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Sample records for neuroimaging studies showed

  1. Neuroimaging studies of antisocial behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassarath, L

    2001-10-01

    To review recent neuroimaging studies of antisocial behaviour, including criminality, psychopathy, sexual offending, aggression, and violence. Using OVID software, Psycinfo and Medline were searched for studies undertaken in the last 15 years. A brief outline of each technology is followed by a survey of published reports from refereed journals. Where indicated, critical appraisal is offered. Converging evidence from multiple studies of structure and function indicates that abnormal prefrontal (and probably subcortical) circuitry are very likely involved in antisocial behaviour. Clinicians should be aware of emerging findings from biological studies of antisociality. Future neuroimaging and other biologically based work, especially when combined with psychosocial initiatives, should yield fruit in attempts to better understand, treat, and prevent such socially devastating and destructive behaviour.

  2. Neuroimaging studies of social cognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Hironobu; Yassin, Walid; Murai, Toshiya

    2015-05-01

    Impaired social cognition is considered a core contributor to unfavorable psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia. Rather than being a unitary process, social cognition is a collection of multifaceted processes that recruit multiple brain structures, thus structural and functional neuroimaging techniques are ideal methodologies for revealing the underlying pathophysiology of impaired social cognition. Many neuroimaging studies have suggested that in addition to white-matter deficits, schizophrenia is associated with decreased gray-matter volume in multiple brain areas, especially fronto-temporal and limbic regions. However, few schizophrenia studies have examined associations between brain abnormalities and social cognitive disabilities. During the last decade, we have investigated structural brain abnormalities in schizophrenia using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging, and our findings have been confirmed by us and others. By assessing different types of social cognitive abilities, structural abnormalities in multiple brain regions have been found to be associated with disabilities in social cognition, such as recognition of facial emotion, theory of mind, and empathy. These structural deficits have also been associated with alexithymia and quality of life in ways that are closely related to the social cognitive disabilities found in schizophrenia. Here, we overview a series of neuroimaging studies from our laboratory that exemplify current research into this topic, and discuss how it can be further tackled using recent advances in neuroimaging technology. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  3. Neuroimaging studies in people with gender incongruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Guillamon, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The current review gives an overview of brain studies in transgender people. First, we describe studies into the aetiology of feelings of gender incongruence, primarily addressing the sexual differentiation hypothesis: does the brain of transgender individuals resemble that of their natal sex, or that of their experienced gender? Findings from neuroimaging studies focusing on brain structure suggest that the brain phenotypes of trans women (MtF) and trans men (FtM) differ in various ways from control men and women with feminine, masculine, demasculinized and defeminized features. The brain phenotypes of people with feelings of gender incongruence may help us to figure out whether sex differentiation of the brain is atypical in these individuals, and shed light on gender identity development. Task-related imaging studies may show whether brain activation and task performance in transgender people is sex-atypical. Second, we review studies that evaluate the effects of cross-sex hormone treatment on the brain. This type of research provides knowledge on how changes in sex hormone levels may affect brain structure and function.

  4. Deep learning for neuroimaging: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plis, Sergey M; Hjelm, Devon R; Salakhutdinov, Ruslan; Allen, Elena A; Bockholt, Henry J; Long, Jeffrey D; Johnson, Hans J; Paulsen, Jane S; Turner, Jessica A; Calhoun, Vince D

    2014-01-01

    Deep learning methods have recently made notable advances in the tasks of classification and representation learning. These tasks are important for brain imaging and neuroscience discovery, making the methods attractive for porting to a neuroimager's toolbox. Success of these methods is, in part, explained by the flexibility of deep learning models. However, this flexibility makes the process of porting to new areas a difficult parameter optimization problem. In this work we demonstrate our results (and feasible parameter ranges) in application of deep learning methods to structural and functional brain imaging data. These methods include deep belief networks and their building block the restricted Boltzmann machine. We also describe a novel constraint-based approach to visualizing high dimensional data. We use it to analyze the effect of parameter choices on data transformations. Our results show that deep learning methods are able to learn physiologically important representations and detect latent relations in neuroimaging data.

  5. Deep learning for neuroimaging: a validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey M Plis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Deep learning methods have recently made notable advances in the tasks of classification and representation learning. These tasks are important for brain imaging and neuroscience discovery, making the methods attractive for porting to a neuroimager's toolbox. Success of these methods is, in part, explained by the flexibility of deep learning models. However, this flexibility makes the process of porting to new areas a difficult parameter optimization problem. In this work we demonstrate our results (and feasible parameter ranges in application of deep learning methods to structural and functional brain imaging data. These methods include deep belief networks and their building block the restricted Boltzmann machine. We also describe a novel constraint-based approach to visualizing high dimensional data. We use it to analyze the effect of parameter choices on data transformations. Our results show that deep learning methods are able to learn physiologically important representations and detect latent relations in neuroimaging data.

  6. Robust regression for large-scale neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Virgile; Da Mota, Benoit; Loth, Eva; Varoquaux, Gaël; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Brühl, Rüdiger; Butzek, Brigitte; Conrod, Patricia; Flor, Herta; Garavan, Hugh; Lemaitre, Hervé; Mann, Karl; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomas; Schad, Daniel J; Schümann, Gunter; Frouin, Vincent; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Thirion, Bertrand

    2015-05-01

    Multi-subject datasets used in neuroimaging group studies have a complex structure, as they exhibit non-stationary statistical properties across regions and display various artifacts. While studies with small sample sizes can rarely be shown to deviate from standard hypotheses (such as the normality of the residuals) due to the poor sensitivity of normality tests with low degrees of freedom, large-scale studies (e.g. >100 subjects) exhibit more obvious deviations from these hypotheses and call for more refined models for statistical inference. Here, we demonstrate the benefits of robust regression as a tool for analyzing large neuroimaging cohorts. First, we use an analytic test based on robust parameter estimates; based on simulations, this procedure is shown to provide an accurate statistical control without resorting to permutations. Second, we show that robust regression yields more detections than standard algorithms using as an example an imaging genetics study with 392 subjects. Third, we show that robust regression can avoid false positives in a large-scale analysis of brain-behavior relationships with over 1500 subjects. Finally we embed robust regression in the Randomized Parcellation Based Inference (RPBI) method and demonstrate that this combination further improves the sensitivity of tests carried out across the whole brain. Altogether, our results show that robust procedures provide important advantages in large-scale neuroimaging group studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pain perception and hypnosis: findings from recent functional neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Casale, Antonio; Ferracuti, Stefano; Rapinesi, Chiara; Serata, Daniele; Caltagirone, Saverio Simone; Savoja, Valeria; Piacentino, Daria; Callovini, Gemma; Manfredi, Giovanni; Sani, Gabriele; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Girardi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Hypnosis modulates pain perception and tolerance by affecting cortical and subcortical activity in brain regions involved in these processes. By reviewing functional neuroimaging studies focusing on pain perception under hypnosis, the authors aimed to identify brain activation-deactivation patterns occurring in hypnosis-modulated pain conditions. Different changes in brain functionality occurred throughout all components of the pain network and other brain areas. The anterior cingulate cortex appears to be central in modulating pain circuitry activity under hypnosis. Most studies also showed that the neural functions of the prefrontal, insular, and somatosensory cortices are consistently modified during hypnosis-modulated pain conditions. Functional neuroimaging studies support the clinical use of hypnosis in the management of pain conditions.

  8. Retrospective study on structural neuroimaging in first-episode psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Coentre

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. No consensus between guidelines exists regarding neuroimaging in first-episode psychosis. The purpose of this study is to assess anomalies found in structural neuroimaging exams (brain computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in the initial medical work-up of patients presenting first-episode psychosis. Methods. The study subjects were 32 patients aged 18–48 years (mean age: 29.6 years, consecutively admitted with first-episode psychosis diagnosis. Socio-demographic and clinical data and neuroimaging exams (CT and MRI were retrospectively studied. Diagnostic assessments were made using the Operational Criteria Checklist +. Neuroimaging images (CT and MRI and respective reports were analysed by an experienced consultant psychiatrist. Results. None of the patients had abnormalities in neuroimaging exams responsible for psychotic symptoms. Thirty-seven percent of patients had incidental brain findings not causally related to the psychosis (brain atrophy, arachnoid cyst, asymmetric lateral ventricles, dilated lateral ventricles, plagiocephaly and falx cerebri calcification. No further medical referral was needed for any of these patients. No significant differences regarding gender, age, diagnosis, duration of untreated psychosis, in-stay and cannabis use were found between patients who had neuroimaging abnormalities versus those without. Discussion. This study suggests that structural neuroimaging exams reveal scarce abnormalities in young patients with first-episode psychosis. Structural neuroimaging is especially useful in first-episode psychosis patients with neurological symptoms, atypical clinical picture and old age.

  9. A neuroimaging study in childhood autism

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    Mohammad S. I. Mullick

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood autism is now widely viewed as being of developmental neurological origin. Abnormality in neuroimaging is reported in autism.Objectives: To delineate the proportion of structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and electro encephalography (EEG abnormality among the children with Autism and to assess any association of MRI and EEG changes with co morbid mental illness.Methods: It was a cross sectional descriptive study done at a child and adolescent consultation centre, Dhaka. The study was Carried out from January 2009 to December 2009. Both boys and girls were included in the study. A total of 42 children with childhood autism aged between two and 12 years partici­pated in this study. Diagnosis of autism was based on ICD-10(DCR criteria. Results: Abnormalities were found to be 35.7% in MRI and 42.9% in EEG. EEG abnormalities were found in the form of defuse slow waves activities, generalized faster activities, epileptogenic discharge and mixed discharge. The abnormalities in MRI was found in the form of diffuse cortical atrophic changes, focal cortical atrophy in frontal and temporal cortex with widening of major sulci, prominent ventricles, periventricular degeneration and abnormal basal ganglia. EEG changes were significantly associated with increased number of co-morbid illness (mental retardation, epilepsy and others. Conclusion: A number of abnom1alities that observed in the present study indicative of relations between structural and physiological dysfunctions and childhood autism. Further exploratory and in-depth researches are certainly required in this field. Intervention of autism needs to address co morbidities for better outcome.

  10. Neuroimaging Studies in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: A Narrative Review

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    Parmar, Arpit; Sarkar, Siddharth

    2016-01-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a relatively common psychiatric illness with a lifetime prevalence of 2–3% in general population. The pathophysiology of OCD is not yet fully understood, however over the last few decades, evidence for abnormalities of cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortico (CSTC) circuitry in etiopathogenesis of OCD has accumulated. Recent brain imaging techniques have been particularly convincing in suggesting that CSTC circuits are responsible for mediation of OCD symptoms. Neuroimaging studies, especially more recent studies using functional neuroimaging methods have looked for possible changes seen in the brain of patients with OCD, the specificity of the findings (as compared to other psychiatric illnesses) and the effects of treatment (pharmacotherapy/psychotherapy) on such changes were observed. This narrative review discusses the neuroimaging findings seen in patients with OCD with a special focus on relatively more recent neuroimaging modalities such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy and magnetoencephalography. PMID:27833219

  11. Neuroimaging in stroke and seizure as neurological emergencies (NISSAN) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Gustavo J; Nasar, Abu; Suri, M Fareed K; Ezzeddine, Mustapha A; Qureshi, Adnan I

    2008-01-01

    To report the current national utilization of neuroimaging in the emergency department for the two most common neurological emergencies; stroke and seizure. Patients were identified using primary International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9-CM codes from the 2004 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS). NHAMCS is designed to collect data on the utilization and provision of care in emergency departments of hospitals in the United States. We analyzed the use of neuroimaging in patients presenting to the emergency department with seizure or stroke. About 60% of 1,190,219 patients with the diagnosis of stroke or seizure had neuroimaging performed emergently. Patients with any type of stroke were more likely to undergo neuroimaging compared to patients with seizure (78% vs. 37%, P emergency department among 100% of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, 79% with ischemic stroke, and 69% with intracerebral hemorrhage. In a nationally representative study, emergent neuroimaging appeared to be underutilized among patients with ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage. There is a need to increase the utilization of neuroimaging in the emergency department in anticipation of new acute stroke treatments.

  12. Imaging stress effects on memory: a review of neuroimaging studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stegeren, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To review and give an overview of neuroimaging studies that look at the role of stress (hormones) on memory. Method: An overview will be given of imaging studies that looked at the role of stress (hormones) on memory. Stress is here defined as the acute provocation of the sympathetic

  13. Contributions of neuroimaging in singing voice studies: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geová Oliveira de Amorim

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT It is assumed that singing is a highly complex activity, which requires the activation and interconnection of sensorimotor areas. The aim of the current research was to present the evidence from neuroimaging studies in the performance of the motor and sensory system in the process of singing. Research articles on the characteristics of human singing analyzed by neuroimaging, which were published between 1990 and 2016, and indexed and listed in databases such as PubMed, BIREME, Lilacs, Web of Science, Scopus, and EBSCO were chosen for this systematic review. A total of 9 articles, employing magnetoencephalography, functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and electrocorticography were chosen. These neuroimaging approaches enabled the identification of a neural network interconnecting the spoken and singing voice, to identify, modulate, and correct pitch. This network changed with the singer's training, variations in melodic structure and harmonized singing, amusia, and the relationship among the brain areas that are responsible for speech, singing, and the persistence of musicality. Since knowledge of the neural networks that control singing is still scarce, the use of neuroimaging methods to elucidate these pathways should be a focus of future research.

  14. Current themes in neuroimaging studies of reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Cathy J

    2013-05-01

    This editorial provides a summary of the highlights from 11 new papers that have been published in a special issue of Brain and Language on the neurobiology of reading. The topics investigate reading mechanisms in both adults and children. Several of the findings illustrate how responses in the left ventral occipito-temporal cortex, and other reading areas, change with learning, expertise and the task: In the early stages of reading acquisition, learning/expertise increases activation in reading areas as well as in an attentionally-controlled, learning circuit. In later stages, expertise and efficiency decrease activation within the reading network and increase anatomical connectivity. Special interest is given to a white matter tract (the vertical occipital fasciculus) that projects dorsally from the left occipito-temporal cortex to the posterior parietal lobe. This observation fits with a magnetoencephalography study showing how activity in the angular gyrus is influenced by early occipito-temporal activity; with angular gyrus activity contributing to inferior frontal activity. Overall, the papers within the special issue illustrate the wide range of different techniques that can be used to reveal the functional anatomy of reading and the time course of activity within the different reading pathways. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Robust regression for large-scale neuroimaging studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Bokde, Arun

    2015-01-01

    PUBLISHED Multi-subject datasets used in neuroimaging group studies have a complex structure, as they exhibit non-stationary statistical properties across regions and display various artifacts. While studies with small sample sizes can rarely be shown to deviate from standard hypotheses (such as the normality of the residuals) due to the poor sensitivity of normality tests with low degrees of freedom, large-scale studies (e.g. >100 subjects) exhibit more obvious deviations from these hypot...

  16. Remembering the past: neuroimaging studies of human memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, E A

    2004-01-01

    The ability to find our way around an environment and to remember the events that occur within it are fundamental to normal functioning in daily life. Impairment of these abilities are among the first symptoms to be reported in patients with pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease and anoxia that are linked to the hippocampus and other limbic structures. However, many questions remain unanswered regarding the nature and neural bases of these memories. Findings from functional neuroimaging studies offer insights into the anatomy of memory and the presentation of memory impairments. In particular, neuroimaging is well placed to inform about the functionality of residual brain tissue, and the plasticity of memory anatomy in the context of hippocampal damage, and normal ageing.

  17. Multiple comparison procedures for neuroimaging genomewide association studies.

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    Hua, Wen-Yu; Nichols, Thomas E; Ghosh, Debashis

    2015-01-01

    Recent research in neuroimaging has focused on assessing associations between genetic variants that are measured on a genomewide scale and brain imaging phenotypes. A large number of works in the area apply massively univariate analyses on a genomewide basis to find single nucleotide polymorphisms that influence brain structure. In this paper, we propose using various dimensionality reduction methods on both brain structural MRI scans and genomic data, motivated by the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) study. We also consider a new multiple testing adjustment method and compare it with two existing false discovery rate (FDR) adjustment methods. The simulation results suggest an increase in power for the proposed method. The real-data analysis suggests that the proposed procedure is able to find associations between genetic variants and brain volume differences that offer potentially new biological insights. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. A Knowledge Representation and Reasoning System for Multimodal Neuroimaging Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Coelho; Paulo Marques; Ricardo Magalhães; Nuno Sousa; José Neves; Victor Alves

    2017-01-01

    Multimodal neuroimaging analyses are of major interest for both research and clinical practice, enabling the combined evaluation of the structure and function of the human brain. These analyses generate large volumes of data and consequently increase the amount of possibly useful information. Indeed, BrainArchive was developed in order to organize, maintain and share this complex array of neuroimaging data. It stores all the information available for each participant/patient, being dynamic by...

  19. Paediatric population neuroimaging and the Generation R Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Tonya; Muetzel, Ryan L.; El Marroun, Hanan

    2018-01-01

    over time. Magnetic resonance imaging was included in 2009 with the scanning of 1070 6-to-9-year-old children. The second neuroimaging wave was initiated in April 2013 with a total of 4245 visiting the MRI suite and 4087 9-to-11-year-old children being scanned. The sequences included high...... first wave of neuroimaging, which highlights a diverse array of questions that can be addressed by merging the fields of developmental neuroscience and epidemiology....

  20. Neuroimaging Studies of Normal Brain Development and Their Relevance for Understanding Childhood Neuropsychiatric Disorders

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    Marsh, Rachel; Gerber, Andrew J.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    Neuroimaging findings which identify normal brain development trajectories are presented. Results show that early brain development begins with the neural tube formation and ends with myelintation. How disturbances in brain development patterns are related to childhood psychiatric disorders is examined.

  1. DeID - a data sharing tool for neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xuebo; Wang, James; Wang, Anlin; Meng, Qingping; Prescott, Christian; Tsu, Loretta; Eckert, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Funding institutions and researchers increasingly expect that data will be shared to increase scientific integrity and provide other scientists with the opportunity to use the data with novel methods that may advance understanding in a particular field of study. In practice, sharing human subject data can be complicated because data must be de-identified prior to sharing. Moreover, integrating varied data types collected in a study can be challenging and time consuming. For example, sharing data from structural imaging studies of a complex disorder requires the integration of imaging, demographic and/or behavioral data in a way that no subject identifiers are included in the de-identified dataset and with new subject labels or identification values that cannot be tracked back to the original ones. We have developed a Java program that users can use to remove identifying information in neuroimaging datasets, while still maintaining the association among different data types from the same subject for further studies. This software provides a series of user interaction wizards to allow users to select data variables to be de-identified, implements functions for auditing and validation of de-identified data, and enables the user to share the de-identified data in a single compressed package through various communication protocols, such as FTPS and SFTP. DeID runs with Windows, Linux, and Mac operating systems and its open architecture allows it to be easily adapted to support a broader array of data types, with the goal of facilitating data sharing. DeID can be obtained at http://www.nitrc.org/projects/deid.

  2. Neuroimaging study of Fukuyama type congenital muscular dystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murasugi, Hiroko (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1992-11-01

    Fukuyama type congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD) has been attracting attention in recent years because of its brain malformation and progressive muscular dystrophy. The intravitam recognition of brain malformation has been remarkably enhanced by the advent of noninvasive neuroimaging techniques such as CT and MRI. In this study, 87 cranial CT scans and 22 MRIs of the brain, carried out on 60 patients with FCMD, were systematically surveyed, and the correlation between neuroradiological findings and clinical disabilities, and, in two autopsy cases, neuropathological findings was evaluated. Four cases of lissencephalic, 29 of pachygyric, and one of polymicrogyric (suspected) brain surface, and 2 normal brain surfaces were recognized. The patients with lissencephalic brain surface were compared using Dobyns' criteria. Grading of pachygyria was judged as bilateral II in 52% of cases and bilateral I in 48%. The surface of the occipital lobe could not be confirmed with either CT or MRI. Polymicrogyria was suspected using MRI but could not confirmed with CT. Five caces of lissencephaly had never learned any meaningful words and all but one were bedridden because of poor head control. The abilities of patients were better when the grading of pachygyria was milder. Mental disability and peak motor function correlate more closely with the degree and extent of brain malformation than with muscle degeneration. The decrease in radiodensity in the white matter was remarkable in 12 out of 19 cases (63%), and was usually bilaterally symmetrical. An increase in radiodensity in the white matter with age was observed in 3 patients. The rate of myelination was slower than normal in 3 out of the 6 cases. (author).

  3. The role of neuroimaging in children and adolescents with recurrent headaches--multicenter study.

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    Rho, Young-Il; Chung, Hee-Jung; Suh, Eun-Sook; Lee, Kon-Hee; Eun, Baik-Lin; Nam, Sang-Ook; Kim, Won-Seop; Eun, So-Hee; Kim, Young-Ok

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the role of neuroimaging and to estimate the prevalence of significant and treatable intracranial lesions in children and adolescents with recurrent headaches. Neuroimaging studies are commonly performed in children and adolescent patients with headache because of increasing demands by parents and physicians, although objective data and studies to support this widespread practice are minimal. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all 1562 (male 724, female 838) new patients presenting with recurrent headaches to 9 Pediatric Neurology Clinics of tertiary Hospitals. Data regarding age of onset, duration of symptoms before presentation, frequency, duration of each episode, intensity, location and quality of headache, associated neurologic symptoms and a comprehensive neurological examination were obtained for each patient. The International Classification of Headache Disorders, second edition, was used to classify headache types. Neuroimaging procedures were performed in 77.1% of the patients. Overall, 9.3% (112/1204) of the patients had abnormal findings from neuroimaging. The highest yield was in patients with an abnormal neurological examination wherein abnormal findings on neuroimaging were seen in 50.0% (9/18) of patients (P parent and physicians (10.1% [21/208]). Eleven patients underwent surgery based on neuroimaging results. There was no significant relation between abnormality on neuroimaging and age, sex, headache type, age of onset of headache, duration of symptoms before presentation, duration, frequency, location and intensity of headache (P > .05). Neuroimaging procedures in children and adolescents with headaches, although not always required, are very commonly performed. We suggest that more strict guidelines for rational use of neuroimaging are needed for pediatric headache patients. © 2011 American Headache Society.

  4. Post-stroke cognitive dysfunctions: A clinical and neuroimaging study

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    Andrei Yuryevich Emelin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging examinations were made in 65 patients (52 men and 13 women aged 65.6±10.1 years who had experienced ischemic stroke. Cognitive impairments (CI were heterogeneous; regulatory functions, attention, and counting were most significantly affected in moderate CI. In mild dementia, mainly poor attention and regulatory dysfunctions were added by clearly-cut impairments of memory, orientation, and visual-spatial function. Brain atrophy, white matter changes, and small focal gray matter damages along with focal post-stroke changes were revealed by neuroimaging in most patients. It was found that besides the volume and location of a damage focus, the signs of impaired integrated mental activity of the brain, regulatory dysfunctions in particular, should be a necessary condition for the verification of post-stroke CI.

  5. Multiple Comparison Procedures for Neuroimaging Genomewide Association Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Hua, Wen-Yu; Nichols, Thomas E.; Ghosh, Debashis; Initiative, the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging

    2014-01-01

    Recent research in neuroimaging has focused on assessing associations between genetic variants that are measured on a genomewide scale and brain imaging phenotypes. A large number of works in the area apply massively univariate analyses on a genomewide basis to find single nucleotide polymorphisms that influence brain structure. In this paper, we propose using various dimensionality reduction methods on both brain structural MRI scans and genomic data, motivated by the Alzheimer's Disease Neu...

  6. Disorders of Consciousness: Painless or Painful Conditions?—Evidence from Neuroimaging Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Pistoia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The experience of pain in disorders of consciousness is still debated. Neuroimaging studies, using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI, Positron Emission Tomography (PET, multichannel electroencephalography (EEG and laser-evoked potentials, suggest that the perception of pain increases with the level of consciousness. Brain activation in response to noxious stimuli has been observed in patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS, which is also referred to as a vegetative state (VS, as well as those in a minimally conscious state (MCS. However, all of these techniques suggest that pain-related brain activation patterns of patients in MCS more closely resemble those of healthy subjects. This is further supported by fMRI findings showing a much greater functional connectivity within the structures of the so-called pain matrix in MCS as compared to UWS/VS patients. Nonetheless, when interpreting the results, a distinction is necessary between autonomic responses to potentially harmful stimuli and conscious experience of the unpleasantness of pain. Even more so if we consider that the degree of residual functioning and cortical connectivity necessary for the somatosensory, affective and cognitive-evaluative components of pain processing are not yet clear. Although procedurally challenging, the particular value of the aforementioned techniques in the assessment of pain in disorders of consciousness has been clearly demonstrated. The study of pain-related brain activation and functioning can contribute to a better understanding of the networks underlying pain perception while addressing clinical and ethical questions concerning patient care. Further development of technology and methods should aim to increase the availability of neuroimaging, objective assessment of functional connectivity and analysis at the level of individual cases as well as group comparisons. This will enable neuroimaging to truly become a clinical tool to

  7. Neuroimaging, culture, and forensic psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Neil K

    2009-01-01

    The spread of neuroimaging technologies around the world has led to diverse practices of forensic psychiatry and the emergence of neuroethics and neurolaw. This article surveys the neuroethics and neurolegal literature on the use of forensic neuroimaging within the courtroom. Next, the related literature within medical anthropology and science and technology studies is reviewed to show how debates about forensic neuroimaging reflect cultural tensions about attitudes regarding the self, mental illness, and medical expertise. Finally, recommendations are offered on how forensic psychiatrists can add to this research, given their professional interface between law and medicine. At stake are the fundamental concerns that surround changing conceptions of the self, sickness, and expectations of medicine.

  8. Clinical and neuroimaging correlates of antiphospholipid antibodies in multiple sclerosis: a preliminary study

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    Gonzalez-Toledo Eduardo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (APLA in multiple sclerosis (MS patients has been reported frequently but no clear relationship between APLA and the clinical and neuroimaging features of MS have heretofore been shown. We assessed the clinical and neuroimaging features of MS patients with plasma APLA. Methods A consecutive cohort of 24 subjects with relapsing-remitting (RR MS were studied of whom 7 were in remission (Rem and 17 in exacerbation (Exc. All subjects were examined and underwent MRI of brain. Patients' plasma was tested by standard ELISA for the presence of both IgM and IgG antibodies using a panel of 6 targets: cardiolipin (CL, β2 glycoprotein I (β2GPI, Factor VII/VIIa (FVIIa, phosphatidylcholine (PC, phosphatidylserine (PS and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE. Results In exacerbation up to 80% of MS subjects had elevated titers of IgM antibodies directed against the above antigens. However, in remission, less than half of MS patients had elevated titers of IgM antibodies against one or more of the above antigens. This difference was significant, p Conclusion The findings of this preliminary study show that increased APLA IgM is associated with exacerbations of MS. Currently, the significance of this association in pathogenesis of MS remains unknown. However, systematic longitudinal studies to measure APLA in larger cohorts of patients with relapsing-remitting MS, particularly before and after treatment with immunomodulatory agents, are needed to confirm these preliminary findings.

  9. Mind-Body Practices and the Adolescent Brain: Clinical Neuroimaging Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anup; Newberg, Andrew B

    Mind-Body practices constitute a large and diverse group of practices that can substantially affect neurophysiology in both healthy individuals and those with various psychiatric disorders. In spite of the growing literature on the clinical and physiological effects of mind-body practices, very little is known about their impact on central nervous system (CNS) structure and function in adolescents with psychiatric disorders. This overview highlights findings in a select group of mind-body practices including yoga postures, yoga breathing techniques and meditation practices. Mind-body practices offer novel therapeutic approaches for adolescents with psychiatric disorders. Findings from these studies provide insights into the design and implementation of neuroimaging studies for adolescents with psychiatric disorders. Clinical neuroimaging studies will be critical in understanding how different practices affect disease pathogenesis and symptomatology in adolescents. Neuroimaging of mind-body practices on adolescents with psychiatric disorders will certainly be an open and exciting area of investigation.

  10. Relationships between Cognitive Performance, Neuroimaging and Vascular Disease: The DHS-MIND Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Fang-Chi; Raffield, Laura M; Hugenschmidt, Christina E; Cox, Amanda; Xu, Jianzhao; Carr, J Jeffery; Freedman, Barry I; Maldjian, Joseph A; Williamson, Jeff D; Bowden, Donald W

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus increases the risk of cognitive decline and dementia, and elevated burdens of vascular disease are hypothesized to contribute to this risk. These relationships were examined in the Diabetes Heart Study-MIND using a battery of cognitive tests, neuroimaging measures and subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden assessed by coronary artery calcified (CAC) plaque. We hypothesized that CAC would attenuate the association between neuroimaging measures and cognition performance. Associations were examined using marginal models in this family-based cohort of 572 European Americans from 263 families. All models were adjusted for age, gender, education, type 2 diabetes and hypertension, with some neuroimaging measures additionally adjusted for intracranial volume. Higher total brain volume was associated with better performance on the Digit Symbol Substitution Task and Semantic Fluency (both p ≤ 7.0 × 10(-4)). Higher gray matter volume was associated with better performance on the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination and Semantic Fluency (both p ≤ 9.0 × 10(-4)). Adjusting for CAC caused minimal changes to the results. Relationships exist between neuroimaging measures and cognitive performance in a type 2 diabetes-enriched European American cohort. Associations were minimally attenuated after adjusting for subclinical CVD. Additional work is needed to understand how subclinical CVD burden interacts with other factors and impacts relationships between neuroimaging and cognitive testing measures. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Functional neuroimaging in specific phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Casale, Antonio; Ferracuti, Stefano; Rapinesi, Chiara; Serata, Daniele; Piccirilli, Massimo; Savoja, Valeria; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Manfredi, Giovanni; Angeletti, Gloria; Tatarelli, Roberto; Girardi, Paolo

    2012-06-30

    Specific phobias (SPs) are common, with lifetime prevalence estimates of 10%. Our current understanding of their pathophysiology owes much to neuroimaging studies, which enabled us to construct increasingly efficient models of the underlying neurocircuitry. We provide an updated, comprehensive review and analyze the relevant literature of functional neuroimaging studies in specific phobias. Findings are presented according to the functional neuroanatomy of patients with SPs. We performed a careful search of the major medical and psychological databases by crossing SP with each neuroimaging technique. Functional neuroimaging, mostly using symptom provocation paradigms, showed abnormal activations in brain areas involved in emotional perception and early amplification, mainly the amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex, thalamus, and insula. The insula, thalamus and other limbic/paralimbic structures are particularly involved in SPs with prominent autonomic arousal. Emotional modulation is also impaired after exposure to phobic stimuli, with abnormal activations reported for the prefrontal, orbitofrontal and visual cortices. Other cortices and the cerebellum also appear to be involved in the pathophysiology of this disorder. Functional neuroimaging identified neural substrates that differentiate SPs from other anxiety disorders and separate SP subtypes from one another; the results support current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition-Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic subtyping of SPs. Functional neuroimaging shows promise as a means of identifying treatment-response predictors. Improvement in these techniques may help in clarifying the neurocircuitry underlying SP, for both research and clinical-therapeutic purposes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Neuroimaging studies of aggressive and violent behavior: current findings and implications for criminology and criminal justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufkin, Jana L; Luttrell, Vickie R

    2005-04-01

    With the availability of new functional and structural neuroimaging techniques, researchers have begun to localize brain areas that may be dysfunctional in offenders who are aggressive and violent. Our review of 17 neuroimaging studies reveals that the areas associated with aggressive and/or violent behavioral histories, particularly impulsive acts, are located in the prefrontal cortex and the medial temporal regions. These findings are explained in the context of negative emotion regulation, and suggestions are provided concerning how such findings may affect future theoretical frameworks in criminology, crime prevention efforts, and the functioning of the criminal justice system.

  13. Internet and Gaming Addiction: A Systematic Literature Review of Neuroimaging Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria J. Kuss

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, research has accumulated suggesting that excessive Internet use can lead to the development of a behavioral addiction. Internet addiction has been considered as a serious threat to mental health and the excessive use of the Internet has been linked to a variety of negative psychosocial consequences. The aim of this review is to identify all empirical studies to date that used neuroimaging techniques to shed light upon the emerging mental health problem of Internet and gaming addiction from a neuroscientific perspective. Neuroimaging studies offer an advantage over traditional survey and behavioral research because with this method, it is possible to distinguish particular brain areas that are involved in the development and maintenance of addiction. A systematic literature search was conducted, identifying 18 studies. These studies provide compelling evidence for the similarities between different types of addictions, notably substance-related addictions and Internet and gaming addiction, on a variety of levels. On the molecular level, Internet addiction is characterized by an overall reward deficiency that entails decreased dopaminergic activity. On the level of neural circuitry, Internet and gaming addiction led to neuroadaptation and structural changes that occur as a consequence of prolonged increased activity in brain areas associated with addiction. On a behavioral level, Internet and gaming addicts appear to be constricted with regards to their cognitive functioning in various domains. The paper shows that understanding the neuronal correlates associated with the development of Internet and gaming addiction will promote future research and will pave the way for the development of addiction treatment approaches.

  14. Internet and Gaming Addiction: A Systematic Literature Review of Neuroimaging Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Daria J.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, research has accumulated suggesting that excessive Internet use can lead to the development of a behavioral addiction. Internet addiction has been considered as a serious threat to mental health and the excessive use of the Internet has been linked to a variety of negative psychosocial consequences. The aim of this review is to identify all empirical studies to date that used neuroimaging techniques to shed light upon the emerging mental health problem of Internet and gaming addiction from a neuroscientific perspective. Neuroimaging studies offer an advantage over traditional survey and behavioral research because with this method, it is possible to distinguish particular brain areas that are involved in the development and maintenance of addiction. A systematic literature search was conducted, identifying 18 studies. These studies provide compelling evidence for the similarities between different types of addictions, notably substance-related addictions and Internet and gaming addiction, on a variety of levels. On the molecular level, Internet addiction is characterized by an overall reward deficiency that entails decreased dopaminergic activity. On the level of neural circuitry, Internet and gaming addiction led to neuroadaptation and structural changes that occur as a consequence of prolonged increased activity in brain areas associated with addiction. On a behavioral level, Internet and gaming addicts appear to be constricted with regards to their cognitive functioning in various domains. The paper shows that understanding the neuronal correlates associated with the development of Internet and gaming addiction will promote future research and will pave the way for the development of addiction treatment approaches. PMID:24961198

  15. Internet and gaming addiction: a systematic literature review of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Daria J; Griffiths, Mark D

    2012-09-05

    In the past decade, research has accumulated suggesting that excessive Internet use can lead to the development of a behavioral addiction. Internet addiction has been considered as a serious threat to mental health and the excessive use of the Internet has been linked to a variety of negative psychosocial consequences. The aim of this review is to identify all empirical studies to date that used neuroimaging techniques to shed light upon the emerging mental health problem of Internet and gaming addiction from a neuroscientific perspective. Neuroimaging studies offer an advantage over traditional survey and behavioral research because with this method, it is possible to distinguish particular brain areas that are involved in the development and maintenance of addiction. A systematic literature search was conducted, identifying 18 studies. These studies provide compelling evidence for the similarities between different types of addictions, notably substance-related addictions and Internet and gaming addiction, on a variety of levels. On the molecular level, Internet addiction is characterized by an overall reward deficiency that entails decreased dopaminergic activity. On the level of neural circuitry, Internet and gaming addiction led to neuroadaptation and structural changes that occur as a consequence of prolonged increased activity in brain areas associated with addiction. On a behavioral level, Internet and gaming addicts appear to be constricted with regards to their cognitive functioning in various domains. The paper shows that understanding the neuronal correlates associated with the development of Internet and gaming addiction will promote future research and will pave the way for the development of addiction treatment approaches.

  16. Attention to pain! A neurocognitive perspective on attentional modulation of pain in neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torta, D M; Legrain, V; Mouraux, A; Valentini, E

    2017-04-01

    Several studies have used neuroimaging techniques to investigate brain correlates of the attentional modulation of pain. Although these studies have advanced the knowledge in the field, important confounding factors such as imprecise theoretical definitions of attention, incomplete operationalization of the construct under exam, and limitations of techniques relying on measuring regional changes in cerebral blood flow have hampered the potential relevance of the conclusions. Here, we first provide an overview of the major theories of attention and of attention in the study of pain to bridge theory and experimental results. We conclude that load and motivational/affective theories are particularly relevant to study the attentional modulation of pain and should be carefully integrated in functional neuroimaging studies. Then, we summarize previous findings and discuss the possible neural correlates of the attentional modulation of pain. We discuss whether classical functional neuroimaging techniques are suitable to measure the effect of a fluctuating process like attention, and in which circumstances functional neuroimaging can be reliably used to measure the attentional modulation of pain. Finally, we argue that the analysis of brain networks and spontaneous oscillations may be a crucial future development in the study of attentional modulation of pain, and why the interplay between attention and pain, as examined so far, may rely on neural mechanisms shared with other sensory modalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Neural correlates of dysfunctional emotion regulation in major depressive disorder. A systematic review of neuroimaging studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rive, Maria M.; van Rooijen, Geeske; Veltman, Dick J.; Phillips, Mary L.; Schene, Aart H.; Ruhe, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal emotion processing is a core feature of major depressive disorder (MDD). Since the emergence of functional neuroimaging techniques, many studies have been conducted in MDD subjects to elucidate the underlying abnormalities in the neural systems involved in emotion regulation. In this

  18. Timing deficits in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) : Evidence from neurocognitive and neuroimaging studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noreika, Valdas; Falter, Christine M.; Rubia, Katya

    Relatively recently, neurocognitive and neuroimaging studies have indicated that individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have deficits in a range of timing functions and their underlying neural networks. Despite this evidence, timing deficits in ADHD are still somewhat

  19. Neuroimaging Studies of Essential Tremor: How Well Do These Studies Support/Refute the Neurodegenerative Hypothesis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elan D. Louis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tissue‐based research has recently led to a new patho‐mechanistic model of essential tremor (ET—the cerebellar degenerative model. We are not aware of a study that has reviewed the current neuroimaging evidence, focusing on whether the studies support or refute the neurodegenerative hypothesis of ET. This was our aim.Methods: References for this review were identified by searches of PubMed (1966 to February 2014.Results: Several neuroimaging methods have been used to study ET, most of them based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. The methods most specific to address the question of neurodegeneration are MRI‐based volumetry, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and diffusion‐weighted imaging. Studies using each of these methods provide support for the presence of cerebellar degeneration in ET, finding reduced cerebellar brain volumes, consistent decreases in cerebellar N‐acetylaspartate, and increased mean diffusivity. Other neuroimaging techniques, such as functional MRI and positron emission tomography (PET are less specific, but still sensitive to potential neurodegeneration. These techniques are used for measuring a variety of brain functions and their impairment. Studies using these modalities also largely support cerebellar neuronal impairment. In particular, changes in 11C‐flumazenil binding in PET studies and changes in iron deposition in an MRI study provide evidence along these lines. The composite data point to neuronal impairment and likely neuronal degeneration in ET.Discussion: Recent years have seen a marked increase in the number of imaging studies of ET. As a whole, the combined data provide support for the presence of cerebellar neuronal degeneration in this disease.

  20. Neuro-imaging evaluation after the first afebrile seizure in children: A retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shami, Rana; Khair, Abdulhafeez M; Elseid, Mahmoud; Ibrahim, Khalid; Al-Ahmad, Amna; Elsetouhy, Ahmed; Kamel, Hussein; Al Yafei, Khalid; Mohamed, Khalid

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the role of neuro-imaging in children presenting with the first afebrile seizure and determine factors that influence the outcome of imaging in a large paediatric emergency centre. This is a retrospective review of the medical records of all patients presenting with the first non-febrile seizure to a large paediatric emergency centre in the state of Qatar. Seizure classification followed the current ILAE classification system. Imaging was undertaken in our tertiary hospital and all images were reviewed by experienced neuro-radiologists. Student t test was used for statistical analysis. Ninety-six children underwent neuro-imaging following the first afebrile seizure. Of them, thirty-two patients (33%) were reported to have abnormalities. Children below the age of two demonstrated a significantly higher percentage of abnormal imaging (59%); (p=0.002). Children presenting with prolonged seizures showed a high percentage of imaging abnormalities (58%); (p=0.003). Children with focal seizures demonstrated a higher percentage of imaging abnormality compared to those presenting with generalized seizures (35% vs 31%). This difference did not reach statistical significance. Children below the age of two demonstrated significantly higher percentages of abnormal imaging (59%), as did children presenting with status epilepticus (58%). Neuro-imaging should be considered in infants and those with focal or prolonged seizures. Neuro-imaging informed decision making in 6-8% of children. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Neuroimaging Study Designs, Computational Analyses and Data Provenance Using the LONI Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinov, Ivo; Lozev, Kamen; Petrosyan, Petros; Liu, Zhizhong; Eggert, Paul; Pierce, Jonathan; Zamanyan, Alen; Chakrapani, Shruthi; Van Horn, John; Parker, D. Stott; Magsipoc, Rico; Leung, Kelvin; Gutman, Boris; Woods, Roger; Toga, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Modern computational neuroscience employs diverse software tools and multidisciplinary expertise to analyze heterogeneous brain data. The classical problems of gathering meaningful data, fitting specific models, and discovering appropriate analysis and visualization tools give way to a new class of computational challenges—management of large and incongruous data, integration and interoperability of computational resources, and data provenance. We designed, implemented and validated a new paradigm for addressing these challenges in the neuroimaging field. Our solution is based on the LONI Pipeline environment [3], [4], a graphical workflow environment for constructing and executing complex data processing protocols. We developed study-design, database and visual language programming functionalities within the LONI Pipeline that enable the construction of complete, elaborate and robust graphical workflows for analyzing neuroimaging and other data. These workflows facilitate open sharing and communication of data and metadata, concrete processing protocols, result validation, and study replication among different investigators and research groups. The LONI Pipeline features include distributed grid-enabled infrastructure, virtualized execution environment, efficient integration, data provenance, validation and distribution of new computational tools, automated data format conversion, and an intuitive graphical user interface. We demonstrate the new LONI Pipeline features using large scale neuroimaging studies based on data from the International Consortium for Brain Mapping [5] and the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative [6]. User guides, forums, instructions and downloads of the LONI Pipeline environment are available at http://pipeline.loni.ucla.edu. PMID:20927408

  2. Neuroimaging study designs, computational analyses and data provenance using the LONI pipeline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Dinov

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern computational neuroscience employs diverse software tools and multidisciplinary expertise to analyze heterogeneous brain data. The classical problems of gathering meaningful data, fitting specific models, and discovering appropriate analysis and visualization tools give way to a new class of computational challenges--management of large and incongruous data, integration and interoperability of computational resources, and data provenance. We designed, implemented and validated a new paradigm for addressing these challenges in the neuroimaging field. Our solution is based on the LONI Pipeline environment [3], [4], a graphical workflow environment for constructing and executing complex data processing protocols. We developed study-design, database and visual language programming functionalities within the LONI Pipeline that enable the construction of complete, elaborate and robust graphical workflows for analyzing neuroimaging and other data. These workflows facilitate open sharing and communication of data and metadata, concrete processing protocols, result validation, and study replication among different investigators and research groups. The LONI Pipeline features include distributed grid-enabled infrastructure, virtualized execution environment, efficient integration, data provenance, validation and distribution of new computational tools, automated data format conversion, and an intuitive graphical user interface. We demonstrate the new LONI Pipeline features using large scale neuroimaging studies based on data from the International Consortium for Brain Mapping [5] and the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative [6]. User guides, forums, instructions and downloads of the LONI Pipeline environment are available at http://pipeline.loni.ucla.edu.

  3. Neuroimaging in clinical studies of craving: importance of reward and control networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Rachel E; Hutchison, Kent E

    2013-06-01

    Research on neurobiological mechanisms, especially the function of networks that underlie reward and cognitive control, may offer an opportunity to explore how existing treatments work and provide means for developing new treatments for substance use disorders. In this respect, the special issue of Psychology of Addictive Behaviors highlights efforts to integrate translational neuroimaging with clinical research by actively linking neuroimaging measures with psychosocial treatment mechanisms. Based on several of the articles in this special issue, mindfulness-based approaches appear poised to make rapid progress in terms of integrating neuroimaging with research on mechanisms that mediate treatment success. This commentary briefly discusses research on incentive salience and cognitive control networks in the context of addiction, followed by a discussion of specific studies within this special issue that address the integration of neuroimaging assessments in the context of mindfulness approaches. Future work may be able to leverage measures of changes in networks and regions that underlie reward processing and cognitive control to better understand how treatments work, especially for mindfulness-based approaches. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  4. Mapping vulnerability to bipolar disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Howes, Oliver; Bechdolf, Andreas; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Background Although early interventions in individuals with bipolar disorder may reduce the associated personal and economic burden, the neurobiologic markers of enhanced risk are unknown. Methods Neuroimaging studies involving individuals at enhanced genetic risk for bipolar disorder (HR) were included in a systematic review. We then performed a region of interest (ROI) analysis and a whole-brain meta-analysis combined with a formal effect-sizes meta-analysis in a subset of studies. Results There were 37 studies included in our systematic review. The overall sample for the systematic review included 1258 controls and 996 HR individuals. No significant differences were detected between HR individuals and controls in the selected ROIs: striatum, amygdala, hippocampus, pituitary and frontal lobe. The HR group showed increased grey matter volume compared with patients with established bipolar disorder. The HR individuals showed increased neural response in the left superior frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus and left insula compared with controls, independent from the functional magnetic resonance imaging task used. There were no publication biases. Sensitivity analysis confirmed the robustness of these results. Limitations As the included studies were cross-sectional, it remains to be determined whether the observed neurofunctional and structural alterations represent risk factors that can be clinically used in preventive interventions for prodromal bipolar disorder. Conclusion Accumulating structural and functional imaging evidence supports the existence of neurobiologic trait abnormalities in individuals at genetic risk for bipolar disorder at various scales of investigation. PMID:22297067

  5. Brain involvement in myotonic dystrophies: neuroimaging and neuropsychological comparative study in DM1 and DM2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Vincenzo; Pegoraro, E; Ferrati, C; Squarzanti, F; Sorarù, G; Palmieri, A; Zucchetta, P; Antunovic, L; Bonifazi, E; Novelli, G; Trevisan, C P; Ermani, M; Manara, R; Angelini, C

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the degree of brain involvement in a cohort of myotonic dystrophy type 1 and type 2 (DM1, DM2) patients by brain studies and functional tests and to compare the results of the two groups. DM1, DM2 are multisystemic disorders due to polynucleotide expansions. Previous studies on brain involvement by neuroimaging and functional methods have led to contradictory results. Fifty molecularly defined DM1 patients and 14 DM2 patients, were recruited for the study. Age at recruitment, age at disease onset, disease duration and educational level were recorded. Neuromuscular assessment was done by MIRS. An extensive neuropsychological battery was performed in 48/50 DM1 and in a control group of 44 healthy matched subjects. Forty six of 50 DM1 and 12/14 DM2 underwent brain MRI; 21/50 DM1 and 9/14 DM2 underwent brain perfusion SPECT, with semiquantitative analysis of the results. MRI images were classified by ARWMC (age-related white matter changes) score, in order to quantify recurrence, localization and patterns of distribution of white matter hyperintense lesions (WMHLs) in our two cohorts. MRI results were matched to SPECT and to neuropsychological results. Thirty-seven of 46 DM1 and 10/12 DM2 had abnormal MRI imaging, showing scattered supratentorial, bilateral, symmetrical focal or diffuse WMHLs. A typical temporo-insular diffuse subcortical pattern was seen in DM1 subjects only, with no correlation with cognitive involvement. Major cognitive involvement was seen in the case of diffuse frontal lesions. A relationship with CTG expansion size was documented for DM1 subjects. SPECT showed minimal hypoperfusion in the posterior cortex planes in DM1 and, to a lesser extent, in DM2. Very mild degrees of involvement in the DM2 cohort were seen. Neuroimaging and functional investigations confirmed a more severe involvement of the brain in DM1 compared to DM2. A temporo-insular diffuse lesional pattern, specific for DM1, was found on

  6. Heterogeneity within autism spectrum disorders: what have we learned from neuroimaging studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhoshel Krystyna Lenroot

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD display significant heterogeneity. Although most neuroimaging studies in ASD have been designed to identify commonalities among affected individuals, rather than differences, some studies have explored variation within ASD. There have been two general types of approaches used for this in the neuroimaging literature to date: comparison of subgroups within ASD, and analyses using dimensional measures to link clinical variation to brain differences. This review focuses on structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies that have used these approaches to begin to explore heterogeneity between individuals with ASD. Although this type of data is yet sparse, recognition is growing of the limitations of behaviourally defined categorical diagnoses for understanding neurobiology. Study designs that are more informative regarding the sources of heterogeneity in ASD have the potential to improve our understanding of the neurobiological processes underlying ASD.

  7. Neuroimaging self-esteem: a fMRI study of individual differences in women

    OpenAIRE

    Frewen, Paul A.; Lundberg, Erica; Brimson-Th?berge, Melanie; Th?berge, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Although neuroimaging studies strongly implicate the medial prefrontal cortex (ventral and dorsal), cingulate gyrus (anterior and posterior), precuneus and temporoparietal cortex in mediating self-referential processing (SRP), little is known about the neural bases mediating individual differences in valenced SRP, that is, processes intrinsic to self-esteem. This study investigated the neural correlates of experimentally engendered valenced SRP via the Visual?Verbal Self-Other Referential Pro...

  8. Neuroimaging Study of the Human Amygdala - Toward an Understanding of Emotional and Stress Responses -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iidaka, Tetsuya

    The amygdala plays a critical role in the neural system involved in emotional responses and conditioned fear. The dysfunction of this system is thought to be a cause of several neuropsychiatric disorders. A neuroimaging study provides a unique opportunity for noninvasive investigation of the human amygdala. We studied the activity of this structure in normal subjects and patients with schizophrenia by using the face recognition task. Our results showed that the amygdala was activated by presentation of face stimuli, and negative face activated the amygdala to a greater extent than a neutral face. Under the happy face condition, the activation of the amygdala was higher in the schizophrenic patients than in control subjects. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the regulatory region of the serotonin type 3 receptor gene had modulatory effects on the amygdaloid activity. The emotion regulation had a significant impact on neural interaction between the amygdala and prefrontal cortices. Thus, studies on the human amygdala would greatly contribute to the elucidation of the neural system that determines emotional and stress responses. To clarify the relevance of the neural dysfunction and neuropsychiatric disorders, further studies using physiological, genetic, and hormonal approaches are essential.

  9. Oxytocin and Social Adaptation: Insights from Neuroimaging Studies of Healthy and Clinical Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yina; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone; Han, Shihui; Zink, Caroline F

    2016-02-01

    Adaptation to the social environment is critical for human survival. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT), implicated in social cognition and emotions pivotal to sociality and well-being, is a promising pharmacological target for social and emotional dysfunction. We suggest here that the multifaceted role of OT in socio-affective processes improves the capability for social adaptation. We review OT effects on socio-affective processes, with a focus on OT-neuroimaging studies, to elucidate neuropsychological mechanisms through which OT promotes social adaptation. We also review OT-neuroimaging studies of individuals with social deficits and suggest that OT ameliorates impaired social adaptation by normalizing hyper- or hypo-brain activity. The social adaption model (SAM) provides an integrative understanding of discrepant OT effects and the modulations of OT action by personal milieu and context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. How Acute Total Sleep Loss Affects the Attending Brain: A Meta-Analysis of Neuroimaging Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Dinges, David F.; Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Attention is a cognitive domain that can be severely affected by sleep deprivation. Previous neuroimaging studies have used different attention paradigms and reported both increased and reduced brain activation after sleep deprivation. However, due to large variability in sleep deprivation protocols, task paradigms, experimental designs, characteristics of subject populations, and imaging techniques, there is no consensus regarding the effects of sleep loss on the attending brain. The aim of this meta-analysis was to identify brain activations that are commonly altered by acute total sleep deprivation across different attention tasks. Design: Coordinate-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies of performance on attention tasks during experimental sleep deprivation. Methods: The current version of the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach was used for meta-analysis. The authors searched published articles and identified 11 sleep deprivation neuroimaging studies using different attention tasks with a total of 185 participants, equaling 81 foci for ALE analysis. Results: The meta-analysis revealed significantly reduced brain activation in multiple regions following sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness, including bilateral intraparietal sulcus, bilateral insula, right prefrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex, and right parahippocampal gyrus. Increased activation was found only in bilateral thalamus after sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness. Conclusion: Acute total sleep deprivation decreases brain activation in the fronto-parietal attention network (prefrontal cortex and intraparietal sulcus) and in the salience network (insula and medial frontal cortex). Increased thalamic activation after sleep deprivation may reflect a complex interaction between the de-arousing effects of sleep loss and the arousing effects of task performance on thalamic activity. Citation: Ma N, Dinges DF, Basner M, Rao H. How acute total

  11. Visuospatial processing in early Alzheimer's disease: a multimodal neuroimaging study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, H.I.L.; Gronenschild, E.H.B.M.; Evers, E.A.T.; Ramakers, I.H.G.B.; Hofman, P.A.M.; Backes, W.H.; Jolles, J.; Verhey, F.R.J.; van Boxtel, M.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Dorsal pathway dysfunctions are thought to underlie visuospatial processing problems in Alzheimer disease (AD). Prior studies reported compensatory mechanisms in the dorsal or ventral pathway in response to these functional changes. Since functional and structural connectivity are

  12. [Functional neuroimaging in the study of aggressive behaviour in patients with schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garciá-Martí, Gracián; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Aguilar, Eduardo J; Sanz-Requena, Roberto; Alberich-Bayarri, Ángel; Bonmatí, Ana; Sanjuán, Julio

    2013-02-16

    Although aggressive behaviours are not always very highly prevalent in schizophrenia, their occurrence does represent a significant problem for patients and those around them. Although neuroimaging studies have made it possible to further our knowledge of the biology of these behaviours, there is still a notable degree of clinical heterogeneity in the study samples that makes it difficult to obtain conclusive results that can be compared with each other. To determine whether there are variations in the brain activity, as measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging, of a homogenous group of patients with schizophrenia and aggressive behaviour. The sample consisted of 32 patients with refractory schizophrenia and auditory hallucinations selected for the study. The subjects were submitted to a functional magnetic resonance imaging examination using an auditory paradigm with emotional stimulation, while the degree of aggressiveness was measured by means of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Significant correlations were found between functional activation and the degree of aggressiveness, which show focal hyperactivations in patients with a greater association to violent behaviours. The areas identified were located in the left hippocampus (p aggressiveness and certain regions in the brain that are responsible for cognitive and emotional processing in a phenotypically very homogenous group of patients with chronic auditory hallucinations and schizophrenia. This alteration of the neuronal circuits can favour loss in the processes involved in empathy and sensitivity, thus favouring the appearance of aggressive behaviours.

  13. Neural correlates of somatoform disorders from a meta-analytic perspective on neuroimaging studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Boeckle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Somatoform disorders (SD are common medical disorders with prevalence rates between 3.5% and 18.4%, depending on country and medical setting. SD as outlined in the ICD-10 exhibits various biological, social, and psychological pathogenic factors. Little is known about the neural correlates of SD. The aims of this meta-analysis are to identify neuronal areas that are involved in SD and consistently differ between patients and healthy controls. We conducted a systematic literature research on neuroimaging studies of SD. Ten out of 686 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were analyzed using activation likelihood estimation. Five neuronal areas differ between patients with SD and healthy controls namely the premotor and supplementary motor cortexes, the middle frontal gyrus, the anterior cingulate cortex, the insula, and the posterior cingulate cortex. These areas seem to have a particular importance for the occurrence of SD. Out of the ten studies two did not contribute to any of the clusters. Our results seem to largely overlap with the circuit network model of somatosensory amplification for SD. It is conceivable that functional disorders, independent of the clinical impression, show similar neurobiological processes. While overlaps do occur it is necessary to understand single functional somatic syndromes and their aetiology for future research, terminology, and treatment guidelines.

  14. Internet and Gaming Addiction: A Systematic Literature Review of Neuroimaging Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Kuss, DJ; Griffiths, MD

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, research has accumulated suggesting that excessive Internet use can lead to the development of a behavioral addiction. Internet addiction has been considered as a serious threat to mental health and the excessive use of the Internet has been linked to a variety of negative psychosocial consequences. The aim of this review is to identify all empirical studies to date that used neuroimaging techniques to shed light upon the emerging mental health problem of Internet and gami...

  15. Contribution of Neuroimaging Studies to Understanding Development of Human Cognitive Brain Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Morita, Tomoyo; Asada, Minoru; Naito, Eiichi

    2016-01-01

    Humans experience significant physical and mental changes from birth to adulthood, and a variety of perceptual, cognitive and motor functions mature over the course of approximately 20 years following birth. To deeply understand such developmental processes, merely studying behavioral changes is not sufficient; simultaneous investigation of the development of the brain may lead us to a more comprehensive understanding. Recent advances in noninvasive neuroimaging technologies largely contribut...

  16. Structural brain abnormalities in autism : neuroimaging and neuropathology studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palmen, Saskia Johanna Maria Christina

    2005-01-01

    JUSTIFY Autism is currently viewed as a largely genetically determined neurodevelopmental disorder. Over the last decades, an increasing number of studies have been performed, trying to establish the underlying biological causes of autism. However, its exact etiology still remains unclear. In this

  17. Multi-Parametric Neuroimaging Reproducibility: A 3T Resource Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, Bennett A.; Huang, Alan J.; Gifford, Aliya; Vikram, Deepti S.; Lim, Issel Anne L.; Farrell, Jonathan A.D.; Bogovic, John A.; Hua, Jun; Chen, Min; Jarso, Samson; Smith, Seth A.; Joel, Suresh; Mori, Susumu; Pekar, James J.; Barker, Peter B.; Prince, Jerry L.; van Zijl, Peter C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Modern MRI image processing methods have yielded quantitative, morphometric, functional, and structural assessments of the human brain. These analyses typically exploit carefully optimized protocols for specific imaging targets. Algorithm investigators have several excellent public data resources to use to test, develop, and optimize their methods. Recently, there has been an increasing focus on combining MRI protocols in multi-parametric studies. Notably, these have included innovative approaches for fusing connectivity inferences with functional and/or anatomical characterizations. Yet, validation of the reproducibility of these interesting and novel methods has been severely hampered by the limited availability of appropriate multi-parametric data. We present an imaging protocol optimized to include state-of-the-art assessment of brain function, structure, micro-architecture, and quantitative parameters within a clinically feasible 60 minute protocol on a 3T MRI scanner. We present scan-rescan reproducibility of these imaging contrasts based on 21 healthy volunteers (11 M/10 F, 22–61 y/o). The cortical gray matter, cortical white matter, ventricular cerebrospinal fluid, thalamus, putamen, caudate, cerebellar gray matter, cerebellar white matter, and brainstem were identified with mean volume-wise reproducibility of 3.5%. We tabulate the mean intensity, variability and reproducibility of each contrast in a region of interest approach, which is essential for prospective study planning and retrospective power analysis considerations. Anatomy was highly consistent on structural acquisition (~1–5% variability), while variation on diffusion and several other quantitative scans was higher (~parametric imaging protocols. PMID:21094686

  18. Multi-parametric neuroimaging reproducibility: a 3-T resource study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, Bennett A; Huang, Alan J; Gifford, Aliya; Vikram, Deepti S; Lim, Issel Anne L; Farrell, Jonathan A D; Bogovic, John A; Hua, Jun; Chen, Min; Jarso, Samson; Smith, Seth A; Joel, Suresh; Mori, Susumu; Pekar, James J; Barker, Peter B; Prince, Jerry L; van Zijl, Peter C M

    2011-02-14

    Modern MRI image processing methods have yielded quantitative, morphometric, functional, and structural assessments of the human brain. These analyses typically exploit carefully optimized protocols for specific imaging targets. Algorithm investigators have several excellent public data resources to use to test, develop, and optimize their methods. Recently, there has been an increasing focus on combining MRI protocols in multi-parametric studies. Notably, these have included innovative approaches for fusing connectivity inferences with functional and/or anatomical characterizations. Yet, validation of the reproducibility of these interesting and novel methods has been severely hampered by the limited availability of appropriate multi-parametric data. We present an imaging protocol optimized to include state-of-the-art assessment of brain function, structure, micro-architecture, and quantitative parameters within a clinically feasible 60-min protocol on a 3-T MRI scanner. We present scan-rescan reproducibility of these imaging contrasts based on 21 healthy volunteers (11 M/10 F, 22-61 years old). The cortical gray matter, cortical white matter, ventricular cerebrospinal fluid, thalamus, putamen, caudate, cerebellar gray matter, cerebellar white matter, and brainstem were identified with mean volume-wise reproducibility of 3.5%. We tabulate the mean intensity, variability, and reproducibility of each contrast in a region of interest approach, which is essential for prospective study planning and retrospective power analysis considerations. Anatomy was highly consistent on structural acquisition (~1-5% variability), while variation on diffusion and several other quantitative scans was higher (~parametric imaging protocols. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Haptic fMRI: combining functional neuroimaging with haptics for studying the brain's motor control representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Samir; Brantner, Gerald; Aholt, Chris; Kay, Kendrick; Khatib, Oussama

    2013-01-01

    A challenging problem in motor control neuroimaging studies is the inability to perform complex human motor tasks given the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanner's disruptive magnetic fields and confined workspace. In this paper, we propose a novel experimental platform that combines Functional MRI (fMRI) neuroimaging, haptic virtual simulation environments, and an fMRI-compatible haptic device for real-time haptic interaction across the scanner workspace (above torso ∼ .65×.40×.20m(3)). We implement this Haptic fMRI platform with a novel haptic device, the Haptic fMRI Interface (HFI), and demonstrate its suitability for motor neuroimaging studies. HFI has three degrees-of-freedom (DOF), uses electromagnetic motors to enable high-fidelity haptic rendering (>350Hz), integrates radio frequency (RF) shields to prevent electromagnetic interference with fMRI (temporal SNR >100), and is kinematically designed to minimize currents induced by the MRI scanner's magnetic field during motor displacement (Tesla fMRI scanner's baseline noise variation (∼.85±.1%). Finally, HFI is haptically transparent and does not interfere with human motor tasks (tested for .4m reaches). By allowing fMRI experiments involving complex three-dimensional manipulation with haptic interaction, Haptic fMRI enables-for the first time-non-invasive neuroscience experiments involving interactive motor tasks, object manipulation, tactile perception, and visuo-motor integration.

  20. Language context modulates reading route: an electrical neuroimaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Andrea Buetler

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Orthographic Depth Hypothesis (Katz&Feldman, 1983 posits that different reading routes are engaged depending on the type of grapheme/phoneme correspondence of the language being read. Shallow orthographies with consistent grapheme/phoneme correspondences favor encoding via non-lexical pathways, where each grapheme is sequentially mapped to its corresponding phoneme. In contrast, deep orthographies with inconsistent grapheme/phoneme correspondences favor lexical pathways, where phonemes are retrieved from specialized memory structures. This hypothesis, however, lacks compelling empirical support. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of orthographic depth on reading route selection using a within-subject design.Method: We presented the same pseudowords (PWs to highly proficient bilinguals and manipulated the orthographic depth of PW reading by embedding them among two separated German or French language contexts, implicating respectively shallow or deep orthography. High density electroencephalography was recorded during the task.Results: The topography of the ERPs to identical PWs differed 300-360ms post-stimulus onset when the PWs were read in different orthographic depth context, indicating distinct brain networks engaged in reading during this time window. The brain sources underlying these topographic effects were located within left inferior frontal (German>French, parietal (French>German and cingular areas (German>French.Conclusion: Reading in a shallow context favors non-lexical pathways, reflected in a stronger engagement of frontal phonological areas in the shallow versus the deep orthographic context. In contrast, reading PW in a deep orthographic context recruits less routine non-lexical pathways, reflected in a stronger engagement of visuo-attentional parietal areas in the deep versus shallow orthographic context. These collective results support a modulation of reading route selection by

  1. A meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies on divergent thinking using activation likelihood estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin; Yang, Wenjing; Tong, Dandan; Sun, Jiangzhou; Chen, Qunlin; Wei, Dongtao; Zhang, Qinglin; Zhang, Meng; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-07-01

    In this study, an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis was used to conduct a quantitative investigation of neuroimaging studies on divergent thinking. Based on the ALE results, the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies showed that distributed brain regions were more active under divergent thinking tasks (DTTs) than those under control tasks, but a large portion of the brain regions were deactivated. The ALE results indicated that the brain networks of the creative idea generation in DTTs may be composed of the lateral prefrontal cortex, posterior parietal cortex [such as the inferior parietal lobule (BA 40) and precuneus (BA 7)], anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) (BA 32), and several regions in the temporal cortex [such as the left middle temporal gyrus (BA 39), and left fusiform gyrus (BA 37)]. The left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 46) was related to selecting the loosely and remotely associated concepts and organizing them into creative ideas, whereas the ACC (BA 32) was related to observing and forming distant semantic associations in performing DTTs. The posterior parietal cortex may be involved in the semantic information related to the retrieval and buffering of the formed creative ideas, and several regions in the temporal cortex may be related to the stored long-term memory. In addition, the ALE results of the structural studies showed that divergent thinking was related to the dopaminergic system (e.g., left caudate and claustrum). Based on the ALE results, both fMRI and structural MRI studies could uncover the neural basis of divergent thinking from different aspects (e.g., specific cognitive processing and stable individual difference of cognitive capability). © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The posttraumatic stress disorder project in Brazil: neuropsychological, structural and molecular neuroimaging studies in victims of urban violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bressan Rodrigo A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Life trauma is highly prevalent in the general population and posttraumatic stress disorder is among the most prevalent psychiatric consequences of trauma exposure. Brazil has a unique environment to conduct translational research about psychological trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder, since urban violence became a Brazilian phenomenon, being particularly related to the rapid population growth of its cities. This research involves three case-control studies: a neuropsychological, a structural neuroimaging and a molecular neuroimaging study, each focusing on different objectives but providing complementary information. First, it aims to examine cognitive functioning of PTSD subjects and its relationships with symptomatology. The second objective is to evaluate neurostructural integrity of orbitofrontal cortex and hippocampus in PTSD subjects. The third aim is to evaluate if patients with PTSD have decreased dopamine transporter density in the basal ganglia as compared to resilient controls subjects. This paper shows the research rationale and design for these three case-control studies. Methods and design Cases and controls will be identified through an epidemiologic survey conducted in the city of São Paulo. Subjects exposed to traumatic life experiences resulting in posttraumatic stress disorder (cases will be compared to resilient victims of traumatic life experiences without PTSD (controls aiming to identify biological variables that might protect or predispose to PTSD. In the neuropsychological case-control study, 100 patients with PTSD, will be compared with 100 victims of trauma without posttraumatic stress disorder, age- and sex-matched controls. Similarly, 50 cases and 50 controls will be enrolled for the structural study and 25 cases and 25 controls in the functional neuroimaging study. All individuals from the three studies will complete psychometrics and a structured clinical interview (the Structured

  3. Recruitment of the left precentral gyrus in reading epilepsy: A multimodal neuroimaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dima Safi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: This study is the first to investigate ictogenesis in reading epilepsy during both lexical and phonological reading while using three different multimodal neuroimaging techniques. The somatosensory and motor control functions of the left precentral gyrus that are congruently involved in lexical as well as phonological reading can explain the identical spike localization in both reading pathways. The concurrence between our findings in this study and those from our previous one supports the role of the left precentral gyrus in phonological output computation as well as seizure activity in a case of reading epilepsy.

