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Sample records for neuroimaging initiative study

  1. Validation of Alzheimer's disease CSF and plasma biological markers: the multicentre reliability study of the pilot European Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (E-ADNI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buerger, Katharina; Frisoni, Giovanni; Uspenskaya, Olga

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiatives ("ADNI") aim to validate neuroimaging and biochemical markers of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Data of the pilot European-ADNI (E-ADNI) biological marker programme of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma candidate biomarkers are reported. METHO...

  2. Retrospective study on structural neuroimaging in first-episode psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Coentre

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. No consensus between guidelines exists regarding neuroimaging in first-episode psychosis. The purpose of this study is to assess anomalies found in structural neuroimaging exams (brain computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in the initial medical work-up of patients presenting first-episode psychosis. Methods. The study subjects were 32 patients aged 18–48 years (mean age: 29.6 years, consecutively admitted with first-episode psychosis diagnosis. Socio-demographic and clinical data and neuroimaging exams (CT and MRI were retrospectively studied. Diagnostic assessments were made using the Operational Criteria Checklist +. Neuroimaging images (CT and MRI and respective reports were analysed by an experienced consultant psychiatrist. Results. None of the patients had abnormalities in neuroimaging exams responsible for psychotic symptoms. Thirty-seven percent of patients had incidental brain findings not causally related to the psychosis (brain atrophy, arachnoid cyst, asymmetric lateral ventricles, dilated lateral ventricles, plagiocephaly and falx cerebri calcification. No further medical referral was needed for any of these patients. No significant differences regarding gender, age, diagnosis, duration of untreated psychosis, in-stay and cannabis use were found between patients who had neuroimaging abnormalities versus those without. Discussion. This study suggests that structural neuroimaging exams reveal scarce abnormalities in young patients with first-episode psychosis. Structural neuroimaging is especially useful in first-episode psychosis patients with neurological symptoms, atypical clinical picture and old age.

  3. Genetic influence of apolipoprotein E4 genotype on hippocampal morphometry: An N = 725 surface-based Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jie; Leporé, Natasha; Gutman, Boris A; Thompson, Paul M; Baxter, Leslie C; Caselli, Richard J; Wang, Yalin

    2014-08-01

    The apolipoprotein E (APOE) e4 allele is the most prevalent genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Hippocampal volumes are generally smaller in AD patients carrying the e4 allele compared to e4 noncarriers. Here we examined the effect of APOE e4 on hippocampal morphometry in a large imaging database-the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). We automatically segmented and constructed hippocampal surfaces from the baseline MR images of 725 subjects with known APOE genotype information including 167 with AD, 354 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 204 normal controls. High-order correspondences between hippocampal surfaces were enforced across subjects with a novel inverse consistent surface fluid registration method. Multivariate statistics consisting of multivariate tensor-based morphometry (mTBM) and radial distance were computed for surface deformation analysis. Using Hotelling's T(2) test, we found significant morphological deformation in APOE e4 carriers relative to noncarriers in the entire cohort as well as in the nondemented (pooled MCI and control) subjects, affecting the left hippocampus more than the right, and this effect was more pronounced in e4 homozygotes than heterozygotes. Our findings are consistent with previous studies that showed e4 carriers exhibit accelerated hippocampal atrophy; we extend these findings to a novel measure of hippocampal morphometry. Hippocampal morphometry has significant potential as an imaging biomarker of early stage AD. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Geriatric medicine, Japanese Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative and biomarker development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Hiroyuki; Furukawa, Katsutoshi; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Kudo, Yukitsuka

    2010-01-01

    Due to a change in disease spectrum in aged countries, the primary role of geriatricians should be directed to an appropriate management and prevention of cognitive decline and dementia, swallowing and aspiration pneumonia and falls and fractures. Management of dementia constitutes a central part in the practice of geriatric medicine in order to support independence of life in elderly people. The current paradigm of cognitive function-based testing for the diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is going to drastically shift to a biomarker-based test approach, a shift that will correspond to the emergence of disease-modifying drugs. In addition, a new molecular imaging technique that visualizes neuronal protein deposits or pathological features has been developed in Japan and the U.S.A. Based on these achievements, the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) was proposed and initiated in 2005. The ADNI is a long-term observational study being conducted in the U.S.A., Europe, Australia, and Japan using identical protocols. The objectives of ADNI are: to establish methodology which will allow standard values related to long-term changes in imaging data, such as MRI and positron emission tomography (PET), in patients with AD and mild cognitive impairment and normal elderly persons; to obtain clinical indices, psychological test data, and blood/cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers to demonstrate the validity of image-based surrogate markers; and to establish optimum methods to monitor the therapeutic effects of disease-modifying drugs for AD. Patient enrollment in the Japanese ADNI has begun in July 2008. Imaging of AD pathology not only acts as a reliable biomarker with which to assay curative drug development by novel pharmaceutical companies, but it also helps health promotion toward AD prevention. (author)

  5. [How to start a neuroimaging study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narumoto, Jin

    2012-06-01

    In order to help researchers understand how to start a neuroimaging study, several tips are described in this paper. These include 1) Choice of an imaging modality, 2) Statistical method, and 3) Interpretation of the results. 1) There are several imaging modalities available in clinical research. Advantages and disadvantages of each modality are described. 2) Statistical Parametric Mapping, which is the most common statistical software for neuroimaging analysis, is described in terms of parameter setting in normalization and level of significance. 3) In the discussion section, the region which shows a significant difference between patients and normal controls should be discussed in relation to the neurophysiology of the disease, making reference to previous reports from neuroimaging studies in normal controls, lesion studies and animal studies. A typical pattern of discussion is described.

  6. Paediatric population neuroimaging and the Generation R Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Tonya; Muetzel, Ryan L.; El Marroun, Hanan

    2018-01-01

    Paediatric population neuroimaging is an emerging field that falls at the intersection between developmental neuroscience and epidemiology. A key feature of population neuroimaging studies involves large-scale recruitment that is representative of the general population. One successful approach f...

  7. Neuroimaging studies of self-reflection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ying

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews some basic findings and methodological issues in neuroimaging studies of self-referential processing.As a general rule,making judgments about one's self,inclusive of personality trait adjectives or current mental states(person's prefer ences,norms,aesthetic values and feeling)uniformly generates medial prefrontal activations,regardless of stimulus materials(words or pictures)and modality(visual or auditory).Cingulate activations are also observed in association with most self-referential processing.Methodological issues include treating self-referential processing as either representing one's own personality traits or representing one's own current mental states.Finally,self-referential processing could Be considered as implement of "I think therefore I am" approach to neuroimaging the self.

  8. Multiple comparison procedures for neuroimaging genomewide association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Wen-Yu; Nichols, Thomas E; Ghosh, Debashis

    2015-01-01

    Recent research in neuroimaging has focused on assessing associations between genetic variants that are measured on a genomewide scale and brain imaging phenotypes. A large number of works in the area apply massively univariate analyses on a genomewide basis to find single nucleotide polymorphisms that influence brain structure. In this paper, we propose using various dimensionality reduction methods on both brain structural MRI scans and genomic data, motivated by the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) study. We also consider a new multiple testing adjustment method and compare it with two existing false discovery rate (FDR) adjustment methods. The simulation results suggest an increase in power for the proposed method. The real-data analysis suggests that the proposed procedure is able to find associations between genetic variants and brain volume differences that offer potentially new biological insights. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The pilot European Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative of the European Alzheimer's Disease Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisoni, G.B.; Henneman, W.J.; Weiner, M.W.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In North America, the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) has established a platform to track the brain changes of Alzheimer's disease. A pilot study has been carried out in Europe to test the feasibility of the adoption of the ADNI platform (pilot E-ADNI). METHODS: Seven...... academic sites of the European Alzheimer's Disease Consortium (EADC) enrolled 19 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 22 with AD, and 18 older healthy persons by using the ADNI clinical and neuropsychological battery. ADNI compliant magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, cerebrospinal fluid...

  10. Neuroimaging studies in people with gender incongruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Guillamon, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The current review gives an overview of brain studies in transgender people. First, we describe studies into the aetiology of feelings of gender incongruence, primarily addressing the sexual differentiation hypothesis: does the brain of transgender individuals resemble that of their natal sex, or that of their experienced gender? Findings from neuroimaging studies focusing on brain structure suggest that the brain phenotypes of trans women (MtF) and trans men (FtM) differ in various ways from control men and women with feminine, masculine, demasculinized and defeminized features. The brain phenotypes of people with feelings of gender incongruence may help us to figure out whether sex differentiation of the brain is atypical in these individuals, and shed light on gender identity development. Task-related imaging studies may show whether brain activation and task performance in transgender people is sex-atypical. Second, we review studies that evaluate the effects of cross-sex hormone treatment on the brain. This type of research provides knowledge on how changes in sex hormone levels may affect brain structure and function.

  11. The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative 3: Continued innovation for clinical trial improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiner, Michael W. [Dept. of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA (United States); Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Veitch, Dallas P. [Dept. of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA (United States); Aisen, Paul S. [Univ. of Southern California, San Diego, CA (United States); Beckett, Laurel A. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Cairns, Nigel J. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Green, Robert C. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Harvey, Danielle [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Jack, Clifford R. [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Jagust, William [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Morris, John C. [Univ. of Southern California, San Diego, CA (United States); Petersen, Ronald C. [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Salazar, Jennifer [Univ. of Southern California, San Diego, CA (United States); Saykin, Andrew J. [Indiana Univ. School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Shaw, Leslie M. [Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Toga, Arthur W. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Trojanowski, John Q. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-12-05

    Overall, the goal of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is to validate biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) clinical trials. ADNI-3, which began on August 1, 2016, is a 5-year renewal of the current ADNI-2 study. ADNI-3 will follow current and additional subjects with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment, and AD using innovative technologies such as tau imaging, magnetic resonance imaging sequences for connectivity analyses, and a highly automated immunoassay platform and mass spectroscopy approach for cerebrospinal fluid biomarker analysis. A Systems Biology/pathway approach will be used to identify genetic factors for subject selection/enrichment. Amyloid positron emission tomography scanning will be standardized using the Centiloid method. The Brain Health Registry will help recruit subjects and monitor subject cognition. Multimodal analyses will provide insight into AD pathophysiology and disease progression. Finally, ADNI-3 will aim to inform AD treatment trials and facilitate development of AD disease-modifying treatments.

  12. Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative: a one-year follow up study using tensor-based morphometry correlating degenerative rates, biomarkers and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Alex D; Yanovsky, Igor; Parikshak, Neelroop; Hua, Xue; Lee, Suh; Toga, Arthur W; Jack, Clifford R; Bernstein, Matt A; Britson, Paula J; Gunter, Jeffrey L; Ward, Chadwick P; Borowski, Bret; Shaw, Leslie M; Trojanowski, John Q; Fleisher, Adam S; Harvey, Danielle; Kornak, John; Schuff, Norbert; Alexander, Gene E; Weiner, Michael W; Thompson, Paul M

    2009-04-15

    Tensor-based morphometry can recover three-dimensional longitudinal brain changes over time by nonlinearly registering baseline to follow-up MRI scans of the same subject. Here, we compared the anatomical distribution of longitudinal brain structural changes, over 12 months, using a subset of the ADNI dataset consisting of 20 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 40 healthy elderly controls, and 40 individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Each individual longitudinal change map (Jacobian map) was created using an unbiased registration technique, and spatially normalized to a geometrically-centered average image based on healthy controls. Voxelwise statistical analyses revealed regional differences in atrophy rates, and these differences were correlated with clinical measures and biomarkers. Consistent with prior studies, we detected widespread cerebral atrophy in AD, and a more restricted atrophic pattern in MCI. In MCI, temporal lobe atrophy rates were correlated with changes in mini-mental state exam (MMSE) scores, clinical dementia rating (CDR), and logical/verbal learning memory scores. In AD, temporal atrophy rates were correlated with several biomarker indices, including a higher CSF level of p-tau protein, and a greater CSF tau/beta amyloid 1-42 (ABeta42) ratio. Temporal lobe atrophy was significantly faster in MCI subjects who converted to AD than in non-converters. Serial MRI scans can therefore be analyzed with nonlinear image registration to relate ongoing neurodegeneration to a variety of pathological biomarkers, cognitive changes, and conversion from MCI to AD, tracking disease progression in 3-dimensional detail.

  13. Head motion evaluation and correction for PET scans with 18F-FDG in the Japanese Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative (J-ADNI) multi-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikari, Yasuhiko; Nishio, Tomoyuki; Makishi, Yoko; Miya, Yukari; Ito, Kengo; Koeppe, Robert A; Senda, Michio

    2012-08-01

    Head motion during 30-min (six 5-min frames) brain PET scans starting 30 min post-injection of FDG was evaluated together with the effect of post hoc motion correction between frames in J-ADNI multicenter study carried out in 24 PET centers on a total of 172 subjects consisting of 81 normal subjects, 55 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 36 mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Based on the magnitude of the between-frame co-registration parameters, the scans were classified into six levels (A-F) of motion degree. The effect of motion and its correction was evaluated using between-frame variation of the regional FDG uptake values on ROIs placed over cerebral cortical areas. Although AD patients tended to present larger motion (motion level E or F in 22 % of the subjects) than MCI (3 %) and normal (4 %) subjects, unignorable motion was observed in a small number of subjects in the latter groups as well. The between-frame coefficient of variation (SD/mean) was 0.5 % in the frontal, 0.6 % in the parietal and 1.8 % in the posterior cingulate ROI for the scans of motion level 1. The respective values were 1.5, 1.4, and 3.6 % for the scans of motion level F, but reduced by the motion correction to 0.5, 0.4 and 0.8 %, respectively. The motion correction changed the ROI value for the posterior cingulate cortex by 11.6 % in the case of severest motion. Substantial head motion occurs in a fraction of subjects in a multicenter setup which includes PET centers lacking sufficient experience in imaging demented patients. A simple frame-by-frame co-registration technique that can be applied to any PET camera model is effective in correcting for motion and improving quantitative capability.

  14. Imaging stress effects on memory: a review of neuroimaging studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stegeren, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To review and give an overview of neuroimaging studies that look at the role of stress (hormones) on memory. Method: An overview will be given of imaging studies that looked at the role of stress (hormones) on memory. Stress is here defined as the acute provocation of the sympathetic

  15. Contributions of neuroimaging in singing voice studies: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geová Oliveira de Amorim

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT It is assumed that singing is a highly complex activity, which requires the activation and interconnection of sensorimotor areas. The aim of the current research was to present the evidence from neuroimaging studies in the performance of the motor and sensory system in the process of singing. Research articles on the characteristics of human singing analyzed by neuroimaging, which were published between 1990 and 2016, and indexed and listed in databases such as PubMed, BIREME, Lilacs, Web of Science, Scopus, and EBSCO were chosen for this systematic review. A total of 9 articles, employing magnetoencephalography, functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and electrocorticography were chosen. These neuroimaging approaches enabled the identification of a neural network interconnecting the spoken and singing voice, to identify, modulate, and correct pitch. This network changed with the singer's training, variations in melodic structure and harmonized singing, amusia, and the relationship among the brain areas that are responsible for speech, singing, and the persistence of musicality. Since knowledge of the neural networks that control singing is still scarce, the use of neuroimaging methods to elucidate these pathways should be a focus of future research.

  16. Inter-rater variability of visual interpretation and comparison with quantitative evaluation of 11C-PiB PET amyloid images of the Japanese Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (J-ADNI) multicenter study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Tomohiko; Ishii, Kenji; Sakata, Muneyuki; Ikari, Yasuhiko; Nishio, Tomoyuki; Ishii, Kazunari; Kato, Takashi; Ito, Kengo; Senda, Michio

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the inter-rater variability of the visual interpretation of 11 C-PiB PET images regarding the positivity/negativity of amyloid deposition that were obtained in a multicenter clinical research project, Japanese Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (J-ADNI). The results of visual interpretation were also compared with a semi-automatic quantitative analysis using mean cortical standardized uptake value ratio to the cerebellar cortex (mcSUVR). A total of 162 11 C-PiB PET scans, including 45 mild Alzheimer's disease, 60 mild cognitive impairment, and 57 normal cognitive control cases that had been acquired as J-ADNI baseline scans were analyzed. Based on visual interpretation by three independent raters followed by consensus read, each case was classified into positive, equivocal, and negative deposition (ternary criteria) and further dichotomized by merging the former two (binary criteria). Complete agreement of visual interpretation by the three raters was observed for 91.3% of the cases (Cohen κ = 0.88 on average) in ternary criteria and for 92.3% (κ = 0.89) in binary criteria. Cases that were interpreted as visually positive in the consensus read showed significantly higher mcSUVR than those visually negative (2.21 ± 0.37 vs. 1.27 ± 0.09, p < 0.001), and positive or negative decision by visual interpretation was dichotomized by a cut-off value of mcSUVR = 1.5. Significant positive/negative associations were observed between mcSUVR and the number of raters who evaluated as positive (ρ = 0.87, p < 0.0001) and negative (ρ = -0.85, p < 0.0001) interpretation. Cases of disagreement among raters showed generally low mcSUVR. Inter-rater agreement was almost perfect in 11 C-PiB PET scans. Positive or negative decision by visual interpretation was dichotomized by a cut-off value of mcSUVR = 1.5. As some cases of disagreement among raters tended to show low mcSUVR, referring to quantitative method may facilitate

  17. Inter-rater variability of visual interpretation and comparison with quantitative evaluation of {sup 11}C-PiB PET amyloid images of the Japanese Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (J-ADNI) multicenter study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, Tomohiko [Saitama Medical University Saitama International Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hidaka (Japan); Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Division of Molecular Imaging, Kobe (Japan); Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Team for Neuroimaging Research, Tokyo (Japan); Ishii, Kenji; Sakata, Muneyuki [Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Team for Neuroimaging Research, Tokyo (Japan); Ikari, Yasuhiko; Nishio, Tomoyuki [Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Division of Molecular Imaging, Kobe (Japan); Research Association for Biotechnology, Tokyo (Japan); Ishii, Kazunari [Kinki University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Osaka, Sayama (Japan); Kato, Takashi; Ito, Kengo [National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Department of Brain Science and Molecular Imaging, Obu (Japan); Senda, Michio [Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Division of Molecular Imaging, Kobe (Japan); Collaboration: J-ADNI Study Group

    2017-05-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the inter-rater variability of the visual interpretation of {sup 11}C-PiB PET images regarding the positivity/negativity of amyloid deposition that were obtained in a multicenter clinical research project, Japanese Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (J-ADNI). The results of visual interpretation were also compared with a semi-automatic quantitative analysis using mean cortical standardized uptake value ratio to the cerebellar cortex (mcSUVR). A total of 162 {sup 11}C-PiB PET scans, including 45 mild Alzheimer's disease, 60 mild cognitive impairment, and 57 normal cognitive control cases that had been acquired as J-ADNI baseline scans were analyzed. Based on visual interpretation by three independent raters followed by consensus read, each case was classified into positive, equivocal, and negative deposition (ternary criteria) and further dichotomized by merging the former two (binary criteria). Complete agreement of visual interpretation by the three raters was observed for 91.3% of the cases (Cohen κ = 0.88 on average) in ternary criteria and for 92.3% (κ = 0.89) in binary criteria. Cases that were interpreted as visually positive in the consensus read showed significantly higher mcSUVR than those visually negative (2.21 ± 0.37 vs. 1.27 ± 0.09, p < 0.001), and positive or negative decision by visual interpretation was dichotomized by a cut-off value of mcSUVR = 1.5. Significant positive/negative associations were observed between mcSUVR and the number of raters who evaluated as positive (ρ = 0.87, p < 0.0001) and negative (ρ = -0.85, p < 0.0001) interpretation. Cases of disagreement among raters showed generally low mcSUVR. Inter-rater agreement was almost perfect in {sup 11}C-PiB PET scans. Positive or negative decision by visual interpretation was dichotomized by a cut-off value of mcSUVR = 1.5. As some cases of disagreement among raters tended to show low mcSUVR, referring to quantitative method may

  18. Pain perception and hypnosis: findings from recent functional neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Casale, Antonio; Ferracuti, Stefano; Rapinesi, Chiara; Serata, Daniele; Caltagirone, Saverio Simone; Savoja, Valeria; Piacentino, Daria; Callovini, Gemma; Manfredi, Giovanni; Sani, Gabriele; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Girardi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Hypnosis modulates pain perception and tolerance by affecting cortical and subcortical activity in brain regions involved in these processes. By reviewing functional neuroimaging studies focusing on pain perception under hypnosis, the authors aimed to identify brain activation-deactivation patterns occurring in hypnosis-modulated pain conditions. Different changes in brain functionality occurred throughout all components of the pain network and other brain areas. The anterior cingulate cortex appears to be central in modulating pain circuitry activity under hypnosis. Most studies also showed that the neural functions of the prefrontal, insular, and somatosensory cortices are consistently modified during hypnosis-modulated pain conditions. Functional neuroimaging studies support the clinical use of hypnosis in the management of pain conditions.

  19. Mapping longitudinal scientific progress, collaboration and impact of the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Yao

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative (ADNI is a landmark imaging and omics study in AD. ADNI research literature has increased substantially over the past decade, which poses challenges for effectively communicating information about the results and impact of ADNI-related studies. In this work, we employed advanced information visualization techniques to perform a comprehensive and systematic mapping of the ADNI scientific growth and impact over a period of 12 years.Citation information of ADNI-related publications from 01/01/2003 to 05/12/2015 were downloaded from the Scopus database. Five fields, including authors, years, affiliations, sources (journals, and keywords, were extracted and preprocessed. Statistical analyses were performed on basic publication data as well as journal and citations information. Science mapping workflows were conducted using the Science of Science (Sci2 Tool to generate geospatial, topical, and collaboration visualizations at the micro (individual to macro (global levels such as geospatial layouts of institutional collaboration networks, keyword co-occurrence networks, and author collaboration networks evolving over time.During the studied period, 996 ADNI manuscripts were published across 233 journals and conference proceedings. The number of publications grew linearly from 2008 to 2015, so did the number of involved institutions. ADNI publications received much more citations than typical papers from the same set of journals. Collaborations were visualized at multiple levels, including authors, institutions, and research areas. The evolution of key ADNI research topics was also plotted over the studied period.Both statistical and visualization results demonstrate the increasing attention of ADNI research, strong citation impact of ADNI publications, the expanding collaboration networks among researchers, institutions and ADNI core areas, and the dynamic evolution of ADNI research topics. The visualizations

  20. Recent progress of neuroimaging studies on sleeping brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Yuka

    2012-01-01

    Although sleep is a familiar phenomenon, its functions are yet to be elucidated. Understanding these functions of sleep is an important focus area in neuroscience. Electroencephalography (EEG) has been the predominantly used method in human sleep research but does not provide detailed spatial information about brain activation during sleep. To supplement the spatial information provided by this method, researchers have started using a combination of EEG and various advanced neuroimaging techniques that have been recently developed, including positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this paper, we will review the recent progress in sleep studies, especially studies that have used such advanced neuroimaging techniques. First, we will briefly introduce several neuroimaging techniques available for use in sleep studies. Next, we will review the spatiotemporal brain activation patterns during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, the dynamics of functional connectivity during sleep, and the consolidation of learning and memory during sleep; studies on the neural correlates of dreams, which have not yet been identified, will also be discussed. Lastly, possible directions for future research in this area will be discussed. (author)

  1. [Recent progress of neuroimaging studies on sleeping brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Yuka

    2012-06-01

    Although sleep is a familiar phenomenon, its functions are yet to be elucidated. Understanding these functions of sleep is an important focus area in neuroscience. Electroencephalography (EEG) has been the predominantly used method in human sleep research but does not provide detailed spatial information about brain activation during sleep. To supplement the spatial information provided by this method, researchers have started using a combination of EEG and various advanced neuroimaging techniques that have been recently developed, including positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this paper, we will review the recent progress in sleep studies, especially studies that have used such advanced neuroimaging techniques. First, we will briefly introduce several neuroimaging techniques available for use in sleep studies. Next, we will review the spatiotemporal brain activation patterns during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, the dynamics of functional connectivity during sleep, and the consolidation of learning and memory during sleep; studies on the neural correlates of dreams, which have not yet been identified, will also be discussed. Lastly, possible directions for future research in this area will be discussed.

  2. Neuroimaging Studies Of Striatum In Cognition, Part I: Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Sebastien eProvost

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The striatum has traditionally mainly been associated with playing a key role in the modulation of motor functions. Indeed, lesion studies in animals and studies of some neurological conditions in humans have brought further evidence to this idea. However, better methods of investigation have raised concerns about this notion, and it was proposed that the striatum could also be involved in different types of functions including cognitive ones. Although the notion was originally a matter of debate, it is now well accepted that the caudate nucleus contributes to cognition, while the putamen could be involved in motor functions, and to some extent in cognitive functions as well. With the arrival of modern neuroimaging techniques in the early 1990, knowledge supporting the cognitive aspect of the striatum has greatly increased, and a substantial number of scientific papers were published studying the role of the striatum in healthy individuals. For the first time, it was possible to assess the contribution of specific areas of the brain during the execution of a cognitive task. Neuroanatomical studies have described functional loops involving the striatum and the prefrontal cortex suggesting a specific interaction between these two structures. This review examines the data up to date and provides strong evidence for a specific contribution of the fronto-striatal regions in different cognitive processes, such as set-shifting, self-initiated responses, rule learning, action-contingency, and planning. Finally, a new two-level functional model involving the prefrontal cortex and the dorsal striatum is proposed suggesting an essential role of the dorsal striatum in selecting between competing potential responses or actions, and in resolving a high level of ambiguity.

  3. Neuroimaging Studies Illustrate the Commonalities Between Ageing and Brain Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, James H

    2018-07-01

    The lack of specificity in neuroimaging studies of neurological and psychiatric diseases suggests that these different diseases have more in common than is generally considered. Potentially, features that are secondary effects of different pathological processes may share common neurobiological underpinnings. Intriguingly, many of these mechanisms are also observed in studies of normal (i.e., non-pathological) brain ageing. Different brain diseases may be causing premature or accelerated ageing to the brain, an idea that is supported by a line of "brain ageing" research that combines neuroimaging data with machine learning analysis. In reviewing this field, I conclude that such observations could have important implications, suggesting that we should shift experimental paradigm: away from characterizing the average case-control brain differences resulting from a disease toward methods that place individuals in their age-appropriate context. This will also lead naturally to clinical applications, whereby neuroimaging can contribute to a personalized-medicine approach to improve brain health. © 2018 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Changes in Brain Lateralization in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease: A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Study from Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available PurposeTo detect changes in brain lateralization in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI and Alzheimer’s disease (AD using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI.Materials and methodsData from 61 well-matched right-handed subjects were obtained from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, including 19 healthy controls (HCs, 25 patients with MCI, and 17 patients with AD. First, we divided 256 pairs of seed regions from each hemisphere covering the entire cerebral gray matter. Then, we used the intrinsic laterality index (iLI approach to quantify the functional laterality using fMRI. One-way ANOVA was employed to estimate the differences in iLI among the three groups. The sum, number and mean value of the iLI were calculated within the thresholds of 0 < |iLI| < 0.2, 0.2 ≤ |iLI| < 0.4, 0.4 ≤ |iLI| < 0.8, and |iLI| ≥ 0.8, to explore the changes in the lateralization of resting-state brain function in patients with MCI and AD.ResultsOne-way ANOVA revealed that the iLIs of the three groups were significantly different. The HCs showed a significant leftward interhemispheric difference within |iLI| ≥ 0.8. Compared with the HCs, the patients with MCI manifested a distinct abnormal rightward interhemispheric asymmetry, mainly within the thresholds of 0.2 ≤ |iLI| < 0.4 and 0.4 ≤ |iLI| < 0.8; in the patients with AD, the normal leftward lateralization that was observed in the HCs disappeared, and an abnormal rightward laterality was expressed within 0.4 ≤ |iLI| < 0.8. By directly comparing the patients with MCI with the patients with AD, an exclusive abnormal rightward laterality was observed in the patients with MCI within the 0.2 ≤ |iLI| < 0.4 threshold, and the normal leftward asymmetry vanished in the patients with AD within the |iLI| ≥ 0.8 threshold.ConclusionGlobal brain lateralization was different among three groups. The

  5. Initial Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    increased. In the initial study presented here, the time it takes to pass an intersection is studied in details. Two major signal-controlled four-way intersections in the center of the city Aalborg are studied in details to estimate the congestion levels in these intersections, based on the time it takes...

  6. Impact of analgesics on executive function and memory in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Lisa; Choi, Daniel; Kline, Richard

    2017-10-01

    Pain is common in older adults but may be undertreated in part due to concerns about medication toxicity. Analgesics may affect cognition. In this retrospective cohort study, we used the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database to examine the interaction of cognitive status and medications, especially non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). We hypothesized NSAID use would be associated with cognition and that this could be mediated through changes in brain structure. In this post hoc analysis of the ADNI database, subjects were selected by searching the "concurrent medications log" for analgesic medications. Subjects were included if the analgesic was listed on the medication log prior to enrollment in ADNI and throughout the study. Subjects taking analgesics, particularly NSAIDs, at each study visit were compared to control subjects taking no analgesics. Using descriptive statistics as well as univariate, multivariate and repeated measure ANOVA, we explored the relationship between NSAID use and scores for executive function and memory related cognitive activities. We further took advantage of the extensive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data available in ADNI to test whether cognitive change was associated with brain structure. The multitude of imaging variables was compressed into a small number of features (five eigenvectors (EV)) using principal component analysis. There were 87 NSAID users, 373 controls, and 71 taking other analgesics. NSAID use was associated with higher executive function scores for cognitively normal (NL) subjects as well as subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). NSAID use was also associated with higher memory scores, but for NL females only. We analysed MRI data using principal component analysis to generate a set of five EVs. Examining NL and MCI subjects, one EV had significantly larger values in subjects taking NSAIDs versus control. This EV was one of two EVs which significantly correlated with

  7. Tensor-based morphometry with mappings parameterized by stationary velocity fields in Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossa, Matías Nicolás; Zacur, Ernesto; Olmos, Salvador

    2009-01-01

    Tensor-based morphometry (TBM) is an analysis technique where anatomical information is characterized by means of the spatial transformations between a customized template and observed images. Therefore, accurate inter-subject non-rigid registration is an essential prerrequisite. Further statistical analysis of the spatial transformations is used to highlight some useful information, such as local statistical differences among populations. With the new advent of recent and powerful non-rigid registration algorithms based on the large deformation paradigm, TBM is being increasingly used. In this work we evaluate the statistical power of TBM using stationary velocity field diffeomorphic registration in a large population of subjects from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative project. The proposed methodology provided atrophy maps with very detailed anatomical resolution and with a high significance compared with results published recently on the same data set.

  8. Behavioural, computational, and neuroimaging studies of acquired apraxia of speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirrie J Ballard

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A critical examination of speech motor control depends on an in-depth understanding of network connectivity associated with Brodmann areas 44 and 45 and surrounding cortices. Damage to these areas has been associated with two conditions - the speech motor programming disorder apraxia of speech (AOS and the linguistic / grammatical disorder of Broca’s aphasia. Here we focus on AOS, which is most commonly associated with damage to posterior Broca's area and adjacent cortex. We provide an overview of our own studies into the nature of AOS, including behavioral and neuroimaging methods, to explore components of the speech motor network that are associated with normal and disordered speech motor programming in AOS. Behavioral, neuroimaging, and computational modeling studies are indicating that AOS is associated with impairment in learning feedforward models and/or implementing feedback mechanisms and with the functional contribution of BA6. While functional connectivity methods are not yet routinely applied to the study of AOS, we highlight the need for focusing on the functional impact of localised lesions throughout the speech network, as well as larger scale comparative studies to distinguish the unique behavioral and neurological signature of AOS. By coupling these methods with neural network models, we have a powerful set of tools to improve our understanding of the neural mechanisms that underlie AOS, and speech production generally.

  9. Brain glucose metabolism during hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes: insights from functional and metabolic neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooijackers, Hanne M M; Wiegers, Evita C; Tack, Cees J; van der Graaf, Marinette; de Galan, Bastiaan E

    2016-02-01

    Hypoglycemia is the most frequent complication of insulin therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes. Since the brain is reliant on circulating glucose as its main source of energy, hypoglycemia poses a threat for normal brain function. Paradoxically, although hypoglycemia commonly induces immediate decline in cognitive function, long-lasting changes in brain structure and cognitive function are uncommon in patients with type 1 diabetes. In fact, recurrent hypoglycemia initiates a process of habituation that suppresses hormonal responses to and impairs awareness of subsequent hypoglycemia, which has been attributed to adaptations in the brain. These observations sparked great scientific interest into the brain's handling of glucose during (recurrent) hypoglycemia. Various neuroimaging techniques have been employed to study brain (glucose) metabolism, including PET, fMRI, MRS and ASL. This review discusses what is currently known about cerebral metabolism during hypoglycemia, and how findings obtained by functional and metabolic neuroimaging techniques contributed to this knowledge.

  10. The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative: A review of papers published since its inception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Michael W.; Veitch, Dallas P.; Aisen, Paul S.; Beckett, Laurel A.; Cairns, Nigel J.; Green, Robert C.; Harvey, Danielle; Jack, Clifford R.; Jagust, William; Liu, Enchi; Morris, John C.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Schmidt, Mark E.; Shaw, Leslie; Shen, Li; Siuciak, Judith A.; Soares, Holly; Toga, Arthur W.; Trojanowski, John Q.

    2014-01-01

    The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is an ongoing, longitudinal, multicenter study designed to develop clinical, imaging, genetic, and biochemical biomarkers for the early detection and tracking of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The study aimed to enroll 400 subjects with early mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 200 subjects with early AD, and 200 normal control subjects; $67 million funding was provided by both the public and private sectors, including the National Institute on Aging, 13 pharmaceutical companies, and 2 foundations that provided support through the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health. This article reviews all papers published since the inception of the initiative and summarizes the results as of February 2011. The major accomplishments of ADNI have been as follows: (1) the development of standardized methods for clinical tests, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in a multicenter setting; (2) elucidation of the patterns and rates of change of imaging and CSF biomarker measurements in control subjects, MCI patients, and AD patients. CSF biomarkers are consistent with disease trajectories predicted by β-amyloid cascade (Hardy, J Alzheimers Dis 2006;9(Suppl 3):151–3) and tau-mediated neurodegeneration hypotheses for AD, whereas brain atrophy and hypometabolism levels show predicted patterns but exhibit differing rates of change depending on region and disease severity; (3) the assessment of alternative methods of diagnostic categorization. Currently, the best classifiers combine optimum features from multiple modalities, including MRI, [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET, CSF biomarkers, and clinical tests; (4) the development of methods for the early detection of AD. CSF biomarkers, β-amyloid 42 and tau, as well as amyloid PET may reflect the earliest steps in AD pathology in mildly symptomatic or even nonsymptomatic subjects, and are leading candidates

  11. Insulin action in the human brain: evidence from neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullmann, S; Heni, M; Fritsche, A; Preissl, H

    2015-06-01

    Thus far, little is known about the action of insulin in the human brain. Nonetheless, recent advances in modern neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) or magnetoencephalography (MEG), have made it possible to investigate the action of insulin in the brain in humans, providing new insights into the pathogenesis of brain insulin resistance and obesity. Using MEG, the clinical relevance of the action of insulin in the brain was first identified, linking cerebral insulin resistance with peripheral insulin resistance, genetic predisposition and weight loss success in obese adults. Although MEG is a suitable tool for measuring brain activity mainly in cortical areas, fMRI provides high spatial resolution for cortical as well as subcortical regions. Thus, the action of insulin can be detected within all eating behaviour relevant regions, which include regions deeply located within the brain, such as the hypothalamus, midbrain and brainstem, as well as regions within the striatum. In this review, we outline recent advances in the field of neuroimaging aiming to investigate the action of insulin in the human brain using different routes of insulin administration. fMRI studies have shown a significant insulin-induced attenuation predominantly in the occipital and prefrontal cortical regions and the hypothalamus, successfully localising insulin-sensitive brain regions in healthy, mostly normal-weight individuals. However, further studies are needed to localise brain areas affected by insulin resistance in obese individuals, which is an important prerequisite for selectively targeting brain insulin resistance in obesity. © 2015 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  12. Neural mechanisms of mindfulness and meditation: Evidence from neuroimaging studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William; R; Marchand

    2014-01-01

    Mindfulness is the dispassionate,moment-by-moment awareness of sensations,emotions and thoughts.Mindfulness-based interventions are being increasingly used for stress,psychological well being,coping with chronic illness as well as adjunctive treatments for psychiatric disorders.However,the neural mechanisms associated with mindfulness have not been well characterized.Recent functional and structural neuroimaging studies are beginning to provide insights into neural processes associated with the practice of mindfulness.A review of this literature revealed compelling evidence that mindfulness impacts the function of the medial cortex and associated default mode network as well as insula and amygdala.Additionally,mindfulness practice appears to effect lateral frontal regions and basal ganglia,at least in some cases.Structural imaging studies are consistent with these findings and also indicate changes in the hippocampus.While many questions remain unanswered,the current literature provides evidence of brain regions and networks relevant for understanding neural processes associated with mindfulness.

  13. 'Number-forms' in neuroimaging?;- a PET activation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowell, S.F.; Code, C.; Harasty, J.; Egan, G.F.; Watson, J.D.G.; University of New South Wales,; Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, NSW; University of Melbourne, VIC; University of Exeter,

    2000-01-01

    Full text: In 1880 Francis Galton reported a mental imagery study in which imagers were able to describe and draw arithmetic operations called 'number-forms' (NF). While many studies have reported NFs, little is known about their neural basis. We report a PET case study of a normal volunteer who invoked NFs during mental arithmetic tasks. This PET study used two conditions, repetition and calculation, presented bi-aurally while the subject was blindfolded. The calculation condition required the subject to say out loud the answers to arithmetic tasks, eg. 'nineteen minus seven'. A post-test protocol for vividness of visual imagery during calculation (PVVIC), based on the interviews of Galton (1880) and Seron and colleagues (1992), identified AF, a 43year-old women, as the highest imager (PVVIC - 95%) from a group of 12 normal volunteers. She was able to accurately describe and draw a well-used imagery strategy for mental arithmetic. Her results were contrasted with non-imager, FM (PVVIC - 10%). AF's MRI guided PET results showed significant rCBF activations during the calculation tasks including the right precuneus, right superior frontal gyrus (BA8), left superior parietal lobe (BA7), left visual cortex, medial thalamus and cerebellum. Except for the activation in the right BA8, common to both subjects, AF's areas were not activated by FM. These data confirm previous PET findings that the precuneus plays a major role in mental imagery and point to a neural network for mental imagery during simple calculation. AF's imagery strategies could be the first number-forms reported in a neuroimaging study. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  14. [Functional Neuroimaging Pilot Study of Borderline Personality Disorder in Adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBoeuf, Amélie; Guilé, Jean-Marc; Labelle, Réal; Luck, David

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is being increasingly recognized by clinicians working with adolescents, and the reliability and validity of the diagnosis have been established in the adolescent population. Adolescence is known to be a period of high risk for BPD development as most patients identify the onset of their symptoms to be in the adolescent period. As with other mental health disorders, personality disorder, are thought to result from the interaction between biological and environmental factors. Functional neuroimaging studies are reporting an increasing amount of data on abnormal neuronal functions in BPD adult patients. However, no functional neuroimaging studies have been conducted in adolescents with BPD.Objectives This pilot project aims to evaluate the feasibility of a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study coupled with clinical and psychological measures in adolescent girls with a diagnosis of BPD. It also aims to identify neuronal regions of interest (ROI) for the study of BPD in adolescent girls.Method Six female adolescents meeting DSM-IV criteria for BPD and 6 female adolescents without psychiatric disorder were recruited. Both groups were evaluated for BPD symptoms, depressive symptoms, impulsivity, affective lability, and other potential psychiatric comorbidities. We used fMRI to compare patterns of regional brain activation between these two groups as they viewed 20 positive, 20 negative and 20 neutral emotion-inducing pictures, which were presented in random order.Results Participants were recruited over a period of 22 months. The protocol was well tolerated by participants. Mean age of the BPD group and control group was 15.8 ± 0.9 years-old and 15.5 ± 1.2 years-old respectively. Psychiatric comorbidity and use of medication was common among participants in the BPD group. This group showed higher impulsivity and affective lability scores. For the fMRI task, BPD patients demonstrated greater differences in activation

  15. Argentina-Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative (Arg-ADNI: neuropsychological evolution profile after one-year follow up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Chrem Méndez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Argentina-Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative (Arg-ADNI study is a longitudinal prospective cohort of 50 participants at a single institution in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Longitudinal assessments on a neuropsychological test battery were performed on 15 controls, 24 mild cognitive impairment (MCI patients and 12 Alzheimer's disease (AD dementia patients. In our study population, there was a high prevalence of positive AD biomarkers in the AD group, 92.3% (12/13; and a low prevalence in the normal controls, 20%; almost half (48% of the patients diagnosed with MCI had positive amyloid detection. After a one year, the significant differences found at baseline on neuropsychological testing were similar at the follow-up assessment even though the AD group had significantly altered its functional performance (FAQ and CDR. The exception was semantic fluency, which showed greater impairment between the AD group and MCI and normal controls respectively. For these tests, the addition of AD biomarkers as a variable did not significantly alter the variations previously found for the established clinical group's model. Finally, the one-year conversion rate to dementia was 20% in the MCI cohort.

  16. Emerging Global Initiatives in Neurogenetics: The Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics through Meta-analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearden, Carrie E; Thompson, Paul M

    2017-04-19

    The Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics through Meta-analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a global team science effort, now including over 800 scientists spread across 340 institutions in 35 countries, with the shared goal of understanding disease and genetic influences on the brain. This "crowdsourcing" approach to team neuroscience has unprecedented power for advancing our understanding of both typical and atypical human brain development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Neuroimaging study of Fukuyama type congenital muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murasugi, Hiroko

    1992-01-01

    Fukuyama type congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD) has been attracting attention in recent years because of its brain malformation and progressive muscular dystrophy. The intravitam recognition of brain malformation has been remarkably enhanced by the advent of noninvasive neuroimaging techniques such as CT and MRI. In this study, 87 cranial CT scans and 22 MRIs of the brain, carried out on 60 patients with FCMD, were systematically surveyed, and the correlation between neuroradiological findings and clinical disabilities, and, in two autopsy cases, neuropathological findings was evaluated. Four cases of lissencephalic, 29 of pachygyric, and one of polymicrogyric (suspected) brain surface, and 2 normal brain surfaces were recognized. The patients with lissencephalic brain surface were compared using Dobyns' criteria. Grading of pachygyria was judged as bilateral II in 52% of cases and bilateral I in 48%. The surface of the occipital lobe could not be confirmed with either CT or MRI. Polymicrogyria was suspected using MRI but could not confirmed with CT. Five caces of lissencephaly had never learned any meaningful words and all but one were bedridden because of poor head control. The abilities of patients were better when the grading of pachygyria was milder. Mental disability and peak motor function correlate more closely with the degree and extent of brain malformation than with muscle degeneration. The decrease in radiodensity in the white matter was remarkable in 12 out of 19 cases (63%), and was usually bilaterally symmetrical. An increase in radiodensity in the white matter with age was observed in 3 patients. The rate of myelination was slower than normal in 3 out of the 6 cases. (author)

  18. Neuroimaging study of Fukuyama type congenital muscular dystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murasugi, Hiroko (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1992-11-01

    Fukuyama type congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD) has been attracting attention in recent years because of its brain malformation and progressive muscular dystrophy. The intravitam recognition of brain malformation has been remarkably enhanced by the advent of noninvasive neuroimaging techniques such as CT and MRI. In this study, 87 cranial CT scans and 22 MRIs of the brain, carried out on 60 patients with FCMD, were systematically surveyed, and the correlation between neuroradiological findings and clinical disabilities, and, in two autopsy cases, neuropathological findings was evaluated. Four cases of lissencephalic, 29 of pachygyric, and one of polymicrogyric (suspected) brain surface, and 2 normal brain surfaces were recognized. The patients with lissencephalic brain surface were compared using Dobyns' criteria. Grading of pachygyria was judged as bilateral II in 52% of cases and bilateral I in 48%. The surface of the occipital lobe could not be confirmed with either CT or MRI. Polymicrogyria was suspected using MRI but could not confirmed with CT. Five caces of lissencephaly had never learned any meaningful words and all but one were bedridden because of poor head control. The abilities of patients were better when the grading of pachygyria was milder. Mental disability and peak motor function correlate more closely with the degree and extent of brain malformation than with muscle degeneration. The decrease in radiodensity in the white matter was remarkable in 12 out of 19 cases (63%), and was usually bilaterally symmetrical. An increase in radiodensity in the white matter with age was observed in 3 patients. The rate of myelination was slower than normal in 3 out of the 6 cases. (author).

  19. [Physiopathology of autobiographical memory in aging: episodic and semantic distinction, clinical findings and neuroimaging studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piolino, Pascale; Martinelli, Pénélope; Viard, Armelle; Noulhiane, Marion; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice

    2010-01-01

    From an early age, autobiographical memory models our feeling of identity and continuity. It grows throughout lifetime with our experiences and is built up from general self-knowledge and specific memories. The study of autobiographical memory depicts the dynamic and reconstructive features of this type of long-term memory, combining both semantic and episodic aspects, its strength and fragility. In this article, we propose to illustrate the properties of autobiographical memory from the field of cognitive psychology, neuropsychology and neuroimaging research through the analysis of the mechanisms of disturbance in normal and Alzheimer's disease. We show that the cognitive and neural bases of autobiographical memory are distinct in both cases. In normal aging, autobiographical memory retrieval is mainly dependent on frontal/executive function and on sense of reexperiencing specific context connected to hippocampal regions regardless of memory remoteness. In Alzheimer's disease, autobiographical memory deficit, characterized by a Ribot's temporal gradient, is connected to different regions according to memory remoteness. Our functional neuroimaging results suggest that patients at the early stage can compensate for their massive deficit of episodic recent memories correlated to hippocampal alteration with over general remote memories related to prefrontal regions. On the whole, the research findings allowed initiating new autobiographical memory studies by comparing normal and pathological aging and developing cognitive methods of memory rehabilitation in patients based on preserved personal semantic capacity. © Société de Biologie, 2010.

  20. Conceptual and methodological challenges for neuroimaging studies of autistic spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzone, Luigi; Curatolo, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are a set of complex developmental disabilities defined by impairment in social interaction and communication, as well as by restricted interests or repetitive behaviors. Neuroimaging studies have substantially advanced our understanding of the neural mechanisms that underlie the core symptoms of ASDs. Nevertheless, a number of challenges still remain in the application of neuroimaging techniques to the study of ASDs. We review three major conceptua...

