred durable, the way they organize it....

  13. Cerebral Microbleeds: A Review of Clinical, Genetic and Neuroimaging Associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Andrew Yates

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract.Cerebral microbleeds (microbleeds are small, punctuate hypointense lesions seen in T2* Gradient-Recall Echo (GRE and Susceptibility-Weighted (SWI Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI sequences, corresponding to areas of hemosiderin breakdown products from prior microscopic hemorrhages. They occur in the setting of impaired small vessel integrity, commonly due to either hypertensive vasculopathy or cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Microbleeds are more prevalent in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease dementia (AD and in those with both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. However they are also found in asymptomatic individuals, with increasing prevalence with age, particularly in carriers of the Apolipoprotein (APOE ε4 allele. Other neuroimaging findings that have been linked with microbleeds include lacunar infarcts and white matter hyperintensities on MRI, and increased cerebral β-amyloid burden using 11C-PiB Positron Emission Tomography (PET.The presence of microbleeds has been suggested to confer increased risk of incident intracerebral hemorrhage – particularly in the setting of anticoagulation – and of complications of immunotherapy for AD. Prospective data regarding the natural history and sequelae of microbleeds are currently limited, however there is a growing evidence base that will serve to inform clinical decision-making in the future.

  14. Nipype: A flexible, lightweight and extensible neuroimaging data processing framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof eGorgolewski

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Current neuroimaging software offer users an incredible opportunity to analyze their data in different ways, with different underlying assumptions. Several sophisticated software packages (e.g., AFNI, BrainVoyager, FSL, FreeSurfer, Nipy, R, SPM are used to process and analyze large and often diverse (highly multi-dimensional data. However, this heterogeneous collection of specialized applications creates several issues that hinder replicable, efficient and optimal use of neuroimaging analysis approaches: 1 No uniform access to neuroimaging analysis software and usage information; 2 No framework for comparative algorithm development and dissemination; 3 Personnel turnover in laboratories often limits methodological continuity and training new personnel takes time; 4 Neuroimaging software packages do not address computational efficiency; and 5 Methods sections in journal articles are inadequate for reproducing results. To address these issues, we present Nipype (Neuroimaging in Python: Pipelines and Interfaces; http://nipy.org/nipype, an open-source, community-developed, software package and scriptable library. Nipype solves the issues by providing Interfaces to existing neuroimaging software with uniform usage semantics and by facilitating interaction between these packages using Workflows. Nipype provides an environment that encourages interactive exploration of algorithms, eases the design of Workflows within and between packages, allows rapid comparative development of algorithms and reduces the learning curve necessary to use different packages. Nipype supports both local and remote execution on multi-core machines and clusters, without additional scripting. Nipype is BSD licensed, allowing anyone unrestricted usage. An open, community-driven development philosophy allows the software to quickly adapt and address the varied needs of the evolving neuroimaging community, especially in the context of increasing demand for reproducible research.

  15. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis complicating dengue infection with neuroimaging mimicking multiple sclerosis: A report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, S; Botross, N; Rusli, B N; Riad, A

    2016-11-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) complicating dengue infection is still exceedingly rare even in endemic countries such as Malaysia. Here we report two such cases, the first in an elderly female patient and the second in a young man. Both presented with encephalopathy, brainstem involvement and worsening upper and lower limb weakness. Initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain was normal in the first case. Serum for dengue Ig M and NS-1 was positive in both cases. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed pleocytosis in both with Dengue IgM and NS-1 positive in the second case but not done in the first. MRI brain showed changes of perpendicular subcortical palisading white matter, callosal and brainstem disease mimicking multiple sclerosis (MS) in both patients though in the former case there was a lag between the onset of clinical symptoms and MRI changes which was only clarified on reimaging. The temporal evolution and duration of the clinical symptoms, CSF changes and neuroimaging were more suggestive of Dengue ADEM rather than an encephalitis though initially the first case began as dengue encephalitis. Furthermore in dengue encephalitis neuroimaging is usually normal or rarely edema, haemorrhage, brainstem, thalamic or focal lesions are seen. Therefore, early recognition of ADEM as a sequelae of dengue infection with neuroimaging mimicking MS and repeat imaging helped in identifying these two cases. Treatment with intravenous steroids followed by maintenance oral steroids produced good outcome in both patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Open to Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Reading, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Offers (1) suggestions on how to teach students the importance of regular study habits for learning to spell, (2) story ideas to help students get started with creative writing, and (3) a model of a daily record assignment book to help students organize and remember their homework assignments. (SRT)

  17. Recruitment of the left precentral gyrus in reading epilepsy: A multimodal neuroimaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dima Safi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: This study is the first to investigate ictogenesis in reading epilepsy during both lexical and phonological reading while using three different multimodal neuroimaging techniques. The somatosensory and motor control functions of the left precentral gyrus that are congruently involved in lexical as well as phonological reading can explain the identical spike localization in both reading pathways. The concurrence between our findings in this study and those from our previous one supports the role of the left precentral gyrus in phonological output computation as well as seizure activity in a case of reading epilepsy.

  18. Statistical inferences under the Null hypothesis: Common mistakes and pitfalls in neuroimaging studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel eHupé

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Published studies using functional and structural MRI include many errors in the way data are analyzed and conclusions reported. This was observed when working on a comprehensive review of the neural bases of synesthesia, but these errors are probably endemic to neuroimaging studies. All studies reviewed had based their conclusions using Null Hypothesis Significance Tests (NHST. NHST have yet been criticized since their inception because they are more appropriate for taking decisions related to a Null hypothesis (like in manufacturing than for making inferences about behavioral and neuronal processes. Here I focus on a few key problems of NHST related to brain imaging techniques, and explain why or when we should not rely on significance tests. I also observed that, often, the ill-posed logic of NHST was even not correctly applied, and describe what I identified as common mistakes or at least problematic practices in published papers, in light of what could be considered as the very basics of statistical inference. MRI statistics also involve much more complex issues than standard statistical inference. Analysis pipelines vary a lot between studies, even for those using the same software, and there is no consensus which pipeline is the best. I propose a synthetic view of the logic behind the possible methodological choices, and warn against the usage and interpretation of two statistical methods popular in brain imaging studies, the false discovery rate (FDR procedure and permutation tests. I suggest that current models for the analysis of brain imaging data suffer from serious limitations and call for a revision taking into account the new statistics (confidence intervals logic.

  19. The Co-evolution of Neuroimaging and Psychiatric Neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyster, Timothy G; Mikell, Charles B; Sheth, Sameer A

    2016-01-01

    The role of neuroimaging in psychiatric neurosurgery has evolved significantly throughout the field's history. Psychiatric neurosurgery initially developed without the benefit of information provided by modern imaging modalities, and thus lesion targets were selected based on contemporary theories of frontal lobe dysfunction in psychiatric disease. However, by the end of the 20th century, the availability of structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) allowed for the development of mechanistic theories attempting to explain the anatamofunctional basis of these disorders, as well as the efficacy of stereotactic neuromodulatory treatments. Neuroimaging now plays a central and ever-expanding role in the neurosurgical management of psychiatric disorders, by influencing the determination of surgical candidates, allowing individualized surgical targeting and planning, and identifying network-level changes in the brain following surgery. In this review, we aim to describe the coevolution of psychiatric neurosurgery and neuroimaging, including ways in which neuroimaging has proved useful in elucidating the therapeutic mechanisms of neuromodulatory procedures. We focus on ablative over stimulation-based procedures given their historical precedence and the greater opportunity they afford for post-operative re-imaging, but also discuss important contributions from the deep brain stimulation (DBS) literature. We conclude with a discussion of how neuroimaging will transition the field of psychiatric neurosurgery into the era of precision medicine.

  20. Neuroimaging in Mental Health Care: Voices in Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily L. Borgelt

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Images of brain function, popularly called neuroimages, have become a mainstay of contemporary communication about neuroscience and mental health. Paralleling media coverage of neuroimaging research and the high visibility of clinics selling scans is pressure from sponsors to move basic research about brain function along the translational pathway. Indeed, neuroimaging benefit mental health care with early or tailored intervention, opportunities for education and planning, and access to resources afforded by objectification of disorder. However, risks of premature technology transfer, such as misinterpretation, misrepresentation, and increased stigmatization, could compromise patient care.Stakeholder views on neuroimaging for mental health care are a largely untapped resource of information and guidance for translational efforts. We argue that the insights of key stakeholders – researchers, healthcare providers, patients, and families - have an essential role to play upstream in professional, critical, and ethical discourse about neuroimaging in mental health. Here we integrate previously orthogonal lines of inquiry involving stakeholder research to describe the translational landscape as well as challenges on its horizon.

  1. Neuroimaging study of Fukuyama type congenital muscular dystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murasugi, Hiroko (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1992-11-01

    Fukuyama type congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD) has been attracting attention in recent years because of its brain malformation and progressive muscular dystrophy. The intravitam recognition of brain malformation has been remarkably enhanced by the advent of noninvasive neuroimaging techniques such as CT and MRI. In this study, 87 cranial CT scans and 22 MRIs of the brain, carried out on 60 patients with FCMD, were systematically surveyed, and the correlation between neuroradiological findings and clinical disabilities, and, in two autopsy cases, neuropathological findings was evaluated. Four cases of lissencephalic, 29 of pachygyric, and one of polymicrogyric (suspected) brain surface, and 2 normal brain surfaces were recognized. The patients with lissencephalic brain surface were compared using Dobyns' criteria. Grading of pachygyria was judged as bilateral II in 52% of cases and bilateral I in 48%. The surface of the occipital lobe could not be confirmed with either CT or MRI. Polymicrogyria was suspected using MRI but could not confirmed with CT. Five caces of lissencephaly had never learned any meaningful words and all but one were bedridden because of poor head control. The abilities of patients were better when the grading of pachygyria was milder. Mental disability and peak motor function correlate more closely with the degree and extent of brain malformation than with muscle degeneration. The decrease in radiodensity in the white matter was remarkable in 12 out of 19 cases (63%), and was usually bilaterally symmetrical. An increase in radiodensity in the white matter with age was observed in 3 patients. The rate of myelination was slower than normal in 3 out of the 6 cases. (author).

  2. Machine learning for neuroimaging with scikit-learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Alexandre; Pedregosa, Fabian; Eickenberg, Michael; Gervais, Philippe; Mueller, Andreas; Kossaifi, Jean; Gramfort, Alexandre; Thirion, Bertrand; Varoquaux, Gaël

    2014-01-01

    Statistical machine learning methods are increasingly used for neuroimaging data analysis. Their main virtue is their ability to model high-dimensional datasets, e.g., multivariate analysis of activation images or resting-state time series. Supervised learning is typically used in decoding or encoding settings to relate brain images to behavioral or clinical observations, while unsupervised learning can uncover hidden structures in sets of images (e.g., resting state functional MRI) or find sub-populations in large cohorts. By considering different functional neuroimaging applications, we illustrate how scikit-learn, a Python machine learning library, can be used to perform some key analysis steps. Scikit-learn contains a very large set of statistical learning algorithms, both supervised and unsupervised, and its application to neuroimaging data provides a versatile tool to study the brain.

  3. Machine Learning for Neuroimaging with Scikit-Learn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre eAbraham

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Statistical machine learning methods are increasingly used for neuroimaging data analysis. Their main virtue is their ability to model high-dimensional datasets, e.g. multivariate analysis of activation images or resting-state time series. Supervised learning is typically used in decoding or encoding settings to relate brain images to behavioral or clinical observations, while unsupervised learning can uncover hidden structures in sets of images (e.g. resting state functional MRI or find sub-populations in large cohorts. By considering different functional neuroimaging applications, we illustrate how scikit-learn, a Python machine learning library, can be used to perform some key analysis steps. Scikit-learn contains a very large set of statistical learning algorithms, both supervised and unsupervised, and its application to neuroimaging data provides a versatile tool to study the brain.

  4. A novel meta-analytic approach: mining frequent co-activation patterns in neuroimaging databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspers, Julian; Zilles, Karl; Beierle, Christoph; Rottschy, Claudia; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2014-04-15

    In recent years, coordinate-based meta-analyses have become a powerful and widely used tool to study co-activity across neuroimaging experiments, a development that was supported by the emergence of large-scale neuroimaging databases like BrainMap. However, the evaluation of co-activation patterns is constrained by the fact that previous coordinate-based meta-analysis techniques like Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) and Multilevel Kernel Density Analysis (MKDA) reveal all brain regions that show convergent activity within a dataset without taking into account actual within-experiment co-occurrence patterns. To overcome this issue we here propose a novel meta-analytic approach named PaMiNI that utilizes a combination of two well-established data-mining techniques, Gaussian mixture modeling and the Apriori algorithm. By this, PaMiNI enables a data-driven detection of frequent co-activation patterns within neuroimaging datasets. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated by means of several analyses on simulated data as well as a real application. The analyses of the simulated data show that PaMiNI identifies the brain regions underlying the simulated activation foci and perfectly separates the co-activation patterns of the experiments in the simulations. Furthermore, PaMiNI still yields good results when activation foci of distinct brain regions become closer together or if they are non-Gaussian distributed. For the further evaluation, a real dataset on working memory experiments is used, which was previously examined in an ALE meta-analysis and hence allows a cross-validation of both methods. In this latter analysis, PaMiNI revealed a fronto-parietal "core" network of working memory and furthermore indicates a left-lateralization in this network. Finally, to encourage a widespread usage of this new method, the PaMiNI approach was implemented into a publicly available software system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Evidence on Use of Neuroimaging for Surgical Treatment of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Amy L; Cascino, Gregory D

    2016-04-01

    Surgery is an effective treatment for drug-resistant focal epilepsy. Neuroimaging studies are considered essential in the diagnostic evaluation of individuals with medically refractory focal seizures being considered for surgical treatment. To review the evidence for the use of neuroimaging studies in the selection of patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy for focal cortical resection and discuss the prognostic importance of selected techniques. Randomized clinical trials, meta-analyses, and clinical retrospective case studies (≥20 patients with ≥1 year of follow-up) were identified using Medical Subject Headings and indexed text terms in EMBASE (1988-November 29, 2014); MEDLINE (1946-December 2, 2014), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (1991-October 31, 2014), and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2005-October 31, 2014). Twenty-seven articles describing 3163 patients were included. Neuroimaging techniques analyzed included magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Subpopulations and prognostic factors were identified. Of the 27 studies evaluated (3163 patients), 7 showed the outcome was more favorable in patients with MRI-identified hippocampal atrophy indicating mesial temporal sclerosis. Five additional studies indicated that the outcome was less favorable in patients with unremarkable MRI studies. There are conflicting findings regarding the prognostic importance of PET-identified focal hypometabolism; however, 2 investigations indicated that the presence of a PET imaging study demonstrating abnormalities in individuals with unremarkable MRI results showed an operative outcome similar to that in patients with mesial temporal sclerosis. The studies assessing SPECT use in temporal lobe epilepsy did not reveal a correlation with outcome. There is strong evidence that preoperative MRI-identified hippocampal atrophy consistent with mesial temporal

  6. Neuroimaging Studies of Essential Tremor: How Well Do These Studies Support/Refute the Neurodegenerative Hypothesis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elan D. Louis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tissue‐based research has recently led to a new patho‐mechanistic model of essential tremor (ET—the cerebellar degenerative model. We are not aware of a study that has reviewed the current neuroimaging evidence, focusing on whether the studies support or refute the neurodegenerative hypothesis of ET. This was our aim.Methods: References for this review were identified by searches of PubMed (1966 to February 2014.Results: Several neuroimaging methods have been used to study ET, most of them based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. The methods most specific to address the question of neurodegeneration are MRI‐based volumetry, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and diffusion‐weighted imaging. Studies using each of these methods provide support for the presence of cerebellar degeneration in ET, finding reduced cerebellar brain volumes, consistent decreases in cerebellar N‐acetylaspartate, and increased mean diffusivity. Other neuroimaging techniques, such as functional MRI and positron emission tomography (PET are less specific, but still sensitive to potential neurodegeneration. These techniques are used for measuring a variety of brain functions and their impairment. Studies using these modalities also largely support cerebellar neuronal impairment. In particular, changes in 11C‐flumazenil binding in PET studies and changes in iron deposition in an MRI study provide evidence along these lines. The composite data point to neuronal impairment and likely neuronal degeneration in ET.Discussion: Recent years have seen a marked increase in the number of imaging studies of ET. As a whole, the combined data provide support for the presence of cerebellar neuronal degeneration in this disease.

  7. First Afebrile Seizure in Children: Which Patients Require Emergent Neuroimaging?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülser Esen Besli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of intra-cranial pathology in children presenting to emergency department with a first afebrile seizure and to determine patients at high risk for abnormal neuroimaging. Methods: The medical files of 173 children who presented to the emergency department with a first afebrile seizure and underwent neuroimaging within 24 hours of presentation were retrospectively evaluated. We defined clinically emergent intracranial pathology as any lesion requiring immediate medical or surgical intervention. The relationship of age, seizure characteristics, predisposing conditions, presence of new-onset neurologic deficits, and baseline neurological status with neuroimaging findings were compared. Results: There were 103 males (59.5% and 70 females. The mean age was 80±60.4 months (1-204. Of the 173 children, 87 (50.3% had a computed tomography scan, 50 (28.9% had magnetic resonance imaging, and 36 (20.8% underwent both magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. Neuroimaging results were abnormal in 24.3% of patients whereas 5.2% had an emergent intracranial pathology. The conditions associated with abnormal neuroimaging were: 1 focal seizures, 2 new-onset neurological deficits 3 pre-existing neurological abnormalities, 4 predisposing conditions, and 5 being younger than 24 months of age. Conclusion: Planning emergency neuroimaging in children with a first afebrile seizure seems rational if the child is younger than 24 moths of age, has focal seizure(s, abnormal neurologic status prior seizure, new-onset neurological symptoms, or predisposing conditions.

  8. New electroencephalogram (EEG) neuroimaging methods of analyzing brain activity applicable to the study of human sexual response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortigue, Stephanie; Patel, Nisa; Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco

    2009-07-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) combined with brain source localization algorithms is becoming a powerful tool in the neuroimaging study of human cerebral functions. The present article provides a tutorial on the various EEG methods currently used to study the human brain activity, notably during sexual response. Review of published literature on standard EEG waveform analyses and most recent electrical neuroimaging techniques (microstate approach and two methods of brain source localization). Retrospective overview of pertinent literature. Although the standard EEG waveform analyses enable millisecond time-resolution information about the human sexual responses in the brain, less is clear about their related spatial information. Nowadays, the improvement of EEG techniques and statistical approaches allows the visualization of the dynamics of the human sexual response with a higher spatiotemporal resolution. Here, we describe these enhanced techniques and summarize along with an overview of what we have learned from them in terms of chronoarchitecture of sexual response in the human brain. Finally, the speculation on how we may be able to use other enhanced approaches, such as independent component analysis, are also presented. EEG neuroimaging has already been proven as a strong worthwhile research tool. Combining this approach with standard EEG waveform analyses in sexual medicine may provide a better understanding of the neural activity underlying the human sexual response in both healthy and clinical populations.

  9. Functional and molecular neuroimaging of menopause and hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika eComasco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of gonadal hormones to which the female brain is exposed considerably changes across the menopausal transition, which in turn, is likely to be of great relevance for neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders. However, the neurobiological consequences of these hormone fluctuations and of hormone replacement therapy in the menopause have only begun to be understood. This review summarizes the findings of thirty-four studies of human brain function, including functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron and single-photon computed emission tomography studies, in peri- and postmenopausal women treated with estrogen, or estrogen-progestagen replacement therapy. Seven studies using gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist intervention as a model of hormonal withdrawal are also included. Cognitive paradigms are employed by the majority of studies evaluating the effect of unopposed estrogen or estrogen-progestagen treatment on peri- and postmenopausal women’s brain. In randomized-controlled trials, estrogen treatment enhances activation of fronto-cingulate regions during cognitive functioning, though in many cases no difference in cognitive performance was present. Progestagens seems to counteract the effects of estrogens. Findings on cognitive functioning during acute ovarian hormone withdrawal suggest a decrease in activation of the inferior frontal gyrus, thus essentially corroborating the findings in postmenopausal women. Studies of the cholinergic and serotonergic systems indicate these systems as biological mediators of hormonal influences on the brain. More, hormonal replacement appears to increase cerebral blood flow in cortical regions. On the other hand, studies on emotion processing in postmenopausal women are lacking. These results call for well-powered randomized-controlled multi-modal prospective neuroimaging studies as well as investigation on the related molecular mechanisms of effects of menopausal hormonal

  10. Neuroimaging Research with Children: Ethical Issues and Case Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coch, Donna

    2007-01-01

    There are few available resources for learning and teaching about ethical issues in neuroimaging research with children, who constitute a special and vulnerable population. Here, a brief review of ethical issues in developmental research, situated within the emerging field of neuroethics, highlights the increasingly interdisciplinary nature of…

  11. Neuroimaging findings in late-onset schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Changtae; Lim, Hyun Kook; Lee, Chang Uk

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in late-onset mental disorders. Among them, geriatric schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are significant health care risks and major causes of disability. We discussed whether late-onset schizophrenia (LOS) and late-onset bipolar (LOB) disorder can be a separate entity from early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) and early-onset bipolar (EOB) disorder in a subset of late-life schizophrenia or late-life bipolar disorder through neuroimaging studies. A literature search for imaging studies of LOS or LOB was performed in the PubMed database. Search terms used were "(imaging OR MRI OR CT OR SPECT OR DTI OR PET OR fMRI) AND (schizophrenia or bipolar disorder) AND late onset." Articles that were published in English before October 2013 were included. There were a few neuroimaging studies assessing whether LOS and LOB had different disease-specific neural substrates compared with EOS and EOB. These researches mainly observed volumetric differences in specific brain regions, white matter hyperintensities, diffusion tensor imaging, or functional neuroimaging to explore the differences between LOS and LOB and EOS and EOB. The aim of this review was to highlight the neural substrates involved in LOS and LOB through neuroimaging studies. The exploration of neuroanatomical markers may be the key to the understanding of underlying neurobiology in LOS and LOB.

  12. EEG changes and neuroimaging abnormalities in relevance to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Autism is currently viewed as a genetically determined neurodevelopmental disorder although its defi nite underlying etiology remains to be established. Aim of the Study: Our purpose was to assess autism related morphological neuroimaging changes of the brain and EEG abnormalities in correlation to the ...

  13. Neuroimaging in cerebral palsy - report from north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anju; Mittal, Hema; Kr Debnath, Sanjib; Rai, Anuradha

    2013-01-01

    Only few Indian reports exist on neuroimaging abnormalities in children with cerebral palsy (CP) from India. We studied the clinico-radiological profile of 98 children diagnosed as CP at a tertiary centre in North India. Relevant investigations were carried out to determine the etiology. Among the 98 children studied, 80.5% were males and 22.2% were premature. History of birth asphyxia was present in 41.9%. Quadriplegic CP was seen in 77.5%, hemiplegic in 11.5%, and diplegic in 10.5%. Other abnormalities were microcephaly (60.5%), epilepsy (42%), visual abnormality (37%), and hearing abnormality (20%). Neuroimaging was abnormal in 94/98 (95.91%). Abnormalities were periventricular white matter abnormalities (34%), deep grey matter abnormalities (47.8%), malformations (11.7%), and miscellaneous lesions (6.4%). Neuroimaging findings did not relate to the presence of birth asphyxia, sex, epilepsy, gestation, type of CP, or microcephaly. Neuroimaging is helpful for etiological diagnosis, especially malformations.

  14. Online Open Neuroimaging Mass Meta-Analysis with a Wiki

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Arup; Kempton, Matthew J.; Williams, Steven C. R.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a system for meta-analysis where a wiki stores numerical data in a simple comma-separated values format and a web service performs the numerical statistical computation. We initially apply the system on multiple meta-analyses of structural neuroimaging data results. The described system...

  15. Imaging stress effects on memory: a review of neuroimaging studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stegeren, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To review and give an overview of neuroimaging studies that look at the role of stress (hormones) on memory. Method: An overview will be given of imaging studies that looked at the role of stress (hormones) on memory. Stress is here defined as the acute provocation of the sympathetic

  16. Spinocerebellar ataxia 17: Inconsistency between phenotype and neuroimage findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinocerebellar ataxia 17 (SCA17 is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease clinically characterized by the presence of cerebellar ataxia in combination with variable neurological symptoms. Here we report a Chinese SCA17 family which proband′s clinical manifestation was inconsistent with the neuroimage findings.

  17. Testing for difference between two groups of functional neuroimaging experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Chen, Andrew C. N.; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    We describe a meta-analytic method that tests for the difference between two groups of functional neuroimaging experiments. We use kernel density estimation in three-dimensional brain space to convert points representing focal brain activations into a voxel-based representation. We find the maxim...... thermal pain studies where "hot pain" and "cold pain" form the two groups....

  18. SHIWA workflow interoperability solutions for neuroimaging data analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korkhov, Vladimir; Krefting, Dagmar; Montagnat, Johan; Truong Huu, Tram; Kukla, Tamas; Terstyanszky, Gabor; Manset, David; Caan, Matthan; Olabarriaga, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging is a field that benefits from distributed computing infrastructures (DCIs) to perform data- and compute-intensive processing and analysis. Using grid workflow systems not only automates the processing pipelines, but also enables domain researchers to implement their expertise on how to

  19. Functional neuroimaging in early-onset anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lask, Bryan; Gordon, Isky; Christie, Deborah; Frampton, Ian; Chowdhury, Uttom; Watkins, Beth

    2005-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies in early-onset anorexia nervosa provide evidence of limbic system dysfunction. The current study adds support to the possibility by revealing a significant association between unilateral reduction of blood flow in the temporal region and impaired visuospatial ability, impaired visual memory, and enhanced speed of information processing. 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Contributions of neuroimaging in singing voice studies: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geová Oliveira de Amorim

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT It is assumed that singing is a highly complex activity, which requires the activation and interconnection of sensorimotor areas. The aim of the current research was to present the evidence from neuroimaging studies in the performance of the motor and sensory system in the process of singing. Research articles on the characteristics of human singing analyzed by neuroimaging, which were published between 1990 and 2016, and indexed and listed in databases such as PubMed, BIREME, Lilacs, Web of Science, Scopus, and EBSCO were chosen for this systematic review. A total of 9 articles, employing magnetoencephalography, functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and electrocorticography were chosen. These neuroimaging approaches enabled the identification of a neural network interconnecting the spoken and singing voice, to identify, modulate, and correct pitch. This network changed with the singer's training, variations in melodic structure and harmonized singing, amusia, and the relationship among the brain areas that are responsible for speech, singing, and the persistence of musicality. Since knowledge of the neural networks that control singing is still scarce, the use of neuroimaging methods to elucidate these pathways should be a focus of future research.

  1. Linking Essential Tremor to the Cerebellum-Neuroimaging Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerasa, Antonio; Quattrone, Aldo

    2016-06-01

    Essential tremor (ET) is the most common pathological tremor disorder in the world, and post-mortem evidence has shown that the cerebellum is the most consistent area of pathology in ET. In the last few years, advanced neuroimaging has tried to confirm this evidence. The aim of the present review is to discuss to what extent the evidence provided by this field of study may be generalised. We performed a systematic literature search combining the terms ET with the following keywords: MRI, VBM, MRS, DTI, fMRI, PET and SPECT. We summarised and discussed each study and placed the results in the context of existing knowledge regarding the cerebellar involvement in ET. A total of 51 neuroimaging studies met our search criteria, roughly divided into 19 structural and 32 functional studies. Despite clinical and methodological differences, both functional and structural imaging studies showed similar findings but without defining a clear topography of neurodegeneration. Indeed, the vast majority of studies found functional and structural abnormalities in several parts of the anterior and posterior cerebellar lobules, but it remains to be established to what degree these neural changes contribute to clinical symptoms of ET. Currently, advanced neuroimaging has confirmed the involvement of the cerebellum in pathophysiological processes of ET, although a high variability in results persists. For this reason, the translation of this knowledge into daily clinical practice is again partially limited, although new advanced multivariate neuroimaging approaches (machine-learning) are proving interesting changes of perspective.

  2. Neuroimaging in Psychiatry: A Review of the Background and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper offers a selective literature review of neuroimaging in psychiatry, with the goal of offering a background and a summary of current trends. While not exhaustive, numerous publications are cited in an attempt to provide a reasonable cross-section of research activity in the field of brain imaging in psychiatry and how ...

  3. Answer and discussion paediatric neuroimaging quiz case | Misser ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A three-and-a-half-year-old male child was referred for neuroimaging under general anaesthesia for intractable seizures. A final diagnosis of probable tuberous sclerosis with associated left hippocampal sclerosis was made. Differential diagnosis of malformation of cortical development with hippocampal sclerosis (Type 3a) ...

  4. Automatic analysis (aa: efficient neuroimaging workflows and parallel processing using Matlab and XML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhodri eCusack

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen neuroimaging data becoming richer, with larger cohorts of participants, a greater variety of acquisition techniques, and increasingly complex analyses. These advances have made data analysis pipelines complex to set up and run (increasing the risk of human error and time consuming to execute (restricting what analyses are attempted. Here we present an open-source framework, automatic analysis (aa, to address these concerns. Human efficiency is increased by making code modular and reusable, and managing its execution with a processing engine that tracks what has been completed and what needs to be (redone. Analysis is accelerated by optional parallel processing of independent tasks on cluster or cloud computing resources. A pipeline comprises a series of modules that each perform a specific task. The processing engine keeps track of the data, calculating a map of upstream and downstream dependencies for each module. Existing modules are available for many analysis tasks, such as SPM-based fMRI preprocessing, individual and group level statistics, voxel-based morphometry, tractography, and multi-voxel pattern analyses (MVPA. However, aa also allows for full customization, and encourages efficient management of code: new modules may be written with only a small code overhead. aa has been used by more than 50 researchers in hundreds of neuroimaging studies comprising thousands of subjects. It has been found to be robust, fast and efficient, for simple single subject studies up to multimodal pipelines on hundreds of subjects. It is attractive to both novice and experienced users. aa can reduce the amount of time neuroimaging laboratories spend performing analyses and reduce errors, expanding the range of scientific questions it is practical to address.

  5. A BAYESIAN HIERARCHICAL SPATIAL POINT PROCESS MODEL FOR MULTI-TYPE NEUROIMAGING META-ANALYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jian; Nichols, Thomas E; Wager, Tor D; Johnson, Timothy D

    2014-09-01

    Neuroimaging meta-analysis is an important tool for finding consistent effects over studies that each usually have 20 or fewer subjects. Interest in meta-analysis in brain mapping is also driven by a recent focus on so-called "reverse inference": where as traditional "forward inference" identifies the regions of the brain involved in a task, a reverse inference identifies the cognitive processes that a task engages. Such reverse inferences, however, requires a set of meta-analysis, one for each possible cognitive domain. However, existing methods for neuroimaging meta-analysis have significant limitations. Commonly used methods for neuroimaging meta-analysis are not model based, do not provide interpretable parameter estimates, and only produce null hypothesis inferences; further, they are generally designed for a single group of studies and cannot produce reverse inferences. In this work we address these limitations by adopting a non-parametric Bayesian approach for meta analysis data from multiple classes or types of studies. In particular, foci from each type of study are modeled as a cluster process driven by a random intensity function that is modeled as a kernel convolution of a gamma random field. The type-specific gamma random fields are linked and modeled as a realization of a common gamma random field, shared by all types, that induces correlation between study types and mimics the behavior of a univariate mixed effects model. We illustrate our model on simulation studies and a meta analysis of five emotions from 219 studies and check model fit by a posterior predictive assessment. In addition, we implement reverse inference by using the model to predict study type from a newly presented study. We evaluate this predictive performance via leave-one-out cross validation that is efficiently implemented using importance sampling techniques.

  6. Automatic analysis (aa): efficient neuroimaging workflows and parallel processing using Matlab and XML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Rhodri; Vicente-Grabovetsky, Alejandro; Mitchell, Daniel J; Wild, Conor J; Auer, Tibor; Linke, Annika C; Peelle, Jonathan E

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen neuroimaging data sets becoming richer, with larger cohorts of participants, a greater variety of acquisition techniques, and increasingly complex analyses. These advances have made data analysis pipelines complicated to set up and run (increasing the risk of human error) and time consuming to execute (restricting what analyses are attempted). Here we present an open-source framework, automatic analysis (aa), to address these concerns. Human efficiency is increased by making code modular and reusable, and managing its execution with a processing engine that tracks what has been completed and what needs to be (re)done. Analysis is accelerated by optional parallel processing of independent tasks on cluster or cloud computing resources. A pipeline comprises a series of modules that each perform a specific task. The processing engine keeps track of the data, calculating a map of upstream and downstream dependencies for each module. Existing modules are available for many analysis tasks, such as SPM-based fMRI preprocessing, individual and group level statistics, voxel-based morphometry, tractography, and multi-voxel pattern analyses (MVPA). However, aa also allows for full customization, and encourages efficient management of code: new modules may be written with only a small code overhead. aa has been used by more than 50 researchers in hundreds of neuroimaging studies comprising thousands of subjects. It has been found to be robust, fast, and efficient, for simple-single subject studies up to multimodal pipelines on hundreds of subjects. It is attractive to both novice and experienced users. aa can reduce the amount of time neuroimaging laboratories spend performing analyses and reduce errors, expanding the range of scientific questions it is practical to address.