  4. EXECUTIVE AND SEMANTIC PROCESSES IN REAPPRAISAL OF NEGATIVE STIMULI: INSIGHTS FROM A META-ANALISYS OF NEUROIMAGING STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene eMessina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging investigations have identified the neural correlates of reappraisal in executive areas. These findings have been interpreted as evidence for recruitment of controlled process, at the expense of automatic processes when responding to emotional stimuli. However, activation of semantic areas has also been reported. The aim of the present work was to address the issue of the importance of semantic areas in emotion regulation by comparing recruitment of executive and semantic neural substrates in studies investigating different reappraisal strategies. With this aim, we reviewed neuroimaging studies on reappraisal and we classified them in two main categories: reappraisal of stimuli (RS and reappraisal via perspective taking (RPT. We applied a coordinate-based meta-analysis to summarize the results of fMRI studies on different reappraisal strategies. Our results showed that reappraisal, when considered regardless of the specific instruction used in the studies, involved both executive and semantic areas of the brain. When considering different reappraisal strategies separately, in contrast, we found areas associated with executive function to be prominently recruited by RS, even if also semantic areas are activated. Instead, in RPT the most important clusters of brain activity were found on parietal and temporal semantic areas, without significant cluster in executive areas. These results indicate that modulation of activity in semantic areas may constitute an important aspect of emotion regulation in reappraisal, suggesting that semantic processes may be more important to understand the mechanism of emotion regulation than previously thought..

  5. Acute and non-acute effects of cannabis on human memory function: a critical review of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossong, Matthijs G; Jager, Gerry; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Allen, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Smoking cannabis produces a diverse range of effects, including impairments in learning and memory. These effects are exerted through action on the endocannabinoid system, which suggests involvement of this system in human cognition. Learning and memory deficits are core symptoms of psychiatric and neurological disorders such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease, and may also be related to endocannabinoid dysfunction in these disorders. However, before new research can focus on potential treatments that work by manipulating the endocannabinoid system, it needs to be elucidated how this system is involved in symptoms of psychiatric disorders. Here we review neuroimaging studies that investigated acute and non-acute effects of cannabis on human learning and memory function, both in adults and in adolescents. Overall, results of these studies show that cannabis use is associated with a pattern of increased activity and a higher level of deactivation in different memory-related areas. This could reflect either increased neural effort ('neurophysiological inefficiency') or a change in strategy to maintain good task performance. However, the interpretation of these findings is significantly hampered by large differences between study populations in cannabis use in terms of frequency, age of onset, and time that subjects were abstinent from cannabis. Future neuroimaging studies should take these limitations into account, and should focus on the potential of cannabinoid compounds for treatment of cognitive symptoms in psychiatric disorders.

  6. How acute total sleep loss affects the attending brain: a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Dinges, David F; Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi

    2015-02-01

    Attention is a cognitive domain that can be severely affected by sleep deprivation. Previous neuroimaging studies have used different attention paradigms and reported both increased and reduced brain activation after sleep deprivation. However, due to large variability in sleep deprivation protocols, task paradigms, experimental designs, characteristics of subject populations, and imaging techniques, there is no consensus regarding the effects of sleep loss on the attending brain. The aim of this meta-analysis was to identify brain activations that are commonly altered by acute total sleep deprivation across different attention tasks. Coordinate-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies of performance on attention tasks during experimental sleep deprivation. The current version of the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach was used for meta-analysis. The authors searched published articles and identified 11 sleep deprivation neuroimaging studies using different attention tasks with a total of 185 participants, equaling 81 foci for ALE analysis. The meta-analysis revealed significantly reduced brain activation in multiple regions following sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness, including bilateral intraparietal sulcus, bilateral insula, right prefrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex, and right parahippocampal gyrus. Increased activation was found only in bilateral thalamus after sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness. Acute total sleep deprivation decreases brain activation in the fronto-parietal attention network (prefrontal cortex and intraparietal sulcus) and in the salience network (insula and medial frontal cortex). Increased thalamic activation after sleep deprivation may reflect a complex interaction between the de-arousing effects of sleep loss and the arousing effects of task performance on thalamic activity. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  7. Effects of bariatric surgery on the central nervous system and eating behavior in humans: a systematic review on the neuroimaging studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Tonelli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Neuroimaging studies suggest that obese people might show hyperactivity of brain areas regarding reward processing, and hypoactivity of brain areas concerning cognitive control, when exposed to food cues. Although the effects of bariatric surgery on the central nervous system and eating behavior are well known, few studies have used neuroimage techniques with the aim of investigating the central effects of bariatric surgery in humans. OBJECTIVES: This paper systematically and critically reviews studies using functional neuroimaging to investigate changes on the patterns of activation of central areas related to the regulation of eating behavior after bariatric surgery. METHOD: A search on the databases Medline, Web of Science, Lilacs and Science Direct on Line, was conducted in February 2013, using the keywords "Neuroimaging", "Positron-Emission Tomography", "Magnetic Resonance Imaging", "Gastric Bypass", "Gastroplasty", "Jejunoileal Bypass", "Bariatric Surgery". RESULTS: Seven manuscripts were included; the great majority studied the central effects of Roux en Y gastric bypass, using positron emission tomography or functional magnetic resonance. CONCLUSIONS: Bariatric surgery might normalize the activity of central areas concerned with reward and incentive salience processing, as the nucleus accumbens and mesencephalic tegmental ventral area, as well as circuitries processing behavioral inhibition, as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

  8. Neuroimaging and electroconvulsive therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolwig, Tom G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the 1970s, a number of neuroimaging studies of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) have been conducted to elucidate the working action of this highly efficacious treatment modality. The technologies used are single photon emission tomography, positron emission tomography, magnetic...... resonance imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and quantitative electroencephalography. METHODS: A PubMed literature search with focus on clinical studies was made from the inception of the database until December 2013 using the search terms electroconvulsive therapy and neuroimaging. RESULTS: Early...

  9. Contribution of Neuroimaging Studies to Understanding Development of Human Cognitive Brain Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyo Morita

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Humans experience significant physical and mental changes from birth to adulthood, and a variety of perceptual, cognitive, and motor functions mature over the course of approximately 20 years following birth. To deeply understand such developmental processes, merely studying behavioral changes is not sufficient; simultaneous investigation of the development of the brain may lead us to more comprehensive understanding. Recent advances in noninvasive neuroimaging technologies largely contribute to this understanding. Here, it is very important to consider the development of the brain from the perspectives of structure and function because both structure and function of the human brain mature slowly. In this review, we first discuss the process of structural brain development, i.e., how the structure of the brain, which is crucial when discussing functional brain development, changes with age. Second, we introduce some representative studies and the latest studies related to the functional development of the brain, particularly for visual, facial recognition, and social cognition functions, all of which are important for humans. Finally, we summarize how brain science can contribute to developmental study and discuss the challenges that neuroimaging should address in the future.

  10. A systemic literature review of neuroimaging studies in women with breast cancer treated with adjuvant chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Andryszak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced cognitive deficits in patients with breast cancer, predominantly in attention and verbal memory, have been observed in numerous studies. These neuropsychological findings are corroborated by the results of neuroimaging studies. The aim of this paper was to survey the reports on cerebral structural and functional alterations in women with breast cancer treated with chemotherapy (CTx. First, we discuss the host-related and disease-related mechanisms underlying cognitive impairment after CTx. We point out the direct and indirect neurotoxic effect of cytostatics, which may cause: a damage to neurons or glial cells, changes in neurotransmitter levels, deregulation of the immune system and/or cytokine release. Second, we focus on the results of neuroimaging studies on brain structure and function that revealed decreased: density of grey matter, integrity of white matter and volume of multiple brain regions, as well as their lower activation during cognitive task performance. Finally, we concentrate on compensatory mechanisms, which activate additional brain areas or neural connection to reach the premorbid cognitive efficiency.

  11. Neuroimaging of epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cendes, Fernando; Theodore, William H.; Brinkmann, Benjamin H.; Sulc, Vlastimil; Cascino, Gregory D.

    2017-01-01

    Imaging is pivotal in the evaluation and management of patients with seizure disorders. Elegant structural neuroimaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may assist in determining the etiology of focal epilepsy and demonstrating the anatomical changes associated with seizure activity. The high diagnostic yield of MRI to identify the common pathological findings in individuals with focal seizures including mesial temporal sclerosis, vascular anomalies, low-grade glial neoplasms and malformations of cortical development has been demonstrated. Positron emission tomography (PET) is the most commonly performed interictal functional neuroimaging technique that may reveal a focal hypometabolic region concordant with seizure onset. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies may assist performance of ictal neuroimaging in patients with pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy being considered for neurosurgical treatment. This chapter highlights neuroimaging developments and innovations, and provides a comprehensive overview of the imaging strategies used to improve the care and management of people with epilepsy. PMID:27430454

  12. Neuroimaging and neuromodulation approaches to study eating behavior and prevent and treat eating disorders and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val-Laillet, D; Aarts, E; Weber, B; Ferrari, M; Quaresima, V; Stoeckel, L E; Alonso-Alonso, M; Audette, M; Malbert, C H; Stice, E

    2015-01-01

    Functional, molecular and genetic neuroimaging has highlighted the existence of brain anomalies and neural vulnerability factors related to obesity and eating disorders such as binge eating or anorexia nervosa. In particular, decreased basal metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and striatum as well as dopaminergic alterations have been described in obese subjects, in parallel with increased activation of reward brain areas in response to palatable food cues. Elevated reward region responsivity may trigger food craving and predict future weight gain. This opens the way to prevention studies using functional and molecular neuroimaging to perform early diagnostics and to phenotype subjects at risk by exploring different neurobehavioral dimensions of the food choices and motivation processes. In the first part of this review, advantages and limitations of neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), pharmacogenetic fMRI and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) will be discussed in the context of recent work dealing with eating behavior, with a particular focus on obesity. In the second part of the review, non-invasive strategies to modulate food-related brain processes and functions will be presented. At the leading edge of non-invasive brain-based technologies is real-time fMRI (rtfMRI) neurofeedback, which is a powerful tool to better understand the complexity of human brain-behavior relationships. rtfMRI, alone or when combined with other techniques and tools such as EEG and cognitive therapy, could be used to alter neural plasticity and learned behavior to optimize and/or restore healthy cognition and eating behavior. Other promising non-invasive neuromodulation approaches being explored are repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS). Converging evidence points at the value of

  13. Neuroimaging and neuromodulation approaches to study eating behavior and prevent and treat eating disorders and obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val-Laillet, D.; Aarts, E.; Weber, B.; Ferrari, M.; Quaresima, V.; Stoeckel, L.E.; Alonso-Alonso, M.; Audette, M.; Malbert, C.H.; Stice, E.

    2015-01-01

    Functional, molecular and genetic neuroimaging has highlighted the existence of brain anomalies and neural vulnerability factors related to obesity and eating disorders such as binge eating or anorexia nervosa. In particular, decreased basal metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and striatum as well as dopaminergic alterations have been described in obese subjects, in parallel with increased activation of reward brain areas in response to palatable food cues. Elevated reward region responsivity may trigger food craving and predict future weight gain. This opens the way to prevention studies using functional and molecular neuroimaging to perform early diagnostics and to phenotype subjects at risk by exploring different neurobehavioral dimensions of the food choices and motivation processes. In the first part of this review, advantages and limitations of neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), pharmacogenetic fMRI and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) will be discussed in the context of recent work dealing with eating behavior, with a particular focus on obesity. In the second part of the review, non-invasive strategies to modulate food-related brain processes and functions will be presented. At the leading edge of non-invasive brain-based technologies is real-time fMRI (rtfMRI) neurofeedback, which is a powerful tool to better understand the complexity of human brain–behavior relationships. rtfMRI, alone or when combined with other techniques and tools such as EEG and cognitive therapy, could be used to alter neural plasticity and learned behavior to optimize and/or restore healthy cognition and eating behavior. Other promising non-invasive neuromodulation approaches being explored are repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS). Converging evidence points at the value of

  14. Neuroimaging and neuromodulation approaches to study eating behavior and prevent and treat eating disorders and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Val-Laillet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional, molecular and genetic neuroimaging has highlighted the existence of brain anomalies and neural vulnerability factors related to obesity and eating disorders such as binge eating or anorexia nervosa. In particular, decreased basal metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and striatum as well as dopaminergic alterations have been described in obese subjects, in parallel with increased activation of reward brain areas in response to palatable food cues. Elevated reward region responsivity may trigger food craving and predict future weight gain. This opens the way to prevention studies using functional and molecular neuroimaging to perform early diagnostics and to phenotype subjects at risk by exploring different neurobehavioral dimensions of the food choices and motivation processes. In the first part of this review, advantages and limitations of neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, positron emission tomography (PET, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, pharmacogenetic fMRI and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS will be discussed in the context of recent work dealing with eating behavior, with a particular focus on obesity. In the second part of the review, non-invasive strategies to modulate food-related brain processes and functions will be presented. At the leading edge of non-invasive brain-based technologies is real-time fMRI (rtfMRI neurofeedback, which is a powerful tool to better understand the complexity of human brain–behavior relationships. rtfMRI, alone or when combined with other techniques and tools such as EEG and cognitive therapy, could be used to alter neural plasticity and learned behavior to optimize and/or restore healthy cognition and eating behavior. Other promising non-invasive neuromodulation approaches being explored are repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS and transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS. Converging evidence points at

  15. Paediatric Neuroimaging

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paediatric Neuroimaging Quiz Case. S Afr J Rad. 2015;19(2); Art. #873, 3 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajr.v19i2.873. Copyright: © 2015. The Authors. Licensee: AOSIS OpenJournals. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons. Attribution License. Read online: Scan this QR code with your smart phone or.

  16. Advocating neuroimaging studies of transmitter release in human physical exercise challenges studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boecker, Henning; Othman, Ahmed; Mueckter, Sarah; Scheef, Lukas; Pensel, Max; Daamen, Marcel; Jankowski, Jakob; Schild, Hh; Tölle, Tr; Schreckenberger, M

    2010-01-01

    This perspective attempts to outline the emerging role of positron emission tomography (PET) ligand activation studies in human exercise research. By focusing on the endorphinergic system and its acclaimed role for exercise-induced antinociception and mood enhancement, we like to emphasize the unique potential of ligand PET applied to human athletes for uncovering the neurochemistry of exercise-induced psychophysiological phenomena. Compared with conventional approaches, in particular quantification of plasma beta-endorphin levels under exercise challenges, which are reviewed in this article, studying opioidergic effects directly in the central nervous system (CNS) with PET and relating opioidergic binding changes to neuropsychological assessments, provides a more refined and promising experimental strategy. Although a vast literature dating back to the 1980s of the last century has been able to reproducibly demonstrate peripheral increases of beta-endorphin levels after various exercise challenges, so far, these studies have failed to establish robust links between peripheral beta-endorphin levels and centrally mediated behavioral effects, ie, modulation of mood and/or pain perception. As the quantitative relation between endorphins in the peripheral blood and the CNS remains unknown, the question arises, to what extent conventional blood-based methods can inform researchers about central neurotransmitter effects. As previous studies using receptor blocking approaches have also revealed equivocal results regarding exercise effects on pain and mood processing, it is expected that PET and other functional neuroimaging applications in athletes may in future help uncover some of the hitherto unknown links between neurotransmission and psychophysiological effects related to physical exercise.

  17. Multiple Neuroimaging Measures for Examining Exercise-induced Neuroplasticity in Older Adults: A Quasi-experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihong Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Physical exercise can improve physical and mental health. A number of imaging studies have examined the role of neuroplasticity in improving cognition with physical exercise; however, such neuroplasticity changes are not consistent across the reports partly due to small sample sizes in some studies. We thought to explore the concept that identifying consistent findings across multi-modality imaging measures would provide relatively reliable results. We designed a 6-week quasi-experiment with Wii-fitness exercise program in 24 healthy adults older than 60, and then examined the changes on neuroimaging measures including brain volume, the amplitude of low-frequency oscillation function (ALFF, regional homogeneity (ReHo, seed-based functional connectivity (FC, and the global efficiency of nodal connectivity during resting state. We focused on whether there were common regions showing changes after exercise across these measures and which measure was closely correlated with cognitive improvement. After the six-week exercise program, participants demonstrated a significant improvement in memory and executive function on neuropsychological tests, and in memory recall on an emotional memory task. The common brain regions that showed significant changes across different measures were the right striatum and the posterior cingulate (PCC. After exercise, the PCC showed decreased ReHo and increased volume, and the striatum did not show volume loss as the control group did and increased its FC with the cingulate, temporal, parietal, and occipital regions. Moreover, the connectivity change between the striatum and the thalamus was correlated with the improvement of executive function. This result implicates the striatum and the PCC associated network in physical exercise. Our work highlights the effectiveness of multi-modality neuroimaging measures in investigating neuroplasticity.

  18. Reproducible Large-Scale Neuroimaging Studies with the OpenMOLE Workflow Management System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passerat-Palmbach, Jonathan; Reuillon, Romain; Leclaire, Mathieu; Makropoulos, Antonios; Robinson, Emma C; Parisot, Sarah; Rueckert, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    OpenMOLE is a scientific workflow engine with a strong emphasis on workload distribution. Workflows are designed using a high level Domain Specific Language (DSL) built on top of Scala. It exposes natural parallelism constructs to easily delegate the workload resulting from a workflow to a wide range of distributed computing environments. OpenMOLE hides the complexity of designing complex experiments thanks to its DSL. Users can embed their own applications and scale their pipelines from a small prototype running on their desktop computer to a large-scale study harnessing distributed computing infrastructures, simply by changing a single line in the pipeline definition. The construction of the pipeline itself is decoupled from the execution context. The high-level DSL abstracts the underlying execution environment, contrary to classic shell-script based pipelines. These two aspects allow pipelines to be shared and studies to be replicated across different computing environments. Workflows can be run as traditional batch pipelines or coupled with OpenMOLE's advanced exploration methods in order to study the behavior of an application, or perform automatic parameter tuning. In this work, we briefly present the strong assets of OpenMOLE and detail recent improvements targeting re-executability of workflows across various Linux platforms. We have tightly coupled OpenMOLE with CARE, a standalone containerization solution that allows re-executing on a Linux host any application that has been packaged on another Linux host previously. The solution is evaluated against a Python-based pipeline involving packages such as scikit-learn as well as binary dependencies. All were packaged and re-executed successfully on various HPC environments, with identical numerical results (here prediction scores) obtained on each environment. Our results show that the pair formed by OpenMOLE and CARE is a reliable solution to generate reproducible results and re-executable pipelines. A

  19. Neural basis of attachment-caregiving systems interaction: insights from neuroimaging studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, Delia; Trentini, Cristina; Tambelli, Renata; Pantano, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    The attachment and the caregiving system are complementary systems which are active simultaneously in infant and mother interactions. This ensures the infant survival and optimal social, emotional, and cognitive development. In this brief review we first define the characteristics of these two behavioral systems and the theory that links them, according to what Bowlby called the “attachment-caregiving social bond” (Bowlby, 1969). We then follow with those neuroimaging studies that have focused on this particular issue, i.e., those which have studied the activation of the careging system in women (using infant stimuli) and have explored how the individual attachment model (through the Adult Attachment Interview) modulates its activity. Studies report altered activation in limbic and prefrontal areas and in basal ganglia and hypothalamus/pituitary regions. These altered activations are thought to be the neural substrate of the attachment-caregiving systems interaction. PMID:26379578

  20. Functional topography in the human cerebellum: a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoodley, Catherine J; Schmahmann, Jeremy D

    2009-01-15

    Clinical, experimental and neuroimaging studies indicate that the cerebellum is involved in neural processes beyond the motor domain. Cerebellar somatotopy has been shown for motor control, but topographic organization of higher-order functions has not yet been established. To determine whether existing literature supports the hypothesis of functional topography in the human cerebellum, we conducted an activation likelihood estimate (ALE) meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies reporting cerebellar activation in selected task categories: motor (n=7 studies), somatosensory (n=2), language (n=11), verbal working memory (n=8), spatial (n=8), executive function (n=8) and emotional processing (n=9). In agreement with previous investigations, sensorimotor tasks activated anterior lobe (lobule V) and adjacent lobule VI, with additional foci in lobule VIII. Motor activation was in VIIIA/B; somatosensory activation was confined to VIIIB. The posterior lobe was involved in higher-level tasks. ALE peaks were identified in lobule VI and Crus I for language and verbal working memory; lobule VI for spatial tasks; lobules VI, Crus I and VIIB for executive functions; and lobules VI, Crus I and medial VII for emotional processing. Language was heavily right-lateralized and spatial peaks left-lateralized, reflecting crossed cerebro-cerebellar projections. Language and executive tasks activated regions of Crus I and lobule VII proposed to be involved in prefrontal-cerebellar loops. Emotional processing involved vermal lobule VII, implicated in cerebellar-limbic circuitry. These data provide support for an anterior sensorimotor vs. posterior cognitive/emotional dichotomy in the human cerebellum. Prospective studies of multiple domains within single individuals are necessary to better elucidate neurobehavioral structure-function correlations in the cerebellar posterior lobe.

  1. Advocating neuroimaging studies of transmitter release in human physical exercise challenges studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Boecker

    2010-09-01

    extent conventional blood-based methods can inform researchers about central neurotransmitter effects. As previous studies using receptor blocking approaches have also revealed equivocal results regarding exercise effects on pain and mood processing, it is expected that PET and other functional neuroimaging applications in athletes may in future help uncover some of the hitherto unknown links between neurotransmission and psychophysiological effects related to physical exercise.Keywords: positron emission tomography, beta-endorphins, opioids

  2. Random forests on Hadoop for genome-wide association studies of multivariate neuroimaging phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Goh, Wilson; Wong, Limsoon; Montana, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Multivariate quantitative traits arise naturally in recent neuroimaging genetics studies, in which both structural and functional variability of the human brain is measured non-invasively through techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There is growing interest in detecting genetic variants associated with such multivariate traits, especially in genome-wide studies. Random forests (RFs) classifiers, which are ensembles of decision trees, are amongst the best performing machine learning algorithms and have been successfully employed for the prioritisation of genetic variants in case-control studies. RFs can also be applied to produce gene rankings in association studies with multivariate quantitative traits, and to estimate genetic similarities measures that are predictive of the trait. However, in studies involving hundreds of thousands of SNPs and high-dimensional traits, a very large ensemble of trees must be inferred from the data in order to obtain reliable rankings, which makes the application of these algorithms computationally prohibitive. We have developed a parallel version of the RF algorithm for regression and genetic similarity learning tasks in large-scale population genetic association studies involving multivariate traits, called PaRFR (Parallel Random Forest Regression). Our implementation takes advantage of the MapReduce programming model and is deployed on Hadoop, an open-source software framework that supports data-intensive distributed applications. Notable speed-ups are obtained by introducing a distance-based criterion for node splitting in the tree estimation process. PaRFR has been applied to a genome-wide association study on Alzheimer's disease (AD) in which the quantitative trait consists of a high-dimensional neuroimaging phenotype describing longitudinal changes in the human brain structure. PaRFR provides a ranking of SNPs associated to this trait, and produces pair-wise measures of genetic proximity that can be directly

  3. Random forests on Hadoop for genome-wide association studies of multivariate neuroimaging phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Motivation Multivariate quantitative traits arise naturally in recent neuroimaging genetics studies, in which both structural and functional variability of the human brain is measured non-invasively through techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There is growing interest in detecting genetic variants associated with such multivariate traits, especially in genome-wide studies. Random forests (RFs) classifiers, which are ensembles of decision trees, are amongst the best performing machine learning algorithms and have been successfully employed for the prioritisation of genetic variants in case-control studies. RFs can also be applied to produce gene rankings in association studies with multivariate quantitative traits, and to estimate genetic similarities measures that are predictive of the trait. However, in studies involving hundreds of thousands of SNPs and high-dimensional traits, a very large ensemble of trees must be inferred from the data in order to obtain reliable rankings, which makes the application of these algorithms computationally prohibitive. Results We have developed a parallel version of the RF algorithm for regression and genetic similarity learning tasks in large-scale population genetic association studies involving multivariate traits, called PaRFR (Parallel Random Forest Regression). Our implementation takes advantage of the MapReduce programming model and is deployed on Hadoop, an open-source software framework that supports data-intensive distributed applications. Notable speed-ups are obtained by introducing a distance-based criterion for node splitting in the tree estimation process. PaRFR has been applied to a genome-wide association study on Alzheimer's disease (AD) in which the quantitative trait consists of a high-dimensional neuroimaging phenotype describing longitudinal changes in the human brain structure. PaRFR provides a ranking of SNPs associated to this trait, and produces pair-wise measures of genetic proximity

  4. Neuroimaging in Parkinsonism: a study with magnetic resonance and spectroscopy as tools in the differential diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcellos, Luiz Felipe Rocha [1Hospital dos Servidores do Estado, Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: luizneurol@terra.com.br; Novis, Sergio A. Pereira; Rosso, Ana Lucia Z. [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho (HUCFF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Moreira, Denise Madeira [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Neurologia Deolindo Couto; Leite, Ana Claudia C.B. [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-03-15

    The differential diagnosis of Parkinsonism based on clinical features, sometimes may be difficult. Diagnostic tests in these cases might be useful, especially magnetic resonance imaging, a noninvasive exam, not as expensive as positron emission tomography, and provides a good basis for anatomical analysis. The magnetic resonance spectroscopy analyzes cerebral metabolism, yielding inconsistent results in parkinsonian disorders. We selected 40 individuals for magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy analysis, 12 with Parkinson's disease, 11 with progressive supranuclear palsy, 7 with multiple system atrophy (parkinsonian type), and 10 individuals without any psychiatric or neurological disorders (controls). Clinical scales included Hoenh and Yahr, unified Parkinson's disease rating scale and mini mental status examination. The results showed that patients with Parkinson's disease and controls presented the same aspects on neuroimaging, with few or absence of abnormalities, and supranuclear progressive palsy and multiple system atrophy showed abnormalities, some of which statistically significant. Thus, magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy could be useful as a tool in differential diagnosis of Parkinsonism. (author)

  5. Machine learning patterns for neuroimaging-genetic studies in the cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Mota, Benoit; Tudoran, Radu; Costan, Alexandru; Varoquaux, Gaël; Brasche, Goetz; Conrod, Patricia; Lemaitre, Herve; Paus, Tomas; Rietschel, Marcella; Frouin, Vincent; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Antoniu, Gabriel; Thirion, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Brain imaging is a natural intermediate phenotype to understand the link between genetic information and behavior or brain pathologies risk factors. Massive efforts have been made in the last few years to acquire high-dimensional neuroimaging and genetic data on large cohorts of subjects. The statistical analysis of such data is carried out with increasingly sophisticated techniques and represents a great computational challenge. Fortunately, increasing computational power in distributed architectures can be harnessed, if new neuroinformatics infrastructures are designed and training to use these new tools is provided. Combining a MapReduce framework (TomusBLOB) with machine learning algorithms (Scikit-learn library), we design a scalable analysis tool that can deal with non-parametric statistics on high-dimensional data. End-users describe the statistical procedure to perform and can then test the model on their own computers before running the very same code in the cloud at a larger scale. We illustrate the potential of our approach on real data with an experiment showing how the functional signal in subcortical brain regions can be significantly fit with genome-wide genotypes. This experiment demonstrates the scalability and the reliability of our framework in the cloud with a 2 weeks deployment on hundreds of virtual machines.

  6. Is correction for age necessary in neuroimaging studies of the central serotonin transporter?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesse, Swen; Mueller, Dominic; Seese, Anita; Kluge, Regine; Sabri, Osama [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Leipzig, Liebigstrasse 20a, 04103, Leipzig (Germany); Barthel, Henryk [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Leipzig, Liebigstrasse 20a, 04103, Leipzig (Germany); MRC Cyclotron Unit, Imperial College School of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Murai, Toshiya [Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kyoto, Kyoto (Japan); Mueller, Ulrich [Psychiatry, University Hospital, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany)

    2003-03-01

    The central neurotransmitter serotonin plays a major role in a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, results from post-mortem and in vivo neuroimaging studies of the influence of age on the number of presynaptic serotonin transporters (SERT) are controversial. To provide further evidence of relevance for this ongoing discussion, SERT were imaged in 22 persons without neuropsychiatric impairment using [{sup 123}I]2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(iodophenyl)tropane ([{sup 123}I]β-CIT) and high-resolution single-photon emission tomography (SPET). The SPET analysis method was based on magnetic resonance image co-registration in order to quantify SERT with acceptable inter- and intra-observer variability. Using this technique, we found a significant age-related decline in the thalamic/hypothalamic and midbrain/upper brainstem SERT density, which was more pronounced than that previously reported in the literature. From these results we conclude that age-related changes in SERT density need to be considered in future clinical studies. (orig.)

  7. Neuroimaging self-esteem: a fMRI study of individual differences in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewen, Paul A; Lundberg, Erica; Brimson-Théberge, Melanie; Théberge, Jean

    2013-06-01

    Although neuroimaging studies strongly implicate the medial prefrontal cortex (ventral and dorsal), cingulate gyrus (anterior and posterior), precuneus and temporoparietal cortex in mediating self-referential processing (SRP), little is known about the neural bases mediating individual differences in valenced SRP, that is, processes intrinsic to self-esteem. This study investigated the neural correlates of experimentally engendered valenced SRP via the Visual-Verbal Self-Other Referential Processing Task in 20 women with fMRI. Participants viewed pictures of themselves or unknown other women during separate trials while covertly rehearsing 'I am' or 'She is', followed by reading valenced trait adjectives, thus variably associating the self/other with positivity/negativity. Response within dorsal and ventral medial prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex and left temporoparietal cortex varied with individual differences in both pre-task rated self-descriptiveness of the words, as well as task-induced affective responses. Results are discussed as they relate to a social cognitive and affective neuroscience view of self-esteem.

  8. Neuroprotective mechanism of BNG-1 against focal cerebral ischemia: a neuroimaging and neurotrophin study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nai-Fang Chi

    Full Text Available BNG-1 is a herb complex used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat stroke. In this study, we attempted to identify the neuroprotective mechanism of BNG-1 by using neuroimaging and neurotrophin analyses of a stroke animal model. Rats were treated with either saline or BNG-1 for 7 d after 60-min middle cerebral artery occlusion by filament model. The temporal change of magnetic resonance (MR imaging of brain was studied using a 7 Tesla MR imaging (MRI system and the temporal expressions of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, and nerve growth factor (NGF in brain were analyzed before operation and at 4 h, 2 d, and 7 d after operation. Compared with the saline group, the BNG-1 group exhibited a smaller infarction volume in the cerebral cortex in T2 image from as early as 4 h to 7 d, less edema in the cortex in diffusion weighted image from 2 to 7 d, earlier reduction of postischemic hyperperfusion in both the cortex and striatum in perfusion image at 4 h, and earlier normalization of the ischemic pattern in the striatum in susceptibility weighted image at 2 d. NT-3 and BDNF levels were higher in the BNG-1 group than the saline group at 7 d. We concluded that the protective effect of BNG-1 against cerebral ischemic injury might act through improving cerebral hemodynamics and recovering neurotrophin generation.

  9. Data sharing in neuroimaging research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste ePoline

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Significant resources around the world have been invested in neuroimaging studies of brain function and disease. Easier access to this large body of work should have profound impact on research in cognitive neuroscience and psychiatry, leading to advances in the diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric and neurological disease. A trend toward increased sharing of neuroimaging data has emerged in recent years. Nevertheless, a number of barriers continue to impede momentum. Many researchers and institutions remain uncertain about how to share data or lack the tools and expertise to participate in data sharing. The use of electronic data capture methods for neuroimaging greatly simplifies the task of data collection and has the potential to help standardize many aspects of data sharing. We review here the motivations for sharing neuroimaging data, the current data sharing landscape, and the sociological or technical barriers that still need to be addressed. The INCF Task Force on Neuroimaging Datasharing, in conjunction with several collaborative groups around the world, has started work on several tools to ease and eventually automate the practice of data sharing. It is hoped that such tools will allow researchers to easily share raw, processed, and derived neuroimaging data, with appropriate metadata and provenance records, and will improve the reproducibility of neuroimaging studies. By providing seamless integration of data sharing and analysis tools within a commodity research environment, the Task Force seeks to identify and minimize barriers to data sharing in the field of neuroimaging.

  10. Perception of affective and linguistic prosody: an ALE meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyk, Michel; Brown, Steven

    2014-09-01

    Prosody refers to the melodic and rhythmic aspects of speech. Two forms of prosody are typically distinguished: 'affective prosody' refers to the expression of emotion in speech, whereas 'linguistic prosody' relates to the intonation of sentences, including the specification of focus within sentences and stress within polysyllabic words. While these two processes are united by their use of vocal pitch modulation, they are functionally distinct. In order to examine the localization and lateralization of speech prosody in the brain, we performed two voxel-based meta-analyses of neuroimaging studies of the perception of affective and linguistic prosody. There was substantial sharing of brain activations between analyses, particularly in right-hemisphere auditory areas. However, a major point of divergence was observed in the inferior frontal gyrus: affective prosody was more likely to activate Brodmann area 47, while linguistic prosody was more likely to activate the ventral part of area 44. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Emotion and Cognition Interactions in PTSD: A Review of Neurocognitive and Neuroimaging Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmeet P Hayes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a psychiatric syndrome that develops after exposure to terrifying and life-threatening events including warfare, motor-vehicle accidents, and physical and sexual assault. The emotional experience of psychological trauma can have long-term cognitive effects. The hallmark symptoms of PTSD involve alterations to cognitive processes such as memory, attention, planning and problem solving, underscoring the detrimental impact that negative emotionality has on cognitive functioning. As such, an important challenge for PTSD researchers and treatment providers is to understand the dynamic interplay between emotion and cognition. Contemporary cognitive models of PTSD theorize that a preponderance of information processing resources are allocated towards threat detection and interpretation of innocuous stimuli as threatening, narrowing one’s attentional focus at the expense of other cognitive operations. Decades of research have shown support for these cognitive models of PTSD using a variety of tasks and methodological approaches. The primary goal of this review is to summarize the latest neurocognitive and neuroimaging research of emotion-cognition interactions in PTSD. To directly assess the influence of emotion on cognition and vice versa, the studies reviewed employed challenge tasks that included both cognitive and emotional components. The findings provide evidence for memory and attention deficits in PTSD that are often associated with changes in functional brain activity. The results are reviewed to provide future directions for research that may direct better and more effective treatments for PTSD.

  12. Neural correlates of dysfunctional emotion regulation in major depressive disorder. A systematic review of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rive, Maria M; van Rooijen, Geeske; Veltman, Dick J; Phillips, Mary L; Schene, Aart H; Ruhé, Henricus G

    2013-12-01

    Abnormal emotion processing is a core feature of major depressive disorder (MDD). Since the emergence of functional neuroimaging techniques, many studies have been conducted in MDD subjects to elucidate the underlying abnormalities in the neural systems involved in emotion regulation. In this systematic review, we discuss this research in the context of the neural model of emotion regulation previously described by Phillips et al. (2008). This model differentiates between automatic and voluntary emotion regulation subprocesses. Automatic regulation subprocesses were shown to involve predominantly medial prefrontal cortical structures, in addition to the hippocampus and parahippocampus, while voluntary regulation processes additionally recruited lateral prefrontal cortical regions. In conclusion, although the available data is limited, findings suggest that MDD subjects demonstrate abnormally reduced activity in lateral prefrontal cortices during explicit voluntary control of emotional experience. During early, automatic stages of emotion regulation, on the other hand, MDD subjects appear to achieve successful emotion regulation by recruiting additional lateral prefrontal neural regions, that may be mediated by medial prefrontal, especially rostral/dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG) functioning. Dysfunctional automatic regulation may impair successful voluntary emotion regulation, and may present a target for novel therapeutic approaches in MDD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Stuttering as a trait or state - an ALE meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyk, Michel; Kraft, Shelly Jo; Brown, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Stuttering is a speech disorder characterised by repetitions, prolongations and blocks that disrupt the forward movement of speech. An earlier meta-analysis of brain imaging studies of stuttering (Brown et al., 2005) revealed a general trend towards rightward lateralization of brain activations and hyperactivity in the larynx motor cortex bilaterally. The present study sought not only to update that meta-analysis with recent work but to introduce an important distinction not present in the first study, namely the difference between 'trait' and 'state' stuttering. The analysis of trait stuttering compares people who stutter (PWS) with people who do not stutter when behaviour is controlled for, i.e., when speech is fluent in both groups. In contrast, the analysis of state stuttering examines PWS during episodes of stuttered speech compared with episodes of fluent speech. Seventeen studies were analysed using activation likelihood estimation. Trait stuttering was characterised by the well-known rightward shift in lateralization for language and speech areas. State stuttering revealed a more diverse pattern. Abnormal activation of larynx and lip motor cortex was common to the two analyses. State stuttering was associated with overactivation in the right hemisphere larynx and lip motor cortex. Trait stuttering was associated with overactivation of lip motor cortex in the right hemisphere but underactivation of larynx motor cortex in the left hemisphere. These results support a large literature highlighting laryngeal and lip involvement in the symptomatology of stuttering, and disambiguate two possible sources of activation in neuroimaging studies of persistent developmental stuttering. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Statistical inferences under the Null hypothesis: Common mistakes and pitfalls in neuroimaging studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel eHupé

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Published studies using functional and structural MRI include many errors in the way data are analyzed and conclusions reported. This was observed when working on a comprehensive review of the neural bases of synesthesia, but these errors are probably endemic to neuroimaging studies. All studies reviewed had based their conclusions using Null Hypothesis Significance Tests (NHST. NHST have yet been criticized since their inception because they are more appropriate for taking decisions related to a Null hypothesis (like in manufacturing than for making inferences about behavioral and neuronal processes. Here I focus on a few key problems of NHST related to brain imaging techniques, and explain why or when we should not rely on significance tests. I also observed that, often, the ill-posed logic of NHST was even not correctly applied, and describe what I identified as common mistakes or at least problematic practices in published papers, in light of what could be considered as the very basics of statistical inference. MRI statistics also involve much more complex issues than standard statistical inference. Analysis pipelines vary a lot between studies, even for those using the same software, and there is no consensus which pipeline is the best. I propose a synthetic view of the logic behind the possible methodological choices, and warn against the usage and interpretation of two statistical methods popular in brain imaging studies, the false discovery rate (FDR procedure and permutation tests. I suggest that current models for the analysis of brain imaging data suffer from serious limitations and call for a revision taking into account the new statistics (confidence intervals logic.

  15. Neural correlates of conversion disorder: overview and meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies on motor conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckle, Markus; Liegl, Gregor; Jank, Robert; Pieh, Christoph

    2016-06-10

    Conversion Disorders (CD) are prevalent functional disorders. Although the pathogenesis is still not completely understood, an interaction of genetic, neurobiological, and psychosocial factors is quite likely. The aim of this study is to provide a systematic overview on imaging studies on CDs and investigate neuronal areas involved in Motor Conversion Disorders (MCD). A systematic literature search was conducted on CD. Subsequently a meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies on MCD was implemented using an Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE). We calculated differences between patients and healthy controls as well as between affected versus unaffected sides in addition to an overall analysis in order to identify neuronal areas related to MCD. Patients with MCD differ from healthy controls in the amygdala, superior temporal lobe, retrosplenial area, primary motor cortex, insula, red nucleus, thalamus, anterior as well as dorsolateral prefrontal and frontal cortex. When comparing affected versus unaffected sides, temporal cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, supramarginal gyrus, dorsal temporal lobe, anterior insula, primary somatosensory cortex, superior frontal gyrus and anterior prefrontal as well as frontal cortex show significant differences. Neuronal areas seem to be involved in the pathogenesis, maintenance or as a result of MCD. Areas that are important for motor-planning, motor-selection or autonomic response seem to be especially relevant. Our results support the emotional unawareness theory but also underline the need of more support by conduction imaging studies on both CD and MCD.

  16. Consensus paper: combining transcranial stimulation with neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebner, Hartwig R; Bergmann, Til O; Bestmann, Sven

    2009-01-01

    In the last decade, combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-neuroimaging studies have greatly stimulated research in the field of TMS and neuroimaging. Here, we review how TMS can be combined with various neuroimaging techniques to investigate human brain function. When applied during ne...

  17. Brain activation in response to bladder filling in healthy adults: An activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Nisha G; Weissbart, Steven J; Xu, Sihua; Rao, Hengyi

    2017-04-01

    Recent studies have used different neuroimaging techniques and identified various brain regions that are activated during bladder filling. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding which of these brain regions regulate the process of urine storage. The aim of this meta-analysis is to identify brain regions that are commonly activated during bladder filling in healthy adults across different studies. PubMed was searched for neuroimaging studies investigating the effects of bladder filling on regional brain activation. Studies were excluded if they did not report brain activation differences from whole-brain group analysis by comparing the state of bladder filling with the state of bladder rest. The current version of the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach was used for meta-analysis. We identified 14 neuroimaging studies examining brain activation in response to experimental bladder filling in 181 healthy subjects, which reported 89 foci for ALE analysis. The meta-analysis revealed significant activation in multiple brain regions including thalamus (bilaterally), right insula, cerebellum, and brainstem (bilaterally). Several key brain regions involved in sensory processing are commonly activated during bladder filling in healthy adults across different studies. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:960-965, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. DeID – A Data Sharing Tool for Neuroimaging Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuebo eSong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Funding institutions and researchers increasingly expect that data will be shared to increase scientific integrity and provide other scientists with the opportunity to use the data with novel methods that may advance understanding in a particular field of study. In practice, sharing human subject data can be complicated because data must be de-identified prior to sharing. Moreover, integrating varied data types collected in a study can be challenging and time consuming. For example, sharing data from structural imaging studies of a complex disorder requires the integration of imaging, demographic and/or behavioral data in a way that no subject identifiers are included in the de-identified dataset and with new subject labels or identification values that cannot be tracked back to the original ones. We have developed a Java program that users can use to remove identifying information in neuroimaging datasets, while still maintaining the association among different data types from the same subject for further studies. This software provides a series of user interaction wizards to allow users to select data variables to be de-identified, implements functions for auditing and validation of de-identified data, and enables the user to share the de-identified data in a single compressed package through various communication protocols, such as FTPS and SFTP. DeID runs with Windows, Linux, and Mac operating systems and its open architecture allows it to be easily adapted to support a broader array of data types, with the goal of facilitating data sharing. DeID can be obtained at http://www.nitrc.org/projects/deid.

  19. The hallucinating brain : A review of structural and functional neuroimaging studies of hallucinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, Paul; Laroi, Frank; McGuire, Philip K.; Aleman, Andre

    2008-01-01

    Hallucinations remains one of the most intriguing phenomena in psychopathology. In the past two decades the advent of neuroimaging techniques have allowed researchers to investigate what is happening in the brain of those who experience hallucinations. In this article we review both structural and

  20. Neuroimaging and neuromodulation approaches to study eating behavior and prevent and treat eating disorders and obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Val-Laillet, D.; Aarts, E.; Weber, B.; Ferrari, M.; Quaresima, V.; Stoeckel, L.E.; Alonso-Alonso, M.; Audette, M.; Malbert, C.H.; Stice, E.

    2015-01-01

    Functional, molecular and genetic neuroimaging has highlighted the existence of brain anomalies and neural vulnerability factors related to obesity and eating disorders such as binge eating or anorexia nervosa. In particular, decreased basal metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and striatum as well

  1. The link between cardiovascular risk, Alzheimer's disease, and mild cognitive impairment: support from recent functional neuroimaging studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz K. Ferreira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review functional neuroimaging studies about the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs, Alzheimer's disease (AD, and mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Methods: We performed a comprehensive literature search to identify articles in the neuroimaging field addressing CVRF in AD and MCI. We included studies that used positron emission tomography (PET, single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT, or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Results: CVRFs have been considered risk factors for cognitive decline, MCI, and AD. Patterns of AD-like changes in brain function have been found in association with several CVRFs (both regarding individual risk factors and also composite CVRF measures. In vivo assessment of AD-related pathology with amyloid imaging techniques provided further evidence linking CVRFs and AD, but there is still limited information resulting from this new technology. Conclusion: There is a large body of evidence from functional neuroimaging studies supporting the hypothesis that CVRFs may play a causal role in the pathophysiology of AD. A major limitation of most studies is their cross-sectional design; future longitudinal studies using multiple imaging modalities are expected to better document changes in CVRF-related brain function patterns and provide a clearer picture of the complex relationship between aging, CVRFs, and AD.

  2. A neuroimaging study of emotion-cognition interaction in schizophrenia: the effect of ziprasidone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stip, Emmanuel; Cherbal, Adel; Luck, David; Zhornitsky, Simon; Bentaleb, Lahcen Ait; Lungu, Ovidiu

    2017-04-01

    Functional and structural brain changes associated with the cognitive processing of emotional visual stimuli were assessed in schizophrenic patients after 16 weeks of antipsychotic treatment with ziprasidone. Forty-five adults aged 18 to 40 were recruited: 15 schizophrenia patients (DSM-IV criteria) treated with ziprasidone (mean daily dose = 120 mg), 15 patients treated with other antipsychotics, and 15 healthy controls who did not receive any medication. Functional and structural neuroimaging data were acquired at baseline and 16 weeks after treatment initiation. In each session, participants selected stimuli, taken from standardized sets, based on their emotional valence. After ziprasidone treatment, several prefrontal regions, typically involved in cognitive control (anterior cingulate and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices), were significantly activated in patients in response to positive versus negative stimuli. This effect was greater whenever they had to select negative compared to positive stimuli, indicating an asymmetric effect of cognitive treatment of emotionally laden information. No such changes were observed for patients under other antipsychotics. In addition, there was an increase in the brain volume commonly recruited by healthy controls and patients under ziprasidone, in response to cognitive processing of emotional information. The structural analysis showed no significant changes in the density of gray and white matter in ziprasidone-treated patients compared to patients receiving other antipsychotic treatments. Our results suggest that functional changes in brain activity after ziprasidone medication precede structural and clinical manifestations, as markers that the treatment is efficient in restoring the functionality of prefrontal circuits involved in processing emotionally laden information in schizophrenia.

  3. Age-related changes in the neural networks supporting semantic cognition: A meta-analysis of 47 functional neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Paul; Morcom, Alexa M

    2018-01-01

    Semantic cognition is central to understanding of language and the world and, unlike many cognitive domains, is thought to show little age-related decline. We investigated age-related differences in the neural basis of this critical cognitive domain by performing an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies comparing young and older people. On average, young people outperformed their older counterparts during semantic tasks. Overall, both age groups activated similar left-lateralised regions. However, older adults displayed less activation than young people in some elements of the typical left-hemisphere semantic network, including inferior prefrontal, posterior temporal and inferior parietal cortex. They also showed greater activation in right frontal and parietal regions, particularly those held to be involved in domain-general controlled processing, and principally when they performed more poorly than the young. Thus, semantic processing in later life is associated with a shift from semantic-specific to domain-general neural resources, consistent with the theory of neural dedifferentiation, and a performance-related reduction in prefrontal lateralisation, which may reflect a response to increased task demands. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Brain basis of early parent-infant interactions: psychology, physiology, and in vivo functional neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, James E; Lorberbaum, Jeffrey P; Kose, Samet; Strathearn, Lane

    2007-01-01

    Parenting behavior critically shapes human infants' current and future behavior. The parent-infant relationship provides infants with their first social experiences, forming templates of what they can expect from others and how to best meet others' expectations. In this review, we focus on the neurobiology of parenting behavior, including our own functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) brain imaging experiments of parents. We begin with a discussion of background, perspectives and caveats for considering the neurobiology of parent-infant relationships. Then, we discuss aspects of the psychology of parenting that are significantly motivating some of the more basic neuroscience research. Following that, we discuss some of the neurohormones that are important for the regulation of social bonding, and the dysregulation of parenting with cocaine abuse. Then, we review the brain circuitry underlying parenting, proceeding from relevant rodent and nonhuman primate research to human work. Finally, we focus on a study-by-study review of functional neuroimaging studies in humans. Taken together, this research suggests that networks of highly conserved hypothalamic-midbrain-limbic-paralimbic-cortical circuits act in concert to support aspects of parent response to infants, including the emotion, attention, motivation, empathy, decision-making and other thinking that are required to navigate the complexities of parenting. Specifically, infant stimuli activate basal forebrain regions, which regulate brain circuits that handle specific nurturing and caregiving responses and activate the brain's more general circuitry for handling emotions, motivation, attention, and empathy--all of which are crucial for effective parenting. We argue that an integrated understanding of the brain basis of parenting has profound implications for mental health.

  5. Neuroimaging Findings in First Unprovoked Seizures: A Multicentric Study in Tehran

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOLLA MOHAMMADI, Mohsen; TONEKABONI, Seyed Hassan; KHATAMI, Alireza; AZARGASHB, Eznollah; TAVASOLI, Azita; JAVADZADEH, Mohsen; ZAMANI, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    Objective Seizure is an emergency in pediatrics. It really matters to the parents of the involved child to have information about the causes, management and prognosis. First unprovoked seizures (FUS) are seizures that occur in patients without fever, trauma or infection. Due to the rapid improvement in diagnostic techniques in the last few decades, the etiology will be revealed and this term will no longer exist. This Study was designed to evaluate brain imaging findings in FUS patients. Materials & Methods Ninety-six children with FUS, who were admitted in three major children’s hospitals in Tehran, underwent brain imaging and were enrolled into the study. The decision about the type of imaging (CT or MRI) was based on the patient’s medical and financial conditions. An expert radiologist in the field of pediatric neuroimaging interpreted the images. Results Altogether, 27.1% had abnormal findings of which 29.2% were in the brain MRI group and 14.3% were in the brain CT scan group. Abnormal results were gliosis (10.4%), hemorrhage (4.2%), dysgenesis (2.1%), dysmyelination (7.3%), encephalomalacy (1%), atrophy (5.2%) and infarction (2.1%). In some patients, the lesions were in 2 or 3 sites and some had more than one type of lesion. There was no association between the duration, age and type of seizure and imaging abnormlities. However, we found an association between the location of the lesion and the type of seizure. Conclusion We recommend brain imaging in all patients with FUS and apart from some exceptions, brain MRI is superior to CT. PMID:24665314

  6. A Functional Neuroimaging Study of Expectancy Effects on Pain Response in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollub, Randy L; Kirsch, Irving; Maleki, Nasim; Wasan, Ajay D; Edwards, Robert R; Tu, Yiheng; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Kong, Jian

    2018-01-08

    Placebo treatments and healing rituals share much in common, such as the effects of expectancy, and have been used since the beginning of human history to treat pain. Previous mechanistic neuroimaging studies investigating the effects of expectancy on placebo analgesia have used young, healthy volunteers. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we aimed to investigate the neural mechanisms by which expectancy evokes analgesia in older adults living with a chronic pain disorder and determine whether there are interactions with active treatment. In this fMRI study, we investigated the brain networks underlying expectancy in participants with chronic pain due to knee osteoarthritis (OA) after verum (genuine) and sham electroacupuncture (EA) treatment before and after experiencing calibrated experimental heat pain using a well-tested expectancy manipulation model. We found that expectancy significantly and similarly modulates the pain experience in knee OA patients in both verum (n=21, 11 female; mean ± SD age 57±7 years) and sham (n=22, 15 female; mean ± SD age 59±7 years) acupuncture treatment groups. However, there were different patterns of changes in fMRI indices of brain activity associated with verum and sham treatment modalities specifically in the lateral prefrontal cortex. We also found that continuous EA in knee OA patients can evoke significant regional coherence decreases in pain associated brain regions. Our results suggest that expectancy modulates the experience of pain in knee OA patients but may work through different pathways depending on the treatment modality and, we speculate, on pathophysiological states of the participants. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Aspects of cerebral plasticity related to clinical features in acute vestibular neuritis: a "starting point" review from neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micarelli, A; Chiaravalloti, A; Schillaci, O; Ottaviani, F; Alessandrini, M

    2016-04-01

    Vestibular neuritis (VN) is one of the most common causes of vertigo and is characterised by a sudden unilateral vestibular failure (UVF). Many neuroimaging studies in the last 10 years have focused on brain changes related to sudden vestibular deafferentation as in VN. However, most of these studies, also due to different possibilities across diverse centres, were based on different times of first acquisition from the onset of VN symptoms, neuroimaging techniques, statistical analysis and correlation with otoneurological and psychological findings. In the present review, the authors aim to merge together the similarities and discrepancies across various investigations that have employed neuroimaging techniques and group analysis with the purpose of better understanding about how the brain changes and what characteristic clinical features may relate to each other in the acute phase of VN. Six studies that strictly met inclusion criteria were analysed to assess cortical-subcortical correlates of acute clinical features related to VN. The present review clearly reveals that sudden UVF may induce a wide variety of cortical and subcortical responses - with changes in different sensory modules - as a result of acute plasticity in the central nervous system. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale, Rome, Italy.

  8. Functional neuroimaging studies of sexual arousal and orgasm in healthy men and women: a review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoléru, Serge; Fonteille, Véronique; Cornélis, Christel; Joyal, Christian; Moulier, Virginie

    2012-07-01

    In the last fifteen years, functional neuroimaging techniques have been used to investigate the neuroanatomical correlates of sexual arousal in healthy human subjects. In most studies, subjects have been requested to watch visual sexual stimuli and control stimuli. Our review and meta-analysis found that in heterosexual men, sites of cortical activation consistently reported across studies are the lateral occipitotemporal, inferotemporal, parietal, orbitofrontal, medial prefrontal, insular, anterior cingulate, and frontal premotor cortices as well as, for subcortical regions, the amygdalas, claustrum, hypothalamus, caudate nucleus, thalami, cerebellum, and substantia nigra. Heterosexual and gay men show a similar pattern of activation. Visual sexual stimuli activate the amygdalas and thalami more in men than in women. Ejaculation is associated with decreased activation throughout the prefrontal cortex. We present a neurophenomenological model to understand how these multiple regional brain responses could account for the varied facets of the subjective experience of sexual arousal. Further research should shift from passive to active paradigms, focus on functional connectivity and use subliminal presentation of stimuli. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. New electroencephalogram (EEG) neuroimaging methods of analyzing brain activity applicable to the study of human sexual response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortigue, Stephanie; Patel, Nisa; Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco

    2009-07-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) combined with brain source localization algorithms is becoming a powerful tool in the neuroimaging study of human cerebral functions. The present article provides a tutorial on the various EEG methods currently used to study the human brain activity, notably during sexual response. Review of published literature on standard EEG waveform analyses and most recent electrical neuroimaging techniques (microstate approach and two methods of brain source localization). Retrospective overview of pertinent literature. Although the standard EEG waveform analyses enable millisecond time-resolution information about the human sexual responses in the brain, less is clear about their related spatial information. Nowadays, the improvement of EEG techniques and statistical approaches allows the visualization of the dynamics of the human sexual response with a higher spatiotemporal resolution. Here, we describe these enhanced techniques and summarize along with an overview of what we have learned from them in terms of chronoarchitecture of sexual response in the human brain. Finally, the speculation on how we may be able to use other enhanced approaches, such as independent component analysis, are also presented. EEG neuroimaging has already been proven as a strong worthwhile research tool. Combining this approach with standard EEG waveform analyses in sexual medicine may provide a better understanding of the neural activity underlying the human sexual response in both healthy and clinical populations.

  10. Neuroimaging for psychotherapy research: Current trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    WEINGARTEN, CAROL P.; STRAUMAN, TIMOTHY J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This article reviews neuroimaging studies that inform psychotherapy research. An introduction to neuroimaging methods is provided as background for the increasingly sophisticated breadth of methods and findings appearing in psychotherapy research. Method We compiled and assessed a comprehensive list of neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, along with selected examples of other types of studies that also are relevant to psychotherapy research. We emphasized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) since it is the dominant neuroimaging modality in psychological research. Results We summarize findings from neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, including treatment for depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and schizophrenia. Conclusions The increasing use of neuroimaging methods in the study of psychotherapy continues to refine our understanding of both outcome and process. We suggest possible directions for future neuroimaging studies in psychotherapy research. PMID:24527694

  11. White matter connections : developmental neuroimaging studies of the associations between genes, brain and behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Darki, Fahimeh

    2014-01-01

    Development of cognitive abilities across childhood and adulthood parallels brain maturation in typically developing samples. Cognitive abilities such as reading and working memory have been linked to neuroimaging measures in relevant brain regions. Though the correlations between inter-individual brain differences and their related cognitive abilities are well established, the cause of this inter-individual variability is still not fully known. This thesis aims to understand the neural bases...

  12. ARIANNA: A research environment for neuroimaging studies in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retico, Alessandra; Arezzini, Silvia; Bosco, Paolo; Calderoni, Sara; Ciampa, Alberto; Coscetti, Simone; Cuomo, Stefano; De Santis, Luca; Fabiani, Dario; Fantacci, Maria Evelina; Giuliano, Alessia; Mazzoni, Enrico; Mercatali, Pietro; Miscali, Giovanni; Pardini, Massimiliano; Prosperi, Margherita; Romano, Francesco; Tamburini, Elena; Tosetti, Michela; Muratori, Filippo

    2017-08-01

    The complexity and heterogeneity of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) require the implementation of dedicated analysis techniques to obtain the maximum from the interrelationship among many variables that describe affected individuals, spanning from clinical phenotypic characterization and genetic profile to structural and functional brain images. The ARIANNA project has developed a collaborative interdisciplinary research environment that is easily accessible to the community of researchers working on ASD (https://arianna.pi.infn.it). The main goals of the project are: to analyze neuroimaging data acquired in multiple sites with multivariate approaches based on machine learning; to detect structural and functional brain characteristics that allow the distinguishing of individuals with ASD from control subjects; to identify neuroimaging-based criteria to stratify the population with ASD to support the future development of personalized treatments. Secure data handling and storage are guaranteed within the project, as well as the access to fast grid/cloud-based computational resources. This paper outlines the web-based architecture, the computing infrastructure and the collaborative analysis workflows at the basis of the ARIANNA interdisciplinary working environment. It also demonstrates the full functionality of the research platform. The availability of this innovative working environment for analyzing clinical and neuroimaging information of individuals with ASD is expected to support researchers in disentangling complex data thus facilitating their interpretation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The current state of research on ayahuasca: A systematic review of human studies assessing psychiatric symptoms, neuropsychological functioning, and neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Rafael G; Balthazar, Fermanda M; Bouso, José C; Hallak, Jaime Ec

    2016-12-01

    In recent decades, the use of ayahuasca (AYA) - a β-carboline- and dimethyltryptamine-rich hallucinogenic botanical preparation traditionally used by Northwestern Amazonian tribes for ritual and therapeutic purposes - has spread from South America to Europe and the USA, raising concerns about its possible toxicity and hopes of its therapeutic potential. Thus, it is important to analyze the acute, subacute, and long-term effects of AYA to assess its safety and toxicity. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of human studies assessing AYA effects on psychiatric symptoms, neuropsychological functioning, and neuroimaging. Papers published until 16 December 2015 were included from PubMed, LILACS and SciELO databases following a comprehensive search strategy and pre-determined set of criteria for article selection. The review included 28 full-text articles. Acute AYA administration was well tolerated, increased introspection and positive mood, altered visual perceptions, activated frontal and paralimbic regions and decreased default mode network activity. It also improved planning and inhibitory control and impaired working memory, and showed antidepressive and antiaddictive potentials. Long-term AYA use was associated with increased cortical thickness of the anterior cingulate cortex and cortical thinning of the posterior cingulate cortex, which was inversely correlated to age of onset, intensity of prior AYA use, and spirituality. Subacute and long-term AYA use was not associated with increased psychopathology or cognitive deficits, being associated with enhanced mood and cognition, increased spirituality, and reduced impulsivity. Acute, subacute, and long-term AYA use seems to have low toxicity. Preliminary studies about potential therapeutic effects of AYA need replication due to their methodological limitations. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Neuroimaging in childhood headache: a systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexiou, George A. [University of Ioannina, Department of Neurosurgery, Medical School, P.O. Box 103, Ioannina (Greece); Argyropoulou, Maria I. [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece)

    2013-07-15

    Headache is a common complaint in children, one that gives rise to considerable parental concern and fear of the presence of a space-occupying lesion. The evaluation and diagnosis of headache is very challenging for paediatricians, and neuroimaging by means of CT or MRI is often requested as part of the investigation. CT exposes children to radiation, while MRI is costly and sometimes requires sedation or general anaesthesia, especially in children younger than 6 years. This review of the literature on the value of neuroimaging in children with headache showed that the rate of pathological findings is generally low. Imaging findings that led to a change in patient management were in almost all cases reported in children with abnormal signs on neurological examination. Neuroimaging should be limited to children with a suspicious clinical history, abnormal neurological findings or other physical signs suggestive of intracranial pathology. Well-designed prospective studies are needed to better define the clinical findings that warrant neuroimaging in children with headache. (orig.)

  15. Analysis of the relationships between type 2 diabetes status, glycemic control, and neuroimaging measures in the Diabetes Heart Study Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffield, Laura M; Cox, Amanda J; Freedman, Barry I; Hugenschmidt, Christina E; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Wagner, Benjamin C; Xu, Jianzhao; Maldjian, Joseph A; Bowden, Donald W

    2016-06-01

    To examine the relationships between type 2 diabetes (T2D) status, glycemic control, and T2D duration with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived neuroimaging measures in European Americans from the Diabetes Heart Study (DHS) Mind cohort. Relationships were examined using marginal models with generalized estimating equations in 784 participants from 514 DHS Mind families. Fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and diabetes duration were analyzed in 682 participants with T2D. Models were adjusted for potential confounders, including age, sex, history of cardiovascular disease, smoking, educational attainment, and use of statins or blood pressure medications. Association was tested with gray and white matter volume, white matter lesion volume, gray matter cerebral blood flow, and white and gray matter fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity. Adjusting for multiple comparisons, T2D status was associated with reduced white matter volume (p = 2.48 × 10(-6)) and reduced gray and white matter fractional anisotropy (p ≤ 0.001) in fully adjusted models, with a trend toward increased white matter lesion volume (p = 0.008) and increased gray and white matter mean diffusivity (p ≤ 0.031). Among T2D-affected participants, neither fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, nor diabetes duration were associated with the neuroimaging measures assessed (p > 0.05). While T2D was significantly associated with MRI-derived neuroimaging measures, differences in glycemic control in T2D-affected individuals in the DHS Mind study do not appear to significantly contribute to variation in these measures. This supports the idea that the presence or absence of T2D, not fine gradations of glycemic control, may be more significantly associated with age-related changes in the brain.

  16. Neuroimaging findings in primary insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, J N; Berman Rosa, M; Gouin, J-P; Dang-Vu, T T

    2014-10-01

    State-of-the-art neuroimaging techniques have accelerated progress in the study and understanding of sleep in humans. Neuroimaging studies in primary insomnia remain relatively few, considering the important prevalence of this disorder in the general population. This review examines the contribution of functional and structural neuroimaging to our current understanding of primary insomnia. Functional studies during sleep provided support for the hyperarousal theory of insomnia. Functional neuroimaging also revealed abnormalities in cognitive and emotional processing in primary insomnia. Results from structural studies suggest neuroanatomical alterations in primary insomnia, mostly in the hippocampus, anterior cingulate cortex and orbitofrontal cortex. However, these results are not well replicated across studies. A few magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies revealed abnormalities in neurotransmitter concentrations and bioenergetics in primary insomnia. The inconsistencies among neuroimaging findings on insomnia are likely due to clinical heterogeneity, differences in imaging and overall diversity of techniques and designs employed. Larger samples, replication, as well as innovative methodologies are necessary for the progression of this perplexing, yet promising area of research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Neuroimaging Endophenotypes in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Rajneesh; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that has a strong genetic basis, and is heterogeneous in its etiopathogenesis and clinical presentation. Neuroimaging studies, in concert with neuropathological and clinical research, have been instrumental in delineating trajectories of development in children with ASD. Structural neuroimaging has revealed ASD to be a disorder with general and regional brain enlargement, especially in the frontotemporal cortices, while functional neuroimaging studies have highlighted diminished connectivity, especially between frontal-posterior regions. The diverse and specific neuroimaging findings may represent potential neuroendophenotypes, and may offer opportunities to further understand the etiopathogenesis of ASD, predict treatment response and lead to the development of new therapies. PMID:26234701

  18. Developmental neuroimaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehaene-Lambertz, G. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot (CEA/DSV/DRM), INSERM U562, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2006-07-01

    Cognitive capacities, such as language, mathematics, music, etc... are highly developed in humans as compared to animals. Numerous studies have found precursors of these capacities in infants: For example, infants are able to discriminate sentences in different languages (Mehler et al., 1988), distinguish sets of objects based on their numerosity (Feigenson et al., 2002) or recognize known faces (Bushnell, 1982). These abilities are not very different from those of other animals. Monkeys are also able to discriminate two human languages (Ramus et al., 2000), two quantities of items (Hauser et al., 2002), or respond to particular faces (Parr et al., 2000). In a few years, however, children surpass these animals. To explain the development of the cognitive capacities of our species, our approach consists in studying the initial stages of cerebral organization during the first months of life in order to characterize the critical parameters that allow infants to take advantage of their environment to achieve the adults' cognitive sophistication. Thanks to the recent progress of brain imaging, it is now possible to examine cerebral functioning of the very young child in entire security. In our team, we used two complementary methods: event-related potentials (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (f MRI). ERPs, used since numerous years in infants, consist of the recording of the brain electrical activity consecutive to the presentation of a stimulus. By using a careful experimental design, it is possible to infer the succession of processing stages that the stimulus follows and to measure their latency (Dehaene-Lambertz and Dehaene, 1994; Gliga and Dehaene-Lambertz, 2006). High-density ERPs system allows also to record even small topographical differences between conditions and thus to infer that the underlying network s involved in the tested conditions are different. With this method, we have decomposed syllable perception in infants and underscore a

  19. CLINICAL AND NEUROIMAGING STUDIES IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE SPONTANEOUS INTRACEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мaya P. Danovska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To define the prognostic value of clinical and neuroimaging parameters on the 30-th day mortality and clinical outcome after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH. Materials and methods: we examined 88 patients with sICH admitted to Neurology Clinic, UMHAT Pleven within 48 hours after clinical symptoms onset. Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score was used to assess the primary stroke severity; neurological deficit on admission was assessed by National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS; clinical outcome at discharge was evaluated by modified Rankin Scale (mRS and by Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS on the 30-th day after sICH onset. Hematoma volume was measured by the formula of Kothari: AxBxC/2 in ml. The statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 19.0 and Statgraphics plus 4.1 for Windows. Results: Initial assessment of primary stroke severity and neurological deficit by GCS и NIHSS, hematoma localization and volume were found strongly correlated with the clinical outcome on the 30-th day after the sICH onset. Age and vascular risk factors did not correlate with the clinical outcome. Male patients had better survival on the 30-th day compared with the female ones. Discussion: Neurological deficit on admission, hematoma localization and volume were found reliable predictors of the 30-th day clinical outcome that could serve for early stratification of patients and optimal choice of therapeutic approach.