  1. Dissociable genetic contributions to error processing: a multimodal neuroimaging study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yigal Agam

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies reliably identify two markers of error commission: the error-related negativity (ERN, an event-related potential, and functional MRI activation of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC. While theorized to reflect the same neural process, recent evidence suggests that the ERN arises from the posterior cingulate cortex not the dACC. Here, we tested the hypothesis that these two error markers also have different genetic mediation.We measured both error markers in a sample of 92 comprised of healthy individuals and those with diagnoses of schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder or autism spectrum disorder. Participants performed the same task during functional MRI and simultaneously acquired magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography. We examined the mediation of the error markers by two single nucleotide polymorphisms: dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4 C-521T (rs1800955, which has been associated with the ERN and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T (rs1801133, which has been associated with error-related dACC activation. We then compared the effects of each polymorphism on the two error markers modeled as a bivariate response.We replicated our previous report of a posterior cingulate source of the ERN in healthy participants in the schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder groups. The effect of genotype on error markers did not differ significantly by diagnostic group. DRD4 C-521T allele load had a significant linear effect on ERN amplitude, but not on dACC activation, and this difference was significant. MTHFR C677T allele load had a significant linear effect on dACC activation but not ERN amplitude, but the difference in effects on the two error markers was not significant.DRD4 C-521T, but not MTHFR C677T, had a significant differential effect on two canonical error markers. Together with the anatomical dissociation between the ERN and error-related dACC activation, these findings suggest that

  2. Cognitive reserve and Aβ1-42 in mild cognitive impairment (Argentina-Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris P

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Paula Harris,1,2 Marcos Fernandez Suarez,1 Ezequiel I Surace,1,2 Patricio Chrem Méndez,1 María Eugenia Martín,1 María Florencia Clarens,1 Fernanda Tapajóz,1,2 Maria Julieta Russo,1 Jorge Campos,1 Salvador M Guinjoan,1,2 Gustavo Sevlever,1 Ricardo F Allegri1,2 1Instituto de Investigaciones Neurológicas, 2Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between cognitive reserve and concentration of Aβ1-42 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of patients with mild cognitive impairment, those with Alzheimer’s disease, and in control subjects. Methods: Thirty-three participants from the Argentina-Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database completed a cognitive battery, the Cognitive Reserve Questionnaire (CRQ, and an Argentinian accentuation reading test (TAP-BA as a measure of premorbid intelligence, and underwent lumbar puncture for CSF biomarker quantification. Results: The CRQ significantly correlated with TAP-BA, education, and Aβ1-42. When considering Aβ1-42 levels, significant differences were found in CRQ scores; higher levels of CSF Aβ1-42 were associated with higher CRQ scores. Conclusion: Reduced Aβ1-42 in CSF is considered as evidence of amyloid deposition in the brain. Previous results suggest that individuals with higher education, higher occupational attainment, and participation in leisure activities (cognitive reserve have a reduced risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. Our results support the notion that enhanced neural activity has a protective role in mild cognitive impairment, as evidenced by higher CSF Aβ1-42 levels in individuals with more cognitive reserve. Keywords: amyloid, biomarkers, cerebrospinal fluid, Alzheimer’s disease 

  3. Mind-Body Practices and the Adolescent Brain: Clinical Neuroimaging Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anup; Newberg, Andrew B

    Mind-Body practices constitute a large and diverse group of practices that can substantially affect neurophysiology in both healthy individuals and those with various psychiatric disorders. In spite of the growing literature on the clinical and physiological effects of mind-body practices, very little is known about their impact on central nervous system (CNS) structure and function in adolescents with psychiatric disorders. This overview highlights findings in a select group of mind-body practices including yoga postures, yoga breathing techniques and meditation practices. Mind-body practices offer novel therapeutic approaches for adolescents with psychiatric disorders. Findings from these studies provide insights into the design and implementation of neuroimaging studies for adolescents with psychiatric disorders. Clinical neuroimaging studies will be critical in understanding how different practices affect disease pathogenesis and symptomatology in adolescents. Neuroimaging of mind-body practices on adolescents with psychiatric disorders will certainly be an open and exciting area of investigation.

  4. Neuroimaging studies of aggressive and violent behavior: current findings and implications for criminology and criminal justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufkin, Jana L; Luttrell, Vickie R

    2005-04-01

    With the availability of new functional and structural neuroimaging techniques, researchers have begun to localize brain areas that may be dysfunctional in offenders who are aggressive and violent. Our review of 17 neuroimaging studies reveals that the areas associated with aggressive and/or violent behavioral histories, particularly impulsive acts, are located in the prefrontal cortex and the medial temporal regions. These findings are explained in the context of negative emotion regulation, and suggestions are provided concerning how such findings may affect future theoretical frameworks in criminology, crime prevention efforts, and the functioning of the criminal justice system.

  5. 2014 Update of the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative: A review of papers published since its inception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Michael W.; Veitch, Dallas P.; Aisen, Paul S.; Beckett, Laurel A.; Cairns, Nigel J.; Cedarbaum, Jesse; Green, Robert C.; Harvey, Danielle; Jack, Clifford R.; Jagust, William; Luthman, Johan; Morris, John C.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Shaw, Leslie; Shen, Li; Schwarz, Adam; Toga, Arthur W.; Trojanowski, John Q.

    2016-01-01

    The Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is an ongoing, longitudinal, multicenter study designed to develop clinical, imaging, genetic, and biochemical biomarkers for the early detection and tracking of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The initial study, ADNI-1, enrolled 400 subjects with early mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 200 with early AD, and 200 cognitively normal elderly controls. ADNI-1 was extended by a 2-year Grand Opportunities grant in 2009 and by a competitive renewal, ADNI-2, which enrolled an additional 550 participants and will run until 2015. This article reviews all papers published since the inception of the initiative and summarizes the results to the end of 2013. The major accomplishments of ADNI have been as follows: (1) the development of standardized methods for clinical tests, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in a multicenter setting; (2) elucidation of the patterns and rates of change of imaging and CSF biomarker measurements in control subjects, MCI patients, and AD patients. CSF biomarkers are largely consistent with disease trajectories predicted by β-amyloid cascade (Hardy, J Alzheimer’s Dis 2006;9(Suppl 3):151–3) and tau-mediated neurodegeneration hypotheses for AD, whereas brain atrophy and hypometabolism levels show predicted patterns but exhibit differing rates of change depending on region and disease severity; (3) the assessment of alternative methods of diagnostic categorization. Currently, the best classifiers select and combine optimum features from multiple modalities, including MRI, [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET, amyloid PET, CSF biomarkers, and clinical tests; (4) the development of blood biomarkers for AD as potentially noninvasive and low-cost alternatives to CSF biomarkers for AD diagnosis and the assessment of α-syn as an additional biomarker; (5) the development of methods for the early detection of AD. CSF biomarkers,

  6. Attention to pain! A neurocognitive perspective on attentional modulation of pain in neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torta, D M; Legrain, V; Mouraux, A; Valentini, E

    2017-04-01

    Several studies have used neuroimaging techniques to investigate brain correlates of the attentional modulation of pain. Although these studies have advanced the knowledge in the field, important confounding factors such as imprecise theoretical definitions of attention, incomplete operationalization of the construct under exam, and limitations of techniques relying on measuring regional changes in cerebral blood flow have hampered the potential relevance of the conclusions. Here, we first provide an overview of the major theories of attention and of attention in the study of pain to bridge theory and experimental results. We conclude that load and motivational/affective theories are particularly relevant to study the attentional modulation of pain and should be carefully integrated in functional neuroimaging studies. Then, we summarize previous findings and discuss the possible neural correlates of the attentional modulation of pain. We discuss whether classical functional neuroimaging techniques are suitable to measure the effect of a fluctuating process like attention, and in which circumstances functional neuroimaging can be reliably used to measure the attentional modulation of pain. Finally, we argue that the analysis of brain networks and spontaneous oscillations may be a crucial future development in the study of attentional modulation of pain, and why the interplay between attention and pain, as examined so far, may rely on neural mechanisms shared with other sensory modalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The role of social stimuli content in neuroimaging studies investigating alcohol cue-reactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groefsema, M.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Luijten, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cue-reactivity is thought to play a fundamental role in the maintenance of addiction. The incentive sensitization theory proposes that conditioned responses are related to increased sensitivity of the reward-related dopaminergic pathways in the brain. However, neuroimaging studies on

  8. Neuroimaging Studies of Essential Tremor: How Well Do These Studies Support/Refute the Neurodegenerative Hypothesis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elan D. Louis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tissue‐based research has recently led to a new patho‐mechanistic model of essential tremor (ET—the cerebellar degenerative model. We are not aware of a study that has reviewed the current neuroimaging evidence, focusing on whether the studies support or refute the neurodegenerative hypothesis of ET. This was our aim.Methods: References for this review were identified by searches of PubMed (1966 to February 2014.Results: Several neuroimaging methods have been used to study ET, most of them based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. The methods most specific to address the question of neurodegeneration are MRI‐based volumetry, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and diffusion‐weighted imaging. Studies using each of these methods provide support for the presence of cerebellar degeneration in ET, finding reduced cerebellar brain volumes, consistent decreases in cerebellar N‐acetylaspartate, and increased mean diffusivity. Other neuroimaging techniques, such as functional MRI and positron emission tomography (PET are less specific, but still sensitive to potential neurodegeneration. These techniques are used for measuring a variety of brain functions and their impairment. Studies using these modalities also largely support cerebellar neuronal impairment. In particular, changes in 11C‐flumazenil binding in PET studies and changes in iron deposition in an MRI study provide evidence along these lines. The composite data point to neuronal impairment and likely neuronal degeneration in ET.Discussion: Recent years have seen a marked increase in the number of imaging studies of ET. As a whole, the combined data provide support for the presence of cerebellar neuronal degeneration in this disease.

  9. Functional neuroimaging studies of episodic memory. Functional dissociation in the medial temporal lobe structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukiura, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    Previous functional neuroimaging studies have demonstrated the critical role of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) regions in the encoding and retrieval of episodic memory. It has also been shown that an emotional factor in human memory enhances episodic encoding and retrieval. However, there is little evidence regarding the specific contribution of each MTL region to the relational, contextual, and emotional processes of episodic memory. The goal of this review article is to identify differential activation patterns of the processes between MTL regions. Results from functional neuroimaging studies of episodic memory show that the hippocampus is involved in encoding the relation between memory items, whereas the entorhinal and perirhinal cortices (anterior parahippocampal gyrus) contribute to the encoding of a single item. Additionally, the parahippocampal cortex (posterior parahippocampal gyrus) is selectively activated during the processing of contextual information of episodic memory. A similar pattern of functional dissociation is found in episodic memory retrieval. Functional neuroimaging has also shown that emotional information of episodic memory enhances amygdala-MTL correlations and that this enhancement is observed during both the encoding and retrieval of emotional memories. These findings from pervious neuroimaging studies suggest that different MTL regions could organize memory for personally experienced episodes via the 'relation' and 'context' factors of episodic memory, and that the emotional factor of episodes could modulate the functional organization in the MTL regions. (author)

  10. Utility of combinations of biomarkers, cognitive markers, and risk factors to predict conversion from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer disease in patients in the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomar, Jesus J; Bobes-Bascaran, Maria T; Conejero-Goldberg, Concepcion; Davies, Peter; Goldberg, Terry E

    2011-09-01

    Biomarkers have become increasingly important in understanding neurodegenerative processes associated with Alzheimer disease. Markers include regional brain volumes, cerebrospinal fluid measures of pathological Aβ1-42 and total tau, cognitive measures, and individual risk factors. To determine the discriminative utility of different classes of biomarkers and cognitive markers by examining their ability to predict a change in diagnostic status from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer disease. Longitudinal study. We analyzed the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database to study patients with mild cognitive impairment who converted to Alzheimer disease (n = 116) and those who did not convert (n = 204) within a 2-year period. We determined the predictive utility of 25 variables from all classes of markers, biomarkers, and risk factors in a series of logistic regression models and effect size analyses. The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative public database. Primary outcome measures were odds ratios, pseudo- R(2)s, and effect sizes. In comprehensive stepwise logistic regression models that thus included variables from all classes of markers, the following baseline variables predicted conversion within a 2-year period: 2 measures of delayed verbal memory and middle temporal lobe cortical thickness. In an effect size analysis that examined rates of decline, change scores for biomarkers were modest for 2 years, but a change in an everyday functional activities measure (Functional Assessment Questionnaire) was considerably larger. Decline in scores on the Functional Assessment Questionnaire and Trail Making Test, part B, accounted for approximately 50% of the predictive variance in conversion from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer disease. Cognitive markers at baseline were more robust predictors of conversion than most biomarkers. Longitudinal analyses suggested that conversion appeared to be driven less by changes in the neurobiologic

  11. Heterogeneity within autism spectrum disorders: what have we learned from neuroimaging studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhoshel Krystyna Lenroot

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD display significant heterogeneity. Although most neuroimaging studies in ASD have been designed to identify commonalities among affected individuals, rather than differences, some studies have explored variation within ASD. There have been two general types of approaches used for this in the neuroimaging literature to date: comparison of subgroups within ASD, and analyses using dimensional measures to link clinical variation to brain differences. This review focuses on structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies that have used these approaches to begin to explore heterogeneity between individuals with ASD. Although this type of data is yet sparse, recognition is growing of the limitations of behaviourally defined categorical diagnoses for understanding neurobiology. Study designs that are more informative regarding the sources of heterogeneity in ASD have the potential to improve our understanding of the neurobiological processes underlying ASD.

  12. Functional neuroimaging studies in addiction: multisensory drug stimuli and neural cue reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalachkov, Yavor; Kaiser, Jochen; Naumer, Marcus J

    2012-02-01

    Neuroimaging studies on cue reactivity have substantially contributed to the understanding of addiction. In the majority of studies drug cues were presented in the visual modality. However, exposure to conditioned cues in real life occurs often simultaneously in more than one sensory modality. Therefore, multisensory cues should elicit cue reactivity more consistently than unisensory stimuli and increase the ecological validity and the reliability of brain activation measurements. This review includes the data from 44 whole-brain functional neuroimaging studies with a total of 1168 subjects (812 patients and 356 controls). Correlations between neural cue reactivity and clinical covariates such as craving have been reported significantly more often for multisensory than unisensory cues in the motor cortex, insula and posterior cingulate cortex. Thus, multisensory drug cues are particularly effective in revealing brain-behavior relationships in neurocircuits of addiction responsible for motivation, craving awareness and self-related processing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Update on the MRI Core of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Clifford R; Bernstein, Matt A; Borowski, Bret J; Gunter, Jeffrey L; Fox, Nick C; Thompson, Paul M; Schuff, Norbert; Krueger, Gunnar; Killiany, Ronald J; DeCarli, Charles S; Dale, Anders M; Weiner, Michael W

    2010-01-01

    Functions of the ADNI MRI core fall into three categories: (1) those of the central MRI core lab at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, needed to generate high quality MRI data in all subjects at each time point; (2) those of the funded ADNI MRI core imaging analysis groups responsible for analyzing the MRI data, and (3) the joint function of the entire MRI core in designing and problem solving MR image acquisition, pre-processing and analyses methods. The primary objective of ADNI was and continues to be improving methods for clinical trials in Alzheimer's disease. Our approach to the present (“ADNI-GO”) and future (“ADNI-2”, if funded) MRI protocol will be to maintain MRI methodological consistency in previously enrolled “ADNI-1” subjects who are followed longitudinally in ADNI-GO and ADNI-2. We will modernize and expand the MRI protocol for all newly enrolled ADNI-GO and ADNI-2 subjects. All newly enrolled subjects will be scanned at 3T with a core set of three sequence types: 3D T1-weighted volume, FLAIR, and a long TE gradient echo volumetric acquisition for micro hemorrhage detection. In addition to this core ADNI-GO and ADNI-2 protocol, we will perform vendor specific pilot sub-studies of arterial spin labeling perfusion, resting state functional connectivity and diffusion tensor imaging. One each of these sequences will be added to the core protocol on systems from each MRI vendor. These experimental sub-studies are designed to demonstrate the feasibility of acquiring useful data in a multi-center (but single vendor) setting for these three emerging MRI applications. PMID:20451869

  14. Altered Brain Activity in Unipolar Depression Revisited: Meta-analyses of Neuroimaging Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Veronika I; Cieslik, Edna C; Serbanescu, Ilinca; Laird, Angela R; Fox, Peter T; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2017-01-01

    major depressive disorder. For meta-analyses with a minimum of 17 experiments available, separate analyses were performed for increases and decreases. In total, 57 studies with 99 individual neuroimaging experiments comprising in total 1058 patients were included; 34 of them tested cognitive and 65 emotional processing. Overall analyses across cognitive processing experiments (P > .29) and across emotional processing experiments (P > .47) revealed no significant results. Similarly, no convergence was found in analyses investigating positive (all P > .15), negative (all P > .76), or memory (all P > .48) processes. Analyses that restricted inclusion of confounds (eg, medication, comorbidity, age) did not change the results. Inconsistencies exist across individual experiments investigating aberrant brain activity in UD and replication problems across previous neuroimaging meta-analyses. For individual experiments, these inconsistencies may relate to use of uncorrected inference procedures, differences in experimental design and contrasts, or heterogeneous clinical populations; meta-analytically, differences may be attributable to varying inclusion and exclusion criteria or rather liberal statistical inference approaches.

  15. How Acute Total Sleep Loss Affects the Attending Brain: A Meta-Analysis of Neuroimaging Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Dinges, David F.; Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Attention is a cognitive domain that can be severely affected by sleep deprivation. Previous neuroimaging studies have used different attention paradigms and reported both increased and reduced brain activation after sleep deprivation. However, due to large variability in sleep deprivation protocols, task paradigms, experimental designs, characteristics of subject populations, and imaging techniques, there is no consensus regarding the effects of sleep loss on the attending brain. The aim of this meta-analysis was to identify brain activations that are commonly altered by acute total sleep deprivation across different attention tasks. Design: Coordinate-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies of performance on attention tasks during experimental sleep deprivation. Methods: The current version of the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach was used for meta-analysis. The authors searched published articles and identified 11 sleep deprivation neuroimaging studies using different attention tasks with a total of 185 participants, equaling 81 foci for ALE analysis. Results: The meta-analysis revealed significantly reduced brain activation in multiple regions following sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness, including bilateral intraparietal sulcus, bilateral insula, right prefrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex, and right parahippocampal gyrus. Increased activation was found only in bilateral thalamus after sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness. Conclusion: Acute total sleep deprivation decreases brain activation in the fronto-parietal attention network (prefrontal cortex and intraparietal sulcus) and in the salience network (insula and medial frontal cortex). Increased thalamic activation after sleep deprivation may reflect a complex interaction between the de-arousing effects of sleep loss and the arousing effects of task performance on thalamic activity. Citation: Ma N, Dinges DF, Basner M, Rao H. How acute total

  16. The iconography of mourning and its neural correlates: a functional neuroimaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labek, Karin; Berger, Samantha; Buchheim, Anna; Bosch, Julia; Spohrs, Jennifer; Dommes, Lisa; Beschoner, Petra; Stingl, Julia C; Viviani, Roberto

    2017-08-01

    The present functional neuroimaging study focuses on the iconography of mourning. A culture-specific pattern of body postures of mourning individuals, mostly suggesting withdrawal, emerged from a survey of visual material. When used in different combinations in stylized drawings in our neuroimaging study, this material activated cortical areas commonly seen in studies of social cognition (temporo-parietal junction, superior temporal gyrus, and inferior temporal lobe), empathy for pain (somatosensory cortex), and loss (precuneus, middle/posterior cingular gyrus). This pattern of activation developed over time. While in the early phases of exposure lower association areas, such as the extrastriate body area, were active, in the late phases activation in parietal and temporal association areas and the prefrontal cortex was more prominent. These findings are consistent with the conventional and contextual character of iconographic material, and further differentiate it from emotionally negatively valenced and high-arousing stimuli. In future studies, this neuroimaging assay may be useful in characterizing interpretive appraisal of material of negative emotional valence. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. Maternal Relationship, Social Skills and Parental Behavior Through Neuroimaging Techniques and Behavioral Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Serra, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Mother child relationship is the first and the most important social relationship as it has implications on psychological and neural development of the individual. Here we investigated mother child relationship focusing on different aspects and using a combination of behavioural and neuroimaging techniques. In the first study we addressed the association between brain connectivity and interpersonal competences which are at the basis of every social interaction including the ones involved in m...

  18. Internet and Gaming Addiction: A Systematic Literature Review of Neuroimaging Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Daria J. Kuss; Mark D. Griffiths

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, research has accumulated suggesting that excessive Internet use can lead to the development of a behavioral addiction. Internet addiction has been considered as a serious threat to mental health and the excessive use of the Internet has been linked to a variety of negative psychosocial consequences. The aim of this review is to identify all empirical studies to date that used neuroimaging techniques to shed light upon the emerging mental health problem of Internet and gami...

  19. Structural brain abnormalities in autism : neuroimaging and neuropathology studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palmen, Saskia Johanna Maria Christina

    2005-01-01

    JUSTIFY Autism is currently viewed as a largely genetically determined neurodevelopmental disorder. Over the last decades, an increasing number of studies have been performed, trying to establish the underlying biological causes of autism. However, its exact etiology still remains unclear. In this

  20. Potential Reporting Bias in Neuroimaging Studies of Sex Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Sean P; Naudet, Florian; Laude, Jennifer; Radua, Joaquim; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Chu, Isabella; Stefanick, Marcia L; Ioannidis, John P A

    2018-04-17

    Numerous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have reported sex differences. To empirically evaluate for evidence of excessive significance bias in this literature, we searched for published fMRI studies of human brain to evaluate sex differences, regardless of the topic investigated, in Medline and Scopus over 10 years. We analyzed the prevalence of conclusions in favor of sex differences and the correlation between study sample sizes and number of significant foci identified. In the absence of bias, larger studies (better powered) should identify a larger number of significant foci. Across 179 papers, median sample size was n = 32 (interquartile range 23-47.5). A median of 5 foci related to sex differences were reported (interquartile range, 2-9.5). Few articles (n = 2) had titles focused on no differences or on similarities (n = 3) between sexes. Overall, 158 papers (88%) reached "positive" conclusions in their abstract and presented some foci related to sex differences. There was no statistically significant relationship between sample size and the number of foci (-0.048% increase for every 10 participants, p = 0.63). The extremely high prevalence of "positive" results and the lack of the expected relationship between sample size and the number of discovered foci reflect probable reporting bias and excess significance bias in this literature.

  1. Comparative study of the neuropsychological and neuroimaging evaluations in children with dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduini, Rodrigo Genaro; Capellini, Simone Aparecida; Ciasca, Sylvia Maria

    2006-06-01

    We analyzed retrospectively the neuroimaging exams of children with a confirmed diagnosis of dyslexia and correlated our findings with the evaluation of higher cortical functions. We studied 34 medical files of patients of the Ambulatory of Neuro-difficulties in Learning, FCM/UNICAMP. All of them had been sent to the ambulatory with primary or secondary complaints of difficulties at school and were submitted to neuropsychological evaluation and imaging exam (SPECT). From the children evaluated 58.8% had exams presenting dysfunction with 47% presenting hypoperfusion in the temporal lobe. As for the higher cortical functions, the most affected abilities were reading, writing and memory. There was significance between the hypoperfused areas and the variables schooling, reading, writing, memory and mathematic reasoning. The SPECTs showed hypoperfusion in areas involved in the reading and writing processes. Both are equivalent in terms of involved functional areas and are similar in children with or without specific dysfunctions in neuroimaging.

  2. Hypnosis and pain perception: An Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Casale, Antonio; Ferracuti, Stefano; Rapinesi, Chiara; De Rossi, Pietro; Angeletti, Gloria; Sani, Gabriele; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Girardi, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    Several studies reported that hypnosis can modulate pain perception and tolerance by affecting cortical and subcortical activity in brain regions involved in these processes. We conducted an Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) meta-analysis on functional neuroimaging studies of pain perception under hypnosis to identify brain activation-deactivation patterns occurring during hypnotic suggestions aiming at pain reduction, including hypnotic analgesic, pleasant, or depersonalization suggestions (HASs). We searched the PubMed, Embase and PsycInfo databases; we included papers published in peer-reviewed journals dealing with functional neuroimaging and hypnosis-modulated pain perception. The ALE meta-analysis encompassed data from 75 healthy volunteers reported in 8 functional neuroimaging studies. HASs during experimentally-induced pain compared to control conditions correlated with significant activations of the right anterior cingulate cortex (Brodmann's Area [BA] 32), left superior frontal gyrus (BA 6), and right insula, and deactivation of right midline nuclei of the thalamus. HASs during experimental pain impact both cortical and subcortical brain activity. The anterior cingulate, left superior frontal, and right insular cortices activation increases could induce a thalamic deactivation (top-down inhibition), which may correlate with reductions in pain intensity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Neuroimaging studies of the striatum in cognition Part I: healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provost, Jean-Sebastien; Hanganu, Alexandru; Monchi, Oury

    2015-01-01

    The striatum has traditionally mainly been associated with playing a key role in the modulation of motor functions. Indeed, lesion studies in animals and studies of some neurological conditions in humans have brought further evidence to this idea. However, better methods of investigation have raised concerns about this notion, and it was proposed that the striatum could also be involved in different types of functions including cognitive ones. Although the notion was originally a matter of debate, it is now well-accepted that the caudate nucleus contributes to cognition, while the putamen could be involved in motor functions, and to some extent in cognitive functions as well. With the arrival of modern neuroimaging techniques in the early 1990, knowledge supporting the cognitive aspect of the striatum has greatly increased, and a substantial number of scientific papers were published studying the role of the striatum in healthy individuals. For the first time, it was possible to assess the contribution of specific areas of the brain during the execution of a cognitive task. Neuroanatomical studies have described functional loops involving the striatum and the prefrontal cortex suggesting a specific interaction between these two structures. This review examines the data up to date and provides strong evidence for a specific contribution of the fronto-striatal regions in different cognitive processes, such as set-shifting, self-initiated responses, rule learning, action-contingency, and planning. Finally, a new two-level functional model involving the prefrontal cortex and the dorsal striatum is proposed suggesting an essential role of the dorsal striatum in selecting between competing potential responses or actions, and in resolving a high level of ambiguity.

  4. Design and rationale for examining neuroimaging genetics in ischemic stroke: The MRI-GENIE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Anne-Katrin; Schirmer, Markus D; Donahue, Kathleen L; Cloonan, Lisa; Irie, Robert; Winzeck, Stefan; Bouts, Mark J R J; McIntosh, Elissa C; Mocking, Steven J; Dalca, Adrian V; Sridharan, Ramesh; Xu, Huichun; Frid, Petrea; Giralt-Steinhauer, Eva; Holmegaard, Lukas; Roquer, Jaume; Wasselius, Johan; Cole, John W; McArdle, Patrick F; Broderick, Joseph P; Jimenez-Conde, Jordi; Jern, Christina; Kissela, Brett M; Kleindorfer, Dawn O; Lemmens, Robin; Lindgren, Arne; Meschia, James F; Rundek, Tatjana; Sacco, Ralph L; Schmidt, Reinhold; Sharma, Pankaj; Slowik, Agnieszka; Thijs, Vincent; Woo, Daniel; Worrall, Bradford B; Kittner, Steven J; Mitchell, Braxton D; Rosand, Jonathan; Golland, Polina; Wu, Ona; Rost, Natalia S

    2017-10-01

    To describe the design and rationale for the genetic analysis of acute and chronic cerebrovascular neuroimaging phenotypes detected on clinical MRI in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) within the scope of the MRI-GENetics Interface Exploration (MRI-GENIE) study. MRI-GENIE capitalizes on the existing infrastructure of the Stroke Genetics Network (SiGN). In total, 12 international SiGN sites contributed MRIs of 3,301 patients with AIS. Detailed clinical phenotyping with the web-based Causative Classification of Stroke (CCS) system and genome-wide genotyping data were available for all participants. Neuroimaging analyses include the manual and automated assessments of established MRI markers. A high-throughput MRI analysis pipeline for the automated assessment of cerebrovascular lesions on clinical scans will be developed in a subset of scans for both acute and chronic lesions, validated against gold standard, and applied to all available scans. The extracted neuroimaging phenotypes will improve characterization of acute and chronic cerebrovascular lesions in ischemic stroke, including CCS subtypes, and their effect on functional outcomes after stroke. Moreover, genetic testing will uncover variants associated with acute and chronic MRI manifestations of cerebrovascular disease. The MRI-GENIE study aims to develop, validate, and distribute the MRI analysis platform for scans acquired as part of clinical care for patients with AIS, which will lead to (1) novel genetic discoveries in ischemic stroke, (2) strategies for personalized stroke risk assessment, and (3) personalized stroke outcome assessment.

  5. Adaptive controller for volumetric display of neuroimaging studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiberg, Ben; Senseney, Justin; Caban, Jesus

    2014-03-01

    Volumetric display of medical images is an increasingly relevant method for examining an imaging acquisition as the prevalence of thin-slice imaging increases in clinical studies. Current mouse and keyboard implementations for volumetric control provide neither the sensitivity nor specificity required to manipulate a volumetric display for efficient reading in a clinical setting. Solutions to efficient volumetric manipulation provide more sensitivity by removing the binary nature of actions controlled by keyboard clicks, but specificity is lost because a single action may change display in several directions. When specificity is then further addressed by re-implementing hardware binary functions through the introduction of mode control, the result is a cumbersome interface that fails to achieve the revolutionary benefit required for adoption of a new technology. We address the specificity versus sensitivity problem of volumetric interfaces by providing adaptive positional awareness to the volumetric control device by manipulating communication between hardware driver and existing software methods for volumetric display of medical images. This creates a tethered effect for volumetric display, providing a smooth interface that improves on existing hardware approaches to volumetric scene manipulation.

  6. Sex steroids and brain structure in pubertal boys and girls: a mini-review of neuroimaging studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peper, J.S.; Hulshoff Pol, H.E.; Crone, E.A.; van Honk, J.

    2011-01-01

    Puberty is an important period during development hallmarked by increases in sex steroid levels. Human neuroimaging studies have consistently reported that in typically developing pubertal children, cortical and subcortical gray matter is decreasing, whereas white matter increases well into

  7. A Neuroimaging Web Services Interface as a Cyber Physical System for Medical Imaging and Data Management in Brain Research: Design Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizarraga, Gabriel; Li, Chunfei; Cabrerizo, Mercedes; Barker, Warren; Loewenstein, David A; Duara, Ranjan; Adjouadi, Malek

    2018-04-26

    Structural and functional brain images are essential imaging modalities for medical experts to study brain anatomy. These images are typically visually inspected by experts. To analyze images without any bias, they must be first converted to numeric values. Many software packages are available to process the images, but they are complex and difficult to use. The software packages are also hardware intensive. The results obtained after processing vary depending on the native operating system used and its associated software libraries; data processed in one system cannot typically be combined with data on another system. The aim of this study was to fulfill the neuroimaging community’s need for a common platform to store, process, explore, and visualize their neuroimaging data and results using Neuroimaging Web Services Interface: a series of processing pipelines designed as a cyber physical system for neuroimaging and clinical data in brain research. Neuroimaging Web Services Interface accepts magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, diffusion tensor imaging, and functional magnetic resonance imaging. These images are processed using existing and custom software packages. The output is then stored as image files, tabulated files, and MySQL tables. The system, made up of a series of interconnected servers, is password-protected and is securely accessible through a Web interface and allows (1) visualization of results and (2) downloading of tabulated data. All results were obtained using our processing servers in order to maintain data validity and consistency. The design is responsive and scalable. The processing pipeline started from a FreeSurfer reconstruction of Structural magnetic resonance imaging images. The FreeSurfer and regional standardized uptake value ratio calculations were validated using Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative input images, and the results were posted at the Laboratory of Neuro Imaging data archive. Notable

  8. Three-dimensional neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toga, A.W.

    1990-01-01

    This book reports on new neuroimaging technologies that are revolutionizing the study of the brain be enabling investigators to visualize its structure and entire pattern of functional activity in three dimensions. The book provides a theoretical and practical explanation of the new science of creating three-dimensional computer images of the brain. The coverage includes a review of the technology and methodology of neuroimaging, the instrumentation and procedures, issues of quantification, analytic protocols, and descriptions of neuroimaging systems. Examples are given to illustrate the use of three-dimensional enuroimaging to quantitate spatial measurements, perform analysis of autoradiographic and histological studies, and study the relationship between brain structure and function

  9. Conceptual and methodological challenges for neuroimaging studies of autistic spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzone Luigi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASDs are a set of complex developmental disabilities defined by impairment in social interaction and communication, as well as by restricted interests or repetitive behaviors. Neuroimaging studies have substantially advanced our understanding of the neural mechanisms that underlie the core symptoms of ASDs. Nevertheless, a number of challenges still remain in the application of neuroimaging techniques to the study of ASDs. We review three major conceptual and methodological challenges that complicate the interpretation of findings from neuroimaging studies in ASDs, and that future imaging studies should address through improved designs. These include: (1 identification and implementation of tasks that more specifically target the neural processes of interest, while avoiding the confusion that the symptoms of ASD may impose on both the performance of the task and the detection of brain activations; (2 the inconsistency that disease heterogeneity in persons with ASD can generate on research findings, particularly heterogeneity of symptoms, symptom severity, differences in IQ, total brain volume, and psychiatric comorbidity; and (3 the problems with interpretation of findings from cross-sectional studies of persons with ASD across differing age groups. Failure to address these challenges will continue to hinder our ability to distinguish findings that outline the causes of ASDs from brain processes that represent downstream or compensatory responses to the presence of the disease. Here we propose strategies to address these issues: 1 the use of simple and elementary tasks, that are easier to understand for autistic subjects; 2 the scanning of a more homogenous group of persons with ASDs, preferably at younger age; 3 the performance of longitudinal studies, that may provide more straight forward and reliable results. We believe that this would allow for a better understanding of both the central pathogenic

  10. Dizziness in a community hospital: central neurological causes, clinical predictors, and diagnostic yield and cost of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Hussam; Govindu, Rukma; Fouda, Ragai; Zohdy, Wael; Supsupin, Emilio

    2017-03-01

    Objectives : Neuroimaging is contributing to the rising costs of dizziness evaluation. This study examined the rate of central neurological causes of dizziness, relevant clinical predictors, and the costs and diagnostic yields of neuroimaging in dizziness assessment. Methods : We retrospectively reviewed the records of 521 adult patients who visited the hospital during a 12-month period with dizziness as the chief complaint. Clinical findings were analyzed using Fisher's exact test to determine how they correlated with central neurological causes of dizziness identified by neuroimaging. Costs and diagnostic yields of neuroimaging were calculated. Results : Of the 521 patients, 1.5% had dizziness produced by central neurological causes. Gait abnormalities, limb ataxia, diabetes mellitus, and the existence of multiple neurological findings predicted central causes. Cases were associated with gait abnormalities, limb ataxia, diabetes mellitus, and the existence of multiple neurological findings . Brain computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed in 42% and 9.5% of the examined cases, respectively, with diagnostic yields of 3.6% and 12%, respectively. Nine cases of dizziness were diagnosed from 269 brain scans, costing $607 914. Conclusion : Clinical evaluation can predict the presence of central neurological causes of dizziness, whereas neuroimaging is a costly and low-yield approach. Guidelines are needed for physicians, regarding the appropriateness of ordering neuroimaging studies. Abbreviations : OR: odds ratio; CI: confidence interval; ED: emergency department; CT: computed tomography; MRI: magnetic resonance imaging; HINTS: Head impulse, Nystagmus, Test of skew.

  11. Improved diagnostic accuracy of Alzheimer's disease by combining regional cortical thickness and default mode network functional connectivity: Validated in the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ji Eun; Park, Bum Woo; Kim, Sang Joon; Kim, Ho Sung; Choi, Choong Gon; Jung, Seung Jung; Oh, Joo Young; Shim, Woo Hyun; Lee, Jae Hong; Roh, Jee Hoon

    2017-01-01

    To identify potential imaging biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease by combining brain cortical thickness (CThk) and functional connectivity and to validate this model's diagnostic accuracy in a validation set. Data from 98 subjects was retrospectively reviewed, including a study set (n = 63) and a validation set from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (n = 35). From each subject, data for CThk and functional connectivity of the default mode network was extracted from structural T1-weighted and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Cortical regions with significant differences between patients and healthy controls in the correlation of CThk and functional connectivity were identified in the study set. The diagnostic accuracy of functional connectivity measures combined with CThk in the identified regions was evaluated against that in the medial temporal lobes using the validation set and application of a support vector machine. Group-wise differences in the correlation of CThk and default mode network functional connectivity were identified in the superior temporal (p < 0.001) and supramarginal gyrus (p = 0.007) of the left cerebral hemisphere. Default mode network functional connectivity combined with the CThk of those two regions were more accurate than that combined with the CThk of both medial temporal lobes (91.7% vs. 75%). Combining functional information with CThk of the superior temporal and supramarginal gyri in the left cerebral hemisphere improves diagnostic accuracy, making it a potential imaging biomarker for Alzheimer's disease

  12. How acute total sleep loss affects the attending brain: a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Dinges, David F; Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi

    2015-02-01

    Attention is a cognitive domain that can be severely affected by sleep deprivation. Previous neuroimaging studies have used different attention paradigms and reported both increased and reduced brain activation after sleep deprivation. However, due to large variability in sleep deprivation protocols, task paradigms, experimental designs, characteristics of subject populations, and imaging techniques, there is no consensus regarding the effects of sleep loss on the attending brain. The aim of this meta-analysis was to identify brain activations that are commonly altered by acute total sleep deprivation across different attention tasks. Coordinate-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies of performance on attention tasks during experimental sleep deprivation. The current version of the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach was used for meta-analysis. The authors searched published articles and identified 11 sleep deprivation neuroimaging studies using different attention tasks with a total of 185 participants, equaling 81 foci for ALE analysis. The meta-analysis revealed significantly reduced brain activation in multiple regions following sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness, including bilateral intraparietal sulcus, bilateral insula, right prefrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex, and right parahippocampal gyrus. Increased activation was found only in bilateral thalamus after sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness. Acute total sleep deprivation decreases brain activation in the fronto-parietal attention network (prefrontal cortex and intraparietal sulcus) and in the salience network (insula and medial frontal cortex). Increased thalamic activation after sleep deprivation may reflect a complex interaction between the de-arousing effects of sleep loss and the arousing effects of task performance on thalamic activity. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  13. The "handwriting brain": a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies of motor versus orthographic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planton, Samuel; Jucla, Mélanie; Roux, Franck-Emmanuel; Démonet, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    Handwriting is a modality of language production whose cerebral substrates remain poorly known although the existence of specific regions is postulated. The description of brain damaged patients with agraphia and, more recently, several neuroimaging studies suggest the involvement of different brain regions. However, results vary with the methodological choices made and may not always discriminate between "writing-specific" and motor or linguistic processes shared with other abilities. We used the "Activation Likelihood Estimate" (ALE) meta-analytical method to identify the cerebral network of areas commonly activated during handwriting in 18 neuroimaging studies published in the literature. Included contrasts were also classified according to the control tasks used, whether non-specific motor/output-control or linguistic/input-control. These data were included in two secondary meta-analyses in order to reveal the functional role of the different areas of this network. An extensive, mainly left-hemisphere network of 12 cortical and sub-cortical areas was obtained; three of which were considered as primarily writing-specific (left superior frontal sulcus/middle frontal gyrus area, left intraparietal sulcus/superior parietal area, right cerebellum) while others related rather to non-specific motor (primary motor and sensorimotor cortex, supplementary motor area, thalamus and putamen) or linguistic processes (ventral premotor cortex, posterior/inferior temporal cortex). This meta-analysis provides a description of the cerebral network of handwriting as revealed by various types of neuroimaging experiments and confirms the crucial involvement of the left frontal and superior parietal regions. These findings provide new insights into cognitive processes involved in handwriting and their cerebral substrates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Disorders of Consciousness: Painless or Painful Conditions?—Evidence from Neuroimaging Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Pistoia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The experience of pain in disorders of consciousness is still debated. Neuroimaging studies, using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI, Positron Emission Tomography (PET, multichannel electroencephalography (EEG and laser-evoked potentials, suggest that the perception of pain increases with the level of consciousness. Brain activation in response to noxious stimuli has been observed in patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS, which is also referred to as a vegetative state (VS, as well as those in a minimally conscious state (MCS. However, all of these techniques suggest that pain-related brain activation patterns of patients in MCS more closely resemble those of healthy subjects. This is further supported by fMRI findings showing a much greater functional connectivity within the structures of the so-called pain matrix in MCS as compared to UWS/VS patients. Nonetheless, when interpreting the results, a distinction is necessary between autonomic responses to potentially harmful stimuli and conscious experience of the unpleasantness of pain. Even more so if we consider that the degree of residual functioning and cortical connectivity necessary for the somatosensory, affective and cognitive-evaluative components of pain processing are not yet clear. Although procedurally challenging, the particular value of the aforementioned techniques in the assessment of pain in disorders of consciousness has been clearly demonstrated. The study of pain-related brain activation and functioning can contribute to a better understanding of the networks underlying pain perception while addressing clinical and ethical questions concerning patient care. Further development of technology and methods should aim to increase the availability of neuroimaging, objective assessment of functional connectivity and analysis at the level of individual cases as well as group comparisons. This will enable neuroimaging to truly become a clinical tool to

  15. Clinical and neuroimaging correlates of antiphospholipid antibodies in multiple sclerosis: a preliminary study

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    Gonzalez-Toledo Eduardo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (APLA in multiple sclerosis (MS patients has been reported frequently but no clear relationship between APLA and the clinical and neuroimaging features of MS have heretofore been shown. We assessed the clinical and neuroimaging features of MS patients with plasma APLA. Methods A consecutive cohort of 24 subjects with relapsing-remitting (RR MS were studied of whom 7 were in remission (Rem and 17 in exacerbation (Exc. All subjects were examined and underwent MRI of brain. Patients' plasma was tested by standard ELISA for the presence of both IgM and IgG antibodies using a panel of 6 targets: cardiolipin (CL, β2 glycoprotein I (β2GPI, Factor VII/VIIa (FVIIa, phosphatidylcholine (PC, phosphatidylserine (PS and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE. Results In exacerbation up to 80% of MS subjects had elevated titers of IgM antibodies directed against the above antigens. However, in remission, less than half of MS patients had elevated titers of IgM antibodies against one or more of the above antigens. This difference was significant, p Conclusion The findings of this preliminary study show that increased APLA IgM is associated with exacerbations of MS. Currently, the significance of this association in pathogenesis of MS remains unknown. However, systematic longitudinal studies to measure APLA in larger cohorts of patients with relapsing-remitting MS, particularly before and after treatment with immunomodulatory agents, are needed to confirm these preliminary findings.

  16. A systemic literature review of neuroimaging studies in women with breast cancer treated with adjuvant chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Andryszak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced cognitive deficits in patients with breast cancer, predominantly in attention and verbal memory, have been observed in numerous studies. These neuropsychological findings are corroborated by the results of neuroimaging studies. The aim of this paper was to survey the reports on cerebral structural and functional alterations in women with breast cancer treated with chemotherapy (CTx. First, we discuss the host-related and disease-related mechanisms underlying cognitive impairment after CTx. We point out the direct and indirect neurotoxic effect of cytostatics, which may cause: a damage to neurons or glial cells, changes in neurotransmitter levels, deregulation of the immune system and/or cytokine release. Second, we focus on the results of neuroimaging studies on brain structure and function that revealed decreased: density of grey matter, integrity of white matter and volume of multiple brain regions, as well as their lower activation during cognitive task performance. Finally, we concentrate on compensatory mechanisms, which activate additional brain areas or neural connection to reach the premorbid cognitive efficiency.

  17. Neuroimaging and neuromodulation approaches to study eating behavior and prevent and treat eating disorders and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Val-Laillet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional, molecular and genetic neuroimaging has highlighted the existence of brain anomalies and neural vulnerability factors related to obesity and eating disorders such as binge eating or anorexia nervosa. In particular, decreased basal metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and striatum as well as dopaminergic alterations have been described in obese subjects, in parallel with increased activation of reward brain areas in response to palatable food cues. Elevated reward region responsivity may trigger food craving and predict future weight gain. This opens the way to prevention studies using functional and molecular neuroimaging to perform early diagnostics and to phenotype subjects at risk by exploring different neurobehavioral dimensions of the food choices and motivation processes. In the first part of this review, advantages and limitations of neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, positron emission tomography (PET, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, pharmacogenetic fMRI and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS will be discussed in the context of recent work dealing with eating behavior, with a particular focus on obesity. In the second part of the review, non-invasive strategies to modulate food-related brain processes and functions will be presented. At the leading edge of non-invasive brain-based technologies is real-time fMRI (rtfMRI neurofeedback, which is a powerful tool to better understand the complexity of human brain–behavior relationships. rtfMRI, alone or when combined with other techniques and tools such as EEG and cognitive therapy, could be used to alter neural plasticity and learned behavior to optimize and/or restore healthy cognition and eating behavior. Other promising non-invasive neuromodulation approaches being explored are repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS and transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS. Converging evidence points at

  18. Neuroimaging and neuromodulation approaches to study eating behavior and prevent and treat eating disorders and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val-Laillet, D; Aarts, E; Weber, B; Ferrari, M; Quaresima, V; Stoeckel, L E; Alonso-Alonso, M; Audette, M; Malbert, C H; Stice, E

    2015-01-01

    Functional, molecular and genetic neuroimaging has highlighted the existence of brain anomalies and neural vulnerability factors related to obesity and eating disorders such as binge eating or anorexia nervosa. In particular, decreased basal metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and striatum as well as dopaminergic alterations have been described in obese subjects, in parallel with increased activation of reward brain areas in response to palatable food cues. Elevated reward region responsivity may trigger food craving and predict future weight gain. This opens the way to prevention studies using functional and molecular neuroimaging to perform early diagnostics and to phenotype subjects at risk by exploring different neurobehavioral dimensions of the food choices and motivation processes. In the first part of this review, advantages and limitations of neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), pharmacogenetic fMRI and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) will be discussed in the context of recent work dealing with eating behavior, with a particular focus on obesity. In the second part of the review, non-invasive strategies to modulate food-related brain processes and functions will be presented. At the leading edge of non-invasive brain-based technologies is real-time fMRI (rtfMRI) neurofeedback, which is a powerful tool to better understand the complexity of human brain-behavior relationships. rtfMRI, alone or when combined with other techniques and tools such as EEG and cognitive therapy, could be used to alter neural plasticity and learned behavior to optimize and/or restore healthy cognition and eating behavior. Other promising non-invasive neuromodulation approaches being explored are repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS). Converging evidence points at the value of

  19. Neuroimaging and neuromodulation approaches to study eating behavior and prevent and treat eating disorders and obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val-Laillet, D.; Aarts, E.; Weber, B.; Ferrari, M.; Quaresima, V.; Stoeckel, L.E.; Alonso-Alonso, M.; Audette, M.; Malbert, C.H.; Stice, E.

    2015-01-01

    Functional, molecular and genetic neuroimaging has highlighted the existence of brain anomalies and neural vulnerability factors related to obesity and eating disorders such as binge eating or anorexia nervosa. In particular, decreased basal metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and striatum as well as dopaminergic alterations have been described in obese subjects, in parallel with increased activation of reward brain areas in response to palatable food cues. Elevated reward region responsivity may trigger food craving and predict future weight gain. This opens the way to prevention studies using functional and molecular neuroimaging to perform early diagnostics and to phenotype subjects at risk by exploring different neurobehavioral dimensions of the food choices and motivation processes. In the first part of this review, advantages and limitations of neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), pharmacogenetic fMRI and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) will be discussed in the context of recent work dealing with eating behavior, with a particular focus on obesity. In the second part of the review, non-invasive strategies to modulate food-related brain processes and functions will be presented. At the leading edge of non-invasive brain-based technologies is real-time fMRI (rtfMRI) neurofeedback, which is a powerful tool to better understand the complexity of human brain–behavior relationships. rtfMRI, alone or when combined with other techniques and tools such as EEG and cognitive therapy, could be used to alter neural plasticity and learned behavior to optimize and/or restore healthy cognition and eating behavior. Other promising non-invasive neuromodulation approaches being explored are repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS). Converging evidence points at the value of

  20. The Future of Contextual Fear Learning for PTSD Research: A Methodological Review of Neuroimaging Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Daniel E; Risbrough, Victoria B; Simmons, Alan N; Acheson, Dean T; Stout, Daniel M

    2017-10-21

    There has been a great deal of recent interest in human models of contextual fear learning, particularly due to the use of such paradigms for investigating neural mechanisms related to the etiology of posttraumatic stress disorder. However, the construct of "context" in fear conditioning research is broad, and the operational definitions and methods used to investigate contextual fear learning in humans are wide ranging and lack specificity, making it difficult to interpret findings about neural activity. Here we will review neuroimaging studies of contextual fear acquisition in humans. We will discuss the methodology associated with four broad categories of how contextual fear learning is manipulated in imaging studies (colored backgrounds, static picture backgrounds, virtual reality, and configural stimuli) and highlight findings for the primary neural circuitry involved in each paradigm. Additionally, we will offer methodological recommendations for human studies of contextual fear acquisition, including using stimuli that distinguish configural learning from discrete cue associations and clarifying how context is experimentally operationalized.