  7. How acute total sleep loss affects the attending brain: a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Dinges, David F; Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi

    2015-02-01

    Attention is a cognitive domain that can be severely affected by sleep deprivation. Previous neuroimaging studies have used different attention paradigms and reported both increased and reduced brain activation after sleep deprivation. However, due to large variability in sleep deprivation protocols, task paradigms, experimental designs, characteristics of subject populations, and imaging techniques, there is no consensus regarding the effects of sleep loss on the attending brain. The aim of this meta-analysis was to identify brain activations that are commonly altered by acute total sleep deprivation across different attention tasks. Coordinate-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies of performance on attention tasks during experimental sleep deprivation. The current version of the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach was used for meta-analysis. The authors searched published articles and identified 11 sleep deprivation neuroimaging studies using different attention tasks with a total of 185 participants, equaling 81 foci for ALE analysis. The meta-analysis revealed significantly reduced brain activation in multiple regions following sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness, including bilateral intraparietal sulcus, bilateral insula, right prefrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex, and right parahippocampal gyrus. Increased activation was found only in bilateral thalamus after sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness. Acute total sleep deprivation decreases brain activation in the fronto-parietal attention network (prefrontal cortex and intraparietal sulcus) and in the salience network (insula and medial frontal cortex). Increased thalamic activation after sleep deprivation may reflect a complex interaction between the de-arousing effects of sleep loss and the arousing effects of task performance on thalamic activity. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  8. Neuroimaging-use trends in nonacute pediatric headache before and after clinical practice parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, William D; Kayyali, Husam R; Alexander, John J; Simon, Steven D; Morriss, Michael C

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine trends in diagnostic neuroimaging-use rates in nonacute pediatric headache before and after publication of clinical practice guidelines. Retrospective, cross-sectional analysis was conducted of neuroimaging rates for 725 children and adolescents who were aged 3 to 18 years with nonacute headache and normal neurologic examination and were evaluated in a single pediatric neurology clinic during study years 1992, 1996, 2000, and 2004. Following recommendations of current practice parameters, patients with conditions that justify consideration for neuroimaging (eg, progressive headache, abnormal neurologic examination) were excluded from this analysis. We recorded the origin of any neuroimaging request at the time of the clinic visit and any abnormal neuroimaging findings that led to major clinical consequences. Overall, the mean rate of neuroimaging for patients with nonacute headache was 45%. Use rates remained steady during the 13-year study period (range: 41%-47%). The majority of neuroimaging studies were ordered originally by primary care providers. The proportion of neuroimaging studies that were ordered by primary care providers increased significantly from 1992 to 2004. In the evaluation of patients who had nonacute pediatric headache and were referred to a child neurology clinic, neuroimaging-use rates remained stable during the past decade. An increasing proportion of neuroimaging studies are ordered by primary care providers. The influence of evidence-based medicine on medical decision-making may be partly responsible for curbing increases in neuroimaging overuse. The perceived value of neuroimaging by physicians and consumers deserves ongoing study.

  9. The Neuro-Image: Alain Resnais's Digital Cinema without the Digits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisters, P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes to read cinema in the digital age as a new type of image, the neuroimage. Going back to Gilles Deleuze's cinema books and it is argued that the neuro-image is based in the future. The cinema of Alain Resnais is analyzed as a neuro-image and digital cinema .

  10. Aspects of cerebral plasticity related to clinical features in acute vestibular neuritis: a "starting point" review from neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micarelli, A; Chiaravalloti, A; Schillaci, O; Ottaviani, F; Alessandrini, M

    2016-04-01

    Vestibular neuritis (VN) is one of the most common causes of vertigo and is characterised by a sudden unilateral vestibular failure (UVF). Many neuroimaging studies in the last 10 years have focused on brain changes related to sudden vestibular deafferentation as in VN. However, most of these studies, also due to different possibilities across diverse centres, were based on different times of first acquisition from the onset of VN symptoms, neuroimaging techniques, statistical analysis and correlation with otoneurological and psychological findings. In the present review, the authors aim to merge together the similarities and discrepancies across various investigations that have employed neuroimaging techniques and group analysis with the purpose of better understanding about how the brain changes and what characteristic clinical features may relate to each other in the acute phase of VN. Six studies that strictly met inclusion criteria were analysed to assess cortical-subcortical correlates of acute clinical features related to VN. The present review clearly reveals that sudden UVF may induce a wide variety of cortical and subcortical responses - with changes in different sensory modules - as a result of acute plasticity in the central nervous system. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale, Rome, Italy.

  11. Functional neuroimaging abnormalities in idiopathic generalized epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L. McGill

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques have been used to quantitatively assess focal and network abnormalities. Idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE is characterized by bilateral synchronous spike–wave discharges on electroencephalography (EEG but normal clinical MRI. Dysfunctions involving the neocortex, particularly the prefrontal cortex, and thalamus likely contribute to seizure activity. To identify possible morphometric and functional differences in the brains of IGE patients and normal controls, we employed measures of thalamic volumes, cortical thickness, gray–white blurring, fractional anisotropy (FA measures from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF in thalamic subregions from resting state functional MRI. Data from 27 patients with IGE and 27 age- and sex-matched controls showed similar thalamic volumes, cortical thickness and gray–white contrast. There were no differences in FA values on DTI in tracts connecting the thalamus and prefrontal cortex. Functional analysis revealed decreased fALFF in the prefrontal cortex (PFC subregion of the thalamus in patients with IGE. We provide minimum detectable effect sizes for each measure used in the study. Our analysis indicates that fMRI-based methods are more sensitive than quantitative structural techniques for characterizing brain abnormalities in IGE.

  12. Neurofunctional systems. 3D reconstructions with correlated neuroimaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretschmann, H.J.; Fiekert, W.; Gerke, M.; Vogt, H.; Weirich, D.; Wesemann, M. [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany). Abt. Neuroanatomie; Weinrich, W. [Staedtisches Krankenhaus Nordstadt, Hannover (Germany). Abt. fuer Neurologie

    1998-12-31

    This book introduces, for the first time, computer-generated images of the neurofunctional systems of the human brain. These images are more accurate than drawings. The main views presented are of the medial lemniscus system, auditory system, visual system, basal ganglia, corticospinal system, and the limbic system. The arteries and sulci of the cerebral hemispheres are also illustrated by computer. These images provide a three-dimensional orientation of the intracranial space and help, for example, to assess vascular functional disturbance of the brain. Clinicians will find these images valuable for the spatial interpretation of magnetic resonance (MR), computed tomography (CT), and positron emission tomography (PET) images since many neurofunctional systems cannot be visualized as isolated structures in neuroimaging. Computer-assisted surface reconstructions of the neurofunctional systems and the cerebral arteries serve as a basis for constructing these computer-generated images. The surface reconstructions are anatomically realistic having been created from brain sections with minimal deformations. The method of computer graphics, known as ray tracing, produces digital images form these reconstructions. The computer-generated methods are explained. The computer-generated images are accompanied by illustrations and texts on neuroanatomy and clinical practice. The neurofunctional systems of the human brain are also shown in sections so that the reader can mentally reconstruct the neurofunctional systems, thus facilitating the transformation of information into textbooks and atlantes of MR and CT imaging. The aim of this book is acquaint the reader with the three-dimensional aspects of the neurofunctional systems and the cerebral arteries of the human brain using methods of computer graphics. Computer scientists and those interested in this technique are provided with basic neuroanatomic and neurofunctional information. Physicians will have a clearer understanding

  13. Multimodal MRI Neuroimaging Biomarkers for Cognitive Normal Adults, Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Ling Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques have been developed to noninvasively measure structural, metabolic, hemodynamic and functional changes of the brain. These advantages have made MRI an important tool to investigate neurodegenerative disorders, including diagnosis, disease progression monitoring, and treatment efficacy evaluation. This paper discusses recent findings of the multimodal MRI in the context of surrogate biomarkers for identifying the risk for AD in normal cognitive (NC adults, brain anatomical and functional alterations in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, and Alzheimer's disease (AD patients. Further developments of these techniques and the establishment of promising neuroimaging biomarkers will enhance our ability to diagnose aMCI and AD in their early stages and improve the assessment of therapeutic efficacy in these diseases in future clinical trials.

  14. The brain imaging data structure, a format for organizing and describing outputs of neuroimaging experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgolewski, Krzysztof J.; Auer, Tibor; Calhoun, Vince D.; Craddock, R. Cameron; Das, Samir; Duff, Eugene P.; Flandin, Guillaume; Ghosh, Satrajit S.; Glatard, Tristan; Halchenko, Yaroslav O.; Handwerker, Daniel A.; Hanke, Michael; Keator, David; Li, Xiangrui; Michael, Zachary; Maumet, Camille; Nichols, B. Nolan; Nichols, Thomas E.; Pellman, John; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Rokem, Ariel; Schaefer, Gunnar; Sochat, Vanessa; Triplett, William; Turner, Jessica A.; Varoquaux, Gaël; Poldrack, Russell A.

    2016-01-01

    The development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques has defined modern neuroimaging. Since its inception, tens of thousands of studies using techniques such as functional MRI and diffusion weighted imaging have allowed for the non-invasive study of the brain. Despite the fact that MRI is routinely used to obtain data for neuroscience research, there has been no widely adopted standard for organizing and describing the data collected in an imaging experiment. This renders sharing and reusing data (within or between labs) difficult if not impossible and unnecessarily complicates the application of automatic pipelines and quality assurance protocols. To solve this problem, we have developed the Brain Imaging Data Structure (BIDS), a standard for organizing and describing MRI datasets. The BIDS standard uses file formats compatible with existing software, unifies the majority of practices already common in the field, and captures the metadata necessary for most common data processing operations. PMID:27326542

  15. Epistemics for Learning Disabilities: Contributions from Magnetoencephalography, a Functional Neuroimaging Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VÍCTOR SANTIUSTE-BERMEJO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The syndrome known as Learning Disabilities (LD was described by S. Kirk in 1963. From that point on, institutions from the US, Canada and Spain have engaged in refining the concept and classification of LDs. The Complutense University in Spain, has proposed a descriptive and all-embracing definition, and has studied the different manifestations of LD, pursuing the description of biological markers and neurological features of LD’s main expressions: dyslexia, dyscalculia, dysorthographia, Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder –ADHD, and so forth. Findings in LD using functional neuroimaging techniques, namely Magnetoencephalography (MEG, are described. MEG is a non-invasive technique, which records magnetic fields naturally generated by the brain and their spatial distribution. It allows simultaneous functional and structural information. MEG is therefore used in the study of primary and superior cognitive functions, in surveillance of patterns of normal cognitive function and those specific to the different LD clinical manifestations.

  16. A Bayesian spatial model for neuroimaging data based on biologically informed basis functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Ismael; Oldehinkel, Marianne; van Oort, Erik S B; Garcia-Solis, David; Mir, Pablo; Beckmann, Christian F; Marquand, Andre F

    2017-11-01

    The dominant approach to neuroimaging data analysis employs the voxel as the unit of computation. While convenient, voxels lack biological meaning and their size is arbitrarily determined by the resolution of the image. Here, we propose a multivariate spatial model in which neuroimaging data are characterised as a linearly weighted combination of multiscale basis functions which map onto underlying brain nuclei or networks or nuclei. In this model, the elementary building blocks are derived to reflect the functional anatomy of the brain during the resting state. This model is estimated using a Bayesian framework which accurately quantifies uncertainty and automatically finds the most accurate and parsimonious combination of basis functions describing the data. We demonstrate the utility of this framework by predicting quantitative SPECT images of striatal dopamine function and we compare a variety of basis sets including generic isotropic functions, anatomical representations of the striatum derived from structural MRI, and two different soft functional parcellations of the striatum derived from resting-state fMRI (rfMRI). We found that a combination of ∼50 multiscale functional basis functions accurately represented the striatal dopamine activity, and that functional basis functions derived from an advanced parcellation technique known as Instantaneous Connectivity Parcellation (ICP) provided the most parsimonious models of dopamine function. Importantly, functional basis functions derived from resting fMRI were more accurate than both structural and generic basis sets in representing dopamine function in the striatum for a fixed model order. We demonstrate the translational validity of our framework by constructing classification models for discriminating parkinsonian disorders and their subtypes. Here, we show that ICP approach is the only basis set that performs well across all comparisons and performs better overall than the classical voxel-based approach

  17. Neuroimaging biomarkers of preterm brain injury: toward developing the preterm connectome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Wisnowski, Jessica L. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of Southern California, Brain and Creativity Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Furtado, Andre [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Lepore, Natasha [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Paquette, Lisa [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Center for Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Bluml, Stefan [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of Southern California, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    For typically developing infants, the last trimester of fetal development extending into the first post-natal months is a period of rapid brain development. Infants who are born premature face significant risk of brain injury (e.g., intraventricular or germinal matrix hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia) from complications in the perinatal period and also potential long-term neurodevelopmental disabilities because these early injuries can interrupt normal brain maturation. Neuroimaging has played an important role in the diagnosis and management of the preterm infant. Both cranial US and conventional MRI techniques are useful in diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of preterm brain development and injury. Cranial US is highly sensitive for intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and provides prognostic information regarding cerebral palsy. Data are limited regarding the utility of MRI as a routine screening instrument for brain injury for all preterm infants. However, MRI might provide diagnostic or prognostic information regarding PVL and other types of preterm brain injury in the setting of specific clinical indications and risk factors. Further development of advanced MR techniques like volumetric MR imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, metabolic imaging (MR spectroscopy) and functional connectivity are necessary to provide additional insight into the molecular, cellular and systems processes that underlie brain development and outcome in the preterm infant. The adult concept of the ''connectome'' is also relevant in understanding brain networks that underlie the preterm brain. Knowledge of the preterm connectome will provide a framework for understanding preterm brain function and dysfunction, and potentially even a roadmap for brain plasticity. By combining conventional imaging techniques with more advanced techniques, neuroimaging findings will likely be used not only as diagnostic and prognostic tools, but also as biomarkers for long

  18. Neuroimaging biomarkers of preterm brain injury: toward developing the preterm connectome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahy, Ashok; Wisnowski, Jessica L.; Furtado, Andre; Lepore, Natasha; Paquette, Lisa; Bluml, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    For typically developing infants, the last trimester of fetal development extending into the first post-natal months is a period of rapid brain development. Infants who are born premature face significant risk of brain injury (e.g., intraventricular or germinal matrix hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia) from complications in the perinatal period and also potential long-term neurodevelopmental disabilities because these early injuries can interrupt normal brain maturation. Neuroimaging has played an important role in the diagnosis and management of the preterm infant. Both cranial US and conventional MRI techniques are useful in diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of preterm brain development and injury. Cranial US is highly sensitive for intraventricular hemorrhage IVH and provides prognostic information regarding cerebral palsy. Data are limited regarding the utility of MRI as a routine screening instrument for brain injury for all preterm infants. However, MRI might provide diagnostic or prognostic information regarding PVL and other types of preterm brain injury in the setting of specific clinical indications and risk factors. Further development of advanced MR techniques like volumetric MR imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, metabolic imaging (MR spectroscopy) and functional connectivity are necessary to provide additional insight into the molecular, cellular and systems processes that underlie brain development and outcome in the preterm infant. The adult concept of the “connectome” is also relevant in understanding brain networks that underlie the preterm brain. Knowledge of the preterm connectome will provide a framework for understanding preterm brain function and dysfunction, and potentially even a roadmap for brain plasticity. By combining conventional imaging techniques with more advanced techniques, neuroimaging findings will likely be used not only as diagnostic and prognostic tools, but also as biomarkers for long-term neurodevelopmental

  19. Neuroimaging and neuromodulation approaches to study eating behavior and prevent and treat eating disorders and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val-Laillet, D; Aarts, E; Weber, B; Ferrari, M; Quaresima, V; Stoeckel, L E; Alonso-Alonso, M; Audette, M; Malbert, C H; Stice, E

    2015-01-01

    Functional, molecular and genetic neuroimaging has highlighted the existence of brain anomalies and neural vulnerability factors related to obesity and eating disorders such as binge eating or anorexia nervosa. In particular, decreased basal metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and striatum as well as dopaminergic alterations have been described in obese subjects, in parallel with increased activation of reward brain areas in response to palatable food cues. Elevated reward region responsivity may trigger food craving and predict future weight gain. This opens the way to prevention studies using functional and molecular neuroimaging to perform early diagnostics and to phenotype subjects at risk by exploring different neurobehavioral dimensions of the food choices and motivation processes. In the first part of this review, advantages and limitations of neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), pharmacogenetic fMRI and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) will be discussed in the context of recent work dealing with eating behavior, with a particular focus on obesity. In the second part of the review, non-invasive strategies to modulate food-related brain processes and functions will be presented. At the leading edge of non-invasive brain-based technologies is real-time fMRI (rtfMRI) neurofeedback, which is a powerful tool to better understand the complexity of human brain-behavior relationships. rtfMRI, alone or when combined with other techniques and tools such as EEG and cognitive therapy, could be used to alter neural plasticity and learned behavior to optimize and/or restore healthy cognition and eating behavior. Other promising non-invasive neuromodulation approaches being explored are repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS). Converging evidence points at the value of

  20. Neuroimaging and neuromodulation approaches to study eating behavior and prevent and treat eating disorders and obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val-Laillet, D.; Aarts, E.; Weber, B.; Ferrari, M.; Quaresima, V.; Stoeckel, L.E.; Alonso-Alonso, M.; Audette, M.; Malbert, C.H.; Stice, E.

    2015-01-01

    Functional, molecular and genetic neuroimaging has highlighted the existence of brain anomalies and neural vulnerability factors related to obesity and eating disorders such as binge eating or anorexia nervosa. In particular, decreased basal metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and striatum as well as dopaminergic alterations have been described in obese subjects, in parallel with increased activation of reward brain areas in response to palatable food cues. Elevated reward region responsivity may trigger food craving and predict future weight gain. This opens the way to prevention studies using functional and molecular neuroimaging to perform early diagnostics and to phenotype subjects at risk by exploring different neurobehavioral dimensions of the food choices and motivation processes. In the first part of this review, advantages and limitations of neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), pharmacogenetic fMRI and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) will be discussed in the context of recent work dealing with eating behavior, with a particular focus on obesity. In the second part of the review, non-invasive strategies to modulate food-related brain processes and functions will be presented. At the leading edge of non-invasive brain-based technologies is real-time fMRI (rtfMRI) neurofeedback, which is a powerful tool to better understand the complexity of human brain–behavior relationships. rtfMRI, alone or when combined with other techniques and tools such as EEG and cognitive therapy, could be used to alter neural plasticity and learned behavior to optimize and/or restore healthy cognition and eating behavior. Other promising non-invasive neuromodulation approaches being explored are repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS). Converging evidence points at the value of

  1. Neuroimaging and neuromodulation approaches to study eating behavior and prevent and treat eating disorders and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Val-Laillet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional, molecular and genetic neuroimaging has highlighted the existence of brain anomalies and neural vulnerability factors related to obesity and eating disorders such as binge eating or anorexia nervosa. In particular, decreased basal metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and striatum as well as dopaminergic alterations have been described in obese subjects, in parallel with increased activation of reward brain areas in response to palatable food cues. Elevated reward region responsivity may trigger food craving and predict future weight gain. This opens the way to prevention studies using functional and molecular neuroimaging to perform early diagnostics and to phenotype subjects at risk by exploring different neurobehavioral dimensions of the food choices and motivation processes. In the first part of this review, advantages and limitations of neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, positron emission tomography (PET, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, pharmacogenetic fMRI and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS will be discussed in the context of recent work dealing with eating behavior, with a particular focus on obesity. In the second part of the review, non-invasive strategies to modulate food-related brain processes and functions will be presented. At the leading edge of non-invasive brain-based technologies is real-time fMRI (rtfMRI neurofeedback, which is a powerful tool to better understand the complexity of human brain–behavior relationships. rtfMRI, alone or when combined with other techniques and tools such as EEG and cognitive therapy, could be used to alter neural plasticity and learned behavior to optimize and/or restore healthy cognition and eating behavior. Other promising non-invasive neuromodulation approaches being explored are repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS and transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS. Converging evidence points at

  2. Random Forest Algorithm for the Classification of Neuroimaging Data in Alzheimer's Disease: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Sarica

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Machine learning classification has been the most important computational development in the last years to satisfy the primary need of clinicians for automatic early diagnosis and prognosis. Nowadays, Random Forest (RF algorithm has been successfully applied for reducing high dimensional and multi-source data in many scientific realms. Our aim was to explore the state of the art of the application of RF on single and multi-modal neuroimaging data for the prediction of Alzheimer's disease.Methods: A systematic review following PRISMA guidelines was conducted on this field of study. In particular, we constructed an advanced query using boolean operators as follows: (“random forest” OR “random forests” AND neuroimaging AND (“alzheimer's disease” OR alzheimer's OR alzheimer AND (prediction OR classification. The query was then searched in four well-known scientific databases: Pubmed, Scopus, Google Scholar and Web of Science.Results: Twelve articles—published between the 2007 and 2017—have been included in this systematic review after a quantitative and qualitative selection. The lesson learnt from these works suggest that when RF was applied on multi-modal data for prediction of Alzheimer's disease (AD conversion from the Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI, it produces one of the best accuracies to date. Moreover, the RF has important advantages in terms of robustness to overfitting, ability to handle highly non-linear data, stability in the presence of outliers and opportunity for efficient parallel processing mainly when applied on multi-modality neuroimaging data, such as, MRI morphometric, diffusion tensor imaging, and PET images.Conclusions: We discussed the strengths of RF, considering also possible limitations and by encouraging further studies on the comparisons of this algorithm with other commonly used classification approaches, particularly in the early prediction of the progression from MCI to AD.

  3. Random Forest Algorithm for the Classification of Neuroimaging Data in Alzheimer's Disease: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarica, Alessia; Cerasa, Antonio; Quattrone, Aldo

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Machine learning classification has been the most important computational development in the last years to satisfy the primary need of clinicians for automatic early diagnosis and prognosis. Nowadays, Random Forest (RF) algorithm has been successfully applied for reducing high dimensional and multi-source data in many scientific realms. Our aim was to explore the state of the art of the application of RF on single and multi-modal neuroimaging data for the prediction of Alzheimer's disease. Methods: A systematic review following PRISMA guidelines was conducted on this field of study. In particular, we constructed an advanced query using boolean operators as follows: ("random forest" OR "random forests") AND neuroimaging AND ("alzheimer's disease" OR alzheimer's OR alzheimer) AND (prediction OR classification). The query was then searched in four well-known scientific databases: Pubmed, Scopus, Google Scholar and Web of Science. Results: Twelve articles-published between the 2007 and 2017-have been included in this systematic review after a quantitative and qualitative selection. The lesson learnt from these works suggest that when RF was applied on multi-modal data for prediction of Alzheimer's disease (AD) conversion from the Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), it produces one of the best accuracies to date. Moreover, the RF has important advantages in terms of robustness to overfitting, ability to handle highly non-linear data, stability in the presence of outliers and opportunity for efficient parallel processing mainly when applied on multi-modality neuroimaging data, such as, MRI morphometric, diffusion tensor imaging, and PET images. Conclusions: We discussed the strengths of RF, considering also possible limitations and by encouraging further studies on the comparisons of this algorithm with other commonly used classification approaches, particularly in the early prediction of the progression from MCI to AD.

  4. Effects of continuous positive airway pressure on cognitition and neuroimaging data in sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferini-Strambi, L; Marelli, S; Galbiati, A; Castronovo, C

    2013-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with a broad range of neurocognitive difficulties. The current view is that the neurocognitive impairment in OSA is due to the adverse effects of sleep fragmentation and/or intermittent hypoxia. The overall picture of cognitive deficits in OSA is complex. On balance, there appears to be negative effects of OSA on cognition, most likely in the domains of attention/vigilance, verbal and visual delayed long-term memory, visuospatial/constructional abilities, and executive dysfunction. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the most effective and widely used treatment of OSA. In the majority of studies of OSA patients treated with CPAP, attention/vigilance improved, but changes in global functioning, executive functioning, and memory improved in about half of the studies. This may be due, in part, to variability in study design and sampling methodology across studies. Structural volume changes have been demonstrated in brain regions of OSA patients including areas that regulate memory and executive function (e.g., frontal cortex, anterior cingulate, and hippocampus). Growing evidence suggests that the OSA-related changes in brain morphology may improve with CPAP treatment. Neuroimaging studies performed during cognitive testing have provided insight into CPAP's effect on function of neuroanatomical circuits in the brain. Although neuroimaging can provide important insights into the structural and functional differences associated with OSA, one of the challenges is to interpret the findings in light of comorbid conditions that also cause neural injury. The purpose of this article is to provide a narrative review of the publications on cognition and neuroimaging in OSA before and after CPAP treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Neuroimaging in aphasia treatment research: Consensus and practical guidelines for data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinzer, Marcus; Beeson, Pélagie M.; Cappa, Stefano; Crinion, Jenny; Kiran, Swathi; Saur, Dorothee; Parrish, Todd; Crosson, Bruce; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2012-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging is the most widely used imaging technique to study treatment-induced recovery in post-stroke aphasia. The longitudinal design of such studies adds to the challenges researchers face when studying patient populations with brain damage in cross-sectional settings. The present review focuses on issues specifically relevant to neuroimaging data analysis in aphasia treatment research identified in discussions among international researchers at the Neuroimaging in Aphasia Treatment Research Workshop held at Northwestern University (Evanston, Illinois, USA). In particular, we aim to provide the reader with a critical review of unique problems related to the pre-processing, statistical modeling and interpretation of such data sets. Despite the fact that data analysis procedures critically depend on specific design features of a given study, we aim to discuss and communicate a basic set of practical guidelines that should be applicable to a wide range of studies and useful as a reference for researchers pursuing this line of research. PMID:22387474

  6. Neurobiological Foundations of Acupuncture: The Relevance and Future Prospect Based on Neuroimaging Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Bai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture is currently gaining popularity as an important modality of alternative and complementary medicine in the western world. Modern neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and magnetoencephalography open a window into the neurobiological foundations of acupuncture. In this review, we have summarized evidence derived from neuroimaging studies and tried to elucidate both neurophysiological correlates and key experimental factors involving acupuncture. Converging evidence focusing on acute effects of acupuncture has revealed significant modulatory activities at widespread cerebrocerebellar brain regions. Given the delayed effect of acupuncture, block-designed analysis may produce bias, and acupuncture shared a common feature that identified voxels that coded the temporal dimension for which multiple levels of their dynamic activities in concert cause the processing of acupuncture. Expectation in acupuncture treatment has a physiological effect on the brain network, which may be heterogeneous from acupuncture mechanism. “Deqi” response, bearing clinical relevance and association with distinct nerve fibers, has the specific neurophysiology foundation reflected by neural responses to acupuncture stimuli. The type of sham treatment chosen is dependent on the research question asked and the type of acupuncture treatment to be tested. Due to the complexities of the therapeutic mechanisms of acupuncture, using multiple controls is an optimal choice.

  7. Tensor-based morphometry as a neuroimaging biomarker for Alzheimer's disease: an MRI study of 676 AD, MCI, and normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xue; Leow, Alex D; Parikshak, Neelroop; Lee, Suh; Chiang, Ming-Chang; Toga, Arthur W; Jack, Clifford R; Weiner, Michael W; Thompson, Paul M

    2008-11-15

    In one of the largest brain MRI studies to date, we used tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to create 3D maps of structural atrophy in 676 subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy elderly controls, scanned as part of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Using inverse-consistent 3D non-linear elastic image registration, we warped 676 individual brain MRI volumes to a population mean geometric template. Jacobian determinant maps were created, revealing the 3D profile of local volumetric expansion and compression. We compared the anatomical distribution of atrophy in 165 AD patients (age: 75.6+/-7.6 years), 330 MCI subjects (74.8+/-7.5), and 181 controls (75.9+/-5.1). Brain atrophy in selected regions-of-interest was correlated with clinical measurements--the sum-of-boxes clinical dementia rating (CDR-SB), mini-mental state examination (MMSE), and the logical memory test scores - at voxel level followed by correction for multiple comparisons. Baseline temporal lobe atrophy correlated with current cognitive performance, future cognitive decline, and conversion from MCI to AD over the following year; it predicted future decline even in healthy subjects. Over half of the AD and MCI subjects carried the ApoE4 (apolipoprotein E4) gene, which increases risk for AD; they showed greater hippocampal and temporal lobe deficits than non-carriers. ApoE2 gene carriers--1/6 of the normal group--showed reduced ventricular expansion, suggesting a protective effect. As an automated image analysis technique, TBM reveals 3D correlations between neuroimaging markers, genes, and future clinical changes, and is highly efficient for large-scale MRI studies.

  8. [Neuroimaging studies of social cognition in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukawa, Noriko; Murai, Toshiya

    2013-04-01

    In various social situations, individuals with schizophrenia often have difficulties in keeping appropriate relationships with others. To elucidate the neural basis of such difficulties, we explored associations between brain morphological alterations and dysfunction of social cognition in schizophrenia, using MRI. Several important findings have been yielded: For instance, amygdala volume reduction was correlated with impaired facial emotion recognition ability, while reductions in the medial prefrontal cortex was correlated with impairment in emotion attribution to protagonists in social situations. These results suggest that individuals with schizophrenia have various domains of impaired social cognition. Moreover, in schizophrenia, the brain regions involved in such impairments might differ according to the domains of social cognition.

  9. Wernicke's encephalopathy with chorea: Neuroimaging findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jivago S. Sabatini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We present a case report of motor and cognitive disorders in a 36-year-old woman with a history of twelve years of heavy alcohol abuse. The patient presented depressive symptoms over the course of one year after a loss in the family, evolving with ataxia, bradykinesia and choreiform movements. Progressive cognitive decline, sleep alterations and myalgia were also reported during the course of disease evolution. Physical examination revealed spastic paraparesis with fixed flexion of the hips and knees with important pain upon extension of these joints. Initial investigation suggested the diagnosis of thiamine deficiency by brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI.

  10. Graphical user interface for intraoperative neuroimage updating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick, Kyle R.; Hartov, Alex; Roberts, David W.; Lunn, Karen E.; Sun, Hai; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2003-05-01

    Image-guided neurosurgery typically relies on preoperative imaging information that is subject to errors resulting from brain shift and deformation in the OR. A graphical user interface (GUI) has been developed to facilitate the flow of data from OR to image volume in order to provide the neurosurgeon with updated views concurrent with surgery. Upon acquisition of registration data for patient position in the OR (using fiducial markers), the Matlab GUI displays ultrasound image overlays on patient specific, preoperative MR images. Registration matrices are also applied to patient-specific anatomical models used for image updating. After displaying the re-oriented brain model in OR coordinates and digitizing the edge of the craniotomy, gravitational sagging of the brain is simulated using the finite element method. Based on this model, interpolation to the resolution of the preoperative images is performed and re-displayed to the surgeon during the procedure. These steps were completed within reasonable time limits and the interface was relatively easy to use after a brief training period. The techniques described have been developed and used retrospectively prior to this study. Based on the work described here, these steps can now be accomplished in the operating room and provide near real-time feedback to the surgeon.

  11. Neuroimaging diagnostic and monitoring approaches in ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwalisz, Bart K; Bouffard, Marc A; Prasad, Sashank; Cestari, Dean M

    2018-02-01

    We review new applications of optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology in neuro-ophthalmology. We also describe new technologies for visualizing the extracranial vessels in the diagnosis of giant cell arteritis (GCA). Newer OCT modalities are expanding the evaluation of the optic disc, and are being applied to a number of neurologic conditions such as demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease. Swept-source OCT and enhanced-depth imaging OCT are refining the fine-grained analysis of the optic nerve head in the diagnosis of papilledema and optic nerve drusen. OCT-angiography is opening up new avenues to the study of the vasculature of the optic nerve head and its disorders, including ischemic optic neuropathy. Newer technologies in the diagnosis of GCA include vascular ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the extracranial vasculature and PET imaging of the large vessels. OCT and several of its derivations are advancing diagnosis, and in some cases prognostication, in a variety of inflammatory, ischemic and compressive optic neuropathies. These technologies hold potential in the laboratory as well, yielding insights into the mechanisms of a variety of neurological conditions. In addition, further developments in MRI and ultrasonography techniques are shaping the approach to the diagnosis of GCA.

  12. Current themes in neuroimaging studies of reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Cathy J

    2013-05-01

    This editorial provides a summary of the highlights from 11 new papers that have been published in a special issue of Brain and Language on the neurobiology of reading. The topics investigate reading mechanisms in both adults and children. Several of the findings illustrate how responses in the left ventral occipito-temporal cortex, and other reading areas, change with learning, expertise and the task: In the early stages of reading acquisition, learning/expertise increases activation in reading areas as well as in an attentionally-controlled, learning circuit. In later stages, expertise and efficiency decrease activation within the reading network and increase anatomical connectivity. Special interest is given to a white matter tract (the vertical occipital fasciculus) that projects dorsally from the left occipito-temporal cortex to the posterior parietal lobe. This observation fits with a magnetoencephalography study showing how activity in the angular gyrus is influenced by early occipito-temporal activity; with angular gyrus activity contributing to inferior frontal activity. Overall, the papers within the special issue illustrate the wide range of different techniques that can be used to reveal the functional anatomy of reading and the time course of activity within the different reading pathways. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Remembering the past: neuroimaging studies of human memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, E A

    2004-01-01

    The ability to find our way around an environment and to remember the events that occur within it are fundamental to normal functioning in daily life. Impairment of these abilities are among the first symptoms to be reported in patients with pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease and anoxia that are linked to the hippocampus and other limbic structures. However, many questions remain unanswered regarding the nature and neural bases of these memories. Findings from functional neuroimaging studies offer insights into the anatomy of memory and the presentation of memory impairments. In particular, neuroimaging is well placed to inform about the functionality of residual brain tissue, and the plasticity of memory anatomy in the context of hippocampal damage, and normal ageing.

  14. SchizConnect: Virtual Data Integration in Neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambite, Jose Luis; Tallis, Marcelo; Alpert, Kathryn; Keator, David B; King, Margaret; Landis, Drew; Konstantinidis, George; Calhoun, Vince D; Potkin, Steven G; Turner, Jessica A; Wang, Lei

    2015-07-01

    In many scientific domains, including neuroimaging studies, there is a need to obtain increasingly larger cohorts to achieve the desired statistical power for discovery. However, the economics of imaging studies make it unlikely that any single study or consortia can achieve the desired sample sizes. What is needed is an architecture that can easily incorporate additional studies as they become available. We present such architecture based on a virtual data integration approach, where data remains at the original sources, and is retrieved and harmonized in response to user queries. This is in contrast to approaches that move the data to a central warehouse. We implemented our approach in the SchizConnect system that integrates data from three neuroimaging consortia on Schizophrenia: FBIRN's Human Imaging Database (HID), MRN's Collaborative Imaging and Neuroinformatics System (COINS), and the NUSDAST project at XNAT Central. A portal providing harmonized access to these sources is publicly deployed at schizconnect.org.

  15. Neuroimaging findings in acute Wernicke's encephalopathy: review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccoli, Giulio; Pipitone, Nicolò

    2009-02-01

    Wernicke's encephalopathy is an acute neurological syndrome resulting from thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency. Early recognition is important because timely thiamine supplementation can reverse the clinical features of the disease. The aim of this article is to provide an update on the typical and atypical neuroimaging findings of the acute phase of the disease. Wernicke's encephalopathy is characterized by a quite distinct pattern of MR alterations, which include symmetrical alterations in the thalami, mamillary bodies, tectal plate, and periaqueductal area, but atypical alterations may also been seen. A thorough knowledge of the neuroimaging findings of Wernicke's encephalopathy will assist in arriving at an early diagnosis, thus reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with this disease.