  20. Neuropathological sequelae of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and apathy: A review of neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Roger C; Rosselli, Monica; Uddin, Lucina Q; Antoni, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Apathy remains a common neuropsychiatric disturbance in the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) despite advances in anti-retroviral treatment (ART). The goal of the current review is to recapitulate findings relating apathy to the deleterious biobehavioral effects of HIV-1 in the post-ART era. Available literatures demonstrate that the emergence of apathy with other neurocognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms may be attributed to neurotoxic effects of viral proliferation, e.g., aggregative effect of Tat and gp120 on apoptosis, transport and other enzymatic reactions amongst dopaminergic neurons and neuroglia. An assortment of neuroimaging modalities converge on the severity of apathy symptoms associated with the propensity of the virus to replicate within frontal-striatal brain circuits that facilitate emotional processing. Burgeoning research into functional brain connectivity also supports the effects of microvascular and neuro-inflammatory injury linked to aging with HIV-1 on the presentation of neuropsychiatric symptoms. Summarizing these findings, we review domains of HIV-associated neurocognitive and neuropsychiatric impairment linked to apathy in HIV. Taken together, these lines of research suggest that loss of affective, cognitive and behavioral inertia is commensurate with the neuropathology of HIV-1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cognitive dysfunction in urban elderly people: an exploratory study using neuropsychological and neuroimaging perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreerupa Ghose

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cognitive impairment is an integral part of old age as well as it is a part of many neurodegenerative disorders. Early identification of cognitive impairment is necessary in order to make treatment and rehabilitation possible. Materials and methods: Keeping in mind that early identification of cognitive impairment is necessary, a sample of 20 elderly patients with memory complaints who were referred for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI with symptoms of peripheral nervous system disorder by neurologists have been assessed using neuropsychological tests and MRI, and results have been analysed using IBM SPSS 21 and DICOM software. Results: Neuropsychological test findings suggest that age, sex, and education are related to performance of the participants on different tests of cognitive functions in different ways. Scores on the tests of delayed memory and verbal fluency emerged as positive predictors of activity level. On the basis of MRI, the elderly people were identified with periventricular hyper-intensity of white matter and global cortical atrophy. A comparison of the two groups (on the basis of MRI findings suggest that elderly people with global cortical atrophy were found to be significantly more impaired on visuospatial tasks in comparison to the group with periventricular hyper-intensity of white matter, among other tests of cognitive functions. Conclusion: In spite of the absence of manifestation of dementing illness at clinical level, the participants actually exhibited underlying pathological process which can be detected with neuropsychological testing in conjunction with neuroimaging.

  2. In search of the trauma memory: a meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies of symptom provocation in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Sartory

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding some discrepancy between results from neuroimaging studies of symptom provocation in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, there is broad agreement as to the neural circuit underlying this disorder. It is thought to be characterized by an exaggerated amygdalar and decreased medial prefrontal activation to which the elevated anxiety state and concomitant inadequate emotional regulation are attributed. However, the proposed circuit falls short of accounting for the main symptom, unique among anxiety disorders to PTSD, namely, reexperiencing the precipitating event in the form of recurrent, distressing images and recollections. Owing to the technical demands, neuroimaging studies are usually carried out with small sample sizes. A meta-analysis of their findings is more likely to cast light on the involved cortical areas. Coordinate-based meta-analyses employing ES-SDM (Effect Size Signed Differential Mapping were carried out on 19 studies with 274 PTSD patients. Thirteen of the studies included 145 trauma-exposed control participants. Comparisons between reactions to trauma-related stimuli and a control condition and group comparison of reactions to the trauma-related stimuli were submitted to meta-analysis. Compared to controls and the neutral condition, PTSD patients showed significant activation of the mid-line retrosplenial cortex and precuneus in response to trauma-related stimuli. These midline areas have been implicated in self-referential processing and salient autobiographical memory. PTSD patients also evidenced hyperactivation of the pregenual/anterior cingulate gyrus and bilateral amygdala to trauma-relevant, compared to neutral, stimuli. Patients showed significantly less activation than controls in sensory association areas such as the bilateral temporal gyri and extrastriate area which may indicate that the patients' attention was diverted from the presented stimuli by being focused on the elicited trauma memory. Being

  3. [Neuroimaging in mild cognitive impairment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2006-11-01

    I summarized the present status of Neuroimaging studies in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Nation wide multi-center study with regard to single photon emission study had been started 3 year before and it is now going on in a good cooperation of many institute, covering 319 cases. This study was name as J-COSMIC (Japan Cooperative SPECT Study on Assessment of Mild Impairment of Cognitive Function). After one-year follow-up, 30 out of 120 cases were converted to Alzheimer's disease from MCI. Since last year, ADNI (Alzheimer' disease Neuroimaging Initiative) had started in US, very similar to J-COSMIC, but they adopted PET and MRI as the examination tool. The findings based on J-COSMIC is still unclear, but, we can say that the general cognitive evaluation methods such as MMSE is better than WMS-R, which measures the memory function itself with wide variation in each case. Similar to small size previous works, converter from MCI to Alzheimer's disease tended to show hypoperfusion in the parietal and frontal regions. Recent advance in the molecular imaging enabled us to visualize the deposition of amyloid protein in the brain parenchyma. It is still controversial as to application of the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease or MCI. S. Minoshima reported the hypometabolism in the early stage of Alzheimer's disease in the posterior cingulate gyrus or precuneus, but it has been still unknown why these areas showed hypoperfusion or hypometabolism in early phase of Alzheimer's disease. We examined the fiber connection of posterior cingulate region with other brain structures using diffusion weighted images. It was very surprising that such kind of small structures had a lot of connections, not only contralateral side, but also, parietal and temporal lobes, as well as anterior cigulate cortex. The function has been still been unclear, but we will be able to disclose their functions in the human brain in the future, which will be helpful for understanding the

  4. Brain structure in bipolar disorder : A longitudinal neuroimaging study in twins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bootsman, F

    2016-01-01

    In this longitudinal twin study, the goal was to ascertain the extent to which BD shows abnormalities in subcortical and cortical brain regions at baseline and over time. Baseline assessments in this study revealed that BD was associated with smaller volumes of the thalamus, putamen and nucleus

  5. Functional neuroimaging in Tourette syndrome: recent perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debes NM

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanette Mol Debes, Marie Préel, Liselotte Skov Pediatric Department, Tourette Clinic, Herlev University Hospital, Herlev, DenmarkAbstract: The most recent functional neuroimaging studies on Tourette syndrome (TS are reviewed in this paper. Although it can be difficult to compare functional neuroimaging studies due to differences in methods, differences in age of the included subjects, and differences in the extent to which the presence of comorbidity, medical treatment, and severity of tics are considered in the various studies; most studies show that the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit seems to be involved in the generation of tics. Changes in this circuit seem to be correlated with tic severity. Correlations have been found between the presence of tics and hypermetabolism in various brain regions. Abnormalities of GABAergic, serotonergic, and dopaminergic neurotransmission in patients with TS have been suggested. During tic suppression, increased activity in the inferior frontal gyrus is seen. The premotor cortex might be involved in inhibition of motor control in subjects with TS. The right anterior insula is suggested to be a part of the urge–tic network. Several studies have shown altered motor network activations and sensorimotor gating deficits in subjects with TS. In future studies, inclusion of more well-defined subjects and further examination of premonitory urge and tic suppression is needed in order to increase the knowledge about the pathophysiology and treatment possibilities of TS. Keywords: functional neuroimaging, Tourette syndrome

  6. Can cognitive models explain brain activation during word and pseudoword reading? A meta-analysis of 36 neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J S H; Rastle, Kathleen; Davis, Matthew H

    2013-07-01

    Reading in many alphabetic writing systems depends on both item-specific knowledge used to read irregular words (sew, yacht) and generative spelling-sound knowledge used to read pseudowords (tew, yash). Research into the neural basis of these abilities has been directed largely by cognitive accounts proposed by the dual-route cascaded and triangle models of reading. We develop a framework that enables predictions for neural activity to be derived from cognitive models of reading using 2 principles: (a) the extent to which a model component or brain region is engaged by a stimulus and (b) how much effort is exerted in processing that stimulus. To evaluate the derived predictions, we conducted a meta-analysis of 36 neuroimaging studies of reading using the quantitative activation likelihood estimation technique. Reliable clusters of activity are localized during word versus pseudoword and irregular versus regular word reading and demonstrate a great deal of convergence between the functional organization of the reading system put forward by cognitive models and the neural systems activated during reading tasks. Specifically, left-hemisphere activation clusters are revealed reflecting orthographic analysis (occipitotemporal cortex), lexical and/or semantic processing (anterior fusiform, middle temporal gyrus), spelling-sound conversion (inferior parietal cortex), and phonological output resolution (inferior frontal gyrus). Our framework and results establish that cognitive models of reading are relevant for interpreting neuroimaging studies and that neuroscientific studies can provide data relevant for advancing cognitive models. This article thus provides a firm empirical foundation from which to improve integration between cognitive and neural accounts of the reading process. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  7. A Systematic Review of Intervention Studies Examining Nutritional and Herbal Therapies for Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia Using Neuroimaging Methods: Study Characteristics and Intervention Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Z. Steiner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging facilitates the assessment of complementary medicines (CMs by providing a noninvasive insight into their mechanisms of action in the human brain. This is important for identifying the potential treatment options for target disease cohorts with complex pathophysiologies. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate study characteristics, intervention efficacy, and the structural and functional neuroimaging methods used in research assessing nutritional and herbal medicines for mild cognitive impairment (MCI and dementia. Six databases were searched for articles reporting on CMs, dementia, and neuroimaging methods. Data were extracted from 21/2,742 eligible full text articles and risk of bias was assessed. Nine studies examined people with Alzheimer’s disease, 7 MCI, 4 vascular dementia, and 1 all-cause dementia. Ten studies tested herbal medicines, 8 vitamins and supplements, and 3 nootropics. Ten studies used electroencephalography (EEG, 5 structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, 2 functional MRI (fMRI, 3 cerebral blood flow (CBF, 1 single photon emission tomography (SPECT, and 1 positron emission tomography (PET. Four studies had a low risk of bias, with the majority consistently demonstrating inadequate reporting on randomisation, allocation concealment, blinding, and power calculations. A narrative synthesis approach was assumed due to heterogeneity in study methods, interventions, target cohorts, and quality. Eleven key recommendations are suggested to advance future work in this area.

  8. A Systematic Review of Intervention Studies Examining Nutritional and Herbal Therapies for Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia Using Neuroimaging Methods: Study Characteristics and Intervention Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Genevieve Z; Mathersul, Danielle C; MacMillan, Freya; Camfield, David A; Klupp, Nerida L; Seto, Sai W; Huang, Yong; Hohenberg, Mark I; Chang, Dennis H

    2017-01-01

    Neuroimaging facilitates the assessment of complementary medicines (CMs) by providing a noninvasive insight into their mechanisms of action in the human brain. This is important for identifying the potential treatment options for target disease cohorts with complex pathophysiologies. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate study characteristics, intervention efficacy, and the structural and functional neuroimaging methods used in research assessing nutritional and herbal medicines for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. Six databases were searched for articles reporting on CMs, dementia, and neuroimaging methods. Data were extracted from 21/2,742 eligible full text articles and risk of bias was assessed. Nine studies examined people with Alzheimer's disease, 7 MCI, 4 vascular dementia, and 1 all-cause dementia. Ten studies tested herbal medicines, 8 vitamins and supplements, and 3 nootropics. Ten studies used electroencephalography (EEG), 5 structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 2 functional MRI (fMRI), 3 cerebral blood flow (CBF), 1 single photon emission tomography (SPECT), and 1 positron emission tomography (PET). Four studies had a low risk of bias, with the majority consistently demonstrating inadequate reporting on randomisation, allocation concealment, blinding, and power calculations. A narrative synthesis approach was assumed due to heterogeneity in study methods, interventions, target cohorts, and quality. Eleven key recommendations are suggested to advance future work in this area.

  9. Tensor-based morphometry as a neuroimaging biomarker for Alzheimer's disease: an MRI study of 676 AD, MCI, and normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xue; Leow, Alex D; Parikshak, Neelroop; Lee, Suh; Chiang, Ming-Chang; Toga, Arthur W; Jack, Clifford R; Weiner, Michael W; Thompson, Paul M

    2008-11-15

    In one of the largest brain MRI studies to date, we used tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to create 3D maps of structural atrophy in 676 subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy elderly controls, scanned as part of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Using inverse-consistent 3D non-linear elastic image registration, we warped 676 individual brain MRI volumes to a population mean geometric template. Jacobian determinant maps were created, revealing the 3D profile of local volumetric expansion and compression. We compared the anatomical distribution of atrophy in 165 AD patients (age: 75.6+/-7.6 years), 330 MCI subjects (74.8+/-7.5), and 181 controls (75.9+/-5.1). Brain atrophy in selected regions-of-interest was correlated with clinical measurements--the sum-of-boxes clinical dementia rating (CDR-SB), mini-mental state examination (MMSE), and the logical memory test scores - at voxel level followed by correction for multiple comparisons. Baseline temporal lobe atrophy correlated with current cognitive performance, future cognitive decline, and conversion from MCI to AD over the following year; it predicted future decline even in healthy subjects. Over half of the AD and MCI subjects carried the ApoE4 (apolipoprotein E4) gene, which increases risk for AD; they showed greater hippocampal and temporal lobe deficits than non-carriers. ApoE2 gene carriers--1/6 of the normal group--showed reduced ventricular expansion, suggesting a protective effect. As an automated image analysis technique, TBM reveals 3D correlations between neuroimaging markers, genes, and future clinical changes, and is highly efficient for large-scale MRI studies.

  10. Functional Neuroimaging in Psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Casale, Antonio; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Rapinesi, Chiara; Di Pietro, Simone; Alessi, Maria Chiara; Di Cesare, Gianluigi; Criscuolo, Silvia; De Rossi, Pietro; Tatarelli, Roberto; Girardi, Paolo; Ferracuti, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Psychopathy is associated with cognitive and affective deficits causing disruptive, harmful and selfish behaviour. These have considerable societal costs due to recurrent crime and property damage. A better understanding of the neurobiological bases of psychopathy could improve therapeutic interventions, reducing the related social costs. To analyse the major functional neural correlates of psychopathy, we reviewed functional neuroimaging studies conducted on persons with this condition. We searched the PubMed database for papers dealing with functional neuroimaging and psychopathy, with a specific focus on how neural functional changes may correlate with task performances and human behaviour. Psychopathy-related behavioural disorders consistently correlated with dysfunctions in brain areas of the orbitofrontal-limbic (emotional processing and somatic reaction to emotions; behavioural planning and responsibility taking), anterior cingulate-orbitofrontal (correct assignment of emotional valence to social stimuli; violent/aggressive behaviour and challenging attitude) and prefrontal-temporal-limbic (emotional stimuli processing/response) networks. Dysfunctional areas more consistently included the inferior frontal, orbitofrontal, dorsolateral prefrontal, ventromedial prefrontal, temporal (mainly the superior temporal sulcus) and cingulated cortices, the insula, amygdala, ventral striatum and other basal ganglia. Emotional processing and learning, and several social and affective decision-making functions are impaired in psychopathy, which correlates with specific changes in neural functions. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. A critical appraisal of neuroimaging studies of bipolar disorder: toward a new conceptualization of underlying neural circuitry and roadmap for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Mary L; Swartz, Holly A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This critical review appraises neuroimaging findings in bipolar disorder in emotion processing, emotion regulation, and reward processing neural circuitry, to synthesize current knowledge of the neural underpinnings of bipolar disorder, and provide a neuroimaging research “roadmap” for future studies. Method We examined findings from all major studies in bipolar disorder that used fMRI, volumetric analyses, diffusion imaging, and resting state techniques, to inform current conceptual models of larger-scale neural circuitry abnormalities in bipolar disorder Results Bipolar disorder can be conceptualized in neural circuitry terms as parallel dysfunction in bilateral prefrontal cortical (especially ventrolateral prefrontal cortical)-hippocampal-amygdala emotion processing and emotion regulation neural circuitries, together with an “overactive” left-sided ventral striatal-ventrolateral and orbitofrontal cortical reward processing circuitry, that result in characteristic behavioral abnormalities associated with bipolar disorder: emotional lability, emotional dysregulation and heightened reward sensitivity. A potential structural basis for these functional abnormalities are gray matter decreases in prefrontal and temporal cortices, amygdala and hippocampus, and fractional anisotropy decreases in white matter tracts connecting prefrontal and subcortical regions. Conclusion Neuroimaging studies of bipolar disorder clearly demonstrate abnormalities in neural circuitries supporting emotion processing, emotion regulation and reward processing, although there are several limitations to these studies. Future neuroimaging research in bipolar disorder should include studies adopting dimensional approaches; larger studies examining neurodevelopmental trajectories in bipolar disorder and at-risk youth; multimodal neuroimaging studies using integrated systems approaches; and studies using pattern recognition approaches to provide clinically useful, individual

  12. The blood-brain barrier is intact after levodopa-induced dyskinesias in parkinsonian primates--evidence from in vivo neuroimaging studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astradsson, Arnar; Jenkins, Bruce G; Choi, Ji-Kyung

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested, based on rodent studies, that levodopa (L-dopa) induced dyskinesia is associated with a disrupted blood-brain barrier (BBB). We have investigated BBB integrity with in vivo neuroimaging techniques in six 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) lesioned primates ...

  13. Hemispheric differences in language processing in autism spectrum disorders: A meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herringshaw, Abbey J; Ammons, Carla J; DeRamus, Thomas P; Kana, Rajesh K

    2016-10-01

    Language impairments, a hallmark feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), have been related to neuroanatomical and functional abnormalities. Abnormal lateralization of the functional language network, increased reliance on visual processing areas, and increased posterior brain activation have all been reported in ASD and proposed as explanatory models of language difficulties. Nevertheless, inconsistent findings across studies have prevented a comprehensive characterization of the functional language network in ASD. The aim of this study was to quantify common and consistent patterns of brain activation during language processing in ASD and typically developing control (TD) participants using a meta-analytic approach. Activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis was used to examine 22 previously published functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)/positron emission tomography studies of language processing (ASD: N = 328; TD: N = 324). Tasks included in this study addressed semantic processing, sentence comprehension, processing figurative language, and speech production. Within-group analysis showed largely overlapping patterns of language-related activation in ASD and TD groups. However, the ASD participants, relative to TD participants, showed: (1) more right hemisphere activity in core language areas (i.e., superior temporal gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus), particularly in tasks where they had poorer performance accuracy; (2) bilateral MTG hypo-activation across many different paradigms; and (3) increased activation of the left lingual gyrus in tasks where they had intact performance. These findings show that the hypotheses reviewed here address the neural and cognitive aspects of language difficulties in ASD across all tasks only in a limited way. Instead, our findings suggest the nuances of language and brain in ASD in terms of its context-dependency. Autism Res 2016, 9: 1046-1057. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley

  14. Neuroimaging of autism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoeven, Judith S.; Cock, Paul de; Lagae, Lieven [University Hospitals of the Catholic University of Leuven, Department of Pediatrics, Leuven (Belgium); Sunaert, Stefan [University Hospitals of the Catholic University of Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium)

    2010-01-15

    Neuroimaging studies done by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have provided important insights into the neurobiological basis for autism. The aim of this article is to review the current state of knowledge regarding brain abnormalities in autism. Results of structural MRI studies dealing with total brain volume, the volume of the cerebellum, caudate nucleus, thalamus, amygdala and the area of the corpus callosum are summarised. In the past 5 years also new MRI applications as functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging brought considerable new insights in the pathophysiological mechanisms of autism. Dysfunctional activation in key areas of verbal and non-verbal communication, social interaction, and executive functions are revised. Finally, we also discuss white matter alterations in important communication pathways in the brain of autistic patients. (orig.)

  15. Neuroimaging in psychiatry: from bench to bedside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Linden

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This perspective considers the present and the future role of different neuroimaging techniques in the field of psychiatry. After identifying shortcomings of the mainly symptom-focussed diagnostic processes and treatment decisions in modern psychiatry, we suggest topics where neuroimaging methods have the potential to help. These include better understanding of the pathophysiology, improved diagnoses, assistance in therapeutic decisions and the supervision of treatment success by direct assessment of improvement in disease-related brain functions. These different questions are illustrated by examples from neuroimaging studies, with a focus on severe mental and neuropsychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia, depression and dementia. Despite all reservations addressed in the article, we are optimistic, that neuroimaging has a huge potential with regard to the above-mentioned questions. We expect that neuroimaging will play an increasing role in the future refinement of the diagnostic process and aid in the development of new therapies in the field of psychiatry.

  16. Resting-state neuroimaging studies: a new way of identifying differences and similarities among the anxiety disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Andrew; Thome, Janine; Frewen, Paul; Lanius, Ruth A

    2014-06-01

    This review examines recent functional neuroimaging research of resting-state regional connectivity between brain regions in anxiety disorders. Studies compiled in the PubMed- National Center for Biotechnology Information database targeting resting-state functional connectivity in anxiety disorders were reviewed. Diagnoses included posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety disorder (SAD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), panic disorder (PD), and specific phobia (SP). Alterations to network connectivity were demonstrated in PTSD, GAD, SAD, OCD, and PD in several resting-state investigations. Differences from control subjects were primarily observed in the default mode network within PTSD, SAD, and OCD. Alterations within the salience network were observed primarily in PTSD, GAD, and SAD. Alterations in corticostriatal networks were uniquely observed in OCD. Finally, alterations within somatosensory networks were observed in SAD and PD investigations. Resting-state studies involving SPs as a primary diagnosis (with or without comorbidities) were not generated during the literature search. The emerging use of resting-state paradigms may be an effective method for understanding associations between anxiety disorders. Targeted studies of PD and SPs, meta-analyses of the studies conducted to date, and studies of the impact of specific comorbid presentations, are recommended future research directions.

  17. Provocation of symmetry/ordering symptoms in Anorexia nervosa: a functional neuroimaging study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Suda

    Full Text Available Anorexia nervosa (AN, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD are often co-morbid; however, the aetiology of such co-morbidity has not been well investigated. This study examined brain activation in women with AN and in healthy control (HC women during the provocation of symmetry/ordering-related anxiety. During provocation, patients with AN showed more anxiety compared to HCs, which was correlated with the severity of symmetry/ordering symptoms. Activation in the right parietal lobe and right prefrontal cortex (rPFC in response to provocation was reduced in the AN group compared with the HC group. The reduced right parietal activation observed in the AN group is consistent with parietal lobe involvement in visuospatial cognition and with studies of OCD reporting an association between structural abnormalities in this region and the severity of 'ordering' symptoms. Reduced rPFC activation in response to symmetry/ordering provocation has similarities with some, but not all, data collected from patients with AN who were exposed to images of food and bodies. Furthermore, the combination of data from the AN and HC groups showed that rPFC activation during symptom provocation was inversely correlated with the severity of symmetry/ordering symptoms. These data suggest that individuals with AN have a diminished ability to cognitively deal with illness-associated symptoms of provocation. Furthermore, our data also suggest that symptom provocation can progressively overload attempts by the rPFC to exert cognitive control. These findings are discussed in the context of the current neurobiological models of AN.

  18. Neuroimaging evaluation in refractory epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, Ana M; Orejuela, Juan F; Rodriguez-Takeuchi, Sara Y

    2015-10-01

    To describe the application of neuroimaging analysis, compared to neuropsychological tests and video-electroencephalogram, for the evaluation of refractory epilepsy in a reference centre in Cali, Colombia. Between March 2013 and November 2014, 29 patients, 19 men and 10 women, aged 9-65 years and with refractory epilepsy, were assessed by structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing tasks related to language, verbal and non-verbal memory. Also, volumetric evaluation was performed. A 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner was used in all cases. Neuroimaging evaluation identified 13 patients with mesial temporal sclerosis. The remaining patients were classified as: 10 patients with neoplastic masses, two patients with cortical atrophy, two patients with scarring lesions and two patients with non-structural aetiology. Among patients with mesial temporal sclerosis, comparison between techniques for lateralising the epileptogenic foci was made; the κ index between functional magnetic resonance imaging and hippocampi volumetry was κ=1.00, agreement between neuroimaging and video-electroencephalogram was good (κ=0.78) and comparison with a neuropsychological test was mild (κ=0.24). Neuroimaging studies allow the assessment of functional and structural damage related to epileptogenic lesions and foci, and are helpful to select surgical treatment, conduct intraoperative neuronavigation techniques, predict surgical deficits and evaluate patient recovery. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. The diagnostic yield of neuroimaging in sixth nerve palsy - Sankara Nethralaya Abducens Palsy Study (SNAPS: Report 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay Gopinathan Nair

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim was to assess the etiology of sixth nerve palsy and on the basis of our data, to formulate a diagnostic algorithm for the management in sixth nerve palsy. Design: Retrospective chart review. Results: Of the 104 neurologically isolated cases, 9 cases were attributable to trauma, and 95 (86.36% cases were classified as nontraumatic, neurologically isolated cases. Of the 95 nontraumatic, isolated cases of sixth nerve palsy, 52 cases were associated with vasculopathic risk factors, namely diabetes and hypertension and were classified as vasculopathic sixth nerve palsy (54.7%, and those with a history of sixth nerve palsy from birth (6 cases were classified as congenital sixth nerve palsy (6.3%. Of the rest, neuroimaging alone yielded a cause in 18 of the 37 cases (48.64%. Of the other 19 cases where neuroimaging did not yield a cause, 6 cases were attributed to preceding history of infection (3 upper respiratory tract infection and 3 viral illnesses, 2 cases of sixth nerve palsy were found to be a false localizing sign in idiopathic intracranial hypertension and in 11 cases, the cause was undetermined. In these idiopathic cases of isolated sixth nerve palsy, neuroimaging yielded no positive findings. Conclusions: In the absence of risk factors, a suggestive history, or positive laboratory and clinical findings, neuroimaging can serve as a useful diagnostic tool in identifying the exact cause of sixth nerve palsy. Furthermore, we recommend an algorithm to assess the need for neuroimaging in sixth nerve palsy.

  20. Is creative insight task-specific? A coordinate-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies on insightful problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wangbing; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Xiaojiang; Luo, Jing; Gong, Zhe

    2016-12-01

    The question of whether creative insight varies across problem types has recently come to the forefront of studies of creative cognition. In the present study, to address the nature of creative insight, the coordinate-based activation likelihood estimation (ALE) technique was utilized to individually conduct three quantitative meta-analyses of neuroimaging experiments that used the compound remote associate (CRA) task, the prototype heuristic (PH) task and the Chinese character chunk decomposition (CCD) task. These tasks were chosen because they are frequently used to uncover the neurocognitive correlates of insight. Our results demonstrated that creative insight reliably activates largely non-overlapping brain regions across task types, with the exception of some shared regions: the CRA task mainly relied on the right parahippocampal gyrus, the superior frontal gyrus and the inferior frontal gyrus; the PH task primarily depended on the right middle occipital gyrus (MOG), the bilateral superior parietal lobule/precuneus, the left inferior parietal lobule, the left lingual gyrus and the left middle frontal gyrus; and the CCD task activated a broad cerebral network consisting of most dorsolateral and medial prefrontal regions, frontoparietal regions and the right MOG. These results provide the first neural evidence of the task dependence of creative insight. The implications of these findings for resolving conflict surrounding the different theories of creative cognition and for defining insight as a set of heterogeneous processes are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Biomedical ethics and clinical oversight in multisite observational neuroimaging studies with children and adolescents: The ABCD experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Duncan B; Fisher, Celia B; Bookheimer, Susan; Brown, Sandra A; Evans, John H; Hopfer, Christian; Hudziak, James; Montoya, Ivan; Murray, Margaret; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah

    2017-06-28

    Observational neuroimaging studies with children and adolescents may identify neurological anomalies and other clinically relevant findings. Planning for the management of this information involves ethical considerations that may influence informed consent, confidentiality, and communication with participants about assessment results. Biomedical ethics principles include respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. Each project presents unique challenges. The Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development study (ABCD) collaborators have systematically developed recommendations with written guidelines for identifying and responding to potential risks that adhere to biomedical ethics principles. To illustrate, we will review the ABCD approach to three areas: (1) hazardous substance use; (2) neurological anomalies; and (3) imminent potential for self-harm or harm to others. Each ABCD site is responsible for implementing procedures consistent with these guidelines in accordance with their Institutional Review Board approved protocols, state regulations, and local resources. To assure that each site has related plans and resources in place, site emergency procedures manuals have been developed, documented and reviewed for adherence to ABCD guidelines. This article will describe the principles and process used to develop these ABCD bioethics and medical oversight guidelines, the concerns and options considered, and the resulting approaches advised to sites. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. The experience of social exclusion in women with a history of suicidal acts: a neuroimaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olié, Emilie; Jollant, Fabrice; Deverdun, Jeremy; de Champfleur, Nicolas Menjot; Cyprien, Fabienne; Le Bars, Emmanuelle; Mura, Thibaut; Bonafé, Alain; Courtet, Philippe

    2017-03-07

    Suicidal behaviors result from a complex interaction between social stressors and individual vulnerability. However, little is known of the specific neural network supporting the sensitivity to social stressors in patients at risk of suicidal acts. Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, we investigated brain processing of social rejection in suicide attempters. Thirty-six euthymic women with a history of depression and suicidal behavior were compared to 41 euthymic women with a history of depression but no suicidal attempt, and 28 healthy controls. The Cyberball Game was used as a validated social exclusion paradigm. Relative to healthy controls, both patient groups reported higher levels of social distress related to the task, without significant differences according to suicidal status. Compared to patients without any history of suicide attempt and healthy controls, suicide attempters showed decreased contrast in the left insula and supramarginal gyrus during the exclusion vs. inclusion condition, after controlling for number of depressive episodes, medication, mood disorder type or social phobia. Our study highlights impaired brain response to social exclusion in euthymic female suicide attempters in regions previously implicated in pain tolerance and social cognition. These findings suggest sustained brain dysfunctions related to social perception in suicide attempters.

  3. Commentary: Applications of functional neuroimaging to civil litigation of mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granacher, Robert P

    2008-01-01

    The current definition of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is in flux. Presently, there are at least three working definitions of this disorder in the United States, with no clear consensus. Functional neuroimaging, such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET), initially showed promise in their ability to improve the diagnostic credibility of MTBI. Over the past decade, that promise has not been fulfilled and there is a paucity of quality studies or standards for the application of functional neuroimaging to traumatic brain injury, particularly in litigation. The legal profession is ahead of the science in this matter. The emergence of neurolaw is driving a growing use of functional neuroimaging, as a sole imaging modality, used by lawyers in an attempt to prove MTBI at trial. The medical literature on functional neuroimaging and its applications to MTBI is weak scientifically, sparse in quality publications, lacking in well-designed controlled studies, and currently does not meet the complete standards of Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc., for introduction of scientific evidence at trial. At the present time, there is a clear lack of clinical correlation between functional neuroimaging of MTBI and behavioral, neuropsychological, or structural neuroimaging deficits. The use of SPECT or PET, without concurrent clinical correlation with structural neuroimaging (CT or MRI), is not recommended to be offered as evidence of MTBI in litigation.

  4. Nonlinear association criterion, nonlinear Granger causality and related issues with applications to neuroimage studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Chenyang; Feng, Jianfeng

    2016-03-15

    Quantifying associations in neuroscience (and many other scientific disciplines) is often challenged by high-dimensionality, nonlinearity and noisy observations. Many classic methods have either poor power or poor scalability on data sets of the same or different scales such as genetical, physiological and image data. Based on the framework of reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces we proposed a new nonlinear association criteria (NAC) with an efficient numerical algorithm and p-value approximation scheme. We also presented mathematical justification that links the proposed method to related methods such as kernel generalized variance, kernel canonical correlation analysis and Hilbert-Schmidt independence criteria. NAC allows the detection of association between arbitrary input domain as long as a characteristic kernel is defined. A MATLAB package was provided to facilitate applications. Extensive simulation examples and four real world neuroscience examples including functional MRI causality, Calcium imaging and imaging genetic studies on autism [Brain, 138(5):13821393 (2015)] and alcohol addiction [PNAS, 112(30):E4085-E4093 (2015)] are used to benchmark NAC. It demonstrates the superior performance over the existing procedures we tested and also yields biologically significant results for the real world examples. NAC beats its linear counterparts when nonlinearity is presented in the data. It also shows more robustness against different experimental setups compared with its nonlinear counterparts. In this work we presented a new and robust statistical approach NAC for measuring associations. It could serve as an interesting alternative to the existing methods for datasets where nonlinearity and other confounding factors are present. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Abnormalities of Dorsolateral Prefrontal Function in Women With Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder: A Multimodal Neuroimaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baller, Erica B.; Wei, Shau-Ming; Kohn, Philip D.; Rubinow, David R.; Alarcón, Gabriela; Schmidt, Peter J.; Berman, Karen F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the neural substrate of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), the authors used [15O]H2O positron emission tomography (PET) regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) signal measurements during working memory in conjunction with a 6-month hormone manipulation protocol. Method PET and fMRI scans were obtained from women with prospectively confirmed PMDD and asymptomatic comparison subjects while they completed the n-back task during three hormone conditions: ovarian suppression induced by the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist leuprolide acetate, leuprolide plus estradiol, and leuprolide plus progesterone. Fifteen patients and 15 matched comparison subjects underwent PET imaging. Fourteen patients and 14 comparison subjects underwent fMRI. For each hormone condition, rCBF was measured with [15O]H2O PET, and BOLD signal was measured with fMRI, both during an n-back working memory paradigm. Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF) scores and clinical characteristics were obtained for each patient before hormone manipulation, and symptoms were measured before and during the protocol. Results In both the PET and fMRI studies, a main effect of diagnosis was observed, with PMDD patients showing greater prefrontal activation than comparison subjects. In the patient group, the degree to which dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activation was abnormally increased correlated with several dimensions of disease: disability as indicated by GAF scores, age at symptom onset, duration of PMDD, and differences in pre- and postmenses PMDD symptoms. Conclusions Abnormal working memory activation in PMDD, specifically in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, is related to PMDD severity, symptoms, age at onset, and disease burden. These results support the clinical relevance of the findings and the proposal that dorsolateral prefrontal cortex dysfunction represents a substrate of risk for PMDD. The

  6. Neuroimaging during trance state: a contribution to the study of dissociation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Fernando Peres

    Full Text Available Despite increasing interest in pathological and non-pathological dissociation, few researchers have focused on the spiritual experiences involving dissociative states such as mediumship, in which an individual (the medium claims to be in communication with, or under the control of, the mind of a deceased person. Our preliminary study investigated psychography - in which allegedly "the spirit writes through the medium's hand" - for potential associations with specific alterations in cerebral activity. We examined ten healthy psychographers - five less expert mediums and five with substantial experience, ranging from 15 to 47 years of automatic writing and 2 to 18 psychographies per month - using single photon emission computed tomography to scan activity as subjects were writing, in both dissociative trance and non-trance states. The complexity of the original written content they produced was analyzed for each individual and for the sample as a whole. The experienced psychographers showed lower levels of activity in the left culmen, left hippocampus, left inferior occipital gyrus, left anterior cingulate, right superior temporal gyrus and right precentral gyrus during psychography compared to their normal (non-trance writing. The average complexity scores for psychographed content were higher than those for control writing, for both the whole sample and for experienced mediums. The fact that subjects produced complex content in a trance dissociative state suggests they were not merely relaxed, and relaxation seems an unlikely explanation for the underactivation of brain areas specifically related to the cognitive processing being carried out. This finding deserves further investigation both in terms of replication and explanatory hypotheses.

  7. Movement and afferent representations in human motor areas: a simultaneous neuroimaging and transcranial magnetic/peripheral nerve-stimulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi eShitara

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging combined with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS to primary motor cortex (M1 is an emerging technique that can examine motor-system functionality through evoked activity. However, because sensory afferents from twitching muscles are widely represented in motor areas the amount of evoked activity directly resulting from TMS remains unclear. We delivered suprathreshold TMS to left M1 or electrically stimulated the right median nerve (MNS in 18 healthy volunteers while simultaneously conducting functional magnetic resonance imaging and monitoring with electromyography (EMG. We examined in detail the localization of TMS-, muscle afferent- and superficial afferent-induced activity in M1 subdivisions. Muscle afferent- and TMS-evoked activity occurred mainly in rostral M1, while superficial afferents generated a slightly different activation distribution. In 12 participants who yielded quantifiable EMG, differences in brain activity ascribed to differences in movement-size were adjusted using integrated information from the EMGs. Sensory components only explained 10-20% of the suprathreshold TMS-induced activity, indicating that locally and remotely evoked activity in motor areas mostly resulted from the recruitment of neural and synaptic activity. The present study appears to justify the use of fMRI combined with suprathreshold TMS to M1 for evoked motor network imaging.

  8. Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS): an emerging neuroimaging technology with important applications for the study of brain disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, Farzin; Platek, Steven M; Bunce, Scott; Ruocco, Anthony C; Chute, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an emerging functional neuroimaging technology offering a relatively non-invasive, safe, portable, and low-cost method of indirect and direct monitoring of brain activity. Most exciting is its potential to allow more ecologically valid investigations that can translate laboratory work into more realistic everyday settings and clinical environments. Our aim is to acquaint clinicians and researchers with the unique and beneficial characteristics of fNIRS by reviewing its relative merits and limitations vis-à-vis other brain-imaging technologies such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We review cross-validation work between fMRI and fNIRS, and discuss possible reservations about its deployment in clinical research and practice. Finally, because there is no comprehensive review of applications of fNIRS to brain disorders, we also review findings from the few studies utilizing fNIRS to investigate neurocognitive processes associated with neurological (Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, traumatic brain injury) and psychiatric disorders (schizophrenia, mood disorders, anxiety disorders).

  9. Robust Estimation of Group-wise Cortical Correspondence with an Application to Macaque and Human Neuroimaging Studies

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    Ilwoo eLyu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel group-wise registration method for cortical correspondence for local cortical thickness analysis in human and non-human primate neuroimaging studies. The proposed method is based on our earlier template based registration that estimates a continuous, smooth deformation field via sulcal curve-constrained registration employing spherical harmonic decomposition of the deformation field. This pairwise registration though results in a well-known template selection bias, which we aim to overcome here via a group-wise approach. We propose the use of an unbiased ensemble entropy minimization following the use of the pairwise registration as an initialization. An individual deformation field is then iteratively updated onto the unbiased average. For the optimization, we use metrics specific for cortical correspondence though all of these are straightforwardly extendable to the generic setting: The first focused on optimizing the correspondence of automatically extracted sulcal landmarks and the second on that of sulcal depth property maps. We further propose a robust entropy metric and a hierarchical optimization by employing spherical harmonic basis orthogonality. We also provide the detailed methodological description of both our earlier work and the proposed method with a set of experiments on a population of human and non-human primate subjects. In the experiment, we have shown that our method achieves superior results on consistency through quantitative and visual comparisons as compared to the existing methods.

  10. Brain Networks Implicated in Seasonal Affective Disorder: A Neuroimaging PET Study of the Serotonin Transporter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Nørgaard

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD is a subtype of Major Depressive Disorder characterized by seasonally occurring depression that often presents with atypical vegetative symptoms such as hypersomnia and carbohydrate craving. It has recently been shown that unlike healthy people, patients with SAD fail to globally downregulate their cerebral serotonin transporter (5-HTT in winter, and that this effect seemed to be particularly pronounced in female S-carriers of the 5-HTTLPR genotype. The purpose of this study was to identify a 5-HTT brain network that accounts for the adaption to the environmental stressor of winter in females with the short 5-HTTLPR genotype, a specific subgroup previously reported to be at increased risk for developing SAD.Methods: Nineteen females, either S' carriers (LG- and S-carriers without SAD (N = 13, mean age 23.6 ± 3.2 year, range 19–28 or S' carriers with SAD (N = 6, mean age 23.7 ± 2.4, range 21–26 were PET-scanned with [11C]DASB during both summer and winter seasons (asymptomatic and symptomatic phase, 38 scans in total in randomized order, defined as a 12-week interval centered on summer or winter solstice. We used a multivariate Partial Least Squares (PLS approach with NPAIRS split-half cross-validation, to identify and map a whole-brain pattern of 5-HTT levels that distinguished the brains of females without SAD from females suffering from SAD.Results: We identified a pattern of 5-HTT levels, distinguishing females with SAD from those without SAD; it included the right superior frontal gyrus, brainstem, globus pallidus (bilaterally and the left hippocampus. Across seasons, female S' carriers without SAD showed nominally higher 5-HTT levels in these regions compared to female S' carriers with SAD, but the group difference was only significant in the winter. Female S' carriers with SAD, in turn, displayed robustly increased 5-HTT levels in the ventral striatum (bilaterally, right orbitofrontal

  11. Neuroimaging creativity: a psychometric view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arden, Rosalind; Chavez, Robert S; Grazioplene, Rachael; Jung, Rex E

    2010-12-25

    Many studies of creative cognition with a neuroimaging component now exist; what do they say about where and how creativity arises in the brain? We reviewed 45 brain-imaging studies of creative cognition. We found little clear evidence of overlap in their results. Nearly as many different tests were used as there were studies; this test diversity makes it impossible to interpret the different findings across studies with any confidence. Our conclusion is that creativity research would benefit from psychometrically informed revision, and the addition of neuroimaging methods designed to provide greater spatial localization of function. Without such revision in the behavioral measures and study designs, it is hard to see the benefit of imaging. We set out eight suggestions in a manifesto for taking creativity research forward. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sex disparities in substance abuse research: Evaluating 23 years of structural neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Kimberly E; Gutierrez, Eric J; Yamamoto, Dorothy J; Regner, Michael F; McKee, Sherry A; Tanabe, Jody

    2017-04-01

    Sex differences in brain structure and clinical course of substance use disorders underscores the need to include women in structural brain imaging studies. The NIH has supported the need for research to address sex differences. We evaluated female enrollment in substance abuse structural brain imaging research and the methods used to study sex differences in substance effects. Structural brain imaging studies published through 2016 (n=230) were evaluated for number of participants by sex and substance use status and methods used to evaluate sex differences. Temporal trends in the numbers of participants by sex and substance use status were analyzed. We evaluated how often sex effects were appropriately analyzed and the proportion of studies that found sex by substance interactions on volumetric measures. Female enrollment increased over time, but remained significantly lower than male enrollment (p=0.01), with the greatest bias for alcohol and opiate studies. 79% of studies included both sexes; however, 74% did not evaluate sex effects or used an analytic approach that precluded detection of sex by substance use interactions. 85% of studies that stratified by sex reported different substance effects on brain volumes. Only 33% of studies examining two-way interactions found significant interactions, highlighting that many studies were underpowered to detect interactions. Although female participation in substance use studies of brain morphometry has increased, sex disparity persists. Studying adequate numbers of both sexes and employing correct analytic approaches is critical for understanding sex differences in brain morphometric changes in substance abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sustained Effects of Ecstasy on the Human Brain: A Prospective Neuroimaging Study in Novel Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Win, Maartje M. L.; Jager, Gerry; Booij, Jan; Reneman, Liesbeth; Schilt, Thelma; Lavini, Christina; Olabarriaga, Silvia D.; den Heeten, Gerard J.; van den Brink, Wim

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested toxic effects of recreational ecstasy use on the serotonin system of the brain. However, it cannot be excluded that observed differences between users and non-users are the cause rather than the consequence of ecstasy use. As part of the Netherlands XTC Toxicity (NeXT) study, we prospectively assessed sustained…

  14. Linking Essential Tremor to the Cerebellum-Neuroimaging Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerasa, Antonio; Quattrone, Aldo

    2016-06-01

    Essential tremor (ET) is the most common pathological tremor disorder in the world, and post-mortem evidence has shown that the cerebellum is the most consistent area of pathology in ET. In the last few years, advanced neuroimaging has tried to confirm this evidence. The aim of the present review is to discuss to what extent the evidence provided by this field of study may be generalised. We performed a systematic literature search combining the terms ET with the following keywords: MRI, VBM, MRS, DTI, fMRI, PET and SPECT. We summarised and discussed each study and placed the results in the context of existing knowledge regarding the cerebellar involvement in ET. A total of 51 neuroimaging studies met our search criteria, roughly divided into 19 structural and 32 functional studies. Despite clinical and methodological differences, both functional and structural imaging studies showed similar findings but without defining a clear topography of neurodegeneration. Indeed, the vast majority of studies found functional and structural abnormalities in several parts of the anterior and posterior cerebellar lobules, but it remains to be established to what degree these neural changes contribute to clinical symptoms of ET. Currently, advanced neuroimaging has confirmed the involvement of the cerebellum in pathophysiological processes of ET, although a high variability in results persists. For this reason, the translation of this knowledge into daily clinical practice is again partially limited, although new advanced multivariate neuroimaging approaches (machine-learning) are proving interesting changes of perspective.

  15. Cognitive Function and Prognosis of Multimodal Neuroimage-Guided Thrombectomy on Mild to Moderate Anterior Circulation Infarction Patients with Broadened Therapeutic Window: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guodong; Dong, Xiaoli; Niu, Xiaoli; Zheng, Guimin; Wang, Hebo; Zhang, Fan; Li, Litao; Lv, Peiyuan

    2017-09-22

    Endovascular mechanical thrombectomy is an important approach for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) treatment. Multimodal neuroimaging methods ideally provide the exact localization, extent, and metabolic activity of target tissues. Post-stroke cognitive impairment has recently been realized to be another major concern except for neurological function impairment. The aim of our study was to carry out a prospective study to compare neurological and cognitive functions after thrombectomy in mild to moderate anterior circulation infarction patients selected by multimodal neuroimaging. Ninety patients were recruited from January 2016 to March 2017 consecutively. Neurological function was assessed by NIHSS before thrombectomy, and 6 h, 24 h, 7 days, 90 days after mechanical thrombectomy. Cognitive functions were evaluated by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Hachinski Ischemic Scale. Patients who received mechanical thrombectomy had significantly better neurological functions at 6 h (p multimodal CT and multimodal MRI imaging. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Maladaptive and adaptive emotion regulation through music: a behavioral and neuroimaging study of males and females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Emily; Saarikallio, Suvi; Toiviainen, Petri; Bogert, Brigitte; Kliuchko, Marina; Brattico, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Music therapists use guided affect regulation in the treatment of mood disorders. However, self-directed uses of music in affect regulation are not fully understood. Some uses of music may have negative effects on mental health, as can non-music regulation strategies, such as rumination. Psychological testing and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were used explore music listening strategies in relation to mental health. Participants (n = 123) were assessed for depression, anxiety and Neuroticism, and uses of Music in Mood Regulation (MMR). Neural responses to music were measured in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in a subset of participants (n = 56). Discharge, using music to express negative emotions, related to increased anxiety and Neuroticism in all participants and particularly in males. Males high in Discharge showed decreased activity of mPFC during music listening compared with those using less Discharge. Females high in Diversion, using music to distract from negative emotions, showed more mPFC activity than females using less Diversion. These results suggest that the use of Discharge strategy can be associated with maladaptive patterns of emotional regulation, and may even have long-term negative effects on mental health. This finding has real-world applications in psychotherapy and particularly in clinical music therapy. PMID:26379529

  17. Maladaptive and adaptive emotion regulation through music: a behavioral and neuroimaging study of males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Emily; Saarikallio, Suvi; Toiviainen, Petri; Bogert, Brigitte; Kliuchko, Marina; Brattico, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Music therapists use guided affect regulation in the treatment of mood disorders. However, self-directed uses of music in affect regulation are not fully understood. Some uses of music may have negative effects on mental health, as can non-music regulation strategies, such as rumination. Psychological testing and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were used explore music listening strategies in relation to mental health. Participants (n = 123) were assessed for depression, anxiety and Neuroticism, and uses of Music in Mood Regulation (MMR). Neural responses to music were measured in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in a subset of participants (n = 56). Discharge, using music to express negative emotions, related to increased anxiety and Neuroticism in all participants and particularly in males. Males high in Discharge showed decreased activity of mPFC during music listening compared with those using less Discharge. Females high in Diversion, using music to distract from negative emotions, showed more mPFC activity than females using less Diversion. These results suggest that the use of Discharge strategy can be associated with maladaptive patterns of emotional regulation, and may even have long-term negative effects on mental health. This finding has real-world applications in psychotherapy and particularly in clinical music therapy.

  18. Maladaptive and adaptive emotion regulation through music: A behavioural and neuroimaging study of males and females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily eCarlson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Music therapists use guided affect regulation in the treatment of mood disorders. However, self-directed uses of music in affect regulation are not fully understood. Some uses of music may have negative effects on mental health, as can non-music regulation strategies, such as rumination. Psychological testing and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI were used explore music listening strategies in relation to mental health. Participants (n=123 were assessed for depression, anxiety and Neuroticism, and uses of Music in Mood Regulation (MMR. Neural responses to music were measured in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC in a subset of participants (n=56. Discharge, using music to express negative emotions, related to increased anxiety and Neuroticism in all participants and particularly in males. Males high in Discharge showed decreased activity of mPFC during music listening compared with those using less Discharge. Females high in Diversion, using music to distract from negative emotions, showed more mPFC activity than females using less Diversion. These results suggest that the use of Discharge strategy can be associated with maladaptive patterns of emotional regulation, and may even have long-term negative effects on mental health. This finding has real-world applications in psychotherapy and particularly in clinical music therapy.

  19. Visuospatial processing in early Alzheimer’s disease: a multimodal neuroimaging study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, H.I.L.; Gronenschild, E. H. B. M.; Evers, E.A.T.; Ramakers, I.H.G.B.; Hofman, P.A.M.; Backes, W. H.; Jolles, J.; Verhey, F. R. J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Dorsal pathway dysfunctions are thought to underlie visuospatial processing problems in Alzheimer disease (AD). Prior studies reported compensatory mechanisms in the dorsal or ventral pathway in response to these functional changes. Since functional and structural connectivity are

  20. [Contribution of functional neuroimaging studies to the understanding of the mechanisms of general anesthesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boveroux, P; Bonhomme, V; Kirsch, M; Noirhomme, Q; Ledoux, D; Hans, G; Laureys, S; Luxen, A; Brichant, J F

    2009-01-01

    Since the early beginning of anesthesia, almost 2 centuries ago, ignorance has prevailed regarding the cerebral mechanisms of the loss of consciousness induced by general anesthesia. The recent contribution of functional brain imaging studies has allowed considerable progress in that domain. Similarly, the study of brain function under general anesthesia is currently a major tool for the understanding of conscious phenomena. This functional approach leads to conceptual changes about the functioning brain and may ultimately provide tracks for new treatments and practical applications. All these aspects are reviewed in this paper, at the light of the most recent literature.

  1. The role of central dopamine and serotonin in human obesity: lessons learned from molecular neuroimaging studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Galen, Katy A; Ter Horst, Kasper W; Booij, Jan; la Fleur, Susanne E; Serlie, Mireille J

    2017-01-01

    Obesity results from an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, and many studies have aimed to determine why obese individuals continue to (over)consume food under conditions of caloric excess. The two major "neurotransmitter hypotheses" of obesity state that increased food intake is

  2. Sustained effects of ecstasy on the human brain : a prospective neuroimaging study in novel users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Win, Maartje M. L.; Jager, Gerry; Booij, Jan; Reneman, Liesbeth; Schilt, Thelma; Lavini, Cristina; Olabarriaga, Silvia D.; den Heeten, Gerard J.; van den Brink, Wim

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested toxic effects of recreational ecstasy use on the serotonin system of the brain. However, it cannot be excluded that observed differences between users and non-users are the cause rather than the consequence of ecstasy use. As part of the Netherlands XTC Toxicity

  3. Sustained effects of ecstasy on the human brain: a prospective neuroimaging study in novel users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Win, Maartje M. L.; Jager, Gerry; Booij, Jan; Reneman, Liesbeth; Schilt, Thelma; Lavini, Cristina; Olabarriaga, Sílvia D.; den Heeten, Gerard J.; van den Brink, Wim

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested toxic effects of recreational ecstasy use on the serotonin system of the brain. However, it cannot be excluded that observed differences between users and non-users are the cause rather than the consequence of ecstasy use. As part of the Netherlands XTC Toxicity

  4. L1 and L2 processing in the bilingual brain: A meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hengshuang; Cao, Fan

    2016-08-01

    Neuroimaging studies investigating bilingual processes have produced controversial results in determining similarities versus differences between L1 and L2 neural networks. The current meta-analytic study was conducted to examine what factors play a role in the similarities and differences between L1 and L2 networks with a focus on age of acquisition (AOA) and whether the orthographic transparency of L2 is more or less transparent than that of L1. Using activation likelihood estimation (ALE), we found L2 processing involved more additional regions than L1 for late bilinguals in comparison to early bilinguals, suggesting L2 processing is more demanding in late bilinguals. We also provide direct evidence that AOA of L2 influences L1 processing through the findings that early bilinguals had greater activation in the left fusiform gyrus than late bilinguals during L1 processing even when L1 languages were the same in the two groups, presumably due to greater co-activation of orthography in L1 and L2 in early bilinguals. In addition, we found that the same L2 languages evoked different brain activation patterns depending on whether it was more or less transparent than L1 in orthographic transparency. The bilateral auditory cortex and right precentral gyrus were more involved in shallower-than-L1 L2s, suggesting a "sound-out" strategy for a more regular language by involving the phonological regions and sensorimotor regions to a greater degree. In contrast, the left frontal cortex was more involved in the processing of deeper-than-L1 L2s, presumably due to the increased arbitrariness of mapping between orthography and phonology in L2. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A review of neuroimaging studies of race-related prejudice: does amygdala response reflect threat?

    OpenAIRE

    Chekroud, Adam M.; Jim. A. C. Everett; Bridge, Holly; Hewstone, Miles

    2014-01-01

    Prejudice is an enduring and pervasive aspect of human cognition. An emergent trend in modern psychology has focused on understanding how cognition is linked to neural function, leading researchers to investigate the neural correlates of prejudice. Research in this area using racial group memberships has quickly highlighted the amygdala as a neural structure of importance. In this article, we offer a critical review of social neuroscientific studies of the amygdala in race-related prejudice. ...

  6. Neuroimaging studies towards understanding the central effects of pharmacological cannabis products on patients with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allendorfer, Jane B; Szaflarski, Jerzy P

    2017-05-01

    Recent interest for the use of cannabis-derived products as therapeutic agents in the treatment of epilepsies has necessitated a reevaluation of their effects on brain and behavior. Overall, prolonged cannabis use is thought to result in functional and structural brain alterations. These effects may be dependent on a number of factors: e.g., which phytocannabinoid is used (e.g., cannabidiol (CBD) vs. tetrahyrocannabinol (THC)), the frequency of use (occasional vs. heavy), and at what age (prenatal, childhood, adulthood) the use began. However, due to the fact that there are over seven hundred constituents that make up the Cannabis sativa plant, it is difficult to determine which compound or combination of compounds is responsible for specific effects when studying recreational users. Therefore, this review focuses only on the functional MRI studies investigating the effects of specific pharmacological preparations of cannabis compounds, specifically THC, tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), and CBD, on brain function in healthy individuals and persons with epilepsy with references to non-epilepsy studies only to underline the gaps in research that need to be filled before cannabis-derived products are considered for a wide use in the treatment of epilepsy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Cannabinoids and Epilepsy". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Antecedents and neuroimaging patterns in cerebral palsy with epilepsy and cognitive impairment: a population-based study in children born at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlin, Kristina; Jacobsson, Bo; Nilsson, Staffan; Himmelmann, Kate

    2017-07-01

    Antecedents of accompanying impairments in cerebral palsy and their relation to neuroimaging patterns need to be explored. A population-based study of 309 children with cerebral palsy born at term between 1983 and 1994. Prepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum variables previously studied as antecedents of cerebral palsy type and motor severity were analyzed in children with cerebral palsy and cognitive impairment and/or epilepsy, and in children with cerebral palsy without these accompanying impairments. Neuroimaging patterns and their relation to identified antecedents were analyzed. Data were retrieved from the cerebral palsy register of western Sweden, and from obstetric and neonatal records. Children with cerebral palsy and accompanying impairments more often had low birthweight (kg) (odds ratio 0.5, 95% confidence interval 0.3-0.8), brain maldevelopment known at birth (p = 0.007, odds ratio ∞) and neonatal infection (odds ratio 5.4, 95% confidence interval 1.04-28.4). Moreover, neuroimaging patterns of maldevelopment (odds ratio 7.2, 95% confidence interval 2.9-17.2), cortical/subcortical lesions (odds ratio 5.3, 95% confidence interval 2.3-12.2) and basal ganglia lesions (odds ratio 7.6, 95% confidence interval 1.4-41.3) were more common, wheras white matter injury was found significantly less often (odds ratio 0.2, 95% confidence interval 0.1-0.5). In most children with maldevelopment, the intrapartum and postpartum periods were uneventful (p Cerebral maldevelopment was associated with prepartum antecedents, whereas subcortical/cortical and basal ganglia lesions were associated with intrapartum and postpartum antecedents. No additional factor other than those related to motor impairment was associated with epilepsy and cognitive impairment in cerebral palsy. Timing of antecedents deemed important for the development of cerebral palsy with accompanying impairments were supported by neuroimaging patterns. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics

  8. FRIEND Engine Framework: a real time neurofeedback client-server system for neuroimaging studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilio, Rodrigo; Garrido, Griselda J.; Sato, João R.; Hoefle, Sebastian; Melo, Bruno R. P.; Pamplona, Fabricio A.; Zahn, Roland; Moll, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    In this methods article, we present a new implementation of a recently reported FSL-integrated neurofeedback tool, the standalone version of “Functional Real-time Interactive Endogenous Neuromodulation and Decoding” (FRIEND). We will refer to this new implementation as the FRIEND Engine Framework. The framework comprises a client-server cross-platform solution for real time fMRI and fMRI/EEG neurofeedback studies, enabling flexible customization or integration of graphical interfaces, devices, and data processing. This implementation allows a fast setup of novel plug-ins and frontends, which can be shared with the user community at large. The FRIEND Engine Framework is freely distributed for non-commercial, research purposes. PMID:25688193

  9. A review of neuroimaging studies of race-related prejudice: Does amygdala response reflect threat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Mourad Chekroud

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Prejudice is an enduring and pervasive aspect of human cognition. An emergent trend in modern psychology has focused on understanding how cognition is linked to neural function, leading researchers to investigate the neural correlates of prejudice. Research in this area, using racial group memberships, quickly highlighted the amygdala as a neural structure of importance. In this article, we offer a critical review of social neuroscientific studies of the amygdala in race-related prejudice. Rather than the dominant interpretation that amygdala activity reflects a racial or outgroup bias per se, we argue that the observed pattern of sensitivity in this literature is best considered in terms of potential threat. More specifically, we argue that negative culturally-learned associations between black males and potential threat better explain the observed pattern of amygdala activity. Finally, we consider future directions for the field, and offer specific experiments and predictions to directly address unanswered questions.

  10. FRIEND Engine Framework: A real time neurofeedback client-server system for neuroimaging studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo eBasilio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this methods article, we present a new implementation of a recently reported FSL-integrated neurofeedback tool, the standalone version of Functional Real-time Interactive Endogenous Modulation and Decoding (FRIEND. We will refer to this new implementation as the FRIEND Engine Framework. The framework comprises a client-server cross-platform solution for real time fMRI and fMRI/EEG neurofeedback studies, enabling flexible customization or integration of graphical interfaces, devices and data processing. This implementation allows a fast setup of novel plug-ins and frontends, which can be shared with the user community at large. The FRIEND Engine Framework is freely distributed for non-commercial, research purposes.

  11. Typical and atypical appearance of early-onset Alzheimer's disease: A clinical, neuroimaging and neuropathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakatsu, Shinobu; Kobayashi, Ryota; Hayashi, Hiroshi

    2017-04-01

    The International Working Group (IWG) has classified Alzheimer's disease (AD) as two different types, the typical form and the atypical form, but clinicopathological studies of atypical AD are limited. Because atypical AD cases usually present with early-onset dementia, we investigated 12 patients with early-onset AD, including two patients with typical AD and 10 patients with atypical AD. Of these patients, six had the posterior variant, three had the frontal variant and one had the logopenic variant mixed with semantic dementia. We reported MRI, single-photon emission CT and neuropathological findings in six representative cases. We also described a "left temporal variant" of AD presenting with transcortical cortical sensory aphasia, which has not been reported previously and is another subtype of the posterior variant of AD. We found a significant correlation between regional cerebral blood flow and counts of NFTs in the cerebral cortices. An atypical presentation with focal neuropsychological symptoms roughly correlated with the density of NFTs in the cerebral cortex and more directly related to spongiform changes in the superficial layers of these areas. In contrast, the distribution of amyloid depositions was diffuse and did not necessarily correlate with focal neuropsychological symptoms. Braak staging or ABC score is not necessarily appropriate to evaluate atypical AD, and instead, spongiform changes in addition to tau pathology in the association cortices better explain the diversity of atypical AD. Interestingly, another patient with a posterior variant of AD had a novel type of atypical plaque, which we referred to as "lucent plaque". They were recognizable with HE staining in the circumference and dystrophic neurites were abundant with Gallyas-Braak staining. These plaques demonstrated intense immunoreactivity to both tau AT-8 and amyloid β (Aβ), suggesting a peculiar coexistence pattern of amyloid and tau in these plaques. Clinicopathological studies

  12. Relationship of neuroimaging to typical sleep times during a clinical reasoning task: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durning, Steven J; Kelly, William; Costanzo, Michelle E; Artino, Anthony R; van der Vleuten, Cees; Beckman, Thomas J; Roy, Michael J; Holmboe, Eric S; Wittich, Christopher M; Schuwirth, Lambert

    2015-04-01

    Sleep deprivation and fatigue have been associated with medical errors, clinical performance decrements, and reduced quality of life for both practicing physicians and medical students. Greater understanding of the impact of sleep quantity on clinical reasoning could improve patient care. The purpose of our pilot study was to examine relationships between clinical reasoning (assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging) and sleep time (measured in different ways by actigraphy) while answering multiple-choice questions (MCQs) from licensing agencies. Residents and faculty were administered a clinical reasoning exercise (MCQs from licensing bodies) during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Usual sleep patterns were sampled with actigraphy. Covariate analysis was used to examine the relationship between sleep duration (mean sleep, minimum sleep, maximum sleep) and brain activity during clinical reasoning (solving MCQs from licensing bodies). The mean sleep time over the duration of monitoring for the group was 7.19 hours (SD 0.66) with a range of 6.1 to 8.1 hours (internal medicine faculty 7.1 hours, SD 0.41; internal medicine residents 7.27 hours, SD 0.92). There was a negative relationship between activation in the prefrontal cortex and minimum sleep time while reflecting on MCQs. Our findings provide evidence that the quantity of sleep can modulate brain activity while completing a clinically meaningful task that should be confirmed in larger studies. Our findings suggest that the construct of sleepiness may be more complex than appreciated by many and that the most important of these sleep measures in terms of outcomes remains to be determined. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  13. Risk Factors and Clinical Manifestations of Juxtacortical Small Lesions: A Neuroimaging Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilong Shan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectiveWhite matter hyperintensities can be easily identified by brain imaging. Juxtacortical small lesion (JCSL is a special type of white matter lesion, defined as no greater than 5 mm in diameter and adjacent to the cerebral cortex in location. We notice lately that JCSLs alone may be associated to various neurological symptoms. Here, we design the present study to determine the risk factors for JCSLs and their clinical manifestations in patients in our neurology clinic.Methods206 participants suffered from neurological disorders and completed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI examinations were divided into two groups: patients with JCSLs and patients without lesions on MRI. Meanwhile, 129 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were also recruited. Laboratory examinations and the phenotypes and distributions of the symptoms of the three groups were compared.ResultsThe serum levels of apoB and homocysteine (HCY were independently related to the appearance of JCSLs and HCY level was also associated with the number of JCSLs. Patients with JCSLs might present with headache, insomnia, and/or anxiety/depression, which were related with the anatomical locations of the lesions.ConclusionThese data suggest that JCSLs are symptomatic and might in result fromarteriole atherosclerosis, which should raise our attention.

  14. Perceptual learning treatment in patients with anisometropic amblyopia: a neuroimaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Jingjing; Chen, Min; Liu, Lijuan; Zhao, Xuna; Zhang, Hong; Luo, Xiaojie; Gao, Jiahong

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the neuromechanisms of perceptual learning treatment in patients with anisometropic amblyopia using functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) techniques. 20 patients with monocular anisometropic amblyopia participated in the study. Both fMRI and DTI data were acquired for each patient twice: before and after 30 days' perceptual learning treatment for the amblyopic eye. During fMRI scanning, patients viewed the stimuli with either the sound or amblyopic eye. Changes of cortical activation after treatment were evaluated. In the DTI exams, the fractional anisotropy (FA) values, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values, the voxel numbers of optic radiations (ORs), and the number of tracks were compared between the ipsilateral and the contralateral ORs and also between the previous and posterior scans. Remarkable increased activation via the amblyopic eyes was found in Brodmann Area (BA) 17-19, bilateral temporal lobes, and right cingulate gyrus after the perceptual learning treatment. No significant changes were found in the FA values, ADC values, voxel numbers, and the number of tracks after the treatment. These results indicate that perceptual learning treatment for amblyopia had a positive effect on the visual cortex and temporal lobe visual areas in patients with anisometropic amblyopia.

  15. Comparing neural correlates of REM sleep in posttraumatic stress disorder and depression: a neuroimaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebdlahad, Sommer; Nofzinger, Eric A; James, Jeffrey A; Buysse, Daniel J; Price, Julie C; Germain, Anne

    2013-12-30

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep disturbances predict poor clinical outcomes in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). In MDD, REM sleep is characterized by activation of limbic and paralimbic brain regions compared to wakefulness. The neural correlates of PTSD during REM sleep remain scarcely explored, and comparisons of PTSD and MDD have not been conducted. The present study sought to compare brain activity patterns during wakefulness and REM sleep in 13 adults with PTSD and 12 adults with MDD using [¹⁸F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (PET). PTSD was associated with greater increase in relative regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRglc) in limbic and paralimbic structures in REM sleep compared to wakefulness. Post-hoc comparisons indicated that MDD was associated with greater limbic and paralimbic rCMRglc during wakefulness but not REM sleep compared to PTSD. Our findings suggest that PTSD is associated with increased REM sleep limbic and paralimbic metabolism, whereas MDD is associated with wake and REM hypermetabolism in these areas. These observations suggest that PTSD and MDD disrupt REM sleep through different neurobiological processes. Optimal sleep treatments between the two disorders may differ: REM-specific therapy may be more effective in PTSD.

  16. Structural Neuroimaging of Concomitant Depressive Symptoms in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Morin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Late-life depression (LLD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI can both denote prodromal Alzheimer’s disease. While the two concepts share common clinical features, differential diagnosis between them is crucial. The objective of this pilot study was to explore differences in terms of the hippocampal (HC and entorhinal cortex (EC volume reduction between LLD and aMCI patients with (aMCI/D+ group or without (aMCI group depressive symptoms. Six LLD, 6 aMCI, and 6 aMCI/D+ participants were assessed using a structural magnetic resonance imaging protocol. Manual segmentation of HC and EC was carried out. The results of volumetric comparisons suggest that the HC was larger in aMCI/D+ and LLD subjects compared to aMCI participants. The left EC mean volume was slightly lower in aMCI/D+ subjects. Power analyses revealed that 36 participants per group would suffice to confirm these findings. Overall, these pilot findings suggest that aMCI can be distinguished from LLD based on cerebral atrophy measures, and that HC and EC atrophy in aMCI varies according to the presence or absence of depressive symptoms.

  17. Comprehending body language and mimics: an ERP and neuroimaging study on Italian actors and viewers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Mado Proverbio

    Full Text Available In this study, the neural mechanism subserving the ability to understand people's emotional and mental states by observing their body language (facial expression, body posture and mimics was investigated in healthy volunteers. ERPs were recorded in 30 Italian University students while they evaluated 280 pictures of highly ecological displays of emotional body language that were acted out by 8 male and female Italian actors. Pictures were briefly flashed and preceded by short verbal descriptions (e.g., "What a bore!" that were incongruent half of the time (e.g., a picture of a very attentive and concentrated person shown after the previous example verbal description. ERP data and source reconstruction indicated that the first recognition of incongruent body language occurred 300 ms post-stimulus. swLORETA performed on the N400 identified the strongest generators of this effect in the right rectal gyrus (BA11 of the ventromedial orbitofrontal cortex, the bilateral uncus (limbic system and the cingulate cortex, the cortical areas devoted to face and body processing (STS, FFA EBA and the premotor cortex (BA6, which is involved in action understanding. These results indicate that face and body mimics undergo a prioritized processing that is mostly represented in the affective brain and is rapidly compared with verbal information. This process is likely able to regulate social interactions by providing on-line information about the sincerity and trustfulness of others.