  1. Neuroimaging studies of GABA in schizophrenia: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerton, A; Modinos, G; Ferrera, D; McGuire, P

    2017-06-06

    Data from animal models and from postmortem studies suggest that schizophrenia is associated with brain GABAergic dysfunction. The extent to which this is reflected in data from in vivo studies of GABA function in schizophrenia is unclear. The Medline database was searched to identify articles published until 21 October 2016. The search terms included GABA, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), schizophrenia and psychosis. Sixteen GABA 1 H-MRS studies (538 controls, 526 patients) and seven PET/SPECT studies of GABA A /benzodiazepine receptor (GABA A /BZR) availability (118 controls, 113 patients) were identified. Meta-analyses of 1 H-MRS GABA in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), parietal/occipital cortex (POC) and striatum did not show significant group differences (mFC: g=-0.3, 409 patients, 495 controls, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.6 to 0.1; POC: g=-0.3, 139 patients, 111 controls, 95% CI: -0.9 to 0.3; striatum: g=-0.004, 123 patients, 95 controls, 95% CI: -0.7 to 0.7). Heterogeneity across studies was high (I 2 >50%), and this was not explained by subsequent moderator or meta-regression analyses. There were insufficient PET/SPECT receptor availability studies for meta-analyses, but a systematic review did not suggest replicable group differences in regional GABA A /BZR availability. The current literature does not reveal consistent alterations in in vivo GABA neuroimaging measures in schizophrenia, as might be hypothesized from animal models and postmortem data. The analysis highlights the need for further GABA neuroimaging studies with improved methodology and addressing potential sources of heterogeneity.

  2. Sustained effects of ecstasy on the human brain: a prospective neuroimaging study in novel users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Win, Maartje M L; Jager, Gerry; Booij, Jan; Reneman, Liesbeth; Schilt, Thelma; Lavini, Cristina; Olabarriaga, Sílvia D; den Heeten, Gerard J; van den Brink, Wim

    2008-11-01

    Previous studies have suggested toxic effects of recreational ecstasy use on the serotonin system of the brain. However, it cannot be excluded that observed differences between users and non-users are the cause rather than the consequence of ecstasy use. As part of the Netherlands XTC Toxicity (NeXT) study, we prospectively assessed sustained effects of ecstasy use on the brain in novel ecstasy users using repeated measurements with a combination of different neuroimaging parameters of neurotoxicity. At baseline, 188 ecstasy-naive volunteers with high probability of first ecstasy use were examined. After a mean period of 17 months follow-up, neuroimaging was repeated in 59 incident ecstasy users and 56 matched persistent ecstasy-naives and their outcomes were compared. Neuroimaging included [(123)I]beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-iodophenyl)tropane (CIT) SPECT to measure serotonin transporter densities as indicators of serotonergic function; (1)H-MR spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) to measure brain metabolites as indicators of neuronal damage; diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to measure the apparent diffusion coefficient and fractional anisotropy (FA) of the diffusional motion of water molecules in the brain as indicators of axonal integrity; and perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) to measure regional relative cerebral blood volume (rrCBV) which indicates brain perfusion. With this approach, both structural ((1)H-MRS and DTI) and functional ([(123)I]beta-CIT SPECT and PWI) aspects of neurotoxicity were combined. Compared to persistent ecstasy-naives, novel low-dose ecstasy users (mean 6.0, median 2.0 tablets) showed decreased rrCBV in the globus pallidus and putamen; decreased FA in thalamus and frontoparietal white matter; increased FA in globus pallidus; and increased apparent diffusion coefficient in the thalamus. No changes in serotonin transporter densities and brain metabolites were observed. These findings suggest sustained effects of ecstasy on brain microvasculature, white

  3. Internet and Gaming Addiction: A Systematic Literature Review of Neuroimaging Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Daria J.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, research has accumulated suggesting that excessive Internet use can lead to the development of a behavioral addiction. Internet addiction has been considered as a serious threat to mental health and the excessive use of the Internet has been linked to a variety of negative psychosocial consequences. The aim of this review is to identify all empirical studies to date that used neuroimaging techniques to shed light upon the emerging mental health problem of Internet and gaming addiction from a neuroscientific perspective. Neuroimaging studies offer an advantage over traditional survey and behavioral research because with this method, it is possible to distinguish particular brain areas that are involved in the development and maintenance of addiction. A systematic literature search was conducted, identifying 18 studies. These studies provide compelling evidence for the similarities between different types of addictions, notably substance-related addictions and Internet and gaming addiction, on a variety of levels. On the molecular level, Internet addiction is characterized by an overall reward deficiency that entails decreased dopaminergic activity. On the level of neural circuitry, Internet and gaming addiction led to neuroadaptation and structural changes that occur as a consequence of prolonged increased activity in brain areas associated with addiction. On a behavioral level, Internet and gaming addicts appear to be constricted with regards to their cognitive functioning in various domains. The paper shows that understanding the neuronal correlates associated with the development of Internet and gaming addiction will promote future research and will pave the way for the development of addiction treatment approaches. PMID:24961198

  4. Internet and Gaming Addiction: A Systematic Literature Review of Neuroimaging Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria J. Kuss

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, research has accumulated suggesting that excessive Internet use can lead to the development of a behavioral addiction. Internet addiction has been considered as a serious threat to mental health and the excessive use of the Internet has been linked to a variety of negative psychosocial consequences. The aim of this review is to identify all empirical studies to date that used neuroimaging techniques to shed light upon the emerging mental health problem of Internet and gaming addiction from a neuroscientific perspective. Neuroimaging studies offer an advantage over traditional survey and behavioral research because with this method, it is possible to distinguish particular brain areas that are involved in the development and maintenance of addiction. A systematic literature search was conducted, identifying 18 studies. These studies provide compelling evidence for the similarities between different types of addictions, notably substance-related addictions and Internet and gaming addiction, on a variety of levels. On the molecular level, Internet addiction is characterized by an overall reward deficiency that entails decreased dopaminergic activity. On the level of neural circuitry, Internet and gaming addiction led to neuroadaptation and structural changes that occur as a consequence of prolonged increased activity in brain areas associated with addiction. On a behavioral level, Internet and gaming addicts appear to be constricted with regards to their cognitive functioning in various domains. The paper shows that understanding the neuronal correlates associated with the development of Internet and gaming addiction will promote future research and will pave the way for the development of addiction treatment approaches.

  5. Internet and gaming addiction: a systematic literature review of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Daria J; Griffiths, Mark D

    2012-09-05

    In the past decade, research has accumulated suggesting that excessive Internet use can lead to the development of a behavioral addiction. Internet addiction has been considered as a serious threat to mental health and the excessive use of the Internet has been linked to a variety of negative psychosocial consequences. The aim of this review is to identify all empirical studies to date that used neuroimaging techniques to shed light upon the emerging mental health problem of Internet and gaming addiction from a neuroscientific perspective. Neuroimaging studies offer an advantage over traditional survey and behavioral research because with this method, it is possible to distinguish particular brain areas that are involved in the development and maintenance of addiction. A systematic literature search was conducted, identifying 18 studies. These studies provide compelling evidence for the similarities between different types of addictions, notably substance-related addictions and Internet and gaming addiction, on a variety of levels. On the molecular level, Internet addiction is characterized by an overall reward deficiency that entails decreased dopaminergic activity. On the level of neural circuitry, Internet and gaming addiction led to neuroadaptation and structural changes that occur as a consequence of prolonged increased activity in brain areas associated with addiction. On a behavioral level, Internet and gaming addicts appear to be constricted with regards to their cognitive functioning in various domains. The paper shows that understanding the neuronal correlates associated with the development of Internet and gaming addiction will promote future research and will pave the way for the development of addiction treatment approaches.

  6. Advocating neuroimaging studies of transmitter release in human physical exercise challenges studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Boecker

    2010-09-01

    extent conventional blood-based methods can inform researchers about central neurotransmitter effects. As previous studies using receptor blocking approaches have also revealed equivocal results regarding exercise effects on pain and mood processing, it is expected that PET and other functional neuroimaging applications in athletes may in future help uncover some of the hitherto unknown links between neurotransmission and psychophysiological effects related to physical exercise.Keywords: positron emission tomography, beta-endorphins, opioids

  7. Self-reflection and the brain : A theoretical review and meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies with implications for schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Lisette; Costafreda, Sergi; Aleman, Andre; David, Anthony S.

    Several studies have investigated the neural correlates of self-reflection. In the paradigm most commonly used to address this concept, a subject is presented with trait adjectives or sentences and asked whether they describe him or her. Functional neuroimaging research has revealed a set of regions

  8. The Physiological Bases of Hidden Noise-Induced Hearing Loss: Protocol for a Functional Neuroimaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Rebecca Susan; Hall, Deborah A; Guest, Hannah; Prendergast, Garreth; Plack, Christopher J; Francis, Susan T

    2018-03-09

    Rodent studies indicate that noise exposure can cause permanent damage to synapses between inner hair cells and high-threshold auditory nerve fibers, without permanently altering threshold sensitivity. These demonstrations of what is commonly known as hidden hearing loss have been confirmed in several rodent species, but the implications for human hearing are unclear. Our Medical Research Council-funded program aims to address this unanswered question, by investigating functional consequences of the damage to the human peripheral and central auditory nervous system that results from cumulative lifetime noise exposure. Behavioral and neuroimaging techniques are being used in a series of parallel studies aimed at detecting hidden hearing loss in humans. The planned neuroimaging study aims to (1) identify central auditory biomarkers associated with hidden hearing loss; (2) investigate whether there are any additive contributions from tinnitus or diminished sound tolerance, which are often comorbid with hearing problems; and (3) explore the relation between subcortical functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measures and the auditory brainstem response (ABR). Individuals aged 25 to 40 years with pure tone hearing thresholds ≤20 dB hearing level over the range 500 Hz to 8 kHz and no contraindications for MRI or signs of ear disease will be recruited into the study. Lifetime noise exposure will be estimated using an in-depth structured interview. Auditory responses throughout the central auditory system will be recorded using ABR and fMRI. Analyses will focus predominantly on correlations between lifetime noise exposure and auditory response characteristics. This paper reports the study protocol. The funding was awarded in July 2013. Enrollment for the study described in this protocol commenced in February 2017 and was completed in December 2017. Results are expected in 2018. This challenging and comprehensive study will have the potential to impact diagnostic

  9. Functional neuroimaging studies of prospective memory: what have we learnt so far?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Paul W; Gonen-Yaacovi, Gil; Volle, Emmanuelle

    2011-07-01

    The complexity of the behaviour described by the term "prospective memory" meant that it was not at all clear, when the earliest studies were conducted, that this would prove a fruitful area for neuroimaging study. However, a consistent relation rapidly emerged between activation in rostral prefrontal cortex (approximating Brodmann Area 10) and performance of prospective memory paradigms. This consistency has greatly increased the accumulation of findings, since each study has offered perspectives on the previous ones. Considerable help too has come from broad agreement between functional neuroimaging findings and those from other methods (e.g. human lesion studies, electrophysiology). The result has been a quite startling degree of advance given the relatively few studies that have been conducted. These findings are summarised, along with those from other brain regions, and new directions suggested. Key points are that there is a medial-lateral dissociation within rostral PFC. Some (but not all) regions of medial rostral PFC are typically more active during performance of the ongoing task only, and lateral aspects are relatively more active during conditions involving delayed intentions. Some of these rostral PFC activations seem remarkably insensitive to the form of stimulus material presented, the nature of the ongoing task, the specifics of the intention, how easy or hard the PM cue is to detect, or the intended action is to recall. However there are other regions within rostral PFC where haemodynamic changes vary with alterations in these, and other, aspects of prospective memory paradigms. It is concluded that rostral PFC most likely plays a super-ordinate role during many stages of creating, maintaining and enacting delayed intentions, which in some cases may be linked to recent evidence showing that this brain region is involved in the control of stimulus-oriented vs. stimulus-independent attending. Other key brain regions activated during prospective

  10. International Cognition and Cancer Task Force Recommendations for Neuroimaging Methods in the Study of Cognitive Impairment in Non-CNS Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprez, Sabine; Kesler, Shelli R; Saykin, Andrew J; Silverman, Daniel H S; de Ruiter, Michiel B; McDonald, Brenna C

    2018-03-01

    Cancer- and treatment-related cognitive changes have been a focus of increasing research since the early 1980s, with meta-analyses demonstrating poorer performance in cancer patients in cognitive domains including executive functions, processing speed, and memory. To facilitate collaborative efforts, in 2011 the International Cognition and Cancer Task Force (ICCTF) published consensus recommendations for core neuropsychological tests for studies of cancer populations. Over the past decade, studies have used neuroimaging techniques, including structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography, to examine the underlying brain basis for cancer- and treatment-related cognitive declines. As yet, however, there have been no consensus recommendations to guide researchers new to this field or to promote the ability to combine data sets. We first discuss important methodological issues with regard to neuroimaging study design, scanner considerations, and sequence selection, focusing on concerns relevant to cancer populations. We propose a minimum recommended set of sequences, including a high-resolution T1-weighted volume and a resting state fMRI scan. Additional advanced imaging sequences are discussed for consideration when feasible, including task-based fMRI and diffusion tensor imaging. Important image data processing and analytic considerations are also reviewed. These recommendations are offered to facilitate increased use of neuroimaging in studies of cancer- and treatment-related cognitive dysfunction. They are not intended to discourage investigator-initiated efforts to develop cutting-edge techniques, which will be helpful in advancing the state of the knowledge. Use of common imaging protocols will facilitate multicenter and data-pooling initiatives, which are needed to address critical mechanistic research questions.

  11. Neuroimaging study of the human amygdala. Toward an understanding of emotional and stress responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iidaka, Tetsuya

    2007-01-01

    The amygdala plays a critical role in the neural system involved in emotional responses and conditioned fear. The dysfunction of this system is thought to be a cause of several neuropsychiatric disorders. A neuroimaging study provides a unique opportunity for noninvasive investigation of the human amygdala. We studied the activity of this structure in normal subjects and patients with schizophrenia by using the face recognition task. Our results showed that the amygdala was activated by presentation of face stimuli, and negative face activated the amygdala to a greater extent than a neutral face. Under the happy face condition, the activation of the amygdala was higher in the schizophrenic patients than in control subjects. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the regulatory region of the serotonin type 3 receptor gene had modulatory effects on the amygdaloid activity. The emotion regulation had a significant impact on neural interaction between the amygdala and prefrontal cortices. Thus, studies on the human amygdala would greatly contribute to the elucidation of the neural system that determines emotional and stress responses. To clarify the relevance of the neural dysfunction and neuropsychiatric disorders, further studies using physiological, genetic, and hormonal approaches are essential. (author)

  12. Mapping vulnerability to bipolar disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Howes, Oliver; Bechdolf, Andreas; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Background Although early interventions in individuals with bipolar disorder may reduce the associated personal and economic burden, the neurobiologic markers of enhanced risk are unknown. Methods Neuroimaging studies involving individuals at enhanced genetic risk for bipolar disorder (HR) were included in a systematic review. We then performed a region of interest (ROI) analysis and a whole-brain meta-analysis combined with a formal effect-sizes meta-analysis in a subset of studies. Results There were 37 studies included in our systematic review. The overall sample for the systematic review included 1258 controls and 996 HR individuals. No significant differences were detected between HR individuals and controls in the selected ROIs: striatum, amygdala, hippocampus, pituitary and frontal lobe. The HR group showed increased grey matter volume compared with patients with established bipolar disorder. The HR individuals showed increased neural response in the left superior frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus and left insula compared with controls, independent from the functional magnetic resonance imaging task used. There were no publication biases. Sensitivity analysis confirmed the robustness of these results. Limitations As the included studies were cross-sectional, it remains to be determined whether the observed neurofunctional and structural alterations represent risk factors that can be clinically used in preventive interventions for prodromal bipolar disorder. Conclusion Accumulating structural and functional imaging evidence supports the existence of neurobiologic trait abnormalities in individuals at genetic risk for bipolar disorder at various scales of investigation. PMID:22297067

  13. Neuroimaging Study of the Human Amygdala - Toward an Understanding of Emotional and Stress Responses -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iidaka, Tetsuya

    The amygdala plays a critical role in the neural system involved in emotional responses and conditioned fear. The dysfunction of this system is thought to be a cause of several neuropsychiatric disorders. A neuroimaging study provides a unique opportunity for noninvasive investigation of the human amygdala. We studied the activity of this structure in normal subjects and patients with schizophrenia by using the face recognition task. Our results showed that the amygdala was activated by presentation of face stimuli, and negative face activated the amygdala to a greater extent than a neutral face. Under the happy face condition, the activation of the amygdala was higher in the schizophrenic patients than in control subjects. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the regulatory region of the serotonin type 3 receptor gene had modulatory effects on the amygdaloid activity. The emotion regulation had a significant impact on neural interaction between the amygdala and prefrontal cortices. Thus, studies on the human amygdala would greatly contribute to the elucidation of the neural system that determines emotional and stress responses. To clarify the relevance of the neural dysfunction and neuropsychiatric disorders, further studies using physiological, genetic, and hormonal approaches are essential.

  14. Neural correlates of somatoform disorders from a meta-analytic perspective on neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckle, Markus; Schrimpf, Marlene; Liegl, Gregor; Pieh, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Somatoform disorders (SD) are common medical disorders with prevalence rates between 3.5% and 18.4%, depending on country and medical setting. SD as outlined in the ICD-10 exhibits various biological, social, and psychological pathogenic factors. Little is known about the neural correlates of SD. The aims of this meta-analysis are to identify neuronal areas that are involved in SD and consistently differ between patients and healthy controls. We conducted a systematic literature research on neuroimaging studies of SD. Ten out of 686 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were analyzed using activation likelihood estimation. Five neuronal areas differ between patients with SD and healthy controls namely the premotor and supplementary motor cortexes, the middle frontal gyrus, the anterior cingulate cortex, the insula, and the posterior cingulate cortex. These areas seem to have a particular importance for the occurrence of SD. Out of the ten studies two did not contribute to any of the clusters. Our results seem to largely overlap with the circuit network model of somatosensory amplification for SD. It is conceivable that functional disorders, independent of the clinical impression, show similar neurobiological processes. While overlaps do occur it is necessary to understand single functional somatic syndromes and their aetiology for future research, terminology, and treatment guidelines.

  15. Neural correlates of somatoform disorders from a meta-analytic perspective on neuroimaging studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Boeckle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Somatoform disorders (SD are common medical disorders with prevalence rates between 3.5% and 18.4%, depending on country and medical setting. SD as outlined in the ICD-10 exhibits various biological, social, and psychological pathogenic factors. Little is known about the neural correlates of SD. The aims of this meta-analysis are to identify neuronal areas that are involved in SD and consistently differ between patients and healthy controls. We conducted a systematic literature research on neuroimaging studies of SD. Ten out of 686 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were analyzed using activation likelihood estimation. Five neuronal areas differ between patients with SD and healthy controls namely the premotor and supplementary motor cortexes, the middle frontal gyrus, the anterior cingulate cortex, the insula, and the posterior cingulate cortex. These areas seem to have a particular importance for the occurrence of SD. Out of the ten studies two did not contribute to any of the clusters. Our results seem to largely overlap with the circuit network model of somatosensory amplification for SD. It is conceivable that functional disorders, independent of the clinical impression, show similar neurobiological processes. While overlaps do occur it is necessary to understand single functional somatic syndromes and their aetiology for future research, terminology, and treatment guidelines.

  16. Neuroprotective mechanism of BNG-1 against focal cerebral ischemia: a neuroimaging and neurotrophin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Nai-Fang; Liu, Ho-Ling; Yang, Jen-Tsung; Lin, Jr-Rung; Liao, Shu-Li; Peng, Bo-Han; Lee, Yen-Tung; Lee, Tsong-Hai

    2014-01-01

    BNG-1 is a herb complex used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat stroke. In this study, we attempted to identify the neuroprotective mechanism of BNG-1 by using neuroimaging and neurotrophin analyses of a stroke animal model. Rats were treated with either saline or BNG-1 for 7 d after 60-min middle cerebral artery occlusion by filament model. The temporal change of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of brain was studied using a 7 Tesla MR imaging (MRI) system and the temporal expressions of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and nerve growth factor (NGF) in brain were analyzed before operation and at 4 h, 2 d, and 7 d after operation. Compared with the saline group, the BNG-1 group exhibited a smaller infarction volume in the cerebral cortex in T2 image from as early as 4 h to 7 d, less edema in the cortex in diffusion weighted image from 2 to 7 d, earlier reduction of postischemic hyperperfusion in both the cortex and striatum in perfusion image at 4 h, and earlier normalization of the ischemic pattern in the striatum in susceptibility weighted image at 2 d. NT-3 and BDNF levels were higher in the BNG-1 group than the saline group at 7 d. We concluded that the protective effect of BNG-1 against cerebral ischemic injury might act through improving cerebral hemodynamics and recovering neurotrophin generation.

  17. Emotion and Cognition Interactions in PTSD: A Review of Neurocognitive and Neuroimaging Studies

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    Jasmeet P Hayes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a psychiatric syndrome that develops after exposure to terrifying and life-threatening events including warfare, motor-vehicle accidents, and physical and sexual assault. The emotional experience of psychological trauma can have long-term cognitive effects. The hallmark symptoms of PTSD involve alterations to cognitive processes such as memory, attention, planning and problem solving, underscoring the detrimental impact that negative emotionality has on cognitive functioning. As such, an important challenge for PTSD researchers and treatment providers is to understand the dynamic interplay between emotion and cognition. Contemporary cognitive models of PTSD theorize that a preponderance of information processing resources are allocated towards threat detection and interpretation of innocuous stimuli as threatening, narrowing one’s attentional focus at the expense of other cognitive operations. Decades of research have shown support for these cognitive models of PTSD using a variety of tasks and methodological approaches. The primary goal of this review is to summarize the latest neurocognitive and neuroimaging research of emotion-cognition interactions in PTSD. To directly assess the influence of emotion on cognition and vice versa, the studies reviewed employed challenge tasks that included both cognitive and emotional components. The findings provide evidence for memory and attention deficits in PTSD that are often associated with changes in functional brain activity. The results are reviewed to provide future directions for research that may direct better and more effective treatments for PTSD.

  18. Neural and cognitive correlates of social cognition. Findings from neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayakawa, Mutsutaka; Kawamura, Mitsuru

    2011-01-01

    Social cognition includes various components of information processing related to communication with other individuals. In this review, we have discussed 3 components of social cognitive function: face recognition, empathy, and decision making. Our social behavior involves recognition based on facial features and also involves empathizing with others; while making decisions, it is important to consider the social consequences of the course of action followed. Face recognition is divided into 2 routes for information processing: a route responsible for overt recognition of the face's identity and a route for emotional and orienting responses based on the face's personal affective significance. Two systems are possibly involved in empathy: a basic emotional contagion 'mirroring' system and a more advanced 'theory of mind' system that considers the cognitive perspective. Decision making is mediated by a widespread system that includes several cortical and subcortical components. Numerous lesion and neuroimaging studies have contributed to clarifying the neural correlates of social cognitive function, and greater information can be obtained on social cognitive function by combining these 2 approaches. (author)

  19. [Neural and cognitive correlates of social cognition: findings on neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayakawa, Mutsutaka; Kawamura, Mitsuru

    2011-12-01

    Social cognition includes various components of information processing related to communication with other individuals. In this review, we have discussed 3 components of social cognitive function: face recognition, empathy, and decision making. Our social behavior involves recognition based on facial features and also involves empathizing with others; while making decisions, it is important to consider the social consequences of the course of action followed. Face recognition is divided into 2 routes for information processing: a route responsible for overt recognition of the face's identity and a route for emotional and orienting responses based on the face's personal affective significance. Two systems are possibly involved in empathy: a basic emotional contagion "mirroring" system and a more advanced "theory of mind" system that considers the cognitive perspective. Decision making is mediated by a widespread system that includes several cortical and subcortical components. Numerous lesion and neuroimaging studies have contributed to clarifying the neural correlates of social cognitive function, and greater information can be obtained on social cognitive function by combining these 2 approaches.

  20. Statistical inferences under the Null hypothesis: Common mistakes and pitfalls in neuroimaging studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel eHupé

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Published studies using functional and structural MRI include many errors in the way data are analyzed and conclusions reported. This was observed when working on a comprehensive review of the neural bases of synesthesia, but these errors are probably endemic to neuroimaging studies. All studies reviewed had based their conclusions using Null Hypothesis Significance Tests (NHST. NHST have yet been criticized since their inception because they are more appropriate for taking decisions related to a Null hypothesis (like in manufacturing than for making inferences about behavioral and neuronal processes. Here I focus on a few key problems of NHST related to brain imaging techniques, and explain why or when we should not rely on significance tests. I also observed that, often, the ill-posed logic of NHST was even not correctly applied, and describe what I identified as common mistakes or at least problematic practices in published papers, in light of what could be considered as the very basics of statistical inference. MRI statistics also involve much more complex issues than standard statistical inference. Analysis pipelines vary a lot between studies, even for those using the same software, and there is no consensus which pipeline is the best. I propose a synthetic view of the logic behind the possible methodological choices, and warn against the usage and interpretation of two statistical methods popular in brain imaging studies, the false discovery rate (FDR procedure and permutation tests. I suggest that current models for the analysis of brain imaging data suffer from serious limitations and call for a revision taking into account the new statistics (confidence intervals logic.

  1. Stuttering as a trait or state - an ALE meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyk, Michel; Kraft, Shelly Jo; Brown, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Stuttering is a speech disorder characterised by repetitions, prolongations and blocks that disrupt the forward movement of speech. An earlier meta-analysis of brain imaging studies of stuttering (Brown et al., 2005) revealed a general trend towards rightward lateralization of brain activations and hyperactivity in the larynx motor cortex bilaterally. The present study sought not only to update that meta-analysis with recent work but to introduce an important distinction not present in the first study, namely the difference between 'trait' and 'state' stuttering. The analysis of trait stuttering compares people who stutter (PWS) with people who do not stutter when behaviour is controlled for, i.e., when speech is fluent in both groups. In contrast, the analysis of state stuttering examines PWS during episodes of stuttered speech compared with episodes of fluent speech. Seventeen studies were analysed using activation likelihood estimation. Trait stuttering was characterised by the well-known rightward shift in lateralization for language and speech areas. State stuttering revealed a more diverse pattern. Abnormal activation of larynx and lip motor cortex was common to the two analyses. State stuttering was associated with overactivation in the right hemisphere larynx and lip motor cortex. Trait stuttering was associated with overactivation of lip motor cortex in the right hemisphere but underactivation of larynx motor cortex in the left hemisphere. These results support a large literature highlighting laryngeal and lip involvement in the symptomatology of stuttering, and disambiguate two possible sources of activation in neuroimaging studies of persistent developmental stuttering. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Sex differences in brain activation to emotional stimuli: a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jennifer S; Hamann, Stephan

    2012-06-01

    Substantial sex differences in emotional responses and perception have been reported in previous psychological and psychophysiological studies. For example, women have been found to respond more strongly to negative emotional stimuli, a sex difference that has been linked to an increased risk of depression and anxiety disorders. The extent to which such sex differences are reflected in corresponding differences in regional brain activation remains a largely unresolved issue, however, in part because relatively few neuroimaging studies have addressed this issue. Here, by conducting a quantitative meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies, we were able to substantially increase statistical power to detect sex differences relative to prior studies, by combining emotion studies which explicitly examined sex differences with the much larger number of studies that examined only women or men. We used an activation likelihood estimation approach to characterize sex differences in the likelihood of regional brain activation elicited by emotional stimuli relative to non-emotional stimuli. We examined sex differences separately for negative and positive emotions, in addition to examining all emotions combined. Sex differences varied markedly between negative and positive emotion studies. The majority of sex differences favoring women were observed for negative emotion, whereas the majority of the sex differences favoring men were observed for positive emotion. This valence-specificity was particularly evident for the amygdala. For negative emotion, women exhibited greater activation than men in the left amygdala, as well as in other regions including the left thalamus, hypothalamus, mammillary bodies, left caudate, and medial prefrontal cortex. In contrast, for positive emotion, men exhibited greater activation than women in the left amygdala, as well as greater activation in other regions including the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus and right fusiform gyrus. These meta

  3. DeID – A Data Sharing Tool for Neuroimaging Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuebo eSong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Funding institutions and researchers increasingly expect that data will be shared to increase scientific integrity and provide other scientists with the opportunity to use the data with novel methods that may advance understanding in a particular field of study. In practice, sharing human subject data can be complicated because data must be de-identified prior to sharing. Moreover, integrating varied data types collected in a study can be challenging and time consuming. For example, sharing data from structural imaging studies of a complex disorder requires the integration of imaging, demographic and/or behavioral data in a way that no subject identifiers are included in the de-identified dataset and with new subject labels or identification values that cannot be tracked back to the original ones. We have developed a Java program that users can use to remove identifying information in neuroimaging datasets, while still maintaining the association among different data types from the same subject for further studies. This software provides a series of user interaction wizards to allow users to select data variables to be de-identified, implements functions for auditing and validation of de-identified data, and enables the user to share the de-identified data in a single compressed package through various communication protocols, such as FTPS and SFTP. DeID runs with Windows, Linux, and Mac operating systems and its open architecture allows it to be easily adapted to support a broader array of data types, with the goal of facilitating data sharing. DeID can be obtained at http://www.nitrc.org/projects/deid.

  4. Neuroimaging studies of word and pseudoword reading: consistencies, inconsistencies, and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechelli, Andrea; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Price, Cathy J

    2003-02-15

    Several functional neuroimaging studies have compared words and pseudowords to test different cognitive models of reading. There are difficulties with this approach, however, because cognitive models do not make clear-cut predictions at the neural level. Therefore, results can only be interpreted on the basis of prior knowledge of cognitive anatomy. Furthermore, studies comparing words and pseudowords have produced inconsistent results. The inconsistencies could reflect false-positive results due to the low statistical thresholds applied or confounds from nonlexical aspects of the stimuli. Alternatively, they may reflect true effects that are inconsistent across subjects; dependent on experimental parameters such as stimulus rate or duration; or not replicated across studies because of insufficient statistical power. In this fMRI study, we investigate consistent and inconsistent differences between word and pseudoword reading in 20 subjects, and distinguish between effects associated with increases and decreases in activity relative to fixation. In addition, the interaction of word type with stimulus duration is explored. We find that words and pseudowords activate the same set of regions relative to fixation, and within this system, there is greater activation for pseudowords than words in the left frontal operculum, left posterior inferior temporal gyrus, and the right cerebellum. The only effects of words relative to pseudowords consistent over subjects are due to decreases in activity for pseudowords relative to fixation; and there are no significant interactions between word type and stimulus duration. Finally, we observe inconsistent but highly significant effects of word type at the individual subject level. These results (i) illustrate that pseudowords place increased demands on areas that have previously been linked to lexical retrieval, and (ii) highlight the importance of including one or more baselines to qualify word type effects. Furthermore, (iii

  5. The influence of emotional interference on cognitive control: A meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies using the emotional Stroop task

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Sensen; Zilverstand, Anna; Song, Hongwen; d?Oleire Uquillas, Federico; Wang, Yongming; Xie, Chao; Cheng, Li; Zou, Zhiling

    2017-01-01

    The neural correlates underlying the influence of emotional interference on cognitive control remain a topic of discussion. Here, we assessed 16 neuroimaging studies that used an emotional Stroop task and that reported a significant interaction effect between emotion (stimulus type) and cognitive conflict. There were a total of 330 participants, equaling 132 foci for an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) analysis. Results revealed consistent brain activation patterns related to emotionall...

  6. Coordinate based random effect size meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tench, C R; Tanasescu, Radu; Constantinescu, C S; Auer, D P; Cottam, W J

    2017-06-01

    Low power in neuroimaging studies can make them difficult to interpret, and Coordinate based meta-analysis (CBMA) may go some way to mitigating this issue. CBMA has been used in many analyses to detect where published functional MRI or voxel-based morphometry studies testing similar hypotheses report significant summary results (coordinates) consistently. Only the reported coordinates and possibly t statistics are analysed, and statistical significance of clusters is determined by coordinate density. Here a method of performing coordinate based random effect size meta-analysis and meta-regression is introduced. The algorithm (ClusterZ) analyses both coordinates and reported t statistic or Z score, standardised by the number of subjects. Statistical significance is determined not by coordinate density, but by a random effects meta-analyses of reported effects performed cluster-wise using standard statistical methods and taking account of censoring inherent in the published summary results. Type 1 error control is achieved using the false cluster discovery rate (FCDR), which is based on the false discovery rate. This controls both the family wise error rate under the null hypothesis that coordinates are randomly drawn from a standard stereotaxic space, and the proportion of significant clusters that are expected under the null. Such control is necessary to avoid propagating and even amplifying the very issues motivating the meta-analysis in the first place. ClusterZ is demonstrated on both numerically simulated data and on real data from reports of grey matter loss in multiple sclerosis (MS) and syndromes suggestive of MS, and of painful stimulus in healthy controls. The software implementation is available to download and use freely. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Neuroimaging for psychotherapy research: current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarten, Carol P; Strauman, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews neuroimaging studies that inform psychotherapy research. An introduction to neuroimaging methods is provided as background for the increasingly sophisticated breadth of methods and findings appearing in psychotherapy research. We compiled and assessed a comprehensive list of neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, along with selected examples of other types of studies that also are relevant to psychotherapy research. We emphasized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) since it is the dominant neuroimaging modality in psychological research. We summarize findings from neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, including treatment for depression, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and schizophrenia. The increasing use of neuroimaging methods in the study of psychotherapy continues to refine our understanding of both outcome and process. We suggest possible directions for future neuroimaging studies in psychotherapy research.

  8. Cortical somatosensory reorganization in children with spastic cerebral palsy: a multimodal neuroimaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTOS ePAPADELIS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Although cerebral palsy (CP is among the most common causes of physical disability in early childhood, we know little about the functional and structural changes of this disorder in the developing brain. Here, we investigated with three different neuroimaging modalities (magnetoencephalography (MEG, diffusion tension imaging (DTI, and resting state fMRI whether spastic CP is associated with functional and anatomical abnormalities in the sensorimotor network. Ten children participated in the study: four with diplegic CP (DCP, three with hemiplegic CP (HCP, and three typically-developing (TD children. Somatosensory evoked fields (SEFs were recorded in response to pneumatic stimuli applied to digits D1, D3, and D5 of both hands. Several parameters of water diffusion were calculated from DTI between the thalamus and the precentral and postcentral gyri in both hemispheres. The sensorimotor resting state networks (RSNs were examined by using an independent component analysis method. Tactile stimulation of the fingers elicited the first prominent cortical response at ~50 ms, in all except one child, localized over the primary somatosensory cortex (S1. In five CP children, abnormal somatotopic organization was observed in the affected (or more affected hemisphere. Euclidean distances were markedly different between the two hemispheres in the HCP children, and between DCP and TD children for both hemispheres. DTI analysis revealed decreased fractional anisotropy and increased apparent diffusion coefficient for the thalamocortical pathways in the more affected compared to less affected hemisphere in CP children. Rs-fMRI results indicated absent and/or abnormal sensorimotor RSNs for children with HCP and DCP consistent with the severity and location of their lesions. Our findings suggest an abnormal somatosensory processing mechanism in the sensorimotor network of children with CP possibly as a result of diminished thalamocortical projections.

  9. Effects of traumatic brain injury and posttraumatic stress disorder on Alzheimer's disease in veterans, using the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Michael W; Veitch, Dallas P; Hayes, Jacqueline; Neylan, Thomas; Grafman, Jordan; Aisen, Paul S; Petersen, Ronald C; Jack, Clifford; Jagust, William; Trojanowski, John Q; Shaw, Leslie M; Saykin, Andrew J; Green, Robert C; Harvey, Danielle; Toga, Arthur W; Friedl, Karl E; Pacifico, Anthony; Sheline, Yvette; Yaffe, Kristine; Mohlenoff, Brian

    2014-06-01

    Both traumatic brain injury (TBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are common problems resulting from military service, and both have been associated with increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia resulting from Alzheimer's disease (AD) or other causes. This study aims to use imaging techniques and biomarker analysis to determine whether traumatic brain injury (TBI) and/or PTSD resulting from combat or other traumas increase the risk for AD and decrease cognitive reserve in Veteran subjects, after accounting for age. Using military and Department of Veterans Affairs records, 65 Vietnam War veterans with a history of moderate or severe TBI with or without PTSD, 65 with ongoing PTSD without TBI, and 65 control subjects are being enrolled in this study at 19 sites. The study aims to select subject groups that are comparable in age, gender, ethnicity, and education. Subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia are being excluded. However, a new study just beginning, and similar in size, will study subjects with TBI, subjects with PTSD, and control subjects with MCI. Baseline measurements of cognition, function, blood, and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers; magnetic resonance images (structural, diffusion tensor, and resting state blood-level oxygen dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging); and amyloid positron emission tomographic (PET) images with florbetapir are being obtained. One-year follow-up measurements will be collected for most of the baseline procedures, with the exception of the lumbar puncture, the PET imaging, and apolipoprotein E genotyping. To date, 19 subjects with TBI only, 46 with PTSD only, and 15 with TBI and PTSD have been recruited and referred to 13 clinics to undergo the study protocol. It is expected that cohorts will be fully recruited by October 2014. This study is a first step toward the design and statistical powering of an AD prevention trial using at-risk veterans as subjects, and provides the

  10. The posttraumatic stress disorder project in Brazil: neuropsychological, structural and molecular neuroimaging studies in victims of urban violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Rodrigo A; Quarantini, Lucas C; Andreoli, Sérgio B; Araújo, Celia; Breen, Gerome; Guindalini, Camila; Hoexter, Marcelo; Jackowski, Andrea P; Jorge, Miguel R; Lacerda, Acioly L T; Lara, Diogo R; Malta, Stella; Moriyama, Tais S; Quintana, Maria I; Ribeiro, Wagner S; Ruiz, Juliana; Schoedl, Aline F; Shih, Ming C; Figueira, Ivan; Koenen, Karestan C; Mello, Marcelo F; Mari, Jair J

    2009-06-01

    Life trauma is highly prevalent in the general population and posttraumatic stress disorder is among the most prevalent psychiatric consequences of trauma exposure. Brazil has a unique environment to conduct translational research about psychological trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder, since urban violence became a Brazilian phenomenon, being particularly related to the rapid population growth of its cities. This research involves three case-control studies: a neuropsychological, a structural neuroimaging and a molecular neuroimaging study, each focusing on different objectives but providing complementary information. First, it aims to examine cognitive functioning of PTSD subjects and its relationships with symptomatology. The second objective is to evaluate neurostructural integrity of orbitofrontal cortex and hippocampus in PTSD subjects. The third aim is to evaluate if patients with PTSD have decreased dopamine transporter density in the basal ganglia as compared to resilient controls subjects. This paper shows the research rationale and design for these three case-control studies. Cases and controls will be identified through an epidemiologic survey conducted in the city of São Paulo. Subjects exposed to traumatic life experiences resulting in posttraumatic stress disorder (cases) will be compared to resilient victims of traumatic life experiences without PTSD (controls) aiming to identify biological variables that might protect or predispose to PTSD. In the neuropsychological case-control study, 100 patients with PTSD, will be compared with 100 victims of trauma without posttraumatic stress disorder, age- and sex-matched controls. Similarly, 50 cases and 50 controls will be enrolled for the structural study and 25 cases and 25 controls in the functional neuroimaging study. All individuals from the three studies will complete psychometrics and a structured clinical interview (the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and the Clinician

  11. The posttraumatic stress disorder project in Brazil: neuropsychological, structural and molecular neuroimaging studies in victims of urban violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bressan Rodrigo A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Life trauma is highly prevalent in the general population and posttraumatic stress disorder is among the most prevalent psychiatric consequences of trauma exposure. Brazil has a unique environment to conduct translational research about psychological trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder, since urban violence became a Brazilian phenomenon, being particularly related to the rapid population growth of its cities. This research involves three case-control studies: a neuropsychological, a structural neuroimaging and a molecular neuroimaging study, each focusing on different objectives but providing complementary information. First, it aims to examine cognitive functioning of PTSD subjects and its relationships with symptomatology. The second objective is to evaluate neurostructural integrity of orbitofrontal cortex and hippocampus in PTSD subjects. The third aim is to evaluate if patients with PTSD have decreased dopamine transporter density in the basal ganglia as compared to resilient controls subjects. This paper shows the research rationale and design for these three case-control studies. Methods and design Cases and controls will be identified through an epidemiologic survey conducted in the city of São Paulo. Subjects exposed to traumatic life experiences resulting in posttraumatic stress disorder (cases will be compared to resilient victims of traumatic life experiences without PTSD (controls aiming to identify biological variables that might protect or predispose to PTSD. In the neuropsychological case-control study, 100 patients with PTSD, will be compared with 100 victims of trauma without posttraumatic stress disorder, age- and sex-matched controls. Similarly, 50 cases and 50 controls will be enrolled for the structural study and 25 cases and 25 controls in the functional neuroimaging study. All individuals from the three studies will complete psychometrics and a structured clinical interview (the Structured

  12. Developmental neuroimaging

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    Dehaene-Lambertz, G. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot (CEA/DSV/DRM), INSERM U562, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2006-07-01

    Cognitive capacities, such as language, mathematics, music, etc... are highly developed in humans as compared to animals. Numerous studies have found precursors of these capacities in infants: For example, infants are able to discriminate sentences in different languages (Mehler et al., 1988), distinguish sets of objects based on their numerosity (Feigenson et al., 2002) or recognize known faces (Bushnell, 1982). These abilities are not very different from those of other animals. Monkeys are also able to discriminate two human languages (Ramus et al., 2000), two quantities of items (Hauser et al., 2002), or respond to particular faces (Parr et al., 2000). In a few years, however, children surpass these animals. To explain the development of the cognitive capacities of our species, our approach consists in studying the initial stages of cerebral organization during the first months of life in order to characterize the critical parameters that allow infants to take advantage of their environment to achieve the adults' cognitive sophistication. Thanks to the recent progress of brain imaging, it is now possible to examine cerebral functioning of the very young child in entire security. In our team, we used two complementary methods: event-related potentials (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (f MRI). ERPs, used since numerous years in infants, consist of the recording of the brain electrical activity consecutive to the presentation of a stimulus. By using a careful experimental design, it is possible to infer the succession of processing stages that the stimulus follows and to measure their latency (Dehaene-Lambertz and Dehaene, 1994; Gliga and Dehaene-Lambertz, 2006). High-density ERPs system allows also to record even small topographical differences between conditions and thus to infer that the underlying network s involved in the tested conditions are different. With this method, we have decomposed syllable perception in infants and underscore a

  13. Developmental neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehaene-Lambertz, G.

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive capacities, such as language, mathematics, music, etc... are highly developed in humans as compared to animals. Numerous studies have found precursors of these capacities in infants: For example, infants are able to discriminate sentences in different languages (Mehler et al., 1988), distinguish sets of objects based on their numerosity (Feigenson et al., 2002) or recognize known faces (Bushnell, 1982). These abilities are not very different from those of other animals. Monkeys are also able to discriminate two human languages (Ramus et al., 2000), two quantities of items (Hauser et al., 2002), or respond to particular faces (Parr et al., 2000). In a few years, however, children surpass these animals. To explain the development of the cognitive capacities of our species, our approach consists in studying the initial stages of cerebral organization during the first months of life in order to characterize the critical parameters that allow infants to take advantage of their environment to achieve the adults' cognitive sophistication. Thanks to the recent progress of brain imaging, it is now possible to examine cerebral functioning of the very young child in entire security. In our team, we used two complementary methods: event-related potentials (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (f MRI). ERPs, used since numerous years in infants, consist of the recording of the brain electrical activity consecutive to the presentation of a stimulus. By using a careful experimental design, it is possible to infer the succession of processing stages that the stimulus follows and to measure their latency (Dehaene-Lambertz and Dehaene, 1994; Gliga and Dehaene-Lambertz, 2006). High-density ERPs system allows also to record even small topographical differences between conditions and thus to infer that the underlying network s involved in the tested conditions are different. With this method, we have decomposed syllable perception in infants and underscore a

  14. Analysis of the relationships between type 2 diabetes status, glycemic control, and neuroimaging measures in the Diabetes Heart Study Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffield, Laura M; Cox, Amanda J; Freedman, Barry I; Hugenschmidt, Christina E; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Wagner, Benjamin C; Xu, Jianzhao; Maldjian, Joseph A; Bowden, Donald W

    2016-06-01

    To examine the relationships between type 2 diabetes (T2D) status, glycemic control, and T2D duration with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived neuroimaging measures in European Americans from the Diabetes Heart Study (DHS) Mind cohort. Relationships were examined using marginal models with generalized estimating equations in 784 participants from 514 DHS Mind families. Fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and diabetes duration were analyzed in 682 participants with T2D. Models were adjusted for potential confounders, including age, sex, history of cardiovascular disease, smoking, educational attainment, and use of statins or blood pressure medications. Association was tested with gray and white matter volume, white matter lesion volume, gray matter cerebral blood flow, and white and gray matter fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity. Adjusting for multiple comparisons, T2D status was associated with reduced white matter volume (p = 2.48 × 10(-6)) and reduced gray and white matter fractional anisotropy (p ≤ 0.001) in fully adjusted models, with a trend toward increased white matter lesion volume (p = 0.008) and increased gray and white matter mean diffusivity (p ≤ 0.031). Among T2D-affected participants, neither fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, nor diabetes duration were associated with the neuroimaging measures assessed (p > 0.05). While T2D was significantly associated with MRI-derived neuroimaging measures, differences in glycemic control in T2D-affected individuals in the DHS Mind study do not appear to significantly contribute to variation in these measures. This supports the idea that the presence or absence of T2D, not fine gradations of glycemic control, may be more significantly associated with age-related changes in the brain.