  16. Pain perception and hypnosis: findings from recent functional neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Casale, Antonio; Ferracuti, Stefano; Rapinesi, Chiara; Serata, Daniele; Caltagirone, Saverio Simone; Savoja, Valeria; Piacentino, Daria; Callovini, Gemma; Manfredi, Giovanni; Sani, Gabriele; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Girardi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Hypnosis modulates pain perception and tolerance by affecting cortical and subcortical activity in brain regions involved in these processes. By reviewing functional neuroimaging studies focusing on pain perception under hypnosis, the authors aimed to identify brain activation-deactivation patterns occurring in hypnosis-modulated pain conditions. Different changes in brain functionality occurred throughout all components of the pain network and other brain areas. The anterior cingulate cortex appears to be central in modulating pain circuitry activity under hypnosis. Most studies also showed that the neural functions of the prefrontal, insular, and somatosensory cortices are consistently modified during hypnosis-modulated pain conditions. Functional neuroimaging studies support the clinical use of hypnosis in the management of pain conditions.

  17. CATI: A Large Distributed Infrastructure for the Neuroimaging of Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Operto, Grégory; Chupin, Marie; Batrancourt, Bénédicte; Habert, Marie-Odile; Colliot, Olivier; Benali, Habib; Poupon, Cyril; Champseix, Catherine; Delmaire, Christine; Marie, Sullivan; Rivière, Denis; Pélégrini-Issac, Mélanie; Perlbarg, Vincent; Trebossen, Régine; Bottlaender, Michel; Frouin, Vincent; Grigis, Antoine; Orfanos, Dimitri Papadopoulos; Dary, Hugo; Fillon, Ludovic; Azouani, Chabha; Bouyahia, Ali; Fischer, Clara; Edward, Lydie; Bouin, Mathilde; Thoprakarn, Urielle; Li, Jinpeng; Makkaoui, Leila; Poret, Sylvain; Dufouil, Carole; Bouteloup, Vincent; Chételat, Gaël; Dubois, Bruno; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Mangin, Jean-François; Cointepas, Yann

    2016-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of CATI, a platform dedicated to multicenter neuroimaging. Initiated by the French Alzheimer's plan (2008-2012), CATI is a research project called on to provide service to other projects like an industrial partner. Its core mission is to support the neuroimaging of large populations, providing concrete solutions to the increasing complexity involved in such projects by bringing together a service infrastructure, the know-how of its expert academic teams and a large-scale, harmonized network of imaging facilities. CATI aims to make data sharing across studies easier and promotes sharing as much as possible. In the last 4 years, CATI has assisted the clinical community by taking charge of 35 projects so far and has emerged as a recognized actor at the national and international levels.

  18. Post-stroke cognitive dysfunctions: A clinical and neuroimaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Yuryevich Emelin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging examinations were made in 65 patients (52 men and 13 women aged 65.6±10.1 years who had experienced ischemic stroke. Cognitive impairments (CI were heterogeneous; regulatory functions, attention, and counting were most significantly affected in moderate CI. In mild dementia, mainly poor attention and regulatory dysfunctions were added by clearly-cut impairments of memory, orientation, and visual-spatial function. Brain atrophy, white matter changes, and small focal gray matter damages along with focal post-stroke changes were revealed by neuroimaging in most patients. It was found that besides the volume and location of a damage focus, the signs of impaired integrated mental activity of the brain, regulatory dysfunctions in particular, should be a necessary condition for the verification of post-stroke CI.

  19. Interrogational Neuroimaging: The Missing Element in Counter-Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Farhan Hyder Sahito

    2013-01-01

    Following the September 2001 terrorist attacks in New York, governments have waged a global campaign against terrorists groups in order to ensure national security. A crucial part of this campaign has been intelligence gathering with different methods of interrogation in order to extract allegedly necessary information from suspected terrorists. Similarly, it is not surprising that intelligence personnel have started recognizing that neuroimaging technologies—in particular, functional Magneti...

  20. Multiple Comparison Procedures for Neuroimaging Genomewide Association Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Hua, Wen-Yu; Nichols, Thomas E.; Ghosh, Debashis; Initiative, the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging

    2014-01-01

    Recent research in neuroimaging has focused on assessing associations between genetic variants that are measured on a genomewide scale and brain imaging phenotypes. A large number of works in the area apply massively univariate analyses on a genomewide basis to find single nucleotide polymorphisms that influence brain structure. In this paper, we propose using various dimensionality reduction methods on both brain structural MRI scans and genomic data, motivated by the Alzheimer's Disease Neu...

  1. Robust regression for large-scale neuroimaging studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Bokde, Arun

    2015-01-01

    PUBLISHED Multi-subject datasets used in neuroimaging group studies have a complex structure, as they exhibit non-stationary statistical properties across regions and display various artifacts. While studies with small sample sizes can rarely be shown to deviate from standard hypotheses (such as the normality of the residuals) due to the poor sensitivity of normality tests with low degrees of freedom, large-scale studies (e.g. >100 subjects) exhibit more obvious deviations from these hypot...

  2. Extracting novel information from neuroimaging data using neural fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinotsis Dimitris A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We showcase three case studies that illustrate how neural fields can be useful in the analysis of neuroimaging data. In particular, we argue that neural fields allow one to: (i compare evidences for alternative hypotheses regarding neurobiological determinants of stimulus-specific response variability; (ii make inferences about between subject variability in cortical function and microstructure using non-invasive data and (iii estimate spatial parameters describing cortical sources, even without spatially resolved data.

  3. Neuroimaging and clinical predictors of fatigue in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Kelvin L; Kotagal, Vikas; Bohnen, Nicolaas I

    2016-02-01

    Fatigue is disabling in Parkinson disease. It is often associated with other non-motor symptoms, but little is known about its underlying pathophysiology. To investigate neuroimaging (using dopaminergic and cholinergic PET) and clinical factors associated with fatigue severity in PD. 133 PD subjects (96M/37F) completed the Fatigue Severity Scale, Movement Disorders Society-Sponsored Revision of the Unified PD Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS), Hoehn-Yahr staging, validated scales for depression, anxiety, apathy, sleep, and cognition, and underwent [(11)C]methyl-4-piperidinyl propionate (PMP) acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and [(11)C]dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) monoaminergic PET imaging. We explored contributions to PD fatigue using separate regression models based either on neuroimaging parameters or clinicometric scales. In a neuroimaging regression model, neither striatal DTBZ uptake nor AChE PMP uptake were predictors of fatigue in PD. In a post-hoc neuroimaging regression model, stratifying the total cohort into mild vs. moderate-to-severe PD, striatal DTBZ uptake was a significant predictor of fatigue in mild but not moderate-to-severe PD. In a clinicometric regression model, higher Beck Depression Inventory-somatic subscore, higher levodopa dose equivalents and younger age were all significant predictors of fatigue in PD, but the MDS-UPDRS non-motor experiences of daily living score was the best predictor overall. Cholinergic uptake was not a predictor of fatigue in PD, but nigrostriatal dopaminergic denervation predicted fatigue in mild disease. Total non-motor symptom burden, somatic affective symptoms, levodopa dose equivalents, and younger age were independent clinical predictors of fatigue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Neuroimaging correlates of aggression in schizophrenia: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoptman, Matthew J; Antonius, Daniel

    2011-03-01

    Aggression in schizophrenia is associated with poor treatment outcomes, hospital admissions, and stigmatization of patients. As such it represents an important public health issue. This article reviews recent neuroimaging studies of aggression in schizophrenia, focusing on PET/single photon emission computed tomography and MRI methods. The neuroimaging literature on aggression in schizophrenia is in a period of development. This is attributable in part to the heterogeneous nature and basis of that aggression. Radiological methods have consistently shown reduced activity in frontal and temporal regions. MRI brain volumetric studies have been less consistent, with some studies finding increased volumes of inferior frontal structures, and others finding reduced volumes in aggressive individuals with schizophrenia. Functional MRI studies have also had inconsistent results, with most finding reduced activity in inferior frontal and temporal regions, but some also finding increased activity in other regions. Some studies have made a distinction between types of aggression in schizophrenia in the context of antisocial traits, and this appears to be useful in understanding the neuroimaging literature. Frontal and temporal abnormalities appear to be a consistent feature of aggression in schizophrenia, but their precise nature likely differs because of the heterogeneous nature of that behavior.

  5. Neuroimaging the Menstrual Cycle and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comasco, Erika; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2015-10-01

    Knowledge of gonadal hormone-related influences on human brain anatomy, function, and chemistry is scarce. The present review scrutinized organizational and functional neuroimaging correlates of the menstrual cycle and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Supportive evidence of cyclic short-term structural and functional brain plasticity in response to gonadal hormonal modulation is provided. The paucity of studies, sparsity and discordance of findings, and weaknesses in study design at present hinder the drawing of firm conclusions. Ideal study designs should comprise high-resolution multimodal neuroimaging (e.g., MRI, DTI, rs-fMRI, fMRI, PET), hormones, genetic, and behavioral longitudinal assessments of healthy women and PMDD patients at critical time points of the menstrual cycle phase (i.e., early follicular phase, late follicular phase, mid-luteal phase) in a counter-balanced setup. Studies integrating large-scale brain network structural, functional, and molecular neuroimaging, as well as treatment data, will deepen the understanding of neural state, disorder, and treatment markers.

  6. Robust regression for large-scale neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Virgile; Da Mota, Benoit; Loth, Eva; Varoquaux, Gaël; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Brühl, Rüdiger; Butzek, Brigitte; Conrod, Patricia; Flor, Herta; Garavan, Hugh; Lemaitre, Hervé; Mann, Karl; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomas; Schad, Daniel J; Schümann, Gunter; Frouin, Vincent; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Thirion, Bertrand

    2015-05-01

    Multi-subject datasets used in neuroimaging group studies have a complex structure, as they exhibit non-stationary statistical properties across regions and display various artifacts. While studies with small sample sizes can rarely be shown to deviate from standard hypotheses (such as the normality of the residuals) due to the poor sensitivity of normality tests with low degrees of freedom, large-scale studies (e.g. >100 subjects) exhibit more obvious deviations from these hypotheses and call for more refined models for statistical inference. Here, we demonstrate the benefits of robust regression as a tool for analyzing large neuroimaging cohorts. First, we use an analytic test based on robust parameter estimates; based on simulations, this procedure is shown to provide an accurate statistical control without resorting to permutations. Second, we show that robust regression yields more detections than standard algorithms using as an example an imaging genetics study with 392 subjects. Third, we show that robust regression can avoid false positives in a large-scale analysis of brain-behavior relationships with over 1500 subjects. Finally we embed robust regression in the Randomized Parcellation Based Inference (RPBI) method and demonstrate that this combination further improves the sensitivity of tests carried out across the whole brain. Altogether, our results show that robust procedures provide important advantages in large-scale neuroimaging group studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A review of database management systems suitable for neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, B; Travere, J M; Mazoyer, B

    1999-06-01

    This study comprises a technical assessment of Database Management Systems (DBMS), which may be of use in the analysis of data obtained from human brain mapping procedures. Due to the large expansion of the neuroimaging field, the use of specialized database software to store and process neuroimages and their attached components is inevitable. The advent of multiple software products, a wealth of technical terms and a wide variety of other applications make the choice of a suitable program sometimes difficult. Through the inclusion of some basic and pertinent criteria (e.g., performance, ease of opening, standardization and portability), we present a descriptive comparison of 12 DBMSs currently available in the commercial and public domain. We have compared and tested three main architecture models which are currently available and assessed their potential applications for imaging purposes: relational, object-oriented, and hybrid. The findings of our study demonstrated that the Illustra software was the best suited for a neuroimaging environment because of its intrinsic ability to handle complex and large objects, such as 3D volumes or geometric structures.

  8. Pseudotumoral hemicerebellitis as a mimicker of Lhermitte-Duclos disease in children: does neuroimaging help to differentiate them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Steinlin, Maja; Toelle, Sandra P; Beck, Jürgen; Boltshauser, Eugen; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Poretti, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    The clinical presentation and neuroimaging findings of children with pseudotumoral hemicerebellitis (PTHC) and Lhermitte-Duclos disease (LDD) may be very similar. The differentiation between these entities, however, is important because their management and prognosis are different. We report on three children with PTHC. For all three children, in the acute situation, the differentiation between PTHC and LDD was challenging. A review of the literature shows that a detailed evaluation of conventional and neuroimaging data may help to differentiate between these two entities. A striated folial pattern, brainstem involvement, and prominent veins surrounding the thickened cerebellar foliae on susceptibility weighted imaging favor LDD, while post-contrast enhancement and an increased choline peak on (1)H-Magnetic resonance spectroscopy suggest PTHC.

  9. Brain activation in response to bladder filling in healthy adults: An activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Nisha G; Weissbart, Steven J; Xu, Sihua; Rao, Hengyi

    2017-04-01

    Recent studies have used different neuroimaging techniques and identified various brain regions that are activated during bladder filling. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding which of these brain regions regulate the process of urine storage. The aim of this meta-analysis is to identify brain regions that are commonly activated during bladder filling in healthy adults across different studies. PubMed was searched for neuroimaging studies investigating the effects of bladder filling on regional brain activation. Studies were excluded if they did not report brain activation differences from whole-brain group analysis by comparing the state of bladder filling with the state of bladder rest. The current version of the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach was used for meta-analysis. We identified 14 neuroimaging studies examining brain activation in response to experimental bladder filling in 181 healthy subjects, which reported 89 foci for ALE analysis. The meta-analysis revealed significant activation in multiple brain regions including thalamus (bilaterally), right insula, cerebellum, and brainstem (bilaterally). Several key brain regions involved in sensory processing are commonly activated during bladder filling in healthy adults across different studies. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:960-965, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The link between cardiovascular risk, Alzheimer's disease, and mild cognitive impairment: support from recent functional neuroimaging studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz K. Ferreira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review functional neuroimaging studies about the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs, Alzheimer's disease (AD, and mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Methods: We performed a comprehensive literature search to identify articles in the neuroimaging field addressing CVRF in AD and MCI. We included studies that used positron emission tomography (PET, single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT, or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Results: CVRFs have been considered risk factors for cognitive decline, MCI, and AD. Patterns of AD-like changes in brain function have been found in association with several CVRFs (both regarding individual risk factors and also composite CVRF measures. In vivo assessment of AD-related pathology with amyloid imaging techniques provided further evidence linking CVRFs and AD, but there is still limited information resulting from this new technology. Conclusion: There is a large body of evidence from functional neuroimaging studies supporting the hypothesis that CVRFs may play a causal role in the pathophysiology of AD. A major limitation of most studies is their cross-sectional design; future longitudinal studies using multiple imaging modalities are expected to better document changes in CVRF-related brain function patterns and provide a clearer picture of the complex relationship between aging, CVRFs, and AD.

  11. Neuroimaging assessment of early and late neurobiological sequelae of traumatic brain injury: implications for CTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eSundman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI has been increasingly accepted as a major external risk factor for neurodegenerative morbidity and mortality. Recent evidence indicates that the resultant chronic neurobiological sequelae following head trauma may, at least in part, contribute to a pathologically distinct disease known as Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE. The clinical manifestation of CTE is variable, but the symptoms of this progressive disease include impaired memory and cognition, affective disorders (i.e., impulsivity, aggression, depression, suicidality, etc., and diminished motor control. Notably, mounting evidence suggests that the pathology contributing to CTE may be caused by repetitive exposure to subconcussive hits to the head, even in those with no history of a clinically evident head injury. Given the millions of athletes and military personnel with potential exposure to repetitive subconcussive insults and TBI, CTE represents an important public health issue. However, the incidence rates and pathological mechanisms are still largely unknown, primarily due to the fact that there is no in vivo diagnostic tool. The primary objective of this manuscript is to address this limitation and discuss potential neuroimaging modalities that may be capable of diagnosing CTE in vivo through the detection of tau and other known pathological features. Additionally, we will discuss the challenges of TBI research, outline the known pathology of CTE (with an emphasis on Tau, review current neuroimaging modalities to assess the potential routes for in vivo diagnosis, and discuss the future directions of CTE research.

  12. Hearing feelings: a quantitative meta-analysis on the neuroimaging literature of emotional prosody perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witteman, Jurriaan; Van Heuven, Vincent J P; Schiller, Niels O

    2012-10-01

    With the advent of neuroimaging considerable progress has been made in uncovering the neural network involved in the perception of emotional prosody. However, the exact neuroanatomical underpinnings of the emotional prosody perception process remain unclear. Furthermore, it is unclear what the intrahemispheric basis might be of the relative right-hemispheric specialization for emotional prosody perception that has been found previously in the lesion literature. In an attempt to shed light on these issues, quantitative meta-analyses of the neuroimaging literature were performed to investigate which brain areas are robustly associated with stimulus-driven and task-dependent perception of emotional prosody. Also, lateralization analyses were performed to investigate whether statistically reliable hemispheric specialization across studies can be found in these networks. A bilateral temporofrontal network was found to be implicated in emotional prosody perception, generally supporting previously proposed models of emotional prosody perception. Right-lateralized convergence across studies was found in (early) auditory processing areas, suggesting that the right hemispheric specialization for emotional prosody perception reported previously in the lesion literature might be driven by hemispheric specialization for non-prosody-specific fundamental acoustic dimensions of the speech signal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Resonant Dynamics of Grounded Cognition: Explanation of Behavioral and Neuroimaging Data Using the ART Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domijan, Dražen; Šetić, Mia

    2016-01-01

    Research on grounded cognition suggests that the processing of a word or concept reactivates the perceptual representations that are associated with the referent object. The objective of this work is to demonstrate how behavioral and functional neuroimaging data on grounded cognition can be understood as different manifestations of the same cortical circuit designed to achieve stable category learning, as proposed by the adaptive resonance theory (ART). We showed that the ART neural network provides a mechanistic explanation of why reaction times in behavioral studies depend on the expectation or attentional priming created by the word meaning (Richter and Zwaan, 2009). A mismatch between top-down expectation and bottom-up sensory data activates an orienting subsystem that slows execution of the current task. Furthermore, we simulated the data from functional neuroimaging studies of color knowledge retrieval that showed anterior shift (Chao and Martin, 1999; Thompson-Schill, 2003) and an overlap effect (Simmons et al., 2007; Hsu et al., 2011) in the left fusiform gyrus. We explain the anterior effect as a result of the partial activation of different components of the same ART circuit in the condition of passive viewing. Conversely, a demanding perceptual task requires activation of the whole ART circuit. This condition is reflected in the fMRI image as an overlap between cortical activation during perceptual and conceptual processing. We conclude that the ART neural network is able to explain how the brain grounds symbols in perception via perceptual simulation.

  14. Resonant Dynamics of Grounded Cognition: Explanation of Behavioral and Neuroimaging Data Using the ART Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen eDomijan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on grounded cognition suggests that the processing of a word or concept reactivates the perceptual representations that are associated with the referent object. The objective of this work is to demonstrate how behavioral and functional neuroimaging data on grounded cognition can be understood as different manifestations of the same cortical circuit designed to achieve stable category learning, as proposed by the adaptive resonance theory (ART. We showed that the ART neural network provides a mechanistic explanation of why reaction times in behavioral studies depend on the expectation or attentional priming created by the word meaning (Richter & Zwaan, 2009. A mismatch between top-down expectation and bottom-up sensory data activates an orienting subsystem that slows execution of the current task. Furthermore, we simulated the data from functional neuroimaging studies of color knowledge retrieval that showed anterior shift (Chao & Martin, 1999; Thompson-Schill, 2003 and an overlap effect (Hsu et al., 2011; Simmons et al., 2007 in the left fusiform gyrus. We explain the anterior effect as a result of the partial activation of different components of the same ART circuit in the condition of passive viewing. Conversely, a demanding perceptual task requires activation of the whole ART circuit. This condition is reflected in the fMRI image as an overlap between cortical activation during perceptual and conceptual processing. We conclude that the ART neural network is able to explain how the brain grounds symbols in perception via perceptual simulation.

  15. Neuroimaging of reading intervention: a systematic review and activation likelihood estimate meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquero, Laura A; Davis, Nicole; Cutting, Laurie E

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of studies examine instructional training and brain activity. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature regarding neuroimaging of reading intervention, with a particular focus on reading difficulties (RD). To locate relevant studies, searches of peer-reviewed literature were conducted using electronic databases to search for studies from the imaging modalities of fMRI and MEG (including MSI) that explored reading intervention. Of the 96 identified studies, 22 met the inclusion criteria for descriptive analysis. A subset of these (8 fMRI experiments with post-intervention data) was subjected to activation likelihood estimate (ALE) meta-analysis to investigate differences in functional activation following reading intervention. Findings from the literature review suggest differences in functional activation of numerous brain regions associated with reading intervention, including bilateral inferior frontal, superior temporal, middle temporal, middle frontal, superior frontal, and postcentral gyri, as well as bilateral occipital cortex, inferior parietal lobules, thalami, and insulae. Findings from the meta-analysis indicate change in functional activation following reading intervention in the left thalamus, right insula/inferior frontal, left inferior frontal, right posterior cingulate, and left middle occipital gyri. Though these findings should be interpreted with caution due to the small number of studies and the disparate methodologies used, this paper is an effort to synthesize across studies and to guide future exploration of neuroimaging and reading intervention.

  16. The role of language in the experience and perception of emotion: a neuroimaging meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jeffrey A; Shablack, Holly; Gendron, Maria; Satpute, Ajay B; Parrish, Michael H; Lindquist, Kristen A

    2017-02-01

    Recent behavioral and neuroimaging studies demonstrate that labeling one's emotional experiences and perceptions alters those states. Here, we used a comprehensive meta-analysis of the neuroimaging literature to systematically explore whether the presence of emotion words in experimental tasks has an impact on the neural representation of emotional experiences and perceptions across studies. Using a database of 386 studies, we assessed brain activity when emotion words (e.g. 'anger', 'disgust') and more general affect words (e.g. 'pleasant', 'unpleasant') were present in experimental tasks vs not present. As predicted, when emotion words were present, we observed more frequent activations in regions related to semantic processing. When emotion words were not present, we observed more frequent activations in the amygdala and parahippocampal gyrus, bilaterally. The presence of affect words did not have the same effect on the neural representation of emotional experiences and perceptions, suggesting that our observed effects are specific to emotion words. These findings are consistent with the psychological constructionist prediction that in the absence of accessible emotion concepts, the meaning of affective experiences and perceptions are ambiguous. Findings are also consistent with the regulatory role of 'affect labeling'. Implications of the role of language in emotion construction and regulation are discussed. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. [Seeking the aetiology of autistic spectrum disorder. Part 2: Functional neuroimaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryńska, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Multiple functional imaging techniques help to a better understanding of the neurobiological basis of autism-spectrum disorders (ASD). The early functional imaging studies on ASD focused on task-specific methods related to core symptom domains and explored patterns of activation in response to face processing, theory of mind tasks, language processing and executive function tasks. On the other hand, fMRI research in ASD focused on the development of functional connectivity methods and has provided evidence of alterations in cortical connectivity in ASD and establish autism as a disorder of under-connectivity among the brain regions participating in cortical networks. This atypical functional connectivity in ASD results in inefficiency and poor integration of processing in network connections to achieve task performance. The goal of this review is to summarise the actual neuroimaging functional data and examine their implication for understanding of the neurobiology of ASD.

  18. Data sharing and publishing in the field of neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breeze Janis L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is growing recognition of the importance of data sharing in the neurosciences, and in particular in the field of neuroimaging research, in order to best make use of the volumes of human subject data that have been acquired to date. However, a number of barriers, both practical and cultural, continue to impede the widespread practice of data sharing; these include: lack of standard infrastructure and tools for data sharing, uncertainty about how to organize and prepare the data for sharing, and researchers’ fears about unattributed data use or missed opportunities for publication. A further challenge is how the scientific community should best describe and/or reference shared data that is used in secondary analyses. Finally, issues of human research subject protections and the ethical use of such data are an ongoing source of concern for neuroimaging researchers. One crucial issue is how producers of shared data can and should be acknowledged and how this important component of science will benefit individuals in their academic careers. While we encourage the field to make use of these opportunities for data publishing, it is critical that standards for metadata, provenance, and other descriptors are used. This commentary outlines the efforts of the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility Task Force on Neuroimaging Datasharing to coordinate and establish such standards, as well as potential ways forward to relieve the issues that researchers who produce these massive, reusable community resources face when making the data rapidly and freely available to the public. Both the technical and human aspects of data sharing must be addressed if we are to go forward.

  19. Multiple brain atlas database and atlas-based neuroimaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowinski, W L; Fang, A; Nguyen, B T; Raphel, J K; Jagannathan, L; Raghavan, R; Bryan, R N; Miller, G A

    1997-01-01

    For the purpose of developing multiple, complementary, fully labeled electronic brain atlases and an atlas-based neuroimaging system for analysis, quantification, and real-time manipulation of cerebral structures in two and three dimensions, we have digitized, enhanced, segmented, and labeled the following print brain atlases: Co-Planar Stereotaxic Atlas of the Human Brain by Talairach and Tournoux, Atlas for Stereotaxy of the Human Brain by Schaltenbrand and Wahren, Referentially Oriented Cerebral MRI Anatomy by Talairach and Tournoux, and Atlas of the Cerebral Sulci by Ono, Kubik, and Abernathey. Three-dimensional extensions of these atlases have been developed as well. All two- and three-dimensional atlases are mutually preregistered and may be interactively registered with an actual patient's data. An atlas-based neuroimaging system has been developed that provides support for reformatting, registration, visualization, navigation, image processing, and quantification of clinical data. The anatomical index contains about 1,000 structures and over 400 sulcal patterns. Several new applications of the brain atlas database also have been developed, supported by various technologies such as virtual reality, the Internet, and electronic publishing. Fusion of information from multiple atlases assists the user in comprehensively understanding brain structures and identifying and quantifying anatomical regions in clinical data. The multiple brain atlas database and atlas-based neuroimaging system have substantial potential impact in stereotactic neurosurgery and radiotherapy by assisting in visualization and real-time manipulation in three dimensions of anatomical structures, in quantitative neuroradiology by allowing interactive analysis of clinical data, in three-dimensional neuroeducation, and in brain function studies.

  20. High-Throughput Neuroimaging-Genetics Computational Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo D Dinov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many contemporary neuroscientific investigations face significant challenges in terms of data management, computational processing, data mining and results interpretation. These four pillars define the core infrastructure necessary to plan, organize, orchestrate, validate and disseminate novel scientific methods, computational resources and translational healthcare findings. Data management includes protocols for data acquisition, archival, query, transfer, retrieval and aggregation. Computational processing involves the necessary software, hardware and networking infrastructure required to handle large amounts of heterogeneous neuroimaging, genetics, clinical and phenotypic data and meta-data. In this manuscript we describe the novel high-throughput neuroimaging-genetics computational infrastructure available at the Institute for Neuroimaging and Informatics (INI and the Laboratory of Neuro Imaging (LONI at University of Southern California (USC. INI and LONI include ultra-high-field and standard-field MRI brain scanners along with an imaging-genetics database for storing the complete provenance of the raw and derived data and meta-data. A unique feature of this architecture is the Pipeline environment, which integrates the data management, processing, transfer and visualization. Through its client-server architecture, the Pipeline environment provides a graphical user interface for designing, executing, monitoring validating, and disseminating of complex protocols that utilize diverse suites of software tools and web-services. These pipeline workflows are represented as portable XML objects which transfer the execution instructions and user specifications from the client user machine to remote pipeline servers for distributed computing. Using Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s data, we provide several examples of translational applications using this infrastructure.

  1. Shift Invariant Multi-linear Decomposition of Neuroimaging Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Hansen, Lars Kai; Arnfred, Sidse M.

    2008-01-01

    with a fixed time course that may vary across either trials or space in its overall intensity and latency. Its utility is demonstrated on simulated data as well as actual EEG, and fMRI data. We show how shift-invariant multilinear decompositions of multiway data can successfully cope with variable latencies...... in data derived from neural activity--a problem that has caused degenerate solutions especially in modeling neuroimaging data with instantaneous multilinear decompositions. Our algorithm is available for download at www.erpwavelab.org....

  2. Propionic Acidemia: Diagnosis and Neuroimaging Findings of This Neurometabolic Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    KARIMZADEH, Parvaneh; JAFARI, Narjes; AHMAD ABADI, Farzad; JABBEHDARI, Sayena; Mohammad-Mahdi TAGHDIRI; Mohammad-Reza ALAEE; GHOFRANI, Mohammad; TONEKABONI, Seyed Hassan; Habibeh NEJAD BIGLARI*

    2013-01-01

    How to Cite This Article: Karimzadeh P, Jafari N, Ahmad Abadi F, Jabbehdari S, Taghdiri MM, Alaee MR, Ghofrani M, Tonekaboni SH, Nejad Biglari H. Propionic Acidemia: Diagnosis and Neuroimaging Findings of This Neurometabolic Disorder. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Winter; 8(1):58-61. ObjectivePropionic acidemia is one of the rare congenital neurometabolic disorders with autosomal recessive inheritance. This disorder is caused by a defect in the propionyl-CoA carboxylase enzyme and can be presente...

  3. Frequency Constrained ShiftCP Modeling of Neuroimaging Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Hansen, Lars Kai; Madsen, Kristoffer H.

    2011-01-01

    The shift invariant multi-linear model based on the CandeComp/PARAFAC (CP) model denoted ShiftCP has proven useful for the modeling of latency changes in trial based neuroimaging data[17]. In order to facilitate component interpretation we presently extend the shiftCP model such that the extracted...... components can be constrained to pertain to predefined frequency ranges such as alpha, beta and gamma activity. To infer the number of components in the model we propose to apply automatic relevance determination by imposing priors that define the range of variation of each component of the shiftCP model...

  4. Visualization of Nonlinear Classification Models in Neuroimaging - Signed Sensitivity Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup; Schmah, Tanya; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard

    2012-01-01

    Classification models are becoming increasing popular tools in the analysis of neuroimaging data sets. Besides obtaining good prediction accuracy, a competing goal is to interpret how the classifier works. From a neuroscientific perspective, we are interested in the brain pattern reflecting...... the underlying neural encoding of an experiment defining multiple brain states. In this relation there is a great desire for the researcher to generate brain maps, that highlight brain locations of importance to the classifiers decisions. Based on sensitivity analysis, we develop further procedures for model...

  5. Neuroimaging and other investigations in patients presenting with headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callum W Duncan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Headache is very common. In the United Kingdom, it accounts for 4.4% of primary care consultations, 30% of referrals to neurology services and 0.5-0.8% of alert patients presenting to emergency departments. Primary headache disorders account for the majority of patients and most patients do not require investigation. Warning features (red flags in the history and on examination help target those who need investigation and what investigations are required. This article summarizes the typical presentations of the common secondary headaches and what neuroimaging and other investigations are appropriate for each headache type.

  6. Accelerating Neuroimage Registration through Parallel Computation of Similarity Metric.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Gang Luo

    Full Text Available Neuroimage registration is crucial for brain morphometric analysis and treatment efficacy evaluation. However, existing advanced registration algorithms such as FLIRT and ANTs are not efficient enough for clinical use. In this paper, a GPU implementation of FLIRT with the correlation ratio (CR as the similarity metric and a GPU accelerated correlation coefficient (CC calculation for the symmetric diffeomorphic registration of ANTs have been developed. The comparison with their corresponding original tools shows that our accelerated algorithms can greatly outperform the original algorithm in terms of computational efficiency. This paper demonstrates the great potential of applying these registration tools in clinical applications.

  7. Application for Suggesting Restaurants Using Clustering Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Alexandra IANCU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present an application whose purpose is to make suggestions of restaurants to users. The application uses as input the descriptions of restaurants, reviews, user reviews available on the specialized Internet sites and blogs. In the application there are used processing techniques of natural language implemented using parsers, clustering algorithms and techniques for data collection from the Internet through web crawlers.

  8. [Leigh's encephalopathy (subacute necrotizing encephalopathy). Documentation of its evolution through neuroimaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, J A; González-Ferrer, S; Martínez, C; Prieto-Carrasquero, M; Delgado, W; Mora La Cruz, E

    1996-09-01

    A 30 months-old boy developed bilateral nistagmus, tremor, gait disturbance, hypotonia and disartria. The diagnose of Leigh encephalopathy was suggested on the basis of clinical, neuroimaging and laboratory findings. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at an early stage revealed bilateral and symmetric lesions in the putamen, appearing as hyperintense signal on T2-weighted images. Twelve months later a relatively large hypertense area in the posterior brainstem was observed. At this stage, the patient exhibited marked deterioration, dystonic manifestations, rigidity and respiratory disturbances. He died 6 months later for respiratory arrest during bronconeumonic infection. We believe MRI is a valuable means to allow assessment of the evolution of the disease.

  9. A review of structural neuroimaging in schizophrenia: from connectivity to connectomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne L Wheeler

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In patients with schizophrenia neuroimaging studies have revealed global differences with some brain regions showing focal abnormalities. Examining neurocircuitry, diffusion-weighted imaging studies have identified altered structural integrity of white matter in frontal and temporal brain regions and tracts such as the cingulum bundles, uncinate fasciculi and corpus callosum associated with the illness. Furthermore, structural co-variance analyses have revealed altered structural relationships among regional morphology in the thalamus, frontal, temporal and parietal cortices in schizophrenia patients. The distributed nature of these abnormalities in schizophrenia suggests that multiple brain circuits are impaired, a neural feature that may be better addressed with network level analyses. However, even with the advent of these newer analyses, a large amount of variability in findings remains, likely partially due to the considerable heterogeneity of this disorder.

  10. Functional neuroimaging of visual creativity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidgeon, Laura M; Grealy, Madeleine; Duffy, Alex H B; Hay, Laura; McTeague, Chris; Vuletic, Tijana; Coyle, Damien; Gilbert, Sam J

    2016-10-01

    The generation of creative visual imagery contributes to technological and scientific innovation and production of visual art. The underlying cognitive and neural processes are, however, poorly understood. This review synthesizes functional neuroimaging studies of visual creativity. Seven functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and 19 electroencephalography (EEG) studies were included, comprising 27 experiments and around 800 participants. Activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of the fMRI studies comparing visual creativity to non-rest control tasks yielded significant clusters in thalamus, left fusiform gyrus, and right middle and inferior frontal gyri. The EEG studies revealed a tendency for decreased alpha power during visual creativity compared to baseline, but comparisons of visual creativity to non-rest control tasks revealed inconsistent findings. The findings are consistent with suggested contributions to visual creativity of prefrontally mediated inhibition, evaluation, and working memory, as well as visual imagery processes. Findings are discussed in relation to prominent theories of the neural basis of creativity.