  18. Thalamocortical relationship in epileptic patients with generalized spike and wave discharges — A multimodal neuroimaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Huishi Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike focal or partial epilepsy, which has a confined range of influence, idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE often affects the whole or a larger portion of the brain without obvious, known cause. It is important to understand the underlying network which generates epileptic activity and through which epileptic activity propagates. The aim of the present study was to investigate the thalamocortical relationship using non-invasive imaging modalities in a group of IGE patients. We specifically investigated the roles of the mediodorsal nuclei in the thalami and the medial frontal cortex in generating and spreading IGE activities. We hypothesized that the connectivity between these two structures is key in understanding the generation and propagation of epileptic activity in brains affected by IGE. Using three imaging techniques of EEG, fMRI and EEG-informed fMRI, we identified important players in generation and propagation of generalized spike-and-wave discharges (GSWDs. EEG-informed fMRI suggested multiple regions including the medial frontal area near to the anterior cingulate cortex, mediodorsal nuclei of the thalamus, caudate nucleus among others that related to the GSWDs. The subsequent seed-based fMRI analysis revealed a reciprocal cortical and bi-thalamic functional connection. Through EEG-based Granger Causality analysis using (DTF and adaptive DTF, within the reciprocal thalamocortical circuitry, thalamus seems to serve as a stronger source in driving cortical activity from initiation to the propagation of a GSWD. Such connectivity change starts before the GSWDs and continues till the end of the slow wave discharge. Thalamus, especially the mediodorsal nuclei, may serve as potential targets for deep brain stimulation to provide more effective treatment options for patients with drug-resistant generalized epilepsy.

  19. Intention understanding over T: a neuroimaging study on shared representations and tennis return predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacioppo, Stephanie; Fontang, Frederic; Patel, Nisa; Decety, Jean; Monteleone, George; Cacioppo, John T

    2014-01-01

    Studying the way athletes predict actions of their peers during fast-ball sports, such as a tennis, has proved to be a valuable tool for increasing our knowledge of intention understanding. The working model in this area is that the anticipatory representations of others' behaviors require internal predictive models of actions formed from pre-established and shared representations between the observer and the actor. This model also predicts that observers would not be able to read accurately the intentions of a competitor if the competitor were to perform the action without prior knowledge of their intention until moments before the action. To test this hypothesis, we recorded brain activity from 25 male tennis players while they performed a novel behavioral tennis intention inference task, which included two conditions: (i) one condition in which they viewed video clips of a tennis athlete who knew in advance where he was about to act/serve (initially intended serves) and (ii) one condition in which they viewed video clips of that same athlete when he did not know where he was to act/serve until the target was specified after he had tossed the ball into the air to complete his serve (non-initially intended serves). Our results demonstrated that (i) tennis expertise is related to the accuracy in predicting where another server intends to serve when that server knows where he intends to serve before (but not after) he tosses the ball in the air; and (ii) accurate predictions are characterized by the recruitment of both cortical areas within the human mirror neuron system (that is known to be involved in higher-order (top-down) processes of embodied cognition and shared representation) and subcortical areas within brain regions involved in procedural memory (caudate nucleus). Interestingly, inaccurate predictions instead recruit areas known to be involved in low-level (bottom-up) computational processes associated with the sense of agency and self-other distinction.

  20. A neuroimaging proof of principle study of Down's syndrome and dementia: ethical and methodological challenges in intrusive research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Abrera, J C; Holland, A J; Landt, J; Stocks-Gee, G; Zaman, S H

    2013-02-01

    Research into specific illnesses and the development of new treatments may only become possible as new technologies become available. When used for research, such technologies may best be described as 'intrusive', in that they require a considerable willingness and commitment on the part of the participants. This has increasingly been the case for brain disorders and illnesses where novel neuroimaging techniques, often combined with clinical and psychological assessments, have the potential to result in new understanding. People with intellectual disabilities (ID) have a history of under-representation as participants in research using such technologies and are therefore at risk of not receiving equal access to state-of-the-art treatments. We propose that 'intrusive' biomedical research is both possible and ethical in ID, and explore some of the methodological challenges by reference to a recent proof of principle study that used a relatively new ligand-based brain scanning technique in a group of volunteers with Down's syndrome. Five overlapping stages of the study methodology were identified and evaluated for their acceptability to volunteers with mild to moderate ID through discussion, reflection, and analysis of structured feedback in the context of key policy documents, ethical guidelines and relevant legislation. Identification of key ethical and methodological challenges from reflective practice and participant feedback facilitated the emergence of strategies that permitted continual refinement of the study design. Important areas considered included (1) being clear about the purpose and scientific justification for the study; (2) reconciling the potential risks and benefits with relevant ethical guidelines and legislation; (3) identifying and implementing effective recruitment strategies; (4) optimising and assessing capacity to consent; and (5) making the 'intrusive' procedures as acceptable as possible to people with ID. We were able to demonstrate that a

  1. Neuroimaging in dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkhof, Frederik [VU Univ. Medical Center, Amsterdam (NL). Dept. of Radiology and Image Analysis Center (IAC); Fox, Nick C. [UCL Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom). Dementia Research Centre; VU Univ. Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bastos-Leite, Antonio J. [Porto Univ. (Portugal). Dept. of Medical Imaging; Scheltens, Philip [VU Univ. Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Neurology and Alzheimer Center

    2011-07-01

    Against a background of an ever-increasing number of patients, new management options, and novel imaging modalities, neuroimaging is playing an increasingly important role in the diagnosis of dementia. This up-to-date, superbly illustrated book aims to provide a practical guide to the effective use of neuroimaging in the patient with cognitive decline. It sets out the key clinical and imaging features of the wide range of causes of dementia and directs the reader from clinical presentation to neuroimaging and on to an accurate diagnosis whenever possible. After an introductory chapter on the clinical background, the available ''toolbox'' of structural and functional neuroimaging techniques is reviewed in detail, including CT, MRI and advanced MR techniques, SPECT and PET, and image analysis methods. The imaging findings in normal ageing are then discussed, followed by a series of chapters that carefully present and analyze the key imaging findings in patients with dementias. A structured path of analysis follows the main presenting feature: disorders associated with primary gray matter loss, with white matter changes, with brain swelling, etc. Throughout, a practical approach is adopted, geared specifically to the needs of clinicians (neurologists, radiologists, psychiatrists, geriatricians) working in the field of dementia, for whom this book should prove an invaluable resource. (orig.)

  2. Diagnostic and therapeutic utility of neuroimaging in depression: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wise T

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Toby Wise,1 Anthony J Cleare,1 Andrés Herane,1,2 Allan H Young,1 Danilo Arnone1 1King’s College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Department of Psychological Medicine, Centre for Affective Disorders, London, United Kingdom; 2Clínica Psiquiátrica Universitaria, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile Abstract: A growing number of studies have used neuroimaging to further our understanding of how brain structure and function are altered in major depression. More recently, these techniques have begun to show promise for the diagnosis and treatment of depression, both as aids to conventional methods and as methods in their own right. In this review, we describe recent neuroimaging findings in the field that might aid diagnosis and improve treatment accuracy. Overall, major depression is associated with numerous structural and functional differences in neural systems involved in emotion processing and mood regulation. Furthermore, several studies have shown that the structure and function of these systems is changed by pharmacological and psychological treatments of the condition and that these changes in candidate brain regions might predict clinical response. More recently, “machine learning” methods have used neuroimaging data to categorize individual patients according to their diagnostic status and predict treatment response. Despite being mostly limited to group-level comparisons at present, with the introduction of new methods and more naturalistic studies, neuroimaging has the potential to become part of the clinical armamentarium and may improve diagnostic accuracy and inform treatment choice at the patient level. Keywords: depression, mood disorder, neuroimaging, diagnosis, treatment

  3. Double-letter processing in surface dyslexia and dysgraphia following a left temporal lesion: A multimodal neuroimaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasino, Barbara; Marin, Dario; Maieron, Marta; D'Agostini, Serena; Fabbro, Franco; Skrap, Miran; Luzzatti, Claudio

    2015-12-01

    Neuropsychological data about acquired impairments in reading and writing provide a strong basis for the theoretical framework of the dual-route models. The present study explored the functional neuroanatomy of the reading and spelling processing system. We describe the reading and writing performance of patient CF, an Italian native speaker who developed an extremely selective reading and spelling deficit (his spontaneous speech, oral comprehension, repetition and oral picture naming were almost unimpaired) in processing double letters associated with surface dyslexia and dysgraphia, following a tumor in the left temporal lobe. In particular, the majority of CF's errors in spelling were phonologically plausible substitutions, errors concerning letter numerosity of consonants, and syllabic phoneme-to-grapheme conversion (PGC) errors. A similar pattern of impairment also emerged in his reading behavior, with a majority of lexical stress errors (the only possible type of surface reading errors in the Italian language, due the extreme regularity of print-to-sound correspondence). CF's neuropsychological profile was combined with structural neuroimaging data, fiber tracking, and functional maps and compared to that of healthy control participants. We related CF's deficit to a dissociation between impaired ventral/lexical route (as evidenced by a fractional anisotropy - FA decrease along the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus - IFOF) and relatively preserved dorsal/phonological route (as evidenced by a rather full integrity of the superior longitudinal fasciculus - SLF). In terms of functional processing, the lexical-semantic ventral route network was more activated in controls than in CF, while the network supporting the dorsal route was shared by CF and the control participants. Our results are discussed within the theoretical framework of dual-route models of reading and spelling, emphasize the importance of the IFOF both in lexical reading and spelling, and offer

  4. Neuroimaging. Recent issues and future progresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuyama, Hidenao [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine

    2002-07-01

    Recent advances in the technology of non-invasive neuroimaging techniques, include X-ray CT, magnetic resonance imaging, positron CT, etc. The trend of neuroimaging is from the diagnosis of the brain structural change to the functional localization of the brain function with accurate topographical data. Brain activation studies disclosed the responsible regions in the brain for various kinds of paradigms, including motor, sensory, cognitive functions. Another aspect of brain imaging shows the pathophysiological changes of the neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease by abnormal CBF or metabolism changes. It is very important to note that the neurotransmitter receptor imaging is now available for various kinds of transmitters. We recently developed a new tracer for nicotinic type acetylcholine receptor, which might be involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease and its treatment. In the near future, we will be able to visualize the proteins in the brain such as amyloid protein, which will make us to diagnose Alzheimer's patients accurately, and with respect to neuroscience research, not only neuronal functional localizations but also relationship between them will become important to disclose the functional aspects of the brain. (author)

  5. Big Data and Neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb-Vargas, Yenny; Chen, Shaojie; Fisher, Aaron; Mejia, Amanda; Xu, Yuting; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Caffo, Brian; Lindquist, Martin A

    2017-12-01

    Big Data are of increasing importance in a variety of areas, especially in the biosciences. There is an emerging critical need for Big Data tools and methods, because of the potential impact of advancements in these areas. Importantly, statisticians and statistical thinking have a major role to play in creating meaningful progress in this arena. We would like to emphasize this point in this special issue, as it highlights both the dramatic need for statistical input for Big Data analysis and for a greater number of statisticians working on Big Data problems. We use the field of statistical neuroimaging to demonstrate these points. As such, this paper covers several applications and novel methodological developments of Big Data tools applied to neuroimaging data.

  6. Trends in performance indicators of neuroimaging anatomy research publications: a bibliometric study of major neuroradiology journal output over four decades based on web of science database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Louise; Massoud, Tarik F

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative, qualitative, and innovative application of bibliometric research performance indicators to anatomy and radiology research and education can enhance cross-fertilization between the two disciplines. We aim to use these indicators to identify long-term trends in dissemination of publications in neuroimaging anatomy (including both productivity and citation rates), which has subjectively waned in prestige during recent years. We examined publications over the last 40 years in two neuroradiological journals, AJNR and Neuroradiology, and selected and categorized all neuroimaging anatomy research articles according to theme and type. We studied trends in their citation activity over time, and mathematically analyzed these trends for 1977, 1987, and 1997 publications. We created a novel metric, "citation half-life at 10 years postpublication" (CHL-10), and used this to examine trends in the skew of citation numbers for anatomy articles each year. We identified 367 anatomy articles amongst a total of 18,110 in these journals: 74.2% were original articles, with study of normal anatomy being the commonest theme (46.7%). We recorded a mean of 18.03 citations for each anatomy article, 35% higher than for general neuroradiology articles. Graphs summarizing the rise (upslope) in citation rates after publication revealed similar trends spanning two decades. CHL-10 trends demonstrated that more recently published anatomy articles were likely to take longer to reach peak citation rate. Bibliometric analysis suggests that anatomical research in neuroradiology is not languishing. This novel analytical approach can be applied to other aspects of neuroimaging research, and within other subspecialties in radiology and anatomy, and also to foster anatomical education. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Neuroimaging in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-LoberaBehavioral Sciences Institute and Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, SpainAbstract: Neuroimaging techniques have been useful tools for accurate investigation of brain structure and function in eating disorders. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and voxel-based morphometry have been the most relevant technologies in this regard. The purpose of this review is to update the existing data on neuroimaging in eating disorders. The main brain changes seem to be reversible to some extent after adequate weight restoration. Brain changes in bulimia nervosa seem to be less pronounced than in anorexia nervosa and are mainly due to chronic dietary restrictions. Different subtypes of eating disorders might be correlated with specific brain functional changes. Moreover, anorectic patients who binge/purge may have different functional brain changes compared with those who do not binge/purge. Functional changes in the brain might have prognostic value, and different changes with respect to the binding potential of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, and D2/D3 receptors may be persistent after recovering from an eating disorder.Keywords: neuroimaging, brain changes, brain receptors, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorders

  8. Modulation on brain gray matter activity and white matter integrity by APOE ε4 risk gene in cognitively intact elderly: A multimodal neuroimaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Suping; Jiang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yubo; Wu, Xiaoming; Ren, Junchan; Lee, Min Seob; Lee, Sunghoon; Huang, Liyu

    2017-03-30

    Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is the genetic risk factor with the most established evidence for sporadic Alzheimer's disease. Previous neuroimaging studies have demonstrated insufficiently consistent functional and structural changes among healthy APOE ε4 carriers when compared to non-carriers. Here, in a cognitively intact elderly group (a total of 110: 45 APOE ε4 carriers, 65 non-carriers), we aimed to investigate the potential role of APOE ε4 in the modulation of grey matter activity, white matter integrity, and brain morphology before the development of clinically significant symptoms and signs, by methods of: amplitude of low frequency fluctuations and regional homogeneity analysis based on resting state fMRI, and fiber tractography approach based on diffusion tensor imaging. Our results revealed that compared to non-carriers, APOE ε4 carriers showed: (1) an inconsistent pattern of activity change in the default mode network, including increased gray matter activity in anterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex and decreased activity in precuneus; (2) lower mean diffusivity (MD) in fibers of corona radiata and corpus callosum, and lower axial diffusivity in genu of corpus callosum; and (3) significant positive correlation between the MD value of the right superior corona radiate and gross white matter volume; significant negative correlation between the MD value of the right superior corona radiate and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score. Our results suggested that APOE ε4 gene can modulate gray matter activity and white matter integrity in cognitive and memory related regions, even before any clinical or neuropsychic symtoms or signs of imminent disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Neuroimaging of consciousness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavanna, Andrea Eugenio [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Neuropsychiatry; UCL Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom). Sobell Dept. of Motor, Neuroscience and Movement Disorders; Nani, Andrea [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom). Research Group BSMHFT; Blumenfeld, Hal [Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States). Depts. of Neurology, Neurobiology and Neurosurgery; Laureys, Steven (ed.) [Liege Univ. (Belgium). Cyclotron Research Centre

    2013-07-01

    An important reference work on a multidisciplinary and rapidly expanding area. Particular focus on the relevance of neuroimaging for the diagnosis and treatment of common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting consciousness. Written by world-class experts in the field. Relevant for clinicians, researchers, and scholars across different specialties. Within the field of neuroscience, the past few decades have witnessed an exponential growth of research into the brain mechanisms underlying both normal and pathological states of consciousness in humans. The development of sophisticated imaging techniques (above all fMRI and PET) to visualize and map brain activity in vivo has opened new avenues in our understanding of the pathological processes involved in common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting consciousness, such as epilepsy, coma, vegetative states, dissociative disorders, and dementia. This book presents the state of the art in neuroimaging exploration of the brain correlates of the alterations in consciousness across these conditions, with a particular focus on the potential applications for diagnosis and management. Although the book has a practical approach and is primarily targeted at neurologists, neuroradiologists, and psychiatrists, a wide range of researchers and health care professionals will find it an essential reference that explains the significance of neuroimaging of consciousness for clinical practice. Within the field of neuroscience, the past few decades have witnessed an exponential growth of research into the brain mechanisms underlying both normal and pathological states of consciousness in humans. The development of sophisticated imaging techniques (above all fMRI and PET) to visualize and map brain activity in vivo has opened new avenues in our understanding of the pathological processes involved in common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting consciousness, such as epilepsy, coma, vegetative states, dissociative disorders, and dementia. This

  10. Meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies indicates that an increase of cognitive difficulty during executive tasks engages brain regions associated with time perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radua, Joaquim; Del Pozo, Natalia Ojeda; Gómez, José; Guillen-Grima, Francisco; Ortuño, Felipe

    2014-05-01

    We hypothesize that time perception and executive functions are interrelated and share neuroanatomical basis, and that fluctuations in levels of cognitive effort play a role in mediating that relation. The main goal of this study was to identify brain structures activated both by increases in cognitive activity and during time perception tasks. We performed a multimodal meta-analysis to identify common brain regions in the findings of (a) an SDM meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies assessing the brain response to increasing levels of cognitive difficulty, and (b) an ALE meta-analysis on neuroimaging of time perception (Ortuño, Guillén-Grima, López-García, Gómez, & Pla, 2011. Schizophr. Res., 125(2-3), 129-35). Consistent with results of previous, separate meta-analyses, the current study supports the hypothesis that there exists a group of brain regions engaged both in time perception tasks and during tasks requiring cognitive effort. Thus, brain regions associated with working memory and executive functions were found to be engaged during time estimation tasks, and regions associated with time perception were found to be engaged by an increase in the difficulty of non-temporal tasks. The implication is that temporal perception and cognitive processes demanding cognitive control become interlinked when there is an increase in the level of cognitive effort demanded. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Neuroimaging of child abuse: A critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heledd eHart

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Childhood maltreatment is a severe stressor that can lead to the development of behaviour problems and affect brain structure and function. This review summarizes the current evidence for the effects of early childhood maltreatment on behavior, cognition and the brain in adults and children. Neuropsychological studies suggest an association between child abuse and deficits in IQ, memory, executive function and emotion discrimination. Structural neuroimaging studies provide evidence for deficits in brain volume, grey and white matter of several regions, most prominently the dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex but also hippocampus, amygdala, and corpus callosum. Diffusion tensor imaging studies show evidence for deficits in structural interregional connectivity between these areas, suggesting neural network abnormalities. Functional imaging studies support this evidence by reporting atypical activation in the same brain regions during executive function and emotion processing. There are, however, several limitations of the abuse research literature which are discussed, most prominently the lack of control for co-morbid psychiatric disorders, which make it difficult to disentangle which of the above effects are due to maltreatment, the associated psychiatric conditions or a combination or interaction between both. Overall, the better controlled studies that show a direct correlation between childhood abuse and brain measures suggest that the most prominent deficits associated with early childhood abuse are in the function and structure of lateral and ventromedial fronto-limbic brain areas and networks that mediate behavioural and affect control. Future, large scale multimodal neuroimaging studies in medication-naïve subjects, however, are needed that control for psychiatric co-morbidities in order to elucidate the structural and functional brain sequelae that are associated with early environmental adversity, independently of secondary

  12. "Can it read my mind?" - What do the public and experts think of the current (misuses of neuroimaging?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna M Wardlaw

    Full Text Available Emerging applications of neuroimaging outside medicine and science have received intense public exposure through the media. Media misrepresentations can create a gulf between public and scientific understanding of the capabilities of neuroimaging and raise false expectations. To determine the extent of this effect and determine public opinions on acceptable uses and the need for regulation, we designed an electronic survey to obtain anonymous opinions from as wide a range of members of the public and neuroimaging experts as possible. The surveys ran from 1(st June to 30 September 2010, asked 10 and 21 questions, respectively, about uses of neuroimaging outside traditional medical diagnosis, data storage, science communication and potential methods of regulation. We analysed the responses using descriptive statistics; 660 individuals responded to the public and 303 individuals responded to the expert survey. We found evidence of public skepticism about the use of neuroimaging for applications such as lie detection or to determine consumer preferences and considerable disquiet about use by employers or government and about how their data would be stored and used. While also somewhat skeptical about new applications of neuroimaging, experts grossly underestimated how often neuroimaging had been used as evidence in court. Although both the public and the experts rated highly the importance of a better informed public in limiting the inappropriate uses to which neuroimaging might be put, opinions differed on the need for, and mechanism of, actual regulation. Neuroscientists recognized the risks of inaccurate reporting of neuroimaging capabilities in the media but showed little motivation to engage with the public. The present study also emphasizes the need for better frameworks for scientific engagement with media and public education.

  13. "Can it read my mind?" - What do the public and experts think of the current (mis)uses of neuroimaging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardlaw, Joanna M; O'Connell, Garret; Shuler, Kirsten; DeWilde, Janet; Haley, Jane; Escobar, Oliver; Murray, Shaun; Rae, Robert; Jarvie, Donald; Sandercock, Peter; Schafer, Burkhard

    2011-01-01

    Emerging applications of neuroimaging outside medicine and science have received intense public exposure through the media. Media misrepresentations can create a gulf between public and scientific understanding of the capabilities of neuroimaging and raise false expectations. To determine the extent of this effect and determine public opinions on acceptable uses and the need for regulation, we designed an electronic survey to obtain anonymous opinions from as wide a range of members of the public and neuroimaging experts as possible. The surveys ran from 1(st) June to 30 September 2010, asked 10 and 21 questions, respectively, about uses of neuroimaging outside traditional medical diagnosis, data storage, science communication and potential methods of regulation. We analysed the responses using descriptive statistics; 660 individuals responded to the public and 303 individuals responded to the expert survey. We found evidence of public skepticism about the use of neuroimaging for applications such as lie detection or to determine consumer preferences and considerable disquiet about use by employers or government and about how their data would be stored and used. While also somewhat skeptical about new applications of neuroimaging, experts grossly underestimated how often neuroimaging had been used as evidence in court. Although both the public and the experts rated highly the importance of a better informed public in limiting the inappropriate uses to which neuroimaging might be put, opinions differed on the need for, and mechanism of, actual regulation. Neuroscientists recognized the risks of inaccurate reporting of neuroimaging capabilities in the media but showed little motivation to engage with the public. The present study also emphasizes the need for better frameworks for scientific engagement with media and public education.

  14. Turner syndrome: neuroimaging findings: structural and functional.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mullaney, Ronan

    2009-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of Turner syndrome can advance our understanding of the X chromosome in brain development, and the modulatory influence of endocrine factors. There is increasing evidence from neuroimaging studies that TX individuals have significant differences in the anatomy, function, and metabolism of a number of brain regions; including the parietal lobe; cerebellum, amygdala, hippocampus; and basal ganglia; and perhaps differences in "connectivity" between frontal and parieto-occipital regions. Finally, there is preliminary evidence that genomic imprinting, sex hormones and growth hormone have significant modulatory effects on brain maturation in TS.

  15. [Neuroimaging and Blood Biomarkers in Functional Prognosis after Stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, João Paulo; Costa, Joana Santos; Sargento-Freitas, João; Oliveira, Sandra; Mendes, Bruno; Laíns, Jorge; Pinheiro, João

    2016-11-01

    Stroke remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality around the world and it is associated with an important long-term functional disability. Some neuroimaging resources and certain peripheral blood or cerebrospinal fluid proteins can give important information about etiology, therapeutic approach, follow-up and functional prognosis in acute ischemic stroke patients. However, among the scientific community, there is currently more interest in the stroke vital prognosis over the functional prognosis. Predicting the functional prognosis during acute phase would allow more objective rehabilitation programs and better management of the available resources. The aim of this work is to review the potential role of acute phase neuroimaging and blood biomarkers as functional recovery predictors after ischemic stroke. Review of the literature published between 2005 and 2015, in English, using the terms "ischemic stroke", "neuroimaging" e "blood biomarkers". We included nine studies, based on abstract reading. Computerized tomography, transcranial doppler ultrasound and diffuse magnetic resonance imaging show potential predictive value, based on the blood flow study and the evaluation of stroke's volume and localization, especially when combined with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. Several biomarkers have been studied as diagnostic, risk stratification and prognostic tools, namely the S100 calcium binding protein B, C-reactive protein, matrix metalloproteinases and cerebral natriuretic peptide. Although some biomarkers and neuroimaging techniques have potential predictive value, none of the studies were able to support its use, alone or in association, as a clinically useful functionality predictor model. All the evaluated markers were considered insufficient to predict functional prognosis at three months, when applied in the first hours after stroke. Additional studies are necessary to identify reliable predictive markers for functional

  16. Neuroimaging Biomarkers of Caloric Restriction on Brain Metabolic and Vascular Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ai-Ling; Parikh, Ishita; Hoffman, Jared D; Ma, David

    2017-03-01

    Non-invasive neuroimaging methods have been developed as powerful tools for identifying in vivo brain functions for studies in humans and animals. Here we review the imaging biomarkers that are being used to determine the changes within brain metabolic and vascular functions induced by caloric restriction (CR), and their potential usefulness for future studies with dietary interventions in humans. CR causes an early shift in brain metabolism of glucose to ketone bodies, and enhances ATP production, neuronal activity and cerebral blood flow (CBF). With age, CR preserves mitochondrial activity, neurotransmission, CBF, and spatial memory. CR also reduces anxiety in aging mice. Neuroimaging studies in humans show that CR restores abnormal brain activity in the amygdala of women with obesity and enhances brain connectivity in old adults. Neuroimaging methods have excellent translational values and can be widely applied in future studies to identify dietary effects on brain functions in humans.

  17. Advanced neuroimaging techniques for central neuromodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Angela; Pouratian, Nader

    2014-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation an effective treatment of many neurologic conditions such as Parkinson disease, essential tremor, dystonia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Structural and functional neuroimaging studies provide the opportunity to visualize the dysfunctional nodes and networks underlying neurologic and psychiatric disease, and to thereby realize new targets for neuromodulation as well as personalize current therapy. This article reviews contemporary advances in neuroimaging in the basic sciences and how they can be applied to redirect and propel functional neurosurgery toward a goal of functional localization of targets with individualized maps and identification of novel targets for other neuropsychiatric diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Propionic acidemia: diagnosis and neuroimaging findings of this neurometabolic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Parvaneh; Jafari, Narjes; Ahmad Abadi, Farzad; Jabbedari, Sayena; Taghdiri, Mohammad-Mahdi; Alaee, Mohammad-Reza; Ghofrani, Mohammad; Tonekaboni, Seyed Hassan; Nejad Biglari, Habibeh

    2014-01-01

    Propionic acidemia is one of the rare congenital neurometabolic disorders with autosomal recessive inheritance. This disorder is caused by a defect in the propionyl-CoA carboxylase enzyme and can be presented with life-threatening ketoacidosis, lethargy, failure to thrive, and developmental delay. The patients diagnosed as having propionic acidemia in Neurology Department of Mofid Children's Hospital in Tehran, Iran, between 2002 and 2012 were include in our study. This disorder was confirmed by clinical manifestations, neuroimaging findings, and neurometabolic assessment in the reference laboratory in Germany. Our study was conducted to define the sex, age, gender, past medical history, developmental status, clinical findings, and neuroimaging manifestations in 10 patients with propionic acidemia. Seventy percent of patients were offspring of consanguineous marriages. In this study, only one patient had microcephaly at birth, but at detection time, 30% of patients had head circumference and weight below the 3rd percentile. The patients were followed for approximately 5 years and this follow-up showed that the patients with early diagnosis had a more favorable clinical response. Neuroimaging findings included brain atrophy, white matter and globus pallidus involvement. Finally we suggest that early diagnosis and treatment have an important role in the prevention of disease progression.

  19. Validation of Alzheimer's disease CSF and plasma biological markers: the multicentre reliability study of the pilot European Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (E-ADNI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buerger, Katharina; Frisoni, Giovanni; Uspenskaya, Olga

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiatives ("ADNI") aim to validate neuroimaging and biochemical markers of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Data of the pilot European-ADNI (E-ADNI) biological marker programme of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma candidate biomarkers are reported. METHODS...

  20. Neurobiological bases of reading comprehension: Insights from neuroimaging studies of word level and text level processing in skilled and impaired readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Nicole; Frost, Stephen J; Menc, W Einar; Sandak, Rebecca; Pugh, Kenneth R

    2013-04-01

    For accurate reading comprehension, readers must first learn to map letters to their corresponding speech sounds and meaning and then they must string the meanings of many words together to form a representation of the text. Furthermore, readers must master the complexities involved in parsing the relevant syntactic and pragmatic information necessary for accurate interpretation. Failure in this process can occur at multiple levels and cognitive neuroscience has been helpful in identifying the underlying causes of success and failure in reading single words and in reading comprehension. In general, neurobiological studies of skilled reading comprehension indicate a highly overlapping language circuit for single word reading, reading comprehension and listening comprehension with largely quantitative differences in a number of reading and language related areas. This paper reviews relevant research from studies employing neuroimaging techniques to study reading with a focus on the relationship between reading skill, single word reading, and text comprehension.

  1. PET radioligand injection for pig neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Munk, Ole Lajord; Landau, Anne M.

    2018-01-01

    Pigs are useful models in neuroimaging studies with positron emission tomography. Radiolabeled ligands are injected intravenously at the start of the scan and in pigs, the most easily accessible route of administration is the ear vein. However, in brain studies the short distance between the brai...

  2. Debate over Social Studies Shows Little Sign of Abating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2010-01-01

    The Texas board of education which consists of 15-member elected body drew national attention as a bloc of staunch conservatives largely succeeded in putting its stamp on a revised set of social studies standards. The debate was marked by tussles over such matters as the separation of church and state, the representation of minority figures and…

  3. Brain regions involved in subprocesses of small-space episodic object-location memory: a systematic review of lesion and functional neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Kathrin; Eschen, Anne

    2017-04-01

    Object-location memory (OLM) enables us to keep track of the locations of objects in our environment. The neurocognitive model of OLM (Postma, A., Kessels, R. P. C., & Van Asselen, M. (2004). The neuropsychology of object-location memory. In G. L. Allen (Ed.), Human spatial memory: Remembering where (pp. 143-160). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, Postma, A., Kessels, R. P. C., & Van Asselen, M. (2008). How the brain remembers and forgets where things are: The neurocognition of object-location memory. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 32, 1339-1345. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2008.05.001 ) proposes that distinct brain regions are specialised for different subprocesses of OLM (object processing, location processing, and object-location binding; categorical and coordinate OLM; egocentric and allocentric OLM). It was based mainly on findings from lesion studies. However, recent episodic memory studies point to a contribution of additional or different brain regions to object and location processing within episodic OLM. To evaluate and update the neurocognitive model of OLM, we therefore conducted a systematic literature search for lesion as well as functional neuroimaging studies contrasting small-space episodic OLM with object memory or location memory. We identified 10 relevant lesion studies and 8 relevant functional neuroimaging studies. We could confirm some of the proposals of the neurocognitive model of OLM, but also differing hypotheses from episodic memory research, about which brain regions are involved in the different subprocesses of small-space episodic OLM. In addition, we were able to identify new brain regions as well as important research gaps.

  4. Interactive Information Visualization in Neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Hansen, Lars Kai

    1998-01-01

    We describe a virtual environment for interactive visualization of 3D neuroimages. The environment is implemented in VRML and we will discuss the viability and limitation of this platform......We describe a virtual environment for interactive visualization of 3D neuroimages. The environment is implemented in VRML and we will discuss the viability and limitation of this platform...

  5. Meeting Curation Challenges in a Neuroimaging Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angus Whyte

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The SCARP project is a series of short studies with two aims; firstly to discover more about disciplinary approaches and attitudes to digital curation through ‘immersion’ in selected cases; secondly to apply known good practice, and where possible, identify new lessons from practice in the selected discipline areas. The study summarised here is of the Neuroimaging Group in the University of Edinburgh’s Division of Psychiatry, which plays a leading role in eScience collaborations to improve the infrastructure for neuroimaging data integration and reuse. The Group also aims to address growing data storage and curation needs, given the capabilities afforded by new infrastructure. The study briefly reviews the policy context and current challenges to data integration and sharing in the neuroimaging field. It then describes how curation and preservation risks and opportunities for change were identified throughout the curation lifecycle; and their context appreciated through field study in the research site. The results are consistent with studies of neuroimaging eInfrastructure that emphasise the role of local data sharing and reuse practices. These sustain mutual awareness of datasets and experimental protocols through sharing peer to peer, and among senior researchers and students, enabling continuity in research and flexibility in project work. This “human infrastructure” is taken into account in considering next steps for curation and preservation of the Group’s datasets and a phased approach to supporting data documentation.

  6. Neuroimaging in Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Yildirim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging has been used in antisocial personality disorder since the invention of computed tomography and new modalities are introduced as technology advances. Magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging and radionuclide imaging are such techniques that are currently used in neuroimaging. Although neuroimaging is an indispensible tool for psychiatric reseach, its clinical utility is questionable until new modalities become more accessible and regularly used in clinical practice. The aim of this paper is to provide clinicians with an introductory knowledge on neuroimaging in antisocial personality disorder including basic physics principles, current contributions to general understanding of pathophysiology in antisocial personality disorder and possible future applications of neuroimaging. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(1: 98-108

  7. Provenance in neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie-Graham, Allan J; Van Horn, John D; Woods, Roger P; Crawford, Karen L; Toga, Arthur W

    2008-08-01

    Provenance, the description of the history of a set of data, has grown more important with the proliferation of research consortia-related efforts in neuroimaging. Knowledge about the origin and history of an image is crucial for establishing data and results quality; detailed information about how it was processed, including the specific software routines and operating systems that were used, is necessary for proper interpretation, high fidelity replication and re-use. We have drafted a mechanism for describing provenance in a simple and easy to use environment, alleviating the burden of documentation from the user while still providing a rich description of an image's provenance. This combination of ease of use and highly descriptive metadata should greatly facilitate the collection of provenance and subsequent sharing of data.

  8. ORIGINAL ARTICLE EEG changes and neuroimaging abnormalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    salah

    Background:Autism is currently viewed as a genetically determined neurode- velopmental disorder although its definite underlying etiology remains to be established. Aim of the Study: Our purpose was to assess autism related morphological neuroimaging changes of the brain and EEG abnormalities in correlation to the.

  9. Traumatic Brain Injury: Nuclear Medicine Neuroimaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-Catasús, Carlos A; Vállez Garcia, David; Le Riverend Morales, Eloísa; Galvizu Sánchez, Reinaldo; Dierckx, Rudi; Dierckx, Rudi AJO; Otte, Andreas; de Vries, Erik FJ; van Waarde, Aren; Leenders, Klaus L

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an up-to-date review of nuclear medicine neuroimaging in traumatic brain injury (TBI). 18F-FDG PET will remain a valuable tool in researching complex mechanisms associated with early metabolic dysfunction in TBI. Although evidence-based imaging studies are needed, 18F-FDG PET

  10. Neuroimaging and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Andria L.; Crocker, Nicole; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.

    2009-01-01

    The detrimental effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developing brain include structural brain anomalies as well as cognitive and behavioral deficits. Initial neuroimaging studies of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed previous autopsy reports of overall reduction in brain volume and…

  11. [Exploring dream contents by neuroimaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Tomoyasu; Kamitani, Yukiyasu

    2014-04-01

    Dreaming is a subjective experience during sleep that is often accompanied by vivid perceptual and emotional contents. Because of its fundamentally subjective nature, the objective study of dream contents has been challenging. However, since the discovery of rapid eye movements during sleep, scientific knowledge on the relationship between dreaming and physiological measures including brain activity has accumulated. Recent advances in neuroimaging analysis methods have made it possible to uncover direct links between specific dream contents and brain activity patterns. In this review, we first give a historical overview on dream researches with a focus on the neurophysiological and behavioral signatures of dreaming. We then discuss our recent study in which visual dream contents were predicted, or decoded, from brain activity during sleep onset periods using machine learning-based pattern recognition of functional MRI data. We suggest that advanced analytical tools combined with neural and behavioral databases will reveal the relevance of spontaneous brain activity during sleep to waking experiences.

  12. Neuroimaging-use trends in nonacute pediatric headache before and after clinical practice parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, William D; Kayyali, Husam R; Alexander, John J; Simon, Steven D; Morriss, Michael C

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine trends in diagnostic neuroimaging-use rates in nonacute pediatric headache before and after publication of clinical practice guidelines. Retrospective, cross-sectional analysis was conducted of neuroimaging rates for 725 children and adolescents who were aged 3 to 18 years with nonacute headache and normal neurologic examination and were evaluated in a single pediatric neurology clinic during study years 1992, 1996, 2000, and 2004. Following recommendations of current practice parameters, patients with conditions that justify consideration for neuroimaging (eg, progressive headache, abnormal neurologic examination) were excluded from this analysis. We recorded the origin of any neuroimaging request at the time of the clinic visit and any abnormal neuroimaging findings that led to major clinical consequences. Overall, the mean rate of neuroimaging for patients with nonacute headache was 45%. Use rates remained steady during the 13-year study period (range: 41%-47%). The majority of neuroimaging studies were ordered originally by primary care providers. The proportion of neuroimaging studies that were ordered by primary care providers increased significantly from 1992 to 2004. In the evaluation of patients who had nonacute pediatric headache and were referred to a child neurology clinic, neuroimaging-use rates remained stable during the past decade. An increasing proportion of neuroimaging studies are ordered by primary care providers. The influence of evidence-based medicine on medical decision-making may be partly responsible for curbing increases in neuroimaging overuse. The perceived value of neuroimaging by physicians and consumers deserves ongoing study.

  13. Partial Least Squares tutorial for analyzing neuroimaging data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Van Roon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Partial least squares (PLS has become a respected and meaningful soft modeling analysis technique that can be applied to very large datasets where the number of factors or variables is greater than the number of observations. Current biometric studies (e.g., eye movements, EKG, body movements, EEG are often of this nature. PLS eliminates the multiple linear regression issues of over-fitting data by finding a few underlying or latent variables (factors that account for most of the variation in the data. In real-world applications, where linear models do not always apply, PLS can model the non-linear relationship well. This tutorial introduces two PLS methods, PLS Correlation (PLSC and PLS Regression (PLSR and their applications in data analysis which are illustrated with neuroimaging examples. Both methods provide straightforward and comprehensible techniques for determining and modeling relationships between two multivariate data blocks by finding latent variables that best describes the relationships. In the examples, the PLSC will analyze the relationship between neuroimaging data such as Event-Related Potential (ERP amplitude averages from different locations on the scalp with their corresponding behavioural data. Using the same data, the PLSR will be used to model the relationship between neuroimaging and behavioural data. This model will be able to predict future behaviour solely from available neuroimaging data. To find latent variables, Singular Value Decomposition (SVD for PLSC and Non-linear Iterative PArtial Least Squares (NIPALS for PLSR are implemented in this tutorial. SVD decomposes the large data block into three manageable matrices containing a diagonal set of singular values, as well as left and right singular vectors. For PLSR, NIPALS algorithms are used because it provides amore precise estimation of the latent variables. Mathematica notebooks are provided for each PLS method with clearly labeled sections and subsections. The

  14. Neuroimaging resilience to stress: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werff, S J A; van den Berg, S M; Pannekoek, J N; Elzinga, B M; van der Wee, N J A

    2013-01-01

    There is a high degree of intra-individual variation in how individuals respond to stress. This becomes evident when exploring the development of posttraumatic symptoms or stress-related disorders after exposure to trauma. Whether or not an individual develops posttraumatic symptoms after experiencing a traumatic event is partly dependent on a person's resilience. Resilience can be broadly defined as the dynamic process encompassing positive adaptation within the context of significant adversity. Even though research into the neurobiological basis of resilience is still in its early stages, these insights can have important implications for the prevention and treatment of stress-related disorders. Neuroimaging studies contribute to our knowledge of intra-individual variability in resilience and the development of posttraumatic symptoms or other stress-related disorders. This review provides an overview of neuroimaging findings related to resilience. Structural, resting-state, and task-related neuroimaging results associated with resilience are discussed. There are a limited number of studies available and neuroimaging research of resilience is still in its infancy. The available studies point at brain circuitries involved in stress and emotion regulation, with more efficient processing and regulation associated with resilience.

  15. Knowledge-Guided Robust MRI Brain Extraction for Diverse Large-Scale Neuroimaging Studies on Humans and Non-Human Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaping; Nie, Jingxin; Yap, Pew-Thian; Li, Gang; Shi, Feng; Geng, Xiujuan; Guo, Lei; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and robust brain extraction is a critical step in most neuroimaging analysis pipelines. In particular, for the large-scale multi-site neuroimaging studies involving a significant number of subjects with diverse age and diagnostic groups, accurate and robust extraction of the brain automatically and consistently is highly desirable. In this paper, we introduce population-specific probability maps to guide the brain extraction of diverse subject groups, including both healthy and diseased adult human populations, both developing and aging human populations, as well as non-human primates. Specifically, the proposed method combines an atlas-based approach, for coarse skull-stripping, with a deformable-surface-based approach that is guided by local intensity information and population-specific prior information learned from a set of real brain images for more localized refinement. Comprehensive quantitative evaluations were performed on the diverse large-scale populations of ADNI dataset with over 800 subjects (55∼90 years of age, multi-site, various diagnosis groups), OASIS dataset with over 400 subjects (18∼96 years of age, wide age range, various diagnosis groups), and NIH pediatrics dataset with 150 subjects (5∼18 years of age, multi-site, wide age range as a complementary age group to the adult dataset). The results demonstrate that our method consistently yields the best overall results across almost the entire human life span, with only a single set of parameters. To demonstrate its capability to work on non-human primates, the proposed method is further evaluated using a rhesus macaque dataset with 20 subjects. Quantitative comparisons with popularly used state-of-the-art methods, including BET, Two-pass BET, BET-B, BSE, HWA, ROBEX and AFNI, demonstrate that the proposed method performs favorably with superior performance on all testing datasets, indicating its robustness and effectiveness. PMID:24489639

  16. Knowledge-guided robust MRI brain extraction for diverse large-scale neuroimaging studies on humans and non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaping; Nie, Jingxin; Yap, Pew-Thian; Li, Gang; Shi, Feng; Geng, Xiujuan; Guo, Lei; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and robust brain extraction is a critical step in most neuroimaging analysis pipelines. In particular, for the large-scale multi-site neuroimaging studies involving a significant number of subjects with diverse age and diagnostic groups, accurate and robust extraction of the brain automatically and consistently is highly desirable. In this paper, we introduce population-specific probability maps to guide the brain extraction of diverse subject groups, including both healthy and diseased adult human populations, both developing and aging human populations, as well as non-human primates. Specifically, the proposed method combines an atlas-based approach, for coarse skull-stripping, with a deformable-surface-based approach that is guided by local intensity information and population-specific prior information learned from a set of real brain images for more localized refinement. Comprehensive quantitative evaluations were performed on the diverse large-scale populations of ADNI dataset with over 800 subjects (55 ∼ 90 years of age, multi-site, various diagnosis groups), OASIS dataset with over 400 subjects (18 ∼ 96 years of age, wide age range, various diagnosis groups), and NIH pediatrics dataset with 150 subjects (5 ∼ 18 years of age, multi-site, wide age range as a complementary age group to the adult dataset). The results demonstrate that our method consistently yields the best overall results across almost the entire human life span, with only a single set of parameters. To demonstrate its capability to work on non-human primates, the proposed method is further evaluated using a rhesus macaque dataset with 20 subjects. Quantitative comparisons with popularly used state-of-the-art methods, including BET, Two-pass BET, BET-B, BSE, HWA, ROBEX and AFNI, demonstrate that the proposed method performs favorably with superior performance on all testing datasets, indicating its robustness and effectiveness.

  17. Neuroimaging of resilience to stress: current state of affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werff, Steven J A; Pannekoek, J Nienke; Stein, Dan J; van der Wee, Nic J A

    2013-09-01

    Resilience is defined as a dynamic, multidimensional process encompassing positive adaptation within the context of significant adversity. The complex nature of this construct makes it a difficult topic to study in neuroimaging research; however, in this article, we propose ways to operationalize resilience. The limited amount of structural and functional neuroimaging studies specifically designed to examine resilience have mainly focused on investigating alterations in regions of the brain involved in emotion and stress regulation circuitry. In the future, neuroimaging of resilience is expected to benefit from functional and structural connectivity approaches and the use of novel imaging task paradigms. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Functional Neuroimaging of Motor Control inParkinson’s Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herz, Damian M; Eickhoff, Simon B; Løkkegaard, Annemette

    2014-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging has been widely used to study the activation patterns of the motor network in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), but these studies have yielded conflicting results. This meta-analysis of previous neuroimaging studies was performed to identify patterns of abnormal...... movement-related activation in PD that were consistent across studies. We applied activation likelihood estimation (ALE) of functional neuroimaging studies probing motor function in patients with PD. The meta-analysis encompassed data from 283 patients with PD reported in 24 functional neuroimaging studies...... and yielded consistent alterations in neural activity in patients with PD. Differences in cortical activation between PD patients and healthy controls converged in a left-lateralized fronto-parietal network comprising the presupplementary motor area, primary motor cortex, inferior parietal cortex...

  19. Comprehension of concrete and abstract words in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia and Alzheimer's disease: A behavioral and neuroimaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Sven; Vallet, Guillaume T; Montembeault, Maxime; Boukadi, Mariem; Wilson, Maximiliano A; Laforce, Robert Jr; Rouleau, Isabelle; Brambati, Simona M

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the comprehension of concrete, abstract and abstract emotional words in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and healthy elderly adults (HE) Three groups of participants (9 svPPA, 12 AD, 11 HE) underwent a general neuropsychological assessment, a similarity judgment task, and structural brain MRI. The three types of words were processed similarly in the group of AD participants. In contrast, patients in the svPPA group were significantly more impaired at processing concrete words than abstract words, while comprehension of abstract emotional words was in between. VBM analyses showed that comprehension of concrete words relative to abstract words was significantly correlated with atrophy in the left anterior temporal lobe. These results support the view that concrete words are disproportionately impaired in svPPA, and that concrete and abstract words may rely upon partly dissociable brain regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A functional neuroimaging study of sound localization: visual cortex activity predicts performance in early-blind individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Gougoux

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Blind individuals often demonstrate enhanced nonvisual perceptual abilities. However, the neural substrate that underlies this improved performance remains to be fully understood. An earlier behavioral study demonstrated that some early-blind people localize sounds more accurately than sighted controls using monaural cues. In order to investigate the neural basis of these behavioral differences in humans, we carried out functional imaging studies using positron emission tomography and a speaker array that permitted pseudo-free-field presentations within the scanner. During binaural sound localization, a sighted control group showed decreased cerebral blood flow in the occipital lobe, which was not seen in early-blind individuals. During monaural sound localization (one ear plugged, the subgroup of early-blind subjects who were behaviorally superior at sound localization displayed two activation foci in the occipital cortex. This effect was not seen in blind persons who did not have superior monaural sound localization abilities, nor in sighted individuals. The degree of activation of one of these foci was strongly correlated with sound localization accuracy across the entire group of blind subjects. The results show that those blind persons who perform better than sighted persons recruit occipital areas to carry out auditory localization under monaural conditions. We therefore conclude that computations carried out in the occipital cortex specifically underlie the enhanced capacity to use monaural cues. Our findings shed light not only on intermodal compensatory mechanisms, but also on individual differences in these mechanisms and on inhibitory patterns that differ between sighted individuals and those deprived of vision early in life.

  1. Providing traceability for neuroimaging analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClatchey, Richard; Branson, Andrew; Anjum, Ashiq; Bloodsworth, Peter; Habib, Irfan; Munir, Kamran; Shamdasani, Jetendr; Soomro, Kamran

    2013-09-01

    With the increasingly digital nature of biomedical data and as the complexity of analyses in medical research increases, the need for accurate information capture, traceability and accessibility has become crucial to medical researchers in the pursuance of their research goals. Grid- or Cloud-based technologies, often based on so-called Service Oriented Architectures (SOA), are increasingly being seen as viable solutions for managing distributed data and algorithms in the bio-medical domain. For neuroscientific analyses, especially those centred on complex image analysis, traceability of processes and datasets is essential but up to now this has not been captured in a manner that facilitates collaborative study. Few examples exist, of deployed medical systems based on Grids that provide the traceability of research data needed to facilitate complex analyses and none have been evaluated in practice. Over the past decade, we have been working with mammographers, paediatricians and neuroscientists in three generations of projects to provide the data management and provenance services now required for 21st century medical research. This paper outlines the finding of a requirements study and a resulting system architecture for the production of services to support neuroscientific studies of biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease. The paper proposes a software infrastructure and services that provide the foundation for such support. It introduces the use of the CRISTAL software to provide provenance management as one of a number of services delivered on a SOA, deployed to manage neuroimaging projects that have been studying biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease. In the neuGRID and N4U projects a Provenance Service has been delivered that captures and reconstructs the workflow information needed to facilitate researchers in conducting neuroimaging analyses. The software enables neuroscientists to track the evolution of workflows and datasets. It also tracks the outcomes of

  2. Brain vs behavior: an effect size comparison of neuroimaging and cognitive studies of genetic risk for schizophrenia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rose, Emma Jane

    2013-05-01

    Genetic variants associated with increased risk for schizophrenia (SZ) are hypothesized to be more penetrant at the level of brain structure and function than at the level of behavior. However, to date the relative sensitivity of imaging vs cognitive measures of these variants has not been quantified. We considered effect sizes associated with cognitive and imaging studies of 9 robust SZ risk genes (DAOA, DISC1, DTNBP1, NRG1, RGS4, NRGN, CACNA1C, TCF4, and ZNF804A) published between January 2005-November 2011. Summary data was used to calculate estimates of effect size for each significant finding. The mean effect size for each study was categorized as small, medium, or large and the relative frequency of each category was compared between modalities and across genes. Random effects meta-analysis was used to consider the impact of experimental methodology on effect size. Imaging studies reported mostly medium or large effects, whereas cognitive investigations commonly reported small effects. Meta-analysis confirmed that imaging studies were associated with larger effects. Effect size estimates were negatively correlated with sample size but did not differ as a function of gene nor imaging modality. These observations support the notion that SZ risk variants show larger effects, and hence greater penetrance, when characterized using indices of brain structure and function than when indexed by cognitive measures. However, it remains to be established whether this holds true for individual risk variants, imaging modalities, or cognitive functions, and how such effects may be mediated by a relationship with sample size and other aspects of experimental variability.

  3. Counter striking psychosis: Commercial video games as potential treatment in schizophrenia? A systematic review of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suenderhauf, Claudia; Walter, Anna; Lenz, Claudia; Lang, Undine E; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe, chronic, and strongly disabling neuropsychiatric disorder, characterized by cognitive decline, positive and negative symptoms. Positive symptoms respond well to antipsychotic medication and psycho-social interventions, in contrast to negative symptoms and neurocognitive impairments. Cognitive deficits have been linked to a poorer outcome and hence specific cognitive remediation therapies have been proposed. Their effectiveness is nowadays approved and neurobiological correlates have been reconfirmed by brain imaging studies. Interestingly, recent MRI work showed that commercial video games modified similar brain areas as these specialized training programs. If gray matter increases and functional brain modulations would translate in better cognitive and every day functioning, commercial video game training could be an enjoyable and economically interesting treatment option for patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. This systematic review summarizes advances in the area with emphasis on imaging studies dealing with brain changes upon video game training and contrasts them to conventional cognitive remediation. Moreover, we discuss potential challenges therapeutic video game development and research would have to face in future treatment of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. The ENGAGE study: Integrating neuroimaging, virtual reality and smartphone sensing to understand self-regulation for managing depression and obesity in a precision medicine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Leanne M; Pines, Adam; Goldstein-Piekarski, Andrea N; Rosas, Lisa G; Kullar, Monica; Sacchet, Matthew D; Gevaert, Olivier; Bailenson, Jeremy; Lavori, Philip W; Dagum, Paul; Wandell, Brian; Correa, Carlos; Greenleaf, Walter; Suppes, Trisha; Perry, L Michael; Smyth, Joshua M; Lewis, Megan A; Venditti, Elizabeth M; Snowden, Mark; Simmons, Janine M; Ma, Jun

    2017-10-07

    Precision medicine models for personalizing achieving sustained behavior change are largely outside of current clinical practice. Yet, changing self-regulatory behaviors is fundamental to the self-management of complex lifestyle-related chronic conditions such as depression and obesity - two top contributors to the global burden of disease and disability. To optimize treatments and address these burdens, behavior change and self-regulation must be better understood in relation to their neurobiological underpinnings. Here, we present the conceptual framework and protocol for a novel study, "Engaging self-regulation targets to understand the mechanisms of behavior change and improve mood and weight outcomes (ENGAGE)". The ENGAGE study integrates neuroscience with behavioral science to better understand the self-regulation related mechanisms of behavior change for improving mood and weight outcomes among adults with comorbid depression and obesity. We collect assays of three self-regulation targets (emotion, cognition, and self-reflection) in multiple settings: neuroimaging and behavioral lab-based measures, virtual reality, and passive smartphone sampling. By connecting human neuroscience and behavioral science in this manner within the ENGAGE study, we develop a prototype for elucidating the underlying self-regulation mechanisms of behavior change outcomes and their application in optimizing intervention strategies for multiple chronic diseases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. The Receiver Operational Characteristic for Binary Classification with Multiple Indices and Its Application to the Neuroimaging Study of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xia; Li, Juan; Ayutyanont, Napatkamon; Protas, Hillary; Jagust, William; Fleisher, Adam; Reiman, Eric; Yao, Li; Chen, Kewei

    2014-01-01

    Given a single index, the receiver operational characteristic (ROC) curve analysis is routinely utilized for characterizing performances in distinguishing two conditions/groups in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Given the availability of multiple data sources (referred to as multi-indices), such as multimodal neuroimaging data sets, cognitive tests, and clinical ratings and genomic data in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) studies, the single-index-based ROC underutilizes all available information. For a long time, a number of algorithmic/analytic approaches combining multiple indices have been widely used to simultaneously incorporate multiple sources. In this study, we propose an alternative for combining multiple indices using logical operations, such as “AND,” “OR,” and “at least n” (where n is an integer), to construct multivariate ROC (multiV-ROC) and characterize the sensitivity and specificity statistically associated with the use of multiple indices. With and without the “leave-one-out” cross-validation, we used two data sets from AD studies to showcase the potentially increased sensitivity/specificity of the multiV-ROC in comparison to the single-index ROC and linear discriminant analysis (an analytic way of combining multi-indices). We conclude that, for the data sets we investigated, the proposed multiV-ROC approach is capable of providing a natural and practical alternative with improved classification accuracy as compared to univariate ROC and linear discriminant analysis. PMID:23702553

  6. Spatio-temporal dynamics of kind versus hostile intentions in the human brain: An electrical neuroimaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiwen; Huang, Liang; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Zhen; Cacioppo, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Neuroscience research suggests that inferring neutral intentions of other people recruits a specific brain network within the inferior fronto-parietal action observation network as well as a putative social network including brain areas subserving theory of mind, such as the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), and also the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Recent studies on harmful intentions have refined this network by showing the specific involvement of the ACC, amygdala, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in early stages (within 200 ms) of information processing. However, the functional dynamics for kind intentions within and among these networks remains unclear. To address this question, we measured electrical brain activity from 18 healthy adult participants while they were performing an intention inference task with three different types of intentions: kind, hostile and non-interactive. Electrophysiological results revealed that kind intentions were characterized by significantly larger peak amplitudes of N2 over the frontal sites than those for hostile and non-interactive intentions. On the other hand, there were no significant differences between hostile and non-interactive intentions at N2. The source analysis suggested that the vicinity of the left cingulate gyrus contributed to the N2 effect by subtracting the kindness condition from the non-interactive condition within 250-350 ms. At a later stage (i.e., during the 270-500 ms epoch), the peak amplitude of the P3 over the parietal sites and the right hemisphere was significantly larger for hostile intentions compared to the kind and non-interactive intentions. No significant differences were observed at P3 between kind and non-interactive intentions. The source analysis showed that the vicinity of the left anterior cingulate cortex contributed to the P3 effect by subtracting the hostility condition from the non-interactive condition within 450-550 ms

  7. Alterations in emotion generation and regulation neurocircuitry in depression and eating disorders: A comparative review of structural and functional neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donofry, Shannon D; Roecklein, Kathryn A; Wildes, Jennifer E; Miller, Megan A; Erickson, Kirk I

    2016-09-01

    Major depression and eating disorders (EDs) are highly co-morbid and may share liability. Impaired emotion regulation may represent a common etiological or maintaining mechanism. Research has demonstrated that depressed individuals and individuals with EDs exhibit impaired emotion regulation, with these impairments being associated with changes in brain structure and function. The goal of this review was to evaluate findings from neuroimaging studies of depression and EDs to determine whether there are overlapping alterations in the brain regions known to be involved in emotion regulation, evidence of which would aid in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions. Our review of the literature suggests that depression and EDs exhibit common structural and functional alterations in brain regions involved in emotion regulation, including the amygdala, ventral striatum and nucleus accumbens, anterior cingulate cortex, insula, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. We present preliminary support for a shared etiological mechanism. Future studies should consider manipulating emotion regulation in a sample of individuals with depression and EDs to better characterize abnormalities in these brain circuits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A functional neuroimaging study of fusiform response to restricted interests in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss-Feig, Jennifer H; McGugin, Rankin W; Gauthier, Isabel; Mash, Lisa E; Ventola, Pamela; Cascio, Carissa J

    2016-01-01

    While autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by both social communication deficits and restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior and interest, literature examining possible neural bases of the latter class of symptoms is limited. The fusiform face area (FFA) is a region in the ventral temporal cortex that not only shows preferential responsiveness to faces but also responds to non-face objects of visual expertise. Because restricted interests in ASD are accompanied by high levels of visual expertise, the objective of this study was to determine the extent to which this region responds to images related to restricted interests in individuals with ASD, compared to individuals without ASD who have a strong hobby or interest. Children and adolescents with and without ASD with hobbies or interests that consumed a pre-determined minimum amount of time were identified, and the intensity, frequency, and degree of interference of these interests were quantified. Each participant underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while viewing images related to their personal restricted interests (in the ASD group) or strong interest or hobby (in the comparison group). A generalized linear model was used to compare the intensity and spatial extent of fusiform gyrus response between groups, controlling for the appearance of faces in the stimuli. Images related to interests and expertise elicited response in FFA in both ASD and typically developing individuals, but this response was more robust in ASD. These findings add neurobiological support to behavioral observations that restricted interests are associated with enhanced visual expertise in ASD, above and beyond what would be expected for simply a strong interest. Further, the results suggest that brain regions associated with social functioning may not be inherently less responsive in ASD, but rather may be recruited by different environmental stimuli. This study contributes to our understanding of the

  9. Processing of decision-making and social threat in patients with history of suicidal attempt: A neuroimaging replication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olié, Emilie; Ding, Yang; Le Bars, Emmanuelle; de Champfleur, Nicolas Menjot; Mura, Thibault; Bonafé, Alain; Courtet, Philippe; Jollant, Fabrice

    2015-12-30

    Suicidal vulnerability has been related to impaired value-based decision-making and increased sensitivity to social threat, mediated by the prefrontal cortex. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we aimed at replicating these previous findings by measuring brain activation during the Iowa Gambling Task and an emotional faces viewing task. Participants comprised 15 euthymic suicide attempters (history of depression and suicidal behavior) who were compared with 23 euthymic patient controls (history of depression without suicidal history) and 35 healthy controls. The following five model-based regions of interest were investigated: the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), medial (MPFC) and dorsal prefrontal cortex (DPFC). Suicide attempters relative to patient controls showed (1) increased response to angry vs. neutral faces in the left OFC and the VLPFC, as previously reported; (2) increased response to wins vs. losses in the right OFC, DPFC and ACC; (3) decreased response to risky vs. safe choices in the left DPFC; and (4) decreased response to sad vs. neutral faces in the right ACC. This study links impaired valuation processing (here for signals of social threat, sadness and reward) to prefrontal cortex dysfunction in suicide attempters. These long-term deficits may underlie the impaired decision-making and social difficulties found in suicide attempters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Neuroimaging Measures as Endophenotypes in Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith N. Braskie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Late onset Alzheimer's disease (AD is moderately to highly heritable. Apolipoprotein E allele ε4 (APOE4 has been replicated consistently as an AD risk factor over many studies, and recently confirmed variants in other genes such as CLU, CR1, and PICALM each increase the lifetime risk of AD. However, much of the heritability of AD remains unexplained. AD is a complex disease that is diagnosed largely through neuropsychological testing, though neuroimaging measures may be more sensitive for detecting the incipient disease stages. Difficulties in early diagnosis and variable environmental contributions to the disease can obscure genetic relationships in traditional case-control genetic studies. Neuroimaging measures may be used as endophenotypes for AD, offering a reliable, objective tool to search for possible genetic risk factors. Imaging measures might also clarify the specific mechanisms by which proposed risk factors influence the brain.

  11. Neuroimaging Evidence of Comprehension Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Baker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to synthesize the emerging neuroimaging literature that reveals how the brain responds when readers and listeners encounter texts that demand monitoring of their ongoing comprehension processes. Much of this research has been undertaken by cognitive scientists who do not frame their work in metacognitive terms, and therefore it is less likely to be familiar to psychologists who study metacognition in educational contexts. The important role of metacognition in the development and use of academic skills is widely recognized. Metacognition is typically defined as the awareness and control of one's own cognitive processes. In the domain of reading, the most important metacognitive skill is comprehension monitoring, the evaluation and regulation of comprehension. Readers who monitor their understanding realize when they have encountered difficulty making sense of the text, and they apply error correction procedures to attempt to resolve the difficulty. Metacognition depends on executive control skills that continue to develop into early adulthood, in parallel with the maturation of the executive control regions of the prefrontal cortex. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and event-related potentials (ERP have been used for some time to study neural correlates of basic reading processes such as word identification, but it is only within recent years that researchers have turned to the higher-level processes of text comprehension. The article describes illustrative studies that reveal changes in neural activity when adults apply lexical, syntactic, or semantic standards to evaluate their understanding.

  12. PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO MATERNAL AND PATERNAL DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS AND BRAIN MORPHOLOGY: A POPULATION-BASED PROSPECTIVE NEUROIMAGING STUDY IN YOUNG CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Marroun, Hanan; Tiemeier, Henning; Muetzel, Ryan L; Thijssen, Sandra; van der Knaap, Noortje J F; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Fernández, Guillén; Verhulst, Frank C; White, Tonya J H

    2016-07-01

    Prenatal depressive symptoms have been associated with multiple adverse outcomes. Previously, we demonstrated that prenatal depressive symptoms were associated with impaired growth of the fetus and increased behavioral problems in children aged between 1.5 and 6 years. In this prospective study, we aimed to assess whether prenatal maternal depressive symptoms at 3 years have long-term consequences on brain development in a cohort of children aged 6-10 years. As a contrast, the association of paternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy and brain morphology was assessed to serve as a marker of background confounding due to shared genetic and environmental family factors. We assessed parental depressive symptoms during pregnancy with the Brief Symptom Inventory. At approximately 8 years of age, we collected structural neuroimaging data, using cortical thickness, surface area, and gyrification as outcomes (n = 654). We found that exposure to prenatal maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy was associated with a thinner superior frontal cortex in the left hemisphere. Additionally, prenatal maternal depressive symptoms were related to larger caudal middle frontal area in the left hemisphere. Maternal depressive symptoms at 3 years were not associated with cortical thickness, surface area, or gyrification in the left and right hemispheres. No effects of paternal depressive symptoms on brain morphology were observed. Prenatal maternal depressive symptoms were associated with differences in brain morphology in children. It is important to prevent, identify, and treat depressive symptoms during pregnancy as it may have long-term consequences on child brain development. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Grey matter correlates of clinical variables in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS): a neuroimaging study of ALS motor phenotype heterogeneity and cortical focality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bede, Peter; Bokde, Arun; Elamin, Marwa; Byrne, Susan; McLaughlin, Russell L; Jordan, Norah; Hampel, Harald; Gallagher, Laura; Lynch, Catherine; Fagan, Andrew J; Pender, Niall; Hardiman, Orla

    2013-07-01

    Body region of onset and functional disability are key components of disease heterogeneity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To evaluate patterns of grey matter pathology in the motor cortex and correlate focal structural changes with functional disability. We conducted a single-centre neuroimaging study of a cohort of 33 cognitively normal patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and 44 healthy controls. A voxel-wise generalised linear model was used to investigate the distribution of disease burden within the motor cortex in relation to clinical disability. Patients with bulbar onset have bilateral focal atrophy in the bulbar segment of the motor homunculus compared with patients with limb onset who have focal cortical changes in the limb segment of their motor strip. Furthermore, the extent to which different body regions are affected in ALS corresponds to the extent of focal grey matter loss in the primary motor cortex. Cortical ALS pathology also extends beyond the motor cortex affecting frontal, occipital and temporal regions. Focal grey matter atrophy within the motor homunculus corresponds with functional disability in ALS. The findings support the existing concepts of cortical focality and motor phenotype heterogeneity in ALS.

  14. The Roles of Left Versus Right Anterior Temporal Lobes in Conceptual Knowledge: An ALE Meta-analysis of 97 Functional Neuroimaging Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Grace E.; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.; Hoffman, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The roles of the right and left anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) in conceptual knowledge are a source of debate between 4 conflicting accounts. Possible ATL specializations include: (1) Processing of verbal versus non-verbal inputs; (2) the involvement of word retrieval; and (3) the social content of the stimuli. Conversely, the “hub-and-spoke” account holds that both ATLs form a bilateral functionally unified system. Using activation likelihood estimation (ALE) to compare the probability of left and right ATL activation, we analyzed 97 functional neuroimaging studies of conceptual knowledge, organized according to the predictions of the three specialized hypotheses. The primary result was that ATL activation was predominately bilateral and highly overlapping for all stimulus types. Secondary to this bilateral representation, there were subtle gradations both between and within the ATLs. Activations were more likely to be left lateralized when the input was a written word or when word retrieval was required. These data are best accommodated by a graded version of the hub-and-spoke account, whereby representation of conceptual knowledge is supported through bilateral yet graded connectivity between the ATLs and various modality-specific sensory, motor, and limbic cortices. PMID:25771223

  15. Neuroimaging Endpoints in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, Ricarda A L; Agosta, Federica; Grosskreutz, Julian; Filippi, Massimo; Turner, Martin R

    2017-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative, clinically heterogeneous syndrome pathologically overlapping with frontotemporal dementia. To date, therapeutic trials in animal models have not been able to predict treatment response in humans, and the revised ALS Functional Rating Scale, which is based on coarse disability measures, remains the gold-standard measure of disease progression. Advances in neuroimaging have enabled mapping of functional, structural, and molecular aspects of ALS pathology, and these objective measures may be uniquely sensitive to the detection of propagation of pathology in vivo. Abnormalities are detectable before clinical symptoms develop, offering the potential for neuroprotective intervention in familial cases. Although promising neuroimaging biomarker candidates for diagnosis, prognosis, and disease progression have emerged, these have been from the study of necessarily select patient cohorts identified in specialized referral centers. Further multicenter research is now needed to establish their validity as therapeutic outcome measures.