  15. Adding Recognition Discriminability Index to the Delayed Recall Is Useful to Predict Conversion from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer's Disease in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, María J; Campos, Jorge; Vázquez, Silvia; Sevlever, Gustavo; Allegri, Ricardo F

    2017-01-01

    Background: Ongoing research is focusing on the identification of those individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who are most likely to convert to Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated whether recognition memory tasks in combination with delayed recall measure of episodic memory and CSF biomarkers can predict MCI to AD conversion at 24-month follow-up. Methods: A total of 397 amnestic-MCI subjects from Alzheimer's disease Neuroimaging Initiative were included. Logistic regression modeling was done to assess the predictive value of all RAVLT measures, risk factors such as age, sex, education, APOE genotype, and CSF biomarkers for progression to AD. Estimating adjusted odds ratios was used to determine which variables would produce an optimal predictive model, and whether adding tests of interaction between the RAVLT Delayed Recall and recognition measures (traditional score and d-prime) would improve prediction of the conversion from a-MCI to AD. Results: 112 (28.2%) subjects developed dementia and 285 (71.8%) subjects did not. Of the all included variables, CSF Aβ1-42 levels, RAVLT Delayed Recall, and the combination of RAVLT Delayed Recall and d-prime were predictive of progression to AD (χ 2 = 38.23, df = 14, p < 0.001). Conclusions: The combination of RAVLT Delayed Recall and d-prime measures may be predictor of conversion from MCI to AD in the ADNI cohort, especially in combination with amyloid biomarkers. A predictive model to help identify individuals at-risk for dementia should include not only traditional episodic memory measures (delayed recall or recognition), but also additional variables (d-prime) that allow the homogenization of the assessment procedures in the diagnosis of MCI.

  16. Attention to spoken word planning: Chronometric and neuroimaging evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, A.P.A.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews chronometric and neuroimaging evidence on attention to spoken word planning, using the WEAVER++ model as theoretical framework. First, chronometric studies on the time to initiate vocal responding and gaze shifting suggest that spoken word planning may require some attention,

  17. The NeuroIMAGE study: a prospective phenotypic, cognitive, genetic and MRI study in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Design and descriptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rhein, Daniel; Mennes, Maarten; van Ewijk, Hanneke; Groenman, Annabeth P; Zwiers, Marcel P; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Heslenfeld, Dirk; Franke, Barbara; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Faraone, Stephen V; Hartman, Catharina; Buitelaar, Jan

    2015-03-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a persistent neuropsychiatric disorder which is associated with impairments on a variety of cognitive measures and abnormalities in structural and functional brain measures. Genetic factors are thought to play an important role in the etiology of ADHD. The NeuroIMAGE study is a follow-up of the Dutch part of the International Multicenter ADHD Genetics (IMAGE) project. It is a multi-site prospective cohort study designed to investigate the course of ADHD, its genetic and environmental determinants, its cognitive and neurobiological underpinnings, and its consequences in adolescence and adulthood. From the original 365 ADHD families and 148 control (CON) IMAGE families, consisting of 506 participants with an ADHD diagnosis, 350 unaffected siblings, and 283 healthy controls, 79 % participated in the NeuroIMAGE follow-up study. Combined with newly recruited participants the NeuroIMAGE study comprehends an assessment of 1,069 children (751 from ADHD families; 318 from CON families) and 848 parents (582 from ADHD families; 266 from CON families). For most families, data for more than one child (82 %) and both parents (82 %) were available. Collected data include a diagnostic interview, behavioural questionnaires, cognitive measures, structural and functional neuroimaging, and genome-wide genetic information. The NeuroIMAGE dataset allows examining the course of ADHD over adolescence into young adulthood, identifying phenotypic, cognitive, and neural mechanisms associated with the persistence versus remission of ADHD, and studying their genetic and environmental underpinnings. The inclusion of siblings of ADHD probands and controls allows modelling of shared familial influences on the ADHD phenotype.

  18. Neuroanatomy of episodic and semantic memory in humans: a brief review of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Lázaro, Haydée G; Ramirez-Carmona, Rocio; Lara-Romero, Ruben; Roldan-Valadez, Ernesto

    2012-01-01

    One of the most basic functions in every individual and species is memory. Memory is the process by which information is saved as knowledge and retained for further use as needed. Learning is a neurobiological phenomenon by which we acquire certain information from the outside world and is a precursor to memory. Memory consists of the capacity to encode, store, consolidate, and retrieve information. Recently, memory has been defined as a network of connections whose function is primarily to facilitate the long-lasting persistence of learned environmental cues. In this review, we present a brief description of the current classifications of memory networks with a focus on episodic memory and its anatomical substrate. We also present a brief review of the anatomical basis of memory systems and the most commonly used neuroimaging methods to assess memory, illustrated with magnetic resonance imaging images depicting the hippocampus, temporal lobe, and hippocampal formation, which are the main brain structures participating in memory networks.

  19. Neuroimaging Endophenotypes in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Rajneesh; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that has a strong genetic basis, and is heterogeneous in its etiopathogenesis and clinical presentation. Neuroimaging studies, in concert with neuropathological and clinical research, have been instrumental in delineating trajectories of development in children with ASD. Structural neuroimaging has revealed ASD to be a disorder with general and regional brain enlargement, especially in the frontotemporal cortices, while functional neuroimaging studies have highlighted diminished connectivity, especially between frontal-posterior regions. The diverse and specific neuroimaging findings may represent potential neuroendophenotypes, and may offer opportunities to further understand the etiopathogenesis of ASD, predict treatment response and lead to the development of new therapies. PMID:26234701

  20. Consensus paper: combining transcranial stimulation with neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebner, Hartwig R; Bergmann, Til O; Bestmann, Sven

    2009-01-01

    neuroimaging (online approach), TMS can be used to test how focal cortex stimulation acutely modifies the activity and connectivity in the stimulated neuronal circuits. TMS and neuroimaging can also be separated in time (offline approach). A conditioning session of repetitive TMS (rTMS) may be used to induce...... information obtained by neuroimaging can be used to define the optimal site and time point of stimulation in a subsequent experiment in which TMS is used to probe the functional contribution of the stimulated area to a specific task. In this review, we first address some general methodologic issues that need......In the last decade, combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-neuroimaging studies have greatly stimulated research in the field of TMS and neuroimaging. Here, we review how TMS can be combined with various neuroimaging techniques to investigate human brain function. When applied during...

  1. Tensor-based morphometry as a neuroimaging biomarker for Alzheimer's disease: an MRI study of 676 AD, MCI, and normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xue; Leow, Alex D; Parikshak, Neelroop; Lee, Suh; Chiang, Ming-Chang; Toga, Arthur W; Jack, Clifford R; Weiner, Michael W; Thompson, Paul M

    2008-11-15

    In one of the largest brain MRI studies to date, we used tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to create 3D maps of structural atrophy in 676 subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy elderly controls, scanned as part of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Using inverse-consistent 3D non-linear elastic image registration, we warped 676 individual brain MRI volumes to a population mean geometric template. Jacobian determinant maps were created, revealing the 3D profile of local volumetric expansion and compression. We compared the anatomical distribution of atrophy in 165 AD patients (age: 75.6+/-7.6 years), 330 MCI subjects (74.8+/-7.5), and 181 controls (75.9+/-5.1). Brain atrophy in selected regions-of-interest was correlated with clinical measurements--the sum-of-boxes clinical dementia rating (CDR-SB), mini-mental state examination (MMSE), and the logical memory test scores - at voxel level followed by correction for multiple comparisons. Baseline temporal lobe atrophy correlated with current cognitive performance, future cognitive decline, and conversion from MCI to AD over the following year; it predicted future decline even in healthy subjects. Over half of the AD and MCI subjects carried the ApoE4 (apolipoprotein E4) gene, which increases risk for AD; they showed greater hippocampal and temporal lobe deficits than non-carriers. ApoE2 gene carriers--1/6 of the normal group--showed reduced ventricular expansion, suggesting a protective effect. As an automated image analysis technique, TBM reveals 3D correlations between neuroimaging markers, genes, and future clinical changes, and is highly efficient for large-scale MRI studies.

  2. Value of neuropsychological tests, neuroimaging, and biomarkers for diagnosing Alzheimer's disease in younger and older age cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmand, B.; Eikelenboom, P.; van Gool, W.A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the influence of age on the value of four techniques for diagnosing Alzheimer's disease (AD). DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n=179), individuals with AD

  3. Improved diagnostic accuracy of Alzheimer's disease by combining regional cortical thickness and default mode network functional connectivity: Validated in the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Eun; Park, Bum Woo; Kim, Sang Joon; Kim, Ho Sung; Choi, Choong Gon; Jung, Seung Jung; Oh, Joo Young; Shim, Woo Hyun [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Hong; Roh, Jee Hoon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-11-15

    To identify potential imaging biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease by combining brain cortical thickness (CThk) and functional connectivity and to validate this model's diagnostic accuracy in a validation set. Data from 98 subjects was retrospectively reviewed, including a study set (n = 63) and a validation set from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (n = 35). From each subject, data for CThk and functional connectivity of the default mode network was extracted from structural T1-weighted and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Cortical regions with significant differences between patients and healthy controls in the correlation of CThk and functional connectivity were identified in the study set. The diagnostic accuracy of functional connectivity measures combined with CThk in the identified regions was evaluated against that in the medial temporal lobes using the validation set and application of a support vector machine. Group-wise differences in the correlation of CThk and default mode network functional connectivity were identified in the superior temporal (p < 0.001) and supramarginal gyrus (p = 0.007) of the left cerebral hemisphere. Default mode network functional connectivity combined with the CThk of those two regions were more accurate than that combined with the CThk of both medial temporal lobes (91.7% vs. 75%). Combining functional information with CThk of the superior temporal and supramarginal gyri in the left cerebral hemisphere improves diagnostic accuracy, making it a potential imaging biomarker for Alzheimer's disease.

  4. Cognitive dysfunction in urban elderly people: an exploratory study using neuropsychological and neuroimaging perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreerupa Ghose

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cognitive impairment is an integral part of old age as well as it is a part of many neurodegenerative disorders. Early identification of cognitive impairment is necessary in order to make treatment and rehabilitation possible. Materials and methods: Keeping in mind that early identification of cognitive impairment is necessary, a sample of 20 elderly patients with memory complaints who were referred for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI with symptoms of peripheral nervous system disorder by neurologists have been assessed using neuropsychological tests and MRI, and results have been analysed using IBM SPSS 21 and DICOM software. Results: Neuropsychological test findings suggest that age, sex, and education are related to performance of the participants on different tests of cognitive functions in different ways. Scores on the tests of delayed memory and verbal fluency emerged as positive predictors of activity level. On the basis of MRI, the elderly people were identified with periventricular hyper-intensity of white matter and global cortical atrophy. A comparison of the two groups (on the basis of MRI findings suggest that elderly people with global cortical atrophy were found to be significantly more impaired on visuospatial tasks in comparison to the group with periventricular hyper-intensity of white matter, among other tests of cognitive functions. Conclusion: In spite of the absence of manifestation of dementing illness at clinical level, the participants actually exhibited underlying pathological process which can be detected with neuropsychological testing in conjunction with neuroimaging.

  5. Neuroimaging in Parkinsonism: a study with magnetic resonance and spectroscopy as tools in the differential diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcellos, Luiz Felipe Rocha [1Hospital dos Servidores do Estado, Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: luizneurol@terra.com.br; Novis, Sergio A. Pereira; Rosso, Ana Lucia Z. [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho (HUCFF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Moreira, Denise Madeira [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Neurologia Deolindo Couto; Leite, Ana Claudia C.B. [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-03-15

    The differential diagnosis of Parkinsonism based on clinical features, sometimes may be difficult. Diagnostic tests in these cases might be useful, especially magnetic resonance imaging, a noninvasive exam, not as expensive as positron emission tomography, and provides a good basis for anatomical analysis. The magnetic resonance spectroscopy analyzes cerebral metabolism, yielding inconsistent results in parkinsonian disorders. We selected 40 individuals for magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy analysis, 12 with Parkinson's disease, 11 with progressive supranuclear palsy, 7 with multiple system atrophy (parkinsonian type), and 10 individuals without any psychiatric or neurological disorders (controls). Clinical scales included Hoenh and Yahr, unified Parkinson's disease rating scale and mini mental status examination. The results showed that patients with Parkinson's disease and controls presented the same aspects on neuroimaging, with few or absence of abnormalities, and supranuclear progressive palsy and multiple system atrophy showed abnormalities, some of which statistically significant. Thus, magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy could be useful as a tool in differential diagnosis of Parkinsonism. (author)

  6. Neuroimaging in Parkinsonism: a study with magnetic resonance and spectroscopy as tools in the differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcellos, Luiz Felipe Rocha; Novis, Sergio A. Pereira; Rosso, Ana Lucia Z.; Moreira, Denise Madeira

    2009-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of Parkinsonism based on clinical features, sometimes may be difficult. Diagnostic tests in these cases might be useful, especially magnetic resonance imaging, a noninvasive exam, not as expensive as positron emission tomography, and provides a good basis for anatomical analysis. The magnetic resonance spectroscopy analyzes cerebral metabolism, yielding inconsistent results in parkinsonian disorders. We selected 40 individuals for magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy analysis, 12 with Parkinson's disease, 11 with progressive supranuclear palsy, 7 with multiple system atrophy (parkinsonian type), and 10 individuals without any psychiatric or neurological disorders (controls). Clinical scales included Hoenh and Yahr, unified Parkinson's disease rating scale and mini mental status examination. The results showed that patients with Parkinson's disease and controls presented the same aspects on neuroimaging, with few or absence of abnormalities, and supranuclear progressive palsy and multiple system atrophy showed abnormalities, some of which statistically significant. Thus, magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy could be useful as a tool in differential diagnosis of Parkinsonism. (author)

  7. Machine learning patterns for neuroimaging-genetic studies in the cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Mota, Benoit; Tudoran, Radu; Costan, Alexandru; Varoquaux, Gaël; Brasche, Goetz; Conrod, Patricia; Lemaitre, Herve; Paus, Tomas; Rietschel, Marcella; Frouin, Vincent; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Antoniu, Gabriel; Thirion, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Brain imaging is a natural intermediate phenotype to understand the link between genetic information and behavior or brain pathologies risk factors. Massive efforts have been made in the last few years to acquire high-dimensional neuroimaging and genetic data on large cohorts of subjects. The statistical analysis of such data is carried out with increasingly sophisticated techniques and represents a great computational challenge. Fortunately, increasing computational power in distributed architectures can be harnessed, if new neuroinformatics infrastructures are designed and training to use these new tools is provided. Combining a MapReduce framework (TomusBLOB) with machine learning algorithms (Scikit-learn library), we design a scalable analysis tool that can deal with non-parametric statistics on high-dimensional data. End-users describe the statistical procedure to perform and can then test the model on their own computers before running the very same code in the cloud at a larger scale. We illustrate the potential of our approach on real data with an experiment showing how the functional signal in subcortical brain regions can be significantly fit with genome-wide genotypes. This experiment demonstrates the scalability and the reliability of our framework in the cloud with a 2 weeks deployment on hundreds of virtual machines.

  8. Generic Machine Learning Pattern for Neuroimaging-Genetic Studies in the Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit eDa Mota

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Brain imaging is a natural intermediate phenotype to understand the link between genetic information and behavior or brain pathologies risk factors. Massive efforts have been made in the last few years to acquire high-dimensional neuroimaging and genetic data on large cohorts of subjects. The statistical analysis of such data is carried out with increasingly sophisticated techniques and represents a great computational challenge. Fortunately, increasing computational power in distributed architectures can be harnessed, if new neuroinformatics infrastructures are designed and training to use these new tools is provided. Combining a MapReduce framework (TomusBLOB with machine learning algorithms (Scikit-learn library, we design a scalable analysis tool that can deal with non-parametric statistics on high-dimensional data. End-users describe the statistical procedure to perform and can then test the model on their own computers before running the very same code in the cloud at a larger scale. We illustrate the potential of our approach on real data with an experiment showing how the functional signal in subcortical brain regions can be significantly fit with genome-wide genotypes. This experiment demonstrates the scalability and the reliability of our framework in the cloud with a two weeks deployment on hundreds of virtual machines.

  9. Do Older Adults Need Sleep? A Review of Neuroimaging, Sleep, and Aging Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scullin, Michael K

    2017-09-01

    Sleep habits, sleep physiology, and sleep disorders change with increasing age. However, there is a longstanding debate regarding whether older adults need sleep to maintain health and daily functioning (reduced-sleep-need view). An alternative possibility is that all older adults need sleep, but that many older adults have lost the ability to obtain restorative sleep (reduced-sleep-ability view). Prior research using behavioral and polysomnography outcomes has not definitively disentangled the reduced-sleep-need and reduced-sleep-ability views. Therefore, this review examines the neuroimaging literature to determine whether age-related changes in sleep cause-or are caused by-age-related changes in brain structure, function, and pathology. In middle-aged and older adults, poorer sleep quality, greater nighttime hypoxia, and shorter sleep duration related to cortical thinning in frontal regions implicated in slow wave generation, in frontoparietal networks implicated in cognitive control, and in hippocampal regions implicated in memory consolidation. Furthermore, poor sleep quality was associated with higher amyloid burden and decreased connectivity in the default mode network, a network that is disrupted in the pathway to Alzheimer's disease. All adults need sleep, but cortical thinning and amyloidal deposition with advancing age may weaken the brain's ability to produce restorative sleep. Therefore, sleep in older adults may not always support identical functions for physical, mental, and cognitive health as in young adults.

  10. Neuroimaging of Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    Main purposes of neuroimaging in Alzheimer's disease have been moved from diagnosis of advanced Alzheimer's disease to diagnosis of very early Alzheimer's disease at a prodromal stage of mild cognitive impairment, prediction of conversion from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease, and differential diagnosis from other diseases causing dementia. Structural MRI studies and functional studies using fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET and brain perfusion SPECT are widely used in diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Outstanding progress in diagnostic accuracy of these neuroimaging modalities has been obtained using statistical analysis on a voxel-by-voxel basis after spatial normalization of individual scans to a standardized brain-volume template instead of visual inspection or a conventional region of interest technique. In a very early stage of Alzheimer's disease, this statistical approach revealed gray matter loss in the entorhinal and hippocampal areas and hypometabolism or hypoperfusion in the posterior cingulate cortex. These two findings might be related in view of anatomical knowledge that the regions are linked through the circuit of Papez. This statistical approach also offers accurate evaluation of therapeutical effects on brain metabolism or perfusion. The latest development in functional imaging relates to the final pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease-amyloid plaques. Amyloid imaging might be an important surrogate marker for trials of disease-modifying agents. (author)

  11. A Systematic Review of Intervention Studies Examining Nutritional and Herbal Therapies for Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia Using Neuroimaging Methods: Study Characteristics and Intervention Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Z. Steiner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging facilitates the assessment of complementary medicines (CMs by providing a noninvasive insight into their mechanisms of action in the human brain. This is important for identifying the potential treatment options for target disease cohorts with complex pathophysiologies. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate study characteristics, intervention efficacy, and the structural and functional neuroimaging methods used in research assessing nutritional and herbal medicines for mild cognitive impairment (MCI and dementia. Six databases were searched for articles reporting on CMs, dementia, and neuroimaging methods. Data were extracted from 21/2,742 eligible full text articles and risk of bias was assessed. Nine studies examined people with Alzheimer’s disease, 7 MCI, 4 vascular dementia, and 1 all-cause dementia. Ten studies tested herbal medicines, 8 vitamins and supplements, and 3 nootropics. Ten studies used electroencephalography (EEG, 5 structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, 2 functional MRI (fMRI, 3 cerebral blood flow (CBF, 1 single photon emission tomography (SPECT, and 1 positron emission tomography (PET. Four studies had a low risk of bias, with the majority consistently demonstrating inadequate reporting on randomisation, allocation concealment, blinding, and power calculations. A narrative synthesis approach was assumed due to heterogeneity in study methods, interventions, target cohorts, and quality. Eleven key recommendations are suggested to advance future work in this area.

  12. Functional Neuroimaging in Psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Casale, Antonio; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Rapinesi, Chiara; Di Pietro, Simone; Alessi, Maria Chiara; Di Cesare, Gianluigi; Criscuolo, Silvia; De Rossi, Pietro; Tatarelli, Roberto; Girardi, Paolo; Ferracuti, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Psychopathy is associated with cognitive and affective deficits causing disruptive, harmful and selfish behaviour. These have considerable societal costs due to recurrent crime and property damage. A better understanding of the neurobiological bases of psychopathy could improve therapeutic interventions, reducing the related social costs. To analyse the major functional neural correlates of psychopathy, we reviewed functional neuroimaging studies conducted on persons with this condition. We searched the PubMed database for papers dealing with functional neuroimaging and psychopathy, with a specific focus on how neural functional changes may correlate with task performances and human behaviour. Psychopathy-related behavioural disorders consistently correlated with dysfunctions in brain areas of the orbitofrontal-limbic (emotional processing and somatic reaction to emotions; behavioural planning and responsibility taking), anterior cingulate-orbitofrontal (correct assignment of emotional valence to social stimuli; violent/aggressive behaviour and challenging attitude) and prefrontal-temporal-limbic (emotional stimuli processing/response) networks. Dysfunctional areas more consistently included the inferior frontal, orbitofrontal, dorsolateral prefrontal, ventromedial prefrontal, temporal (mainly the superior temporal sulcus) and cingulated cortices, the insula, amygdala, ventral striatum and other basal ganglia. Emotional processing and learning, and several social and affective decision-making functions are impaired in psychopathy, which correlates with specific changes in neural functions. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Multiple Neuroimaging Measures for Examining Exercise-induced Neuroplasticity in Older Adults: A Quasi-experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihong Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Physical exercise can improve physical and mental health. A number of imaging studies have examined the role of neuroplasticity in improving cognition with physical exercise; however, such neuroplasticity changes are not consistent across the reports partly due to small sample sizes in some studies. We thought to explore the concept that identifying consistent findings across multi-modality imaging measures would provide relatively reliable results. We designed a 6-week quasi-experiment with Wii-fitness exercise program in 24 healthy adults older than 60, and then examined the changes on neuroimaging measures including brain volume, the amplitude of low-frequency oscillation function (ALFF, regional homogeneity (ReHo, seed-based functional connectivity (FC, and the global efficiency of nodal connectivity during resting state. We focused on whether there were common regions showing changes after exercise across these measures and which measure was closely correlated with cognitive improvement. After the six-week exercise program, participants demonstrated a significant improvement in memory and executive function on neuropsychological tests, and in memory recall on an emotional memory task. The common brain regions that showed significant changes across different measures were the right striatum and the posterior cingulate (PCC. After exercise, the PCC showed decreased ReHo and increased volume, and the striatum did not show volume loss as the control group did and increased its FC with the cingulate, temporal, parietal, and occipital regions. Moreover, the connectivity change between the striatum and the thalamus was correlated with the improvement of executive function. This result implicates the striatum and the PCC associated network in physical exercise. Our work highlights the effectiveness of multi-modality neuroimaging measures in investigating neuroplasticity.

  14. Functional-structural reorganisation of the neuronal network for auditory perception in subjects with unilateral hearing loss: Review of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggdal, Peder O Laugen; Brännström, Jonas; Aarstad, Hans Jørgen; Vassbotn, Flemming S; Specht, Karsten

    2016-02-01

    This paper aims to provide a review of studies using neuroimaging to measure functional-structural reorganisation of the neuronal network for auditory perception after unilateral hearing loss. A literature search was performed in PubMed. Search criterions were peer reviewed original research papers in English completed by the 11th of March 2015. Twelve studies were found to use neuroimaging in subjects with unilateral hearing loss. An additional five papers not identified by the literature search were provided by a reviewer. Thus, a total of 17 studies were included in the review. Four different neuroimaging methods were used in these studies: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) (n = 11), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) (n = 4), T1/T2 volumetric images (n = 2), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) (n = 1). One study utilized two imaging methods (fMRI and T1 volumetric images). Neuroimaging techniques could provide valuable information regarding the effects of unilateral hearing loss on both auditory and non-auditory performance. fMRI-studies showing a bilateral BOLD-response in patients with unilateral hearing loss have not yet been followed by DTI studies confirming their microstructural correlates. In addition, the review shows that an auditory modality-specific deficit could affect multi-modal brain regions and their connections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Neuroimaging Biomarkers of Neurodegenerative Diseases and Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Risacher, Shannon L.; Saykin, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders leading to dementia are common diseases that affect many older and some young adults. Neuroimaging methods are important tools for assessing and monitoring pathological brain changes associated with progressive neurodegenerative conditions. In this review, the authors describe key findings from neuroimaging studies (magnetic resonance imaging and radionucleotide imaging) in neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and prodromal stages, famili...

  16. Intention Understanding over T: A neuroimaging study on shared representations and tennis return predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie eCacioppo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Studying the way athletes predict actions of their peers during fast-ball sports, such as a tennis, has proved to be a valuable tool for increasing our knowledge of intention understanding. The working model in this area is that the anticipatory representations of others’ behaviors require internal predictive models of actions formed from pre-established and shared representations between the observer and the actor. This model also predicts that observers would not be able to read accurately the intentions of a competitor if the competitor were to perform the action without prior knowledge of their intention until moments before the action. To test this hypothesis, we recorded brain activity from 25 male tennis players while they performed a novel behavioral tennis intention inference task, which included two conditions: i one condition in which they viewed video clips of a tennis athlete who knew in advance where he was about to act/serve (initially intended serves and ii one condition in which they viewed video clips of that same athlete when he did not know where he was to act/serve until the target was specified after he had tossed the ball into the air to complete his serve (non-initially intended serves. Our results demonstrated that i tennis expertise is related to the accuracy in predicting where another server intends to serve when that server knows where he intends to serve before (but not after he tosses the ball in the air; and ii accurate predictions are characterized by the recruitment of both cortical areas within the human mirror neuron system (that is known to be involved in higher-order (top-down processes of embodied cognition and shared representation and subcortical areas within brain regions involved in procedural memory (caudate nucleus. Interestingly, inaccurate predictions instead recruit areas known to be involved in low-level (bottom-up computational processes associated with the sense of agency and self

  17. A critical appraisal of neuroimaging studies of bipolar disorder: toward a new conceptualization of underlying neural circuitry and roadmap for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Mary L; Swartz, Holly A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This critical review appraises neuroimaging findings in bipolar disorder in emotion processing, emotion regulation, and reward processing neural circuitry, to synthesize current knowledge of the neural underpinnings of bipolar disorder, and provide a neuroimaging research “roadmap” for future studies. Method We examined findings from all major studies in bipolar disorder that used fMRI, volumetric analyses, diffusion imaging, and resting state techniques, to inform current conceptual models of larger-scale neural circuitry abnormalities in bipolar disorder Results Bipolar disorder can be conceptualized in neural circuitry terms as parallel dysfunction in bilateral prefrontal cortical (especially ventrolateral prefrontal cortical)-hippocampal-amygdala emotion processing and emotion regulation neural circuitries, together with an “overactive” left-sided ventral striatal-ventrolateral and orbitofrontal cortical reward processing circuitry, that result in characteristic behavioral abnormalities associated with bipolar disorder: emotional lability, emotional dysregulation and heightened reward sensitivity. A potential structural basis for these functional abnormalities are gray matter decreases in prefrontal and temporal cortices, amygdala and hippocampus, and fractional anisotropy decreases in white matter tracts connecting prefrontal and subcortical regions. Conclusion Neuroimaging studies of bipolar disorder clearly demonstrate abnormalities in neural circuitries supporting emotion processing, emotion regulation and reward processing, although there are several limitations to these studies. Future neuroimaging research in bipolar disorder should include studies adopting dimensional approaches; larger studies examining neurodevelopmental trajectories in bipolar disorder and at-risk youth; multimodal neuroimaging studies using integrated systems approaches; and studies using pattern recognition approaches to provide clinically useful, individual

  18. The blood-brain barrier is intact after levodopa-induced dyskinesias in parkinsonian primates--evidence from in vivo neuroimaging studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astradsson, Arnar; Jenkins, Bruce G; Choi, Ji-Kyung

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested, based on rodent studies, that levodopa (L-dopa) induced dyskinesia is associated with a disrupted blood-brain barrier (BBB). We have investigated BBB integrity with in vivo neuroimaging techniques in six 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) lesioned primates...

  19. Neuroimaging and electroconvulsive therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolwig, Tom G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the 1970s, a number of neuroimaging studies of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) have been conducted to elucidate the working action of this highly efficacious treatment modality. The technologies used are single photon emission tomography, positron emission tomography, magnetic...... in localized cortical and subcortical areas of the brain and have revealed differences in neurophysiology and metabolism between the hyperactive ictal state and the restorative interictal/postictal periods. Recent magnetic resonance imaging studies seem to pave way for new insights into ECT's effects...... on increased connectivity in the brain during depression. CONCLUSION: The existing data reveal considerable variations among studies and therefore do not yet allow the formulation of a unified hypothesis for the mechanism of ECT. The rapid developments in imaging technology, however, hold promises for further...

  20. Neuroimaging of autism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoeven, Judith S; Cock, Paul de; Lagae, Lieven [University Hospitals of the Catholic University of Leuven, Department of Pediatrics, Leuven (Belgium); Sunaert, Stefan [University Hospitals of the Catholic University of Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium)

    2010-01-15

    Neuroimaging studies done by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have provided important insights into the neurobiological basis for autism. The aim of this article is to review the current state of knowledge regarding brain abnormalities in autism. Results of structural MRI studies dealing with total brain volume, the volume of the cerebellum, caudate nucleus, thalamus, amygdala and the area of the corpus callosum are summarised. In the past 5 years also new MRI applications as functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging brought considerable new insights in the pathophysiological mechanisms of autism. Dysfunctional activation in key areas of verbal and non-verbal communication, social interaction, and executive functions are revised. Finally, we also discuss white matter alterations in important communication pathways in the brain of autistic patients. (orig.)

  1. Neuroimaging of autism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhoeven, Judith S.; Cock, Paul de; Lagae, Lieven; Sunaert, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies done by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have provided important insights into the neurobiological basis for autism. The aim of this article is to review the current state of knowledge regarding brain abnormalities in autism. Results of structural MRI studies dealing with total brain volume, the volume of the cerebellum, caudate nucleus, thalamus, amygdala and the area of the corpus callosum are summarised. In the past 5 years also new MRI applications as functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging brought considerable new insights in the pathophysiological mechanisms of autism. Dysfunctional activation in key areas of verbal and non-verbal communication, social interaction, and executive functions are revised. Finally, we also discuss white matter alterations in important communication pathways in the brain of autistic patients. (orig.)

  2. Neuroimaging in psychiatry: from bench to bedside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Linden

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This perspective considers the present and the future role of different neuroimaging techniques in the field of psychiatry. After identifying shortcomings of the mainly symptom-focussed diagnostic processes and treatment decisions in modern psychiatry, we suggest topics where neuroimaging methods have the potential to help. These include better understanding of the pathophysiology, improved diagnoses, assistance in therapeutic decisions and the supervision of treatment success by direct assessment of improvement in disease-related brain functions. These different questions are illustrated by examples from neuroimaging studies, with a focus on severe mental and neuropsychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia, depression and dementia. Despite all reservations addressed in the article, we are optimistic, that neuroimaging has a huge potential with regard to the above-mentioned questions. We expect that neuroimaging will play an increasing role in the future refinement of the diagnostic process and aid in the development of new therapies in the field of psychiatry.

  3. Neural correlates of conversion disorder: overview and meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies on motor conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckle, Markus; Liegl, Gregor; Jank, Robert; Pieh, Christoph

    2016-06-10

    Conversion Disorders (CD) are prevalent functional disorders. Although the pathogenesis is still not completely understood, an interaction of genetic, neurobiological, and psychosocial factors is quite likely. The aim of this study is to provide a systematic overview on imaging studies on CDs and investigate neuronal areas involved in Motor Conversion Disorders (MCD). A systematic literature search was conducted on CD. Subsequently a meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies on MCD was implemented using an Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE). We calculated differences between patients and healthy controls as well as between affected versus unaffected sides in addition to an overall analysis in order to identify neuronal areas related to MCD. Patients with MCD differ from healthy controls in the amygdala, superior temporal lobe, retrosplenial area, primary motor cortex, insula, red nucleus, thalamus, anterior as well as dorsolateral prefrontal and frontal cortex. When comparing affected versus unaffected sides, temporal cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, supramarginal gyrus, dorsal temporal lobe, anterior insula, primary somatosensory cortex, superior frontal gyrus and anterior prefrontal as well as frontal cortex show significant differences. Neuronal areas seem to be involved in the pathogenesis, maintenance or as a result of MCD. Areas that are important for motor-planning, motor-selection or autonomic response seem to be especially relevant. Our results support the emotional unawareness theory but also underline the need of more support by conduction imaging studies on both CD and MCD.

  4. The diagnostic yield of neuroimaging in sixth nerve palsy - Sankara Nethralaya Abducens Palsy Study (SNAPS: Report 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay Gopinathan Nair

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim was to assess the etiology of sixth nerve palsy and on the basis of our data, to formulate a diagnostic algorithm for the management in sixth nerve palsy. Design: Retrospective chart review. Results: Of the 104 neurologically isolated cases, 9 cases were attributable to trauma, and 95 (86.36% cases were classified as nontraumatic, neurologically isolated cases. Of the 95 nontraumatic, isolated cases of sixth nerve palsy, 52 cases were associated with vasculopathic risk factors, namely diabetes and hypertension and were classified as vasculopathic sixth nerve palsy (54.7%, and those with a history of sixth nerve palsy from birth (6 cases were classified as congenital sixth nerve palsy (6.3%. Of the rest, neuroimaging alone yielded a cause in 18 of the 37 cases (48.64%. Of the other 19 cases where neuroimaging did not yield a cause, 6 cases were attributed to preceding history of infection (3 upper respiratory tract infection and 3 viral illnesses, 2 cases of sixth nerve palsy were found to be a false localizing sign in idiopathic intracranial hypertension and in 11 cases, the cause was undetermined. In these idiopathic cases of isolated sixth nerve palsy, neuroimaging yielded no positive findings. Conclusions: In the absence of risk factors, a suggestive history, or positive laboratory and clinical findings, neuroimaging can serve as a useful diagnostic tool in identifying the exact cause of sixth nerve palsy. Furthermore, we recommend an algorithm to assess the need for neuroimaging in sixth nerve palsy.

  5. Self-reflection and the brain: a theoretical review and meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies with implications for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Lisette; Costafreda, Sergi; Aleman, André; David, Anthony S

    2010-05-01

    Several studies have investigated the neural correlates of self-reflection. In the paradigm most commonly used to address this concept, a subject is presented with trait adjectives or sentences and asked whether they describe him or her. Functional neuroimaging research has revealed a set of regions known as Cortical Midline Structures (CMS) appearing to be critically involved in self-reflection processes. Furthermore, it has been shown that patients suffering damage to the CMS, have difficulties in properly evaluating the problems they encounter and often overestimate their capacities and performance. Building on previous work, a meta-analysis of published fMRI and PET studies on self-reflection was conducted. The results showed that two areas within the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) are important in reflective processing, namely the ventral (v) and dorsal (d) MPFC. In this paper a model is proposed in which the vMPFC is responsible for tagging information relevant for 'self', whereas the dMPFC is responsible for evaluation and decision-making processes in self- and other-referential processing. Finally, implications of the model for schizophrenia and lack of insight are noted. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Movement and afferent representations in human motor areas: a simultaneous neuroimaging and transcranial magnetic/peripheral nerve-stimulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi eShitara

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging combined with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS to primary motor cortex (M1 is an emerging technique that can examine motor-system functionality through evoked activity. However, because sensory afferents from twitching muscles are widely represented in motor areas the amount of evoked activity directly resulting from TMS remains unclear. We delivered suprathreshold TMS to left M1 or electrically stimulated the right median nerve (MNS in 18 healthy volunteers while simultaneously conducting functional magnetic resonance imaging and monitoring with electromyography (EMG. We examined in detail the localization of TMS-, muscle afferent- and superficial afferent-induced activity in M1 subdivisions. Muscle afferent- and TMS-evoked activity occurred mainly in rostral M1, while superficial afferents generated a slightly different activation distribution. In 12 participants who yielded quantifiable EMG, differences in brain activity ascribed to differences in movement-size were adjusted using integrated information from the EMGs. Sensory components only explained 10-20% of the suprathreshold TMS-induced activity, indicating that locally and remotely evoked activity in motor areas mostly resulted from the recruitment of neural and synaptic activity. The present study appears to justify the use of fMRI combined with suprathreshold TMS to M1 for evoked motor network imaging.

  7. Neuroimaging abnormalities and seizure recurrence in a prospective cohort study of Zambians with human immunodeficiency virus and first seizure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Potchen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In HIV-positive individuals with first seizure, we describe neuroimaging findings, detail clinical and demographic risk factors for imaging abnormalities, and evaluate the relationship between imaging abnormalities and seizure recurrence to determine if imaging abnormalities predict recurrent seizures. Among 43 participants (mean 37.4 years, 56% were male, 16 (37% were on antiretroviral drugs, 32 (79% had advanced HIV disease, and (28 66% had multiple seizures and/or status epilepticus at enrollment. Among those with cerebrospinal fluid studies, 14/31 (44% had opportunistic infections (OIs. During follow-up, 9 (21% died and 15 (35% experienced recurrent seizures. Edema was associated with OIs (odds ratio: 8.79; confidence interval: 1.03-236 and subcortical atrophy with poorer scores on the International HIV Dementia Scale (5.2 vs. 9.3; P=0.002. Imaging abnormalities were not associated with seizure recurrence or death (P>0.05. Seizure recurrence occurred in at least a third and over 20% died during follow-up. Imaging was not predictive of recurrent seizure or death, but imaging abnormalities may offer additional diagnostic insights in terms of OI risk and cognitive impairment.

  8. Abnormal brain activation during threatening face processing in schizophrenia: A meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Debo; Wang, Yulin; Jia, Xiaoyan; Li, Yingjia; Chang, Xuebin; Vandekerckhove, Marie; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2017-11-15

    Impairment of face perception in schizophrenia is a core aspect of social cognitive dysfunction. This impairment is particularly marked in threatening face processing. Identifying reliable neural correlates of the impairment of threatening face processing is crucial for targeting more effective treatments. However, neuroimaging studies have not yet obtained robust conclusions. Through comprehensive literature search, twenty-one whole brain datasets were included in this meta-analysis. Using seed-based d-Mapping, in this voxel-based meta-analysis, we aimed to: 1) establish the most consistent brain dysfunctions related to threating face processing in schizophrenia; 2) address task-type heterogeneity in this impairment; 3) explore the effect of potential demographic or clinical moderator variables on this impairment. Main meta-analysis indicated that patients with chronic schizophrenia demonstrated attenuated activations in limbic emotional system along with compensatory over-activation in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) during threatening faces processing. Sub-task analyses revealed under-activations in right amygdala and left fusiform gyrus in both implicit and explicit tasks. The remaining clusters were found to be differently involved in different types of tasks. Moreover, meta-regression analyses showed brain abnormalities in schizophrenia were partly modulated by age, gender, medication and severity of symptoms. Our results highlighted breakdowns in limbic-MPFC circuit in schizophrenia, suggesting general inability to coordinate and contextualize salient threat stimuli. These findings provide potential targets for neurotherapeutic and pharmacological interventions for schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Intention, false beliefs, and delusional jealousy: insights into the right hemisphere from neurological patients and neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortigue, Stephanie; Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Jealousy sits high atop of a list comprised of the most human emotional experiences, although its nature, rationale, and origin are poorly understood. In the past decade, a series of neurological case reports and neuroimaging findings have been particularly helpful in piecing together jealousy's puzzle. In order to understand and quantify the neurological factors that might be important in jealousy, we reviewed the current literature in this specific field. We made an electronic search, and examined all literature with at least an English abstract, through Mars 2010. The search identified a total of 20 neurological patients, who experienced jealousy in relation with a neurological disorder; and 22 healthy individuals, who experienced jealousy under experimental neuroimaging settings. Most of the clinical cases of reported jealousy after a stroke had delusional-type jealousy. Right hemispheric stroke was the most frequently reported neurological disorder in these patients, although there was a wide range of more diffuse neurological disorders that may be reported to be associated with different other types of jealousy. This is in line with recent neuroimaging data on false beliefs, moral judgments, and intention [mis]understanding. Together the present findings provide physicians and psychologists with a potential for high impact in understanding the neural mechanisms and treatment of jealousy. By combining findings from case reports and neuroimaging data, the present article allows for a novel and unique perspective, and explores new directions into the neurological jealous mind.

  10. Processing of primary and secondary rewards: a quantitative meta-analysis and review of human functional neuroimaging studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sescousse, G.T.; Caldu, X.; Segura, B.; Dreher, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    One fundamental question concerning brain reward mechanisms is to determine how reward-related activity is influenced by the nature of rewards. Here, we review the neuroimaging literature and explicitly assess to what extent the representations of primary and secondary rewards overlap in the human

  11. Sex disparities in substance abuse research: Evaluating 23 years of structural neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Kimberly E; Gutierrez, Eric J; Yamamoto, Dorothy J; Regner, Michael F; McKee, Sherry A; Tanabe, Jody

    2017-04-01

    Sex differences in brain structure and clinical course of substance use disorders underscores the need to include women in structural brain imaging studies. The NIH has supported the need for research to address sex differences. We evaluated female enrollment in substance abuse structural brain imaging research and the methods used to study sex differences in substance effects. Structural brain imaging studies published through 2016 (n=230) were evaluated for number of participants by sex and substance use status and methods used to evaluate sex differences. Temporal trends in the numbers of participants by sex and substance use status were analyzed. We evaluated how often sex effects were appropriately analyzed and the proportion of studies that found sex by substance interactions on volumetric measures. Female enrollment increased over time, but remained significantly lower than male enrollment (p=0.01), with the greatest bias for alcohol and opiate studies. 79% of studies included both sexes; however, 74% did not evaluate sex effects or used an analytic approach that precluded detection of sex by substance use interactions. 85% of studies that stratified by sex reported different substance effects on brain volumes. Only 33% of studies examining two-way interactions found significant interactions, highlighting that many studies were underpowered to detect interactions. Although female participation in substance use studies of brain morphometry has increased, sex disparity persists. Studying adequate numbers of both sexes and employing correct analytic approaches is critical for understanding sex differences in brain morphometric changes in substance abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Gene, Brain, and Behavior Relationships in Fragile X Syndrome: Evidence from Neuroimaging Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightbody, Amy A.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2009-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FraX) remains the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability and provides a valuable model for studying gene-brain-behavior relationships. Over the past 15 years, structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have emerged with the goal of better understanding the neural pathways contributing to the…

  13. Neural Networks Involved in Adolescent Reward Processing: An Activation Likelihood Estimation Meta-Analysis of Functional Neuroimaging Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Merav H.; Jedd, Kelly; Luciana, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral responses to, and the neural processing of, rewards change dramatically during adolescence and may contribute to observed increases in risk-taking during this developmental period. Functional MRI (fMRI) studies suggest differences between adolescents and adults in neural activation during reward processing, but findings are contradictory, and effects have been found in non-predicted directions. The current study uses an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach for quantitative meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies to: 1) confirm the network of brain regions involved in adolescents’ reward processing, 2) identify regions involved in specific stages (anticipation, outcome) and valence (positive, negative) of reward processing, and 3) identify differences in activation likelihood between adolescent and adult reward-related brain activation. Results reveal a subcortical network of brain regions involved in adolescent reward processing similar to that found in adults with major hubs including the ventral and dorsal striatum, insula, and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Contrast analyses find that adolescents exhibit greater likelihood of activation in the insula while processing anticipation relative to outcome and greater likelihood of activation in the putamen and amygdala during outcome relative to anticipation. While processing positive compared to negative valence, adolescents show increased likelihood for activation in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and ventral striatum. Contrasting adolescent reward processing with the existing ALE of adult reward processing (Liu et al., 2011) reveals increased likelihood for activation in limbic, frontolimbic, and striatal regions in adolescents compared with adults. Unlike adolescents, adults also activate executive control regions of the frontal and parietal lobes. These findings support hypothesized elevations in motivated activity during adolescence. PMID:26254587

  14. The current state of research on ayahuasca: A systematic review of human studies assessing psychiatric symptoms, neuropsychological functioning, and neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Rafael G; Balthazar, Fermanda M; Bouso, José C; Hallak, Jaime Ec

    2016-12-01

    In recent decades, the use of ayahuasca (AYA) - a β-carboline- and dimethyltryptamine-rich hallucinogenic botanical preparation traditionally used by Northwestern Amazonian tribes for ritual and therapeutic purposes - has spread from South America to Europe and the USA, raising concerns about its possible toxicity and hopes of its therapeutic potential. Thus, it is important to analyze the acute, subacute, and long-term effects of AYA to assess its safety and toxicity. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of human studies assessing AYA effects on psychiatric symptoms, neuropsychological functioning, and neuroimaging. Papers published until 16 December 2015 were included from PubMed, LILACS and SciELO databases following a comprehensive search strategy and pre-determined set of criteria for article selection. The review included 28 full-text articles. Acute AYA administration was well tolerated, increased introspection and positive mood, altered visual perceptions, activated frontal and paralimbic regions and decreased default mode network activity. It also improved planning and inhibitory control and impaired working memory, and showed antidepressive and antiaddictive potentials. Long-term AYA use was associated with increased cortical thickness of the anterior cingulate cortex and cortical thinning of the posterior cingulate cortex, which was inversely correlated to age of onset, intensity of prior AYA use, and spirituality. Subacute and long-term AYA use was not associated with increased psychopathology or cognitive deficits, being associated with enhanced mood and cognition, increased spirituality, and reduced impulsivity. Acute, subacute, and long-term AYA use seems to have low toxicity. Preliminary studies about potential therapeutic effects of AYA need replication due to their methodological limitations. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Visuospatial processing in early Alzheimer’s disease: a multimodal neuroimaging study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, H.I.L.; Gronenschild, E. H. B. M.; Evers, E.A.T.; Ramakers, I.H.G.B.; Hofman, P.A.M.; Backes, W. H.; Jolles, J.; Verhey, F. R. J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Dorsal pathway dysfunctions are thought to underlie visuospatial processing problems in Alzheimer disease (AD). Prior studies reported compensatory mechanisms in the dorsal or ventral pathway in response to these functional changes. Since functional and structural connectivity are

  16. Neural signatures of Trail Making Test performance: Evidence from lesion-mapping and neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varjacic, Andreja; Mantini, Dante; Demeyere, Nele; Gillebert, Celine R

    2018-03-27

    The Trail Making Test (TMT) is an extensively used neuropsychological instrument for the assessment of set-switching ability across a wide range of neurological conditions. However, the exact nature of the cognitive processes and associated brain regions contributing to the performance on the TMT remains unclear. In this review, we first introduce the TMT by discussing its administration and scoring approaches. We then examine converging evidence and divergent findings concerning the brain regions related to TMT performance, as identified by lesion-symptom mapping studies conducted in brain-injured patients and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies conducted in healthy participants. After addressing factors that may account for the heterogeneity in the brain regions reported by these studies, we identify future research endeavours that may permit disentangling the different processes contributing to TMT performance and relating them to specific brain circuits. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Sustained effects of ecstasy on the human brain: a prospective neuroimaging study in novel users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Win, Maartje M. L.; Jager, Gerry; Booij, Jan; Reneman, Liesbeth; Schilt, Thelma; Lavini, Cristina; Olabarriaga, Sílvia D.; den Heeten, Gerard J.; van den Brink, Wim

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested toxic effects of recreational ecstasy use on the serotonin system of the brain. However, it cannot be excluded that observed differences between users and non-users are the cause rather than the consequence of ecstasy use. As part of the Netherlands XTC Toxicity

  18. Sustained effects of ecstasy on the human brain : a prospective neuroimaging study in novel users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Win, Maartje M. L.; Jager, Gerry; Booij, Jan; Reneman, Liesbeth; Schilt, Thelma; Lavini, Cristina; Olabarriaga, Silvia D.; den Heeten, Gerard J.; van den Brink, Wim

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested toxic effects of recreational ecstasy use on the serotonin system of the brain. However, it cannot be excluded that observed differences between users and non-users are the cause rather than the consequence of ecstasy use. As part of the Netherlands XTC Toxicity

  19. On the "Demystification" of Insight: A Critique of Neuroimaging Studies of Insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Psychologists studying problem solving have, for over 100 years, been interested in the question of whether there are two different modes of solving problems. One mode--problem solving based on analysis--depends on application of past experience to the problem at hand and proceeds incrementally toward solution. The second mode--problem solving…

  20. The role of central dopamine and serotonin in human obesity: lessons learned from molecular neuroimaging studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Galen, Katy A; Ter Horst, Kasper W; Booij, Jan; la Fleur, Susanne E; Serlie, Mireille J

    2018-01-01

    Obesity results from an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, and many studies have aimed to determine why obese individuals continue to (over)consume food under conditions of caloric excess. The two major "neurotransmitter hypotheses" of obesity state that increased food intake is

  1. Sustained effects of ecstasy on the human brain : a prospective neuroimaging study in novel users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Win, Maartje M. L.; Jager, Gerry; Booij, Jan; Reneman, Liesbeth; Schilt, Thelma; Lavini, Cristina; Olabarriaga, Silvia D.; den Heeten, Gerard J.; van den Brink, Wim

    Previous studies have suggested toxic effects of recreational ecstasy use on the serotonin system of the brain. However, it cannot be excluded that observed differences between users and non-users are the cause rather than the consequence of ecstasy use. As part of the Netherlands XTC Toxicity

  2. Neuroimaging studies of practice-related change: fMRI and meta-analytic evidence of a domain-general control network for learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chein, Jason M; Schneider, Walter

    2005-12-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging and a meta-analysis of prior neuroimaging studies were used to characterize cortical changes resulting from extensive practice and to evaluate a dual-processing account of the neural mechanisms underlying human learning. Three core predictions of the dual processing theory are evaluated: 1) that practice elicits generalized reductions in regional activity by reducing the load on the cognitive control mechanisms that scaffold early learning; 2) that these control mechanisms are domain-general; and 3) that no separate processing pathway emerges as skill develops. To evaluate these predictions, a meta-analysis of prior neuroimaging studies and a within-subjects fMRI experiment contrasting unpracticed to practiced performance in a paired-associate task were conducted. The principal effect of practice was found to be a reduction in the extent and magnitude of activity in a cortical network spanning bilateral dorsal prefrontal, left ventral prefrontal, medial frontal (anterior cingulate), left insular, bilateral parietal, and occipito-temporal (fusiform) areas. These activity reductions are shown to occur in common regions across prior neuroimaging studies and for both verbal and nonverbal paired-associate learning in the present fMRI experiment. The implicated network of brain regions is interpreted as a domain-general system engaged specifically to support novice, but not practiced, performance.