  11. [Neuropsychology of Tourette's disorder: cognition, neuroimaging and creativity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espert, R; Gadea, M; Alino, M; Oltra-Cucarella, J

    2017-02-24

    Tourette's disorder is the result of fronto-striatal brain dysfunction affecting people of all ages, with a debut in early childhood and continuing into adolescence and adulthood. This article reviews the main cognitive, functional neuroimaging and creativity-related studies in a disorder characterized by an excess of dopamine in the brain. Given the special cerebral configuration of these patients, neuropsychological alterations, especially in executive functions, should be expected. However, the findings are inconclusive and are conditioned by factors such as comorbidity with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder, age or methodological variables. On the other hand, the neuroimaging studies carried out over the last decade have been able to explain the clinical symptoms of Tourette's disorder patients, with special relevance for the supplementary motor area and the anterior cingulate gyrus. Finally, although there is no linear relationship between excess of dopamine and creativity, the scientific literature emphasizes an association between Tourette's disorder and musical creativity, which could be translated into intervention programs based on music.

  12. Publication trends in neuroimaging of minimally conscious states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Garnett

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We used existing and customized bibliometric and scientometric methods to analyze publication trends in neuroimaging research of minimally conscious states and describe the domain in terms of its geographic, contributor, and content features. We considered publication rates for the years 2002–2011, author interconnections, the rate at which new authors are added, and the domains that inform the work of author contributors. We also provided a content analysis of clinical and ethical themes within the relevant literature. We found a 27% growth in the number of papers over the period of study, professional diversity among a wide range of peripheral author contributors but only few authors who dominate the field, and few new technical paradigms and clinical themes that would fundamentally expand the landscape. The results inform both the science of consciousness as well as parallel ethics and policy studies of the potential for translational challenges of neuroimaging in research and health care of people with disordered states of consciousness.

  13. MindSeer: a portable and extensible tool for visualization of structural and functional neuroimaging data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brinkley James F

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three-dimensional (3-D visualization of multimodality neuroimaging data provides a powerful technique for viewing the relationship between structure and function. A number of applications are available that include some aspect of 3-D visualization, including both free and commercial products. These applications range from highly specific programs for a single modality, to general purpose toolkits that include many image processing functions in addition to visualization. However, few if any of these combine both stand-alone and remote multi-modality visualization in an open source, portable and extensible tool that is easy to install and use, yet can be included as a component of a larger information system. Results We have developed a new open source multimodality 3-D visualization application, called MindSeer, that has these features: integrated and interactive 3-D volume and surface visualization, Java and Java3D for true cross-platform portability, one-click installation and startup, integrated data management to help organize large studies, extensibility through plugins, transparent remote visualization, and the ability to be integrated into larger information management systems. We describe the design and implementation of the system, as well as several case studies that demonstrate its utility. These case studies are available as tutorials or demos on the associated website: http://sig.biostr.washington.edu/projects/MindSeer. Conclusion MindSeer provides a powerful visualization tool for multimodality neuroimaging data. Its architecture and unique features also allow it to be extended into other visualization domains within biomedicine.

  14. Quantitative analysis of structural neuroimaging of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memarian, Negar; Thompson, Paul M; Engel, Jerome; Staba, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is the most common of the surgically remediable drug-resistant epilepsies. MRI is the primary diagnostic tool to detect anatomical abnormalities and, when combined with EEG, can more accurately identify an epileptogenic lesion, which is often hippocampal sclerosis in cases of MTLE. As structural imaging technology has advanced the surgical treatment of MTLE and other lesional epilepsies, so too have the analysis techniques that are used to measure different structural attributes of the brain. These techniques, which are reviewed here and have been used chiefly in basic research of epilepsy and in studies of MTLE, have identified different types and the extent of anatomical abnormalities that can extend beyond the affected hippocampus. These results suggest that structural imaging and sophisticated imaging analysis could provide important information to identify networks capable of generating spontaneous seizures and ultimately help guide surgical therapy that improves postsurgical seizure-freedom outcomes. PMID:24319498

  15. Recent advances in the neuroimaging and neuropsychology of cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, A Sophia

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews the recent advances in understanding of cerebral palsy (CP) and outlines how these advances could inform pediatric neuropsychological rehabilitation. Three main areas are discussed: the improved delineation of differing presentations resulting from more advanced imaging techniques with emerging links to function; a brief review of research examining neuropsychological functioning of children with CP and their quality of life and participation; and lastly, some of the evidence for efficacious interventions and the extent to which these interventions are derived from neuropsychological theory and practice. Advances and gaps in knowledge in addition to suggestions of areas for future focus in research and practice are discussed throughout the article.

  16. A critical appraisal of neuroimaging studies of bipolar disorder: toward a new conceptualization of underlying neural circuitry and roadmap for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Mary L; Swartz, Holly A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This critical review appraises neuroimaging findings in bipolar disorder in emotion processing, emotion regulation, and reward processing neural circuitry, to synthesize current knowledge of the neural underpinnings of bipolar disorder, and provide a neuroimaging research “roadmap” for future studies. Method We examined findings from all major studies in bipolar disorder that used fMRI, volumetric analyses, diffusion imaging, and resting state techniques, to inform current conceptual models of larger-scale neural circuitry abnormalities in bipolar disorder Results Bipolar disorder can be conceptualized in neural circuitry terms as parallel dysfunction in bilateral prefrontal cortical (especially ventrolateral prefrontal cortical)-hippocampal-amygdala emotion processing and emotion regulation neural circuitries, together with an “overactive” left-sided ventral striatal-ventrolateral and orbitofrontal cortical reward processing circuitry, that result in characteristic behavioral abnormalities associated with bipolar disorder: emotional lability, emotional dysregulation and heightened reward sensitivity. A potential structural basis for these functional abnormalities are gray matter decreases in prefrontal and temporal cortices, amygdala and hippocampus, and fractional anisotropy decreases in white matter tracts connecting prefrontal and subcortical regions. Conclusion Neuroimaging studies of bipolar disorder clearly demonstrate abnormalities in neural circuitries supporting emotion processing, emotion regulation and reward processing, although there are several limitations to these studies. Future neuroimaging research in bipolar disorder should include studies adopting dimensional approaches; larger studies examining neurodevelopmental trajectories in bipolar disorder and at-risk youth; multimodal neuroimaging studies using integrated systems approaches; and studies using pattern recognition approaches to provide clinically useful, individual

  17. A neuroimaging point of view on the diversity of social cognition: evidence for extended influence of experience- and emotion-related factors on face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Faces are key social stimuli that convey a wealth of information essential for person perception and adaptive interpersonal behaviour. Studies in the domain of cognitive, affective, and social neuroscience have put in light that the processing of faces recruits specific visual regions and activates a distributed set of brain regions related to attentional, emotional, social, and memory processes associated with the perception of faces and the extraction of the numerous information attached to them. Studies using neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have allowed localizing these brain regions and characterizing their functional properties. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) techniques are complementary to fMRI in that they offer a unique insight into the temporal dynamics of mental processes. In this article, I review the contribution of neuroimaging techniques to the knowledge on face processing and person perception with the aim of putting in light the extended influence of experience-related factors, particularly in relation with emotions, on the face processing system. Although the face processing network has evolved under evolutionary selection pressure related to sociality-related needs and is therefore highly conserved throughout the human species, neuroimaging studies put in light both the extension and the flexibility of the brain network involved in face processing. MEG and EEG allow in particular to reveal that the human brain integrates emotion- and experience-related information from the earliest stage of face processing. Altogether, this emphasizes the diversity of social cognitive processes associated with face perception.

  18. Neural Correlates of Visual Perceptual Expertise: Evidence from Cognitive Neuroscience Using Functional Neuroimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegenfurtner, Andreas; Kok, Ellen M.; van Geel, Koos; de Bruin, Anique B. H.; Sorger, Bettina

    2017-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging is a useful approach to study the neural correlates of visual perceptual expertise. The purpose of this paper is to review the functional-neuroimaging methods that have been implemented in previous research in this context. First, we will discuss research questions typically addressed in visual expertise research. Second,…

  19. Clinical presentation and spectrum of neuroimaging findings in newborn infants with incontinentia pigmenti

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soltirovska Salamon, Aneta; Lichtenbelt, Klaske|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30481816X; Cowan, Frances M; Casaer, Alexandra; Dudink, Jeroen; Dereymaeker, Anneleen; Paro-Panjan, Darja; Groenendaal, Floris|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073282596; de Vries, Linda S|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072995408

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To report on the neurological presentation and neuroimaging findings in newborn infants with incontinentia pigmenti. METHOD: The clinical and neurological course including neuroimaging and follow-up data of eight newborn infants with the neurological phenotype of incontinentia pigmenti were

  20. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordi, Maren J; Schlarb, Angelika A; Rasch, Björn

    2014-06-01

    Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however, it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance, effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to "sleep deeper" extends the amount of SWS. Within-subject, placebo-controlled crossover design. Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. Participants listened to an auditory text with hypnotic suggestions or a control tape before napping for 90 min while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. After participants listened to the hypnotic suggestion to "sleep deeper" subsequent SWS was increased by 81% and time spent awake was reduced by 67% (with the amount of SWS or wake in the control condition set to 100%). Other sleep stages remained unaffected. Additionally, slow wave activity was significantly enhanced after hypnotic suggestions. During the hypnotic tape, parietal theta power increases predicted the hypnosis-induced extension of SWS. Additional experiments confirmed that the beneficial effect of hypnotic suggestions on SWS was specific to the hypnotic suggestion and did not occur in low suggestible participants. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnotic suggestions to specifically increase the amount and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) in a midday nap using objective measures of sleep in young, healthy, suggestible females. Hypnotic suggestions might be a successful tool with a lower risk of adverse side effects than pharmacological treatments to extend SWS also in clinical and elderly populations.

  1. Basic Emotions in Human Neuroscience: Neuroimaging and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeghin, Alessia; Diano, Matteo; Bagnis, Arianna; Viola, Marco; Tamietto, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The existence of so-called ‘basic emotions’ and their defining attributes represents a long lasting and yet unsettled issue in psychology. Recently, neuroimaging evidence, especially related to the advent of neuroimaging meta-analytic methods, has revitalized this debate in the endeavor of systems and human neuroscience. The core theme focuses on the existence of unique neural bases that are specific and characteristic for each instance of basic emotion. Here we review this evidence, outlining contradictory findings, strengths and limits of different approaches. Constructionism dismisses the existence of dedicated neural structures for basic emotions, considering that the assumption of a one-to-one relationship between neural structures and their functions is central to basic emotion theories. While these critiques are useful to pinpoint current limitations of basic emotions theories, we argue that they do not always appear equally generative in fostering new testable accounts on how the brain relates to affective functions. We then consider evidence beyond PET and fMRI, including results concerning the relation between basic emotions and awareness and data from neuropsychology on patients with focal brain damage. Evidence from lesion studies are indeed particularly informative, as they are able to bring correlational evidence typical of neuroimaging studies to causation, thereby characterizing which brain structures are necessary for, rather than simply related to, basic emotion processing. These other studies shed light on attributes often ascribed to basic emotions, such as automaticity of perception, quick onset, and brief duration. Overall, we consider that evidence in favor of the neurobiological underpinnings of basic emotions outweighs dismissive approaches. In fact, the concept of basic emotions can still be fruitful, if updated to current neurobiological knowledge that overcomes traditional one-to-one localization of functions in the brain. In

  2. Basic Emotions in Human Neuroscience: Neuroimaging and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Celeghin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The existence of so-called ‘basic emotions’ and their defining attributes represents a long lasting and yet unsettled issue in psychology. Recently, neuroimaging evidence, especially related to the advent of neuroimaging meta-analytic methods, has revitalized this debate in the endeavor of systems and human neuroscience. The core theme focuses on the existence of unique neural bases that are specific and characteristic for each instance of basic emotion. Here we review this evidence, outlining contradictory findings, strengths and limits of different approaches. Constructionism dismisses the existence of dedicated neural structures for basic emotions, considering that the assumption of a one-to-one relationship between neural structures and their functions is central to basic emotion theories. While these critiques are useful to pinpoint current limitations of basic emotions theories, we argue that they do not always appear equally generative in fostering new testable accounts on how the brain relates to affective functions. We then consider evidence beyond PET and fMRI, including results concerning the relation between basic emotions and awareness and data from neuropsychology on patients with focal brain damage. Evidence from lesion studies are indeed particularly informative, as they are able to bring correlational evidence typical of neuroimaging studies to causation, thereby characterizing which brain structures are necessary for, rather than simply related to, basic emotion processing. These other studies shed light on attributes often ascribed to basic emotions, such as automaticity of perception, quick onset, and brief duration. Overall, we consider that evidence in favor of the neurobiological underpinnings of basic emotions outweighs dismissive approaches. In fact, the concept of basic emotions can still be fruitful, if updated to current neurobiological knowledge that overcomes traditional one-to-one localization of functions in

  3. IRIT at TREC 2014 Contextual Suggestion Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    both criteria users preferences and geographical location criteria. 1 Introduction TREC3 2014 Contextual Suggestion track examines search techniques...Contextual Retrieval Framework We address here the contextual retrieval problem as a multi-criteria decision making ( MCDM ) problem. The difficulty here

  4. Leadership Theories--Managing Practices, Challenges, Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    A shortage of community college executives due to the number of retirements occurring among current leaders is predicted. An examination of three leadership theories--servant-leadership, business leadership and transformational leadership--suggests techniques for potential community college leaders. Servant-leaders focus on the needs of their…

  5. Multimodal neuroimaging computing: a review of the applications in neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sidong; Cai, Weidong; Liu, Siqi; Zhang, Fan; Fulham, Michael; Feng, Dagan; Pujol, Sonia; Kikinis, Ron

    2015-09-01

    Multimodal neuroimaging is increasingly used in neuroscience research, as it overcomes the limitations of individual modalities. One of the most important applications of multimodal neuroimaging is the provision of vital diagnostic data for neuropsychiatric disorders. Multimodal neuroimaging computing enables the visualization and quantitative analysis of the alterations in brain structure and function, and has reshaped how neuroscience research is carried out. Research in this area is growing exponentially, and so it is an appropriate time to review the current and future development of this emerging area. Hence, in this paper, we review the recent advances in multimodal neuroimaging (MRI, PET) and electrophysiological (EEG, MEG) technologies, and their applications to the neuropsychiatric disorders. We also outline some future directions for multimodal neuroimaging where researchers will design more advanced methods and models for neuropsychiatric research.

  6. More education, less administration: reflections of neuroimagers' attitudes to ethics through the qualitative looking glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehagia, A A; Tairyan, K; Federico, C; Glover, G H; Illes, J

    2012-12-01

    In follow-up to a large-scale ethics survey of neuroscientists whose research involves neuroimaging, brain stimulation and imaging genetics, we conducted focus groups and interviews to explore their sense of responsibility about integrating ethics into neuroimaging and readiness to adopt new ethics strategies as part of their research. Safety, trust and virtue were key motivators for incorporating ethics into neuroimaging research. Managing incidental findings emerged as a predominant daily challenge for faculty, while student reports focused on the malleability of neuroimaging data and scientific integrity. The most frequently cited barrier was time and administrative burden associated with the ethics review process. Lack of scholarly training in ethics also emerged as a major barrier. Participants constructively offered remedies to these challenges: development and dissemination of best practices and standardized ethics review for minimally invasive neuroimaging protocols. Students in particular, urged changes to curricula to include early, focused training in ethics.

  7. Differences between conventional and nonconventional MRI techniques in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglieri, A; Marino, M A; Morabito, R; Di Lorenzo, G; Bramanti, P; Marino, S

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides an in vivo assessment of cortical and subcortical regions affected in Parkinson's disease (PD). This review summarizes the most important conventional and non-conventional MRI techniques applied in this field. Standard neuroimaging techniques have played a marginal role in the diagnosis and follow-up of PD, essentially being used only to discriminate atypical syndromes from PD, to exclude secondary causes such as vascular lesions, and to confirm the absence of specific imaging features found in atypical parkinsonisms. However, non-conventional MRI techniques, i.e. new neuroimaging approaches such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging, and functional MRI, may allow the detection of structural, functional and metabolic changes useful not only for differential diagnosis, but also for early diagnosis and outcome and treatment monitoring in PD. In addition, we illustrate the advantages of high-field MRI over lower magnetic fields, highlighting the great potential of advanced neuroimaging techniques.

  8. Identification of Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease Using Sulcal Morphology and Other Common Neuroimaging Indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Kunpeng; Xu, Hong; Guan, Hao; Zhu, Wanlin; Jiang, Jiyang; Cui, Yue; Zhang, Jicong; Liu, Tao; Wen, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Identifying Alzheimer's disease (AD) at its early stage is of major interest in AD research. Previous studies have suggested that abnormalities in regional sulcal width and global sulcal index (g-SI) are characteristics of patients with early-stage AD. In this study, we investigated sulcal width and three other common neuroimaging morphological measures (cortical thickness, cortical volume, and subcortical volume) to identify early-stage AD. These measures were evaluated in 150 participants, including 75 normal controls (NC) and 75 patients with early-stage AD. The global sulcal index (g-SI) and the width of five individual sulci (the superior frontal, intra-parietal, superior temporal, central, and Sylvian fissure) were extracted from 3D T1-weighted images. The discriminative performances of the other three traditional neuroimaging morphological measures were also examined. Information Gain (IG) was used to select a subset of features to provide significant information for separating NC and early-stage AD subjects. Based on the four modalities of the individual measures, i.e., sulcal measures, cortical thickness, cortical volume, subcortical volume, and combinations of these individual measures, three types of classifiers (Naïve Bayes, Logistic Regression and Support Vector Machine) were applied to compare the classification performances. We observed that sulcal measures were either superior than or equal to the other measures used for classification. Specifically, the g-SI and the width of the Sylvian fissure were two of the most sensitive sulcal measures and could be useful neuroanatomical markers for detecting early-stage AD. There were no significant differences between the three classifiers that we tested when using the same neuroanatomical features.

  9. Deepening Sleep by Hypnotic Suggestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordi, Maren J.; Schlarb, Angelika A.; Rasch, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however, it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance, effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” extends the amount of SWS. Design: Within-subject, placebo-controlled crossover design. Setting: Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Participants: Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. Intervention: Participants listened to an auditory text with hypnotic suggestions or a control tape before napping for 90 min while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. Measurements and Results: After participants listened to the hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” subsequent SWS was increased by 81% and time spent awake was reduced by 67% (with the amount of SWS or wake in the control condition set to 100%). Other sleep stages remained unaffected. Additionally, slow wave activity was significantly enhanced after hypnotic suggestions. During the hypnotic tape, parietal theta power increases predicted the hypnosis-induced extension of SWS. Additional experiments confirmed that the beneficial effect of hypnotic suggestions on SWS was specific to the hypnotic suggestion and did not occur in low suggestible participants. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnotic suggestions to specifically increase the amount and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) in a midday nap using objective measures of sleep in young, healthy, suggestible females. Hypnotic suggestions might be a successful tool with a lower risk of adverse side effects than pharmacological treatments to extend SWS also in clinical and elderly populations. Citation: Cordi MJ, Schlarb AA, Rasch B. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1143-1152. PMID:24882909

  10. Motivating forces of human actions. Neuroimaging reward and social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Henrik; Abler, Birgit; Ciaramidaro, Angela; Erk, Susanne

    2005-11-15

    In neuroeconomics, reward and social interaction are central concepts to understand what motivates human behaviour. Both concepts are investigated in humans using neuroimaging methods. In this paper, we provide an overview about these results and discuss their relevance for economic behaviour. For reward it has been shown that a system exists in humans that is involved in predicting rewards and thus guides behaviour, involving a circuit including the striatum, the orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala. Recent studies on social interaction revealed a mentalizing system representing the mental states of others. A central part of this system is the medial prefrontal cortex, in particular the anterior paracingulate cortex. The reward as well as the mentalizing system is engaged in economic decision-making. We will discuss implications of this study for neuromarketing as well as general implications of these results that may help to provide deeper insights into the motivating forces of human behaviour.

  11. Visualization of Nonlinear Classification Models in Neuroimaging - Signed Sensitivity Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup; Schmah, Tanya; Madsen, Kristoffer H

    2012-01-01

    visualization. Specifically we focus on the generation of summary maps of a nonlinear classifier, that reveal how the classifier works in different parts of the input domain. Each of the maps includes sign information, unlike earlier related methods. The sign information allows the researcher to assess in which......Classification models are becoming increasing popular tools in the analysis of neuroimaging data sets. Besides obtaining good prediction accuracy, a competing goal is to interpret how the classifier works. From a neuroscientific perspective, we are interested in the brain pattern reflecting...... the underlying neural encoding of an experiment defining multiple brain states. In this relation there is a great desire for the researcher to generate brain maps, that highlight brain locations of importance to the classifiers decisions. Based on sensitivity analysis, we develop further procedures for model...

  12. Comparative primate neuroimaging: insights into human brain evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilling, James K

    2014-01-01

    Comparative neuroimaging can identify unique features of the human brain and teach us about human brain evolution. Comparisons with chimpanzees, our closest living primate relative, are critical in this endeavor. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to compare brain size development, brain structure proportions and brain aging. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been used to compare resting brain glucose metabolism. Functional MRI (fMRI) has been used to compare auditory and visual system pathways, as well as resting-state networks of connectivity. Finally, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has been used to compare structural connectivity. Collectively, these methods have revealed human brain specializations with respect to development, cortical organization, connectivity, and aging. These findings inform our knowledge of the evolutionary changes responsible for the special features of the modern human mind.

  13. Neurophysiological tests and neuroimaging procedures in non-acute headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrini, G; Friberg, L; Jänig, W

    2004-01-01

    be recommended as clinical diagnostic tests. 5 In adult and paediatric patients with migraine, with no recent change in attack pattern, no history of seizures, and no other focal neurological signs or symptoms, the routine use of neuroimaging is not warranted. In patients with atypical headache patterns......, a history of seizures and/or focal neurological signs or symptoms, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be indicated. 6 If attacks can be fully accounted for by the standard headache classification [International Headache Society (IHS)], a positron emission tomography (PET) or single-photon emission...... computerized tomography (SPECT) and scan will generally be of no further diagnostic value. 7 Nuclear medicine examinations of the cerebral circulation and metabolism can be carried out in subgroups of headache patients for diagnosis and evaluation of complications, when patients experience unusually severe...

  14. Neuroimaging in refractory epilepsy. Current practice and evolving trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramli, N. [Department of Biomedical Imaging, University Malaya Research Imaging Centre (Malaysia); Rahmat, K., E-mail: katt_xr2000@yahoo.com [Department of Biomedical Imaging, University Malaya Research Imaging Centre (Malaysia); Lim, K.S.; Tan, C.T. [Neurology Unit, Department of Medicine, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Neuroimaging is imperative in diagnostic work up and therapeutic assessment of refractory epilepsy. • Identification of epileptogenic zone on EEG, MRI and functional imaging improves the success of surgery. • High performance MRI greatly enhanced metabolic information and elucidate brain functions. • Optimisation of epilepsy protocols in structural and functional MRI are presented in this article. - Abstract: Identification of the epileptogenic zone is of paramount importance in refractory epilepsy as the success of surgical treatment depends on complete resection of the epileptogenic zone. Imaging plays an important role in the locating and defining anatomic epileptogenic abnormalities in patients with medically refractory epilepsy. The aim of this article is to present an overview of the current MRI sequences used in epilepsy imaging with special emphasis of lesion seen in our practices. Optimisation of epilepsy imaging protocols are addressed and current trends in functional MRI sequences including MR spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging and fusion MR with PET and SPECT are discussed.

  15. Neuroimaging in stroke and non-stroke pusher patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiza Elaine Grespan Santos-Pontelli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pusher behavior (PB is a disorder of postural control affecting patients with encephalic lesions. This study has aimed to identify the brain substrates that are critical for the occurrence of PB, to analyze the influence of the midline shift (MS and hemorrhagic stroke volume (HSV on the severity and prognosis of the PB. We identified 31 pusher patients of a neurological unit, mean age 67.4±11.89, 61.3% male. Additional neurological and functional examinations were assessed. Neuroimaging workup included measurement of the MS, the HSV in patients with hemorrhagic stroke, the analysis of the vascular territory, etiology and side of the lesion. Lesions in the parietal region (p=0.041 and thalamus (p=0.001 were significantly more frequent in PB patients. Neither the MS nor the HSV were correlated with the PB severity or recovery time.

  16. Neurobehavioral, neurologic, and neuroimaging characteristics of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Leila; Ware, Ashley L; Mattson, Sarah N

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can have deleterious consequences for the fetus, including changes in central nervous system development leading to permanent neurologic alterations and cognitive and behavioral deficits. Individuals affected by prenatal alcohol exposure, including those with and without fetal alcohol syndrome, are identified under the umbrella of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). While studies of humans and animal models confirm that even low to moderate levels of exposure can have detrimental effects, critical doses of such exposure have yet to be specified and the most clinically significant and consistent consequences occur following heavy exposure. These consequences are pervasive, devastating, and can result in long-term dysfunction. This chapter summarizes the neurobehavioral, neurologic, and neuroimaging characteristics of FASD, focusing primarily on clinical research of individuals with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure, although studies of lower levels of exposure, particularly prospective, longitudinal studies, will be discussed where relevant. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [Neuroimaging the various symptom dimensions of obsessive-compulsive disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dold, Markus; Aigner, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Following consensus on fronto-striato-thalamo-frontal dysfunction as the neuronal basis of obsessive-compulsive disorder, and increasing sub-classification of this clinical picture, neurobiological differentiation of the various obsessive symptoms is also attracting interest in neuroimaging research. Original papers studying the neurobiological correlates of the various dimensions of obsessive-compulsive disorder were listed by a systematic literature search. The "washing" factor seems to involve particular brain structures dealing with emotional control (mainly the orbito-frontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), amygdala and insula), but the predominant areas in the "forbidden thoughts" factor are cognitive control brain regions (mainly basal ganglia and ACC), and in hoarding obsessions and compulsions they are decision-making areas (mainly ventro-medial parts of the OFC and dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)). The results underline the neurobiological heterogeneity of the obsessive-compulsive disorder clinical picture, pointing the way for future research approaches.

  18. Preclinical PET Neuroimaging of [11C]Bexarotene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin H. Rotstein PhD

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Activation of retinoid X receptors (RXRs has been proposed as a therapeutic mechanism for the treatment of neurodegeneration, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. We previously reported radiolabeling of a Food and Drug Administration-approved RXR agonist, bexarotene, by copper-mediated [11C]CO2 fixation and preliminary positron emission tomography (PET neuroimaging that demonstrated brain permeability in nonhuman primate with regional binding distribution consistent with RXRs. In this study, the brain uptake and saturability of [11C]bexarotene were studied in rats and nonhuman primates by PET imaging under baseline and greater target occupancy conditions. [11C]Bexarotene displays a high proportion of nonsaturable uptake in the brain and is unsuitable for RXR occupancy measurements in the central nervous system.

  19. Towards structured sharing of raw and derived neuroimaging data across existing resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keator, D B; Helmer, K; Steffener, J; Turner, J A; Van Erp, T G M; Gadde, S; Ashish, N; Burns, G A; Nichols, B N

    2013-11-15

    Data sharing efforts increasingly contribute to the acceleration of scientific discovery. Neuroimaging data is accumulating in distributed domain-specific databases and there is currently no integrated access mechanism nor an accepted format for the critically important meta-data that is necessary for making use of the combined, available neuroimaging data. In this manuscript, we present work from the Derived Data Working Group, an open-access group sponsored by the Biomedical Informatics Research Network (BIRN) and the International Neuroimaging Coordinating Facility (INCF) focused on practical tools for distributed access to neuroimaging data. The working group develops models and tools facilitating the structured interchange of neuroimaging meta-data and is making progress towards a unified set of tools for such data and meta-data exchange. We report on the key components required for integrated access to raw and derived neuroimaging data as well as associated meta-data and provenance across neuroimaging resources. The components include (1) a structured terminology that provides semantic context to data, (2) a formal data model for neuroimaging with robust tracking of data provenance, (3) a web service-based application programming interface (API) that provides a consistent mechanism to access and query the data model, and (4) a provenance library that can be used for the extraction of provenance data by image analysts and imaging software developers. We believe that the framework and set of tools outlined in this manuscript have great potential for solving many of the issues the neuroimaging community faces when sharing raw and derived neuroimaging data across the various existing database systems for the purpose of accelerating scientific discovery. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Functional Neuroimaging Insights into the Physiology of Human Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Schabus, Manuel; Desseilles, Martin; Sterpenich, Virginie; Bonjean, Maxime; Maquet, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Functional brain imaging has been used in humans to noninvasively investigate the neural mechanisms underlying the generation of sleep stages. On the one hand, REM sleep has been associated with the activation of the pons, thalamus, limbic areas, and temporo-occipital cortices, and the deactivation of prefrontal areas, in line with theories of REM sleep generation and dreaming properties. On the other hand, during non-REM (NREM) sleep, decreases in brain activity have been consistently found in the brainstem, thalamus, and in several cortical areas including the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), in agreement with a homeostatic need for brain energy recovery. Benefiting from a better temporal resolution, more recent studies have characterized the brain activations related to phasic events within specific sleep stages. In particular, they have demonstrated that NREM sleep oscillations (spindles and slow waves) are indeed associated with increases in brain activity in specific subcortical and cortical areas involved in the generation or modulation of these waves. These data highlight that, even during NREM sleep, brain activity is increased, yet regionally specific and transient. Besides refining the understanding of sleep mechanisms, functional brain imaging has also advanced the description of the functional properties of sleep. For instance, it has been shown that the sleeping brain is still able to process external information and even detect the pertinence of its content. The relationship between sleep and memory has also been refined using neuroimaging, demonstrating post-learning reactivation during sleep, as well as the reorganization of memory representation on the systems level, sometimes with long-lasting effects on subsequent memory performance. Further imaging studies should focus on clarifying the role of specific sleep patterns for the processing of external stimuli, as well as the consolidation of freshly encoded information during sleep. Citation: Dang

  1. Neuroimaging Findings in Pediatric Genetic Skeletal Disorders: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Matthias W; Poretti, Andrea; Benson, Jane E; Huisman, Thierry A G M

    2017-03-01

    Genetic skeletal disorders (GSDs) are a heterogeneous group characterized by an intrinsic abnormality in growth and (re-)modeling of cartilage and bone. A large subgroup of GSDs has additional involvement of other structures/organs beside the skeleton, such as the central nervous system (CNS). CNS abnormalities have an important role in long-term prognosis of children with GSDs and should consequently not be missed. Sensitive and specific identification of CNS lesions while evaluating a child with a GSD requires a detailed knowledge of the possible associated CNS abnormalities. Here, we provide a pattern-recognition approach for neuroimaging findings in GSDs guided by the obvious skeletal manifestations of GSD. In particular, we summarize which CNS findings should be ruled out with each GSD. The diseases (n = 180) are classified based on the skeletal involvement (1. abnormal metaphysis or epiphysis, 2. abnormal size/number of bones, 3. abnormal shape of bones and joints, and 4. abnormal dynamic or structural changes). For each disease, skeletal involvement was defined in accordance with Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man. Morphological CNS involvement has been described based on extensive literature search. Selected examples will be shown based on prevalence of the diseases and significance of the CNS involvement. CNS involvement is common in GSDs. A wide spectrum of morphological abnormalities is associated with GSDs. Early diagnosis of CNS involvement is important in the management of children with GSDs. This pattern-recognition approach aims to assist and guide physicians in the diagnostic work-up of CNS involvement in children with GSDs and their management. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  2. Application of neuroanatomical ontologies for neuroimaging data annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A Turner

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The annotation of functional neuroimaging results for data sharing and reuse is particularly challenging, due to the diversity of terminologies of neuroanatomical structures and cortical parcellation schemes. To address this challenge, we extended the Foundational Model of Anatomy Ontology (FMA to include cytoarchitectural, Brodmann area labels, and a morphological cortical labeling scheme (e.g., the part of Brodmann area 6 in the left precentral gyrus. This representation was also used to augment the neuroanatomical axis of RadLex, the ontology for clinical imaging. The resulting neuroanatomical ontology contains explicit relationships indicating which brain regions are “part of” which other regions, across cytoarchitectural and morphological labeling schemas. We annotated a large functional neuroimaging dataset with terms from the ontology and applied a reasoning engine to analyze this dataset in conjunction with the ontology, and achieved successful inferences from the most specific level (e.g., how many subjects showed activation in a sub-part of the middle frontal gyrus to more general (how many activations were found in areas connected via a known white matter tract?. In summary, we have produced a neuroanatomical ontology that harmonizes several different terminologies of neuroanatomical structures and cortical parcellation schemes. This neuranatomical ontology is publicly available as a view of FMA at the Bioportal website at http://rest.bioontology.org/bioportal/ontologies/download/10005. The ontological encoding of anatomic knowledge can be exploited by computer reasoning engines to make inferences about neuroanatomical relationships described in imaging datasets using different terminologies. This approach could ultimately enable knowledge discovery from large, distributed fMRI studies or medical record mining.

  3. Application of neuroanatomical ontologies for neuroimaging data annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jessica A; Mejino, Jose L V; Brinkley, James F; Detwiler, Landon T; Lee, Hyo Jong; Martone, Maryann E; Rubin, Daniel L

    2010-01-01

    The annotation of functional neuroimaging results for data sharing and re-use is particularly challenging, due to the diversity of terminologies of neuroanatomical structures and cortical parcellation schemes. To address this challenge, we extended the Foundational Model of Anatomy Ontology (FMA) to include cytoarchitectural, Brodmann area labels, and a morphological cortical labeling scheme (e.g., the part of Brodmann area 6 in the left precentral gyrus). This representation was also used to augment the neuroanatomical axis of RadLex, the ontology for clinical imaging. The resulting neuroanatomical ontology contains explicit relationships indicating which brain regions are "part of" which other regions, across cytoarchitectural and morphological labeling schemas. We annotated a large functional neuroimaging dataset with terms from the ontology and applied a reasoning engine to analyze this dataset in conjunction with the ontology, and achieved successful inferences from the most specific level (e.g., how many subjects showed activation in a subpart of the middle frontal gyrus) to more general (how many activations were found in areas connected via a known white matter tract?). In summary, we have produced a neuroanatomical ontology that harmonizes several different terminologies of neuroanatomical structures and cortical parcellation schemes. This neuroanatomical ontology is publicly available as a view of FMA at the Bioportal website. The ontological encoding of anatomic knowledge can be exploited by computer reasoning engines to make inferences about neuroanatomical relationships described in imaging datasets using different terminologies. This approach could ultimately enable knowledge discovery from large, distributed fMRI studies or medical record mining.