  16. Neuroimaging findings in treatment-resistant schizophrenia: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Shinichiro; Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Plitman, Eric; Fervaha, Gagan; Gerretsen, Philip; Caravaggio, Fernando; Chung, Jun Ku; Iwata, Yusuke; Remington, Gary; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent developments in neuroimaging have advanced understanding biological mechanisms underlying schizophrenia. However, neuroimaging correlates of treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) and superior effects of clozapine on TRS remain unclear. Methods Systematic search was performed to identify neuroimaging characteristics unique to TRS and ultra-resistant schizophrenia (i.e. clozapine-resistant [URS]), and clozapine's efficacy in TRS using Embase, Medline, and PsychInfo. Search terms included (schizophreni*) and (resistan* OR refractory OR clozapine) and (ASL OR CT OR DTI OR FMRI OR MRI OR MRS OR NIRS OR PET OR SPECT). Results 25 neuroimaging studies have investigated TRS and effects of clozapine. Only 5 studies have compared TRS and non-TRS, collectively providing no replicated neuroimaging finding specific to TRS. Studies comparing TRS and healthy controls suggest hypometabolism in the prefrontal cortex, hypermetabolism in the basal ganglia, and structural anomalies in the corpus callosum contribute to TRS. Clozapine may increase prefrontal hypoactivation in TRS although this was not related to clinical improvement; in contrast, evidence has suggested a link between clozapine efficacy and decreased metabolism in the basal ganglia and thalamus. Conclusion Existing literature does not elucidate neuroimaging correlates specific to TRS or URS, which, if present, might also shed light on clozapine's efficacy in TRS. This said, leads from other lines of investigation, including the glutamatergic system can prove useful in guiding future neuroimaging studies focused on, in particular, the frontocortical-basal ganglia-thalamic circuits. Critical to the success of this work will be precise subtyping of study subjects based on treatment response/nonresponse and the use of multimodal neuroimaging. PMID:25684554

  17. Neuroimaging findings in pediatric cerebral sinovenous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Matthias W; Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Oshmyansky, Alexander; Poretti, Andrea; Huisman, Thierry A G M

    2015-05-01

    Pediatric cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT) is a potentially life-threatening condition which is usually diagnosed by MRI. We analyzed the signal changes of the thrombus over time and the role of diffusion-weighted/tensor imaging (DWI/DTI) in the diagnosis of CSVT. Clinical histories were reviewed for risk factors for CSVT, neurologic manifestation, and interval from onset of symptoms related to CSVT to the neuroimaging diagnosis. MRI studies were retrospectively evaluated for the appearance of thrombi on T1- and T2-weighted, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), DWI/DTI, susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI), and magnetic resonance venography (MRV) images. Thirty-three children with CSVT were included in this study. Seventy-seven thrombi were found. Seventy-four thrombi could be identified on T1- or T2-weighted images (96 %), 72 thrombi were seen on DWI/DTI (94 %) and 68 on FLAIR (88 %). DWI showed restricted diffusion in 29 thrombi (40 %). Thrombi older than 1 day were more likely to have a T1-hyperintense signal (p = 0.002). No additional correlation between signal intensity and age of the thrombi was found. Intraparenchymal changes secondary to CSVT were seen in 11 children. MR sequences individually are not sensitive enough to provide the diagnosis. DWI/DTI does not provide complementary diagnostic value. Approximation of the age of the thrombus is difficult because of poor correlation between signal intensity and age of the thrombi.

  18. Neuroimaging after coma

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    Tshibanda, Luaba [University and University Hospital of Liege, Coma Science Group, Cyclotron Research Center, Liege (Belgium); University Hospital of Liege, Department of Neuroradiology, Liege (Belgium); Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Soddu, Andrea; Bruno, Marie-Aurelie; Noirhomme, Quentin [University and University Hospital of Liege, Coma Science Group, Cyclotron Research Center, Liege (Belgium); Boly, Melanie; Laureys, Steven [University and University Hospital of Liege, Coma Science Group, Cyclotron Research Center, Liege (Belgium); University Hospital of Liege, Department of Neuroradiology, Liege (Belgium); University Hospital of Liege, Department of Neurology, Liege (Belgium); Moonen, Gustave [University Hospital of Liege, Department of Neurology, Liege (Belgium)

    2010-01-15

    Following coma, some patients will recover wakefulness without signs of consciousness (only showing reflex movements, i.e., the vegetative state) or may show non-reflex movements but remain without functional communication (i.e., the minimally conscious state). Currently, there remains a high rate of misdiagnosis of the vegetative state (Schnakers et. al. BMC Neurol, 9:35, 8) and the clinical and electrophysiological markers of outcome from the vegetative and minimally conscious states remain unsatisfactory. This should incite clinicians to use multimodal assessment to detect objective signs of consciousness and validate para-clinical prognostic markers in these challenging patients. This review will focus on advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging, and functional MRI (fMRI studies in both ''activation'' and ''resting state'' conditions) that were recently introduced in the assessment of patients with chronic disorders of consciousness. (orig.)

  19. Neuroimaging in Iran: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ali Hossein-Zadeh

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTNeuroimaging allows noninvasive evaluation of the anatomy, physiology, and function of the brain. It is widely used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and treatment evaluation of neurological disorders as well as understanding functions of the brain in health and disease. Neuroimaging modalities include X-ray computed tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, positron emission tomography (PET, electroencephalography (EEG, and magnetoencephalography (MEG. This paper presents an overview of the neuroimaging research in Iran in recent years, partitioned into three categories: anatomical imaging; anatomical image analysis; and functional imaging and analysis. Published papers reflect considerable progress in development of neuroimaging infrastructure, hardware installation and software development. However, group work and research collaborations among engineers, scientists, and clinicians need significant enhancement to optimize utility of the resources and maximize productivity. This is a challenge that cannot be solved without specific plans, policies, and funding.

  20. Neuropsychiatric deep brain stimulation for translational neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höflich, Anna; Savli, Markus; Comasco, Erika; Moser, Ulrike; Novak, Klaus; Kasper, Siegfried; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2013-10-01

    From a neuroimaging point of view, deep brain stimulation (DBS) in psychiatric disorders represents a unique source of information to probe results gained in functional, structural and molecular neuroimaging studies in vivo. However, the implementation has, up to now, been restricted by the heterogeneity of the data reported in DBS studies. The aim of the present study was therefore to provide a comprehensive and standardized database of currently used DBS targets in selected psychiatric disorders (obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), treatment-resistant depression (TRD), Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS)) to enable topological comparisons between neuroimaging results and stimulation areas. A systematic literature research was performed and all peer-reviewed publications until the year 2012 were included. Literature research yielded a total of 84 peer-reviewed studies including about 296 psychiatric patients. The individual stimulation data of 37 of these studies meeting the inclusion criteria which included a total of 202 patients (63 OCD, 89 TRD, 50 GTS) was translated into MNI stereotactic space with respect to AC origin in order to identify key targets. The created database can be used to compare DBS target areas in MNI stereotactic coordinates with: 1) activation patterns in functional brain imaging (fMRI, phfMRI, PET, MET, EEG); 2) brain connectivity data (e.g., MR-based DTI/tractography, functional and effective connectivity); 3) quantitative molecular distribution data (e.g., neuroreceptor PET, post-mortem neuroreceptor mapping); 4) structural data (e.g., VBM for neuroplastic changes). Vice versa, the structural, functional and molecular data may provide a rationale to define new DBS targets and adjust/fine-tune currently used targets in DBS based on this overview in stereotactic coordinates. Furthermore, the availability of DBS data in stereotactic space may facilitate the investigation and interpretation of treatment effects and side effect of DBS by

  1. Neuroimaging findings in treatment-resistant schizophrenia: A systematic review: Lack of neuroimaging correlates of treatment-resistant schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Shinichiro; Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Plitman, Eric; Fervaha, Gagan; Gerretsen, Philip; Caravaggio, Fernando; Chung, Jun Ku; Iwata, Yusuke; Remington, Gary; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2015-05-01

    Recent developments in neuroimaging have advanced the understanding of biological mechanisms underlying schizophrenia. However, neuroimaging correlates of treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) and superior effects of clozapine on TRS remain unclear. Systematic search was performed to identify neuroimaging characteristics unique to TRS and ultra-resistant schizophrenia (i.e. clozapine-resistant [URS]), and clozapine's efficacy in TRS using Embase, Medline, and PsychInfo. Search terms included (schizophreni*) and (resistan* OR refractory OR clozapine) and (ASL OR CT OR DTI OR FMRI OR MRI OR MRS OR NIRS OR PET OR SPECT). 25 neuroimaging studies have investigated TRS and effects of clozapine. Only 5 studies have compared TRS and non-TRS, collectively providing no replicated neuroimaging finding specific to TRS. Studies comparing TRS and healthy controls suggest that hypometabolism in the prefrontal cortex, hypermetabolism in the basal ganglia, and structural anomalies in the corpus callosum contribute to TRS. Clozapine may increase prefrontal hypoactivation in TRS although this was not related to clinical improvement; in contrast, evidence has suggested a link between clozapine efficacy and decreased metabolism in the basal ganglia and thalamus. Existing literature does not elucidate neuroimaging correlates specific to TRS or URS, which, if present, might also shed light on clozapine's efficacy in TRS. This said, leads from other lines of investigation, including the glutamatergic system can prove useful in guiding future neuroimaging studies focused on, in particular, the frontocortical-basal ganglia-thalamic circuits. Critical to the success of this work will be precise subtyping of study subjects based on treatment response/nonresponse and the use of multimodal neuroimaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Practical management of heterogeneous neuroimaging metadata by global neuroimaging data repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, Scott C.; Crawford, Karen L.; Toga, Arthur W.

    2012-01-01

    Rapidly evolving neuroimaging techniques are producing unprecedented quantities of digital data at the same time that many research studies are evolving into global, multi-disciplinary collaborations between geographically distributed scientists. While networked computers have made it almost trivial to transmit data across long distances, collecting and analyzing this data requires extensive metadata if the data is to be maximally shared. Though it is typically straightforward to encode text and numerical values into files and send content between different locations, it is often difficult to attach context and implicit assumptions to the content. As the number of and geographic separation between data contributors grows to national and global scales, the heterogeneity of the collected metadata increases and conformance to a single standardization becomes implausible. Neuroimaging data repositories must then not only accumulate data but must also consolidate disparate metadata into an integrated view. In this article, using specific examples from our experiences, we demonstrate how standardization alone cannot achieve full integration of neuroimaging data from multiple heterogeneous sources and why a fundamental change in the architecture of neuroimaging data repositories is needed instead. PMID:22470336

  3. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy--neuroimaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepp, Matthias J; Woermann, Friedrich; Savic, Ivanka; Wandschneider, Britta

    2013-07-01

    Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) has been classified as a syndrome of idiopathic generalized epilepsy and is characterized by specific types of seizures, showing a lack of pathology using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography scanning. However, JME is associated with a particular personality profile, and behavioral and neuropsychological studies have suggested the possible involvement of frontal lobe dysfunction. The development of highly sensitive neuroimaging techniques has provided a means of elucidating the underlying mechanisms of JME. Positron emission tomography demonstrated metabolic and neurotransmitter changes in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex reflecting the particular cognitive and behavioral profile of JME patients. (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy has shown evidence of thalamic dysfunction, which appears to be progressive. Such techniques provide evidence of multi-focal disease mechanisms, suggesting that JME is a frontal lobe variant of a multi-regional, thalamocortical 'network' epilepsy, rather than a generalized epilepsy syndrome. Quantitative MRI revealed significant abnormalities of cortical gray matter in medial frontal areas close to the supplementary motor area and diffusion abnormalities with increased functional coupling between the motor and prefrontal cognitive systems. This altered structural connectivity of the supplementary motor area provides an explanatory framework for the particular imaging findings, seizure type, and seizure-provoking mechanisms in JME. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Traumatic brain injury, neuroimaging, and neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin D. Bigler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Depending on severity, traumatic brain injury (TBI induces immediate neuropathological effects that in the mildest form may be transient but as severity increases results in neural damage and degeneration. The first phase of neural degeneration is explainable by the primary acute and secondary neuropathological effects initiated by the injury; however, neuroimaging studies demonstrate a prolonged period of pathological changes that progressively occur even during the chronic phase. This review examines how neuroimaging may be used in TBI to understand (1 the dynamic changes that occur in brain development relevant to understanding the effects of TBI and how these relate to developmental stage when the brain is injured, (2 how TBI interferes with age-typical brain development and the effects of aging thereafter, and (3 how TBI results in greater frontotemporolimbic damage, results in cerebral atrophy, and is more disruptive to white matter neural connectivity. Neuroimaging quantification in TBI demonstrates degenerative effects from brain injury over time. An adverse synergistic influence of TBI with aging may predispose the brain injured individual for the development of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders long after surviving the brain injury.

  5. Neuroimaging of Wernicke's encephalopathy and Korsakoff's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Young-Chul; Chanraud, Sandra; Sullivan, Edith V

    2012-06-01

    There is considerable evidence that neuroimaging findings can improve the early diagnosis of Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) in clinical settings. The most distinctive neuroimaging finding of acute WE are cytotoxic edema and vasogenic edema, which are represented by bilateral symmetric hyperintensity alterations on T2-weighted MR images in the periphery of the third ventricle, periaqueductal area, mammillary bodies and midbrain tectal plate. An initial bout of WE can result in Korsakoff's syndrome (KS), but repeated bouts in conjunction with its typical comorbidity, chronic alcoholism, can result in signs of tissue degeneration in vulnerable brain regions. Chronic abnormalities identified with neuroimaging enable examination of brain damage in living patients with KS and have expanded the understanding of the neuropsychological deficits resulting from thiamine deficiency, alcohol neurotoxicity, and their comorbidity. Brain structure and functional studies indicate that the interactions involving the thalamus, mammillary bodies, hippocampus, frontal lobes, and cerebellum are crucial for memory formation and executive functions, and the interruption of these circuits by WE and chronic alcoholism can contribute substantially to the neuropsychological deficits in KS.

  6. Multimodal Neuroimaging in Schizophrenia: Description and Dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aine, C J; Bockholt, H J; Bustillo, J R; Cañive, J M; Caprihan, A; Gasparovic, C; Hanlon, F M; Houck, J M; Jung, R E; Lauriello, J; Liu, J; Mayer, A R; Perrone-Bizzozero, N I; Posse, S; Stephen, J M; Turner, J A; Clark, V P; Calhoun, Vince D

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we describe an open-access collection of multimodal neuroimaging data in schizophrenia for release to the community. Data were acquired from approximately 100 patients with schizophrenia and 100 age-matched controls during rest as well as several task activation paradigms targeting a hierarchy of cognitive constructs. Neuroimaging data include structural MRI, functional MRI, diffusion MRI, MR spectroscopic imaging, and magnetoencephalography. For three of the hypothesis-driven projects, task activation paradigms were acquired on subsets of ~200 volunteers which examined a range of sensory and cognitive processes (e.g., auditory sensory gating, auditory/visual multisensory integration, visual transverse patterning). Neuropsychological data were also acquired and genetic material via saliva samples were collected from most of the participants and have been typed for both genome-wide polymorphism data as well as genome-wide methylation data. Some results are also presented from the individual studies as well as from our data-driven multimodal analyses (e.g., multimodal examinations of network structure and network dynamics and multitask fMRI data analysis across projects). All data will be released through the Mind Research Network's collaborative informatics and neuroimaging suite (COINS).

  7. Investigations of Tissue-Level Mechanisms of Primary Blast Injury Through Modeling, Simulation, Neuroimaging and Neuropathological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    gilts . Figure 10 shows the compressive stress-strain curves obtained at the strain rate of 3000/s, where no apparent differences...10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 100 200 300 400 E n g in e e ri n g S tr e s s ( K P a ) Engineering Strain (%) Hog Gray Matter Gilt Gray Matter Strain...E n g in e e ri n g S te rs s ( K P a ) Engineering Strain (%) Yorkshire Gilt Cross-bred Gilt Gray Matter @ 3000/s Fig.9. Comparison of

  8. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging underpinnings of schizoaffective disorder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madre, M; Canales-Rodríguez, E J; Ortiz-Gil, J; Murru, A; Torrent, C; Bramon, E; Perez, V; Orth, M; Brambilla, P; Vieta, E; Amann, B L

    2016-07-01

    The neurobiological basis and nosological status of schizoaffective disorder remains elusive and controversial. This study provides a systematic review of neurocognitive and neuroimaging findings in the disorder. A comprehensive literature search was conducted via PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus and Web of Knowledge (from 1949 to 31st March 2015) using the keyword 'schizoaffective disorder' and any of the following terms: 'neuropsychology', 'cognition', 'structural neuroimaging', 'functional neuroimaging', 'multimodal', 'DTI' and 'VBM'. Only studies that explicitly examined a well defined sample, or subsample, of patients with schizoaffective disorder were included. Twenty-two of 43 neuropsychological and 19 of 51 neuroimaging articles fulfilled inclusion criteria. We found a general trend towards schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder being related to worse cognitive performance than bipolar disorder. Grey matter volume loss in schizoaffective disorder is also more comparable to schizophrenia than to bipolar disorder which seems consistent across further neuroimaging techniques. Neurocognitive and neuroimaging abnormalities in schizoaffective disorder resemble more schizophrenia than bipolar disorder. This is suggestive for schizoaffective disorder being a subtype of schizophrenia or being part of the continuum spectrum model of psychosis, with schizoaffective disorder being more skewed towards schizophrenia than bipolar disorder. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Emerging neuroimaging contribution to the diagnosis and management of the ring chromosome 20 syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudano, Anna Elisabetta; Ruggieri, Andrea; Vignoli, Aglaia; Canevini, Maria Paola; Meletti, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    Ring chromosome 20 [r(20)] syndrome is an underdiagnosed chromosomal anomaly characterized by severe epilepsy, behavioral problems, and mild-to-moderate cognitive deficits. Since the cognitive and behavioral decline follows seizure onset, this syndrome has been proposed as an epileptic encephalopathy (EE). The recent overwhelming development of advanced neuroimaging techniques has opened a new era in the investigation of the brain networks subserving the EEs. In particular, functional neuroimaging tools are well suited to show alterations related to epileptiform discharges at the network level and to build hypotheses about the mechanisms underlying the cognitive disruption observed in these conditions. This paper reviews the brain circuits and their disruption as revealed by functional neuroimaging studies in patients with [r(20)] syndrome. It discusses the clinical consequences of the neuroimaging findings on the management of patients with [r(20)] syndrome, including their impact to an earlier diagnosis of this disorder. Based on the available lines of evidences, [r(20)] syndrome is characterized by interictal and ictal dysfunctions within basal ganglia-prefrontal lobe networks and by long-lasting effects of the peculiar theta-delta rhythm, which represents an EEG marker of the syndrome on integrated brain networks that subserve cognitive functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The stress connection : neuroimaging studies of emotion circuits in social stress, personality, and stress-related psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, Ilya Milos

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to identify the neural mechanisms that enable a person to adaptively respond to, and recover from stress, which was studied in healthy controls, in people with increased vulnerability or resilience to stress-related disorders, and in people with depression or PTSD, using

  11. In-hospital mortality risk factors for patients with cerebral vascular events in infectious endocarditis. A correlative study of clinical, echocardiographic, microbiologic and neuroimaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Melchor, Laila; Kimura-Hayama, Eric; Díaz-Zamudio, Mariana; Higuera-Calleja, Jesús; Choque, Cinthia; Soto-Nieto, Gabriel I

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac complications in infectious endocarditis (IE) are seen in nearly 50% of cases, and systemic complications may occur. The aim of the present study was to determine the characteristics of inpatients with IE who suffered acute neurologic complications and the factors associated with early mortality. From January 2004 to May 2010, we reviewed clinical and imaging charts of all of the patients diagnosed with IE who presented a deficit suggesting a neurologic complication evaluated with Computed Tomography or Magnetic Resonance within the first week. This was a descriptive and retrolective study. Among 325 cases with IE, we included 35 patients (10.7%) [19 males (54%), mean age 44-years-old]. The most common underlying cardiac disease was rheumatic valvulopathy (n=8, 22.8%). Twenty patients survived (57.2%, group A) and 15 patients died (42.8%, group B) during hospitalization. The main cause of death was septic shock (n=7, 20%). There was no statistical difference among groups concerning clinical presentation, vegetation size, infectious agent and vascular territory. The overall number of lesions was significantly higher in group B (3.1 vs. 1.6, p=0.005) and moderate to severe cerebral edema were more frequent (p=0.09). Sixteen patients (45.7%) (12 in group A and 4 in group B, p=0.05) were treated by cardiac surgery. Only two patients had a favorable outcome with conservative treatment (5.7%). In patients with IE complicated with stroke, the number of lesions observed in neuroimaging examinations and conservative treatment were associated with higher in-hospital mortality. Copyright © 2014 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  12. Neural representation of swallowing is retained with age. A functional neuroimaging study validated by classical and Bayesian inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windel, Anne-Sophie; Mihai, Paul Glad; Lotze, Martin

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the neural representation of swallowing in two age groups for a total of 51 healthy participants (seniors: average age 64 years; young adults: average age 24 years) using high spatial resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Two statistical comparisons (classical and Bayesian inference) revealed no significant differences between subject groups, apart from higher cortical activation for the seniors in the frontal pole 1 of Brodmann's Area 10 using Bayesian inference. Seniors vs. young participants showed longer reaction times and higher skin conductance response (SCR) during swallowing. We found a positive association of SCR and fMRI-activation only among seniors in areas processing sensorimotor performance, arousal and emotional perception. The results indicate that the highly automated swallowing network retains its functionality with age. However, seniors with higher SCR during swallowing appear to also engage areas involved in attention control and emotional regulation, possibly suggesting increased attention and emotional demands during task performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Finding related functional neuroimaging volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    We describe a content-based image retrieval technique for finding related functional neuroimaging experiments by voxelization of sets of stereotactic coordinates in Talairach space, comparing the volumes and reporting related volumes in a sorted list. Voxelization is accomplished by convolving ea...

  14. Impact of family structure and common environment on heritability estimation for neuroimaging genetics studies using Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koran, Mary Ellen; Thornton-Wells, Tricia A; Jahanshad, Neda; Glahn, David C; Thompson, Paul M; Blangero, John; Nichols, Thomas E; Kochunov, Peter; Landman, Bennett A

    2014-06-27

    Imaging genetics is an emerging methodological field that combines genetic information with medical imaging-derived metrics to understand how genetic factors impact observable phenotypes. In order for a trait to be a reasonable phenotype in an imaging genetics study, it must be heritable: at least some proportion of its variance must be due to genetic influences. The Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines (SOLAR) imaging genetics software can estimate the heritability of a trait in complex pedigrees. We investigate the ability of SOLAR to accurately estimate heritability and common environmental effects on simulated imaging phenotypes in various family structures. We found that heritability is reliably estimated with small family-based studies of 40 to 80 individuals, though subtle differences remain between the family structures. In an imaging application analysis, we found that with 80 subjects in any of the family structures, estimated heritability of white matter fractional anisotropy was biased by <10% for every region of interest. Results from these studies can be used when investigators are evaluating power in planning genetic analyzes.

  15. Functional neuroimaging of traumatic brain injury: advances and clinical utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irimia A

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Andrei Irimia, John Darrell Van Horn USC Stevens Neuroimaging and Informatics Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Functional deficits due to traumatic brain injury (TBI can have significant and enduring consequences upon patients’ life quality and expectancy. Although functional neuroimaging is essential for understanding TBI pathophysiology, an insufficient amount of effort has been dedicated to the task of translating functional neuroimaging findings into information with clinical utility. The purpose of this review is to summarize the use of functional neuroimaging techniques – especially functional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and electroencephalography – for advancing current knowledge of TBI-related brain dysfunction and for improving the rehabilitation of TBI patients. We focus on seven core areas of functional deficits, namely consciousness, motor function, attention, memory, higher cognition, personality, and affect, and, for each of these, we summarize recent findings from neuroimaging studies which have provided substantial insight into brain function changes due to TBI. Recommendations are also provided to aid in setting the direction of future neuroimaging research and for understanding brain function changes after TBI. Keywords: cognitive decline, personality change, magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging

  16. Prenatal Cannabis and Tobacco Exposure in Relation to Brain Morphology: A Prospective Neuroimaging Study in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Marroun, Hanan; Tiemeier, Henning; Franken, Ingmar H A; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; van der Lugt, Aad; Verhulst, Frank C; Lahey, Benjamin B; White, Tonya

    2016-06-15

    Cannabis use during pregnancy has been associated with negative behavioral outcomes and psychopathology in offspring. However, there has been little research evaluating alterations in brain structure as a result of maternal cannabis use. In this prospective study, we investigated the association between prenatal cannabis exposure and brain morphology in young children. We matched 96 children prenatally exposed to tobacco only (without cannabis) with 113 unexposed control subjects on the basis of age and gender and subsequently selected 54 children exposed to prenatal cannabis (mostly combined with tobacco exposure). These children (aged 6 to 8 years) were part of a population-based study in the Netherlands, the Generation R Study, and were followed from pregnancy onward. We assessed brain volumetric measures and cortical thickness in magnetic resonance imaging scans using FreeSurfer. We performed vertexwise analyses in FreeSurfer and linear regression analyses adjusting for relevant covariates using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Prenatal cannabis exposure was not associated with global brain volumes, such as total brain volume, gray matter volume, or white matter volume. However, prenatal cannabis exposure was associated with differences in cortical thickness: compared with nonexposed control subjects, cannabis-exposed children had thicker frontal cortices. Prenatal tobacco exposure compared with nonexposed control subjects was associated with cortical thinning, primarily in the superior frontal and superior parietal cortices. Our findings suggest an association between prenatal cannabis exposure and cortical thickness in children. Further research is needed to explore the causal nature of this association. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Vulnerability for new episodes in recurrent major depressive disorder: protocol for the longitudinal DELTA-neuroimaging cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocking, Roel J T; Figueroa, Caroline A; Rive, Maria M; Geugies, Hanneke; Servaas, Michelle N; Assies, Johanna; Koeter, Maarten W J; Vaz, Frédéric M; Wichers, Marieke; van Straalen, Jan P; de Raedt, Rudi; Bockting, Claudi L H; Harmer, Catherine J; Schene, Aart H; Ruhé, Henricus G

    2016-03-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is widely prevalent and severely disabling, mainly due to its recurrent nature. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying MDD-recurrence may help to identify high-risk patients and to improve the preventive treatment they need. MDD-recurrence has been considered from various levels of perspective including symptomatology, affective neuropsychology, brain circuitry and endocrinology/metabolism. However, MDD-recurrence understanding is limited, because these perspectives have been studied mainly in isolation, cross-sectionally in depressed patients. Therefore, we aim at improving MDD-recurrence understanding by studying these four selected perspectives in combination and prospectively during remission. In a cohort design, we will include 60 remitted, unipolar, unmedicated, recurrent MDD-participants (35-65 years) with ≥ 2 MDD-episodes. At baseline, we will compare the MDD-participants with 40 matched controls. Subsequently, we will follow-up the MDD-participants for 2.5 years while monitoring recurrences. We will invite participants with a recurrence to repeat baseline measurements, together with matched remitted MDD-participants. Measurements include questionnaires, sad mood-induction, lifestyle/diet, 3 T structural (T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging) and blood-oxygen-level-dependent functional MRI (fMRI) and MR-spectroscopy. fMRI focusses on resting state, reward/aversive-related learning and emotion regulation. With affective neuropsychological tasks we will test emotional processing. Moreover, we will assess endocrinology (salivary hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate) and metabolism (metabolomics including polyunsaturated fatty acids), and store blood for, for example, inflammation analyses, genomics and proteomics. Finally, we will perform repeated momentary daily assessments using experience sampling methods at baseline. We will integrate measures to test: (1

  18. Vulnerability for new episodes in recurrent major depressive disorder: protocol for the longitudinal DELTA-neuroimaging cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocking, Roel J T; Figueroa, Caroline A; Rive, Maria M; Geugies, Hanneke; Servaas, Michelle N; Assies, Johanna; Koeter, Maarten W J; Vaz, Frédéric M; Wichers, Marieke; van Straalen, Jan P; de Raedt, Rudi; Bockting, Claudi L H; Harmer, Catherine J; Schene, Aart H; Ruhé, Henricus G

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Major depressive disorder (MDD) is widely prevalent and severely disabling, mainly due to its recurrent nature. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying MDD-recurrence may help to identify high-risk patients and to improve the preventive treatment they need. MDD-recurrence has been considered from various levels of perspective including symptomatology, affective neuropsychology, brain circuitry and endocrinology/metabolism. However, MDD-recurrence understanding is limited, because these perspectives have been studied mainly in isolation, cross-sectionally in depressed patients. Therefore, we aim at improving MDD-recurrence understanding by studying these four selected perspectives in combination and prospectively during remission. Methods and analysis In a cohort design, we will include 60 remitted, unipolar, unmedicated, recurrent MDD-participants (35–65 years) with ≥2 MDD-episodes. At baseline, we will compare the MDD-participants with 40 matched controls. Subsequently, we will follow-up the MDD-participants for 2.5 years while monitoring recurrences. We will invite participants with a recurrence to repeat baseline measurements, together with matched remitted MDD-participants. Measurements include questionnaires, sad mood-induction, lifestyle/diet, 3 T structural (T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging) and blood-oxygen-level-dependent functional MRI (fMRI) and MR-spectroscopy. fMRI focusses on resting state, reward/aversive-related learning and emotion regulation. With affective neuropsychological tasks we will test emotional processing. Moreover, we will assess endocrinology (salivary hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate) and metabolism (metabolomics including polyunsaturated fatty acids), and store blood for, for example, inflammation analyses, genomics and proteomics. Finally, we will perform repeated momentary daily assessments using experience sampling methods at baseline. We

  19. Where do bright ideas occur in our brain? Meta-analytic evidence from neuroimaging studies of domain-specific creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, Maddalena; Piccardi, Laura; Palermo, Liana; Nori, Raffaella; Palmiero, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have assessed the neural underpinnings of creativity, failing to find a clear anatomical localization. We aimed to provide evidence for a multi-componential neural system for creativity. We applied a general activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis to 45 fMRI studies. Three individual ALE analyses were performed to assess creativity in different cognitive domains (Musical, Verbal, and Visuo-spatial). The general ALE revealed that creativity relies on clusters of activations in the bilateral occipital, parietal, frontal, and temporal lobes. The individual ALE revealed different maximal activation in different domains. Musical creativity yields activations in the bilateral medial frontal gyrus, in the left cingulate gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, and inferior parietal lobule and in the right postcentral and fusiform gyri. Verbal creativity yields activations mainly located in the left hemisphere, in the prefrontal cortex, middle and superior temporal gyri, inferior parietal lobule, postcentral and supramarginal gyri, middle occipital gyrus, and insula. The right inferior frontal gyrus and the lingual gyrus were also activated. Visuo-spatial creativity activates the right middle and inferior frontal gyri, the bilateral thalamus and the left precentral gyrus. This evidence suggests that creativity relies on multi-componential neural networks and that different creativity domains depend on different brain regions. PMID:26322002

  20. Cerebral activations during viewing of food stimuli in adult patients with acquired structural hypothalamic damage: a functional neuroimaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, C A; Powell, J L; Kemp, G J; Halford, J C G; Wilding, J P; Harrold, J A; Kumar, S V D; Cuthbertson, D J; Cross, A A; Javadpour, M; MacFarlane, I A; Stancak, A A; Daousi, C

    2015-09-01

    Obesity is common following hypothalamic damage due to tumours. Homeostatic and non-homeostatic brain centres control appetite and energy balance but their interaction in the presence of hypothalamic damage remains unknown. We hypothesized that abnormal appetite in obese patients with hypothalamic damage results from aberrant brain processing of food stimuli. We sought to establish differences in activation of brain food motivation and reward neurocircuitry in patients with hypothalamic obesity (HO) compared with patients with hypothalamic damage whose weight had remained stable. In a cross-sectional study at a University Clinical Research Centre, we studied 9 patients with HO, 10 age-matched obese controls, 7 patients who remained weight-stable following hypothalamic insult (HWS) and 10 non-obese controls. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed in the fasted state, 1 h and 3 h after a test meal, while subjects were presented with images of high-calorie foods, low-calorie foods and non-food objects. Insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1, Peptide YY and ghrelin were measured throughout the experiment, and appetite ratings were recorded. Mean neural activation in the posterior insula and lingual gyrus (brain areas linked to food motivation and reward value of food) in HWS were significantly lower than in the other three groups (P=0.001). A significant negative correlation was found between insulin levels and posterior insula activation (P=0.002). Neural pathways associated with food motivation and reward-related behaviour, and the influence of insulin on their activation may be involved in the pathophysiology of HO.

  1. Episodic memory in former professional football players with a history of concussion: an event-related functional neuroimaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jaclyn H; Giovanello, Kelly S; Guskiewicz, Kevin M

    2013-10-15

    Previous research has demonstrated that sport-related concussions can have short-term effects on cognitive processes, but the long-term consequences are less understood and warrant more research. This study was the first to use event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine long-term differences in neural activity during memory tasks in former athletes who have sustained multiple sport-related concussions. In an event-related fMRI study, former football players reporting multiple sport-related concussions (i.e., three or more) were compared with players who reported fewer than three concussions during a memory paradigm examining item memory (i.e., memory for the particular elements of an event) and relational memory (i.e., memory for the relationships between elements). Behaviorally, we observed that concussion history did not significantly affect behavioral performance, because persons in the low and high concussion groups had equivalent performance on both memory tasks, and in addition, that concussion history was not associated with any behavioral memory measures. Despite demonstrating equivalent behavioral performance, the two groups of former players demonstrated different neural recruitment patterns during relational memory retrieval, suggesting that multiple concussions may be associated with functional inefficiencies in the relational memory network. In addition, the number of previous concussions significantly correlated with functional activity in a number of brain regions, including the medial temporal lobe and inferior parietal lobe. Our results provide important insights in understanding the long-term functional consequences of sustaining multiple sports-related concussions.

  2. Prefrontal cortex markers of suicidal vulnerability in mood disorders: a model-based structural neuroimaging study with a translational perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Y; Lawrence, N; Olié, E; Cyprien, F; le Bars, E; Bonafé, A; Phillips, M L; Courtet, P; Jollant, F

    2015-02-24

    The vulnerability to suicidal behavior has been modeled in deficits in both valuation and cognitive control processes, mediated by ventral and dorsal prefrontal cortices. To uncover potential markers of suicidality based on this model, we measured several brain morphometric parameters using 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging in a large sample and in a specifically designed study. We then tested their classificatory properties. Three groups were compared: euthymic suicide attempters with a past history of mood disorders and suicidal behavior (N=67); patient controls with a past history of mood disorders but not suicidal behavior (N=82); healthy controls without any history of mental disorder (N=82). A hypothesis-driven region-of-interest approach was applied targeting the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), ventrolateral (VLPFC), dorsal (DPFC) and medial (including anterior cingulate cortex; MPFC) prefrontal cortices. Both voxel-based (SPM8) and surface-based morphometry (Freesurfer) analyses were used to comprehensively evaluate cortical gray matter measure, volume, surface area and thickness. Reduced left VLPFC volume in attempters vs both patient groups was found (P=0.001, surviving multiple comparison correction, Cohen's d=0.65 95% (0.33-0.99) between attempters and healthy controls). In addition, reduced measures in OFC and DPFC, but not MPFC, were found with moderate effect sizes in suicide attempters vs healthy controls (Cohen's d between 0.34 and 0.52). Several of these measures were correlated with suicidal variables. When added to mood disorder history, left VLPFC volume increased within-sample specificity in identifying attempters in a significant but limited way. Our study, therefore, confirms structural prefrontal alterations in individuals with histories of suicide attempts. A future clinical application of these markers will, however, necessitate further research.

  3. Sex-Specific Effects of Childhood Poverty on Neurocircuitry of Processing of Emotional Cues: A Neuroimaging Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Javanbakht

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is accumulating evidence on the negative impacts of childhood poverty on physical and mental health. Previous work has suggested hyperactive neural response to social fear cues, as well as impairment in neural regulatory functions. However, despite differences found between males and females in stress-related and anxiety disorders, possible sex-specific effects of poverty on emotional processing have not been explored. Methods: We analyzed data from three previously reported experiments of childhood poverty effects on emotional processing and regulation, for sex-specific effects. Participants were 52 healthy Caucasian males and females, from a longitudinal cohort of poverty development study, who were recruited for examining the long-term effects of childhood poverty and stress. The three functional MRI studies included emotion regulation task, emotional face assessment task, and shifted attention emotion appraisal task. Brain activations that associated with childhood poverty previously were entered into a regression analysis with interaction of gender by childhood income-to-need ratio as the independent variable, and age and current income-to-need ratio as variables of no interest, separately for males and females. Results: Amygdala reactivity to implicitly processed fearful faces was positively correlated with childhood income-to-need in adult females but not males. On the other hand, activation in dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal regions during emotion regulation by reappraisal was positively correlated with childhood income-to-need in males. Conclusion: Childhood poverty may exert sex-specific effects in adulthood as presented by hypersensitive emotional reactivity of the amygdala in females, and impaired emotion regulatory function of the prefrontal cortex in males. Results suggest further focus on sex-specific effects of childhood poverty.

  4. The effect of repetitive subconcussive collisions on brain integrity in collegiate football players over a single football season: A multi-modal neuroimaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semyon M. Slobounov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The cumulative effect of repetitive subconcussive collisions on the structural and functional integrity of the brain remains largely unknown. Athletes in collision sports, like football, experience a large number of impacts across a single season of play. The majority of these impacts, however, are generally overlooked, and their long-term consequences remain poorly understood. This study sought to examine the effects of repetitive collisions across a single competitive season in NCAA Football Bowl Subdivision athletes using advanced neuroimaging approaches. Players were evaluated before and after the season using multiple MRI sequences, including T1-weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, arterial spin labeling (ASL, resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI, and susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI. While no significant differences were found between pre- and post-season for DTI metrics or cortical volumes, seed-based analysis of rs-fMRI revealed significant (p < 0.05 changes in functional connections to right isthmus of the cingulate cortex (ICC, left ICC, and left hippocampus. ASL data revealed significant (p < 0.05 increases in global cerebral blood flow (CBF, with a specific regional increase in right postcentral gyrus. SWI data revealed that 44% of the players exhibited outlier rates (p < 0.05 of regional decreases in SWI signal. Of key interest, athletes in whom changes in rs-fMRI, CBF and SWI were observed were more likely to have experienced high G impacts on a daily basis. These findings are indicative of potential pathophysiological changes in brain integrity arising from only a single season of participation in the NCAA Football Bowl Subdivision, even in the absence of clinical symptoms or a diagnosis of concussion. Whether these changes reflect compensatory adaptation to cumulative head impacts or more lasting alteration of brain integrity remains to be further explored.

  5. Neuropathologic assessment of participants in two multi-center longitudinal observational studies: the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) and the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Nigel J; Perrin, Richard J; Franklin, Erin E; Carter, Deborah; Vincent, Benjamin; Xie, Mingqiang; Bateman, Randall J; Benzinger, Tammie; Friedrichsen, Karl; Brooks, William S; Halliday, Glenda M; McLean, Catriona; Ghetti, Bernardino; Morris, John C

    2015-08-01

    It has been hypothesized that the relatively rare autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD) may be a useful model of the more frequent, sporadic, late-onset AD (LOAD). Individuals with ADAD have a predictable age at onset and the biomarker profile of ADAD participants in the preclinical stage may be used to predict disease progression and clinical onset. However, the extent to which the pathogenesis and neuropathology of ADAD overlaps with that of LOAD is equivocal. To address this uncertainty, two multicenter longitudinal observational studies, the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) and the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN), leveraged the expertise and resources of the existing Knight Alzheimer Disease Research Center (ADRC) at Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA, to establish a Neuropathology Core (NPC). The ADNI/DIAN-NPC is systematically examining the brains of all participants who come to autopsy at the 59 ADNI sites in the USA and Canada and the 14 DIAN sites in the USA (eight), Australia (three), UK (one) and Germany (two). By 2014, 41 ADNI and 24 DIAN autopsies (involving nine participants and 15 family members) had been performed. The autopsy rate in the ADNI cohort in the most recent year was 93% (total since NPC inception: 70%). In summary, the ADNI/DIAN NPC has implemented a standard protocol for all sites to solicit permission for brain autopsy and to send brain tissue to the NPC for a standardized, uniform and state-of-the-art neuropathologic assessment. The benefit to ADNI and DIAN of the implementation of the NPC is very clear. The NPC provides final "gold standard" neuropathological diagnoses and data against which the antecedent observations and measurements of ADNI and DIAN can be compared. © 2015 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  6. Where does brain neural activation in aesthetic responses to visual art occur? Meta-analytic evidence from neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, M; Barbetti, S; Piccardi, L; Guariglia, C; Ferlazzo, F; Giannini, A M; Zaidel, D W

    2016-01-01

    Here we aimed at finding the neural correlates of the general aspect of visual aesthetic experience (VAE) and those more strictly correlated with the content of the artworks. We applied a general activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis to 47 fMRI experiments described in 14 published studies. We also performed four separate ALE analyses in order to identify the neural substrates of reactions to specific categories of artworks, namely portraits, representation of real-world-visual-scenes, abstract paintings, and body sculptures. The general ALE revealed that VAE relies on a bilateral network of areas, and the individual ALE analyses revealed different maximal activation for the artworks' categories as function of their content. Specifically, different content-dependent areas of the ventral visual stream are involved in VAE, but a few additional brain areas are involved as well. Thus, aesthetic-related neural responses to art recruit widely distributed networks in both hemispheres including content-dependent brain areas of the ventral visual stream. Together, the results suggest that aesthetic responses are not independent of sensory, perceptual, and cognitive processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of obese adults with poor versus good sleep quality during a functional neuroimaging delay discounting task: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Laura E; Pollack, Lauren; McCune, Ashley; Schulte, Erica; Savage, Cary R; Lundgren, Jennifer D

    2015-10-30

    This study aimed to determine if obese adults with poor versus good sleep quality demonstrate reduced self-regulatory capacity and different patterns of neural activation when making impulsive monetary choices. Six obese, good quality sleepers (M age=44.7 years, M BMI=38.1 kg/m(2)) were compared to 13 obese, poor quality sleepers (M age=42.6, M BMI=39.2 kg/m(2)) on sleep and eating behavior and brain activation in prefrontal and insular regions while engaging in a delay discounting task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Poor quality sleepers demonstrated significantly lower brain activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, and bilateral insula when making immediate and smaller (impulsive) monetary choices compared to the baseline condition. Behaviorally, poor compared to good quality sleepers reported higher scores in the night eating questionnaire. Obese adults with poor sleep quality demonstrate decreased brain activation in multiple regions that regulate cognitive control and interceptive awareness, possibly reducing self-regulatory capacity when making immediately gratifying decisions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular neuroimaging in degenerative dementias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez Bonilla, J F; Carril Carril, J M

    2013-01-01

    In the context of the limitations of structural imaging, brain perfusion and metabolism using SPECT and PET have provided relevant information for the study of cognitive decline. The introduction of the radiotracers for cerebral amyloid imaging has changed the diagnostic strategy regarding Alzheimer's disease, which is currently considered to be a "continuum." According to this new paradigm, the increasing amyloid load would be associated to the preclinical phase and mild cognitive impairment. It has been possible to observe "in vivo" images using 11C-PIB and PET scans. The characteristics of the 11C-PIB image include specific high brain cortical area retention in the positive cases with typical distribution pattern and no retention in the negative cases. This, in combination with 18F-FDG PET, is the basis of molecular neuroimaging as a biomarker. At present, its prognostic value is being evaluated in longitudinal studies. 11C-PIB-PET has become the reference radiotracer to evaluate the presence of cerebral amyloid. However, its availability is limited due to the need for a nearby cyclotron. Therefore, 18F labeled radiotracers are being introduced. Our experience in the last two years with 11C-PIB, first in the research phase and then as being clinically applied, has shown the utility of the technique in the clinical field, either alone or in combination with FDG. Thus, amyloid image is a useful tool for the differential diagnosis of dementia and it is a potentially useful method for early diagnosis and evaluation of future treatments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative study of the neuropsychological and neuroimaging evaluations in children with dyslexia Estudo comparativo das avaliações neuropsicológicas e de neuroimagem em crianças com dislexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Genaro Arduini

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed retrospectively the neuroimaging exams of children with a confirmed diagnosis of dyslexia and correlated our findings with the evaluation of higher cortical functions. We studied 34 medical files of patients of the Ambulatory of Neuro-difficulties in Learning, FCM/UNICAMP. All of them had been sent to the ambulatory with primary or secondary complaints of difficulties at school and were submitted to neuropsychological evaluation and imaging exam (SPECT. From the children evaluated 58.8% had exams presenting dysfunction with 47% presenting hypoperfusion in the temporal lobe. As for the higher cortical functions, the most affected abilities were reading, writing and memory. There was significance between the hypoperfused areas and the variables schooling, reading, writing, memory and mathematic reasoning. The SPECTs showed hypoperfusion in areas involved in the reading and writing processes. Both are equivalent in terms of involved functional areas and are similar in children with or without specific dysfunctions in neuroimaging.Analisamos retrospectivamente exames de neuroimagem de crianças com diagnóstico de dislexia e correlacionamos os achados com avaliação das funções corticais superiores. Estudamos 34 prontuários de pacientes atendidos no Ambulatório de Neuro-Dificuldades de Aprendizado, FCM/UNICAMP, no período de 1994 a 2002. Todas foram encaminhadas com queixa primária ou secundária de dificuldade escolar e submetidas à avaliação neuropsicológica e exame de imagem (SPECT. Das crianças avaliadas, 58,8% apresentaram exames alterados. Dentre as alterações, 16 possuíam hipoperfusão no lobo temporal. Nas funções corticais superiores, as habilidades mais prejudicadas foram leitura, escrita e memória. Houve significância entre as áreas hipoperfundidas com a variável escolaridade, leitura, escrita, memória e raciocínio matemático. Os SPECTs mostraram hipoperfusão em áreas envolvidas nos processos de

  10. Neuroimaging of amblyopia and binocular vision: a review

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    Olivier eJoly

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Amblyopia is a cerebral visual impairment considered to derive from abnormal visual experience (e.g., strabismus, anisometropia. Amblyopia, first considered as a monocular disorder, is now often seen as a primarily binocular disorder resulting in more and more studies examining the binocular deficits in the patients. The neural mechanisms of amblyopia are not completely understood even though they have been investigated with electrophysiological recordings in animal models and more recently with neuroimaging techniques in humans. In this review, we summarise the current knowledge about the brain regions that underlie the visual deficits associated with amblyopia with a focus on binocular vision using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. The first studies focused on abnormal responses in the primary and secondary visual areas whereas recent evidence show that there are also deficits at higher levels of the visual pathways within the parieto-occipital and temporal cortices. These higher level areas are part of the cortical network involved in 3D vision from binocular cues. Therefore, reduced responses in these areas could be related to the impaired binocular vision in amblyopic patients. Promising new binocular treatments might at least partially correct the activation in these areas. Future neuroimaging experiments could help to characterise the brain response changes associated with these treatments and help devise them.

  11. Early neuroimaging diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jianling; Liu, Timon C.; Li, Yan; Liu, Songhao

    2002-04-01

    Neuroimaging has played an important role in evaluating the Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, and its uses are growing. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may show the presence of cerebral infarcts and white matter disease. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET), which visualize such cerebral functions as glucose metabolism and blood flow, may provide positive evidence to support the diagnosis of AD. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a recently developed technique which enables the internal impedance of an object to be imaged noninvasively.

  12. LSTGEE: longitudinal analysis of neuroimaging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yimei; Zhu, Hongtu; Chen, Yasheng; An, Hongyu; Gilmore, John; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2009-02-01

    Longitudinal imaging studies are essential to understanding the neural development of neuropsychiatric disorders, substance use disorders, and normal brain. Using appropriate image processing and statistical tools to analyze the imaging, behavioral, and clinical data is critical for optimally exploring and interpreting the findings from those imaging studies. However, the existing imaging processing and statistical methods for analyzing imaging longitudinal measures are primarily developed for cross-sectional neuroimaging studies. The simple use of these cross-sectional tools to longitudinal imaging studies will significantly decrease the statistical power of longitudinal studies in detecting subtle changes of imaging measures and the causal role of time-dependent covariate in disease process. The main objective of this paper is to develop longitudinal statistics toolbox, called LSTGEE, for the analysis of neuroimaging data from longitudinal studies. We develop generalized estimating equations for jointly modeling imaging measures with behavioral and clinical variables from longitudinal studies. We develop a test procedure based on a score test statistic and a resampling method to test linear hypotheses of unknown parameters, such as associations between brain structure and function and covariates of interest, such as IQ, age, gene, diagnostic groups, and severity of disease. We demonstrate the application of our statistical methods to the detection of the changes of the fractional anisotropy across time in a longitudinal neonate study. Particularly, our results demonstrate that the use of longitudinal statistics can dramatically increase the statistical power in detecting the changes of neuroimaging measures. The proposed approach can be applied to longitudinal data with multiple outcomes and accommodate incomplete and unbalanced data, i.e., subjects with different number of measurements.

  13. Hand Motion Detection in fNIRS Neuroimaging Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abtahi, Mohammadreza; Amiri, Amir Mohammad; Byrd, Dennis; Mankodiya, Kunal

    2017-04-15

    As the number of people diagnosed with movement disorders is increasing, it becomes vital to design techniques that allow the better understanding of human brain in naturalistic settings. There are many brain imaging methods such as fMRI, SPECT, and MEG that provide the functional information of the brain. However, these techniques have some limitations including immobility, cost, and motion artifacts. One of the most emerging portable brain scanners available today is functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). In this study, we have conducted fNIRS neuroimaging of seven healthy subjects while they were performing wrist tasks such as flipping their hand with the periods of rest (no movement). Different models of support vector machine is applied to these fNIRS neuroimaging data and the results show that we could classify the action and rest periods with the accuracy of over 80% for the fNIRS data of individual participants. Our results are promising and suggest that the presented classification method for fNIRS could further be applied to real-time applications such as brain computer interfacing (BCI), and into the future steps of this research to record brain activity from fNIRS and EEG, and fuse them with the body motion sensors to correlate the activities.

  14. Neuroimaging and advanced social living

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    of the application of neuroimaging findings to guide multidisciplinary collaboration in a randomized controlled trial on integrated home care for stroke patients. This approach may be termed double-objectivism. Results: 1. In classical neurology CNS is a dual system of ANS and Cortex. The new neuroeconomic...... understanding is that of a reciprocal balance of interacting Limbic System (L(x)) and Neocortex (NC). This favours integrated homecare as relaxation of LS at home (BP declines 5 mmHg) in itself improves cognitive integration to the benefit of rehabilitation i.e. reduced risk of ‘death or disability’ for stroke...... is basal knowledge for collaborative self-management. 3. Values of an integrative logic are derived as patience to both positivist prediction and client-centered implementation. Conclusion: Modern neuroimaging presents a positivistic guidance towards modern values of multidisciplinary collaboration...

  15. Neural correlates of fear: insights from neuroimaging

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    Garfinkel SN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sarah N Garfinkel,1,2 Hugo D Critchley1,2 1Sackler Centre for Consciousness Science, 2Department of Psychiatry, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK Abstract: Fear anticipates a challenge to one's well-being and is a reaction to the risk of harm. The expression of fear in the individual is a constellation of physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and experiential responses. Fear indicates risk and will guide adaptive behavior, yet fear is also fundamental to the symptomatology of most psychiatric disorders. Neuroimaging studies of normal and abnormal fear in humans extend knowledge gained from animal experiments. Neuroimaging permits the empirical evaluation of theory (emotions as response tendencies, mental states, and valence and arousal dimensions, and improves our understanding of the mechanisms of how fear is controlled by both cognitive processes and bodily states. Within the human brain, fear engages a set of regions that include insula and anterior cingulate cortices, the amygdala, and dorsal brain-stem centers, such as periaqueductal gray matter. This same fear matrix is also implicated in attentional orienting, mental planning, interoceptive mapping, bodily feelings, novelty and motivational learning, behavioral prioritization, and the control of autonomic arousal. The stereotyped expression of fear can thus be viewed as a special construction from combinations of these processes. An important motivator for understanding neural fear mechanisms is the debilitating clinical expression of anxiety. Neuroimaging studies of anxiety patients highlight the role of learning and memory in pathological fear. Posttraumatic stress disorder is further distinguished by impairment in cognitive control and contextual memory. These processes ultimately need to be targeted for symptomatic recovery. Neuroscientific knowledge of fear has broader relevance to understanding human and societal behavior. As yet, only some of

  16. Neuroimaging and illness progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frey, Benicio N.; Minuzzi, L; Haarman, Bartholomeus; Sassi, R; Kapczinski, Flávio; Vieta, Eduard; Magalhães, Pedro V. S.; Berk, Michael

    2015-01-01

    •Asymptomatic children at high-risk to develop BD have shown gray matter volume changes in several prefrontal cortical areas and reduced frontal and increased amygdala activation; Preliminary evidence suggests that development of BD may be associated with lower amygdala volumes •Initial studies

  17. Vitamin D and Risk of Neuroimaging Abnormalities.

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    Thomas J Littlejohns

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency has been linked with an increased risk of incident all-cause dementia and Alzheimer's disease. The aim of the current study was to explore the potential mechanisms underlying these associations by determining whether low vitamin D concentrations are associated with the development of incident cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative neuroimaging abnormalities. The population consisted of 1,658 participants aged ≥65 years from the US-based Cardiovascular Health Study who were free from prevalent cardiovascular disease, stroke and dementia at baseline in 1992-93. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry from blood samples collected at baseline. The first MRI scan was conducted between 1991-1994 and the second MRI scan was conducted between 1997-1999. Change in white matter grade, ventricular grade and presence of infarcts between MRI scan one and two were used to define neuroimaging abnormalities. During a mean follow-up of 5.0 years, serum 25(OHD status was not significantly associated with the development of any neuroimaging abnormalities. Using logistic regression models, the multivariate adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval for worsening white matter grade in participants who were severely 25(OHD deficient (<25 nmol/L and deficient (≥25-50 nmol/L were 0.76 (0.35-1.66 and 1.09 (0.76-1.55 compared to participants with sufficient concentrations (≥50 nmol/L. The multivariate adjusted odds ratios for ventricular grade in participants who were severely 25(OHD deficient and deficient were 0.49 (0.20-1.19 and 1.12 (0.79-1.59 compared to those sufficient. The multivariate adjusted odds ratios for incident infarcts in participants who were severely 25(OHD deficient and deficient were 1.95 (0.84-4.54 and 0.73 (0.47-1.95 compared to those sufficient. Overall, serum vitamin D concentrations could not be shown to be associated with the development of

  18. Near-infrared neuroimaging with NinPy

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    Gary E Strangman

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been substantial recent growth in the use of non-invasive optical brain imaging in studies of human brain function in health and disease. Near-infrared neuroimaging (NIN is one of the most promising of these techniques and, although NIN hardware continues to evolve at a rapid pace, software tools supporting optical data acquisition, image processing, statistical modeling and visualization remain less refined. Python, a modular and computationally efficient development language, can support functional neuroimaging studies of diverse design and implementation. In particular, Python's easily readable syntax and modular architecture allow swift prototyping followed by efficient transition to stable production systems. As an introduction to our ongoing efforts to develop Python software tools for structural and functional neuroimaging, we discuss: (i the role of noninvasive diffuse optical imaging in measuring brain function, (ii the key computational requirements to support NIN experiments, (iii our collection of software tools to support near-infrared neuroimaging, called NinPy, and (iv future extensions of these tools that will allow integration of optical with other structural and functional neuroimaging data sources. Source code for the software discussed here will be made available at www.nmr.mgh.harvard.edu/Neural_SystemsGroup/software.html.

  19. Uncovering the etiology of conversion disorder: insights from functional neuroimaging

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    Ejareh dar M

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maryam Ejareh dar, Richard AA Kanaan Department of Psychiatry, University of Melbourne, Austin Health, Heidelberg, VIC, Australia Abstract: Conversion disorder (CD is a syndrome of neurological symptoms arising without organic cause, arguably in response to emotional stress, but the exact neural substrates of these symptoms and the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood with the hunt for a biological basis afoot for centuries. In the past 15 years, novel insights have been gained with the advent of functional neuroimaging studies in patients suffering from CDs in both motor and nonmotor domains. This review summarizes recent functional neuroimaging studies including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT, and positron emission tomography (PET to see whether they bring us closer to understanding the etiology of CD. Convergent functional neuroimaging findings suggest alterations in brain circuits that could point to different mechanisms for manifesting functional neurological symptoms, in contrast with feigning or healthy controls. Abnormalities in emotion processing and in emotion-motor processing suggest a diathesis, while differential reactions to certain stressors implicate a specific response to trauma. No comprehensive theory emerges from these clues, and all results remain preliminary, but functional neuroimaging has at least given grounds for hope that a model for CD may soon be found. Keywords: conversion disorder, neuroimaging, functional neurology, hysteria, mechanisms 

  20. Autismo: neuroimagem Autism: neuroimaging

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    Mônica Zilbovicius

    2006-05-01

    and stereotyped and repetitive behaviors. Thanks to recent brain imaging studies, scientists are getting a better idea of the neural circuits involved in autism spectrum disorders. Indeed, functional brain imaging, such as positron emission tomography, single foton emission tomographyand functional MRI have opened a new perspective to study normal and pathological brain functioning. Three independent studies have found anatomical and rest functional temporal lobe abnormalities in autistic patients. These alterations are localized in the superior temporal sulcus bilaterally, an area which is critical for perception of key social stimuli. In addition, functional studies have shown hypoactivation of most areas implicated in social perception (face and voice perception and social cognition (theory of mind. These data suggest an abnormal functioning of the social brain network in autism. The understanding of the functional alterations of this important mechanism may drive the elaboration of new and more adequate social re-educative strategies for autistic patients.

  1. Integrating Theoretical Models with Functional Neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratte, Michael S; Tong, Frank

    2017-02-01

    The development of mathematical models to characterize perceptual and cognitive processes dates back almost to the inception of the field of psychology. Since the 1990s, human functional neuroimaging has provided for rapid empirical and theoretical advances across a variety of domains in cognitive neuroscience. In more recent work, formal modeling and neuroimaging approaches are being successfully combined, often producing models with a level of specificity and rigor that would not have been possible by studying behavior alone. In this review, we highlight examples of recent studies that utilize this combined approach to provide novel insights into the mechanisms underlying human cognition. The studies described here span domains of perception, attention, memory, categorization, and cognitive control, employing a variety of analytic and model-inspired approaches. Across these diverse studies, a common theme is that individually tailored, creative solutions are often needed to establish compelling links between multi-parameter models and complex sets of neural data. We conclude that future developments in model-based cognitive neuroscience will have great potential to advance our theoretical understanding and ability to model both low-level and high-level cognitive processes.

  2. Using Large-Scale Statistical Chinese Brain Template (Chinese2020 in Popular Neuroimage Analysis Toolkits

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    Lin Shi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Given that the morphology of Chinese brains statistically differs from that of Caucasian, there is an urgent need to develop a Chinese brain template for neuroimaging studies in Chinese populations. Based on a multi-center dataset, we developed a statistical Chinese brain template, named as Chinese2020 (Liang et al., 2015. This new Chinese brain atlas has been validated in brain normalization and segmentation for anatomical Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI studies, and is publicly available at http://www.chinese-brain-atlases.org/. In our previous study, we have demonstrated this Chinese atlas showed higher accuracy in segmentation and relatively smaller shape deformations during registration. Because the spatial normalization of functional images is mainly based on the segmentation and normalization of anatomical image, the population-specific brain atlas should also be more appropriate for functional studies involving Chinese populations. The aim of this technology report is to validate the performance of Chinsese2020 template in functional neuroimaging studies, and demonstrated that for Chinese population studies, the use of the Chinese2010 template produces more valid results. The steps of how to use the Chinese2020 template in SPM software were given in details in this technology report, and based on an example of finger tapping fMRI study, this technology report demonstrated the Chinese2020 template could improve the performance of the neuroimaging analysis of Chinese populations.

  3. Neuroimaging in Parkinson disease: from research setting to clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, Marios

    2014-12-01

    Over the past three decades, neuroimaging studies-including structural, functional and molecular modalities-have provided invaluable insights into the mechanisms underlying Parkinson disease (PD). Observations from multimodal neuroimaging techniques have indicated changes in brain structure and metabolic activity, and an array of neurochemical changes that affect receptor sites and neurotransmitter systems. Characterization of the neurobiological alterations that lead to phenotypic heterogeneity in patients with PD has considerably aided the in vivo investigation of aetiology and pathophysiology, and the identification of novel targets for pharmacological or surgical treatments, including cell therapy. Although PD is now considered to be very complex, no neuroimaging modalities are specifically recommended for routine use in clinical practice. However, conventional MRI and dopamine transporter imaging are commonly used as adjuvant tools in the differential diagnosis between PD and nondegenerative causes of parkinsonism. First-line neuroimaging tools that could have an impact on patient prognosis and treatment strategies remain elusive. This Review discusses the lessons learnt from decades of neuroimaging research in PD, and the promising new approaches with potential applicability to clinical practice.

  4. The Washington University Central Neuroimaging Data Archive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Jenny; Olsen, Timothy; Flavin, John; Ramaratnam, Mohana; Archie, Kevin; Ransford, James; Herrick, Rick; Wallace, Lauren; Cline, Jeanette; Horton, Will; Marcus, Daniel S

    2017-01-01

    Since the early 2000's, much of the neuroimaging work at Washington University (WU) has been facilitated by the Central Neuroimaging Data Archive (CNDA), an XNAT-based imaging informatics system. The CNDA is uniquely related to XNAT, as it served as the original codebase for the XNAT open source platform. The CNDA hosts data acquired in over 1000 research studies, encompassing 36,000 subjects and more than 60,000 imaging sessions. Most imaging modalities used in modern human research are represented in the CNDA, including magnetic resonance (MR), positron emission tomography (PET), computed tomography (CT), nuclear medicine (NM), computed radiography (CR), digital radiography (DX), and ultrasound (US). However, the majority of the imaging data in the CNDA are MR and PET of the human brain. Currently, about 20% of the total imaging data in the CNDA is available by request to external researchers. CNDA's available data includes large sets of imaging sessions and in some cases clinical, psychometric, tissue, or genetic data acquired in the study of Alzheimer's disease, brain metabolism, cancer, HIV, sickle cell anemia, and Tourette syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Machine learning for neuroimaging with scikit-learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Alexandre; Pedregosa, Fabian; Eickenberg, Michael; Gervais, Philippe; Mueller, Andreas; Kossaifi, Jean; Gramfort, Alexandre; Thirion, Bertrand; Varoquaux, Gaël

    2014-01-01

    Statistical machine learning methods are increasingly used for neuroimaging data analysis. Their main virtue is their ability to model high-dimensional datasets, e.g., multivariate analysis of activation images or resting-state time series. Supervised learning is typically used in decoding or encoding settings to relate brain images to behavioral or clinical observations, while unsupervised learning can uncover hidden structures in sets of images (e.g., resting state functional MRI) or find sub-populations in large cohorts. By considering different functional neuroimaging applications, we illustrate how scikit-learn, a Python machine learning library, can be used to perform some key analysis steps. Scikit-learn contains a very large set of statistical learning algorithms, both supervised and unsupervised, and its application to neuroimaging data provides a versatile tool to study the brain.

  6. Machine Learning for Neuroimaging with Scikit-Learn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre eAbraham

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Statistical machine learning methods are increasingly used for neuroimaging data analysis. Their main virtue is their ability to model high-dimensional datasets, e.g. multivariate analysis of activation images or resting-state time series. Supervised learning is typically used in decoding or encoding settings to relate brain images to behavioral or clinical observations, while unsupervised learning can uncover hidden structures in sets of images (e.g. resting state functional MRI or find sub-populations in large cohorts. By considering different functional neuroimaging applications, we illustrate how scikit-learn, a Python machine learning library, can be used to perform some key analysis steps. Scikit-learn contains a very large set of statistical learning algorithms, both supervised and unsupervised, and its application to neuroimaging data provides a versatile tool to study the brain.

  7. Single subject prediction of brain disorders in neuroimaging: Promises and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbabshirani, Mohammad R; Plis, Sergey; Sui, Jing; Calhoun, Vince D

    2017-01-15

    Neuroimaging-based single subject prediction of brain disorders has gained increasing attention in recent years. Using a variety of neuroimaging modalities such as structural, functional and diffusion MRI, along with machine learning techniques, hundreds of studies have been carried out for accurate classification of patients with heterogeneous mental and neurodegenerative disorders such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. More than 500 studies have been published during the past quarter century on single subject prediction focused on a multiple brain disorders. In the first part of this study, we provide a survey of more than 200 reports in this field with a focus on schizophrenia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer's disease (AD), depressive disorders, autism spectrum disease (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Detailed information about those studies such as sample size, type and number of extracted features and reported accuracy are summarized and discussed. To our knowledge, this is by far the most comprehensive review of neuroimaging-based single subject prediction of brain disorders. In the second part, we present our opinion on major pitfalls of those studies from a machine learning point of view. Common biases are discussed and suggestions are provided. Moreover, emerging trends such as decentralized data sharing, multimodal brain imaging, differential diagnosis, disease subtype classification and deep learning are also discussed. Based on this survey, there is extensive evidence showing the great potential of neuroimaging data for single subject prediction of various disorders. However, the main bottleneck of this exciting field is still the limited sample size, which could be potentially addressed by modern data sharing models such as the ones discussed in this paper. Emerging big data technologies and advanced data-intensive machine learning methodologies such as deep learning have coincided with an increasing need

  8. Neuroimaging in repetitive brain trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Thomas Sc; Lin, Alexander P; Koerte, Inga K; Pasternak, Ofer; Liao, Huijun; Merugumala, Sai; Bouix, Sylvain; Shenton, Martha E

    2014-01-01

    Sports-related concussions are one of the major causes of mild traumatic brain injury. Although most patients recover completely within days to weeks, those who experience repetitive brain trauma (RBT) may be at risk for developing a condition known as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). While this condition is most commonly observed in athletes who experience repetitive concussive and/or subconcussive blows to the head, such as boxers, football players, or hockey players, CTE may also affect soldiers on active duty. Currently, the only means by which to diagnose CTE is by the presence of phosphorylated tau aggregations post-mortem. Non-invasive neuroimaging, however, may allow early diagnosis as well as improve our understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of RBT. The purpose of this article is to review advanced neuroimaging methods used to investigate RBT, including diffusion tensor imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, functional magnetic resonance imaging, susceptibility weighted imaging, and positron emission tomography. While there is a considerable literature using these methods in brain injury in general, the focus of this review is on RBT and those subject populations currently known to be susceptible to RBT, namely athletes and soldiers. Further, while direct detection of CTE in vivo has not yet been achieved, all of the methods described in this review provide insight into RBT and will likely lead to a better characterization (diagnosis), in vivo, of CTE than measures of self-report.