  3. A Systematic Review for Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Cognitive Reserve Across the Cognitive Aging Spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Mia; Lin, Feng

    2017-12-13

    Cognitive reserve has been proposed to explain the discrepancy between clinical symptoms and the effects of aging or Alzheimer's pathology. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) may help elucidate how neural reserve and compensation delay cognitive decline and identify brain regions associated with cognitive reserve. This systematic review evaluated neural correlates of cognitive reserve via fMRI (resting-state and task-related) studies across the cognitive aging spectrum (i.e., normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease). This review examined published articles up to March 2017. There were 13 cross-sectional observational studies that met the inclusion criteria, including relevance to cognitive reserve, subjects 60 years or older with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment, and/or Alzheimer's disease, at least one quantitative measure of cognitive reserve, and fMRI as the imaging modality. Quality assessment of included studies was conducted using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale adapted for cross-sectional studies. Across the cognitive aging spectrum, medial temporal regions and an anterior or posterior cingulate cortex-seeded default mode network were associated with neural reserve. Frontal regions and the dorsal attentional network were related to neural compensation. Compared to neural reserve, neural compensation was more common in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Neural reserve and compensation both support cognitive reserve, with compensation more common in later stages of the cognitive aging spectrum. Longitudinal and intervention studies are needed to investigate changes between neural reserve and compensation during the transition between clinical stages, and to explore the causal relationship between cognitive reserve and potential neural substrates. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Antecedents and neuroimaging patterns in cerebral palsy with epilepsy and cognitive impairment: a population-based study in children born at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlin, Kristina; Jacobsson, Bo; Nilsson, Staffan; Himmelmann, Kate

    2017-07-01

    Antecedents of accompanying impairments in cerebral palsy and their relation to neuroimaging patterns need to be explored. A population-based study of 309 children with cerebral palsy born at term between 1983 and 1994. Prepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum variables previously studied as antecedents of cerebral palsy type and motor severity were analyzed in children with cerebral palsy and cognitive impairment and/or epilepsy, and in children with cerebral palsy without these accompanying impairments. Neuroimaging patterns and their relation to identified antecedents were analyzed. Data were retrieved from the cerebral palsy register of western Sweden, and from obstetric and neonatal records. Children with cerebral palsy and accompanying impairments more often had low birthweight (kg) (odds ratio 0.5, 95% confidence interval 0.3-0.8), brain maldevelopment known at birth (p = 0.007, odds ratio ∞) and neonatal infection (odds ratio 5.4, 95% confidence interval 1.04-28.4). Moreover, neuroimaging patterns of maldevelopment (odds ratio 7.2, 95% confidence interval 2.9-17.2), cortical/subcortical lesions (odds ratio 5.3, 95% confidence interval 2.3-12.2) and basal ganglia lesions (odds ratio 7.6, 95% confidence interval 1.4-41.3) were more common, wheras white matter injury was found significantly less often (odds ratio 0.2, 95% confidence interval 0.1-0.5). In most children with maldevelopment, the intrapartum and postpartum periods were uneventful (p Cerebral maldevelopment was associated with prepartum antecedents, whereas subcortical/cortical and basal ganglia lesions were associated with intrapartum and postpartum antecedents. No additional factor other than those related to motor impairment was associated with epilepsy and cognitive impairment in cerebral palsy. Timing of antecedents deemed important for the development of cerebral palsy with accompanying impairments were supported by neuroimaging patterns. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics

  5. Enhancing treatment of osteoarthritis knee pain by boosting expectancy: A functional neuroimaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Kong

    Full Text Available Objectives: Expectation can significantly modulate pain and treatment effects. This study aims to investigate if boosting patients' expectancy can enhance the treatment of knee osteoarthritis (KOA, and its underlying brain mechanism. Methods: Seventy-four KOA patients were recruited and randomized to three groups: boosted acupuncture (with a manipulation to enhance expectation, standard acupuncture, or treatment as usual (TAU. Each patient underwent six treatments before being debriefed, and four additional treatments after being debriefed. The fMRI scans were applied during the first and sixth treatment sessions. Results: We found significantly decreased knee pain in the boosted acupuncture group compared to the standard acupuncture or TAU groups after both six and ten treatments. Resting state functional connectivity (rsFC analyses using the nucleus accumbens (NAc as the seed showed rsFC increases between the NAc and the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC/rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in the boosted group as compared to the standard acupuncture group after multiple treatments. Expectancy scores after the first treatment were significantly associated with increased NAc-rACC/MPFC rsFC and decreased knee pain following treatment. Conclusions: Our study provides a novel method and mechanism for boosting the treatment of pain in patients with KOA. Our findings may shed light on enhancing outcomes of pharmacological and integrative medicines in clinical settings. Keywords: Knee osteoarthritis, Expectancy, Acupuncture, Reward, Resting state functional connectivity

  6. Face and gaze perception in borderline personality disorder: An electrical neuroimaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchio, Cristina; Piguet, Camille; Gentsch, Kornelia; Küng, Anne-Lise; Rihs, Tonia A; Hasler, Roland; Aubry, Jean-Michel; Dayer, Alexandre; Michel, Christoph M; Perroud, Nader

    2017-11-30

    Humans are sensitive to gaze direction from early life, and gaze has social and affective values. Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a clinical condition characterized by emotional dysregulation and enhanced sensitivity to affective and social cues. In this study we wanted to investigate the temporal-spatial dynamics of spontaneous gaze processing in BPD. We used a 2-back-working-memory task, in which neutral faces with direct and averted gaze were presented. Gaze was used as an emotional modulator of event-related-potentials to faces. High density EEG data were acquired in 19 females with BPD and 19 healthy women, and analyzed with a spatio-temporal microstates analysis approach. Independently of gaze direction, BPD patients showed altered N170 and P200 topographies for neutral faces. Source localization revealed that the anterior cingulate and other prefrontal regions were abnormally activated during the N170 component related to face encoding, while middle temporal deactivations were observed during the P200 component. Post-task affective ratings showed that BPD patients had difficulty to disambiguate neutral gaze. This study provides first evidence for an early neural bias toward neutral faces in BPD independent of gaze direction and also suggests the importance of considering basic aspects of social cognition in identifying biological risk factors of BPD. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Subcortical volume and cortical surface architecture in women with acute and remitted anorexia nervosa: An exploratory neuroimaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Amy E; Voineskos, Aristotle N; French, Leon; Kaplan, Allan S

    2018-04-13

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a highly heritable psychiatric disorder characterized by starvation and emaciation and associated with changes in brain structure. The precise nature of these changes remains unclear, as does their developmental time course and capacity for reversal with weight-restoration. In this comprehensive neuroimaging study, we sought to characterize these changes by measuring subcortical volume and cortical surface architecture in women with acute and remitted AN. Structural magnetic resonance imaging data was acquired from underweight women with a current diagnosis of AN (acAN: n = 23), weight-recovered women with a past diagnosis of AN (recAN: n = 24), and female controls (HC: n = 24). Subcortical segmentation and cortical surface reconstruction were performed with FreeSurfer 6.0.0, and group differences in regional volume and vertex-wise, cortex-wide thickness, surface area, and local gyrification index (LGI), a measure of folding, were tested with separate univariate analyses of covariance. Mean hippocampal and thalamic volumes were significantly reduced in acAN participants, as was mean cortical thickness in four frontal and temporal clusters. Mean LGI was significantly reduced in acAN and recAN participants in five frontal and parietal clusters. No significant group differences in cortical surface area were detected. Reductions in subcortical volume, cortical thickness, and right postcentral LGI were unique to women with acute AN, indicating state-dependence and pointing towards cellular remodeling and sulcal widening as consequences of disease manifestation. Reductions in bilateral frontal LGI were observed in women with acute and remitted AN, suggesting a role of atypical neurodevelopment in disease vulnerability. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. FRIEND Engine Framework: a real time neurofeedback client-server system for neuroimaging studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilio, Rodrigo; Garrido, Griselda J.; Sato, João R.; Hoefle, Sebastian; Melo, Bruno R. P.; Pamplona, Fabricio A.; Zahn, Roland; Moll, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    In this methods article, we present a new implementation of a recently reported FSL-integrated neurofeedback tool, the standalone version of “Functional Real-time Interactive Endogenous Neuromodulation and Decoding” (FRIEND). We will refer to this new implementation as the FRIEND Engine Framework. The framework comprises a client-server cross-platform solution for real time fMRI and fMRI/EEG neurofeedback studies, enabling flexible customization or integration of graphical interfaces, devices, and data processing. This implementation allows a fast setup of novel plug-ins and frontends, which can be shared with the user community at large. The FRIEND Engine Framework is freely distributed for non-commercial, research purposes. PMID:25688193

  9. FRIEND Engine Framework: A real time neurofeedback client-server system for neuroimaging studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo eBasilio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this methods article, we present a new implementation of a recently reported FSL-integrated neurofeedback tool, the standalone version of Functional Real-time Interactive Endogenous Modulation and Decoding (FRIEND. We will refer to this new implementation as the FRIEND Engine Framework. The framework comprises a client-server cross-platform solution for real time fMRI and fMRI/EEG neurofeedback studies, enabling flexible customization or integration of graphical interfaces, devices and data processing. This implementation allows a fast setup of novel plug-ins and frontends, which can be shared with the user community at large. The FRIEND Engine Framework is freely distributed for non-commercial, research purposes.

  10. Provocation of symmetry/ordering symptoms in Anorexia nervosa: a functional neuroimaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Masashi; Brooks, Samantha J; Giampietro, Vincent; Uher, Rudolf; Mataix-Cols, David; Brammer, Michael J; Williams, Steven C R; Treasure, Janet; Campbell, Iain C

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) are often co-morbid; however, the aetiology of such co-morbidity has not been well investigated. This study examined brain activation in women with AN and in healthy control (HC) women during the provocation of symmetry/ordering-related anxiety. During provocation, patients with AN showed more anxiety compared to HCs, which was correlated with the severity of symmetry/ordering symptoms. Activation in the right parietal lobe and right prefrontal cortex (rPFC) in response to provocation was reduced in the AN group compared with the HC group. The reduced right parietal activation observed in the AN group is consistent with parietal lobe involvement in visuospatial cognition and with studies of OCD reporting an association between structural abnormalities in this region and the severity of 'ordering' symptoms. Reduced rPFC activation in response to symmetry/ordering provocation has similarities with some, but not all, data collected from patients with AN who were exposed to images of food and bodies. Furthermore, the combination of data from the AN and HC groups showed that rPFC activation during symptom provocation was inversely correlated with the severity of symmetry/ordering symptoms. These data suggest that individuals with AN have a diminished ability to cognitively deal with illness-associated symptoms of provocation. Furthermore, our data also suggest that symptom provocation can progressively overload attempts by the rPFC to exert cognitive control. These findings are discussed in the context of the current neurobiological models of AN.

  11. Provocation of symmetry/ordering symptoms in Anorexia nervosa: a functional neuroimaging study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Suda

    Full Text Available Anorexia nervosa (AN, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD are often co-morbid; however, the aetiology of such co-morbidity has not been well investigated. This study examined brain activation in women with AN and in healthy control (HC women during the provocation of symmetry/ordering-related anxiety. During provocation, patients with AN showed more anxiety compared to HCs, which was correlated with the severity of symmetry/ordering symptoms. Activation in the right parietal lobe and right prefrontal cortex (rPFC in response to provocation was reduced in the AN group compared with the HC group. The reduced right parietal activation observed in the AN group is consistent with parietal lobe involvement in visuospatial cognition and with studies of OCD reporting an association between structural abnormalities in this region and the severity of 'ordering' symptoms. Reduced rPFC activation in response to symmetry/ordering provocation has similarities with some, but not all, data collected from patients with AN who were exposed to images of food and bodies. Furthermore, the combination of data from the AN and HC groups showed that rPFC activation during symptom provocation was inversely correlated with the severity of symmetry/ordering symptoms. These data suggest that individuals with AN have a diminished ability to cognitively deal with illness-associated symptoms of provocation. Furthermore, our data also suggest that symptom provocation can progressively overload attempts by the rPFC to exert cognitive control. These findings are discussed in the context of the current neurobiological models of AN.

  12. A neuroimaging study of pleasant and unpleasant olfactory perceptions of virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vivancos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI has been used to collect information from neurons that receive direct input from olfactory bulbs when subjects smell virgin olive oil. The pleasant aroma of three extra virgin olive oils (var. Royal, Arbequina and Picual and three virgin olive oils with sensory defects (rancid, fusty and winey/vinegary were presented to 14 subjects while a fMRI scan acquired data from the brain activity. Data were subjected to a two-sample t test analysis, which allows a better interpretation of results particularly when data are studied across different subjects. Most of the activations, which were located in the frontal lobe, are related to the olfactory task regardless of the hedonic component of perception (e.g. Brodmann areas 10, 11. Comparing the samples with pleasant and unpleasant aromas, differences were found at the anterior cingulate gyrus (Brodmann area 32, at the temporal lobe (Brodmann area 38, and inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 47, while intense aromas activated Brodmann area 6. The actual perceptions described by the subjects and the concentration of the odorant compounds in the samples were considered in the interpretation of the results.

  13. A neuroimaging study of pleasant and unpleasant olfactory perceptions of virgin olive oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivancos, J.; Tena, N.; Morales, M.T.; Aparicio, R.; Garcia-Gonzalez, D.L.

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used to collect information from neurons that receive direct input from olfactory bulbs when subjects smell virgin olive oil. The pleasant aroma of three extra virgin olive oils (var. Royal, Arbequina and Picual) and three virgin olive oils with sensory defects (rancid, fusty and winey/vinegary) were presented to 14 subjects while a fMRI scan acquired data from the brain activity. Data were subjected to a two-sample t test analysis, which allows a better interpretation of results particularly when data are studied across different subjects. Most of the activations, which were located in the frontal lobe, are related to the olfactory task regardless of the hedonic component of perception (e.g. Brodmann areas 10, 11). Comparing the samples with pleasant and unpleasant aromas, differences were found at the anterior cingulate gyrus (Brodmann area 32), at the temporal lobe (Brodmann area 38), and inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 47), while intense aromas activated Brodmann area 6. The actual perceptions described by the subjects and the concentration of the odorant compounds in the samples were considered in the interpretation of the results. [es

  14. Neuroimaging in autism spectrum disorders: 1H-MRS and NIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kenji; Toda, Yoshihiro; Ito, Hiromichi; Mori, Tatsuo; Mori, Keiko; Goji, Aya; Hashimoto, Hiroko; Tani, Hiroe; Miyazaki, Masahito; Harada, Masafumi; Kagami, Shoji

    2015-01-01

    Using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS), we measured chemical metabolites in the left amygdala and the bilateral orbito-frontal cortex (OFC) in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) in these regions of ASD were significantly decreased compared to those in the control group. In the autistic patients, the NAA concentrations in these regions correlated with their social quotient. These findings suggest the presence of neuronal dysfunction in the amygdala and OFC in ASD. Dysfunction in the amygdala and OFC may contribute to the pathogenesis of ASD. We performed a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) study to evaluate the mirror neuron system in children with ASD. The concentrations of oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) were measured with frontal probes using a 34-channel NIRS machine while the subjects imitated emotional facial expressions. The increments in the concentration of oxy-Hb in the pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus in autistic subjects were significantly lower than those in the controls. However, the concentrations of oxy-Hb in this area were significantly elevated in autistic subjects after they were trained to imitate emotional facial expressions. The results suggest that mirror neurons could be activated by repeated imitation in children with ASD.

  15. Nonlinear association criterion, nonlinear Granger causality and related issues with applications to neuroimage studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Chenyang; Feng, Jianfeng

    2016-03-15

    Quantifying associations in neuroscience (and many other scientific disciplines) is often challenged by high-dimensionality, nonlinearity and noisy observations. Many classic methods have either poor power or poor scalability on data sets of the same or different scales such as genetical, physiological and image data. Based on the framework of reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces we proposed a new nonlinear association criteria (NAC) with an efficient numerical algorithm and p-value approximation scheme. We also presented mathematical justification that links the proposed method to related methods such as kernel generalized variance, kernel canonical correlation analysis and Hilbert-Schmidt independence criteria. NAC allows the detection of association between arbitrary input domain as long as a characteristic kernel is defined. A MATLAB package was provided to facilitate applications. Extensive simulation examples and four real world neuroscience examples including functional MRI causality, Calcium imaging and imaging genetic studies on autism [Brain, 138(5):13821393 (2015)] and alcohol addiction [PNAS, 112(30):E4085-E4093 (2015)] are used to benchmark NAC. It demonstrates the superior performance over the existing procedures we tested and also yields biologically significant results for the real world examples. NAC beats its linear counterparts when nonlinearity is presented in the data. It also shows more robustness against different experimental setups compared with its nonlinear counterparts. In this work we presented a new and robust statistical approach NAC for measuring associations. It could serve as an interesting alternative to the existing methods for datasets where nonlinearity and other confounding factors are present. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Neural Systems Underlying Emotional and Non-emotional Interference Processing: An ALE Meta-Analysis of Functional Neuroimaging Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Min; Xu, Guiping; Yang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how the nature of interference might influence the recruitments of the neural systems is considered as the key to understanding cognitive control. Although, interference processing in the emotional domain has recently attracted great interest, the question of whether there are separable neural patterns for emotional and non-emotional interference processing remains open. Here, we performed an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of 78 neuroimaging experiments, and exam...

  17. Neuroimaging of cognitive dysfunction and depression in aging retired National Football League players: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, John; Kraut, Michael A; Womack, Kyle B; Strain, Jeremy; Didehbani, Nyaz; Bartz, Elizabeth; Conover, Heather; Mansinghani, Sethesh; Lu, Hanzhang; Cullum, C Munro

    2013-03-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess cognitive impairment and depression in aging former professional football (National Football League [NFL]) players and to identify neuroimaging correlates of these dysfunctions. DESIGN We compared former NFL players with cognitive impairment and depression, cognitively normal retired players who were not depressed, and matched healthy control subjects. SETTING Research center in the North Texas region of the United States. PATIENTS Cross-sectional sample of former NFL players with and without a history of concussion recruited from the North Texas region and age-, education-, and IQ-matched controls. Thirty-four retired NFL players (mean age, 61.8 years) underwent neurological and neuropsychological assessment. A subset of 26 players also underwent detailed neuroimaging; imaging data in this subset were compared with imaging data acquired in 26 healthy matched controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Neuropsychological measures, clinical diagnoses of depression, neuroimaging mea-sures of white matter pathology, and a measure of cerebral blood flow. RESULTS Of the 34 former NFL players, 20 were cognitively normal. Four were diagnosed as having a fixed cognitive deficit; 8, mild cognitive impairment; 2, dementia; and 8, depression. Of the subgroup in whom neuroimaging data were acquired, cognitively impaired participants showed the greatest deficits on tests of naming, word finding, and visual/verbal episodic memory. We found significant differences in white matter abnormalities in cognitively impaired and depressed retired players compared with their respective controls. Regional blood flow differences in the cognitively impaired group (left temporal pole, inferior parietal lobule, and superior temporal gyrus) corresponded to regions associated with impaired neurocognitive performance (problems with memory, naming, and word finding). CONCLUSIONS Cognitive deficits and depression appear to be more common in aging former NFL players compared with healthy

  18. Online open neuroimaging mass meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Kempton, Matthew J.; Williams, Steven C. R.

    We describe a system for meta-analysis where a wiki stores numerical data in a simple format and a web service performs the numerical computation. We initially apply the system on multiple meta-analyses of structural neuroimaging data results. The described system allows for mass meta-analysis, e...

  19. Neuroimaging in dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkhof, Frederik [VU Univ. Medical Center, Amsterdam (NL). Dept. of Radiology and Image Analysis Center (IAC); Fox, Nick C. [UCL Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom). Dementia Research Centre; VU Univ. Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bastos-Leite, Antonio J. [Porto Univ. (Portugal). Dept. of Medical Imaging; Scheltens, Philip [VU Univ. Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Neurology and Alzheimer Center

    2011-07-01

    Against a background of an ever-increasing number of patients, new management options, and novel imaging modalities, neuroimaging is playing an increasingly important role in the diagnosis of dementia. This up-to-date, superbly illustrated book aims to provide a practical guide to the effective use of neuroimaging in the patient with cognitive decline. It sets out the key clinical and imaging features of the wide range of causes of dementia and directs the reader from clinical presentation to neuroimaging and on to an accurate diagnosis whenever possible. After an introductory chapter on the clinical background, the available ''toolbox'' of structural and functional neuroimaging techniques is reviewed in detail, including CT, MRI and advanced MR techniques, SPECT and PET, and image analysis methods. The imaging findings in normal ageing are then discussed, followed by a series of chapters that carefully present and analyze the key imaging findings in patients with dementias. A structured path of analysis follows the main presenting feature: disorders associated with primary gray matter loss, with white matter changes, with brain swelling, etc. Throughout, a practical approach is adopted, geared specifically to the needs of clinicians (neurologists, radiologists, psychiatrists, geriatricians) working in the field of dementia, for whom this book should prove an invaluable resource. (orig.)

  20. Introduction to neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orrison, W.W.

    1989-01-01

    The author focuses on neuroradiology with emphasis on the current imaging modalities. There are chapters on angiography, myelography, nuclear medicine, ultrasonography, computer tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The other chapters are dedicated to the spine, skull, head and neck, and pediatric neuroimaging

  1. Functional Neuroimaging of Motor Control inParkinson’s Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herz, Damian M; Eickhoff, Simon B; Løkkegaard, Annemette

    2014-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging has been widely used to study the activation patterns of the motor network in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), but these studies have yielded conflicting results. This meta-analysis of previous neuroimaging studies was performed to identify patterns of abnormal...... movement-related activation in PD that were consistent across studies. We applied activation likelihood estimation (ALE) of functional neuroimaging studies probing motor function in patients with PD. The meta-analysis encompassed data from 283 patients with PD reported in 24 functional neuroimaging studies...

  2. A qualitative study of the views of patients with human immunodeficiency virus and childhood trauma on the consent process for a neurocognitive and neuroimaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Helen; Seedat, Soraya; Lester, Helen

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the informed consent experiences of women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and childhood trauma involved in a neurocognitive and neuroimaging study. There is no previous research on the consent process for people with both HIV and childhood trauma, conditions that are syndemic in South Africa. Research on the consent process for each individual condition has shown that individuals with either of these conditions may be vulnerable research participants. This study aimed to investigate the opinions of the women involved in order to refine future consent processes and ensure that they are appropriate for this population. A qualitative semi-structured interview was conducted with women from Khayelitsha township in South Africa involved in a cohort study on neurocognitive and neuroimaging outcomes in HIV and childhood trauma, who agreed to participate in an interview immediately following their final study appointment. Aspects most frequently commented upon by participants during the interview were community recruitment, incentives for participation, quality of information provided, and misunderstandings and unexpected events. The overarching finding was that of therapeutic misconception; participants expected, and highlighted as incentives for participation, health benefits that were not part of the study. A minority of participants reported discomfort from questions concerning their traumatic experiences. Despite this, the consent process was well received and there was good understanding of confidentiality issues and the voluntariness of participation. Full disclosure of true benefits from participation must be emphasised throughout the recruitment process. This is particularly important for participants with HIV who appear to participate because of perceived health incentives. Providing prior notification that questions about traumatic experiences will be asked may improve the experiences of participants. A generic but thoroughly conducted

  3. Food addiction and neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; von Deneen, Karen M; Tian, Jie; Gold, Mark S; Liu, Yijun

    2011-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious epidemic and one of the leading global health problems. However, much of the current debate has been fractious, and etiologies of obesity have been attributed to eating behavior (i.e. fast food consumption), personality, depression, addiction or genetics. One of the interesting new hypotheses for explaining the development of obesity involves a food addiction model, which suggests that food is not eaten as much for survival as pleasure and that hedonic overeating is relevant to both substance-related disorders and eating disorders. Accumulating evidence has shown that there are a number of shared neural and hormonal pathways as well as distinct differences in these pathways that may help researchers discover why certain individuals continue to overeat despite health and other consequences, and becomes more and more obese. Functional neuroimaging studies have further revealed that pleasant smelling, looking, and tasting food has reinforcing characteristics similar to drugs of abuse. Many of the brain changes reported for hedonic eating and obesity are also seen in various types of addictions. Most importantly, overeating and obesity may have an acquired drive similar to drug addiction with respect to motivation and incentive craving. In both cases, the desire and continued satisfaction occur after early and repeated exposure to stimuli. The acquired drive for eating food and relative weakness of the satiety signal would cause an imbalance between the drive and hunger/reward centers in the brain and their regulation. In the current paper, we first provide a summary of literature on food addition from eight different perspectives, and then we proposed a research paradigm that may allow screening of new pharmacological treatment on the basis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).

  4. Big Data and Neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb-Vargas, Yenny; Chen, Shaojie; Fisher, Aaron; Mejia, Amanda; Xu, Yuting; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Caffo, Brian; Lindquist, Martin A

    2017-12-01

    Big Data are of increasing importance in a variety of areas, especially in the biosciences. There is an emerging critical need for Big Data tools and methods, because of the potential impact of advancements in these areas. Importantly, statisticians and statistical thinking have a major role to play in creating meaningful progress in this arena. We would like to emphasize this point in this special issue, as it highlights both the dramatic need for statistical input for Big Data analysis and for a greater number of statisticians working on Big Data problems. We use the field of statistical neuroimaging to demonstrate these points. As such, this paper covers several applications and novel methodological developments of Big Data tools applied to neuroimaging data.

  5. Trends in performance indicators of neuroimaging anatomy research publications: a bibliometric study of major neuroradiology journal output over four decades based on web of science database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Louise; Massoud, Tarik F

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative, qualitative, and innovative application of bibliometric research performance indicators to anatomy and radiology research and education can enhance cross-fertilization between the two disciplines. We aim to use these indicators to identify long-term trends in dissemination of publications in neuroimaging anatomy (including both productivity and citation rates), which has subjectively waned in prestige during recent years. We examined publications over the last 40 years in two neuroradiological journals, AJNR and Neuroradiology, and selected and categorized all neuroimaging anatomy research articles according to theme and type. We studied trends in their citation activity over time, and mathematically analyzed these trends for 1977, 1987, and 1997 publications. We created a novel metric, "citation half-life at 10 years postpublication" (CHL-10), and used this to examine trends in the skew of citation numbers for anatomy articles each year. We identified 367 anatomy articles amongst a total of 18,110 in these journals: 74.2% were original articles, with study of normal anatomy being the commonest theme (46.7%). We recorded a mean of 18.03 citations for each anatomy article, 35% higher than for general neuroradiology articles. Graphs summarizing the rise (upslope) in citation rates after publication revealed similar trends spanning two decades. CHL-10 trends demonstrated that more recently published anatomy articles were likely to take longer to reach peak citation rate. Bibliometric analysis suggests that anatomical research in neuroradiology is not languishing. This novel analytical approach can be applied to other aspects of neuroimaging research, and within other subspecialties in radiology and anatomy, and also to foster anatomical education. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Neuroimaging in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-LoberaBehavioral Sciences Institute and Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, SpainAbstract: Neuroimaging techniques have been useful tools for accurate investigation of brain structure and function in eating disorders. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and voxel-based morphometry have been the most relevant technologies in this regard. The purpose of this review is to update the existing data on neuroimaging in eating disorders. The main brain changes seem to be reversible to some extent after adequate weight restoration. Brain changes in bulimia nervosa seem to be less pronounced than in anorexia nervosa and are mainly due to chronic dietary restrictions. Different subtypes of eating disorders might be correlated with specific brain functional changes. Moreover, anorectic patients who binge/purge may have different functional brain changes compared with those who do not binge/purge. Functional changes in the brain might have prognostic value, and different changes with respect to the binding potential of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, and D2/D3 receptors may be persistent after recovering from an eating disorder.Keywords: neuroimaging, brain changes, brain receptors, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorders

  7. Neuroimaging and advanced social living

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    Background: Snow stated in 1959 a modern conflict between classical hermeneutic humanism and natural science which recently has been renewed by Kensei Hiwaki [2011]. However, the last decade has brought a breakthrough in the study of the neural base of mental processes by neuroimaging which may...... patients. Further, this healing principle explains classical relaxation procedures as yoga and meditation as coping techniques. 2. Mental balance between L(x) and NC is not a continued but a discrete variable of general risk attitude differentiating 4 sub-groups corresponding to the classical tempers which...

  8. Neuroimaging of consciousness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavanna, Andrea Eugenio [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Neuropsychiatry; UCL Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom). Sobell Dept. of Motor, Neuroscience and Movement Disorders; Nani, Andrea [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom). Research Group BSMHFT; Blumenfeld, Hal [Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States). Depts. of Neurology, Neurobiology and Neurosurgery; Laureys, Steven (ed.) [Liege Univ. (Belgium). Cyclotron Research Centre

    2013-07-01

    An important reference work on a multidisciplinary and rapidly expanding area. Particular focus on the relevance of neuroimaging for the diagnosis and treatment of common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting consciousness. Written by world-class experts in the field. Relevant for clinicians, researchers, and scholars across different specialties. Within the field of neuroscience, the past few decades have witnessed an exponential growth of research into the brain mechanisms underlying both normal and pathological states of consciousness in humans. The development of sophisticated imaging techniques (above all fMRI and PET) to visualize and map brain activity in vivo has opened new avenues in our understanding of the pathological processes involved in common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting consciousness, such as epilepsy, coma, vegetative states, dissociative disorders, and dementia. This book presents the state of the art in neuroimaging exploration of the brain correlates of the alterations in consciousness across these conditions, with a particular focus on the potential applications for diagnosis and management. Although the book has a practical approach and is primarily targeted at neurologists, neuroradiologists, and psychiatrists, a wide range of researchers and health care professionals will find it an essential reference that explains the significance of neuroimaging of consciousness for clinical practice. Within the field of neuroscience, the past few decades have witnessed an exponential growth of research into the brain mechanisms underlying both normal and pathological states of consciousness in humans. The development of sophisticated imaging techniques (above all fMRI and PET) to visualize and map brain activity in vivo has opened new avenues in our understanding of the pathological processes involved in common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting consciousness, such as epilepsy, coma, vegetative states, dissociative disorders, and dementia. This

  9. Neuroimaging of consciousness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavanna, Andrea Eugenio; UCL Institute of Neurology, London; Nani, Andrea; Blumenfeld, Hal; Laureys, Steven

    2013-01-01

    An important reference work on a multidisciplinary and rapidly expanding area. Particular focus on the relevance of neuroimaging for the diagnosis and treatment of common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting consciousness. Written by world-class experts in the field. Relevant for clinicians, researchers, and scholars across different specialties. Within the field of neuroscience, the past few decades have witnessed an exponential growth of research into the brain mechanisms underlying both normal and pathological states of consciousness in humans. The development of sophisticated imaging techniques (above all fMRI and PET) to visualize and map brain activity in vivo has opened new avenues in our understanding of the pathological processes involved in common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting consciousness, such as epilepsy, coma, vegetative states, dissociative disorders, and dementia. This book presents the state of the art in neuroimaging exploration of the brain correlates of the alterations in consciousness across these conditions, with a particular focus on the potential applications for diagnosis and management. Although the book has a practical approach and is primarily targeted at neurologists, neuroradiologists, and psychiatrists, a wide range of researchers and health care professionals will find it an essential reference that explains the significance of neuroimaging of consciousness for clinical practice. Within the field of neuroscience, the past few decades have witnessed an exponential growth of research into the brain mechanisms underlying both normal and pathological states of consciousness in humans. The development of sophisticated imaging techniques (above all fMRI and PET) to visualize and map brain activity in vivo has opened new avenues in our understanding of the pathological processes involved in common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting consciousness, such as epilepsy, coma, vegetative states, dissociative disorders, and dementia. This

  10. Molecular neuroimaging of emotional decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hidehiko

    2013-04-01

    With the dissemination of non-invasive human neuroimaging techniques such as fMRI and the advancement of cognitive science, neuroimaging studies focusing on emotions and social cognition have become established. Along with this advancement, behavioral economics taking emotional and social factors into account for economic decisions has been merged with neuroscientific studies, and this interdisciplinary approach is called neuroeconomics. Past neuroeconomics studies have demonstrated that subcortical emotion-related brain structures play an important role in "irrational" decision-making. The research field that investigates the role of central neurotransmitters in this process is worthy of further development. Here, we provide an overview of recent molecular neuroimaging studies to further the understanding of the neurochemical basis of "irrational" or emotional decision-making and the future direction, including clinical implications, of the field. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Neuroimaging meta-analysis of cannabis use studies reveals convergent functional alterations in brain regions supporting cognitive control and reward processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanes, Julio A; Riedel, Michael C; Ray, Kimberly L; Kirkland, Anna E; Bird, Ryan T; Boeving, Emily R; Reid, Meredith A; Gonzalez, Raul; Robinson, Jennifer L; Laird, Angela R; Sutherland, Matthew T

    2018-03-01

    Lagging behind rapid changes to state laws, societal views, and medical practice is the scientific investigation of cannabis's impact on the human brain. While several brain imaging studies have contributed important insight into neurobiological alterations linked with cannabis use, our understanding remains limited. Here, we sought to delineate those brain regions that consistently demonstrate functional alterations among cannabis users versus non-users across neuroimaging studies using the activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis framework. In ancillary analyses, we characterized task-related brain networks that co-activate with cannabis-affected regions using data archived in a large neuroimaging repository, and then determined which psychological processes may be disrupted via functional decoding techniques. When considering convergent alterations among users, decreased activation was observed in the anterior cingulate cortex, which co-activated with frontal, parietal, and limbic areas and was linked with cognitive control processes. Similarly, decreased activation was observed in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which co-activated with frontal and occipital areas and linked with attention-related processes. Conversely, increased activation among users was observed in the striatum, which co-activated with frontal, parietal, and other limbic areas and linked with reward processing. These meta-analytic outcomes indicate that cannabis use is linked with differential, region-specific effects across the brain.

  12. Turner syndrome: neuroimaging findings: structural and functional.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mullaney, Ronan

    2009-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of Turner syndrome can advance our understanding of the X chromosome in brain development, and the modulatory influence of endocrine factors. There is increasing evidence from neuroimaging studies that TX individuals have significant differences in the anatomy, function, and metabolism of a number of brain regions; including the parietal lobe; cerebellum, amygdala, hippocampus; and basal ganglia; and perhaps differences in "connectivity" between frontal and parieto-occipital regions. Finally, there is preliminary evidence that genomic imprinting, sex hormones and growth hormone have significant modulatory effects on brain maturation in TS.

  13. Brain morphometry and the neurobiology of levodopa-induced dyskinesias: current knowledge and future potential for translational pre-clinical neuroimaging studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare eFinlay

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine replacement therapy in the form of levodopa results in a significant proportion of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD developing debilitating dyskinesia. This significantly complicates further treatment and negatively impacts patient quality of life. A greater understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID is therefore crucial to develop new treatments to prevent or mitigate LID. Such investigations in humans are largely confined to assessment of neurochemical and cerebrovascular blood flow changes using positron emission tomography (PET and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. However, recent evidence suggests that LID is associated with specific morphological changes in the frontal cortex and midbrain, detectable by structural MRI and voxel-based morphometry (VBM. Current human neuroimaging methods however lack sufficient resolution to reveal the biological mechanism driving these morphological changes at the cellular level. In contrast, there is a wealth of literature from well-established rodent models of LID documenting detailed post-mortem cellular and molecular measurements. The combination therefore of advanced neuroimaging methods and rodent LID models offers an exciting opportunity to bridge these currently disparate areas of research. To highlight this opportunity, in this mini-review, we provide an overview of the current clinical evidence for morphological changes in the brain associated with LID and identify potential cellular mechanisms as suggested from human and animal studies. We then suggest a framework for combining small animal MRI imaging with rodent models of LID, which may provide important mechanistic insights into the neurobiology of LID.

  14. Turner Syndrome: Neuroimaging Findings--Structural and Functional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, Ronan; Murphy, Declan

    2009-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of Turner syndrome can advance our understanding of the X chromosome in brain development, and the modulatory influence of endocrine factors. There is increasing evidence from neuroimaging studies that TX individuals have significant differences in the anatomy, function, and metabolism of a number of brain regions; including…

  15. Neuroimaging, nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Takashi; Ito, Kengo; Arahata, Yutaka

    2007-01-01

    This chapter describes radionuclide imaging as it related to neurodegenerative dementias like Alzheimer's disease (AD), idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD), and normal aging, among the various diseases of the elderly. The role of neuroimaging with nuclear medicine is to detect changes in neural activities that are caused by these diseases. Such changes may be indirect phenomena, but the imaging of neural functions provides physicians with useful, objective information regarding pathophysiology in the brain. Brain activities change with age, with the elderly showing decreased brain function in memory, execution, and attention. Age-dependent reduction in the global mean of cerebral blood flow (CBF) has been reported in many studies that have used X-133 and O-15 labeled gas, the spatial resolution of which is low. Partial volume correction (PVC) is available through the segmentation of grey matter from high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Meltzer reported that age-related change disappeared after PVC. The relative distribution of CBF and glucose metabolism has been examined on a voxel-by-voxel basis in many studies. The areas negatively correlated with age are the anterior part of the brain, especially the dorsolateral and medial frontal areas, anterior cingulate cortices, frontolateral and perisylvian cortices, and basal ganglia. The areas positively correlated with age are the occipital lobe, temporal lobe, sensorimotor cortex, and primary visual cortex. It is not easy to define ''normal aging''. Aged people tend to have the potential for diseases like cerebral ischemia caused by arteriosclerosis. Ischemia results in volume loss of the gray matter and CBF. The ApoE e4 gene is a risk factor for AD, and carriers of the ApoE e4 allel show CBF-like AD even at a relatively young age. Hypo-glucose metabolism in the posterior cingulate cortex is seen in 5% of normal people over 50 years of age. This Alzheimer-like CBF/metabolic pattern needs further

  16. Understanding Actions of Others: The Electrodynamics of the Left and Right Hemispheres. A High-Density EEG Neuroimaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortigue, Stephanie; Sinigaglia, Corrado; Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Grafton, Scott T.

    2010-01-01

    Background When we observe an individual performing a motor act (e.g. grasping a cup) we get two types of information on the basis of how the motor act is done and the context: what the agent is doing (i.e. grasping) and the intention underlying it (i.e. grasping for drinking). Here we examined the temporal dynamics of the brain activations that follow the observation of a motor act and underlie the observer's capacity to understand what the agent is doing and why. Methodology/Principal Findings Volunteers were presented with two-frame video-clips. The first frame (T0) showed an object with or without context; the second frame (T1) showed a hand interacting with the object. The volunteers were instructed to understand the intention of the observed actions while their brain activity was recorded with a high-density 128-channel EEG system. Visual event-related potentials (VEPs) were recorded time-locked with the frame showing the hand-object interaction (T1). The data were analyzed by using electrical neuroimaging, which combines a cluster analysis performed on the group-averaged VEPs with the localization of the cortical sources that give rise to different spatio-temporal states of the global electrical field. Electrical neuroimaging results revealed four major steps: 1) bilateral posterior cortical activations; 2) a strong activation of the left posterior temporal and inferior parietal cortices with almost a complete disappearance of activations in the right hemisphere; 3) a significant increase of the activations of the right temporo-parietal region with simultaneously co-active left hemispheric sources, and 4) a significant global decrease of cortical activity accompanied by the appearance of activation of the orbito-frontal cortex. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that the early striking left hemisphere involvement is due to the activation of a lateralized action-observation/action execution network. The activation of this lateralized network mediates the

  17. Understanding actions of others: the electrodynamics of the left and right hemispheres. A high-density EEG neuroimaging study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Ortigue

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: When we observe an individual performing a motor act (e.g. grasping a cup we get two types of information on the basis of how the motor act is done and the context: what the agent is doing (i.e. grasping and the intention underlying it (i.e. grasping for drinking. Here we examined the temporal dynamics of the brain activations that follow the observation of a motor act and underlie the observer's capacity to understand what the agent is doing and why. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Volunteers were presented with two-frame video-clips. The first frame (T0 showed an object with or without context; the second frame (T1 showed a hand interacting with the object. The volunteers were instructed to understand the intention of the observed actions while their brain activity was recorded with a high-density 128-channel EEG system. Visual event-related potentials (VEPs were recorded time-locked with the frame showing the hand-object interaction (T1. The data were analyzed by using electrical neuroimaging, which combines a cluster analysis performed on the group-averaged VEPs with the localization of the cortical sources that give rise to different spatio-temporal states of the global electrical field. Electrical neuroimaging results revealed four major steps: 1 bilateral posterior cortical activations; 2 a strong activation of the left posterior temporal and inferior parietal cortices with almost a complete disappearance of activations in the right hemisphere; 3 a significant increase of the activations of the right temporo-parietal region with simultaneously co-active left hemispheric sources, and 4 a significant global decrease of cortical activity accompanied by the appearance of activation of the orbito-frontal cortex. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the early striking left hemisphere involvement is due to the activation of a lateralized action-observation/action execution network. The activation of this lateralized network

  18. PET radioligand injection for pig neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Munk, Ole Lajord; Landau, Anne M.

    2018-01-01

    Pigs are useful models in neuroimaging studies with positron emission tomography. Radiolabeled ligands are injected intravenously at the start of the scan and in pigs, the most easily accessible route of administration is the ear vein. However, in brain studies the short distance between the brai...

  19. Statistical Challenges in "Big Data" Human Neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen M; Nichols, Thomas E

    2018-01-17

    Smith and Nichols discuss "big data" human neuroimaging studies, with very large subject numbers and amounts of data. These studies provide great opportunities for making new discoveries about the brain but raise many new analytical challenges and interpretational risks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cognitive dysfunctions in middle-aged type 2 diabetic patients and neuroimaging correlations: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Casares, Natalia; Jorge, Ricardo E; García-Arnés, Juan A; Acion, Laura; Berthier, Marcelo L; Gonzalez-Alegre, Pedro; Nabrozidis, Alejandro; Gutiérrez, Antonio; Ariza, María José; Rioja, Jose; González-Santos, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to assess the neuropsychological performance of a group of middle-aged patients with well-controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and to examine whether the neuropsychological deficits correlate with structural and functional brain alterations. We compared 25 subjects with T2DM aged 45-65 years with 25 control participants matched for age, gender, and educational level. The neuropsychological battery was designed to examine executive functions, attention, information processing speed, and verbal memory. Severity of depression was assessed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and cardiovascular risk factors were assessed using the Framingham Cardiovascular Risk Profile Score. The presence of at least one APOEε4 allele was determined. Reduced gray matter density was analyzed using voxel-based morphometry and brain glucose metabolic changes were assessed by 18FDG-PET. T2DM subjects had significantly lower scores than subjects without T2DM in the Trail-making Test B (p reproduction (p < 0.03). Worse executive functions and memory functioning correlated predominantly with less gray matter density and reduced glucose metabolism in the orbital and prefrontal cortex, temporal (middle gyrus, parahippocampus and uncus), and cerebellum regions (p < 0.001). T2DM subjects presented cognitive dysfunctions compared with controls. Clinical-neuroimaging correlations corresponded to brain changes (reduced gray matter density and glucose metabolism) mainly in fronto-temporal areas.

  1. 4-Repeat Tauopathy Neuroimaging Initiative - Cycle 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-01

    Corticobasal Degeneration (CBD); Corticobasal Syndrome (CBS); Cortical-basal Ganglionic Degeneration (CBGD); Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP); Nonfluent Variant Primary Progressive Aphasia (nfvPPA); Oligosymptomatic/Variant Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (o/vPSP)

  2. Brain regions involved in subprocesses of small-space episodic object-location memory: a systematic review of lesion and functional neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Kathrin; Eschen, Anne

    2017-04-01

    Object-location memory (OLM) enables us to keep track of the locations of objects in our environment. The neurocognitive model of OLM (Postma, A., Kessels, R. P. C., & Van Asselen, M. (2004). The neuropsychology of object-location memory. In G. L. Allen (Ed.), Human spatial memory: Remembering where (pp. 143-160). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, Postma, A., Kessels, R. P. C., & Van Asselen, M. (2008). How the brain remembers and forgets where things are: The neurocognition of object-location memory. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 32, 1339-1345. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2008.05.001 ) proposes that distinct brain regions are specialised for different subprocesses of OLM (object processing, location processing, and object-location binding; categorical and coordinate OLM; egocentric and allocentric OLM). It was based mainly on findings from lesion studies. However, recent episodic memory studies point to a contribution of additional or different brain regions to object and location processing within episodic OLM. To evaluate and update the neurocognitive model of OLM, we therefore conducted a systematic literature search for lesion as well as functional neuroimaging studies contrasting small-space episodic OLM with object memory or location memory. We identified 10 relevant lesion studies and 8 relevant functional neuroimaging studies. We could confirm some of the proposals of the neurocognitive model of OLM, but also differing hypotheses from episodic memory research, about which brain regions are involved in the different subprocesses of small-space episodic OLM. In addition, we were able to identify new brain regions as well as important research gaps.