  4. CoSMoMVPA: multi-modal multivariate pattern analysis of neuroimaging datain Matlab / GNU Octave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaas N Oosterhof

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen an increase in the popularity of multivariate pattern (MVP analysis of functional magnetic resonance (fMRI data, and, to a much lesser extent, magneto- and electro-encephalography (M/EEG data. We present CoSMoMVPA, a lightweight MVPA (MVP analysis toolbox implemented in the intersection of the Matlab and GNU Octave languages, that treats both fMRI and M/EEG data as first-class citizens.CoSMoMVPA supports all state-of-the-art MVP analysis techniques, including searchlight analyses, classification, correlations, representational similarity analysis, and the time generalization method. These can be used to address both data-driven and hypothesis-driven questions about neural organization and representations, both within and across: space, time, frequency bands, neuroimaging modalities, individuals, and species.It uses a uniform data representation of fMRI data in the volume or on the surface, and of M/EEG data at the sensor and source level. Through various external toolboxes, it directly supports reading and writing a variety of fMRI and M/EEG neuroimaging formats, and, where applicable, can convert between them. As a result, it can be integrated readily in existing pipelines and used with existing preprocessed datasets. CoSMoMVPA overloads the traditional volumetric searchlight concept to support neighborhoods for M/EEG and surface-based fMRI data, which supports localization of multivariate effects of interest across space, time, and frequency dimensions. CoSMoMVPA also provides a generalized approach to multiple comparison correction across these dimensions using Threshold-Free Cluster Enhancement with state-of-the-art clustering and permutation techniques.CoSMoMVPA is highly modular and uses abstractions to provide a uniform interface for a variety of MVP measures. Typical analyses require a few lines of code, making it accessible to beginner users. At the same time, expert programmers can easily extend its functionality

  5. From the genome to the phenome and back: linking genes with human brain function and structure using genetically informed neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebner, H R; Callicott, J H; Sommer, T

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, an array of brain mapping techniques has been successfully employed to link individual differences in circuit function or structure in the living human brain with individual variations in the human genome. Several proof-of-principle studies provided converging evidence that brain......, the integration of genetic and neuroimaging data also poses major methodological and conceptual challenges. Therefore, this special issue also focuses on how these challenges can be met to fully exploit the synergism of genetically informed brain imaging.......In recent years, an array of brain mapping techniques has been successfully employed to link individual differences in circuit function or structure in the living human brain with individual variations in the human genome. Several proof-of-principle studies provided converging evidence that brain...

  6. Hypnotic suggestion and cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, David A; Halligan, Peter W

    2009-06-01

    The growing acceptance of consciousness as a legitimate field of enquiry and the availability of functional imaging has rekindled research interest in the use of hypnosis and suggestion to manipulate subjective experience and to gain insights into healthy and pathological cognitive functioning. Current research forms two strands. The first comprises studies exploring the cognitive and neural nature of hypnosis itself. The second employs hypnosis to explore known psychological processes using specifically targeted suggestions. An extension of this second approach involves using hypnotic suggestion to create clinically informed analogues of established structural and functional neuropsychological disorders. With functional imaging, this type of experimental neuropsychopathology offers a productive means of investigating brain activity involved in many symptom-based disorders and their related phenomenology.

  7. Commentary: Applications of functional neuroimaging to civil litigation of mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granacher, Robert P

    2008-01-01

    The current definition of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is in flux. Presently, there are at least three working definitions of this disorder in the United States, with no clear consensus. Functional neuroimaging, such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET), initially showed promise in their ability to improve the diagnostic credibility of MTBI. Over the past decade, that promise has not been fulfilled and there is a paucity of quality studies or standards for the application of functional neuroimaging to traumatic brain injury, particularly in litigation. The legal profession is ahead of the science in this matter. The emergence of neurolaw is driving a growing use of functional neuroimaging, as a sole imaging modality, used by lawyers in an attempt to prove MTBI at trial. The medical literature on functional neuroimaging and its applications to MTBI is weak scientifically, sparse in quality publications, lacking in well-designed controlled studies, and currently does not meet the complete standards of Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc., for introduction of scientific evidence at trial. At the present time, there is a clear lack of clinical correlation between functional neuroimaging of MTBI and behavioral, neuropsychological, or structural neuroimaging deficits. The use of SPECT or PET, without concurrent clinical correlation with structural neuroimaging (CT or MRI), is not recommended to be offered as evidence of MTBI in litigation.

  8. Widespread hyperalgesia in irritable bowel syndrome is dynamically maintained by tonic visceral impulse input and placebo/nocebo factors: Evidence from human psychophysics, animal models, and neuroimaging

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Donald D.; Craggs, Jason G.; Zhou, QiQi; Verne, G Nicholas; Perlstein, William M.; Robinson, Michael E

    2009-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a highly prevalent gastrointestinal disorder that is often accompanied by both visceral and somatic hyperalgesia (enhanced pain from colorectal and somatic stimuli). Neural mechanisms of both types of hyperalgesia have been analyzed by neuroimaging studies of IBS patients and animal analog studies of “IBS-like” rats with delayed rectal and somatic hypersensitivity. Results from these studies suggest that pains associated with both visceral and widespread seco...

  9. Multimodal neuroimaging of frontal white matter microstructure in early phase schizophrenia: the impact of early adolescent cannabis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Denise; Cookey, Jacob; McAllindon, David; Bartha, Robert; Hanstock, Christopher C; Newman, Aaron J; Stewart, Sherry H; Tibbo, Philip G

    2013-10-17

    A disturbance in connectivity between different brain regions, rather than abnormalities within the separate regions themselves, could be responsible for the clinical symptoms and cognitive dysfunctions observed in schizophrenia. White matter, which comprises axons and their myelin sheaths, provides the physical foundation for functional connectivity in the brain. Myelin sheaths are located around the axons and provide insulation through the lipid membranes of oligodendrocytes. Empirical data suggests oligodendroglial dysfunction in schizophrenia, based on findings of abnormal myelin maintenance and repair in regions of deep white matter. The aim of this in vivo neuroimaging project is to assess the impact of early adolescent onset of regular cannabis use on brain white matter tissue integrity, and to differentiate this impact from the white matter abnormalities associated with schizophrenia. The ultimate goal is to determine the liability of early adolescent use of cannabis on brain white matter, in a vulnerable brain. Young adults with schizophrenia at the early stage of the illness (less than 5 years since diagnosis) will be the focus of this project. Four magnetic resonance imaging measurements will be used to assess different cellular aspects of white matter: a) diffusion tensor imaging, b) localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy with a focus on the neurochemical N-acetylaspartate, c) the transverse relaxation time constants of regional tissue water, d) and of N-acetylaspartate. These four neuroimaging indices will be assessed within the same brain region of interest, that is, a large white matter fibre bundle located in the frontal region, the left superior longitudinal fasciculus. We will expand our knowledge regarding current theoretical models of schizophrenia with a more comprehensive multimodal neuroimaging approach to studying the underlying cellular abnormalities of white matter, while taking into consideration the important confounding

  10. A comparison of neuroimaging findings in childhood onset schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baribeau, Danielle A; Anagnostou, Evdokia

    2013-12-20

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and childhood onset schizophrenia (COS) are pediatric neurodevelopmental disorders associated with significant morbidity. Both conditions are thought to share an underlying genetic architecture. A comparison of neuroimaging findings across ASD and COS with a focus on altered neurodevelopmental trajectories can shed light on potential clinical biomarkers and may highlight an underlying etiopathogenesis. A comprehensive review of the medical literature was conducted to summarize neuroimaging data with respect to both conditions in terms of structural imaging (including volumetric analysis, cortical thickness and morphology, and region of interest studies), white matter analysis (include volumetric analysis and diffusion tensor imaging) and functional connectivity. In ASD, a pattern of early brain overgrowth in the first few years of life is followed by dysmaturation in adolescence. Functional analyses have suggested impaired long-range connectivity as well as increased local and/or subcortical connectivity in this condition. In COS, deficits in cerebral volume, cortical thickness, and white matter maturation seem most pronounced in childhood and adolescence, and may level off in adulthood. Deficits in local connectivity, with increased long-range connectivity have been proposed, in keeping with exaggerated cortical thinning. The neuroimaging literature supports a neurodevelopmental origin of both ASD and COS and provides evidence for dynamic changes in both conditions that vary across space and time in the developing brain. Looking forward, imaging studies which capture the early post natal period, which are longitudinal and prospective, and which maximize the signal to noise ratio across heterogeneous conditions will be required to translate research findings into a clinical environment.

  11. A comparison of neuroimaging findings in childhood onset schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Andrea Baribeau

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD and childhood onset schizophrenia (COS are pediatric neurodevelopmental disorders associated with significant morbidity. Both conditions are thought to share an underlying genetic architecture. A comparison of neuroimaging findings across ASD and COS with a focus on altered neurodevelopmental trajectories can shed light on potential clinical biomarkers and may highlight an underlying etiopathogenesis. Methods: A comprehensive review of the medical literature was conducted to summarize neuroimaging data with respect to both conditions in terms of structural imaging (including volumetric analysis, cortical thickness and morphology, and region of interest studies, white matter analysis (include volumetric analysis and diffusion tensor imaging and functional connectivity. Results: In ASD, a pattern of early brain overgrowth in the first few years of life is followed by dysmaturation in adolescence. Functional analyses have suggested impaired long-range connectivity as well as increased local and/or subcortical connectivity in this condition. In COS, deficits in cerebral volume, cortical thickness, and white matter maturation seem most pronounced in childhood and adolescence, and may level off in adulthood. Deficits in local connectivity, with increased long-range connectivity have been proposed, in keeping with exaggerated cortical thinning.Conclusions: The neuroimaging literature supports a neurodevelopmental origin of both ASD and COS and provides evidence for dynamic changes in both conditions that vary across space and time in the developing brain. Looking forward, imaging studies which capture the early post natal period, which are longitudinal and prospective, and which maximize the signal to noise ratio across heterogeneous conditions will be required to translate research findings into a clinical environment.

  12. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion.

    OpenAIRE

    Cordi, Maren J.; Schlarb, Angelika A; Rasch, Björn

    2014-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to "sleep deeper" extends the amount of SWS. DESIGN Within subject placebo controlled crossover design. SETTING Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich Switzerland. PARTICIPANTS Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. IN...

  13. Neuroimaging and Neurocognitive Correlates of Aggression and Violence in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth M. Weiss

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals diagnosed with major mental disorders such as schizophrenia are more likely to have engaged in violent behavior than mentally healthy members of the same communities. Although aggressive acts can have numerous causes, research about the underlying neurobiology of violence and aggression in schizophrenia can lead to a better understanding of the heterogeneous nature of that behavior and can assist in developing new treatment strategies. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent literature and discuss some of the neurobiological correlates of aggression and violence. The focus will be on schizophrenia, and the results of neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies that have directly investigated brain functioning and/or structure in aggressive and violent samples will be discussed as well as other domains that might predispose to aggression and violence such as deficits in responding to the emotional expressions of others, impulsivity, and psychopathological symptoms. Finally gender differences regarding aggression and violence are discussed. In this context several methodological and conceptional issues that limited the comparison of these studies will be addressed.

  14. Clinical and neuroimage findings of dementia with lewy bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Do Young; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Jae Woo [Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    Dementia with lewy bodies (DLB) is the second common degenerative dementia and has several characteristics including fluctuating cognition, visual hallucination and Parkinsonism. We investigated clinical manifestations and neuroimaging findings in DLB patients. Ten probable DLB patients were included in this study. Brain MRI, Tc-99m HMPAO brain perfusion SPECT and I-123 IPT SPECT were performed. All patients were men and mean age of onset was 64.2 years (range from 54 to 80). All had fluctuating cognition and Parkinsonism, and 8 had visual hallucination. Dementia preceded Parkinsonism in 3 patients. Fluctuation of K-MMSE ranges from 3 to 8 points. Rest tremor was seen in 5 patients. Brain MRI showed cortical atrophy in all patients. Tc-99m brain perfusion SPECT showed hypoperfusion in occipital area as well as fronto-temporo-parietal areas. I-123 IPT SPECT revealed reduced uptake comparable to Parkinson's disease in the striatum. DLB should be first considered as one of possible diagnosis in patients showing dementia in the early stage of Parkinsonism. Hypoperfusion in the occipital area was thought to be a characteristic finding in DLB and to be helpful in differentiating DLB from other degenerative dementias.

  15. Neuroimaging in adult penetrating brain injury: a guide for radiographers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temple, Nikki; Donald, Cortny; Skora, Amanda [Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia); Reed, Warren, E-mail: warren.reed@sydney.edu.au [Medical Image Optimisation and Perception Group, Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    Penetrating brain injuries (PBI) are a medical emergency, often resulting in complex damage and high mortality rates. Neuroimaging is essential to evaluate the location and extent of injuries, and to manage them accordingly. Currently, a myriad of imaging modalities are included in the diagnostic workup for adult PBI, including skull radiography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography, with each modality providing their own particular benefits. This literature review explores the current modalities available for investigating PBI and aims to assist in decision making for the appropriate use of diagnostic imaging when presented with an adult PBI. Based on the current literature, the authors have developed an imaging pathway for adult penetrating brain injury that functions as both a learning tool and reference guide for radiographers and other health professionals. Currently, CT is recommended as the imaging modality of choice for the initial assessment of PBI patients, while MRI is important in the sub-acute setting where it aids prognosis prediction and rehabilitation planning, Additional follow-up imaging, such as angiography, should be dependent upon clinical findings.

  16. Chronic Methamphetamine Abuse and Corticostriatal Deficits Revealed by Neuroimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Edythe D.; Kohno, Milky; Morales, Angelica; Ballard, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Despite aggressive efforts to contain it, methamphetamine use disorder continues to be major public health problem; and with generic behavioral therapies still the mainstay of treatment for methamphetamine abuse, rates of attrition and relapse remain high. This review summarizes the findings of structural, molecular, and functional neuroimaging studies of methamphetamine abusers, focusing on cortical and striatal abnormalities and their potential contributions to cognitive and behavioral phenotypes that can serve to promote compulsive drug use. These studies indicate that individuals with a history of chronic methamphetamine abuse often display several signs of corticostriatal dysfunction, including abnormal gray- and white-matter integrity, monoamine neurotransmitter system deficiencies, neuroinflammation, poor neuronal integrity, and aberrant patterns of brain connectivity and function, both when engaged in cognitive tasks and at rest. More importantly, many of these neural abnormalities were found to be linked with certain addiction-related phenotypes that may influence treatment response (e.g., poor self-control, cognitive inflexibility, maladaptive decision-making), raising the possibility that they may represent novel therapeutic targets. PMID:25451127

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Clifford R; Barnes, Josephine; Bernstein, Matt A; Borowski, Bret J; Brewer, James; Clegg, Shona; Dale, Anders M; Carmichael, Owen; Ching, Christopher; DeCarli, Charles; Desikan, Rahul S; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Fjell, Anders M; Fletcher, Evan; Fox, Nick C; Gunter, Jeff; Gutman, Boris A; Holland, Dominic; Hua, Xue; Insel, Philip; Kantarci, Kejal; Killiany, Ron J; Krueger, Gunnar; Leung, Kelvin K; Mackin, Scott; Maillard, Pauline; Malone, Ian B; Mattsson, Niklas; McEvoy, Linda; Modat, Marc; Mueller, Susanne; Nosheny, Rachel; Ourselin, Sebastien; Schuff, Norbert; Senjem, Matthew L; Simonson, Alix; Thompson, Paul M; Rettmann, Dan; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Walhovd, Kristine; Zhao, Yansong; Zuk, Samantha; Weiner, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is now in its 10th year. The primary objective of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) core of ADNI has been to improve methods for clinical trials in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related disorders. We review the contributions of the MRI core from present and past cycles of ADNI (ADNI-1, -Grand Opportunity and -2). We also review plans for the future-ADNI-3. Contributions of the MRI core include creating standardized acquisition protocols and quality control methods; examining the effect of technical features of image acquisition and analysis on outcome metrics; deriving sample size estimates for future trials based on those outcomes; and piloting the potential utility of MR perfusion, diffusion, and functional connectivity measures in multicenter clinical trials. Over the past decade the MRI core of ADNI has fulfilled its mandate of improving methods for clinical trials in AD and will continue to do so in the future. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Neuroimaging findings of congenital Zika virus infection: a pictorial essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare Mehrjardi, Mohammad; Poretti, Andrea; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Werner, Heron; Keshavarz, Elham; Araujo Júnior, Edward

    2017-03-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne arbovirus from the Flaviviridae family. It had caused several epidemics since its discovery in 1947, but there was no significant attention to this virus until the recent outbreak in Brazil in 2015. The main concern is the causal relationship between prenatal ZIKV infection and congenital microcephaly, which has been confirmed recently. Moreover, ZIKV may cause other central nervous system abnormalities such as brain parenchymal atrophy with secondary ventriculomegaly, intracranial calcification, malformations of cortical development (such as polymicrogyria, and lissencephaly-pachygyria), agenesis/hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, cerebellar and brainstem hypoplasia, sensorineural hearing-loss, and ocular abnormalities as well as arthrogryposis in the infected fetuses. Postnatal (acquired) ZIKV infection usually has an asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic course, while prenatal (congenital) ZIKV infection has a more severe course and may cause severe brain anomalies that are described as congenital Zika syndrome. In this pictorial essay, we aim to illustrate the prenatal and postnatal neuroimaging findings that may be seen in fetuses and neonates with congenital Zika syndrome, and will discuss possible radiological differential diagnoses. A detailed knowledge of these findings is paramount for an early correct diagnosis, prognosis determination, and counseling of the affected children and families.

  19. Cognitive and neuroimaging predictors of instrumental activities of daily living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahn-Weiner, Deborah A.; Farias, Sarah Tomaszewski; Julian, Laura; Harvey, Danielle J.; Kramer, Joel H.; Reed, Bruce R.; Mungas, Dan; Wetzel, Margaret; Chui, Helena

    2010-01-01

    Impaired ability to conduct daily activities is a diagnostic criterion for dementia and a determinant of healthcare services utilization and caregiver burden. What predicts decline in instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) is not well understood. This study examined measures of episodic memory, executive function, and MRI brain volumes in relation to baseline IADLs and as predictors of rate of IADL change. Participants were 124 elderly persons with cognitive function between normal and moderate dementia both with and without significant small vessel cerebrovascular disease. Random effects modeling showed that baseline memory and executive function (EXEC) were associated with baseline IADL scores, but only EXEC was independently associated with rate of change in IADLs. Whereas hippocampal and cortical gray matter volumes were significantly associated with baseline IADL scores, only hippocampal volume was associated with IADL change. In a model including cognitive and neuroimaging predictors, only EXEC independently predicted rate of decline in IADL scores. These findings indicate that greater executive dysfunction at initial assessment is associated with more rapid decline in IADLs. Perhaps executive function is particularly important with respect to maintaining IADLs. Alternatively, executive dysfunction may be a sentinel event indicating widespread cortical involvement and poor prognosis. PMID:17521485

  20. Biomarkers of Eating Disorders Using Support Vector Machine Analysis of Structural Neuroimaging Data: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cerasa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently, there are no valid biomarkers to identify individuals with eating disorders (ED. The aim of this work was to assess the feasibility of a machine learning method for extracting reliable neuroimaging features allowing individual categorization of patients with ED. Support Vector Machine (SVM technique, combined with a pattern recognition method, was employed utilizing structural magnetic resonance images. Seventeen females with ED (six with diagnosis of anorexia nervosa and 11 with bulimia nervosa were compared against 17 body mass index-matched healthy controls (HC. Machine learning allowed individual diagnosis of ED versus HC with an Accuracy ≥ 0.80. Voxel-based pattern recognition analysis demonstrated that voxels influencing the classification Accuracy involved the occipital cortex, the posterior cerebellar lobule, precuneus, sensorimotor/premotor cortices, and the medial prefrontal cortex, all critical regions known to be strongly involved in the pathophysiological mechanisms of ED. Although these findings should be considered preliminary given the small size investigated, SVM analysis highlights the role of well-known brain regions as possible biomarkers to distinguish ED from HC at an individual level, thus encouraging the translational implementation of this new multivariate approach in the clinical practice.

  1. CUDA optimization strategies for compute- and memory-bound neuroimaging algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daren; Dinov, Ivo; Dong, Bin; Gutman, Boris; Yanovsky, Igor; Toga, Arthur W

    2012-06-01

    As neuroimaging algorithms and technology continue to grow faster than CPU performance in complexity and image resolution, data-parallel computing methods will be increasingly important. The high performance, data-parallel architecture of modern graphical processing units (GPUs) can reduce computational times by orders of magnitude. However, its massively threaded architecture introduces challenges when GPU resources are exceeded. This paper presents optimization strategies for compute- and memory-bound algorithms for the CUDA architecture. For compute-bound algorithms, the registers are reduced through variable reuse via shared memory and the data throughput is increased through heavier thread workloads and maximizing the thread configuration for a single thread block per multiprocessor. For memory-bound algorithms, fitting the data into the fast but limited GPU resources is achieved through reorganizing the data into self-contained structures and employing a multi-pass approach. Memory latencies are reduced by selecting memory resources whose cache performance are optimized for the algorithm's access patterns. We demonstrate the strategies on two computationally expensive algorithms and achieve optimized GPU implementations that perform up to 6× faster than unoptimized ones. Compared to CPU implementations, we achieve peak GPU speedups of 129× for the 3D unbiased nonlinear image registration technique and 93× for the non-local means surface denoising algorithm. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Applications of Neuroimaging to Disease-Modification Trials in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam S. Fleisher

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical to development of new therapies for Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the ability to detect clinical or pathological change over time. Clinical outcome measures typically used in therapeutic trials have unfortunately proven to be relatively variable and somewhat insensitive to change in this slowly progressive disease. For this reason, development of surrogate biomarkers that identify significant disease-associated brain changes are necessary to expedite treatment development in AD. Since AD pathology is present in the brain many years prior to clinical manifestation, ideally we want to develop biomarkers of disease that identify abnormal brain structure or function even prior to cognitive decline. Magnetic resonance imaging, fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, new amyloid imaging techniques, and spinal fluid markers of AD all have great potential to provide surrogate endpoint measures for AD pathology. The Alzheimer’s disease neuroimaging initiative (ADNI was developed for the distinct purpose of evaluating surrogate biomarkers for drug development in AD. Recent evidence from ADNI demonstrates that imaging may provide more sensitive, and earlier, measures of disease progression than traditional clinical measures for powering clinical drug trials in Alzheimer's disease. This review discusses recently presented data from the ADNI dataset, and the importance of imaging in the future of drug development in AD.

  3. Machine learning patterns for neuroimaging-genetic studies in the cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Mota, Benoit; Tudoran, Radu; Costan, Alexandru; Varoquaux, Gaël; Brasche, Goetz; Conrod, Patricia; Lemaitre, Herve; Paus, Tomas; Rietschel, Marcella; Frouin, Vincent; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Antoniu, Gabriel; Thirion, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Brain imaging is a natural intermediate phenotype to understand the link between genetic information and behavior or brain pathologies risk factors. Massive efforts have been made in the last few years to acquire high-dimensional neuroimaging and genetic data on large cohorts of subjects. The statistical analysis of such data is carried out with increasingly sophisticated techniques and represents a great computational challenge. Fortunately, increasing computational power in distributed architectures can be harnessed, if new neuroinformatics infrastructures are designed and training to use these new tools is provided. Combining a MapReduce framework (TomusBLOB) with machine learning algorithms (Scikit-learn library), we design a scalable analysis tool that can deal with non-parametric statistics on high-dimensional data. End-users describe the statistical procedure to perform and can then test the model on their own computers before running the very same code in the cloud at a larger scale. We illustrate the potential of our approach on real data with an experiment showing how the functional signal in subcortical brain regions can be significantly fit with genome-wide genotypes. This experiment demonstrates the scalability and the reliability of our framework in the cloud with a 2 weeks deployment on hundreds of virtual machines.

  4. Remapping of memory encoding and retrieval networks: insights from neuroimaging in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Kentaro; Osada, Takahiro; Adachi, Yusuke

    2014-12-15

    Advancements in neuroimaging techniques have allowed for the investigation of the neural correlates of memory functions in the whole human brain. Thus, the involvement of various cortical regions, including the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC), has been repeatedly reported in the human memory processes of encoding and retrieval. However, the functional roles of these sites could be more fully characterized utilizing nonhuman primate models, which afford the potential for well-controlled, finer-scale experimental procedures that are inapplicable to humans, including electrophysiology, histology, genetics, and lesion approaches. Yet, the presence and localization of the functional counterparts of these human memory-related sites in the macaque monkey MTL or PPC were previously unknown. Therefore, to bridge the inter-species gap, experiments were required in monkeys using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the same methodology adopted in human studies. Here, we briefly review the history of experimentation on memory systems using a nonhuman primate model and our recent fMRI studies examining memory processing in monkeys performing recognition memory tasks. We will discuss the memory systems common to monkeys and humans and future directions of finer cell-level characterization of memory-related processes using electrophysiological recording and genetic manipulation approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Biomarkers of Eating Disorders Using Support Vector Machine Analysis of Structural Neuroimaging Data: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerasa, Antonio; Castiglioni, Isabella; Salvatore, Christian; Funaro, Angela; Martino, Iolanda; Alfano, Stefania; Donzuso, Giulia; Perrotta, Paolo; Gioia, Maria Cecilia; Gilardi, Maria Carla; Quattrone, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    Presently, there are no valid biomarkers to identify individuals with eating disorders (ED). The aim of this work was to assess the feasibility of a machine learning method for extracting reliable neuroimaging features allowing individual categorization of patients with ED. Support Vector Machine (SVM) technique, combined with a pattern recognition method, was employed utilizing structural magnetic resonance images. Seventeen females with ED (six with diagnosis of anorexia nervosa and 11 with bulimia nervosa) were compared against 17 body mass index-matched healthy controls (HC). Machine learning allowed individual diagnosis of ED versus HC with an Accuracy ≥ 0.80. Voxel-based pattern recognition analysis demonstrated that voxels influencing the classification Accuracy involved the occipital cortex, the posterior cerebellar lobule, precuneus, sensorimotor/premotor cortices, and the medial prefrontal cortex, all critical regions known to be strongly involved in the pathophysiological mechanisms of ED. Although these findings should be considered preliminary given the small size investigated, SVM analysis highlights the role of well-known brain regions as possible biomarkers to distinguish ED from HC at an individual level, thus encouraging the translational implementation of this new multivariate approach in the clinical practice.

  6. Is correction for age necessary in neuroimaging studies of the central serotonin transporter?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesse, Swen; Mueller, Dominic; Seese, Anita; Kluge, Regine; Sabri, Osama [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Leipzig, Liebigstrasse 20a, 04103, Leipzig (Germany); Barthel, Henryk [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Leipzig, Liebigstrasse 20a, 04103, Leipzig (Germany); MRC Cyclotron Unit, Imperial College School of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Murai, Toshiya [Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kyoto, Kyoto (Japan); Mueller, Ulrich [Psychiatry, University Hospital, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany)

    2003-03-01

    The central neurotransmitter serotonin plays a major role in a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, results from post-mortem and in vivo neuroimaging studies of the influence of age on the number of presynaptic serotonin transporters (SERT) are controversial. To provide further evidence of relevance for this ongoing discussion, SERT were imaged in 22 persons without neuropsychiatric impairment using [{sup 123}I]2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(iodophenyl)tropane ([{sup 123}I]β-CIT) and high-resolution single-photon emission tomography (SPET). The SPET analysis method was based on magnetic resonance image co-registration in order to quantify SERT with acceptable inter- and intra-observer variability. Using this technique, we found a significant age-related decline in the thalamic/hypothalamic and midbrain/upper brainstem SERT density, which was more pronounced than that previously reported in the literature. From these results we conclude that age-related changes in SERT density need to be considered in future clinical studies. (orig.)

  7. A panel of clinical and neuropathological features of cerebrovascular disease through the novel neuroimaging methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Gilberto Sousa; de Carvalho, Luiza de Amorim; Sudo, Felipe Kenji; Briand, Lucas; Laks, Jerson; Engelhardt, Eliasz

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT. The last decade has witnessed substantial progress in acquiring diagnostic biomarkers for the diagnostic workup of cerebrovascular disease (CVD). Advanced neuroimaging methods not only provide a strategic contribution for the differential diagnosis of vascular dementia (VaD) and vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), but also help elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms ultimately leading to small vessel disease (SVD) throughout its course. Objective: In this review, the novel imaging methods, both structural and metabolic, were summarized and their impact on the diagnostic workup of age-related CVD was analysed. Methods: An electronic search between January 2010 and 2017 was carried out on PubMed/MEDLINE, Institute for Scientific Information Web of Knowledge and EMBASE. Results: The use of full functional multimodality in simultaneous Magnetic Resonance (MR)/Positron emission tomography (PET) may potentially improve the clinical characterization of VCI-VaD; for structural imaging, MRI at 3.0 T enables higher-resolution scanning with greater imaging matrices, thinner slices and more detail on the anatomical structure of vascular lesions. Conclusion: Although the importance of most of these techniques in the clinical setting has yet to be recognized, there is great expectancy in achieving earlier and more refined therapeutic interventions for the effective management of VCI-VaD. PMID:29354214

  8. Pediatric neuroimaging using magnetic resonance imaging during non-sedated sleep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, Douglas C.; Dirks, Holly; Walker, Lindsay; Lehman, Katie; Han, Michelle; Waskiewicz, Nicole; Deoni, Sean C.L. [Brown University, Advanced Baby Imaging Lab, School of Engineering, Providence, RI (United States); O' Muircheartaigh, Jonathan [Brown University, Advanced Baby Imaging Lab, School of Engineering, Providence, RI (United States); King' s College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Department of NeuroImaging Sciences, London (United Kingdom); Jerskey, Beth A. [Brown University, Department of Human Behaviour and Psychiatry, Warren Alpert Medical School, Providence, RI (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Etiological studies of many neurological and psychiatric disorders are increasingly turning toward longitudinal investigations of infant brain development in order to discern predisposing structural and/or functional differences prior to the onset of overt clinical symptoms. While MRI provides a noninvasive window into the developing brain, MRI of infants and toddlers is challenging due to the modality's extreme motion sensitivity and children's difficulty in remaining still during image acquisition. Here, we outline a broad research protocol for successful MRI of children under 4 years of age during natural, non-sedated sleep. All children were imaged during natural, non-sedated sleep. Active and passive measures to reduce acoustic noise were implemented to reduce the likelihood of the children waking up during acquisition. Foam cushions and vacuum immobilizers were used to limit intra-scan motion artifacts. More than 380 MRI datasets have been successfully acquired from 220 children younger than 4 years of age within the past 39 months. Implemented measures permitted children to remain asleep for the duration of the scan and allowed the data to be acquired with an overall 97% success rate. The proposed method greatly advances current pediatric imaging techniques and may be readily implemented in other research and clinical settings to facilitate and further improve pediatric neuroimaging. (orig.)

  9. The Neuropsychiatry of Hyperkinetic Movement Disorders: Insights from Neuroimaging into the Neural Circuit Bases of Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradleigh D. Hayhow

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Movement disorders, particularly those associated with basal ganglia disease, have a high rate of comorbid neuropsychiatric illness.Methods: We consider the pathophysiological basis of the comorbidity between movement disorders and neuropsychiatric illness by 1 reviewing the epidemiology of neuropsychiatric illness in a range of hyperkinetic movement disorders, and 2 correlating findings to evidence from studies that have utilized modern neuroimaging techniques to investigate these disorders. In addition to diseases classically associated with basal ganglia pathology, such as Huntington disease, Wilson disease, the neuroacanthocytoses, and diseases of brain iron accumulation, we include diseases associated with pathology of subcortical white matter tracts, brain stem nuclei, and the cerebellum, such as metachromatic leukodystrophy, dentatorubropallidoluysian atrophy, and the spinocerebellar ataxias.Conclusions: Neuropsychiatric symptoms are integral to a thorough phenomenological account of hyperkinetic movement disorders. Drawing on modern theories of cortico-subcortical circuits, we argue that these disorders can be conceptualized as disorders of complex subcortical networks with distinct functional architectures. Damage to any component of these complex information-processing networks can have variable and often profound consequences for the function of more remote neural structures, creating a diverse but nonetheless rational pattern of clinical symptomatology.

