Full Text Available Significant resources around the world have been invested in neuroimaging studies of brain function and disease. Easier access to this large body of work should have profound impact on research in cognitive neuroscience and psychiatry, leading to advances in the diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric and neurological disease. A trend toward increased sharing of neuroimaging data has emerged in recent years. Nevertheless, a number of barriers continue to impede momentum. Many researchers and institutions remain uncertain about how to share data or lack the tools and expertise to participate in data sharing. The use of electronic data capture methods for neuroimaging greatly simplifies the task of data collection and has the potential to help standardize many aspects of data sharing. We review here the motivations for sharing neuroimaging data, the current data sharing landscape, and the sociological or technical barriers that still need to be addressed. The INCF Task Force on Neuroimaging Datasharing, in conjunction with several collaborative groups around the world, has started work on several tools to ease and eventually automate the practice of data sharing. It is hoped that such tools will allow researchers to easily share raw, processed, and derived neuroimaging data, with appropriate metadata and provenance records, and will improve the reproducibility of neuroimaging studies. By providing seamless integration of data sharing and analysis tools within a commodity research environment, the Task Force seeks to identify and minimize barriers to data sharing in the field of neuroimaging.
WEINGARTEN, CAROL P.; STRAUMAN, TIMOTHY J.
Objective This article reviews neuroimaging studies that inform psychotherapy research. An introduction to neuroimaging methods is provided as background for the increasingly sophisticated breadth of methods and findings appearing in psychotherapy research. Method We compiled and assessed a comprehensive list of neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, along with selected examples of other types of studies that also are relevant to psychotherapy research. We emphasized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) since it is the dominant neuroimaging modality in psychological research. Results We summarize findings from neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, including treatment for depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and schizophrenia. Conclusions The increasing use of neuroimaging methods in the study of psychotherapy continues to refine our understanding of both outcome and process. We suggest possible directions for future neuroimaging studies in psychotherapy research. PMID:24527694
We are discussing about many aspects of research integrity of individual scientist, who faces the globalization of research ethics in the traditional culture and custom of Japan. Topics are scientific misconduct (fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism) in writing paper and presenting research results. Managements of research material, research record, grant money, authorship, and conflict of interest are also analyzed and discussed. Finally, we make 5 recommendations to improve research integrity in Japan.
Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Bosch, M.P.C.; Zedlitz, A.M.E.E.; Hadzibeganovic, T.; Kralingen, R.B.A.S. van
Objectives - A summary of the main neuroimaging findings in the field of schizophrenia will be given in order to get a better understanding of this disorder. Methods - The authors conducted an extensive literature review, using PubMed and the internet. Results - Neuroimaging research on
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Laboratory Animal Sciences Program (LASP) provides exceptional quality animal care and technical support services for animal research performed at the National Cancer Institute at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research. LASP executes this mission by providing a broad spectrum of state-of-the-art technologies and services that are focused on the design, generation, characterization and application of genetically engineered and biological animal models of human disease, which are aimed at the development of targeted diagnostics and therapies. LASP contributes to advancing human health, developing new treatments, and improving existing treatments for cancer and other diseases while ensuring safe and humane treatment of animals. KEY ROLES/RESPONSIBILITIES The successful candidate for this Scientist I appointment will contribute to scientific, methodological, operational, and logistical oversight of multiple projects that vary in complexity, scope of objectives, number and breadth of participating collaborator organizations, as well as anticipated requirements of budgetary, labor, animal and other resources. This employee will be instrumental in identifying the need, ensuring timely availability, documentation compliance, and assisting in coordinating project efforts with other scientific core facilities, such as the Small Animal Imaging Program, Histopathology Laboratory, and high-throughput genotyping and animal diagnostic facilities, etc. In addition, the Scientist I position is anticipated to initiate, promote, and facilitate project scientific communications among members of Center for Advanced Preclinical Research (CAPR) Preclinical Technology and Optimization (PTO) team at all levels, including periodic scientific data exchanges, interim project status updates, key final deliverables such as project reports, publications, press-releases, and meeting presentations. This employee will also provide support to the PTO team
Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease is the most common neurodegenerative disease which gives rise to senile dementia. High morbidity and poor efficacy of Alzheimer's disease have brought about much pressure to the aging society. However, based on early diagnosis, early clinical intervention may slow down the progression of disease and improve its prognosis. In this review, we attempt to introduce the progress of early neuroimaging diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.03.006
There are few available resources for learning and teaching about ethical issues in neuroimaging research with children, who constitute a special and vulnerable population. Here, a brief review of ethical issues in developmental research, situated within the emerging field of neuroethics, highlights the increasingly interdisciplinary nature of…
Over the past three decades, neuroimaging studies-including structural, functional and molecular modalities-have provided invaluable insights into the mechanisms underlying Parkinson disease (PD). Observations from multimodal neuroimaging techniques have indicated changes in brain structure and metabolic activity, and an array of neurochemical changes that affect receptor sites and neurotransmitter systems. Characterization of the neurobiological alterations that lead to phenotypic heterogeneity in patients with PD has considerably aided the in vivo investigation of aetiology and pathophysiology, and the identification of novel targets for pharmacological or surgical treatments, including cell therapy. Although PD is now considered to be very complex, no neuroimaging modalities are specifically recommended for routine use in clinical practice. However, conventional MRI and dopamine transporter imaging are commonly used as adjuvant tools in the differential diagnosis between PD and nondegenerative causes of parkinsonism. First-line neuroimaging tools that could have an impact on patient prognosis and treatment strategies remain elusive. This Review discusses the lessons learnt from decades of neuroimaging research in PD, and the promising new approaches with potential applicability to clinical practice.
This talk will describe opportunities for early career faculty members in the physical sciences to obtain funding for scientific research and educational projects. I will discuss programs offered by Research Corporation for Science Advancement, a private nonprofit foundation, which include opportunities for scientists at primarily undergraduate institutions and at research universities. I will emphasize strategies for successful grant writing. The target audience is early career academic scientists in Astronomy, Physics, and related fields, as well as graduate students and postdoctoral researchers considering careers in these academic disciplines.
Murnane, Kevin Sean
Positron emission tomography (PET) neuroimaging in nonhuman primates has led to significant advances in our current understanding of the neurobiology and treatment of stimulant addiction in humans. PET neuroimaging has defined the in vivo biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of abused drugs and related these findings to the time course of behavioral effects associated with their addictive properties. With novel radiotracers and enhanced resolution, PET neuroimaging techniques have also characterized in vivo drug interactions with specific protein targets in the brain, including neurotransmitter receptors and transporters. In vivo determinations of cerebral blood flow and metabolism have localized brain circuits implicated in the effects of abused drugs and drug-associated stimuli. Moreover, determinations of the predisposing factors to chronic drug use and long-term neurobiological consequences of chronic drug use, such as potential neurotoxicity, have led to novel insights regarding the pathology and treatment of drug addiction. However, similar approaches clearly need to be extended to drug classes other than stimulants. Although dopaminergic systems have been extensively studied, other neurotransmitter systems known to play a critical role in the pharmacological effects of abused drugs have been largely ignored in nonhuman primate PET neuroimaging. Finally, the study of brain activation with PET neuroimaging has been replaced in humans mostly by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). There has been some success in implementing pharmacological fMRI in awake nonhuman primates. Nevertheless, the unique versatility of PET imaging will continue to complement the systems-level strengths of fMRI, especially in the context of nonhuman primate drug abuse research. PMID:21317354
Morris, Norma; Rip, Arie
Scientists in academia have struggled to adjust to a policy climate of uncertain funding and loss of freedom from direction and control. How UK life scientists have negotiated this challenge, and with what consequences for their research and the research system, is the empirical entrance point of
de Jong, Irja Marije; Arentshorst, Marlous; Broerse, Jacqueline; Kupper, J.F.H.
Besides offering opportunities in both clinical and non-clinical domains, the application of novel neuroimaging technologies raises pressing dilemmas. 'Responsible Research and Innovation' (RRI) aims to stimulate research and innovation activities that take ethical and social considerations into
Sapienza, Alice M
Managing Scientists Leadership Strategies in Research and Development Alice M. Sapienza "I found ...this book to be exciting ...Speaking as someone who has spent 30 years grappling with these issues, I certainly would be a customer." -Robert I. Taber, PhD Senior Vice President of Research & Development Synaptic Pharmaceutical Corporation In today's climate of enormous scientific and technologic competition, it is more crucial than ever that scientists involved in research and development be managed well. Often trained as individual researchers, scientists can find integration into teams difficult. Managers, from both scientific and nonscientific backgrounds, who are responsible for these teams frequently find effective team building a long and challenging process. Managing Scientists offers strategies for fostering communication and collaboration among scientists. It shows how to build cohesive, productive, and focused teams to succeed in the competitive research and development marketplace. This book wil...
This report is based on the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology’s symposium, “Engaging basic Scientists in Translational Research: Identifying Opportunities, Overcoming Obstacles,” held in Chevy Chase, MD, March 24–25, 2011. Meeting participants examined the benefits of engaging basic scientists in translational research, the challenges to their participation in translational research, and the roles that research institutions, funding organizations, professional societies, and scientific publishers can play to address these challenges. PMID:22500917
The aim of this paper is to investigate the level and reasons of plagiarism of literature among palm scientists in Nigeria. The questionnaire was adopted to gather data in this study. The questionnaire was administered by the researcher to scientists that have published at least one palm article. Usable data were collected ...
This abstract proposes a discussion of how professional science communication and scientific cooperation can become more efficient through the use of modern social network technology, using the example of Mendeley. Mendeley is a research workflow and collaboration tool which crowdsources real-time research trend information and semantic annotations of research papers in a central data store, thereby creating a "social research network" that is emergent from the research data added to the platform. We describe how Mendeley's model can overcome barriers for collaboration by turning research papers into social objects, making academic data publicly available via an open API, and promoting more efficient collaboration. Central to the success of Mendeley has been the creation of a tool that works for the researcher without the requirement of being part of an explicit social network. Mendeley automatically extracts metadata from research papers, and allows a researcher to annotate, tag and organize their research collection. The tool integrates with the paper writing workflow and provides advanced collaboration options, thus significantly improving researchers' productivity. By anonymously aggregating usage data, Mendeley enables the emergence of social metrics and real-time usage stats on top of the articles' abstract metadata. In this way a social network of collaborators, and people genuinely interested in content, emerges. By building this research network around the article as the social object, a social layer of direct relevance to academia emerges. As science, particularly Earth sciences with their large shared resources, become more and more global, the management and coordination of research is more and more dependent on technology to support these distributed collaborations.
The Keystone Symposia Early Career Investigator Travel Award initiative is a unique successful research mentoring program tailored for 'end of the pipeline' life and biomedical scientists from academia and industry. Using targeted educational, mentoring, and networking activities, the program benefits early career scientists in solving a specific laboratory-based research question that is limiting their evolving research and could increase their ability to obtain new grants and improve their career progression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lynch, Louise I.
Citizen science is an increasingly popular collaboration between members of the public and the scientific community to pursue current research questions. In addition to providing researchers with much needed volunteer support, it is a unique and promising form of informal science education that can counter declining public science literacy, including attitudes towards and understanding of science. However, the impacts of citizen science programs on participants' science literacy remains elusive. The purpose of this study was to balance the top-down approach to citizen science research by exploring how adult citizen scientists participate in entomology research based on their perceptions and pioneer mixed methods research to investigate and explain the impacts of citizen science programs. Transference, in which citizen scientists transfer program impacts to people around them, was uncovered in a grounded theory study focused on adults in a collaborative bumble bee research program. Most of the citizen scientists involved in entomology research shared their science experiences and knowledge with people around them. In certain cases, expertise was attributed to the individual by others. Citizen scientists then have the opportunity to acquire the role of expert to those around them and influence knowledge, attitudinal and behavioral changes in others. An intervention explanatory sequential mixed methods design assessed how entomology-based contributory citizen science affects science self-efficacy, self-efficacy for environmental action, nature relatedness and attitude towards insects in adults. However, no statistically significant impacts were evident. A qualitative follow-up uncovered a discrepancy between statistically measured changes and perceived influences reported by citizen scientists. The results have important implications for understanding how citizen scientists learn, the role of citizen scientists in entomology research, the broader program impacts and
Challenges facing young African scientists in their research careers: A qualitative exploratory study. Save Kumwenda, El Hadji A. Niang, Pauline W. Orondo, Pote William, Lateefah Oyinlola, Gedeon N. Bongo, Bernadette Chiwona ...
Ostergren, Jenny E; Hammer, Rachel R; Dingel, Molly J; Koenig, Barbara A; McCormick, Jennifer B
To explore scientists' perspectives on the challenges and pressures of translating research findings into clinical practice and public health policy. We conducted semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 20 leading scientists engaged in genetic research on addiction. We asked participants for their views on how their own research translates, how genetic research addresses addiction as a public health problem and how it may affect the public's view of addiction. Most scientists described a direct translational route for their research, positing that their research will have significant societal benefits, leading to advances in treatment and novel prevention strategies. However, scientists also pointed to the inherent pressures they feel to quickly translate their research findings into actual clinical or public health use. They stressed the importance of allowing the scientific process to play out, voicing ambivalence about the recent push to speed translation. High expectations have been raised that biomedical science will lead to new prevention and treatment modalities, exerting pressure on scientists. Our data suggest that scientists feel caught in the push for immediate applications. This overemphasis on rapid translation can lead to technologies and applications being rushed into use without critical evaluation of ethical, policy, and social implications, and without balancing their value compared to public health policies and interventions currently in place.
Establishes, implements and maintains standardized processes and assesses performance to make recommendations for improvement Provides support and guidance to the cellular therapy or vector production facilities at the NIH Clinical Center engaged in the manufacture of patient specific therapies Manufactures cellular therapy products for human use Develops and manufactures lentiviral and/or retroviral vectors Prepares technical reports, abstracts, presentations and program correspondence concerning assigned projects through research and analysis of information relevant to government policy, regulations and other relevant data and monitor all assigned programs for compliance Provides project management support with planning and development of project schedules and deliverables, tracking project milestones, managing timelines, preparing status reports and monitoring progress ensuring adherence to deadlines Facilitates communication through all levels of staff by functioning as a liaison between internal departments, senior management, and the customer Serves as a leader/mentor to administrative staff and prepares employee performance evaluations Develops and implements procedures/programs to ensure effective and efficient business and operational processes Identifies potential bottlenecks in upcoming development processes and works with team members and senior management for resolution Analyzes and tracks initiatives and contracts Coordinates and reviews daily operations and logistics, including purchasing and shipping of miscellaneous equipment, laboratory and office supplies to ensure compliance with appropriate government regulations Coordinates the administrative, fiscal, contractual, and quality aspects of all projects Ensures that internal budgets, schedules and performance requirements are met Monitors workflow and timelines to ensure production operations are on schedule and adequate raw materials and supplies are available Ensures all activities are in
Moon, Katie; Blackman, Deborah
Natural scientists are increasingly interested in social research because they recognize that conservation problems are commonly social problems. Interpreting social research, however, requires at least a basic understanding of the philosophical principles and theoretical assumptions of the discipline, which are embedded in the design of social research. Natural scientists who engage in social science but are unfamiliar with these principles and assumptions can misinterpret their results. We developed a guide to assist natural scientists in understanding the philosophical basis of social science to support the meaningful interpretation of social research outcomes. The 3 fundamental elements of research are ontology, what exists in the human world that researchers can acquire knowledge about; epistemology, how knowledge is created; and philosophical perspective, the philosophical orientation of the researcher that guides her or his action. Many elements of the guide also apply to the natural sciences. Natural scientists can use the guide to assist them in interpreting social science research to determine how the ontological position of the researcher can influence the nature of the research; how the epistemological position can be used to support the legitimacy of different types of knowledge; and how philosophical perspective can shape the researcher's choice of methods and affect interpretation, communication, and application of results. The use of this guide can also support and promote the effective integration of the natural and social sciences to generate more insightful and relevant conservation research outcomes. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.
Corley, Elizabeth A; Kim, Youngjae; Scheufele, Dietram A
Scientists' sense of social responsibility is particularly relevant for emerging technologies. Since a regulatory vacuum can sometimes occur in the early stages of these technologies, individual scientists' social responsibility might be one of the most significant checks on the risks and negative consequences of this scientific research. In this article, we analyze data from a 2011 mail survey of leading U.S. nanoscientists to explore their perceptions the regarding social and ethical responsibilities for their nanotechnology research. Our analyses show that leading U.S. nanoscientists express a moderate level of social responsibility about their research. Yet, they have a strong sense of ethical obligation to protect laboratory workers (in both universities and industry) from unhealthy exposure to nanomaterials. We also find that there are significant differences in scientists' sense of social and ethical responsibility depending on their demographic characteristics, job affiliation, attention to media content, risk perceptions and benefit perceptions. We conclude with some implications for future research.
Van Eperen, Laura; Marincola, Francesco M
Millions of people all over the world are constantly sharing an extremely wide range of fascinating, quirky, funny, irrelevant and important content all at once. Even scientists are no strangers to this trend. Social media has enabled them to communicate their research quickly and efficiently throughout each corner of the world. But which social media platforms are they using to communicate this research and how are they using them? One thing is clear: the range of social media platforms that scientists are using is relatively vast and dependent on discipline and sentiment. While the future of social media is unknown, a combination of educated speculation and persuasive fact points to the industry's continual growth and influence. Thus, is that not only are scientists utilizing social media to communicate their research, they must. The ability to communicate to the masses via social media is critical to the distribution of scientific information amongst professionals in the field and to the general population.
Full Text Available Contents of value-meaning barriers are covered that acquire certain specifics in research activity and influence formation of meaning-forming research motivation of junior scientists. Such barriers were assumed to be conditioned by dissonance between dominating values and degree of their realization in junior researchers. Sample of respondents included 88 beginners: postgraduate students (n=65 and masters (n=23 of Tomsk high schools aged between 21 and 35 years. As research methods the expanded version of technique by M. Rokeach (proposed by M.S. Yanitsky and A.V. Seryy, methods of statistical analysis of results (frequency analysis, Mann-Whitney test were used. Relevant value orientations of junior scientists are presented. Gender differences in value-meaning domain are revealed. Differences in values in postgraduate students and masters were found. Dissonance in degree of fulfillment of terminal and instrumental values has been established that indicates disturbances of value-meaning domain of the personality of junior scientists. Results add to scientific ideas about value-meaning barriers in research activity of junior scientists.
Promoting Best Research Practices Amongst Palms Scientists in Nigeria: the issue of Plagiarism. ... If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your ...
Collaborative research and publication by animal scientists in a Nigerian Agricultural University. MO Salaam, AT Agboola. Abstract. No Abstract. Lagos Journal of Library and Information Science Vol. 3(1) 2005: 1-6. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.
Gender differentials in ICT uptake rating among research scientists in the Universities of Agriculture, Nigeria. ... Primary data were used for the study which was generated through the use of questionnaire. The study took ... Males have higher level of ICT knowledge and spent more time on ICT than their female counterpart.
Kong, Nicole H Y; Chow, Pierce K H
Conflict of interest (COI) in research represents situations that pose risks of undue influence on scientific objectivity and judgment because of secondary interests. This is complex but is inherent to biomedical research. The role of a clinician scientist can be conflicted when scientific objectivity is perceived to compete with scientific success (publications, grants), partiality to patients (clinical trials), obligations to colleagues (allowing poor scholarship to pass), research sponsors (industry), and financial gains (patents, royalties). While there are many ways which COIs can occur in research, COI mitigations remain reliable. Collaborations between investigators and industry are valuable to the development of novel therapies and undue discouragement of these relationships may inadvertently harm the advancement of healthcare. As a result, proper management of COI is fundamental and crucial to the maintenance of long-term, mutually beneficial relationships between industry and academia. The nature of COI in research and methods of mitigation are discussed from the perspective of a clinician scientist.
Edelmann, Achim; Moody, James; Light, Ryan
What drives scientists' position taking on matters where empirical answers are unavailable or contradictory? We examined the contentious debate on whether to limit experiments involving the creation of potentially pandemic pathogens. Hundreds of scientists, including Nobel laureates, have signed petitions on the debate, providing unique insights into how scientists take a public stand on important scientific policies. Using 19,257 papers published by participants, we reconstructed their collaboration networks and research specializations. Although we found significant peer associations overall, those opposing "gain-of-function" research are more sensitive to peers than are proponents. Conversely, specializing in fields directly related to gain-of-function research (immunology, virology) predicts public support better than specializing in fields related to potential pathogenic risks (such as public health) predicts opposition. These findings suggest that different social processes might drive support compared with opposition. Supporters are embedded in a tight-knit scholarly community that is likely both more familiar with and trusting of the relevant risk mitigation practices. Opponents, on the other hand, are embedded in a looser federation of widely varying academic specializations with cognate knowledge of disease and epidemics that seems to draw more heavily on peers. Understanding how scientists' social embeddedness shapes the policy actions they take is important for helping sides interpret each other's position accurately, avoiding echo-chamber effects, and protecting the role of scientific expertise in social policy.
Jenkins, Gregory S.; Diongue, Aida
Geoscientists from developing nations often encounter multiple obstacles in disseminating the results of their research to fellow scientists in other countries. Some of these obstacles as they pertain specifically to researchers from West Africa and proposals to overcome them were discussed as a component of a recent three-day workshop. (However, these obstacles can be safely assumed to affect many geoscientists from developing countries, and from countries whose economies are in transition.)The purpose of the workshop, held in Washington, D.C. on July 27-29, was to examine scientific and social issues associated with climate variability and change in West Africa. It was attended by atmospheric scientists, and by some participants in the ocean sciences, from Algeria, Botswana, Cameroon, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Zambia, and the United States, representing universities, research laboratories, and meteorological services. The common thread among them was active involvement in weather- and climate-related research in West Africa.
Van Eperen Laura; Marincola Francesco M
Abstract Millions of people all over the world are constantly sharing an extremely wide range of fascinating, quirky, funny, irrelevant and important content all at once. Even scientists are no strangers to this trend. Social media has enabled them to communicate their research quickly and efficiently throughout each corner of the world. But which social media platforms are they using to communicate this research and how are they using them? One thing is clear: the range of social media platf...
G. Ali Hossein-Zadeh
Full Text Available ABSTRACTNeuroimaging allows noninvasive evaluation of the anatomy, physiology, and function of the brain. It is widely used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and treatment evaluation of neurological disorders as well as understanding functions of the brain in health and disease. Neuroimaging modalities include X-ray computed tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, positron emission tomography (PET, electroencephalography (EEG, and magnetoencephalography (MEG. This paper presents an overview of the neuroimaging research in Iran in recent years, partitioned into three categories: anatomical imaging; anatomical image analysis; and functional imaging and analysis. Published papers reflect considerable progress in development of neuroimaging infrastructure, hardware installation and software development. However, group work and research collaborations among engineers, scientists, and clinicians need significant enhancement to optimize utility of the resources and maximize productivity. This is a challenge that cannot be solved without specific plans, policies, and funding.
Wong, Stephen T C; Hoo, Kent Soo; Cao, Xinhua; Tjandra, Donny; Fu, J C; Dillon, William P
Clinical databases are continually growing and accruing more patient information. One of the challenges for managing this wealth of data is efficient retrieval and analysis of a broad range of image and non-image patient data from diverse data sources. This article describes the design and implementation of a new class of research data warehouse, neuroinformatics database system (NIDS), which will alleviate these problems for clinicians and researchers studying and treating patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy. The NIDS is a secured, multi-tier system that enables the user to gather, proofread, analyze, and store data from multiple underlying sources. In addition to data management, the NIDS provides several key functions including image analysis and processing, free text search of patient reports, construction of general queries, and on-line statistical analysis. The establishment of this integrated research database will serve as a foundation for future hypothesis-driven experiments, which could uncover previously unsuspected correlations and perhaps help to identify new and accurate predictors for image diagnosis.
Buxner, Sanlyn R.; Anbar, Ariel; Semken, Steve; Mead, Chris; Horodyskyj, Lev; Perera, Viranga; Bruce, Geoffrey; Schönstein, David
Scientists spend years training in their scientific discipline and are well versed the literature, methods, and innovations in their own field. Many scientists also take on teaching responsibilities with little formal training in how to implement their courses or assess their students. There is a growing body of literature of what students know in space science courses and the types of innovations that can work to increase student learning but scientists rarely have exposure to this body of literature. For scientists who are interested in more effectively understanding what their students know or investigating the impact their courses have on students, there is little guidance. Undertaking a more formal study of students poses more complexities including finding robust instruments and employing appropriate data analysis. Additionally, formal research with students involves issues of privacy and human subjects concerns, both regulated by federal laws.This poster details the important decisions and issues to consider for both course evaluation and more formal research using a course developed, facilitated, evaluated and researched by a hybrid team of scientists and science education researchers. HabWorlds, designed and implemented by a team of scientists and faculty at Arizona State University, has been using student data to continually improve the course as well as conduct formal research on students’ knowledge and attitudes in science. This ongoing project has had external funding sources to allow robust assessment not available to most instructors. This is a case study for discussing issues that are applicable to designing and assessing all science courses. Over the course of several years, instructors have refined course outcomes and learning objectives that are shared with students as a roadmap of instruction. The team has searched for appropriate tools for assessing student learning and attitudes, tested them and decided which have worked, or not, for
Retico, Alessandra; Arezzini, Silvia; Bosco, Paolo; Calderoni, Sara; Ciampa, Alberto; Coscetti, Simone; Cuomo, Stefano; De Santis, Luca; Fabiani, Dario; Fantacci, Maria Evelina; Giuliano, Alessia; Mazzoni, Enrico; Mercatali, Pietro; Miscali, Giovanni; Pardini, Massimiliano; Prosperi, Margherita; Romano, Francesco; Tamburini, Elena; Tosetti, Michela; Muratori, Filippo
The complexity and heterogeneity of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) require the implementation of dedicated analysis techniques to obtain the maximum from the interrelationship among many variables that describe affected individuals, spanning from clinical phenotypic characterization and genetic profile to structural and functional brain images. The ARIANNA project has developed a collaborative interdisciplinary research environment that is easily accessible to the community of researchers working on ASD (https://arianna.pi.infn.it). The main goals of the project are: to analyze neuroimaging data acquired in multiple sites with multivariate approaches based on machine learning; to detect structural and functional brain characteristics that allow the distinguishing of individuals with ASD from control subjects; to identify neuroimaging-based criteria to stratify the population with ASD to support the future development of personalized treatments. Secure data handling and storage are guaranteed within the project, as well as the access to fast grid/cloud-based computational resources. This paper outlines the web-based architecture, the computing infrastructure and the collaborative analysis workflows at the basis of the ARIANNA interdisciplinary working environment. It also demonstrates the full functionality of the research platform. The availability of this innovative working environment for analyzing clinical and neuroimaging information of individuals with ASD is expected to support researchers in disentangling complex data thus facilitating their interpretation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Antonella Del Rosso
In 2016, the next edition of the unique conference that gathers scientists from a variety of fields will focus on many topics particularly dear to the heart of physicists, clinicians, biologists, and computer specialists. The call for abstracts is open until 16 October. When detector physicists, radiochemists, nuclear-medicine physicians and other physicists, biologists, software developers, accelerator experts and oncologists think outside the box and get involved in multidisciplinary research, they create innovative healthcare. ICTR-PHE is a biennial event, co-organised by CERN, whose main aim is to foster multidisciplinary research by positioning itself at the crossing of physics, medicine and biology. At the ICTR-PHE conference, physicists, engineers, and computer scientists share their knowledge and technologies while doctors and biologists present their needs and vision for the medical tools of the future, thus triggering breakthrough ideas and technological developments in speci...
Full Text Available Introduction Tinnitus is an abnormal perception of sound in the absence of an external stimulus. Chronic tinnitus usually has a high impact in many aspects of patients' lives, such as emotional stress, sleep disturbance, concentration difficulties, and so on. These strong reactions are usually attributed to central nervous system involvement. Neuroimaging has revealed the implication of brain structures in the auditory system. Objective This systematic review points out neuroimaging studies that contribute to identifying the structures involved in the pathophysiological mechanism of generation and persistence of various forms of tinnitus. Data Synthesis Functional imaging research reveals that tinnitus perception is associated with the involvement of the nonauditory brain areas, including the front parietal area; the limbic system, which consists of the anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula, and amygdala; and the hippocampal and parahippocampal area. Conclusion The neuroimaging research confirms the involvement of the mechanisms of memory and cognition in the persistence of perception, anxiety, distress, and suffering associated with tinnitus.
Lee, Nick; Chamberlain, Laura
Although organizational research has made tremendous strides in the last century, recent advances in neuroscience and the imaging of functional brain activity remain underused. In fact, even the use of well-established psychophysiological measurement tools is comparatively rare. Following the lead of social cognitive neuroscience, in this review, we conceptualize organizational cognitive neuroscience as a field dedicated to exploring the processes within the brain that underlie or influence human decisions, behaviors, and interactions either (a) within organizations or (b) in response to organizational manifestations or institutions. We discuss organizational cognitive neuroscience, bringing together work that may previously have been characterized rather atomistically, and provide a brief overview of individual methods that may be of use. Subsequently, we discuss the possible convergence and integration of the different neuroimaging and psychophysiological measurement modalities. A brief review of prior work in the field shows a significant need for a more coherent and theory-driven approach to organizational cognitive neuroscience. In response, we discuss a recent example of such work, along with three hypothetical case studies that exemplify the link between organizational and psychological theory and neuroscientific methods.
Catalyst Collaborative@MIT (CC@MIT) is a collaboration between MIT and Underground Railway Theater (URT), a company with 30 years experience creating theater through interdisciplinary inquiry and engaging community. CC@MIT is dedicated to creating and presenting plays that deepen public understanding about science, while simultaneously providing artistic and emotional experiences not available in other forms of dialogue about science. CC@MIT engages audiences in thinking about themes in science of social and ethical concern; provides insight into the culture of science and the impact of that culture on society; and examines the human condition through the lens of science that intersects our lives and the lives of scientists. Original productions range from Einstein's Dreams to From Orchids to Octopi -- an evolutionary love story; classics re-framed include The Life of Galileo and Breaking the Code (about Alan Turing). CC@MIT commissions playwrights and scientists to create plays; engages audiences with scientists; performs at MIT and a professional venue near the campus; collaborates with the Cambridge Science Festival and MIT Museum; engages MIT students, as well as youth and children. Artistic Director Debra Wise will address how the collaboration developed, what opportunities are provided by collaborations between theaters and scientific research institutions, and lessons learned of value to the field.
Full Text Available The use of structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI in animals models of neuropathology is of increasing interest to the neuroscience community. In this work, we present our approach to create optimal translational studies that include both animal and human neuroimaging data within the frameworks of a study of postnatal neuro-development in intra-uterine cocaine exposure. We propose the use of non-invasive neuroimaging to study developmental brain structural and white matter pathway abnormalities via sMRI and DTI, as advanced MR imaging technology is readily available and automated image analysis methodology have recently been transferred from the human to animal imaging setting. For this purpose, we developed a synergistic, parallel approach to imaging and image analysis for the human and the rodent branch of our study. We propose an equivalent design in both the selection of the developmental assessment stage and the neuroimaging setup. This approach brings significant advantages to study neurobiological features of early brain development that are common to animals and humans but also preserve analysis capabilities only possible in animal research. This paper presents the main framework and individual methods for the proposed cross-species study design, as well as preliminary DTI cross-species comparative results in the intra-uterine cocaine exposure study.
Wintermark, Max; Albers, Gregory W.; Alexandrov, Andrei V.; Alger, Jeffry R.; Bammer, Roland; Baron, Jean-Claude; Davis, Stephen; Demaerschalk, Bart M.; Derdeyn, Colin P.; Donnan, Geoffrey A.; Eastwood, James D.; Fiebach, Jochen B.; Fisher, Marc; Furie, Karen L.; Goldmakher, Gregory V.; Hacke, Werner; Kidwell, Chelsea S.; Kloska, Stephan P.; Koehrmann, Martin; Koroshetz, Walter; Lee, Ting-Yim; Lees, Kennedy R.; Lev, Michael H.; Liebeskind, David S.; Ostergaard, Leif; Powers, William J.; Provenzale, James; Schellinger, Peter; Silbergleit, Robert; Sorensen, Alma Gregory; Wardlaw, Joanna; Warach, Steven
The recent "Advanced Neuroimaging for Acute Stroke Treatment" meeting on September 7 and 8, 2007 in Washington DC, brought together stroke neurologists, neuroradiologists, emergency physicians, neuroimaging research scientists, members of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
Meinzer, Marcus; Beeson, Pélagie M.; Cappa, Stefano; Crinion, Jenny; Kiran, Swathi; Saur, Dorothee; Parrish, Todd; Crosson, Bruce; Thompson, Cynthia K.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging is the most widely used imaging technique to study treatment-induced recovery in post-stroke aphasia. The longitudinal design of such studies adds to the challenges researchers face when studying patient populations with brain damage in cross-sectional settings. The present review focuses on issues specifically relevant to neuroimaging data analysis in aphasia treatment research identified in discussions among international researchers at the Neuroimaging in Aphasia Treatment Research Workshop held at Northwestern University (Evanston, Illinois, USA). In particular, we aim to provide the reader with a critical review of unique problems related to the pre-processing, statistical modeling and interpretation of such data sets. Despite the fact that data analysis procedures critically depend on specific design features of a given study, we aim to discuss and communicate a basic set of practical guidelines that should be applicable to a wide range of studies and useful as a reference for researchers pursuing this line of research. PMID:22387474
Sherif, Tarek; Rioux, Pierre; Rousseau, Marc-Etienne; Kassis, Nicolas; Beck, Natacha; Adalat, Reza; Das, Samir; Glatard, Tristan; Evans, Alan C
The Canadian Brain Imaging Research Platform (CBRAIN) is a web-based collaborative research platform developed in response to the challenges raised by data-heavy, compute-intensive neuroimaging research. CBRAIN offers transparent access to remote data sources, distributed computing sites, and an array of processing and visualization tools within a controlled, secure environment. Its web interface is accessible through any modern browser and uses graphical interface idioms to reduce the technical expertise required to perform large-scale computational analyses. CBRAIN's flexible meta-scheduling has allowed the incorporation of a wide range of heterogeneous computing sites, currently including nine national research High Performance Computing (HPC) centers in Canada, one in Korea, one in Germany, and several local research servers. CBRAIN leverages remote computing cycles and facilitates resource-interoperability in a transparent manner for the end-user. Compared with typical grid solutions available, our architecture was designed to be easily extendable and deployed on existing remote computing sites with no tool modification, administrative intervention, or special software/hardware configuration. As October 2013, CBRAIN serves over 200 users spread across 53 cities in 17 countries. The platform is built as a generic framework that can accept data and analysis tools from any discipline. However, its current focus is primarily on neuroimaging research and studies of neurological diseases such as Autism, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, Multiple Sclerosis as well as on normal brain structure and development. This technical report presents the CBRAIN Platform, its current deployment and usage and future direction.
Sorrentino, Carmen; Boggio, Andrea; Confalonieri, Stefano; Hemenway, David; Scita, Giorgio; Ballabeni, Andrea
Basic scientific research generates knowledge that has intrinsic value which is independent of future applications. Basic research may also lead to practical benefits, such as a new drug or diagnostic method. Building on our previous study of basic biomedical and biological researchers at Harvard, we present findings from a new survey of similar scientists from three countries. The goal of this study was to design policies to enhance both the public health potential and the work satisfaction and test scientists' attitudes towards these factors. The present survey asked about the scientists' motivations, goals and perspectives along with their attitudes concerning policies designed to increase both the practical (i.e. public health) benefits of basic research as well as their own personal satisfaction. Close to 900 basic investigators responded to the survey; results corroborate the main findings from the previous survey of Harvard scientists. In addition, we find that most bioscientists disfavor present policies that require a discussion of the public health potential of their proposals in grants but generally favor softer policies aimed at increasing the quality of work and the potential practical benefits of basic research. In particular, bioscientists are generally supportive of those policies entailing the organization of more meetings between scientists and the general public, the organization of more academic discussion about the role of scientists in the society, and the implementation of a "basic bibliography" for each new approved drug.
Dooley, James J.; Kerch, Helen M.
Scientific misconduct includes the fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism (FFP) of concepts, data or ideas; some institutions in the United States have expanded this concept to include "other serious deviations (OSD) from accepted research practice." It is the absence of this OSD clause that distinguishes scientific misconduct policies of the past from the "research misconduct" policies that should be the basis of future federal policy in this area. This paper introduces a standard for judging whether an action should be considered research misconduct as distinguished from scientific misconduct: by this standard, research misconduct must involve activities unique to the practice of science and must have the potential to negatively affect the scientific record. Although the number of cases of scientific misconduct is uncertain (only the NIH and the NSF keep formal records), the costs are high in terms of the integrity of the scientific record, diversions from research to investigate allegations, ruined careers of those eventually exonerated, and erosion of public confidence in science. Existing scientific misconduct policies vary from institution to institution and from government agency to government agency; some have highly developed guidelines that include OSD, others have no guidelines at all. One result has been that the federal False Claims Act has been used to pursue allegations of scientific misconduct. As a consequence, such allegations have been adjudicated in federal courts, rather than judged by scientific peers. The federal government is now establishing a first-ever research misconduct policy that would apply to all research funded by the federal government regardless of which agency funded the research or whether the research was carried out in a government, industrial or university laboratory. Physical scientists, who up to now have only infrequently been the subject of scientific misconduct allegations, must none! theless become active in the
Krzysztof J Gorgolewski
Full Text Available Recent years have seen an increase in alarming signals regarding the lack of replicability in neuroscience, psychology, and other related fields. To avoid a widespread crisis in neuroimaging research and consequent loss of credibility in the public eye, we need to improve how we do science. This article aims to be a practical guide for researchers at any stage of their careers that will help them make their research more reproducible and transparent while minimizing the additional effort that this might require. The guide covers three major topics in open science (data, code, and publications and offers practical advice as well as highlighting advantages of adopting more open research practices that go beyond improved transparency and reproducibility.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health concerns have driven the European environmental policies of the last 25 years, with issues becoming more complex. Addressing these concerns requires an approach that is both interdisciplinary and engages scientists with society. In response to this requirement, the FP6 coordination action “Health and Environment Network” HENVINET was set up to create a permanent inter-disciplinary network of professionals in the field of health and environment tasked to bridge the communication gap between science and society. In this paper we describe how HENVINET delivered on this task. Methods The HENVINET project approached the issue of inter-disciplinary collaboration in four ways. (1 The Drivers-Pressures-State-Exposure-Effect-Action framework was used to structure information gathering, collaboration and communication between scientists in the field of health and the environment. (2 Interactive web-based tools were developed to enhance methods for knowledge evaluation, and use these methods to formulate policy advice. (3 Quantification methods were adapted to measure scientific agreement. And (4 Open architecture web technology was used to develop an information repository and a web portal to facilitate collaboration and communication among scientists. Results Twenty-five organizations from Europe and five from outside Europe participated in the Health and Environment Network HENVINET, which lasted for 3.5 years. The consortium included partners in environmental research, public health and veterinary medicine; included medical practitioners and representatives of local administrations; and had access to national policy making and EEA and WHO expertise. Dedicated web-based tools for visualisation of environmental health issues and knowledge evaluation allowed remote expert elicitation, and were used as a basis for developing policy advice in five health areas (asthma and allergies; cancer; neurodevelopmental disorders
Jeffry R. Alger
Full Text Available The Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP Research Network is an ongoing multi-center collaborative research group established to conduct integrated studies in participants with urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome (UCPPS. The goal of these investigations is to provide new insights into the etiology, natural history, clinical, demographic and behavioral characteristics, search for new and evaluate candidate biomarkers, systematically test for contributions of infectious agents to symptoms, and conduct animal studies to understand underlying mechanisms for UCPPS. Study participants were enrolled in a one-year observational study and evaluated through a multisite, collaborative neuroimaging study to evaluate the association between UCPPS and brain structure and function. 3D T1-weighted structural images, resting-state fMRI, and high angular resolution diffusion MRI were acquired in five participating MAPP Network sites using 8 separate MRI hardware and software configurations. We describe the neuroimaging methods and procedures used to scan participants, the challenges encountered in obtaining data from multiple sites with different equipment/software, and our efforts to minimize site-to-site variation.
Bell, R. E.; Pfirman, S.; Culligan, P.; Laird, J.
The post-doc and the first six years of the academic lifecycle are crucial: the performance and decisions a scientist makes during this time often set the stage for the rest of his or her career. We frame our presentation around the criteria that reviewers typically use to assess candidates: reputation, impact, and productivity. Publication productivity is one of the most critical aspects of a researcher's success and the number of publications is often the first item that evaluators look for when reviewing files of job applicants and tenure candidates. Citations are typically used as a measure of impact, but they reflect a complicated set of factors besides quality, for example, visibility, size of citing community, and integration in social and professional networks. Letters of recommendation carry significant weight in evaluations for promotion because they are the only external measure that synthesizes all three parameters: reputation, impact and productivity. We have developed strategies for developing a research plan, getting the most out of scientific meetings, identifying potential letter writers, and integrating research into teaching. In this presentation we combine insights from the literature with our own experiences, to outline these strategies for increasing research productivity, recognition, and impact.
Full Text Available The Canadian Brain Imaging Research Platform (CBRAIN is a web-based collaborative research platform developed in response to the challenges raised by data-heavy, compute-intensive neuroimaging research. CBRAIN offers transparent access to remote data sources, distributed computing sites and an array of processing and visualization tools within a controlled, secure environment. Its web interface is accessible through any modern browser and uses graphical interface idioms to reduce the technical expertise required to perform large-scale computational analyses. CBRAIN’s flexible meta-scheduling has allowed the incorporation of a wide range of heterogeneous computing sites, currently including nine national research High Performance Computing (HPC centers in Canada, one in Korea, one in Germany and several local research servers. CBRAIN leverages remote computing cycles and facilitates resource-interoperability in a transparent manner for the end-user. Compared with typical grid solutions available, our architecture was designed to be easily extendable and deployed on existing remote computing sites with no tool modification, administrative intervention or special software/hardware configuration. As October 2013, CBRAIN serves over 200 users spread across 53 cities in 17 countries. The platform is built as a generic framework that can accept data and analysis tools from any discipline. However, its current focus is primarily on neuroimaging research and studies of neurological diseases such as Autism, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases, Multiple Sclerosis as well as on normal brain structure and development. This technical report presents the CBRAIN Platform, its current deployment and usage and future direction.
Elliott, Kevin C; McCright, Aaron M; Allen, Summer; Dietz, Thomas
Scientists who perform environmental research on policy-relevant topics face challenges when communicating about how values may have influenced their research. This study examines how citizens view scientists who publicly acknowledge values. Specifically, we investigate whether it matters: if citizens share or oppose a scientist's values, if a scientist's conclusions seem contrary to or consistent with the scientist's values, and if a scientist is assessing the state of the science or making a policy recommendation. We conducted two 3x2 factorial design online experiments. Experiment 1 featured a hypothetical scientist assessing the state of the science on the public-health effects of exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA), and Experiment 2 featured a scientist making a policy recommendation on use of BPA. We manipulated whether or not the scientist expressed values and whether the scientist's conclusion appeared contrary to or consistent with the scientist's values, and we accounted for whether or not subjects' values aligned with the scientist's values. We analyzed our data with ordinary least squares (OLS) regression techniques. Our results provide at least preliminary evidence that acknowledging values may reduce the perceived credibility of scientists within the general public, but this effect differs depending on whether scientists and citizens share values, whether scientists draw conclusions that run contrary to their values, and whether scientists make policy recommendations.
Cloyd, E. T.; Reeves, K.; Shimamoto, M. M.; Zerbonne, S.
The U.S. Global Change Research Program has a mandate to "consult with actual and potential users of the results of the program" in developing products that will support learning about and responding to climate change. USGCRP has sought to engage stakeholders throughout the development and dissemination of key products, such as the Third National Climate Assessment (NCA3, 2014) and the Climate and Health Assessment (CHA, 2016), in the strategic planning processes leading to the National Global Change Research Plan (2012) and Update to the Strategic Plan (2016), and through regular postings to social media that highlight research results and opportunities for engagement. Overall, USGCRP seeks to promote dialogue between scientific experts, stakeholders, and decision makers about information needs in regions or sectors, the potential impacts of climate change, and possible responses. This presentation will describe how USGCRP has implemented various stakeholder engagement measures during the planning, development, and release of products such as NCA3 and CHA. Through repeated opportunities for stakeholder input, USGCRP has promoted process transparency and inclusiveness in the framing of assessments and other products. In addition, USGCRP has supported scientists' engagement with a range of audiences and potential collaborators through a variety of mechanisms, including community-based meetings, deliberative forums, and identification of non-Federal speaking and knowledge co-production opportunities. We will discuss key lessons learned and successful approaches for engaging users as well as opportunities and challenges for future engagement.
Millar, A. Z.; Perry, S.
Interns in the Southern California Earthquake Center/Undergraduate Studies in Earthquake Information Technology (SCEC/UseIT) program conduct computer science research for the benefit of earthquake scientists and have created products in growing use within the SCEC education and research communities. SCEC/UseIT comprises some twenty undergraduates who combine their varied talents and academic backgrounds to achieve a Grand Challenge that is formulated around needs of SCEC scientists and educators and that reflects the value SCEC places on the integration of computer science and the geosciences. In meeting the challenge, students learn to work on multidisciplinary teams and to tackle complex problems with no guaranteed solutions. Meantime, their efforts bring fresh perspectives and insight to the professionals with whom they collaborate, and consistently produces innovative, useful tools for research and education. The 2007 Grand Challenge was to design and prototype serious games to communicate important earthquake science concepts. Interns broke themselves into four game teams, the Educational Game, the Training Game, the Mitigation Game and the Decision-Making Game, and created four diverse games with topics from elementary plate tectonics to earthquake risk mitigation, with intended players ranging from elementary students to city planners. The games were designed to be versatile, to accommodate variation in the knowledge base of the player; and extensible, to accommodate future additions. The games are played on a web browser or from within SCEC-VDO (Virtual Display of Objects). SCEC-VDO, also engineered by UseIT interns, is a 4D, interactive, visualization software that enables integration and exploration of datasets and models such as faults, earthquake hypocenters and ruptures, digital elevation models, satellite imagery, global isochrons, and earthquake prediction schemes. SCEC-VDO enables the user to create animated movies during a session, and is now part
Boice, D. C.; Asbell, H. E.; Reiff, P. H.
Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) is a community partnership between Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA) during the past 16 years. The YES program provides talented high school juniors and seniors a bridge between classroom instruction and real world, research experiences in physical sciences (including space science) and engineering. YES consists of an intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI and a collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of their professional mentors during the academic year. During the summer workshop, students experience the research environment first-hand; develop skills and acquire tools for solving scientific problems, attend mini-courses and seminars on electronics, computers and the Internet, careers, science ethics, and other topics; and select individual research projects to be completed during the academic year. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, acknowledging their accomplishments and spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. YES has developed a website for topics in space science from the perspective of high school students, including NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) (http://yesserver.space.swri.edu). Student evaluations indicate the effectiveness of YES on their academic preparation and choice of college majors. Over the past 16 years, all YES graduates have entered college, several have worked for SwRI, one business has started, and three scientific publications have resulted. Acknowledgements. We acknowledge funding and support from the NASA MMS Mission, Texas Space Grant Consortium, Northside Independent School District, SwRI, and several local charitable foundations.
Kiran, Swathi; Ansaldo, Ana; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Cherney, Leora R.; Howard, David; Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Meinzer, Marcus; Thompson, Cynthia K
The goal of this paper is to discuss experimental design options available for establishing the effects of treatment in studies that aim to examine the neural mechanisms associated with treatment-induced language recovery in aphasia, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We present both group and single-subject experimental or case-series design options for doing this and address advantages and disadvantages of each. We also discuss general components of and requirements for treatment research studies, including operational definitions of variables, criteria for defining behavioral change and treatment efficacy, and reliability of measurement. Important considerations that are unique to neuroimaging-based treatment research are addressed, pertaining to the relation between the selected treatment approach and anticipated changes in language processes/functions and how such changes are hypothesized to map onto the brain. PMID:23063559
Albert, Mathieu; Laberge, Suzanne; McGuire, Wendy
This study empirically addresses the claim made by Gibbons et al ("The new production of knowledge: The dynamics of science and research in contemporary societies." Sage, Thousand Oaks, 1994) that a novel form of quality control (associated with Mode 2 knowledge production) is supplementing the "traditional" peer-review process…
Cárdenes, Rubén; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Tristan-Vega, Antonio; Martin-Fernandez, Marcos
We present an advanced software tool designed for visualization and quantitative analysis of Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) called Saturn. The software is specially developed to help clinicians and researchers in neuroimaging, and includes a complete set of visualization capabilities to browse and analyze efficiently DTI data, making this application a powerful tool also for diagnosis purposes. The software includes a robust quantification method for DTI data, using an atlas-based method to automatically obtain equivalent anatomical fiber bundles and regions of interest among different DTI data sets. Consequently, a set of measurements is also implemented to perform robust group studies among subjects affected by neurological disorders and control groups in order to look for significant differences. Finally, a comparison study with five similar DTI applications is presented, showing the advantages offered by this tool. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This review covers experimental approaches to sound-symbolism — from infants to adults, and from Sapir's foundational studies to 21st century product naming. It synthesises recent behavioural, developmental, and neuroimaging work into a systematic overview of the cross-modal correspondences that underpin iconic links between form and meaning. It also identifies open questions and opportunities, showing how the future course of experimental iconicity research can benefit from an integrated interdisciplinary perspective. Combining insights from psychology and neuroscience with evidence from natural languages provides us with opportunities for the experimental investigation of the role of sound-symbolism in language learning, language processing, and communication. It describes how hypothesis-testing and model-building will help contribute to a cumulative science of sound-symbolism in human language.
Boice, D. C.; Reiff, P. H.
The Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) Program is a community partnership between Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) and local high schools in San Antonio. It provides talented high school juniors and seniors a bridge between classroom instruction and real world, research experiences in physical sciences, information sciences, and engineering. YES consists of two parts: 1) An intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment first-hand; develop skills and acquire tools for solving scientific problems, attend mini-courses and seminars on electronics, C++ programming, the Internet, careers, science ethics, social impact of technology, and other topics; and select their individual research project with their mentor (SwRI staff member) to be completed during the academic year; and 2) A collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of their mentors and teachers during the academic year and earn honors credit. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, acknowledging their accomplishments and spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. YES has been highly successful during the past nineteen (19) years. A total of 258 students have completed or are currently enrolled in YES. Of these students, 38% are females and 57% are ethnic minorities, reflecting the local diversity of the San Antonio area. All YES graduates have entered college, several work or have worked for SwRI, two businesses have formed, and three scientific publications have resulted. Sixteen (16) teacher participants have attended the YES workshop and have developed classroom materials based on their experiences in research at SwRI in the past three (3) years. In recognition of its excellence, YES received the Celebrate Success in 1996 and the Outstanding Campus Partner-of-the-Year Award in 2005, both from Northside Independent School District (San Antonio
Rippon, Gina; Jordan-Young, Rebecca; Kaiser, Anelis; Fine, Cordelia
Neuroimaging (NI) technologies are having increasing impact in the study of complex cognitive and social processes. In this emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience, a central goal should be to increase the understanding of the interaction between the neurobiology of the individual and the environment in which humans develop and function. The study of sex/gender is often a focus for NI research, and may be motivated by a desire to better understand general developmental principles, mental health problems that show female-male disparities, and gendered differences in society. In order to ensure the maximum possible contribution of NI research to these goals, we draw attention to four key principles-overlap, mosaicism, contingency and entanglement-that have emerged from sex/gender research and that should inform NI research design, analysis and interpretation. We discuss the implications of these principles in the form of constructive guidelines and suggestions for researchers, editors, reviewers and science communicators.
Rippon, Gina; Jordan-Young, Rebecca; Kaiser, Anelis; Fine, Cordelia
Neuroimaging (NI) technologies are having increasing impact in the study of complex cognitive and social processes. In this emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience, a central goal should be to increase the understanding of the interaction between the neurobiology of the individual and the environment in which humans develop and function. The study of sex/gender is often a focus for NI research, and may be motivated by a desire to better understand general developmental principles, mental health problems that show female-male disparities, and gendered differences in society. In order to ensure the maximum possible contribution of NI research to these goals, we draw attention to four key principles—overlap, mosaicism, contingency and entanglement—that have emerged from sex/gender research and that should inform NI research design, analysis and interpretation. We discuss the implications of these principles in the form of constructive guidelines and suggestions for researchers, editors, reviewers and science communicators. PMID:25221493
Currie, Graeme; El Enany, Nellie; Lockett, Andy
In contrast to previous studies, which focus upon the professional dynamics of translational health research between clinician scientists and social scientists (inter-professional contestation), we focus upon contestation within social science (intra-professional contestation). Drawing on the empirical context of Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRCs) in England, we highlight that although social scientists accept subordination to clinician scientists, health services researchers attempt to enhance their position in translational health research vis-à-vis organisation scientists, whom they perceive as relative newcomers to the research domain. Health services researchers do so through privileging the practical impact of their research, compared to organisation scientists' orientation towards development of theory, which health services researchers argue is decoupled from any concern with healthcare improvement. The concern of health services researchers lies with maintaining existing patterns of resource allocation to support their research endeavours, working alongside clinician scientists, in translational health research. The response of organisation scientists is one that might be considered ambivalent, since, unlike health services researchers, they do not rely upon a close relationship with clinician scientists to carry out research, or more generally, garner resource. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Harden, J. W.