  3. Meeting Curation Challenges in a Neuroimaging Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angus Whyte

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The SCARP project is a series of short studies with two aims; firstly to discover more about disciplinary approaches and attitudes to digital curation through ‘immersion’ in selected cases; secondly to apply known good practice, and where possible, identify new lessons from practice in the selected discipline areas. The study summarised here is of the Neuroimaging Group in the University of Edinburgh’s Division of Psychiatry, which plays a leading role in eScience collaborations to improve the infrastructure for neuroimaging data integration and reuse. The Group also aims to address growing data storage and curation needs, given the capabilities afforded by new infrastructure. The study briefly reviews the policy context and current challenges to data integration and sharing in the neuroimaging field. It then describes how curation and preservation risks and opportunities for change were identified throughout the curation lifecycle; and their context appreciated through field study in the research site. The results are consistent with studies of neuroimaging eInfrastructure that emphasise the role of local data sharing and reuse practices. These sustain mutual awareness of datasets and experimental protocols through sharing peer to peer, and among senior researchers and students, enabling continuity in research and flexibility in project work. This “human infrastructure” is taken into account in considering next steps for curation and preservation of the Group’s datasets and a phased approach to supporting data documentation.

  4. Neuroimaging in Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Yildirim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging has been used in antisocial personality disorder since the invention of computed tomography and new modalities are introduced as technology advances. Magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging and radionuclide imaging are such techniques that are currently used in neuroimaging. Although neuroimaging is an indispensible tool for psychiatric reseach, its clinical utility is questionable until new modalities become more accessible and regularly used in clinical practice. The aim of this paper is to provide clinicians with an introductory knowledge on neuroimaging in antisocial personality disorder including basic physics principles, current contributions to general understanding of pathophysiology in antisocial personality disorder and possible future applications of neuroimaging. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(1: 98-108

  5. In search of the trauma memory: a meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies of symptom provocation in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Sartory

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding some discrepancy between results from neuroimaging studies of symptom provocation in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, there is broad agreement as to the neural circuit underlying this disorder. It is thought to be characterized by an exaggerated amygdalar and decreased medial prefrontal activation to which the elevated anxiety state and concomitant inadequate emotional regulation are attributed. However, the proposed circuit falls short of accounting for the main symptom, unique among anxiety disorders to PTSD, namely, reexperiencing the precipitating event in the form of recurrent, distressing images and recollections. Owing to the technical demands, neuroimaging studies are usually carried out with small sample sizes. A meta-analysis of their findings is more likely to cast light on the involved cortical areas. Coordinate-based meta-analyses employing ES-SDM (Effect Size Signed Differential Mapping were carried out on 19 studies with 274 PTSD patients. Thirteen of the studies included 145 trauma-exposed control participants. Comparisons between reactions to trauma-related stimuli and a control condition and group comparison of reactions to the trauma-related stimuli were submitted to meta-analysis. Compared to controls and the neutral condition, PTSD patients showed significant activation of the mid-line retrosplenial cortex and precuneus in response to trauma-related stimuli. These midline areas have been implicated in self-referential processing and salient autobiographical memory. PTSD patients also evidenced hyperactivation of the pregenual/anterior cingulate gyrus and bilateral amygdala to trauma-relevant, compared to neutral, stimuli. Patients showed significantly less activation than controls in sensory association areas such as the bilateral temporal gyri and extrastriate area which may indicate that the patients' attention was diverted from the presented stimuli by being focused on the elicited trauma memory. Being

  6. Neuroimaging of neurotic disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, Yoshiro; Yahata, Noriaki

    2006-01-01

    Neuroimaging has been involved in recent biological approaches with evidence for neurotic disorders in place of diagnostic criteria on Freud theory hitherto. This review describes the present states of brain imaging in those disorders. Emotion has such three bases for environmental stimuli as recognition/evaluation of causable factors, manifestation, and its control, each of which occurs in various different regions connected by neuro-net work in the brain. The disorders are regarded as abnormality of the circuit that can be imaged. Documented and discussed are the actual regions imaged by MRI and PET in panic disorder, social phobia, phobias to specified things, posttraumatic stress disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The approach is thought important for elucidating not only the pathogenesis of the disorders but also the human emotional functions and mechanism of the mind, which may lead to a better treatment of the disorders in future. (T.I)

  7. The search for neuroimaging and cognitive endophenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla W.; Kjærstad, Hanne L; Meluken, Iselin

    2017-01-01

    and structural neuroimaging. Seventy-seven cross-sectional studies met the inclusion criteria. The present review revealed that URs in comparison with HCs showed: (i) widespread deficits in verbal memory, sustained attention, and executive function; (ii) abnormalities in the reactivity to and regulation...

  8. Traumatic Brain Injury: Nuclear Medicine Neuroimaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-Catasús, Carlos A; Vállez Garcia, David; Le Riverend Morales, Eloísa; Galvizu Sánchez, Reinaldo; Dierckx, Rudi; Dierckx, Rudi AJO; Otte, Andreas; de Vries, Erik FJ; van Waarde, Aren; Leenders, Klaus L

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an up-to-date review of nuclear medicine neuroimaging in traumatic brain injury (TBI). 18F-FDG PET will remain a valuable tool in researching complex mechanisms associated with early metabolic dysfunction in TBI. Although evidence-based imaging studies are needed, 18F-FDG PET

  9. Alzheimer’s Disease Diagnosis: Discrepancy between Clinical, Neuroimaging, and Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers Criteria in an Italian Cohort of Geriatric Outpatients: A Retrospective Cross-sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia A. M. Dolci

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe role of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biomarkers, and neuroimaging in the diagnostic process of Alzheimer’s disease (AD is not clear, in particular in the older patients.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to compare the clinical diagnosis of AD with CSF biomarkers and with cerebrovascular damage at neuroimaging in a cohort of geriatric patients.MethodsRetrospective analysis of medical records of ≥65-year-old patients with cognitive impairment referred to an Italian geriatric outpatient clinic, for whom the CSF concentration of amyloid-β (Aβ, total Tau (Tau, and phosphorylated Tau (p-Tau was available. Clinical diagnosis (no dementia, possible and probable AD was based on the following two sets of criteria: (1 the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV plus the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders Association (NINCDS-ADRDA and (2 the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer’s Association (NIA-AA. The Fazekas visual scale was applied when a magnetic resonance imaging scan was available.ResultsWe included 94 patients, mean age 77.7 years, mean Mini Mental State Examination score 23.9. The concordance (kappa coefficient between the two sets of clinical criteria was 70%. The mean CSF concentration (pg/ml (±SD of biomarkers was as follows: Aβ 687 (±318, Tau 492 (±515, and p-Tau 63 (±56. There was a trend for lower Aβ and higher Tau levels from the no dementia to the probable AD group. The percentage of abnormal liquor according to the local cutoffs was still 15 and 21% in patients without AD based on the DSM-IV plus NINCDS-ADRDA or the NIA-AA criteria, respectively. The exclusion of patient in whom normotensive hydrocephalus was suspected did not change these findings. A total of 80% of patients had the neuroimaging report describing chronic cerebrovascular damage, while the Fazekas scale was positive in 45% of patients

  10. [Exploring dream contents by neuroimaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Tomoyasu; Kamitani, Yukiyasu

    2014-04-01

    Dreaming is a subjective experience during sleep that is often accompanied by vivid perceptual and emotional contents. Because of its fundamentally subjective nature, the objective study of dream contents has been challenging. However, since the discovery of rapid eye movements during sleep, scientific knowledge on the relationship between dreaming and physiological measures including brain activity has accumulated. Recent advances in neuroimaging analysis methods have made it possible to uncover direct links between specific dream contents and brain activity patterns. In this review, we first give a historical overview on dream researches with a focus on the neurophysiological and behavioral signatures of dreaming. We then discuss our recent study in which visual dream contents were predicted, or decoded, from brain activity during sleep onset periods using machine learning-based pattern recognition of functional MRI data. We suggest that advanced analytical tools combined with neural and behavioral databases will reveal the relevance of spontaneous brain activity during sleep to waking experiences.

  11. Pituitary gland in psychiatric disorders: a review of neuroimaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Murad

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, it was reviewed neuroimaging results of the pituitary gland in psychiatric disorders, particularly schizophrenia, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and somatoform disorders. The author made internet search in detail by using PubMed database including the period between 1980 and 2012 October. It was included in the articles in English, Turkish and French languages on pituitary gland in psychiatric disorders through structural or functional neuroimaging results. After searching mentioned in the Methods section in detail, investigations were obtained on pituitary gland neuroimaging in a variety of psychiatric disorders. There have been so limited investigations on pituitary neuroimaging in psychiatric disorders including major psychiatric illnesses like schizophrenia and mood disorders. Current findings are so far from the generalizability of the results. For this reason, it is required to perform much more neuroimaging studies of pituitary gland in all psychiatric disorders to reach the diagnostic importance of measuring it.

  12. Value of neuropsychological tests, neuroimaging, and biomarkers for diagnosing Alzheimer's disease in younger and older age cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmand, Ben; Eikelenboom, Piet; van Gool, Willem A.

    2011-01-01

    To examine the influence of age on the value of four techniques for diagnosing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Observational cohort study. Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n = 179), individuals with AD (n = 91), and normal controls (n = 105).

  13. Human neuroimaging studies on the hippocampal CA3 region – integrating evidence for pattern separation and completion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena eDeuker

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Human functional magnetic imaging (fMRI studies have long investigated the hippocampus without differentiating between its subfields, even though theoretical models and rodent studies suggest that subfields support different and potentially even opposite functions. The CA3 region of the hippocampus has been ascribed a pivotal role both in initially forming associations during encoding and in reconstructing a memory representation based on partial cues during retrieval. These functions have been related to pattern separation and pattern completion, respectively. In recent years, studies using high-resolution fMRI in humans have begun to separate different hippocampal subregions and identify the role of the CA3 subregion relative to the other subregions. However, some of these findings have been inconsistent with theoretical models and findings from electrophysiology. In this review, we describe selected recent studies and highlight how their results might help to define different processes and functions that are presumably carried out by the CA3 region, in particular regarding the seemingly opposing functions of pattern separation and pattern completion. We also describe how these subfield-specific processes are related to behavioral, functional and structural alterations in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. We conclude with discussing limitations of functional imaging and briefly outline possible future developments of the field.

  14. Neuroimaging in childhood headache: a systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexiou, George A. [University of Ioannina, Department of Neurosurgery, Medical School, P.O. Box 103, Ioannina (Greece); Argyropoulou, Maria I. [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece)

    2013-07-15

    Headache is a common complaint in children, one that gives rise to considerable parental concern and fear of the presence of a space-occupying lesion. The evaluation and diagnosis of headache is very challenging for paediatricians, and neuroimaging by means of CT or MRI is often requested as part of the investigation. CT exposes children to radiation, while MRI is costly and sometimes requires sedation or general anaesthesia, especially in children younger than 6 years. This review of the literature on the value of neuroimaging in children with headache showed that the rate of pathological findings is generally low. Imaging findings that led to a change in patient management were in almost all cases reported in children with abnormal signs on neurological examination. Neuroimaging should be limited to children with a suspicious clinical history, abnormal neurological findings or other physical signs suggestive of intracranial pathology. Well-designed prospective studies are needed to better define the clinical findings that warrant neuroimaging in children with headache. (orig.)

  15. Neuroimaging in childhood headache: a systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexiou, George A.; Argyropoulou, Maria I.

    2013-01-01

    Headache is a common complaint in children, one that gives rise to considerable parental concern and fear of the presence of a space-occupying lesion. The evaluation and diagnosis of headache is very challenging for paediatricians, and neuroimaging by means of CT or MRI is often requested as part of the investigation. CT exposes children to radiation, while MRI is costly and sometimes requires sedation or general anaesthesia, especially in children younger than 6 years. This review of the literature on the value of neuroimaging in children with headache showed that the rate of pathological findings is generally low. Imaging findings that led to a change in patient management were in almost all cases reported in children with abnormal signs on neurological examination. Neuroimaging should be limited to children with a suspicious clinical history, abnormal neurological findings or other physical signs suggestive of intracranial pathology. Well-designed prospective studies are needed to better define the clinical findings that warrant neuroimaging in children with headache. (orig.)

  16. Mobile Health Initiatives in Vietnam: Scoping Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Jeffrey A; Dang, Linh Thuy; Phan, Ngoc Tran; Trinh, Hue Thi; Vu, Nguyen Cong; Nguyen, Cuong Kieu

    2018-04-24

    Mobile health (mHealth) offers a promising solution to the multitude of challenges the Vietnamese health system faces, but there is a scarcity of published information on mHealth in Vietnam. The objectives of this scoping study were (1) to summarize the extent, range, and nature of mHealth initiatives in Vietnam and (2) to examine the opportunities and threats of mHealth utilization in the Vietnamese context. This scoping study systematically identified and extracted relevant information from 20 past and current mHealth initiatives in Vietnam. The study includes multimodal information sources, including published literature, gray literature (ie, government reports and unpublished literature), conference presentations, Web-based documents, and key informant interviews. We extracted information from 27 records from the electronic search and conducted 14 key informant interviews, allowing us to identify 20 mHealth initiatives in Vietnam. Most of the initiatives were primarily funded by external donors (n=15), while other initiatives were government funded (n=1) or self-funded (n=4). A majority of the initiatives targeted vulnerable and hard-to-reach populations (n=11), aimed to prevent the occurrence of disease (n=12), and used text messaging (short message service, SMS) as part of their intervention (n=14). The study revealed that Vietnamese mHealth implementation has been challenged by factors including features unique to the Vietnamese language (n=4) and sociocultural factors (n=3). The largest threats to the popularity of mHealth initiatives are the absence of government policy, lack of government interest, heavy dependence on foreign funding, and lack of technological infrastructure. Finally, while current mHealth initiatives have already demonstrated promising opportunities for alternative models of funding, such as social entrepreneurship or private business models, sustainable mHealth initiatives outside of those funded by external donors have not yet been

  17. Brain white matter changes associated with urological chronic pelvic pain syndrome: Multi-site neuroimaging from a MAPP case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lejian; Kutch, Jason J.; Ellingson, Benjamin M.; Martucci, Katherine T.; Harris, Richard E.; Clauw, Daniel J.; Mackey, Sean; Mayer, Emeran A.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Apkarian, A. Vania; Farmer, Melissa A.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical phenotyping of urological chronic pelvic pain syndromes (UCPPS) in men and women has focused on end-organ abnormalities to identify putative clinical subtypes. Initial evidence of abnormal brain function and structure in male pelvic pain has necessitated large-scale, multi-site investigations into potential UCPPS brain biomarkers. We present the first evidence of regional white matter (axonal) abnormalities in men and women with UCPPS, compared to positive (irritable bowel syndrome, IBS) and healthy controls. Epidemiological and neuroimaging data was collected from participants with UCPPS (n=52), IBS (n=39), and healthy, sex- and age-matched controls (n=61). White matter microstructure, measured as fractional anisotropy (FA), was examined with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Group differences in regional FA positively correlated with pain severity, including segments of the right corticospinal tract and right anterior thalamic radiation. Increased corticospinal FA was specific and sensitive to UCPPS, positively correlated with pain severity, and reflected sensory (not affective) features of pain. Reduced anterior thalamic radiation FA distinguished IBS from UCPPS patients and controls, suggesting greater microstructural divergence from normal tract organization. Findings confirm that regional white matter abnormalities characterize UCPPS and can distinguish between visceral diagnoses, suggesting that regional axonal microstructure is either altered with ongoing pain or predisposes its development. PMID:27842046

  18. The ENGAGE study: Integrating neuroimaging, virtual reality and smartphone sensing to understand self-regulation for managing depression and obesity in a precision medicine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Leanne M; Pines, Adam; Goldstein-Piekarski, Andrea N; Rosas, Lisa G; Kullar, Monica; Sacchet, Matthew D; Gevaert, Olivier; Bailenson, Jeremy; Lavori, Philip W; Dagum, Paul; Wandell, Brian; Correa, Carlos; Greenleaf, Walter; Suppes, Trisha; Perry, L Michael; Smyth, Joshua M; Lewis, Megan A; Venditti, Elizabeth M; Snowden, Mark; Simmons, Janine M; Ma, Jun

    2018-02-01

    Precision medicine models for personalizing achieving sustained behavior change are largely outside of current clinical practice. Yet, changing self-regulatory behaviors is fundamental to the self-management of complex lifestyle-related chronic conditions such as depression and obesity - two top contributors to the global burden of disease and disability. To optimize treatments and address these burdens, behavior change and self-regulation must be better understood in relation to their neurobiological underpinnings. Here, we present the conceptual framework and protocol for a novel study, "Engaging self-regulation targets to understand the mechanisms of behavior change and improve mood and weight outcomes (ENGAGE)". The ENGAGE study integrates neuroscience with behavioral science to better understand the self-regulation related mechanisms of behavior change for improving mood and weight outcomes among adults with comorbid depression and obesity. We collect assays of three self-regulation targets (emotion, cognition, and self-reflection) in multiple settings: neuroimaging and behavioral lab-based measures, virtual reality, and passive smartphone sampling. By connecting human neuroscience and behavioral science in this manner within the ENGAGE study, we develop a prototype for elucidating the underlying self-regulation mechanisms of behavior change outcomes and their application in optimizing intervention strategies for multiple chronic diseases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Functional neuroimaging in Tourette syndrome: recent perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debes NM

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanette Mol Debes, Marie Préel, Liselotte Skov Pediatric Department, Tourette Clinic, Herlev University Hospital, Herlev, DenmarkAbstract: The most recent functional neuroimaging studies on Tourette syndrome (TS are reviewed in this paper. Although it can be difficult to compare functional neuroimaging studies due to differences in methods, differences in age of the included subjects, and differences in the extent to which the presence of comorbidity, medical treatment, and severity of tics are considered in the various studies; most studies show that the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit seems to be involved in the generation of tics. Changes in this circuit seem to be correlated with tic severity. Correlations have been found between the presence of tics and hypermetabolism in various brain regions. Abnormalities of GABAergic, serotonergic, and dopaminergic neurotransmission in patients with TS have been suggested. During tic suppression, increased activity in the inferior frontal gyrus is seen. The premotor cortex might be involved in inhibition of motor control in subjects with TS. The right anterior insula is suggested to be a part of the urge–tic network. Several studies have shown altered motor network activations and sensorimotor gating deficits in subjects with TS. In future studies, inclusion of more well-defined subjects and further examination of premonitory urge and tic suppression is needed in order to increase the knowledge about the pathophysiology and treatment possibilities of TS. Keywords: functional neuroimaging, Tourette syndrome

  20. Cognitive and neuroimaging features and brain β-amyloidosis in individuals at risk of Alzheimer's disease (INSIGHT-preAD): a longitudinal observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Bruno; Epelbaum, Stephane; Nyasse, Francis; Bakardjian, Hovagim; Gagliardi, Geoffroy; Uspenskaya, Olga; Houot, Marion; Lista, Simone; Cacciamani, Federica; Potier, Marie-Claude; Bertrand, Anne; Lamari, Foudil; Benali, Habib; Mangin, Jean-François; Colliot, Olivier; Genthon, Remy; Habert, Marie-Odile; Hampel, Harald

    2018-04-01

    Improved understanding is needed of risk factors and markers of disease progression in preclinical Alzheimer's disease. We assessed associations between brain β-amyloidosis and various cognitive and neuroimaging parameters with progression of cognitive decline in individuals with preclinical Alzheimer's disease. The INSIGHT-preAD is an ongoing single-centre observational study at the Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris, France. Eligible participants were age 70-85 years with subjective memory complaints but unimpaired cognition and memory (Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE] score ≥27, Clinical Dementia Rating score 0, and Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test [FCSRT] total recall score ≥41). We stratified participants by brain amyloid β deposition on 18 F-florbetapir PET (positive or negative) at baseline. All patients underwent baseline assessments of demographic, cognitive, and psychobehavioural, characteristics, APOE ε4 allele carrier status, brain structure and function on MRI, brain glucose-metabolism on 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) PET, and event-related potentials on electroencephalograms (EEGs). Actigraphy and CSF investigations were optional. Participants were followed up with clinical, cognitive, and psychobehavioural assessments every 6 months, neuropsychological assessments, EEG, and actigraphy every 12 months, and MRI, and 18 F-FDG and 18 F-florbetapir PET every 24 months. We assessed associations of amyloid β deposition status with test outcomes at baseline and 24 months, and with clinical status at 30 months. Progression to prodromal Alzheimer's disease was defined as an amnestic syndrome of the hippocampal type. From May 25, 2013, to Jan 20, 2015, we enrolled 318 participants with a mean age of 76·0 years (SD 3·5). The mean baseline MMSE score was 28·67 (SD 0·96), and the mean level of education was high (score >6 [SD 2] on a scale of 1-8, where 1=infant school and 8=higher education). 88 (28%) of 318 participants showed amyloid

  1. Neuroimaging Measures as Endophenotypes in Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith N. Braskie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Late onset Alzheimer's disease (AD is moderately to highly heritable. Apolipoprotein E allele ε4 (APOE4 has been replicated consistently as an AD risk factor over many studies, and recently confirmed variants in other genes such as CLU, CR1, and PICALM each increase the lifetime risk of AD. However, much of the heritability of AD remains unexplained. AD is a complex disease that is diagnosed largely through neuropsychological testing, though neuroimaging measures may be more sensitive for detecting the incipient disease stages. Difficulties in early diagnosis and variable environmental contributions to the disease can obscure genetic relationships in traditional case-control genetic studies. Neuroimaging measures may be used as endophenotypes for AD, offering a reliable, objective tool to search for possible genetic risk factors. Imaging measures might also clarify the specific mechanisms by which proposed risk factors influence the brain.

  2. Can Emotional and Behavioral Dysregulation in Youth Be Decoded from Functional Neuroimaging?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana C L Portugal

    Full Text Available High comorbidity among pediatric disorders characterized by behavioral and emotional dysregulation poses problems for diagnosis and treatment, and suggests that these disorders may be better conceptualized as dimensions of abnormal behaviors. Furthermore, identifying neuroimaging biomarkers related to dimensional measures of behavior may provide targets to guide individualized treatment. We aimed to use functional neuroimaging and pattern regression techniques to determine whether patterns of brain activity could accurately decode individual-level severity on a dimensional scale measuring behavioural and emotional dysregulation at two different time points.A sample of fifty-seven youth (mean age: 14.5 years; 32 males was selected from a multi-site study of youth with parent-reported behavioral and emotional dysregulation. Participants performed a block-design reward paradigm during functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI. Pattern regression analyses consisted of Relevance Vector Regression (RVR and two cross-validation strategies implemented in the Pattern Recognition for Neuroimaging toolbox (PRoNTo. Medication was treated as a binary confounding variable. Decoded and actual clinical scores were compared using Pearson's correlation coefficient (r and mean squared error (MSE to evaluate the models. Permutation test was applied to estimate significance levels.Relevance Vector Regression identified patterns of neural activity associated with symptoms of behavioral and emotional dysregulation at the initial study screen and close to the fMRI scanning session. The correlation and the mean squared error between actual and decoded symptoms were significant at the initial study screen and close to the fMRI scanning session. However, after controlling for potential medication effects, results remained significant only for decoding symptoms at the initial study screen. Neural regions with the highest contribution to the pattern regression model

  3. Alterations in emotion generation and regulation neurocircuitry in depression and eating disorders: A comparative review of structural and functional neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donofry, Shannon D; Roecklein, Kathryn A; Wildes, Jennifer E; Miller, Megan A; Erickson, Kirk I

    2016-09-01

    Major depression and eating disorders (EDs) are highly co-morbid and may share liability. Impaired emotion regulation may represent a common etiological or maintaining mechanism. Research has demonstrated that depressed individuals and individuals with EDs exhibit impaired emotion regulation, with these impairments being associated with changes in brain structure and function. The goal of this review was to evaluate findings from neuroimaging studies of depression and EDs to determine whether there are overlapping alterations in the brain regions known to be involved in emotion regulation, evidence of which would aid in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions. Our review of the literature suggests that depression and EDs exhibit common structural and functional alterations in brain regions involved in emotion regulation, including the amygdala, ventral striatum and nucleus accumbens, anterior cingulate cortex, insula, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. We present preliminary support for a shared etiological mechanism. Future studies should consider manipulating emotion regulation in a sample of individuals with depression and EDs to better characterize abnormalities in these brain circuits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Neuroimaging Evidence of Comprehension Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Baker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to synthesize the emerging neuroimaging literature that reveals how the brain responds when readers and listeners encounter texts that demand monitoring of their ongoing comprehension processes. Much of this research has been undertaken by cognitive scientists who do not frame their work in metacognitive terms, and therefore it is less likely to be familiar to psychologists who study metacognition in educational contexts. The important role of metacognition in the development and use of academic skills is widely recognized. Metacognition is typically defined as the awareness and control of one's own cognitive processes. In the domain of reading, the most important metacognitive skill is comprehension monitoring, the evaluation and regulation of comprehension. Readers who monitor their understanding realize when they have encountered difficulty making sense of the text, and they apply error correction procedures to attempt to resolve the difficulty. Metacognition depends on executive control skills that continue to develop into early adulthood, in parallel with the maturation of the executive control regions of the prefrontal cortex. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and event-related potentials (ERP have been used for some time to study neural correlates of basic reading processes such as word identification, but it is only within recent years that researchers have turned to the higher-level processes of text comprehension. The article describes illustrative studies that reveal changes in neural activity when adults apply lexical, syntactic, or semantic standards to evaluate their understanding.

  5. Neuroimaging findings in pediatric sports-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Michael J; Leiter, Jeff; Hall, Thomas; McDonald, Patrick J; Sawyer, Scott; Silver, Norm; Bunge, Martin; Essig, Marco

    2015-09-01

    The goal in this review was to summarize the results of clinical neuroimaging studies performed in patients with sports-related concussion (SRC) who were referred to a multidisciplinar ypediatric concussion program. The authors conducted a retrospective review of medical records and neuroimaging findings for all patients referred to a multidisciplinary pediatric concussion program between September 2013 and July 2014. Inclusion criteria were as follows: 1) age ≤ 19 years; and 2) physician-diagnosed SRC. All patients underwent evaluation and follow-up by the same neurosurgeon. The 2 outcomes examined in this review were the frequency of neuroimaging studies performed in this population (including CT and MRI) and the findings of those studies. Clinical indications for neuroimaging and the impact of neuroimaging findings on clinical decision making were summarized where available. This investigation was approved by the local institutional ethics review board. A total of 151 patients (mean age 14 years, 59% female) were included this study. Overall, 36 patients (24%) underwent neuroimaging studies, the results of which were normal in 78% of cases. Sixteen percent of patients underwent CT imaging; results were normal in 79% of cases. Abnormal CT findings included the following: arachnoid cyst (1 patient), skull fracture (2 patients), suspected intracranial hemorrhage (1 patient), and suspected hemorrhage into an arachnoid cyst (1 patient). Eleven percent of patients underwent MRI; results were normal in 75% of cases. Abnormal MRI findings included the following: intraparenchymal hemorrhage and sylvian fissure arachnoid cyst (1 patient); nonhemorrhagic contusion (1 patient); demyelinating disease (1 patient); and posterior fossa arachnoid cyst, cerebellar volume loss, and nonspecific white matter changes (1 patient). Results of clinical neuroimaging studies are normal in the majority of pediatric patients with SRC. However, in selected cases neuroimaging can provide

  6. The effect of repetitive subconcussive collisions on brain integrity in collegiate football players over a single football season: A multi-modal neuroimaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobounov, Semyon M; Walter, Alexa; Breiter, Hans C; Zhu, David C; Bai, Xiaoxiao; Bream, Tim; Seidenberg, Peter; Mao, Xianglun; Johnson, Brian; Talavage, Thomas M

    2017-01-01

    The cumulative effect of repetitive subconcussive collisions on the structural and functional integrity of the brain remains largely unknown. Athletes in collision sports, like football, experience a large number of impacts across a single season of play. The majority of these impacts, however, are generally overlooked, and their long-term consequences remain poorly understood. This study sought to examine the effects of repetitive collisions across a single competitive season in NCAA Football Bowl Subdivision athletes using advanced neuroimaging approaches. Players were evaluated before and after the season using multiple MRI sequences, including T 1 -weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), arterial spin labeling (ASL), resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI), and susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI). While no significant differences were found between pre- and post-season for DTI metrics or cortical volumes, seed-based analysis of rs-fMRI revealed significant ( p  Football Bowl Subdivision, even in the absence of clinical symptoms or a diagnosis of concussion. Whether these changes reflect compensatory adaptation to cumulative head impacts or more lasting alteration of brain integrity remains to be further explored.

  7. PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO MATERNAL AND PATERNAL DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS AND BRAIN MORPHOLOGY: A POPULATION-BASED PROSPECTIVE NEUROIMAGING STUDY IN YOUNG CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Marroun, Hanan; Tiemeier, Henning; Muetzel, Ryan L; Thijssen, Sandra; van der Knaap, Noortje J F; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Fernández, Guillén; Verhulst, Frank C; White, Tonya J H

    2016-07-01

    Prenatal depressive symptoms have been associated with multiple adverse outcomes. Previously, we demonstrated that prenatal depressive symptoms were associated with impaired growth of the fetus and increased behavioral problems in children aged between 1.5 and 6 years. In this prospective study, we aimed to assess whether prenatal maternal depressive symptoms at 3 years have long-term consequences on brain development in a cohort of children aged 6-10 years. As a contrast, the association of paternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy and brain morphology was assessed to serve as a marker of background confounding due to shared genetic and environmental family factors. We assessed parental depressive symptoms during pregnancy with the Brief Symptom Inventory. At approximately 8 years of age, we collected structural neuroimaging data, using cortical thickness, surface area, and gyrification as outcomes (n = 654). We found that exposure to prenatal maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy was associated with a thinner superior frontal cortex in the left hemisphere. Additionally, prenatal maternal depressive symptoms were related to larger caudal middle frontal area in the left hemisphere. Maternal depressive symptoms at 3 years were not associated with cortical thickness, surface area, or gyrification in the left and right hemispheres. No effects of paternal depressive symptoms on brain morphology were observed. Prenatal maternal depressive symptoms were associated with differences in brain morphology in children. It is important to prevent, identify, and treat depressive symptoms during pregnancy as it may have long-term consequences on child brain development. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Neuroimaging findings in movement disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topalov, N.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: Neuroimaging methods are of great importance for the differential diagnostic delimitation of movement disorders associated with structural damage (neoplasms, ischemic lesions, neuroinfections) from those associated with specific pathophysiological mechanisms (dysmetabolic disorders, neurotransmitter disorders). Learning objective: Presentation of typical imaging findings contributing to nosological differentiation in groups of movement disorders with similar clinical signs. In this presentation are discussed neuroimaging findings in Parkinson‘s disease, atypical parkinsonian syndromes (multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration), parkinsonism in genetically mediated diseases (Wilson’s disease, pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration – PKAN), vascular parkinsonism, hyperkinetic movement disorders (palatal tremor, Huntington‘s chorea, symptomatic chorea in ischemic stroke and diabetes, rubral tremor, ballismus, hemifacial spasm). Contemporary neuroimaging methods enable support for diagnostic and differential diagnostic precision of a number of hypo- and hyperkinetic movement disorders, which is essential for neurological clinical practice

  9. Occipital headaches and neuroimaging in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, Joshua J; Gelfand, Amy A; Goadsby, Peter J; Bass, Nancy

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the common thinking, as reinforced by the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition (beta), that occipital headaches in children are rare and suggestive of serious intracranial pathology. We performed a retrospective chart review cohort study of all patients ≤18 years of age referred to a university child neurology clinic for headache in 2009. Patients were stratified by headache location: solely occipital, occipital plus other area(s) of head pain, or no occipital involvement. Children with abnormal neurologic examinations were excluded. We assessed location as a predictor of whether neuroimaging was ordered and whether intracranial pathology was found. Analyses were performed with cohort study tools in Stata/SE 13.0 (StataCorp, College Station, TX). A total of 308 patients were included. Median age was 12 years (32 months-18 years), and 57% were female. Headaches were solely occipital in 7% and occipital-plus in 14%. Patients with occipital head pain were more likely to undergo neuroimaging than those without occipital involvement (solely occipital: 95%, relative risk [RR] 10.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-77.3; occipital-plus: 88%, RR 3.7, 95% CI 1.5-9.2; no occipital pain: 63%, referent). Occipital pain alone or with other locations was not significantly associated with radiographic evidence of clinically significant intracranial pathology. Children with occipital headache are more likely to undergo neuroimaging. In the absence of concerning features on the history and in the setting of a normal neurologic examination, neuroimaging can be deferred in most pediatric patients when occipital pain is present. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  10. Terminology development towards harmonizing multiple clinical neuroimaging research repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jessica A; Pasquerello, Danielle; Turner, Matthew D; Keator, David B; Alpert, Kathryn; King, Margaret; Landis, Drew; Calhoun, Vince D; Potkin, Steven G; Tallis, Marcelo; Ambite, Jose Luis; Wang, Lei

    2015-07-01

    Data sharing and mediation across disparate neuroimaging repositories requires extensive effort to ensure that the different domains of data types are referred to by commonly agreed upon terms. Within the SchizConnect project, which enables querying across decentralized databases of neuroimaging, clinical, and cognitive data from various studies of schizophrenia, we developed a model for each data domain, identified common usable terms that could be agreed upon across the repositories, and linked them to standard ontological terms where possible. We had the goal of facilitating both the current user experience in querying and future automated computations and reasoning regarding the data. We found that existing terminologies are incomplete for these purposes, even with the history of neuroimaging data sharing in the field; and we provide a model for efforts focused on querying multiple clinical neuroimaging repositories.

  11. Audit of a policy of magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion-weighted imaging as first-line neuroimaging for in-patients with clinically suspected acute stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, B.T.; Wainwright, A.; Meagher, T.; Briley, D.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To audit the feasibility and use of diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as initial neuroimaging for in-patients with clinically suspected acute stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In April 2000, MRI with DW and T2-weighted sequence was locally instituted as initial neuroimaging for patients with clinically suspected acute stroke. This retrospective study reviewed imaging performed for in-patients with suspected acute stroke over a 9-month period. Data were collected on image type, result and need for repeat imaging. RESULTS: During the study period, 124 patients had neuroimaging for suspected cerebrovascular accident, and 119 were MRI safe. Eighty-eight (73.9%) patients underwent DW MRI as first-line investigation. Five patients were not MRI safe and 31 had computed tomography (CT) as first-line imaging due to lack of available MRI capacity. Repeat neuroimaging was performed in 16 (12.9%) patients. Study times were comparable for both types of neuroimaging: a mean of 13 min for MRI and 11 min for CT. CONCLUSION: The audit standard was achieved in 88 (73.9%) patients. The use of DW MRI as a first-line investigation for patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute stroke is achievable in a district general hospital setting

  12. Audit of a policy of magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion-weighted imaging as first-line neuroimaging for in-patients with clinically suspected acute stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, B.T.; Wainwright, A.; Meagher, T.; Briley, D

    2003-03-01

    AIM: To audit the feasibility and use of diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as initial neuroimaging for in-patients with clinically suspected acute stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In April 2000, MRI with DW and T2-weighted sequence was locally instituted as initial neuroimaging for patients with clinically suspected acute stroke. This retrospective study reviewed imaging performed for in-patients with suspected acute stroke over a 9-month period. Data were collected on image type, result and need for repeat imaging. RESULTS: During the study period, 124 patients had neuroimaging for suspected cerebrovascular accident, and 119 were MRI safe. Eighty-eight (73.9%) patients underwent DW MRI as first-line investigation. Five patients were not MRI safe and 31 had computed tomography (CT) as first-line imaging due to lack of available MRI capacity. Repeat neuroimaging was performed in 16 (12.9%) patients. Study times were comparable for both types of neuroimaging: a mean of 13 min for MRI and 11 min for CT. CONCLUSION: The audit standard was achieved in 88 (73.9%) patients. The use of DW MRI as a first-line investigation for patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute stroke is achievable in a district general hospital setting.

  13. Neuroimaging and neuropsychological follow-up study in a pediatric brain tumor patient treated with surgery and radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Adam T; Martin, Rebecca B; Ozturk, Arzu; Kates, Wendy R; Wharam, Moody D; Mahone, E Mark; Horska, Alena

    2010-02-01

    Intracranial tumors are the most common neoplasms of childhood, accounting for approximately 20% of all pediatric malignancies. Radiation therapy has led directly to significant increases in survival of children with certain types of intracranial tumors; however, given the aggressive nature of this therapy, children are at risk for exhibiting changes in brain structure, neuronal biochemistry, and neurocognitive functioning. In this case report, we present neuropsychological, magnetic resonance imaging, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging, and diffusion tensor imaging data for two adolescents (one patient with ependymal spinal cord tumor with intracranial metastases, and one healthy, typically developing control) from three time points as defined by the patient's radiation schedule (baseline before the patient's radiation therapy, 6 months following completion of the patient's radiation, and 27 months following the patient's radiation). In the patient, there were progressive decreases in gray and white matter volumes as well as early decreases in mean N-acetyl aspartate/choline (NAA/Cho) ratios and fractional anisotropy (FA) in regions with normal appearance on conventional MRI. At the last follow-up, NAA/Cho and FA tended to change in the direction to normal values in selected regions. At the same time, the patient had initial reduction in language and motor skills, followed by return to baseline, but later onset delay in visuospatial and visual perceptual skills. Results are discussed in terms of sensitivity of the four techniques to early and late effects of treatment, and avenues for future investigations.

  14. Practical management of heterogeneous neuroimaging metadata by global neuroimaging data repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, Scott C; Crawford, Karen L; Toga, Arthur W

    2012-01-01

    Rapidly evolving neuroimaging techniques are producing unprecedented quantities of digital data at the same time that many research studies are evolving into global, multi-disciplinary collaborations between geographically distributed scientists. While networked computers have made it almost trivial to transmit data across long distances, collecting and analyzing this data requires extensive metadata if the data is to be maximally shared. Though it is typically straightforward to encode text and numerical values into files and send content between different locations, it is often difficult to attach context and implicit assumptions to the content. As the number of and geographic separation between data contributors grows to national and global scales, the heterogeneity of the collected metadata increases and conformance to a single standardization becomes implausible. Neuroimaging data repositories must then not only accumulate data but must also consolidate disparate metadata into an integrated view. In this article, using specific examples from our experiences, we demonstrate how standardization alone cannot achieve full integration of neuroimaging data from multiple heterogeneous sources and why a fundamental change in the architecture of neuroimaging data repositories is needed instead.

  15. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging underpinnings of schizoaffective disorder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madre, M; Canales-Rodríguez, E J; Ortiz-Gil, J; Murru, A; Torrent, C; Bramon, E; Perez, V; Orth, M; Brambilla, P; Vieta, E; Amann, B L

    2016-07-01

    The neurobiological basis and nosological status of schizoaffective disorder remains elusive and controversial. This study provides a systematic review of neurocognitive and neuroimaging findings in the disorder. A comprehensive literature search was conducted via PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus and Web of Knowledge (from 1949 to 31st March 2015) using the keyword 'schizoaffective disorder' and any of the following terms: 'neuropsychology', 'cognition', 'structural neuroimaging', 'functional neuroimaging', 'multimodal', 'DTI' and 'VBM'. Only studies that explicitly examined a well defined sample, or subsample, of patients with schizoaffective disorder were included. Twenty-two of 43 neuropsychological and 19 of 51 neuroimaging articles fulfilled inclusion criteria. We found a general trend towards schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder being related to worse cognitive performance than bipolar disorder. Grey matter volume loss in schizoaffective disorder is also more comparable to schizophrenia than to bipolar disorder which seems consistent across further neuroimaging techniques. Neurocognitive and neuroimaging abnormalities in schizoaffective disorder resemble more schizophrenia than bipolar disorder. This is suggestive for schizoaffective disorder being a subtype of schizophrenia or being part of the continuum spectrum model of psychosis, with schizoaffective disorder being more skewed towards schizophrenia than bipolar disorder. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Finding related functional neuroimaging volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    We describe a content-based image retrieval technique for finding related functional neuroimaging experiments by voxelization of sets of stereotactic coordinates in Talairach space, comparing the volumes and reporting related volumes in a sorted list. Voxelization is accomplished by convolving ea...

  17. An interdisciplinary study in initial teacher training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Larraz Rada

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This experiment of innovative university education shows the interdisciplinary work carried out in the studies of the Bachelor of Science in Education at the University of Andorra. The study was developed within two subjects: Communication Technology (TAC and Cultural Heritage Education in Andorra. The main objective of this experiment is to foster the use of technological resources and digital materials, with the aim of drawing cultural heritage closer to the classroom. Based on a previous study of documentation and an analysis of online educational materials, the students have to design an e-book, which is understood to be digital material in the curricular field of cultural heritage. This digital material is a didactic proposal that focuses on the construction of knowledge by primary school students. During the elaboration of the materials the instructors introduce follow-up activities. The results of the experiment show that, from an interdisciplinary approach, and a problem-solving, learning-centered methodology, specific and transferable abilities in initial teacher training can be studied and evaluated.

  18. The stress connection : neuroimaging studies of emotion circuits in social stress, personality, and stress-related psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, Ilya Milos

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to identify the neural mechanisms that enable a person to adaptively respond to, and recover from stress, which was studied in healthy controls, in people with increased vulnerability or resilience to stress-related disorders, and in people with depression or PTSD, using

  19. In-hospital mortality risk factors for patients with cerebral vascular events in infectious endocarditis. A correlative study of clinical, echocardiographic, microbiologic and neuroimaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Melchor, Laila; Kimura-Hayama, Eric; Díaz-Zamudio, Mariana; Higuera-Calleja, Jesús; Choque, Cinthia; Soto-Nieto, Gabriel I

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac complications in infectious endocarditis (IE) are seen in nearly 50% of cases, and systemic complications may occur. The aim of the present study was to determine the characteristics of inpatients with IE who suffered acute neurologic complications and the factors associated with early mortality. From January 2004 to May 2010, we reviewed clinical and imaging charts of all of the patients diagnosed with IE who presented a deficit suggesting a neurologic complication evaluated with Computed Tomography or Magnetic Resonance within the first week. This was a descriptive and retrolective study. Among 325 cases with IE, we included 35 patients (10.7%) [19 males (54%), mean age 44-years-old]. The most common underlying cardiac disease was rheumatic valvulopathy (n=8, 22.8%). Twenty patients survived (57.2%, group A) and 15 patients died (42.8%, group B) during hospitalization. The main cause of death was septic shock (n=7, 20%). There was no statistical difference among groups concerning clinical presentation, vegetation size, infectious agent and vascular territory. The overall number of lesions was significantly higher in group B (3.1 vs. 1.6, p=0.005) and moderate to severe cerebral edema were more frequent (p=0.09). Sixteen patients (45.7%) (12 in group A and 4 in group B, p=0.05) were treated by cardiac surgery. Only two patients had a favorable outcome with conservative treatment (5.7%). In patients with IE complicated with stroke, the number of lesions observed in neuroimaging examinations and conservative treatment were associated with higher in-hospital mortality. Copyright © 2014 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  20. Study Protocol: Using Deep-Brain Stimulation, Multimodal Neuroimaging and Neuroethics to Understand and Treat Severe Enduring Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Rebecca J; Scaife, Jessica C; Aziz, Tipu Z

    2018-01-01

    Research suggests that altered eating and the pursuit of thinness in anorexia nervosa (AN) are, in part, a consequence of aberrant reward circuitry. The neural circuits involved in reward processing and compulsivity overlap significantly, and this has been suggested as a transdiagnostic factor underpinning obsessive compulsive disorder, addictions and eating disorders. The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) is central to both reward processing and compulsivity. In previous studies, deep-brain stimulation (DBS) to the NAcc has been shown to result in neural and symptomatic improvement in both obsessive compulsive disorder and addictions. Moreover, in rats, DBS to the NAcc medial shell increases food intake. We hypothesise that this treatment may be of benefit in severe and enduring anorexia nervosa (SE-AN), but first, feasibility and ethical standards need to be established. The aims of this study are as follows: (1) to provide feasibility and preliminary efficacy data on DBS to the NAcc as a treatment for SE-AN; (2) to assess any subsequent neural changes and (3) to develop a neuroethical gold standard to guide applications of this treatment. This is a longitudinal study of six individuals with SE-AN of >7 years. It includes an integrated neuroethical sub-study. DBS will be applied to the NAcc and we will track the mechanisms underpinning AN using magnetoelectroencephalography, neuropsychological and behavioural measures. Serial measures will be taken on each intensively studied patient, pre- and post-DBS system insertion. This will allow elucidation of the processes involved in symptomatic change over a 15-month period, which includes a double-blind crossover phase of stimulator on/off. Novel, empirical treatments for SE-AN are urgently required due to high morbidity and mortality costs. If feasible and effective, DBS to the NAcc could be game-changing in the management of this condition. A neuroethical gold standard is crucial to optimally underpin such treatment

  1. Brain vs behavior: an effect size comparison of neuroimaging and cognitive studies of genetic risk for schizophrenia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rose, Emma Jane

    2013-05-01

    Genetic variants associated with increased risk for schizophrenia (SZ) are hypothesized to be more penetrant at the level of brain structure and function than at the level of behavior. However, to date the relative sensitivity of imaging vs cognitive measures of these variants has not been quantified. We considered effect sizes associated with cognitive and imaging studies of 9 robust SZ risk genes (DAOA, DISC1, DTNBP1, NRG1, RGS4, NRGN, CACNA1C, TCF4, and ZNF804A) published between January 2005-November 2011. Summary data was used to calculate estimates of effect size for each significant finding. The mean effect size for each study was categorized as small, medium, or large and the relative frequency of each category was compared between modalities and across genes. Random effects meta-analysis was used to consider the impact of experimental methodology on effect size. Imaging studies reported mostly medium or large effects, whereas cognitive investigations commonly reported small effects. Meta-analysis confirmed that imaging studies were associated with larger effects. Effect size estimates were negatively correlated with sample size but did not differ as a function of gene nor imaging modality. These observations support the notion that SZ risk variants show larger effects, and hence greater penetrance, when characterized using indices of brain structure and function than when indexed by cognitive measures. However, it remains to be established whether this holds true for individual risk variants, imaging modalities, or cognitive functions, and how such effects may be mediated by a relationship with sample size and other aspects of experimental variability.