  10. Multimodal neuroimaging of male and female brain structure in health and disease across the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanshad, Neda; Thompson, Paul M

    2017-01-02

    Sex differences in brain development and aging are important to identify, as they may help to understand risk factors and outcomes in brain disorders that are more prevalent in one sex compared with the other. Brain imaging techniques have advanced rapidly in recent years, yielding detailed structural and functional maps of the living brain. Even so, studies are often limited in sample size, and inconsistent findings emerge, one example being varying findings regarding sex differences in the size of the corpus callosum. More recently, large-scale neuroimaging consortia such as the Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta Analysis Consortium have formed, pooling together expertise, data, and resources from hundreds of institutions around the world to ensure adequate power and reproducibility. These initiatives are helping us to better understand how brain structure is affected by development, disease, and potential modulators of these effects, including sex. This review highlights some established and disputed sex differences in brain structure across the life span, as well as pitfalls related to interpreting sex differences in health and disease. We also describe sex-related findings from the ENIGMA consortium, and ongoing efforts to better understand sex differences in brain circuitry. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Neuroscience Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Neuroscience Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Random forests on Hadoop for genome-wide association studies of multivariate neuroimaging phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Goh, Wilson; Wong, Limsoon; Montana, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Multivariate quantitative traits arise naturally in recent neuroimaging genetics studies, in which both structural and functional variability of the human brain is measured non-invasively through techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There is growing interest in detecting genetic variants associated with such multivariate traits, especially in genome-wide studies. Random forests (RFs) classifiers, which are ensembles of decision trees, are amongst the best performing machine learning algorithms and have been successfully employed for the prioritisation of genetic variants in case-control studies. RFs can also be applied to produce gene rankings in association studies with multivariate quantitative traits, and to estimate genetic similarities measures that are predictive of the trait. However, in studies involving hundreds of thousands of SNPs and high-dimensional traits, a very large ensemble of trees must be inferred from the data in order to obtain reliable rankings, which makes the application of these algorithms computationally prohibitive. We have developed a parallel version of the RF algorithm for regression and genetic similarity learning tasks in large-scale population genetic association studies involving multivariate traits, called PaRFR (Parallel Random Forest Regression). Our implementation takes advantage of the MapReduce programming model and is deployed on Hadoop, an open-source software framework that supports data-intensive distributed applications. Notable speed-ups are obtained by introducing a distance-based criterion for node splitting in the tree estimation process. PaRFR has been applied to a genome-wide association study on Alzheimer's disease (AD) in which the quantitative trait consists of a high-dimensional neuroimaging phenotype describing longitudinal changes in the human brain structure. PaRFR provides a ranking of SNPs associated to this trait, and produces pair-wise measures of genetic proximity that can be directly

  12. Random forests on Hadoop for genome-wide association studies of multivariate neuroimaging phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Motivation Multivariate quantitative traits arise naturally in recent neuroimaging genetics studies, in which both structural and functional variability of the human brain is measured non-invasively through techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There is growing interest in detecting genetic variants associated with such multivariate traits, especially in genome-wide studies. Random forests (RFs) classifiers, which are ensembles of decision trees, are amongst the best performing machine learning algorithms and have been successfully employed for the prioritisation of genetic variants in case-control studies. RFs can also be applied to produce gene rankings in association studies with multivariate quantitative traits, and to estimate genetic similarities measures that are predictive of the trait. However, in studies involving hundreds of thousands of SNPs and high-dimensional traits, a very large ensemble of trees must be inferred from the data in order to obtain reliable rankings, which makes the application of these algorithms computationally prohibitive. Results We have developed a parallel version of the RF algorithm for regression and genetic similarity learning tasks in large-scale population genetic association studies involving multivariate traits, called PaRFR (Parallel Random Forest Regression). Our implementation takes advantage of the MapReduce programming model and is deployed on Hadoop, an open-source software framework that supports data-intensive distributed applications. Notable speed-ups are obtained by introducing a distance-based criterion for node splitting in the tree estimation process. PaRFR has been applied to a genome-wide association study on Alzheimer's disease (AD) in which the quantitative trait consists of a high-dimensional neuroimaging phenotype describing longitudinal changes in the human brain structure. PaRFR provides a ranking of SNPs associated to this trait, and produces pair-wise measures of genetic proximity

  13. Cognitive dysfunction in urban elderly people: an exploratory study using neuropsychological and neuroimaging perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreerupa Ghose

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cognitive impairment is an integral part of old age as well as it is a part of many neurodegenerative disorders. Early identification of cognitive impairment is necessary in order to make treatment and rehabilitation possible. Materials and methods: Keeping in mind that early identification of cognitive impairment is necessary, a sample of 20 elderly patients with memory complaints who were referred for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI with symptoms of peripheral nervous system disorder by neurologists have been assessed using neuropsychological tests and MRI, and results have been analysed using IBM SPSS 21 and DICOM software. Results: Neuropsychological test findings suggest that age, sex, and education are related to performance of the participants on different tests of cognitive functions in different ways. Scores on the tests of delayed memory and verbal fluency emerged as positive predictors of activity level. On the basis of MRI, the elderly people were identified with periventricular hyper-intensity of white matter and global cortical atrophy. A comparison of the two groups (on the basis of MRI findings suggest that elderly people with global cortical atrophy were found to be significantly more impaired on visuospatial tasks in comparison to the group with periventricular hyper-intensity of white matter, among other tests of cognitive functions. Conclusion: In spite of the absence of manifestation of dementing illness at clinical level, the participants actually exhibited underlying pathological process which can be detected with neuropsychological testing in conjunction with neuroimaging.

  14. The application of neuroimaging to social inequity and language disparity: A cautionary examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellwood-Lowe, Monica E; Sacchet, Matthew D; Gotlib, Ian H

    2016-12-01

    In the nascent field of the cognitive neuroscience of socioeconomic status (SES), researchers are using neuroimaging to examine how growing up in poverty affects children's neurocognitive development, particularly their language abilities. In this review we highlight difficulties inherent in the frequent use of reverse inference to interpret SES-related abnormalities in brain regions that support language. While there is growing evidence suggesting that SES moderates children's developing brain structure and function, no studies to date have elucidated explicitly how these neural findings are related to variations in children's language abilities, or precisely what it is about SES that underlies or contributes to these differences. This issue is complicated by the fact that SES is confounded with such linguistic factors as cultural language use, first language, and bilingualism. Thus, SES-associated differences in brain regions that support language may not necessarily indicate differences in neurocognitive abilities. In this review we consider the multidimensionality of SES, discuss studies that have found SES-related differences in structure and function in brain regions that support language, and suggest future directions for studies in the area of cognitive neuroscience of SES that are less reliant on reverse inference. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. The application of neuroimaging to social inequity and language disparity: A cautionary examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica E. Ellwood-Lowe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the nascent field of the cognitive neuroscience of socioeconomic status (SES, researchers are using neuroimaging to examine how growing up in poverty affects children’s neurocognitive development, particularly their language abilities. In this review we highlight difficulties inherent in the frequent use of reverse inference to interpret SES-related abnormalities in brain regions that support language. While there is growing evidence suggesting that SES moderates children’s developing brain structure and function, no studies to date have elucidated explicitly how these neural findings are related to variations in children’s language abilities, or precisely what it is about SES that underlies or contributes to these differences. This issue is complicated by the fact that SES is confounded with such linguistic factors as cultural language use, first language, and bilingualism. Thus, SES-associated differences in brain regions that support language may not necessarily indicate differences in neurocognitive abilities. In this review we consider the multidimensionality of SES, discuss studies that have found SES-related differences in structure and function in brain regions that support language, and suggest future directions for studies in the area of cognitive neuroscience of SES that are less reliant on reverse inference.

  16. The search for the number form area: A functional neuroimaging meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Darren J; Wilkey, Eric D; Price, Gavin R

    2017-07-01

    Recent studies report a putative "number form area" (NFA) in the inferior temporal gyrus (ITG) suggested to be specialized for Arabic numeral processing. However, a number of earlier studies report no such NFA. The reasons for such discrepancies across studies are unclear. To examine evidence for a convergent NFA across studies, we conducted two activation likelihood estimation meta-analyses on 31 and a subset of 20 neuroimaging studies that have contrasted digits with other meaningful symbols. Results suggest the potential existence of an NFA in the right ITG, in addition to a 'symbolic number processing network' comprising bilateral parietal regions, and right-lateralized superior and inferior frontal regions. Critically, convergent localization for the NFA was only evident when contrasts were appropriately controlled for task demands, and does not appear to depend on employing methods designed to overcome fMRI signal dropout in the ITG. Importantly, only five studies had foci within the identified ITG NFA cluster boundary, indicating that more empirical evidence is necessary to determine the true functional specialization and regional specificity of the putative NFA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Neurobiological narratives: Experiences of mood disorder through the lens of neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchman, Daniel Z; Borgelt, Emily L; Whiteley, Louise Emma

    2013-01-01

    Many scientists, healthcare providers, policymakers and patients are awaiting in anticipation the application of biomedical technologies such as functional neuroimaging for the prediction, diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders. The potential efficacy of such applications is controversial, a...

  18. Neuroimaging of tic disorders with co-existing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Royal, Jason M; Peterson, Bradley S

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tourette syndrome (TS) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are common and debilitating neuropsychiatric illnesses that typically onset in the preschool years. Recently, both conditions have been subject to neuroimaging studies, with the aim of understanding their under...

  19. Neuroimaging of reading intervention: a systematic review and activation likelihood estimate meta-analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barquero, Laura A; Davis, Nicole; Cutting, Laurie E

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of studies examine instructional training and brain activity. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature regarding neuroimaging of reading intervention, with a particular focus on reading difficulties (RD...

  20. Responsible Reporting : Neuroimaging News in the Age of Responsible Research and Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Irja Marije; Arentshorst, Marlous; Broerse, Jacqueline; Kupper, J.F.H.

    Besides offering opportunities in both clinical and non-clinical domains, the application of novel neuroimaging technologies raises pressing dilemmas. 'Responsible Research and Innovation' (RRI) aims to stimulate research and innovation activities that take ethical and social considerations into

  1. Neuroimaging Studies of Normal Brain Development and Their Relevance for Understanding Childhood Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Rachel; Gerber, Andrew J.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    Neuroimaging findings which identify normal brain development trajectories are presented. Results show that early brain development begins with the neural tube formation and ends with myelintation. How disturbances in brain development patterns are related to childhood psychiatric disorders is examined.

  2. Neuroimaging and clinical neurophysiology in cluster headache and trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Lars; Sandrini, Giorgio; Perrotta, Armando

    2010-01-01

    Clinical neurophysiology and neuroimaging are two non-invasive approaches used to investigate the pathophysiological basis of primary headaches, including cluster headache (CH) and other trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs). Modern neuroimaging has revolutionized our understanding of the path......Clinical neurophysiology and neuroimaging are two non-invasive approaches used to investigate the pathophysiological basis of primary headaches, including cluster headache (CH) and other trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs). Modern neuroimaging has revolutionized our understanding...... treatments Trigeminofacial reflexes, the nociceptive flexion reflex, and evoked potentials have been used in TACs to explore the functional state of brainstem and spinal structures involved in pain processing, contributing to our understanding of the pathophysiology of these primary headaches....

  3. Towards structured sharing of raw and derived neuroimaging data across existing resources

    OpenAIRE

    Keator, D B; Helmer, K.; Steffener, J.; Turner, J. A.; van Erp, T G M; Gadde, S; Ashish, N; Burns, G. A.; Nichols, B.N.; Ghosh, S. S.

    2012-01-01

    Data sharing efforts increasingly contribute to the acceleration of scientific discovery. Neuroimaging data is accumulating in distributed domain-specific databases and there is currently no integrated access mechanism nor an accepted format for the critically important meta-data that is necessary for making use of the combined, available neuroimaging data. In this manuscript, we present work from the Derived Data Working Group, an open-access group sponsored by the Biomedical Informatics Res...

  4. Yield of emergent neuroimaging in children with new-onset seizure and status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Todd W; Johnson, Kara B; Michelson, Kenneth A; Nigrovic, Lise E; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Prabhu, Sanjay P; Kimia, Amir A

    2016-02-01

    To determine the yield of emergent neuroimaging among children with new-onset seizures presenting with status epilepticus. We performed a cross-sectional study of children seen at a single ED between 1995 and 2012 with new-onset seizure presenting with status epilepticus. We defined status epilepticus as a single seizure or multiple seizures without regaining consciousness lasting 30 min or longer. Our primary outcome was urgent or emergent intracranial pathology identified on neuroimaging. We categorized neuroimaging results as emergent if they would have changed acute management as assessed by a blinded neuroradiologist and neurologist. To ensure abnormalities were not missed, we review neuroimaging results for 30 days following the initial episode of SE. We included 177 children presenting with new-onset seizure with status epilepticus, of whom 170 (96%) had neuroimaging performed. Abnormal findings were identified on neuroimaging in 64/177 (36%, 95% confidence interval 29-43%) children with 15 (8.5%, 95% confidence interval 5.2-14%) children having urgent or emergent pathology. Four (27%) of the 15 children with urgent or emergent findings had a normal non-contrast computed tomography scan and a subsequently abnormal magnetic resonance image. Longer seizure duration and older age were associated with urgent or emergent intracranial pathology. A substantial minority of children with new-onset seizures presenting with status epilepticus have urgent or emergent intracranial pathology identified on neuroimaging. Clinicians should strongly consider emergent neuroimaging in these children. Magnetic resonance imaging is the preferred imaging modality when available and safe. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Federating distributed and heterogeneous information sources in neuroimaging: the NeuroBase Project.

    OpenAIRE

    Barillot, Christian; Benali, Habib; Dojat, Michel; Gaignard, Alban; Gibaud, Bernard; Kinkingnéhun, Serge; Matsumoto, Jean-Pierre; Pélégrini-Issac, Mélanie; Simon, Eric; Temal, Lynda

    2006-01-01

    The NeuroBase project aims at studying the requirements for federating, through the Internet, information sources in neuroimaging. These sources are distributed in different experimental sites, hospitals or research centers in cognitive neurosciences, and contain heterogeneous data and image processing programs. More precisely, this project consists in creating of a shared ontology, suitable for supporting various neuroimaging applications, and a computer architecture for accessing and sharin...

  6. Visual Systems for Interactive Exploration and Mining of Large-Scale Neuroimaging Data Archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian eBowman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available While technological advancements in neuroimaging scanner engineering have improved the efficiency of data acquisition, electronic data capture methods will likewise significantly expedite the population of large-scale neuroimaging databases. As they do, a particular challenge lies in examining and interacting with the information these resources contain through the development of compelling, user-driven approaches for data exploration and mining. In this article, we introduce the Informatics Visualization for Neuroimaging (INVIZIAN program for the graphical rendering of and dynamic interaction with the contents of large-scale neuroimaging data sets. We describe the rationale behind INVIZIAN, describe its development, and demonstrate its use to examine a collection of over 900 T1-anatomical MRI image volumes from across a diverse set of clinical neuroimaging studies and drawn from a leading neuroimaging database. Using a collection of cortical surface metrics and means for examining brain similarity, INVIZIAN graphically displays brain surfaces as points in a coordinate space and enables classification of clusters of neuroanatomically similar MRI images and data mining. As an initial step toward addressing the need for such user-friendly tools, INVIZIAN provides a highly unique means to interact with large quantities of electronic brain imaging archives in ways suitable for hypothesis generation and data mining.

  7. EXECUTIVE AND SEMANTIC PROCESSES IN REAPPRAISAL OF NEGATIVE STIMULI: INSIGHTS FROM A META-ANALISYS OF NEUROIMAGING STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene eMessina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging investigations have identified the neural correlates of reappraisal in executive areas. These findings have been interpreted as evidence for recruitment of controlled process, at the expense of automatic processes when responding to emotional stimuli. However, activation of semantic areas has also been reported. The aim of the present work was to address the issue of the importance of semantic areas in emotion regulation by comparing recruitment of executive and semantic neural substrates in studies investigating different reappraisal strategies. With this aim, we reviewed neuroimaging studies on reappraisal and we classified them in two main categories: reappraisal of stimuli (RS and reappraisal via perspective taking (RPT. We applied a coordinate-based meta-analysis to summarize the results of fMRI studies on different reappraisal strategies. Our results showed that reappraisal, when considered regardless of the specific instruction used in the studies, involved both executive and semantic areas of the brain. When considering different reappraisal strategies separately, in contrast, we found areas associated with executive function to be prominently recruited by RS, even if also semantic areas are activated. Instead, in RPT the most important clusters of brain activity were found on parietal and temporal semantic areas, without significant cluster in executive areas. These results indicate that modulation of activity in semantic areas may constitute an important aspect of emotion regulation in reappraisal, suggesting that semantic processes may be more important to understand the mechanism of emotion regulation than previously thought..

  8. GM2-Gangliosidosis (Sandhoff and Tay Sachs disease): Diagnosis and Neuroimaging Findings (An Iranian Pediatric Case Series).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Parvaneh; Jafari, Narjes; Nejad Biglari, Habibeh; Jabbeh Dari, Sayena; Ahmad Abadi, Farzad; Alaee, Mohammad-Reza; Nemati, Hamid; Saket, Sasan; Tonekaboni, Seyed Hasan; Taghdiri, Mohammad-Mahdi; Ghofrani, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    GM2-Gangliosidosis disease is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder that includes two disorders (Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff disease).These disorders cause a progressive deterioration of nerve cells and inherited deficiency in creating hexosaminidases A, B, and AB. Patients who were diagnosed withGM2-Gangliosidosis in the Neurology Department of Mofid Children's Hospital in Tehran, Iran from October 2009 to February 2014were included in our study. The disorder was confirmed by neurometabolic and enzyme level detection of hexosaminidases A, B, and AB in reference to Wagnester Laboratory in Germany. We assessed age, gender, past medical history, developmental status, clinical manifestations, and neuroimaging findings of 9 patients with Sandhoff disease and 9 with Tay Sachs disease. 83% of our patients were the offspring of consanguineous marriages. All of them had a developmental disorder as a chief complaint. 38%of patients had a history of developmental delay or regression and 22% had seizures. The patients with Sandhoff and Tay Sachs disease were followed for approximately 5 years and the follow-up showed all patients were bedridden or had expired due to refractory seizures, pneumonia aspiration, or swallowing disorders. Neuro-imaging findings included bilateral thalamic involvement, brain atrophy, and hypo myelination in near half of our patients (48%). According to the results of this study, we suggest that cherry-red spots, hyperacusis, refractory seizures, and relative parents in children with developmental delay and/or regression should be considered for assessment of GM2-Gangliosidosis disease.

  9. Functional neuroimaging of working memory in survivors of childhood brain tumors and healthy children: Associations with coping and psychosocial outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kristen E; Pearson, Matthew M; Cannistraci, Christopher J; Anderson, Adam W; Kuttesch, John F; Wymer, Kevin; Smith, Samantha E; Park, Sohee; Compas, Bruce E

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric brain tumors are the second most common cancer diagnosis in individuals under age 20 and research has documented significant neurocognitive, psychosocial, and emotional late effects. Associations among these deficits have not been adequately considered and the role of survivors' coping with stress in relation to deficits is unknown. Further, research has yet to examine neurobiological processes related to neurocognitive, psychosocial, and emotional difficulties in survivors through the use of functional neuroimaging. Questionnaire measures and functional neuroimaging were used to examine the neurocognitive, psychosocial, and emotional functioning and coping responses of survivors of pediatric brain tumors (N = 17; age 8-16) and healthy children (N = 15). Survivors experienced elevated levels of psychosocial and behavioral/emotional difficulties relative to healthy controls and normative data. Increases in brain activation in prefrontal and other anterior regions in response to a working memory task were associated with better psychosocial functioning, use of engagement coping strategies, and less use of disengagement coping strategies. Regression analyses suggest coping accounts for a significant portion of the association between brain activation and behavioral/emotional functioning. This study extends late-effects research by examining neurobiological processes associated with psychosocial and emotional difficulties. These findings contribute to our understanding of difficulties in survivors and provide a foundation for research exploring these associations and mediators of deficits in future longitudinal studies.

  10. Default Mode Network Functional Connectivity in Early and Late Mild Cognitive Impairment: Results From the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eek-Sung; Yoo, Kwangsun; Lee, Young-Beom; Chung, Jinyong; Lim, Ji-Eun; Yoon, Bora; Jeong, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Default mode network (DMN) functional connectivity is one of the neuroimaging candidate biomarkers of Alzheimer disease. However, no studies have investigated DMN connectivity at different stages of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The aim of this study was to investigate patterns of DMN connectivity and its breakdown among cognitively normal (CN), early MCI (EMCI), and late MCI (LMCI) subjects. Magnetic resonance imaging data and neuropsychological test scores from 130 subjects (CN=43, EMCI=47, LMCI=40) were obtained from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. DMN functional connectivity was extracted using independent components analysis and compared between groups. Functional connectivity in the precuneus, bilateral medial frontal, parahippocampal, middle temporal, right superior temporal, and left angular gyri was decreased in EMCI subjects compared with CN subjects. When the 2 MCI groups were directly compared, LMCI subjects exhibited decreased functional connectivity in the precuneus, bilateral medial frontal gyri, and left angular gyrus. There was no significant difference in gray matter volume among the 3 groups. Amyloid-positive EMCI subjects revealed more widespread breakdown of DMN connectivity than amyloid-negative EMCI subjects. A quantitative index of DMN connectivity correlated well with measures of cognitive performance. Our results suggest that the breakdown of DMN connectivity may occur in the early stage of MCI.

  11. Can multi-modal neuroimaging evidence from hippocampus provide biomarkers for the progression of amnestic mild cognitive impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiu; Zhang, Zhijun; Li, Shijiang

    2015-02-01

    Impaired structure and function of the hippocampus is a valuable predictor of progression from amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD). As a part of the medial temporal lobe memory system, the hippocampus is one of the brain regions affected earliest by AD neuropathology, and shows progressive degeneration as aMCI progresses to AD. Currently, no validated biomarkers can precisely predict the conversion from aMCI to AD. Therefore, there is a great need of sensitive tools for the early detection of AD progression. In this review, we summarize the specific structural and functional changes in the hippocampus from recent aMCI studies using neurophysiological and neuroimaging data. We suggest that a combination of advanced multi-modal neuroimaging measures in discovering biomarkers will provide more precise and sensitive measures of hippocampal changes than using only one of them. These will potentially affect early diagnosis and disease-modifying treatments. We propose a new sequential and progressive framework in which the impairment spreads from the integrity of fibers to volume and then to function in hippocampal subregions. Meanwhile, this is likely to be accompanied by progressive impairment of behavioral and neuropsychological performance in the progression of aMCI to AD.

  12. Acute and non-acute effects of cannabis on human memory function: a critical review of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossong, Matthijs G; Jager, Gerry; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Allen, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Smoking cannabis produces a diverse range of effects, including impairments in learning and memory. These effects are exerted through action on the endocannabinoid system, which suggests involvement of this system in human cognition. Learning and memory deficits are core symptoms of psychiatric and neurological disorders such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease, and may also be related to endocannabinoid dysfunction in these disorders. However, before new research can focus on potential treatments that work by manipulating the endocannabinoid system, it needs to be elucidated how this system is involved in symptoms of psychiatric disorders. Here we review neuroimaging studies that investigated acute and non-acute effects of cannabis on human learning and memory function, both in adults and in adolescents. Overall, results of these studies show that cannabis use is associated with a pattern of increased activity and a higher level of deactivation in different memory-related areas. This could reflect either increased neural effort ('neurophysiological inefficiency') or a change in strategy to maintain good task performance. However, the interpretation of these findings is significantly hampered by large differences between study populations in cannabis use in terms of frequency, age of onset, and time that subjects were abstinent from cannabis. Future neuroimaging studies should take these limitations into account, and should focus on the potential of cannabinoid compounds for treatment of cognitive symptoms in psychiatric disorders.

  13. Fragile X premutation carriers: A systematic review of neuroimaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephanie S G; Stanfield, Andrew C

    2015-05-15

    Expansion of the CGG repeat region of the FMR1 gene from less than 45 repeats to between 55 and 200 repeats is known as the fragile X premutation. Carriers of the fragile X premutation may develop a neurodegenerative disease called fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). Recent evidence suggests that premutation carriers experience other psychiatric difficulties throughout their lifespan. Medline, EMBASE and PsychINFO were searched for all appropriate English language studies published between January 1990 and December 2013. 419 potentially relevant articles were identified and screened. 19 articles were included in the analysis. We discuss key structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings such as the MCP sign and white matter atrophy. Additionally, we discuss how functional MRI results have progressed our knowledge of how FXTAS may manifest, including reduced brain activation during social and memory tasks in multiple regions. This systematic review may have been limited by the search for articles on just 3 scientific databases. Differing techniques and methods of analyses between research groups and primary research articles may have caused differences in results between studies. Current MRI studies into the fragile X premutation have been important in the diagnosis of FXTAS and identifying potential pathophysiological mechanisms. Associations with blood based measures have also demonstrated that neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative aspects of the fragile X premutation could be functionally and pathologically separate. Larger longitudinal studies will be required to investigate these conclusions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Single-subject anxiety treatment outcome prediction using functional neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Tali M; Stein, Murray B; Ramsawh, Holly J; Campbell-Sills, Laura; Paulus, Martin P

    2014-04-01

    The possibility of individualized treatment prediction has profound implications for the development of personalized interventions for patients with anxiety disorders. Here we utilize random forest classification and pre-treatment functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder (PD) to generate individual subject treatment outcome predictions. Before cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), 48 adults (25 GAD and 23 PD) reduced (via cognitive reappraisal) or maintained their emotional responses to negative images during fMRI scanning. CBT responder status was predicted using activations from 70 anatomically defined regions. The final random forest model included 10 predictors contributing most to classification accuracy. A similar analysis was conducted using the clinical and demographic variables. Activations in the hippocampus during maintenance and anterior insula, superior temporal, supramarginal, and superior frontal gyri during reappraisal were among the best predictors, with greater activation in responders than non-responders. The final fMRI-based model yielded 79% accuracy, with good sensitivity (0.86), specificity (0.68), and positive and negative likelihood ratios (2.73, 0.20). Clinical and demographic variables yielded poorer accuracy (69%), sensitivity (0.79), specificity (0.53), and likelihood ratios (1.67, 0.39). This is the first use of random forest models to predict treatment outcome from pre-treatment neuroimaging data in psychiatry. Together, random forest models and fMRI can provide single-subject predictions with good test characteristics. Moreover, activation patterns are consistent with the notion that greater activation in cortico-limbic circuitry predicts better CBT response in GAD and PD.

  15. DeID - a data sharing tool for neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xuebo; Wang, James; Wang, Anlin; Meng, Qingping; Prescott, Christian; Tsu, Loretta; Eckert, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Funding institutions and researchers increasingly expect that data will be shared to increase scientific integrity and provide other scientists with the opportunity to use the data with novel methods that may advance understanding in a particular field of study. In practice, sharing human subject data can be complicated because data must be de-identified prior to sharing. Moreover, integrating varied data types collected in a study can be challenging and time consuming. For example, sharing data from structural imaging studies of a complex disorder requires the integration of imaging, demographic and/or behavioral data in a way that no subject identifiers are included in the de-identified dataset and with new subject labels or identification values that cannot be tracked back to the original ones. We have developed a Java program that users can use to remove identifying information in neuroimaging datasets, while still maintaining the association among different data types from the same subject for further studies. This software provides a series of user interaction wizards to allow users to select data variables to be de-identified, implements functions for auditing and validation of de-identified data, and enables the user to share the de-identified data in a single compressed package through various communication protocols, such as FTPS and SFTP. DeID runs with Windows, Linux, and Mac operating systems and its open architecture allows it to be easily adapted to support a broader array of data types, with the goal of facilitating data sharing. DeID can be obtained at http://www.nitrc.org/projects/deid.

  16. Variability in clinical assessment of neuroimaging in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struck, Aaron F; Westover, Michael B

    2015-08-01

    Neuroimaging is critical in deciding candidacy for epilepsy surgery. Currently imaging is primarily assessed qualitatively, which may affect patient selection and outcomes. The epilepsy surgery database at MGH was reviewed for temporal lobectomy patients from the last 10 years. Radiology reports for MRI and FDG-PET were compared to the epilepsy conference consensus. First, specific findings of ipsi/contra hippocampal atrophy and T2 signal changes were directly compared. Next the overall impression of presence of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) for MRI and temporal hypometabolism for PET was used for sensitivity/specificity analysis. To assess predictive power of imaging findings logistic regression was used. 104 subjects were identified. 70% of subjects were ILAE class I at 1-year. Radiology reports and the conference consensus differed in 31% of FDG-PET studies and 41% of MRIs. For PET most disagreement (50%) stemmed for discrepancy regarding contralateral temporal hypometabolism. For MRI discrepancy in ipsilateral hippocampal atrophy/T2 signal accounted for 59% of disagreements. When overall impression of the image was used the overall reliability between groups was high with only MRI sensitivity to detect HS (0.75 radiology, 0.91 conference, p=0.02) was significantly different between groups. On logistic regression MRI was a significant predictor of HS, but still 36% of patients with normal MRI as read by both groups had HS on pathology. Despite some difference in specific radiologic findings, overall accuracy for MRI and PET is similar in clinical practice between radiology and conference; nonetheless there are still cases of hippocampal pathology not detected by standard imaging methods. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Neural, cognitive, and neuroimaging markers of the suicidal brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobanski T

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Sobanski,1 Karl-Jürgen Bär,2 Gerd Wagner2 1Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatic Medicine, Thüringen-Kliniken "Georgius Agricola" GmbH, Saalfeld, Germany; 2Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Psychiatric Brain and Body Research Group Jena, Jena University Hospital, Jena, GermanyAbstract: Suicidal behavior (SB is characterized by the occurrence of suicide attempts with substantial intent to die. SB is a major health problem worldwide. In the great majority of cases, SB occurs in patients suffering from psychiatric disorders, mainly from affective disorders or schizophrenia. Despite this high association, there is growing evidence from genetic studies that SB might represent a psychiatric condition on its own. This review provides an overview of the most significant neurobiological and neurocognitive findings in SB. We provide evidence for specific dysfunctions within the serotonergic system, for distinct morphological abnormalities in the gray and white matter composition as well as for neurofunctional alterations in the fronto-striatal network. Additionally, the putative role of impulsivity and hopelessness as trait-like risk factors for SB is outlined. Both the personality traits are associated with altered prefrontal cortex function and deficits in cognitive and affective control similar to the findings in SB. Given the difficulties of clinical risk assessment, there is a need to identify specific markers that can predict SB more reliably. Some recent neurocognitive and functional/structural neuroimaging findings might be appropriate to use as SB indicators in the close future.Keywords: suicidal behavior, biological markers, serotonin, hopelessness, impulsivity, major depressive disorder, fMRI, PET, SPECT

  18. Language Development across the Life Span: A Neuropsychological/Neuroimaging Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Rosselli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Language development has been correlated with specific changes in brain development. The aim of this paper is to analyze the linguistic-brain associations that occur from birth through senescence. Findings from the neuropsychological and neuroimaging literature are reviewed, and the relationship of language changes observable in human development and the corresponding brain maturation processes across age groups are examined. Two major dimensions of language development are highlighted: naming (considered a major measure of lexical knowledge and verbal fluency (regarded as a major measure of language production ability. Developmental changes in the brain lateralization of language are discussed, emphasizing that in early life there is an increase in functional brain asymmetry for language, but that this asymmetry changes over time, and that changes in the volume of gray and white matter are age-sensitive. The effects of certain specific variables, such as gender, level of education, and bilingualism are also analyzed. General conclusions are presented and directions for future research are suggested.

  19. Healthy and pathological processes in adult development: new evidence from neuroimaging of the aging brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedden, Trey; Gabrieli, John D E

    2005-12-01

    Recent research has revealed that the population of older adults is composed not only of individuals who are either healthy or have an age-related disease, most commonly Alzheimer's disease, but also individuals with mild cognitive impairment who are at-risk for or already in the prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease. These variations in cognitive aging can be related to their neural bases via structural and functional neuroimaging methods. Healthy aging appears to primarily affect a frontal-striatal system that undergirds executive control of cognition, while minimally affecting medial temporal lobe structures. Functional imaging studies suggest that enhanced prefrontal engagement may offer compensatory plasticity that minimizes age-related cognitive losses. Mild cognitive impairment appears to affect the entorhinal cortex in particular, with functional consequences in other brain regions. Alzheimer's disease is characterized by severe hippocampal injury, although early-stage Alzheimer's disease may relatively spare some cortical regions. Advances in in-vivo imaging methods are providing the tools for identifying different trajectories of neurocognitive aging, and knowledge about these brain changes may promote opportunities for treatment.

  20. Neuropathological sequelae of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and apathy: A review of neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Roger C; Rosselli, Monica; Uddin, Lucina Q; Antoni, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Apathy remains a common neuropsychiatric disturbance in the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) despite advances in anti-retroviral treatment (ART). The goal of the current review is to recapitulate findings relating apathy to the deleterious biobehavioral effects of HIV-1 in the post-ART era. Available literatures demonstrate that the emergence of apathy with other neurocognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms may be attributed to neurotoxic effects of viral proliferation, e.g., aggregative effect of Tat and gp120 on apoptosis, transport and other enzymatic reactions amongst dopaminergic neurons and neuroglia. An assortment of neuroimaging modalities converge on the severity of apathy symptoms associated with the propensity of the virus to replicate within frontal-striatal brain circuits that facilitate emotional processing. Burgeoning research into functional brain connectivity also supports the effects of microvascular and neuro-inflammatory injury linked to aging with HIV-1 on the presentation of neuropsychiatric symptoms. Summarizing these findings, we review domains of HIV-associated neurocognitive and neuropsychiatric impairment linked to apathy in HIV. Taken together, these lines of research suggest that loss of affective, cognitive and behavioral inertia is commensurate with the neuropathology of HIV-1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Medial Temporal Lobe Contributions to Future Thinking: Evidence from Neuroimaging and Amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke Verfaellie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Following early amnesic case reports, there is now considerable evidence suggesting a link between remembering the past and envisioning the future. This link is evident in the overlap in neural substrates as well as cognitive processes involved in both kinds of tasks. While constructing a future narrative requires multiple processes, neuroimaging and lesion data converge on a critical role for the medial temporal lobes (MTL in retrieving and recombining details from memory in the service of novel simulations. Deficient detail retrieval and recombination may lead to impairments not only in episodic, but also in semantic prospection. MTL contributions to scene construction and mental time travel may further compound impairments in amnesia on tasks that pose additional demands on these processes, but are unlikely to form the core deficit underlying amnesics' cross-domain future thinking impairment. Future studies exploring the role of episodic memory in other forms of self-projection or future-oriented behaviour may elucidate further the adaptive role of memory.

  2. Alcohol’s Effects on the Brain: Neuroimaging Results in Humans and Animal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahr, Natalie M.; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2017-01-01

    Brain imaging technology has allowed researchers to conduct rigorous studies of the dynamic course of alcoholism through periods of drinking, sobriety, and relapse and to gain insights into the effects of chronic alcoholism on the human brain. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have distinguished alcohol-related brain effects that are permanent from those that are reversible with abstinence. In support of postmortem neuropathological studies showing degeneration of white matter, MRI studies have shown a specific vulnerability of white matter to chronic alcohol exposure. Such studies have demonstrated white-matter volume deficits as well as damage to selective gray-matter structures. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), by permitting microstructural characterization of white matter, has extended MRI findings in alcoholics. MR spectroscopy (MRS) allows quantification of several metabolites that shed light on brain biochemical alterations caused by alcoholism. This article focuses on MRI, DTI, and MRS findings in neurological disorders that commonly co-occur with alcoholism, including Wernicke’s encephalopathy, Korsakoff’s syndrome, and hepatic encephalopathy. Also reviewed are neuroimaging findings in animal models of alcoholism and related neurological disorders. This report also suggests that the dynamic course of alcoholism presents a unique opportunity to examine brain structural and functional repair and recovery. PMID:28988573

  3. Effects of cannabis on impulsivity: a systematic review of neuroimaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrege, Johannes; Schmidt, Andre; Walter, Anna; Smieskova, Renata; Bendfeldt, Kerstin; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Lang, Undine E; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review to assess the evidence for specific effects of cannabis on impulsivity, disinhibition and motor control. The review had a specific focus on neuroimaging findings associated with acute and chronic use of the drug and covers literature published up until May 2012. Seventeen studies were identified, of which 13 met the inclusion criteria; three studies investigated acute effects of cannabis (1 fMRI, 2 PET), while six studies investigated non-acute functional effects (4 fMRI, 2 PET), and four studies investigated structural alterations. Functional imaging studies of impulsivity studies suggest that prefrontal blood flow is lower in chronic cannabis users than in controls. Studies of acute administration of THC or marijuana report increased brain metabolism in several brain regions during impulsivity tasks. Structural imaging studies of cannabis users found differences in reduced prefrontal volumes and white matter integrity that might mediate the abnormal impulsivity and mood observed in marijuana users. To address the question whether impulsivity as a trait precedes cannabis consumption or whether cannabis aggravates impulsivity and discontinuation of usage more longitudinal study designs are warranted.