  9. Neural Correlates of Visual Perceptual Expertise: Evidence from Cognitive Neuroscience Using Functional Neuroimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegenfurtner, Andreas; Kok, Ellen M.; van Geel, Koos; de Bruin, Anique B. H.; Sorger, Bettina

    2017-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging is a useful approach to study the neural correlates of visual perceptual expertise. The purpose of this paper is to review the functional-neuroimaging methods that have been implemented in previous research in this context. First, we will discuss research questions typically addressed in visual expertise research. Second,…

  10. First Afebrile Seizure in Children: Which Patients Require Emergent Neuroimaging?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülser Esen Besli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of intra-cranial pathology in children presenting to emergency department with a first afebrile seizure and to determine patients at high risk for abnormal neuroimaging. Methods: The medical files of 173 children who presented to the emergency department with a first afebrile seizure and underwent neuroimaging within 24 hours of presentation were retrospectively evaluated. We defined clinically emergent intracranial pathology as any lesion requiring immediate medical or surgical intervention. The relationship of age, seizure characteristics, predisposing conditions, presence of new-onset neurologic deficits, and baseline neurological status with neuroimaging findings were compared. Results: There were 103 males (59.5% and 70 females. The mean age was 80±60.4 months (1-204. Of the 173 children, 87 (50.3% had a computed tomography scan, 50 (28.9% had magnetic resonance imaging, and 36 (20.8% underwent both magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. Neuroimaging results were abnormal in 24.3% of patients whereas 5.2% had an emergent intracranial pathology. The conditions associated with abnormal neuroimaging were: 1 focal seizures, 2 new-onset neurological deficits 3 pre-existing neurological abnormalities, 4 predisposing conditions, and 5 being younger than 24 months of age. Conclusion: Planning emergency neuroimaging in children with a first afebrile seizure seems rational if the child is younger than 24 moths of age, has focal seizure(s, abnormal neurologic status prior seizure, new-onset neurological symptoms, or predisposing conditions.

  11. Functional neuroimaging in early-onset anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lask, Bryan; Gordon, Isky; Christie, Deborah; Frampton, Ian; Chowdhury, Uttom; Watkins, Beth

    2005-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies in early-onset anorexia nervosa provide evidence of limbic system dysfunction. The current study adds support to the possibility by revealing a significant association between unilateral reduction of blood flow in the temporal region and impaired visuospatial ability, impaired visual memory, and enhanced speed of information processing. 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Estudos neuropsicológicos e de neuroimagem associados ao estresse emocional na infância e adolescência Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies associated with emotional stress during childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Approbato de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    of the Medline/PubMed database with the terms related to neuropsychology, neuroimaging, abandonment experience, domestic violence, physical and sexual abuse and neglect. RESULTS: 607 articles were found but only 19 fit with the proposed subject and were selected. Despite the differences between the studies, there is evidence that groups with experience of early emotional stress show losses in neurocognitive functions such as attention, intelligence, language, executive functions, and decision-making, as well as changes in hippocampus, corpus callosum prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex. The occurrence of psychiatric disorders and behavioral disorders were also relevant in these individuals. DISCUSSION: Considering many negative consequences that early stress can cause in neuropsychological and mental development, there is a need for more research on the topic in order to develop specific strategies for diagnosis and treatment, besides the implementation of public policies for violence prevention in childhood and adolescence, especially in developing countries.

  13. Diphtheric encephalitis and brain neuroimaging features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Jen Chun; Rahmat, Kartini; Mumin, Nazimah Ab; Koh, Mia Tuang; Gan, Chin Seng; Ramli, Norlisah; Fong, Choong Yi

    2017-11-01

    We report a rare case of paediatric diphtheria complicated with encephalitis. A 6-year-old boy who did not receive his scheduled diptheria-tetanus-pertusis vaccination presented with one episode of generalised convulsive seizure. His illness was preceded by a 3day history of fever associated with enlarged exudative tonsils with a pseudomembrane. He was commenced on intravenous penicillin and oral erythromycin. However, he developed progressive encephalopathy with focal neurological deficit which required intubation on day 5 of illness. Throat swab polymerase chain reaction for diphtheria toxin A and B were positive and diphtheria antitoxin was given. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain showed T2-weighted hyperintensities over the anterior cingulate gyri, insular cortex and cerebellum. This is the first reported MRI finding of diphtheric encephalitis. Our report highlights the importance of neuroimaging in diagnosing diphtheric encephalitis particularly in cases with unremarkable cerebrospinal findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Neuroimaging for drug addiction and related behaviors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvaz M. A.; Parvaz, M.A.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik,P.A.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2011-10-01

    In this review, we highlight the role of neuroimaging techniques in studying the emotional and cognitive-behavioral components of the addiction syndrome by focusing on the neural substrates subserving them. The phenomenology of drug addiction can be characterized by a recurrent pattern of subjective experiences that includes drug intoxication, craving, bingeing, and withdrawal with the cycle culminating in a persistent preoccupation with obtaining, consuming, and recovering from the drug. In the past two decades, imaging studies of drug addiction have demonstrated deficits in brain circuits related to reward and impulsivity. The current review focuses on studies employing positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate these behaviors in drug-addicted human populations. We begin with a brief account of drug addiction followed by a technical account of each of these imaging modalities. We then discuss how these techniques have uniquely contributed to a deeper understanding of addictive behaviors.

  15. Neuroimaging findings in late-onset schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Changtae; Lim, Hyun Kook; Lee, Chang Uk

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in late-onset mental disorders. Among them, geriatric schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are significant health care risks and major causes of disability. We discussed whether late-onset schizophrenia (LOS) and late-onset bipolar (LOB) disorder can be a separate entity from early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) and early-onset bipolar (EOB) disorder in a subset of late-life schizophrenia or late-life bipolar disorder through neuroimaging studies. A literature search for imaging studies of LOS or LOB was performed in the PubMed database. Search terms used were "(imaging OR MRI OR CT OR SPECT OR DTI OR PET OR fMRI) AND (schizophrenia or bipolar disorder) AND late onset." Articles that were published in English before October 2013 were included. There were a few neuroimaging studies assessing whether LOS and LOB had different disease-specific neural substrates compared with EOS and EOB. These researches mainly observed volumetric differences in specific brain regions, white matter hyperintensities, diffusion tensor imaging, or functional neuroimaging to explore the differences between LOS and LOB and EOS and EOB. The aim of this review was to highlight the neural substrates involved in LOS and LOB through neuroimaging studies. The exploration of neuroanatomical markers may be the key to the understanding of underlying neurobiology in LOS and LOB.

  16. Functional Neuroimaging of Appetite and Gut–Brain Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.A.M.; Preissl, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    Ultimately, eating decisions are made in the brain, based on the integration
    of multiple neural and hormonal signals. Since the early 1990s the use of
    functional
    neuroimaging techniques has continued to increase. Their application
    in the study of the regulation of food intake and

  17. EEG changes and neuroimaging abnormalities in relevance to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Autism is currently viewed as a genetically determined neurodevelopmental disorder although its defi nite underlying etiology remains to be established. Aim of the Study: Our purpose was to assess autism related morphological neuroimaging changes of the brain and EEG abnormalities in correlation to the ...

  18. Neuroimaging of aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Sterzer

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of functional and structural neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural bases of aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents. Most functional neuroimaging studies have persued the hypothesis that pathological aggression is a consequence of deficits in the neural circuits involved in emotion processing. There is converging evidence for deficient neural responses to emotional stimuli in youths with a propensity towards aggressive behaviour. In addition, recent neuroimaging work has suggested that aggressive behaviour is also associated with abnormalities in neural processes that subserve both the inhibitory control of behaviour and the flexible adaptation of behaviour in accord with reinforcement information. Structural neuroimaging studies in children and adolescents with conduct problems are still scarce, but point to deficits in brain structures in volved in the processing of social information and in the regulation of social and goal directed behaviour. The indisputable progress that this research field has made in recent years notwithstanding, the overall picture is still rather patchy and there are inconsistencies between studies that await clarification. Despite this, we attempt to provide an integrated view on the neural abnormalities that may contribute to various forms of juvenile aggression and violence, and discuss research strategies that may help to provide a more profound understanding of these important issues in the future.

  19. Attention to spoken word planning : Chronometric and neuroimaging evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, A.P.A.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews chronometric and neuroimaging evidence on attention to spoken word planning, using the WEAVER++ model as theoretical framework. First, chronometric studies on the time to initiate vocal responding and gaze shifting suggest that spoken word planning may require some attention,

  20. Testing for difference between two groups of functional neuroimaging experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Chen, Andrew C. N.; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    We describe a meta-analytic method that tests for the difference between two groups of functional neuroimaging experiments. We use kernel density estimation in three-dimensional brain space to convert points representing focal brain activations into a voxel-based representation. We find the maxim...... thermal pain studies where "hot pain" and "cold pain" form the two groups....

  1. Does neuroimaging of suggestion elucidate hypnotic trance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Amir

    2011-07-01

    Contemporary studies in the cognitive neuroscience of attention and suggestion shed new light on the underlying neural mechanisms that operationalize these effects. Without adhering to important caveats inherent to imaging of the living human brain, however, findings from brain imaging studies may enthrall more than explain. Scholars, practitioners, professionals, and consumers must realize that the influence words exert on focal brain activity is measurable but that these measurements are often difficult to interpret. While recent brain imaging research increasingly incorporates variations of suggestion and hypnosis, correlating overarching hypnotic experiences with specific brain substrates remains tenuous. This article elucidates the mounting role of cognitive neuroscience, including the relative merits and intrinsic limitations of neuroimaging, in better contextualizing trance-like concepts.

  2. Yield of retinal examination in suspected physical abuse with normal neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Jonathan D; Scribano, Philip V; Lindberg, Daniel M

    2010-05-01

    In some centers, dedicated ophthalmologic examination is performed for all children who are evaluated for potential physical abuse. Although retinal hemorrhages have been reported in rare cases of abused children with normal neuroimaging results, the utility of ophthalmologic examination in this group is currently unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of retinal hemorrhages in children younger than 2 years who were evaluated for physical abuse and who had no evidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) on neuroimaging. We performed retrospective analysis of data obtained from 1676 children younger than 5 years who were evaluated for potential physical abuse as a part of the Using Liver Transaminases to Recognize Abuse research network. We reviewed results of dedicated ophthalmologic examination in all children younger than 2 years with no evidence of TBI on neuroimaging. Among 282 children who met inclusion criteria, only 2 (0.7% [95% confidence interval: 0.1%-2.5%]) had retinal hemorrhages considered "characteristic" of abuse. Seven other children (2.5% [95% confidence interval: 1.0%-5.1%]) had a nonspecific pattern of retinal hemorrhages. Both children with characteristic retinal hemorrhages in the absence of TBI showed evidence of head or facial injury on physical examination and/or altered mental status. In children younger than 2 years being evaluated for physical abuse without radiographic evidence of brain injury, retinal hemorrhages are rare. Dedicated ophthalmologic examination should not be considered mandatory in this population.

  3. Gun shows and gun violence: fatally flawed study yields misleading results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintemute, Garen J; Hemenway, David; Webster, Daniel; Pierce, Glenn; Braga, Anthony A

    2010-10-01

    A widely publicized but unpublished study of the relationship between gun shows and gun violence is being cited in debates about the regulation of gun shows and gun commerce. We believe the study is fatally flawed. A working paper entitled "The Effect of Gun Shows on Gun-Related Deaths: Evidence from California and Texas" outlined this study, which found no association between gun shows and gun-related deaths. We believe the study reflects a limited understanding of gun shows and gun markets and is not statistically powered to detect even an implausibly large effect of gun shows on gun violence. In addition, the research contains serious ascertainment and classification errors, produces results that are sensitive to minor specification changes in key variables and in some cases have no face validity, and is contradicted by 1 of its own authors' prior research. The study should not be used as evidence in formulating gun policy.

  4. Inter-rater variability of visual interpretation and comparison with quantitative evaluation of {sup 11}C-PiB PET amyloid images of the Japanese Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (J-ADNI) multicenter study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, Tomohiko [Saitama Medical University Saitama International Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hidaka (Japan); Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Division of Molecular Imaging, Kobe (Japan); Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Team for Neuroimaging Research, Tokyo (Japan); Ishii, Kenji; Sakata, Muneyuki [Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Team for Neuroimaging Research, Tokyo (Japan); Ikari, Yasuhiko; Nishio, Tomoyuki [Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Division of Molecular Imaging, Kobe (Japan); Research Association for Biotechnology, Tokyo (Japan); Ishii, Kazunari [Kinki University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Osaka, Sayama (Japan); Kato, Takashi; Ito, Kengo [National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Department of Brain Science and Molecular Imaging, Obu (Japan); Senda, Michio [Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Division of Molecular Imaging, Kobe (Japan); Collaboration: J-ADNI Study Group

    2017-05-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the inter-rater variability of the visual interpretation of {sup 11}C-PiB PET images regarding the positivity/negativity of amyloid deposition that were obtained in a multicenter clinical research project, Japanese Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (J-ADNI). The results of visual interpretation were also compared with a semi-automatic quantitative analysis using mean cortical standardized uptake value ratio to the cerebellar cortex (mcSUVR). A total of 162 {sup 11}C-PiB PET scans, including 45 mild Alzheimer's disease, 60 mild cognitive impairment, and 57 normal cognitive control cases that had been acquired as J-ADNI baseline scans were analyzed. Based on visual interpretation by three independent raters followed by consensus read, each case was classified into positive, equivocal, and negative deposition (ternary criteria) and further dichotomized by merging the former two (binary criteria). Complete agreement of visual interpretation by the three raters was observed for 91.3% of the cases (Cohen κ = 0.88 on average) in ternary criteria and for 92.3% (κ = 0.89) in binary criteria. Cases that were interpreted as visually positive in the consensus read showed significantly higher mcSUVR than those visually negative (2.21 ± 0.37 vs. 1.27 ± 0.09, p < 0.001), and positive or negative decision by visual interpretation was dichotomized by a cut-off value of mcSUVR = 1.5. Significant positive/negative associations were observed between mcSUVR and the number of raters who evaluated as positive (ρ = 0.87, p < 0.0001) and negative (ρ = -0.85, p < 0.0001) interpretation. Cases of disagreement among raters showed generally low mcSUVR. Inter-rater agreement was almost perfect in {sup 11}C-PiB PET scans. Positive or negative decision by visual interpretation was dichotomized by a cut-off value of mcSUVR = 1.5. As some cases of disagreement among raters tended to show low mcSUVR, referring to quantitative method may

  5. Integration of network topological and connectivity properties for neuroimaging classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Biao; Zhang, Daoqiang; Gao, Wei; Wang, Qian; Wee, Chong-Yaw; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-02-01

    Rapid advances in neuroimaging techniques have provided an efficient and noninvasive way for exploring the structural and functional connectivity of the human brain. Quantitative measurement of abnormality of brain connectivity in patients with neurodegenerative diseases, such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), have also been widely reported, especially at a group level. Recently, machine learning techniques have been applied to the study of AD and MCI, i.e., to identify the individuals with AD/MCI from the healthy controls (HCs). However, most existing methods focus on using only a single property of a connectivity network, although multiple network properties, such as local connectivity and global topological properties, can potentially be used. In this paper, by employing multikernel based approach, we propose a novel connectivity based framework to integrate multiple properties of connectivity network for improving the classification performance. Specifically, two different types of kernels (i.e., vector-based kernel and graph kernel) are used to quantify two different yet complementary properties of the network, i.e., local connectivity and global topological properties. Then, multikernel learning (MKL) technique is adopted to fuse these heterogeneous kernels for neuroimaging classification. We test the performance of our proposed method on two different data sets. First, we test it on the functional connectivity networks of 12 MCI and 25 HC subjects. The results show that our method achieves significant performance improvement over those using only one type of network property. Specifically, our method achieves a classification accuracy of 91.9%, which is 10.8% better than those by single network-property-based methods. Then, we test our method for gender classification on a large set of functional connectivity networks with 133 infants scanned at birth, 1 year, and 2 years, also demonstrating very promising results.

  6. Application of neuroanatomical ontologies for neuroimaging data annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A Turner

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The annotation of functional neuroimaging results for data sharing and reuse is particularly challenging, due to the diversity of terminologies of neuroanatomical structures and cortical parcellation schemes. To address this challenge, we extended the Foundational Model of Anatomy Ontology (FMA to include cytoarchitectural, Brodmann area labels, and a morphological cortical labeling scheme (e.g., the part of Brodmann area 6 in the left precentral gyrus. This representation was also used to augment the neuroanatomical axis of RadLex, the ontology for clinical imaging. The resulting neuroanatomical ontology contains explicit relationships indicating which brain regions are “part of” which other regions, across cytoarchitectural and morphological labeling schemas. We annotated a large functional neuroimaging dataset with terms from the ontology and applied a reasoning engine to analyze this dataset in conjunction with the ontology, and achieved successful inferences from the most specific level (e.g., how many subjects showed activation in a sub-part of the middle frontal gyrus to more general (how many activations were found in areas connected via a known white matter tract?. In summary, we have produced a neuroanatomical ontology that harmonizes several different terminologies of neuroanatomical structures and cortical parcellation schemes. This neuranatomical ontology is publicly available as a view of FMA at the Bioportal website at http://rest.bioontology.org/bioportal/ontologies/download/10005. The ontological encoding of anatomic knowledge can be exploited by computer reasoning engines to make inferences about neuroanatomical relationships described in imaging datasets using different terminologies. This approach could ultimately enable knowledge discovery from large, distributed fMRI studies or medical record mining.

  7. Application of neuroanatomical ontologies for neuroimaging data annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jessica A; Mejino, Jose L V; Brinkley, James F; Detwiler, Landon T; Lee, Hyo Jong; Martone, Maryann E; Rubin, Daniel L

    2010-01-01

    The annotation of functional neuroimaging results for data sharing and re-use is particularly challenging, due to the diversity of terminologies of neuroanatomical structures and cortical parcellation schemes. To address this challenge, we extended the Foundational Model of Anatomy Ontology (FMA) to include cytoarchitectural, Brodmann area labels, and a morphological cortical labeling scheme (e.g., the part of Brodmann area 6 in the left precentral gyrus). This representation was also used to augment the neuroanatomical axis of RadLex, the ontology for clinical imaging. The resulting neuroanatomical ontology contains explicit relationships indicating which brain regions are "part of" which other regions, across cytoarchitectural and morphological labeling schemas. We annotated a large functional neuroimaging dataset with terms from the ontology and applied a reasoning engine to analyze this dataset in conjunction with the ontology, and achieved successful inferences from the most specific level (e.g., how many subjects showed activation in a subpart of the middle frontal gyrus) to more general (how many activations were found in areas connected via a known white matter tract?). In summary, we have produced a neuroanatomical ontology that harmonizes several different terminologies of neuroanatomical structures and cortical parcellation schemes. This neuroanatomical ontology is publicly available as a view of FMA at the Bioportal website. The ontological encoding of anatomic knowledge can be exploited by computer reasoning engines to make inferences about neuroanatomical relationships described in imaging datasets using different terminologies. This approach could ultimately enable knowledge discovery from large, distributed fMRI studies or medical record mining.

  8. Neuroimaging features of Cornelia de Lange syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, Matthew T. [Department of Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Nagaraj, Usha D. [Department of Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Cincinnati Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Pearl, Phillip L. [Department of Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Neurology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome is a rare genetic disease characterized by distinctive facial dysmorphia and dwarfism. Multiple organ system involvement is typical. Various central nervous system (CNS) aberrations have been described in the pathology literature; however, the spectrum of neuroimaging manifestations is less well documented. To present neuroimaging findings from a series of eight patients with Cornelia de Lange syndrome. The CT/MR database at a single academic children's hospital was searched for the terms ''Cornelia'', ''Brachmann'' and ''de Lange.'' The search yielded 18 exams from 16 patients. Two non-CNS and six exams without available images were excluded. Ten exams from eight patients were evaluated by a board-certified neuroradiologist. All patients had skull base dysplasia, most with an unusual coronal basioccipital cleft (7/8). All brain MR exams showed microcephaly, volume loss and gyral simplification (5/5). Six patients had an absent massa intermedia. Four patients had small globe anterior segments; three had optic pathway hypoplasia. Basilar artery fenestration was present in two patients; vertebrobasilar hypoplasia was present in one patient. The inner ear vestibules were dysplastic in two patients. One patient had pachymeningeal thickening. Spinal anomalies included scoliosis, segmentation anomalies, endplate irregularities, basilar invagination, foramen magnum stenosis and tethered spinal cord. Typical imaging manifestations of Cornelia de Lange syndrome include skull base dysplasia with coronal clival cleft, cerebral and brainstem volume loss, and gyral simplification. Membranous labyrinth dysplasia, anterior segment and optic pathway hypoplasia, basilar artery fenestration, absent massa intermedia and spinal anomalies may also be present. (orig.)

  9. Neuroimaging in cerebral palsy - report from north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anju; Mittal, Hema; Kr Debnath, Sanjib; Rai, Anuradha

    2013-01-01

    Only few Indian reports exist on neuroimaging abnormalities in children with cerebral palsy (CP) from India. We studied the clinico-radiological profile of 98 children diagnosed as CP at a tertiary centre in North India. Relevant investigations were carried out to determine the etiology. Among the 98 children studied, 80.5% were males and 22.2% were premature. History of birth asphyxia was present in 41.9%. Quadriplegic CP was seen in 77.5%, hemiplegic in 11.5%, and diplegic in 10.5%. Other abnormalities were microcephaly (60.5%), epilepsy (42%), visual abnormality (37%), and hearing abnormality (20%). Neuroimaging was abnormal in 94/98 (95.91%). Abnormalities were periventricular white matter abnormalities (34%), deep grey matter abnormalities (47.8%), malformations (11.7%), and miscellaneous lesions (6.4%). Neuroimaging findings did not relate to the presence of birth asphyxia, sex, epilepsy, gestation, type of CP, or microcephaly. Neuroimaging is helpful for etiological diagnosis, especially malformations.

  10. How Chunks, Long-Term Working Memory and Templates Offer a Cognitive Explanation for Neuroimaging Data on Expertise Acquisition: A Two-Stage Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Alessandro; Gobet, Fernand; Tardieu, Hubert; Nicolas, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Our review of research on PET and fMRI neuroimaging of experts and expertise acquisition reveals two apparently discordant patterns in working-memory-related tasks. When experts are involved, studies show activations in brain regions typically activated during long-term memory tasks that are not observed with novices, a result that is compatible…

  11. Risk and Determinants of Dementia in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Brain Subcortical Vascular Changes: A Study of Clinical, Neuroimaging, and Biological Markers—The VMCI-Tuscany Study: Rationale, Design, and Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Poggesi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is one of the most disabling conditions. Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia (VaD are the most frequent causes. Subcortical VaD is consequent to deep-brain small vessel disease (SVD and is the most frequent form of VaD. Its pathological hallmarks are ischemic white matter changes and lacunar infarcts. Degenerative and vascular changes often coexist, but mechanisms of interaction are incompletely understood. The term mild cognitive impairment defines a transitional state between normal ageing and dementia. Pre-dementia stages of VaD are also acknowledged (vascular mild cognitive impairment, VMCI. Progression relates mostly to the subcortical VaD type, but determinants of such transition are unknown. Variability of phenotypic expression is not fully explained by severity grade of lesions, as depicted by conventional MRI that is not sensitive to microstructural and metabolic alterations. Advanced neuroimaging techniques seem able to achieve this. Beside hypoperfusion, blood-brain-barrier dysfunction has been also demonstrated in subcortical VaD. The aim of the Vascular Mild Cognitive Impairment Tuscany Study is to expand knowledge about determinants of transition from mild cognitive impairment to dementia in patients with cerebral SVD. This paper summarizes the main aims and methodological aspects of this multicenter, ongoing, observational study enrolling patients affected by VMCI with SVD.

  12. Nonhuman Primate Positron Emission Tomography Neuroimaging in Drug Abuse Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnane, Kevin Sean

    2011-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) neuroimaging in nonhuman primates has led to significant advances in our current understanding of the neurobiology and treatment of stimulant addiction in humans. PET neuroimaging has defined the in vivo biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of abused drugs and related these findings to the time course of behavioral effects associated with their addictive properties. With novel radiotracers and enhanced resolution, PET neuroimaging techniques have also characterized in vivo drug interactions with specific protein targets in the brain, including neurotransmitter receptors and transporters. In vivo determinations of cerebral blood flow and metabolism have localized brain circuits implicated in the effects of abused drugs and drug-associated stimuli. Moreover, determinations of the predisposing factors to chronic drug use and long-term neurobiological consequences of chronic drug use, such as potential neurotoxicity, have led to novel insights regarding the pathology and treatment of drug addiction. However, similar approaches clearly need to be extended to drug classes other than stimulants. Although dopaminergic systems have been extensively studied, other neurotransmitter systems known to play a critical role in the pharmacological effects of abused drugs have been largely ignored in nonhuman primate PET neuroimaging. Finally, the study of brain activation with PET neuroimaging has been replaced in humans mostly by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). There has been some success in implementing pharmacological fMRI in awake nonhuman primates. Nevertheless, the unique versatility of PET imaging will continue to complement the systems-level strengths of fMRI, especially in the context of nonhuman primate drug abuse research. PMID:21317354

  13. Three University Case Studies Show Varying Levels of Sophistication With All Systems GO For MIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornfield, Leo

    1971-01-01

    Three university case studies - the University of Utah, Ohio State University and the University of Illinois - show varying levels of sophistication in their application, modification and practical use of management information systems. (Editor)

  14. Evidence on Use of Neuroimaging for Surgical Treatment of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Amy L; Cascino, Gregory D

    2016-04-01

    Surgery is an effective treatment for drug-resistant focal epilepsy. Neuroimaging studies are considered essential in the diagnostic evaluation of individuals with medically refractory focal seizures being considered for surgical treatment. To review the evidence for the use of neuroimaging studies in the selection of patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy for focal cortical resection and discuss the prognostic importance of selected techniques. Randomized clinical trials, meta-analyses, and clinical retrospective case studies (≥20 patients with ≥1 year of follow-up) were identified using Medical Subject Headings and indexed text terms in EMBASE (1988-November 29, 2014); MEDLINE (1946-December 2, 2014), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (1991-October 31, 2014), and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2005-October 31, 2014). Twenty-seven articles describing 3163 patients were included. Neuroimaging techniques analyzed included magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Subpopulations and prognostic factors were identified. Of the 27 studies evaluated (3163 patients), 7 showed the outcome was more favorable in patients with MRI-identified hippocampal atrophy indicating mesial temporal sclerosis. Five additional studies indicated that the outcome was less favorable in patients with unremarkable MRI studies. There are conflicting findings regarding the prognostic importance of PET-identified focal hypometabolism; however, 2 investigations indicated that the presence of a PET imaging study demonstrating abnormalities in individuals with unremarkable MRI results showed an operative outcome similar to that in patients with mesial temporal sclerosis. The studies assessing SPECT use in temporal lobe epilepsy did not reveal a correlation with outcome. There is strong evidence that preoperative MRI-identified hippocampal atrophy consistent with mesial temporal

  15. Learning Neuroimaging. 100 essential cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asis Bravo-Rodriguez, Francisco de [Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain). Diagnostic and Therapeutics Neuroradiology; Diaz-Aguilera, Rocio [Alto Guadalquivir Hospital, Andujar, Jaen (Spain). Dept. of Radiology; Hygino da Cruz, Luiz Celso [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). CDPI and IRM Ressonancia Magnetica

    2012-07-01

    Neuroradiology is the branch of radiology that comprises both imaging and invasive procedures related to the brain, spine and spinal cord, head, neck, organs of special sense (eyes, ears, nose), cranial and spinal nerves, and cranial, cervical, and spinal vessels. Special training and skills are required to enable the neuroradiologist to function as an expert diagnostic and therapeutic consultant and practitioner. In addition to knowledge of imaging findings, the neuroradiologist is required to learn the fundamentals of structural and functional neuroanatomy, neuropathology, and neuropathophysiology as well as the clinical manifestations of diseases of the brain, spine and spinal cord, head, neck, and organs of special sense. This book is intended as an introduction to neuroradiology and aims to provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of this highly specialized radiological subspecialty. One hundred illustrated cases from clinical practice are presented in a standard way. Each case is supported by representative images and is divided into three parts: a brief summary of the patient's medical history, a discussion of the disease, and a description of the most characteristic imaging features of the disorder. The focus is not only on common neuroradiological entities such as stroke and acute head trauma but also on less frequent disorders that the practitioner should recognize. Learning Neuroimaging: 100 Essential Cases is an ideal resource for neuroradiology and radiology residents, neurology residents, neurosurgery residents, nurses, radiology technicians, and medical students. (orig.)

  16. Running Neuroimaging Applications on Amazon Web Services: How, When, and at What Cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhyastha, Tara M; Koh, Natalie; Day, Trevor K M; Hernández-Fernández, Moises; Kelley, Austin; Peterson, Daniel J; Rajan, Sabreena; Woelfer, Karl A; Wolf, Jonathan; Grabowski, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    The contribution of this paper is to identify and describe current best practices for using Amazon Web Services (AWS) to execute neuroimaging workflows "in the cloud." Neuroimaging offers a vast set of techniques by which to interrogate the structure and function of the living brain. However, many of the scientists for whom neuroimaging is an extremely important tool have limited training in parallel computation. At the same time, the field is experiencing a surge in computational demands, driven by a combination of data-sharing efforts, improvements in scanner technology that allow acquisition of images with higher image resolution, and by the desire to use statistical techniques that stress processing requirements. Most neuroimaging workflows can be executed as independent parallel jobs and are therefore excellent candidates for running on AWS, but the overhead of learning to do so and determining whether it is worth the cost can be prohibitive. In this paper we describe how to identify neuroimaging workloads that are appropriate for running on AWS, how to benchmark execution time, and how to estimate cost of running on AWS. By benchmarking common neuroimaging applications, we show that cloud computing can be a viable alternative to on-premises hardware. We present guidelines that neuroimaging labs can use to provide a cluster-on-demand type of service that should be familiar to users, and scripts to estimate cost and create such a cluster.

  17. Running Neuroimaging Applications on Amazon Web Services: How, When, and at What Cost?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara M. Madhyastha

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of this paper is to identify and describe current best practices for using Amazon Web Services (AWS to execute neuroimaging workflows “in the cloud.” Neuroimaging offers a vast set of techniques by which to interrogate the structure and function of the living brain. However, many of the scientists for whom neuroimaging is an extremely important tool have limited training in parallel computation. At the same time, the field is experiencing a surge in computational demands, driven by a combination of data-sharing efforts, improvements in scanner technology that allow acquisition of images with higher image resolution, and by the desire to use statistical techniques that stress processing requirements. Most neuroimaging workflows can be executed as independent parallel jobs and are therefore excellent candidates for running on AWS, but the overhead of learning to do so and determining whether it is worth the cost can be prohibitive. In this paper we describe how to identify neuroimaging workloads that are appropriate for running on AWS, how to benchmark execution time, and how to estimate cost of running on AWS. By benchmarking common neuroimaging applications, we show that cloud computing can be a viable alternative to on-premises hardware. We present guidelines that neuroimaging labs can use to provide a cluster-on-demand type of service that should be familiar to users, and scripts to estimate cost and create such a cluster.

  18. A novel approach to map induced activation of neuronal networks using chemogenetics and functional neuroimaging in rats: A proof-of-concept study on the mesocorticolimbic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Theresia J M; Verharen, Jeroen P H; van Tilborg, Geralda A F; Boekhoudt, Linde; van der Toorn, Annette; de Jong, Johannes W; Luijendijk, Mieneke C M; Otte, Willem M; Adan, Roger A H; Dijkhuizen, Rick M

    2017-08-01

    Linking neural circuit activation at whole-brain level to neuronal activity at cellular level remains one of the major challenges in neuroscience research. We set up a novel functional neuroimaging approach to map global effects of locally induced activation of specific midbrain projection neurons using chemogenetics (Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADD)-technology) combined with pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) in the rat mesocorticolimbic system. Chemogenetic activation of DREADD-targeted mesolimbic or mesocortical pathways, i.e. projections from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) or medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), respectively, induced significant blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) responses in areas with DREADD expression, but also in remote defined neural circuitry without DREADD expression. The time-course of brain activation corresponded with the behavioral output measure, i.e. locomotor (hyper)activity, in the mesolimbic pathway-targeted group. Chemogenetic activation specifically increased neuronal activity, whereas functional connectivity assessed with resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) remained stable. Positive and negative BOLD responses distinctively reflected simultaneous ventral pallidum activation and substantia nigra pars reticulata deactivation, respectively, demonstrating the concept of mesocorticolimbic network activity with concurrent activation of the direct and indirect pathways following stimulation of specific midbrain projection neurons. The presented methodology provides straightforward and widely applicable opportunities to elucidate relationships between local neuronal activity and global network activity in a controllable manner, which will increase our understanding of the functioning and dysfunctioning of large-scale neuronal networks in health and disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Understanding the impact of TV commercials: electrical neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchiato, Giovanni; Kong, Wanzeng; Maglione, Anton Giulio; Wei, Daming

    2012-01-01

    Today, there is a greater interest in the marketing world in using neuroimaging tools to evaluate the efficacy of TV commercials. This field of research is known as neuromarketing. In this article, we illustrate some applications of electrical neuroimaging, a discipline that uses electroencephalography (EEG) and intensive signal processing techniques for the evaluation of marketing stimuli. We also show how the proper usage of these methodologies can provide information related to memorization and attention while people are watching marketing-relevant stimuli. We note that temporal and frequency patterns of EEG signals are able to provide possible descriptors that convey information about the cognitive process in subjects observing commercial advertisements (ads). Such information could be unobtainable through common tools used in standard marketing research. Evidence of this research shows how EEG methodologies could be employed to better design new products that marketers are going to promote and to analyze the global impact of video commercials already broadcast on TV.

  20. How Shakespeare tempests the brain: neuroimaging insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keidel, James L; Davis, Philip M; Gonzalez-Diaz, Victorina; Martin, Clara D; Thierry, Guillaume

    2013-04-01

    Shakespeare made extensive use of the functional shift (FS), a rhetorical device involving a change in the grammatical status of words, e.g., using nouns as verbs. Previous work using event-related brain potentials showed how FS triggers a surprise effect inviting mental re-evaluation, seemingly independent of semantic processing. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain activation in participants making judgements on the semantic relationship between sentences -some containing a Shakespearean FS- and subsequently presented words. Behavioural performance in the semantic decision task was high and unaffected by sentence type. However, neuroimaging results showed that sentences featuring FS elicited significant activation beyond regions classically activated by typical language tasks, including the left caudate nucleus, the right inferior frontal gyrus and the right inferior temporal gyrus. These findings show how Shakespeare's grammatical exploration forces the listener to take a more active role in integrating the meaning of what is said. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Source counting in MEG neuroimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Tianhu; Dell, John; Magee, Ralphy; Roberts, Timothy P. L.

    2009-02-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a multi-channel, functional imaging technique. It measures the magnetic field produced by the primary electric currents inside the brain via a sensor array composed of a large number of superconducting quantum interference devices. The measurements are then used to estimate the locations, strengths, and orientations of these electric currents. This magnetic source imaging technique encompasses a great variety of signal processing and modeling techniques which include Inverse problem, MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC), Beamforming (BF), and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) method. A key problem with Inverse problem, MUSIC and ICA methods is that the number of sources must be detected a priori. Although BF method scans the source space on a point-to-point basis, the selection of peaks as sources, however, is finally made by subjective thresholding. In practice expert data analysts often select results based on physiological plausibility. This paper presents an eigenstructure approach for the source number detection in MEG neuroimaging. By sorting eigenvalues of the estimated covariance matrix of the acquired MEG data, the measured data space is partitioned into the signal and noise subspaces. The partition is implemented by utilizing information theoretic criteria. The order of the signal subspace gives an estimate of the number of sources. The approach does not refer to any model or hypothesis, hence, is an entirely data-led operation. It possesses clear physical interpretation and efficient computation procedure. The theoretical derivation of this method and the results obtained by using the real MEG data are included to demonstrates their agreement and the promise of the proposed approach.

  2. SchizConnect: Virtual Data Integration in Neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambite, Jose Luis; Tallis, Marcelo; Alpert, Kathryn; Keator, David B; King, Margaret; Landis, Drew; Konstantinidis, George; Calhoun, Vince D; Potkin, Steven G; Turner, Jessica A; Wang, Lei

    2015-07-01

    In many scientific domains, including neuroimaging studies, there is a need to obtain increasingly larger cohorts to achieve the desired statistical power for discovery. However, the economics of imaging studies make it unlikely that any single study or consortia can achieve the desired sample sizes. What is needed is an architecture that can easily incorporate additional studies as they become available. We present such architecture based on a virtual data integration approach, where data remains at the original sources, and is retrieved and harmonized in response to user queries. This is in contrast to approaches that move the data to a central warehouse. We implemented our approach in the SchizConnect system that integrates data from three neuroimaging consortia on Schizophrenia: FBIRN's Human Imaging Database (HID), MRN's Collaborative Imaging and Neuroinformatics System (COINS), and the NUSDAST project at XNAT Central. A portal providing harmonized access to these sources is publicly deployed at schizconnect.org.

  3. Clinical and neuroimage findings of dementia with lewy bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Do Young; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Jae Woo [Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    Dementia with lewy bodies (DLB) is the second common degenerative dementia and has several characteristics including fluctuating cognition, visual hallucination and Parkinsonism. We investigated clinical manifestations and neuroimaging findings in DLB patients. Ten probable DLB patients were included in this study. Brain MRI, Tc-99m HMPAO brain perfusion SPECT and I-123 IPT SPECT were performed. All patients were men and mean age of onset was 64.2 years (range from 54 to 80). All had fluctuating cognition and Parkinsonism, and 8 had visual hallucination. Dementia preceded Parkinsonism in 3 patients. Fluctuation of K-MMSE ranges from 3 to 8 points. Rest tremor was seen in 5 patients. Brain MRI showed cortical atrophy in all patients. Tc-99m brain perfusion SPECT showed hypoperfusion in occipital area as well as fronto-temporo-parietal areas. I-123 IPT SPECT revealed reduced uptake comparable to Parkinson's disease in the striatum. DLB should be first considered as one of possible diagnosis in patients showing dementia in the early stage of Parkinsonism. Hypoperfusion in the occipital area was thought to be a characteristic finding in DLB and to be helpful in differentiating DLB from other degenerative dementias.

  4. A review of feature reduction techniques in neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, Benson; Tian, Tian Siva; Soares, Jair C

    2014-04-01

    Machine learning techniques are increasingly being used in making relevant predictions and inferences on individual subjects neuroimaging scan data. Previous studies have mostly focused on categorical discrimination of patients and matched healthy controls and more recently, on prediction of individual continuous variables such as clinical scores or age. However, these studies are greatly hampered by the large number of predictor variables (voxels) and low observations (subjects) also known as the curse-of-dimensionality or small-n-large-p problem. As a result, feature reduction techniques such as feature subset selection and dimensionality reduction are used to remove redundant predictor variables and experimental noise, a process which mitigates the curse-of-dimensionality and small-n-large-p effects. Feature reduction is an essential step before training a machine learning model to avoid overfitting and therefore improving model prediction accuracy and generalization ability. In this review, we discuss feature reduction techniques used with machine learning in neuroimaging studies.

  5. Neuroimaging of tic disorders with co-existing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Royal, Jason M; Peterson, Bradley S

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tourette syndrome (TS) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are common and debilitating neuropsychiatric illnesses that typically onset in the preschool years. Recently, both conditions have been subject to neuroimaging studies, with the aim of understanding their under...

  6. Neuroimaging of reading intervention: a systematic review and activation likelihood estimate meta-analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barquero, Laura A; Davis, Nicole; Cutting, Laurie E

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of studies examine instructional training and brain activity. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature regarding neuroimaging of reading intervention, with a particular focus on reading difficulties (RD...

  7. Sleep neuroimaging and models of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo eTagliazucchi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Human deep sleep is characterized by reduced or absent sensory activity, responsiveness to stimuli and conscious awareness. Given its ubiquity and reversible nature, it represents an attractive paradigm to study the neural changes which accompany the loss of consciousness in humans. In particular, the deepest stages of sleep can serve as an empirical test for the predictions of theoretical models relating the phenomenology of consciousness with underlying neural activity. A relatively recent shift of attention from the analysis of evoked responses towards spontaneous (or ``resting state'' activity has taken place in the neuroimaging community, together with the development of tools suitable to study distributed functional interactions. In this review we focus on recent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI studies of spontaneous activity during sleep and their relationship with theoretical models for human consciousness generation, considering the global workspace theory, the information integration theory and the dynamical core hypothesis. We discuss the venues of research opened by these results, emphasizing the need to extend the analytic methodology in order to obtain a dynamical picture of how functional interactions change over time and how their evolution is modulated during different conscious states. Finally, we discuss the need to experimentally establish absent or reduced conscious content, even when studying the deepest sleep stages.

  8. Sleep neuroimaging and models of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Behrens, Marion; Laufs, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Human deep sleep is characterized by reduced sensory activity, responsiveness to stimuli, and conscious awareness. Given its ubiquity and reversible nature, it represents an attractive paradigm to study the neural changes which accompany the loss of consciousness in humans. In particular, the deepest stages of sleep can serve as an empirical test for the predictions of theoretical models relating the phenomenology of consciousness with underlying neural activity. A relatively recent shift of attention from the analysis of evoked responses toward spontaneous (or "resting state") activity has taken place in the neuroimaging community, together with the development of tools suitable to study distributed functional interactions. In this review we focus on recent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies of spontaneous activity during sleep and their relationship with theoretical models for human consciousness generation, considering the global workspace theory, the information integration theory, and the dynamical core hypothesis. We discuss the venues of research opened by these results, emphasizing the need to extend the analytic methodology in order to obtain a dynamical picture of how functional interactions change over time and how their evolution is modulated during different conscious states. Finally, we discuss the need to experimentally establish absent or reduced conscious content, even when studying the deepest sleep stages.

  9. Neuroimaging of Fear-Associated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, John A; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-01-01

    Fear conditioning has been commonly used as a model of emotional learning in animals and, with the introduction of functional neuroimaging techniques, has proven useful in establishing the neurocircuitry of emotional learning in humans. Studies of fear acquisition suggest that regions such as amygdala, insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and hippocampus play an important role in acquisition of fear, whereas studies of fear extinction suggest that the amygdala is also crucial for safety learning. Extinction retention testing points to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex as an essential region in the recall of the safety trace, and explicit learning of fear and safety associations recruits additional cortical and subcortical regions. Importantly, many of these findings have implications in our understanding of the pathophysiology of psychiatric disease. Recent studies using clinical populations have lent insight into the changes in regional activity in specific disorders, and treatment studies have shown how pharmaceutical and other therapeutic interventions modulate brain activation during emotional learning. Finally, research investigating individual differences in neurotransmitter receptor genotypes has highlighted the contribution of these systems in fear-associated learning. PMID:26294108

  10. Effect of team training on improving MRI study completion rates and no-show rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbash, Alexander; Yucel, Kent; Yuh, William; Doros, Gheorghe; Ajam, Amna; Lang, Elvira; Pauker, Stephen; Mayr, Nina

    2016-10-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a high-cost imaging modality, and an optimized encounter ideally provides high-quality care, patient satisfaction, and capacity utilization. Our purpose was to assess the effectiveness of team training and its impact on patient show-up and completion rates for their MRI examinations. A total of 97,712 patient visits from three tertiary academic medical centers over 1-year intervals were evaluated, totaling 49,733 visits at baseline and 47,979 after training. Each center's MRI team received team training skill training including advanced communication and team training techniques training. This training included onsite instruction including case simulation with scenarios requiring appropriate behavioral and communicative interventions. Orientation and training also utilized customized online tools and proctoring. The study completion rate and patient show-up rate during consecutive year-long intervals before and after team training were compared to assess its effectiveness. Two-sided chi-square tests for proportions using were applied at a 0.05 significance level. Despite differing no-show rates (5-22.2%) and study incompletion rates (0.7-3.7%) at the three academic centers, the combined patients' data showed significant (P < 0.0001) improvement in the patients' no-show rates (combined decreases from 11.2% to 8.7%) and incompletion rates (combined decreases from 2.3% to 1.4%). Our preliminary results suggest training of the imaging team can improve the no-show and incompletion rates of the MRI service, positively affecting throughput and utilization. Team training can be readily implemented and may help address the needs of the current cost-conscious and consumer-sensitive healthcare environment. J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2016;44:1040-1047. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  11. Neuroimaging correlates of aggression in schizophrenia: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoptman, Matthew J; Antonius, Daniel

    2011-03-01

    Aggression in schizophrenia is associated with poor treatment outcomes, hospital admissions, and stigmatization of patients. As such it represents an important public health issue. This article reviews recent neuroimaging studies of aggression in schizophrenia, focusing on PET/single photon emission computed tomography and MRI methods. The neuroimaging literature on aggression in schizophrenia is in a period of development. This is attributable in part to the heterogeneous nature and basis of that aggression. Radiological methods have consistently shown reduced activity in frontal and temporal regions. MRI brain volumetric studies have been less consistent, with some studies finding increased volumes of inferior frontal structures, and others finding reduced volumes in aggressive individuals with schizophrenia. Functional MRI studies have also had inconsistent results, with most finding reduced activity in inferior frontal and temporal regions, but some also finding increased activity in other regions. Some studies have made a distinction between types of aggression in schizophrenia in the context of antisocial traits, and this appears to be useful in understanding the neuroimaging literature. Frontal and temporal abnormalities appear to be a consistent feature of aggression in schizophrenia, but their precise nature likely differs because of the heterogeneous nature of that behavior.

  12. Using neuroimaging to understand the cortical mechanisms of auditory selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Adrian K C; Larson, Eric; Maddox, Ross K; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G

    2014-01-01

    Over the last four decades, a range of different neuroimaging tools have been used to study human auditory attention, spanning from classic event-related potential studies using electroencephalography to modern multimodal imaging approaches (e.g., combining anatomical information based on magnetic resonance imaging with magneto- and electroencephalography). This review begins by exploring the different strengths and limitations inherent to different neuroimaging methods, and then outlines some common behavioral paradigms that have been adopted to study auditory attention. We argue that in order to design a neuroimaging experiment that produces interpretable, unambiguous results, the experimenter must not only have a deep appreciation of the imaging technique employed, but also a sophisticated understanding of perception and behavior. Only with the proper caveats in mind can one begin to infer how the cortex supports a human in solving the "cocktail party" problem. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Human Auditory Neuroimaging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Neuroimaging of voice hearing in non-psychotic individuals: A mini review of recent fMRI, PET, DTI and EEG studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Maria Johanna Diederen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH or ‘voices’ are a characteristic symptom of schizophrenia, but can also be observed in healthy individuals in the general population. As these non-psychotic individuals experience AVH in the absence of other psychiatric symptoms and medication-use they provide an excellent model to study AVH in isolation. Indeed a number of studies used this approach and investigated brain structure and function in non-psychotic individuals with AVH.These studies showed that aberrant connectivity of language production and perception areas is particularly associated with AVH. This is in concordance with investigations that observed prominent activation of these language areas during the state of AVH. Effortful attention decreased cerebral dominance for language and dopamine dysfunction on the other hand, are presumably not specifically related to AVH.

  14. Neuroimaging the Menstrual Cycle and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comasco, Erika; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2015-10-01

    Knowledge of gonadal hormone-related influences on human brain anatomy, function, and chemistry is scarce. The present review scrutinized organizational and functional neuroimaging correlates of the menstrual cycle and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Supportive evidence of cyclic short-term structural and functional brain plasticity in response to gonadal hormonal modulation is provided. The paucity of studies, sparsity and discordance of findings, and weaknesses in study design at present hinder the drawing of firm conclusions. Ideal study designs should comprise high-resolution multimodal neuroimaging (e.g., MRI, DTI, rs-fMRI, fMRI, PET), hormones, genetic, and behavioral longitudinal assessments of healthy women and PMDD patients at critical time points of the menstrual cycle phase (i.e., early follicular phase, late follicular phase, mid-luteal phase) in a counter-balanced setup. Studies integrating large-scale brain network structural, functional, and molecular neuroimaging, as well as treatment data, will deepen the understanding of neural state, disorder, and treatment markers.

  15. Human fear conditioning and extinction in neuroimaging: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Sehlmeyer

    Full Text Available Fear conditioning and extinction are basic forms of associative learning that have gained considerable clinical relevance in enhancing our understanding of anxiety disorders and facilitating their treatment. Modern neuroimaging techniques have significantly aided the identification of anatomical structures and networks involved in fear conditioning. On closer inspection, there is considerable variation in methodology and results between studies. This systematic review provides an overview of the current neuroimaging literature on fear conditioning and extinction on healthy subjects, taking into account methodological issues such as the conditioning paradigm. A Pubmed search, as of December 2008, was performed and supplemented by manual searches of bibliographies of key articles. Two independent reviewers made the final study selection and data extraction. A total of 46 studies on cued fear conditioning and/or extinction on healthy volunteers using positron emission tomography or functional magnetic resonance imaging were reviewed. The influence of specific experimental factors, such as contingency and timing parameters, assessment of conditioned responses, and characteristics of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli, on cerebral activation patterns was examined. Results were summarized descriptively. A network consisting of fear-related brain areas, such as amygdala, insula, and anterior cingulate cortex, is activated independently of design parameters. However, some neuroimaging studies do not report these findings in the presence of methodological heterogeneities. Furthermore, other brain areas are differentially activated, depending on specific design parameters. These include stronger hippocampal activation in trace conditioning and tactile stimulation. Furthermore, tactile unconditioned stimuli enhance activation of pain related, motor, and somatosensory areas. Differences concerning experimental factors may partly explain the variance

  16. Extracting novel information from neuroimaging data using neural fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinotsis Dimitris A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We showcase three case studies that illustrate how neural fields can be useful in the analysis of neuroimaging data. In particular, we argue that neural fields allow one to: (i compare evidences for alternative hypotheses regarding neurobiological determinants of stimulus-specific response variability; (ii make inferences about between subject variability in cortical function and microstructure using non-invasive data and (iii estimate spatial parameters describing cortical sources, even without spatially resolved data.

  17. Functional neuroimaging in Tourette syndrome:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debes, Nanette Marinette Monique Mol; Preel, Marie; Skov, Liselotte

    2017-01-01

    the presence of comorbidity, medical treatment, and severity of tics are considered in the various studies; most studies show that the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit seems to be involved in the generation of tics. Changes in this circuit seem to be correlated with tic severity. Correlations have been...... found between the presence of tics and hypermetabolism in various brain regions. Abnormalities of GABAergic, serotonergic, and dopaminergic neurotransmission in patients with TS have been suggested. During tic suppression, increased activity in the inferior frontal gyrus is seen. The premotor cortex...... might be involved in inhibition of motor control in subjects with TS. The right anterior insula is suggested to be a part of the urge–tic network. Several studies have shown altered motor network activations and sensorimotor gating deficits in subjects with TS. In future studies, inclusion of more well...

  18. Executive functioning shows differential maturation from early to late adolescence: longitudinal findings from a TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelema, Sarai R; Harakeh, Zeena; Ormel, Johan; Hartman, Catharina A; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; van Zandvoort, Martine J E

    2014-03-01

    Maturation of executive functioning (EF) is topical, especially in relation to adolescence, yet longitudinal research covering early and late adolescence is lacking. This, however, is a prerequisite for drawing conclusions on normal cognitive development, and understanding deviant maturation. The aim of this study is to longitudinally investigate 6 subcomponents of EF in early (mean age 11) and late adolescence (mean age 19) and to investigate the influence of sex and socioeconomic status (SES). We used data of the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS). A number of 2,217 participants carried out tasks of the Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks (ANT), measuring Focused Attention, Inhibition, Sustained Attention, Speed of Processing, Working Memory, and Shift Attention. Linear growth model with individual varying times of observation showed significant slopes for all 6 measures. Sex differences were found for the majority of the measures, where boys showed more maturation. Maturation was influenced by SES for Sustained Attention and Inhibition. Results show that significant maturation takes place for all the measured subcomponents over adolescence. Overall, girls show better baseline performance and smaller maturational rates, suggesting more mature skills in early adolescence. Maturation is only influenced by SES for Sustained Attention and Inhibition. Findings underline that for making statements about EF maturation in adolescence, it is essential to look at subcomponents. Furthermore, sex differences are an important factor when investing (ab)normal maturation of EF. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Cross-View Neuroimage Pattern Analysis for Alzheimer's Disease Staging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidong eLiu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The research on staging of pre-symptomatic and prodromal phase of neurological disorders, e.g., Alzheimer's disease (AD, is essential for prevention of dementia. New strategies for AD staging with a focus on early detection, are demanded to optimize potential efficacy of disease-modifying therapies that can halt or slow the disease progression. Recently, neuroimaging are increasingly used as additional research-based markers to detect AD onset and predict conversion of MCI and normal control (NC to AD. Researchers have proposed a variety of neuroimaging biomarkers to characterize the patterns of the pathology of AD and MCI, and suggested that multi-view neuroimaging biomarkers could lead to better performance than single-view biomarkers in AD staging. However, it is still unclear what leads to such synergy and how to preserve or maximize. In an attempt to answer these questions, we proposed a cross-view pattern analysis framework for investigating the synergy between different neuroimaging biomarkers. We quantitatively analyzed 9 types of biomarkers derived from FDG-PET and T1-MRI, and evaluated their performance in a task of classifying AD, MCI and NC subjects obtained from the ADNI baseline cohort. The experiment results showed that these biomarkers could depict the pathology of AD from different perspectives, and output distinct patterns that are significantly associated with the disease progression. Most importantly, we found that these features could be separated into clusters, each depicting a particular aspect; and the inter-cluster features could always achieve better performance than the intra-cluster features in AD staging.

  20. CATI: A Large Distributed Infrastructure for the Neuroimaging of Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Operto, Grégory; Chupin, Marie; Batrancourt, Bénédicte; Habert, Marie-Odile; Colliot, Olivier; Benali, Habib; Poupon, Cyril; Champseix, Catherine; Delmaire, Christine; Marie, Sullivan; Rivière, Denis; Pélégrini-Issac, Mélanie; Perlbarg, Vincent; Trebossen, Régine; Bottlaender, Michel; Frouin, Vincent; Grigis, Antoine; Orfanos, Dimitri Papadopoulos; Dary, Hugo; Fillon, Ludovic; Azouani, Chabha; Bouyahia, Ali; Fischer, Clara; Edward, Lydie; Bouin, Mathilde; Thoprakarn, Urielle; Li, Jinpeng; Makkaoui, Leila; Poret, Sylvain; Dufouil, Carole; Bouteloup, Vincent; Chételat, Gaël; Dubois, Bruno; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Mangin, Jean-François; Cointepas, Yann

    2016-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of CATI, a platform dedicated to multicenter neuroimaging. Initiated by the French Alzheimer's plan (2008-2012), CATI is a research project called on to provide service to other projects like an industrial partner. Its core mission is to support the neuroimaging of large populations, providing concrete solutions to the increasing complexity involved in such projects by bringing together a service infrastructure, the know-how of its expert academic teams and a large-scale, harmonized network of imaging facilities. CATI aims to make data sharing across studies easier and promotes sharing as much as possible. In the last 4 years, CATI has assisted the clinical community by taking charge of 35 projects so far and has emerged as a recognized actor at the national and international levels.

  1. Analysis of allergen immunotherapy studies shows increased clinical efficacy in highly symptomatic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howarth, P; Malling, Hans-Jørgen; Molimard, M

    2011-01-01

    To cite this article: Howarth P, Malling H-J, Molimard M, Devillier P. Analysis of allergen immunotherapy studies shows increased clinical efficacy in highly symptomatic patients. Allergy 2012; 67: 321-327. ABSTRACT: Background:  The assessment of allergen immunotherapy (AIT) efficacy...... them. Thus, clinical studies of AIT can neither establish baseline symptom levels nor limit the enrolment of patients to those with the most severe symptoms. Allergen immunotherapy treatment effects are therefore diluted by patients with low symptoms for a particular pollen season. The objective...... of this analysis was to assess the effect possible to achieve with AIT in the groups of patients presenting the most severe allergic symptoms. Methods:  Study centres were grouped into tertiles categorized according to symptom severity scores observed in the placebo patients in each centre (low, middle and high...

  2. A novel meta-analytic approach: mining frequent co-activation patterns in neuroimaging databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspers, Julian; Zilles, Karl; Beierle, Christoph; Rottschy, Claudia; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2014-04-15

    In recent years, coordinate-based meta-analyses have become a powerful and widely used tool to study co-activity across neuroimaging experiments, a development that was supported by the emergence of large-scale neuroimaging databases like BrainMap. However, the evaluation of co-activation patterns is constrained by the fact that previous coordinate-based meta-analysis techniques like Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) and Multilevel Kernel Density Analysis (MKDA) reveal all brain regions that show convergent activity within a dataset without taking into account actual within-experiment co-occurrence patterns. To overcome this issue we here propose a novel meta-analytic approach named PaMiNI that utilizes a combination of two well-established data-mining techniques, Gaussian mixture modeling and the Apriori algorithm. By this, PaMiNI enables a data-driven detection of frequent co-activation patterns within neuroimaging datasets. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated by means of several analyses on simulated data as well as a real application. The analyses of the simulated data show that PaMiNI identifies the brain regions underlying the simulated activation foci and perfectly separates the co-activation patterns of the experiments in the simulations. Furthermore, PaMiNI still yields good results when activation foci of distinct brain regions become closer together or if they are non-Gaussian distributed. For the further evaluation, a real dataset on working memory experiments is used, which was previously examined in an ALE meta-analysis and hence allows a cross-validation of both methods. In this latter analysis, PaMiNI revealed a fronto-parietal "core" network of working memory and furthermore indicates a left-lateralization in this network. Finally, to encourage a widespread usage of this new method, the PaMiNI approach was implemented into a publicly available software system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mathematical modeling and visualization of functional neuroimages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup

    This dissertation presents research results regarding mathematical modeling in the context of the analysis of functional neuroimages. Specifically, the research focuses on pattern-based analysis methods that recently have become popular within the neuroimaging community. Such methods attempt...... to predict or decode experimentally defined cognitive states based on brain scans. The topics covered in the dissertation are divided into two broad parts: The first part investigates the relative importance of model selection on the brain patterns extracted form analysis models. Typical neuroimaging data...... sets are characterized by relatively few data observations in a high dimensional space. The process of building models in such data sets often requires strong regularization. Often, the degree of model regularization is chosen in order to maximize prediction accuracy. We focus on the relative influence...

  4. Mathematical modeling and visualization of functional neuroimages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation presents research results regarding mathematical modeling in the context of the analysis of functional neuroimages. Specifically, the research focuses on pattern-based analysis methods that recently have become popular analysis tools within the neuroimaging community. Such methods...... attempt to predict or decode experimentally defined cognitive states based on brain scans. The topics covered in the dissertation are divided into two broad parts: The first part investigates the relative importance of model selection on the brain patterns extracted form analysis models. Typical...... neuroimaging data sets are characterized by relatively few data observations in a high dimensional space. The process of building models in such data sets often requires strong regularization. Often, the degree of model regularization is chosen in order to maximize prediction accuracy. We focus on the relative...

  5. Young adolescents with autism show abnormal joint attention network: A gaze contingent fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberwelland, E; Schilbach, L; Barisic, I; Krall, S C; Vogeley, K; Fink, G R; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B; Konrad, K; Schulte-Rüther, M

    2017-01-01

    Behavioral research has revealed deficits in the development of joint attention (JA) as one of the earliest signs of autism. While the neural basis of JA has been studied predominantly in adults, we recently demonstrated a protracted development of the brain networks supporting JA in typically developing children and adolescents. The present eye-tracking/fMRI study now extends these findings to adolescents with autism. Our results show that in adolescents with autism JA is subserved by abnormal activation patterns in brain areas related to social cognition abnormalities which are at the core of ASD including the STS and TPJ, despite behavioral maturation with no behavioral differences. Furthermore, in the autism group we observed increased neural activity in a network of social and emotional processing areas during interactions with their mother. Moreover, data indicated that less severely affected individuals with autism showed higher frontal activation associated with self-initiated interactions. Taken together, this study provides first-time data of JA in children/adolescents with autism incorporating the interactive character of JA, its reciprocity and motivational aspects. The observed functional differences in adolescents ASD suggest that persistent developmental differences in the neural processes underlying JA contribute to social interaction difficulties in ASD.

  6. Young adolescents with autism show abnormal joint attention network: A gaze contingent fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Oberwelland

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral research has revealed deficits in the development of joint attention (JA as one of the earliest signs of autism. While the neural basis of JA has been studied predominantly in adults, we recently demonstrated a protracted development of the brain networks supporting JA in typically developing children and adolescents. The present eye-tracking/fMRI study now extends these findings to adolescents with autism. Our results show that in adolescents with autism JA is subserved by abnormal activation patterns in brain areas related to social cognition abnormalities which are at the core of ASD including the STS and TPJ, despite behavioral maturation with no behavioral differences. Furthermore, in the autism group we observed increased neural activity in a network of social and emotional processing areas during interactions with their mother. Moreover, data indicated that less severely affected individuals with autism showed higher frontal activation associated with self-initiated interactions. Taken together, this study provides first-time data of JA in children/adolescents with autism incorporating the interactive character of JA, its reciprocity and motivational aspects. The observed functional differences in adolescents ASD suggest that persistent developmental differences in the neural processes underlying JA contribute to social interaction difficulties in ASD.

  7. Mycological study for a management plan of a neotropical show cave (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Linzi Silva Taylor

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Caves are stable environments with characteristics favoring the development of microorganisms. The allocthonous input of organic matter and microbes into the warm Neotropical caves may favor the development of filamentous fungi, including pathogenic species. Histoplasma capsulatum is a pathogenic species commonly found in caves and associated with bat and bird guano. Many Brazilian caves have been historically visited due to scenic and religious tourism. The objective of this study was to perform a microbiology study for a management plan of a show cave in Brazil, focusing on the presence and distribution of pathogenic and opportunistic fungi in the cave. Statistic analysis was used to verify the influence of touristic activity on airborne fungi spore load. Fungi were isolated from air and guano in Lapa Nova Cave. Samples were obtained through serial dilution, direct and settle plate techniques. For H. capsulatum, samples were incubated in specific media and conditions. Airborne fungal spore load was compared prior and during visitation and statistically analyzed. A total of 2,575 isolates from the genera Aspergillus, Calcarisporium, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Emericella, Eurotium, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gliocladium, Mucor, Purpureocillium, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Rhizopus and Trichoderma were identified. Histoplasma capsulatum was not isolated from the cave. Eleven opportunistic species were identified. Significant (p<0.05 variations on fungal richness in the air occurred due to cave visitation. Areas of potential microbiologic risks were indicated and management actions suggested. The results suggest a diverse community inhabiting the cave. Possible opportunistic species should be monitored in show caves and microbiota should always be included in the elaboration of cave management plans. This is the first detailed microbiologic study for a management plan of a show cave in the country. It provides relevant information for future

  8. Contesting the "Nature" Of Conformity: what Milgram and Zimbardo's studies really show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, S Alexander; Reicher, Stephen D

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of the psychology of tyranny is dominated by classic studies from the 1960s and 1970s: Milgram's research on obedience to authority and Zimbardo's Stanford Prison Experiment. Supporting popular notions of the banality of evil, this research has been taken to show that people conform passively and unthinkingly to both the instructions and the roles that authorities provide, however malevolent these may be. Recently, though, this consensus has been challenged by empirical work informed by social identity theorizing. This suggests that individuals' willingness to follow authorities is conditional on identification with the authority in question and an associated belief that the authority is right.

  9. Contesting the "Nature" Of Conformity: what Milgram and Zimbardo's studies really show.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Alexander Haslam

    Full Text Available Understanding of the psychology of tyranny is dominated by classic studies from the 1960s and 1970s: Milgram's research on obedience to authority and Zimbardo's Stanford Prison Experiment. Supporting popular notions of the banality of evil, this research has been taken to show that people conform passively and unthinkingly to both the instructions and the roles that authorities provide, however malevolent these may be. Recently, though, this consensus has been challenged by empirical work informed by social identity theorizing. This suggests that individuals' willingness to follow authorities is conditional on identification with the authority in question and an associated belief that the authority is right.

  10. Contesting the “Nature” Of Conformity: What Milgram and Zimbardo's Studies Really Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, S. Alexander; Reicher, Stephen. D.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of the psychology of tyranny is dominated by classic studies from the 1960s and 1970s: Milgram's research on obedience to authority and Zimbardo's Stanford Prison Experiment. Supporting popular notions of the banality of evil, this research has been taken to show that people conform passively and unthinkingly to both the instructions and the roles that authorities provide, however malevolent these may be. Recently, though, this consensus has been challenged by empirical work informed by social identity theorizing. This suggests that individuals' willingness to follow authorities is conditional on identification with the authority in question and an associated belief that the authority is right. PMID:23185132

  11. Federating distributed and heterogeneous information sources in neuroimaging: the NeuroBase Project.

    OpenAIRE

    Barillot, Christian; Benali, Habib; Dojat, Michel; Gaignard, Alban; Gibaud, Bernard; Kinkingnéhun, Serge; Matsumoto, Jean-Pierre; Pélégrini-Issac, Mélanie; Simon, Eric; Temal, Lynda

    2006-01-01

    The NeuroBase project aims at studying the requirements for federating, through the Internet, information sources in neuroimaging. These sources are distributed in different experimental sites, hospitals or research centers in cognitive neurosciences, and contain heterogeneous data and image processing programs. More precisely, this project consists in creating of a shared ontology, suitable for supporting various neuroimaging applications, and a computer architecture for accessing and sharin...

  12. Neuroimaging in pre-motor Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Barber

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease begins long before the onset of clinical motor symptoms, resulting in substantial cell loss by the time a diagnosis can be made. The period between the onset of neurodegeneration and the development of motoric disease would be the ideal time to intervene with disease modifying therapies. This pre-motor phase can last many years, but the lack of a specific clinical phenotype means that objective biomarkers are needed to reliably detect prodromal disease. In recent years, recognition that patients with REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD are at particularly high risk of future parkinsonism has enabled the development of large prodromal cohorts in which to investigate novel biomarkers, and neuroimaging has generated some of the most promising results to date. Here we review investigations undertaken in RBD and other pre-clinical cohorts, including modalities that are well established in clinical Parkinson's as well as novel imaging methods. Techniques such as high resolution MRI of the substantia nigra and functional imaging of Parkinsonian brain networks have great potential to facilitate early diagnosis. Further longitudinal studies will establish their true value in quantifying prodromal neurodegeneration and predicting future Parkinson's.

  13. A review of database management systems suitable for neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, B; Travere, J M; Mazoyer, B

    1999-06-01

    This study comprises a technical assessment of Database Management Systems (DBMS), which may be of use in the analysis of data obtained from human brain mapping procedures. Due to the large expansion of the neuroimaging field, the use of specialized database software to store and process neuroimages and their attached components is inevitable. The advent of multiple software products, a wealth of technical terms and a wide variety of other applications make the choice of a suitable program sometimes difficult. Through the inclusion of some basic and pertinent criteria (e.g., performance, ease of opening, standardization and portability), we present a descriptive comparison of 12 DBMSs currently available in the commercial and public domain. We have compared and tested three main architecture models which are currently available and assessed their potential applications for imaging purposes: relational, object-oriented, and hybrid. The findings of our study demonstrated that the Illustra software was the best suited for a neuroimaging environment because of its intrinsic ability to handle complex and large objects, such as 3D volumes or geometric structures.