Recipe for an Eclectic Life as Research Scientist and Mom Fresh ingredients: curiosity, conviction, who knows what else Spices: equal parts ambition, humility, risk Staples: Boundless energy! This recipe requires a lot of prep time. It makes a great first meal but also "keeps on giving" as leftovers for many meals. It can be set aside and rekindled at various stages but requires frequent touch-ups to stay fresh. This recipe is especially great for large gatherings, eclectic palettes, and it includes a mix of cultural opportunities (AGU council member for example!). First, shop for a graduate department as you might for a farmers' market that has a good feel and good mix of "customers" (grad students) who share your attitude and interests. Then seek out professors and later, career mentors, who not only have great methods and recipes but whose lifestyles seem like good examples. I like my mentors and advisees alike to be approachable, supportive, and dedicated to both problem solving and whole-life choices. For the cooking part of the recipe, you'll certainly need a great partner who is hungry for science and appreciative of those pairings between new discoveries and long-awaited accomplishments. My own husband is a geologist. My professors were in their "late career" stages (one had retired 25 years before; another retired within a year of my degree) and this seemed to foster a philosophical perspective rather than a competitive one. Advice? The keys to my child-rearing recipe were efficiency and concentration: I try to organize and sequence and to save the multi-tasking for cleanups and paperwork. Don't take yourself too seriously: we all think of ourselves as frauds and know-nothings; we all are stretched between worry and guilt when it comes to child rearing. Don't give up: who is to say whether your quest for science isn't as fundamental to your goodness as your maternal drive?
Brant, Jeannine M
To describe the emerging role of the nurse scientist in health care organizations. Historical perspectives of the role are explored along with the roles of the nurse scientist, facilitators, barriers, and future implications. Relevant literature on evidence-based practice and research in health care organizations; nurse scientist role; interview with University of Colorado nurse scientist. The nurse scientist role is integral for expanding evidence-based decisions and nursing research. A research mentor is considered the most important facilitator for a successful nursing research program. Organizations should consider including the nurse scientist role to facilitate evidence-based practice and expand opportunities for nursing research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Manduca, C. A.; Mogk, D. W.; Kastens, K. A.; Tikoff, B.; Shipley, T. F.; Ormand, C. J.; Mcconnell, D. A.
Geoscience Education Research aims to improve geoscience teaching and learning by understanding clearly the characteristics of geoscience expertise, the path from novice to expert, and the educational practices that can speed students along this path. In addition to expertise in geoscience and education, this research requires an understanding of learning -the domain of cognitive scientists. Beginning in 2002, a series of workshops and events focused on bringing together geoscientists, education researchers, and cognitive scientists to facilitate productive geoscience education research collaborations. These activities produced reports, papers, books, websites and a blog developing a research agenda for geoscience education research at a variety of scales: articulating the nature of geoscience expertise, and the overall importance of observation and a systems approach; focusing attention on geologic time, spatial skills, field work, and complex systems; and identifying key research questions in areas where new technology is changing methods in geoscience research and education. Cognitive scientists and education researchers played critical roles in developing this agenda. Where geoscientists ask questions that spring from their rich understanding of the discipline, cognitive scientists and education researchers ask questions from their experience with teaching and learning in a wide variety of disciplines and settings. These interactions tend to crystallize the questions of highest importance in addressing challenges of geoscience learning and to identify productive targets for collaborative research. Further, they serve as effective mechanisms for bringing research techniques and results from other fields into geoscience education. Working productively at the intersection of these fields requires teams of cognitive scientists, geoscientists, and education reserachers who share enough knowledge of all three domains to have a common articulation of the research
This study examined the use of internet by the research scientists in Agricultural research institutes in Ibadan. A descriptive survey design was adapted for the study. A purposeful sampling technique was also used to select the sample and the method produced 180 Research Scientists. A total of 162 cases were finally ...
Furukawa, Katsutoshi; Ishiki, Aiko; Tomita, Naoki; Onaka, Yuta; Saito, Haruka; Nakamichi, Tomoko; Hara, Kazunari; Kusano, Yusuke; Ebara, Masamune; Arata, Yuki; Sakota, Miku; Miyazawa, Isabelle; Totsune, Tomoko; Okinaga, Shoji; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Kudo, Yukitsuka; Arai, Hiroyuki
It is well known that the brain is one of the organs particularly affected by aging in terms of function, relative to the gastrointestinal tract and liver, which exhibit less functional decline. There is also a wide range of age-related neurological disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. Therefore, it is very important to understand the relationship between functional age-related change and neurological dysfunction. Neuroimaging techniques including magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography have been significantly improved over recent years. Many physicians and researchers have investigated various mechanisms of age-related cerebral change and associated neurological disorders using neuroimaging techniques. In this special issue of Ageing Research Reviews, we focus on cerebral- and neuro-imaging, which are a range of tools used to visualize structure, functions, and pathogenic molecules in the nervous system. In addition, we summarize several review articles about the history, present values, and future perspectives of neuroimaging modalities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Korenman, S G; Berk, R; Wenger, N S; Lew, V
The professional integrity of scientists is important to society as a whole and particularly to disciplines such as medicine that depend heavily on scientific advances for their progress. To characterize the professional norms of active scientists and compare them with those of individuals with institutional responsibility for the conduct of research. A mailed survey consisting of 12 scenarios in 4 domains of research ethics. Respondents were asked whether an act was unethical and, if so, the degree to which they considered it unethical and to select responses and punishments for the act. A total of 924 National Science Foundation research grantees in 1993 or 1994 in molecular or cellular biology and 140 representatives from the researchers' institutions to the US Department of Health and Human Services Office of Research Integrity. Percentage of respondents considering an act unethical and the mean malfeasance rating on a scale of 1 to 10. A total of 606 research grantees and 91 institutional representatives responded to the survey (response rate of 69% of those who could be contacted). Respondents reported a hierarchy of unethical research behaviors. The mean malfeasance rating was unrelated to the characteristics of the investigator performing the hypothetical act or to its consequences. Fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism received malfeasance ratings higher than 8.6, and virtually all thought they were unethical. Deliberately misleading statements about a paper or failure to give proper attribution received ratings between 7 and 8. Sloppiness, oversights, conflicts of interest, and failure to share were less serious still, receiving malfeasance ratings between 5 and 6. Institutional representatives proposed more and different interventions and punishments than the scientists. Surveyed scientists and institutional representatives had strong and similar norms of professional behavior, but differed in their approaches to an unethical act.
Reber, Paul J
Memory systems research has typically described the different types of long-term memory in the brain as either declarative versus non-declarative or implicit versus explicit. These descriptions reflect the difference between declarative, conscious, and explicit memory that is dependent on the medial temporal lobe (MTL) memory system, and all other expressions of learning and memory. The other type of memory is generally defined by an absence: either the lack of dependence on the MTL memory system (nondeclarative) or the lack of conscious awareness of the information acquired (implicit). However, definition by absence is inherently underspecified and leaves open questions of how this type of memory operates, its neural basis, and how it differs from explicit, declarative memory. Drawing on a variety of studies of implicit learning that have attempted to identify the neural correlates of implicit learning using functional neuroimaging and neuropsychology, a theory of implicit memory is presented that describes it as a form of general plasticity within processing networks that adaptively improve function via experience. Under this model, implicit memory will not appear as a single, coherent, alternative memory system but will instead be manifested as a principle of improvement from experience based on widespread mechanisms of cortical plasticity. The implications of this characterization for understanding the role of implicit learning in complex cognitive processes and the effects of interactions between types of memory will be discussed for examples within and outside the psychology laboratory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McCright, Aaron M.; Allen, Summer; Dietz, Thomas
Scientists who perform environmental research on policy-relevant topics face challenges when communicating about how values may have influenced their research. This study examines how citizens view scientists who publicly acknowledge values. Specifically, we investigate whether it matters: if citizens share or oppose a scientist’s values, if a scientist’s conclusions seem contrary to or consistent with the scientist’s values, and if a scientist is assessing the state of the science or making a policy recommendation. We conducted two 3x2 factorial design online experiments. Experiment 1 featured a hypothetical scientist assessing the state of the science on the public-health effects of exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA), and Experiment 2 featured a scientist making a policy recommendation on use of BPA. We manipulated whether or not the scientist expressed values and whether the scientist’s conclusion appeared contrary to or consistent with the scientist’s values, and we accounted for whether or not subjects’ values aligned with the scientist’s values. We analyzed our data with ordinary least squares (OLS) regression techniques. Our results provide at least preliminary evidence that acknowledging values may reduce the perceived credibility of scientists within the general public, but this effect differs depending on whether scientists and citizens share values, whether scientists draw conclusions that run contrary to their values, and whether scientists make policy recommendations. PMID:29069087
Pavuluri, Mani N.; Sweeney, John A.
The use of cognitive neuroscience and functional brain neuroimaging to understand brain dysfunction in pediatric psychiatric disorders is discussed. Results show that bipolar youths demonstrate impairment in affective and cognitive neural systems and in these two circuits' interface. Implications for the diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric…
This book explores recent developments and debates around researching ethically and with integrity, and complying with ethical requirements, and has been updated and expanded to now cover issues relating to international, indigenous, interdisciplinary and internet research.
Full Text Available For over a decade, neuroimaging (NI technologies have had an increasing impact in the study of complex cognitive and social processes. In this emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience, a central goal should be to increase the understanding of the interaction between the neurobiology of the individual and the environment in which s/he develops and functions. The study of the relationship between sex and gender could offer a valuable example of such research. We identify here four main principles that should inform NI research. First, the principle of overlap, arising from evidence of significant overlap of female/male distributions on measures of many gendered behaviours. Second, the principle of mosaicism, arising from evidence that for both behaviour and brain, each individual manifests a complex and idiosyncratic combination of feminine and masculine characteristics. Third, the principle of contingency, arising from evidence that female/male behavioural differences are contingent on time, place, social group and context. Fourth, the principle of entanglement, arising from an awareness that the neural phenotypes that NI techniques measure are a function of the interactive and reciprocal influence of biology and environment. These important principles have emerged and become well-established over the past few decades, but their implications are often not reflected in the design and interpretation of NI sex/gender research. We therefore offer a set of guidelines for researchers to ensure that NI sex/gender research is appropriately designed and interpreted. We hope this ‘toolkit’ will also be of use to editorial boards and journal reviewers, as well as those who view, communicate and interpret such research.
In 2002, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency researchers developed a DNA-based Mold Specific Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction method (MSQPCR) for identifying and quantifying over 100 common molds and fungi.
Ronald Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) program has inspired heated debate on campuses, and many scientists have pledged not to accept federal money for SDI research, for a variety of political, economic, and scientific reasons. (MSE)
Trojsi, Francesca; Monsurrò, Maria Rosaria; Esposito, Fabrizio; Tedeschi, Gioacchino
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a severe neurodegenerative disease principally affecting motor neurons. Besides motor symptoms, a subset of patients develop cognitive disturbances or even frontotemporal dementia (FTD), indicating that ALS may also involve extramotor brain regions. Both neuropathological and neuroimaging findings have provided further insight on the widespread effect of the neurodegeneration on brain connectivity and the underlying neurobiology of motor neurons degeneration. However, associated effects on motor and extramotor brain networks are largely unknown. Particularly, neuropathological findings suggest that ALS not only affects the frontotemporal network but rather is part of a wide clinicopathological spectrum of brain disorders known as TAR-DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) proteinopathies. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge concerning the neuropsychological and neuropathological sequelae of TDP-43 proteinopathies, with special focus on the neuroimaging findings associated with cognitive change in ALS. PMID:22720174
Bonnet, Xavier; Shine, Richard; Lourdais, Olivier
To examine how an author's gender influences his or her research output, the authors analyzed (not simply scored) more than 900 published articles in nine leading scientific journals in the field of evolutionary ecology. Women were strongly underrepresented in all countries, but this bias is decreasing. Men and women differed significantly in their fields of research, with women preferentially conducting projects on behavior rather than evolution or ecology. Most aspects of the structure of published articles and the level of conceptual generality were unaffected by an author's gender. Because discriminatory practices by reviewers and editors can be manifested in attributes of the articles that survive the review process, the latter result suggests a lack of gender-based discrimination during the review process. Gender differences in research output presumably reflect a complex array of genetic and social influences; a clearer understanding of these causal factors may help identify (and thus reduce) gender-based discrimination.
- pletion of his graduation in 1969 and master’s degree in 1971 in Physical Chemistry from the University of Bombay (Mumbai), India, Dr. de Sousa began his journey in quest of marine pollution research. He started his career as a Senior Scientific Assistant...
Young Africans develop their research interests various ways. The most common career-promoting factors identified by the study participants included formal classroom learning, aspirations to attain academic qualifications, work satisfaction, and the desire to fulfill parents' dreams. Challenges cited by survey respondents ...
Kneipp, Shawn M; Gilleskie, Donna; Sheely, Amanda; Schwartz, Todd; Gilmore, Robert M; Atkinson, Daryl
Increasingly, scientific funding agencies are requiring that researchers move toward an integrated, transdisciplinary team science paradigm. Although the barriers to and rewards of conducting this type of research have been discussed in the literature, examples of how nurse investigators have led these teams to reconcile the differences in theoretical, methodological, and/or analytic perspectives that inevitably exist are lacking. In this article, we describe these developmental trajectory challenges through a case study of one transdisciplinary team, focusing on team member characteristics and the leadership tasks associated with successful transdisciplinary science teams in the literature. Specifically, we describe how overcoming these challenges has been essential to examining the complex and potentially cumulative effects that key intersections between legal, social welfare, and labor market systems may have on the health of disadvantaged women. Finally, we discuss this difficult but rewarding work within the context of lessons learned and transdisciplinary team research in relation to the future of nursing science. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Despite a growing consensus regarding the value of inquiry-based learning (IBL) for students' learning and engagement in the science classroom, the implementation of such practices continues to be a challenge. If science teachers are to use IBL to develop students' inquiry practices and encourage them to think and act as scientists, a better understanding of factors that influence their attitudes towards scientific research and scientists' practices is very much needed. Within this context there is a need to re-examine the science teachers' views of scientists and the cultural factors that might have an impact on teachers' views and pedagogical practices. A diverse group of Egyptian science teachers took part in a quantitative-qualitative study using a questionnaire and in-depth interviews to explore their views of scientists and scientific research, and to understand how they negotiated their views of scientists and scientific research in the classroom, and how these views informed their practices of using inquiry in the classroom. The findings highlighted how the teachers' cultural beliefs and views of scientists and scientific research had constructed idiosyncratic pedagogical views and practices. The study suggested implications for further research and argued for teacher professional development based on partnerships with scientists.
Jarrett E K Byrnes
Full Text Available As rates of traditional sources of scientific funding decline, scientists have become increasingly interested in crowdfunding as a means of bringing in new money for research. In fields where crowdfunding has become a major venue for fundraising such as the arts and technology, building an audience for one's work is key for successful crowdfunding. For science, to what extent does audience building, via engagement and outreach, increase a scientist's abilities to bring in money via crowdfunding? Here we report on an analysis of the #SciFund Challenge, a crowdfunding experiment in which 159 scientists attempted to crowdfund their research. Using data gathered from a survey of participants, internet metrics, and logs of project donations, we find that public engagement is the key to crowdfunding success. Building an audience or "fanbase" and actively engaging with that audience as well as seeking to broaden the reach of one's audience indirectly increases levels of funding. Audience size and effort interact to bring in more people to view a scientist's project proposal, leading to funding. We discuss how projects capable of raising levels of funds commensurate with traditional funding agencies will need to incorporate direct involvement of the public with science. We suggest that if scientists and research institutions wish to tap this new source of funds, they will need to encourage and reward activities that allow scientists to engage with the public.
Hunter, A.; Laursen, S.; Thiry, H.; Seymour, E.
Undergraduate research is widely believed to enhance STEM students' education and increase their persistence to graduate education and careers in the sciences. Yet until very recently, little evidence from research and evaluation studies was available to substantiate such claims and document what students gain from doing undergraduate research or how these gains come about. We have conducted a three-year qualitative research study of STEM students participating in UR at four liberal arts colleges with a strong tradition of faculty-led summer research apprenticeships. Benefits to students reported by both students and their faculty advisors are categorized into six main categories of gains in skills, knowledge, "thinking like a scientist," career preparation, career development, and personal and professional growth. Student and faculty observations are strongly corroborative, but also differ in interesting ways that reflect the distinct perspectives of each group: students are still in the midst of discovering their own career paths while faculty advisors have observed the later career development of their past research students. While not all students find UR to heighten their interest in graduate school, they do find it a powerful growth experience that clarifies their career ambitions by providing a "real world" experience of science. For students whose interest in science is reinforced, UR has a significant role in their professional socialization into the culture and norms of science, which we call "becoming a scientist," through interactions that draw them into the scientific community and experiences that deepen their understanding of the nature of research. Cumulatively, the qualitative data set of nearly 350 interviews offers a rich portrayal of the UR enterprise from a variety of perspectives. Longitudinal data enable us to track the influence of UR on students' career and education trajectories in the years after college, and comparative data from a group
France, Bev; Bay, Jacquie L.
It was proposed that an analysis of the questions students anticipate asking, and ask, could provide information about an enculturation encounter between Year 13 biology students and scientists working in a biomedical-clinical research unit. As part of a day-long intervention at this research institute, small groups of students (10-15) met with…
Hanauer, David I.; Englander, Karen
This article provides quantitative data to establish the relative, perceived burden of writing research articles in English as a second language. Previous qualitative research has shown that scientists writing English in a second language face difficulties but has not established parameters for the degree of this difficulty. A total of 141…
Paediatric Neuroimaging Quiz Case. S Afr J Rad. 2015;19(2); Art. #873, 3 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajr.v19i2.873. Copyright: © 2015. The Authors. Licensee: AOSIS OpenJournals. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons. Attribution License. Read online: Scan this QR code with your smart phone or.
Eley, Diann S; Wilkinson, David
The continuing decline in clinician scientists is a global concern. This paper reports on a two-fold rationale to address this decline by increasing the number of students on a formal pathway to an academic research career, and building a 'teaching-research nexus' using the research intensive environment at our University. The University of Queensland has implemented a research intensive program, the Clinician Scientist Track (CST), for a select cohort of students to pursue a part time research Masters degree alongside their full time medical degree. To this end, the support of clinical academics and the research community was vital to achieve a 'teaching-research-clinical nexus' - most appropriate for nurturing future Clinician Scientists. In three years, the CST has 42 enrolled research Masters' students with the majority (90%) upgrading to a PhD. Research represents 33 different areas and over 25 research groups/centres across this University and internationally. Other research intensive institutions may similarly build their 'teaching-research nexus' by purposeful engagement between their medical school and research community. The CST offers a feasible opportunity for outstanding students to build their own 'field of dreams' through an early start to their research career while achieving a common goal of rejuvenating the ethos of the clinician scientist.
Payne, D. L.
Professional development standards for science teachers encourage opportunities for intellectual professional growth, including participation in scientific research (NRC, 1996). Strategies to encourage the professional growth of teachers of mathematics and science include partnerships with scientists and immersion into the world of scientists and mathematicians (Loucks-Horsley, Love, Stiles, Mundry, & Hewson, 2003). A teacher research experience (TRE) can often offer a sustained relationship with scientists over a prolonged period of time. Research experiences are not a new method of professional development (Dubner, 2000; Fraser-Abder & Leonhardt, 1996; Melear, 1999; Raphael et al., 1999). Scientists serve as role models and "coaches" for teachers a practice which has been shown to dramatically increase the transfer of knowledge, skill and application to the classroom (Joyce & Showers, 2002). This study investigated if and how secondary teachers' beliefs about science, scientific research and science teaching changed as a result of participation in a TRE. Six secondary science teachers participated in a 12 day research cruise. Teachers worked with scientists, the ships' crew and other teachers conducting research and designing lessons for use in the classroom. Surveys were administered pre and post TRE to teachers and their students. Additionally, teachers were interviewed before, during and after the research experience, and following classroom observations before and after the research cruise. Teacher journals and emails, completed during the research cruise, were also analyzed. Results of the study highlight the use of authentic research experiences to retain and renew science teachers, the impact of the teachers' experience on students, and the successes and challenges of implementing a TRE during the academic year.
Muscal, E; Bloom, D R; Hunter, J V; Myones, B L
Neurocognitive impairments and neuroimaging abnormalities are frequently observed in adults with systemic lupus erythematosus. There is a paucity of similar data in childhood-onset disease. We hypothesized that neurocognitive and neuroimaging abnormalities would be prevalent in children undergoing neuropsychological evaluations. We reviewed patient neurocognitive evaluations performed at a large United States pediatric institution during the period 2001 to 2008. Records were retrieved from 24 children referred to neuropsychology due to clinical indications. Data from 15 children enrolled in a prospective structure-function association study were also analyzed. Subjects were predominantly African-American and Hispanic adolescent girls of average intelligence. aPL positivity and aspirin use was prevalent. Neurocognitive impairment was designated in 70.8% of retrospective, and 46.7% of prospective cohort patients. Deficits were seen at times of wellness, without previous neuropsychiatric lupus, and early in disease courses. Scores >1.5 standard deviations below published age-matched norms were common in tests of executive functioning, visual memory and visual-spatial planning. Features of depression were seen in 33.3% of the children in the retrospective cohort (clinical referrals). Cerebral and cerebellar volume loss was observed in a majority of blinded prospective cohort research magnetic resonance images (73.3% and 67.7% respectively). White matter hyperintensities were observed in retrospective and prospective cohort magnetic resonance images (36.6% and 46.7% respectively). Larger prospective studies that elucidate structure-function associations in children with systemic lupus erythematosus are planned.
Friese, Bettina; Bogenschneider, Karen
Because scientific understanding of communicating family research to policymakers is incomplete, qualitative interviews were conducted with social scientists experienced in bridging the gulf between research and family policy. In keeping with the tenets of two communities and community dissonance theories, the underutilization of research in policymaking was attributed, in part, to misperceptions and miscommunication between researchers and policymakers who operate in different cultures. Social scientists identified cultural barriers they encountered and rewards they experienced when communicating research to policymakers. Ten recommendations detail pragmatic strategies for communicating across conflicting cultures to promote greater use of research in family policy decisions. The findings suggest a paradigm shift away from simply disseminating research to policymakers and toward developing collaborative relationships with them.
Albert, Mathieu; Laberge, Suzanne; Hodges, Brian D.
Funding agencies in Canada are attempting to break down the organizational boundaries between disciplines to promote interdisciplinary research and foster the integration of the social sciences into the health research field. This paper explores the extent to which biomedical and clinician scientists' perceptions of social science research operate…
Introduction: This study was conducted to investigate the characteristics of research and information activities of laboratory scientists in different work positions throughout a research lifecycle. Activity theory was applied as the conceptual and analytical framework. Method: Taking a qualitative research approach, in-depth interviews and field…
Goehring, L.; Carlsen, W.; Fisher, C. R.; Kerlin, S.; Trautmann, N.; Petersen, W.
Science education reform since the mid-1990's has called for a "new way of teaching and learning about science that reflects how science itself is done, emphasizing inquiry as a way of achieving knowledge and understanding about the world" (NRC, 1996). Scientists and engineers, experts in inquiry thinking, have been called to help model these practices for students and demonstrate scientific habits of mind. The question, however, is "how best to involve these experts?" given the very real challenges of limited availability of scientists, varying experience with effective pedagogy, widespread geographic distribution of schools, and the sheer number of students involved. Technology offers partial solutions to enable Student-Scientist Interactions (SSI). The FLEXE Project has developed online FLEXE Forums to support efficient, effective SSIs, making use of web-based and database technology to facilitate communication between students and scientists. More importantly, the FLEXE project has approached this question of "how best to do this?" scientifically, combining program evaluation with hypothesis-based research explicitly testing the effects of such SSIs on student learning and attitudes towards science. FLEXE Forums are designed to showcase scientific practices and habits of mind through facilitated interaction between students and scientists. Through these Forums, students "meet" working scientists and learn about their research and the environments in which they work. Scientists provide students with intriguing "real-life" datasets and challenge students to analyze and interpret the data through guiding questions. Students submit their analyses to the Forum, and scientists provide feedback and connect the instructional activity with real-life practice, showcasing their activities in the field. In the FLEXE project, Forums are embedded within inquiry-based instructional units focused on essential learning concepts, and feature the deep-sea environment in contrast
Cisneros-Cohernour, Edith J.; Lopez-Avila, Maria T.; Barrera-Bustillos, Maria E.
This paper presents findings of a project aimed to improve the quality of science education in Southeast Mexico by the creation of a community of practice among scientists, researchers and teachers, involved in the design, implementation and evaluation of a professional development program for mathematics, chemistry, biology and physics secondary…
THE HUMAN FALLIBILITY OF SCIENTISTS Dealing with error and bias in academic research Recent studies have highlighted that not all published findings in the scientific lit¬erature are trustworthy, suggesting that currently implemented control mechanisms such as high standards for the reporting of
Cakmakci, Gultekin; Tosun, Ozge; Turgut, Sebnem; Orenler, Sefika; Sengul, Kubra; Top, Gokce
This study aims at investigating the effects of a teaching intervention, the design of which is informed by evidence from educational theories and research data, on students' images of scientists. A quasi-experimental design with a non-equivalent pre-test-post-test control group (CG) was used to compare the outcomes of the intervention. The…
Charles, J. B.; Fogarty, J.; Vega, L.; Cromwell, R. L.; Haven, C. P.; McFather, J. C.; Savelev, I.
The HRP Chief Scientist's Office sets the scientific agenda for the Human Research Program. As NASA plans for deep space exploration, HRP is conducting research to ensure the health of astronauts, and optimize human performance during extended duration missions. To accomplish this research, HRP solicits for proposals within the U.S., collaborates with agencies both domestically and abroad, and makes optimal use of ISS resources in support of human research. This session will expand on these topics and provide an opportunity for questions and discussion with the HRP Chief Scientist. Presentations in this session will include: NRA solicitations - process improvements and focus for future solicitations, Multilateral Human Research Panel for Exploration - future directions (MHRPE 2.0), Extramural liaisons - National Science Foundation (NSF) and Department of Defense (DOD), Standardized Measures for spaceflight, Ground-based Analogs - international collaborations, and International data sharing.
Neu, Scott C.; Crawford, Karen L.; Toga, Arthur W.
Rapidly evolving neuroimaging techniques are producing unprecedented quantities of digital data at the same time that many research studies are evolving into global, multi-disciplinary collaborations between geographically distributed scientists. While networked computers have made it almost trivial to transmit data across long distances, collecting and analyzing this data requires extensive metadata if the data is to be maximally shared. Though it is typically straightforward to encode text and numerical values into files and send content between different locations, it is often difficult to attach context and implicit assumptions to the content. As the number of and geographic separation between data contributors grows to national and global scales, the heterogeneity of the collected metadata increases and conformance to a single standardization becomes implausible. Neuroimaging data repositories must then not only accumulate data but must also consolidate disparate metadata into an integrated view. In this article, using specific examples from our experiences, we demonstrate how standardization alone cannot achieve full integration of neuroimaging data from multiple heterogeneous sources and why a fundamental change in the architecture of neuroimaging data repositories is needed instead. PMID:22470336
Boukhanovsky, Alexander V; Krzhizhanovskaya, Valeria V; Athanassoulis, Gerassimos A; Klimentov, Alexei A; Sloot, Peter M A
We present an annual international Young Scientists Conference (YSC) on computational science http://ysc.escience.ifmo.ru/, which brings together renowned experts and young researchers working in high-performance computing, data-driven modeling, and simulation of large-scale complex systems. The first YSC event was organized in 2012 by the University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands and ITMO University, Russia with the goal of opening a dialogue on the present and the future of computational science and its applications. We believe that the YSC conferences will strengthen the ties between young scientists in different countries, thus promoting future collaboration. In this paper we briefly introduce the challenges the millennial generation is facing; describe the YSC conference history and topics; and list the keynote speakers and program committee members. This volume of Procedia Computer Science presents selected papers from the 4th International Young Scientists Conference on Computational Science held on 25 ...
Carhart-Harris, Robin L; Leech, Robert; Hellyer, Peter J; Shanahan, Murray; Feilding, Amanda; Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Chialvo, Dante R; Nutt, David
Entropy is a dimensionless quantity that is used for measuring uncertainty about the state of a system but it can also imply physical qualities, where high entropy is synonymous with high disorder. Entropy is applied here in the context of states of consciousness and their associated neurodynamics, with a particular focus on the psychedelic state. The psychedelic state is considered an exemplar of a primitive or primary state of consciousness that preceded the development of modern, adult, human, normal waking consciousness. Based on neuroimaging data with psilocybin, a classic psychedelic drug, it is argued that the defining feature of "primary states" is elevated entropy in certain aspects of brain function, such as the repertoire of functional connectivity motifs that form and fragment across time. Indeed, since there is a greater repertoire of connectivity motifs in the psychedelic state than in normal waking consciousness, this implies that primary states may exhibit "criticality," i.e., the property of being poised at a "critical" point in a transition zone between order and disorder where certain phenomena such as power-law scaling appear. Moreover, if primary states are critical, then this suggests that entropy is suppressed in normal waking consciousness, meaning that the brain operates just below criticality. It is argued that this entropy suppression furnishes normal waking consciousness with a constrained quality and associated metacognitive functions, including reality-testing and self-awareness. It is also proposed that entry into primary states depends on a collapse of the normally highly organized activity within the default-mode network (DMN) and a decoupling between the DMN and the medial temporal lobes (which are normally significantly coupled). These hypotheses can be tested by examining brain activity and associated cognition in other candidate primary states such as rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and early psychosis and comparing these with
Robin Lester Carhart-Harris
Full Text Available Entropy is a dimensionless quantity that is used for measuring uncertainty about the state of a system but it can also imply physical qualities, where high entropy is synonymous with high disorder. Entropy is applied here in the context of states of consciousness and their associated neural dynamics, with a particular focus on the psychedelic state. The psychedelic state is considered an exemplar of a primitive or primary state of consciousness that preceded the development of modern, adult, human, normal waking consciousness. Based on neuroimaging data with psilocybin, a classic psychedelic drug, it is argued that the defining feature of ‘primary states’ is elevated entropy in certain aspects of brain function, such as the repertoire of functional connectivity motifs that form and fragment across time. It is noted that elevated entropy in this sense, is a characteristic of systems exhibiting ‘self-organised criticality’, i.e., a property of systems that gravitate towards a ‘critical’ point in a transition zone between order and disorder in which certain phenomena such as power-law scaling appear. This implies that entropy is suppressed in normal waking consciousness, meaning that the brain operates just below criticality. It is argued that this entropy suppression furnishes consciousness with a constrained quality and associated metacognitive functions, including reality-testing and self-awareness. It is also proposed that entry into primary states depends on a collapse of the normally highly organised activity within the default-mode network (DMN and a decoupling between the DMN and the medial temporal lobes (which are normally significantly coupled. These hypotheses can be tested by examining brain activity and associated cognition in other candidate primary states such as REM sleep and early psychosis and comparing these with non-primary states such as normal waking consciousness and the anaesthetised state.
Baynham, Patricia J.
Most biology students have limited exposure to research since this is not a public activity and the pace of science does not lend itself to television dramatization. In contrast, medicine is the subject of numerous TV shows, and students’ experience visiting doctors may lead them to think they want to become physicians. One effective way to encourage these students to consider a research career is to invite engaging scientists to speak about their career paths and lives during class. S...
Full Text Available Scientists' moral responsibilities have become a focus for the scientific community over the postwar decades. International and regional networks of leading academic bodies have responded to a widely perceived increase in scientific fraud and the ensued loss of public trust in science during the 1980s, and initiated a discussion with a view to codifying good practice in research. While scientists' “external” responsibilities towards society and the humankind have been variously addressed, codes drafted since then mainly dwell on problems of misconduct concerning scientists' “internal” responsibilities towards science and to the scientific community. They also reflect an ethical pluralism, which declines justifying moral standards in research with reference to universal ethical principles. However, the need for such justification has been first recognized decades ago, during the Doctor's Trial in Nuremberg, where the shortcomings of the established ethos of science and the inadequacy of the Hippocratic ethics in safeguarding human rights in research had become flagrant, with the resultant Nuremberg Code of 1947 introducing a human rights perspective into Hippocratic ethics. This paper argues for the necessity of an integral ethical justification of scientists' both external and inner responsibilities, as put down or assumed by internationally acclaimed codes of conduct. Such necessity is validated by the evidence that a historical current to monopolize ethical thinking in the name of science and nullify philosophical ethics lies at the root of an anti–morality that relativized human worth and virtually legitimized human rights violations in scientific practice. Kantian ethics based on humans' absolute inner worth, and Popperian epistemology rooted in respect for truth and for humans as rational beings, pledge an ethical justification of moral norms in science so as to reinforce the latter against intrusions of anti–morality. The paper
Willcuts, Meredith H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
The overall purpose of this action research study was to explore the experiences of ten middle school science teachers involved in a three-year partnership program between scientists and teachers at a Department of Energy national laboratory, including the impact of the program on their professional development, and to improve the partnership program by developing a set of recommendations based on the study’s findings. This action research study relied on qualitative data including field notes recorded at the summer academies and data from two focus groups with teachers and scientists. Additionally, the participating teachers submitted written reflections in science notebooks, participated in open-ended telephone interviews that were transcribed verbatim, and wrote journal summaries to the Department of Energy at the end of the summer academy. The analysis of the data, collaboratively examined by the teachers, the scientists, and the science education specialist acting as co-researchers on the project, revealed five elements critical to the success of the professional development of science teachers. First, scientist-teacher partnerships are a unique contribution to the professional development of teachers of science that is not replicated in other forms of teacher training. Second, the role of the science education specialist as a bridge between the scientists and teachers is a unique and vital one, impacting all aspects of the professional development. Third, there is a paradox for classroom teachers as they view the professional development experience from two different lenses – that of learner and that of teacher. Fourth, learning for science teachers must be designed to be constructivist in nature. Fifth, the principles of the nature of science must be explicitly showcased to be seen and understood by the classroom teacher.
Siebner, Hartwig R; Bergmann, Til O; Bestmann, Sven
In the last decade, combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-neuroimaging studies have greatly stimulated research in the field of TMS and neuroimaging. Here, we review how TMS can be combined with various neuroimaging techniques to investigate human brain function. When applied during ne...
Moyi Okwaro, Ferdinand; Geissler, P W
This article examines collaboration in transnational medical research from the viewpoint of African scientists working in partnerships with northern counterparts. It draws on ethnographic fieldwork in an HIV laboratory of an East African state university, with additional data from interviews with scientists working in related research institutions. Collaboration is today the preferred framework for the mechanisms by which northern institutions support research in the south. The concept signals a shift away from the legacy of unequal (post-) colonial power relations, although, amid persisting inequalities, the rhetorical emphasis on equality might actually hinder critical engagement with conflicts of interest and injustice. To collaborate, African scientists engage various strategies: They establish a qualified but flexible, non-permanent workforce, diversify collaborators and research areas, source complementary funding to assemble infrastructures, and maintain prospective research populations to attract transnational clinical trials. Through this labor of collaboration, they sustain their institutions under prevailing conditions of scarcity. © 2015 The Authors. Medical Anthropology Quarterly published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Anthropological Association.
Ackerson, Linda G
The amount of published literature can be overwhelming for scientists and researchers moving from a broad disciplinary research area to a more specialized one, particularly in fields that use information from more than one discipline. Without a focused inquiry, the researcher may find too little information or may be overcome by too much. Striking the correct balance of information is the focus of Literature Search Strategies for Interdisciplinary Research. This useful reference tool studies diverse interdisciplinary areas revealing the general and individual qualities that dictate the strateg
Patricia J. Baynham
Full Text Available Most biology students have limited exposure to research since this is not a public activity and the pace of science does not lend itself to television dramatization. In contrast, medicine is the subject of numerous TV shows, and students’ experience visiting doctors may lead them to think they want to become physicians. One effective way to encourage these students to consider a research career is to invite engaging scientists to speak about their career paths and lives during class. Students are most likely to be influenced by people they consider to be like themselves. While this method is well-suited to a lecture format where the scientist can address a larger audience, the laboratory would also be appropriate.
Background Massive datasets comprising high-resolution images, generated in neuro-imaging studies and in clinical imaging research, are increasingly challenging our ability to analyze, share, and filter such images in clinical and basic translational research. Pivot collection exploratory analysis provides each user the ability to fully interact with the massive amounts of visual data to fully facilitate sufficient sorting, flexibility and speed to fluidly access, explore or analyze the massive image data sets of high-resolution images and their associated meta information, such as neuro-imaging databases from the Allen Brain Atlas. It is used in clustering, filtering, data sharing and classifying of the visual data into various deep zoom levels and meta information categories to detect the underlying hidden pattern within the data set that has been used. Method We deployed prototype Pivot collections using the Linux CentOS running on the Apache web server. We also tested the prototype Pivot collections on other operating systems like Windows (the most common variants) and UNIX, etc. It is demonstrated that the approach yields very good results when compared with other approaches used by some researchers for generation, creation, and clustering of massive image collections such as the coronal and horizontal sections of the mouse brain from the Allen Brain Atlas. Results Pivot visual analytics was used to analyze a prototype of dataset Dab2 co-expressed genes from the Allen Brain Atlas. The metadata along with high-resolution images were automatically extracted using the Allen Brain Atlas API. It is then used to identify the hidden information based on the various categories and conditions applied by using options generated from automated collection. A metadata category like chromosome, as well as data for individual cases like sex, age, and plan attributes of a particular gene, is used to filter, sort and to determine if there exist other genes with a similar
Stein, S D
Learning, Teaching and Researching on the Internet: A Practical Guide for Social Scientists is directed at students and academic staff who want to be able to access Internet resources quickly and efficiently without needing to become IT experts. The emphasis throughout is on the harnessing of the large volume of potentially useful Internet resources to everyday requirements, whether these be focused on learning, teaching or research. The Internet is a significantly rich information, communication and research resource for all those involved in higher education, whether they be students, academ
Rudd, Murray A; Ankley, Gerald T; Boxall, Alistair B A; Brooks, Bryan W
Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are widely discharged into the environment via diverse pathways. The effects of PPCPs in the environment have potentially important human and ecosystem health implications, so credible, salient, and legitimate scientific evidence is needed to inform regulatory and policy responses that address potential risks. A recent "big questions" exercise with participants largely from North America identified 22 important research questions around the risks of PPCP in the environment that would help address the most pressing knowledge gaps over the next decade. To expand that analysis, we developed a survey that was completed by 535 environmental scientists from 57 countries, of whom 49% identified environmental or analytical chemistry as their primary disciplinary background. They ranked the 22 original research questions and submitted 171 additional candidate research questions they felt were also of high priority. Of the original questions, the 3 perceived to be of highest importance related to: 1) the effects of long-term exposure to low concentrations of PPCP mixtures on nontarget organisms, 2) effluent treatment methods that can reduce the effects of PPCPs in the environment while not increasing the toxicity of whole effluents, and 3) the assessment of the environmental risks of metabolites and environmental transformation products of PPCPs. A question regarding the role of cultural perspectives in PPCP risk assessment was ranked as the lowest priority. There were significant differences in research orientation between scientists who completed English and Chinese language versions of the survey. We found that the Chinese respondents were strongly orientated to issues of managing risk profiles, effluent treatment, residue bioavailability, and regional assessment. Among English language respondents, further differences in research orientation were associated with respondents' level of consistency when ranking the survey
Emans, S Jean; Austin, S Bryn; Goodman, Elizabeth; Orr, Donald P; Freeman, Robert; Stoff, David; Litt, Iris F; Schuster, Mark A; Haggerty, Robert; Granger, Robert; Irwin, Charles E
To address the critical shortage of physician scientists in the field of adolescent medicine, a conference of academic leaders and representatives from foundations, National Institutes of Health, Maternal and Child Health Bureau, and the American Board of Pediatrics was convened to discuss training in transdisciplinary research, facilitators and barriers of successful career trajectories, models of training, and mentorship. The following eight recommendations were made to improve training and career development: incorporate more teaching and mentoring on adolescent health research in medical schools; explore opportunities and electives to enhance clinical and research training of residents in adolescent health; broaden educational goals for Adolescent Medicine fellowship research training and develop an intensive transdisciplinary research track; redesign the career pathway for the development of faculty physician scientists transitioning from fellowship to faculty positions; expand formal collaborations between Leadership Education in Adolescent Health/other Adolescent Medicine Fellowship Programs and federal, foundation, and institutional programs; develop research forums at national meetings and opportunities for critical feedback and mentoring across programs; educate Institutional Review Boards about special requirements for high quality adolescent health research; and address the trainee and faculty career development issues specific to women and minorities to enhance opportunities for academic success. Copyright 2010 Society for Adolescent Medicine. All rights reserved.
Kost, Rhonda G; Leinberger-Jabari, Andrea; Evering, Teresa H; Holt, Peter R; Neville-Williams, Maija; Vasquez, Kimberly S; Coller, Barry S; Tobin, Jonathan N
Engaging basic scientists in community-based translational research is challenging but has great potential for improving health. In 2009, The Rockefeller University Center for Clinical and Translational Science partnered with Clinical Directors Network, a practice-based research network (PBRN), to create a community-engaged research navigation (CEnR-Nav) program to foster research pairing basic science and community-driven scientific aims. The program is led by an academic navigator and a PBRN navigator. Through meetings and joint activities, the program facilitates basic science-community partnerships and the development and conduct of joint research protocols. From 2009-2014, 39 investigators pursued 44 preliminary projects through the CEnR-Nav program; 25 of those became 23 approved protocols and 2 substudies. They involved clinical scholar trainees, early-career physician-scientists, faculty, students, postdoctoral fellows, and others. Nineteen (of 25; 76%) identified community partners, of which 9 (47%) named them as coinvestigators. Nine (of 25; 36%) included T3-T4 translational aims. Seven (of 25; 28%) secured external funding, 11 (of 25; 44%) disseminated results through presentations or publications, and 5 (71%) of 7 projects publishing results included a community partner as a coauthor. Of projects with long-term navigator participation, 9 (of 19; 47%) incorporated T3-T4 aims and 7 (of 19; 37%) secured external funding. The CEnR-Nav program provides a model for successfully engaging basic scientists with communities to advance and accelerate translational science. This model's durability and generalizability have not been determined, but it achieves valuable short-term goals and facilitates scientifically meaningful community-academic partnerships.
In the 1960-70s, South Korea was still in the position of a science latecomer. Although the scientific research environment in South Korea at that time was insufficient, there was a scientist who achieved outcomes that could be recognized internationally while acting in South Korea. He was Ho Wang Lee(1928~ ) who found Hantann Virus that causes epidemic hemorrhagic fever for the first time in the world. It became a clue to identify causative viruses of hemorrhagic diseases that were scattered here and there throughout the world. In addition, these outcomes put Ho Wang Lee on the global center of research into epidemic hemorrhagic fever. This paper examines how a Korean scientist who was in the periphery of virology could go into the central area of virology. Also this article shows the process through which the virus found by Ho Wang Lee was registered with the international academia and he proceeded with follow-up research based on this progress to reach the level at which he generalized epidemic hemorrhagic fever related studies throughout the world. While he was conducting the studies, experimental methods that he had never experienced encountered him as new difficulties. He tried to solve the new difficulties faced in his changed status through devices of cooperation and connection. Ho Wang Lee's growth as a researcher can be seen as well as a view of a researcher that grew from a regional level to an international level and could advance from the area of non-mainstream into the mainstream. This analytic tool is meaningful in that it can be another method of examining the growth process of scientists in South Korea or developing countries.
Tijdink, Joeri K; Bouter, Lex M; Veldkamp, Coosje L S; van de Ven, Peter M; Wicherts, Jelte M; Smulders, Yvo M
Personality influences decision making and ethical considerations. Its influence on the occurrence of research misbehavior has never been studied. This study aims to determine the association between personality traits and self-reported questionable research practices and research misconduct. We hypothesized that narcissistic, Machiavellianistic and psychopathic traits as well as self-esteem are associated with research misbehavior. Included in this cross-sectional study design were 535 Dutch biomedical scientists (response rate 65%) from all hierarchical layers of 4 university medical centers in the Netherlands. We used validated personality questionnaires such as the Dark Triad (narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism), Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, the Publication Pressure Questionnaire (PPQ), and also demographic and job-specific characteristics to investigate the association of personality traits with a composite research misbehavior severity score. Machiavellianism was positively associated (beta 1.28, CI 1.06-1.53) with self-reported research misbehavior, while narcissism, psychopathy and self-esteem were not. Exploratory analysis revealed that narcissism and research misconduct were more severe among persons in higher academic ranks (i.e., professors) (p<0.01 and p<0.001, respectively), and self-esteem scores and publication pressure were lower (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively) as compared to postgraduate PhD fellows. Machiavellianism may be a risk factor for research misbehaviour. Narcissism and research misbehaviour were more prevalent among biomedical scientists in higher academic positions. These results suggest that personality has an impact on research behavior and should be taken into account in fostering responsible conduct of research.
Joeri K Tijdink
Full Text Available Personality influences decision making and ethical considerations. Its influence on the occurrence of research misbehavior has never been studied. This study aims to determine the association between personality traits and self-reported questionable research practices and research misconduct. We hypothesized that narcissistic, Machiavellianistic and psychopathic traits as well as self-esteem are associated with research misbehavior.Included in this cross-sectional study design were 535 Dutch biomedical scientists (response rate 65% from all hierarchical layers of 4 university medical centers in the Netherlands. We used validated personality questionnaires such as the Dark Triad (narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, the Publication Pressure Questionnaire (PPQ, and also demographic and job-specific characteristics to investigate the association of personality traits with a composite research misbehavior severity score.Machiavellianism was positively associated (beta 1.28, CI 1.06-1.53 with self-reported research misbehavior, while narcissism, psychopathy and self-esteem were not. Exploratory analysis revealed that narcissism and research misconduct were more severe among persons in higher academic ranks (i.e., professors (p<0.01 and p<0.001, respectively, and self-esteem scores and publication pressure were lower (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively as compared to postgraduate PhD fellows.Machiavellianism may be a risk factor for research misbehaviour. Narcissism and research misbehaviour were more prevalent among biomedical scientists in higher academic positions. These results suggest that personality has an impact on research behavior and should be taken into account in fostering responsible conduct of research.
Aggarwal, Neil K
The spread of neuroimaging technologies around the world has led to diverse practices of forensic psychiatry and the emergence of neuroethics and neurolaw. This article surveys the neuroethics and neurolegal literature on the use of forensic neuroimaging within the courtroom. Next, the related literature within medical anthropology and science and technology studies is reviewed to show how debates about forensic neuroimaging reflect cultural tensions about attitudes regarding the self, mental illness, and medical expertise. Finally, recommendations are offered on how forensic psychiatrists can add to this research, given their professional interface between law and medicine. At stake are the fundamental concerns that surround changing conceptions of the self, sickness, and expectations of medicine.
Kumwenda, Save; Niang, El Hadji A; Orondo, Pauline W; William, Pote; Oyinlola, Lateefah; Bongo, Gedeon N; Chiwona, Bernadette
Africa accounts for 14% of world's population, and the economies of most African countries are considered to be growing, but this is not reflected in the amount of research published by Africans. This study aimed at identifying the challenges that young African scientists face in their career development. This was a qualitative exploratory study involving young researchers who attended the Teaching and Research in Natural Sciences for Development (TReND) in Africa scientific writing and communication workshop, which was held in Malawi in September 2015. A semi-structured questionnaire was sent to all workshop participants who consented to taking part in the survey. In total, 28 questionnaires were sent via email and 15 were returned, representing a response rate of 53.6%. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Young Africans develop their research interests various ways. The most common career-promoting factors identified by the study participants included formal classroom learning, aspirations to attain academic qualifications, work satisfaction, and the desire to fulfill parents' dreams. Challenges cited by survey respondents included a lack of mentorship, funds, and research and writing skills. Lack of interest in research by policymakers, lack of motivation by peers, and heavy workload (leaving little time for research) were also reported as challenges. Respondents suggested that grants specifically targeting young scientists would be beneficial. Participants also urged for the establishment of mentorship programmes, increasing motivation for research, and more frequent training opportunities. There is need for improved funding for institutional and research network strengthening in Africa, with particular attention given to expanding opportunities for young researchers.
Keator, David B.; Grethe, J. S.; Marcus, D.; Ozyurt, B.; Gadde, S.; Murphy, Sean; Pieper, S.; Greve, D.; Notestine, R.; Bockholt, H. J.; Papadopoulos, P.
The aggregation of imaging, clinical, and behavioral data from multiple independent institutions and researchers presents both a great opportunity for biomedical research as well as a formidable challenge. Many research groups have wellestablished data collection and analysis procedures, as well as data and metadata format requirements that are particular to that group. Moreover, the types of data and metadata collected are quite diverse, including image, physiological, and behavioral data, as well as descriptions of experimental design, and preprocessing and analysis methods. Each of these types of data utilizes a variety of software tools for collection, storage, and processing. Furthermore sites are reluctant to release control over the distribution and access to the data and the tools. To address these needs, the Biomedical Informatics Research Network (BIRN) has developed a federated and distributed infrastructure for the storage, retrieval, analysis, and documentation of biomedical imaging data. The infrastructure consists of distributed data collections hosted on dedicated storage and computational resources located at each participating site, a federated data management system and data integration environment, an Extensible Markup Language (XML) schema for data exchange, and analysis pipelines, designed to leverage both the distributed data management environment and the available grid computing resources. PMID:18348946
Senseney, Justin; Ollinger, John; Graner, John; Lui, Wei; Oakes, Terry; Riedy, Gerard
Advanced MRI research and other imaging modalities may serve as biomarkers for the evaluation of traumatic brain injury (TBI) recovery. However, these advanced modalities typically require off-line processing which creates images that are incompatible with radiologist viewing software sold commercially. AGFA Impax is an example of such a picture archiving and communication system(PACS) that is used by many radiology departments in the United States Military Health System. By taking advantage of Impax's use of the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard, we developed a system that allows for advanced medical imaging to be incorporated into clinical PACS. Radiology research can now be conducted using existing clinical imaging display platforms resources in combination with image processingtechniques that are only available outside of the clinical scanning environment. We extracted the spatial and identification elements of theDICOM standard that are necessary to allow research images to be incorporatedinto a clinical radiology system, and developed a tool that annotates research images with the proper tags. This allows for the evaluation of imaging representations of biological markers that may be useful in theevaluation of TBI and TBI recovery.
Wilson, Peter H; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Steenbergen, Bert; Sugden, David; Clark, Jane; Mumford, Nick; Blank, Rainer
To better understand the neural and performance factors that may underlie developmental coordination disorder (DCD), and implications for a multi-component account. A systematic review of the experimental literature published between June 2011 and September 2016 was conducted using a modified PICOS (population, intervention, comparison, outcomes, and study type) framework. A total of 106 studies were included. Behavioural data from 91 studies showed a broad cluster of deficits in the anticipatory control of movement, basic processes of motor learning, and cognitive control. Importantly, however, performance issues in DCD were often shown to be moderated by task type and difficulty. As well, we saw new evidence of compensatory processes and strategies in several studies. Neuroimaging data (15 studies, including electroencephalography) showed reduced cortical thickness in the right medial orbitofrontal cortex and altered brain activation patterns across functional networks involving prefrontal, parietal, and cerebellar regions in children with DCD than those in comparison groups. Data from diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging suggested reduced white matter organization involving sensorimotor structures and altered structural connectivity across the whole brain network. Taken together, results support the hypothesis that children with DCD show differences in brain structure and function compared with typically developing children. Behaviourally, these differences may affect anticipatory planning and reduce automatization of movement skill, prompting greater reliance on slower feedback-based control and compensatory strategies. Implications for future research, theory development, and clinical practice are discussed. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.
Phillips, Mary L; Swartz, Holly A.
Objective This critical review appraises neuroimaging findings in bipolar disorder in emotion processing, emotion regulation, and reward processing neural circuitry, to synthesize current knowledge of the neural underpinnings of bipolar disorder, and provide a neuroimaging research “roadmap” for future studies. Method We examined findings from all major studies in bipolar disorder that used fMRI, volumetric analyses, diffusion imaging, and resting state techniques, to inform current conceptual models of larger-scale neural circuitry abnormalities in bipolar disorder Results Bipolar disorder can be conceptualized in neural circuitry terms as parallel dysfunction in bilateral prefrontal cortical (especially ventrolateral prefrontal cortical)-hippocampal-amygdala emotion processing and emotion regulation neural circuitries, together with an “overactive” left-sided ventral striatal-ventrolateral and orbitofrontal cortical reward processing circuitry, that result in characteristic behavioral abnormalities associated with bipolar disorder: emotional lability, emotional dysregulation and heightened reward sensitivity. A potential structural basis for these functional abnormalities are gray matter decreases in prefrontal and temporal cortices, amygdala and hippocampus, and fractional anisotropy decreases in white matter tracts connecting prefrontal and subcortical regions. Conclusion Neuroimaging studies of bipolar disorder clearly demonstrate abnormalities in neural circuitries supporting emotion processing, emotion regulation and reward processing, although there are several limitations to these studies. Future neuroimaging research in bipolar disorder should include studies adopting dimensional approaches; larger studies examining neurodevelopmental trajectories in bipolar disorder and at-risk youth; multimodal neuroimaging studies using integrated systems approaches; and studies using pattern recognition approaches to provide clinically useful, individual
Williams, Antony J; Peck, Lou; Ekins, Sean
There is an abundance of free online tools accessible to scientists and others that can be used for online networking, data sharing and measuring research impact. Despite this, few scientists know how these tools can be used or fail to take advantage of using them as an integrated pipeline to raise awareness of their research outputs. In this article, the authors describe their experiences with these tools and how they can make best use of them to make their scientific research generally more accessible, extending its reach beyond their own direct networks, and communicating their ideas to new audiences. These efforts have the potential to drive science by sparking new collaborations and interdisciplinary research projects that may lead to future publications, funding and commercial opportunities. The intent of this article is to: describe some of these freely accessible networking tools and affiliated products; demonstrate from our own experiences how they can be utilized effectively; and, inspire their adoption by new users for the benefit of science.