  4. A role for sleep in the processing of memory traces. Contribution of functional neuroimaging in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maquet, P

    2004-01-01

    Sleep is thought to participate in the consolidation of recent memory traces. We tested this hypothesis in humans, using functional neuroimaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography). First, following the training on a procedural visuo-motor learning task (pursuit task), total sleep deprivation on the first post-training night significantly deteriorates the gain in performance, which is usually observed after one complete night of sleep. In parallel, sleep deprivation hampers the changes in functional segregation and connectivity, which underpin the gain in performance usually observed in subjects allowed to sleep on the first post-training night. Second, following the training on an implicit memory task (probabilistic serial reaction time task), some brain areas are reactivated during REM sleep on the first post-training night. The reactivation was shown to be related to the processing of high-level material and to be modulated by the amount of learning achieved during the training session. These changes in activity do not involve isolated brain areas but entire macroscopic cortico-subcortical networks. Taken together, the results suggest an off-line processing of recent memory traces during sleep.

  5. Language Development across the Life Span: A Neuropsychological/Neuroimaging Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselli, Mónica; Ardila, Alfredo; Matute, Esmeralda; Vélez-Uribe, Idaly

    2014-01-01

    Language development has been correlated with specific changes in brain development. The aim of this paper is to analyze the linguistic-brain associations that occur from birth through senescence. Findings from the neuropsychological and neuroimaging literature are reviewed, and the relationship of language changes observable in human development and the corresponding brain maturation processes across age groups are examined. Two major dimensions of language development are highlighted: naming (considered a major measure of lexical knowledge) and verbal fluency (regarded as a major measure of language production ability). Developmental changes in the brain lateralization of language are discussed, emphasizing that in early life there is an increase in functional brain asymmetry for language, but that this asymmetry changes over time, and that changes in the volume of gray and white matter are age-sensitive. The effects of certain specific variables, such as gender, level of education, and bilingualism are also analyzed. General conclusions are presented and directions for future research are suggested. PMID:26317109

  6. A Systematic Review of Intervention Studies Examining Nutritional and Herbal Therapies for Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia Using Neuroimaging Methods: Study Characteristics and Intervention Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Z. Steiner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging facilitates the assessment of complementary medicines (CMs by providing a noninvasive insight into their mechanisms of action in the human brain. This is important for identifying the potential treatment options for target disease cohorts with complex pathophysiologies. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate study characteristics, intervention efficacy, and the structural and functional neuroimaging methods used in research assessing nutritional and herbal medicines for mild cognitive impairment (MCI and dementia. Six databases were searched for articles reporting on CMs, dementia, and neuroimaging methods. Data were extracted from 21/2,742 eligible full text articles and risk of bias was assessed. Nine studies examined people with Alzheimer’s disease, 7 MCI, 4 vascular dementia, and 1 all-cause dementia. Ten studies tested herbal medicines, 8 vitamins and supplements, and 3 nootropics. Ten studies used electroencephalography (EEG, 5 structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, 2 functional MRI (fMRI, 3 cerebral blood flow (CBF, 1 single photon emission tomography (SPECT, and 1 positron emission tomography (PET. Four studies had a low risk of bias, with the majority consistently demonstrating inadequate reporting on randomisation, allocation concealment, blinding, and power calculations. A narrative synthesis approach was assumed due to heterogeneity in study methods, interventions, target cohorts, and quality. Eleven key recommendations are suggested to advance future work in this area.

  7. A Systematic Review of Intervention Studies Examining Nutritional and Herbal Therapies for Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia Using Neuroimaging Methods: Study Characteristics and Intervention Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Genevieve Z; Mathersul, Danielle C; MacMillan, Freya; Camfield, David A; Klupp, Nerida L; Seto, Sai W; Huang, Yong; Hohenberg, Mark I; Chang, Dennis H

    2017-01-01

    Neuroimaging facilitates the assessment of complementary medicines (CMs) by providing a noninvasive insight into their mechanisms of action in the human brain. This is important for identifying the potential treatment options for target disease cohorts with complex pathophysiologies. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate study characteristics, intervention efficacy, and the structural and functional neuroimaging methods used in research assessing nutritional and herbal medicines for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. Six databases were searched for articles reporting on CMs, dementia, and neuroimaging methods. Data were extracted from 21/2,742 eligible full text articles and risk of bias was assessed. Nine studies examined people with Alzheimer's disease, 7 MCI, 4 vascular dementia, and 1 all-cause dementia. Ten studies tested herbal medicines, 8 vitamins and supplements, and 3 nootropics. Ten studies used electroencephalography (EEG), 5 structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 2 functional MRI (fMRI), 3 cerebral blood flow (CBF), 1 single photon emission tomography (SPECT), and 1 positron emission tomography (PET). Four studies had a low risk of bias, with the majority consistently demonstrating inadequate reporting on randomisation, allocation concealment, blinding, and power calculations. A narrative synthesis approach was assumed due to heterogeneity in study methods, interventions, target cohorts, and quality. Eleven key recommendations are suggested to advance future work in this area.

  8. The neuroimaging approach to the assessment of mild cognitive impairment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucignani, Giovanni [University of Milan and Unit of Molecular Imaging, Division of Radiation Therapy, European Institute of Oncology, Institute of Radiological Sciences, Milan (Italy)

    2006-06-15

    Imaging techniques, including emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, are progressively being exploited for the classification and prognostic evaluation (indispensable for possible treatments) of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The main traits of MCI and unsolved issues in its assessment are discussed in two review articles by Feldman and Jacova from the Division of Neurology, Dept. of Medicine, Clinic for Alzheimer Disease and Related Disorders, University of British Columbia, in Vancouver, Canada [1] and Chong and Sahadevan from the Department of Geriatric Medicine, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Jalan Tan Tock Seng, Singapore [2]. Because MCI has different presentations in terms of the type and degree of cognitive deficits observed, several clinical subtypes of MCI besides the amnestic form have now been recognised and characterised on the basis of deficits in different cognitive domains, either in isolation or in combination with amnesia. The different subtypes of MCI suggest that MCI has a heterogeneous nature, with several possible causes that lead to the same symptoms. This is a field in evolution, and a uniform diagnostic classification of MCI has not yet been accomplished. Lopez et al. from the Departments of Neurology and Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine,Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA [3] point out that the classification of MCI subtypes is useful to improve prediction of the subsequent risk of dementia and the type of dementia, and that the manner in which MCI subjects are classified into subgroups has implications for the cognitive profile of the group and thus for our inferences about the aetiology and possible clinical course of the disorder.

  9. Clinical applications of cobalt-radionuclides in neuro-imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, H.M.L

    1998-04-01

    The aim of the studies embodied in this thesis was to investigate the clinical applicability of Co in euro-imaging using positron emission tomography (PET). To this purpose, a set of closely related pilot studies were performed in patients suffering from several neurological diseases affecting the brain. Chapter 2 discusses the physiological role of Co and both indications and complications of Co-administration in the past. The probable deposition mechanism of Co is described, potential (absence of) evidence of Co mimicking Ca in vivo is discussed, a comparison is made with other tracer-analogues (Ga, TI, Rb) and several hypotheses with respect to the pharmacokinetic behaviour of Co and the role of (inflammatory) proteins and cells are forwarded. The etiologic mechanism(s), clinical symptoms, Ca-related pathophysiology and (most recent) imaging techniques are reviewed of Multiple Sclerosis, cerebrovascular stroke, traumatic brain injury and primary brain tumours. The major goal of these respective reviews is both a rough outline of present insights and near-future developments and an assessment of the (im)possibilities in visualising the actual substrate of disease. Since Co is assumed to reflect (the common pathway of) Ca, an application of Co (based on cell-decay and inflammation) may be hypothesised in all of the diseases mentioned. These considerations served as a theoretical basis for our further studies in clinical practice. Chapter 3 (Original reprints) presents the actual results, whil Chapter 4 (General discussion) reflects on lessons that can be learned from the present work and consequently formulates some suggestions for future (extended) studies. The contours of possible new emerging areas of interest (dementia of the Alzheimer type; vascular dementia; stunned myocardium) are drawn in continuation of the foregoing studies. 47 refs.

  10. Toward a neuroimaging treatment selection biomarker for major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Callie L; Kelley, Mary E; Holtzheimer, Paul E; Dunlop, Boadie W; Craighead, W Edward; Franco, Alexandre R; Craddock, R Cameron; Mayberg, Helen S

    2013-08-01

    Currently, fewer than 40% of patients treated for major depressive disorder achieve remission with initial treatment. Identification of a biological marker that might improve these odds could have significant health and economic impact. To identify a candidate neuroimaging "treatment-specific biomarker" that predicts differential outcome to either medication or psychotherapy. Brain glucose metabolism was measured with positron emission tomography prior to treatment randomization to either escitalopram oxalate or cognitive behavior therapy for 12 weeks. Patients who did not remit on completion of their phase 1 treatment were offered enrollment in phase 2 comprising an additional 12 weeks of treatment with combination escitalopram and cognitive behavior therapy. Mood and anxiety disorders research program at an academic medical center. Men and women aged 18 to 60 years with currently untreated major depressive disorder. Randomized assignment to 12 weeks of treatment with either escitalopram oxalate (10-20 mg/d) or 16 sessions of manual-based cognitive behavior therapy. Remission, defined as a 17-item Hamilton depression rating scale score of 7 or less at both weeks 10 and 12, as assessed by raters blinded to treatment. Positive and negative predictors of remission were identified with a 2-way analysis of variance treatment (escitalopram or cognitive behavior therapy) × outcome (remission or nonresponse) interaction. Of 65 protocol completers, 38 patients with clear outcomes and usable positron emission tomography scans were included in the primary analysis: 12 remitters to cognitive behavior therapy, 11 remitters to escitalopram, 9 nonresponders to cognitive behavior therapy, and 6 nonresponders to escitalopram. Six limbic and cortical regions were identified, with the right anterior insula showing the most robust discriminant properties across groups (effect size = 1.43). Insula hypometabolism (relative to whole-brain mean) was associated with remission to

  11. The Extended Fronto-Striatal Model of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Convergence from Event-Related Potentials, Neuropsychology and Neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita eMelloni

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we explored convergent evidence supporting the fronto-striatal model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (FSMOCD and the contribution of event-related potential (ERP studies to this model. First, we considered minor modifications to the FSMOCD model based on neuroimaging and neuropsychological data. We noted the brain areas most affected in this disorder -anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, basal ganglia (BG and orbito-frontal cortex (OFC- and their related cognitive functions, such as monitoring and inhibition. Then, we assessed the ERPs that are directly related to the FSMOCD, including the error-related negativity (ERN, N200 and P600. Several OCD studies present enhanced ERN and N2 responses during conflict tasks as well as an enhanced P600 during working memory tasks. Evidence from ERP studies (especially regarding ERN and N200 amplitude enhancement, neuroimaging and neuropsychological findings suggests abnormal activity in the OFC, ACC and BG in OCD patients. Moreover, additional findings from these analyses suggest dorsolateral prefrontal and parietal cortex involvement, which might be related to executive function deficits. Thus, these convergent results suggest the existence of a self-monitoring imbalance involving inhibitory deficits and executive dysfunctions. OCD patients present an impaired ability to monitor, control, and inhibit intrusive thoughts, urges, feelings and behaviors. In the current model, this imbalance is triggered by an excitatory role of the BG (associated with cognitive or motor actions without volitional control and inhibitory activity of the OFC as well as excessive monitoring of the ACC to block excitatory impulses. This imbalance would interact with the reduced activation of the parietal-DLPC network, leading to executive dysfunction. ERP research may provide further insight regarding the temporal dynamics of action monitoring and executive functioning in OCD.

  12. The extended fronto-striatal model of obsessive compulsive disorder: convergence from event-related potentials, neuropsychology and neuroimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melloni, Margherita; Urbistondo, Claudia; Sedeño, Lucas; Gelormini, Carlos; Kichic, Rafael; Ibanez, Agustin

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we explored convergent evidence supporting the fronto-striatal model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (FSMOCD) and the contribution of event-related potential (ERP) studies to this model. First, we considered minor modifications to the FSMOCD model based on neuroimaging and neuropsychological data. We noted the brain areas most affected in this disorder -anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), basal ganglia (BG), and orbito-frontal cortex (OFC) and their related cognitive functions, such as monitoring and inhibition. Then, we assessed the ERPs that are directly related to the FSMOCD, including the error-related negativity (ERN), N200, and P600. Several OCD studies present enhanced ERN and N2 responses during conflict tasks as well as an enhanced P600 during working memory (WM) tasks. Evidence from ERP studies (especially regarding ERN and N200 amplitude enhancement), neuroimaging and neuropsychological findings suggests abnormal activity in the OFC, ACC, and BG in OCD patients. Moreover, additional findings from these analyses suggest dorsolateral prefrontal and parietal cortex involvement, which might be related to executive function (EF) deficits. Thus, these convergent results suggest the existence of a self-monitoring imbalance involving inhibitory deficits and executive dysfunctions. OCD patients present an impaired ability to monitor, control, and inhibit intrusive thoughts, urges, feelings, and behaviors. In the current model, this imbalance is triggered by an excitatory role of the BG (associated with cognitive or motor actions without volitional control) and inhibitory activity of the OFC as well as excessive monitoring of the ACC to block excitatory impulses. This imbalance would interact with the reduced activation of the parietal-DLPC network, leading to executive dysfunction. ERP research may provide further insight regarding the temporal dynamics of action monitoring and executive functioning in OCD. PMID:23015786

  13. Integration of a neuroimaging processing pipeline into a pan-canadian computing grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie-Courchesne, S.; Rioux, P.; Chouinard-Decorte, F.; Sherif, T.; Rousseau, M.-E.; Das, S.; Adalat, R.; Doyon, J.; Craddock, C.; Margulies, D.; Chu, C.; Lyttelton, O.; Evans, A. C.; Bellec, P.

    2012-02-01

    The ethos of the neuroimaging field is quickly moving towards the open sharing of resources, including both imaging databases and processing tools. As a neuroimaging database represents a large volume of datasets and as neuroimaging processing pipelines are composed of heterogeneous, computationally intensive tools, such open sharing raises specific computational challenges. This motivates the design of novel dedicated computing infrastructures. This paper describes an interface between PSOM, a code-oriented pipeline development framework, and CBRAIN, a web-oriented platform for grid computing. This interface was used to integrate a PSOM-compliant pipeline for preprocessing of structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging into CBRAIN. We further tested the capacity of our infrastructure to handle a real large-scale project. A neuroimaging database including close to 1000 subjects was preprocessed using our interface and publicly released to help the participants of the ADHD-200 international competition. This successful experiment demonstrated that our integrated grid-computing platform is a powerful solution for high-throughput pipeline analysis in the field of neuroimaging.

  14. Relationships between Cognitive Performance, Neuroimaging and Vascular Disease: The DHS-MIND Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Fang-Chi; Raffield, Laura M; Hugenschmidt, Christina E; Cox, Amanda; Xu, Jianzhao; Carr, J Jeffery; Freedman, Barry I; Maldjian, Joseph A; Williamson, Jeff D; Bowden, Donald W

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus increases the risk of cognitive decline and dementia, and elevated burdens of vascular disease are hypothesized to contribute to this risk. These relationships were examined in the Diabetes Heart Study-MIND using a battery of cognitive tests, neuroimaging measures and subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden assessed by coronary artery calcified (CAC) plaque. We hypothesized that CAC would attenuate the association between neuroimaging measures and cognition performance. Associations were examined using marginal models in this family-based cohort of 572 European Americans from 263 families. All models were adjusted for age, gender, education, type 2 diabetes and hypertension, with some neuroimaging measures additionally adjusted for intracranial volume. Higher total brain volume was associated with better performance on the Digit Symbol Substitution Task and Semantic Fluency (both p ≤ 7.0 × 10(-4)). Higher gray matter volume was associated with better performance on the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination and Semantic Fluency (both p ≤ 9.0 × 10(-4)). Adjusting for CAC caused minimal changes to the results. Relationships exist between neuroimaging measures and cognitive performance in a type 2 diabetes-enriched European American cohort. Associations were minimally attenuated after adjusting for subclinical CVD. Additional work is needed to understand how subclinical CVD burden interacts with other factors and impacts relationships between neuroimaging and cognitive testing measures. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Lin4Neuro: a customized Linux distribution ready for neuroimaging analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Kiyotaka; Dan, Ippeita; Rorden, Christopher; Ohnishi, Takashi; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Okamoto, Masako; Yamashita, Fumio; Asada, Takashi

    2011-01-25

    A variety of neuroimaging software packages have been released from various laboratories worldwide, and many researchers use these packages in combination. Though most of these software packages are freely available, some people find them difficult to install and configure because they are mostly based on UNIX-like operating systems. We developed a live USB-bootable Linux package named "Lin4Neuro." This system includes popular neuroimaging analysis tools. The user interface is customized so that even Windows users can use it intuitively. The boot time of this system was only around 40 seconds. We performed a benchmark test of inhomogeneity correction on 10 subjects of three-dimensional T1-weighted MRI scans. The processing speed of USB-booted Lin4Neuro was as fast as that of the package installed on the hard disk drive. We also installed Lin4Neuro on a virtualization software package that emulates the Linux environment on a Windows-based operation system. Although the processing speed was slower than that under other conditions, it remained comparable. With Lin4Neuro in one's hand, one can access neuroimaging software packages easily, and immediately focus on analyzing data. Lin4Neuro can be a good primer for beginners of neuroimaging analysis or students who are interested in neuroimaging analysis. It also provides a practical means of sharing analysis environments across sites.

  16. Lin4Neuro: a customized Linux distribution ready for neuroimaging analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamashita Fumio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A variety of neuroimaging software packages have been released from various laboratories worldwide, and many researchers use these packages in combination. Though most of these software packages are freely available, some people find them difficult to install and configure because they are mostly based on UNIX-like operating systems. We developed a live USB-bootable Linux package named "Lin4Neuro." This system includes popular neuroimaging analysis tools. The user interface is customized so that even Windows users can use it intuitively. Results The boot time of this system was only around 40 seconds. We performed a benchmark test of inhomogeneity correction on 10 subjects of three-dimensional T1-weighted MRI scans. The processing speed of USB-booted Lin4Neuro was as fast as that of the package installed on the hard disk drive. We also installed Lin4Neuro on a virtualization software package that emulates the Linux environment on a Windows-based operation system. Although the processing speed was slower than that under other conditions, it remained comparable. Conclusions With Lin4Neuro in one's hand, one can access neuroimaging software packages easily, and immediately focus on analyzing data. Lin4Neuro can be a good primer for beginners of neuroimaging analysis or students who are interested in neuroimaging analysis. It also provides a practical means of sharing analysis environments across sites.

  17. ABrIL - Advanced Brain Imaging Lab : a cloud based computation environment for cooperative neuroimaging projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves Tafula, Sérgio M; Moreira da Silva, Nádia; Rozanski, Verena E; Silva Cunha, João Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Neuroscience is an increasingly multidisciplinary and highly cooperative field where neuroimaging plays an important role. Neuroimaging rapid evolution is demanding for a growing number of computing resources and skills that need to be put in place at every lab. Typically each group tries to setup their own servers and workstations to support their neuroimaging needs, having to learn from Operating System management to specific neuroscience software tools details before any results can be obtained from each setup. This setup and learning process is replicated in every lab, even if a strong collaboration among several groups is going on. In this paper we present a new cloud service model - Brain Imaging Application as a Service (BiAaaS) - and one of its implementation - Advanced Brain Imaging Lab (ABrIL) - in the form of an ubiquitous virtual desktop remote infrastructure that offers a set of neuroimaging computational services in an interactive neuroscientist-friendly graphical user interface (GUI). This remote desktop has been used for several multi-institution cooperative projects with different neuroscience objectives that already achieved important results, such as the contribution to a high impact paper published in the January issue of the Neuroimage journal. The ABrIL system has shown its applicability in several neuroscience projects with a relatively low-cost, promoting truly collaborative actions and speeding up project results and their clinical applicability.

  18. Neuroimaging Findings in First Unprovoked Seizures: A Multicentric Study in Tehran

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOLLA MOHAMMADI, Mohsen; TONEKABONI, Seyed Hassan; KHATAMI, Alireza; AZARGASHB, Eznollah; TAVASOLI, Azita; JAVADZADEH, Mohsen; ZAMANI, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    Objective Seizure is an emergency in pediatrics. It really matters to the parents of the involved child to have information about the causes, management and prognosis. First unprovoked seizures (FUS) are seizures that occur in patients without fever, trauma or infection. Due to the rapid improvement in diagnostic techniques in the last few decades, the etiology will be revealed and this term will no longer exist. This Study was designed to evaluate brain imaging findings in FUS patients. Materials & Methods Ninety-six children with FUS, who were admitted in three major children’s hospitals in Tehran, underwent brain imaging and were enrolled into the study. The decision about the type of imaging (CT or MRI) was based on the patient’s medical and financial conditions. An expert radiologist in the field of pediatric neuroimaging interpreted the images. Results Altogether, 27.1% had abnormal findings of which 29.2% were in the brain MRI group and 14.3% were in the brain CT scan group. Abnormal results were gliosis (10.4%), hemorrhage (4.2%), dysgenesis (2.1%), dysmyelination (7.3%), encephalomalacy (1%), atrophy (5.2%) and infarction (2.1%). In some patients, the lesions were in 2 or 3 sites and some had more than one type of lesion. There was no association between the duration, age and type of seizure and imaging abnormlities. However, we found an association between the location of the lesion and the type of seizure. Conclusion We recommend brain imaging in all patients with FUS and apart from some exceptions, brain MRI is superior to CT. PMID:24665314

  19. Presymptomatic and longitudinal neuroimaging in neurodegeneration--from snapshots to motion picture: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Christina; Elamin, Marwa; Hardiman, Orla; Bede, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Recent quantitative neuroimaging studies have been successful in capturing phenotype and genotype-specific changes in dementia syndromes, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative conditions. However, the majority of imaging studies are cross-sectional, despite the obvious superiority of longitudinal study designs in characterising disease trajectories, response to therapy, progression rates and evaluating the presymptomatic phase of neurodegenerative conditions. The aim of this work is to perform a systematic review of longitudinal imaging initiatives in neurodegeneration focusing on methodology, optimal statistical models, follow-up intervals, attrition rates, primary study outcomes and presymptomatic studies. Longitudinal imaging studies were identified from 'PubMed' and reviewed from 1990 to 2014. The search terms 'longitudinal', 'MRI', 'presymptomatic' and 'imaging' were utilised in combination with one of the following degenerative conditions; Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease, frontotemporal dementia, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, ataxia, HIV, alcohol abuse/dependence. A total of 423 longitudinal imaging papers and 103 genotype-based presymptomatic studies were identified and systematically reviewed. Imaging techniques, follow-up intervals and attrition rates showed significant variation depending on the primary diagnosis. Commonly used statistical models included analysis of annualised percentage change, mixed and random effect models, and non-linear cumulative models with acceleration-deceleration components. Although longitudinal imaging studies have the potential to provide crucial insights into the presymptomatic phase and natural trajectory of neurodegenerative processes a standardised design is required to enable meaningful data interpretation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under

  20. Mapping longitudinal scientific progress, collaboration and impact of the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Yao

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative (ADNI is a landmark imaging and omics study in AD. ADNI research literature has increased substantially over the past decade, which poses challenges for effectively communicating information about the results and impact of ADNI-related studies. In this work, we employed advanced information visualization techniques to perform a comprehensive and systematic mapping of the ADNI scientific growth and impact over a period of 12 years.Citation information of ADNI-related publications from 01/01/2003 to 05/12/2015 were downloaded from the Scopus database. Five fields, including authors, years, affiliations, sources (journals, and keywords, were extracted and preprocessed. Statistical analyses were performed on basic publication data as well as journal and citations information. Science mapping workflows were conducted using the Science of Science (Sci2 Tool to generate geospatial, topical, and collaboration visualizations at the micro (individual to macro (global levels such as geospatial layouts of institutional collaboration networks, keyword co-occurrence networks, and author collaboration networks evolving over time.During the studied period, 996 ADNI manuscripts were published across 233 journals and conference proceedings. The number of publications grew linearly from 2008 to 2015, so did the number of involved institutions. ADNI publications received much more citations than typical papers from the same set of journals. Collaborations were visualized at multiple levels, including authors, institutions, and research areas. The evolution of key ADNI research topics was also plotted over the studied period.Both statistical and visualization results demonstrate the increasing attention of ADNI research, strong citation impact of ADNI publications, the expanding collaboration networks among researchers, institutions and ADNI core areas, and the dynamic evolution of ADNI research topics. The visualizations

  1. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension: the validity of cross-sectional neuroimaging signs

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    Agid, R.; Farb, R.I.; Willinsky, R.A.; Mikulis, D.J.; Tomlinson, G. [Toronto Western Hospital, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2006-08-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of previously reported neuroimaging signs in establishing or excluding the diagnosis of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). In a retrospective study, 30 patients with confirmed IIH and 56 controls were evaluated with brain magnetic resonance imaging. All examinations were evaluated in a blinded fashion by three neuroradiologists for the presence or absence of the 'traditional' signs of IIH: empty sella turcica, deformation of the pituitary, slit-like ventricles, 'tight' subarachnoid spaces, flattening of the posterior globe, protrusion of the optic nerve, enhancement of the optic nerve head, distension of the optic nerve sheath and vertical tortuosity of the optic nerve. Optic nerve protrusion and enhancement, slit-like ventricles and tight cerebrospinal fluid spaces were not significantly associated with IIH (P>0.05). Posterior globe flattening, optic nerve sheath distension, optic nerve tortuosity, pituitary deformity and empty sella turcica were significantly associated with IIH (P<0.05). However, most of these are not helpful in a clinical setting, with the exception of posterior globe flattening. This is the only sign that, if present, strongly suggests the diagnosis of IIH (specificity 100%, 95% CI 93.6% to 100%; sensitivity 43.5%, 95% CI 27.3% to 60.8%; positive likelihood ratio 49.7). The majority of the reported signs for IIH on cross-sectional imaging are not helpful in establishing or excluding the diagnosis of IIH, and are of no value in the clinical setting. Flattening of the posterior aspect of the globe is the only sign that, if present, is suggestive of the diagnosis of IIH. (orig.)

  2. Dreaming as mind wandering: evidence from functional neuroimaging and first-person content reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran C. R. Fox

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Isolated reports have long suggested a similarity in content and thought processes across mind wandering (MW during waking, and dream mentation during sleep. This overlap has encouraged speculation that both ‘daydreaming’ and dreaming may engage similar brain mechanisms. To explore this possibility, we systematically examined published first-person experiential reports of MW and dreaming and found many similarities: in both states, content is largely audiovisual and emotional, follows loose narratives tinged with fantasy, is strongly related to current concerns, draws on long-term memory, and simulates social interactions. Both states are also characterized by a relative lack of meta-awareness. To relate first-person reports to neural evidence, we compared meta-analytic data from numerous functional neuroimaging (PET, fMRI studies of the default mode network (DMN, with high chances of MW and rapid eye movement (REM sleep (with high chances of dreaming. Our findings show large overlaps in activation patterns of cortical regions: similar to MW/DMN activity, dreaming and REM sleep activate regions implicated in self-referential thought and memory, including medial prefrontal cortex (PFC, medial temporal lobe structures, and posterior cingulate. Conversely, in REM sleep numerous PFC executive regions are deactivated, even beyond levels seen during waking MW. We argue that dreaming can be understood as an ‘intensified’ version of waking MW: though the two share many similarities, dreams tend to be longer, more visual and immersive, and to more strongly recruit numerous key hubs of the DMN. Further, whereas MW recruits fewer PFC regions than goal-directed thought, dreaming appears to be characterized by an even deeper quiescence of PFC regions involved in cognitive control and metacognition, with a corresponding lack of insight and meta-awareness. We suggest, then, that dreaming amplifies the same features that distinguish MW from goal

  3. Dreaming as mind wandering: evidence from functional neuroimaging and first-person content reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kieran C. R.; Nijeboer, Savannah; Solomonova, Elizaveta; Domhoff, G. William; Christoff, Kalina

    2013-01-01

    Isolated reports have long suggested a similarity in content and thought processes across mind wandering (MW) during waking, and dream mentation during sleep. This overlap has encouraged speculation that both “daydreaming” and dreaming may engage similar brain mechanisms. To explore this possibility, we systematically examined published first-person experiential reports of MW and dreaming and found many similarities: in both states, content is largely audiovisual and emotional, follows loose narratives tinged with fantasy, is strongly related to current concerns, draws on long-term memory, and simulates social interactions. Both states are also characterized by a relative lack of meta-awareness. To relate first-person reports to neural evidence, we compared meta-analytic data from numerous functional neuroimaging (PET, fMRI) studies of the default mode network (DMN, with high chances of MW) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (with high chances of dreaming). Our findings show large overlaps in activation patterns of cortical regions: similar to MW/DMN activity, dreaming and REM sleep activate regions implicated in self-referential thought and memory, including medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), medial temporal lobe structures, and posterior cingulate. Conversely, in REM sleep numerous PFC executive regions are deactivated, even beyond levels seen during waking MW. We argue that dreaming can be understood as an “intensified” version of waking MW: though the two share many similarities, dreams tend to be longer, more visual and immersive, and to more strongly recruit numerous key hubs of the DMN. Further, whereas MW recruits fewer PFC regions than goal-directed thought, dreaming appears to be characterized by an even deeper quiescence of PFC regions involved in cognitive control and metacognition, with a corresponding lack of insight and meta-awareness. We suggest, then, that dreaming amplifies the same features that distinguish MW from goal-directed waking

  4. Recommendations for sex/gender neuroimaging research: key principles and implications for research design, analysis, and interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippon, Gina; Jordan-Young, Rebecca; Kaiser, Anelis; Fine, Cordelia

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging (NI) technologies are having increasing impact in the study of complex cognitive and social processes. In this emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience, a central goal should be to increase the understanding of the interaction between the neurobiology of the individual and the environment in which humans develop and function. The study of sex/gender is often a focus for NI research, and may be motivated by a desire to better understand general developmental principles, mental health problems that show female-male disparities, and gendered differences in society. In order to ensure the maximum possible contribution of NI research to these goals, we draw attention to four key principles-overlap, mosaicism, contingency and entanglement-that have emerged from sex/gender research and that should inform NI research design, analysis and interpretation. We discuss the implications of these principles in the form of constructive guidelines and suggestions for researchers, editors, reviewers and science communicators.

  5. Recommendations for sex/gender neuroimaging research: key principles and implications for research design, analysis, and interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippon, Gina; Jordan-Young, Rebecca; Kaiser, Anelis; Fine, Cordelia

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging (NI) technologies are having increasing impact in the study of complex cognitive and social processes. In this emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience, a central goal should be to increase the understanding of the interaction between the neurobiology of the individual and the environment in which humans develop and function. The study of sex/gender is often a focus for NI research, and may be motivated by a desire to better understand general developmental principles, mental health problems that show female-male disparities, and gendered differences in society. In order to ensure the maximum possible contribution of NI research to these goals, we draw attention to four key principles—overlap, mosaicism, contingency and entanglement—that have emerged from sex/gender research and that should inform NI research design, analysis and interpretation. We discuss the implications of these principles in the form of constructive guidelines and suggestions for researchers, editors, reviewers and science communicators. PMID:25221493

  6. The BrainMap strategy for standardization, sharing, and meta-analysis of neuroimaging data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bzdok Danilo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuroimaging researchers have developed rigorous community data and metadata standards that encourage meta-analysis as a method for establishing robust and meaningful convergence of knowledge of human brain structure and function. Capitalizing on these standards, the BrainMap project offers databases, software applications, and other associated tools for supporting and promoting quantitative coordinate-based meta-analysis of the structural and functional neuroimaging literature. Findings In this report, we describe recent technical updates to the project and provide an educational description for performing meta-analyses in the BrainMap environment. Conclusions The BrainMap project will continue to evolve in response to the meta-analytic needs of biomedical researchers in the structural and functional neuroimaging communities. Future work on the BrainMap project regarding software and hardware advances are also discussed.

  7. B-SPID: an object-relational database architecture to store, retrieve, and manipulate neuroimaging data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, B; Dolidon, F; Travere, J M; Mazoyer, B

    1999-01-01

    We propose a hardware and software architecture to respond to crucial problems in the neuroimaging field: storage, retrieval, and processing of large datasets. The B-SPID project, here discussed, concerns the processing of neuroimages and attached components stored in an object-relational multimedia database management system (DBMS). Advanced bioinformation concepts are exploited in this project such as large scale data storage, high level graphical user interfaces and 3D graphical processing and display of data. Our database implementation is based on standard programming components, runs on several UNIX platforms and is written to be evolutive. Queries on this database are designed to obtain and display from neuroimaging data several types of results (pictures, text, or 3D graphical shapes) on heterogeneous systems.

  8. Neuroimaging Biomarkers of Caloric Restriction on Brain Metabolic and Vascular Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ai-Ling; Parikh, Ishita; Hoffman, Jared D; Ma, David

    2017-03-01

    Non-invasive neuroimaging methods have been developed as powerful tools for identifying in vivo brain functions for studies in humans and animals. Here we review the imaging biomarkers that are being used to determine the changes within brain metabolic and vascular functions induced by caloric restriction (CR), and their potential usefulness for future studies with dietary interventions in humans. CR causes an early shift in brain metabolism of glucose to ketone bodies, and enhances ATP production, neuronal activity and cerebral blood flow (CBF). With age, CR preserves mitochondrial activity, neurotransmission, CBF, and spatial memory. CR also reduces anxiety in aging mice. Neuroimaging studies in humans show that CR restores abnormal brain activity in the amygdala of women with obesity and enhances brain connectivity in old adults. Neuroimaging methods have excellent translational values and can be widely applied in future studies to identify dietary effects on brain functions in humans.