  14. Cortical sensorimotor processing of painful pressure in patients with chronic lower back pain – An optical neuroimaging study using fNIRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Vrana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated sensorimotor processing of painful pressure stimulation on the lower back of patients with chronic lower back pain (CLBP by using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS to measure changes in cerebral hemodynamics and oxygenation. The main objectives were whether patients with CLBP show different relative changes in oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin (O2Hb and HHb in the supplementary motor area (SMA and primary somatosensory cortex (S1 compared to healthy controls (HC. Twelve patients with CLBP (32 ± 6.1 years; range: 24 – 44 years; 9 women and twenty HCs (33.5 ± 10.7 years; range 22-61 years; 8 women participated in the study. Painful and non-painful pressure stimulation was exerted with a thumb grip perpendicularly to the spinous process of the lumbar spine. A force sensor was attached at the spinous process in order control for pressure forces. Tactile stimulation was realized by a one-finger brushing. Hemodynamic changes in the SMA and S1 were measured bilaterally using a multi-channel continuous wave fNIRS imaging system and a multi-distant probe array. Patients with CLBP showed significant stimulus-evoked hemodynamic responses in O2Hb only in the right S1, while the healthy controls exhibited significant O2Hb changes bilaterally in both, SMA and S1. However, the group comparisons revealed no significant different hemodynamic responses in O2Hb and HHb in the SMA and S1 after both pressure stimulations. This non-significant result might be driven by the high inter-subject variability of hemodynamic responses that has been observed within the patients group. In conclusion, we could not find different stimulus-evoked hemodynamic responses in patients with CLBP compared to HCs. This indicates that neither S1 nor the SMA show a specificity for CLBP during pressure stimulation on the lower back. However, the results point to a potential subgrouping regarding task-related cortical activity within the CLBP group; a

  15. Looking at the brains behind figurative language--a quantitative meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies on metaphor, idiom, and irony processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrn, Isabel C; Altmann, Ulrike; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2012-09-01

    A quantitative, coordinate-based meta-analysis combined data from 354 participants across 22 fMRI studies and one positron emission tomography (PET) study to identify the differences in neural correlates of figurative and literal language processing, and to investigate the role of the right hemisphere (RH) in figurative language processing. Studies that reported peak activations in standard space contrasting figurative vs. literal language processing at whole brain level in healthy adults were included. The left and right IFG, large parts of the left temporal lobe, the bilateral medial frontal gyri (medFG) and an area around the left amygdala emerged for figurative language processing across studies. Conditions requiring exclusively literal language processing did not activate any selective regions in most of the cases, but if so they activated the cuneus/precuneus, right MFG and the right IPL. No general RH advantage for metaphor processing could be found. On the contrary, significant clusters of activation for metaphor conditions were mostly lateralized to the left hemisphere (LH). Subgroup comparisons between experiments on metaphors, idioms, and irony/sarcasm revealed shared activations in left frontotemporal regions for idiom and metaphor processing. Irony/sarcasm processing was correlated with activations in midline structures such as the medFG, ACC and cuneus/precuneus. To test the graded salience hypothesis (GSH, Giora, 1997), novel metaphors were contrasted against conventional metaphors. In line with the GSH, RH involvement was found for novel metaphors only. Here we show that more analytic, semantic processes are involved in metaphor comprehension, whereas irony/sarcasm comprehension involves theory of mind processes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cognitive and neuroimaging predictors of instrumental activities of daily living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahn-Weiner, Deborah A.; Farias, Sarah Tomaszewski; Julian, Laura; Harvey, Danielle J.; Kramer, Joel H.; Reed, Bruce R.; Mungas, Dan; Wetzel, Margaret; Chui, Helena

    2010-01-01

    Impaired ability to conduct daily activities is a diagnostic criterion for dementia and a determinant of healthcare services utilization and caregiver burden. What predicts decline in instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) is not well understood. This study examined measures of episodic memory, executive function, and MRI brain volumes in relation to baseline IADLs and as predictors of rate of IADL change. Participants were 124 elderly persons with cognitive function between normal and moderate dementia both with and without significant small vessel cerebrovascular disease. Random effects modeling showed that baseline memory and executive function (EXEC) were associated with baseline IADL scores, but only EXEC was independently associated with rate of change in IADLs. Whereas hippocampal and cortical gray matter volumes were significantly associated with baseline IADL scores, only hippocampal volume was associated with IADL change. In a model including cognitive and neuroimaging predictors, only EXEC independently predicted rate of decline in IADL scores. These findings indicate that greater executive dysfunction at initial assessment is associated with more rapid decline in IADLs. Perhaps executive function is particularly important with respect to maintaining IADLs. Alternatively, executive dysfunction may be a sentinel event indicating widespread cortical involvement and poor prognosis. PMID:17521485

  17. How does culture show? A case study of an international and interprofessional course in palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahor, Majda; Rasmussen, Birgit H

    2009-09-01

    Research shows slow improvement of the care of dying persons and their significant others. One of the reasons for that is the lack of palliative care education as an integral part of health professionals' undergraduate education. The paper discusses an attempt to develop innovative forms of palliative care education: an international, interprofessional and IT-supported undergraduate course for Swedish and Slovenian students of nursing, medicine, occupational therapy, physiotherapy, psychology and social work, which has been developed jointly by the two authors. One of the aims of the course has been to address differences in professional and national cultures relevant to quality in palliative care. The development and pilot implementation phases of the course were analysed qualitatively, using evaluation materials from students and teachers and from an external evaluation study. The results show that the interprofessional approach in the course enabled students to get to know other professions, as well as enabling them to work together as a team and resolve conflicts. Cultural differences between Sweden and Slovenia were not very pronounced, yet they came to the fore regarding teamwork and relationships between professions, as well as in respect of the "right thing" to do in relation to patient' problems.

  18. Resonant Dynamics of Grounded Cognition: Explanation of Behavioral and Neuroimaging Data Using the ART Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domijan, Dražen; Šetić, Mia

    2016-01-01

    Research on grounded cognition suggests that the processing of a word or concept reactivates the perceptual representations that are associated with the referent object. The objective of this work is to demonstrate how behavioral and functional neuroimaging data on grounded cognition can be understood as different manifestations of the same cortical circuit designed to achieve stable category learning, as proposed by the adaptive resonance theory (ART). We showed that the ART neural network provides a mechanistic explanation of why reaction times in behavioral studies depend on the expectation or attentional priming created by the word meaning (Richter and Zwaan, 2009). A mismatch between top-down expectation and bottom-up sensory data activates an orienting subsystem that slows execution of the current task. Furthermore, we simulated the data from functional neuroimaging studies of color knowledge retrieval that showed anterior shift (Chao and Martin, 1999; Thompson-Schill, 2003) and an overlap effect (Simmons et al., 2007; Hsu et al., 2011) in the left fusiform gyrus. We explain the anterior effect as a result of the partial activation of different components of the same ART circuit in the condition of passive viewing. Conversely, a demanding perceptual task requires activation of the whole ART circuit. This condition is reflected in the fMRI image as an overlap between cortical activation during perceptual and conceptual processing. We conclude that the ART neural network is able to explain how the brain grounds symbols in perception via perceptual simulation.

  19. Resonant Dynamics of Grounded Cognition: Explanation of Behavioral and Neuroimaging Data Using the ART Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen eDomijan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on grounded cognition suggests that the processing of a word or concept reactivates the perceptual representations that are associated with the referent object. The objective of this work is to demonstrate how behavioral and functional neuroimaging data on grounded cognition can be understood as different manifestations of the same cortical circuit designed to achieve stable category learning, as proposed by the adaptive resonance theory (ART. We showed that the ART neural network provides a mechanistic explanation of why reaction times in behavioral studies depend on the expectation or attentional priming created by the word meaning (Richter & Zwaan, 2009. A mismatch between top-down expectation and bottom-up sensory data activates an orienting subsystem that slows execution of the current task. Furthermore, we simulated the data from functional neuroimaging studies of color knowledge retrieval that showed anterior shift (Chao & Martin, 1999; Thompson-Schill, 2003 and an overlap effect (Hsu et al., 2011; Simmons et al., 2007 in the left fusiform gyrus. We explain the anterior effect as a result of the partial activation of different components of the same ART circuit in the condition of passive viewing. Conversely, a demanding perceptual task requires activation of the whole ART circuit. This condition is reflected in the fMRI image as an overlap between cortical activation during perceptual and conceptual processing. We conclude that the ART neural network is able to explain how the brain grounds symbols in perception via perceptual simulation.

  20. A qualitative study showing women's participation and empowerment in instrumental vaginal births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjödin, Marie; Rådestad, Ingela; Zwedberg, Sofia

    2017-09-21

    An instrumental birth with a ventouse or forceps is a complicated birth, possibly resulting in fear of childbirth which could influence the entire birth experience negatively. Patients who are actively involved in their care have a stronger sense of satisfaction and a sense of participation can contribute to shorter hospital stays. To describe the experience of participation for women involved in an instrumental delivery with ventouse or forceps. Qualitative semi-structured interviews with 16 women who gave birth aided by a ventouse or forceps. Their answers were analyzed through qualitative content analysis. In addition the women were asked to evaluate their experience during the delivery. Using a numerical scale (NRS) the birth experience was graded by choosing a number between 0 (worst possible experience) and 10 (best conceivable experience). Two themes were extracted from the data: To be part of a team and To feel empowered. Five categories were identified from the women's descriptions of the experience of involvement during the instrumental delivery: to cooperate; to understand; to have contact; to participate, and to not be involved. Those women who rated their experience as low grade, described a lack of involvement in their childbirth compared to those women who rated their experience as high. This study shows how cooperation and empowerment of the woman are two key factors in order for the women to have a positive experience of their instrumental vaginal births. The study also shows that empowerment is created when the woman is actively engaged and participates in the birth process which gives her the feeling of being part of the team, creating an environment based on mutual understanding. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The impact of hearing aids and age-related hearing loss on auditory plasticity across three months - An electrical neuroimaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroud, Nathalie; Lemke, Ulrike; Reich, Philip; Matthes, Katarina L; Meyer, Martin

    2017-09-01

    The present study investigates behavioral and electrophysiological auditory and cognitive-related plasticity in three groups of healthy older adults (60-77 years). Group 1 was moderately hearing-impaired, experienced hearing aid users, and fitted with new hearing aids using non-linear frequency compression (NLFC on); Group 2, also moderately hearing-impaired, used the same type of hearing aids but NLFC was switched off during the entire period of study duration (NLFC off); Group 3 represented individuals with age-appropriate hearing (NHO) as controls, who were not different in IQ, gender, or age from Group 1 and 2. At five measurement time points (M1-M5) across three months, a series of active oddball tasks were administered while EEG was recorded. The stimuli comprised syllables consisting of naturally high-pitched fricatives (/sh/, /s/, and /f/), which are hard to distinguish for individuals with presbycusis. By applying a data-driven microstate approach to obtain global field power (GFP) as a measure of processing effort, the modulations of perceptual (P50, N1, P2) and cognitive-related (N2b, P3b) auditory evoked potentials were calculated and subsequently related to behavioral changes (accuracy and reaction time) across time. All groups improved their performance across time, but NHO showed consistently higher accuracy and faster reaction times than the hearing-impaired groups, especially under difficult conditions. Electrophysiological results complemented this finding by demonstrating longer latencies in the P50 and the N1 peak in hearing aid users. Furthermore, the GFP of cognitive-related evoked potentials decreased from M1 to M2 in the NHO group, while a comparable decrease in the hearing-impaired group was only evident at M5. After twelve weeks of hearing aid use of eight hours each day, we found a significantly lower GFP in the P3b of the group with NLFC on as compared to the group with NLFC off. These findings suggest higher processing effort, as

  2. Cognitive Impairment and Structural Neuroimaging Abnormalities Among Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Chen Pi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Cognitive impairment and abnormal structural neuroimaging is common in chronic kidney disease patients. We aimed to explore its association with dialysis modality and the relationship between cognitive impairment and abnormal structural neuroimaging. Methods: Sixty peritoneal dialysis patients and 30 hemodialysis and 30 non-dialyzed stage 3-5 chronic kidney disease patients without history of stroke were enrolled for the study. Participants were matched for age, gender, education, diabetes status, and dialysis duration (if appropriate. Cognitive functions were measured using a battery of recognized instruments. Brain features were examined with 3-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Cognitive impairment was significantly more severe in dialysis patients than in non-dialyzed patients. The global and specific cognitive function were not significantly different between patients on peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis. Hemodialysis patients had more severe white matter hyperintensity, sulcal and ventricular atrophy, and SVIs than other patients. In all groups, higher white matter grade, ventricular grade, and hippocampal atrophy were significantly associated with global cognitive impairment, with hazard ratios of 1.80 (1.22-2.64, 1.67 (1.09-2.57, and 2.49 (1.07-5.77, respectively. White matter grade was also significantly associated with delayed memory (hazard ratio 1.63; 1.12-2.39. Conclusion: Dialysis modality showed no association with cognitive impairment, although hemodialysis patients had more severe neuroimaging abnormalities. For the whole group, white matter hyperintensity, and ventricular and hippocampal atrophy, were independently associated with global cognitive impairment in chronic kidney disease patients.

  3. Yield of emergent neuroimaging in children with new-onset seizure and status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Todd W; Johnson, Kara B; Michelson, Kenneth A; Nigrovic, Lise E; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Prabhu, Sanjay P; Kimia, Amir A

    2016-02-01

    To determine the yield of emergent neuroimaging among children with new-onset seizures presenting with status epilepticus. We performed a cross-sectional study of children seen at a single ED between 1995 and 2012 with new-onset seizure presenting with status epilepticus. We defined status epilepticus as a single seizure or multiple seizures without regaining consciousness lasting 30 min or longer. Our primary outcome was urgent or emergent intracranial pathology identified on neuroimaging. We categorized neuroimaging results as emergent if they would have changed acute management as assessed by a blinded neuroradiologist and neurologist. To ensure abnormalities were not missed, we review neuroimaging results for 30 days following the initial episode of SE. We included 177 children presenting with new-onset seizure with status epilepticus, of whom 170 (96%) had neuroimaging performed. Abnormal findings were identified on neuroimaging in 64/177 (36%, 95% confidence interval 29-43%) children with 15 (8.5%, 95% confidence interval 5.2-14%) children having urgent or emergent pathology. Four (27%) of the 15 children with urgent or emergent findings had a normal non-contrast computed tomography scan and a subsequently abnormal magnetic resonance image. Longer seizure duration and older age were associated with urgent or emergent intracranial pathology. A substantial minority of children with new-onset seizures presenting with status epilepticus have urgent or emergent intracranial pathology identified on neuroimaging. Clinicians should strongly consider emergent neuroimaging in these children. Magnetic resonance imaging is the preferred imaging modality when available and safe. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Material rhetoric: spreading stones and showing bones in the study of prehistory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Reybrouck, David; de Bont, Raf; Rock, Jan

    2009-06-01

    Since the linguistic turn, the role of rhetoric in the circulation and the popular representation of knowledge has been widely accepted in science studies. This article aims to analyze not a textual form of scientific rhetoric, but the crucial role of materiality in scientific debates. It introduces the concept of material rhetoric to understand the promotional regimes in which material objects play an essential argumentative role. It analyzes the phenomenon by looking at two students of prehistory from nineteenth-century Belgium. In the study of human prehistory and evolution, material data are either fairly abundant stone tools or very scarce fossil bones. These two types of material data stand for two different strategies in material rhetoric. In this article, the first strategy is exemplified by Aimé Rutot, who gathered great masses of eoliths (crudely chipped stones which he believed to be prehistoric tools). The second strategy is typified by the example of Julien Fraipont, who based his scientific career on only two Neanderthal skeletons. Rutot sent his "artifacts" to a very wide audience, while Fraipont showed his skeletons to only a few selected scholars. Unlike Rutot, however, Fraipont was able to monitor his audience's interpretation of the finds by means of personal contacts. What an archaeologist gains in reach, he or she apparently loses in control. In this article we argue that only those scholars who find the right balance between the extremes of reach and control will prove to be successful.

  5. Answer and discussion paediatric neuroimaging quiz case

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-30

    Jun 30, 2016 ... Dr Samuel Mannikam, Dr Thandi Buthelezi, Dr Philip Janse van Rensburg and Dr Ian. Haynes, however, the prize of R2000 was awarded to Dr Richard Busayo Ulatunji for the most inclusive answer. Answer and discussion paediatric neuroimaging quiz case. Read online: Scan this QR code with your.

  6. Online open neuroimaging mass meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Kempton, Matthew J.; Williams, Steven C. R.

    We describe a system for meta-analysis where a wiki stores numerical data in a simple format and a web service performs the numerical computation. We initially apply the system on multiple meta-analyses of structural neuroimaging data results. The described system allows for mass meta-analysis, e...

  7. Visual Systems for Interactive Exploration and Mining of Large-Scale Neuroimaging Data Archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian eBowman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available While technological advancements in neuroimaging scanner engineering have improved the efficiency of data acquisition, electronic data capture methods will likewise significantly expedite the population of large-scale neuroimaging databases. As they do, a particular challenge lies in examining and interacting with the information these resources contain through the development of compelling, user-driven approaches for data exploration and mining. In this article, we introduce the Informatics Visualization for Neuroimaging (INVIZIAN program for the graphical rendering of and dynamic interaction with the contents of large-scale neuroimaging data sets. We describe the rationale behind INVIZIAN, describe its development, and demonstrate its use to examine a collection of over 900 T1-anatomical MRI image volumes from across a diverse set of clinical neuroimaging studies and drawn from a leading neuroimaging database. Using a collection of cortical surface metrics and means for examining brain similarity, INVIZIAN graphically displays brain surfaces as points in a coordinate space and enables classification of clusters of neuroanatomically similar MRI images and data mining. As an initial step toward addressing the need for such user-friendly tools, INVIZIAN provides a highly unique means to interact with large quantities of electronic brain imaging archives in ways suitable for hypothesis generation and data mining.

  8. Current Practice in the Referral of Individuals with Suspected Dementia for Neuroimaging by General Practitioners in Ireland and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciblis, Aurelia S.; Butler, Marie-Louise; Quinn, Catherine; Clare, Linda; Bokde, Arun L. W.; Mullins, Paul G.; McNulty, Jonathan P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives While early diagnosis of dementia is important, the question arises whether general practitioners (GPs) should engage in direct referrals. The current study investigated current referral practices for neuroimaging in dementia, access to imaging modalities and investigated related GP training in Ireland and North Wales. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to GPs in the programme regions which included approximately two thirds of all GPs in the Republic of Ireland and all general practitioners in North Wales. A total of 2,093 questionnaires were issued. Results 48.6% of Irish respondents and 24.3% of Welsh respondents directly referred patients with suspected dementia for neuroimaging. Irish GPs reported greater direct access to neuroimaging than their Welsh counterparts. A very small percentage of Irish and Welsh GPs (4.7% and 10% respectively) had received training in neuroimaging and the majority who referred patients for neuroimaging were not aware of any dementia-specific protocols for referrals (93.1% and 95% respectively). Conclusions The benefits of direct GP access to neuroimaging investigations for dementia have yet to be established. Our findings suggest that current GP speciality training in Ireland and Wales is deficient in dementia-specific and neuroimaging training with the concern being that inadequate training will lead to inadequate referrals. Further training would complement guidelines and provide a greater understanding of the role and appropriateness of neuroimaging techniques in the diagnosis of dementia. PMID:27007435

  9. Current Practice in the Referral of Individuals with Suspected Dementia for Neuroimaging by General Practitioners in Ireland and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciblis, Aurelia S; Butler, Marie-Louise; Quinn, Catherine; Clare, Linda; Bokde, Arun L W; Mullins, Paul G; McNulty, Jonathan P

    2016-01-01

    While early diagnosis of dementia is important, the question arises whether general practitioners (GPs) should engage in direct referrals. The current study investigated current referral practices for neuroimaging in dementia, access to imaging modalities and investigated related GP training in Ireland and North Wales. A questionnaire was distributed to GPs in the programme regions which included approximately two thirds of all GPs in the Republic of Ireland and all general practitioners in North Wales. A total of 2,093 questionnaires were issued. 48.6% of Irish respondents and 24.3% of Welsh respondents directly referred patients with suspected dementia for neuroimaging. Irish GPs reported greater direct access to neuroimaging than their Welsh counterparts. A very small percentage of Irish and Welsh GPs (4.7% and 10% respectively) had received training in neuroimaging and the majority who referred patients for neuroimaging were not aware of any dementia-specific protocols for referrals (93.1% and 95% respectively). The benefits of direct GP access to neuroimaging investigations for dementia have yet to be established. Our findings suggest that current GP speciality training in Ireland and Wales is deficient in dementia-specific and neuroimaging training with the concern being that inadequate training will lead to inadequate referrals. Further training would complement guidelines and provide a greater understanding of the role and appropriateness of neuroimaging techniques in the diagnosis of dementia.

  10. Neuroimaging Biomarkers of a History of Concussion Observed in Asymptomatic Young Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Catherine A; Albaugh, Matthew D; Watts, Richard; Garavan, Hugh; Andrews, Trevor; Nickerson, Joshua P; Gonyea, Jay; Hipko, Scott; Zweber, Cole; Logan, Katherine; Hudziak, James J

    2016-05-01

    Participation in contact sports places athletes at elevated risk for repeated head injuries and is associated with negative mental health outcomes later in life. The current study identified changes observable on neuroimaging that persisted beyond the apparent resolution of acute symptoms of concussion. Sixteen young adult ice hockey players with a remote history of concussion but no subjective complaints were compared against 13 of their teammates with no history of concussion. Participants completed a detailed phenotypic assessment and a neuroimaging battery including diffusion kurtosis imaging and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Athletes with a history of concussion performed no differently from those without on phenotypic assessment, but showed significantly elevated fractional anisotropy (FA) in the left genu and anterior corona radiata relative to those without. Post hoc analyses revealed that elevated FA was associated with increased microstructural complexity perpendicular to the primary axon (radial kurtosis). Athletes with concussion history also showed significant differences in the organization of the default mode network (DMN) characterized by stronger temporal coherence in posterior DMN, decreased temporal coherence in anterior DMN, and increased functional connectivity outside the DMN. In the absence of deficits on detailed phenotypic assessment, athletes with a history of concussion displayed changes to the microstructural architecture of the cerebral white matter and to the functional connectivity of the brain at rest. Some of these changes are consistent with those previously associated with persisting deficits and complaints, but we also report novel, complementary changes that possibly represent compensatory mechanisms.

  11. Effects of the South American psychoactive beverage ayahuasca on regional brain electrical activity in humans: a functional neuroimaging study using low-resolution electromagnetic tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riba, Jordi; Anderer, Peter; Jané, Francesc; Saletu, Bernd; Barbanoj, Manel J

    2004-01-01

    Ayahuasca, a South American psychotropic plant tea obtained from Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis, combines monoamine oxidase-inhibiting beta-carboline alkaloids with N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), a psychedelic agent showing 5-HT(2A) agonist activity. In a clinical research setting, ayahuasca has demonstrated a combined stimulatory and psychedelic effect profile, as measured by subjective effect self-assessment instruments and dose-dependent changes in spontaneous brain electrical activity, which parallel the time course of subjective effects. In the present study, the spatial distribution of ayahuasca-induced changes in brain electrical activity was investigated by means of low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). Electroencephalography recordings were obtained from 18 volunteers after the administration of a dose of encapsulated freeze-dried ayahuasca containing 0.85 mg DMT/kg body weight and placebo. The intracerebral power density distribution was computed with LORETA from spectrally analyzed data, and subjective effects were measured by means of the Hallucinogen Rating Scale (HRS). Statistically significant differences compared to placebo were observed for LORETA power 60 and 90 min after dosing, together with increases in all six scales of the HRS. Ayahuasca decreased power density in the alpha-2, delta, theta and beta-1 frequency bands. Power decreases in the delta, alpha-2 and beta-1 bands were found predominantly over the temporo-parieto-occipital junction, whereas theta power was reduced in the temporomedial cortex and in frontomedial regions. The present results suggest the involvement of unimodal and heteromodal association cortex and limbic structures in the psychological effects elicited by ayahuasca. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  12. Mitochondrial DNA studies show asymmetrical Amerindian admixture in Afro-Colombian and Mestizo populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodas, Clemencia; Gelvez, Nancy; Keyeux, Genoveva

    2003-02-01

    The origin of the African populations that arrived on the Colombian coasts at the time of the Spanish conquest and their subsequent settlement throughout the country and interaction with Amerindian and Spanish populations are features that can be analyzed through the study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers. For this purpose, the present study investigates the admixture between these populations by analyzing the markers defining the main (A, B, C, D) and minor (X) founder haplogroups in Native Americans, the principal African haplogroup (L), and additional generic markers present in Caucasian (I, J, K, H, T, U, V, W) and minor African lineages (L3). As part of an interdisciplinary research program (the Expedición Humana, furthered by the Universidad Javeriana and directed by J.E. Bernal V.), 159 Afro-Colombians from five populations in which they are the majority and 91 urban Mestizos were studied. No Amerindian haplogroups (A-D, X) were detected in 81% of the Afro-Colombians. In those samples with Amerindian lineages (average 18.8%, with a range from 10% to 43%), haplogroup B predominated. When analyzed for the presence of African haplotypes, Afro-Colombians showed an overall frequency of 35.8% for haplogroup L mtDNAs, although with broad differences between populations. A few Afro-Colombian samples (1.9%) had mutations that have not been described before, and might therefore be considered as previously unsampled African variants or as new mutations arising in the American continent. Conversely, in Mestizos less than 22% of their mtDNAs belonged to non-Amerindian lineages, of which most were likely to be West Eurasian in origin. Haplogroup L mtDNAs were found in only one Mestizo (1.1%), indicating that, if present, admixture with African women would bring in other, rarer African lineages. On the other hand, in an accompanying paper (Keyeux et al. 2002) we have shown that Amerindians from Colombia have experienced little or no matrilineal admixture with

  13. A Bayesian spatial model for neuroimaging data based on biologically informed basis functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Ismael; Oldehinkel, Marianne; van Oort, Erik S B; Garcia-Solis, David; Mir, Pablo; Beckmann, Christian F; Marquand, Andre F

    2017-11-01

    The dominant approach to neuroimaging data analysis employs the voxel as the unit of computation. While convenient, voxels lack biological meaning and their size is arbitrarily determined by the resolution of the image. Here, we propose a multivariate spatial model in which neuroimaging data are characterised as a linearly weighted combination of multiscale basis functions which map onto underlying brain nuclei or networks or nuclei. In this model, the elementary building blocks are derived to reflect the functional anatomy of the brain during the resting state. This model is estimated using a Bayesian framework which accurately quantifies uncertainty and automatically finds the most accurate and parsimonious combination of basis functions describing the data. We demonstrate the utility of this framework by predicting quantitative SPECT images of striatal dopamine function and we compare a variety of basis sets including generic isotropic functions, anatomical representations of the striatum derived from structural MRI, and two different soft functional parcellations of the striatum derived from resting-state fMRI (rfMRI). We found that a combination of ∼50 multiscale functional basis functions accurately represented the striatal dopamine activity, and that functional basis functions derived from an advanced parcellation technique known as Instantaneous Connectivity Parcellation (ICP) provided the most parsimonious models of dopamine function. Importantly, functional basis functions derived from resting fMRI were more accurate than both structural and generic basis sets in representing dopamine function in the striatum for a fixed model order. We demonstrate the translational validity of our framework by constructing classification models for discriminating parkinsonian disorders and their subtypes. Here, we show that ICP approach is the only basis set that performs well across all comparisons and performs better overall than the classical voxel-based approach

  14. Complement activation in leprosy: a retrospective study shows elevated circulating terminal complement complex in reactional leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahia El Idrissi, N; Hakobyan, S; Ramaglia, V; Geluk, A; Morgan, B Paul; Das, P Kumar; Baas, F

    2016-06-01

    Mycobacterium leprae infection gives rise to the immunologically and histopathologically classified spectrum of leprosy. At present, several tools for the stratification of patients are based on acquired immunity markers. However, the role of innate immunity, particularly the complement system, is largely unexplored. The present retrospective study was undertaken to explore whether the systemic levels of complement activation components and regulators can stratify leprosy patients, particularly in reference to the reactional state of the disease. Serum samples from two cohorts were analysed. The cohort from Bangladesh included multi-bacillary (MB) patients with (n = 12) or without (n = 46) reaction (R) at intake and endemic controls (n = 20). The cohort from Ethiopia included pauci-bacillary (PB) (n = 7) and MB (n = 23) patients without reaction and MB (n = 15) patients with reaction. The results showed that the activation products terminal complement complex (TCC) (P ≤ 0·01), C4d (P ≤ 0·05) and iC3b (P ≤ 0·05) were specifically elevated in Bangladeshi patients with reaction at intake compared to endemic controls. In addition, levels of the regulator clusterin (P ≤ 0·001 without R; P < 0·05 with R) were also elevated in MB patients, irrespective of a reaction. Similar analysis of the Ethiopian cohort confirmed that, irrespective of a reaction, serum TCC levels were increased significantly in patients with reactions compared to patients without reactions (P ≤ 0·05). Our findings suggests that serum TCC levels may prove to be a valuable tool in diagnosing patients at risk of developing reactions. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  15. Neuroimaging to Investigate Multisystem Involvement and Provide Biomarkers in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-François Pradat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging allows investigating the extent of neurological systems degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Advanced MRI methods can detect changes related to the degeneration of upper motor neurons but have also demonstrated the participation of other systems such as the sensory system or basal ganglia, demonstrating in vivo that ALS is a multisystem disorder. Structural and functional imaging also allows studying dysfunction of brain areas associated with cognitive signs. From a biomarker perspective, numerous studies using diffusion tensor imaging showed a decrease of fractional anisotropy in the intracranial portion of the corticospinal tract but its diagnostic value at the individual level remains limited. A multiparametric approach will be required to use MRI in the diagnostic workup of ALS. A promising avenue is the new methodological developments of spinal cord imaging that has the advantage to investigate the two motor system components that are involved in ALS, that is, the lower and upper motor neuron. For all neuroimaging modalities, due to the intrinsic heterogeneity of ALS, larger pooled banks of images with standardized image acquisition and analysis procedures are needed. In this paper, we will review the main findings obtained with MRI, PET, SPECT, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in ALS.

  16. Neuroimaging to Investigate Multisystem Involvement and Provide Biomarkers in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradat, Pierre-François; El Mendili, Mohamed-Mounir

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging allows investigating the extent of neurological systems degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Advanced MRI methods can detect changes related to the degeneration of upper motor neurons but have also demonstrated the participation of other systems such as the sensory system or basal ganglia, demonstrating in vivo that ALS is a multisystem disorder. Structural and functional imaging also allows studying dysfunction of brain areas associated with cognitive signs. From a biomarker perspective, numerous studies using diffusion tensor imaging showed a decrease of fractional anisotropy in the intracranial portion of the corticospinal tract but its diagnostic value at the individual level remains limited. A multiparametric approach will be required to use MRI in the diagnostic workup of ALS. A promising avenue is the new methodological developments of spinal cord imaging that has the advantage to investigate the two motor system components that are involved in ALS, that is, the lower and upper motor neuron. For all neuroimaging modalities, due to the intrinsic heterogeneity of ALS, larger pooled banks of images with standardized image acquisition and analysis procedures are needed. In this paper, we will review the main findings obtained with MRI, PET, SPECT, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in ALS. PMID:24949452

  17. Neuroimaging characteristics of dementia with Lewy bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This review summarises the findings and applications from neuroimaging studies in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), highlighting key differences between DLB and other subtypes of dementia. We also discuss the increasingly important role of imaging biomarkers in differential diagnosis and outline promising areas for future research in DLB. DLB shares common clinical, neuropsychological and pathological features with Parkinson’s disease dementia and other dementia subtypes, such as Alzheimer’s disease. Despite the development of consensus diagnostic criteria, the sensitivity for differential diagnosis of DLB in clinical practice remains low and many DLB patients will be misdiagnosed. The importance of developing accurate imaging markers in dementia is highlighted by the potential for treatments targeting specific molecular abnormalities as well as the responsiveness to cholinesterase inhibitors and marked neuroleptic sensitivity of DLB. We review various brain imaging techniques that have been applied to investigate DLB, including the characteristic nigrostriatal degeneration in DLB using positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) tracers. Dopamine transporter loss has proven to reliably differentiate DLB from other dementias and has been incorporated into the revised clinical diagnostic criteria for DLB. To date, this remains the 'gold standard' for diagnostic imaging of DLB. Regional cerebral blood flow, 18 F-fluorodeoxygluclose-PET and SPECT have also identified marked deficits in the occipital regions with relative sparing of the medial temporal lobe when compared to Alzheimer’s disease. In addition, structural, diffusion, and functional magnetic resonance imaging techniques have shown alterations in structure, white matter integrity, and functional activity in DLB. We argue that the multimodal identification of DLB-specific biomarkers has the potential to improve ante-mortem diagnosis and contribute to our

  18. Shift Invariant Multi-linear Decomposition of Neuroimaging Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Hansen, Lars Kai; Arnfred, Sidse M.

    2008-01-01

    with a fixed time course that may vary across either trials or space in its overall intensity and latency. Its utility is demonstrated on simulated data as well as actual EEG, and fMRI data. We show how shift-invariant multilinear decompositions of multiway data can successfully cope with variable latencies...... in data derived from neural activity--a problem that has caused degenerate solutions especially in modeling neuroimaging data with instantaneous multilinear decompositions. Our algorithm is available for download at www.erpwavelab.org....

  19. Accelerating Neuroimage Registration through Parallel Computation of Similarity Metric.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Gang Luo

    Full Text Available Neuroimage registration is crucial for brain morphometric analysis and treatment efficacy evaluation. However, existing advanced registration algorithms such as FLIRT and ANTs are not efficient enough for clinical use. In this paper, a GPU implementation of FLIRT with the correlation ratio (CR as the similarity metric and a GPU accelerated correlation coefficient (CC calculation for the symmetric diffeomorphic registration of ANTs have been developed. The comparison with their corresponding original tools shows that our accelerated algorithms can greatly outperform the original algorithm in terms of computational efficiency. This paper demonstrates the great potential of applying these registration tools in clinical applications.

  20. Neuromarketing: the hope and hype of neuroimaging in business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariely, Dan; Berns, Gregory S

    2010-04-01

    The application of neuroimaging methods to product marketing - neuromarketing - has recently gained considerable popularity. We propose that there are two main reasons for this trend. First, the possibility that neuroimaging will become cheaper and faster than other marketing methods; and second, the hope that neuroimaging will provide marketers with information that is not obtainable through conventional marketing methods. Although neuroimaging is unlikely to be cheaper than other tools in the near future, there is growing evidence that it may provide hidden information about the consumer experience. The most promising application of neuroimaging methods to marketing may come before a product is even released - when it is just an idea being developed.

  1. A map of the human neocortex showing the estimated overall myelin content of the individual architectonic areas based on the studies of Adolf Hopf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuys, Rudolf; Broere, Cees A J

    2017-01-01

    During the period extending from 1910 to 1970, Oscar and Cécile Vogt and their numerous collaborators published a large number of myeloarchitectonic studies on the cortex of the various lobes of the human cerebrum. In a previous publication [Nieuwenhuys et al (Brain Struct Funct 220:2551-2573, 2015; Erratum in Brain Struct Funct 220: 3753-3755, 2015)], we used the data provided by the Vogt-Vogt school for the composition of a myeloarchitectonic map of the entire human neocortex. Because these data were derived from many different brains, a standard brain had to be introduced to which all data available could be transferred. As such the Colin 27 structural scan, aligned to the MNI305 template was selected. The resultant map includes 180 myeloarchitectonic areas, 64 frontal, 30 parietal, 6 insular, 17 occipital and 63 temporal. Here we present a supplementary map in which the overall density of the myelinated fibers in the individual architectonic areas is indicated, based on a meta-analysis of data provided by Adolf Hopf, a prominent collaborator of the Vogts. This map shows that the primary sensory and motor regions are densely myelinated and that, in general, myelination decreases stepwise with the distance from these primary regions. The map also reveals the presence of a number of heavily myelinated formations, situated beyond the primary sensory and motor domains, each consisting of two or more myeloarchitectonic areas. These formations were provisionally designated as the orbitofrontal, intraparietal, posterolateral temporal, and basal temporal dark clusters. Recently published MRI-based in vivo myelin content mappings show, with regard to the primary sensory and motor regions, a striking concordance with our map. As regards the heavily myelinated clusters shown by our map, scrutiny of the current literature revealed that correlates of all of these clusters have been identified in in vivo structural MRI studies and appear to correspond either entirely or

  2. Looking at the Brains behind Figurative Language--A Quantitative Meta-Analysis of Neuroimaging Studies on Metaphor, Idiom, and Irony Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrn, Isabel C.; Altmann, Ulrike; Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2012-01-01

    A quantitative, coordinate-based meta-analysis combined data from 354 participants across 22 fMRI studies and one positron emission tomography (PET) study to identify the differences in neural correlates of figurative and literal language processing, and to investigate the role of the right hemisphere (RH) in figurative language processing.…

  3. Autism Spectrum Disorder: Does Neuroimaging Support the DSM-5 Proposal for a Symptom Dyad? A Systematic Review of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Diffusion Tensor Imaging Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina-Camacho, Laura; Villero, Sonia; Fraguas, David; Boada, Leticia; Janssen, Joost; Navas-Sanchez, Francisco J.; Mayoral, Maria; Llorente, Cloe; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review of 208 studies comprising functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging data in patients with "autism spectrum disorder" (ASD) was conducted, in order to determine whether these data support the forthcoming DSM-5 proposal of a social communication and behavioral symptom dyad. Studies consistently reported…

  4. Sauerbraten, Rotkappchen und Goethe: The Quiz Show as an Introduction to German Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Diane

    1980-01-01

    Proposes an adaptation of the quiz-show format for classroom use, discussing a set of rules and sample questions designed for beginning and intermediate German students. Presents questions based on German life and culture which are especially selected to encourage participation from students majoring in subjects other than German. (MES)

  5. Studying the Effect of a Competitive Game Show in a Learning by Teaching Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Noboru; Yarzebinski, Evelyn; Keiser, Victoria; Raizada, Rohan; Stylianides, Gabriel J.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate how competition among tutees in the context of learning by teaching affects tutors' engagement as well as tutor learning. We conducted this investigation by incorporating a competitive Game Show feature into an online learning environment where students learn to solve algebraic equations by teaching a synthetic…

  6. Individual differences in cognition, affect, and performance: behavioral, neuroimaging, and molecular genetic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasuraman, Raja; Jiang, Yang

    2012-01-02

    We describe the use of behavioral, neuroimaging, and genetic methods to examine individual differences in cognition and affect, guided by three criteria: (1) relevance to human performance in work and everyday settings; (2) interactions between working memory, decision-making, and affective processing; and (3) examination of individual differences. The results of behavioral, functional MRI (fMRI), event-related potential (ERP), and molecular genetic studies show that analyses at the group level often mask important findings associated with sub-groups of individuals. Dopaminergic/noradrenergic genes influencing prefrontal cortex activity contribute to inter-individual variation in working memory and decision behavior, including performance in complex simulations of military decision-making. The interactive influences of individual differences in anxiety, sensation seeking, and boredom susceptibility on evaluative decision-making can be systematically described using ERP and fMRI methods. We conclude that a multi-modal neuroergonomic approach to examining brain function (using both neuroimaging and molecular genetics) can be usefully applied to understanding individual differences in cognition and affect and has implications for human performance at work. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Epileptic Seizures are Reduced by Autonomic Biofeedback Therapy Through Enhancement of Fronto-limbic Connectivity: A Controlled Trial and Neuroimaging Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Nagai

    2018-01-01

    Interpretation: Our clinical study provides evidence for autonomic biofeedback therapy as an effective and potent behavioral intervention for patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. This approach is non-pharmacological, non-invasive and seemingly side-effect free.

  8. Energy landscape analysis of neuroimaging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezaki, Takahiro; Watanabe, Takamitsu; Ohzeki, Masayuki; Masuda, Naoki

    2017-05-01

    Computational neuroscience models have been used for understanding neural dynamics in the brain and how they may be altered when physiological or other conditions change. We review and develop a data-driven approach to neuroimaging data called the energy landscape analysis. The methods are rooted in statistical physics theory, in particular the Ising model, also known as the (pairwise) maximum entropy model and Boltzmann machine. The methods have been applied to fitting electrophysiological data in neuroscience for a decade, but their use in neuroimaging data is still in its infancy. We first review the methods and discuss some algorithms and technical aspects. Then, we apply the methods to functional magnetic resonance imaging data recorded from healthy individuals to inspect the relationship between the accuracy of fitting, the size of the brain system to be analysed and the data length. This article is part of the themed issue `Mathematical methods in medicine: neuroscience, cardiology and pathology'.

  9. On small sample experiments in neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril; Hansen, Lars Kai

    1998-01-01

    Most human brain imaging experiments involve a number of subjects that is unusually low by accepted statistical standards. Although there are anumber of practical reasons for using small samples in neuroimaging we need to face the question regarding whether results obtained with only a fewsubject...... will generalise to a larger population. In this contribution we address this issue using a Bayesian framework, derive confidence intervals forsmall samples experiments, and discuss the issue of the prior.......Most human brain imaging experiments involve a number of subjects that is unusually low by accepted statistical standards. Although there are anumber of practical reasons for using small samples in neuroimaging we need to face the question regarding whether results obtained with only a fewsubjects...

  10. Energy landscape analysis of neuroimaging data

    CERN Document Server

    Ezaki, Takahiro; Ohzeki, Masayuki; Masuda, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Computational neuroscience models have been used for understanding neural dynamics in the brain and how they may be altered when physiological or other conditions change. We review and develop a data-driven approach to neuroimaging data called the energy landscape analysis. The methods are rooted in statistical physics theory, in particular, the Ising model, also known as the (pairwise) maximum entropy model and Boltzmann machine. The methods have been applied to fitting electrophysiological data in neuroscience for a decade, but its use in neuroimaging data is still in its infancy. We first review the methods and discuss some algorithms and technical aspects. Then, we apply the methods to functional magnetic resonance imaging data recorded from healthy individuals to inspect the relationship between the accuracy of fitting, the size of the brain system to be analyzed, and the data length.

  11. Retrospective study shows that doxapram therapy avoided the need for endotracheal intubation in most premature neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flint, R.B.; Halbmeijer, N.; Meesters, N.; Rosmalen, J. van; Reiss, I.; Dijk, M.; Simons, S.

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Using doxapram to treat neonates with apnoea of prematurity might avoid the need for endotracheal intubation and invasive ventilation. We studied whether doxapram prevented the need for intubation and identified the predictors of the success. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of preterm

  12. Excessive users of violent video games do not show emotional desensitization: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szycik, Gregor R; Mohammadi, Bahram; Hake, Maria; Kneer, Jonas; Samii, Amir; Münte, Thomas F; Te Wildt, Bert T

    2017-06-01

    Playing violent video games have been linked to long-term emotional desensitization. We hypothesized that desensitization effects in excessive users of violent video games should lead to decreased brain activations to highly salient emotional pictures in emotional sensitivity brain regions. Twenty-eight male adult subjects showing excessive long-term use of violent video games and age and education matched control participants were examined in two experiments using standardized emotional pictures of positive, negative and neutral valence. No group differences were revealed even at reduced statistical thresholds which speaks against desensitization of emotion sensitive brain regions as a result of excessive use of violent video games.

  13. Neuroimaging in nuclear medicine: drug addicted brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong-An; Kim, Dae-Jin [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15

    Addiction to illicit drugs in one of today's most important social issues. Most addictive drugs lead to irreversible parenchymal changes in the human brain. Neuroimaging data bring to light the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the abused drugs, and demonstrate that addiction is a disease of the brain. Continuous researches better illustrate the neurochemical alterations in brain function, and attempt to discover the links to consequent behavioral changes. Newer hypotheses and theories follow the numerous results, and more rational methods of approaching therapy are being developed. Substance abuse is on the rise in Korea, and social interest in the matter as well. On the other hand, diagnosis and treatment of drug addiction is still very difficult, because how the abused substance acts in the brain, or how it leads to behavioral problems in not widely known. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of drug addiction can improve the process of diagnosing addict patients, planning therapy, and predicting the prognosis . Neuroimaging approaches by nuclear medicine methods are expected to objectively judge behavioral and neurochemical changes, and response to treatment. In addition, as genes associated with addictive behavior are discovered, functional nuclear medicine images will aid in the assessment of individuals. Reviewing published literature on neuroimaging regarding nuclear medicine is expected to be of assistance to the management of drug addict patients. What's more, means of applying nuclear medicine to the care of drug addict patients should be investigated further.

  14. Control groups in paediatric epilepsy research: do first-degree cousins show familial effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Melissa; Morrison, Blaise; Jones, Jana E; Jackson, Daren C; Almane, Dace; Seidenberg, Michael; Zhao, Qianqian; Rathouz, Paul J; Hermann, Bruce P

    2017-03-01

    To determine whether first-degree cousins of children with idiopathic focal and genetic generalized epilepsies show any association across measures of cognition, behaviour, and brain structure. The presence/absence of associations addresses the question of whether and to what extent first-degree cousins may serve as unbiased controls in research addressing the cognitive, psychiatric, and neuroimaging features of paediatric epilepsies. Participants were children (aged 8-18) with epilepsy who had at least one first-degree cousin control enrolled in the study (n=37) and all enrolled cousin controls (n=100). Participants underwent neuropsychological assessment and brain imaging (cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar volumes), and parents completed the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). Data (based on 42 outcome measures) from cousin controls were regressed on the corresponding epilepsy cognitive, behavioural, and imaging measures in a linear mixed model and case/control correlations were examined. Of the 42 uncorrected correlations involving cognitive, behavioural, and neuroimaging measures, only two were significant (p0.25). Similar results held for the cognition/behaviour and brain imaging measures separately. Given the lack of association between cases and first-degree cousin performances on measures of cognition, behaviour, and neuroimaging, the results suggest a non-significant genetic influence on control group performance. First-degree cousins appear to be unbiased controls for cognitive, behavioural, and neuroimaging research in paediatric epilepsy.

  15. The "Hawthorne effect"--what did the original Hawthorne studies actually show?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickström, G; Bendix, T

    2000-08-01

    The "Hawthorne effect" is often mentioned as a possible explanation for positive results in intervention studies. It is used to cover many phenomena, not only unwitting confounding of variables under study by the study itself, but also behavioral change due to an awareness of being observed, active compliance with the supposed wishes of researchers because of special attention received, or positive response to the stimulus being introduced. At times, the term seems to be used as a social equivalent to "placebo effect". In social research, there is much critical literature indicating that, in general, the term "Hawthorne effect" should be avoided. Instead of referring to the ambiguous and disputable Hawthorne effect when evaluating intervention effectiveness, researchers should introduce specific psychological and social variables that may have affected the outcome under study but were not monitored during the project, along with the possible effect on the observed results.

  16. Mechanisms of cognitive impairment in cerebral small vessel disease: multimodal MRI results from the St George's cognition and neuroimaging in stroke (SCANS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Lawrence

    Full Text Available Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD is a common cause of vascular cognitive impairment. A number of disease features can be assessed on MRI including lacunar infarcts, T2 lesion volume, brain atrophy, and cerebral microbleeds. In addition, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI is sensitive to disruption of white matter ultrastructure, and recently it has been suggested that additional information on the pattern of damage may be obtained from axial diffusivity, a proposed marker of axonal damage, and radial diffusivity, an indicator of demyelination. We determined the contribution of these whole brain MRI markers to cognitive impairment in SVD. Consecutive patients with lacunar stroke and confluent leukoaraiosis were recruited into the ongoing SCANS study of cognitive impairment in SVD (n = 115, and underwent neuropsychological assessment and multimodal MRI. SVD subjects displayed poor performance on tests of executive function and processing speed. In the SVD group brain volume was lower, white matter hyperintensity volume higher and all diffusion characteristics differed significantly from control subjects (n = 50. On multi-predictor analysis independent predictors of executive function in SVD were lacunar infarct count and diffusivity of normal appearing white matter on DTI. Independent predictors of processing speed were lacunar infarct count and brain atrophy. Radial diffusivity was a stronger DTI predictor than axial diffusivity, suggesting ischaemic demyelination, seen neuropathologically in SVD, may be an important predictor of cognitive impairment in SVD. Our study provides information on the mechanism of cognitive impairment in SVD.

  17. How would you feel versus how do you think she would feel? A neuroimaging study of perspective-taking with social emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, Perrine; Decety, Jean

    2004-01-01

    Perspective-taking is a complex cognitive process involved in social cognition. This positron emission tomography (PET) study investigated by means of a factorial design the interaction between the emotional and the perspective factors. Participants were asked to adopt either their own (first person) perspective or the (third person) perspective of their mothers in response to situations involving social emotions or to neutral situations. The main effect of third-person versus first-person perspective resulted in hemodynamic increase in the medial part of the superior frontal gyrus, the left superior temporal sulcus, the left temporal pole, the posterior cingulate gyrus, and the right inferior parietal lobe. A cluster in the postcentral gyrus was detected in the reverse comparison. The amygdala was selectively activated when subjects were processing social emotions, both related to self and other. Interaction effects were identified in the left temporal pole and in the right postcentral gyrus. These results support our prediction that the frontopolar, the somatosensory cortex, and the right inferior parietal lobe are crucial in the process of self/other distinction. In addition, this study provides important building blocks in our understanding of social emotion processing and human empathy.

  18. Effect of the 5-HT(1A) partial agonist buspirone on regional brain electrical activity in man: a functional neuroimaging study using low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderer, P; Saletu, B; Pascual-Marqui, R D

    2000-12-04

    In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the effects of 20 mg buspirone - a 5-HT(1A) partial agonist - on regional electrical generators within the human brain were investigated utilizing three-dimensional EEG tomography. Nineteen-channel vigilance-controlled EEG recordings were carried out in 20 healthy subjects before and 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h after drug intake. Low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA; Key Institute for Brain-Mind Research, software: http://www.keyinst.unizh.ch) was computed from spectrally analyzed EEG data, and differences between drug- and placebo-induced changes were displayed as statistical parametric maps. Data were registered to the Talairach-Tournoux human brain atlas available as a digitized MRI (McConnell Brain Imaging Centre: http://www.bic.mni.mcgill.ca). At the pharmacodynamic peak (1st hour), buspirone increased theta and decreased fast alpha and beta sources. Areas of theta increase were mainly the left temporo-occipito-parietal and left prefrontal cortices, which is consistent with PET studies on buspirone-induced decreases in regional cerebral blood flow and fenfluramine-induced serotonin activation demonstrated by changes in regional cerebral glucose metabolism. In later hours (8th hour) with lower buspirone plasma levels, delta, theta, slow alpha and fast beta decreased, predominantly in the prefrontal and anterior limbic lobe. Whereas the results of the 1st hour speak for a slight CNS sedation (more in the sense of relaxation), those obtained in the 8th hour indicate activation. Thus, LORETA may provide useful and direct information on drug-induced changes in central nervous system function in man.

  19. Ecological and toxicological responses in a multistressor scenario: Are monitoring programs showing the stressors or just showing stress? A case study in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Doval, Julio C; Meirelles, Sergio Tadeu; Cardoso-Silva, Sheila; Moschini-Carlos, Viviane; Pompêo, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The Metropolitan Region of São Paulo (MRSP) is located in the Brazilian State of São Paulo and reservoirs in this region are vital for water supply and energy production. Changes in economic, social, and demographic trends produced pollution of water bodies, decreasing water quality for human uses and affecting freshwater populations. The presence of emerging pollutants, classical priority substances, nutrient excess and the interaction with tropical-climate conditions require periodic reviews of water policies and monitoring programs in order to detect and manage these threats in a global change scenario. The objective of this work is to determine whether the monitoring program of the São Paulo's Environmental Agency, is sufficient to explain the toxicological and biological responses observed in organisms in reservoirs of the MRSP, and whether it can identify the possible agents causing these responses. For that, we used publicly available data on water quality compiled by this agency in their routine monitoring program. A general overview of these data and a chemometric approach to analyze the responses of biotic indexes and toxicological bioassays, as a function of the physical and chemical parameters monitored, were performed. Data compiled showed temporal and geographical information gaps on variables measured. Toxicological responses have been observed in the reservoirs of the MRSP, together with a high incidence of impairments of the zooplankton community. This demonstrates the presence of stressors that affect the viability of organisms and populations. The statistical approach showed that the data compiled by the environmental agency are insufficient to identify and explain the factors causing the observed ecotoxicological responses and impairments in the zooplankton community, and are therefore insufficient to identify clear cause-effect relationships. Stressors different from those analyzed could be responsible for the observed responses. Copyright

  20. Affiliation, joint venture or PSO? Case studies show why provider strategies differ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Joint venture, affiliation or PSO? Here are three case studies of providers who chose different paths under Medicare risk, plus some key questions you'll want to ask of your own provider organization. Learn from these examples so you'll make the best contracting decisions.

  1. Material Rhetoric: Spreading Stones and Showing Bones in the Study of Prehistory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Reybrouck, D.; de Bont, R.; Rock, J.

    2009-01-01

    Since the linguistic turn, the role of rhetoric in the circulation and the popular representation of knowledge has been widely accepted in science studies. This article aims to analyze not a textual form of scientific rhetoric, but the crucial role of materiality in scientific debates. It introduces

  2. Study of medication-free children with Tourette syndrome do not show imaging abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Signe Søndergaard; Debes, Nanette Mol; Simonsen, Helle Juhl

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Imaging studies of patients with Tourette's syndrome (TS) across different cohorts have shown alterations in gray and white matter in areas associated with the cortico-striato-thalamic-cortical (CSTC) pathways; however, no consistent findings have subsequently established a clear...

  3. Show Me the Money! Why Higher Ed Should Help K-12 Do Economic Impact Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Nadia

    2010-01-01

    In education, economic impact studies have been largely the product of higher education institutions. Colleges and universities have recognized that they can cultivate public, political and financial support by effectively demonstrating their high return-on-investment value. For more than a decade, all types of higher education institutions have…

  4. Ganas of Showing the Way: A Grounded Theory Study of Hispanic Presidents in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios Gutierrez, Eugenio

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, based on classical grounded theory (Glaser & Strauss, 1967, 1971; Glaser, 1978, 1992, 1993, 1994a, 1994b, 1996, 1998, 2001, 2003, 2004), second generation Hispanic presidents and chancellors in higher education were studied to discover how they continually try to resolve second culture-coping challenges, the…

  5. A Case Study Showing Parameters Affecting the Quality of Education: Faculty Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    The study aims to examine the faculty members' perspective (age Wise, Gender Wise and Work Experience wise) of parameters affecting the quality of education in an affiliated Undergraduate Engineering Institution in Haryana. It is a descriptive type of research. The data has been collected with the help of 'Questionnaire Based Survey'. The sample…

  6. Taking the Show on the Road in Holding Academic Classes in Community Agencies: Exploratory Study Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Ellen; Serbinski, Sarah; Mishna, Faye

    2017-01-01

    Social work educators often teach students clinical knowledge within a university classroom, whereas students tend to learn clinical practice through their practicum experiences. This article describes data from a cross-sectional, mixed-method study on one way to effectively bridge the gap between teaching clinical knowledge and practice to…

  7. Functional neuroimaging and childhood autism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boddaert, Nathalie [Service de Radiologie Pediatrique, Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital, Paris (France); Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, DRM, DSV, CEA, Orsay (France); Zilbovicius, Monica [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, DRM, DSV, CEA, Orsay (France); INSERM, Tours (France)

    2002-01-01

    Childhood autism is now widely viewed as being of developmental neurobiological origin. Yet, localised structural and functional brain correlates of autism have to be established. Structural brain-imaging studies performed in autistic patients have reported abnormalities such as increased total brain volume and cerebellar abnormalities. However, none of these abnormalities fully account for the full range of autistic symptoms. Functional brain imaging, such as positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and functional MRI (fMRI) have added a new perspective to the study of normal and pathological brain functions. In autism, functional studies have been performed at rest or during activation. However, first-generation functional imaging devices were not sensitive enough to detect any consistent dysfunction. Recently, with improved technology, two independent groups have reported bilateral hypoperfusion of the temporal lobes in autistic children. In addition, activation studies, using perceptive and cognitive paradigms, have shown an abnormal pattern of cortical activation in autistic patients. These results suggest that different connections between particular cortical regions could exist in autism. The purpose of this review is to present the main results of rest and activation studies performed in autism. (orig.)

  8. The neurological, neuroimaging and neuropsychological effects of playing professional football: Results of the UK five-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Steven; Duff, Alistair; Hampson, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Whilst the scientific understanding of mild traumatic brain injury sequelae has advanced, the consequences of neurological insults sustained during football play in the form of multiple concussions and heading remains unclear. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first longitudinal prospective study to follow-up a group of footballers and controls over time. Thirty-two elite young professional footballers were recruited and 24 were identified at follow-up. Thirty-three controls were recruited and 17 identified at follow-up. Medical examination, MRI (brain) imaging and detailed neuropsychological data were collected on the footballers at baseline and 5-year follow-up. Medical examination and detailed neuropsychological data were collected on the controls at baseline and 5-year follow-up. All participants had normal neurological examination at both time points. At baseline, 37% of the footballers had sustained minor neurological insults. Between baseline and 5 years, 66% of the footballers had sustained minor neurological insults. No MRI (brain) abnormalities were identified among the footballers at either time point. Regarding the neuropsychology, there was a 6-point IQ difference between footballers and controls, with the footballers being low. Test-re-test analysis on a range of carefully selected neurocognitive tests revealed a picture of good stability in cognitive functioning over this 5-year period. These longitudinal prospective data indicate no significant neurological, structural brain imaging or neuropsychological change among a sample of young elite professional footballers over the first 5 years of their professional career.

  9. Can neuroimaging differentiate PFO and AF-related cardioembolic stroke from the other embolic sources? Clinical-radiological correlation on a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecco, Alessandro; Quagliozzi, Martina; Soligo, Eleonora; Naldi, Andrea; Cassarà, Alessia; Coppo, Lorenzo; Rosso, Roberta; Bongo, Angelo Sante; Amatuzzo, Paola; Buemi, Francesco; Guenzi, Elena; Carriero, Alessandro

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to map the specific ischemic lesion patterns of distribution in patent foramen ovale-related stroke (PFO-stroke) and atrial fibrillation-related stroke (AF-stroke) in patients with idiopatic ischemic stroke. 750 ischaemic strokes were screened on basis of diagnostic imaging and tests: patients with known causes were excluded. 171 patients with unknown cause were selected and divided in two groups: AF-stroke (43 patients) and PFO-stroke (128 patients). Vascular territories of ischemic involvement were divided into four classes in each group: the anterior cerebral artery, the middle cerebral artery, the vertebro-cerebral artery (including the posterior cerebral artery) and multisite (MS) involvement. Infarcts in vertebro-basilar territory and multisite represented each one about 32% of infarcts in PFO-stroke group and their involvement are more frequent than AF-stroke group (p = 0.03). Ischemic lesions in PFO-group were predominantly cortical (34.3%), and in AF-group cortical-subcortical (60.4%). Multisite pattern of ischemic lesion was more frequent in patients with severe degree of right to left shunts (37.5%). In clinical practice, PFO may be considered a cause of cortical stroke on the basis of radiological findings, when VB vascular territory or MS brain involvement is present in younger patients (<50 age).

  10. Best facilitated cortical activation during different stepping, treadmill, and robot-assisted walking training paradigms and speeds: A functional near-infrared spectroscopy neuroimaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ha Yeon; Yang, Sung Phil; Park, Gyu Lee; Kim, Eun Joo; You, Joshua Sung Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Robot-assisted and treadmill-gait training are promising neurorehabilitation techniques, with advantages over conventional gait training, but the neural substrates underpinning locomotor control remain unknown particularly during different gait training modes and speeds. The present optical imaging study compared cortical activities during conventional stepping walking (SW), treadmill walking (TW), and robot-assisted walking (RW) at different speeds. Fourteen healthy subjects (6 women, mean age 30.06, years ± 4.53) completed three walking training modes (SW, TW, and RW) at various speeds (self-selected, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0  km/h). A functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) system determined cerebral hemodynamic changes associated with cortical locomotor network areas in the primary sensorimotor cortex (SMC), premotor cortex (PMC), supplementary motor area (SMA), prefrontal cortex (PFC), and sensory association cortex (SAC). There was increased cortical activation in the SMC, PMC, and SMA during different walking training modes. More global locomotor network activation was observed during RW than TW or SW. As walking speed increased, multiple locomotor network activations were observed, and increased activation power spectrum. This is the first empirical evidence highlighting the neural substrates mediating dynamic locomotion for different gait training modes and speeds. Fast, robot-assisted gait training best facilitated cortical activation associated with locomotor control.

  11. Kemampuan Menulis Melalui Show Not Tell Dalam Pendekatan Quantum Learning (Studi pada Madrasah Ibtidaiyah Kartoharjo Madiun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elen Inderasari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research serves an analysis for depicting: 1 the writing skill onexperiences can be developed through quantum learning approach for thestudents of fifth grade, Madrasah Ibtidaiyah, Kartoharjo, Madiun, 2 theimpacts of the implementation of quantum learning approach for thestudents of fifth grade, Islamic State Elementary School, Kartoharjo,Municipality of Madiun, 3 the efforts of teachers in developing students’writing skill on experiences in learning Bahasa Indonesia. This researchmakes use of Classroom Action Research under the collaboration of theresearcher, the teachers and the students. The analysis brings aboutconclusions that quantum learning approach has a significant influence onthe development of students’ writing skill and learning activity for thestudents of fifth grade of State Elementary School 03 Kanigoro, Kartoharjo,Municipality of Madiun. The reflection through indicators shows that: 1students make development in their learning activity, 2 under quantumlearning approach, teachers are capable of generating students’ learningmotivation, 3 teachers are comfortable in implementing quantum learningapproach, 4 teachers are capable of managing the class well, and 5 studentsgrades up writing skill scores through report, by 65.2 in pretest, 71.9 in testand 75.6 in posttest in average.

  12. A neuroimaging study of pleasant and unpleasant olfactory perceptions of virgin olive oil; Estudio mediante neuroimagen de percepciones olfativas agradables y desagradables de aceites de oliva virgen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivancos, J.; Tena, N.; Morales, M.T.; Aparicio, R.; Garcia-Gonzalez, D.L.

    2016-07-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used to collect information from neurons that receive direct input from olfactory bulbs when subjects smell virgin olive oil. The pleasant aroma of three extra virgin olive oils (var. Royal, Arbequina and Picual) and three virgin olive oils with sensory defects (rancid, fusty and winey/vinegary) were presented to 14 subjects while a fMRI scan acquired data from the brain activity. Data were subjected to a two-sample t test analysis, which allows a better interpretation of results particularly when data are studied across different subjects. Most of the activations, which were located in the frontal lobe, are related to the olfactory task regardless of the hedonic component of perception (e.g. Brodmann areas 10, 11). Comparing the samples with pleasant and unpleasant aromas, differences were found at the anterior cingulate gyrus (Brodmann area 32), at the temporal lobe (Brodmann area 38), and inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 47), while intense aromas activated Brodmann area 6. The actual perceptions described by the subjects and the concentration of the odorant compounds in the samples were considered in the interpretation of the results. [Spanish] La imagen por resonancia magnética funcional (fMRI) ha sido empleada para estudiar la información de la respuesta cerebral producida al estimular las neuronas que participan en el proceso olfatorio tras percibir el aroma del aceite de oliva virgen (AOV). Se utilizó fMRI para la adquisición de los datos de la actividad cerebral de 14 sujetos a los que se presentaron tres aceites de oliva vírgenes de aroma agradable (var. Royal, Arbequina and Picual) y tres aceites de oliva vírgenes con defectos sensoriales (rancio, atrojado, avinado/avinagrado). Los datos se sometieron a una prueba t para observar diferencias entre dos grupos, la cual permite una mejor interpretación de los resultados, particularmente cuando los datos se estudian a través de diferentes

  13. "Show me the money": a fair criticism of economic studies on inhaled bronchodilators for COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostikas, Konstantinos; Bouros, Demosthenes

    2010-09-15

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) represents a significant burden for healthcare systems that is expected to grow further in the future. Inhaled long-acting bronchodilators, including tiotropium, represent the cornerstone of management of COPD patients. Economic studies evaluating the cost-effectiveness ratio of inhaled bronchodilators have to take into account several parameters, including the reduction of COPD exacerbations and related hospitalizations, as well as disease modification and improvement in quality of life and mortality. At an era when the healthcare resources are unlikely to grow as quickly as demand, economic analyses remain the cornerstone for the justification of the broad use of medication with an acceptable cost-effectiveness ratio. The greatest importance of such studies in COPD is the identification of subgroups of patients that will have the most benefit with an acceptable cost-effectiveness ratio for the healthcare providers. The development of models that will incorporate a global evaluation of the different aspects of this multi-component disease, in order to provide the best available care to each individual patient is urgently needed.

  14. Showing Where To Go by Maps or Pictures: An Empirical Case Study at Subway Exits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Toru; Yamazaki, Tetsuo

    This study empirically examined the effectiveness of different methods of presenting route information on a mobile navigation sysyem, for accurate and effortless orientation at subway exits. Specifically, it compared participants’ spatial orientation performance with pictures and maps, in relation to the levels of their spatial ability. Participants identified the directions toward the goals after coming onto the ground faster when viewing pictures than when viewing maps. Spatial orientation with maps was more difficult than that with pictures at exits where body rotation was necessary, especially for people with low mental-rotation ability. In contrast, pictures were equally effective for people with low and high mental-rotation ability. Reasons for the effectiveness of pictures and possibilities of using other presentation formats are discussed.

  15. Mindful Yoga Pilot Study Shows Modulation of Abnormal Pain Processing in Fibromyalgia Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, James W; Carson, Kimberly M; Jones, Kim D; Lancaster, Lindsay; Mist, Scott D

    2016-01-01

    Published findings from a randomized controlled trial have shown that Mindful Yoga training improves symptoms, functional deficits, and coping abilities in individuals with fibromyalgia and that these benefits are replicable and can be maintained 3 months post-treatment. The aim of this study was to collect pilot data in female fibromyalgia patients (n = 7) to determine if initial evidence indicates that Mindful Yoga also modulates the abnormal pain processing that characterizes fibromyalgia. Pre- and post-treatment data were obtained on quantitative sensory tests and measures of symptoms, functional deficits, and coping abilities. Separation test analyses indicated significant improvements in heat pain tolerance, pressure pain threshold, and heat pain after-sensations at post-treatment. Fibromyalgia symptoms and functional deficits also improved significantly, including physical tests of strength and balance, and pain coping strategies. These findings indicate that further investigation is warranted into the effect of Mindful Yoga on neurobiological pain processing.

  16. Multiple brain atlas database and atlas-based neuroimaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowinski, W L; Fang, A; Nguyen, B T; Raphel, J K; Jagannathan, L; Raghavan, R; Bryan, R N; Miller, G A

    1997-01-01

    For the purpose of developing multiple, complementary, fully labeled electronic brain atlases and an atlas-based neuroimaging system for analysis, quantification, and real-time manipulation of cerebral structures in two and three dimensions, we have digitized, enhanced, segmented, and labeled the following print brain atlases: Co-Planar Stereotaxic Atlas of the Human Brain by Talairach and Tournoux, Atlas for Stereotaxy of the Human Brain by Schaltenbrand and Wahren, Referentially Oriented Cerebral MRI Anatomy by Talairach and Tournoux, and Atlas of the Cerebral Sulci by Ono, Kubik, and Abernathey. Three-dimensional extensions of these atlases have been developed as well. All two- and three-dimensional atlases are mutually preregistered and may be interactively registered with an actual patient's data. An atlas-based neuroimaging system has been developed that provides support for reformatting, registration, visualization, navigation, image processing, and quantification of clinical data. The anatomical index contains about 1,000 structures and over 400 sulcal patterns. Several new applications of the brain atlas database also have been developed, supported by various technologies such as virtual reality, the Internet, and electronic publishing. Fusion of information from multiple atlases assists the user in comprehensively understanding brain structures and identifying and quantifying anatomical regions in clinical data. The multiple brain atlas database and atlas-based neuroimaging system have substantial potential impact in stereotactic neurosurgery and radiotherapy by assisting in visualization and real-time manipulation in three dimensions of anatomical structures, in quantitative neuroradiology by allowing interactive analysis of clinical data, in three-dimensional neuroeducation, and in brain function studies.