On December 17, 2013, the OP Risk SRP, participants from the JSC, HQ, and NRESS participated in a WebEx/teleconference. The purpose of the call was to allow the SRP members to: 1. Receive an update by the Human Research Program (HRP) Chief Scientist or Deputy Chief Scientist on the status of NASA's current and future exploration plans and the impact these will have on the HRP. 2. Receive an update on any changes within the HRP since the 2012 SRP meeting. 3. Receive an update by the Element or Project Scientist(s) on progress since the 2012 SRP meeting. 4. Participate in a discussion with the HRP Chief Scientist, Deputy Chief Scientist, and the Element regarding possible topics to be addressed at the next SRP meeting.
Ronning, Emily Anne
This study examines scientists' perceptions of the environment in which they do their work. Specifically, this study examines how academic and professional factors such as research productivity, funding levels for science, connections to industry, type of academic appointment, and funding sources influence scientists' perceptions of the…
Joffe, Ari R; Bara, Meredith; Anton, Natalie; Nobis, Nathan
To determine whether the public and scientists consider common arguments (and counterarguments) in support (or not) of animal research (AR) convincing. After validation, the survey was sent to samples of public (Sampling Survey International (SSI; Canadian), Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT; US), a Canadian city festival and children's hospital), medical students (two second-year classes), and scientists (corresponding authors, and academic pediatricians). We presented questions about common arguments (with their counterarguments) to justify the moral permissibility (or not) of AR. Responses were compared using Chi-square with Bonferonni correction. There were 1220 public [SSI, n = 586; AMT, n = 439; Festival, n = 195; Hospital n = 107], 194/331 (59%) medical student, and 19/319 (6%) scientist [too few to report] responses. Most public respondents were public and medical student respondents considered 'benefits arguments' sufficient to justify AR; however, most acknowledged that counterarguments suggesting alternative research methods may be available, or that it is unclear why the same 'benefits arguments' do not apply to using humans in research, significantly weakened 'benefits arguments'. Almost all were not convinced of the moral permissibility of AR by 'characteristics of non-human-animals arguments', including that non-human-animals are not sentient, or are property. Most were not convinced of the moral permissibility of AR by 'human exceptionalism' arguments, including that humans have more advanced mental abilities, are of a special 'kind', can enter social contracts, or face a 'lifeboat situation'. Counterarguments explained much of this, including that not all humans have these more advanced abilities ['argument from species overlap'], and that the notion of 'kind' is arbitrary [e.g., why are we not of the 'kind' 'sentient-animal' or 'subject-of-a-life'?]. Medical students were more supportive (80%) of AR at the end of the survey (p < 0
Bjork, James M; Pardini, Dustin A
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has illuminated the development of human brain function. Some of this work in typically-developing youth has ostensibly captured neural underpinnings of adolescent behavior which is characterized by risk-seeking propensity, according to psychometric questionnaires and a wealth of anecdote. Notably, cross-sectional comparisons have revealed age-dependent differences between adolescents and other age groups in regional brain responsiveness to prospective or experienced rewards (usually greater in adolescents) or penalties (usually diminished in adolescents). These differences have been interpreted as reflecting an imbalance between motivational drive and behavioral control mechanisms, especially in mid-adolescence, thus promoting greater risk-taking. While intriguing, we caution here that researchers should be more circumspect in attributing clinically significant adolescent risky behavior to age-group differences in task-elicited fMRI responses from neurotypical subjects. This is because actual mortality and morbidity from behavioral causes (e.g. substance abuse, violence) by mid-adolescence is heavily concentrated in individuals who are not neurotypical, who rather have shown a lifelong history of behavioral disinhibition that frequently meets criteria for a disruptive behavior disorder, such as conduct disorder, oppositional-defiant disorder, or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. These young people are at extreme risk of poor psychosocial outcomes, and should be a focus of future neurodevelopmental research. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
James M. Bjork
Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI has illuminated the development of human brain function. Some of this work in typically-developing youth has ostensibly captured neural underpinnings of adolescent behavior which is characterized by risk-seeking propensity, according to psychometric questionnaires and a wealth of anecdote. Notably, cross-sectional comparisons have revealed age-dependent differences between adolescents and other age groups in regional brain responsiveness to prospective or experienced rewards (usually greater in adolescents or penalties (usually diminished in adolescents. These differences have been interpreted as reflecting an imbalance between motivational drive and behavioral control mechanisms, especially in mid-adolescence, thus promoting greater risk-taking. While intriguing, we caution here that researchers should be more circumspect in attributing clinically significant adolescent risky behavior to age-group differences in task-elicited fMRI responses from neurotypical subjects. This is because actual mortality and morbidity from behavioral causes (e.g. substance abuse, violence by mid-adolescence is heavily concentrated in individuals who are not neurotypical, who rather have shown a lifelong history of behavioral disinhibition that frequently meets criteria for a disruptive behavior disorder, such as conduct disorder, oppositional-defiant disorder, or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. These young people are at extreme risk of poor psychosocial outcomes, and should be a focus of future neurodevelopmental research.
d'Abrera, J C; Holland, A J; Landt, J; Stocks-Gee, G; Zaman, S H
Research into specific illnesses and the development of new treatments may only become possible as new technologies become available. When used for research, such technologies may best be described as 'intrusive', in that they require a considerable willingness and commitment on the part of the participants. This has increasingly been the case for brain disorders and illnesses where novel neuroimaging techniques, often combined with clinical and psychological assessments, have the potential to result in new understanding. People with intellectual disabilities (ID) have a history of under-representation as participants in research using such technologies and are therefore at risk of not receiving equal access to state-of-the-art treatments. We propose that 'intrusive' biomedical research is both possible and ethical in ID, and explore some of the methodological challenges by reference to a recent proof of principle study that used a relatively new ligand-based brain scanning technique in a group of volunteers with Down's syndrome. Five overlapping stages of the study methodology were identified and evaluated for their acceptability to volunteers with mild to moderate ID through discussion, reflection, and analysis of structured feedback in the context of key policy documents, ethical guidelines and relevant legislation. Identification of key ethical and methodological challenges from reflective practice and participant feedback facilitated the emergence of strategies that permitted continual refinement of the study design. Important areas considered included (1) being clear about the purpose and scientific justification for the study; (2) reconciling the potential risks and benefits with relevant ethical guidelines and legislation; (3) identifying and implementing effective recruitment strategies; (4) optimising and assessing capacity to consent; and (5) making the 'intrusive' procedures as acceptable as possible to people with ID. We were able to demonstrate that a
Full Text Available The article analyses the cultural policies in research of domestic and foreign scientists. It was found that around the world it is a part of social policy and an important tool for development. The role of culture as a powerful means of consolidation of society, strengthening of national identity and patriotism is being determined. Implementation of cultural policy of Ukraine through the idea of national cultural revival and restoration of the unity of the state has been suggested. Keywords: cultural policy models, spirituality, society values, unity, national identity. JEL: Z 10
Lind, Kimberly E; Gutierrez, Eric J; Yamamoto, Dorothy J; Regner, Michael F; McKee, Sherry A; Tanabe, Jody
Sex differences in brain structure and clinical course of substance use disorders underscores the need to include women in structural brain imaging studies. The NIH has supported the need for research to address sex differences. We evaluated female enrollment in substance abuse structural brain imaging research and the methods used to study sex differences in substance effects. Structural brain imaging studies published through 2016 (n=230) were evaluated for number of participants by sex and substance use status and methods used to evaluate sex differences. Temporal trends in the numbers of participants by sex and substance use status were analyzed. We evaluated how often sex effects were appropriately analyzed and the proportion of studies that found sex by substance interactions on volumetric measures. Female enrollment increased over time, but remained significantly lower than male enrollment (p=0.01), with the greatest bias for alcohol and opiate studies. 79% of studies included both sexes; however, 74% did not evaluate sex effects or used an analytic approach that precluded detection of sex by substance use interactions. 85% of studies that stratified by sex reported different substance effects on brain volumes. Only 33% of studies examining two-way interactions found significant interactions, highlighting that many studies were underpowered to detect interactions. Although female participation in substance use studies of brain morphometry has increased, sex disparity persists. Studying adequate numbers of both sexes and employing correct analytic approaches is critical for understanding sex differences in brain morphometric changes in substance abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to synthesize the emerging neuroimaging literature that reveals how the brain responds when readers and listeners encounter texts that demand monitoring of their ongoing comprehension processes. Much of this research has been undertaken by cognitive scientists who do not frame their work in metacognitive terms, and therefore it is less likely to be familiar to psychologists who study metacognition in educational contexts. The important role of metacognition in the development and use of academic skills is widely recognized. Metacognition is typically defined as the awareness and control of one's own cognitive processes. In the domain of reading, the most important metacognitive skill is comprehension monitoring, the evaluation and regulation of comprehension. Readers who monitor their understanding realize when they have encountered difficulty making sense of the text, and they apply error correction procedures to attempt to resolve the difficulty. Metacognition depends on executive control skills that continue to develop into early adulthood, in parallel with the maturation of the executive control regions of the prefrontal cortex. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and event-related potentials (ERP have been used for some time to study neural correlates of basic reading processes such as word identification, but it is only within recent years that researchers have turned to the higher-level processes of text comprehension. The article describes illustrative studies that reveal changes in neural activity when adults apply lexical, syntactic, or semantic standards to evaluate their understanding.
Kamerlin, Shina Caroline Lynn
Recent years have seen tremendous changes in the modes of publication and dissemination of biomedical information, with the introduction of countless new publishers and publishing models, as well as alternative modes of research evaluation. In parallel, we are witnessing an unsustainable explosion in the amount of information generated by each individual scientist, at the same time as many countries' shrinking research budgets are greatly increasing the competition for research funding. In such a hypercompetitive environment, how does one measure excellence? This contribution will provide an overview of some of the ongoing changes in authorship practices in the biomedical sciences, and also the consequences of hypercompetition to the careers of young scientists, from the perspective of a tenured young faculty member in the biomedical sciences. It will also provide some suggestions as to alternate dissemination and evaluation practices that could reverse current trends. [Int Microbiol 18(4):253-261 (2015)]. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.
Kaenzig, Lisa M.
women scientists at elite research universities in New York. A criterion sample (n=94) was selected resulting in forty-one successful academic women scientists as the study participants, representing a response rate of 43.6%. Findings include the important roles of parents, teachers, mentors and collaborators on the talent development process of the participants. The perception of the study participants was that there were multiple facilitators to their talent development process, while few barriers were acknowledged. The most important barriers cited by participants were perceptions of institutional culture and sexism. Implications for practice in both gifted and higher education are suggested, based on the findings of the study. For gifted education, these suggestions include the need to provide parental education programs emphasizing the importance of intellectual engagement at home, providing dedicated time for science in primary education, and fostering science and mathematics opportunities, particularly for girls and young women. Stressing the importance of hard work, persistence and intelligent risk-taking are also important for encouraging girls in science. For higher education, the study provides models of success of academic women scientists, outlines the importance of mentors and collaborators, and emphasizes the critical role that institutions and departments play in facilitating or impeding women's career development as academics. The current study suggests several areas for further research to continue the exploration of the talent development influences on academic women scientists. Based on the findings of this study, recommended studies include examining the differences of generational cohorts; probing the roles of collaborators/mentor colleagues; exploring differences for women from various ethnic and racial backgrounds; replicating the current study with larger populations of women scientists; investigating the role of facilitative school environments
Cavanna, Andrea Eugenio [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Neuropsychiatry; UCL Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom). Sobell Dept. of Motor, Neuroscience and Movement Disorders; Nani, Andrea [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom). Research Group BSMHFT; Blumenfeld, Hal [Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States). Depts. of Neurology, Neurobiology and Neurosurgery; Laureys, Steven (ed.) [Liege Univ. (Belgium). Cyclotron Research Centre
An important reference work on a multidisciplinary and rapidly expanding area. Particular focus on the relevance of neuroimaging for the diagnosis and treatment of common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting consciousness. Written by world-class experts in the field. Relevant for clinicians, researchers, and scholars across different specialties. Within the field of neuroscience, the past few decades have witnessed an exponential growth of research into the brain mechanisms underlying both normal and pathological states of consciousness in humans. The development of sophisticated imaging techniques (above all fMRI and PET) to visualize and map brain activity in vivo has opened new avenues in our understanding of the pathological processes involved in common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting consciousness, such as epilepsy, coma, vegetative states, dissociative disorders, and dementia. This book presents the state of the art in neuroimaging exploration of the brain correlates of the alterations in consciousness across these conditions, with a particular focus on the potential applications for diagnosis and management. Although the book has a practical approach and is primarily targeted at neurologists, neuroradiologists, and psychiatrists, a wide range of researchers and health care professionals will find it an essential reference that explains the significance of neuroimaging of consciousness for clinical practice. Within the field of neuroscience, the past few decades have witnessed an exponential growth of research into the brain mechanisms underlying both normal and pathological states of consciousness in humans. The development of sophisticated imaging techniques (above all fMRI and PET) to visualize and map brain activity in vivo has opened new avenues in our understanding of the pathological processes involved in common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting consciousness, such as epilepsy, coma, vegetative states, dissociative disorders, and dementia. This
Rogers, M. A.; Vane, D.
The CloudSat Education Network (CEN) is the primary education and public outreach component of the CloudSat mission. Approximately 116 schools in 16 countries around the world participate in the CEN, and are recruited from schools in the GLOBE program. Students and teachers in the CEN make atmospheric observations of temperature, precipitation, and crucially, of cloud type and cloud cover amount (including photographs of cloud observations), using a modified GLOBE Atmosphere protocol as a guide for observations. CEN observations are taken coincident with CloudSat overpasses, providing coincident spaceborne- and student surface observations. This puts students and teachers participating in the CEN at the forefront of scientific research as directly contributing partners in a collaborative research endeavor. CEN participants make extensive use of the CloudSat/CEN webpage, which is the primary data entry portal for the CEN. Data collected from CEN students is analyzed by CloudSat scientists for quality control purposes, as well as for use in CloudSat-related research. The webpage also provides students with CloudSat overpass dates and times, as well as CEN-specific updates, and articles about CEN projects distributed through a quarterly newsletter. Besides the newsletter, active CEN schools receive periodic visits from CloudSat scientists, providing an opportunity for students and teachers to interact directly with the scientific community. Results from completed student research include an investigation of the effect of different amounts of cloud cover on locally-grown mushroom crops in Thailand, while CloudSat-directed research using student data includes an analysis of the CloudSat cloud classification algorithm using student-collected data as a ground-truth dataset. The results of this latter study are in the process of publication with participating students and teachers listed as co-authors.
Tatiana G. Bokhan
Full Text Available Introduction: young scientists engaged in creative activities face difficulties during scientific research, implementation and commercialisation of the results. The impossibility of coping with obstacles leads to the impairment of motivational and creative activity. The problem of studying the main semantic contents of difficult situations and strategies to cope with them becomes relevant as it is conducive to the process of personal development of young scientists. Materials and Methods: the authors used a questionnaire with open-ended questions for revealing the main difficulties and coping strategies in the process of research activity; COPE questionnaire adapted by E. Rasskazova, T. Gordeyeva, E. Osin; Style of Self-Regulation of Behaviour technique by V. I. Morosanova. Statistical data processing was carried out with descriptive statistics methods, analysis of frequencies, factor analysis (Varimax rotation with Kaiser normalisation, cluster analysis (furthest neighbour method and Ward’s method. Results: eight main semantic categories related to difficulties experienced in the process of performing the research work have been detected. The main ways of coping with arising difficulties have been identified. Types of respondents different in terms of coping strategies and regulatory-behavioural characteristics have been distinguished. Discussion and Conclusions: difficulties of self-organisation in time for realisation of new meanings, difficulties in structuring the research work and search for information act as psychological barriers provoking mental stress. The most efficient coping strategies in respondents are strategies Active coping and search for positive meaning and personal development. The inefficient coping strategy with difficulties complicating the process of self-development is Avoiding problems strategies.
Kelly, Madeline; Cebulla, Hannah; Powers, Lynn
Through various opportunities and experiences with extracurricular scientific research, primarily astronomical research with programs like NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Project (NITARP), and the Mars Exploration Student Data Teams (MESDT), we have noticed a change in our learning style, career path, and general outlook on the scientific community that we strongly believe could also be added to the lives of many other high school students given similar opportunities. The purpose of our poster is to emphasize the importance of granting high school students opportunities to explore different styles and methods of learning. We believe that although crucial, a basic high school education is not enough to expose young adults to the scientific community and create enough interest for a career path. As a result, we wish to show that more of these programs and opportunities should be offered to a greater number of students of all ages, allowing them to explore their passions, develop their understanding of different fields, and determine the paths best suited to their interests. Within our poster, we will emphasize how these programs have specifically impacted our lives, what we hope to see in the future, and how we hope to attain the growth of such opportunities. We include such proposals as; increasing outreach programs, expanding the exposure of young students to the sciences, both in the classroom and out, allowing high school students to participate in active scientific research, and involving students in hands-on activities/experiments within school clubs, the classroom, at home, or at local events. Spreading these opportunities to directly interact with the sciences in similar manners as that of professional scientists will allow students to discover their interests, realize what being a scientist truly entails, and allow them to take the first steps into following their career paths.
Geboy, Nicholas J.; Engle, Mark A.
Geochemistry is a constantly expanding science. More and more, scientists are employing geochemical tools to help answer questions about the Earth and earth system processes. Scientists may assume that the responsibility of examining and assessing the quality of the geochemical data they generate is not theirs but rather that of the analytical laboratories to which their samples have been submitted. This assumption may be partially based on knowledge about internal and external quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) programs in which analytical laboratories typically participate. Or there may be a perceived lack of time or resources to adequately examine data quality. Regardless of the reason, the lack of QA/QC protocols can lead to the generation and publication of erroneous data. Because the interpretations drawn from the data are primary products to U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) stakeholders, the consequences of publishing erroneous results can be significant. The principal investigator of a scientific study ultimately is responsible for the quality and interpretation of the project's findings, and thus must also play a role in the understanding, implementation, and presentation of QA/QC information about the data. Although occasionally ignored, QA/QC protocols apply not only to procedures in the laboratory but also in the initial planning of a research study and throughout the life of the project. Many of the tenets of developing a sound QA/QC program or protocols also parallel the core concepts of developing a good study: What is the main objective of the study? Will the methods selected provide data of enough resolution to answer the hypothesis? How should samples be collected? Are there known or unknown artifacts or contamination sources in the sampling and analysis methods? Assessing data quality requires communication between the scientists responsible for designing the study and those collecting samples, analyzing samples, treating data, and
Del Casale, Antonio; Ferracuti, Stefano; Rapinesi, Chiara; Serata, Daniele; Piccirilli, Massimo; Savoja, Valeria; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Manfredi, Giovanni; Angeletti, Gloria; Tatarelli, Roberto; Girardi, Paolo
Specific phobias (SPs) are common, with lifetime prevalence estimates of 10%. Our current understanding of their pathophysiology owes much to neuroimaging studies, which enabled us to construct increasingly efficient models of the underlying neurocircuitry. We provide an updated, comprehensive review and analyze the relevant literature of functional neuroimaging studies in specific phobias. Findings are presented according to the functional neuroanatomy of patients with SPs. We performed a careful search of the major medical and psychological databases by crossing SP with each neuroimaging technique. Functional neuroimaging, mostly using symptom provocation paradigms, showed abnormal activations in brain areas involved in emotional perception and early amplification, mainly the amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex, thalamus, and insula. The insula, thalamus and other limbic/paralimbic structures are particularly involved in SPs with prominent autonomic arousal. Emotional modulation is also impaired after exposure to phobic stimuli, with abnormal activations reported for the prefrontal, orbitofrontal and visual cortices. Other cortices and the cerebellum also appear to be involved in the pathophysiology of this disorder. Functional neuroimaging identified neural substrates that differentiate SPs from other anxiety disorders and separate SP subtypes from one another; the results support current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition-Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic subtyping of SPs. Functional neuroimaging shows promise as a means of identifying treatment-response predictors. Improvement in these techniques may help in clarifying the neurocircuitry underlying SP, for both research and clinical-therapeutic purposes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper examines the efforts of consultants affiliated with Philip Morris (PM, the world's leading transnational tobacco corporation, to influence scientific research and training in Thailand via the Chulabhorn Research Institute (CRI. A leading Southeast Asian institute for environmental health science, the CRI is headed by Professor Dr. Her Royal Highness Princess Chulabhorn, the daughter of the King of Thailand, and it has assumed international significance via its designation as a World Health Organization (WHO Collaborating Centre in December 2005.This paper analyses previously confidential tobacco industry documents that were made publicly available following litigation in the United States. PM documents reveal that ostensibly independent overseas scientists, now identified as industry consultants, were able to gain access to the Thai scientific community. Most significantly, PM scientist Roger Walk has established close connections with the CRI. Documents indicate that Walk was able to use such links to influence the study and teaching of environmental toxicology in the institute and to develop relations with key officials and local scientists so as to advance the interests of PM within Thailand and across Asia. While sensitivities surrounding royal patronage of the CRI make public criticism extremely difficult, indications of ongoing involvement by tobacco industry consultants suggest the need for detailed scrutiny of such relationships.The establishment of close links with the CRI advances industry strategies to influence scientific research and debate around tobacco and health, particularly regarding secondhand smoke, to link with academic institutions, and to build relationships with national elites. Such strategies assume particular significance in the national and regional contexts presented here amid the globalisation of the tobacco pandemic. From an international perspective, particular concern is raised by the CRI's recently
Yarborough, Mark; Hunter, Lawrence
A recent report of the United States' Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues highlights how important it is for the research community to enjoy the "earned confidence" of the public and how creating a "culture of responsibility" can contribute to that confidence. It identifies a major role for "creative, flexible, and innovative" ethics education in creating such a culture. Other recent governmental reports from various nations similarly call for a renewed emphasis on ethics education in the sciences. We discuss why some common approaches to ethics education in the graduate sciences fail to meet the goals envisioned in the reports and we describe an approach, animated by primary attention on excellent science as opposed to bad scientists, that we have employed in our ethics teaching that we think is better suited for inspiring and sustaining responsible, trustworthy science. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Grier, Jennifer A.; Gay, Pamela L.; Buxner, Sanlyn; Noel-Storr, Jacob; CosmoQuest Team
NASA Science Mission Directorate missions and research return more data than subject matter experts (SMEs - scientists and engineers) can effectively utilize. Citizen scientist volunteers represent a robust pool of energy and talent that SMEs can draw upon to advance projects that require the processing of large quantities of images, and other data. The CosmoQuest Virtual Research Facility has developed roles and pathways to engage SMEs in ways that advance the education of the general public while producing science results publishable in peer-reviewed journals, including through the CosmoQuest Facility Small Grants Program and CosmoAcademy. Our Facility Small Grants Program is open to SMEs to fund them to work with CosmoQuest and engage the public in analysis. Ideal projects have a specific and well-defined need for additional eyes and minds to conduct basic analysis and data collection (such as crater counting, identifying lineaments, etc.) Projects selected will undergo design and implementation as Citizen Science Portals, and citizen scientists will be recruited and trained to complete the project. Users regularly receive feedback on the quality of their data. Data returned will be analyzed by the SME and the CQ Science Team for joint publication in a peer-reviewed journal. SMEs are also invited to consider presenting virtual learning courses in the subjects of their choice in CosmoAcademy. The audience for CosmoAcademy are lifelong-learners and education professionals. Classes are capped at 10, 15, or 20 students. CosmoAcademy can also produce video material to archive seminars long-term. SMEs function as advisors in many other areas of CosmoQuest, including the Educator's Zone (curricular materials for K-12 teachers), Science Fair Projects, and programs that partner to produce material for podcasts and planetaria. Visit the CosmoQuest website at cosmoquest.org to learn more, and to investigate current opportunities to engage with us. CosmoQuest is funded
The Rocky Mountain Research Station (RMRS) is one of five regional Research Stations that make up the US Forest Service Research and Development organization. RMRS is organized into eight science program areas, with an overall mission to develop new and synthesize existing knowledge to foster improved management of natural resources. Scientists with the Wildlife and...
Thiry, H.; Hunter, A.; Laursen, S.; Melton, G.
The involvement of scientists in education has been cited by national leaders as essential for strengthening US science education at the K-12 and higher levels. While many individuals and groups have developed expertise in designing and implementing programs that engage scientists with students or teachers, there is little research evidence that helps us understand what motivates or discourages scientists from such involvement, the benefits and costs to them of participating, and the barriers they face that must be addressed to involve them effectively. The ReSciPE Project (Resources for Scientists in Partnership with Education) has offered a workshop on "Scientific Inquiry in the K-12 Classroom" to over 300 scientists and science educators across the US. These workshops have reached a wide audience of science professionals who undertake activities in science education, whether individual or institution-based work, for work or as a volunteer. The project aims to help these "education-engaged scientists" pursue their education work more effectively, but has also drawn on this group as a research sample for an evaluation-with-research study to investigate scientists' involvement in education. Pre- and post-surveys have enabled us to characterize the demographics of the participants and measure their self-reported knowledge and learning about education, especially inquiry-based science. Follow- up interviews have provided insight into their education activities, motivations, interests, difficulties, and needs. We will report on recent research findings from this study and place them in context of national needs and efforts to engage scientists in education.
The Harvard Forest Schoolyard Ecology Program provides teachers and students with the opportunity and materials to participate in regionally focused ecological studies under the guidance of a mentor scientist working on a similar study. The Harvard Forest is part of a national network of ecological research sites known as the Long Term Ecological…
This report presents the results of the fourth in a new series of surveys of compensation and benefits for research and development (R D) scientists and engineers (S Es). The 1990 Survey represents the largest nationwide database of its kind, covering 104 establishments which provided data on almost 41,000 degreed researchers in the hard'' sciences. The fundamental nature of the survey has not changed: the focus is still on medium- and large-sized establishments which employ at least 100 degreed S Es in R D. The 1990 Survey contains data which cover about 18% of all establishments eligible to participate, encompassing approximately 18% of all eligible employees. As in the last three years, the survey sample constitutes a fairly good representation of the entire population of eligible establishments on the basis of business sector, geographic location, and size. Maturity-based analyses of salaries for some 34,000 nonsupervisory researchers are provided, as are job content-based analyses of more than 27,000 individual contributors and almost 5000 first level supervisors and division directors. Compensation policies and practices data are provided for 102 establishments, and benefits plans for 62 establishments are analyzed.
Wing, Louise; Massoud, Tarik F
Quantitative, qualitative, and innovative application of bibliometric research performance indicators to anatomy and radiology research and education can enhance cross-fertilization between the two disciplines. We aim to use these indicators to identify long-term trends in dissemination of publications in neuroimaging anatomy (including both productivity and citation rates), which has subjectively waned in prestige during recent years. We examined publications over the last 40 years in two neuroradiological journals, AJNR and Neuroradiology, and selected and categorized all neuroimaging anatomy research articles according to theme and type. We studied trends in their citation activity over time, and mathematically analyzed these trends for 1977, 1987, and 1997 publications. We created a novel metric, "citation half-life at 10 years postpublication" (CHL-10), and used this to examine trends in the skew of citation numbers for anatomy articles each year. We identified 367 anatomy articles amongst a total of 18,110 in these journals: 74.2% were original articles, with study of normal anatomy being the commonest theme (46.7%). We recorded a mean of 18.03 citations for each anatomy article, 35% higher than for general neuroradiology articles. Graphs summarizing the rise (upslope) in citation rates after publication revealed similar trends spanning two decades. CHL-10 trends demonstrated that more recently published anatomy articles were likely to take longer to reach peak citation rate. Bibliometric analysis suggests that anatomical research in neuroradiology is not languishing. This novel analytical approach can be applied to other aspects of neuroimaging research, and within other subspecialties in radiology and anatomy, and also to foster anatomical education. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Boice, Daniel C.; Reiff, P.
Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) has been a community partnership between local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA), and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) for the past 20 years. The goals of YES are to increase the number of high school students, especially those from underrepresented groups, seeking careers in science and engineering and to enhance their success in entering the college and major of their choice. This is accomplished by expanding career awareness, including information on "hot" career areas through seminars and laboratory tours by SwRI staff, and allowing students to interact on a continuing basis with role models at SwRI in a real-world research experiences in physical sciences (including astronomy), information sciences, and a variety of engineering fields. YES consists of two parts: 1) An intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment and 2) a collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of SwRI mentors during the academic year. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. Twenty-one YES 2012 students developed a website for the Dawn Mission (yesserver.space.swri.edu) and five high school science teachers are developing space-related lessons for classroom presentation. Partnerships between research institutes, local high schools, and community foundations, like the YES Program, positively affect students’ preparation for STEM careers via real-world research experiences with mentorship teams consisting of professional staff and qualified teachers. Acknowledgements. We acknowledge support from the NASA MMS Mission, SwRI, and local charitable foundations.
Mahajan, Rajneesh; Mostofsky, Stewart H.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that has a strong genetic basis, and is heterogeneous in its etiopathogenesis and clinical presentation. Neuroimaging studies, in concert with neuropathological and clinical research, have been instrumental in delineating trajectories of development in children with ASD. Structural neuroimaging has revealed ASD to be a disorder with general and regional brain enlargement, especially in the frontotemporal cortices, while functional neuroimaging studies have highlighted diminished connectivity, especially between frontal-posterior regions. The diverse and specific neuroimaging findings may represent potential neuroendophenotypes, and may offer opportunities to further understand the etiopathogenesis of ASD, predict treatment response and lead to the development of new therapies. PMID:26234701
Roberts, Scott F; Fischhoff, Martin A; Sakowski, Stacey A; Feldman, Eva L
Significant increases in National Institutes of Health (NIH) spending on medical research have not produced corresponding increases in new treatments and cures. Instead, laboratory discoveries remain in what has been termed the "valley of death," the gap between bench research and clinical application. Recently, there has been considerable discussion in the literature and scientific community about the causes of this phenomenon and how to bridge the abyss. In this article, the authors examine one possible explanation: Clinician-scientists' declining role in the medical research enterprise has had a dilatory effect on the successful translation of laboratory breakthroughs into new clinical applications. In recent decades, the percentage of MDs receiving NIH funding has drastically decreased compared with PhDs. The growing gap between the research and clinical enterprises has resulted in fewer scientists with a true understanding of clinical problems as well as scientists who are unable to or uninterested in gleaning new basic research hypotheses from failed clinical trials. The NIH and many U.S. medical schools have recognized the decline of the clinician-scientist as a major problem and adopted innovative programs to reverse the trend. However, more radical action may be required, including major changes to the NIH peer-review process, greater funding for translational research, and significantly more resources for the training, debt relief, and early career support of potential clinician-scientists. Such improvements are required for clinician-scientists to conduct translational research that bridges the valley of death and transforms biomedical research discoveries into tangible clinical treatments and technologies.
France, Bev; Birdsall, Sally
A DVD resource that provided a scientist's perspective on the use of animals in research and teaching was evaluated with a questionnaire that asked students' views pre and post their access to the resource. Thirty-nine secondary students (Y10-Y13) took part in three different teaching programmes that provided information about animal research and…
O'Byrne, J N; Berman Rosa, M; Gouin, J-P; Dang-Vu, T T
State-of-the-art neuroimaging techniques have accelerated progress in the study and understanding of sleep in humans. Neuroimaging studies in primary insomnia remain relatively few, considering the important prevalence of this disorder in the general population. This review examines the contribution of functional and structural neuroimaging to our current understanding of primary insomnia. Functional studies during sleep provided support for the hyperarousal theory of insomnia. Functional neuroimaging also revealed abnormalities in cognitive and emotional processing in primary insomnia. Results from structural studies suggest neuroanatomical alterations in primary insomnia, mostly in the hippocampus, anterior cingulate cortex and orbitofrontal cortex. However, these results are not well replicated across studies. A few magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies revealed abnormalities in neurotransmitter concentrations and bioenergetics in primary insomnia. The inconsistencies among neuroimaging findings on insomnia are likely due to clinical heterogeneity, differences in imaging and overall diversity of techniques and designs employed. Larger samples, replication, as well as innovative methodologies are necessary for the progression of this perplexing, yet promising area of research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Boice, D. C.; Reiff, P. H.
During the past 18 years, Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) has been a community partnership between local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA), and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). The goals of YES are to increase the number of high school students, especially those from underrepresented groups, seeking careers in science and engineering, to enhance their success in entering the college and major of their choice, and to promote teacher development in STEM fields. This is accomplished by allowing students and teachers to interact on a continuing basis with role models at SwRI in real-world research experiences in physical sciences (including space science), information sciences, and a variety of engineering fields. A total of 239 students have completed YES or are currently enrolled. Of these students, 38% are females and 56% are ethnic minorities, reflecting the local ethnic diversity, and 67% represent underserved groups. Presently, there are 21 students and 9 secondary school teachers enrolled in the YES 2010/2011 Program. YES consists of an intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students and teachers experience the research environment and a collegial mentorship where they complete individual research projects under the guidance of SwRI mentors during the academic year. YES students develop a website (yesserver.space.swri.edu) for topics in space science (this year was ESA's Rosetta Mission) and high school STEM teachers develop space-related lessons for classroom presentation. Teachers participate in an in-service workshop to share their developed classroom materials and spread awareness of space-related research. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. Partnerships between research institutes, local high schools, and community foundations, like the YES Program, can positively affect students’ preparation for STEM careers via real
Boice, D. C.; Reiff, P. H.
During the past 17 years, Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) has been a community partnership between local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA), and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). The goals of YES are to increase the number of high school students, especially those from underrepresented groups, seeking careers in science and engineering, to enhance their success in entering the college and major of their choice, and to promote teacher development in STEM fields. This is accomplished by allowing students and teachers to interact on a continuing basis with role models at SwRI in real-world research experiences in physical sciences (including space science), information sciences, and a variety of engineering fields. A total of 218 students have completed YES or are currently enrolled. Of these students, 37% are females and 56% are ethnic minorities, reflecting the local ethnic diversity, and 67% represent underserved groups. Presently, there are 20 students and 3 teachers enrolled in the YES 2009/2010 Program. YES consists of an intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students and teachers experience the research environment and a collegial mentorship where they complete individual research projects under the guidance of SwRI mentors during the academic year. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. Teachers participate in an in-service workshop to share classroom materials and spread awareness of space-related research. YES students develop a website (yesserver.space.swri.edu) for topics in space science (this year was NASA's MMS Mission) and high school science teachers develop space-related lessons for classroom presentation. Partnerships between research institutes, local high schools, and community foundations, like the YES Program, can positively affect students’ preparation for STEM careers via real-world research experiences with
Yu. Yu. Dgebuadze
Full Text Available The article gives the overview of the studies of the aquatic fauna and fl ora of Mongolia by the Russian (and Soviet scientists for the period of more than a century. This history is divided into three periods: the fi rst period covers the end of the 19 th and the beginning of the 20 th centuries, the second one – the middle of the 20 th century and the third one – the last one third of the 20 th and the beginning of the 21 th centuries. The fi rst period is connected with the research of Hubsugul Lake and Selenge River basin completely, the second period – with the works of Mongolian Commission and Science Committee of the Mongolian People’s Republic. The third period started in 1970’s with simultaneous organization of two important expeditions: the Joint Hubsugul Lake Expedition by the Irkutsk and Mongolian State Universities, and Joint Soviet-Mongolian Complex Biological Expedition by the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and the Mongolian Academy of Sciences. The latter expedition celebrates 40th anniversary of its permanent activity this year. In the second part of this paper the results of hydrobiological studies of this expedition led in 2000-2009 in the Selenge River basin are given.
Fujita, Misao; Hayashi, Yoshinori; Tashiro, Shimon; Takashima, Kyoko; Nakazawa, Eisuke; Akabayashi, Akira
To establish appropriate measures that deal with incidental findings (IFs), the neuroscience community needs to address various ethical issues. The current state of research facilities regarding IFs and investigator attitudes as well as potentially eligible research participants must be assessed prior to future discussions and before the development of policies and guidelines. To this end, we conducted two questionnaire surveys to clarify i) how IFs are addressed at neuroimaging research facilities in Japan and ii) the views of investigators and potential research participants regarding the handling of IFs. Thirty-one principal investigators (PIs) involved in the Strategic Research Program for Brain Sciences (SRPBS), a government-funded project, were asked to fill out a questionnaire regarding ways IFs were handled at the facility. A total of 110 investigators engaged in SRPBS tasks, including 31 PIs who participated in the research facility survey and researchers conducting studies under the management of the PIs, and 500 individuals from the general public (i.e., general population) were asked to select the most appropriate way to deal with IFs in two scenarios, namely the medical school and humanities and social sciences department scenarios. More than 40% of PIs responded that they did not know or were unsure of what type of approach was employed to handle IFs at their research facilities. Nevertheless, they were willing to improve the current status if sufficient resources were provided. With regard to specialist involvement, 37.7% of investigators responded that it was appropriate to have a specialist check all images in the medical school scenario, whereas 13.3% responded that such involvement was appropriate in the humanities and social sciences department scenario. In contrast, 76.1% and 61.0% of the general population indicated that specialist involvement was appropriate in the medical school and humanities and social sciences department scenarios
Charrière, Marie; Bogaard, Thom; Junier, Sandra; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Mostert, Erik
the lead in advertising the activity, gathering participants and they helped designing the scientific survey. The benefits of this exhibition for the community included triggering memories, encouraging exchanges, especially inter-generational, reinforcing stakeholders-to-stakeholders relationships and promote further communication on the topic. The scientific benefits are that we have an experiment that allows us to measure the impact of a communication effort, not in a laboratory setting but in real life. But more importantly this research highlights the responsibility of scientists that are researching in the disaster risk reduction field to involve the stakeholders in order to produce results that not only improve scientific knowledge but also have a social impact in the case studies they choose.
Jenine K Harris
Full Text Available Transdisciplinary collaboration is essential in addressing the translation gap between scientific discovery and delivery of evidence-based interventions to prevent and treat diabetes. We examined patterns of collaboration among scientists at the Washington University Center for Diabetes Translation Research.Members (n = 56 of the Washington University Center for Diabetes Translation Research were surveyed about collaboration overall and on publications, presentations, and grants; 87.5% responded (n = 49. We used traditional and network descriptive statistics and visualization to examine the networks and exponential random graph modeling to identify predictors of collaboration.The 56 network members represented nine disciplines. On average, network members had been affiliated with the center for 3.86 years (s.d. = 1.41. The director was by far the most central in all networks. The overall and publication networks were the densest, while the overall and grant networks were the most centralized. The grant network was the most transdisciplinary. The presentation network was the least dense, least centralized, and least transdisciplinary. For every year of center affiliation, network members were 10% more likely to collaborate (OR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.00-1.21 and 13% more likely to write a paper together (OR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.02-1.25. Network members in the same discipline were over twice as likely to collaborate in the overall network (OR: 2.10; 95% CI: 1.40-3.15; however, discipline was not associated with collaboration in the other networks. Rank was not associated with collaboration in any network.As transdisciplinary centers become more common, it is important to identify structural features, such as a central leader and ongoing collaboration over time, associated with scholarly productivity and, ultimately, with advancing science and practice.
Pagnotta, Ashley; Grcevich, J.; Shara, M.; Mac Low, M.; Lepine, S.; Nadeau, P.; Flores, K.; Sessa, J.; Zirakparvar, N.; Ustunisik, G.; Kinzler, R.; Macdonald, M.; Contino, J.; Cooke-Nieves, N.; Zachowski, M.
Abstract: The Master of Arts in Teaching (MAT) Program at the American Museum of Natural History is a first-of-its-kind program designed to prepare participants to be world-class Earth Science teachers. The dearth of Earth Science teachers in New York State has resulted in fewer students taking the statewide Earth Science Regents Exam, which negatively affects graduation rates and reduces the number of students who pursue related college degrees. The MAT program was designed to address this problem, and is the result of a collaboration between research scientists and educators at the Museum, with faculty comprised of curators and postdoctoral researchers from the Departments of Astrophysics, Earth and Planetary Sciences, and the Division of Paleontology, as well as doctoral-level Education faculty. The full-time, 15-month program combines courses and field work in astrophysics, geology, earth science, and paleontology at the Museum with pedagogical coursework and real-world teaching experience in local urban classrooms. The program is part of New York State’s Race to the Top initiative and particularly targets high-needs schools with diverse student populations. Because of this, the MAT program has the potential to stimulate interest and achievement in a variety of STEM fields among thousands of students from traditionally underrepresented backgrounds. The first cohort of teacher candidates entered the MAT program in June of 2012. They represent diverse scientific expertise levels, geographic backgrounds, and career stages. We report on the first six months of this pilot program as well as the future plans and opportunities for prospective teacher candidates.
CHAMBERS, J A
To investigate traits differentiating highly creative research scientists from less creative ones, a questionnaire was sent to 740 male scientists (400 chemists and 340 psychologists). Half of each group had achieved eminence as research scientists; the other half had not achieved research eminence, but were matched on relevant variables. Results indicated that creative scientists are more dominant than less creative ones, that they have more initiative, and are more strongly motivated toward intellectual success.
Bau, Jason T; Frolkis, Alexandra D; Nathoo, Nabeela; Yipp, Bryan G; Hollenberg, Morley D; Beck, Paul L
Physician-scientists are integral to medical research, with medical programs throughout Canada invested in training hybrid physician-scientists. Few data exist as to whether these programs are generating the diversity, gender equity and numbers of trainees essential for the future of medical research and teaching. We aimed to identify factors that contribute to research productivity, diversity and retention of individuals as physician-scientists. We completed a retrospective cohort study, for the period 1973 to 2015, of the University of Calgary Leaders in Medicine Program in Calgary, Alberta. Participants were coregistered in graduate (master's or PhD) and medical degree programs. Primary outcomes included number of publications and the eventual career paths of graduates, with individuals characterized as physicians or physician-scientists on the basis of these metrics. Of the 307 individuals who were coregistered in or had completed a joint graduate and medical degree, 125 (40.7%) were PhD students/graduates, and 182 (59.3%) were master's trainees/graduates. While in the joint program, male PhD students consistently published more frequently than female PhD students. There was no significant difference in publication records between male and female master's students. Of the 172 individuals who were 5 years or more beyond graduation, 47 (27.3%) were classified as physician-scientists; these individuals consisted of 28 (40.6%) of the 69 PhD graduates and 19 (18.4%) of the 103 master's graduates. Overall, our study shows that graduates receiving both clinical and research training, through master's or PhD programs, continue to be involved in research in their subsequent careers. Copyright 2017, Joule Inc. or its licensors.
Mackenzie-Graham, Allan J; Van Horn, John D; Woods, Roger P; Crawford, Karen L; Toga, Arthur W
Provenance, the description of the history of a set of data, has grown more important with the proliferation of research consortia-related efforts in neuroimaging. Knowledge about the origin and history of an image is crucial for establishing data and results quality; detailed information about how it was processed, including the specific software routines and operating systems that were used, is necessary for proper interpretation, high fidelity replication and re-use. We have drafted a mechanism for describing provenance in a simple and easy to use environment, alleviating the burden of documentation from the user while still providing a rich description of an image's provenance. This combination of ease of use and highly descriptive metadata should greatly facilitate the collection of provenance and subsequent sharing of data.
Many of us nowadays invest significant amounts of time in sharing our activities and opinions with friends and family via social networking tools such as Facebook, Twitter or other related websites. However, despite the availability of many platforms for scientists to connect and...
Scientists are front and center in quantifying and solving environmental problems. Yet, as a spate of recent news articles in scientific journals point out, much can be done to enhance sustainability within the scientific enterprise itself, particularly by trimming the energy use associated with research facilities and the equipment therein (i,ii,iii, iv). Sponsors of research unwittingly spend on the order of $10 billion each year on energy in the U.S. alone, and the underlying inefficiencies drain funds from the research enterprise while causing 80 MT CO2-equivalent greenhouse-gas emissions (see Box). These are significant sums considering the opportunity costs in terms of the amount of additional research that could be funded and emissions that could be reduced if the underlying energy was used more efficiently. By following commercially proven best practices in facility design and operation, scientists--and the sponsors of science--can cost-effectively halve these costs, while doing their part to put society on alow-carbon diet.
Betteley, Pat; Lee, Richard E., Jr.
In an integrated science/language arts/technology unit called "How Scientists Learn," students researched famous scientists from the past and cutting-edge modern-day scientists. Using biography trade books and the internet, students collected and recorded data on charts, summarized important information, and inferred meaning from text. Then they…
Cocozza, Sirio; Russo, Camilla; Pontillo, Giuseppe; Ugga, Lorenzo; Macera, Antonio; Cervo, Amedeo; De Liso, Maria; Di Paolo, Nilde; Ginocchio, Maria Isabella; Giordano, Flavio; Leone, Giuseppe; Rusconi, Giovanni; Stanzione, Arnaldo; Briganti, Francesco; Quarantelli, Mario; Caranci, Ferdinando; D'Amico, Alessandra; Elefante, Andrea; Tedeschi, Enrico; Brunetti, Arturo
To evaluate if advanced neuroimaging research is mainly conducted by imaging specialists, we investigated the number of first authorships by radiologists and non-radiologist scientists in articles published in the field of advanced neuroimaging in the past 10 years. Articles in the field of advanced neuroimaging identified in this retrospective bibliometric analysis were divided in four groups, depending on the imaging technique used. For all included studies, educational background of the first authors was recorded (based on available online curriculum vitae) and classified in subgroups, depending on their specialty. Finally, journal impact factors were recorded and comparatively assessed among subgroups as a metric of research quality. A total number of 3831 articles were included in the study. Radiologists accounted as first authors for only 12.8 % of these publications, while 56.9 % of first authors were researchers without a medical degree. Mean impact factor (IF) of journals with non-MD researchers as first authors was significantly higher than the MD subgroup (p articles authored by other MD specialists (p articles was the lowest among all subgroups. These results, taken together, should question the radiology community about its future role in the development of advanced neuroimaging.
Tijdink, J K; Schipper, K; Bouter, L M; Maclaine Pont, P; de Jonge, J; Smulders, Y M
To investigate the biomedical scientist's perception of the prevailing publication culture. Qualitative focus group interview study. Four university medical centres in the Netherlands. Three randomly selected groups of biomedical scientists (PhD, postdoctoral staff members and full professors). Main themes for discussion were selected by participants. Frequently perceived detrimental effects of contemporary publication culture were the strong focus on citation measures (like the Journal Impact Factor and the H-index), gift and ghost authorships and the order of authors, the peer review process, competition, the funding system and publication bias. These themes were generally associated with detrimental and undesirable effects on publication practices and on the validity of reported results. Furthermore, senior scientists tended to display a more cynical perception of the publication culture than their junior colleagues. However, even among the PhD students and the postdoctoral fellows, the sentiment was quite negative. Positive perceptions of specific features of contemporary scientific and publication culture were rare. Our findings suggest that the current publication culture leads to negative sentiments, counterproductive stress levels and, most importantly, to questionable research practices among junior and senior biomedical scientists. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Fudge, Nina; Sadler, Euan; Fisher, Helen R; Maher, John; Wolfe, Charles D A; McKevitt, Christopher
Translational research is central to international health policy, research and funding initiatives. Despite increasing use of the term, the translation of basic science discoveries into clinical practice is not straightforward. This systematic search and narrative synthesis aimed to examine factors enabling or hindering translational research from the perspective of basic and clinician scientists, a key stakeholder group in translational research, and to draw policy-relevant implications for organisations seeking to optimise translational research opportunities. We searched SCOPUS and Web of Science from inception until April 2015 for papers reporting scientists' views of the factors they perceive as enabling or hindering the conduct of translational research. We screened 8,295 papers from electronic database searches and 20 papers from hand searches and citation tracking, identifying 26 studies of qualitative, quantitative or mixed method designs. We used a narrative synthesis approach and identified the following themes: 1) differing concepts of translational research 2) research processes as a barrier to translational research; 3) perceived cultural divide between research and clinical care; 4) interdisciplinary collaboration as enabling translation research, but dependent on the quality of prior and current social relationships; 5) translational research as entrepreneurial science. Across all five themes, factors enabling or hindering translational research were largely shaped by wider social, organisational, and structural factors. To optimise translational research, policy could consider refining translational research models to better reflect scientists' experiences, fostering greater collaboration and buy in from all types of scientists. Organisations could foster cultural change, ensuring that organisational practices and systems keep pace with the change in knowledge production brought about by the translational research agenda.
Full Text Available Translational research is central to international health policy, research and funding initiatives. Despite increasing use of the term, the translation of basic science discoveries into clinical practice is not straightforward. This systematic search and narrative synthesis aimed to examine factors enabling or hindering translational research from the perspective of basic and clinician scientists, a key stakeholder group in translational research, and to draw policy-relevant implications for organisations seeking to optimise translational research opportunities.We searched SCOPUS and Web of Science from inception until April 2015 for papers reporting scientists' views of the factors they perceive as enabling or hindering the conduct of translational research. We screened 8,295 papers from electronic database searches and 20 papers from hand searches and citation tracking, identifying 26 studies of qualitative, quantitative or mixed method designs. We used a narrative synthesis approach and identified the following themes: 1 differing concepts of translational research 2 research processes as a barrier to translational research; 3 perceived cultural divide between research and clinical care; 4 interdisciplinary collaboration as enabling translation research, but dependent on the quality of prior and current social relationships; 5 translational research as entrepreneurial science. Across all five themes, factors enabling or hindering translational research were largely shaped by wider social, organisational, and structural factors.To optimise translational research, policy could consider refining translational research models to better reflect scientists' experiences, fostering greater collaboration and buy in from all types of scientists. Organisations could foster cultural change, ensuring that organisational practices and systems keep pace with the change in knowledge production brought about by the translational research agenda.
Albert, Mathieu; Laberge, Suzanne
The idea of interdisciplinarity has been taken up by academic and governmental organisations around the world and enacted through science policies, funding programs and higher education institutions. In Canada, interdisciplinarity led to a major transformation in health research funding. In 2000, the federal government closed the Medical Research Council (MRC) and created the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR). From the outset, CIHR's vision and goals were innovative, as it sought to include the social sciences within its purview alongside more traditional health research sectors. The extent to which it has been successful in this endeavour, however, remains unknown. The aim of our study was to examine how CIHR's intentions to foster inclusiveness and cooperation across disciplines were implemented in the agency's own organisational structure. We focused on social scientists' representation on committees and among decision-makers between 2000 and 2015, one of the key mandates of CIHR being to include the social sciences within its remit and support research in this area. We examined the composition of the Governing Council, the Institute Scientific Directors, the Chairs of the College of Reviewers, and two International Review Panels invited by CIHR. We targeted these committees and decision-makers since they hold the power to influence the field of Canadian health research through the decisions they make. Our findings show that, while CIHR was created with the mandate to support the entire spectrum of health-related research-including the social sciences-this call for inclusiveness has not yet been materialized in the agency's organisational structure. Social scientists, as well as researchers from neighbouring disciplines such as social epidemiology, health promotion and the humanities, are still confined to low levels of representation within CIHR's highest echelons. This imbalance limits social scientists' input into health research in Canada and
Dos Santos, Rafael G; Balthazar, Fermanda M; Bouso, José C; Hallak, Jaime Ec
In recent decades, the use of ayahuasca (AYA) - a β-carboline- and dimethyltryptamine-rich hallucinogenic botanical preparation traditionally used by Northwestern Amazonian tribes for ritual and therapeutic purposes - has spread from South America to Europe and the USA, raising concerns about its possible toxicity and hopes of its therapeutic potential. Thus, it is important to analyze the acute, subacute, and long-term effects of AYA to assess its safety and toxicity. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of human studies assessing AYA effects on psychiatric symptoms, neuropsychological functioning, and neuroimaging. Papers published until 16 December 2015 were included from PubMed, LILACS and SciELO databases following a comprehensive search strategy and pre-determined set of criteria for article selection. The review included 28 full-text articles. Acute AYA administration was well tolerated, increased introspection and positive mood, altered visual perceptions, activated frontal and paralimbic regions and decreased default mode network activity. It also improved planning and inhibitory control and impaired working memory, and showed antidepressive and antiaddictive potentials. Long-term AYA use was associated with increased cortical thickness of the anterior cingulate cortex and cortical thinning of the posterior cingulate cortex, which was inversely correlated to age of onset, intensity of prior AYA use, and spirituality. Subacute and long-term AYA use was not associated with increased psychopathology or cognitive deficits, being associated with enhanced mood and cognition, increased spirituality, and reduced impulsivity. Acute, subacute, and long-term AYA use seems to have low toxicity. Preliminary studies about potential therapeutic effects of AYA need replication due to their methodological limitations. © The Author(s) 2016.