  9. Can cognitive models explain brain activation during word and pseudoword reading? A meta-analysis of 36 neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J S H; Rastle, Kathleen; Davis, Matthew H

    2013-07-01

    Reading in many alphabetic writing systems depends on both item-specific knowledge used to read irregular words (sew, yacht) and generative spelling-sound knowledge used to read pseudowords (tew, yash). Research into the neural basis of these abilities has been directed largely by cognitive accounts proposed by the dual-route cascaded and triangle models of reading. We develop a framework that enables predictions for neural activity to be derived from cognitive models of reading using 2 principles: (a) the extent to which a model component or brain region is engaged by a stimulus and (b) how much effort is exerted in processing that stimulus. To evaluate the derived predictions, we conducted a meta-analysis of 36 neuroimaging studies of reading using the quantitative activation likelihood estimation technique. Reliable clusters of activity are localized during word versus pseudoword and irregular versus regular word reading and demonstrate a great deal of convergence between the functional organization of the reading system put forward by cognitive models and the neural systems activated during reading tasks. Specifically, left-hemisphere activation clusters are revealed reflecting orthographic analysis (occipitotemporal cortex), lexical and/or semantic processing (anterior fusiform, middle temporal gyrus), spelling-sound conversion (inferior parietal cortex), and phonological output resolution (inferior frontal gyrus). Our framework and results establish that cognitive models of reading are relevant for interpreting neuroimaging studies and that neuroscientific studies can provide data relevant for advancing cognitive models. This article thus provides a firm empirical foundation from which to improve integration between cognitive and neural accounts of the reading process. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  10. Differences between conventional and non-conventional MRI techniques in Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglieri, Annalisa; Marino, Maria Adele; Morabito, Rosa; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Bramanti, Placido; Marino, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Summary Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides an in vivo assessment of cortical and subcortical regions affected in Parkinson’s disease (PD). This review summarizes the most important conventional and non-conventional MRI techniques applied in this field. Standard neuroimaging techniques have played a marginal role in the diagnosis and follow-up of PD, essentially being used only to discriminate atypical syndromes from PD, to exclude secondary causes such as vascular lesions, and to confirm the absence of specific imaging features found in atypical parkinsonisms. However, non-conventional MRI techniques, i.e. new neuroimaging approaches such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging, and functional MRI, may allow the detection of structural, functional and metabolic changes useful not only for differential diagnosis, but also for early diagnosis and outcome and treatment monitoring in PD. In addition, we illustrate the advantages of high-field MRI over lower magnetic fields, highlighting the great potential of advanced neuroimaging techniques. PMID:24125556

  11. The entropic brain: a theory of conscious states informed by neuroimaging research with psychedelic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, Robin L; Leech, Robert; Hellyer, Peter J; Shanahan, Murray; Feilding, Amanda; Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Chialvo, Dante R; Nutt, David

    2014-01-01

    Entropy is a dimensionless quantity that is used for measuring uncertainty about the state of a system but it can also imply physical qualities, where high entropy is synonymous with high disorder. Entropy is applied here in the context of states of consciousness and their associated neurodynamics, with a particular focus on the psychedelic state. The psychedelic state is considered an exemplar of a primitive or primary state of consciousness that preceded the development of modern, adult, human, normal waking consciousness. Based on neuroimaging data with psilocybin, a classic psychedelic drug, it is argued that the defining feature of "primary states" is elevated entropy in certain aspects of brain function, such as the repertoire of functional connectivity motifs that form and fragment across time. Indeed, since there is a greater repertoire of connectivity motifs in the psychedelic state than in normal waking consciousness, this implies that primary states may exhibit "criticality," i.e., the property of being poised at a "critical" point in a transition zone between order and disorder where certain phenomena such as power-law scaling appear. Moreover, if primary states are critical, then this suggests that entropy is suppressed in normal waking consciousness, meaning that the brain operates just below criticality. It is argued that this entropy suppression furnishes normal waking consciousness with a constrained quality and associated metacognitive functions, including reality-testing and self-awareness. It is also proposed that entry into primary states depends on a collapse of the normally highly organized activity within the default-mode network (DMN) and a decoupling between the DMN and the medial temporal lobes (which are normally significantly coupled). These hypotheses can be tested by examining brain activity and associated cognition in other candidate primary states such as rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and early psychosis and comparing these with

  12. Brain basis of early parent-infant interactions: psychology, physiology, and in vivo functional neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, James E; Lorberbaum, Jeffrey P; Kose, Samet; Strathearn, Lane

    2007-01-01

    Parenting behavior critically shapes human infants' current and future behavior. The parent-infant relationship provides infants with their first social experiences, forming templates of what they can expect from others and how to best meet others' expectations. In this review, we focus on the neurobiology of parenting behavior, including our own functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) brain imaging experiments of parents. We begin with a discussion of background, perspectives and caveats for considering the neurobiology of parent-infant relationships. Then, we discuss aspects of the psychology of parenting that are significantly motivating some of the more basic neuroscience research. Following that, we discuss some of the neurohormones that are important for the regulation of social bonding, and the dysregulation of parenting with cocaine abuse. Then, we review the brain circuitry underlying parenting, proceeding from relevant rodent and nonhuman primate research to human work. Finally, we focus on a study-by-study review of functional neuroimaging studies in humans. Taken together, this research suggests that networks of highly conserved hypothalamic-midbrain-limbic-paralimbic-cortical circuits act in concert to support aspects of parent response to infants, including the emotion, attention, motivation, empathy, decision-making and other thinking that are required to navigate the complexities of parenting. Specifically, infant stimuli activate basal forebrain regions, which regulate brain circuits that handle specific nurturing and caregiving responses and activate the brain's more general circuitry for handling emotions, motivation, attention, and empathy--all of which are crucial for effective parenting. We argue that an integrated understanding of the brain basis of parenting has profound implications for mental health.

  13. Graph Theoretical Analysis of Structural Neuroimaging in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy with and without Psychosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daichi Sone

    Full Text Available Psychosis is one of the most important psychiatric comorbidities in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE, and its pathophysiology still remains unsolved. We aimed to explore the connectivity differences of structural neuroimaging between TLE with and without psychosis using a graph theoretical analysis, which is an emerging mathematical method to investigate network connections in the brain as a small-world system.We recruited 11 TLE patients with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS presenting psychosis or having a history of psychosis (TLE-P group. As controls, 15 TLE patients with unilateral HS without any history of psychotic episodes were also recruited (TLE-N group. For graph theoretical analysis, the normalized gray matter images of both groups were subjected to Graph Analysis Toolbox (GAT. As secondary analyses, each group was compared to 14 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects.The hub node locations were found predominantly in the ipsilateral hemisphere in the TLE-N group, and mainly on the contralateral side in the TLE-P group. The TLE-P group showed significantly higher characteristic path length, transitivity, lower global efficiency, and resilience to random or targeted attack than those of the TLE-N group. The regional comparison in betweenness centrality revealed significantly decreased connectivity in the contralateral temporal lobe, ipsilateral middle frontal gyrus, and bilateral postcentral gyri in the TLE-P group. The healthy subjects showed well-balanced nodes/edges distributions, similar metrics to TLE-N group except for higher small-worldness/modularity/assortativity, and various differences of regional betweenness/clustering.In TLE with psychosis, graph theoretical analysis of structural imaging revealed disrupted connectivity in the contralateral hemisphere. The network metrics suggested that the existence of psychosis can bring vulnerability and decreased efficiency of the whole-brain network. The sharp differences in

  14. Electrical neuroimaging of memory discrimination based on single-trial multisensory learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Antonia; Cappe, Céline; Murray, Micah M

    2012-09-01

    Multisensory experiences influence subsequent memory performance and brain responses. Studies have thus far concentrated on semantically congruent pairings, leaving unresolved the influence of stimulus pairing and memory sub-types. Here, we paired images with unique, meaningless sounds during a continuous recognition task to determine if purely episodic, single-trial multisensory experiences can incidentally impact subsequent visual object discrimination. Psychophysics and electrical neuroimaging analyses of visual evoked potentials (VEPs) compared responses to repeated images either paired or not with a meaningless sound during initial encounters. Recognition accuracy was significantly impaired for images initially presented as multisensory pairs and could not be explained in terms of differential attention or transfer of effects from encoding to retrieval. VEP modulations occurred at 100-130 ms and 270-310 ms and stemmed from topographic differences indicative of network configuration changes within the brain. Distributed source estimations localized the earlier effect to regions of the right posterior temporal gyrus (STG) and the later effect to regions of the middle temporal gyrus (MTG). Responses in these regions were stronger for images previously encountered as multisensory pairs. Only the later effect correlated with performance such that greater MTG activity in response to repeated visual stimuli was linked with greater performance decrements. The present findings suggest that brain networks involved in this discrimination may critically depend on whether multisensory events facilitate or impair later visual memory performance. More generally, the data support models whereby effects of multisensory interactions persist to incidentally affect subsequent behavior as well as visual processing during its initial stages. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Relative frequency, clinical, neuroimaging, and postsurgical features of pediatric temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Sales

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe the relative frequency, clinical features, neuroimaging and pathological results, and outcome after pharmacological or surgical intervention for a series of pediatric patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE from an epilepsy center in Brazil. The medical records of children younger than 12 years with features strongly suggestive of TLE were reviewed from January 1999 to June 1999. Selected children were evaluated regarding clinical, EEG, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI investigation and divided into three groups according to MRI: group 1 (G1, N = 9, patients with hippocampal atrophy; group 2 (G2, N = 10, patients with normal MRI, and group 3 (G3, N = 12, patients with other specific temporal lesions. A review of 1732 records of children with epilepsy revealed 31 cases with TLE (relative frequency of 1.79%. However, when the investigation was narrowed to cases with intractable seizures that needed video-EEG monitoring (N = 68 or epilepsy surgery (N = 32, the relative frequency of TLE increased to 19.11 (13/68 and 31.25% (10/32, respectively. At the beginning of the study, 25 of 31 patients had a high seizure frequency (80.6%, which declined to 11 of 31 (35.5% at the conclusion of the study, as a consequence of pharmacological and/or surgical therapy. This improvement in seizure control was significant in G1 (P 0.1, McNemar's test. These results indicate that the relative frequency of TLE in children was low, but increased considerably among cases with pharmacoresistant seizures. Patients with specific lesions were likely to undergo surgery, with good postoperative outcomes.

  16. A neuroimaging study of emotion-cognition interaction in schizophrenia: the effect of ziprasidone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stip, Emmanuel; Cherbal, Adel; Luck, David; Zhornitsky, Simon; Bentaleb, Lahcen Ait; Lungu, Ovidiu

    2017-04-01

    Functional and structural brain changes associated with the cognitive processing of emotional visual stimuli were assessed in schizophrenic patients after 16 weeks of antipsychotic treatment with ziprasidone. Forty-five adults aged 18 to 40 were recruited: 15 schizophrenia patients (DSM-IV criteria) treated with ziprasidone (mean daily dose = 120 mg), 15 patients treated with other antipsychotics, and 15 healthy controls who did not receive any medication. Functional and structural neuroimaging data were acquired at baseline and 16 weeks after treatment initiation. In each session, participants selected stimuli, taken from standardized sets, based on their emotional valence. After ziprasidone treatment, several prefrontal regions, typically involved in cognitive control (anterior cingulate and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices), were significantly activated in patients in response to positive versus negative stimuli. This effect was greater whenever they had to select negative compared to positive stimuli, indicating an asymmetric effect of cognitive treatment of emotionally laden information. No such changes were observed for patients under other antipsychotics. In addition, there was an increase in the brain volume commonly recruited by healthy controls and patients under ziprasidone, in response to cognitive processing of emotional information. The structural analysis showed no significant changes in the density of gray and white matter in ziprasidone-treated patients compared to patients receiving other antipsychotic treatments. Our results suggest that functional changes in brain activity after ziprasidone medication precede structural and clinical manifestations, as markers that the treatment is efficient in restoring the functionality of prefrontal circuits involved in processing emotionally laden information in schizophrenia.

  17. A Functional Neuroimaging Study of Expectancy Effects on Pain Response in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollub, Randy L; Kirsch, Irving; Maleki, Nasim; Wasan, Ajay D; Edwards, Robert R; Tu, Yiheng; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Kong, Jian

    2018-01-08

    Placebo treatments and healing rituals share much in common, such as the effects of expectancy, and have been used since the beginning of human history to treat pain. Previous mechanistic neuroimaging studies investigating the effects of expectancy on placebo analgesia have used young, healthy volunteers. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we aimed to investigate the neural mechanisms by which expectancy evokes analgesia in older adults living with a chronic pain disorder and determine whether there are interactions with active treatment. In this fMRI study, we investigated the brain networks underlying expectancy in participants with chronic pain due to knee osteoarthritis (OA) after verum (genuine) and sham electroacupuncture (EA) treatment before and after experiencing calibrated experimental heat pain using a well-tested expectancy manipulation model. We found that expectancy significantly and similarly modulates the pain experience in knee OA patients in both verum (n=21, 11 female; mean ± SD age 57±7 years) and sham (n=22, 15 female; mean ± SD age 59±7 years) acupuncture treatment groups. However, there were different patterns of changes in fMRI indices of brain activity associated with verum and sham treatment modalities specifically in the lateral prefrontal cortex. We also found that continuous EA in knee OA patients can evoke significant regional coherence decreases in pain associated brain regions. Our results suggest that expectancy modulates the experience of pain in knee OA patients but may work through different pathways depending on the treatment modality and, we speculate, on pathophysiological states of the participants. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Neuroimaging observations linking neurocysticercosis and mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchin, Marino M; Velasco, Tonicarlo R; Wichert-Ana, Lauro; Araújo, David; Alexandre, Veriano; Scornavacca, Francisco; Escorsi-Rosset, Sara R; dos Santos, Antonio Carlos; Carlotti, Carlos G; Takayanagui, Osvaldo M; Sakamoto, Américo C

    2015-10-01

    To test if chronic calcificed neurocysticercosis (cNCC) and hippocampal sclerosis occur more often than by chance ipsilateral to the same brain hemisphere or brain region in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) plus neurocysticercosis. This proof-of-concept would provide important evidence of a direct pathogenic relationship between neurocysticercosis and MTLE-HS. A cohort of 290 consecutive MTLE-HS surgical patients was studied. A test of proportions was used to analyze if the proportion of patients with a single cNCC lesion matching the same brain hemisphere or region of hippocampal sclerosis was significantly greater than 50%, as expected by the chance. Neuroimaging findings of cNCC were observed in 112 (38.6%) of 290 MTLE-HS patients and a single cNCC lesion occurred in 58 (51.8%) of them. There were no differences in main basal clinical characteristics of MTLE-HS patients with single or multiple cNCC lesions. In patients with single cNCC lesions, the lesion matched the side in which hippocampal sclerosis was observed in 43 (74.1%) patients, a proportion significantly greater than that expected to occur by chance (p=0.008). Neurocysticercosis in temporal lobe was ipsilateral to hippocampal sclerosis in 85.0% of patients and accounted mostly for this result. This work is a proof-of-concept that the association of neurocysticercosis and MTLE-HS cannot be explained exclusively by patients sharing common biological or socio-economic predisposing variables. Instead, our results suggest the involvement of more direct pathogenic mechanisms like regional inflammation, repetitive seizures or both. Neurocysticercosis within temporal lobes was particularly related with ipsilateral hippocampal sclerosis in MTLE-HS, a finding adding new contributions for understanding MTLE-HS plus cNCC or perhaps to other forms of dual pathology in MTLE-HS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Using Neurolinguistic Programming: Some Suggestions for the Remedial Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Grace M.

    1986-01-01

    The use of neurolinguistic programming techniques is suggested as a means of enhancing rapport with students. Mirroring, digital mirroring, analog mirroring, metaphors, knowing persons, and how these aid in presenting content are each discussed. (MNS)

  20. The evaluation of neuropsychiatric lupus erythematosus by functional neuroimaging. Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Trotta

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of functional neuro-imaging for describe neurological involvement in Lupus Erithematosus Systemicus. Methods. 20 SLE patients were included into this study (18 females / 2 males. Median age was 40.5 years (range 16 –66 ys, 9 patients with a clear neurological involvement, 7 with aspecific neurological symptoms and 4 were asymptomatics, according to 1999 ACR Classification. All patients were underwent to conventional resonance imaging (RMFLAIR, RM perfusion ( RM-PWI, RM diffusion (RM-DWI and cerebral SPECT. The RM techniques was performed using a 1 Tesla “Signa-Horizon” Tomograph by General Eletric: The data analysis was performed from two indipendent neuroradiologist and than trough coordinated evalutation after coregistration of acquired volumes. Results: In 11/20 patients (55% lesions were demonstrated in RM-FLAIR evaluation, more frequent in cases with focal symptoms than in diffuse. RM-PWI was positive in 50% of cases. SPECT analysis was altered in 85 % of patients. In all patients RM-DWI evaluation was negative. 5 of 29 lesional areas (3 patients showed by SPECT analysis were positive in RM-PWI. None of them was positive in RM-FLAIR study. After coordinated evaluation of RM-FLAIR, SPECT and RM-PWI, 7 findings were considered false positive. 6 Of patients with negative RM-FLAIR were positive in SPECT and 3 in RM-PWI. Only 1 patient was positive in SPECT and RM-PWI. Conclusions: According to the literature, the RM-FLAIR is a very sensitive procedure to describe the lesional charge, especially in patients with focal symptoms. All lesions was considered as stable outcomes due to negativity of RM-DWI analysis. The SPECT is a sensitive technique to individuate cerebral areas of altered perfusion. The coregistration seems to be an helpful method to improve the explanation of uncertain cases. e the sections are prepared for the microscopic analysis of the various

  1. Pediatric brain MRI. Pt. 1. Basic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Mai-Lan; Campeau, Norbert G.; Welker, Kirk M. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Ngo, Thang D. [Nemours Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Orlando, FL (United States); Udayasankar, Unni K. [University of Arizona, Department of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Pediatric neuroimaging is a complex and specialized field that uses magnetic resonance (MR) imaging as the workhorse for diagnosis. Standard MR techniques used in adult neuroimaging are suboptimal for imaging in pediatrics because there are significant differences in the child's developing brain. These differences include size, myelination and sulcation. MR protocols need to be tailored to the specific indication and reviewed by the supervising radiologist in real time, and the specialized needs of this population require careful consideration of issues such as scan timing, sequence order, sedation, anesthesia and gadolinium administration. In part 1 of this review, we focus on basic protocol development and anatomical characterization. We provide multiple imaging examples optimized for evaluation of supratentorial and infratentorial brain, midline structures, head and neck, and intracranial vasculature. (orig.)

  2. COORDINATE-BASED META-ANALYTIC SEARCH FOR THE SPM NEUROIMAGING PIPELINE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkowski, Bartlomiej; Szewczyk, Marcin; Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup

    2009-01-01

    Large amounts of neuroimaging studies are collected and have changed our view on human brain function. By integrating multiple studies in meta-analysis a more complete picture is emerging. Brain locations are usually reported as coordinates with reference to a specific brain atlas, thus some of t...... directly to some popular bibliographic file formats (BibTeX, Reference Manager, etc)....

  3. Restoring the Generalizability of SVM Based Decoding in High Dimensional Neuroimage Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Trine Julie; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2011-01-01

    for Support Vector Machines. However, good generalization may be recovered in part by a simple renormalization procedure. We show that with proper renormalization, cross-validation based parameter optimization leads to the acceptance of more non-linearity in neuroimage classifiers than would have been...

  4. Bayesian multi-task learning for decoding multi-subject neuroimaging data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquand, A.F.; Brammer, M.; Williams, S.C.; Doyle, O.M.

    2014-01-01

    Decoding models based on pattern recognition (PR) are becoming increasingly important tools for neuroimaging data analysis. In contrast to alternative (mass-univariate) encoding approaches that use hierarchical models to capture inter-subject variability, inter-subject differences are not typically

  5. Neuroimaging Study Designs, Computational Analyses and Data Provenance Using the LONI Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinov, Ivo; Lozev, Kamen; Petrosyan, Petros; Liu, Zhizhong; Eggert, Paul; Pierce, Jonathan; Zamanyan, Alen; Chakrapani, Shruthi; Van Horn, John; Parker, D. Stott; Magsipoc, Rico; Leung, Kelvin; Gutman, Boris; Woods, Roger; Toga, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Modern computational neuroscience employs diverse software tools and multidisciplinary expertise to analyze heterogeneous brain data. The classical problems of gathering meaningful data, fitting specific models, and discovering appropriate analysis and visualization tools give way to a new class of computational challenges—management of large and incongruous data, integration and interoperability of computational resources, and data provenance. We designed, implemented and validated a new paradigm for addressing these challenges in the neuroimaging field. Our solution is based on the LONI Pipeline environment [3], [4], a graphical workflow environment for constructing and executing complex data processing protocols. We developed study-design, database and visual language programming functionalities within the LONI Pipeline that enable the construction of complete, elaborate and robust graphical workflows for analyzing neuroimaging and other data. These workflows facilitate open sharing and communication of data and metadata, concrete processing protocols, result validation, and study replication among different investigators and research groups. The LONI Pipeline features include distributed grid-enabled infrastructure, virtualized execution environment, efficient integration, data provenance, validation and distribution of new computational tools, automated data format conversion, and an intuitive graphical user interface. We demonstrate the new LONI Pipeline features using large scale neuroimaging studies based on data from the International Consortium for Brain Mapping [5] and the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative [6]. User guides, forums, instructions and downloads of the LONI Pipeline environment are available at http://pipeline.loni.ucla.edu. PMID:20927408

  6. Synaptic signals: time travelling through the brain in the neuro-image

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisters, P.

    2011-01-01

    This essay presents some thoughts on schizoanalysis and visual culture around the proposition that cinema survives in the digital age as a type of image that, after the movement-image and the time-image, could be called the neuro-image. By considering clinical schizophrenia as ‘degree zero’ of

  7. Electrical neuroimaging of memory discrimination based on single-trial multisensory learning.

    OpenAIRE

    Thelen Antonia; Cappe Céline; Murray Micah M.

    2012-01-01

    Multisensory experiences influence subsequent memory performance and brain responses. Studies have thus far concentrated on semantically congruent pairings leaving unresolved the influence of stimulus pairing and memory sub types. Here we paired images with unique meaningless sounds during a continuous recognition task to determine if purely episodic single trial multisensory experiences can incidentally impact subsequent visual object discrimination. Psychophysics and electrical neuroimaging...

  8. Variability of physicians' thresholds for neuroimaging in children with recurrent headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daymont, Carrie; McDonald, Patrick J; Wittmeier, Kristy; Reed, Martin H; Moffatt, Michael

    2014-06-23

    We sought to determine the extent to which physicians agree about the appropriate decision threshold for recommending magnetic resonance imaging in a clinical practice guideline for children with recurrent headache. We surveyed attending physicians in Canada practicing in community pediatrics, child neurology, pediatric radiology, and pediatric neurosurgery. For children in each of six risk categories, physicians were asked to determine whether they would recommend for or against routine magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in a clinical practice guideline for children with recurrent headache. Completed surveys were returned by 114 physicians. The proportion recommending routine neuroimaging for each risk group was 100% (50% risk), 99% (10% risk), 93% (4% risk), 54% (1% risk), 25% (0.4% risk), 4% (0.01% risk). Community pediatricians, physicians in practice >15 years, and physicians who believed they ordered neuroimaging less often than peers were less likely to recommend neuroimaging for the 1% risk group (all p pediatric specialists regarding the appropriate decision threshold for neuroimaging in a clinical practice guideline for children with recurrent headache. Because of the impact that individual threshold preferences may have on guidelines, these findings support the need for careful composition of guideline committees and consideration of the role of patient and family preferences. Our findings also support the need for transparency in guidelines regarding how evidence was translated into recommendations and how conflicts were resolved.

  9. The ENIGMA Consortium: Large-scale collaborative analyses of neuroimaging and genetic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.M. Thompson (Paul); J.L. Stein; S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth); D.P. Hibar (Derrek); A.A. Vásquez (Arias); M.E. Rentería (Miguel); R. Toro (Roberto); N. Jahanshad (Neda); G. Schumann (Gunter); B. Franke (Barbara); M.J. Wright (Margaret); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); I. Agartz (Ingrid); M. Alda (Martin); S. Alhusaini (Saud); L. Almasy (Laura); K. Alpert (Kathryn); N.C. Andreasen; O.A. Andreassen (Ole); L.G. Apostolova (Liana); K. Appel (Katja); N.J. Armstrong (Nicola); B. Aribisala (Benjamin); M.E. Bastin (Mark); M. Bauer (Michael); C.E. Bearden (Carrie); Ø. Bergmann (Ørjan); E.B. Binder (Elisabeth); J. Blangero (John); H.J. Bockholt; E. Bøen (Erlend); M. Bois (Monique); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); T. Booth (Tom); I.J. Bowman (Ian); L.B.C. Bralten (Linda); R.M. Brouwer (Rachel); H.G. Brunner; D.G. Brohawn (David); M. Buckner; J.K. Buitelaar (Jan); K. Bulayeva (Kazima); J. Bustillo; V.D. Calhoun (Vince); D.M. Cannon (Dara); R.M. Cantor; M.A. Carless (Melanie); X. Caseras (Xavier); G. Cavalleri (Gianpiero); M.M. Chakravarty (M. Mallar); K.D. Chang (Kiki); C.R.K. Ching (Christopher); A. Christoforou (Andrea); S. Cichon (Sven); V.P. Clark; P. Conrod (Patricia); D. Coppola (Domenico); B. Crespo-Facorro (Benedicto); J.E. Curran (Joanne); M. Czisch (Michael); I.J. Deary (Ian); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); A. den Braber (Anouk); G. Delvecchio (Giuseppe); C. Depondt (Chantal); L. de Haan (Lieuwe); G.I. de Zubicaray (Greig); D. Dima (Danai); R. Dimitrova (Rali); S. Djurovic (Srdjan); H. Dong (Hongwei); D.J. Donohoe (Dennis); A. Duggirala (Aparna); M.D. Dyer (Matthew); S.M. Ehrlich (Stefan); C.J. Ekman (Carl Johan); T. Elvsåshagen (Torbjørn); L. Emsell (Louise); S. Erk; T. Espeseth (Thomas); J. Fagerness (Jesen); S. Fears (Scott); I. Fedko (Iryna); G. Fernandez (Guillén); S.E. Fisher (Simon); T. Foroud (Tatiana); P.T. Fox (Peter); C. Francks (Clyde); S. Frangou (Sophia); E.M. Frey (Eva Maria); T. Frodl (Thomas); V. Frouin (Vincent); H. Garavan (Hugh); S. Giddaluru (Sudheer); D.C. Glahn (David); B. Godlewska (Beata); R.Z. Goldstein (Rita); R.L. Gollub (Randy); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); O. Grimm (Oliver); O. Gruber (Oliver); T. Guadalupe (Tulio); R.E. Gur (Raquel); R.C. Gur (Ruben); H.H.H. Göring (Harald); S. Hagenaars (Saskia); T. Hajek (Tomas); G.B. Hall (Garry); J. Hall (Jeremy); J. Hardy (John); C.A. Hartman (Catharina); J. Hass (Johanna); W. Hatton; U.K. Haukvik (Unn); K. Hegenscheid (Katrin); J. Heinz (Judith); I.B. Hickie (Ian); B.C. Ho (Beng ); D. Hoehn (David); P.J. Hoekstra (Pieter); M. Hollinshead (Marisa); A.J. Holmes (Avram); G. Homuth (Georg); M. Hoogman (Martine); L.E. Hong (L.Elliot); N. Hosten (Norbert); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); H.E. Hulshoff Pol (Hilleke); K.S. Hwang (Kristy); C.R. Jack Jr. (Clifford); S. Jenkinson (Sarah); C. Johnston; E.G. Jönsson (Erik); R.S. Kahn (René); D. Kasperaviciute (Dalia); S. Kelly (Steve); S. Kim (Shinseog); P. Kochunov (Peter); L. Koenders (Laura); B. Krämer (Bernd); J.B.J. Kwok (John); J. Lagopoulos (Jim); G. Laje (Gonzalo); M. Landén (Mikael); B.A. Landman (Bennett); J. Lauriello; S. Lawrie (Stephen); P.H. Lee (Phil); S. Le Hellard (Stephanie); H. Lemaître (Herve); C.D. Leonardo (Cassandra); C.-S. Li (Chiang-shan); B. Liberg (Benny); D.C. Liewald (David C.); X. Liu (Xinmin); L.M. Lopez (Lorna); E. Loth (Eva); A. Lourdusamy (Anbarasu); M. Luciano (Michelle); F. MacCiardi (Fabio); M.W.J. Machielsen (Marise); G.M. MacQueen (Glenda); U.F. Malt (Ulrik); R. Mandl (René); D.S. Manoach (Dara); J.-L. Martinot (Jean-Luc); M. Matarin (Mar); R. Mather; M. Mattheisen (Manuel); M. Mattingsdal (Morten); A. Meyer-Lindenberg; C. McDonald (Colm); A.M. McIntosh (Andrew); F.J. Mcmahon (Francis J); K.L. Mcmahon (Katie); E. Meisenzahl (Eva); I. Melle (Ingrid); Y. Milaneschi (Yuri); S. Mohnke (Sebastian); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); D.W. Morris (Derek W); E.K. Moses (Eric); B.A. Mueller (Bryon ); S. Muñoz Maniega (Susana); T.W. Mühleisen (Thomas); B. Müller-Myhsok (Bertram); B. Mwangi (Benson); M. Nauck (Matthias); K. Nho (Kwangsik); T.E. Nichols (Thomas); L.G. Nilsson; A.C. Nugent (Allison); L. Nyberg (Lisa); R.L. Olvera (Rene); J. Oosterlaan (Jaap); R.A. Ophoff (Roel); M. Pandolfo (Massimo); M. Papalampropoulou-Tsiridou (Melina); M. Papmeyer (Martina); T. Paus (Tomas); Z. Pausova (Zdenka); G. Pearlson (Godfrey); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); C.P. Peterson (Charles); A. Pfennig (Andrea); M. Phillips (Mary); G.B. Pike (G Bruce); J.B. Poline (Jean Baptiste); S.G. Potkin (Steven); B. Pütz (Benno); A. Ramasamy (Adaikalavan); J. Rasmussen (Jerod); M. Rietschel (Marcella); M. Rijpkema (Mark); S.L. Risacher (Shannon); J.L. Roffman (Joshua); R. Roiz-Santiañez (Roberto); N. Romanczuk-Seiferth (Nina); E.J. Rose (Emma); N.A. Royle (Natalie); D. Rujescu (Dan); M. Ryten (Mina); P.S. Sachdev (Perminder); A. Salami (Alireza); T.D. Satterthwaite (Theodore); J. Savitz (Jonathan); A.J. Saykin (Andrew); C. Scanlon (Cathy); L. Schmaal (Lianne); H. Schnack (Hugo); N.J. Schork (Nicholas); S.C. Schulz (S.Charles); R. Schür (Remmelt); L.J. Seidman (Larry); L. Shen (Li); L. Shoemaker (Lawrence); A. Simmons (Andrew); S.M. Sisodiya (Sanjay); C. Smith (Colin); J.W. Smoller; J.C. Soares (Jair); S.R. Sponheim (Scott); R. Sprooten (Roy); J.M. Starr (John); V.M. Steen (Vidar); S. Strakowski (Stephen); V.M. Strike (Vanessa); J. Sussmann (Jessika); P.G. Sämann (Philipp); A. Teumer (Alexander); A.W. Toga (Arthur); D. Tordesillas-Gutierrez (Diana); D. Trabzuni (Danyah); S. Trost (Sarah); J. Turner (Jessica); M. van den Heuvel (Martijn); N.J. van der Wee (Nic); K.R. van Eijk (Kristel); T.G.M. van Erp (Theo G.); N.E.M. van Haren (Neeltje E.); D. van 't Ent (Dennis); M.J.D. van Tol (Marie-José); M.C. Valdés Hernández (Maria); D.J. Veltman (Dick); A. Versace (Amelia); H. Völzke (Henry); R. Walker (Robert); H.J. Walter (Henrik); L. Wang (Lei); J.M. Wardlaw (J.); M.E. Weale (Michael); M.W. Weiner (Michael); W. Wen (Wei); L.T. Westlye (Lars); H.C. Whalley (Heather); C.D. Whelan (Christopher); T.J.H. White (Tonya); A.M. Winkler (Anderson); K. Wittfeld (Katharina); G. Woldehawariat (Girma); A. Björnsson (Asgeir); D. Zilles (David); M.P. Zwiers (Marcel); A. Thalamuthu (Anbupalam); J.R. Almeida (Jorge); C.J. Schofield (Christopher); N.B. Freimer (Nelson); N.S. Lawrence (Natalia); D.A. Drevets (Douglas)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in

  10. The ENIGMA Consortium: large-scale collaborative analyses of neuroimaging and genetic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, Paul M.; Stein, Jason L.; Medland, Sarah E.; Hibar, Derrek P.; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Renteria, Miguel E.; Toro, Roberto; Jahanshad, Neda; Schumann, Gunter; Franke, Barbara; Wright, Margaret J.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Agartz, Ingrid; Alda, Martin; Alhusaini, Saud; Almasy, Laura; Almeida, Jorge; Alpert, Kathryn; Andreasen, Nancy C.; Andreassen, Ole A.; Apostolova, Liana G.; Appel, Katja; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Aribisala, Benjamin; Bastin, Mark E.; Bauer, Michael; Bearden, Carrie E.; Bergmann, Orjan; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Blangero, John; Bockholt, Henry J.; Bøen, Erlend; Bois, Catherine; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Booth, Tom; Bowman, Ian J.; Bralten, Janita; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Brunner, Han G.; Brohawn, David G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Buitelaar, Jan; Bulayeva, Kazima; Bustillo, Juan R.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cantor, Rita M.; Carless, Melanie A.; Caseras, Xavier; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chang, Kiki D.; Ching, Christopher R. K.; Christoforou, Andrea; Cichon, Sven; Clark, Vincent P.; Conrod, Patricia; Coppola, Giovanni; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Curran, Joanne E.; Czisch, Michael; Deary, Ian J.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; den Braber, Anouk; Delvecchio, Giuseppe; Depondt, Ch