  17. Molecular approaches in experimental neuroimaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavitian, B. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2009-07-01

    We quantified and compared six parameters (resolution, depth, sensitivity, portability, quantification and cost) of four molecular imaging techniques (MRI, optics, ultrasound and TEP), with the three types of electromagnetic radiation used in vivo (Frequencies (10{sup 6} to 10{sup 22} Hz), Photonic Energy (10{sup -4} to 10{sup 9} eV) and Wavelengths (10{sup -2} to 10{sup -15} m)). This form of molecular imaging demands the most sensitive technique available (Pl. 26-2 to 26-4). Four examples of experimental in vivo approaches on small animals are shown: molecular passage through the blood-brain barrier (endothelial cells, astrocytes and occludin, pharmacokinetics, studied with PET) (Pl. 2-5 to 2-11); imaging of receptors and ligands, especially peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBR) by PET and MRI in the rat (Pl. 2-12 to Pl. 2-15); neuro-pathology of neuro-degenerative and inflammatory diseases and stroke by PET and MRI in the rat (Pl. 2-16 to 2-17); and the study of responses to stimulation explored with in vivo imaging of calcium signals and their variations by photonic analysis, as on the scale of mitochondrial calcium (Pl.2-18 to Pl.2-22). (author)

  18. The 100 most-cited articles in neuroimaging: A bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Jeong; Yoon, Dae Young; Kim, Eun Soo; Lee, Kwanseop; Bae, Jong Seok; Lee, Ju-Hun

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of our study was to identify and characterize the 100 most-cited articles in neuroimaging. Based on the database of Journal Citation Reports, we selected 669 journals that were considered as potential outlets for neuroimaging articles. The Web of Science search tools were used to identify the 100 most-cited articles relevant to neuroimaging within the selected journals. The following information was recorded for each article: publication year, journal, category and impact factor of journal, number of citations, number of annual citations, authorship, department, institution, country, article type, imaging technique used, and topic. The 100 most-cited articles in neuroimaging were published between 1980 and 2012, with 1995-2004 producing 69 articles. Citations ranged from 4384 to 673 and annual citations ranged from 313.1 to 24.9. The majority of articles were published in radiology/imaging journals (n=75), originated in the United States (n=58), were original articles (n=63), used MRI as imaging modality (n=85), and dealt with imaging technique (n=45). The Oxford Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain at John Radcliffe Hospital (n=10) was the leading institutions and Karl J. Friston (n=11) was the most prolific author. Our study presents a detailed list and an analysis of the 100 most-cited articles in the field of neuroimaging, which provides an insight into historical developments and allows for recognition of the important advances in this field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Feasibility Study Showing [(68)Ga]Citrate PET Detects Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Spencer C; Aggarwal, Rahul; Seo, Youngho; Aparici, Carina M; Chang, Emily; Gao, Kenneth T; Tao, Dora H; Small, Eric J; Evans, Michael J

    2016-12-01

    The management of advanced or recurrent prostate cancer is limited in part by the lack of effective imaging agents. Metabolic changes in prostate cancer have previously been exploited for imaging, culminating in the recent US FDA approval of [(11)C]choline for the detection of subclinical recurrent disease after definitive local therapy. Despite this milestone, production of [(11)C]choline requires an on-site cyclotron, limiting the scope of medical centers at which this scan can be offered. In this pilot study, we tested whether prostate cancer could be imaged with positron emission tomography (PET) using [(68)Ga]citrate, a radiotracer that targets iron metabolism but is produced without a cyclotron. Eight patients with castrate-resistant prostate cancer were enrolled in this single-center feasibility study. All patients had evidence of metastatic disease by standard of care imaging [X-ray computed tomography (CT), bone scan, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)] prior to PET with [(68)Ga]citrate. Patients were intravenously injected with increasing doses of [(68)Ga]citrate (136.9 to a maximum of 259 MBq). Uptake time was steadily increased from 1 h to approximately 3.5 h for the final 4 patients, and all patients were imaged with a PET/MRI. Qualitative and semi-quantitative (maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax)) assessment of the metastatic lesions was performed and compared to the standard of care imaging. At 1- and 2-h imaging times post injection, there were no detectable lesions with [(68)Ga]citrate PET. At 3- to 4-h uptake time, there were a total of 71 [(68)Ga]citrate-positive lesions (67 osseous, 1 liver, and 3 lymph node). Of these, 65 lesions were visible on the standard of care imaging (CT and/or bone scan). One PET-avid osseous vertebral body metastasis was not apparent on either CT or bone scan. Twenty-five lesions were not PET-avid but seen on CT and bone scan (17 bone, 6 lymph node, 1 pleural, and 1 liver). The average of the maximum SUVs

  20. Melia azedarach plants show tolerance properties to water shortage treatment: an ecophysiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Maria Celeste; Azevedo, Carla; Costa, Maria; Pinto, Glória; Santos, Conceição

    2014-02-01

    Candidate species for reforestation of areas prone to drought must combine water stress (WS) tolerance and economic or medicinal interest. Melia azedarach produces high quality timber and has insecticidal and medicinal properties. However, the impact of WS on M. azedarach has not yet been studied. Two-month old M. azedarach plants were exposed to WS during 20 days. After this period, plant's growth, water potential, photosynthetic performance and antioxidant capacity were evaluated. WS did not affect plants' growth, but induced stomatal closure, reduced net CO₂ assimilation rate (A) and the intercellular CO₂ availability in mesophyll (C(i)). WS also reduced the photosynthetic efficiency of PSII but not the pigment levels. WS up-regulated the antioxidant enzymes and stimulated the production of antioxidant metabolites, preventing lipid peroxidation. Therefore, despite some repression of photosynthetic parameters by WS, they did not compromise plant growth, and plants increased their antioxidant capacity. Our data demonstrate that M. azedarach juvenile plants have the potential to acclimate to water shortage conditions, opening new perspectives to the use of this species in reforestation/afforestation programs of drought prone areas. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  1. Patients with bipolar disorder show differential executive dysfunctions: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Meranda M W; Lui, Simon S Y; Wang, Ya; Tsui, Chi F; Au, Angie C W; Yeung, Hera K H; Yang, Tian-Xiao; Li, Zhi; Cheng, Chi-Wai; Cheung, Eric F C; Chan, Raymond C K

    2016-04-30

    Executive deficits in euthymic bipolar I disorder were examined in a fractionated manner based on the "Supervisory Attentional System" (SAS) model, and the relationship between the degree of executive impairment and the demographic and clinical characteristics of bipolar I participants was explored. A battery of neurocognitive tests capturing specific components of executive function was administered on 30 patients with bipolar I disorder in euthymic state, and compared with 30 healthy controls who were matched by age, gender and IQ. A differential impairment in executive function was demonstrated in euthymic bipolar I participants by using a fractionated approach of the SAS. Euthymic bipolar I patients were found to have significantly poorer performance in immediate and delayed visual memory; and in the executive domains of "initiation", "sustained attention", and "attention allocation and planning". Those with a greater number of executive impairments had lower IQ and higher negative sub-scores on PANSS. These findings might provide a the basis for further studies on identifying the executive components that are associated with particular disease characteristics of bipolar disorder, and those with poorer functional outcome, so that rehabilitation can be focused on the selective domains concerned. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Neuroimaging in cockroach phobia: An experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Rivero; Manuel Herrero; Conrado Viña; Yolanda Álvarez-Pérez; Wenceslao Peñate

    2017-01-01

    Antecedentes/Objetivo: En este estudio se exploran las características en neuroimagen de personas con fobia específica a peque ̃ nos animales (cucarachas), para determinar si existen diferencias en la actividad cerebral entre personas con y sin fobia a las cucarachas, bajo condi- ciones de estimulación fóbica y no fóbica. Método : Se estudiaron 24 adultos (12 con fobia). El diagnóstico de fobia específica se obtuvo mediante una entrevista estructurada y cuestionarios. Todos fueron expuestos ...

  3. Neuroimaging in cockroach phobia: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rivero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes/Objetivo: En este estudio se exploran las características en neuroimagen de personas con fobia específica a peque ̃ nos animales (cucarachas, para determinar si existen diferencias en la actividad cerebral entre personas con y sin fobia a las cucarachas, bajo condi- ciones de estimulación fóbica y no fóbica. Método : Se estudiaron 24 adultos (12 con fobia. El diagnóstico de fobia específica se obtuvo mediante una entrevista estructurada y cuestionarios. Todos fueron expuestos a una presentación en video 3D durante una sesión de RMNf. Resultados: El grupo con fobia mostró activaciones diferenciales significativas, que fueron congruentes con el modelo de doble ruta en el procesamiento del miedo, a través del tálamo- amígdala (ruta I, y tálamo-corteza entorrinal-hipocampo-subículo-amígdala (ruta II. Además, se encontraron activaciones diferenciales en el globo pálido, en el giro hipocampal, ínsula, y en los pars orbitalis, triangularis y opercularis. Con respecto al grupo control, no se observaron activaciones de la ínsula ni el cingulado. Conclusiones: Parece evidenciarse un modelo de doble ruta en el procesamiento de estímulos fóbicos. Este doble proceso puede tener implicaciones para el tratamiento psicológico de las fobias específicas.

  4. [Neuroimaging studies of social cognition in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukawa, Noriko; Murai, Toshiya

    2013-04-01

    In various social situations, individuals with schizophrenia often have difficulties in keeping appropriate relationships with others. To elucidate the neural basis of such difficulties, we explored associations between brain morphological alterations and dysfunction of social cognition in schizophrenia, using MRI. Several important findings have been yielded: For instance, amygdala volume reduction was correlated with impaired facial emotion recognition ability, while reductions in the medial prefrontal cortex was correlated with impairment in emotion attribution to protagonists in social situations. These results suggest that individuals with schizophrenia have various domains of impaired social cognition. Moreover, in schizophrenia, the brain regions involved in such impairments might differ according to the domains of social cognition.

  5. Understanding face perception by means of prosopagnosia and neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossion, Bruno

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the human neuro-anatomy of face recognition is a long-standing goal of Cognitive Neuroscience. Studies of patients with face recognition impairment following brain damage (i.e., acquired prosopagnosia) have revealed the specificity of face recognition, the importance and nature of holistic/configural perception of individual faces, and the distribution of this function in the ventral occipito-temporal (VOT) cortex, with a right hemispheric dominance. Yet, neuroimaging studies in this field have essentially focused on a single face-selective area of the VOT and underestimated the right hemisphere superiority. Findings in these studies have also been taken as supporting a hierarchical view of face perception, according to which a face is decomposed into parts in early face-selective areas, these parts being subsequently integrated into a whole representation in higher-order areas. This review takes a historical and current perspective on the study of acquired prosopagnosia and neuroimaging that challenges this latter view. It argues for a combination of these methods, an approach suggesting a coarse-to-fine emergence of the holistic face percept in a non-hierarchical network of cortical face-selective areas.

  6. Saturn: a software application of tensor utilities for research in neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenes, Rubén; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Tristan-Vega, Antonio; Martin-Fernandez, Marcos

    2010-03-01

    We present an advanced software tool designed for visualization and quantitative analysis of Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) called Saturn. The software is specially developed to help clinicians and researchers in neuroimaging, and includes a complete set of visualization capabilities to browse and analyze efficiently DTI data, making this application a powerful tool also for diagnosis purposes. The software includes a robust quantification method for DTI data, using an atlas-based method to automatically obtain equivalent anatomical fiber bundles and regions of interest among different DTI data sets. Consequently, a set of measurements is also implemented to perform robust group studies among subjects affected by neurological disorders and control groups in order to look for significant differences. Finally, a comparison study with five similar DTI applications is presented, showing the advantages offered by this tool. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A review of structural neuroimaging in schizophrenia: from connectivity to connectomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne L Wheeler

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In patients with schizophrenia neuroimaging studies have revealed global differences with some brain regions showing focal abnormalities. Examining neurocircuitry, diffusion-weighted imaging studies have identified altered structural integrity of white matter in frontal and temporal brain regions and tracts such as the cingulum bundles, uncinate fasciculi and corpus callosum associated with the illness. Furthermore, structural co-variance analyses have revealed altered structural relationships among regional morphology in the thalamus, frontal, temporal and parietal cortices in schizophrenia patients. The distributed nature of these abnormalities in schizophrenia suggests that multiple brain circuits are impaired, a neural feature that may be better addressed with network level analyses. However, even with the advent of these newer analyses, a large amount of variability in findings remains, likely partially due to the considerable heterogeneity of this disorder.

  8. Neuro-imaging in Patients Referred to a Neuro-ophthalmology Service: The Rates of Appropriateness and Concordance in Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Collin; Van Stavern, Gregory P.; Shepherd, J. Banks; Gordon, Mae; Huecker, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Objective Neuro-imaging studies are frequently ordered to investigate neuro-ophthalmic symptoms. When misused these studies are expensive and time-consuming. This study aimed to describe the type and frequency of neuro-imaging errors in patients referred to an academic neuro-ophthalmology service and to measure how frequently these neuro-imaging studies were re-interpreted. Design Prospective cohort study Participants 84 consecutive patients referred to an academic neuro-ophthalmology practice Methods From November 2009 through July 2010 we prospectively enrolled 84 consecutive new patients who had received a neuro-imaging study in the last 12 months specifically in evaluation of their presenting neuro-ophthalmic symptoms. Participants then underwent a complete neuro-ophthalmic evaluation followed by a review of prior neuro-imaging. Questions regarding appropriateness of the most recent imaging, concordance of radiological interpretation, and re-evaluation of referring diagnoses were answered by the attending physician. Main Outcome Measures 1. The frequency and types of errors committed in the utilization of neuro-imaging. 2. The frequency of re-interpretation of pre-referral neuro-imaging studies following neuro-ophthalmic history and examination. Results Most study participants (84.5%; 71/84) underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prior to referral; 15.5% (13/84) underwent only computed tomography (CT). The rate of sub-optimal neuro-imaging studies was 38.1% (32/84). The three most common reasons for sub-optimal studies were incomplete area of imaging (34.4%; 11/32), wrong study type (28.1%; 9/32), and poor image quality (21.9%; 7/32). 24 of 84 subjects (28.6%) required additional neuro-imaging. We agreed with the radiology interpretation of the prior neuro-imaging studies in the majority (77.4%; 65/84) of patients. The most common anatomic locations for discordance in interpretation were the intraorbital optic nerve (35%; 7/20) and the brainstem (20%; 4

  9. Neuroimaging chronic pain: what have we learned and where are we going?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martucci, Katherine T; Ng, Pamela; Mackey, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Advances in neuroimaging have helped illuminate our understanding of how the brain works in the presence of chronic pain, which often persists with unknown etiology or after the painful stimulus has been removed and any wounds have healed. Neuroimaging has enabled us to make great progress in identifying many of the neural mechanisms that contribute to chronic pain, and to pinpoint the specific regions of the brain that are activated in the presence of chronic pain. It has provided us with a new perception of the nature of chronic pain in general, leading researchers to move toward a whole-brain approach to the study and treatment of chronic pain, and to develop novel technologies and analysis techniques, with real potential for developing new diagnostics and more effective therapies. We review the use of neuroimaging in the study of chronic pain, with particular emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:28163658

  10. GENE X ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA AND BIPOLAR DISORDER:EVIDENCE FROM NEUROIMAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Alexis Geoffroy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Schizophrenia (SZ and Bipolar disorder (BD are considered as severe multifactorial diseases, stemming from genetic and environmental influences. Growing evidence supports gene x environment (GxE interactions in these disorders and neuroimaging studies can help us to understand how those factors mechanistically interact. No reviews synthesized the existing data of neuroimaging studies in these issues.Methods: We conduct a systematic review on the neuroimaging studies exploring GxE interactions relative to SZ or BD in PubMed.Results: First results of the influence of genetic and environmental risks on brain structures came from monozygotic twin pairs concordant and discordant for SZ or BD. Few structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI studies have explored the GxE interactions. No other imaging methods were found. Two main GxE interactions on brain volumes have arisen. First, an interaction between genetic liability to SZ and obstetric complications on gray matter, cerebrospinal fluid and hippocampal volumes. Second, cannabis use and genetic liability interaction effects on cortical thickness and white matter volumes.Conclusion: Combining GxE interactions and neuroimaging domains is a promising approach. Genetic risk and environmental exposures such as cannabis or obstetrical complications seem to interact leading to specific neuroimaging cerebral alterations in SZ. They are suggestive of GxE interactions that confer phenotypic abnormalities in SZ and possibly BD. We need further, larger neuroimaging studies of GxE interactions for which we may propose a framework focusing on GxE interactions data already known to have a clinical effect such as infections, early stress, urbanicity and substance abuse.

  11. [Neuropsychology of Tourette's disorder: cognition, neuroimaging and creativity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espert, R; Gadea, M; Alino, M; Oltra-Cucarella, J

    2017-02-24

    Tourette's disorder is the result of fronto-striatal brain dysfunction affecting people of all ages, with a debut in early childhood and continuing into adolescence and adulthood. This article reviews the main cognitive, functional neuroimaging and creativity-related studies in a disorder characterized by an excess of dopamine in the brain. Given the special cerebral configuration of these patients, neuropsychological alterations, especially in executive functions, should be expected. However, the findings are inconclusive and are conditioned by factors such as comorbidity with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder, age or methodological variables. On the other hand, the neuroimaging studies carried out over the last decade have been able to explain the clinical symptoms of Tourette's disorder patients, with special relevance for the supplementary motor area and the anterior cingulate gyrus. Finally, although there is no linear relationship between excess of dopamine and creativity, the scientific literature emphasizes an association between Tourette's disorder and musical creativity, which could be translated into intervention programs based on music.

  12. Publication trends in neuroimaging of minimally conscious states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Garnett

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We used existing and customized bibliometric and scientometric methods to analyze publication trends in neuroimaging research of minimally conscious states and describe the domain in terms of its geographic, contributor, and content features. We considered publication rates for the years 2002–2011, author interconnections, the rate at which new authors are added, and the domains that inform the work of author contributors. We also provided a content analysis of clinical and ethical themes within the relevant literature. We found a 27% growth in the number of papers over the period of study, professional diversity among a wide range of peripheral author contributors but only few authors who dominate the field, and few new technical paradigms and clinical themes that would fundamentally expand the landscape. The results inform both the science of consciousness as well as parallel ethics and policy studies of the potential for translational challenges of neuroimaging in research and health care of people with disordered states of consciousness.

  13. Neuroimaging after mild traumatic brain injury: Review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrus Eierud

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper broadly reviews the study of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI, across the spectrum of neuroimaging modalities. Among the range of imaging methods, however, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is unique in its applicability to studying both structure and function. Thus we additionally performed meta-analyses of MRI results to examine 1 the issue of anatomical variability and consistency for functional MRI (fMRI findings, 2 the analogous issue of anatomical consistency for white-matter findings, and 3 the importance of accounting for the time post injury in diffusion weighted imaging reports. As we discuss, the human neuroimaging literature consists of both small and large studies spanning acute to chronic time points that have examined both structural and functional changes with mTBI, using virtually every available medical imaging modality. Two key commonalities have been used across the majority of imaging studies. The first is the comparison between mTBI and control populations. The second is the attempt to link imaging results with neuropsychological assessments. Our fMRI meta-analysis demonstrates a frontal vulnerability to mTBI, demonstrated by decreased signal in prefrontal cortex compared to controls. This vulnerability is further highlighted by examining the frequency of reported mTBI white matter anisotropy, in which we show a strong anterior-to-posterior gradient (with anterior regions being more frequently reported in mTBI. Our final DTI meta-analysis examines a debated topic arising from inconsistent anisotropy findings across studies. Our results support the hypothesis that acute mTBI is associated with elevated anisotropy values and chronic mTBI complaints are correlated with depressed anisotropy. Thus, this review and set of meta-analyses demonstrate several important points about the ongoing use of neuroimaging to understand the functional and structural changes that occur throughout the time course of mTBI recovery

  14. Neuroimaging findings in Mowat-Wilson syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garavelli, Livia; Ivanovski, Ivan; Caraffi, Stefano Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    of the ZEB2 gene. To date, no characteristic pattern of brain dysmorphology in MWS has been defined. METHODS: Through brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis, we delineated a neuroimaging phenotype in 54 MWS patients with a proven ZEB2 defect, compared it with the features identified in a thorough...... review of published cases, and evaluated genotype-phenotype correlations. RESULTS: Ninety-six percent of patients had abnormal MRI results. The most common features were anomalies of corpus callosum (79.6% of cases), hippocampal abnormalities (77.8%), enlargement of cerebral ventricles (68.5%), and white...

  15. Progress of neuroimaging research on Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-cheng LI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease is the most common neurodegenerative disease which gives rise to senile dementia. High morbidity and poor efficacy of Alzheimer's disease have brought about much pressure to the aging society. However, based on early diagnosis, early clinical intervention may slow down the progression of disease and improve its prognosis. In this review, we attempt to introduce the progress of early neuroimaging diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.03.006

  16. Neuroimaging Features of San Luis Valley Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T. Whitehead

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 14-month-old Hispanic female with a history of double-outlet right ventricle and developmental delay in the setting of recombinant chromosome 8 syndrome was referred for neurologic imaging. Brain MR revealed multiple abnormalities primarily affecting midline structures, including commissural dysgenesis, vermian and brainstem hypoplasia/dysplasia, an interhypothalamic adhesion, and an epidermoid between the frontal lobes that enlarged over time. Spine MR demonstrated hypoplastic C1 and C2 posterior elements, scoliosis, and a borderline low conus medullaris position. Presented herein is the first illustration of neuroimaging findings from a patient with San Luis Valley syndrome.

  17. Cognitive Improvement after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Measured with Functional Neuroimaging during the Acute Period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn R Wylie

    Full Text Available Functional neuroimaging studies in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI have been largely limited to patients with persistent post-concussive symptoms, utilizing images obtained months to years after the actual head trauma. We sought to distinguish acute and delayed effects of mild traumatic brain injury on working memory functional brain activation patterns < 72 hours after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI and again one-week later. We hypothesized that clinical and fMRI measures of working memory would be abnormal in symptomatic mTBI patients assessed < 72 hours after injury, with most patients showing clinical recovery (i.e., improvement in these measures within 1 week after the initial assessment. We also hypothesized that increased memory workload at 1 week following injury would expose different cortical activation patterns in mTBI patients with persistent post-concussive symptoms, compared to those with full clinical recovery. We performed a prospective, cohort study of working memory in emergency department patients with isolated head injury and clinical diagnosis of concussion, compared to control subjects (both uninjured volunteers and emergency department patients with extremity injuries and no head trauma. The primary outcome of cognitive recovery was defined as resolution of reported cognitive impairment and quantified by scoring the subject's reported cognitive post-concussive symptoms at 1 week. Secondary outcomes included additional post-concussive symptoms and neurocognitive testing results. We enrolled 46 subjects: 27 with mild TBI and 19 controls. The time of initial neuroimaging was 48 (+22 S.D. hours after injury (time 1. At follow up (8.7, + 1.2 S.D., days after injury, time 2, 18 of mTBI subjects (64% reported moderate to complete cognitive recovery, 8 of whom fully recovered between initial and follow-up imaging. fMRI changes from time 1 to time 2 showed an increase in posterior cingulate activation in the mTBI subjects

  18. Restoring the Generalizability of SVM Based Decoding in High Dimensional Neuroimage Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Trine Julie; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2011-01-01

    for Support Vector Machines. However, good generalization may be recovered in part by a simple renormalization procedure. We show that with proper renormalization, cross-validation based parameter optimization leads to the acceptance of more non-linearity in neuroimage classifiers than would have been...

  19. Integrating Functional Brain Neuroimaging and Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience in Child Psychiatry Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavuluri, Mani N.; Sweeney, John A.

    2008-01-01

    The use of cognitive neuroscience and functional brain neuroimaging to understand brain dysfunction in pediatric psychiatric disorders is discussed. Results show that bipolar youths demonstrate impairment in affective and cognitive neural systems and in these two circuits' interface. Implications for the diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric…

  20. Neuroimaging a single thought: dorsolateral PFC activity associated with refreshing just-activated information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raye, Carol L; Johnson, Marcia K; Mitchell, Karen J; Reeder, John A; Greene, Erich J

    2002-02-01

    Neuroimaging studies of human working memory (WM) show conflicting results regarding whether dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) contributes to maintaining information in consciousness or is recruited primarily when information must be manipulated. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we looked at a minimal maintenance process--thinking back to a single, just-seen stimulus (refreshing). We found greater activity in left dorsolateral PFC (BA9) when participants refreshed a word compared to reading a word once or a second time. Furthermore, recognition memory was subsequently more accurate and faster for items that had been refreshed, demonstrating that a single thought that maintains activation can have consequences for long-term memory. Our fMRI results call into question any class of models of the functional organization of PFC and WM that associates simple and/or maintenance processes only with ventrolateral PFC or that associates dorsolateral PFC only with more complex processes such as manipulation.

  1. The pilot European Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative of the European Alzheimer's Disease Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisoni, G.B.; Henneman, W.J.; Weiner, M.W.

    2008-01-01

    score showed a significant increase from controls (left, right: 0.4, 0.3) to MCI patients (0.9, 0.8) to AD patients (2.3, 2.0), whereas mean WMH score did not differ among the three diagnostic groups (between 0.7 and 0.9). The distribution of both MRI markers was comparable to matched US-ADNI subjects......BACKGROUND: In North America, the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) has established a platform to track the brain changes of Alzheimer's disease. A pilot study has been carried out in Europe to test the feasibility of the adoption of the ADNI platform (pilot E-ADNI). METHODS: Seven...... academic sites of the European Alzheimer's Disease Consortium (EADC) enrolled 19 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 22 with AD, and 18 older healthy persons by using the ADNI clinical and neuropsychological battery. ADNI compliant magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, cerebrospinal fluid...

  2. Language and thought are not the same thing: evidence from neuroimaging and neurological patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorenko, Evelina; Varley, Rosemary

    2016-04-01

    Is thought possible without language? Individuals with global aphasia, who have almost no ability to understand or produce language, provide a powerful opportunity to find out. Surprisingly, despite their near-total loss of language, these individuals are nonetheless able to add and subtract, solve logic problems, think about another person's thoughts, appreciate music, and successfully navigate their environments. Further, neuroimaging studies show that healthy adults strongly engage the brain's language areas when they understand a sentence, but not when they perform other nonlinguistic tasks such as arithmetic, storing information in working memory, inhibiting prepotent responses, or listening to music. Together, these two complementary lines of evidence provide a clear answer: many aspects of thought engage distinct brain regions from, and do not depend on, language. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  3. Iconicity in the lab: a review of behavioural, developmental, and neuroimaging research into sound-symbolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwilym eLockwood

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This review covers experimental approaches to sound-symbolism — from infants to adults, and from Sapir's foundational studies to 21st century product naming. It synthesises recent behavioural, developmental, and neuroimaging work into a systematic overview of the cross-modal correspondences that underpin iconic links between form and meaning. It also identifies open questions and opportunities, showing how the future course of experimental iconicity research can benefit from an integrated interdisciplinary perspective. Combining insights from psychology and neuroscience with evidence from natural languages provides us with opportunities for the experimental investigation of the role of sound-symbolism in language learning, language processing, and communication. It describes how hypothesis-testing and model-building will help contribute to a cumulative science of sound-symbolism in human language.

  4. Reproducibility of neuroimaging analyses across operating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatard, Tristan; Lewis, Lindsay B; Ferreira da Silva, Rafael; Adalat, Reza; Beck, Natacha; Lepage, Claude; Rioux, Pierre; Rousseau, Marc-Etienne; Sherif, Tarek; Deelman, Ewa; Khalili-Mahani, Najmeh; Evans, Alan C

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging pipelines are known to generate different results depending on the computing platform where they are compiled and executed. We quantify these differences for brain tissue classification, fMRI analysis, and cortical thickness (CT) extraction, using three of the main neuroimaging packages (FSL, Freesurfer and CIVET) and different versions of GNU/Linux. We also identify some causes of these differences using library and system call interception. We find that these packages use mathematical functions based on single-precision floating-point arithmetic whose implementations in operating systems continue to evolve. While these differences have little or no impact on simple analysis pipelines such as brain extraction and cortical tissue classification, their accumulation creates important differences in longer pipelines such as subcortical tissue classification, fMRI analysis, and cortical thickness extraction. With FSL, most Dice coefficients between subcortical classifications obtained on different operating systems remain above 0.9, but values as low as 0.59 are observed. Independent component analyses (ICA) of fMRI data differ between operating systems in one third of the tested subjects, due to differences in motion correction. With Freesurfer and CIVET, in some brain regions we find an effect of build or operating system on cortical thickness. A first step to correct these reproducibility issues would be to use more precise representations of floating-point numbers in the critical sections of the pipelines. The numerical stability of pipelines should also be reviewed.

  5. Neuroimaging of herpesvirus infections in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baskin, Henry J. [Cincinnati Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Hedlund, Gary [Primary Children' s Medical Center, Department of Medical Imaging, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2007-10-15

    Six members of the herpesvirus family cause well-described neurologic disease in children: herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2), varicella-zoster (VZV), Epstein-Barr (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6). When herpesviruses infect the central nervous system (CNS), the clinical presentation is non-specific and often confounding. The clinical urgency is often underscored by progressive neurologic deficits, seizures, or even death, and prompt diagnosis and treatment rely heavily on neuroimaging. This review focuses on the spectrum of cerebral manifestations caused by these viruses, particularly on non-congenital presentations. Recent advances in our understanding of these viruses are discussed, including new polymerase chain reaction techniques that allow parallel detection, which has improved our recognition that the herpesviruses are neurotropic and involve the CNS more often than previously thought. Evolving knowledge has also better elucidated viral neuropathology, particularly the role of VZV vasculitis in the brain, HHV-6 in febrile seizures, and herpesvirus reactivation in immunosuppressed patients. The virology, clinical course, and CNS manifestations of each virus are reviewed, followed by descriptions of neuroimaging findings when these agents infect the brain. Characteristic but often subtle imaging findings are discussed, as well as technical pearls covering appropriate use of MRI and MRI adjuncts to help differentiate viral infection from mimics. (orig.)

  6. Neuroimaging of Muscle Pain in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Niddam

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging has provided important information on how acute and chronic pain is processed in the human brain. The pain experience is now known to be the final product of activity in distributed networks consisting of multiple cortical and subcortical areas. Due to the complex nature of the pain experience, a single cerebral representation of pain does not exist. Instead, pain depends on the context in which it is experienced and is generated through variable expression of the different aspects of pain in conjunction with modulatory influences. While considerable data have been generated about the supraspinal organization of cutaneous pain, little is known about how nociceptive information from musculoskeletal tissue is processed in the brain. This is in spite of the fact that pain from musculoskeletal tissue is more frequently encountered in clinical practice, poses a bigger diagnostic problem and is insufficiently treated. Differences are known to exist between acute pain from cutaneous and muscular tissue in both psychophysical responses as well as in physiological characteristics. The 2 tissue types also differ in pain sensitivity to the same stimuli and in their response to analgesic substances. In this review, characteristics of acute and chronic muscle pain will be presented together with a brief overview of the methods of induction and psychophysical assessment of muscle pain. Results from the neuroimaging literature concerned with phasic and tonic muscle pain will be reviewed.

  7. Pattern Recognition in NeuroImaging: What can machine learning classifiers bring to the analysis of functional brain imaging?

    OpenAIRE

    Schrouff, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    The study of the brain development and functioning raises many question that are tracked using neuroimaging techniques such as positron emission tomography or (functional) magnetic resonance imaging. During the last decades, various techniques have been developed to analyse neuroimaging data. These techniques brought valuable insight on neuroscientific questions, but encounter limitations which make them unsuitable to tackle more complex problems. More recently, machine learning based models,...

  8. A problem-solving task specialized for functional neuroimaging: validation of the Scarborough adaptation of the Tower of London (S-TOL) using near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruocco, Anthony C.; Rodrigo, Achala H.; Lam, Jaeger; Di Domenico, Stefano I.; Graves, Bryanna; Ayaz, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Problem-solving is an executive function subserved by a network of neural structures of which the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is central. Whereas several studies have evaluated the role of the DLPFC in problem-solving, few standardized tasks have been developed specifically for use with functional neuroimaging. The current study adapted a measure with established validity for the assessment of problem-solving abilities to design a test more suitable for functional neuroimaging protocols. The Scarborough adaptation of the Tower of London (S-TOL) was administered to 38 healthy adults while hemodynamic oxygenation of the PFC was measured using 16-channel continuous-wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Compared to a baseline condition, problems that required two or three steps to achieve a goal configuration were associated with higher activation in the left DLPFC and deactivation in the medial PFC. Individuals scoring higher in trait deliberation showed consistently higher activation in the left DLPFC regardless of task difficulty, whereas individuals lower in this trait displayed less activation when solving simple problems. Based on these results, the S-TOL may serve as a standardized task to evaluate problem-solving abilities in functional neuroimaging studies. PMID:24734017

  9. COORDINATE-BASED META-ANALYTIC SEARCH FOR THE SPM NEUROIMAGING PIPELINE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkowski, Bartlomiej; Szewczyk, Marcin; Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup

    2009-01-01

    Large amounts of neuroimaging studies are collected and have changed our view on human brain function. By integrating multiple studies in meta-analysis a more complete picture is emerging. Brain locations are usually reported as coordinates with reference to a specific brain atlas, thus some of t...... directly to some popular bibliographic file formats (BibTeX, Reference Manager, etc)....

  10. Multimodal neuroimaging based classification of autism spectrum disorder using anatomical, neurochemical, and white matter correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libero, Lauren E; DeRamus, Thomas P; Lahti, Adrienne C; Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Kana, Rajesh K

    2015-05-01

    Neuroimaging techniques, such as fMRI, structural MRI, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) have uncovered evidence for widespread functional and anatomical brain abnormalities in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suggesting it to be a system-wide neural systems disorder. Nevertheless, most previous studies have focused on examining one index of neuropathology through a single neuroimaging modality, and seldom using multiple modalities to examine the same cohort of individuals. The current study aims to bring together multiple brain imaging modalities (structural MRI, DTI, and 1H-MRS) to investigate the neural architecture in the same set of individuals (19 high-functioning adults with ASD and 18 typically developing (TD) peers). Morphometry analysis revealed increased cortical thickness in ASD participants, relative to typical controls, across the left cingulate, left pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, left inferior temporal cortex, and right precuneus, and reduced cortical thickness in right cuneus and right precentral gyrus. ASD adults also had reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) and increased radial diffusivity (RD) for two clusters on the forceps minor of the corpus callosum, revealed by DTI analyses. 1H-MRS results showed a reduction in the N-acetylaspartate/Creatine ratio in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) in ASD participants. A decision tree classification analysis across the three modalities resulted in classification accuracy of 91.9% with FA, RD, and cortical thickness as key predictors. Examining the same cohort of adults with ASD and their TD peers, this study found alterations in cortical thickness, white matter (WM) connectivity, and neurochemical concentration in ASD. These findings underscore the potential for multimodal imaging to better inform on the neural characteristics most relevant to the disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Schizophrenia: What do we know from neuroimaging research?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Bosch, M.P.C.; Zedlitz, A.M.E.E.; Hadzibeganovic, T.; Kralingen, R.B.A.S. van

    2009-01-01

    Objectives - A summary of the main neuroimaging findings in the field of schizophrenia will be given in order to get a better understanding of this disorder. Methods - The authors conducted an extensive literature review, using PubMed and the internet. Results - Neuroimaging research on

  12. Neuroimaging in contact sports: Determining brain fitness before ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neuroimaging may also be carried out to assess for evidence of structural brain injury which may make a combatant more likely to express late-life neuropsychiatric sequelae of brain injury, such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy. As such, neuroimaging plays a prognostic role and aids in the determination of whether the ...

  13. Neurobehavioral, neurologic, and neuroimaging characteristics of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Leila; Ware, Ashley L; Mattson, Sarah N

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can have deleterious consequences for the fetus, including changes in central nervous system development leading to permanent neurologic alterations and cognitive and behavioral deficits. Individuals affected by prenatal alcohol exposure, including those with and without fetal alcohol syndrome, are identified under the umbrella of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). While studies of humans and animal models confirm that even low to moderate levels of exposure can have detrimental effects, critical doses of such exposure have yet to be specified and the most clinically significant and consistent consequences occur following heavy exposure. These consequences are pervasive, devastating, and can result in long-term dysfunction. This chapter summarizes the neurobehavioral, neurologic, and neuroimaging characteristics of FASD, focusing primarily on clinical research of individuals with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure, although studies of lower levels of exposure, particularly prospective, longitudinal studies, will be discussed where relevant. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Patients' perceptions of physicians: a pilot study of the influence of prime-time fictional medical shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Mary Elizabeth; Heischmidt, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Much criticism has fallen onto prime-time crime shows for skewing the perception the public has on crime. Could the same criticism apply to prime-time medical dramas, which tend to be among the most watched television shows today, for skewing patients' expectations? In the past, physicians on prime-time fictional medical shows tended to be depicted in a positive manner. However, today's medical dramas often portray physicians in a less positive context. The results of this study showed that television exposure only negatively affect patients' perceptions of physicians in regards to physical attractiveness and character, but not to physician propriety, power, communication, sociability, extroversion, competence, and composure. In addition, this study showed that prime-time fictional shows affect patient-physician interactions.

  15. Basic Emotions in Human Neuroscience: Neuroimaging and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeghin, Alessia; Diano, Matteo; Bagnis, Arianna; Viola, Marco; Tamietto, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The existence of so-called ‘basic emotions’ and their defining attributes represents a long lasting and yet unsettled issue in psychology. Recently, neuroimaging evidence, especially related to the advent of neuroimaging meta-analytic methods, has revitalized this debate in the endeavor of systems and human neuroscience. The core theme focuses on the existence of unique neural bases that are specific and characteristic for each instance of basic emotion. Here we review this evidence, outlining contradictory findings, strengths and limits of different approaches. Constructionism dismisses the existence of dedicated neural structures for basic emotions, considering that the assumption of a one-to-one relationship between neural structures and their functions is central to basic emotion theories. While these critiques are useful to pinpoint current limitations of basic emotions theories, we argue that they do not always appear equally generative in fostering new testable accounts on how the brain relates to affective functions. We then consider evidence beyond PET and fMRI, including results concerning the relation between basic emotions and awareness and data from neuropsychology on patients with focal brain damage. Evidence from lesion studies are indeed particularly informative, as they are able to bring correlational evidence typical of neuroimaging studies to causation, thereby characterizing which brain structures are necessary for, rather than simply related to, basic emotion processing. These other studies shed light on attributes often ascribed to basic emotions, such as automaticity of perception, quick onset, and brief duration. Overall, we consider that evidence in favor of the neurobiological underpinnings of basic emotions outweighs dismissive approaches. In fact, the concept of basic emotions can still be fruitful, if updated to current neurobiological knowledge that overcomes traditional one-to-one localization of functions in the brain. In

  16. Basic Emotions in Human Neuroscience: Neuroimaging and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Celeghin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The existence of so-called ‘basic emotions’ and their defining attributes represents a long lasting and yet unsettled issue in psychology. Recently, neuroimaging evidence, especially related to the advent of neuroimaging meta-analytic methods, has revitalized this debate in the endeavor of systems and human neuroscience. The core theme focuses on the existence of unique neural bases that are specific and characteristic for each instance of basic emotion. Here we review this evidence, outlining contradictory findings, strengths and limits of different approaches. Constructionism dismisses the existence of dedicated neural structures for basic emotions, considering that the assumption of a one-to-one relationship between neural structures and their functions is central to basic emotion theories. While these critiques are useful to pinpoint current limitations of basic emotions theories, we argue that they do not always appear equally generative in fostering new testable accounts on how the brain relates to affective functions. We then consider evidence beyond PET and fMRI, including results concerning the relation between basic emotions and awareness and data from neuropsychology on patients with focal brain damage. Evidence from lesion studies are indeed particularly informative, as they are able to bring correlational evidence typical of neuroimaging studies to causation, thereby characterizing which brain structures are necessary for, rather than simply related to, basic emotion processing. These other studies shed light on attributes often ascribed to basic emotions, such as automaticity of perception, quick onset, and brief duration. Overall, we consider that evidence in favor of the neurobiological underpinnings of basic emotions outweighs dismissive approaches. In fact, the concept of basic emotions can still be fruitful, if updated to current neurobiological knowledge that overcomes traditional one-to-one localization of functions in

  17. An Overview of Multimodal Neuroimaging Using Nanoprobes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram Sridhar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials have gained tremendous significance as contrast agents for both anatomical and functional preclinical bio-imaging. Contrary to conventional medical practices, molecular imaging plays an important role in exploring the affected cells, thus providing precision medical solutions. It has been observed that incorporating nanoprobes improves the overall efficacy of the diagnosis and treatment processes. These nano-agents and tracers are therefore often incorporated into preclinical therapeutic and diagnostic applications. Multimodal imaging approaches are well equipped with nanoprobes to explore neurological disorders, as they can display more than one type of characteristic in molecular imaging. Multimodal imaging systems are explored by researchers as they can provide both anatomical and functional details of tumors and affected tissues. In this review, we present the state-of-the-art research concerning multimodal imaging systems and nanoprobes for neuroimaging applications.

  18. A simple tool for neuroimaging data sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselgrove, Christian; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Kennedy, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Data sharing is becoming increasingly common, but despite encouragement and facilitation by funding agencies, journals, and some research efforts, most neuroimaging data acquired today is still not shared due to political, financial, social, and technical barriers to sharing data that remain. In particular, technical solutions are few for researchers that are not a part of larger efforts with dedicated sharing infrastructures, and social barriers such as the time commitment required to share can keep data from becoming publicly available. We present a system for sharing neuroimaging data, designed to be simple to use and to provide benefit to the data provider. The system consists of a server at the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility (INCF) and user tools for uploading data to the server. The primary design principle for the user tools is ease of use: the user identifies a directory containing Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) data, provides their INCF Portal authentication, and provides identifiers for the subject and imaging session. The user tool anonymizes the data and sends it to the server. The server then runs quality control routines on the data, and the data and the quality control reports are made public. The user retains control of the data and may change the sharing policy as they need. The result is that in a few minutes of the user’s time, DICOM data can be anonymized and made publicly available, and an initial quality control assessment can be performed on the data. The system is currently functional, and user tools and access to the public image database are available at http://xnat.incf.org/. PMID:24904398

  19. Electrical neuroimaging of memory discrimination based on single-trial multisensory learning.

    OpenAIRE

    Thelen Antonia; Cappe Céline; Murray Micah M.

    2012-01-01

    Multisensory experiences influence subsequent memory performance and brain responses. Studies have thus far concentrated on semantically congruent pairings leaving unresolved the influence of stimulus pairing and memory sub types. Here we paired images with unique meaningless sounds during a continuous recognition task to determine if purely episodic single trial multisensory experiences can incidentally impact subsequent visual object discrimination. Psychophysics and electrical neuroimaging...

  20. The ENIGMA Consortium: Large-scale collaborative analyses of neuroimaging and genetic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.M. Thompson (Paul); J.L. Stein; S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth); D.P. Hibar (Derrek); A.A. Vásquez (Arias); M.E. Rentería (Miguel); R. Toro (Roberto); N. Jahanshad (Neda); G. Schumann (Gunter); B. Franke (Barbara); M.J. Wright (Margaret); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); I. Agartz (Ingrid); M. Alda (Martin); S. Alhusaini (Saud); L. Almasy (Laura); K. Alpert (Kathryn); N.C. Andreasen; O.A. Andreassen (Ole); L.G. Apostolova (Liana); K. Appel (Katja); N.J. Armstrong (Nicola); B. Aribisala (Benjamin); M.E. Bastin (Mark); M. Bauer (Michael); C.E. Bearden (Carrie); Ø. Bergmann (Ørjan); E.B. Binder (Elisabeth); J. Blangero (John); H.J. Bockholt; E. Bøen (Erlend); M. Bois (Monique); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); T. Booth (Tom); I.J. Bowman (Ian); L.B.C. Bralten (Linda); R.M. Brouwer (Rachel); H.G. Brunner; D.G. Brohawn (David); M. Buckner; J.K. Buitelaar (Jan); K. Bulayeva (Kazima); J. Bustillo; V.D. Calhoun (Vince); D.M. Cannon (Dara); R.M. Cantor; M.A. Carless (Melanie); X. Caseras (Xavier); G. Cavalleri (Gianpiero); M.M. Chakravarty (M. Mallar); K.D. Chang (Kiki); C.R.K. Ching (Christopher); A. Christoforou (Andrea); S. Cichon (Sven); V.P. Clark; P. Conrod (Patricia); D. Coppola (Domenico); B. Crespo-Facorro (Benedicto); J.E. Curran (Joanne); M. Czisch (Michael); I.J. Deary (Ian); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); A. den Braber (Anouk); G. Delvecchio (Giuseppe); C. Depondt (Chantal); L. de Haan (Lieuwe); G.I. de Zubicaray (Greig); D. Dima (Danai); R. Dimitrova (Rali); S. Djurovic (Srdjan); H. Dong (Hongwei); D.J. Donohoe (Dennis); A. Duggirala (Aparna); M.D. Dyer (Matthew); S.M. Ehrlich (Stefan); C.J. Ekman (Carl Johan); T. Elvsåshagen (Torbjørn); L. Emsell (Louise); S. Erk; T. Espeseth (Thomas); J. Fagerness (Jesen); S. Fears (Scott); I. Fedko (Iryna); G. Fernandez (Guillén); S.E. Fisher (Simon); T. Foroud (Tatiana); P.T. Fox (Peter); C. Francks (Clyde); S. Frangou (Sophia); E.M. Frey (Eva Maria); T. Frodl (Thomas); V. Frouin (Vincent); H. Garavan (Hugh); S. Giddaluru (Sudheer); D.C. Glahn (David); B. Godlewska (Beata); R.Z. Goldstein (Rita); R.L. Gollub (Randy); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); O. Grimm (Oliver); O. Gruber (Oliver); T. Guadalupe (Tulio); R.E. Gur (Raquel); R.C. Gur (Ruben); H.H.H. Göring (Harald); S. Hagenaars (Saskia); T. Hajek (Tomas); G.B. Hall (Garry); J. Hall (Jeremy); J. Hardy (John); C.A. Hartman (Catharina); J. Hass (Johanna); W. Hatton; U.K. Haukvik (Unn); K. Hegenscheid (Katrin); J. Heinz (Judith); I.B. Hickie (Ian); B.C. Ho (Beng ); D. Hoehn (David); P.J. Hoekstra (Pieter); M. Hollinshead (Marisa); A.J. Holmes (Avram); G. Homuth (Georg); M. Hoogman (Martine); L.E. Hong (L.Elliot); N. Hosten (Norbert); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); H.E. Hulshoff Pol (Hilleke); K.S. Hwang (Kristy); C.R. Jack Jr. (Clifford); S. Jenkinson (Sarah); C. Johnston; E.G. Jönsson (Erik); R.S. Kahn (René); D. Kasperaviciute (Dalia); S. Kelly (Steve); S. Kim (Shinseog); P. Kochunov (Peter); L. Koenders (Laura); B. Krämer (Bernd); J.B.J. Kwok (John); J. Lagopoulos (Jim); G. Laje (Gonzalo); M. Landén (Mikael); B.A. Landman (Bennett); J. Lauriello; S. Lawrie (Stephen); P.H. Lee (Phil); S. Le Hellard (Stephanie); H. Lemaître (Herve); C.D. Leonardo (Cassandra); C.-S. Li (Chiang-shan); B. Liberg (Benny); D.C. Liewald (David C.); X. Liu (Xinmin); L.M. Lopez (Lorna); E. Loth (Eva); A. Lourdusamy (Anbarasu); M. Luciano (Michelle); F. MacCiardi (Fabio); M.W.J. Machielsen (Marise); G.M. MacQueen (Glenda); U.F. Malt (Ulrik); R. Mandl (René); D.S. Manoach (Dara); J.-L. Martinot (Jean-Luc); M. Matarin (Mar); R. Mather; M. Mattheisen (Manuel); M. Mattingsdal (Morten); A. Meyer-Lindenberg; C. McDonald (Colm); A.M. McIntosh (Andrew); F.J. Mcmahon (Francis J); K.L. Mcmahon (Katie); E. Meisenzahl (Eva); I. Melle (Ingrid); Y. Milaneschi (Yuri); S. Mohnke (Sebastian); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); D.W. Morris (Derek W); E.K. Moses (Eric); B.A. Mueller (Bryon ); S. Muñoz Maniega (Susana); T.W. Mühleisen (Thomas); B. Müller-Myhsok (Bertram); B. Mwangi (Benson); M. Nauck (Matthias); K. Nho (Kwangsik); T.E. Nichols (Thomas); L.G. Nilsson; A.C. Nugent (Allison); L. Nyberg (Lisa); R.L. Olvera (Rene); J. Oosterlaan (Jaap); R.A. Ophoff (Roel); M. Pandolfo (Massimo); M. Papalampropoulou-Tsiridou (Melina); M. Papmeyer (Martina); T. Paus (Tomas); Z. Pausova (Zdenka); G. Pearlson (Godfrey); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); C.P. Peterson (Charles); A. Pfennig (Andrea); M. Phillips (Mary); G.B. Pike (G Bruce); J.B. Poline (Jean Baptiste); S.G. Potkin (Steven); B. Pütz (Benno); A. Ramasamy (Adaikalavan); J. Rasmussen (Jerod); M. Rietschel (Marcella); M. Rijpkema (Mark); S.L. Risacher (Shannon); J.L. Roffman (Joshua); R. Roiz-Santiañez (Roberto); N. Romanczuk-Seiferth (Nina); E.J. Rose (Emma); N.A. Royle (Natalie); D. Rujescu (Dan); M. Ryten (Mina); P.S. Sachdev (Perminder); A. Salami (Alireza); T.D. Satterthwaite (Theodore); J. Savitz (Jonathan); A.J. Saykin (Andrew); C. Scanlon (Cathy); L. Schmaal (Lianne); H. Schnack (Hugo); N.J. Schork (Nicholas); S.C. Schulz (S.Charles); R. Schür (Remmelt); L.J. Seidman (Larry); L. Shen (Li); L. Shoemaker (Lawrence); A. Simmons (Andrew); S.M. Sisodiya (Sanjay); C. Smith (Colin); J.W. Smoller; J.C. Soares (Jair); S.R. Sponheim (Scott); R. Sprooten (Roy); J.M. Starr (John); V.M. Steen (Vidar); S. Strakowski (Stephen); V.M. Strike (Vanessa); J. Sussmann (Jessika); P.G. Sämann (Philipp); A. Teumer (Alexander); A.W. Toga (Arthur); D. Tordesillas-Gutierrez (Diana); D. Trabzuni (Danyah); S. Trost (Sarah); J. Turner (Jessica); M. van den Heuvel (Martijn); N.J. van der Wee (Nic); K.R. van Eijk (Kristel); T.G.M. van Erp (Theo G.); N.E.M. van Haren (Neeltje E.); D. van 't Ent (Dennis); M.J.D. van Tol (Marie-José); M.C. Valdés Hernández (Maria); D.J. Veltman (Dick); A. Versace (Amelia); H. Völzke (Henry); R. Walker (Robert); H.J. Walter (Henrik); L. Wang (Lei); J.M. Wardlaw (J.); M.E. Weale (Michael); M.W. Weiner (Michael); W. Wen (Wei); L.T. Westlye (Lars); H.C. Whalley (Heather); C.D. Whelan (Christopher); T.J.H. White (Tonya); A.M. Winkler (Anderson); K. Wittfeld (Katharina); G. Woldehawariat (Girma); A. Björnsson (Asgeir); D. Zilles (David); M.P. Zwiers (Marcel); A. Thalamuthu (Anbupalam); J.R. Almeida (Jorge); C.J. Schofield (Christopher); N.B. Freimer (Nelson); N.S. Lawrence (Natalia); D.A. Drevets (Douglas)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in

  1. The ENIGMA Consortium: large-scale collaborative analyses of neuroimaging and genetic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, Paul M.; Stein, Jason L.; Medland, Sarah E.; Hibar, Derrek P.; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Renteria, Miguel E.; Toro, Roberto; Jahanshad, Neda; Schumann, Gunter; Franke, Barbara; Wright, Margaret J.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Agartz, Ingrid; Alda, Martin; Alhusaini, Saud; Almasy, Laura; Almeida, Jorge; Alpert, Kathryn; Andreasen, Nancy C.; Andreassen, Ole A.; Apostolova, Liana G.; Appel, Katja; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Aribisala, Benjamin; Bastin, Mark E.; Bauer, Michael; Bearden, Carrie E.; Bergmann, Orjan; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Blangero, John; Bockholt, Henry J.; Bøen, Erlend; Bois, Catherine; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Booth, Tom; Bowman, Ian J.; Bralten, Janita; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Brunner, Han G.; Brohawn, David G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Buitelaar, Jan; Bulayeva, Kazima; Bustillo, Juan R.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cantor, Rita M.; Carless, Melanie A.; Caseras, Xavier; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chang, Kiki D.; Ching, Christopher R. K.; Christoforou, Andrea; Cichon, Sven; Clark, Vincent P.; Conrod, Patricia; Coppola, Giovanni; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Curran, Joanne E.; Czisch, Michael; Deary, Ian J.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; den Braber, Anouk; Delvecchio, Giuseppe; Depondt, Chantal; de Haan, Lieuwe; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Dima, Danai; Dimitrova, Rali; Djurovic, Srdjan; Dong, Hongwei; Donohoe, Gary; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Dyer, Thomas D.; Ehrlich, Stefan; Ekman, Carl Johan; Elvsåshagen, Torbjørn; Emsell, Louise; Erk, Susanne; Espeseth, Thomas; Fagerness, Jesen; Fears, Scott; Fedko, Iryna; Fernández, Guillén; Fisher, Simon E.; Foroud, Tatiana; Fox, Peter T.; Francks, Clyde; Frangou, Sophia; Frey, Eva Maria; Frodl, Thomas; Frouin, Vincent; Garavan, Hugh; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Glahn, David C.; Godlewska, Beata; Goldstein, Rita Z.; Gollub, Randy L.; Grabe, Hans J.; Grimm, Oliver; Gruber, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.; Göring, Harald H. H.; Hagenaars, Saskia; Hajek, Tomas; Hall, Geoffrey B.; Hall, Jeremy; Hardy, John; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hass, Johanna; Hatton, Sean N.; Haukvik, Unn K.; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hickie, Ian B.; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoehn, David; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hollinshead, Marisa; Holmes, Avram J.; Homuth, Georg; Hoogman, Martine; Hong, L. Elliot; Hosten, Norbert; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Hwang, Kristy S.; Jack, Clifford R.; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnston, Caroline; Jönsson, Erik G.; Kahn, René S.; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Kelly, Sinead; Kim, Sungeun; Kochunov, Peter; Koenders, Laura; Krämer, Bernd; Kwok, John B. J.; Lagopoulos, Jim; Laje, Gonzalo; Landen, Mikael; Landman, Bennett A.; Lauriello, John; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Lee, Phil H.; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Lemaître, Herve; Leonardo, Cassandra D.; Li, Chiang-Shan; Liberg, Benny; Liewald, David C.; Liu, Xinmin; Lopez, Lorna M.; Loth, Eva; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Luciano, Michelle; Macciardi, Fabio; Machielsen, Marise W. J.; Macqueen, Glenda M.; Malt, Ulrik F.; Mandl, René; Manoach, Dara S.; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Matarin, Mar; Mather, Karen A.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mattingsdal, Morten; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; McMahon, Francis J.; McMahon, Katie L.; Meisenzahl, Eva; Melle, Ingrid; Milaneschi, Yuri; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W.; Morris, Derek W.; Moses, Eric K.; Mueller, Bryon A.; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Mwangi, Benson; Nauck, Matthias; Nho, Kwangsik; Nichols, Thomas E.; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Nugent, Allison C.; Nyberg, Lars; Olvera, Rene L.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Ophoff, Roel A.; Pandolfo, Massimo; Papalampropoulou-Tsiridou, Melina; Papmeyer, Martina; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Peterson, Charles P.; Pfennig, Andrea; Phillips, Mary; Pike, G. Bruce; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Potkin, Steven G.; Pütz, Benno; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Rasmussen, Jerod; Rietschel, Marcella; Rijpkema, Mark; Risacher, Shannon L.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rose, Emma J.; Royle, Natalie A.; Rujescu, Dan; Ryten, Mina; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Salami, Alireza; Satterthwaite, Theodore D.; Savitz, Jonathan; Saykin, Andrew J.; Scanlon, Cathy; Schmaal, Lianne; Schnack, Hugo G.; Schork, Andrew J.; Schulz, S. Charles; Schür, Remmelt; Seidman, Larry; Shen, Li; Shoemaker, Jody M.; Simmons, Andrew; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Smith, Colin; Smoller, Jordan W.; Soares, Jair C.; Sponheim, Scott R.; Sprooten, Emma; Starr, John M.; Steen, Vidar M.; Strakowski, Stephen; Strike, Lachlan; Sussmann, Jessika; Sämann, Philipp G.; Teumer, Alexander; Toga, Arthur W.; Tordesillas-Gutierrez, Diana; Trabzuni, Daniah; Trost, Sarah; Turner, Jessica; van den Heuvel, Martijn; van der Wee, Nic J.; van Eijk, Kristel; van Erp, Theo G. M.; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; van 't Ent, Dennis; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Valdés Hernández, Maria C.; Veltman, Dick J.; Versace, Amelia; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Robert; Walter, Henrik; Wang, Lei; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Weale, Michael E.; Weiner, Michael W.; Wen, Wei; Westlye, Lars T.; Whalley, Heather C.; Whelan, Christopher D.; White, Tonya; Winkler, Anderson M.; Wittfeld, Katharina; Woldehawariat, Girma; Wolf, Christiane; Zilles, David; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Schofield, Peter R.; Freimer, Nelson B.; Lawrence, Natalia S.; Drevets, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in neuroscience,

  2. The ENIGMA Consortium : large-scale collaborative analyses of neuroimaging and genetic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, Paul M.; Stein, Jason L.; Medland, Sarah E.; Hibar, Derrek P.; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Renteria, Miguel E.; Toro, Roberto; Jahanshad, Neda; Schumann, Gunter; Franke, Barbara; Wright, Margaret J.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Agartz, Ingrid; Alda, Martin; Alhusaini, Saud; Almasy, Laura; Almeida, Jorge; Alpert, Kathryn; Andreasen, Nancy C.; Andreassen, Ole A.; Apostolova, Liana G.; Appel, Katja; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Aribisala, Benjamin; Bastin, Mark E.; Bauer, Michael; Bearden, Carrie E.; Bergmann, Orjan; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Blangero, John; Bockholt, Henry J.; Boen, Erlend; Bois, Catherine; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Booth, Tom; Bowman, Ian J.; Bralten, Janita; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Brunner, Han G.; Brohawn, David G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Buitelaar, Jan; Bulayeva, Kazima; Bustillo, Juan R.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cantor, Rita M.; Carless, Melanie A.; Caseras, Xavier; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chang, Kiki D.; Ching, Christopher R. K.; Christoforou, Andrea; Cichon, Sven; Clark, Vincent P.; Conrod, Patricia; Coppola, Giovanni; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Curran, Joanne E.; Czisch, Michael; Deary, Ian J.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; den Braber, Anouk; Delvecchio, Giuseppe; Depondt, Chantal; de Haan, Lieuwe; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Dima, Danai; Dimitrova, Rali; Djurovic, Srdjan; Dong, Hongwei; Donohoe, Gary; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Dyer, Thomas D.; Ehrlich, Stefan; Ekman, Carl Johan; Elvsashagen, Torbjorn; Emsell, Louise; Erk, Susanne; Espeseth, Thomas; Fagerness, Jesen; Fears, Scott; Fedko, Iryna; Fernandez, Guillen; Fisher, Simon E.; Foroud, Tatiana; Fox, Peter T.; Francks, Clyde; Frangou, Sophia; Frey, Eva Maria; Frodl, Thomas; Frouin, Vincent; Garavan, Hugh; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Glahn, David C.; Godlewska, Beata; Goldstein, Rita Z.; Gollub, Randy L.; Grabe, Hans J.; Grimm, Oliver; Gruber, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.; Goering, Harald H. H.; Hagenaars, Saskia; Hajek, Tomas; Hall, Geoffrey B.; Hall, Jeremy; Hardy, John; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hass, Johanna; Hatton, Sean N.; Haukvik, Unn K.; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hickie, Ian B.; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoehn, David; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hollinshead, Marisa; Holmes, Avram J.; Homuth, Georg; Hoogman, Martine; Hong, L. Elliot; Hosten, Norbert; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; Hwang, Kristy S.; Jack, Clifford R.; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnston, Caroline; Joensson, Erik G.; Kahn, Rene S.; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Kelly, Sinead; Kim, Sungeun; Kochunov, Peter; Koenders, Laura; Kraemer, Bernd; Kwok, John B. J.; Lagopoulos, Jim; Laje, Gonzalo; Landen, Mikael; Landman, Bennett A.; Lauriello, John; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Lee, Phil H.; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Lemaitre, Herve; Leonardo, Cassandra D.; Li, Chiang-shan; Liberg, Benny; Liewald, David C.; Liu, Xinmin; Lopez, Lorna M.; Loth, Eva; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Luciano, Michelle; Macciardi, Fabio; Machielsen, Marise W. J.; MacQueen, Glenda M.; Malt, Ulrik F.; Mandl, Rene; Manoach, Dara S.; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Matarin, Mar; Mather, Karen A.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mattingsdal, Morten; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; McMahon, Francis J.; McMahon, Katie L.; Meisenzahl, Eva; Melle, Ingrid; Milaneschi, Yuri; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W.; Morris, Derek W.; Moses, Eric K.; Mueller, Bryon A.; Munoz Maniega, Susana; Muehleisen, Thomas W.; Mueller-Myhsok, Bertram; Mwangi, Benson; Nauck, Matthias; Nho, Kwangsik; Nichols, Thomas E.; Nilsson, Lars-Goeran; Nugent, Allison C.; Nyberg, Lars; Olvera, Rene L.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Ophoff, Roel A.; Pandolfo, Massimo; Papalampropoulou-Tsiridou, Melina; Papmeyer, Martina; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Peterson, Charles P.; Pfennig, Andrea; Phillips, Mary; Pike, G. Bruce; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Potkin, Steven G.; Puetz, Benno; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Rasmussen, Jerod; Rietschel, Marcella; Rijpkema, Mark; Risacher, Shannon L.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Roiz-Santianez, Roberto; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rose, Emma J.; Royle, Natalie A.; Rujescu, Dan; Ryten, Mina; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Salami, Alireza; Satterthwaite, Theodore D.; Savitz, Jonathan; Saykin, Andrew J.; Scanlon, Cathy; Schmaal, Lianne; Schnack, Hugo G.; Schork, Andrew J.; Schulz, S. Charles; Schuer, Remmelt; Seidman, Larry; Shen, Li; Shoemaker, Jody M.; Simmons, Andrew; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Smith, Colin; Smoller, Jordan W.; Soares, Jair C.; Sponheim, Scott R.; Sprooten, Emma; Starr, John M.; Steen, Vidar M.; Strakowski, Stephen; Strike, Lachlan; Sussmann, Jessika; Saemann, Philipp G.; Teumer, Alexander; Toga, Arthur W.; Tordesillas-Gutierrez, Diana; Trabzuni, Daniah; Trost, Sarah; Turner, Jessica; Van den Heuvel, Martijn; van der Wee, Nic J.; van Eijk, Kristel; van Erp, Theo G. M.; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; van 't Ent, Dennis; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Hernandez, Maria C. Valdes; Veltman, Dick J.; Versace, Amelia; Voelzke, Henry; Walker, Robert; Walter, Henrik; Wang, Lei; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Weale, Michael E.; Weiner, Michael W.; Wen, Wei; Westlye, Lars T.; Whalley, Heather C.; Whelan, Christopher D.; White, Tonya; Winkler, Anderson M.; Wittfeld, Katharina; Woldehawariat, Girma; Wolf, Christiane; Zilles, David; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Schofield, Peter R.; Freimer, Nelson B.; Lawrence, Natalia S.; Drevets, Wayne

    The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in neuroscience,

  3. Bayesian Model Selection for Pathological Neuroimaging Data Applied to White Matter Lesion Segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sudre, Carole H.; Cardoso, M. Jorge; Bouvy, Willem H.; Biessels, Geert Jan; Barnes, Josephine; Ourselin, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    In neuroimaging studies, pathologies can present themselves as abnormal intensity patterns. Thus, solutions for detecting abnormal intensities are currently under investigation. As each patient is unique, an unbiased and biologically plausible model of pathological data would have to be able to

  4. What Is Self-Specific? Theoretical Investigation and Critical Review of Neuroimaging Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Dorothee; Ruby, Perrine

    2009-01-01

    The authors propose a paradigm shift in the investigation of the self. Synthesizing neuroimaging results from studies investigating the self, the authors first demonstrate that self-relatedness evaluation involves a wide cerebral network, labeled E-network, comprising the medial prefrontal cortex, precuneus, temporoparietal junction, and temporal…

  5. Identifying Predictors, Moderators, and Mediators of Antidepressant Response in Major Depressive Disorder: Neuroimaging Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Mary L.; Chase, Henry W.; Sheline, Yvette I.; Etkin, Amit; Almeida, Jorge R.C.; Deckersbach, Thilo; Trivedi, Madhukar H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Despite significant advances in neuroscience and treatment development, no widely accepted biomarkers are available to inform diagnostics or identify preferred treatments for individuals with major depressive disorder. Method In this critical review, the authors examine the extent to which multimodal neuroimaging techniques can identify biomarkers reflecting key pathophysiologic processes in depression and whether such biomarkers may act as predictors, moderators, and mediators of treatment response that might facilitate development of personalized treatments based on a better understanding of these processes. Results The authors first highlight the most consistent findings from neuroimaging studies using different techniques in depression, including structural and functional abnormalities in two parallel neural circuits: serotonergically modulated implicit emotion regulation circuitry, centered on the amygdala and different regions in the medial prefrontal cortex; and dopaminergically modulated reward neural circuitry, centered on the ventral striatum and medial prefrontal cortex. They then describe key findings from the relatively small number of studies indicating that specific measures of regional function and, to a lesser extent, structure in these neural circuits predict treatment response in depression. Conclusions Limitations of existing studies include small sample sizes, use of only one neuroimaging modality, and a focus on identifying predictors rather than moderators and mediators of differential treatment response. By addressing these limitations and, most importantly, capitalizing on the benefits of multimodal neuroimaging, future studies can yield moderators and mediators of treatment response in depression to facilitate significant improvements in shorter- and longer-term clinical and functional outcomes. PMID:25640931

  6. Motivating forces of human actions. Neuroimaging reward and social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Henrik; Abler, Birgit; Ciaramidaro, Angela; Erk, Susanne

    2005-11-15

    In neuroeconomics, reward and social interaction are central concepts to understand what motivates human behaviour. Both concepts are investigated in humans using neuroimaging methods. In this paper, we provide an overview about these results and discuss their relevance for economic behaviour. For reward it has been shown that a system exists in humans that is involved in predicting rewards and thus guides behaviour, involving a circuit including the striatum, the orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala. Recent studies on social interaction revealed a mentalizing system representing the mental states of others. A central part of this system is the medial prefrontal cortex, in particular the anterior paracingulate cortex. The reward as well as the mentalizing system is engaged in economic decision-making. We will discuss implications of this study for neuromarketing as well as general implications of these results that may help to provide deeper insights into the motivating forces of human behaviour.

  7. Preclinical PET Neuroimaging of [11C]Bexarotene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin H. Rotstein PhD

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Activation of retinoid X receptors (RXRs has been proposed as a therapeutic mechanism for the treatment of neurodegeneration, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. We previously reported radiolabeling of a Food and Drug Administration-approved RXR agonist, bexarotene, by copper-mediated [11C]CO2 fixation and preliminary positron emission tomography (PET neuroimaging that demonstrated brain permeability in nonhuman primate with regional binding distribution consistent with RXRs. In this study, the brain uptake and saturability of [11C]bexarotene were studied in rats and nonhuman primates by PET imaging under baseline and greater target occupancy conditions. [11C]Bexarotene displays a high proportion of nonsaturable uptake in the brain and is unsuitable for RXR occupancy meas