  2. Mapping the brain correlates of borderline personality disorder: A functional neuroimaging meta-analysis of resting state studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visintin, Eleonora; De Panfilis, Chiara; Amore, Mario; Balestrieri, Matteo; Wolf, Robert Christian; Sambataro, Fabio

    2016-11-01

    Altered intrinsic function of the brain has been implicated in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). Nonetheless, imaging studies have yielded inconsistent alterations of brain function. To investigate the neural activity at rest in BPD, we conducted a set of meta-analyses of brain imaging studies performed at rest. A total of seven functional imaging studies (152 patients with BPD and 147 control subjects) were combined using whole-brain Signed Differential Mapping meta-analyses. Furthermore, two conjunction meta-analyses of neural activity at rest were also performed: with neural activity changes during emotional processing, and with structural differences, respectively. We found altered neural activity in the regions of the default mode network (DMN) in BPD. Within the regions of the midline core DMN, patients with BPD showed greater activity in the anterior as well as in the posterior midline hubs relative to controls. Conversely, in the regions of the dorsal DMN they showed reduced activity compared to controls in the right lateral temporal complex and bilaterally in the orbitofrontal cortex. Increased activity in the precuneus was observed both at rest and during emotional processing. Reduced neural activity at rest in lateral temporal complex was associated with smaller volume of this area. Heterogeneity across imaging studies. Altered activity in the regions of the midline core as well as of the dorsal subsystem of the DMN may reflect difficulties with interpersonal and affective regulation in BPD. These findings suggest that changes in spontaneous neural activity could underlie core symptoms in BPD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Neural correlates of interference resolution in the multi-source interference task: a meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuqin; Wang, Xiaochun; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Chenglin

    2018-04-10

    Interference resolution refers to cognitive control processes enabling one to focus on task-related information while filtering out unrelated information. But the exact neural areas, which underlie a specific cognitive task on interference resolution, are still equivocal. The multi-source interference task (MSIT), as a particular cognitive task, is a well-established experimental paradigm used to evaluate interference resolution. Studies combining the MSIT with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have shown that the MSIT evokes the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and cingulate-frontal-parietal cognitive-attentional networks. However, these brain areas have not been evaluated quantitatively and these findings have not been replicated. In the current study, we firstly report a voxel-based meta-analysis of functional brain activation associated with the MSIT so as to identify the localization of interference resolution in such a specific cognitive task. Articles on MSIT-related fMRI published between 2003 and July 2017 were eligible. The electronic databases searched included PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar. Differential BOLD activation patterns between the incongruent and congruent condition were meta-analyzed in anisotropic effect-size signed differential mapping software. Robustness meta-analysis indicated that two significant activation clusters were shown to have reliable functional activity in comparisons between incongruent and congruent conditions. The first reliable activation cluster, which included the dACC, medial prefrontal cortex, supplementary motor area, replicated the previous MSIT-related fMRI study results. Furthermore, we found another reliable activation cluster comprising areas of the right insula, right inferior frontal gyrus, and right lenticular nucleus-putamen, which were not typically discussed in previous MSIT-related fMRI studies. The current meta-analysis study presents the reliable brain activation patterns

  4. The Co-evolution of Neuroimaging and Psychiatric Neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyster, Timothy G; Mikell, Charles B; Sheth, Sameer A

    2016-01-01

    The role of neuroimaging in psychiatric neurosurgery has evolved significantly throughout the field's history. Psychiatric neurosurgery initially developed without the benefit of information provided by modern imaging modalities, and thus lesion targets were selected based on contemporary theories of frontal lobe dysfunction in psychiatric disease. However, by the end of the 20th century, the availability of structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) allowed for the development of mechanistic theories attempting to explain the anatamofunctional basis of these disorders, as well as the efficacy of stereotactic neuromodulatory treatments. Neuroimaging now plays a central and ever-expanding role in the neurosurgical management of psychiatric disorders, by influencing the determination of surgical candidates, allowing individualized surgical targeting and planning, and identifying network-level changes in the brain following surgery. In this review, we aim to describe the coevolution of psychiatric neurosurgery and neuroimaging, including ways in which neuroimaging has proved useful in elucidating the therapeutic mechanisms of neuromodulatory procedures. We focus on ablative over stimulation-based procedures given their historical precedence and the greater opportunity they afford for post-operative re-imaging, but also discuss important contributions from the deep brain stimulation (DBS) literature. We conclude with a discussion of how neuroimaging will transition the field of psychiatric neurosurgery into the era of precision medicine.

  5. Manganese Neurotoxicity: New Perspectives from Behavioral, Neuroimaging, and Neuropathological Studies in Humans and Non-Human Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas R Guilarte

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Manganese (Mn is an essential metal and has important physiological functions for human health. However, exposure to excess levels of Mn in occupational settings or from environmental sources has been associated with a neurological syndrome comprising cognitive deficits, neuropsychological abnormalities and parkinsonism. Historically, studies on the effects of Mn in humans and experimental animals have been concerned with effects on the basal ganglia and the dopaminergic system as it relates to movement abnormalities. However, emerging studies are beginning to provide significant evidence of Mn effects on cortical structures and cognitive function at lower levels than previously recognized. This review advances new knowledge of putative mechanisms by which exposure to excess levels of Mn alters neurobiological systems and produces neurological deficits not only in the basal ganglia but also in the cerebral cortex. The emerging evidence suggests that working memory is significantly affected by chronic Mn exposure and this may be mediated by alterations in brain structures associated with the working memory network including the caudate nucleus in the striatum, frontal cortex and parietal cortex. Dysregulation of the dopaminergic system may play an important role in both the movement abnormalities as well as the neuropsychiatric and cognitive function deficits that have been described in humans and non-human primates exposed to Mn.

  6. Where do bright ideas occur in our brain? Meta-analytic evidence from neuroimaging studies of domain-specific creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, Maddalena; Piccardi, Laura; Palermo, Liana; Nori, Raffaella; Palmiero, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have assessed the neural underpinnings of creativity, failing to find a clear anatomical localization. We aimed to provide evidence for a multi-componential neural system for creativity. We applied a general activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis to 45 fMRI studies. Three individual ALE analyses were performed to assess creativity in different cognitive domains (Musical, Verbal, and Visuo-spatial). The general ALE revealed that creativity relies on clusters of activations in the bilateral occipital, parietal, frontal, and temporal lobes. The individual ALE revealed different maximal activation in different domains. Musical creativity yields activations in the bilateral medial frontal gyrus, in the left cingulate gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, and inferior parietal lobule and in the right postcentral and fusiform gyri. Verbal creativity yields activations mainly located in the left hemisphere, in the prefrontal cortex, middle and superior temporal gyri, inferior parietal lobule, postcentral and supramarginal gyri, middle occipital gyrus, and insula. The right inferior frontal gyrus and the lingual gyrus were also activated. Visuo-spatial creativity activates the right middle and inferior frontal gyri, the bilateral thalamus and the left precentral gyrus. This evidence suggests that creativity relies on multi-componential neural networks and that different creativity domains depend on different brain regions. PMID:26322002

  7. Counter striking psychosis: Commercial video games as potential treatment in schizophrenia? A systematic review of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suenderhauf, Claudia; Walter, Anna; Lenz, Claudia; Lang, Undine E; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe, chronic, and strongly disabling neuropsychiatric disorder, characterized by cognitive decline, positive and negative symptoms. Positive symptoms respond well to antipsychotic medication and psycho-social interventions, in contrast to negative symptoms and neurocognitive impairments. Cognitive deficits have been linked to a poorer outcome and hence specific cognitive remediation therapies have been proposed. Their effectiveness is nowadays approved and neurobiological correlates have been reconfirmed by brain imaging studies. Interestingly, recent MRI work showed that commercial video games modified similar brain areas as these specialized training programs. If gray matter increases and functional brain modulations would translate in better cognitive and every day functioning, commercial video game training could be an enjoyable and economically interesting treatment option for patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. This systematic review summarizes advances in the area with emphasis on imaging studies dealing with brain changes upon video game training and contrasts them to conventional cognitive remediation. Moreover, we discuss potential challenges therapeutic video game development and research would have to face in future treatment of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Molecular neuroimaging in degenerative dementias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez Bonilla, J F; Carril Carril, J M

    2013-01-01

    In the context of the limitations of structural imaging, brain perfusion and metabolism using SPECT and PET have provided relevant information for the study of cognitive decline. The introduction of the radiotracers for cerebral amyloid imaging has changed the diagnostic strategy regarding Alzheimer's disease, which is currently considered to be a "continuum." According to this new paradigm, the increasing amyloid load would be associated to the preclinical phase and mild cognitive impairment. It has been possible to observe "in vivo" images using 11C-PIB and PET scans. The characteristics of the 11C-PIB image include specific high brain cortical area retention in the positive cases with typical distribution pattern and no retention in the negative cases. This, in combination with 18F-FDG PET, is the basis of molecular neuroimaging as a biomarker. At present, its prognostic value is being evaluated in longitudinal studies. 11C-PIB-PET has become the reference radiotracer to evaluate the presence of cerebral amyloid. However, its availability is limited due to the need for a nearby cyclotron. Therefore, 18F labeled radiotracers are being introduced. Our experience in the last two years with 11C-PIB, first in the research phase and then as being clinically applied, has shown the utility of the technique in the clinical field, either alone or in combination with FDG. Thus, amyloid image is a useful tool for the differential diagnosis of dementia and it is a potentially useful method for early diagnosis and evaluation of future treatments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  9. Comprehension of concrete and abstract words in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia and Alzheimer's disease: A behavioral and neuroimaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Sven; Vallet, Guillaume T; Montembeault, Maxime; Boukadi, Mariem; Wilson, Maximiliano A; Laforce, Robert Jr; Rouleau, Isabelle; Brambati, Simona M

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the comprehension of concrete, abstract and abstract emotional words in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and healthy elderly adults (HE) Three groups of participants (9 svPPA, 12 AD, 11 HE) underwent a general neuropsychological assessment, a similarity judgment task, and structural brain MRI. The three types of words were processed similarly in the group of AD participants. In contrast, patients in the svPPA group were significantly more impaired at processing concrete words than abstract words, while comprehension of abstract emotional words was in between. VBM analyses showed that comprehension of concrete words relative to abstract words was significantly correlated with atrophy in the left anterior temporal lobe. These results support the view that concrete words are disproportionately impaired in svPPA, and that concrete and abstract words may rely upon partly dissociable brain regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cerebral activations during viewing of food stimuli in adult patients with acquired structural hypothalamic damage: a functional neuroimaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, C A; Powell, J L; Kemp, G J; Halford, J C G; Wilding, J P; Harrold, J A; Kumar, S V D; Cuthbertson, D J; Cross, A A; Javadpour, M; MacFarlane, I A; Stancak, A A; Daousi, C

    2015-09-01

    Obesity is common following hypothalamic damage due to tumours. Homeostatic and non-homeostatic brain centres control appetite and energy balance but their interaction in the presence of hypothalamic damage remains unknown. We hypothesized that abnormal appetite in obese patients with hypothalamic damage results from aberrant brain processing of food stimuli. We sought to establish differences in activation of brain food motivation and reward neurocircuitry in patients with hypothalamic obesity (HO) compared with patients with hypothalamic damage whose weight had remained stable. In a cross-sectional study at a University Clinical Research Centre, we studied 9 patients with HO, 10 age-matched obese controls, 7 patients who remained weight-stable following hypothalamic insult (HWS) and 10 non-obese controls. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed in the fasted state, 1 h and 3 h after a test meal, while subjects were presented with images of high-calorie foods, low-calorie foods and non-food objects. Insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1, Peptide YY and ghrelin were measured throughout the experiment, and appetite ratings were recorded. Mean neural activation in the posterior insula and lingual gyrus (brain areas linked to food motivation and reward value of food) in HWS were significantly lower than in the other three groups (P=0.001). A significant negative correlation was found between insulin levels and posterior insula activation (P=0.002). Neural pathways associated with food motivation and reward-related behaviour, and the influence of insulin on their activation may be involved in the pathophysiology of HO.

  11. Episodic memory in former professional football players with a history of concussion: an event-related functional neuroimaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jaclyn H; Giovanello, Kelly S; Guskiewicz, Kevin M

    2013-10-15

    Previous research has demonstrated that sport-related concussions can have short-term effects on cognitive processes, but the long-term consequences are less understood and warrant more research. This study was the first to use event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine long-term differences in neural activity during memory tasks in former athletes who have sustained multiple sport-related concussions. In an event-related fMRI study, former football players reporting multiple sport-related concussions (i.e., three or more) were compared with players who reported fewer than three concussions during a memory paradigm examining item memory (i.e., memory for the particular elements of an event) and relational memory (i.e., memory for the relationships between elements). Behaviorally, we observed that concussion history did not significantly affect behavioral performance, because persons in the low and high concussion groups had equivalent performance on both memory tasks, and in addition, that concussion history was not associated with any behavioral memory measures. Despite demonstrating equivalent behavioral performance, the two groups of former players demonstrated different neural recruitment patterns during relational memory retrieval, suggesting that multiple concussions may be associated with functional inefficiencies in the relational memory network. In addition, the number of previous concussions significantly correlated with functional activity in a number of brain regions, including the medial temporal lobe and inferior parietal lobe. Our results provide important insights in understanding the long-term functional consequences of sustaining multiple sports-related concussions.

  12. A functional neuroimaging study of sound localization: visual cortex activity predicts performance in early-blind individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Gougoux

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Blind individuals often demonstrate enhanced nonvisual perceptual abilities. However, the neural substrate that underlies this improved performance remains to be fully understood. An earlier behavioral study demonstrated that some early-blind people localize sounds more accurately than sighted controls using monaural cues. In order to investigate the neural basis of these behavioral differences in humans, we carried out functional imaging studies using positron emission tomography and a speaker array that permitted pseudo-free-field presentations within the scanner. During binaural sound localization, a sighted control group showed decreased cerebral blood flow in the occipital lobe, which was not seen in early-blind individuals. During monaural sound localization (one ear plugged, the subgroup of early-blind subjects who were behaviorally superior at sound localization displayed two activation foci in the occipital cortex. This effect was not seen in blind persons who did not have superior monaural sound localization abilities, nor in sighted individuals. The degree of activation of one of these foci was strongly correlated with sound localization accuracy across the entire group of blind subjects. The results show that those blind persons who perform better than sighted persons recruit occipital areas to carry out auditory localization under monaural conditions. We therefore conclude that computations carried out in the occipital cortex specifically underlie the enhanced capacity to use monaural cues. Our findings shed light not only on intermodal compensatory mechanisms, but also on individual differences in these mechanisms and on inhibitory patterns that differ between sighted individuals and those deprived of vision early in life.

  13. Sex-Specific Effects of Childhood Poverty on Neurocircuitry of Processing of Emotional Cues: A Neuroimaging Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Javanbakht

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is accumulating evidence on the negative impacts of childhood poverty on physical and mental health. Previous work has suggested hyperactive neural response to social fear cues, as well as impairment in neural regulatory functions. However, despite differences found between males and females in stress-related and anxiety disorders, possible sex-specific effects of poverty on emotional processing have not been explored. Methods: We analyzed data from three previously reported experiments of childhood poverty effects on emotional processing and regulation, for sex-specific effects. Participants were 52 healthy Caucasian males and females, from a longitudinal cohort of poverty development study, who were recruited for examining the long-term effects of childhood poverty and stress. The three functional MRI studies included emotion regulation task, emotional face assessment task, and shifted attention emotion appraisal task. Brain activations that associated with childhood poverty previously were entered into a regression analysis with interaction of gender by childhood income-to-need ratio as the independent variable, and age and current income-to-need ratio as variables of no interest, separately for males and females. Results: Amygdala reactivity to implicitly processed fearful faces was positively correlated with childhood income-to-need in adult females but not males. On the other hand, activation in dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal regions during emotion regulation by reappraisal was positively correlated with childhood income-to-need in males. Conclusion: Childhood poverty may exert sex-specific effects in adulthood as presented by hypersensitive emotional reactivity of the amygdala in females, and impaired emotion regulatory function of the prefrontal cortex in males. Results suggest further focus on sex-specific effects of childhood poverty.

  14. Effects of cue focality on the neural mechanisms of prospective memory: A meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cona, Giorgia; Bisiacchi, Patrizia Silvia; Sartori, Giuseppe; Scarpazza, Cristina

    2016-05-17

    Remembering to execute pre-defined intentions at the appropriate time in the future is typically referred to as Prospective Memory (PM). Studies of PM showed that distinct cognitive processes underlie the execution of delayed intentions depending on whether the cue associated with such intentions is focal to ongoing activity processing or not (i.e., cue focality). The present activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis revealed several differences in brain activity as a function of focality of the PM cue. The retrieval of intention is supported mainly by left anterior prefrontal cortex (Brodmann Area, BA 10) in nonfocal tasks, and by cerebellum and ventral parietal regions in focal tasks. Furthermore, the precuneus showed increased activation during the maintenance phase of intentions compared to the retrieval phase in nonfocal tasks, whereas the inferior parietal lobule showed increased activation during the retrieval of intention compared to maintenance phase in the focal tasks. Finally, the retrieval of intention relies more on the activity in anterior cingulate cortex for nonfocal tasks, and on posterior cingulate cortex for focal tasks. Such focality-related pattern of activations suggests that prospective remembering is mediated mainly by top-down and stimulus-independent processes in nonfocal tasks, whereas by more automatic, bottom-up, processes in focal tasks.

  15. Multi-modal neuroimaging in premanifest and early Huntington's disease: 18 month longitudinal data from the IMAGE-HD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez D, Juan F; Egan, Gary F; Gray, Marcus A; Poudel, Govinda R; Churchyard, Andrew; Chua, Phyllis; Stout, Julie C; Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie

    2013-01-01

    IMAGE-HD is an Australian based multi-modal longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study in premanifest and early symptomatic Huntington's disease (pre-HD and symp-HD, respectively). In this investigation we sought to determine the sensitivity of imaging methods to detect macrostructural (volume) and microstructural (diffusivity) longitudinal change in HD. We used a 3T MRI scanner to acquire T1 and diffusion weighted images at baseline and 18 months in 31 pre-HD, 31 symp-HD and 29 controls. Volume was measured across the whole brain, and volume and diffusion measures were ascertained for caudate and putamen. We observed a range of significant volumetric and, for the first time, diffusion changes over 18 months in both pre-HD and symp-HD, relative to controls, detectable at the brain-wide level (volume change in grey and white matter) and in caudate and putamen (volume and diffusivity change). Importantly, longitudinal volume change in the caudate was the only measure that discriminated between groups across all stages of disease: far from diagnosis (>15 years), close to diagnosis (fractional anisotropy, FA), only longitudinal FA change was sensitive to group differences, but only after diagnosis. These findings further confirm caudate atrophy as one of the most sensitive and early biomarkers of neurodegeneration in HD. They also highlight that different tissue properties have varying schedules in their ability to discriminate between groups along disease progression and may therefore inform biomarker selection for future therapeutic interventions.

  16. Effect of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke on inhibitory control: neuroimaging results from a 25-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, Nathalie E; Boecker, Regina; Baumeister, Sarah; Hohm, Erika; Zohsel, Katrin; Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Hohmann, Sarah; Wolf, Isabella; Plichta, Michael M; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Laucht, Manfred

    2014-07-01

    There is accumulating evidence relating maternal smoking during pregnancy to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) without elucidating specific mechanisms. Research investigating the neurobiological underpinnings of this disorder has implicated deficits during response inhibition. Attempts to uncover the effect of prenatal exposure to nicotine on inhibitory control may thus be of high clinical importance. To clarify the influence of maternal smoking during pregnancy (hereafter referred to as prenatal smoking) on the neural circuitry of response inhibition and its association with related behavioral phenotypes such as ADHD and novelty seeking in the mother's offspring. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed for the offspring at 25 years of age during a modified Eriksen flanker/NoGo task, and voxel-based morphometry was performed to study brain volume differences of the offspring. Prenatal smoking (1-5 cigarettes per day [14 mothers] or >5 cigarettes per day [24 mothers]) and lifetime ADHD symptoms were determined using standardized parent interviews at the offspring's age of 3 months and over a period of 13 years (from 2 to 15 years of age), respectively. Novelty seeking was assessed at 19 years of age. Analyses were adjusted for sex, parental postnatal smoking, psychosocial and obstetric adversity, maternal prenatal stress, and lifetime substance abuse. A total of 178 young adults (73 males) without current psychopathology from a community sample followed since birth (Mannheim, Germany) participated in the study. Functional magnetic resonance imaging response, morphometric data, lifetime ADHD symptoms, and novelty seeking. Participants prenatally exposed to nicotine exhibited a weaker response in the anterior cingulate cortex (t168 = 4.46; peak Montreal Neurological Institute [MNI] coordinates x = -2, y = 20, z = 30; familywise error [FWE]-corrected P = .003), the right inferior frontal gyrus (t168 = 3.65; peak MNI

  17. Functional neuroimaging using F-18 FDG PET/CT in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, Madhavi; Tripathi, Manjari; Sharma, Rajnish; Jaimini, Abhinav; D'Souza, Maria M.; Saw, Sanjiv; Mondal, Anupam; Kushwaha, Suman

    2013-01-01

    People with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are at a higher risk of developing Alzheimers Dementia (AD) than their cognitively normal peers. Decreased glucose metabolism with 18 F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is a downstream marker of neuronal injury and neurodegeneration. The risk of developing AD is higher in patients with aMCI who have a pattern of AD related glucose metabolic changes on FDG-PET than those who do not have these changes. We evaluated the utility of visual and 'statistical parametric mapping (SPM)-supported reading' of the FDG-PET scans of patients clinically classified as aMCI for identification of predementia patterns and for prediction of their progression to AD (PTAD). On visual analysis, four scans were classified as high likelihood of PTAD and reveled hypometabolism in AD related territories. Seven patients had hypometabolism in at least one AD related territory and were classified as intermediate likelihood for PTAD. Two patients had hypometabolism in other than AD territories, while 22 patients did not show any significant hypometabolism on their FDG-PET scans and were classified as low likelihood for PTAD. SPM analysis of these cases confirmed the areas hypometabolism in all 13 patients compared to a normal subgroup (P < 0.05). On follow-up of 24 months, all four cases with high likelihood scans had progression of cognitive deficits and were confirmed as AD in the CDM clinic while none of the others showed cognitive decline. A pattern of AD hypometabolism on the FDG-PET study is useful for predicting PTAD. A longer follow-up of patients with hypometabolism in single AD territories is needed to predict their clinical behavior

  18. Multi-modal neuroimaging in premanifest and early Huntington's disease: 18 month longitudinal data from the IMAGE-HD study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F Domínguez D

    Full Text Available IMAGE-HD is an Australian based multi-modal longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI study in premanifest and early symptomatic Huntington's disease (pre-HD and symp-HD, respectively. In this investigation we sought to determine the sensitivity of imaging methods to detect macrostructural (volume and microstructural (diffusivity longitudinal change in HD. We used a 3T MRI scanner to acquire T1 and diffusion weighted images at baseline and 18 months in 31 pre-HD, 31 symp-HD and 29 controls. Volume was measured across the whole brain, and volume and diffusion measures were ascertained for caudate and putamen. We observed a range of significant volumetric and, for the first time, diffusion changes over 18 months in both pre-HD and symp-HD, relative to controls, detectable at the brain-wide level (volume change in grey and white matter and in caudate and putamen (volume and diffusivity change. Importantly, longitudinal volume change in the caudate was the only measure that discriminated between groups across all stages of disease: far from diagnosis (>15 years, close to diagnosis (<15 years and after diagnosis. Of the two diffusion metrics (mean diffusivity, MD; fractional anisotropy, FA, only longitudinal FA change was sensitive to group differences, but only after diagnosis. These findings further confirm caudate atrophy as one of the most sensitive and early biomarkers of neurodegeneration in HD. They also highlight that different tissue properties have varying schedules in their ability to discriminate between groups along disease progression and may therefore inform biomarker selection for future therapeutic interventions.

  19. Internal NASA Study: NASAs Protoflight Research Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coan, Mary R.; Hirshorn, Steven R.; Moreland, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Protoflight Research Initiative is an internal NASA study conducted within the Office of the Chief Engineer to better understand the use of Protoflight within NASA. Extensive literature reviews and interviews with key NASA members with experience in both robotic and human spaceflight missions has resulted in three main conclusions and two observations. The first conclusion is that NASA's Protoflight method is not considered to be "prescriptive." The current policies and guidance allows each Program/Project to tailor the Protoflight approach to better meet their needs, goals and objectives. Second, Risk Management plays a key role in implementation of the Protoflight approach. Any deviations from full qualification will be based on the level of acceptable risk with guidance found in NPR 8705.4. Finally, over the past decade (2004 - 2014) only 6% of NASA's Protoflight missions and 6% of NASA's Full qualification missions experienced a publicly disclosed mission failure. In other words, the data indicates that the Protoflight approach, in and of it itself, does not increase the mission risk of in-flight failure. The first observation is that it would be beneficial to document the decision making process on the implementation and use of Protoflight. The second observation is that If a Project/Program chooses to use the Protoflight approach with relevant heritage, it is extremely important that the Program/Project Manager ensures that the current project's requirements falls within the heritage design, component, instrument and/or subsystem's requirements for both the planned and operational use, and that the documentation of the relevant heritage is comprehensive, sufficient and the decision well documented. To further benefit/inform this study, a recommendation to perform a deep dive into 30 missions with accessible data on their testing/verification methodology and decision process to research the differences between Protoflight and Full Qualification

  20. Neuroimaging results, short-term assessment of psychomotor development and the risk of autism spectrum disorder in extremely premature infants (≤28 GA) - a prospective cohort study (preliminary report).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowska, Magdalena; Bekiesińska-Figatowska, Monika; Kmita, Grażyna; Terczyńska, Iwona; Polak, Katarzyna; Kalisiak, Marcin; Prażmowska, Dorota; Kiepura, Eliza; Szkudlińska-Pawlak, Sylwia; Seroczyńska, Małgorzata; Helwich, Ewa

    2018-01-01

    Infants ≤28 GA are at particular risk of psychomotor and neurological developmental disorder. They also remain at a higher risk of developing autism spectrum disorder (ASD), characterized by persistent deficits in communication/social interactions and restricted, repetitive behaviors, activities and interests. Monitoring their development by a team of specialists (a neurologist, psychologist, psychiatrist) allows us to make an early diagnosis and to implement appropriate therapy. Neuroimaging studies during the neonatal period may be helpful in clarifying diagnosis and prognosis. Objective: The aim of the study was to search for the interrelation between the results of neuroimaging and the neurological, psychological and psychiatric evaluation at the age of 2. Material and methods: Neonates born at ≤28 weeks between 01.06.2013 and 31.12.2015 and hospitalized at NICU were enrolled. We present the results of the first 12 children who have attained 2 years of corrected age and have undergone both neuroimaging, and neurological, psychological and psychiatric assessments. Transfontanel ultrasound was performed according to general standards, MRI between 38 and 42 weeks of corrected age. Neurological examination based on the Denver scale, ASD screening with use of the STAT test and psychological DSR assessment were performed at 2 years of corrected age. Results: Median GA was 26 weeks and median weight 795 g. The ultrasound examination was normal in 9 cases (75%) and MRI in 4 (33%). Abnormalities in the cerebellum were the main additional information found in MRI as compared to US. Neurological examination was normal in 8 infants (67#37;), in 4 of whom neuroimaging was normal. In 4 (33%) infants the neurological examination was abnormal. Psychomotor development at an average level or above was found in seven (58#37;) children. In 4 of them neuroimaging was normal, whereas 3 had ventricular dilatation and haemorrhagic infarct. There were no abnormalities within the

  1. NeuroVault and the vision for data sharing in neuroimaging

    OpenAIRE

    Gorgolewski, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Talk from the 14 January 2014 "GlaxoSmithKline - Neurophysics Workshop on Skeptical Neuroimaging", an activity hosted at Imperial College and coordinated with the Neurophysics Marie Curie Initial Training Network of which GSK is a participant.

  2. What do people with dementia and their carers want to know about neuroimaging for dementia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Featherstone, Hannah; Butler, Marie-Louise; Ciblis, Aurelia; Bokde, Arun L; Mullins, Paul G; McNulty, Jonathan P

    2017-05-01

    Neuroimaging forms an important part of dementia diagnosis. Provision of information on neuroimaging to people with dementia and their carers may aid understanding of the pathological, physiological and psychosocial changes of the disease, and increase understanding of symptoms. This qualitative study aimed to investigate participants' knowledge of the dementia diagnosis pathway, their understanding of neuroimaging and its use in diagnosis, and to determine content requirements for a website providing neuroimaging information. Structured interviews and a focus group were conducted with carers and people with dementia. The findings demonstrate an unmet need for information on neuroimaging both before and after the examination. Carers were keen to know about neuroimaging at a practical and technical level to help avoid diagnosis denial. People with dementia requested greater information, but with a caveat to avoid overwhelming detail, and were less likely to favour an Internet resource.

  3. Fundamental study of crack initiation and propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, D.M. Jr.; Reaugh, J.E.; Moran, B.; Quinones, D.F.; Wilkins, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    Objective is to determine the fracture toughness of A533B-1 steel by computer modeling Charpy V-notch tests. A computer model of ductile fracture was developed that predicts fracture initiation. The model contains a set of material-dependent parameters obtained by computer simulations of small specimen tests. The computer calculations give detailed stress and strain histories up to the time of fracture, which are used to determine the model parameter values. The calibrated fracture model, that correctly predicts fracture initiation (and initiation energy) in the Charpy specimen, may then be used to simulate tests of accepted fracture-toughness specimens and hence obtain fracture toughness. The model parameters were calibrated to predict fracture in four different test specimens: two different notched-tension specimens, a simple tension specimen, and a precracked compact-tension specimen. The model was then used in a computer simulation of the Charpy V-notch specimen to initiate and advance a flat fracture. Results were compared with interrupted Charpy tests. Calibration of the model for two additional heat treatments of A533B-1 steel is in progress

  4. [Conversion disorder : functional neuroimaging and neurobiological mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, J; Piette, C; Salmon, E; Scantamburlo, G

    2017-04-01

    Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder often encountered in neurology services. This condition without organic lesions was and still is sometimes referred as an imaginary illness or feigning. However, the absence of organic lesions does not exclude the possibility of cerebral dysfunction. The etiologic mechanisms underlying this disorder remain uncertain even today.The advent of cognitive and functional imaging opens up a field of exploration for psychiatry in understanding the neurobiological mechanisms underlying mental disorders and especially the conversion disorder. This article reports several neuroimaging studies of conversion disorder and attempts to generate hypotheses about neurobiological mechanisms.

  5. Neural correlates of fear: insights from neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garfinkel SN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sarah N Garfinkel,1,2 Hugo D Critchley1,2 1Sackler Centre for Consciousness Science, 2Department of Psychiatry, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK Abstract: Fear anticipates a challenge to one's well-being and is a reaction to the risk of harm. The expression of fear in the individual is a constellation of physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and experiential responses. Fear indicates risk and will guide adaptive behavior, yet fear is also fundamental to the symptomatology of most psychiatric disorders. Neuroimaging studies of normal and abnormal fear in humans extend knowledge gained from animal experiments. Neuroimaging permits the empirical evaluation of theory (emotions as response tendencies, mental states, and valence and arousal dimensions, and improves our understanding of the mechanisms of how fear is controlled by both cognitive processes and bodily states. Within the human brain, fear engages a set of regions that include insula and anterior cingulate cortices, the amygdala, and dorsal brain-stem centers, such as periaqueductal gray matter. This same fear matrix is also implicated in attentional orienting, mental planning, interoceptive mapping, bodily feelings, novelty and motivational learning, behavioral prioritization, and the control of autonomic arousal. The stereotyped expression of fear can thus be viewed as a special construction from combinations of these processes. An important motivator for understanding neural fear mechanisms is the debilitating clinical expression of anxiety. Neuroimaging studies of anxiety patients highlight the role of learning and memory in pathological fear. Posttraumatic stress disorder is further distinguished by impairment in cognitive control and contextual memory. These processes ultimately need to be targeted for symptomatic recovery. Neuroscientific knowledge of fear has broader relevance to understanding human and societal behavior. As yet, only some of

  6. Near-infrared neuroimaging with NinPy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary E Strangman

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been substantial recent growth in the use of non-invasive optical brain imaging in studies of human brain function in health and disease. Near-infrared neuroimaging (NIN is one of the most promising of these techniques and, although NIN hardware continues to evolve at a rapid pace, software tools supporting optical data acquisition, image processing, statistical modeling and visualization remain less refined. Python, a modular and computationally efficient development language, can support functional neuroimaging studies of diverse design and implementation. In particular, Python's easily readable syntax and modular architecture allow swift prototyping followed by efficient transition to stable production systems. As an introduction to our ongoing efforts to develop Python software tools for structural and functional neuroimaging, we discuss: (i the role of noninvasive diffuse optical imaging in measuring brain function, (ii the key computational requirements to support NIN experiments, (iii our collection of software tools to support near-infrared neuroimaging, called NinPy, and (iv future extensions of these tools that will allow integration of optical with other structural and functional neuroimaging data sources. Source code for the software discussed here will be made available at www.nmr.mgh.harvard.edu/Neural_SystemsGroup/software.html.

  7. Autismo: neuroimagem Autism: neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Zilbovicius

    2006-05-01

    and stereotyped and repetitive behaviors. Thanks to recent brain imaging studies, scientists are getting a better idea of the neural circuits involved in autism spectrum disorders. Indeed, functional brain imaging, such as positron emission tomography, single foton emission tomographyand functional MRI have opened a new perspective to study normal and pathological brain functioning. Three independent studies have found anatomical and rest functional temporal lobe abnormalities in autistic patients. These alterations are localized in the superior temporal sulcus bilaterally, an area which is critical for perception of key social stimuli. In addition, functional studies have shown hypoactivation of most areas implicated in social perception (face and voice perception and social cognition (theory of mind. These data suggest an abnormal functioning of the social brain network in autism. The understanding of the functional alterations of this important mechanism may drive the elaboration of new and more adequate social re-educative strategies for autistic patients.

  8. Neuroimaging after coma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tshibanda, Luaba; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Soddu, Andrea; Bruno, Marie-Aurelie; Noirhomme, Quentin; Boly, Melanie; Laureys, Steven; Moonen, Gustave

    2010-01-01

    Following coma, some patients will recover wakefulness without signs of consciousness (only showing reflex movements, i.e., the vegetative state) or may show non-reflex movements but remain without functional communication (i.e., the minimally conscious state). Currently, there remains a high rate of misdiagnosis of the vegetative state (Schnakers et. al. BMC Neurol, 9:35, 8) and the clinical and electrophysiological markers of outcome from the vegetative and minimally conscious states remain unsatisfactory. This should incite clinicians to use multimodal assessment to detect objective signs of consciousness and validate para-clinical prognostic markers in these challenging patients. This review will focus on advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging, and functional MRI (fMRI studies in both ''activation'' and ''resting state'' conditions) that were recently introduced in the assessment of patients with chronic disorders of consciousness. (orig.)

  9. Machine Learning for Neuroimaging with Scikit-Learn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre eAbraham

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Statistical machine learning methods are increasingly used for neuroimaging data analysis. Their main virtue is their ability to model high-dimensional datasets, e.g. multivariate analysis of activation images or resting-state time series. Supervised learning is typically used in decoding or encoding settings to relate brain images to behavioral or clinical observations, while unsupervised learning can uncover hidden structures in sets of images (e.g. resting state functional MRI or find sub-populations in large cohorts. By considering different functional neuroimaging applications, we illustrate how scikit-learn, a Python machine learning library, can be used to perform some key analysis steps. Scikit-learn contains a very large set of statistical learning algorithms, both supervised and unsupervised, and its application to neuroimaging data provides a versatile tool to study the brain.

  10. Machine learning for neuroimaging with scikit-learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Alexandre; Pedregosa, Fabian; Eickenberg, Michael; Gervais, Philippe; Mueller, Andreas; Kossaifi, Jean; Gramfort, Alexandre; Thirion, Bertrand; Varoquaux, Gaël

    2014-01-01

    Statistical machine learning methods are increasingly used for neuroimaging data analysis. Their main virtue is their ability to model high-dimensional datasets, e.g., multivariate analysis of activation images or resting-state time series. Supervised learning is typically used in decoding or encoding settings to relate brain images to behavioral or clinical observations, while unsupervised learning can uncover hidden structures in sets of images (e.g., resting state functional MRI) or find sub-populations in large cohorts. By considering different functional neuroimaging applications, we illustrate how scikit-learn, a Python machine learning library, can be used to perform some key analysis steps. Scikit-learn contains a very large set of statistical learning algorithms, both supervised and unsupervised, and its application to neuroimaging data provides a versatile tool to study the brain.

  11. Neuroimaging. Recent issues and future progresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2002-01-01

    Recent advances in the technology of non-invasive neuroimaging techniques, include X-ray CT, magnetic resonance imaging, positron CT, etc. The trend of neuroimaging is from the diagnosis of the brain structural change to the functional localization of the brain function with accurate topographical data. Brain activation studies disclosed the responsible regions in the brain for various kinds of paradigms, including motor, sensory, cognitive functions. Another aspect of brain imaging shows the pathophysiological changes of the neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease by abnormal CBF or metabolism changes. It is very important to note that the neurotransmitter receptor imaging is now available for various kinds of transmitters. We recently developed a new tracer for nicotinic type acetylcholine receptor, which might be involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease and its treatment. In the near future, we will be able to visualize the proteins in the brain such as amyloid protein, which will make us to diagnose Alzheimer's patients accurately, and with respect to neuroscience research, not only neuronal functional localizations but also relationship between them will become important to disclose the functional aspects of the brain. (author)

  12. Initial DEMO tokamak design configuration studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, Christian, E-mail: christian.bachmann@efda.org [EFDA, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Aiello, G. [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, SEMT, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, R. [ENEA/CREATE, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Naples (Italy); Arbeiter, F. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Aubert, J. [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, SEMT, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Boccaccini, L.; Carloni, D. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Federici, G. [EFDA, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Fischer, U. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Kovari, M. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Li Puma, A. [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, SEMT, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Loving, A. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Maione, I. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Mattei, M. [ENEA/CREATE, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Naples (Italy); Mazzone, G. [ENEA C.R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Meszaros, B. [EFDA, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Palermo, I. [Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Pereslavtsev, P. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Riccardo, V. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); and others

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A definition of main DEMO requirements. • A description of the DEMO tokamak design configuration. • A description of issues yet to be solved. - Abstract: To prepare the DEMO conceptual design phase a number of physics and engineering assessments were carried out in recent years in the frame of EFDA concluding in an initial design configuration of a DEMO tokamak. This paper gives an insight into the identified engineering requirements and constraints and describes their impact on the selection of the technologies and design principles of the main tokamak components. The EU DEMO program aims at making best use of the technologies developed for ITER (e.g., magnets, vessel, cryostat, and to some degree also the divertor). However, other systems in particular the breeding blanket require design solutions and advanced technologies that will only partially be tested in ITER. The main differences from ITER include the requirement to breed, to extract, to process and to recycle the tritium needed for plasma operation, the two orders of magnitude larger lifetime neutron fluence, the consequent radiation dose levels, which limit remote maintenance options, and the requirement to use low-activation steel for in-vessel components that also must operate at high temperature for efficient energy conversion.

  13. A simple tool for neuroimaging data sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eHaselgrove

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Data sharing is becoming increasingly common, but despite encouragement and facilitation by funding agencies, journals, and some research efforts, most neuroimaging data acquired today is still not shared due to political, financial, social, and technical barriers to sharing data that remain. In particular, technical solutions are few for researchers that are not a part of larger efforts with dedicated sharing infrastructures, and social barriers such as the time commitment required to share can keep data from becoming publicly available.We present a system for sharing neuroimaging data, designed to be simple to use and to provide benefit to the data provider. The system consists of a server at the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility (INCF and user tools for uploading data to the server. The primary design principle for the user tools is ease of use: the user identifies a directory containing DICOM data, provides their INCF Portal authentication, and provides identifiers for the subject and imaging session. The user tool anonymizes the data and sends it to the server. The server then runs quality control routines on the data, and the data and the quality control reports are made public. The user retains control of the data and may change the sharing policy as they need. The result is that in a few minutes of the user’s time, DICOM data can be anonymized and made publicly available, and an initial quality control assessment can be performed on the data. The system is currently functional, and user tools and access to the public image database are available at http://xnat.incf.org/.

  14. What's new in neuroimaging methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    The rapid advancement of neuroimaging methodology and availability has transformed neuroscience research. The answers to many questions that we ask about how the brain is organized depend on the quality of data that we are able to obtain about the locations, dynamics, fluctuations, magnitudes, and types of brain activity and structural changes. In this review, an attempt is made to take a snapshot of the cutting edge of a small component of the very rapidly evolving field of neuroimaging. For each area covered, a brief context is provided along with a summary of a few of the current developments and issues. Then, several outstanding papers, published in the past year or so, are described, providing an example of the directions in which each area is progressing. The areas covered include functional MRI (fMRI), voxel based morphometry (VBM), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), optical imaging, and positron emission tomography (PET). More detail is included on fMRI, as subsections include: functional MRI interpretation, new functional MRI contrasts, MRI technology, MRI paradigms and processing, and endogenous oscillations in functional MRI. PMID:19338512

  15. Online Open Neuroimaging Mass Meta-Analysis with a Wiki

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Arup; Kempton, Matthew J.; Williams, Steven C. R.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a system for meta-analysis where a wiki stores numerical data in a simple comma-separated values format and a web service performs the numerical statistical computation. We initially apply the system on multiple meta-analyses of structural neuroimaging data results. The described system...... allows for mass meta-analysis, e.g., meta-analysis across multiple brain regions and multiple mental disorders providing an overview of important relationships and their uncertainties in a collaborative environment....

  16. Neuroimaging and Research into Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabourin, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Neuroimaging techniques are becoming not only more and more sophisticated but are also coming to be increasingly accessible to researchers. One thing that one should take note of is the potential of neuroimaging research within second language acquisition (SLA) to contribute to issues pertaining to the plasticity of the adult brain and to general…

  17. Linking Essential Tremor to the Cerebellum-Neuroimaging Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerasa, Antonio; Quattrone, Aldo

    2016-06-01

    Essential tremor (ET) is the most common pathological tremor disorder in the world, and post-mortem evidence has shown that the cerebellum is the most consistent area of pathology in ET. In the last few years, advanced neuroimaging has tried to confirm this evidence. The aim of the present review is to discuss to what extent the evidence provided by this field of study may be generalised. We performed a systematic literature search combining the terms ET with the following keywords: MRI, VBM, MRS, DTI, fMRI, PET and SPECT. We summarised and discussed each study and placed the results in the context of existing knowledge regarding the cerebellar involvement in ET. A total of 51 neuroimaging studies met our search criteria, roughly divided into 19 structural and 32 functional studies. Despite clinical and methodological differences, both functional and structural imaging studies showed similar findings but without defining a clear topography of neurodegeneration. Indeed, the vast majority of studies found functional and structural abnormalities in several parts of the anterior and posterior cerebellar lobules, but it remains to be established to what degree these neural changes contribute to clinical symptoms of ET. Currently, advanced neuroimaging has confirmed the involvement of the cerebellum in pathophysiological processes of ET, although a high variability in results persists. For this reason, the translation of this knowledge into daily clinical practice is again partially limited, although new advanced multivariate neuroimaging approaches (machine-learning) are proving interesting changes of perspective.

  18. Neuroimaging for drug addiction and related behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvaz, M.A.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik, P.A.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2011-01-01

    In this review, we highlight the role of neuroimaging techniques in studying the emotional and cognitive-behavioral components of the addiction syndrome by focusing on the neural substrates subserving them. The phenomenology of drug addiction can be characterized by a recurrent pattern of subjective experiences that includes drug intoxication, craving, bingeing, and withdrawal with the cycle culminating in a persistent preoccupation with obtaining, consuming, and recovering from the drug. In the past two decades, imaging studies of drug addiction have demonstrated deficits in brain circuits related to reward and impulsivity. The current review focuses on studies employing positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate these behaviors in drug-addicted human populations. We begin with a brief account of drug addiction followed by a technical account of each of these imaging modalities. We then discuss how these techniques have uniquely contributed to a deeper understanding of addictive behaviors.

  19. Neuroimaging for drug addiction and related behaviors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvaz M. A.; Parvaz, M.A.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik,P.A.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2011-10-01

    In this review, we highlight the role of neuroimaging techniques in studying the emotional and cognitive-behavioral components of the addiction syndrome by focusing on the neural substrates subserving them. The phenomenology of drug addiction can be characterized by a recurrent pattern of subjective experiences that includes drug intoxication, craving, bingeing, and withdrawal with the cycle culminating in a persistent preoccupation with obtaining, consuming, and recovering from the drug. In the past two decades, imaging studies of drug addiction have demonstrated deficits in brain circuits related to reward and impulsivity. The current review focuses on studies employing positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate these behaviors in drug-addicted human populations. We begin with a brief account of drug addiction followed by a technical account of each of these imaging modalities. We then discuss how these techniques have uniquely contributed to a deeper understanding of addictive behaviors.

  20. Ramakrishna Mission initiative impact study: final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaurey, A.

    2000-07-06

    This report has been prepared by the Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI) for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. It presents the results of the evaluation and impact assessment of solar photovoltaic lighting systems in the region of Sunderbans, West Bengal, that were deployed by a reputable non-governmental organization (Ramakrishna Mission) under the auspices of the INDO-US collaborative project. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the solar photovoltaic systems for their impact on the individual households as well as on the community, to assess the effectiveness of the implementation and financial mechanisms, and to draw a long-term strategy for NREL's activities in Sunderbans based on case studies of similar interventions. Under the project, provision was made to supply 300 domestic lighting systems (DLS) based on 53-Wp module capacity to individual households and a few other systems such as for lighting, medical refrigeration, and pumping water to community centers. For this study, 152 households were surveyed, of which 29 had also been a part of earlier pre- and post-installation surveys, 47 had been a part of the earlier post-installation survey, and 76 were households that were surveyed for the first time. A set of 46, out of the total 152 households, was selected for evaluating the systems for their technical performance with respect to module output, condition of the battery, and daily energy consumption. Of the total 300 modules, 2 had been stolen, 9 out of the total 300 batteries needed to be replaced, and 10 out of the 300 charge controllers were non-functional. The statistics for the surveyed households indicate 32 luminaire-related faults (blackening or flickering of compact fluorescent lights) and 11 other faults related to fuses, switches, etc.

  1. Initial studies of reflectometer for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhmann, N.C. Jr.

    1993-12-01

    ITER-related activities taking place over the last year were concentrated primarily on the area of advanced reflectometry systems. In particular, we have concentrated on reflectometer systems for density profile and density fluctuation studies on ITER. This interest has led us to spend much of our time investigating the pulsed radar time-of-flight reflectometer approaches (i.e. moderate pulse and ultrashort pulse). Pulsed radar systems offer the ability to make detailed profile measurements using fixed frequency sources, avoiding the need for highly stable sweepable sources as required by the more traditional FM radar systems

  2. Neuroimaging in psychiatric pharmacogenetics research: the promise and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, Mary; Smith, Ryan M; Chenoweth, Meghan J; Bhattacharjee, Abesh Kumar; Kelsoe, John R; Tyndale, Rachel F; Lerman, Caryn

    2013-11-01

    The integration of research on neuroimaging and pharmacogenetics holds promise for improving treatment for neuropsychiatric conditions. Neuroimaging may provide a more sensitive early measure of treatment response in genetically defined patient groups, and could facilitate development of novel therapies based on an improved understanding of pathogenic mechanisms underlying pharmacogenetic associations. This review summarizes progress in efforts to incorporate neuroimaging into genetics and treatment research on major psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and addiction. Methodological challenges include: performing genetic analyses in small study populations used in imaging studies; inclusion of patients with psychiatric comorbidities; and the extensive variability across studies in neuroimaging protocols, neurobehavioral task probes, and analytic strategies. Moreover, few studies use pharmacogenetic designs that permit testing of genotype × drug effects. As a result of these limitations, few findings have been fully replicated. Future studies that pre-screen participants for genetic variants selected a priori based on drug metabolism and targets have the greatest potential to advance the science and practice of psychiatric treatment.