Kwan, Jennifer M; Daye, Dania; Schmidt, Mary Lou; Conlon, Claudia Morrissey; Kim, Hajwa; Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Payne, Aimee S; Riddle, Megan; Madera, Sharline; Adami, Alexander J; Winter, Kate Quinn
Prior studies have described the career paths of physician-scientist candidates after graduation, but the factors that influence career choices at the candidate stage remain unclear. Additionally, previous work has focused on MD/PhDs, despite many physician-scientists being MDs. This study sought to identify career sector intentions, important factors in career selection, and experienced and predicted obstacles to career success that influence the career choices of MD candidates, MD candidates with research-intense career intentions (MD-RI), and MD/PhD candidates. A 70-question survey was administered to students at 5 academic medical centers with Medical Scientist Training Programs (MSTPs) and Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) from the NIH. Data were analyzed using bivariate or multivariate analyses. More MD/PhD and MD-RI candidates anticipated or had experienced obstacles related to balancing academic and family responsibilities and to balancing clinical, research, and education responsibilities, whereas more MD candidates indicated experienced and predicted obstacles related to loan repayment. MD/PhD candidates expressed higher interest in basic and translational research compared to MD-RI candidates, who indicated more interest in clinical research. Overall, MD-RI candidates displayed a profile distinct from both MD/PhD and MD candidates. MD/PhD and MD-RI candidates experience obstacles that influence their intentions to pursue academic medical careers from the earliest training stage, obstacles which differ from those of their MD peers. The differences between the aspirations of and challenges facing MD, MD-RI and MD/PhD candidates present opportunities for training programs to target curricula and support services to ensure the career development of successful physician-scientists.
Graff, Paige; Bandfield, J.; Stefanov, W.; Vanderbloemen, L.; Willis, K.; Runco, S.
To effectively prepare the nation's future Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) workforce, students in today's classrooms need opportunities to engage in authentic experiences that model skills and practices used by STEM professionals. Relevant, real-world authentic research experiences allow students to behave as scientists as they model the process of science. This enables students to get a true sense of STEM-related professions and also allows them to develop the requisite knowledge, skills, curiosity, and creativity necessary for success in STEM careers. Providing professional development and opportunities to help teachers infuse research in the classroom is one of the primary goals of the Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) program. EEAB, facilitated by the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Directorate at the NASA Johnson Space Center, is an Earth and planetary science education program designed to inspire, engage, and educate teachers and students in grades 5-12 by getting them actively involved with exploration, discovery, and the process of science. The program combines the expertise of scientists and educators to ensure the professional development provided to classroom teachers is scientifically valid and also recognizes classroom constraints. For many teachers, facilitating research in the classroom can be challenging. In addition to addressing required academic standards and dealing with time constraints, challenges include structuring a research investigation the entire class can successfully complete. To build educator confidence, foster positive classroom research experiences, and enable teachers to help students model the skills and practices of scientists, EEAB has created an "allinclusive" comparative planetology research investigation activity. This activity addresses academic standards while recognizing students (and teachers) potentially lack experience with scientific practices involved in conducting
Graff, P. V.; Bandfield, J. L.; Stefanov, W. L.; Vanderbloemen, L.; Willis, K. J.; Runco, S.
To effectively prepare the nation's future Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) workforce, students in today's classrooms need opportunities to engage in authentic experiences that model skills and practices used by STEM professionals. Relevant, real-world authentic research experiences allow students to behave as scientists as they model the process of science. This enables students to get a true sense of STEM-related professions and also allows them to develop the requisite knowledge, skills, curiosity, and creativity necessary for success in STEM careers. Providing professional development and opportunities to help teachers infuse research in the classroom is one of the primary goals of the Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) program. EEAB, facilitated by the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Directorate at the NASA Johnson Space Center, is an Earth and planetary science education program designed to inspire, engage, and educate teachers and students in grades 5-12 by getting them actively involved with exploration, discovery, and the process of science. The program combines the expertise of scientists and educators to ensure the professional development provided to classroom teachers is scientifically valid and also recognizes classroom constraints. For many teachers, facilitating research in the classroom can be challenging. In addition to addressing required academic standards and dealing with time constraints, challenges include structuring a research investigation the entire class can successfully complete. To build educator confidence, foster positive classroom research experiences, and enable teachers to help students model the skills and practices of scientists, EEAB has created an 'all-inclusive' comparative planetology research investigation activity. This activity addresses academic standards while recognizing students (and teachers) potentially lack experience with scientific practices involved in conducting
Arden, Rosalind; Chavez, Robert S; Grazioplene, Rachael; Jung, Rex E
Many studies of creative cognition with a neuroimaging component now exist; what do they say about where and how creativity arises in the brain? We reviewed 45 brain-imaging studies of creative cognition. We found little clear evidence of overlap in their results. Nearly as many different tests were used as there were studies; this test diversity makes it impossible to interpret the different findings across studies with any confidence. Our conclusion is that creativity research would benefit from psychometrically informed revision, and the addition of neuroimaging methods designed to provide greater spatial localization of function. Without such revision in the behavioral measures and study designs, it is hard to see the benefit of imaging. We set out eight suggestions in a manifesto for taking creativity research forward. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Despite a growing consensus regarding the value of inquiry-based learning (IBL) for students' learning and engagement in the science classroom, the implementation of such practices continues to be a challenge. If science teachers are to use IBL to develop students' inquiry practices and encourage them to think and act as scientists, a better…
Hampton, S. E.
The science necessary to unravel complex environmental problems confronts severe computational challenges - coping with huge volumes of heterogeneous data, spanning vast spatial scales at high resolution, and requiring integration of disparate measurements from multiple disciplines. But as cyberinfrastructure advances to support such work, scientists in many fields lack sufficient computational skills to participate in interdisciplinary, data-intensive research. In response, we developed innovative training workshops for early-career scientists, in order to explore both the needs and solutions for training next-generation scientists in skills for data-intensive environmental research. In 2013 and 2014 we ran intensive 3-week training workshops for early-career researchers. One of the workshops was run concurrently in California and North Carolina, connected by virtual technologies and coordinated schedules. We attracted applicants to the workshop with the opportunity to pursue data-intensive small-group research projects that they proposed. This approach presented a realistic possibility that publishable products could result from 3 weeks of focused hands-on classroom instruction combined with self-directed group research in which instructors were present to assist trainees. Instruction addressed 1) collaboration modes and technologies, 2) data management, preservation, and sharing, 3) preparing data for analysis using scripting, 4) reproducible research, 5) sustainable software practices, 6) data analysis and modeling, and 7) communicating results to broad communities. The most dramatic improvements in technical skills were in data management, version control, and working with spatial data outside of proprietary software. In addition, participants built strong networks and collaborative skills that later resulted in a successful student-led grant proposal, published manuscripts, and participants reported that the training was a highly influential experience.
Cendes, Fernando; Theodore, William H.; Brinkmann, Benjamin H.; Sulc, Vlastimil; Cascino, Gregory D.
Imaging is pivotal in the evaluation and management of patients with seizure disorders. Elegant structural neuroimaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may assist in determining the etiology of focal epilepsy and demonstrating the anatomical changes associated with seizure activity. The high diagnostic yield of MRI to identify the common pathological findings in individuals with focal seizures including mesial temporal sclerosis, vascular anomalies, low-grade glial neoplasms and malformations of cortical development has been demonstrated. Positron emission tomography (PET) is the most commonly performed interictal functional neuroimaging technique that may reveal a focal hypometabolic region concordant with seizure onset. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies may assist performance of ictal neuroimaging in patients with pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy being considered for neurosurgical treatment. This chapter highlights neuroimaging developments and innovations, and provides a comprehensive overview of the imaging strategies used to improve the care and management of people with epilepsy. PMID:27430454
This document is the final report of the work of the Office of the Lead Scientist (OLS) of the U.S. Weather Research Program (USWRP) and for Coordination of the World Weather Research Program (WWRP). The proposal was for a continuation of the duties and responsibilities described in the proposal of 7 October, 1993 to NSF and NOAA associated with the USWRP Lead Scientist then referred to as the Chief Scientist. The activities of the Office of the Lead Scientist (OLS) ended on January 31, 2005 and this report describes the activities undertaken by the OLS from February 1, 2004 until January 3 1, 2005. The OLS activities were under the cosponsorship of the agencies that are members of the Interagency Working Group (IWG) of the US WRP currently: NOAA, NSF, NASA, and DOD. The scope of the work described includes activities that were necessary to develop, facilitate and implement the research objectives of the USWRP consistent with the overall program goals and specific agency objectives. It included liaison with and promotion of WMO/WWW activities that were consistent with and beneficial to the USWRP programs and objectives. Funds covered several broad categories of activity including meetings convened by the Lead Scientist, OLS travel, partial salary and benefits support, publications, hard-copy dissemination of reports and program announcements and the development and maintenance of the USWRP website. In addition to funding covered by this grant, NCAR program funds provided co-sponsorship of half the salary and benefits resources of the USWRP Lead Scientist (.25 FTE) and the WWRP Chairman/Liaison (.167 FTE). Also covered by the grant were partial salaries for the Science Coordinator for the hurricane portion of the program and partial salary for a THORPEX coordinator.
Bolwig, Tom G
BACKGROUND: Since the 1970s, a number of neuroimaging studies of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) have been conducted to elucidate the working action of this highly efficacious treatment modality. The technologies used are single photon emission tomography, positron emission tomography, magnetic...... resonance imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and quantitative electroencephalography. METHODS: A PubMed literature search with focus on clinical studies was made from the inception of the database until December 2013 using the search terms electroconvulsive therapy and neuroimaging. RESULTS: Early...
Full Text Available In the 1960-70s, South Korea was still in the position of a science latecomer. Although the scientific research environment in South Korea at that time was insufficient, there was a scientist who achieved outcomes that could be recognized internationally while acting in South Korea. He was Ho Wang Lee(1928~ who found Hantann Virus that causes epidemic hemorrhagic fever for the first time in the world. It became a clue to identify causative viruses of hemorrhagic diseases that were scattered here and there throughout the world. In addition, these outcomes put Ho Wang Lee on the global center of research into epidemic hemorrhagic fever. This paper examines how a Korean scientist who was in the periphery of virology could go into the central area of virology. Also this article shows the process through which the virus found by Ho Wang Lee was registered with the international academia and he proceeded with follow-up research based on this progress to reach the level at which he generalized epidemic hemorrhagic fever related studies throughout the world. While he was conducting the studies, experimental methods that he had never experienced encountered him as new difficulties. He tried to solve the new difficulties faced in his changed status through devices of cooperation and connection. Ho Wang Lee’s growth as a researcher can be seen as well as a view of a researcher that grew from a regional level to an international level and could advance from the area of non-mainstream into the mainstream. This analytic tool is meaningful in that it can be another method of examining the growth process of scientists in South Korea or developing countries.
Tijdink, Joeri; Bouter, Lex; Veldkamp, C.L.S.; van de Ven, Peter; Wicherts, J.M.; Smulders, Yvo; Dorta-González, Pablo
Background Personality influences decision making and ethical considerations. Its influence on the occurrence of research misbehavior has never been studied. This study aims to determine the association between personality traits and self-reported questionable research practices and research
Antony J. Williams
Full Text Available There is an abundance of free online tools accessible to scientists and others that can be used for online networking, data sharing and measuring research impact. Despite this, few scientists know how these tools can be used or fail to take advantage of using them as an integrated pipeline to raise awareness of their research outputs. In this article, the authors describe their experiences with these tools and how they can make best use of them to make their scientific research generally more accessible, extending its reach beyond their own direct networks, and communicating their ideas to new audiences. These efforts have the potential to drive science by sparking new collaborations and interdisciplinary research projects that may lead to future publications, funding and commercial opportunities. The intent of this article is to: describe some of these freely accessible networking tools and affiliated products; demonstrate from our own experiences how they can be utilized effectively; and, inspire their adoption by new users for the benefit of science.
Hartmann, Mechthild; Wild, Beate; Herzog, Wolfgang; Nikendei, Christoph; Zipfel, Stephan; Henningsen, Peter; Löwe, Bernd
Even though there is a high need of clinical research for the medical and psychotherapeutic practice in Germany, the interest in clinical research seems to be decreasing. The aim of this study was to assess the circumstances under which clinical research in psychosocial medicine is performed and to identify opportunities for improvement. n = 53 residents of the departments for Psychosomatic Medicine of the University Hospitals of Heidelberg and Tübingen and of the Technical University of Munich were asked about their research activities, their subjective research skills, and their productivity in clinical psychosocial research. In addition, objective research knowledge was investigated using a multiple-choice test. Both, subjective research skills and objective research knowledge were relatively low. The percentage of correct answers in the multiple choice test was 33 %. Subjective problems were predominately stated regarding "biostatistics" and "study design". In terms of research productivity, 33 % of residents had published as first authors of an original journal article, and 12 % had submitted a successful grant proposal. Altogether, there is a high need of training in the field of clinical psychosomatic research. We are presenting a training model that is adapted to the conditions of young clinicians and that addresses both general clinical research and specific psychosocial clinical research.
The growing investments in large science instruments and supercomputers by the US Department of Energy (DOE) hold enormous promise for accelerating the scientific discovery process. They facilitate unprecedented collaborations of geographically dispersed teams of scientists that use these resources. These collaborations critically depend on the production, sharing, moving, and management of, as well as interactive access to, large, complex data sets at sites dispersed across the country and around the globe. In particular, they call for significant enhancements in network capacities to sustain large data volumes and, equally important, the capabilities to collaboratively access the data across computing, storage, and instrument facilities by science users and automated scripts and systems. Improvements in network backbone capacities of several orders of magnitude are essential to meet these challenges, in particular, to support exascale initiatives. Yet, raw network speed represents only a part of the solution. Indeed, the speed must be matched by network and transport layer protocols and higher layer tools that scale in ways that aggregate, compose, and integrate the disparate subsystems into a complete science ecosystem. Just as important, agile monitoring and management services need to be developed to operate the network at peak performance levels. Finally, these solutions must be made an integral part of the production facilities by using sound approaches to develop, deploy, diagnose, operate, and maintain them over the science infrastructure.
Hafteinsdottir, T.B.; Hamers, J.P.H.; Francke, A.L.; Meijel, B. van; Roodbol, P.; Schoonhoven, L.; Vermeulen, H.; Schuurmans, M.J.
Background: The Netherlands’ Council for Healthcare Research (RGO) concluded some years ago that the Dutch infrastructure for nursing research was both limited and vulnerable. This was informed by the very few permanent senior nursing research positions, including a total of three full
Levin, Nadine; Leonelli, Sabina; Weckowska, Dagmara; Castle, David; Dupré, John
This article documents how biomedical researchers in the United Kingdom understand and enact the idea of "openness." This is of particular interest to researchers and science policy worldwide in view of the recent adoption of pioneering policies on Open Science and Open Access by the U.K. government-policies whose impact on and implications for research practice are in need of urgent evaluation, so as to decide on their eventual implementation elsewhere. This study is based on 22 in-depth interviews with U.K. researchers in systems biology, synthetic biology, and bioinformatics, which were conducted between September 2013 and February 2014. Through an analysis of the interview transcripts, we identify seven core themes that characterize researchers' understanding of openness in science and nine factors that shape the practice of openness in research. Our findings highlight the implications that Open Science policies can have for research processes and outcomes and provide recommendations for enhancing their content, effectiveness, and implementation.
Full Text Available The Iranian Society of Organ Transplantation (ISOT, in an effort to further invest in transplantation-related research, established a scientific link with Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences (BUMS at the beginning of the year 2006. BUMS instituted a network encom-passing 1 Nephrology and Urology Research Center (NURC, directed by prominent nephro-logists and urologists, 2 Clinical Research Unit (CRU, managed by qualified and competent young researchers, and 3 Medicine and Health Promotion Institute (mhpinstitute.ir , which is a private research and development institute. Study titles were then extracted in discussion sessions between the NURC and CRU, the latter also being responsible for writing research protocols to be reviewed by the University ethical board for research grants. The CRU has hitherto carried out several research grants based on the following criteria: 1 accommodating the main objectives of the ISOT, i.e. the improvement in survival rates and well-being standards as well as the mini-mization of costs, 2 conducting low-budget yet cutting-edge research, and 3 ensuring publi-cation-worthy study titles. This is a review of the tie between scientists and research and metho-dological assistants, which has already come to realization in the face of financial constraints.
Wong, Rose H. C.; Westwood, Robert
The environment for scientific research in public organisations is undergoing radical change, particularly with commercialisation pressures and blurring of the distinction between public and private research. The commercialisation pressures are reflected in government policy frameworks and institutional contexts for scientific work which are…
Simpson, Bob; Humphrey, Robin
In the training of doctoral researchers in the use of qualitative research methods, considerable effort goes into preparation for fieldwork and the collection of data. Rather less attention, however, goes into what happens when they have collected their data and begin to make sense of it. In particular, relatively little attention has been paid to…
Platts, S. H.; Bauer, Terri; Rogers, Shanna
So you want to conduct human spaceflight research aboard the International Space Station (ISS)? Once your spaceflight research aboard the ISS is proposal is funded.... the real work begins. Because resources are so limited for ISS research, it is necessary to maximize the work being done, while at the same time, minimizing the resources spent. Astronauts may be presented with over 30 human research experiments and select, on average approximately 15 in which to participate. In order to conduct this many studies, ISSMP uses the study requirements provided by the principle investigator to integrate all of this work into the astronauts' complement. The most important thing for investigators to convey to the ISSMP team is their RESEARCH REQUIREMENTS. Requirements are captured in the Experiment document. This document is the official record of how, what, where and when data will be collected. One common mistake that investigators make is not taking this document seriously, but when push comes to shove, if a research requirement is not in this document....it will not get done. The research requirements are then integrated to form a complement of research for each astronaut. What do we mean by integration? Many experiments have overlapping requirements; blood draws, behavioral surveys, heart rate measurement. Where possible, these measures are combined to reduce redundancy and save crew time. Investigators can access these data via data sharing agreements. More examples of how ISS research is integrated will be presented. There are additional limitations commonly associated with human spaceflight research that will also be discussed. Large/heavy hardware, invasive procedures, and toxic reagents are extremely difficult to implement on the ISS. There are strict limits placed on the amount of blood that can be drawn from crew members during (and immediately after) spaceflight. These limits are based on 30-day rolling accumulations. We have recently had to start restricting
Full Text Available To study the scholarly production of Iran in the basic sciences and identify the place of the country among Islamic countries and the world, and also comparing the different disciplines in this field of knowledge, help to plan properly to provide necessary facilities for the advancement in these areas. The purpose of this study is the analysis of scientific poverty line of Iranian scientists and comparing them to the scientists of the superior Islamic countries. This is an applied research. Data were gathered and analyzed with the descriptive approach. In this study data collected from ISI during 1990 to 2011. Five disciplines of basic sciences, including mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology and earth science were studied. Yi and Xi and Sx scientometrics indicators were used. Based on the findings of this research, Iran with 35542 documents, academic ability 0.509 % and the relative performance of 0.468% is in the first place among the Islamic countries. Iran also is in the first place in physics, chemistry, earth science and mathematics and in second place in biology among the Islamic countries. Despite Iran's ranking first among Muslim countries, it is below the scientific poverty line in terms of Xi and Sx indicators. So it seems necessary to pay more attention to production and distribution of basic science especially in biology. The weaknesses and barriers also should be recognized.
Ikemura, Mai; Hashida, Tohru
"Pharmacist-scientists" are needed in the clinical setting. However, research competency, including logical thinking, differs among pharmacists. This difference stems from the varying experience of research during university and graduate school. Thus, to ascertain the research experience within different educational systems, we evaluated pharmacists in Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital. In most instances, there was a direct correlation between the duration of research (in the laboratory at university or graduate school), and research experience gained, such as independent thinking and presentations at seminars or academic conferences. Respondents who graduated from the recently introduced 6-year pharmaceutical science course had less research experience than those who graduated with a combination 4-year degree and subsequent master's course. Conversely, the number of presentations at academic conferences and the number of published papers postgraduation were independent of research experience during university and graduate school. These results indicate that there is a considerable difference in the research experience during university and graduate school among pharmacists, and this is likely to impact their pharmaceutical skills.
Bradley, A. C.; Hindshaw, R. S.; Fugmann, G.; Mariash, H.
The Association of Polar Early Career Scientists was established by early career researchers during the 2007-2008 International Polar Year as an organization for early career researchers in the polar and cryospheric sciences. APECS works to promote early career researchers through soft-skills training in both research and outreach activities, through advocating for including early career researchers in all levels of the scientific process and scientific management, and through supporting a world-wide network of researchers in varied fields. APECS is lead by early career researchers; this self-driven model has proved to be an effective means for developing the leadership, management, and communication skills that are essential in the sciences, and has shown to be sustainable even in a community where frequent turn-over is inherent to the members. Since its inception, APECS has reached over 5,500 members in more than 80 countries, and we have placed more than 50 early career researchers on working groups and steering committees with organizations around the world in the last two years alone. The close partnerships that APECS has with national and international organizations exposes members to both academic and alternative career paths, including those at the science-policy interface. This paper describes APECS's approach to experiential learning in professional development and the best practices identified over our nearly ten years as an organization.
Byrne, Mary Woods
Incarcerated populations have disparities in health risks and illness conditions meriting study, but the history of prison research is marred by unethical conduct. Ethical participation strategies are discussed in the context of studies implemented by the author in a state prison system. This study used ethnographic approaches, observed adherence to federal and institutional review board regulations and corrections department directives, and maintained continuous communication with vested interests to provide entry and long-term access for studies on female prisoners and their civilian infants. A culture clash between the punitive restrictive environment that serves the custody–control–care mission of corrections systems and the open inquiry environment needed for conduct of health research exists. Federal regulations protect prisoners as human subjects but additional vigilance and communication by researchers are required. Gaining and maintaining access to prison inmates for nursing research are leadership challenges that can be met within the caring and collaborative paradigm of nursing. PMID:16061169
Tijdink, J.K.; Schipper, K.; Bouter, L.M.; Maclaine Pont, P; de Jonge, J.; Smulders, Y.M.
Objective: To investigate the biomedical scientist's perception of the prevailing publication culture. Design: Qualitative focus group interview study. Setting: Four university medical centres in the Netherlands. Participants: Three randomly selected groups of biomedical scientists (PhD,
Alonso, Meghan M
Commercializing a diagnostic or life science product often encompasses different goals than that of research and grant funding. There are several necessary steps, and a strategy needs to be well defined in order to be successful. Product development requires input from and between various groups within a company and, for academia, outside entities. The product development stakeholder groups/entities are research, marketing, development, regulatory, manufacturing, clinical, safety/efficacy, and quality. After initial research and development, much of the work in product development can be outsourced or jointly created using public-private partnerships. This chapter serves as an overview of the product development process and provides a guide to best define a product strategy.
Dowd, Bryan E
Objective Health services research is a field of study that brings together experts from a wide variety of academic disciplines. It also is a field that places a high priority on empirical analysis. Many of the questions posed by health services researchers involve the effects of treatments, patient and provider characteristics, and policy interventions on outcomes of interest. These are causal questions. Yet many health services researchers have been trained in disciplines that are reluctant to use the language of causality, and the approaches to causal questions are discipline specific, often with little overlap. How did this situation arise? This paper traces the roots of the division and some recent attempts to remedy the situation. Data Sources and Settings Existing literature. Study Design Review of the literature. PMID:21105867
Scott, Frank I.; McConnell, Ryan A.; Lewis, Matthew E.; Lewis, James D.
Background Significant advances have been made in clinical and epidemiologic research methods over the past 30 years. We sought to demonstrate the impact of these advances on published research in gastroenterology from 1980 to 2010. Methods Three journals (Gastroenterology, Gut, and American Journal of Gastroenterology) were selected for evaluation given their continuous publication during the study period. Twenty original clinical articles were randomly selected from each journal from 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2010. Each article was assessed for topic studied, whether the outcome was clinical or physiologic, study design, sample size, number of authors and centers collaborating, and reporting of statistical methods such as sample size calculations, p-values, confidence intervals, and advanced techniques such as bioinformatics or multivariate modeling. Research support with external funding was also recorded. Results A total of 240 articles were included in the study. From 1980 to 2010, there was a significant increase in analytic studies (pgastroenterology and hepatology over the last three decades. This increase highlights the need for advanced training of clinical investigators to conduct future research. PMID:22475957
Salih, Mustafa Abdalla M
The article highlights the career of Professor Mansour Ali Haseeb (1910 - 1973; DKSM, Dip Bact, FRCPath, FRCP [Lond]), a pioneer worker in health, medical services, biomedical research and medical education in the Sudan. After his graduation from the Kitchener School of Medicine (renamed, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum [U of K]) in 1934, he devoted his life for the development of laboratory medicine. He became the first Sudanese Director of Stack Medical Research Laboratories (1952 - 1962). He made valuable contributions by his services in the vaccine production and implementation programs, most notably in combating small pox, rabies and epidemic meningitis. In 1963 he became the first Sudanese Professor of Microbiology and Parasitology and served as the first Sudanese Dean of the Faculty of Medicine, U of K (1963-1969). He was an active loyal citizen in public life and served in various fields outside the medical profession. As Mayor of Omdurman, he was invited to visit Berlin in 1963 by Willy Brandt, Mayor of West Berlin (1957-1966) and Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (1969 to 1974). Also as Mayor of Omdurman, he represented the City in welcoming Queen Elizabeth II during her visit to Sudan in February 1965. He also received State Medals from Egypt and Ethiopia. In 1973 he was appointed Chairman of the Sudan Medical Research Council, and was awarded the international Dr. Shousha Foundation Prize and Medal by the WHO for his contribution in the advancement of health, research and medical services.
Daniel Linder; Goedele De Sterck
That the English language is the prevailing language in international scientific discourse is an undeniable fact for research professionals who are non-native speakers of English (NNSE). An exploratory, survey-based study of scientists in the experimental disciplines of neuroscience and medicine seeks to reveal, on the one hand, the habits of scientists who in their research practice come across neologisms in English and need to use them in oral and written scientific discou...
Osterbrock, D. E.
Otto Struve arrived at Yerkes Observatory from Turkey in October 1921, the penniless survivor of a defeated army. Then 24 years old, he immediately began his studies and assistantship as the only graduate student at the observatory. Eleven years later he became its "boy director." His education, training, research experience and development are described in the context of Yerkes Observatory, and of American graduate and post-graduate work in astronomy of the time. Under Director Edwin B. Frost, Yerkes Observatory's main program was radial-velocity measurements of O, B, and A stars. Struve worked on it and did his thesis on spectroscopic binaries. A prodigious achiever, he was appointed to the faculty as an instructor as soon as he received his doctorate. On his own he jumped into frontier research on interstellar absorption lines, based in large part on existing spectrograms taken for the radial-velocity program. Reviewing Cecilia Payne's book on stellar atmospheres in 1926 converted Struve to a self-taught observational astrophysicist. Research leaves at Mount Wilson and Harvard, with working visits to Lick and the DAO, plus a Guggenheim year at Cambridge with Arthur S. Eddington, broadened his horizons. Struve always observed diligently, published frequently, attended AAS meetings, presented oral papers, and discussed his research with others. With practically no knowledge of modern physics, he cultivated others who were experts in it, beginning with Pol Swings, a visitor from Belgium. By 1932 Struve was ready to become director of Yerkes Observatory, and to lead it back into its place as a leading astrophysical research center, for which George Ellery Hale had founded it.
Courtney, Susan M
This paper gives perspectives on a companion article, the case history of a professional writer who has multiple sclerosis. The patient's first-person account of her illness is combined with clinical summaries about her care. The discussion of this case illustrates the value of combining such subjective and objective reports in evaluating a patient. Furthermore, considering these reports in the context of current research findings on the organization and function of cognitive neural systems can shed light on patients' seemingly contradictory clinical findings. For this patient, a deficit in the ability to select the most important information to achieve her current goals reflected her neuropsychological test results and neuroradiologic findings, and helped to explain her difficulties with her job and her activities of daily living. Because the patient's cognitive impairments have been her primary manifestations of multiple sclerosis, she illustrates the importance of physicians attending to and helping patients manage their cognitive deficits.
Barkhof, Frederik [VU Univ. Medical Center, Amsterdam (NL). Dept. of Radiology and Image Analysis Center (IAC); Fox, Nick C. [UCL Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom). Dementia Research Centre; VU Univ. Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bastos-Leite, Antonio J. [Porto Univ. (Portugal). Dept. of Medical Imaging; Scheltens, Philip [VU Univ. Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Neurology and Alzheimer Center
Against a background of an ever-increasing number of patients, new management options, and novel imaging modalities, neuroimaging is playing an increasingly important role in the diagnosis of dementia. This up-to-date, superbly illustrated book aims to provide a practical guide to the effective use of neuroimaging in the patient with cognitive decline. It sets out the key clinical and imaging features of the wide range of causes of dementia and directs the reader from clinical presentation to neuroimaging and on to an accurate diagnosis whenever possible. After an introductory chapter on the clinical background, the available ''toolbox'' of structural and functional neuroimaging techniques is reviewed in detail, including CT, MRI and advanced MR techniques, SPECT and PET, and image analysis methods. The imaging findings in normal ageing are then discussed, followed by a series of chapters that carefully present and analyze the key imaging findings in patients with dementias. A structured path of analysis follows the main presenting feature: disorders associated with primary gray matter loss, with white matter changes, with brain swelling, etc. Throughout, a practical approach is adopted, geared specifically to the needs of clinicians (neurologists, radiologists, psychiatrists, geriatricians) working in the field of dementia, for whom this book should prove an invaluable resource. (orig.)
Laudel, Grit; Weyer, Elke; Whitley, Richard; Gläser, Jochen
This article investigates the links between universities’ opportunities to shape their research profiles, the changing state interest concerning these profiles, and the impact of profile building on research at university and field levels. While the authority of the Dutch state over research
Buchman, Daniel Z; Borgelt, Emily L; Whiteley, Louise Emma
Many scientists, healthcare providers, policymakers and patients are awaiting in anticipation the application of biomedical technologies such as functional neuroimaging for the prediction, diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders. The potential efficacy of such applications is controversial, a...
Okeigwe, Ijeoma; Wang, Cynthia; Politch, Joseph A; Heffner, Linda J; Kuohung, Wendy
Obstetrics and gynecology departments receive the smallest amount of National Institutes of Health research funding and have significantly lower application success rates compared to pediatric, internal medicine, and surgery departments. The development of mentored early career development training grants (K awards) has been one strategy implemented by the National Institutes of Health to help aspiring physician-scientists establish independent research careers. The purpose of this study is to describe the cohort of obstetrics and gynecology physician-scientists who were K08, K12, and K23 recipients from 1988 through 2015 and to identify predictors of success in obtaining independent federal funding, as defined by acquisition of an R01, R21, R34, U01, U54, P01, or P50 award. We hypothesized that sex, subspecialty, type of K award, and dual MD/PhD would impact success rates. K08, K12, and K23 recipients from 1988 through 2015 were identified from the National Institutes of Health Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools, the office of the National Institutes of Health Freedom of Information Act, and the website of the Reproductive Scientist Development Program. Data were stratified by sex, educational degree, subspecialty, and type of K award. Data were analyzed using the Pearson χ2 and Fisher exact tests. The Kaplan-Meier estimator was used to determine rates of conversion to independent funding over time. A total of 388 K recipients were identified. Women accounted for 66% of K awards while men accounted for 34%. Among K recipients, 82% were MDs, while 18% were MD/PhDs. K12 awards accounted for 82% of all K awards, while K08 and K23 awards accounted for 10% and 8%, respectively. Subspecialists in maternal-fetal medicine and reproductive endocrinology and infertility received the highest proportion of K awards, followed by generalists and gynecologic oncologists. Altogether, the 3 subspecialty groups accounted for 68% of all K awards. R01 awards made up the bulk
Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup
This dissertation presents research results regarding mathematical modeling in the context of the analysis of functional neuroimages. Specifically, the research focuses on pattern-based analysis methods that recently have become popular within the neuroimaging community. Such methods attempt...... to predict or decode experimentally defined cognitive states based on brain scans. The topics covered in the dissertation are divided into two broad parts: The first part investigates the relative importance of model selection on the brain patterns extracted form analysis models. Typical neuroimaging data...... sets are characterized by relatively few data observations in a high dimensional space. The process of building models in such data sets often requires strong regularization. Often, the degree of model regularization is chosen in order to maximize prediction accuracy. We focus on the relative influence...
Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup
This dissertation presents research results regarding mathematical modeling in the context of the analysis of functional neuroimages. Specifically, the research focuses on pattern-based analysis methods that recently have become popular analysis tools within the neuroimaging community. Such methods...... attempt to predict or decode experimentally defined cognitive states based on brain scans. The topics covered in the dissertation are divided into two broad parts: The first part investigates the relative importance of model selection on the brain patterns extracted form analysis models. Typical...... neuroimaging data sets are characterized by relatively few data observations in a high dimensional space. The process of building models in such data sets often requires strong regularization. Often, the degree of model regularization is chosen in order to maximize prediction accuracy. We focus on the relative...
Webb-Vargas, Yenny; Chen, Shaojie; Fisher, Aaron; Mejia, Amanda; Xu, Yuting; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Caffo, Brian; Lindquist, Martin A
Big Data are of increasing importance in a variety of areas, especially in the biosciences. There is an emerging critical need for Big Data tools and methods, because of the potential impact of advancements in these areas. Importantly, statisticians and statistical thinking have a major role to play in creating meaningful progress in this arena. We would like to emphasize this point in this special issue, as it highlights both the dramatic need for statistical input for Big Data analysis and for a greater number of statisticians working on Big Data problems. We use the field of statistical neuroimaging to demonstrate these points. As such, this paper covers several applications and novel methodological developments of Big Data tools applied to neuroimaging data.
Barclay, Rebecca O.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Elazar, David; Kennedy, John M.
As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, two pilot studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of Israeli and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies had the same five objectives: first, to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communications to their profession; second, to determine the use and production of technical communications by aerospace engineers and scientists; third, to seek their view about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications; fourth, to determine aerospace engineers' and scientists' use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line databases; and fifth, to determine the use and importance of computer and information technology to them. A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to randomly selected U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who are working in cryogenics, adaptive walls, and magnetic suspension. A slightly modified version was sent to Israeli aerospace engineers and scientists working at Israel Aircraft Industries, LTD. Responses of the Israeli and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists to selected questions are presented in this paper.
Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-LoberaBehavioral Sciences Institute and Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, SpainAbstract: Neuroimaging techniques have been useful tools for accurate investigation of brain structure and function in eating disorders. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and voxel-based morphometry have been the most relevant technologies in this regard. The purpose of this review is to update the existing data on neuroimaging in eating disorders. The main brain changes seem to be reversible to some extent after adequate weight restoration. Brain changes in bulimia nervosa seem to be less pronounced than in anorexia nervosa and are mainly due to chronic dietary restrictions. Different subtypes of eating disorders might be correlated with specific brain functional changes. Moreover, anorectic patients who binge/purge may have different functional brain changes compared with those who do not binge/purge. Functional changes in the brain might have prognostic value, and different changes with respect to the binding potential of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, and D2/D3 receptors may be persistent after recovering from an eating disorder.Keywords: neuroimaging, brain changes, brain receptors, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorders
Bloomsbury Scientists is the story of the network of scientists and artists living in a square mile of London before and after the First World War. This inspired group of men and women viewed creativity and freedom as the driving force behind nature, and each strove to understand this in their own inventive way. Their collective energy changed the social mood of the era and brought a new synthesis of knowledge to ideas in science and art. Class barriers were threatened as power shifted from t...
Accessible and comprehensive, this guide is an indispensable tool for anyone in the sciences – new and established researchers, students and scientists – looking either to refresh their math skills or to prepare for the broad range of math, statistical and data-related challenges they are likely to encounter in their work or studies. In addition to helping scientists improve their knowledge of key mathematical concepts, this unique book will help readers: · Read mathematical symbols · Understand formulas, data or statistical information · Determine medication equivalents · Analyze neuroimaging Mathematical concepts are presented alongside illustrative and useful real-world scientific examples and are further clarified through practical pen-and-paper exercises. Whether you are a student encountering high-level mathematics in your research or...
R. Blank; W. Burkhardt; J. Chatterton; W. Dollarhide; L. James; D. Klebenow; W. Krueger; S. Leonard; E. Miller; N. Rimbey; K. Sanders; S. Swanson; R. Tausch; P. Tueller; N. West; J. Young
The primary impetus for this Wildfire Forum is a document authored by John McLain and Sheila Anderson of Resource Concepts, Inc. entitled "Urgent Need for a Scientific Review of the Ecological and Management History of the Great Basin Natural Resources and Recommendations to Achieve Ecosystem Restoration." This document urged prominent scientists who have...
Engaging students in the study of genetics is essential to building a deep understanding of heredity, a core idea in the life sciences (NRC 2012). By integrating into the curriculum the stories of famous scientists who studied genetics (e.g., Mendel, Franklin, Watson, and Crick), teachers remind their students that science is a human endeavor.…
Sánchez-Catasús, Carlos A; Vállez Garcia, David; Le Riverend Morales, Eloísa; Galvizu Sánchez, Reinaldo; Dierckx, Rudi; Dierckx, Rudi AJO; Otte, Andreas; de Vries, Erik FJ; van Waarde, Aren; Leenders, Klaus L
This chapter provides an up-to-date review of nuclear medicine neuroimaging in traumatic brain injury (TBI). 18F-FDG PET will remain a valuable tool in researching complex mechanisms associated with early metabolic dysfunction in TBI. Although evidence-based imaging studies are needed, 18F-FDG PET
Rock, B. N.; Carlson, M.; Mell, V.; Maynard, N.
Researchers and scientists from the University of New Hampshire (UNH) and the Confederated Tribes of Grand Ronde joined with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to develop and present a Summer Research Experience (SRE) that trained 21 students and 10 faculty members from 9 of the 36 Tribal Colleges and Universities (TCUs) which comprise the American Indian Higher Education Council (AIHEC). The 10-week SRE program was an inquiry-based introduction to remote sensing, geographic information systems (GIS) and field science research methods. Teams of students and TCU faculty members developed research projects that explored climate change, energy development, contamination of water and air, fire damage in forests, and lost cultural resources on tribal lands. The UNH-Grand Ronde team presented SRE participants with an initial three-week workshop in the use of research tools and development of research projects. During the following seven weeks, the team conferred weekly with SRE participants to monitor and support their progress. Rock provided specific guidance on numerous scientific questions. Carlson coached students on writing and organization and provided laboratory analysis of foliar samples. Mell provided support on GIS technology. Eight of the SRE college teams completed substantial research projects by the end of the SRE while one other team developed a method for future research. Seventeen students completed individual research papers, oral presentations and posters. Nineteen students and all teachers maintained regular and detailed communication with the UNH-Grand Ronde mentors throughout the ten-week program. The SRE produced several significant lessons learned regarding outreach educational programs in inquiry-based science and technology applications. These include: Leadership by an active research scientist (Rock) inspired and supported students and teachers in developing their own scientific inquiries. An intensive schedule of
Angela G. Evenden; Melinda Moeur; J. Stephen Shelly; Shannon F. Kimball; Charles A. Wellner
This guidebook is intended to familiarize land resource managers, scientists, educators, and others with Research Natural Areas (RNAs) managed by the USDA Forest Service in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Intermountain West. This guidebook facilitates broader recognition and use of these valuable natural areas by describing the RNA network, past and current research...
Full Text Available The SCARP project is a series of short studies with two aims; firstly to discover more about disciplinary approaches and attitudes to digital curation through ‘immersion’ in selected cases; secondly to apply known good practice, and where possible, identify new lessons from practice in the selected discipline areas. The study summarised here is of the Neuroimaging Group in the University of Edinburgh’s Division of Psychiatry, which plays a leading role in eScience collaborations to improve the infrastructure for neuroimaging data integration and reuse. The Group also aims to address growing data storage and curation needs, given the capabilities afforded by new infrastructure. The study briefly reviews the policy context and current challenges to data integration and sharing in the neuroimaging field. It then describes how curation and preservation risks and opportunities for change were identified throughout the curation lifecycle; and their context appreciated through field study in the research site. The results are consistent with studies of neuroimaging eInfrastructure that emphasise the role of local data sharing and reuse practices. These sustain mutual awareness of datasets and experimental protocols through sharing peer to peer, and among senior researchers and students, enabling continuity in research and flexibility in project work. This “human infrastructure” is taken into account in considering next steps for curation and preservation of the Group’s datasets and a phased approach to supporting data documentation.
Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.
As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, two studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of Japanese and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies have the same seven objectives: first, to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communications to their profession; second, to determine the use and production of technical communications by aerospace engineers and scientists; third; to seek their views about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications; fourth, to determine aerospace engineers' and scientists' use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line data bases; fifth, to determine the use and importance of computer and information technology to them; sixth, to determine their use of electronic networks; and seventh, to determine their use of foreign and domestically produced technical reports. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to aerospace engineers and scientists in Japan and at the NASA Ames Research Center and the NASA Langley Research Center. The completion rates for the Japanese and U.S. surveys were 85 and 61 percent, respectively. Responses of the Japanese and U.S. participants to selected questions are presented in this report.
Barclay, Rebecca O.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.
As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, two studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of Dutch and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies have the same seven objectives: first, to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communications to their profession; second, to determine the use and production of technical communications by aerospace engineers and scientists; third, to seek their views about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications; fourth, to determine aerospace engineers' and scientists' use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line data bases; fifth, to determine the use and importance of computer and information technology to them; sixth, to determine their use of electronic networks; and seventh, to determine their use of foreign and domestically produced technical reports. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to aerospace engineers and scientists at the National Aerospace Laboratory (NLR), and NASA Ames Research Center, and the NASA Langley Research Center. The completion rates for the Dutch and U.S. surveys were 55 and 61 percent, respectively. Responses of the Dutch and U.S. participants to selected questions are presented.
Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Keene, Michael L.; Flammia, Madelyn; Kennedy, John M.
As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, two studies were conducted that investigated the technical communication practices of Russian and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies had the same five objectives: first, to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communication to their professions; second, to determine the use and production of technical communication by aerospace engineers and scientists; third, to seek their views about the appropriate content of the undergraduate course in technical communication; fourth, to determine aerospace engineers' and scientists' use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line databases; and fifth, to determine the use and importance of computer and information technology to them. A self administered questionnaire was distributed to Russian aerospace engineers and scientists at the Central Aero-Hydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI) and to their U.S. counterparts at the NASA Ames Research Center and the NASA Langley Research Center. The completion rates for the Russian and U.S. surveys were 64 and 61 percent, respectively. Responses of the Russian and U.S. participants to selected questions are presented in this paper.
Thon, Jonathan N; Karlsson, Sven
Translating basic research discoveries through entrepreneurship must be scientist driven and institutionally supported to be successful (not the other way around). Here, we describe why scientists should engage in entrepreneurship, where institutional support for scientist-founders falls short, and how these challenges can be overcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van der Werff, S J A; van den Berg, S M; Pannekoek, J N; Elzinga, B M; van der Wee, N J A
There is a high degree of intra-individual variation in how individuals respond to stress. This becomes evident when exploring the development of posttraumatic symptoms or stress-related disorders after exposure to trauma. Whether or not an individual develops posttraumatic symptoms after experiencing a traumatic event is partly dependent on a person's resilience. Resilience can be broadly defined as the dynamic process encompassing positive adaptation within the context of significant adversity. Even though research into the neurobiological basis of resilience is still in its early stages, these insights can have important implications for the prevention and treatment of stress-related disorders. Neuroimaging studies contribute to our knowledge of intra-individual variability in resilience and the development of posttraumatic symptoms or other stress-related disorders. This review provides an overview of neuroimaging findings related to resilience. Structural, resting-state, and task-related neuroimaging results associated with resilience are discussed. There are a limited number of studies available and neuroimaging research of resilience is still in its infancy. The available studies point at brain circuitries involved in stress and emotion regulation, with more efficient processing and regulation associated with resilience.
Del Casale, Antonio; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Rapinesi, Chiara; Di Pietro, Simone; Alessi, Maria Chiara; Di Cesare, Gianluigi; Criscuolo, Silvia; De Rossi, Pietro; Tatarelli, Roberto; Girardi, Paolo; Ferracuti, Stefano
Psychopathy is associated with cognitive and affective deficits causing disruptive, harmful and selfish behaviour. These have considerable societal costs due to recurrent crime and property damage. A better understanding of the neurobiological bases of psychopathy could improve therapeutic interventions, reducing the related social costs. To analyse the major functional neural correlates of psychopathy, we reviewed functional neuroimaging studies conducted on persons with this condition. We searched the PubMed database for papers dealing with functional neuroimaging and psychopathy, with a specific focus on how neural functional changes may correlate with task performances and human behaviour. Psychopathy-related behavioural disorders consistently correlated with dysfunctions in brain areas of the orbitofrontal-limbic (emotional processing and somatic reaction to emotions; behavioural planning and responsibility taking), anterior cingulate-orbitofrontal (correct assignment of emotional valence to social stimuli; violent/aggressive behaviour and challenging attitude) and prefrontal-temporal-limbic (emotional stimuli processing/response) networks. Dysfunctional areas more consistently included the inferior frontal, orbitofrontal, dorsolateral prefrontal, ventromedial prefrontal, temporal (mainly the superior temporal sulcus) and cingulated cortices, the insula, amygdala, ventral striatum and other basal ganglia. Emotional processing and learning, and several social and affective decision-making functions are impaired in psychopathy, which correlates with specific changes in neural functions. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Horikawa, Tomoyasu; Kamitani, Yukiyasu
Dreaming is a subjective experience during sleep that is often accompanied by vivid perceptual and emotional contents. Because of its fundamentally subjective nature, the objective study of dream contents has been challenging. However, since the discovery of rapid eye movements during sleep, scientific knowledge on the relationship between dreaming and physiological measures including brain activity has accumulated. Recent advances in neuroimaging analysis methods have made it possible to uncover direct links between specific dream contents and brain activity patterns. In this review, we first give a historical overview on dream researches with a focus on the neurophysiological and behavioral signatures of dreaming. We then discuss our recent study in which visual dream contents were predicted, or decoded, from brain activity during sleep onset periods using machine learning-based pattern recognition of functional MRI data. We suggest that advanced analytical tools combined with neural and behavioral databases will reveal the relevance of spontaneous brain activity during sleep to waking experiences.
Currently, many scientific fields such as psychology or biomedicine face a methodological crisis concerning the reproducibility, replicability, and validity of their research. In neuroimaging, similar methodological concerns have taken hold of the field, and researchers are working frantically toward finding solutions for the methodological problems specific to neuroimaging. This article examines some ethical and legal implications of this methodological crisis in neuroimaging. With respect to ethical challenges, the article discusses the impact of flawed methods in neuroimaging research in cognitive and clinical neuroscience, particularly with respect to faulty brain-based models of human cognition, behavior, and personality. Specifically examined is whether such faulty models, when they are applied to neurological or psychiatric diseases, could put patients at risk, and whether this places special obligations on researchers using neuroimaging. In the legal domain, the actual use of neuroimaging as evidence in United States courtrooms is surveyed, followed by an examination of ways that the methodological problems may create challenges for the criminal justice system. Finally, the article reviews and promotes some promising ideas and initiatives from within the neuroimaging community for addressing the methodological problems.
Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.
As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, two studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of India and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies have the same seven objectives: first, to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communications to their profession; second, to determine the use and production of technical communications by aerospace engineers and scientists; third, to seek their views about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications; fourth, to determine aerospace engineers' and scientists' use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line data bases; fifth, to determine the use and importance of computer and information technology to them; sixth, to determine their use of electronic networks; and seventh, to determine their use of foreign and domestically produced technical reports. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to aerospace engineers and scientists at the Indian Institute of Science and the NASA Langley Research Center. The completion rates for the India and U.S. surveys were 48 and 53 percent, respectively. Responses of the India and U.S. participants to selected questions are presented in this report.
Carlin, Danielle J; Henry, Heather; Heacock, Michelle; Trottier, Brittany; Drew, Christina H; Suk, William A
The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Superfund Research Program (SRP) funds university-based, multidisciplinary research on human health and environmental science and engineering with the central goals to understand how hazardous substances contribute to disease and how to prevent exposures to these environmental chemicals. This multi-disciplinary approach allows early career scientists (e.g. graduate students and postdoctoral researchers) to gain experience in problem-based, solution-oriented research and to conduct research in a highly collaborative environment. Training the next generation of environmental health scientists has been an important part of the SRP since its inception. In addition to basic research, the SRP has grown to include support of broader training experiences such as those in research translation and community engagement activities that provide opportunities to give new scientists many of the skills they will need to be successful in their field of research. Looking to the future, the SRP will continue to evolve its training component by tracking and analyzing outcomes from its trainees by using tools such as the NIEHS CareerTrac database system, by increasing opportunities for trainees interested in research that goes beyond US boundaries, and in the areas of bioinformatics and data integration. These opportunities will give them the skills needed to be competitive and successful no matter which employment sector they choose to enter after they have completed their training experience.
McClatchey, Richard; Branson, Andrew; Anjum, Ashiq; Bloodsworth, Peter; Habib, Irfan; Munir, Kamran; Shamdasani, Jetendr; Soomro, Kamran
With the increasingly digital nature of biomedical data and as the complexity of analyses in medical research increases, the need for accurate information capture, traceability and accessibility has become crucial to medical researchers in the pursuance of their research goals. Grid- or Cloud-based technologies, often based on so-called Service Oriented Architectures (SOA), are increasingly being seen as viable solutions for managing distributed data and algorithms in the bio-medical domain. For neuroscientific analyses, especially those centred on complex image analysis, traceability of processes and datasets is essential but up to now this has not been captured in a manner that facilitates collaborative study. Few examples exist, of deployed medical systems based on Grids that provide the traceability of research data needed to facilitate complex analyses and none have been evaluated in practice. Over the past decade, we have been working with mammographers, paediatricians and neuroscientists in three generations of projects to provide the data management and provenance services now required for 21st century medical research. This paper outlines the finding of a requirements study and a resulting system architecture for the production of services to support neuroscientific studies of biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease. The paper proposes a software infrastructure and services that provide the foundation for such support. It introduces the use of the CRISTAL software to provide provenance management as one of a number of services delivered on a SOA, deployed to manage neuroimaging projects that have been studying biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease. In the neuGRID and N4U projects a Provenance Service has been delivered that captures and reconstructs the workflow information needed to facilitate researchers in conducting neuroimaging analyses. The software enables neuroscientists to track the evolution of workflows and datasets. It also tracks the outcomes of
[Abstracts of VIII Young Scientists Conference dedicated to 55th anniversary of Central Research Institute of Dentistry and Maxillofacial Surgery 'Modern scientific achievements in dentistry and maxillofacial surgery'].
Abstracts of VIII Young Scientists Conference dedicated to 55th anniversary of Central Research Institute of Dentistry and Maxillofacial Surgery 'Modern scientific achievements in dentistry and maxillofacial surgery'. Therapeutic stomatology. Surgical dentistry. Maxillofacial surgery. Orthopedic stomatology. Orthodontics. Organization of dental care.
Nielsen, Finn Årup; Hansen, Lars Kai
We describe a virtual environment for interactive visualization of 3D neuroimages. The environment is implemented in VRML and we will discuss the viability and limitation of this platform......We describe a virtual environment for interactive visualization of 3D neuroimages. The environment is implemented in VRML and we will discuss the viability and limitation of this platform...
Fujiwara, Hironobu; Yassin, Walid; Murai, Toshiya
Impaired social cognition is considered a core contributor to unfavorable psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia. Rather than being a unitary process, social cognition is a collection of multifaceted processes that recruit multiple brain structures, thus structural and functional neuroimaging techniques are ideal methodologies for revealing the underlying pathophysiology of impaired social cognition. Many neuroimaging studies have suggested that in addition to white-matter deficits, schizophrenia is associated with decreased gray-matter volume in multiple brain areas, especially fronto-temporal and limbic regions. However, few schizophrenia studies have examined associations between brain abnormalities and social cognitive disabilities. During the last decade, we have investigated structural brain abnormalities in schizophrenia using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging, and our findings have been confirmed by us and others. By assessing different types of social cognitive abilities, structural abnormalities in multiple brain regions have been found to be associated with disabilities in social cognition, such as recognition of facial emotion, theory of mind, and empathy. These structural deficits have also been associated with alexithymia and quality of life in ways that are closely related to the social cognitive disabilities found in schizophrenia. Here, we overview a series of neuroimaging studies from our laboratory that exemplify current research into this topic, and discuss how it can be further tackled using recent advances in neuroimaging technology. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.
Gorenstein, David [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX (United States)
The objectives of this program are to promote the mission of the Department of Energy (DOE) Science, Technology, Engineering, Math (STEM) Program by recruiting students to science and engineering disciplines with the intent of mentoring and supporting the next generation of scientists; to foster interdisciplinary and collaborative research under the sponsorship of ANH for the discovery and design of nano-based materials and devices with novel structures, functions, and properties; and to prepare a diverse work force of scientists, engineers, and clinicians by utilizing the unique intellectual and physical resources to develop novel nanotechnology paradigms for clinical application.
Full Text Available Neuroimaging has been used in antisocial personality disorder since the invention of computed tomography and new modalities are introduced as technology advances. Magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging and radionuclide imaging are such techniques that are currently used in neuroimaging. Although neuroimaging is an indispensible tool for psychiatric reseach, its clinical utility is questionable until new modalities become more accessible and regularly used in clinical practice. The aim of this paper is to provide clinicians with an introductory knowledge on neuroimaging in antisocial personality disorder including basic physics principles, current contributions to general understanding of pathophysiology in antisocial personality disorder and possible future applications of neuroimaging. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(1: 98-108
Verhoeven, Judith S.; Cock, Paul de; Lagae, Lieven [University Hospitals of the Catholic University of Leuven, Department of Pediatrics, Leuven (Belgium); Sunaert, Stefan [University Hospitals of the Catholic University of Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium)
Neuroimaging studies done by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have provided important insights into the neurobiological basis for autism. The aim of this article is to review the current state of knowledge regarding brain abnormalities in autism. Results of structural MRI studies dealing with total brain volume, the volume of the cerebellum, caudate nucleus, thalamus, amygdala and the area of the corpus callosum are summarised. In the past 5 years also new MRI applications as functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging brought considerable new insights in the pathophysiological mechanisms of autism. Dysfunctional activation in key areas of verbal and non-verbal communication, social interaction, and executive functions are revised. Finally, we also discuss white matter alterations in important communication pathways in the brain of autistic patients. (orig.)
Millette, Patricia M.
Authentic field geology research is a inquiry method that encourages students to interact more with their local environment, and by solving genuine puzzles, begin to increase their intuitive understanding of the nature and processes of science. The goal of the current study was to determine if conducting authentic field research and giving high school students the opportunity to present findings to adult audiences outside of the school setting 1) enhances students' understanding of the nature of science, and 2) affects students views of themselves as researchers. To accomplish this, ninth-grade students from a public school in northern New England engaged in a community-initiated glacial geology problem, completed a field research investigation, and presented their findings at several professional conferences. Following the completion of this student-centered field research, I investigated its effects by using a mixed methods approach consisting of qualitative and quantitative data from two sources. These included selected questions from an open-response survey (VNOS-c), and interviews that were conducted with fifteen of the students of different ages and genders. Findings show that conducting original field research seems to have a positive influence on these students' understanding of the NOS as well as the processes of science. Many of the students reported feelings of accomplishment, acceptance of responsibility for the investigation, a sense of their authentic contribution to the body of scientific knowledge in the world, and becoming scientists. This type of authentic field investigation is significant because recent reforms in earth-science education stress the importance of students learning about the nature and processes of scientific knowledge along with science content.
van der Werff, Steven J A; Pannekoek, J Nienke; Stein, Dan J; van der Wee, Nic J A
Resilience is defined as a dynamic, multidimensional process encompassing positive adaptation within the context of significant adversity. The complex nature of this construct makes it a difficult topic to study in neuroimaging research; however, in this article, we propose ways to operationalize resilience. The limited amount of structural and functional neuroimaging studies specifically designed to examine resilience have mainly focused on investigating alterations in regions of the brain involved in emotion and stress regulation circuitry. In the future, neuroimaging of resilience is expected to benefit from functional and structural connectivity approaches and the use of novel imaging task paradigms. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Graff, P. V.; Stefanov, W. L.; Willis, K. J.; Runco, S.; McCollum, T.; Baker, M.; Lindgren, C.; Mailhot, M.
Classroom teachers are challenged with engaging and preparing today s students for the future. Activities are driven by state required skills, education standards, and high-stakes testing. Providing educators with standards-aligned, inquiry-based activities that will help them engage their students in student-led research in the classroom will help them teach required standards, essential skills, and help inspire their students to become motivated learners. The Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Education Program, classroom educators, and ARES scientists at the NASA Johnson Space Center created the Expedition Earth and Beyond education program to help teachers promote student-led research in their classrooms (grades 5-14) by using NASA data, providing access to scientists, and using integrated educational strategies.
Park, Hae Jeong [Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
Advance of neuroimaging technique has greatly influenced recent brain research field. Among various neuroimaging modalities, positron emission tomography has played a key role in molecular neuroimaging though functional MRI has taken over its role in the cognitive neuroscience. As the analysis technique for PET data is more sophisticated, the complexity of the method is more increasing. Despite the wide usage of the neuroimaging techniques, the assumption and limitation of procedures have not often been dealt with for the clinician and researchers, which might be critical for reliability and interpretation of the results. In the current paper, steps of voxel-based statistical analysis of PET including preprocessing, intensity normalization, spatial normalization, and partial volume correction will be revisited in terms of the principles and limitations. Additionally, new image analysis techniques such as surface-based PET analysis, correlational analysis and multimodal imaging by combining PET and DTI, PET and TMS or EEG will also be discussed.
A great deal of professional advice directed at undergraduates, graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and even early-career scientists focuses on technical skills necessary to succeed in a complex work environment in which problems transcend disciplinary boundaries. Collaborative research approaches are emphasized, as are cross-training and gaining nonacademic experiences [Moslemi et al., 2009].
National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Mathematical and Physical Sciences.
The purpose of this report was to classify and count doctoral scientists in the United States trained in oceanography and/or working in oceanography. Existing data from three sources (National Research Council's "Survey of Earned Doctorates," and "Survey of Doctorate Recipients," and the Ocean Sciences Board's "U.S. Directory of Marine…
Robinson, D. Q.
Hampton University, a historically black university, is leading the Education and Public Outreach (EPO) portion of the PICASSO-CENA satellite-based research mission. Currently scheduled for launch in 2004, PICASSO-CENA will use LIDAR (LIght Detection and Ranging), to study earth's atmosphere. The PICASSO-CENA Outreach program works with scientists, teachers, and students to better understand the effects of clouds and aerosols on earth's atmosphere. This program actively involves students nationwide in NASA research by having them obtain sun photometer measurements from their schools and homes for comparison with data collected by the PICASSO-CENA mission. Students collect data from their classroom ground observations and report the data via the Internet. Scientists will use the data from the PICASSO-CENA research and the student ground-truthing observations to improve predications about climatic change. The two-band passive remote sensing sun photometer is designed for student use as a stand alone instrument to study atmospheric turbidity or in conjunction with satellite data to provide ground-truthing. The instrument will collect measurements of column optical depth from the ground level. These measurements will not only give the students an appreciation for atmospheric turbidity, but will also provide quantitative correlative information to the PICASSO-CENA mission on ground-level optical depth. Student data obtained in this manner will be sufficiently accurate for scientists to use as ground truthing. Thus, students will have the opportunity to be involved with a NASA satellite-based research mission.
Ana Coelho; Paulo Marques; Ricardo Magalhães; Nuno Sousa; José Neves; Victor Alves
Multimodal neuroimaging analyses are of major interest for both research and clinical practice, enabling the combined evaluation of the structure and function of the human brain. These analyses generate large volumes of data and consequently increase the amount of possibly useful information. Indeed, BrainArchive was developed in order to organize, maintain and share this complex array of neuroimaging data. It stores all the information available for each participant/patient, being dynamic by...
Salmon, R. A.; Roop, H. A.
Using four very different polar outreach case studies, we will discuss scientists' motivations, expectations, and institutional incentives (and dis-incentives) to engage with the public, and argue that improved training, evaluation, and academic value needs to be associated with scientist-led communication efforts - as well as clearer fora for sharing best practice in this field. We will illustrate our argument using examples from an Antarctic festival with public lectures and science cafes, outreach associated with an Antarctic expedition, the global launch of a climate change documentary that had a significant focus on Antarctica, and a series of "Polar Weeks" led by an international community of scientists and educators. While there is an excellent culture of accountability in both formal and informal science communication sectors, the same rigour is not applied to the majority of 'outreach' activities that are initiated by the science research community. Many of these activities are undertaken based on 'what feels right' and opportunism, and are proclaimed to be a success based on little or no formal evaluation. As a result, much of this work goes undocumented, is not evaluated from the perspective of the science community, and is rarely subject to peer-review and its associated benefits, including professional rewards. We therefore conclude with suggestions of new opportunities for publication in this field that would encourage science communication theory and practice to better inform each other, and for scientists to gain professional recognition for their efforts in this arena.
The very nature of scientists' and journalists' jobs can put them at cross-purposes. Scientists work for years on one research project, slowly accumulating data, and are hesitant to draw sweeping conclusions without multiple rounds of hypothesis-testing. Journalists, meanwhile, are often looking for "news"—a discovery that was just made ("scientists have just discovered that...") or that defies conventional wisdom and is therefore about to turn society's thinking on its head. The very criteria that the mediamakers often use to determine newsworthiness can automatically preclude some scientific progress from making the news. There are other built-in problems in the relationship between journalists and scientists, some of which we can try to change and others of which we can learn to work around. Drawing on my personal experience as a journalist who has written for a wide variety of magazines, newspapers, and web sites, this talk will illustrate some of the inherent difficulties and offer some suggestions for how to move beyond them. It will provide a background on the way news decisions are made and how the journalist does her job, with an eye toward finding common ground and demonstrating how scientists can enjoy better relationships with journalists—relationships that can help educate the public on important scientific topics and avoid misrepresentation of scientific knowledge in the media.
Gorm Hansen, Birgitte
their core interests, 2) developing a self-supply of industry interests by becoming entrepreneurs and thus creating their own compliant industry partner and 3) balancing resources within a larger collective of researchers, thus countering changes in the influx of funding caused by shifts in political......” in the scientific ecosystem and may threaten the bio diversity of academic research....
Gorm Hansen, Birgitte
their core i nterests, 2) developing a selfsupply of industry interests by becoming entrepreneurs and thus creating their own compliant industry partner and 3) balancing resources within a larger collective of researchers, thus countering changes in the influx of funding caused by shifts in political......” in the scientific ecosystem and may threaten the bio diversity of academic research....
Menke, Ricarda A L; Agosta, Federica; Grosskreutz, Julian; Filippi, Massimo; Turner, Martin R
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative, clinically heterogeneous syndrome pathologically overlapping with frontotemporal dementia. To date, therapeutic trials in animal models have not been able to predict treatment response in humans, and the revised ALS Functional Rating Scale, which is based on coarse disability measures, remains the gold-standard measure of disease progression. Advances in neuroimaging have enabled mapping of functional, structural, and molecular aspects of ALS pathology, and these objective measures may be uniquely sensitive to the detection of propagation of pathology in vivo. Abnormalities are detectable before clinical symptoms develop, offering the potential for neuroprotective intervention in familial cases. Although promising neuroimaging biomarker candidates for diagnosis, prognosis, and disease progression have emerged, these have been from the study of necessarily select patient cohorts identified in specialized referral centers. Further multicenter research is now needed to establish their validity as therapeutic outcome measures.
Jones-Davis, Dorothy M; Buckholtz, Neil
In the growing landscape of biomedical public-private-partnerships, particularly for Alzheimer's disease, the question is posed as to their value. What impacts do public-private-partnerships have on clinical and basic science research in Alzheimer's disease? The authors answer the question using the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) as a test case and example. ADNI is an exemplar of how public-private-partnerships can make an impact not only on clinical and basic science research and practice (including clinical trials), but also of how similar partnerships using ADNI as an example, can be designed to create a maximal impact within their fields. Copyright © 2015 The Alzheimer's Association. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available That the English language is the prevailing language in international scientific discourse is an undeniable fact for research professionals who are non-native speakers of English (NNSE. An exploratory, survey-based study of scientists in the experimental disciplines of neuroscience and medicine seeks to reveal, on the one hand, the habits of scientists who in their research practice come across neologisms in English and need to use them in oral and written scientific discourse in their own languages, and, on the other hand, their attitudes towards these neologisms and towards English as the language of international science. We found that all scientists write and publish their research articles (RAs in English and most submit them unrevised by native speakers of English. When first encountering a neologism in English, scientists tend to pay close attention to these new concepts, ideas or terms and very early in the reception process attempt to coin acceptable, natural-sounding Spanish equivalents for use in the laboratory and in their Spanish texts. In conjunction with the naturalized Spanish term, they often use the English neologism verbatim in a coexistent bilingual form, but they avoid using only the English term and very literal translations. These behaviors show an ambivalent attitude towards English (the language of both new knowledge reception and dissemination of their RAs and Spanish (used for local professional purposes and for popularization: while accepting to write in their acquired non-native language, they simultaneously recognize that their native language needs to preserve its specificity as a language of science.
Fisher, Celia B; Yuko, Elizabeth
The responsible conduct of HIV/drug abuse prevention research requires investigators with both the knowledge of and ability to generate empirical data that can enhance global ethical practices and policies. This article describes a multidisciplinary program offering early-career professionals a 2-year intensive summer curriculum along with funding to conduct a mentored research study on a wide variety of HIV/drug abuse research ethics topics. Now in its fifth year, the program has admitted 29 trainees who have to date demonstrated increased knowledge of research ethics, produced 17 peer-reviewed publications, 46 professional presentations, and submitted or been awarded five related federal grants. The institute also hosts a global information platform providing general and HIV/drug abuse relevant research ethics educational and research resources that have had more than 38,800 unique visitors from more than 150 countries. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available Determining the role played by interdisciplinarity in the generation of knowledge is a very fertile line of research in which synergies among different fields of science can be identified and their impact on research efficiency ascertained. A number of methods may be used to explore interdisciplinarity, from the sociological approach to those requiring the application of bibliometric indicators. In this paper, a bibliometric analysis of the research conducted by scientists with the Chemistry Department at the University of Puerto Rico was run on the basis of the subject matter of citing and cited papers, in order to ascertain how interdisciplinarity affects certain aspects of research, such as collaboration or visibility. The data used for this paper were taken from the Science Citation Index database, which lists the most significant contributions made by these scientists, along with the respective bibliographic references. The study revealed the existence of scientific areas that are highly dependent on the knowledge generated in the specific area itself. A positive, albeit weak, correlation was also observed between research interdisciplinarity and collaboration between researchers and institutions. Interdisciplinarity was not found to have any effect, however, on the visibility of research papers or to be correlated with international collaboration.
Chung, Yong-An; Kim, Dae-Jin [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
Addiction to illicit drugs in one of today's most important social issues. Most addictive drugs lead to irreversible parenchymal changes in the human brain. Neuroimaging data bring to light the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the abused drugs, and demonstrate that addiction is a disease of the brain. Continuous researches better illustrate the neurochemical alterations in brain function, and attempt to discover the links to consequent behavioral changes. Newer hypotheses and theories follow the numerous results, and more rational methods of approaching therapy are being developed. Substance abuse is on the rise in Korea, and social interest in the matter as well. On the other hand, diagnosis and treatment of drug addiction is still very difficult, because how the abused substance acts in the brain, or how it leads to behavioral problems in not widely known. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of drug addiction can improve the process of diagnosing addict patients, planning therapy, and predicting the prognosis . Neuroimaging approaches by nuclear medicine methods are expected to objectively judge behavioral and neurochemical changes, and response to treatment. In addition, as genes associated with addictive behavior are discovered, functional nuclear medicine images will aid in the assessment of individuals. Reviewing published literature on neuroimaging regarding nuclear medicine is expected to be of assistance to the management of drug addict patients. What's more, means of applying nuclear medicine to the care of drug addict patients should be investigated further.
Aine, C J; Bockholt, H J; Bustillo, J R; Cañive, J M; Caprihan, A; Gasparovic, C; Hanlon, F M; Houck, J M; Jung, R E; Lauriello, J; Liu, J; Mayer, A R; Perrone-Bizzozero, N I; Posse, S; Stephen, J M; Turner, J A; Clark, V P; Calhoun, Vince D
In this paper we describe an open-access collection of multimodal neuroimaging data in schizophrenia for release to the community. Data were acquired from approximately 100 patients with schizophrenia and 100 age-matched controls during rest as well as several task activation paradigms targeting a hierarchy of cognitive constructs. Neuroimaging data include structural MRI, functional MRI, diffusion MRI, MR spectroscopic imaging, and magnetoencephalography. For three of the hypothesis-driven projects, task activation paradigms were acquired on subsets of ~200 volunteers which examined a range of sensory and cognitive processes (e.g., auditory sensory gating, auditory/visual multisensory integration, visual transverse patterning). Neuropsychological data were also acquired and genetic material via saliva samples were collected from most of the participants and have been typed for both genome-wide polymorphism data as well as genome-wide methylation data. Some results are also presented from the individual studies as well as from our data-driven multimodal analyses (e.g., multimodal examinations of network structure and network dynamics and multitask fMRI data analysis across projects). All data will be released through the Mind Research Network's collaborative informatics and neuroimaging suite (COINS).
Gegenfurtner, Andreas; Kok, Ellen M.; van Geel, Koos; de Bruin, Anique B. H.; Sorger, Bettina
Functional neuroimaging is a useful approach to study the neural correlates of visual perceptual expertise. The purpose of this paper is to review the functional-neuroimaging methods that have been implemented in previous research in this context. First, we will discuss research questions typically addressed in visual expertise research. Second,…
"Scientists at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research or CERN are busy mastering the nextgen web. Very soon, the worldwide we as it is called will peak and scientists are already working on the replacement called GRID computing." (1/2 page)
Höflich, Anna; Savli, Markus; Comasco, Erika; Moser, Ulrike; Novak, Klaus; Kasper, Siegfried; Lanzenberger, Rupert
From a neuroimaging point of view, deep brain stimulation (DBS) in psychiatric disorders represents a unique source of information to probe results gained in functional, structural and molecular neuroimaging studies in vivo. However, the implementation has, up to now, been restricted by the heterogeneity of the data reported in DBS studies. The aim of the present study was therefore to provide a comprehensive and standardized database of currently used DBS targets in selected psychiatric disorders (obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), treatment-resistant depression (TRD), Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS)) to enable topological comparisons between neuroimaging results and stimulation areas. A systematic literature research was performed and all peer-reviewed publications until the year 2012 were included. Literature research yielded a total of 84 peer-reviewed studies including about 296 psychiatric patients. The individual stimulation data of 37 of these studies meeting the inclusion criteria which included a total of 202 patients (63 OCD, 89 TRD, 50 GTS) was translated into MNI stereotactic space with respect to AC origin in order to identify key targets. The created database can be used to compare DBS target areas in MNI stereotactic coordinates with: 1) activation patterns in functional brain imaging (fMRI, phfMRI, PET, MET, EEG); 2) brain connectivity data (e.g., MR-based DTI/tractography, functional and effective connectivity); 3) quantitative molecular distribution data (e.g., neuroreceptor PET, post-mortem neuroreceptor mapping); 4) structural data (e.g., VBM for neuroplastic changes). Vice versa, the structural, functional and molecular data may provide a rationale to define new DBS targets and adjust/fine-tune currently used targets in DBS based on this overview in stereotactic coordinates. Furthermore, the availability of DBS data in stereotactic space may facilitate the investigation and interpretation of treatment effects and side effect of DBS by
Full Text Available Andrei Irimia, John Darrell Van Horn USC Stevens Neuroimaging and Informatics Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Functional deficits due to traumatic brain injury (TBI can have significant and enduring consequences upon patients’ life quality and expectancy. Although functional neuroimaging is essential for understanding TBI pathophysiology, an insufficient amount of effort has been dedicated to the task of translating functional neuroimaging findings into information with clinical utility. The purpose of this review is to summarize the use of functional neuroimaging techniques – especially functional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and electroencephalography – for advancing current knowledge of TBI-related brain dysfunction and for improving the rehabilitation of TBI patients. We focus on seven core areas of functional deficits, namely consciousness, motor function, attention, memory, higher cognition, personality, and affect, and, for each of these, we summarize recent findings from neuroimaging studies which have provided substantial insight into brain function changes due to TBI. Recommendations are also provided to aid in setting the direction of future neuroimaging research and for understanding brain function changes after TBI. Keywords: cognitive decline, personality change, magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging
How to encourage researchers to critically reflect on the ethical and social dimensions of their work? That is the central research question of this thesis. It starts from the assumption that the neutrality view of the social responsibility of the researcher – the view that researchers have no
Emily L. Borgelt
Full Text Available Images of brain function, popularly called neuroimages, have become a mainstay of contemporary communication about neuroscience and mental health. Paralleling media coverage of neuroimaging research and the high visibility of clinics selling scans is pressure from sponsors to move basic research about brain function along the translational pathway. Indeed, neuroimaging benefit mental health care with early or tailored intervention, opportunities for education and planning, and access to resources afforded by objectification of disorder. However, risks of premature technology transfer, such as misinterpretation, misrepresentation, and increased stigmatization, could compromise patient care.Stakeholder views on neuroimaging for mental health care are a largely untapped resource of information and guidance for translational efforts. We argue that the insights of key stakeholders – researchers, healthcare providers, patients, and families - have an essential role to play upstream in professional, critical, and ethical discourse about neuroimaging in mental health. Here we integrate previously orthogonal lines of inquiry involving stakeholder research to describe the translational landscape as well as challenges on its horizon.
Jepson, Patricia Jane
Deaf and hard of hearing students from five high schools were involved in an earth science project on geological faults. Variables of interest were self-efficacy in science and self-efficacy in career decision-making. The influence and characteristics of role models for deaf and hard of hearing students were also examined. Social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) was used as the theoretical base in this mixed method study. The fault curriculum unit was a collaborative project between Geosciences faculty at the University of Massachusetts and SOAR-High, an earth science program coordinated by the Clerc Center at Gallaudet University. Students participated in three interconnected learning components: (a) classroom experiments using a specially designed sandbox unit to model changes that take place in the earth's crust; (b) videoconferences with geoscientists; and (c) a five-day field trip where students, teachers, and scientists worked side-by-side in the field studying faults in Utah. Quantitative and qualitative data focused on science self-efficacy, career decision-making self-efficacy, and the influence of role models. Results suggested that active, student-centered learning activities had a positive impact on science self-efficacy and career decision making self-efficacy.
Dissanayake, Vajira H W; Sumathipala, Dulika S; Kariyawasam, U G A C; Jayamanne, J M D N M M; Nisansala, P K D S; Lie, Reidar
Stored human samples and the establishment of biobanks are increasing in the world. Along with this there are the questions of ethics that arise such as the correct method of obtaining informed consent for research on stored samples and the policies involved in collaborative research using collected samples. This study is an attempt to evaluate the researchers, academics and policy makers' views on these ethical aspects. This was an anonymised study involving a Sri Lankan population of researchers, ethics committee members, and policy makers. A self administered questionnaire was utilised as the study instrument. The questionnaire captured four major areas of interest: demographic characteristics of respondents, their attitudes on informed consent policy, their opinion on rights of collaborating researchers, their attitudes on dealing with international differences in regulatory frameworks. The study included 55 responders with 40/55 (73%) agreeing that donors should receive the option of giving informed consent for future research, with 31/55 (56%) considering multiple- type consent options most appropriate. Regarding the issue of shared samples in collaborative research majority agreed that source country ethics review committee approval was necessary 53/55 (96%). The study concludes that sample donors should be given the option of giving advance consent to unspecified future research provided that future research is approved by an ethics committee. In collaborative research, it is necessary to involve ethics committees from donor countries in the research approval process. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Elaine Howard Ecklund
Full Text Available Scholars partly attribute the low number of women in academic science to the impact of the science career on family life. Yet, the picture of how men and women in science--at different points in the career trajectory--compare in their perceptions of this impact is incomplete. In particular, we know little about the perceptions and experiences of junior and senior scientists at top universities, institutions that have a disproportionate influence on science, science policy, and the next generation of scientists. Here we show that having fewer children than wished as a result of the science career affects the life satisfaction of science faculty and indirectly affects career satisfaction, and that young scientists (graduate students and postdoctoral fellows who have had fewer children than wished are more likely to plan to exit science entirely. We also show that the impact of science on family life is not just a woman's problem; the effect on life satisfaction of having fewer children than desired is more pronounced for male than female faculty, with life satisfaction strongly related to career satisfaction. And, in contrast to other research, gender differences among graduate students and postdoctoral fellows disappear. Family factors impede talented young scientists of both sexes from persisting to research positions in academic science. In an era when the global competitiveness of US science is at risk, it is concerning that a significant proportion of men and women trained in the select few spots available at top US research universities are considering leaving science and that such desires to leave are related to the impact of the science career on family life. Results from our study may inform university family leave policies for science departments as well as mentoring programs in the sciences.
Ecklund, Elaine Howard; Lincoln, Anne E
Scholars partly attribute the low number of women in academic science to the impact of the science career on family life. Yet, the picture of how men and women in science--at different points in the career trajectory--compare in their perceptions of this impact is incomplete. In particular, we know little about the perceptions and experiences of junior and senior scientists at top universities, institutions that have a disproportionate influence on science, science policy, and the next generation of scientists. Here we show that having fewer children than wished as a result of the science career affects the life satisfaction of science faculty and indirectly affects career satisfaction, and that young scientists (graduate students and postdoctoral fellows) who have had fewer children than wished are more likely to plan to exit science entirely. We also show that the impact of science on family life is not just a woman's problem; the effect on life satisfaction of having fewer children than desired is more pronounced for male than female faculty, with life satisfaction strongly related to career satisfaction. And, in contrast to other research, gender differences among graduate students and postdoctoral fellows disappear. Family factors impede talented young scientists of both sexes from persisting to research positions in academic science. In an era when the global competitiveness of US science is at risk, it is concerning that a significant proportion of men and women trained in the select few spots available at top US research universities are considering leaving science and that such desires to leave are related to the impact of the science career on family life. Results from our study may inform university family leave policies for science departments as well as mentoring programs in the sciences.
Jiménez Bonilla, J F; Carril Carril, J M
In the context of the limitations of structural imaging, brain perfusion and metabolism using SPECT and PET have provided relevant information for the study of cognitive decline. The introduction of the radiotracers for cerebral amyloid imaging has changed the diagnostic strategy regarding Alzheimer's disease, which is currently considered to be a "continuum." According to this new paradigm, the increasing amyloid load would be associated to the preclinical phase and mild cognitive impairment. It has been possible to observe "in vivo" images using 11C-PIB and PET scans. The characteristics of the 11C-PIB image include specific high brain cortical area retention in the positive cases with typical distribution pattern and no retention in the negative cases. This, in combination with 18F-FDG PET, is the basis of molecular neuroimaging as a biomarker. At present, its prognostic value is being evaluated in longitudinal studies. 11C-PIB-PET has become the reference radiotracer to evaluate the presence of cerebral amyloid. However, its availability is limited due to the need for a nearby cyclotron. Therefore, 18F labeled radiotracers are being introduced. Our experience in the last two years with 11C-PIB, first in the research phase and then as being clinically applied, has shown the utility of the technique in the clinical field, either alone or in combination with FDG. Thus, amyloid image is a useful tool for the differential diagnosis of dementia and it is a potentially useful method for early diagnosis and evaluation of future treatments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.
Pascoa, Maria Beatriz Amorim
Because the production of scientific and technological innovations has been at the center of debates for economic growth, scientists are recognized as important actors in the current global market. In this study, I will examine the undergraduate education of future scientists by focusing on students working in research projects of faculty members. This research activity has been promoted by American and Brazilian public agencies as an attempt to attract more college students to scientific careers as well as to improve their future performance in science. Evaluations of these programs have focused on important quantitative indicators focusing mainly on the amount of students that later choose to pursue scientific careers. However, these studies fail to address important educational aspects of undergraduates' experience. In this research, I explore the educational processes taking place as students are introduced to the making of science in order to understand how and what they are learning. Three bodies of literature illuminates the formulation and the analysis of the research questions: (1) theories of globalization situate the education of scientists within the dynamics of a broader social, economic, cultural, and historical framework; (2) the critical pedagogy of Paulo Freire is the basis for the understanding of the pedagogical processes shaping undergraduate students' experiences within the research site; (3) Critical and Cultural Studies of Science and Technology illuminate the analysis of the complex interactions and practices constructed within the laboratory. In order to understand the educational processes shaping the experiences of undergraduate students engaged in research activities, I conducted a qualitative investigation based on participant-observation and in-depth interviews in an American and a Brazilian laboratories. The two sites constituted insightful case studies that illuminated the understanding of inquires about the training of students in
L'Astorina, Alba; Tomasoni, Irene
The Education system is increasingly interested in a more interactive dialogue with scientists in order to make science taught at school more aware of the models and the ways in which knowledge is produced, revised and discussed within the scientific community. Not always, in fact, the ministerial programs, the media, and the textbooks adopted by schools seem to be able to grasp the content and the procedures of the scientific knowledge as it is today being developed, sometimes spreading the idea of a monolithic and static science, with no reference to revisions, uncertainties, errors and disputes that, on the opposite, characterize the debate about science. On the other side, scientists, that in several surveys define students and teachers as one of the key groups that are most important to communicate with, often do not seem to be aware that scientific knowledge is continuously revised by the school and its protagonists. Science teaching, in all classes, has a highly educational role, as it offers the opportunity to value individual differences, to make students acquire specific tools and methods that enable them understand the world and critically interact with it. In this process of conscious learning, in which teachers play the role of tutors, the student participates actively bringing his tacit knowledge and beliefs. In this context, an educational proposal has recently been developed by the Italian National Research Council (CNR), aimed at starting a new dialogue between Education and Research. It's a way to encourage the technical and scientific culture among young people and a mutual exchange between the two main actors of the scientific production and promotion, considering weaknesses and strengths of the relationship between these two systems. In this proposal, students and teachers follow side by side a group of CNR scientists involved in an ongoing research project based on the use of innovative methodologies of aerospace Earth Observation (EO) for
The life of Otto Hahn is documented and the time where science started in the mysterious field of radioactivity. The main steps: Youth, studies, first practical experiences, research at Berlin university, first world war, success for atomic researchers, national socialism - night over Germany, fission of uranium atom, menace with the atomic bomb of Hitler, the American super explosive U235, hunting on atomic researchers, diplomacy with atomic bombs, in conflict with conscience and policy, against nuclear arm tests and atomic arm race. (GL)
Nielsen, Finn Årup; Hansen, Lars Kai
We describe a content-based image retrieval technique for finding related functional neuroimaging experiments by voxelization of sets of stereotactic coordinates in Talairach space, comparing the volumes and reporting related volumes in a sorted list. Voxelization is accomplished by convolving ea...
Granados, Ana M; Orejuela, Juan F; Rodriguez-Takeuchi, Sara Y
To describe the application of neuroimaging analysis, compared to neuropsychological tests and video-electroencephalogram, for the evaluation of refractory epilepsy in a reference centre in Cali, Colombia. Between March 2013 and November 2014, 29 patients, 19 men and 10 women, aged 9-65 years and with refractory epilepsy, were assessed by structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing tasks related to language, verbal and non-verbal memory. Also, volumetric evaluation was performed. A 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner was used in all cases. Neuroimaging evaluation identified 13 patients with mesial temporal sclerosis. The remaining patients were classified as: 10 patients with neoplastic masses, two patients with cortical atrophy, two patients with scarring lesions and two patients with non-structural aetiology. Among patients with mesial temporal sclerosis, comparison between techniques for lateralising the epileptogenic foci was made; the κ index between functional magnetic resonance imaging and hippocampi volumetry was κ=1.00, agreement between neuroimaging and video-electroencephalogram was good (κ=0.78) and comparison with a neuropsychological test was mild (κ=0.24). Neuroimaging studies allow the assessment of functional and structural damage related to epileptogenic lesions and foci, and are helpful to select surgical treatment, conduct intraoperative neuronavigation techniques, predict surgical deficits and evaluate patient recovery. © The Author(s) 2015.
Hagan, Wendy L.
Project G.R.O.W. is an ecology-based research project developed for high school biology students. The curriculum was designed based on how students learn and awareness of the nature of science and scientific practices so that students would design and carry out scientific investigations using real data from a local coastal wetland. This was a scientist-teacher collaboration between a CSULB biologist and high school biology teacher. Prior to implementing the three-week research project, students had multiple opportunities to practice building requisite skills via 55 lessons focusing on the nature of science, scientific practices, technology, Common Core State Standards of reading, writing, listening and speaking, and Next Generation Science Standards. Project G.R.O.W. culminated with student generated research papers and oral presentations. Outcomes reveal students struggle with constructing explanations and the use of Excel to create meaningful graphs. They showed gains in data organization, analysis, teamwork and aspects of the nature of science.
Barney G. Glaser, Ph.D., Hon. Ph.D.
In contrast to previous discussions in the literature treating cosmopolitan and local as two distinct groups of scientists, this paperi demonstrates the notion of cosmopolitan and local as a dual orientation of highly motivated scientists. This dual orientation is derived from institutional motivation, which is a determinant of both high quality basic research and accomplishment of non-research organizational activities. The dual orientation arises in a context of similarity of the institutio...
Liu, Sidong; Cai, Weidong; Liu, Siqi; Zhang, Fan; Fulham, Michael; Feng, Dagan; Pujol, Sonia; Kikinis, Ron
Multimodal neuroimaging is increasingly used in neuroscience research, as it overcomes the limitations of individual modalities. One of the most important applications of multimodal neuroimaging is the provision of vital diagnostic data for neuropsychiatric disorders. Multimodal neuroimaging computing enables the visualization and quantitative analysis of the alterations in brain structure and function, and has reshaped how neuroscience research is carried out. Research in this area is growing exponentially, and so it is an appropriate time to review the current and future development of this emerging area. Hence, in this paper, we review the recent advances in multimodal neuroimaging (MRI, PET) and electrophysiological (EEG, MEG) technologies, and their applications to the neuropsychiatric disorders. We also outline some future directions for multimodal neuroimaging where researchers will design more advanced methods and models for neuropsychiatric research.
Mentoring for young female practitioners and scientists in spatial and environmental planning in Germany - experiences of the joint mentoring program of the Academy for Spatial Research and Planning and the Association for Spatial and Environmental Research
Weiland, Ulrike; Klee, Andreas; Knieling, Jörg
In order to overcome the underrepresentation of women on higher management levels in planning, the Academy for Spatial Research and Planning (ARL) and the Association for Spatial and Environmental Research (FRU) in Germany jointly have elaborated a mentoring program for young female planning practitioners and scientists. This article introduces objectives and elements of the mentoring program being considered a strategic talent development in a network of excellence. Results from ...
Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Nanci A.; Affelder, Linda O.; Hecht, Laura M.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.
This paper reports the results of an exploratory study that investigated the influence of technical uncertainty on the use of information and information sources by U.S. industry-affiliated aerospace engineers and scientists in completing or solving a project, task, or problem. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Survey participants were U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists whose names appeared on the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) mailing list. The results support the findings of previous research and the following study assumptions. Information and information-source use differ for projects, problems, and tasks with high and low technical uncertainty. As technical uncertainty increases, information-source use changes from internal to external and from informal to formal sources. As technical uncertainty increases, so too does the use of federally funded aerospace research and development (R&D). The use of formal information sources to learn about federally funded aerospace R&D differs for projects, problems, and tasks with high and low technical uncertainty.
Madhyastha, Tara M; Koh, Natalie; Day, Trevor K M; Hernández-Fernández, Moises; Kelley, Austin; Peterson, Daniel J; Rajan, Sabreena; Woelfer, Karl A; Wolf, Jonathan; Grabowski, Thomas J
The contribution of this paper is to identify and describe current best practices for using Amazon Web Services (AWS) to execute neuroimaging workflows "in the cloud." Neuroimaging offers a vast set of techniques by which to interrogate the structure and function of the living brain. However, many of the scientists for whom neuroimaging is an extremely important tool have limited training in parallel computation. At the same time, the field is experiencing a surge in computational demands, driven by a combination of data-sharing efforts, improvements in scanner technology that allow acquisition of images with higher image resolution, and by the desire to use statistical techniques that stress processing requirements. Most neuroimaging workflows can be executed as independent parallel jobs and are therefore excellent candidates for running on AWS, but the overhead of learning to do so and determining whether it is worth the cost can be prohibitive. In this paper we describe how to identify neuroimaging workloads that are appropriate for running on AWS, how to benchmark execution time, and how to estimate cost of running on AWS. By benchmarking common neuroimaging applications, we show that cloud computing can be a viable alternative to on-premises hardware. We present guidelines that neuroimaging labs can use to provide a cluster-on-demand type of service that should be familiar to users, and scripts to estimate cost and create such a cluster.
Tara M. Madhyastha
Full Text Available The contribution of this paper is to identify and describe current best practices for using Amazon Web Services (AWS to execute neuroimaging workflows “in the cloud.” Neuroimaging offers a vast set of techniques by which to interrogate the structure and function of the living brain. However, many of the scientists for whom neuroimaging is an extremely important tool have limited training in parallel computation. At the same time, the field is experiencing a surge in computational demands, driven by a combination of data-sharing efforts, improvements in scanner technology that allow acquisition of images with higher image resolution, and by the desire to use statistical techniques that stress processing requirements. Most neuroimaging workflows can be executed as independent parallel jobs and are therefore excellent candidates for running on AWS, but the overhead of learning to do so and determining whether it is worth the cost can be prohibitive. In this paper we describe how to identify neuroimaging workloads that are appropriate for running on AWS, how to benchmark execution time, and how to estimate cost of running on AWS. By benchmarking common neuroimaging applications, we show that cloud computing can be a viable alternative to on-premises hardware. We present guidelines that neuroimaging labs can use to provide a cluster-on-demand type of service that should be familiar to users, and scripts to estimate cost and create such a cluster.
Tabak, Rachel G; Reis, Rodrigo S; Wilson, Paul; Brownson, Ross C
In public health and clinical settings insufficient dissemination of evidence-based practices limits the reach of new discoveries to broad populations. This study aimed to describe characteristics of the dissemination process by researchers across three countries (Brazil, United Kingdom, and United States), explore how designing for dissemination practices has been used, and analyze factors associated with dissemination. A similar online survey was used to query researchers across the three countries; data were pooled to draw cross-country conclusions. This study identified similarities and differences between countries. Importance of dissemination to nonresearcher audiences was widely recognized as important; however, traditional academic venues were the main dissemination method. Several factors were associated with self-rated dissemination effort in the pooled sample, but these predictive factors (e.g., support and resources for dissemination) had low prevalence. Less than one-third of researchers rated their level of effort for dissemination as excellent. Respondents reported limited support and resources to make it easier for researchers who might want to disseminate their findings. Though intentions show the importance of dissemination, researchers across countries lack supports to increase dissemination efforts. Additional resources and training in designing for dissemination along with improved partnerships could help bridge the research-practice gap.
and stereotyped and repetitive behaviors. Thanks to recent brain imaging studies, scientists are getting a better idea of the neural circuits involved in autism spectrum disorders. Indeed, functional brain imaging, such as positron emission tomography, single foton emission tomographyand functional MRI have opened a new perspective to study normal and pathological brain functioning. Three independent studies have found anatomical and rest functional temporal lobe abnormalities in autistic patients. These alterations are localized in the superior temporal sulcus bilaterally, an area which is critical for perception of key social stimuli. In addition, functional studies have shown hypoactivation of most areas implicated in social perception (face and voice perception and social cognition (theory of mind. These data suggest an abnormal functioning of the social brain network in autism. The understanding of the functional alterations of this important mechanism may drive the elaboration of new and more adequate social re-educative strategies for autistic patients.
Gurney, Jenny; Olsen, Timothy; Flavin, John; Ramaratnam, Mohana; Archie, Kevin; Ransford, James; Herrick, Rick; Wallace, Lauren; Cline, Jeanette; Horton, Will; Marcus, Daniel S
Since the early 2000's, much of the neuroimaging work at Washington University (WU) has been facilitated by the Central Neuroimaging Data Archive (CNDA), an XNAT-based imaging informatics system. The CNDA is uniquely related to XNAT, as it served as the original codebase for the XNAT open source platform. The CNDA hosts data acquired in over 1000 research studies, encompassing 36,000 subjects and more than 60,000 imaging sessions. Most imaging modalities used in modern human research are represented in the CNDA, including magnetic resonance (MR), positron emission tomography (PET), computed tomography (CT), nuclear medicine (NM), computed radiography (CR), digital radiography (DX), and ultrasound (US). However, the majority of the imaging data in the CNDA are MR and PET of the human brain. Currently, about 20% of the total imaging data in the CNDA is available by request to external researchers. CNDA's available data includes large sets of imaging sessions and in some cases clinical, psychometric, tissue, or genetic data acquired in the study of Alzheimer's disease, brain metabolism, cancer, HIV, sickle cell anemia, and Tourette syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Current neuroimaging software offer users an incredible opportunity to analyze their data in different ways, with different underlying assumptions. Several sophisticated software packages (e.g., AFNI, BrainVoyager, FSL, FreeSurfer, Nipy, R, SPM are used to process and analyze large and often diverse (highly multi-dimensional data. However, this heterogeneous collection of specialized applications creates several issues that hinder replicable, efficient and optimal use of neuroimaging analysis approaches: 1 No uniform access to neuroimaging analysis software and usage information; 2 No framework for comparative algorithm development and dissemination; 3 Personnel turnover in laboratories often limits methodological continuity and training new personnel takes time; 4 Neuroimaging software packages do not address computational efficiency; and 5 Methods sections in journal articles are inadequate for reproducing results. To address these issues, we present Nipype (Neuroimaging in Python: Pipelines and Interfaces; http://nipy.org/nipype, an open-source, community-developed, software package and scriptable library. Nipype solves the issues by providing Interfaces to existing neuroimaging software with uniform usage semantics and by facilitating interaction between these packages using Workflows. Nipype provides an environment that encourages interactive exploration of algorithms, eases the design of Workflows within and between packages, allows rapid comparative development of algorithms and reduces the learning curve necessary to use different packages. Nipype supports both local and remote execution on multi-core machines and clusters, without additional scripting. Nipype is BSD licensed, allowing anyone unrestricted usage. An open, community-driven development philosophy allows the software to quickly adapt and address the varied needs of the evolving neuroimaging community, especially in the context of increasing demand for reproducible research.
28 September 2011 - Canadian Intellectual Property Office Policy, International and Research Office Director K. Georgaras visiting the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with Engineer M. Bajko and Senior Scientists P. Jenni and R. Voss.
28 September 2011 - Canadian Intellectual Property Office Policy, International and Research Office Director K. Georgaras visiting the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with Engineer M. Bajko and Senior Scientists P. Jenni and R. Voss.
Epstein, Nurith; Fischer, Martin R
A lack of physician scientists as well as a high female dropout rate from academic medicine and basic life sciences is a concern in many countries. The current study analyzes academic career intentions within a sample of recent doctoral graduates from medicine and basic life sciences (N = 1109), focusing on research self-efficacy beliefs as explanatory variable of gender and disciplinary differences. To ensure that differences in research self-efficacy could not be attributed solely to objective scientific performance, we controlled for number of publications and dissertation grade. The results of multivariate analyses pointed to a strong and significant association between research self-efficacy and academic career intentions (ß = 0.49, pacademic career intentions of medical doctoral graduates were no longer significant when controlling for research self-efficacy. Within the field of medicine, female doctoral graduates expressed lower research self-efficacy beliefs and academic career intentions. When controlling for research self-efficacy, the correlation between gender and academic career intention was no longer significant. In contrast, no gender differences were found within the basic life sciences with respect to neither academic career intentions nor research self-efficacy.
Epstein, Nurith; Fischer, Martin R.
A lack of physician scientists as well as a high female dropout rate from academic medicine and basic life sciences is a concern in many countries. The current study analyzes academic career intentions within a sample of recent doctoral graduates from medicine and basic life sciences (N = 1109), focusing on research self-efficacy beliefs as explanatory variable of gender and disciplinary differences. To ensure that differences in research self-efficacy could not be attributed solely to objective scientific performance, we controlled for number of publications and dissertation grade. The results of multivariate analyses pointed to a strong and significant association between research self-efficacy and academic career intentions (ß = 0.49, pacademic career intentions of medical doctoral graduates were no longer significant when controlling for research self-efficacy. Within the field of medicine, female doctoral graduates expressed lower research self-efficacy beliefs and academic career intentions. When controlling for research self-efficacy, the correlation between gender and academic career intention was no longer significant. In contrast, no gender differences were found within the basic life sciences with respect to neither academic career intentions nor research self-efficacy. PMID:28910334
Gary S. McDowell
Full Text Available The landscape of scientific research and funding is in flux as a result of tight budgets, evolving models of both publishing and evaluation, and questions about training and workforce stability. As future leaders, junior scientists are uniquely poised to shape the culture and practice of science in response to these challenges. A group of postdocs in the Boston area who are invested in improving the scientific endeavor, planned a symposium held on October 2nd and 3rd, 2014, as a way to join the discussion about the future of US biomedical research. Here we present a report of the proceedings of participant-driven workshops and the organizers’ synthesis of the outcomes.
Todd A. Rawlinson
The Rocky Mountain Research Station (RMRS) is studying the effects of fuels reduction treatments on Mexican Spotted Owls and their prey in the Sacramento Mountains of New Mexico. One challenge facing Forest Service managers is that much of the landscape is dominated by overstocked stands resulting from years of fire suppression.
Judge, Sarah; Delgaty, Laura; Broughton, Mark; Dyter, Laura; Grimes, Callum; Metcalf, James; Nicholson, Rose; Pennock, Erin; Jankowski, Karl
A team of six children (13-14 years old) developed and conducted an experiment to assess the behaviour of the planarian flatworm, an invertebrate animal model, before, during and after exposure to chemicals. The aim of the project was to engage children in pharmacology and toxicology research. First, the concept that exposure to chemicals can…
To review recent neuroimaging studies of antisocial behaviour, including criminality, psychopathy, sexual offending, aggression, and violence. Using OVID software, Psycinfo and Medline were searched for studies undertaken in the last 15 years. A brief outline of each technology is followed by a survey of published reports from refereed journals. Where indicated, critical appraisal is offered. Converging evidence from multiple studies of structure and function indicates that abnormal prefrontal (and probably subcortical) circuitry are very likely involved in antisocial behaviour. Clinicians should be aware of emerging findings from biological studies of antisociality. Future neuroimaging and other biologically based work, especially when combined with psychosocial initiatives, should yield fruit in attempts to better understand, treat, and prevent such socially devastating and destructive behaviour.
of the application of neuroimaging findings to guide multidisciplinary collaboration in a randomized controlled trial on integrated home care for stroke patients. This approach may be termed double-objectivism. Results: 1. In classical neurology CNS is a dual system of ANS and Cortex. The new neuroeconomic...... understanding is that of a reciprocal balance of interacting Limbic System (L(x)) and Neocortex (NC). This favours integrated homecare as relaxation of LS at home (BP declines 5 mmHg) in itself improves cognitive integration to the benefit of rehabilitation i.e. reduced risk of ‘death or disability’ for stroke...... is basal knowledge for collaborative self-management. 3. Values of an integrative logic are derived as patience to both positivist prediction and client-centered implementation. Conclusion: Modern neuroimaging presents a positivistic guidance towards modern values of multidisciplinary collaboration...
Kehagia, A A; Tairyan, K; Federico, C; Glover, G H; Illes, J
In follow-up to a large-scale ethics survey of neuroscientists whose research involves neuroimaging, brain stimulation and imaging genetics, we conducted focus groups and interviews to explore their sense of responsibility about integrating ethics into neuroimaging and readiness to adopt new ethics strategies as part of their research. Safety, trust and virtue were key motivators for incorporating ethics into neuroimaging research. Managing incidental findings emerged as a predominant daily challenge for faculty, while student reports focused on the malleability of neuroimaging data and scientific integrity. The most frequently cited barrier was time and administrative burden associated with the ethics review process. Lack of scholarly training in ethics also emerged as a major barrier. Participants constructively offered remedies to these challenges: development and dissemination of best practices and standardized ethics review for minimally invasive neuroimaging protocols. Students in particular, urged changes to curricula to include early, focused training in ethics.
De Roure, David; Goble, Carole
Scientific research is increasingly digital. Some activities, such as data analysis, search, and simulation, can be accelerated by letting scientists write workflows and scripts that automate routine activities. These capture pieces of the scientific method that scientists can share. The averna Workbench, a widely deployed scientific-workflow-management system, together with the myExperiment social Web site for sharing scientific experiments, follow six principles of designing software for ad...
Le Bihan, Denis
It is now possible to witness human brain activity while we are talking, reading, or thinking, thanks to revolutionary neuroimaging techniques like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These groundbreaking advances have opened infinite fields of investigation—into such areas as musical perception, brain development in utero, and faulty brain connections leading to psychiatric disorders—and have raised unprecedented ethical issues. In Looking Inside the Brain, one of the leading pioneers of the field, Denis Le Bihan, offers an engaging account of the sophisticated interdisciplinary research in physics, neuroscience, and medicine that have led to the remarkable neuroimaging methods that give us a detailed look into the human brain. Introducing neurological anatomy and physiology, Le Bihan walks readers through the historical evolution of imaging technology—from the x-ray and CT scan to the PET scan and MRI—and he explains how neuroimaging uncovers afflictions like stroke or cancer and the workings of high...
Fukuyama, Hidenao [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine
Recent advances in the technology of non-invasive neuroimaging techniques, include X-ray CT, magnetic resonance imaging, positron CT, etc. The trend of neuroimaging is from the diagnosis of the brain structural change to the functional localization of the brain function with accurate topographical data. Brain activation studies disclosed the responsible regions in the brain for various kinds of paradigms, including motor, sensory, cognitive functions. Another aspect of brain imaging shows the pathophysiological changes of the neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease by abnormal CBF or metabolism changes. It is very important to note that the neurotransmitter receptor imaging is now available for various kinds of transmitters. We recently developed a new tracer for nicotinic type acetylcholine receptor, which might be involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease and its treatment. In the near future, we will be able to visualize the proteins in the brain such as amyloid protein, which will make us to diagnose Alzheimer's patients accurately, and with respect to neuroscience research, not only neuronal functional localizations but also relationship between them will become important to disclose the functional aspects of the brain. (author)
Korkhov, Vladimir; Krefting, Dagmar; Montagnat, Johan; Truong Huu, Tram; Kukla, Tamas; Terstyanszky, Gabor; Manset, David; Caan, Matthan; Olabarriaga, Silvia
Neuroimaging is a field that benefits from distributed computing infrastructures (DCIs) to perform data- and compute-intensive processing and analysis. Using grid workflow systems not only automates the processing pipelines, but also enables domain researchers to implement their expertise on how to
This paper offers a selective literature review of neuroimaging in psychiatry, with the goal of offering a background and a summary of current trends. While not exhaustive, numerous publications are cited in an attempt to provide a reasonable cross-section of research activity in the field of brain imaging in psychiatry and how ...
Besley, John C; Dudo, Anthony; Yuan, Shupei
This study looks at how United States-based academic scientists from five professional scientific societies think about eight different communication objectives. The degree to which scientists say they would prioritize these objectives in the context of face-to-face public engagement is statistically predicted using the scientists' attitudes, normative beliefs, and efficacy beliefs, as well as demographics and past communication activity, training, and past thinking about the objectives. The data allow for questions about the degree to which such variables consistently predict views about objectives. The research is placed in the context of assessing factors that communication trainers might seek to reshape if they wanted get scientists to consider choosing specific communication objectives.
Song, Xuebo; Wang, James; Wang, Anlin; Meng, Qingping; Prescott, Christian; Tsu, Loretta; Eckert, Mark A
Funding institutions and researchers increasingly expect that data will be shared to increase scientific integrity and provide other scientists with the opportunity to use the data with novel methods that may advance understanding in a particular field of study. In practice, sharing human subject data can be complicated because data must be de-identified prior to sharing. Moreover, integrating varied data types collected in a study can be challenging and time consuming. For example, sharing data from structural imaging studies of a complex disorder requires the integration of imaging, demographic and/or behavioral data in a way that no subject identifiers are included in the de-identified dataset and with new subject labels or identification values that cannot be tracked back to the original ones. We have developed a Java program that users can use to remove identifying information in neuroimaging datasets, while still maintaining the association among different data types from the same subject for further studies. This software provides a series of user interaction wizards to allow users to select data variables to be de-identified, implements functions for auditing and validation of de-identified data, and enables the user to share the de-identified data in a single compressed package through various communication protocols, such as FTPS and SFTP. DeID runs with Windows, Linux, and Mac operating systems and its open architecture allows it to be easily adapted to support a broader array of data types, with the goal of facilitating data sharing. DeID can be obtained at http://www.nitrc.org/projects/deid.
Full Text Available Nanomaterials have gained tremendous significance as contrast agents for both anatomical and functional preclinical bio-imaging. Contrary to conventional medical practices, molecular imaging plays an important role in exploring the affected cells, thus providing precision medical solutions. It has been observed that incorporating nanoprobes improves the overall efficacy of the diagnosis and treatment processes. These nano-agents and tracers are therefore often incorporated into preclinical therapeutic and diagnostic applications. Multimodal imaging approaches are well equipped with nanoprobes to explore neurological disorders, as they can display more than one type of characteristic in molecular imaging. Multimodal imaging systems are explored by researchers as they can provide both anatomical and functional details of tumors and affected tissues. In this review, we present the state-of-the-art research concerning multimodal imaging systems and nanoprobes for neuroimaging applications.
Walters, D. Eric; Walters, Gale Climenson
.... Scientists Must Speak: Bringing Presentations to Life helps readers do just that. At some point in their careers, the majority of scientists have to stand up in front of an inquisitive audience or board and present information...
Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.
The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the production and use of information by U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who had changed their American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) membership from student to professional in the past five years.
Franco, N H; Olsson, I A S
The 3Rs principle of replacement, reduction, and refinement has increasingly been endorsed by legislators and regulatory bodies as the best approach to tackle the ethical dilemma presented by animal experimentation in which the potential benefits for humans stand against the costs borne by the animals. Even when animal use is tightly regulated and supervised, the individual researcher's responsibility is still decisive in the implementation of the 3Rs. Training in laboratory animal science (LAS) aims to raise researchers' awareness and increase their knowledge, but its effect on scientists' attitudes and practice has not so far been systematically assessed. Participants (n = 206) in eight LAS courses (following the Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations category C recommendations) in Portugal were surveyed in a self-administered questionnaire during the course. Questions were related mainly to the 3Rs and their application, attitudes to animal use and the ethical review of animal experiments. One year later, all the respondents were asked to answer a similar questionnaire (57% response rate) with added self-evaluation questions on the impact of training. Our results suggest that the course is effective in promoting awareness and increasing knowledge of the 3Rs, particularly with regard to refinement. However, participation in the course did not change perceptions on the current and future needs for animal use in research.
NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 1: The value of scientific and technical information (STI), its relationship to Research and Development (R/D), and its use by US aerospace engineers and scientists
Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Glassman, Myron; Oliu, Walter E.
This paper is based on the premise that scientific and technical information (STI), its use by aerospace engineers and scientists, and the aerospace research and development (R&D) process are related. We intend to support this premise with data gathered from numerous studies concerned with STI, the relationship of STI to the performance and management of R&D activities, and the information use and seeking behavior of engineers in general and aerospace engineers and scientists in particular. We intend to develop and present a synthesized appreciation of how aerospace R&D managers can improve the efficacy of the R&D process by understanding the role and value of STI in this process.
NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 12: The diffusion of federally funded aerospace research and development (R/D) and the information seeking behavior of US aerospace engineers and scientists
Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.
In this paper, the diffusion of federally funded aerospace R&D is explored from the perspective of the information-seeking behavior of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. The following three assumptions frame this exploration: (1) knowledge production, transfer, and utilization are equally important components of the aerospace R&D process; (2) the diffusion of knowledge resulting from federally funded aerospace R&D is indispensable for the U.S. to remain a world leader in aerospace; and (3) U.S. government technical reports, produced by NASA and DOD, play an important, but as yet undefined, role in the diffusion of federally funded aerospace R&D. A conceptual model for federally funded aerospace knowledge diffusion, one that emphasizes U.S. goverment technical reports, is presented. Data regarding three research questions concerning the information-seeking behavior of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists are also presented.
Geová Oliveira de Amorim
Full Text Available ABSTRACT It is assumed that singing is a highly complex activity, which requires the activation and interconnection of sensorimotor areas. The aim of the current research was to present the evidence from neuroimaging studies in the performance of the motor and sensory system in the process of singing. Research articles on the characteristics of human singing analyzed by neuroimaging, which were published between 1990 and 2016, and indexed and listed in databases such as PubMed, BIREME, Lilacs, Web of Science, Scopus, and EBSCO were chosen for this systematic review. A total of 9 articles, employing magnetoencephalography, functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and electrocorticography were chosen. These neuroimaging approaches enabled the identification of a neural network interconnecting the spoken and singing voice, to identify, modulate, and correct pitch. This network changed with the singer's training, variations in melodic structure and harmonized singing, amusia, and the relationship among the brain areas that are responsible for speech, singing, and the persistence of musicality. Since knowledge of the neural networks that control singing is still scarce, the use of neuroimaging methods to elucidate these pathways should be a focus of future research.
Stewart, John M
Scientific Python is a significant public domain alternative to expensive proprietary software packages. This book teaches from scratch everything the working scientist needs to know using copious, downloadable, useful and adaptable code snippets. Readers will discover how easy it is to implement and test non-trivial mathematical algorithms and will be guided through the many freely available add-on modules. A range of examples, relevant to many different fields, illustrate the language's capabilities. The author also shows how to use pre-existing legacy code (usually in Fortran77) within the Python environment, thus avoiding the need to master the original code. In this new edition, several chapters have been re-written to reflect the IPython notebook style. With an extended index, an entirely new chapter discussing SymPy and a substantial increase in the number of code snippets, researchers and research students will be able to quickly acquire all the skills needed for using Python effectively.
Nadeau, P. A.; Flores, K. E.; Zirakparvar, N. A.; Grcevich, J.; Ustunisik, G. K.; Kinzler, R. J.; Macdonald, M.; Mathez, E. A.; Mac Low, M.
Educators and research scientists at the American Museum of Natural History are collaborating to implement a teacher education program with the goal of addressing a critical shortage of qualified Earth Science teachers in New York State (NYS), particularly in high-needs schools with diverse populations. This pilot program involves forging a one-of-a-kind partnership between a world-class research museum and high-needs schools in New York City. By placing teaching candidates in such schools, the project has potential to engage, motivate, and improve Earth Science achievement and interest in STEM careers of thousands of students from traditionally underrepresented populations including English language learners, special education students, and racial minority groups. The program, which is part of the state's Race to the Top initiative, is approved by the NYS Board of Regents and will prepare a total of 50 candidates in two cohorts to earn a Board of Regents-awarded Masters of Arts in Teaching (MAT) degree with a specialization in Earth Science for grades 7-12. The museum is in a unique position of being able to break traditional educational barriers as a result of a long history of interdisciplinary collaborations between educators and research scientists, as well as being the only stand-alone science graduate degree-granting museum in the United States. The intensive 15-month curriculum for MAT candidates comprises one summer of museum teaching residency, a full academic year of residency in high-needs public schools, one summer of science research residency, and concurrent graduate-level courses in Earth and space sciences, pedagogy, and adolescent psychology. We emphasize field-based geological studies and experiential learning, in contrast to many traditional teacher education programs. In an effort to ensure that MAT candidates have a robust knowledge base in Earth science, and per NYS Department of Education requirements, we selected candidates with strong
Carvellas, B.; Grebmeier, J. M.; Cooper, L. W.
From 2002-2012 NSF and NOAA have supported a Vermont high school biology teacher to work with Dr. Jackie Grebmeier on 8 research cruises to the Arctic. Not only was the teacher embedded in Dr. Grebmeier's research team efforts, but her students were able to follow the work on board through her daily journals and photos. Subsequently, Dr. Grebmeier traveled to Vermont for a personal visit to students in multiple classes, grades 4-12. The opportunity for teachers to be teamed with a researcher, especially over an extended period of time as we will discuss in our presentation, allows their students to share in the tremendous learning experience and gain a deeper understanding of the interdisciplinary nature of science. The result is that the students begin to understand how the content they learn in the classroom is utilized in a real world setting. We will also discuss the more subtle benefits that occurred throughout the school year through connecting academic content with personal examples of "real" science. Note that the recently released Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), when fully implemented, will change the way students learn science. Appendix A of the NGSS lists 7 Conceptual Shifts in these new standards. #1 states "K-12 Science Education Should Reflect the Interconnected Nature of Science as it is Practiced and Experienced in the Real World" and #4 calls for a "Focus on Deeper Understanding of Content as well as Application of Content." What better way to address the standards than bringing real world science research into the classroom? Many K-12 science teachers, particularly those in elementary classrooms, have never had the opportunity to pursue their own research and even fewer have experienced first hand the real world work of a research scientist. This presentation will provide insights about our successful collaboration and value-added aspects to enhance the educational experience.
Wei, Tian; Wu, Chensheng; Yan, XiaoYong; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru; Wu, Jinshan
Do scientists follow hot topics in their scientific investigations? In this paper, by performing analysis to papers published in the American Physical Society (APS) Physical Review journals, it is found that papers are more likely to be attracted by hot fields, where the hotness of a field is measured by the number of papers belonging to the field. This indicates that scientists generally do follow hot topics. However, there are qualitative differences among scientists from various countries, among research works regarding different number of authors, different number of affiliations and different number of references. These observations could be valuable for policy makers when deciding research funding and also for individual researchers when searching for scientific projects.
Barney G. Glaser, Ph.D., Hon. Ph.D.
Full Text Available In contrast to previous discussions in the literature treating cosmopolitan and local as two distinct groups of scientists, this paperi demonstrates the notion of cosmopolitan and local as a dual orientation of highly motivated scientists. This dual orientation is derived from institutional motivation, which is a determinant of both high quality basic research and accomplishment of non-research organizational activities. The dual orientation arises in a context of similarity of the institutional goal of science with the goal of the organization; the distinction between groups of locals and cosmopolitans derives from a conflict between two goals.
Full Text Available In recent years, a number of functional and structural neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural bases of aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents. Most functional neuroimaging studies have persued the hypothesis that pathological aggression is a consequence of deficits in the neural circuits involved in emotion processing. There is converging evidence for deficient neural responses to emotional stimuli in youths with a propensity towards aggressive behaviour. In addition, recent neuroimaging work has suggested that aggressive behaviour is also associated with abnormalities in neural processes that subserve both the inhibitory control of behaviour and the flexible adaptation of behaviour in accord with reinforcement information. Structural neuroimaging studies in children and adolescents with conduct problems are still scarce, but point to deficits in brain structures in volved in the processing of social information and in the regulation of social and goal directed behaviour. The indisputable progress that this research field has made in recent years notwithstanding, the overall picture is still rather patchy and there are inconsistencies between studies that await clarification. Despite this, we attempt to provide an integrated view on the neural abnormalities that may contribute to various forms of juvenile aggression and violence, and discuss research strategies that may help to provide a more profound understanding of these important issues in the future.
One of the most exciting developments in exoplanet science is the inclusion of a coronagraph instrument on WFIRST. After more than 20 years of research and development on coronagraphy and wavefront control, the technology is ready for a demonstration in space and to be used for revolutionary science. Good progress has already been made at JPL and partner institutions on the coronagraph technology and instrument design and test. The next five years as we enter Phase A will be critical for raising the TRL of the coronagraph to the needed level for flight and for converging on a design that is robust, low risk, and meets the science requirements. In addition, there is growing excitement over the possibility of rendezvousing an occulter with WFIRST/AFTA as a separate mission; this would both demonstrate that important technology and potentially dramatically enhance the science reach, introducing the possibility of imaging Earth-like planets in the habitable zone of nearby stars. In this proposal I will be applying for the Coronagraph Adjutant Scientist (CAS) position. I bring to the position the background and skills needed to be an effective liaison between the project office, the instrument team, and the Science Investigation Team (SIT). My background in systems engineering before coming to Princeton (I was Chief Systems Engineer for the Gravity Probe-B mission) and my 15 years of working closely with NASA on both coronagraph and occulter technology make me well-suited to the role. I have been a lead coronagraph scientist for the WFIRST mission from the beginning, including as a member of the SDT. Together with JPL and NASA HQ, I helped organize the process for selecting the coronagraphs for the CGI, one of which, the shaped pupil, has been developed in my lab. All of the key algorithms for wavefront control (including EFC and Stroke Minimization) were originally developed by students or post-docs in my lab at Princeton. I am thus in a unique position to work with
Ng, Thomas Sc; Lin, Alexander P; Koerte, Inga K; Pasternak, Ofer; Liao, Huijun; Merugumala, Sai; Bouix, Sylvain; Shenton, Martha E
Sports-related concussions are one of the major causes of mild traumatic brain injury. Although most patients recover completely within days to weeks, those who experience repetitive brain trauma (RBT) may be at risk for developing a condition known as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). While this condition is most commonly observed in athletes who experience repetitive concussive and/or subconcussive blows to the head, such as boxers, football players, or hockey players, CTE may also affect soldiers on active duty. Currently, the only means by which to diagnose CTE is by the presence of phosphorylated tau aggregations post-mortem. Non-invasive neuroimaging, however, may allow early diagnosis as well as improve our understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of RBT. The purpose of this article is to review advanced neuroimaging methods used to investigate RBT, including diffusion tensor imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, functional magnetic resonance imaging, susceptibility weighted imaging, and positron emission tomography. While there is a considerable literature using these methods in brain injury in general, the focus of this review is on RBT and those subject populations currently known to be susceptible to RBT, namely athletes and soldiers. Further, while direct detection of CTE in vivo has not yet been achieved, all of the methods described in this review provide insight into RBT and will likely lead to a better characterization (diagnosis), in vivo, of CTE than measures of self-report.
Full Text Available Whether or to what extent ADORNO can be regarded as a pioneer of qualitative research is discussed using two of his letters to Paul LAZARSFELD from 1938, when he began participating in the latter's "Radio Research Project" at Princeton University. In the course of the project ADORNO for the first time had to adjust to the dispositions of empirical research in the US. Due to his lack of first hand experience in this field, he had to rely on his skills as a philosopher and artist. In his correspondence with LAZARSFELD, ADORNO developed concepts that would later achieve canonical status in his writings on social research after the Second World War. By criticising quantifying methods, he naturally designed a model of qualitative research. The model nevertheless was subject to specific restrictions mainly because of ADORNO's sustained reservations regarding methodically regulated approaches in general. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs130394
Contemporary studies in the cognitive neuroscience of attention and suggestion shed new light on the underlying neural mechanisms that operationalize these effects. Without adhering to important caveats inherent to imaging of the living human brain, however, findings from brain imaging studies may enthrall more than explain. Scholars, practitioners, professionals, and consumers must realize that the influence words exert on focal brain activity is measurable but that these measurements are often difficult to interpret. While recent brain imaging research increasingly incorporates variations of suggestion and hypnosis, correlating overarching hypnotic experiences with specific brain substrates remains tenuous. This article elucidates the mounting role of cognitive neuroscience, including the relative merits and intrinsic limitations of neuroimaging, in better contextualizing trance-like concepts.
Haselgrove, Christian; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Kennedy, David N.
Data sharing is becoming increasingly common, but despite encouragement and facilitation by funding agencies, journals, and some research efforts, most neuroimaging data acquired today is still not shared due to political, financial, social, and technical barriers to sharing data that remain. In particular, technical solutions are few for researchers that are not a part of larger efforts with dedicated sharing infrastructures, and social barriers such as the time commitment required to share can keep data from becoming publicly available. We present a system for sharing neuroimaging data, designed to be simple to use and to provide benefit to the data provider. The system consists of a server at the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility (INCF) and user tools for uploading data to the server. The primary design principle for the user tools is ease of use: the user identifies a directory containing Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) data, provides their INCF Portal authentication, and provides identifiers for the subject and imaging session. The user tool anonymizes the data and sends it to the server. The server then runs quality control routines on the data, and the data and the quality control reports are made public. The user retains control of the data and may change the sharing policy as they need. The result is that in a few minutes of the user’s time, DICOM data can be anonymized and made publicly available, and an initial quality control assessment can be performed on the data. The system is currently functional, and user tools and access to the public image database are available at http://xnat.incf.org/. PMID:24904398
Peacock, K.; Mann, M. E.
Several authors have warned that climate scientists sometimes exhibit a tendency to "err on the side of least drama" in reporting the risks associated with fossil fuel emissions. Scientists are often reluctant to comment on the implications of their work for public policy, despite the fact that because of their expertise they may be among those best placed to make recommendations about such matters as mitigation and preparedness. Scientists often have little or no training in ethics or philosophy, and consequently they may feel that they lack clear guidelines for balancing the imperative to avoid error against the need to speak out when it may be ethically required to do so. This dilemma becomes acute in cases such as abrupt ice sheet collapse where it is easier to identify a risk than to assess its probability. We will argue that long-established codes of ethics in the learned professions such as medicine and engineering offer a model that can guide research scientists in cases like this, and we suggest that ethical training could be regularly incorporated into graduate curricula in fields such as climate science and geology. We recognize that there are disanalogies between professional and scientific ethics, the most important of which is that codes of ethics are typically written into the laws that govern licensed professions such as engineering. Presently, no one can legally compel a research scientist to be ethical, although legal precedent may evolve such that scientists are increasingly expected to communicate their knowledge of risks. We will show that the principles of professional ethics can be readily adapted to define an ethical code that could be voluntarily adopted by scientists who seek clearer guidelines in an era of rapid climate change.
As Romania has now become a Member State of CERN, Romanian scientists share their thoughts about this new era of partnership for their community. Members of ATLAS from Romanian institutes at CERN (from left to right): Dan Ciubotaru, Michele Renda, Bogdan Blidaru, Alexandra Tudorache, Marina Rotaru, Ana Dumitriu, Valentina Tudorache, Adam Jinaru, Calin Alexa. On 17 July 2016, Romania became the twenty-second Member State of CERN, 25 years after the first cooperation agreement with the country was signed. “CERN and Romania already have a long history of strong collaboration”, says Emmanuel Tsesmelis, head of Relations with Associate Members and Non-Member States. “We very much look forward to strengthening this collaboration as Romania becomes CERN’s twenty-second Member State, which promises the development of mutual interests in scientific research, related technologies and education,” he affirms. Romania&...
Buhr, S. M.; Lynds, S. E.; Smith, L. K.
Research scientists are busy people, with many demands on their time and few institutional rewards for engagement in education and public outreach (EPO). However, scientist involvement in education has been called for by funding agencies, education researchers and the scientific organizations. In support of this idea, educators consistently rate interaction with scientists as the most meaningful element of an outreach project. What factors help scientists become engaged in EPO, and why do scientists stay engaged? This presentation describes the research-based motivations and barriers for scientists to be engaged in EPO, presents strategies for overcoming barriers, and describes elements of EPO that encourage and support scientist engagement.
Hahn, Changtae; Lim, Hyun Kook; Lee, Chang Uk
In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in late-onset mental disorders. Among them, geriatric schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are significant health care risks and major causes of disability. We discussed whether late-onset schizophrenia (LOS) and late-onset bipolar (LOB) disorder can be a separate entity from early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) and early-onset bipolar (EOB) disorder in a subset of late-life schizophrenia or late-life bipolar disorder through neuroimaging studies. A literature search for imaging studies of LOS or LOB was performed in the PubMed database. Search terms used were "(imaging OR MRI OR CT OR SPECT OR DTI OR PET OR fMRI) AND (schizophrenia or bipolar disorder) AND late onset." Articles that were published in English before October 2013 were included. There were a few neuroimaging studies assessing whether LOS and LOB had different disease-specific neural substrates compared with EOS and EOB. These researches mainly observed volumetric differences in specific brain regions, white matter hyperintensities, diffusion tensor imaging, or functional neuroimaging to explore the differences between LOS and LOB and EOS and EOB. The aim of this review was to highlight the neural substrates involved in LOS and LOB through neuroimaging studies. The exploration of neuroanatomical markers may be the key to the understanding of underlying neurobiology in LOS and LOB.
David E Linden
Full Text Available This perspective considers the present and the future role of different neuroimaging techniques in the field of psychiatry. After identifying shortcomings of the mainly symptom-focussed diagnostic processes and treatment decisions in modern psychiatry, we suggest topics where neuroimaging methods have the potential to help. These include better understanding of the pathophysiology, improved diagnoses, assistance in therapeutic decisions and the supervision of treatment success by direct assessment of improvement in disease-related brain functions. These different questions are illustrated by examples from neuroimaging studies, with a focus on severe mental and neuropsychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia, depression and dementia. Despite all reservations addressed in the article, we are optimistic, that neuroimaging has a huge potential with regard to the above-mentioned questions. We expect that neuroimaging will play an increasing role in the future refinement of the diagnostic process and aid in the development of new therapies in the field of psychiatry.
Scientist Jay Garland Ph.D. spent twenty years at NASA trying to figure out how astronauts could stay in outer space for a long time without needing more supplies. Now he is bringing the same concepts of reusing and recovering resources to his research
Keator, D B; Helmer, K; Steffener, J; Turner, J A; Van Erp, T G M; Gadde, S; Ashish, N; Burns, G A; Nichols, B N
Data sharing efforts increasingly contribute to the acceleration of scientific discovery. Neuroimaging data is accumulating in distributed domain-specific databases and there is currently no integrated access mechanism nor an accepted format for the critically important meta-data that is necessary for making use of the combined, available neuroimaging data. In this manuscript, we present work from the Derived Data Working Group, an open-access group sponsored by the Biomedical Informatics Research Network (BIRN) and the International Neuroimaging Coordinating Facility (INCF) focused on practical tools for distributed access to neuroimaging data. The working group develops models and tools facilitating the structured interchange of neuroimaging meta-data and is making progress towards a unified set of tools for such data and meta-data exchange. We report on the key components required for integrated access to raw and derived neuroimaging data as well as associated meta-data and provenance across neuroimaging resources. The components include (1) a structured terminology that provides semantic context to data, (2) a formal data model for neuroimaging with robust tracking of data provenance, (3) a web service-based application programming interface (API) that provides a consistent mechanism to access and query the data model, and (4) a provenance library that can be used for the extraction of provenance data by image analysts and imaging software developers. We believe that the framework and set of tools outlined in this manuscript have great potential for solving many of the issues the neuroimaging community faces when sharing raw and derived neuroimaging data across the various existing database systems for the purpose of accelerating scientific discovery. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available Childhood maltreatment is a severe stressor that can lead to the development of behaviour problems and affect brain structure and function. This review summarizes the current evidence for the effects of early childhood maltreatment on behavior, cognition and the brain in adults and children. Neuropsychological studies suggest an association between child abuse and deficits in IQ, memory, executive function and emotion discrimination. Structural neuroimaging studies provide evidence for deficits in brain volume, grey and white matter of several regions, most prominently the dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex but also hippocampus, amygdala, and corpus callosum. Diffusion tensor imaging studies show evidence for deficits in structural interregional connectivity between these areas, suggesting neural network abnormalities. Functional imaging studies support this evidence by reporting atypical activation in the same brain regions during executive function and emotion processing. There are, however, several limitations of the abuse research literature which are discussed, most prominently the lack of control for co-morbid psychiatric disorders, which make it difficult to disentangle which of the above effects are due to maltreatment, the associated psychiatric conditions or a combination or interaction between both. Overall, the better controlled studies that show a direct correlation between childhood abuse and brain measures suggest that the most prominent deficits associated with early childhood abuse are in the function and structure of lateral and ventromedial fronto-limbic brain areas and networks that mediate behavioural and affect control. Future, large scale multimodal neuroimaging studies in medication-naïve subjects, however, are needed that control for psychiatric co-morbidities in order to elucidate the structural and functional brain sequelae that are associated with early environmental adversity, independently of secondary
I summarized the present status of Neuroimaging studies in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Nation wide multi-center study with regard to single photon emission study had been started 3 year before and it is now going on in a good cooperation of many institute, covering 319 cases. This study was name as J-COSMIC (Japan Cooperative SPECT Study on Assessment of Mild Impairment of Cognitive Function). After one-year follow-up, 30 out of 120 cases were converted to Alzheimer's disease from MCI. Since last year, ADNI (Alzheimer' disease Neuroimaging Initiative) had started in US, very similar to J-COSMIC, but they adopted PET and MRI as the examination tool. The findings based on J-COSMIC is still unclear, but, we can say that the general cognitive evaluation methods such as MMSE is better than WMS-R, which measures the memory function itself with wide variation in each case. Similar to small size previous works, converter from MCI to Alzheimer's disease tended to show hypoperfusion in the parietal and frontal regions. Recent advance in the molecular imaging enabled us to visualize the deposition of amyloid protein in the brain parenchyma. It is still controversial as to application of the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease or MCI. S. Minoshima reported the hypometabolism in the early stage of Alzheimer's disease in the posterior cingulate gyrus or precuneus, but it has been still unknown why these areas showed hypoperfusion or hypometabolism in early phase of Alzheimer's disease. We examined the fiber connection of posterior cingulate region with other brain structures using diffusion weighted images. It was very surprising that such kind of small structures had a lot of connections, not only contralateral side, but also, parietal and temporal lobes, as well as anterior cigulate cortex. The function has been still been unclear, but we will be able to disclose their functions in the human brain in the future, which will be helpful for understanding the
Vecchiato, Giovanni; Kong, Wanzeng; Maglione, Anton Giulio; Wei, Daming
Today, there is a greater interest in the marketing world in using neuroimaging tools to evaluate the efficacy of TV commercials. This field of research is known as neuromarketing. In this article, we illustrate some applications of electrical neuroimaging, a discipline that uses electroencephalography (EEG) and intensive signal processing techniques for the evaluation of marketing stimuli. We also show how the proper usage of these methodologies can provide information related to memorization and attention while people are watching marketing-relevant stimuli. We note that temporal and frequency patterns of EEG signals are able to provide possible descriptors that convey information about the cognitive process in subjects observing commercial advertisements (ads). Such information could be unobtainable through common tools used in standard marketing research. Evidence of this research shows how EEG methodologies could be employed to better design new products that marketers are going to promote and to analyze the global impact of video commercials already broadcast on TV.
Full Text Available With the rapid advances in neurosciences in the last three decades, there has been an exponential increase in the use of neuroimaging both in basic sciences and clinical research involving human subjects. During routine neuroimaging, incidental findings that are not part of the protocol or scope of research agenda can occur and they often pose a challenge as to how they should be handled to abide by the medicolegal principles of research ethics. This paper reviews the issue from various ethical (do no harm, general duty to rescue, and mutual benefits and owing and medicolegal perspectives (legal liability, fiduciary duties, Law of Tort, and Law of Contract with a suggested protocol of approach.
Full Text Available Science Translational Medicine’s mission is to improve human health care worldwide by providing a forum for communication and interdisciplinary idea exchange between basic scientists and clinical research practitioners from all relevant established and emerging disciplines. The weekly journal debuted in October 2009 and is published by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS, the publisher of Science and Science Signaling. The journal features peer-reviewed research articles, perspectives and commentary, and is guided by an international Advisory Board, led by Chief Scientific Adviser, Elias A. Zerhouni, M.D., former Director of the National Institutes of Health, and Senior Scientific Adviser, Elazer R. Edelman, M.D., Ph.D., Thomas D. and Virginia W. Cabot Professor of Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The Science Translational Medicine editorial team is led by Katrina L. Kelner, Ph.D., AAAS. A profound transition is required for the science of translational medicine. Despite 50 years of advances in our fundamental understanding of human biology and the emergence of powerful new technologies, the rapid transformation of this knowledge into effective health measures is not keeping pace with the challenges of global health care. Creative experimental approaches, novel technologies, and new ways of conducting scientific explorations at the interface of established and emerging disciplines are now required to an unprecedented degree if real progress is to be made. To aid in this reinvention, Science and AAAS have created a new interdisciplinary journal, Science Translational Medicine. The following interview exemplefies the pioneering content found in Science Translational Medicine. It is an excerpt from a Podcast interview with Dr. Samuel Broder, former director of the National Cancer Institute and current Chief Medical Officer at Celera. The Podcast was produced in tangent with Dr
Mawyer, Kirsten K. N.; Johnson, Heather J.
Scientists read, and so should students. Unfortunately, many high school teachers overlook science texts as a way to engage students in the work of scientists. This article addresses how to help students develop literacy skills by strategically reading a variety of science texts. Unfortunately, most science teachers aren't trained to teach…
Mascazine, John R.
Presents three biographical sketches of scientists including John Wesley Powell (first to explore the geology of the Grand Canyon), Joseph von Fraunhofer (his work in optics led to the science of spectroscopy), and Gregor Mendel (of Mendelian genetics fame). Other scientists are mentioned along with sources for additional biographical information.…
van Dalen-Oskam, K.H.; van Zundert, Joris J.; Koolen, Corina
Bijdragen scheurkalender Young Scientist Wetenschapskalender 2018. Karina van Dalen-Oskam, Belangrijk woord: Wat is het belangrijkste woord in de Nederlandse taal? In: Young Scientist Wetenschapskalender 2018, 1 september Corina Koolen, Op naar het boekenbal: Hoe wordt je beroemd als schrijver? In:
Dente, Karen M
In today's global world, scientists are increasingly mobile and the traditional view of "brain drain" is being replaced by "brain circulation." Countries such as China and India are tapping into a global pool of science talent attracting not only their own citizens back from abroad but also scientists from the US and Europe.
Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.
As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Project, two studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of Russian and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies have the same five objectives: first, to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communications to their profession; second, to determine the use and production of technical communications by aerospace engineers and scientists; third, to seek their views about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications; fourth, to determine aerospace engineers' and scientists' use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line data bases; and fifth, to determine the use and importance of computer and information technology to them. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to aerospace engineers and scientists at the Central Aero-Hydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI), NASA ARC, and NASA LaRC. The completion rates for the Russian and U.S. surveys were 64 and 61 percent, respectively. The responses of the Russian and U.S. participants, to selected questions, are presented in this report.
Schinske, Jeffrey N.; Perkins, Heather; Snyder, Amanda; Wyer, Mary
Research into science identity, stereotype threat, and possible selves suggests a lack of diverse representations of scientists could impede traditionally underserved students from persisting and succeeding in science. We evaluated a series of metacognitive homework assignments (?Scientist Spotlights?) that featured counterstereotypical examples of scientists in an introductory biology class at a diverse community college. Scientist Spotlights additionally served as tools for content coverage...
Hua, Wen-Yu; Nichols, Thomas E.; Ghosh, Debashis; Initiative, the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging
Recent research in neuroimaging has focused on assessing associations between genetic variants that are measured on a genomewide scale and brain imaging phenotypes. A large number of works in the area apply massively univariate analyses on a genomewide basis to find single nucleotide polymorphisms that influence brain structure. In this paper, we propose using various dimensionality reduction methods on both brain structural MRI scans and genomic data, motivated by the Alzheimer's Disease Neu...
"Research in Natural Historical Value of East Region of Russia and Siberia": a Role of Society of Scientists at the Kazan University in Development of Ethnography in the First Quarter of the XX Century
Tatiana А. Titova
Full Text Available In article on the basis of archival material the role of Society of scientists at Imperial Kazan university in development of ethnography in the first quarter of the XX century as science and a subject matter reveals. The special place is allocated for three expeditions of the students specializing on department of geography and ethnography of physical and mathematical office of Imperial Kazan university, sent to means of Society of scientists to field ethnographic expeditions. S. A. Teploukhov, V. M. Novitsky and V. I. Podgorbunsky under the leadership of outstanding scientific professor Bruno Fridrikhovich Adler studied, comprehended bases of scientific researches, made expeditions and acquired a basis of further career that allowed them to become the talented scientists who made a powerful contribution to development of ethnology, archeology, anthropology and history in the first quarter of the XX century.
Asis Bravo-Rodriguez, Francisco de [Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain). Diagnostic and Therapeutics Neuroradiology; Diaz-Aguilera, Rocio [Alto Guadalquivir Hospital, Andujar, Jaen (Spain). Dept. of Radiology; Hygino da Cruz, Luiz Celso [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). CDPI and IRM Ressonancia Magnetica
Neuroradiology is the branch of radiology that comprises both imaging and invasive procedures related to the brain, spine and spinal cord, head, neck, organs of special sense (eyes, ears, nose), cranial and spinal nerves, and cranial, cervical, and spinal vessels. Special training and skills are required to enable the neuroradiologist to function as an expert diagnostic and therapeutic consultant and practitioner. In addition to knowledge of imaging findings, the neuroradiologist is required to learn the fundamentals of structural and functional neuroanatomy, neuropathology, and neuropathophysiology as well as the clinical manifestations of diseases of the brain, spine and spinal cord, head, neck, and organs of special sense. This book is intended as an introduction to neuroradiology and aims to provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of this highly specialized radiological subspecialty. One hundred illustrated cases from clinical practice are presented in a standard way. Each case is supported by representative images and is divided into three parts: a brief summary of the patient's medical history, a discussion of the disease, and a description of the most characteristic imaging features of the disorder. The focus is not only on common neuroradiological entities such as stroke and acute head trauma but also on less frequent disorders that the practitioner should recognize. Learning Neuroimaging: 100 Essential Cases is an ideal resource for neuroradiology and radiology residents, neurology residents, neurosurgery residents, nurses, radiology technicians, and medical students. (orig.)
"The figures regarding the actual number of Romanian scientists working at the European Center for Nuclear Research, or CERN, differ. The CERN data base lists some 30 Romanians on its payroll, while the scientists with the Nuclear Center at Magurele, Romania, say they should be around 50." (1 page)
Barillot, Christian; Benali, Habib; Dojat, Michel; Gaignard, Alban; Gibaud, Bernard; Kinkingnéhun, Serge; Matsumoto, Jean-Pierre; Pélégrini-Issac, Mélanie; Simon, Eric; Temal, Lynda
The NeuroBase project aims at studying the requirements for federating, through the Internet, information sources in neuroimaging. These sources are distributed in different experimental sites, hospitals or research centers in cognitive neurosciences, and contain heterogeneous data and image processing programs. More precisely, this project consists in creating of a shared ontology, suitable for supporting various neuroimaging applications, and a computer architecture for accessing and sharin...
Full Text Available The research on staging of pre-symptomatic and prodromal phase of neurological disorders, e.g., Alzheimer's disease (AD, is essential for prevention of dementia. New strategies for AD staging with a focus on early detection, are demanded to optimize potential efficacy of disease-modifying therapies that can halt or slow the disease progression. Recently, neuroimaging are increasingly used as additional research-based markers to detect AD onset and predict conversion of MCI and normal control (NC to AD. Researchers have proposed a variety of neuroimaging biomarkers to characterize the patterns of the pathology of AD and MCI, and suggested that multi-view neuroimaging biomarkers could lead to better performance than single-view biomarkers in AD staging. However, it is still unclear what leads to such synergy and how to preserve or maximize. In an attempt to answer these questions, we proposed a cross-view pattern analysis framework for investigating the synergy between different neuroimaging biomarkers. We quantitatively analyzed 9 types of biomarkers derived from FDG-PET and T1-MRI, and evaluated their performance in a task of classifying AD, MCI and NC subjects obtained from the ADNI baseline cohort. The experiment results showed that these biomarkers could depict the pathology of AD from different perspectives, and output distinct patterns that are significantly associated with the disease progression. Most importantly, we found that these features could be separated into clusters, each depicting a particular aspect; and the inter-cluster features could always achieve better performance than the intra-cluster features in AD staging.
NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report No. 36: The Technical Communications Practices of US Aerospace Engineers and Scientists: Results of the Phase 1 NASA Langley Research Center Mail Survey
Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.
The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the technical communications practices of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who were assigned to the Research and Technology Group (RTG) at the NASA Langley Research Center in September 1995.
Dijkstra, Anne M.; Roefs, Maaike M.; Drossaert, Constance H.C.
Scientists’ participation in science communication and public engagement activities is considered important and a duty. However, in particular, the science-media relationship has not been studied frequently. In this paper, we present findings from interviews with both scientists and journalists
Southward, 55, will takeover next May as the European Space Agency's science director. He will need to balance the aspirations of scientist from the organisations 15 member states with calls to tie the agency more closely to the business and security industries (1 page).
Zink, Caroline F; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas
The neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin have increasingly been identified as modulators of human social behaviors and associated with neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by social dysfunction, such as autism. Identifying the human brain regions that are impacted by oxytocin and vasopressin in a social context is essential to fully characterize the role of oxytocin and vasopressin in complex human social cognition. Advances in human non-invasive neuroimaging techniques and genetics have enabled scientists to begin to elucidate the neurobiological basis of the influence of oxytocin and vasopressin on human social behaviors. Here we review the findings to-date from investigations of the acute and chronic effects of oxytocin and vasopressin on neural activity underlying social cognitive processes using “pharmacological fMRI” and “imaging genetics”, respectively. PMID:22326707
British scientists are preparing to build the next generation internet - 'The Grid'. The government is expected to announce about 100 million pounds of funding for the project, to be done in collaboration with CERN (1/2 p).
Article denouncing the supposed impartiality of signatories of a report released by the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS), which accused the Bush administration of systemically suborning objective science to a political agenda (1 page).
A great deal of professional advice directed at undergraduates, graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and even early-career scientists focuses on technical skills necessary to succeed in a complex...
Bedrina, Tatiana; Parodi, Antonio; Quarati, Alfonso; Clematis, Andrea
The growing interest towards hydro-meteorological information (e.g. forecasts and actual weather conditions) shown by citizen-scientists and increasing affordability of automated weather stations foster the development of volunteers' weather networks. The citizen-scientists weather data collections often are shared online. In some cases, for example during meteorological extreme events, such semi-professional weather networks can provide an unprecedented amount of weather observations in addition to official weather networks data. These observational data are usually provided in real time, registered with some minute frequency and data collections encompass the spatial spreading and temporal continuity. Therefore, these datasets may be extremely valuable in areas with complex orography and reduced covering by institutional weather sensors. The significant obstacles in operating of citizen-scientists weather observations are the lack of well-established aggregation mechanism for data produced by various weather networks according to different data encoding, schemes and formats. Usually, large quantity and complexity of datasets requires the innovative approaches in data collections processing. This paper describes the designing of an application addressing the collection and integration of Hydro-Meteorological (HM) datasets, provided by citizen-scientists. The application is based on the mashup approach that allows combining different sources with similar type of information and designing new data representation. This approach suits the HM community requirements for geospatial data operating, including aggregation of different type of information spread online. The integration of different datasets urges for standards data representation. The OGC consortium developed internationally recognized standards for geospatial data. These standards include interfaces and encoding schemes. In this paper OGC standards were applied to citizen-scientists weather observations, to
Shatil, Anwar S; Younas, Sohail; Pourreza, Hossein; Figley, Chase R
With larger data sets and more sophisticated analyses, it is becoming increasingly common for neuroimaging researchers to push (or exceed) the limitations of standalone computer workstations. Nonetheless, although high-performance computing platforms such as clusters, grids and clouds are already in routine use by a small handful of neuroimaging researchers to increase their storage and/or computational power, the adoption of such resources by the broader neuroimaging community remains relatively uncommon. Therefore, the goal of the current manuscript is to: 1) inform prospective users about the similarities and differences between computing clusters, grids and clouds; 2) highlight their main advantages; 3) discuss when it may (and may not) be advisable to use them; 4) review some of their potential problems and barriers to access; and finally 5) give a few practical suggestions for how interested new users can start analyzing their neuroimaging data using cloud resources. Although the aim of cloud computing is to hide most of the complexity of the infrastructure management from end-users, we recognize that this can still be an intimidating area for cognitive neuroscientists, psychologists, neurologists, radiologists, and other neuroimaging researchers lacking a strong computational background. Therefore, with this in mind, we have aimed to provide a basic introduction to cloud computing in general (including some of the basic terminology, computer architectures, infrastructure and service models, etc.), a practical overview of the benefits and drawbacks, and a specific focus on how cloud resources can be used for various neuroimaging applications.
Uduak E Williams
Full Text Available Dementia is a syndrome of progressive dysfunction of two or more cognitive domains associated with impairment of activities of daily living. An understanding of the pathophysiology of dementia and its early diagnosis is important in the pursuit of possible disease modifying therapy for dementia. Neuroimaging has greatly transformed this field of research as its function has changed from a mere tool for diagnosing treatable causes of dementia to an instrument for pre-symptomatic diagnosis of dementia. This review focuses on the diagnostic utility of neuroimaging in the management of progressive dementias. Structural imaging techniques like computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging highlights the anatomical, structural and volumetric details of the brain; while functional imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography, arterial spin labeling, single photon emission computerized tomography and blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging focuses on chemistry, circulatory status and physiology of the different brain structures and regions.
Hua, Wen-Yu; Nichols, Thomas E; Ghosh, Debashis
Recent research in neuroimaging has focused on assessing associations between genetic variants that are measured on a genomewide scale and brain imaging phenotypes. A large number of works in the area apply massively univariate analyses on a genomewide basis to find single nucleotide polymorphisms that influence brain structure. In this paper, we propose using various dimensionality reduction methods on both brain structural MRI scans and genomic data, motivated by the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) study. We also consider a new multiple testing adjustment method and compare it with two existing false discovery rate (FDR) adjustment methods. The simulation results suggest an increase in power for the proposed method. The real-data analysis suggests that the proposed procedure is able to find associations between genetic variants and brain volume differences that offer potentially new biological insights. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Operto, Grégory; Chupin, Marie; Batrancourt, Bénédicte; Habert, Marie-Odile; Colliot, Olivier; Benali, Habib; Poupon, Cyril; Champseix, Catherine; Delmaire, Christine; Marie, Sullivan; Rivière, Denis; Pélégrini-Issac, Mélanie; Perlbarg, Vincent; Trebossen, Régine; Bottlaender, Michel; Frouin, Vincent; Grigis, Antoine; Orfanos, Dimitri Papadopoulos; Dary, Hugo; Fillon, Ludovic; Azouani, Chabha; Bouyahia, Ali; Fischer, Clara; Edward, Lydie; Bouin, Mathilde; Thoprakarn, Urielle; Li, Jinpeng; Makkaoui, Leila; Poret, Sylvain; Dufouil, Carole; Bouteloup, Vincent; Chételat, Gaël; Dubois, Bruno; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Mangin, Jean-François; Cointepas, Yann
This paper provides an overview of CATI, a platform dedicated to multicenter neuroimaging. Initiated by the French Alzheimer's plan (2008-2012), CATI is a research project called on to provide service to other projects like an industrial partner. Its core mission is to support the neuroimaging of large populations, providing concrete solutions to the increasing complexity involved in such projects by bringing together a service infrastructure, the know-how of its expert academic teams and a large-scale, harmonized network of imaging facilities. CATI aims to make data sharing across studies easier and promotes sharing as much as possible. In the last 4 years, CATI has assisted the clinical community by taking charge of 35 projects so far and has emerged as a recognized actor at the national and international levels.
Lei, Tianhu; Dell, John; Magee, Ralphy; Roberts, Timothy P. L.
Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a multi-channel, functional imaging technique. It measures the magnetic field produced by the primary electric currents inside the brain via a sensor array composed of a large number of superconducting quantum interference devices. The measurements are then used to estimate the locations, strengths, and orientations of these electric currents. This magnetic source imaging technique encompasses a great variety of signal processing and modeling techniques which include Inverse problem, MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC), Beamforming (BF), and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) method. A key problem with Inverse problem, MUSIC and ICA methods is that the number of sources must be detected a priori. Although BF method scans the source space on a point-to-point basis, the selection of peaks as sources, however, is finally made by subjective thresholding. In practice expert data analysts often select results based on physiological plausibility. This paper presents an eigenstructure approach for the source number detection in MEG neuroimaging. By sorting eigenvalues of the estimated covariance matrix of the acquired MEG data, the measured data space is partitioned into the signal and noise subspaces. The partition is implemented by utilizing information theoretic criteria. The order of the signal subspace gives an estimate of the number of sources. The approach does not refer to any model or hypothesis, hence, is an entirely data-led operation. It possesses clear physical interpretation and efficient computation procedure. The theoretical derivation of this method and the results obtained by using the real MEG data are included to demonstrates their agreement and the promise of the proposed approach.
Bossé, Dominick; Milger, Katrin; Morty, Rory E
Clinician-scientists are particularly well positioned to bring basic science findings to the patient's bedside; the ultimate objective of basic research in the health sciences. Concerns have recently been raised about the decreasing workforce of clinician-scientists in both the United States of America and in Canada; however, little is known about clinician-scientists elsewhere around the globe. The purpose of this article is two-fold: 1) to feature clinician-scientist training in Germany; and 2) to provide a comparison with the Canadian system. In a question/answer interview, Rory E. Morty, director of a leading clinician-scientist training program in Germany, and Katrin Milger, a physician and graduate from that program, draw a picture of clinician-scientist training and career opportunities in Germany, outlining the place of clinician-scientists in the German medical system, the advantages and drawbacks of this training, and government initiatives to promote training and career development of clinician-scientists. The interview is followed by a discussion comparing the German and Canadian clinician-scientist development programs, focusing on barriers to trainee recruitment and career progress, and efforts to eliminate the barriers encountered along this very demanding but also very rewarding career path.
Full Text Available Human deep sleep is characterized by reduced or absent sensory activity, responsiveness to stimuli and conscious awareness. Given its ubiquity and reversible nature, it represents an attractive paradigm to study the neural changes which accompany the loss of consciousness in humans. In particular, the deepest stages of sleep can serve as an empirical test for the predictions of theoretical models relating the phenomenology of consciousness with underlying neural activity. A relatively recent shift of attention from the analysis of evoked responses towards spontaneous (or ``resting state'' activity has taken place in the neuroimaging community, together with the development of tools suitable to study distributed functional interactions. In this review we focus on recent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI studies of spontaneous activity during sleep and their relationship with theoretical models for human consciousness generation, considering the global workspace theory, the information integration theory and the dynamical core hypothesis. We discuss the venues of research opened by these results, emphasizing the need to extend the analytic methodology in order to obtain a dynamical picture of how functional interactions change over time and how their evolution is modulated during different conscious states. Finally, we discuss the need to experimentally establish absent or reduced conscious content, even when studying the deepest sleep stages.
Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Behrens, Marion; Laufs, Helmut
Human deep sleep is characterized by reduced sensory activity, responsiveness to stimuli, and conscious awareness. Given its ubiquity and reversible nature, it represents an attractive paradigm to study the neural changes which accompany the loss of consciousness in humans. In particular, the deepest stages of sleep can serve as an empirical test for the predictions of theoretical models relating the phenomenology of consciousness with underlying neural activity. A relatively recent shift of attention from the analysis of evoked responses toward spontaneous (or "resting state") activity has taken place in the neuroimaging community, together with the development of tools suitable to study distributed functional interactions. In this review we focus on recent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies of spontaneous activity during sleep and their relationship with theoretical models for human consciousness generation, considering the global workspace theory, the information integration theory, and the dynamical core hypothesis. We discuss the venues of research opened by these results, emphasizing the need to extend the analytic methodology in order to obtain a dynamical picture of how functional interactions change over time and how their evolution is modulated during different conscious states. Finally, we discuss the need to experimentally establish absent or reduced conscious content, even when studying the deepest sleep stages.
Greco, John A; Liberzon, Israel
Fear conditioning has been commonly used as a model of emotional learning in animals and, with the introduction of functional neuroimaging techniques, has proven useful in establishing the neurocircuitry of emotional learning in humans. Studies of fear acquisition suggest that regions such as amygdala, insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and hippocampus play an important role in acquisition of fear, whereas studies of fear extinction suggest that the amygdala is also crucial for safety learning. Extinction retention testing points to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex as an essential region in the recall of the safety trace, and explicit learning of fear and safety associations recruits additional cortical and subcortical regions. Importantly, many of these findings have implications in our understanding of the pathophysiology of psychiatric disease. Recent studies using clinical populations have lent insight into the changes in regional activity in specific disorders, and treatment studies have shown how pharmaceutical and other therapeutic interventions modulate brain activation during emotional learning. Finally, research investigating individual differences in neurotransmitter receptor genotypes has highlighted the contribution of these systems in fear-associated learning. PMID:26294108
Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Guillamon, Antonio
The current review gives an overview of brain studies in transgender people. First, we describe studies into the aetiology of feelings of gender incongruence, primarily addressing the sexual differentiation hypothesis: does the brain of transgender individuals resemble that of their natal sex, or that of their experienced gender? Findings from neuroimaging studies focusing on brain structure suggest that the brain phenotypes of trans women (MtF) and trans men (FtM) differ in various ways from control men and women with feminine, masculine, demasculinized and defeminized features. The brain phenotypes of people with feelings of gender incongruence may help us to figure out whether sex differentiation of the brain is atypical in these individuals, and shed light on gender identity development. Task-related imaging studies may show whether brain activation and task performance in transgender people is sex-atypical. Second, we review studies that evaluate the effects of cross-sex hormone treatment on the brain. This type of research provides knowledge on how changes in sex hormone levels may affect brain structure and function.
10 September 2013 - Italian Minister for Economic Development F. Zanonato visiting the ATLAS cavern with Collaboration Spokesperson D. Charlton and Italian scientists F. Gianotti and A. Di Ciaccio; signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer and Director for Research and Scientific Computing S. Bertolucci; in the LHC tunnel with S. Bertolucci, Technology Deputy Department Head L. Rossi and Engineering Department Head R. Saban; visiting CMS cavern with Scientists G. Rolandi and P. Checchia.
10 September 2013 - Italian Minister for Economic Development F. Zanonato visiting the ATLAS cavern with Collaboration Spokesperson D. Charlton and Italian scientists F. Gianotti and A. Di Ciaccio; signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer and Director for Research and Scientific Computing S. Bertolucci; in the LHC tunnel with S. Bertolucci, Technology Deputy Department Head L. Rossi and Engineering Department Head R. Saban; visiting CMS cavern with Scientists G. Rolandi and P. Checchia.
... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166957.html Scientists Spot Genes Behind Crohn's, Ulcerative Colitis Large study finds key ... Researchers say they've come closer to pinpointing genes linked with inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's ...
Full Text Available ... Vision Research & Ophthalmology (DIVRO) Student Training Programs To search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home > NEI for Kids > Ask a Scientist Video Series All About Vision About the Eye ...
... Vision Research & Ophthalmology (DIVRO) Student Training Programs To search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home > NEI for Kids > Ask a Scientist Video Series All About Vision About the Eye ...
between neuroimaging investigations on human fear conditioning and extinction and should, therefore, be taken into serious consideration in the planning and the interpretation of research projects.
Tides, Krill, Penguins, Oh My!: Scientists and Teachers Partner in Project CONVERGE to Bring Collaborative Antarctic Research, Authentic Data, and Scientific Inquiry into the Hands of NJ and NY Students
Hunter-thomson, K. I.; Kohut, J. T.; Florio, K.; McDonnell, J. D.; Ferraro, C.; Clark, H.; Gardner, K.; Oliver, M. J.
How do you get middle and high school students excited about scientific inquiry? Have them join a collaborative research team in Antarctica! A comprehensive education program brought ocean science, marine ecology, and climate change impact research to more than 950 students in 2014-15 to increase their exposure to and excitement of current research. The program was integrated into a collaborative research project, involving five universities, that worked to characterize the connection between ocean circulation, plankton distribution, penguin foraging behavior, and climate change around Palmer Station, Antarctica. The scientists and education team co-led a weeklong workshop to expose 22 teachers to the research science, build relationships among the teachers and scientists, and refine the program to most effectively communicate the research to their students. In the fall, teachers taught NGSS-aligned, hands-on, data-focused classroom lessons to provide their students the necessary content to understand the project hypotheses using multiple science practices. Through a professional science blog and live video calls from Antarctica, students followed and discussed the science teams work while they were in the field. To apply the science practices the students had learned about, they designed, conducted, and analyzed their own ocean-related, inquiry-based research investigation as the culminating component of the program (results were presented at a Student Research Symposium attended by the science team). Of their own choosing, roughly half of the students used raw data from the CONVERGE research (including krill, CODAR, penguin, and glider data) for their investigations. This presentation will focus on the evaluation results of the education program to identify the aspects that successfully engaged teachers and students with scientific inquiry, science practices, and authentic data as well as the replicability of this integrated scientist-teacher partnership and
Kuchner, Marc J
It's a tough time to be a scientist: universities are shutting science departments, funding organisations are facing flat budgets, and many newspapers have dropped their science sections altogether. But according to Marc Kuchner, this anti-science climate doesn't have to equal a career death knell - it just means scientists have to be savvier about promoting their work and themselves. In "Marketing for Scientists", he provides clear, detailed advice about how to land a good job, win funding, and shape the public debate. As an astrophysicist at NASA, Kuchner knows that "marketing" can seem like a superficial distraction, whether your daily work is searching for new planets or seeking a cure for cancer. In fact, he argues, it's a critical component of the modern scientific endeavour, not only advancing personal careers but also society's knowledge. Kuchner approaches marketing as a science in itself. He translates theories about human interaction and sense of self into methods for building relationships - one o...
EPA Senior Research Scientist Dr. Richard Zepp's research interests include nanomaterials transformation in the environment, keeping recreational waters safe, and how climate change might affect ecosystems.
Song, Jinwoong; Kim, Kwang-Suk
Describes an investigation of five aspects of Korean students' images of scientists: (1) mental image; (2) physical image; (3) source of image; (4) "scientists around us;" and (5) "my favorite scientist." Finds that Korean students' stereotypical views of scientists were influenced more by affective and ethical personal…
Greer, Sandra C
This book offers the first comprehensive guide to ethics for physical scientists and engineers who conduct research. Written by a distinguished professor of chemistry and chemical engineering, the book focuses on the everyday decisions about right and wrong faced by scientists as they do research, interact with other people, and work within society. The goal is to nurture readers’ ethical intelligence so that they know an ethical issue when they see one, and to give them a way to think about ethical problems. After introductions to the philosophy of ethics and the philosophy of science, the book discusses research integrity, with a unique emphasis on how scientists make mistakes and how they can avoid them. It goes on to cover personal interactions among scientists, including authorship, collaborators, predecessors, reviewers, grantees, mentors, and whistle-blowers. It considers underrepresented groups in science as an ethical issue that matters not only to those groups but also to the development of scien...
In this article, the author describes how he brings scientists to life when he visits schools. Having retired from teaching Drama and Theatre Studies in Liverpool for more than thirty years, the author set up his one-man Theatre-in-Education company, Blindseer Productions, and now takes his portrayals of Darwin, Galileo and Einstein to schools…
Although students do need hands-on experiences to master key skills in science, technology, and engineering, Cummins asserts, K-12 teachers should also help students understand key STEM concepts by reading, writing, and talking about the work of professional scientists and engineers. Cummins lists high-quality texts that help young people…
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 23; Issue 1. Comment: Michael Polanyi, the Scientist. John Polanyi. Article-in-a-Box Volume 23 Issue 1 January 2018 pp 15-19. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/023/01/0015-0019. Abstract ...
purposefulness he infused, contagious enthusiasm and inspira- tion he transmitted and the deep concern and love for people he showed made a strong impact on his close colleagues and the institutions he built. Bruno Russi, the celebrated scientist from. MIT with whom Sarabhai collaborated, very aptly summed up.
Korthals, M.J.J.A.A.; Bogers, R.J.
In this book we begin with two contributions on the ethical issues of working in organizations. A fruitful side effect of this start is that it gives a good insight into business ethics, a branch of applied ethics that until now is far ahead of ethics for life scientists. In the second part, ethics
Although not all teachers can invite scientists into classrooms on a regular basis, they can invite them into their students' worlds through literature. Here the author shares how she used the nonfiction selection, "Science to the Rescue" (Markle 1994), as an opportunity for students to investigate socially significant problems and empower them to…
Skaar Jacobsen, Anja
While giving a lecture on electricity, electrochemistry and magnetism in the spring of 1820, the Danish scientist Hans Christian Ørsted noticed something remarkable: the magnetic needle he was using for one of his demonstrations was deflected by an electric current in a nearby wire.
Pinelli, Thomas E.; Holloway, Karen; Sato, Yuko; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.
To understand the diffusion of aerospace knowledge, it is necessary to understand the communications practices and the information-seeking behaviors of those involved in the production, transfer, and use of aerospace knowledge at the individual, organizational, national, and international levels. In this paper, we report selected results from a survey of Japanese and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists that focused on communications practices and information-seeking behaviors in the workplace. Data are presented for the following topics: importance of and time spent communicating information, collaborative writing, need for an undergraduate course in technical communications, use of libraries, the use and importance of electronic (computer) networks, and the use and importance of foreign and domestically produced technical reports. The responses of the survey respondents are placed within the context of the Japanese culture. We assume that differences in Japanese and U.S. cultures influence the communications practices and information-seeking behaviors of Japanese and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists.
Neuroimaging studies of Turner syndrome can advance our understanding of the X chromosome in brain development, and the modulatory influence of endocrine factors. There is increasing evidence from neuroimaging studies that TX individuals have significant differences in the anatomy, function, and metabolism of a number of brain regions; including the parietal lobe; cerebellum, amygdala, hippocampus; and basal ganglia; and perhaps differences in "connectivity" between frontal and parieto-occipital regions. Finally, there is preliminary evidence that genomic imprinting, sex hormones and growth hormone have significant modulatory effects on brain maturation in TS.
Downes, Angela; Pouratian, Nader
Deep brain stimulation an effective treatment of many neurologic conditions such as Parkinson disease, essential tremor, dystonia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Structural and functional neuroimaging studies provide the opportunity to visualize the dysfunctional nodes and networks underlying neurologic and psychiatric disease, and to thereby realize new targets for neuromodulation as well as personalize current therapy. This article reviews contemporary advances in neuroimaging in the basic sciences and how they can be applied to redirect and propel functional neurosurgery toward a goal of functional localization of targets with individualized maps and identification of novel targets for other neuropsychiatric diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Breeze Janis L
Full Text Available Abstract There is growing recognition of the importance of data sharing in the neurosciences, and in particular in the field of neuroimaging research, in order to best make use of the volumes of human subject data that have been acquired to date. However, a number of barriers, both practical and cultural, continue to impede the widespread practice of data sharing; these include: lack of standard infrastructure and tools for data sharing, uncertainty about how to organize and prepare the data for sharing, and researchers’ fears about unattributed data use or missed opportunities for publication. A further challenge is how the scientific community should best describe and/or reference shared data that is used in secondary analyses. Finally, issues of human research subject protections and the ethical use of such data are an ongoing source of concern for neuroimaging researchers. One crucial issue is how producers of shared data can and should be acknowledged and how this important component of science will benefit individuals in their academic careers. While we encourage the field to make use of these opportunities for data publishing, it is critical that standards for metadata, provenance, and other descriptors are used. This commentary outlines the efforts of the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility Task Force on Neuroimaging Datasharing to coordinate and establish such standards, as well as potential ways forward to relieve the issues that researchers who produce these massive, reusable community resources face when making the data rapidly and freely available to the public. Both the technical and human aspects of data sharing must be addressed if we are to go forward.
Sexual harassment within the marine sciences and the ethical dilemmas of collaboration: a case study in the education and reportino methods available to scientists, students, and staff on board a federal research vessel
Within the Science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) disciplines, a disparity between male and female involvement persists on the order of about 3:1. While roughly 40% of men with STEM degrees go on to pursue STEM jobs, just 26% of women with STEM degrees hold jobs within the STEM field. There are a number of contributing factors to these disparities, but one pernicious factor is the issue of sexual harassment and discrimination. For the marine sciences this is an especially concerning issue because our field research frequently takes place hundreds of miles offshore. Despite education and policy initiatives, sexual harassment pervades many research vessels and is often never addressed, discouraging female involvement and limiting the opportunities available to women. Ethical dilemmas develop when administrators do not want to risk limited field schedules and funding while investigations are conducted and harassment issues resolved. Additionally, scientists and staff often collaborate between institutions, benefitting science but blurring the lines of responsibility. In one such case, administrators within a federal research office declined to report sexual harassment taking place between contracted crew members on their research vessel. The lengthy review process and lack of culpability discourages reporting of sexual harassment and allows problematic situations to occur. This case study reviews the reporting mechanisms currently in place, the barriers to reporting, and the proposed methods for more effectively resolving discriminatory workplaces. Collaboration within marine science is an absolute necessity, and our research benefits from diverse working groups. As marine scientists we have an ethical responsibility to ensure safe working environments for both the scientists and the staff who make our research possible.
This study aimed to investigate how a poster study focusing on the biographies of today's scientists affected 8th graders' scientist images. The study utilized a mixed model which combined qualitative and quantitative research techniques. 142 8th graders from a secondary school in Ankara Province Keçiören District participated in the study.…
Recent studies suggest that there will be a shortfall in the near future of skilled talent available to help take advantage of big data in organizations. Meanwhile, government initiatives have encouraged the research community to share their data more openly, raising new challenges for researchers. Librarians can assist in this new data-driven environment. Data Scientist Training for Librarians (or Data Savvy Librarians) is an experimental course being offered by the Harvard Library to train librarians to respond to the growing data needs of their communities. In the course, librarians familiarize themselves with the research data lifecycle, working hands-on with the latest tools for extracting, wrangling, storing, analyzing, and visualizing data. By experiencing the research data lifecycle themselves, and becoming data savvy and embracing the data science culture, librarians can begin to imagine how their services might be transformed.
Mohammad S. I. Mullick
Full Text Available Background: Childhood autism is now widely viewed as being of developmental neurological origin. Abnormality in neuroimaging is reported in autism.Objectives: To delineate the proportion of structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and electro encephalography (EEG abnormality among the children with Autism and to assess any association of MRI and EEG changes with co morbid mental illness.Methods: It was a cross sectional descriptive study done at a child and adolescent consultation centre, Dhaka. The study was Carried out from January 2009 to December 2009. Both boys and girls were included in the study. A total of 42 children with childhood autism aged between two and 12 years participated in this study. Diagnosis of autism was based on ICD-10(DCR criteria. Results: Abnormalities were found to be 35.7% in MRI and 42.9% in EEG. EEG abnormalities were found in the form of defuse slow waves activities, generalized faster activities, epileptogenic discharge and mixed discharge. The abnormalities in MRI was found in the form of diffuse cortical atrophic changes, focal cortical atrophy in frontal and temporal cortex with widening of major sulci, prominent ventricles, periventricular degeneration and abnormal basal ganglia. EEG changes were significantly associated with increased number of co-morbid illness (mental retardation, epilepsy and others. Conclusion: A number of abnom1alities that observed in the present study indicative of relations between structural and physiological dysfunctions and childhood autism. Further exploratory and in-depth researches are certainly required in this field. Intervention of autism needs to address co morbidities for better outcome.
This review summarises the findings and applications from neuroimaging studies in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), highlighting key differences between DLB and other subtypes of dementia. We also discuss the increasingly important role of imaging biomarkers in differential diagnosis and outline promising areas for future research in DLB. DLB shares common clinical, neuropsychological and pathological features with Parkinson’s disease dementia and other dementia subtypes, such as Alzheimer’s disease. Despite the development of consensus diagnostic criteria, the sensitivity for differential diagnosis of DLB in clinical practice remains low and many DLB patients will be misdiagnosed. The importance of developing accurate imaging markers in dementia is highlighted by the potential for treatments targeting specific molecular abnormalities as well as the responsiveness to cholinesterase inhibitors and marked neuroleptic sensitivity of DLB. We review various brain imaging techniques that have been applied to investigate DLB, including the characteristic nigrostriatal degeneration in DLB using positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) tracers. Dopamine transporter loss has proven to reliably differentiate DLB from other dementias and has been incorporated into the revised clinical diagnostic criteria for DLB. To date, this remains the 'gold standard' for diagnostic imaging of DLB. Regional cerebral blood flow, 18 F-fluorodeoxygluclose-PET and SPECT have also identified marked deficits in the occipital regions with relative sparing of the medial temporal lobe when compared to Alzheimer’s disease. In addition, structural, diffusion, and functional magnetic resonance imaging techniques have shown alterations in structure, white matter integrity, and functional activity in DLB. We argue that the multimodal identification of DLB-specific biomarkers has the potential to improve ante-mortem diagnosis and contribute to our
This lively history of the development of science and its relationship to society combines vivid biographies of twelve pivotal scientists, commentary on the social and historical events of their time, and over four hundred illustrations, including many in color. The biographies span from classical times to the Atomic Age, covering Aristotle, Galileo, Harvey, Newton, Lavoisier, Humboldt, Faraday, Darwin, Pasteur, Curie, Freud, and Einstein. Through the biographies and a wealth of other material, the volume reveals how social forces have influenced the course of science. Along with the highly informative color illustrations, it contains much archival material never before published, ranging from medieval woodcuts, etchings from Renaissance anatomy texts, and pages from Harvey's journal, to modern false-color x-rays and infrared photographs of solar flares. A beautifully-designed, fact-filled, stimulating work, The Great Scientists will fascinate anyone with an interest in science and how history can influence scientific discovery.
Andersen, Hanne Moeller; Krogh, Lars Brian; Lykkegaard, Eva
Students' images of science and scientists are generally assumed to influence their related subject choices and aspirations for tertiary education within science and technology. Several research studies have shown that many young people hold rather stereotypical images of scientists, making it hard for them to see themselves as future scientists.…
The culture of the national environment in which an organization operates affects the management process through the collective mental programming of its members, its managers, and the management scientists who offer their theories. Four dimensions of national culture differences have been found. Among other things, they affect the implicit models in people's minds of what the act of organizing means. Among the pioneers in management science around 1900, differences along these dimensions are...
Dahn, I.; Christmann, A
Electronic portfolios (ePortfolios) are electronic versions of paper based portfolios. They are increasingly applied in education. Software for building and maintaining ePortfolios is emerging; open specifications for the exchange of ePortfolios exist. They show the potential to serve as a standard tool for documenting achievements in lifelong learning. In this paper we explore the potential of ePortfolios for scientists.
Jun 30, 2016 ... Dr Samuel Mannikam, Dr Thandi Buthelezi, Dr Philip Janse van Rensburg and Dr Ian. Haynes, however, the prize of R2000 was awarded to Dr Richard Busayo Ulatunji for the most inclusive answer. Answer and discussion paediatric neuroimaging quiz case. Read online: Scan this QR code with your.
Nielsen, Finn Årup; Kempton, Matthew J.; Williams, Steven C. R.
We describe a system for meta-analysis where a wiki stores numerical data in a simple format and a web service performs the numerical computation. We initially apply the system on multiple meta-analyses of structural neuroimaging data results. The described system allows for mass meta-analysis, e...
Background:Autism is currently viewed as a genetically determined neurode- velopmental disorder although its definite underlying etiology remains to be established. Aim of the Study: Our purpose was to assess autism related morphological neuroimaging changes of the brain and EEG abnormalities in correlation to the.
Alexiou, George A. [University of Ioannina, Department of Neurosurgery, Medical School, P.O. Box 103, Ioannina (Greece); Argyropoulou, Maria I. [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece)
Headache is a common complaint in children, one that gives rise to considerable parental concern and fear of the presence of a space-occupying lesion. The evaluation and diagnosis of headache is very challenging for paediatricians, and neuroimaging by means of CT or MRI is often requested as part of the investigation. CT exposes children to radiation, while MRI is costly and sometimes requires sedation or general anaesthesia, especially in children younger than 6 years. This review of the literature on the value of neuroimaging in children with headache showed that the rate of pathological findings is generally low. Imaging findings that led to a change in patient management were in almost all cases reported in children with abnormal signs on neurological examination. Neuroimaging should be limited to children with a suspicious clinical history, abnormal neurological findings or other physical signs suggestive of intracranial pathology. Well-designed prospective studies are needed to better define the clinical findings that warrant neuroimaging in children with headache. (orig.)
Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Munk, Ole Lajord; Landau, Anne M.
Pigs are useful models in neuroimaging studies with positron emission tomography. Radiolabeled ligands are injected intravenously at the start of the scan and in pigs, the most easily accessible route of administration is the ear vein. However, in brain studies the short distance between the brai...
Norman, Andria L.; Crocker, Nicole; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.
The detrimental effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developing brain include structural brain anomalies as well as cognitive and behavioral deficits. Initial neuroimaging studies of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed previous autopsy reports of overall reduction in brain volume and…
Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup; Schmah, Tanya; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard
Classification models are becoming increasing popular tools in the analysis of neuroimaging data sets. Besides obtaining good prediction accuracy, a competing goal is to interpret how the classifier works. From a neuroscientific perspective, we are interested in the brain pattern reflecting...... the underlying neural encoding of an experiment defining multiple brain states. In this relation there is a great desire for the researcher to generate brain maps, that highlight brain locations of importance to the classifiers decisions. Based on sensitivity analysis, we develop further procedures for model...
Ambati, Balamurali K; Cahoon, Judd
Clinician-scientists are becoming increasingly rare in medicine as a whole, but especially in ophthalmology. There is a structural gap between MD-PhD training and K-series awards where interested candidates go through residency and fellowship without any structured research exposure or involvement. Furthermore, the success rate of the MD-PhD and K awards leaves much to be desired. The authors propose a redeployment of training resources to reconfigure residency and fellowship training programs for interested candidates with sufficient additional time for a credible research project, augmented salary, and sound mentoring. Opportunities for research training in nontraditional pathways to diversify skill sets and build interdisciplinary teams also would be a prime objective of this novel "Learn-and-Earn" approach.
Satrajit S. Ghosh
Full Text Available Reproducible research is a key element of the scientific process. Re-executability of neuroimaging workflows that lead to the conclusions arrived at in the literature has not yet been sufficiently addressed and adopted by the neuroimaging community. In this paper, we document a set of procedures, which include supplemental additions to a manuscript, that unambiguously define the data, workflow, execution environment and results of a neuroimaging analysis, in order to generate a verifiable re-executable publication. Re-executability provides a starting point for examination of the generalizability and reproducibility of a given finding.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuroimaging researchers have developed rigorous community data and metadata standards that encourage meta-analysis as a method for establishing robust and meaningful convergence of knowledge of human brain structure and function. Capitalizing on these standards, the BrainMap project offers databases, software applications, and other associated tools for supporting and promoting quantitative coordinate-based meta-analysis of the structural and functional neuroimaging literature. Findings In this report, we describe recent technical updates to the project and provide an educational description for performing meta-analyses in the BrainMap environment. Conclusions The BrainMap project will continue to evolve in response to the meta-analytic needs of biomedical researchers in the structural and functional neuroimaging communities. Future work on the BrainMap project regarding software and hardware advances are also discussed.
Charlevoix, D. J.; Tessendorf, S. A.; Mackaro, J.
The GLOBE Program invites scientists in all areas of Earth System Science to work with students and teachers around the work on exploring local scientific problems. GLOBE has a rich history of connecting scientists with schools around the world around issues of environmental and relevance. GLOBE is an international science and education program working with students, teachers and scientists in over 110 countries around the world. GLOBE has initiated a focus on climate science during the next two years and we are especially interested in connecting scientists with teachers and students in geographic and disciplinary areas of interest to climate scientists. In addition, GLOBE is revitalizing the technology support for science and communications which will provide an easy mechanism for scientists to connect with GLOBE schools. GLOBE is based on spheres of the Earth system with five investigation areas: Atmosphere, Hydrology, Soils, Land Cover / Biology, and Phenology. Classroom learning activities for each area help guide students in the classroom. Scientific protocols for data collection designed by scientists provide guidance for students to collect scientifically valid, high-quality data that can be used by professional scientists. The GLOBE Student Climate Research Campaign aims to develop a framework for robust scientist participation in the program whereby scientists and GLOBE schools with mutual science interest can connect and develop collaborations. Scientist participation ranges from mentoring students on science investigations to working collaborative on local climate science research problems. Scientists interested in working with GLOBE are encouraged to participate in whatever level of engagement is appropriate to compliment their research program and professional goals. Scientists will become a part of the GLOBE International Scientist Network, which may provide entrée into other avenues of research and funding. The GLOBE Program office, headquartered
Saygitov, Ruslan T
The impact of grants on research productivity has been investigated by a number of retrospective studies. The results of these studies vary considerably. The objective of my study was to investigate the impact of funding through the RF President's grants for young scientists on the research productivity of awarded applicants. The study compared the number of total articles and citations for awarded and rejected applicants who in 2007 took part in competitions for young candidates of science (CoS's) and doctors of science (DoS's) in the scientific field of medicine. The bibliometric analysis was conducted for the period from 2003 to 2012 (five years before and after the competition). The source of bibliometric data is the eLIBRARY.RU database. The impact of grants on the research productivity of Russian young scientists was assessed using the meta-analytical approach based on data from quasi-experimental studies conducted in other countries. The competition featured 149 CoS's and 41 DoS's, out of which 24 (16%) and 22 (54%) applicants, respectively, obtained funding. No difference in the number of total articles and citations at baseline, as well as in 2008-2012, for awarded and rejected applicants was found. The combination of data from the Russian study and other quasi-experimental studies (6 studies, 10 competitions) revealed a small treatment effect--an increase in the total number of publications over a 4-5-year period after the competition by 1.23 (95% CI 0.48-1.97). However, the relationship between the number of total publications published by applicants before and after the competition revealed that this treatment effect is an effect of the "maturation" of scientists with a high baseline publication activity--not of grant funding.
Ruslan T Saygitov
Full Text Available The impact of grants on research productivity has been investigated by a number of retrospective studies. The results of these studies vary considerably. The objective of my study was to investigate the impact of funding through the RF President's grants for young scientists on the research productivity of awarded applicants. The study compared the number of total articles and citations for awarded and rejected applicants who in 2007 took part in competitions for young candidates of science (CoS's and doctors of science (DoS's in the scientific field of medicine. The bibliometric analysis was conducted for the period from 2003 to 2012 (five years before and after the competition. The source of bibliometric data is the eLIBRARY.RU database. The impact of grants on the research productivity of Russian young scientists was assessed using the meta-analytical approach based on data from quasi-experimental studies conducted in other countries. The competition featured 149 CoS's and 41 DoS's, out of which 24 (16% and 22 (54% applicants, respectively, obtained funding. No difference in the number of total articles and citations at baseline, as well as in 2008-2012, for awarded and rejected applicants was found. The combination of data from the Russian study and other quasi-experimental studies (6 studies, 10 competitions revealed a small treatment effect--an increase in the total number of publications over a 4-5-year period after the competition by 1.23 (95% CI 0.48-1.97. However, the relationship between the number of total publications published by applicants before and after the competition revealed that this treatment effect is an effect of the "maturation" of scientists with a high baseline publication activity--not of grant funding.
Howes, Loene M; Kirkbride, K Paul; Kelty, Sally F; Julian, Roberta; Kemp, Nenagh
Scientists have an ethical responsibility to assist non-scientists to understand their findings and expert opinions before they are used as decision-aids within the criminal justice system. The communication of scientific expert opinion to non-scientist audiences (e.g., police, lawyers, and judges) through expert reports is an important but under-researched issue. Readability statistics were used to assess 111 conclusions from a proficiency test in forensic glass analysis. The conclusions were written using an average of 23 words per sentence, and approximately half of the conclusions were expressed using the active voice. At an average Flesch-Kincaid Grade level of university undergraduate (Grade 13), and Flesch Reading Ease score of difficult (42), the conclusions were written at a level suitable for people with some tertiary education in science, suggesting that the intended non-scientist readers would find them difficult to read. To further analyse the readability of conclusions, descriptive features of text were used: text structure; sentence structure; vocabulary; elaboration; and coherence and unity. Descriptive analysis supported the finding that texts were written at a level difficult for non-scientists to read. Specific aspects of conclusions that may pose difficulties for non-scientists were located. Suggestions are included to assist scientists to write conclusions with increased readability for non-scientist readers, while retaining scientific integrity. In the next stage of research, the readability of expert reports in their entirety is to be explored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tang, Chaoying; Kaufman, James C.
What are the personal characteristics that distinguish the creative scientist from the less creative scientist? This study used the concept of implicit theory in a four-part study of scientists and graduate students in science. In the first part, we collected 1382 adjective words that describe the personal characteristics of the creative scientist…
Magdolna Hargittai uses over fifteen years of in-depth conversation with female physicists, chemists, biomedical researchers, and other scientists to form cohesive ideas on the state of the modern female scientist. The compilation, based on sixty conversations, examines unique challenges that women with serious scientific aspirations face. In addition to addressing challenges and the unjustifiable underrepresentation of women at the higher levels of academia, Hargittai takes a balanced approach by discussing how some of the most successful of these women have managed to obtain professional success and personal happiness. Women Scientists portrays scientists from different backgrounds, different geographical regions-eighteen countries from four continents-and leaders from a variety of professional backgrounds, including eight Nobel laureate women. The book is divided into three sections: "Husband and Wife Teams," "Women at the Top," and "In High Positions." Hargittai uses her own experience to introduce her fi...
Jessica Kirkpatrick received her PhD in Astrophysics from Berkeley in 2012. After an exhaustive job search within academia and beyond, she accepted a job as a data scientist / analyst for the social network Yammer (acquired by Microsoft) and is now the Director of Data Science for Education Company InstaEDU. Now instead of spending her days finding patterns in the large scale structure of galaxies, she finds patterns in the behaviors of people. She'll talk about her transition from astrophysics to tech, compare and contrast the two fields, and give tips about how to land a tech job, and discuss useful tools which helped her with her transition.
Lau, G. E.
Public speaking organizations are highly valuable for individuals seeking to improve their skills in speech development and delivery. The methodology of such groups usually focuses on repetitive, guided practice. Toastmasters International, for instance, uses a curriculum based on topical manuals that guide their members through some number of prepared speeches with specific goals for each speech. I have similarly developed a public speaking manual for scientists with the intention of guiding scientists through the development and presentation of speeches that will help them hone their abilities as public speakers. I call this guide The Oratorical Scientist. The Oratorical Scientist will be a free, digital publication that is meant to guide scientists through five specific types of speech that the scientist may be called upon to deliver during their career. These five speeches are: The Coffee Talk, The Educational Talk, Research Talks for General Science Audiences, Research Talks for Specific Subdiscipline Audiences, and Taking the Big Stage (talks for public engagement). Each section of the manual focuses on speech development, rehearsal, and presentation for each of these specific types of speech. The curriculum was developed primarily from my personal experiences in public engagement. Individuals who use the manual may deliver their prepared speeches to groups of their peers (e.g. within their research group) or through video sharing websites like Youtube and Vimeo. Speeches that are broadcast online can then be followed and shared through social media networks (e.g. #OratoricalScientist), allowing a larger audience to evaluate the speech and to provide criticism. I will present The Oratorical Scientist, a guide for scientists to become better public speakers. The process of guided repetitive practice of scientific talks will improve the speaking capabilities of scientists, in turn benefitting science communication and public engagement.
Ariely, Dan; Berns, Gregory S
The application of neuroimaging methods to product marketing - neuromarketing - has recently gained considerable popularity. We propose that there are two main reasons for this trend. First, the possibility that neuroimaging will become cheaper and faster than other marketing methods; and second, the hope that neuroimaging will provide marketers with information that is not obtainable through conventional marketing methods. Although neuroimaging is unlikely to be cheaper than other tools in the near future, there is growing evidence that it may provide hidden information about the consumer experience. The most promising application of neuroimaging methods to marketing may come before a product is even released - when it is just an idea being developed.
Tijdink, Joeri K; Vergouwen, Anton C M; Smulders, Yvo M
The H-index is a frequently used scale to rank scientists on their scientific output. Whether subjective feeling of happiness is influenced by the level of the H-index on scientists has never been investigated. To investigate the relation between the level of the H index as a measure of scientific success and feelings of unhappiness among Dutch professors. Descriptive; national online questionnaire. All medical professors working at the Dutch university medical centres were invited to participate in an online questionnaire. Pressure to publish was measured by a questionnaire developed for this purpose and signs of burnout were measured on the Utrecht Burnout Scale. The area of emotional exhaustion on this scale was used to measure feelings of unhappiness. Every professor was asked for his or her H-index as an outcome measure. A total of 437 professors completed the questionnaire. Those in the highest tertile of the H index had significantly lower scores for emotional exhaustion (p emotional exhaustion. Professors with children living at home had a 25% higher score on emotional exhaustion than those who did not (p emotional exhaustion: a lower H index is associated with higher scores on emotional exhaustion while a high H index is associated with lower scores.
"Kiwi scientists have a great chance to have their work bombarded with protons and to participate in world-class particle physics research, with the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between CERN (the European Organisation for Nuclear Research) and New Zealand" (1/2 page)
Oct 31, 2008 ... Indira Nath (Blue Peter Research Centre, Lepra Society,. Hyderabad), Prof. Sujatha Ramdorai (Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai) etc. This latter event will take place between 12 and 1:30 p.m in the seminar hall at IIT Delhi. 'Lilavati's Daughters: the women scientists of India' is a collection of ...
There is ample data demonstrating that female scientists advance at a far slower rate than their male colleagues. The low numbers of female professors in European and North American universities is, thus, not solely an effect of few women in the recruitment pool but also to obstacles specific to the female gender. Together with her colleague Christine Wennerås, Agnes Wold conducted a study of the evaluation process at the Swedish Medical Research Council. Evaluators judged the "scientific competence", "research proposal" and "methodology" of applicants for post-doctoral positions in 1995. By relating the scores for "scientific competence" to the applicants' scientific productivity and other factors using multiple regression, Wennerås and Wold demonstrated that the applicant's sex exerted a strong influence on the "competence" score so that male applicants were perceived as being more competent than female applicants of equal productivity. The study was published in Nature (vol 387, p 341-3, 1997) and inspir...
Whyte, John; Boninger, Michael; Helkowski, Wendy; Braddom-Ritzler, Carolyn
Physician scientists are seen as important in healthcare research. However, the number of physician scientists and their success in obtaining NIH funding have been declining for many years. The shortage of physician scientists in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation is particularly severe, and can be attributed to many of the same factors that affect physician scientists in general, as well as to the lack of well developed models for research training. In 1995, the Rehabilitation Medicine Scientist Training Program (RMSTP) was funded by a K12 grant from the National Center of Medical Rehabilitation Research (NCMRR), as one strategy for increasing the number of research-productive physiatrists. The RMSTP's structure was revised in 2001 to improve the level of preparation of incoming trainees, and to provide a stronger central mentorship support network. Here we describe the original and revised structure of the RMSTP and review subjective and objective data on the productivity of the trainees who have completed the program. These data suggest that RMSTP trainees are, in general, successful in obtaining and maintaining academic faculty positions and that the productivity of the cohort trained after the revision, in particular, shows impressive growth after about 3 years of training. PMID:19847126
Full Text Available We used existing and customized bibliometric and scientometric methods to analyze publication trends in neuroimaging research of minimally conscious states and describe the domain in terms of its geographic, contributor, and content features. We considered publication rates for the years 2002–2011, author interconnections, the rate at which new authors are added, and the domains that inform the work of author contributors. We also provided a content analysis of clinical and ethical themes within the relevant literature. We found a 27% growth in the number of papers over the period of study, professional diversity among a wide range of peripheral author contributors but only few authors who dominate the field, and few new technical paradigms and clinical themes that would fundamentally expand the landscape. The results inform both the science of consciousness as well as parallel ethics and policy studies of the potential for translational challenges of neuroimaging in research and health care of people with disordered states of consciousness.
Hadjikyriacou, Ritsa Maria
Describes an attempt to determine if there were gender or age differences in the images that 11- to 14-year-old students have of scientists. Results indicate that as female students get older they adopt and project a more stereotypic image of scientists, whereas male students seem to harbor a less stereotypic image of scientists as they age.…
Ezaki, Takahiro; Watanabe, Takamitsu; Ohzeki, Masayuki; Masuda, Naoki
Computational neuroscience models have been used for understanding neural dynamics in the brain and how they may be altered when physiological or other conditions change. We review and develop a data-driven approach to neuroimaging data called the energy landscape analysis. The methods are rooted in statistical physics theory, in particular the Ising model, also known as the (pairwise) maximum entropy model and Boltzmann machine. The methods have been applied to fitting electrophysiological data in neuroscience for a decade, but their use in neuroimaging data is still in its infancy. We first review the methods and discuss some algorithms and technical aspects. Then, we apply the methods to functional magnetic resonance imaging data recorded from healthy individuals to inspect the relationship between the accuracy of fitting, the size of the brain system to be analysed and the data length. This article is part of the themed issue `Mathematical methods in medicine: neuroscience, cardiology and pathology'.
Plis, Sergey M; Hjelm, Devon R; Salakhutdinov, Ruslan; Allen, Elena A; Bockholt, Henry J; Long, Jeffrey D; Johnson, Hans J; Paulsen, Jane S; Turner, Jessica A; Calhoun, Vince D
Deep learning methods have recently made notable advances in the tasks of classification and representation learning. These tasks are important for brain imaging and neuroscience discovery, making the methods attractive for porting to a neuroimager's toolbox. Success of these methods is, in part, explained by the flexibility of deep learning models. However, this flexibility makes the process of porting to new areas a difficult parameter optimization problem. In this work we demonstrate our results (and feasible parameter ranges) in application of deep learning methods to structural and functional brain imaging data. These methods include deep belief networks and their building block the restricted Boltzmann machine. We also describe a novel constraint-based approach to visualizing high dimensional data. We use it to analyze the effect of parameter choices on data transformations. Our results show that deep learning methods are able to learn physiologically important representations and detect latent relations in neuroimaging data.
Sergey M Plis
Full Text Available Deep learning methods have recently made notable advances in the tasks of classification and representation learning. These tasks are important for brain imaging and neuroscience discovery, making the methods attractive for porting to a neuroimager's toolbox. Success of these methods is, in part, explained by the flexibility of deep learning models. However, this flexibility makes the process of porting to new areas a difficult parameter optimization problem. In this work we demonstrate our results (and feasible parameter ranges in application of deep learning methods to structural and functional brain imaging data. These methods include deep belief networks and their building block the restricted Boltzmann machine. We also describe a novel constraint-based approach to visualizing high dimensional data. We use it to analyze the effect of parameter choices on data transformations. Our results show that deep learning methods are able to learn physiologically important representations and detect latent relations in neuroimaging data.
Goutte, Cyril; Hansen, Lars Kai
Most human brain imaging experiments involve a number of subjects that is unusually low by accepted statistical standards. Although there are anumber of practical reasons for using small samples in neuroimaging we need to face the question regarding whether results obtained with only a fewsubject...... will generalise to a larger population. In this contribution we address this issue using a Bayesian framework, derive confidence intervals forsmall samples experiments, and discuss the issue of the prior.......Most human brain imaging experiments involve a number of subjects that is unusually low by accepted statistical standards. Although there are anumber of practical reasons for using small samples in neuroimaging we need to face the question regarding whether results obtained with only a fewsubjects...
Meredith N. Braskie
Full Text Available Late onset Alzheimer's disease (AD is moderately to highly heritable. Apolipoprotein E allele ε4 (APOE4 has been replicated consistently as an AD risk factor over many studies, and recently confirmed variants in other genes such as CLU, CR1, and PICALM each increase the lifetime risk of AD. However, much of the heritability of AD remains unexplained. AD is a complex disease that is diagnosed largely through neuropsychological testing, though neuroimaging measures may be more sensitive for detecting the incipient disease stages. Difficulties in early diagnosis and variable environmental contributions to the disease can obscure genetic relationships in traditional case-control genetic studies. Neuroimaging measures may be used as endophenotypes for AD, offering a reliable, objective tool to search for possible genetic risk factors. Imaging measures might also clarify the specific mechanisms by which proposed risk factors influence the brain.
Ezaki, Takahiro; Ohzeki, Masayuki; Masuda, Naoki
Computational neuroscience models have been used for understanding neural dynamics in the brain and how they may be altered when physiological or other conditions change. We review and develop a data-driven approach to neuroimaging data called the energy landscape analysis. The methods are rooted in statistical physics theory, in particular, the Ising model, also known as the (pairwise) maximum entropy model and Boltzmann machine. The methods have been applied to fitting electrophysiological data in neuroscience for a decade, but its use in neuroimaging data is still in its infancy. We first review the methods and discuss some algorithms and technical aspects. Then, we apply the methods to functional magnetic resonance imaging data recorded from healthy individuals to inspect the relationship between the accuracy of fitting, the size of the brain system to be analyzed, and the data length.
Cargill, Margaret; Smernik, Ronald
Few systematic efforts have been reported to develop higher degree by research student skills for writing publishable articles in science and technology fields. There is a need to address this lack in the light of the current importance of publication to science research students and the high supervisor workload entailed in repeated draft…
Fochler, Maximilian; Felt, Ulrike; Müller, Ruth
There is a crisis of valuation practices in the current academic life sciences, triggered by unsustainable growth and "hyper-competition." Quantitative metrics in evaluating researchers are seen as replacing deeper considerations of the quality and novelty of work, as well as substantive care for the societal implications of research.…
Fochler, Maximilian; Felt, Ulrike; Müller, Ruth
There is a crisis of valuation practices in the current academic life sciences, triggered by unsustainable growth and "hyper-competition." Quantitative metrics in evaluating researchers are seen as replacing deeper considerations of the quality and novelty of work, as well as substantive care for the societal implications of research. Junior researchers are frequently mentioned as those most strongly affected by these dynamics. However, their own perceptions of these issues are much less frequently considered. This paper aims at contributing to a better understanding of the interplay between how research is valued and how young researchers learn to live, work and produce knowledge within academia. We thus analyze how PhD students and postdocs in the Austrian life sciences ascribe worth to people, objects and practices as they talk about their own present and future lives in research. We draw on literature from the field of valuation studies and its interest in how actors refer to different forms of valuation to account for their actions. We explore how young researchers are socialized into different valuation practices in different stages of their growing into science. Introducing the concept of "regimes of valuation" we show that PhD students relate to a wider evaluative repertoire while postdocs base their decisions on one dominant regime of valuing research. In conclusion, we discuss the implications of these findings for the epistemic and social development of the life sciences, and for other scientific fields.
Nemoto, Kiyotaka; Dan, Ippeita; Rorden, Christopher; Ohnishi, Takashi; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Okamoto, Masako; Yamashita, Fumio; Asada, Takashi
A variety of neuroimaging software packages have been released from various laboratories worldwide, and many researchers use these packages in combination. Though most of these software packages are freely available, some people find them difficult to install and configure because they are mostly based on UNIX-like operating systems. We developed a live USB-bootable Linux package named "Lin4Neuro." This system includes popular neuroimaging analysis tools. The user interface is customized so that even Windows users can use it intuitively. The boot time of this system was only around 40 seconds. We performed a benchmark test of inhomogeneity correction on 10 subjects of three-dimensional T1-weighted MRI scans. The processing speed of USB-booted Lin4Neuro was as fast as that of the package installed on the hard disk drive. We also installed Lin4Neuro on a virtualization software package that emulates the Linux environment on a Windows-based operation system. Although the processing speed was slower than that under other conditions, it remained comparable. With Lin4Neuro in one's hand, one can access neuroimaging software packages easily, and immediately focus on analyzing data. Lin4Neuro can be a good primer for beginners of neuroimaging analysis or students who are interested in neuroimaging analysis. It also provides a practical means of sharing analysis environments across sites.
Full Text Available Abstract Background A variety of neuroimaging software packages have been released from various laboratories worldwide, and many researchers use these packages in combination. Though most of these software packages are freely available, some people find them difficult to install and configure because they are mostly based on UNIX-like operating systems. We developed a live USB-bootable Linux package named "Lin4Neuro." This system includes popular neuroimaging analysis tools. The user interface is customized so that even Windows users can use it intuitively. Results The boot time of this system was only around 40 seconds. We performed a benchmark test of inhomogeneity correction on 10 subjects of three-dimensional T1-weighted MRI scans. The processing speed of USB-booted Lin4Neuro was as fast as that of the package installed on the hard disk drive. We also installed Lin4Neuro on a virtualization software package that emulates the Linux environment on a Windows-based operation system. Although the processing speed was slower than that under other conditions, it remained comparable. Conclusions With Lin4Neuro in one's hand, one can access neuroimaging software packages easily, and immediately focus on analyzing data. Lin4Neuro can be a good primer for beginners of neuroimaging analysis or students who are interested in neuroimaging analysis. It also provides a practical means of sharing analysis environments across sites.
Paulus, Frieder Michel; Rademacher, Lena; Schäfer, Theo Alexander Jose; Müller-Pinzler, Laura; Krach, Sören
The incentive structure of a scientist's life is increasingly mimicking economic principles. While intensely criticized, the journal impact factor (JIF) has taken a role as the new currency for scientists. Successful goal-directed behavior in academia thus requires knowledge about the JIF. Using functional neuroimaging we examined how the JIF, as a powerful incentive in academia, has shaped the behavior of scientists and the reward signal in the striatum. We demonstrate that the reward signal in the nucleus accumbens increases with higher JIF during the anticipation of a publication and found a positive correlation with the personal publication record (pJIF) supporting the notion that scientists have incorporated the predominant reward principle of the scientific community in their reward system. The implications of this behavioral adaptation within the ecological niche of the scientist's habitat remain unknown, but may also have effects which were not intended by the community.
Erin D. Bigler
Full Text Available Depending on severity, traumatic brain injury (TBI induces immediate neuropathological effects that in the mildest form may be transient but as severity increases results in neural damage and degeneration. The first phase of neural degeneration is explainable by the primary acute and secondary neuropathological effects initiated by the injury; however, neuroimaging studies demonstrate a prolonged period of pathological changes that progressively occur even during the chronic phase. This review examines how neuroimaging may be used in TBI to understand (1 the dynamic changes that occur in brain development relevant to understanding the effects of TBI and how these relate to developmental stage when the brain is injured, (2 how TBI interferes with age-typical brain development and the effects of aging thereafter, and (3 how TBI results in greater frontotemporolimbic damage, results in cerebral atrophy, and is more disruptive to white matter neural connectivity. Neuroimaging quantification in TBI demonstrates degenerative effects from brain injury over time. An adverse synergistic influence of TBI with aging may predispose the brain injured individual for the development of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders long after surviving the brain injury.
Jung, Young-Chul; Chanraud, Sandra; Sullivan, Edith V
There is considerable evidence that neuroimaging findings can improve the early diagnosis of Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) in clinical settings. The most distinctive neuroimaging finding of acute WE are cytotoxic edema and vasogenic edema, which are represented by bilateral symmetric hyperintensity alterations on T2-weighted MR images in the periphery of the third ventricle, periaqueductal area, mammillary bodies and midbrain tectal plate. An initial bout of WE can result in Korsakoff's syndrome (KS), but repeated bouts in conjunction with its typical comorbidity, chronic alcoholism, can result in signs of tissue degeneration in vulnerable brain regions. Chronic abnormalities identified with neuroimaging enable examination of brain damage in living patients with KS and have expanded the understanding of the neuropsychological deficits resulting from thiamine deficiency, alcohol neurotoxicity, and their comorbidity. Brain structure and functional studies indicate that the interactions involving the thalamus, mammillary bodies, hippocampus, frontal lobes, and cerebellum are crucial for memory formation and executive functions, and the interruption of these circuits by WE and chronic alcoholism can contribute substantially to the neuropsychological deficits in KS.
Full Text Available Nanette Mol Debes, Marie Préel, Liselotte Skov Pediatric Department, Tourette Clinic, Herlev University Hospital, Herlev, DenmarkAbstract: The most recent functional neuroimaging studies on Tourette syndrome (TS are reviewed in this paper. Although it can be difficult to compare functional neuroimaging studies due to differences in methods, differences in age of the included subjects, and differences in the extent to which the presence of comorbidity, medical treatment, and severity of tics are considered in the various studies; most studies show that the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit seems to be involved in the generation of tics. Changes in this circuit seem to be correlated with tic severity. Correlations have been found between the presence of tics and hypermetabolism in various brain regions. Abnormalities of GABAergic, serotonergic, and dopaminergic neurotransmission in patients with TS have been suggested. During tic suppression, increased activity in the inferior frontal gyrus is seen. The premotor cortex might be involved in inhibition of motor control in subjects with TS. The right anterior insula is suggested to be a part of the urge–tic network. Several studies have shown altered motor network activations and sensorimotor gating deficits in subjects with TS. In future studies, inclusion of more well-defined subjects and further examination of premonitory urge and tic suppression is needed in order to increase the knowledge about the pathophysiology and treatment possibilities of TS. Keywords: functional neuroimaging, Tourette syndrome
Full Text Available Recent advances in neuroimaging data acquisition and analysis hold the promise to enhance the ability to make diagnostic and prognostic predictions and perform treatment planning in neuropsychiatric disorders. Prior research using a variety of types of neuroimaging techniques has confirmed that neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with dysfunction in anatomical and functional brain circuits. We first discuss current challenges associated with the identification of reliable neuroimaging markers for diagnosis and prognosis in mood disorders and for neurosurgical treatment planning for deep brain stimulation (DBS. We then present data on the use of neuroimaging for the diagnosis and prognosis of mood disorders and for DBS treatment planning. We demonstrate how multivariate analyses of functional activation and connectivity parameters can be used to differentiate patients with bipolar disorder from those with major depressive disorder and non-affective psychosis. We also present data on connectivity parameters that mediate acute treatment response in affective and non-affective psychosis. We then focus on precision mapping of functional connectivity in native space. We describe the benefits of integrating anatomical fiber reconstruction with brain functional parameters and cortical surface measures to derive anatomically-informed connectivity metrics within the morphological context of each individual brain. We discuss how this approach may be particularly promising in psychiatry, given the clinical and etiological heterogeneity of the disorders, and particularly in treatment response prediction and planning. Precision mapping of connectivity is essential for DBS. In DBS, treatment electrodes are inserted into positions near key grey matter nodes within the circuits considered relevant to disease expression. However, targeting white matter tracts that underpin connectivity within these circuits may increase treatment efficacy and tolerability
The time is critical for Tribal, Indigenous and Underrepresented K-12/university students and communities to accept the duty to provide representation in Earth System Sciences/Geosciences fields of study and professions. Tribal nations in the U.S have a unique legal status rooted in a complex relationship between the U.S. federal government, individual state/local governments and Tribal authorities. Although geosciences are often at the center of these relationships, especially as they pertain to the development of natural resources, tribal economics, and environmental stewardship, Tribal/Indigenous people remain severely underrepresented in advanced geoscience education. Our students and communities have responded to the invitation. To represent and most important develop and lead research initiatives. Leadership is a central focus of the invitation to participate, as Tribal people have immense responsibility for significant landscapes across North American Continent, critical natural resources and millennia of unpretentious natural evolution with the localized native geologies, species and environmental systems. INRSEP and Pacific Northwest Tribal Nations found sustaining relationships with the Geoscience Alliance, MS PHD's, Woods Hole PEP, Native American Pacific Islander Research Experience (NAPIRE) and LSAMP programs, in addition to state/federal agencies, has advanced culturally-relevant STEM research. Research foundationally grounded on traditional ecological knowledge, individual and Tribal self-determination. A key component is student research experiences within their ancestral homelands and traversing to REU's in multiple national and international Tribal/Indigenous ancestral territories. The relationships also serve an immense capacity in tracking student achievement, promoting best practices in research development and assessing outcomes. The model has significantly improved the success of students completing STEM graduate programs. The presentation
Ceretti, M.; Janssen, S.; McMorrow, D.F.
The Young Scientists Forum is a new venture for ECNS and follows the established tradition of an active participation by young scientists in these conferences. At ECNS '99 the Young Scientists Forum brought together 30 young scientists from 13 European countries. In four working groups......, they discussed emerging scientific trends in their areas of expertise and the instrumentation required to meet the scientific challenges. The outcome was presented in the Young Scientists Panel on the final day of ECNS '99. This paper is a summary of the four working group reports prepared by the Group Conveners....... (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....
A combination of fresh government and industry money and a sense of optimism have stimulated hiring, new construction and an aura of aggressive expansion in Ottowa's science research facilities (1 page).
Martucci, Katherine T; Ng, Pamela; Mackey, Sean
Advances in neuroimaging have helped illuminate our understanding of how the brain works in the presence of chronic pain, which often persists with unknown etiology or after the painful stimulus has been removed and any wounds have healed. Neuroimaging has enabled us to make great progress in identifying many of the neural mechanisms that contribute to chronic pain, and to pinpoint the specific regions of the brain that are activated in the presence of chronic pain. It has provided us with a new perception of the nature of chronic pain in general, leading researchers to move toward a whole-brain approach to the study and treatment of chronic pain, and to develop novel technologies and analysis techniques, with real potential for developing new diagnostics and more effective therapies. We review the use of neuroimaging in the study of chronic pain, with particular emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:28163658
The research aims to explore the representation of woman scientist in film Agora. Agora is a film focusing on the life of a woman scientist and philosopher named Hypatia who lived in Alexandria at the end of 4th A.D. The research uses semiotics that is applied to explore the signs and the meaning of the film. The signs are in the forms of visual and verbal signs, such as the image, dialogue, setting of place, plot, character, narration, etc. The result of the analysis shows that Hypatia is r...
Bufkin, Jana L; Luttrell, Vickie R
With the availability of new functional and structural neuroimaging techniques, researchers have begun to localize brain areas that may be dysfunctional in offenders who are aggressive and violent. Our review of 17 neuroimaging studies reveals that the areas associated with aggressive and/or violent behavioral histories, particularly impulsive acts, are located in the prefrontal cortex and the medial temporal regions. These findings are explained in the context of negative emotion regulation, and suggestions are provided concerning how such findings may affect future theoretical frameworks in criminology, crime prevention efforts, and the functioning of the criminal justice system.
Full Text Available The Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR co-sponsored by UNICEF, UNDP, World Bank and WHO has been supporting research capacity strengthening in low- and middle-income countries for over 40 years. In order to assess and continuously optimize its capacity strengthening approaches, an evaluation of the influence of TDR training grants on research career development was undertaken. The assessment was part of a larger evaluation conducted by the European Science Foundation. A comprehensive survey questionnaire was developed and sent to a group of 117 trainees supported by TDR who had completed their degree (masters or PhD between 2000 and 2012; of these, seventy seven (77 responded. Most of the respondents (80% rated TDR support as a very important factor that influenced their professional career achievements. The "brain drain" phenomenon towards high-income countries was particularly low amongst TDR grantees: the rate of return to their region of origin upon completion of their degree was 96%. A vast majority of respondents are still working in research (89%, with 81% of respondents having participated in multidisciplinary research activities; women engaged in multidisciplinary collaboration to a higher extent than men. However, only a minority of all have engaged in intersectoral collaboration, an aspect that would require further study. The post-degree career choices made by the respondents were strongly influenced by academic considerations. At the time of the survey, 92% of all respondents hold full-time positions, mainly in the public sector. Almost 25% of the respondents reported that they had influenced policy and practice changes. Some of the challenges and opportunities faced by trainees at various stages of their research career have been identified. Modalities to overcome these will require further investigation. The survey evidenced how TDR's research capacity grant programmes made a difference on
Brown, Candice Michelle
This research project involves the investigation of the opportunities to learn science and about science through an extended year-long weather project in two middle school science classrooms. The theoretical framework draws together two compatible but as yet unconnected bodies of literature. From studies of scientific practices, the importance of the ways science is learned through practice in authentic settings are considered. Studies of situated cognition are examined as well to discern how students learn in context-specific ways. This empirical research is unique in three important ways. First, the research took place in two different middle school classrooms and utilized extensive participant observation over the course of the entire academic year and focus group interviews with students. One of the classes was mostly Hispanic students of lower socioeconomic status. The other class was primarily Caucasian students of middle socioeconomic status. Second, the teachers in the study participated in a multi-year service program coordinated by the local university. The teachers worked with their students to complete a year-long weather project that involves data collection, representation, analysis, and interpretation. Third, the project involves long-term study of weather data. As a result, students participating in the research over the year began to challenge the claims of their peers. Few classroom studies of earth science have been conducted and published and even fewer involved student managed school science research projects. The findings from this study can be used as a model for how long-term research projects in science can be incorporated into middle school science classes. This project is thus very important in the field of science education for understanding ways to make science accessible and appealing to a variety of students.
Abtahi, Mohammadreza; Amiri, Amir Mohammad; Byrd, Dennis; Mankodiya, Kunal
As the number of people diagnosed with movement disorders is increasing, it becomes vital to design techniques that allow the better understanding of human brain in naturalistic settings. There are many brain imaging methods such as fMRI, SPECT, and MEG that provide the functional information of the brain. However, these techniques have some limitations including immobility, cost, and motion artifacts. One of the most emerging portable brain scanners available today is functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). In this study, we have conducted fNIRS neuroimaging of seven healthy subjects while they were performing wrist tasks such as flipping their hand with the periods of rest (no movement). Different models of support vector machine is applied to these fNIRS neuroimaging data and the results show that we could classify the action and rest periods with the accuracy of over 80% for the fNIRS data of individual participants. Our results are promising and suggest that the presented classification method for fNIRS could further be applied to real-time applications such as brain computer interfacing (BCI), and into the future steps of this research to record brain activity from fNIRS and EEG, and fuse them with the body motion sensors to correlate the activities.
In too many of today`s precollege classrooms, little hands-on, inquiry-based science instruction can be found and much of the content-based science curricula is out of date and irrelevant. We purpose an intervention strategy to renew the science teacher who is unflagging in dedication and commitment. It is a strategy also to revitalize the science teacher clearly flagging, disillusioned, and out of touch. The strategy is to provide teachers with the opportunity to become full-share partners in the scientific community through scientific work experience in a laboratory setting. Characterized by intensive immersion in the day-to-day world of the scientist, the experience frees teachers from their classroom persona and lets them be scientists engaged in uncovering knowledge and solving problems. By matching teachers with scientists in laboratories for extended research experiences, we couple science education with ongoing research.
Allen, Paul; Laroi, Frank; McGuire, Philip K.; Aleman, Andre
Hallucinations remains one of the most intriguing phenomena in psychopathology. In the past two decades the advent of neuroimaging techniques have allowed researchers to investigate what is happening in the brain of those who experience hallucinations. In this article we review both structural and
P.M. Thompson (Paul); J.L. Stein; S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth); D.P. Hibar (Derrek); A.A. Vásquez (Arias); M.E. Rentería (Miguel); R. Toro (Roberto); N. Jahanshad (Neda); G. Schumann (Gunter); B. Franke (Barbara); M.J. Wright (Margaret); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); I. Agartz (Ingrid); M. Alda (Martin); S. Alhusaini (Saud); L. Almasy (Laura); K. Alpert (Kathryn); N.C. Andreasen; O.A. Andreassen (Ole); L.G. Apostolova (Liana); K. Appel (Katja); N.J. Armstrong (Nicola); B. Aribisala (Benjamin); M.E. Bastin (Mark); M. Bauer (Michael); C.E. Bearden (Carrie); Ø. Bergmann (Ørjan); E.B. Binder (Elisabeth); J. Blangero (John); H.J. Bockholt; E. Bøen (Erlend); M. Bois (Monique); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); T. Booth (Tom); I.J. Bowman (Ian); L.B.C. Bralten (Linda); R.M. Brouwer (Rachel); H.G. Brunner; D.G. Brohawn (David); M. Buckner; J.K. Buitelaar (Jan); K. Bulayeva (Kazima); J. Bustillo; V.D. Calhoun (Vince); D.M. Cannon (Dara); R.M. Cantor; M.A. Carless (Melanie); X. Caseras (Xavier); G. Cavalleri (Gianpiero); M.M. Chakravarty (M. Mallar); K.D. Chang (Kiki); C.R.K. Ching (Christopher); A. Christoforou (Andrea); S. Cichon (Sven); V.P. Clark; P. Conrod (Patricia); D. Coppola (Domenico); B. Crespo-Facorro (Benedicto); J.E. Curran (Joanne); M. Czisch (Michael); I.J. Deary (Ian); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); A. den Braber (Anouk); G. Delvecchio (Giuseppe); C. Depondt (Chantal); L. de Haan (Lieuwe); G.I. de Zubicaray (Greig); D. Dima (Danai); R. Dimitrova (Rali); S. Djurovic (Srdjan); H. Dong (Hongwei); D.J. Donohoe (Dennis); A. Duggirala (Aparna); M.D. Dyer (Matthew); S.M. Ehrlich (Stefan); C.J. Ekman (Carl Johan); T. Elvsåshagen (Torbjørn); L. Emsell (Louise); S. Erk; T. Espeseth (Thomas); J. Fagerness (Jesen); S. Fears (Scott); I. Fedko (Iryna); G. Fernandez (Guillén); S.E. Fisher (Simon); T. Foroud (Tatiana); P.T. Fox (Peter); C. Francks (Clyde); S. Frangou (Sophia); E.M. Frey (Eva Maria); T. Frodl (Thomas); V. Frouin (Vincent); H. Garavan (Hugh); S. Giddaluru (Sudheer); D.C. Glahn (David); B. Godlewska (Beata); R.Z. Goldstein (Rita); R.L. Gollub (Randy); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); O. Grimm (Oliver); O. Gruber (Oliver); T. Guadalupe (Tulio); R.E. Gur (Raquel); R.C. Gur (Ruben); H.H.H. Göring (Harald); S. Hagenaars (Saskia); T. Hajek (Tomas); G.B. Hall (Garry); J. Hall (Jeremy); J. Hardy (John); C.A. Hartman (Catharina); J. Hass (Johanna); W. Hatton; U.K. Haukvik (Unn); K. Hegenscheid (Katrin); J. Heinz (Judith); I.B. Hickie (Ian); B.C. Ho (Beng ); D. Hoehn (David); P.J. Hoekstra (Pieter); M. Hollinshead (Marisa); A.J. Holmes (Avram); G. Homuth (Georg); M. Hoogman (Martine); L.E. Hong (L.Elliot); N. Hosten (Norbert); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); H.E. Hulshoff Pol (Hilleke); K.S. Hwang (Kristy); C.R. Jack Jr. (Clifford); S. Jenkinson (Sarah); C. Johnston; E.G. Jönsson (Erik); R.S. Kahn (René); D. Kasperaviciute (Dalia); S. Kelly (Steve); S. Kim (Shinseog); P. Kochunov (Peter); L. Koenders (Laura); B. Krämer (Bernd); J.B.J. Kwok (John); J. Lagopoulos (Jim); G. Laje (Gonzalo); M. Landén (Mikael); B.A. Landman (Bennett); J. Lauriello; S. Lawrie (Stephen); P.H. Lee (Phil); S. Le Hellard (Stephanie); H. Lemaître (Herve); C.D. Leonardo (Cassandra); C.-S. Li (Chiang-shan); B. Liberg (Benny); D.C. Liewald (David C.); X. Liu (Xinmin); L.M. Lopez (Lorna); E. Loth (Eva); A. Lourdusamy (Anbarasu); M. Luciano (Michelle); F. MacCiardi (Fabio); M.W.J. Machielsen (Marise); G.M. MacQueen (Glenda); U.F. Malt (Ulrik); R. Mandl (René); D.S. Manoach (Dara); J.-L. Martinot (Jean-Luc); M. Matarin (Mar); R. Mather; M. Mattheisen (Manuel); M. Mattingsdal (Morten); A. Meyer-Lindenberg; C. McDonald (Colm); A.M. McIntosh (Andrew); F.J. Mcmahon (Francis J); K.L. Mcmahon (Katie); E. Meisenzahl (Eva); I. Melle (Ingrid); Y. Milaneschi (Yuri); S. Mohnke (Sebastian); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); D.W. Morris (Derek W); E.K. Moses (Eric); B.A. Mueller (Bryon ); S. Muñoz Maniega (Susana); T.W. Mühleisen (Thomas); B. Müller-Myhsok (Bertram); B. Mwangi (Benson); M. Nauck (Matthias); K. Nho (Kwangsik); T.E. Nichols (Thomas); L.G. Nilsson; A.C. Nugent (Allison); L. Nyberg (Lisa); R.L. Olvera (Rene); J. Oosterlaan (Jaap); R.A. Ophoff (Roel); M. Pandolfo (Massimo); M. Papalampropoulou-Tsiridou (Melina); M. Papmeyer (Martina); T. Paus (Tomas); Z. Pausova (Zdenka); G. Pearlson (Godfrey); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); C.P. Peterson (Charles); A. Pfennig (Andrea); M. Phillips (Mary); G.B. Pike (G Bruce); J.B. Poline (Jean Baptiste); S.G. Potkin (Steven); B. Pütz (Benno); A. Ramasamy (Adaikalavan); J. Rasmussen (Jerod); M. Rietschel (Marcella); M. Rijpkema (Mark); S.L. Risacher (Shannon); J.L. Roffman (Joshua); R. Roiz-Santiañez (Roberto); N. Romanczuk-Seiferth (Nina); E.J. Rose (Emma); N.A. Royle (Natalie); D. Rujescu (Dan); M. Ryten (Mina); P.S. Sachdev (Perminder); A. Salami (Alireza); T.D. Satterthwaite (Theodore); J. Savitz (Jonathan); A.J. Saykin (Andrew); C. Scanlon (Cathy); L. Schmaal (Lianne); H. Schnack (Hugo); N.J. Schork (Nicholas); S.C. Schulz (S.Charles); R. Schür (Remmelt); L.J. Seidman (Larry); L. Shen (Li); L. Shoemaker (Lawrence); A. Simmons (Andrew); S.M. Sisodiya (Sanjay); C. Smith (Colin); J.W. Smoller; J.C. Soares (Jair); S.R. Sponheim (Scott); R. Sprooten (Roy); J.M. Starr (John); V.M. Steen (Vidar); S. Strakowski (Stephen); V.M. Strike (Vanessa); J. Sussmann (Jessika); P.G. Sämann (Philipp); A. Teumer (Alexander); A.W. Toga (Arthur); D. Tordesillas-Gutierrez (Diana); D. Trabzuni (Danyah); S. Trost (Sarah); J. Turner (Jessica); M. van den Heuvel (Martijn); N.J. van der Wee (Nic); K.R. van Eijk (Kristel); T.G.M. van Erp (Theo G.); N.E.M. van Haren (Neeltje E.); D. van 't Ent (Dennis); M.J.D. van Tol (Marie-José); M.C. Valdés Hernández (Maria); D.J. Veltman (Dick); A. Versace (Amelia); H. Völzke (Henry); R. Walker (Robert); H.J. Walter (Henrik); L. Wang (Lei); J.M. Wardlaw (J.); M.E. Weale (Michael); M.W. Weiner (Michael); W. Wen (Wei); L.T. Westlye (Lars); H.C. Whalley (Heather); C.D. Whelan (Christopher); T.J.H. White (Tonya); A.M. Winkler (Anderson); K. Wittfeld (Katharina); G. Woldehawariat (Girma); A. Björnsson (Asgeir); D. Zilles (David); M.P. Zwiers (Marcel); A. Thalamuthu (Anbupalam); J.R. Almeida (Jorge); C.J. Schofield (Christopher); N.B. Freimer (Nelson); N.S. Lawrence (Natalia); D.A. Drevets (Douglas)
textabstractThe Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in
Thompson, Paul M.; Stein, Jason L.; Medland, Sarah E.; Hibar, Derrek P.; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Renteria, Miguel E.; Toro, Roberto; Jahanshad, Neda; Schumann, Gunter; Franke, Barbara; Wright, Margaret J.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Agartz, Ingrid; Alda, Martin; Alhusaini, Saud; Almasy, Laura; Almeida, Jorge; Alpert, Kathryn; Andreasen, Nancy C.; Andreassen, Ole A.; Apostolova, Liana G.; Appel, Katja; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Aribisala, Benjamin; Bastin, Mark E.; Bauer, Michael; Bearden, Carrie E.; Bergmann, Orjan; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Blangero, John; Bockholt, Henry J.; Bøen, Erlend; Bois, Catherine; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Booth, Tom; Bowman, Ian J.; Bralten, Janita; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Brunner, Han G.; Brohawn, David G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Buitelaar, Jan; Bulayeva, Kazima; Bustillo, Juan R.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cantor, Rita M.; Carless, Melanie A.; Caseras, Xavier; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chang, Kiki D.; Ching, Christopher R. K.; Christoforou, Andrea; Cichon, Sven; Clark, Vincent P.; Conrod, Patricia; Coppola, Giovanni; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Curran, Joanne E.; Czisch, Michael; Deary, Ian J.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; den Braber, Anouk; Delvecchio, Giuseppe; Depondt, Chantal; de Haan, Lieuwe; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Dima, Danai; Dimitrova, Rali; Djurovic, Srdjan; Dong, Hongwei; Donohoe, Gary; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Dyer, Thomas D.; Ehrlich, Stefan; Ekman, Carl Johan; Elvsåshagen, Torbjørn; Emsell, Louise; Erk, Susanne; Espeseth, Thomas; Fagerness, Jesen; Fears, Scott; Fedko, Iryna; Fernández, Guillén; Fisher, Simon E.; Foroud, Tatiana; Fox, Peter T.; Francks, Clyde; Frangou, Sophia; Frey, Eva Maria; Frodl, Thomas; Frouin, Vincent; Garavan, Hugh; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Glahn, David C.; Godlewska, Beata; Goldstein, Rita Z.; Gollub, Randy L.; Grabe, Hans J.; Grimm, Oliver; Gruber, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.; Göring, Harald H. H.; Hagenaars, Saskia; Hajek, Tomas; Hall, Geoffrey B.; Hall, Jeremy; Hardy, John; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hass, Johanna; Hatton, Sean N.; Haukvik, Unn K.; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hickie, Ian B.; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoehn, David; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hollinshead, Marisa; Holmes, Avram J.; Homuth, Georg; Hoogman, Martine; Hong, L. Elliot; Hosten, Norbert; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Hwang, Kristy S.; Jack, Clifford R.; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnston, Caroline; Jönsson, Erik G.; Kahn, René S.; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Kelly, Sinead; Kim, Sungeun; Kochunov, Peter; Koenders, Laura; Krämer, Bernd; Kwok, John B. J.; Lagopoulos, Jim; Laje, Gonzalo; Landen, Mikael; Landman, Bennett A.; Lauriello, John; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Lee, Phil H.; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Lemaître, Herve; Leonardo, Cassandra D.; Li, Chiang-Shan; Liberg, Benny; Liewald, David C.; Liu, Xinmin; Lopez, Lorna M.; Loth, Eva; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Luciano, Michelle; Macciardi, Fabio; Machielsen, Marise W. J.; Macqueen, Glenda M.; Malt, Ulrik F.; Mandl, René; Manoach, Dara S.; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Matarin, Mar; Mather, Karen A.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mattingsdal, Morten; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; McMahon, Francis J.; McMahon, Katie L.; Meisenzahl, Eva; Melle, Ingrid; Milaneschi, Yuri; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W.; Morris, Derek W.; Moses, Eric K.; Mueller, Bryon A.; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Mwangi, Benson; Nauck, Matthias; Nho, Kwangsik; Nichols, Thomas E.; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Nugent, Allison C.; Nyberg, Lars; Olvera, Rene L.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Ophoff, Roel A.; Pandolfo, Massimo; Papalampropoulou-Tsiridou, Melina; Papmeyer, Martina; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Peterson, Charles P.; Pfennig, Andrea; Phillips, Mary; Pike, G. Bruce; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Potkin, Steven G.; Pütz, Benno; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Rasmussen, Jerod; Rietschel, Marcella; Rijpkema, Mark; Risacher, Shannon L.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rose, Emma J.; Royle, Natalie A.; Rujescu, Dan; Ryten, Mina; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Salami, Alireza; Satterthwaite, Theodore D.; Savitz, Jonathan; Saykin, Andrew J.; Scanlon, Cathy; Schmaal, Lianne; Schnack, Hugo G.; Schork, Andrew J.; Schulz, S. Charles; Schür, Remmelt; Seidman, Larry; Shen, Li; Shoemaker, Jody M.; Simmons, Andrew; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Smith, Colin; Smoller, Jordan W.; Soares, Jair C.; Sponheim, Scott R.; Sprooten, Emma; Starr, John M.; Steen, Vidar M.; Strakowski, Stephen; Strike, Lachlan; Sussmann, Jessika; Sämann, Philipp G.; Teumer, Alexander; Toga, Arthur W.; Tordesillas-Gutierrez, Diana; Trabzuni, Daniah; Trost, Sarah; Turner, Jessica; van den Heuvel, Martijn; van der Wee, Nic J.; van Eijk, Kristel; van Erp, Theo G. M.; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; van 't Ent, Dennis; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Valdés Hernández, Maria C.; Veltman, Dick J.; Versace, Amelia; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Robert; Walter, Henrik; Wang, Lei; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Weale, Michael E.; Weiner, Michael W.; Wen, Wei; Westlye, Lars T.; Whalley, Heather C.; Whelan, Christopher D.; White, Tonya; Winkler, Anderson M.; Wittfeld, Katharina; Woldehawariat, Girma; Wolf, Christiane; Zilles, David; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Schofield, Peter R.; Freimer, Nelson B.; Lawrence, Natalia S.; Drevets, Wayne
The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in neuroscience,
Thompson, Paul M.; Stein, Jason L.; Medland, Sarah E.; Hibar, Derrek P.; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Renteria, Miguel E.; Toro, Roberto; Jahanshad, Neda; Schumann, Gunter; Franke, Barbara; Wright, Margaret J.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Agartz, Ingrid; Alda, Martin; Alhusaini, Saud; Almasy, Laura; Almeida, Jorge; Alpert, Kathryn; Andreasen, Nancy C.; Andreassen, Ole A.; Apostolova, Liana G.; Appel, Katja; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Aribisala, Benjamin; Bastin, Mark E.; Bauer, Michael; Bearden, Carrie E.; Bergmann, Orjan; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Blangero, John; Bockholt, Henry J.; Boen, Erlend; Bois, Catherine; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Booth, Tom; Bowman, Ian J.; Bralten, Janita; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Brunner, Han G.; Brohawn, David G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Buitelaar, Jan; Bulayeva, Kazima; Bustillo, Juan R.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cantor, Rita M.; Carless, Melanie A.; Caseras, Xavier; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chang, Kiki D.; Ching, Christopher R. K.; Christoforou, Andrea; Cichon, Sven; Clark, Vincent P.; Conrod, Patricia; Coppola, Giovanni; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Curran, Joanne E.; Czisch, Michael; Deary, Ian J.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; den Braber, Anouk; Delvecchio, Giuseppe; Depondt, Chantal; de Haan, Lieuwe; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Dima, Danai; Dimitrova, Rali; Djurovic, Srdjan; Dong, Hongwei; Donohoe, Gary; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Dyer, Thomas D.; Ehrlich, Stefan; Ekman, Carl Johan; Elvsashagen, Torbjorn; Emsell, Louise; Erk, Susanne; Espeseth, Thomas; Fagerness, Jesen; Fears, Scott; Fedko, Iryna; Fernandez, Guillen; Fisher, Simon E.; Foroud, Tatiana; Fox, Peter T.; Francks, Clyde; Frangou, Sophia; Frey, Eva Maria; Frodl, Thomas; Frouin, Vincent; Garavan, Hugh; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Glahn, David C.; Godlewska, Beata; Goldstein, Rita Z.; Gollub, Randy L.; Grabe, Hans J.; Grimm, Oliver; Gruber, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.; Goering, Harald H. H.; Hagenaars, Saskia; Hajek, Tomas; Hall, Geoffrey B.; Hall, Jeremy; Hardy, John; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hass, Johanna; Hatton, Sean N.; Haukvik, Unn K.; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hickie, Ian B.; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoehn, David; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hollinshead, Marisa; Holmes, Avram J.; Homuth, Georg; Hoogman, Martine; Hong, L. Elliot; Hosten, Norbert; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; Hwang, Kristy S.; Jack, Clifford R.; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnston, Caroline; Joensson, Erik G.; Kahn, Rene S.; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Kelly, Sinead; Kim, Sungeun; Kochunov, Peter; Koenders, Laura; Kraemer, Bernd; Kwok, John B. J.; Lagopoulos, Jim; Laje, Gonzalo; Landen, Mikael; Landman, Bennett A.; Lauriello, John; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Lee, Phil H.; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Lemaitre, Herve; Leonardo, Cassandra D.; Li, Chiang-shan; Liberg, Benny; Liewald, David C.; Liu, Xinmin; Lopez, Lorna M.; Loth, Eva; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Luciano, Michelle; Macciardi, Fabio; Machielsen, Marise W. J.; MacQueen, Glenda M.; Malt, Ulrik F.; Mandl, Rene; Manoach, Dara S.; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Matarin, Mar; Mather, Karen A.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mattingsdal, Morten; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; McMahon, Francis J.; McMahon, Katie L.; Meisenzahl, Eva; Melle, Ingrid; Milaneschi, Yuri; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W.; Morris, Derek W.; Moses, Eric K.; Mueller, Bryon A.; Munoz Maniega, Susana; Muehleisen, Thomas W.; Mueller-Myhsok, Bertram; Mwangi, Benson; Nauck, Matthias; Nho, Kwangsik; Nichols, Thomas E.; Nilsson, Lars-Goeran; Nugent, Allison C.; Nyberg, Lars; Olvera, Rene L.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Ophoff, Roel A.; Pandolfo, Massimo; Papalampropoulou-Tsiridou, Melina; Papmeyer, Martina; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Peterson, Charles P.; Pfennig, Andrea; Phillips, Mary; Pike, G. Bruce; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Potkin, Steven G.; Puetz, Benno; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Rasmussen, Jerod; Rietschel, Marcella; Rijpkema, Mark; Risacher, Shannon L.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Roiz-Santianez, Roberto; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rose, Emma J.; Royle, Natalie A.; Rujescu, Dan; Ryten, Mina; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Salami, Alireza; Satterthwaite, Theodore D.; Savitz, Jonathan; Saykin, Andrew J.; Scanlon, Cathy; Schmaal, Lianne; Schnack, Hugo G.; Schork, Andrew J.; Schulz, S. Charles; Schuer, Remmelt; Seidman, Larry; Shen, Li; Shoemaker, Jody M.; Simmons, Andrew; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Smith, Colin; Smoller, Jordan W.; Soares, Jair C.; Sponheim, Scott R.; Sprooten, Emma; Starr, John M.; Steen, Vidar M.; Strakowski, Stephen; Strike, Lachlan; Sussmann, Jessika; Saemann, Philipp G.; Teumer, Alexander; Toga, Arthur W.; Tordesillas-Gutierrez, Diana; Trabzuni, Daniah; Trost, Sarah; Turner, Jessica; Van den Heuvel, Martijn; van der Wee, Nic J.; van Eijk, Kristel; van Erp, Theo G. M.; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; van 't Ent, Dennis; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Hernandez, Maria C. Valdes; Veltman, Dick J.; Versace, Amelia; Voelzke, Henry; Walker, Robert; Walter, Henrik; Wang, Lei; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Weale, Michael E.; Weiner, Michael W.; Wen, Wei; Westlye, Lars T.; Whalley, Heather C.; Whelan, Christopher D.; White, Tonya; Winkler, Anderson M.; Wittfeld, Katharina; Woldehawariat, Girma; Wolf, Christiane; Zilles, David; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Schofield, Peter R.; Freimer, Nelson B.; Lawrence, Natalia S.; Drevets, Wayne
The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in neuroscience,
Thayer, Rachel E; Hutchison, Kent E
Research on neurobiological mechanisms, especially the function of networks that underlie reward and cognitive control, may offer an opportunity to explore how existing treatments work and provide means for developing new treatments for substance use disorders. In this respect, the special issue of Psychology of Addictive Behaviors highlights efforts to integrate translational neuroimaging with clinical research by actively linking neuroimaging measures with psychosocial treatment mechanisms. Based on several of the articles in this special issue, mindfulness-based approaches appear poised to make rapid progress in terms of integrating neuroimaging with research on mechanisms that mediate treatment success. This commentary briefly discusses research on incentive salience and cognitive control networks in the context of addiction, followed by a discussion of specific studies within this special issue that address the integration of neuroimaging assessments in the context of mindfulness approaches. Future work may be able to leverage measures of changes in networks and regions that underlie reward processing and cognitive control to better understand how treatments work, especially for mindfulness-based approaches. 2013 APA, all rights reserved
Mathai, A M
Special Functions for Applied Scientists provides the required mathematical tools for researchers active in the physical sciences. The book presents a full suit of elementary functions for scholars at the PhD level and covers a wide-array of topics and begins by introducing elementary classical special functions. From there, differential equations and some applications into statistical distribution theory are examined. The fractional calculus chapter covers fractional integrals and fractional derivatives as well as their applications to reaction-diffusion problems in physics, input-output analysis, Mittag-Leffler stochastic processes and related topics. The authors then cover q-hypergeometric functions, Ramanujan's work and Lie groups. The latter half of this volume presents applications into stochastic processes, random variables, Mittag-Leffler processes, density estimation, order statistics, and problems in astrophysics. Professor Dr. A.M. Mathai is Emeritus Professor of Mathematics and Statistics, McGill ...
Full Text Available Funding institutions and researchers increasingly expect that data will be shared to increase scientific integrity and provide other scientists with the opportunity to use the data with novel methods that may advance understanding in a particular field of study. In practice, sharing human subject data can be complicated because data must be de-identified prior to sharing. Moreover, integrating varied data types collected in a study can be challenging and time consuming. For example, sharing data from structural imaging studies of a complex disorder requires the integration of imaging, demographic and/or behavioral data in a way that no subject identifiers are included in the de-identified dataset and with new subject labels or identification values that cannot be tracked back to the original ones. We have developed a Java program that users can use to remove identifying information in neuroimaging datasets, while still maintaining the association among different data types from the same subject for further studies. This software provides a series of user interaction wizards to allow users to select data variables to be de-identified, implements functions for auditing and validation of de-identified data, and enables the user to share the de-identified data in a single compressed package through various communication protocols, such as FTPS and SFTP. DeID runs with Windows, Linux, and Mac operating systems and its open architecture allows it to be easily adapted to support a broader array of data types, with the goal of facilitating data sharing. DeID can be obtained at http://www.nitrc.org/projects/deid.
Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup; Schmah, Tanya; Madsen, Kristoffer H
visualization. Specifically we focus on the generation of summary maps of a nonlinear classifier, that reveal how the classifier works in different parts of the input domain. Each of the maps includes sign information, unlike earlier related methods. The sign information allows the researcher to assess in which......Classification models are becoming increasing popular tools in the analysis of neuroimaging data sets. Besides obtaining good prediction accuracy, a competing goal is to interpret how the classifier works. From a neuroscientific perspective, we are interested in the brain pattern reflecting...... the underlying neural encoding of an experiment defining multiple brain states. In this relation there is a great desire for the researcher to generate brain maps, that highlight brain locations of importance to the classifiers decisions. Based on sensitivity analysis, we develop further procedures for model...
Dold, Markus; Aigner, Martin
Following consensus on fronto-striato-thalamo-frontal dysfunction as the neuronal basis of obsessive-compulsive disorder, and increasing sub-classification of this clinical picture, neurobiological differentiation of the various obsessive symptoms is also attracting interest in neuroimaging research. Original papers studying the neurobiological correlates of the various dimensions of obsessive-compulsive disorder were listed by a systematic literature search. The "washing" factor seems to involve particular brain structures dealing with emotional control (mainly the orbito-frontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), amygdala and insula), but the predominant areas in the "forbidden thoughts" factor are cognitive control brain regions (mainly basal ganglia and ACC), and in hoarding obsessions and compulsions they are decision-making areas (mainly ventro-medial parts of the OFC and dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)). The results underline the neurobiological heterogeneity of the obsessive-compulsive disorder clinical picture, pointing the way for future research approaches.
Full Text Available Citation patterns of Korean scientists are investigated by analyzing the references of the papers authored by Korean chemists and published in two journals of different standing. Particular interest is given to how frequently Korean researchers quote the papers written by other Korean researchers and whether there is any difference in the citation pattern when Korean researchers publish their papers in a top international journal or in a domestic journal. Two journals in the category of multidisciplinary chemistry, the Journal of the American Chemical Society and the Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society, are chosen and a detailed analysis of the references of the papers written by Korean authors in 2015 was performed. The author self-citation rate is found to be much larger than the citation rate of other Korean authors. It is also found that the percentage of self-citations and the percentage of the references by Korean authors excluding self-citations are both significantly larger in the Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society than in the Journal of the American Chemical Society. Interpretations of the results based on social exchange theory are proposed.
NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 21: Technological innovation and technical communications: Their place in aerospace engineering curricula. A survey of European, Japanese, and US Aerospace Engineers and Scientists
Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Holland, Maurita Peterson; Keene, Michael L.; Kennedy, John M.
Aerospace engineers and scientists from Western Europe, Japan, and the United States were surveyed as part of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Questionnaires were used to solicit their opinions regarding the following: (1) the importance of technical communications to their profession; (2) the use and production of technical communications; and (3) their views about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications. The ability to communicate technical information effectively was very important to the aerospace engineers and scientists who participated in the study. A considerable portion of their working week is devoted to using and producing technical information. The types of technical communications used and produced varied within and among the three groups. The type of technical communication product used and produced appears to be related to respondents' professional duties. Respondents from the three groups made similar recommendations regarding the principles, mechanics, and on-the-job communications to be included in an undergraduate technical communications course for aerospace majors.
FAIRNESS 2014 was the third edition in a series of workshops designed to bring together excellent international young scientists with research interests focused on physics at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) and was held on September 22-27 2014 in Vietri sul Mare, Italy. The topics of the workshops cover a wide range of aspects in both theoretical developments and current experimental status, concentrated around the four scientific pillars of FAIR. FAIR is a new accelerator complex with brand new experimental facilities, that is currently being built next to the existing GSI Helmholtzzentrum for Schwerionenforschung close to Darmstadt, Germany. The spirit of the conference is to bring together young scientists, e.g. advanced PhD students and postdocs and young researchers without permanent position to present their work, to foster active informal discussions and build up of networks. Every participant in the meeting with the exception of the organizers gives an oral presentation, and all sessions are followed by an hour long discussion period. During the talks, questions are anonymously collected in a box to stimulate discussions. The broad physics program at FAIR is reflected in the wide range of topics covered by the workshop: • Physics of hot and dense nuclear matter, QCD phase transitions and critical point • Nuclear structure, astrophysics and reactions • Hadron Spectroscopy, Hadrons in matter and Hypernuclei • New developments in atomic and plasma physics • Special emphasis is put on the experiments CBM, HADES, PANDA, NUSTAR, APPA and related experiments For each of these different areas one invited speaker was selected to give a longer introductory presentation. The write-ups of the talks presented at FAIRNESS 2014 are the content of this issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series and have been refereed according to the IOP standard for peer review. This issue constitutes therefore a collection of the forefront of research that
Lefkowitz, Robert J
Growing up in a middle-class Jewish home in the Bronx, I had only one professional goal: to become a physician. However, as with most of my Vietnam-era MD colleagues, I found my residency training interrupted by the Doctor Draft in 1968. Some of us who were academically inclined fulfilled this obligation by serving in the US Public Health Service as commissioned officers stationed at the National Institutes of Health. This experience would eventually change the entire trajectory of my career. Here I describe how, over a period of years, I transitioned from the life of a physician to that of a physician scientist; my 50 years of work on cellular receptors; and some miscellaneous thoughts on subjects as varied as Nobel prizes, scientific lineages, mentoring, publishing, and funding. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology Volume 58 is January 6, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Full Text Available The fifth general assembly meeting on cysticercosis/taeniosis was held at the Faculty of Medicine, Eduardo Mondlane University, in Maputo, Mozambique, from 11-13 October 2007. The meeting was organised by the Cysticercosis Working Group in Eastern and Southern Africa (CWGESA in cooperation with the Medical and Veterinary Faculties of Eduardo Mondlane University in Mozambique and the WHO/FAO Collaborating Centre for Parasitic Zoonoses in Denmark with support from DBL - Centre for Health Research and Development, Denmark, and the Global Alliance for Livestock Veterinary Medicines (GALVmed based in Edinburgh, Scotland. Local support in Maputo was provided by Nestle, Medis Farmaceutica, Mcel and the Golden Travel Agency.
Oct 23, 2017 ... support initiatives that increase the pipeline of women in STEM;; build the leadership and business skills of women scientists;; fund research programs spearheaded by women scientists;; support networks and mentorship schemes;; support research aimed at gaining a deeper understanding of gender ...
Raddick, M. Jordan; Bracey, Georgia; Gay, Pamela L.; Lintott, Chris J.; Cardamone, Carie; Murray, Phil; Schawinski, Kevin; Szalay, Alexander S.; Vandenberg, Jan
Citizen science, in which volunteers work with professional scientists to conduct research, is expanding due to large online datasets. To plan projects, it is important to understand volunteers' motivations for participating. This paper analyzes results from an online survey of nearly 11000 volunteers in Galaxy Zoo, an astronomy citizen science…
Full Text Available ... on Social Media | Search A-Z | en español | Text size S M L About NEI NEI Research Accomplishments Budget and Congress About the NEI Director History of the NEI NEI 50th Anniversary NEI Women Scientists Advisory Committee (WSAC) Board of Scientific Counselors National ...
This article reports that academic researchers are optimistic that President Barack Obama's approach to science heralds a new era of support for their work. When Mr. Obama named his top science and technology advisers only weeks after being elected, many scientists celebrated. After eight years of an administration that many academics believed…
This study tries to find out the extent of information and communication networks among natural scientists in Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. Their ways of information sharing, and the extent of their participation in information networking were investigated. Using two (2) research questions, data was collected from 299 pure ...
Scientists at Leicester University have spent four years researching and designing the Flight Model Position Adjustable Workbench (PAW) at the university. It will be attached to the Beagle 2 probe before being sent to the Red Planet in the spring (1/2 page).
Vano, J. A.
Being trained as a scientist provides many valuable tools needed to address society's most pressing environmental issues. It does not, however, provide training on one of the most critical for translating science into action: the ability to engage decision makers. Engagement means different things to different people and what is appropriate for one project might not be for another. However, recent reports have emphasized that for research to be most useful to decision making, engagement should happen at the beginning and throughout the research process. There are an increasing number of boundary organizations (e.g., NOAA's Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessment program, U.S. Department of the Interior's Climate Science Centers) where engagement is encouraged and rewarded, and scientists are learning, often through trial and error, how to effectively include decision makers (a.k.a. stakeholders, practitioners, resource managers) in their research process. This presentation highlights best practices and practices to avoid when scientists engage decision makers, a list compiled through the personal experiences of both scientists and decision makers and a literature review, and how this collective knowledge could be shared, such as through a recent session and role-playing exercise given at the Northwest Climate Science Center's Climate Boot Camp. These ideas are presented in an effort to facilitate conversations about how the science community (e.g., AGU researchers) can become better prepared for effective collaborations with decision makers that will ultimately result in more actionable science.
More than 100 scientists in Russia have signed an open letter to the country's president, Vladimir Putin, protesting over a lack of funding for research and reforms that they say have left Russian science mired in a chronic state of crisis.
Full Text Available ... National Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs ... search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home > NEI for Kids > Ask a Scientist Video Series ...
Jones, Gail; Childers, Gina; Stevens, Vanessa; Whitley, Blake
Citizen science programs are becoming increasingly popular among teachers, students, and families. The term "citizen scientist" has various definitions. It can refer to those who gather information for a particular science research study or to people who lobby for environmental protection for their communities. "Citizen science" has been called…
Full Text Available Nobelist TD Lee scientist cooperation network (TDLSCN and their innovation ability are studied. It is found that the TDLSCN not only has the common topological properties both of scale-free and small-world for a general scientist cooperation networks, but also appears the creation multiple-peak phenomenon for number of published paper with year evolution, which become Nobelist TD Lee’s significant mark distinguished from other scientists. This new phenomenon has not been revealed in the scientist cooperation networks before. To demonstrate and explain this new finding, we propose a theoretical model for a nature scientist and his/her team innovation ability. The theoretical results are consistent with the empirical studies very well. This research demonstrates that the model has a certain universality and can be extended to estimate innovation ability for any nature scientist and his/her team. It is a better method for evaluating scientist innovation ability and his/her team for the academic profession and is of application potential.
Li, Yimei; Zhu, Hongtu; Chen, Yasheng; An, Hongyu; Gilmore, John; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang
Longitudinal imaging studies are essential to understanding the neural development of neuropsychiatric disorders, substance use disorders, and normal brain. Using appropriate image processing and statistical tools to analyze the imaging, behavioral, and clinical data is critical for optimally exploring and interpreting the findings from those imaging studies. However, the existing imaging processing and statistical methods for analyzing imaging longitudinal measures are primarily developed for cross-sectional neuroimaging studies. The simple use of these cross-sectional tools to longitudinal imaging studies will significantly decrease the statistical power of longitudinal studies in detecting subtle changes of imaging measures and the causal role of time-dependent covariate in disease process. The main objective of this paper is to develop longitudinal statistics toolbox, called LSTGEE, for the analysis of neuroimaging data from longitudinal studies. We develop generalized estimating equations for jointly modeling imaging measures with behavioral and clinical variables from longitudinal studies. We develop a test procedure based on a score test statistic and a resampling method to test linear hypotheses of unknown parameters, such as associations between brain structure and function and covariates of interest, such as IQ, age, gene, diagnostic groups, and severity of disease. We demonstrate the application of our statistical methods to the detection of the changes of the fractional anisotropy across time in a longitudinal neonate study. Particularly, our results demonstrate that the use of longitudinal statistics can dramatically increase the statistical power in detecting the changes of neuroimaging measures. The proposed approach can be applied to longitudinal data with multiple outcomes and accommodate incomplete and unbalanced data, i.e., subjects with different number of measurements.
Full Text Available Sarah N Garfinkel,1,2 Hugo D Critchley1,2 1Sackler Centre for Consciousness Science, 2Department of Psychiatry, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK Abstract: Fear anticipates a challenge to one's well-being and is a reaction to the risk of harm. The expression of fear in the individual is a constellation of physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and experiential responses. Fear indicates risk and will guide adaptive behavior, yet fear is also fundamental to the symptomatology of most psychiatric disorders. Neuroimaging studies of normal and abnormal fear in humans extend knowledge gained from animal experiments. Neuroimaging permits the empirical evaluation of theory (emotions as response tendencies, mental states, and valence and arousal dimensions, and improves our understanding of the mechanisms of how fear is controlled by both cognitive processes and bodily states. Within the human brain, fear engages a set of regions that include insula and anterior cingulate cortices, the amygdala, and dorsal brain-stem centers, such as periaqueductal gray matter. This same fear matrix is also implicated in attentional orienting, mental planning, interoceptive mapping, bodily feelings, novelty and motivational learning, behavioral prioritization, and the control of autonomic arousal. The stereotyped expression of fear can thus be viewed as a special construction from combinations of these processes. An important motivator for understanding neural fear mechanisms is the debilitating clinical expression of anxiety. Neuroimaging studies of anxiety patients highlight the role of learning and memory in pathological fear. Posttraumatic stress disorder is further distinguished by impairment in cognitive control and contextual memory. These processes ultimately need to be targeted for symptomatic recovery. Neuroscientific knowledge of fear has broader relevance to understanding human and societal behavior. As yet, only some of
Garavelli, Livia; Ivanovski, Ivan; Caraffi, Stefano Giuseppe
of the ZEB2 gene. To date, no characteristic pattern of brain dysmorphology in MWS has been defined. METHODS: Through brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis, we delineated a neuroimaging phenotype in 54 MWS patients with a proven ZEB2 defect, compared it with the features identified in a thorough...... review of published cases, and evaluated genotype-phenotype correlations. RESULTS: Ninety-six percent of patients had abnormal MRI results. The most common features were anomalies of corpus callosum (79.6% of cases), hippocampal abnormalities (77.8%), enlargement of cerebral ventricles (68.5%), and white...
Jiao, Jianling; Liu, Timon C.; Li, Yan; Liu, Songhao
Neuroimaging has played an important role in evaluating the Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, and its uses are growing. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may show the presence of cerebral infarcts and white matter disease. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET), which visualize such cerebral functions as glucose metabolism and blood flow, may provide positive evidence to support the diagnosis of AD. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a recently developed technique which enables the internal impedance of an object to be imaged noninvasively.
Thomas J Littlejohns
Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency has been linked with an increased risk of incident all-cause dementia and Alzheimer's disease. The aim of the current study was to explore the potential mechanisms underlying these associations by determining whether low vitamin D concentrations are associated with the development of incident cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative neuroimaging abnormalities. The population consisted of 1,658 participants aged ≥65 years from the US-based Cardiovascular Health Study who were free from prevalent cardiovascular disease, stroke and dementia at baseline in 1992-93. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry from blood samples collected at baseline. The first MRI scan was conducted between 1991-1994 and the second MRI scan was conducted between 1997-1999. Change in white matter grade, ventricular grade and presence of infarcts between MRI scan one and two were used to define neuroimaging abnormalities. During a mean follow-up of 5.0 years, serum 25(OHD status was not significantly associated with the development of any neuroimaging abnormalities. Using logistic regression models, the multivariate adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval for worsening white matter grade in participants who were severely 25(OHD deficient (<25 nmol/L and deficient (≥25-50 nmol/L were 0.76 (0.35-1.66 and 1.09 (0.76-1.55 compared to participants with sufficient concentrations (≥50 nmol/L. The multivariate adjusted odds ratios for ventricular grade in participants who were severely 25(OHD deficient and deficient were 0.49 (0.20-1.19 and 1.12 (0.79-1.59 compared to those sufficient. The multivariate adjusted odds ratios for incident infarcts in participants who were severely 25(OHD deficient and deficient were 1.95 (0.84-4.54 and 0.73 (0.47-1.95 compared to those sufficient. Overall, serum vitamin D concentrations could not be shown to be associated with the development of
Matthew T. Whitehead
Full Text Available A 14-month-old Hispanic female with a history of double-outlet right ventricle and developmental delay in the setting of recombinant chromosome 8 syndrome was referred for neurologic imaging. Brain MR revealed multiple abnormalities primarily affecting midline structures, including commissural dysgenesis, vermian and brainstem hypoplasia/dysplasia, an interhypothalamic adhesion, and an epidermoid between the frontal lobes that enlarged over time. Spine MR demonstrated hypoplastic C1 and C2 posterior elements, scoliosis, and a borderline low conus medullaris position. Presented herein is the first illustration of neuroimaging findings from a patient with San Luis Valley syndrome.
Charles Darwin's experimental investigations show him to have been a superb practical researcher. These skills are often underestimated today when assessing Darwin's achievement in the Origin of Species and his other books. Supported by a private income, he turned his house and gardens into a Victorian equivalent of a modern research station. Darwin participated actively in the exchange of scientific information via letters and much of his research was also carried out through correspondence. Although this research was relatively small scale in practice, it was large scale in intellectual scope. Darwin felt he had a strong desire to understand or explain whatever he observed.
Dalton, H.; Shupla, C. B.; Buxner, S.; Shipp, S. S.
Join the new NASA SMD Scientist Speaker's Bureau, an online portal to connect scientists interested in getting involved in E/PO projects (e.g., giving public talks, classroom visits, and virtual connections) with audiences! The Scientist Speaker's Bureau helps educators and institutions connect with NASA scientists who are interested in giving presentations, based upon the topic, logistics, and audience. Aside from name, organization, location, bio, and (optional) photo and website, the information that scientists enter into this database will not be made public; instead, it will be used to help match scientists with the requests being placed. One of the most common ways for scientists to interact with students, adults, and general public audiences is to give presentations about or related to their science. However, most educators do not have a simple way to connect with those planetary scientists, Earth scientists, heliophysicists, and astronomers who are interested and available to speak with their audiences. This system is designed to help meet the need for connecting potential audiences to interested scientists. The information input into the database (availability to travel, willingness to present online or in person, interest in presenting to different age groups and sizes of audience, topics, and more) will be used to help match scientists (you!) with the requests being placed by educators. All NASA-funded Earth and space scientists engaged in active research are invited to fill out the short registration form, including those who are involved in missions, institutes, grants, and those who are using NASA science data in their research, and more. There is particular need for young scientists, such as graduate students and post-doctoral researchers, and women and people of diverse backgrounds. Submit your information at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/speaker.
Jones, Gail; Taylor, Amy; Forrester, Jennifer H.
Although one of the goals of science education is to educate and nurture the next generation of scientists and engineers, there is limited research that investigates the pathway from childhood to becoming a scientist. This study examined the reflections of 37 scientists and engineers about their in- and out-of-school experiences as well as their memories of significant people who may have influenced their careers. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted and the interview transcripts were analyzed for potential influences on career decisions. Analysis showed several commonalities in participants' reported experiences that influenced career decisions in science and engineering. Informal advising and mentoring by teachers and family members were noted as important. Across participants, tinkering, building models, and exploring science independently in and out of school were viewed as factors that influenced interests in science and engineering. Implications of these results for formal and informal educational programs are discussed.
Weisman, Ronald G
Modeled on Medawar's Advice to a Young Scientist [Medawar, P.B., 1979. Advice to a Young Scientist. Basic Books, New York], this article provides advice to behavioral and cognitive scientists. An important guiding principle is that the study of comparative cognition and behavior are natural sciences tasked with explaining nature. The author advises young scientists to begin with a natural phenomenon and then bring it into the laboratory, rather than beginning in the laboratory and hoping for an application in nature. He suggests collaboration as a way to include research outside the scientist's normal competence. He then discusses several guides to good science. These guides include Tinbergen's [Tinbergen, N., 1963. On aims and methods of ethology. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 20, 410-433. This journal was renamed Ethology in 1986. Also reprinted in Anim. Biol. 55, 297-321, 2005] four "why" questions, Platt's [Platt, J.R., 1964. Strong inference. Science 146, 347-353, (http://weber.ucsd.edu/~jmoore/courses/Platt1964.pdf)] notion of strong inference using multiple alternative hypotheses, and the idea that positive controls help scientists to follow Popper's [Popper, K.R., 1959. The Logic of Scientific Discovery. Basic Books, New York, p. 41] advice about disproving hypotheses. The author also recommends Strunk and White's [Strunk, W., White, E.B., 1979. The Elements of Style, third ed. Macmillan, New York] rules for sound writing, and he provides his personal advice on how to use the anticipation of peer review to improve research and how to decode editors' and reviewers' comments about submitted articles.
Schinske, Jeffrey N.; Perkins, Heather; Snyder, Amanda; Wyer, Mary
Research into science identity, stereotype threat, and possible selves suggests a lack of diverse representations of scientists could impede traditionally underserved students from persisting and succeeding in science. We evaluated a series of metacognitive homework assignments (“Scientist Spotlights”) that featured counterstereotypical examples of scientists in an introductory biology class at a diverse community college. Scientist Spotlights additionally served as tools for content coverage, as scientists were selected to match topics covered each week. We analyzed beginning- and end-of-course essays completed by students during each of five courses with Scientist Spotlights and two courses with equivalent homework assignments that lacked connections to the stories of diverse scientists. Students completing Scientist Spotlights shifted toward counterstereotypical descriptions of scientists and conveyed an enhanced ability to personally relate to scientists following the intervention. Longitudinal data suggested these shifts were maintained 6 months after the completion of the course. Analyses further uncovered correlations between these shifts, interest in science, and course grades. As Scientist Spotlights require very little class time and complement existing curricula, they represent a promising tool for enhancing science identity, shifting stereotypes, and connecting content to issues of equity and diversity in a broad range of STEM classrooms. PMID:27587856
[NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 1:] The value of Scientific and Technical Information (STI), its relationship to Research and Development (R&D), and its use by US aerospace engineers and scientists
Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Myron; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Oliu, Walter E.
The relationship between scientific and technical information (STI), its use by aerospace engineers and scientists, and the aerospace R&D process is examined. Data are presented from studies of the role of STI in the performance and management of R&D activities and the behavior of engineers when using and seeking information. Consideration is given to the information sources used to solve technical problems, the production and use of technical communications, and the use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line data bases.
Glatard, Tristan; Lewis, Lindsay B; Ferreira da Silva, Rafael; Adalat, Reza; Beck, Natacha; Lepage, Claude; Rioux, Pierre; Rousseau, Marc-Etienne; Sherif, Tarek; Deelman, Ewa; Khalili-Mahani, Najmeh; Evans, Alan C
Neuroimaging pipelines are known to generate different results depending on the computing platform where they are compiled and executed. We quantify these differences for brain tissue classification, fMRI analysis, and cortical thickness (CT) extraction, using three of the main neuroimaging packages (FSL, Freesurfer and CIVET) and different versions of GNU/Linux. We also identify some causes of these differences using library and system call interception. We find that these packages use mathematical functions based on single-precision floating-point arithmetic whose implementations in operating systems continue to evolve. While these differences have little or no impact on simple analysis pipelines such as brain extraction and cortical tissue classification, their accumulation creates important differences in longer pipelines such as subcortical tissue classification, fMRI analysis, and cortical thickness extraction. With FSL, most Dice coefficients between subcortical classifications obtained on different operating systems remain above 0.9, but values as low as 0.59 are observed. Independent component analyses (ICA) of fMRI data differ between operating systems in one third of the tested subjects, due to differences in motion correction. With Freesurfer and CIVET, in some brain regions we find an effect of build or operating system on cortical thickness. A first step to correct these reproducibility issues would be to use more precise representations of floating-point numbers in the critical sections of the pipelines. The numerical stability of pipelines should also be reviewed.
Baskin, Henry J. [Cincinnati Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Hedlund, Gary [Primary Children' s Medical Center, Department of Medical Imaging, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)
Six members of the herpesvirus family cause well-described neurologic disease in children: herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2), varicella-zoster (VZV), Epstein-Barr (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6). When herpesviruses infect the central nervous system (CNS), the clinical presentation is non-specific and often confounding. The clinical urgency is often underscored by progressive neurologic deficits, seizures, or even death, and prompt diagnosis and treatment rely heavily on neuroimaging. This review focuses on the spectrum of cerebral manifestations caused by these viruses, particularly on non-congenital presentations. Recent advances in our understanding of these viruses are discussed, including new polymerase chain reaction techniques that allow parallel detection, which has improved our recognition that the herpesviruses are neurotropic and involve the CNS more often than previously thought. Evolving knowledge has also better elucidated viral neuropathology, particularly the role of VZV vasculitis in the brain, HHV-6 in febrile seizures, and herpesvirus reactivation in immunosuppressed patients. The virology, clinical course, and CNS manifestations of each virus are reviewed, followed by descriptions of neuroimaging findings when these agents infect the brain. Characteristic but often subtle imaging findings are discussed, as well as technical pearls covering appropriate use of MRI and MRI adjuncts to help differentiate viral infection from mimics. (orig.)
David M. Niddam
Full Text Available Neuroimaging has provided important information on how acute and chronic pain is processed in the human brain. The pain experience is now known to be the final product of activity in distributed networks consisting of multiple cortical and subcortical areas. Due to the complex nature of the pain experience, a single cerebral representation of pain does not exist. Instead, pain depends on the context in which it is experienced and is generated through variable expression of the different aspects of pain in conjunction with modulatory influences. While considerable data have been generated about the supraspinal organization of cutaneous pain, little is known about how nociceptive information from musculoskeletal tissue is processed in the brain. This is in spite of the fact that pain from musculoskeletal tissue is more frequently encountered in clinical practice, poses a bigger diagnostic problem and is insufficiently treated. Differences are known to exist between acute pain from cutaneous and muscular tissue in both psychophysical responses as well as in physiological characteristics. The 2 tissue types also differ in pain sensitivity to the same stimuli and in their response to analgesic substances. In this review, characteristics of acute and chronic muscle pain will be presented together with a brief overview of the methods of induction and psychophysical assessment of muscle pain. Results from the neuroimaging literature concerned with phasic and tonic muscle pain will be reviewed.
Pratte, Michael S; Tong, Frank
The development of mathematical models to characterize perceptual and cognitive processes dates back almost to the inception of the field of psychology. Since the 1990s, human functional neuroimaging has provided for rapid empirical and theoretical advances across a variety of domains in cognitive neuroscience. In more recent work, formal modeling and neuroimaging approaches are being successfully combined, often producing models with a level of specificity and rigor that would not have been possible by studying behavior alone. In this review, we highlight examples of recent studies that utilize this combined approach to provide novel insights into the mechanisms underlying human cognition. The studies described here span domains of perception, attention, memory, categorization, and cognitive control, employing a variety of analytic and model-inspired approaches. Across these diverse studies, a common theme is that individually tailored, creative solutions are often needed to establish compelling links between multi-parameter models and complex sets of neural data. We conclude that future developments in model-based cognitive neuroscience will have great potential to advance our theoretical understanding and ability to model both low-level and high-level cognitive processes.
Pope, Allen; Fugmann, Gerlis; Kruse, Frigga
As a partner organization of AGU, the Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS; http://www.apecs.is) fully supports the views expressed in Wendy Gordon's Forum article "Developing Scientists' `Soft' Skills" (Eos, 95(6), 55, doi:10.1002/2014EO060003). Her recognition that beyond research skills, people skills and professional training are crucial to the success of any early-career scientist is encouraging.
A congressional report released this week details dozens of sometimes clumsy attempts by foreign agents to obtain nuclear secrets from U.S. nuclear scientists traveling abroad, ranging from offering scientists prostitutes to prying off the backs of their laptop computers. The report highlights the need to better prepare traveling researchers to safeguard secrets and resist such temptations, say the two lawmakers who requested the report and officials at the Department of Energy, which employs the scientists.
Attention binds psychology to the techniques of neuroscience and exemplifies the links between brain and behavior. Associated with attentional networks, at least 3 brain modules govern control processes by drawing on disparate functional neuroanatomy, neuromodulators, and psychological substrates. Guided by data-driven brain theories, researchers have related specific genetic polymorphisms to well-defined phenotypes, including those associated with different attentional efficiencies and hypnosis. Because attention can modulate both cognitive and affective processes, genetic assays together with neuroimaging data have begun to elucidate individual differences. Findings from genetic assays of both attention and hypnotizability pave the way to answering questions such as how high hypnotizable individuals may differ from less-hypnotizable persons. These exploratory findings may extend to the identification of placebo responders.
Glass, Leila; Ware, Ashley L; Mattson, Sarah N
Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can have deleterious consequences for the fetus, including changes in central nervous system development leading to permanent neurologic alterations and cognitive and behavioral deficits. Individuals affected by prenatal alcohol exposure, including those with and without fetal alcohol syndrome, are identified under the umbrella of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). While studies of humans and animal models confirm that even low to moderate levels of exposure can have detrimental effects, critical doses of such exposure have yet to be specified and the most clinically significant and consistent consequences occur following heavy exposure. These consequences are pervasive, devastating, and can result in long-term dysfunction. This chapter summarizes the neurobehavioral, neurologic, and neuroimaging characteristics of FASD, focusing primarily on clinical research of individuals with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure, although studies of lower levels of exposure, particularly prospective, longitudinal studies, will be discussed where relevant. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gilbert, G. Nigel; Troitzsch, Klaus G
... sciences. Simulation for the Social Scientist is a practical textbook on the techniques of building computer simulations to assist understanding of social and economic issues and problems. This authoritative book details all the common approaches to social simulation to provide social scientists with an appreciation of the literature and allow those w...
"Science, with its inherent uncertainties, can be hard to put across to the public. But blaming 'sloppy' journalism is too easy. If researchers are to make their points effectively, they should learn more about how the media work" (1 page).
EPA scientist Dr. Robert Devlin's main research interest is understanding the health effects of air pollution. His research characterizes the effects that inhaled substances, such as air pollutants, have on human pulmonary and cardiovascular health
EPA scientist Jeff Szabo, Ph.D., has worked for the EPA’s National Homeland Security Research Center since 2005. He conducts and manages water security research projects at EPA’s Test and Evaluation facility.
EPA Scientist Dr. Marie O'Shea is Region 2's Liaison to the Agency's Office of Research and Development (ORD). Marie has a background in research on urban watershed management, focused on characterizing and controlling nutrients in stormwater runoff.
EPA Scientist Ana Rappold is a statistician in EPA's Environmental Public Health Division of the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Lab. Her research is focused on the health effects of air pollution.
O'connell, E. A.
Engaging Americans and the international community in the excitement and value of Alaskan Arctic discovery is the goal of Frontier Scientists. With a changing climate, resources of polar regions are being eyed by many nations. Frontier Scientists brings the stories of field scientists in the Far North to the public. With a website, an app, short videos, and social media channels; FS is a model for making connections between the public and field scientists. FS will demonstrate how academia, web content, online communities, evaluation and marketing are brought together in a 21st century multi-media platform, how scientists can maintain their integrity while engaging in outreach, and how new forms of media such as short videos can entertain as well as inspire.
Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.
The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the technical communications practices of British aerospace engineers and scientists.
NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project: Report 43: The Technical Communication Practices of U.S. Aerospace Engineers and Scientists: Results of the Phase 1 Mail Survey -- Manufacturing and Production Perspective
Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.
The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the technical communication practices of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who were members of the Society of Manufacturing Engineers.
Full Text Available Since 2010, the Italian Ministry of University and Research issued new evaluation protocols to select candidates for University professorships and assess the bibliometric productivity of Universities and Research Institutes based on bibliometric indicators, i.e. scientific paper and citation numbers and the h-index. Under this framework, the objective of this study was to quantify the bibliometric productivity of the Italian forest research community during the 2002-2012 period. We examined the following productivity parameters: (i the bibliometric productivity under the Forestry subject category at the global level; (ii compared the aggregated bibliometric productivity of Italian forest scientists with scientists from other countries; (iii analyzed publication and citation temporal trends of Italian forest scientists and their international collaborations; and (iv characterized productivity distribution among Italian forest scientists at different career levels. Results indicated the following: (i the UK is the most efficient country based on the ratio between Gross Domestic Spending (GDS on Research and Development (R&D and bibliometric productivity under the Forestry subject category, followed by Italy; (ii Italian forest scientist productivity exhibited a significant positive time trend, but was characterized by high inequality across authors; (iii one-half of the Italian forest scientist publications were written in collaboration with foreign scientists; (iv a strong relationship exists between bibliometric indicators calculated by WOS and SCOPUS, suggesting these two databases have the same potential to evaluate the forestry research community; and (v self-citations did not significantly affect the rank of Italian forest scientists.
Carlsson, Jessica; Sonne, Charlotte; Silove, Derrick
Outcome studies on treatment of trauma-affected refugees have been published but are limited in design and quality. In this article, we discuss possible impediments to pursuing research aimed at gathering evidence to support the efficacy of treatments in the field and the challenges in carrying o...
Full Text Available Background. No consensus between guidelines exists regarding neuroimaging in first-episode psychosis. The purpose of this study is to assess anomalies found in structural neuroimaging exams (brain computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in the initial medical work-up of patients presenting first-episode psychosis. Methods. The study subjects were 32 patients aged 18–48 years (mean age: 29.6 years, consecutively admitted with first-episode psychosis diagnosis. Socio-demographic and clinical data and neuroimaging exams (CT and MRI were retrospectively studied. Diagnostic assessments were made using the Operational Criteria Checklist +. Neuroimaging images (CT and MRI and respective reports were analysed by an experienced consultant psychiatrist. Results. None of the patients had abnormalities in neuroimaging exams responsible for psychotic symptoms. Thirty-seven percent of patients had incidental brain findings not causally related to the psychosis (brain atrophy, arachnoid cyst, asymmetric lateral ventricles, dilated lateral ventricles, plagiocephaly and falx cerebri calcification. No further medical referral was needed for any of these patients. No significant differences regarding gender, age, diagnosis, duration of untreated psychosis, in-stay and cannabis use were found between patients who had neuroimaging abnormalities versus those without. Discussion. This study suggests that structural neuroimaging exams reveal scarce abnormalities in young patients with first-episode psychosis. Structural neuroimaging is especially useful in first-episode psychosis patients with neurological symptoms, atypical clinical picture and old age.