  3. Virtual interconnection platform initiative scoping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kou, Gefei [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pan, Zuohong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liu, Yilu [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); King Jr., Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Due to security and liability concerns, the research community has limited access to realistic large-scale power grid models to test and validate new operation and control methodologies. It is also difficult for industry to evaluate the relative value of competing new tools without a common platform for comparison. This report proposes to develop a large-scale virtual power grid model that retains basic features and represents future trends of major U.S. electric interconnections. This model will include realistic power flow and dynamics information as well as a relevant geospatial distribution of assets. This model will be made widely available to the research community for various power system stability and control studies and can be used as a common platform for comparing the efficacies of various new technologies.

  4. Neuroimaging of child abuse: A critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heledd eHart

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Childhood maltreatment is a severe stressor that can lead to the development of behaviour problems and affect brain structure and function. This review summarizes the current evidence for the effects of early childhood maltreatment on behavior, cognition and the brain in adults and children. Neuropsychological studies suggest an association between child abuse and deficits in IQ, memory, executive function and emotion discrimination. Structural neuroimaging studies provide evidence for deficits in brain volume, grey and white matter of several regions, most prominently the dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex but also hippocampus, amygdala, and corpus callosum. Diffusion tensor imaging studies show evidence for deficits in structural interregional connectivity between these areas, suggesting neural network abnormalities. Functional imaging studies support this evidence by reporting atypical activation in the same brain regions during executive function and emotion processing. There are, however, several limitations of the abuse research literature which are discussed, most prominently the lack of control for co-morbid psychiatric disorders, which make it difficult to disentangle which of the above effects are due to maltreatment, the associated psychiatric conditions or a combination or interaction between both. Overall, the better controlled studies that show a direct correlation between childhood abuse and brain measures suggest that the most prominent deficits associated with early childhood abuse are in the function and structure of lateral and ventromedial fronto-limbic brain areas and networks that mediate behavioural and affect control. Future, large scale multimodal neuroimaging studies in medication-naïve subjects, however, are needed that control for psychiatric co-morbidities in order to elucidate the structural and functional brain sequelae that are associated with early environmental adversity, independently of secondary

  5. Functional neuroimaging of sleep disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Chun; Zhao Jun; Guan Yihui

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disorders may affect the health and normal life of human badly. However, the pathophysiology underlying adult sleep disorders is still unclear. Functional neuroimaging can be used to investigate whether sleep disorders are associated with specific changes in brain structure or regional activity. This paper reviews functional brain imaging findings in major intrinsic sleep disorders (i.e., idiopathic insomnia, narcolepsy, and obstructive sleep apnea) and in abnormal motor behavior during sleep (i.e., periodic limb movement disorder and REM sleep behavior disorder). Metabolic/functional investigations (positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging) are mainly reviewed, as well as neuroanatomical assessments (voxel-based morphometry, magnetic resonance spectroscopy). Meanwhile, here are some brief introduction of different kinds of sleep disorders. (authors)

  6. Initial studies of a competition agressivity scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bartholomeu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the development of an aggressivity measure among athletes. Participants included 172 athletes, from five different sports, ranging in age from 14 to 58 years old (mean age 21 years, DP=5,99. The scale was composed of 54 items (on a three-point Likert scale that described various aggressive behaviors. The subjects were asked to indicate the frequency of the behaviors from “always” to “sometimes” and “never.”. The differential item functioning results by sex pointed to six items favoring one of the groups. The data were analyzed by means of principal components analysis with a varimax rotation and suggested a three factor structure explaining 44,31% of the variance. The dimensions were, Intimidation, External Aggression and Internal Aggression. Chronbach’s alphas ranged from 0,74 to 0,90. No significant differences of the dimensions were observed between the studied sports. These data enables the instrument to be used in future research.   Keywords: aggressivity; psychological assessment; sport psychology; factorial analysis; differential item functioning.

  7. EEG changes and neuroimaging abnormalities in relevance to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Autism is currently viewed as a genetically determined neurodevelopmental disorder although its defi nite underlying etiology remains to be established. Aim of the Study: Our purpose was to assess autism related morphological neuroimaging changes of the brain and EEG abnormalities in correlation to the ...

  8. Neuroimaging of aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Sterzer

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of functional and structural neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural bases of aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents. Most functional neuroimaging studies have persued the hypothesis that pathological aggression is a consequence of deficits in the neural circuits involved in emotion processing. There is converging evidence for deficient neural responses to emotional stimuli in youths with a propensity towards aggressive behaviour. In addition, recent neuroimaging work has suggested that aggressive behaviour is also associated with abnormalities in neural processes that subserve both the inhibitory control of behaviour and the flexible adaptation of behaviour in accord with reinforcement information. Structural neuroimaging studies in children and adolescents with conduct problems are still scarce, but point to deficits in brain structures in volved in the processing of social information and in the regulation of social and goal directed behaviour. The indisputable progress that this research field has made in recent years notwithstanding, the overall picture is still rather patchy and there are inconsistencies between studies that await clarification. Despite this, we attempt to provide an integrated view on the neural abnormalities that may contribute to various forms of juvenile aggression and violence, and discuss research strategies that may help to provide a more profound understanding of these important issues in the future.

  9. Approach to ''Mind'' using functional neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    This review mainly describes authors' recent investigations concerning neuroimages approaching to even human ''mind'' using techniques of PET, SPECT and functional MRI (fMRI). Progress of such studies greatly owes to the development of image statistics of the brain like statistical parametric mapping (www.fil.ion.ucl.ac.uk/spm/), and brain standards (www.mrc-cbu.cam.ac.uk/Imaging/mnispace.html, and ric.uthscsa.edu/projects/talairach daemon.html). The author discusses and presents images in cases of hallucinations (SPECT and H 2 15 O-PET), autism (SPECT), sleep, depression, and its therapy by transcaranial magnetic stimulation. These studies are expected to contribute to diagnosis and therapy of endogenous neurological disorders. (T.I.)

  10. Approach to ''Mind'' using functional neuroimaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi [Saitama Medical School, Hospital, Moroyama, Saitama (Japan)

    2006-05-15

    This review mainly describes authors' recent investigations concerning neuroimages approaching to even human ''mind'' using techniques of PET, SPECT and functional MRI (fMRI). Progress of such studies greatly owes to the development of image statistics of the brain like statistical parametric mapping (www.fil.ion.ucl.ac.uk/spm/), and brain standards (www.mrc-cbu.cam.ac.uk/Imaging/mnispace.html, and ric.uthscsa.edu/projects/talairach daemon.html). The author discusses and presents images in cases of hallucinations (SPECT and H{sub 2}{sup 15}O-PET), autism (SPECT), sleep, depression, and its therapy by transcaranial magnetic stimulation. These studies are expected to contribute to diagnosis and therapy of endogenous neurological disorders. (T.I.)

  11. Diagnostic and therapeutic utility of neuroimaging in depression: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Toby; Cleare, Anthony J; Herane, Andrés; Young, Allan H; Arnone, Danilo

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of studies have used neuroimaging to further our understanding of how brain structure and function are altered in major depression. More recently, these techniques have begun to show promise for the diagnosis and treatment of depression, both as aids to conventional methods and as methods in their own right. In this review, we describe recent neuroimaging findings in the field that might aid diagnosis and improve treatment accuracy. Overall, major depression is associated with numerous structural and functional differences in neural systems involved in emotion processing and mood regulation. Furthermore, several studies have shown that the structure and function of these systems is changed by pharmacological and psychological treatments of the condition and that these changes in candidate brain regions might predict clinical response. More recently, "machine learning" methods have used neuroimaging data to categorize individual patients according to their diagnostic status and predict treatment response. Despite being mostly limited to group-level comparisons at present, with the introduction of new methods and more naturalistic studies, neuroimaging has the potential to become part of the clinical armamentarium and may improve diagnostic accuracy and inform treatment choice at the patient level.

  12. The impacts of cognitive-behavioral therapy on the treatment of phobic disorders measured by functional neuroimaging techniques: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Galvao-de Almeida

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Functional neuroimaging techniques represent fundamental tools in the context of translational research integrating neurobiology, psychopathology, neuropsychology, and therapeutics. In addition, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT has proven its efficacy in the treatment of anxiety disorders and may be useful in phobias. The literature has shown that feelings and behaviors are mediated by specific brain circuits, and changes in patterns of interaction should be associated with cerebral alterations. Based on these concepts, a systematic review was conducted aiming to evaluate the impact of CBT on phobic disorders measured by functional neuroimaging techniques. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted including studies published between January 1980 and April 2012. Studies written in English, Spanish or Portuguese evaluating changes in the pattern of functional neuroimaging before and after CBT in patients with phobic disorders were included. Results: The initial search strategy retrieved 45 studies. Six of these studies met all inclusion criteria. Significant deactivations in the amygdala, insula, thalamus and hippocampus, as well as activation of the medial orbitofrontal cortex, were observed after CBT in phobic patients when compared with controls. Conclusion: In spite of their technical limitations, neuroimaging techniques provide neurobiological support for the efficacy of CBT in the treatment of phobic disorders. Further studies are needed to confirm this conclusion.

  13. The teen brain: insights from neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giedd, Jay N

    2008-04-01

    Few parents of a teenager are surprised to hear that the brain of a 16-year-old is different from the brain of an 8-year-old. Yet to pin down these differences in a rigorous scientific way has been elusive. Magnetic resonance imaging, with the capacity to provide exquisitely accurate quantifications of brain anatomy and physiology without the use of ionizing radiation, has launched a new era of adolescent neuroscience. Longitudinal studies of subjects from ages 3-30 years demonstrate a general pattern of childhood peaks of gray matter followed by adolescent declines, functional and structural increases in connectivity and integrative processing, and a changing balance between limbic/subcortical and frontal lobe functions, extending well into young adulthood. Although overinterpretation and premature application of neuroimaging findings for diagnostic purposes remains a risk, converging data from multiple imaging modalities is beginning to elucidate the implications of these brain changes on cognition, emotion, and behavior.

  14. Uncovering the etiology of conversion disorder: insights from functional neuroimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejareh dar, Maryam; Kanaan, Richard AA

    2016-01-01

    Conversion disorder (CD) is a syndrome of neurological symptoms arising without organic cause, arguably in response to emotional stress, but the exact neural substrates of these symptoms and the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood with the hunt for a biological basis afoot for centuries. In the past 15 years, novel insights have been gained with the advent of functional neuroimaging studies in patients suffering from CDs in both motor and nonmotor domains. This review summarizes recent functional neuroimaging studies including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT), and positron emission tomography (PET) to see whether they bring us closer to understanding the etiology of CD. Convergent functional neuroimaging findings suggest alterations in brain circuits that could point to different mechanisms for manifesting functional neurological symptoms, in contrast with feigning or healthy controls. Abnormalities in emotion processing and in emotion-motor processing suggest a diathesis, while differential reactions to certain stressors implicate a specific response to trauma. No comprehensive theory emerges from these clues, and all results remain preliminary, but functional neuroimaging has at least given grounds for hope that a model for CD may soon be found. PMID:26834476

  15. Visual attention and the neuroimage bias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D A Baker

    Full Text Available Several highly-cited experiments have presented evidence suggesting that neuroimages may unduly bias laypeople's judgments of scientific research. This finding has been especially worrisome to the legal community in which neuroimage techniques may be used to produce evidence of a person's mental state. However, a more recent body of work that has looked directly at the independent impact of neuroimages on layperson decision-making (both in legal and more general arenas, and has failed to find evidence of bias. To help resolve these conflicting findings, this research uses eye tracking technology to provide a measure of attention to different visual representations of neuroscientific data. Finding an effect of neuroimages on the distribution of attention would provide a potential mechanism for the influence of neuroimages on higher-level decisions. In the present experiment, a sample of laypeople viewed a vignette that briefly described a court case in which the defendant's actions might have been explained by a neurological defect. Accompanying these vignettes was either an MRI image of the defendant's brain, or a bar graph depicting levels of brain activity-two competing visualizations that have been the focus of much of the previous research on the neuroimage bias. We found that, while laypeople differentially attended to neuroimagery relative to the bar graph, this did not translate into differential judgments in a way that would support the idea of a neuroimage bias.

  16. Neuroimage in neuroecthodermic diseases Part II: Tuberous Sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menor, F.; Marti-Bonmati, L.; Poyatos, C.; Cortina, H.; Esteban, J.M.; Vilar, J.

    1993-01-01

    A prospective clinicoradiological study has been carried out in 36 patients with tuberous sclerosis. The neuroimaging studies detected some type of disorder in 94% of patients, contributing significantly to the positive diagnosis of the disease. CT was better for viewing periventricular nodules, while MR was more reliable in disclosing the number and location of cortical and white matter lesions. The use of gadolinium-DTPA in MR demonstrated frequent uptake by the periventricular nodules which was exceptional in the cortical and subcortical lesions. The use of contrast, both in CT and in MR, enhanced the images of the 7 presumed giant-cell astrocytomas detected in 6 patients. Uptake by the tumors was always much greater than that observed in the nodules, being and important criterion for the differentiation between nodules and small tumors. The appearance and topography of these CNS lesions can be reasonably well explained by considering the disease to be a disorder of the migration of dysgenic cells. We have found no consistent correlation between the neuroradiological findings and the clinical evolution of the patients. MR and CT are similarly useful in the diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis. Given that MR is more effective in the detection of the set of intracranial lesions, it could be used as the initial technique, resorting to CT in those cases in which the clinical evidence is highly suggestive and the MR study is negative. Periodic MR control is not justified unless there is suspicion of tumor implantation or growth

  17. Diagnostic and therapeutic utility of neuroimaging in depression: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wise T

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Toby Wise,1 Anthony J Cleare,1 Andrés Herane,1,2 Allan H Young,1 Danilo Arnone1 1King’s College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Department of Psychological Medicine, Centre for Affective Disorders, London, United Kingdom; 2Clínica Psiquiátrica Universitaria, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile Abstract: A growing number of studies have used neuroimaging to further our understanding of how brain structure and function are altered in major depression. More recently, these techniques have begun to show promise for the diagnosis and treatment of depression, both as aids to conventional methods and as methods in their own right. In this review, we describe recent neuroimaging findings in the field that might aid diagnosis and improve treatment accuracy. Overall, major depression is associated with numerous structural and functional differences in neural systems involved in emotion processing and mood regulation. Furthermore, several studies have shown that the structure and function of these systems is changed by pharmacological and psychological treatments of the condition and that these changes in candidate brain regions might predict clinical response. More recently, “machine learning” methods have used neuroimaging data to categorize individual patients according to their diagnostic status and predict treatment response. Despite being mostly limited to group-level comparisons at present, with the introduction of new methods and more naturalistic studies, neuroimaging has the potential to become part of the clinical armamentarium and may improve diagnostic accuracy and inform treatment choice at the patient level. Keywords: depression, mood disorder, neuroimaging, diagnosis, treatment

  18. Nonhuman primate positron emission tomography neuroimaging in drug abuse research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Leonard Lee; Murnane, Kevin Sean

    2011-05-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) neuroimaging in nonhuman primates has led to significant advances in our current understanding of the neurobiology and treatment of stimulant addiction in humans. PET neuroimaging has defined the in vivo biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of abused drugs and related these findings to the time course of behavioral effects associated with their addictive properties. With novel radiotracers and enhanced resolution, PET neuroimaging techniques have also characterized in vivo drug interactions with specific protein targets in the brain, including neurotransmitter receptors and transporters. In vivo determinations of cerebral blood flow and metabolism have localized brain circuits implicated in the effects of abused drugs and drug-associated stimuli. Moreover, determinations of the predisposing factors to chronic drug use and long-term neurobiological consequences of chronic drug use, such as potential neurotoxicity, have led to novel insights regarding the pathology and treatment of drug addiction. However, similar approaches clearly need to be extended to drug classes other than stimulants. Although dopaminergic systems have been extensively studied, other neurotransmitter systems known to play a critical role in the pharmacological effects of abused drugs have been largely ignored in nonhuman primate PET neuroimaging. Finally, the study of brain activation with PET neuroimaging has been replaced in humans mostly by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). There has been some success in implementing pharmacological fMRI in awake nonhuman primates. Nevertheless, the unique versatility of PET imaging will continue to complement the systems-level strengths of fMRI, especially in the context of nonhuman primate drug abuse research.

  19. Learning Neuroimaging. 100 essential cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asis Bravo-Rodriguez, Francisco de; Diaz-Aguilera, Rocio; Hygino da Cruz, Luiz Celso

    2012-01-01

    Neuroradiology is the branch of radiology that comprises both imaging and invasive procedures related to the brain, spine and spinal cord, head, neck, organs of special sense (eyes, ears, nose), cranial and spinal nerves, and cranial, cervical, and spinal vessels. Special training and skills are required to enable the neuroradiologist to function as an expert diagnostic and therapeutic consultant and practitioner. In addition to knowledge of imaging findings, the neuroradiologist is required to learn the fundamentals of structural and functional neuroanatomy, neuropathology, and neuropathophysiology as well as the clinical manifestations of diseases of the brain, spine and spinal cord, head, neck, and organs of special sense. This book is intended as an introduction to neuroradiology and aims to provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of this highly specialized radiological subspecialty. One hundred illustrated cases from clinical practice are presented in a standard way. Each case is supported by representative images and is divided into three parts: a brief summary of the patient's medical history, a discussion of the disease, and a description of the most characteristic imaging features of the disorder. The focus is not only on common neuroradiological entities such as stroke and acute head trauma but also on less frequent disorders that the practitioner should recognize. Learning Neuroimaging: 100 Essential Cases is an ideal resource for neuroradiology and radiology residents, neurology residents, neurosurgery residents, nurses, radiology technicians, and medical students. (orig.)

  20. Learning Neuroimaging. 100 essential cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asis Bravo-Rodriguez, Francisco de [Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain). Diagnostic and Therapeutics Neuroradiology; Diaz-Aguilera, Rocio [Alto Guadalquivir Hospital, Andujar, Jaen (Spain). Dept. of Radiology; Hygino da Cruz, Luiz Celso [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). CDPI and IRM Ressonancia Magnetica

    2012-07-01

    Neuroradiology is the branch of radiology that comprises both imaging and invasive procedures related to the brain, spine and spinal cord, head, neck, organs of special sense (eyes, ears, nose), cranial and spinal nerves, and cranial, cervical, and spinal vessels. Special training and skills are required to enable the neuroradiologist to function as an expert diagnostic and therapeutic consultant and practitioner. In addition to knowledge of imaging findings, the neuroradiologist is required to learn the fundamentals of structural and functional neuroanatomy, neuropathology, and neuropathophysiology as well as the clinical manifestations of diseases of the brain, spine and spinal cord, head, neck, and organs of special sense. This book is intended as an introduction to neuroradiology and aims to provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of this highly specialized radiological subspecialty. One hundred illustrated cases from clinical practice are presented in a standard way. Each case is supported by representative images and is divided into three parts: a brief summary of the patient's medical history, a discussion of the disease, and a description of the most characteristic imaging features of the disorder. The focus is not only on common neuroradiological entities such as stroke and acute head trauma but also on less frequent disorders that the practitioner should recognize. Learning Neuroimaging: 100 Essential Cases is an ideal resource for neuroradiology and radiology residents, neurology residents, neurosurgery residents, nurses, radiology technicians, and medical students. (orig.)

  1. Developments in functional neuroimaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aine, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    A recent review of neuroimaging techniques indicates that new developments have primarily occurred in the area of data acquisition hardware/software technology. For example, new pulse sequences on standard clinical imagers and high-powered, rapidly oscillating magnetic field gradients used in echo planar imaging (EPI) have advanced MRI into the functional imaging arena. Significant developments in tomograph design have also been achieved for monitoring the distribution of positron-emitting radioactive tracers in the body (PET). Detector sizes, which pose a limit on spatial resolution, have become smaller (e.g., 3--5 mm wide) and a new emphasis on volumetric imaging has emerged which affords greater sensitivity for determining locations of positron annihilations and permits smaller doses to be utilized. Electromagnetic techniques have also witnessed growth in the ability to acquire data from the whole head simultaneously. EEG techniques have increased their electrode coverage (e.g., 128 channels rather than 16 or 32) and new whole-head systems are now in use for MEG. But the real challenge now is in the design and implementation of more sophisticated analyses to effectively handle the tremendous amount of physiological/anatomical data that can be acquired. Furthermore, such analyses will be necessary for integrating data across techniques in order to provide a truly comprehensive understanding of the functional organization of the human brain

  2. Functional neuroimaging in Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    Recent progress in the title is reviewed often referring to authors' investigations. The method eZIS developed by them is for automated diagnosis of brain perfusion SPECT, where voxel-based analysis can be done using a Z-score map calculable from patient's data and standard database with 3D-stereotactic surface projection. Decreases of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and of glucose metabolism detectable in specified brain regions by PET or SPECT in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), are found useful for predicting the stage progression of MCI to Alzheimer disease (AD) in future. Partial volume correction method, essentially the division of images of a gray matter SPECT by MR, has elevated the precision of cerebral image analysis. Differential diagnosis of AD and dementia with Lewy bodies, the second most common form of dementia, is possible by the difference of occipital perfusion or glucose metabolism. Evidences by rCBF SPECT as well as by symptomatic ones have been accumulated recently for the therapeutic effect of donepezil, an inhibitor of acetylcholine esterase used for AD treatment. PET and SPECT imaging for the assessment of rCBF and metabolism has thus played very important roles in AD diagnosis, staging, differentiation, prediction and drug effect assessment. Recent advance in voxel-based statistical analysis of PET and SPECT images has raised the value of neuroimaging in dementia. (T.I.)

  3. ORIGINAL ARTICLE EEG changes and neuroimaging abnormalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    salah

    Clinical Genetics Department, Human Genetics & Genome Research Division, ... neuroimaging changes of the brain and EEG abnormalities in correlation to the ... level and by developmental changes2. .... for IQ as a confounding factor.30.

  4. The importance of small polar radiometabolites in molecular neuroimaging: A PET study with [11C]Cimbi-36 labeled in two positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Annette; Hansen, Hanne D; Svarer, Claus; Lehel, Szabolcs; Leth-Petersen, Sebastian; Kristensen, Jesper L; Gillings, Nic; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2018-04-01

    [ 11 C]Cimbi-36, a 5-HT 2A receptor agonist PET radioligand, contains three methoxy groups amenable to [ 11 C]-labeling. In pigs, [ 11 C]Cimbi-36 yields a polar (M1) and a less polar (M2) radiometabolite fraction, while changing the labeling to [ 11 C]Cimbi-36_5 yields only the M1 fraction. We investigate whether changing the labeling position of [ 11 C]Cimbi-36 eliminates M2 in humans, and if this changes the signal-to-background ratio. Six healthy volunteers each underwent two dynamic PET scans; after injection of [ 11 C]Cimbi-36, both the M1 and M2 fraction appeared in plasma, whereas only the M1 appeared after [ 11 C]Cimbi-36_5 injection. [ 11 C]Cimbi-36_5 generated higher uptake than [ 11 C]Cimbi-36 in both neocortex and cerebellum. With the simplified reference tissue model mean neocortical non-displaceable binding potential for [ 11 C]Cimbi-36 was 1.38 ± 0.07, whereas for [ 11 C]Cimbi-36_5, it was 1.18 ± 0.14. This significant difference can be explained by higher non-displaceable binding caused by demethylation products in the M1 fraction such as [ 11 C]formaldehyde and/or [ 11 C]carbon dioxide/bicarbonate. Although often considered without any impact on binding measures, we show that small polar radiometabolites can substantially decrease the signal-to-background ratio of PET radioligands for neuroimaging. Further, we find that [ 11 C]Cimbi-36 has a better signal-to-background ratio than [ 11 C]Cimbi-36_5, and thus will be more sensitive to changes in 5-HT 2A receptor levels in the brain.

  5. Neuroimaging in aging: brain maintenance [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Nyberg

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies of the aging brain provide support that the strongest predictor of preserved memory and cognition in older age is brain maintenance, or relative lack of brain pathology. Evidence for brain maintenance comes from different levels of examination, but up to now relatively few studies have used a longitudinal design. Examining factors that promote brain maintenance in aging is a critical task for the future and may be combined with the use of new techniques for multimodal imaging.

  6. Study on the fatigue crack initiation life under spherical contact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong Joo; Kim, Tae Wan [Busan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Mun Ju [Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-08-01

    In case of contact fatigue, the accurate calculation of surface tractions and subsurface stress is essential to the prediction of crack initiation life. Surface tractions influencing shear stress amplitude have been obtained by contact analysis based on influence function. Subsurface stress has been obtained by using rectangular patch solutions. In this study, to simulate asperity contact under sliding condition, the tip of asperity was simulated by sphere and to calculate crack initiation life in the substrate, dislocation pileup theory was used.

  7. Study on the fatigue crack initiation life under spherical contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yong Joo; Kim, Tae Wan; Lee, Mun Ju

    2001-01-01

    In case of contact fatigue, the accurate calculation of surface tractions and subsurface stress is essential to the prediction of crack initiation life. Surface tractions influencing shear stress amplitude have been obtained by contact analysis based on influence function. Subsurface stress has been obtained by using rectangular patch solutions. In this study, to simulate asperity contact under sliding condition, the tip of asperity was simulated by sphere and to calculate crack initiation life in the substrate, dislocation pileup theory was used

  8. Hanford tank initiative test facility site selection study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staehr, T.W.

    1997-01-01

    The Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) project is developing equipment for the removal of hard heel waste from the Hanford Site underground single-shell waste storage tanks. The HTI equipment will initially be installed in the 241-C-106 tank where its operation will be demonstrated. This study evaluates existing Hanford Site facilities and other sites for functional testing of the HTI equipment before it is installed into the 241-C-106 tank

  9. Neuroimaging of Fear-Associated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, John A; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-01-01

    Fear conditioning has been commonly used as a model of emotional learning in animals and, with the introduction of functional neuroimaging techniques, has proven useful in establishing the neurocircuitry of emotional learning in humans. Studies of fear acquisition suggest that regions such as amygdala, insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and hippocampus play an important role in acquisition of fear, whereas studies of fear extinction suggest that the amygdala is also crucial for safety learning. Extinction retention testing points to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex as an essential region in the recall of the safety trace, and explicit learning of fear and safety associations recruits additional cortical and subcortical regions. Importantly, many of these findings have implications in our understanding of the pathophysiology of psychiatric disease. Recent studies using clinical populations have lent insight into the changes in regional activity in specific disorders, and treatment studies have shown how pharmaceutical and other therapeutic interventions modulate brain activation during emotional learning. Finally, research investigating individual differences in neurotransmitter receptor genotypes has highlighted the contribution of these systems in fear-associated learning. PMID:26294108

  10. Functional Neuro-Imaging and Post-Traumatic Olfactory Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Richard J.; Sheehan, William; Thurber, Steven; Roberts, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate via a research literature survey the anterior neurological significance of decreased olfactory functioning following traumatic brain injuries. Materials and Methods: A computer literature review was performed to locate all functional neuro-imaging studies on patients with post-traumatic anosmia and other olfactory deficits. Results: A convergence of findings from nine functional neuro-imaging studies indicating evidence for reduced metabolic activity at rest or relative hypo-perfusion during olfactory activations. Hypo-activation of the prefrontal regions was apparent in all nine post-traumatic samples, with three samples yielding evidence of reduced activity in the temporal regions as well. Conclusions: The practical ramifications include the reasonable hypothesis that a total anosmic head trauma patient likely has frontal lobe involvement. PMID:21716782

  11. [Neuroimaging and Blood Biomarkers in Functional Prognosis after Stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, João Paulo; Costa, Joana Santos; Sargento-Freitas, João; Oliveira, Sandra; Mendes, Bruno; Laíns, Jorge; Pinheiro, João

    2016-11-01

    Stroke remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality around the world and it is associated with an important long-term functional disability. Some neuroimaging resources and certain peripheral blood or cerebrospinal fluid proteins can give important information about etiology, therapeutic approach, follow-up and functional prognosis in acute ischemic stroke patients. However, among the scientific community, there is currently more interest in the stroke vital prognosis over the functional prognosis. Predicting the functional prognosis during acute phase would allow more objective rehabilitation programs and better management of the available resources. The aim of this work is to review the potential role of acute phase neuroimaging and blood biomarkers as functional recovery predictors after ischemic stroke. Review of the literature published between 2005 and 2015, in English, using the terms "ischemic stroke", "neuroimaging" e "blood biomarkers". We included nine studies, based on abstract reading. Computerized tomography, transcranial doppler ultrasound and diffuse magnetic resonance imaging show potential predictive value, based on the blood flow study and the evaluation of stroke's volume and localization, especially when combined with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. Several biomarkers have been studied as diagnostic, risk stratification and prognostic tools, namely the S100 calcium binding protein B, C-reactive protein, matrix metalloproteinases and cerebral natriuretic peptide. Although some biomarkers and neuroimaging techniques have potential predictive value, none of the studies were able to support its use, alone or in association, as a clinically useful functionality predictor model. All the evaluated markers were considered insufficient to predict functional prognosis at three months, when applied in the first hours after stroke. Additional studies are necessary to identify reliable predictive markers for functional

  12. Human fear conditioning and extinction in neuroimaging: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Sehlmeyer

    Full Text Available Fear conditioning and extinction are basic forms of associative learning that have gained considerable clinical relevance in enhancing our understanding of anxiety disorders and facilitating their treatment. Modern neuroimaging techniques have significantly aided the identification of anatomical structures and networks involved in fear conditioning. On closer inspection, there is considerable variation in methodology and results between studies. This systematic review provides an overview of the current neuroimaging literature on fear conditioning and extinction on healthy subjects, taking into account methodological issues such as the conditioning paradigm. A Pubmed search, as of December 2008, was performed and supplemented by manual searches of bibliographies of key articles. Two independent reviewers made the final study selection and data extraction. A total of 46 studies on cued fear conditioning and/or extinction on healthy volunteers using positron emission tomography or functional magnetic resonance imaging were reviewed. The influence of specific experimental factors, such as contingency and timing parameters, assessment of conditioned responses, and characteristics of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli, on cerebral activation patterns was examined. Results were summarized descriptively. A network consisting of fear-related brain areas, such as amygdala, insula, and anterior cingulate cortex, is activated independently of design parameters. However, some neuroimaging studies do not report these findings in the presence of methodological heterogeneities. Furthermore, other brain areas are differentially activated, depending on specific design parameters. These include stronger hippocampal activation in trace conditioning and tactile stimulation. Furthermore, tactile unconditioned stimuli enhance activation of pain related, motor, and somatosensory areas. Differences concerning experimental factors may partly explain the variance

  13. Sharing privacy-sensitive access to neuroimaging and genetics data: a review and preliminary validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwate, Anand D; Plis, Sergey M; Turner, Jessica A; Arbabshirani, Mohammad R; Calhoun, Vince D

    2014-01-01

    The growth of data sharing initiatives for neuroimaging and genomics represents an exciting opportunity to confront the "small N" problem that plagues contemporary neuroimaging studies while further understanding the role genetic markers play in the function of the brain. When it is possible, open data sharing provides the most benefits. However, some data cannot be shared at all due to privacy concerns and/or risk of re-identification. Sharing other data sets is hampered by the proliferation of complex data use agreements (DUAs) which preclude truly automated data mining. These DUAs arise because of concerns about the privacy and confidentiality for subjects; though many do permit direct access to data, they often require a cumbersome approval process that can take months. An alternative approach is to only share data derivatives such as statistical summaries-the challenges here are to reformulate computational methods to quantify the privacy risks associated with sharing the results of those computations. For example, a derived map of gray matter is often as identifiable as a fingerprint. Thus alternative approaches to accessing data are needed. This paper reviews the relevant literature on differential privacy, a framework for measuring and tracking privacy loss in these settings, and demonstrates the feasibility of using this framework to calculate statistics on data distributed at many sites while still providing privacy.

  14. Sharing privacy-sensitive access to neuroimaging and genetics data: a review and preliminary validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand D. Sarwate

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The growth of data sharing initiatives for neuroimaging and genomics represents an exciting opportunity to confront the ``small $N$'' problem that plagues contemporary neuroimaging studies while further understanding the role genetic markers play in in the function of the brain. When it is possible, open data sharing provides the most benefits. However some data cannot be shared at all due to privacy concerns and/or risk of re-identification. Sharing other data sets is hampered by the proliferation of complex data use agreements (DUAs which preclude truly automated data mining. These DUAs arise because of concerns about the privacy and confidentiality for subjects; though many do permit direct access to data, they often require a cumbersome approval process that can take months. An alternative approach is to only share data derivatives such as statistical summaries -- the challenges here are to reformulate computational methods to quantify the privacy risks associated with sharing the results of those computations. For example, a derived map of gray matter is often as identifiable as a fingerprint. Thus alternative approaches to accessing data are needed. This paper reviews the relevant literature on differential privacy, a framework for measuring and tracking privacy loss in these settings, and demonstrates the feasibility of using this framework to calculate statistics on data distributed at many sites while still providing privacy.

  15. Sharing privacy-sensitive access to neuroimaging and genetics data: a review and preliminary validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwate, Anand D.; Plis, Sergey M.; Turner, Jessica A.; Arbabshirani, Mohammad R.; Calhoun, Vince D.

    2014-01-01

    The growth of data sharing initiatives for neuroimaging and genomics represents an exciting opportunity to confront the “small N” problem that plagues contemporary neuroimaging studies while further understanding the role genetic markers play in the function of the brain. When it is possible, open data sharing provides the most benefits. However, some data cannot be shared at all due to privacy concerns and/or risk of re-identification. Sharing other data sets is hampered by the proliferation of complex data use agreements (DUAs) which preclude truly automated data mining. These DUAs arise because of concerns about the privacy and confidentiality for subjects; though many do permit direct access to data, they often require a cumbersome approval process that can take months. An alternative approach is to only share data derivatives such as statistical summaries—the challenges here are to reformulate computational methods to quantify the privacy risks associated with sharing the results of those computations. For example, a derived map of gray matter is often as identifiable as a fingerprint. Thus alternative approaches to accessing data are needed. This paper reviews the relevant literature on differential privacy, a framework for measuring and tracking privacy loss in these settings, and demonstrates the feasibility of using this framework to calculate statistics on data distributed at many sites while still providing privacy. PMID:24778614

  16. Neuroimaging in human MDMA (Ecstasy) users: A cortical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Ronald L; Roberts, Deanne M; Joers, James M

    2009-01-01

    MDMA (3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine) has been used by millions of people worldwide as a recreational drug. MDMA and Ecstasy are often used synonymously but it is important to note that the purity of Ecstasy sold as MDMA is not certain. MDMA use is of public health concern, not so much because MDMA produces a common or severe dependence syndrome, but rather because rodent and non-human primate studies have indicated that MDMA (when administered at certain dosages and intervals) can cause long-lasting reductions in markers of brain serotonin (5-HT) that appear specific to fine diameter axons arising largely from the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR). Given the popularity of MDMA, the potential for the drug to produce long-lasting or permanent 5-HT axon damage or loss, and the widespread role of 5-HT function in the brain, there is a great need for a better understanding of brain function in human users of this drug. To this end, neuropsychological, neuroendocrine, and neuroimaging studies have all suggested that human MDMA users may have long-lasting changes in brain function consistent with 5-HT toxicity. Data from animal models leads to testable hypotheses regarding MDMA effects on the human brain. Because neuropsychological and neuroimaging findings have focused on the neocortex, a cortical model is developed to provide context for designing and interpreting neuroimaging studies in MDMA users. Aspects of the model are supported by the available neuroimaging data but there are controversial findings in some areas and most findings have not been replicated across different laboratories and using different modalities. This paper reviews existing findings in the context of a cortical model and suggests directions for future research. PMID:18991874

  17. The initial growth of complex oxides : study and manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis, the initial growth stage, i.e., nucleation and growth of the first few unit cell layers, of complex oxides was studied in real time during pulsed laser deposition (PLD). These studies were performed at their optimal epitaxial growth conditions, i.e., high temperature and high oxygen

  18. Cognitive and emotional processes during dreaming: a neuroimaging view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desseilles, Martin; Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Sterpenich, Virginie; Schwartz, Sophie

    2011-12-01

    Dream is a state of consciousness characterized by internally-generated sensory, cognitive and emotional experiences occurring during sleep. Dream reports tend to be particularly abundant, with complex, emotional, and perceptually vivid experiences after awakenings from rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. This is why our current knowledge of the cerebral correlates of dreaming, mainly derives from studies of REM sleep. Neuroimaging results show that REM sleep is characterized by a specific pattern of regional brain activity. We demonstrate that this heterogeneous distribution of brain activity during sleep explains many typical features in dreams. Reciprocally, specific dream characteristics suggest the activation of selective brain regions during sleep. Such an integration of neuroimaging data of human sleep, mental imagery, and the content of dreams is critical for current models of dreaming; it also provides neurobiological support for an implication of sleep and dreaming in some important functions such as emotional regulation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Nervous System Injury and Neuroimaging of Zika Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shanshan; Zeng, Yu; Lerner, Alexander; Gao, Bo; Law, Meng

    2018-01-01

    In 2016, World Health Organization announced Zika virus infection and its neurological sequalae are a public health emergency of global scope. Preliminary studies have confirmed a relationship between Zika virus infection and certain neurological disorders, including microcephaly and Guillain–Barre syndrome (GBS). The neuroimaging features of microcephaly secondary to Zika virus infection include calcifications at the junction of gray–white matter and subcortical white matter with associated cortical abnormalities, diminution of white matter, large ventricles with or without hydrocephalus, cortical malformations, hypoplasia of cerebellum and brainstem, and enlargement of cerebellomedullary cistern. Contrast enhancement of the cauda equine nerve roots is the typical neuroimaging finding of GBS associated with Zika virus. This review describes the nervous system disorders and associated imaging findings seen in Zika virus infection, with the aim to improve the understanding of this disease. Imaging plays a key role on accurate diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of this disease. PMID:29740383

  20. Mathematical modeling and visualization of functional neuroimages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup

    This dissertation presents research results regarding mathematical modeling in the context of the analysis of functional neuroimages. Specifically, the research focuses on pattern-based analysis methods that recently have become popular analysis tools within the neuroimaging community. Such methods...... neuroimaging data sets are characterized by relatively few data observations in a high dimensional space. The process of building models in such data sets often requires strong regularization. Often, the degree of model regularization is chosen in order to maximize prediction accuracy. We focus on the relative...... be carefully selected, so that the model and its visualization enhance our ability to interpret brain function. The second part concerns interpretation of nonlinear models and procedures for extraction of ‘brain maps’ from nonlinear kernel models. We assess the performance of the sensitivity map as means...

  1. A systematic review of temporal discounting in eating disorders and obesity:behavioural and neuroimaging findings

    OpenAIRE

    McClelland, Jessica; Dalton, Bethan; Kekic, Maria; Bartholdy, Savani; Campbell, Iain C; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Eating Disorders (ED) and obesity are suggested to involve a spectrum of self-regulatory control difficulties. Temporal discounting (TD) tasks have been used to explore this idea. This systematic review examines behavioural and neuroimaging TD data in ED and obesity.METHOD: Using PRISMA guidelines, we reviewed relevant articles in MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Embase from inception until 17th August 2016. Studies that reported behavioural differences in TD and/or TD neuroimaging data in ED...

  2. The 'wet mind': water and functional neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bihan, Denis

    2007-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging has emerged as an important approach to study the brain and the mind. Surprisingly, although they are based on radically different physical approaches both positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) make brain activation imaging possible through measurements involving water molecules. So far, PET and MRI functional imaging have relied on the principle that neuronal activation and blood flow are coupled through metabolism. However, a new paradigm has emerged to look at brain activity through the observation with MRI of the molecular diffusion of water. In contrast with the former approaches diffusion MRI has the potential to reveal changes in the intrinsic water physical properties during brain activation, which could be more intimately linked to the neuronal activation mechanisms and lead to an improved spatial and temporal resolution. However, this link has yet to be fully confirmed and understood. To shed light on the possible relationship between water and brain activation, this introductory paper reviews the most recent data on the physical properties of water and on the status of water in biological tissues, and evaluates their relevance to brain diffusion MRI. The biophysical mechanisms of brain activation are then reassessed to reveal their intimacy with the physical properties of water, which may come to be regarded as the 'molecule of the mind'. (invited topical review)

  3. Neuroimaging in pre-motor Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Barber

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease begins long before the onset of clinical motor symptoms, resulting in substantial cell loss by the time a diagnosis can be made. The period between the onset of neurodegeneration and the development of motoric disease would be the ideal time to intervene with disease modifying therapies. This pre-motor phase can last many years, but the lack of a specific clinical phenotype means that objective biomarkers are needed to reliably detect prodromal disease. In recent years, recognition that patients with REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD are at particularly high risk of future parkinsonism has enabled the development of large prodromal cohorts in which to investigate novel biomarkers, and neuroimaging has generated some of the most promising results to date. Here we review investigations undertaken in RBD and other pre-clinical cohorts, including modalities that are well established in clinical Parkinson's as well as novel imaging methods. Techniques such as high resolution MRI of the substantia nigra and functional imaging of Parkinsonian brain networks have great potential to facilitate early diagnosis. Further longitudinal studies will establish their true value in quantifying prodromal neurodegeneration and predicting future Parkinson's.

  4. The experience of art: insights from neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Marcos

    2013-01-01

    The experience of art is a complex one. It emerges from the interaction of multiple cognitive and affective processes. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies are revealing the broadly distributed network of brain regions upon which it relies. This network can be divided into three functional components: (i) prefrontal, parietal, and temporal cortical regions support evaluative judgment, attentional processing, and memory retrieval; (ii) the reward circuit, including cortical, subcortical regions, and some of its regulators, is involved in the generation of pleasurable feelings and emotions, and the valuation and anticipation of reward; and (iii) attentional modulation of activity in low-, mid-, and high-level cortical sensory regions enhances the perceptual processing of certain features, relations, locations, or objects. Understanding how these regions act in concert to produce unique and moving art experiences and determining the impact of personal and cultural meaning and context on this network the biological foundation of the experience of art--remain future challenges. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Design and rationale for examining neuroimaging genetics in ischemic stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Anne-Katrin; Schirmer, Markus D.; Donahue, Kathleen L.; Cloonan, Lisa; Irie, Robert; Winzeck, Stefan; Bouts, Mark J.R.J.; McIntosh, Elissa C.; Mocking, Steven J.; Dalca, Adrian V.; Sridharan, Ramesh; Xu, Huichun; Frid, Petrea; Giralt-Steinhauer, Eva; Holmegaard, Lukas; Roquer, Jaume; Wasselius, Johan; Cole, John W.; McArdle, Patrick F.; Broderick, Joseph P.; Jimenez-Conde, Jordi; Jern, Christina; Kissela, Brett M.; Kleindorfer, Dawn O.; Lemmens, Robin; Lindgren, Arne; Meschia, James F.; Rundek, Tatjana; Sacco, Ralph L.; Schmidt, Reinhold; Sharma, Pankaj; Slowik, Agnieszka; Thijs, Vincent; Woo, Daniel; Worrall, Bradford B.; Kittner, Steven J.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Rosand, Jonathan; Golland, Polina; Wu, Ona

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To describe the design and rationale for the genetic analysis of acute and chronic cerebrovascular neuroimaging phenotypes detected on clinical MRI in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) within the scope of the MRI–GENetics Interface Exploration (MRI-GENIE) study. Methods: MRI-GENIE capitalizes on the existing infrastructure of the Stroke Genetics Network (SiGN). In total, 12 international SiGN sites contributed MRIs of 3,301 patients with AIS. Detailed clinical phenotyping with the web-based Causative Classification of Stroke (CCS) system and genome-wide genotyping data were available for all participants. Neuroimaging analyses include the manual and automated assessments of established MRI markers. A high-throughput MRI analysis pipeline for the automated assessment of cerebrovascular lesions on clinical scans will be developed in a subset of scans for both acute and chronic lesions, validated against gold standard, and applied to all available scans. The extracted neuroimaging phenotypes will improve characterization of acute and chronic cerebrovascular lesions in ischemic stroke, including CCS subtypes, and their effect on functional outcomes after stroke. Moreover, genetic testing will uncover variants associated with acute and chronic MRI manifestations of cerebrovascular disease. Conclusions: The MRI-GENIE study aims to develop, validate, and distribute the MRI analysis platform for scans acquired as part of clinical care for patients with AIS, which will lead to (1) novel genetic discoveries in ischemic stroke, (2) strategies for personalized stroke risk assessment, and (3) personalized stroke outcome assessment. PMID:28852707

  6. Partial Least Squares tutorial for analyzing neuroimaging data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Van Roon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Partial least squares (PLS has become a respected and meaningful soft modeling analysis technique that can be applied to very large datasets where the number of factors or variables is greater than the number of observations. Current biometric studies (e.g., eye movements, EKG, body movements, EEG are often of this nature. PLS eliminates the multiple linear regression issues of over-fitting data by finding a few underlying or latent variables (factors that account for most of the variation in the data. In real-world applications, where linear models do not always apply, PLS can model the non-linear relationship well. This tutorial introduces two PLS methods, PLS Correlation (PLSC and PLS Regression (PLSR and their applications in data analysis which are illustrated with neuroimaging examples. Both methods provide straightforward and comprehensible techniques for determining and modeling relationships between two multivariate data blocks by finding latent variables that best describes the relationships. In the examples, the PLSC will analyze the relationship between neuroimaging data such as Event-Related Potential (ERP amplitude averages from different locations on the scalp with their corresponding behavioural data. Using the same data, the PLSR will be used to model the relationship between neuroimaging and behavioural data. This model will be able to predict future behaviour solely from available neuroimaging data. To find latent variables, Singular Value Decomposition (SVD for PLSC and Non-linear Iterative PArtial Least Squares (NIPALS for PLSR are implemented in this tutorial. SVD decomposes the large data block into three manageable matrices containing a diagonal set of singular values, as well as left and right singular vectors. For PLSR, NIPALS algorithms are used because it provides amore precise estimation of the latent variables. Mathematica notebooks are provided for each PLS method with clearly labeled sections and subsections. The

  7. Making Individual Prognoses in Psychiatry Using Neuroimaging and Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Ronald J; Mourão-Miranda, Janaina; Schnack, Hugo G

    2018-04-22

    Psychiatric prognosis is a difficult problem. Making a prognosis requires looking far into the future, as opposed to making a diagnosis, which is concerned with the current state. During the follow-up period, many factors will influence the course of the disease. Combined with the usually scarcer longitudinal data and the variability in the definition of outcomes/transition, this makes prognostic predictions a challenging endeavor. Employing neuroimaging data in this endeavor introduces the additional hurdle of high dimensionality. Machine-learning techniques are especially suited to tackle this challenging problem. This review starts with a brief introduction to machine learning in the context of its application to clinical neuroimaging data. We highlight a few issues that are especially relevant for prediction of outcome and transition using neuroimaging. We then review the literature that discusses the application of machine learning for this purpose. Critical examination of the studies and their results with respect to the relevant issues revealed the following: 1) there is growing evidence for the prognostic capability of machine-learning-based models using neuroimaging; and 2) reported accuracies may be too optimistic owing to small sample sizes and the lack of independent test samples. Finally, we discuss options to improve the reliability of (prognostic) prediction models. These include new methodologies and multimodal modeling. Paramount, however, is our conclusion that future work will need to provide properly (cross-)validated accuracy estimates of models trained on sufficiently large datasets. Nevertheless, with the technological advances enabling acquisition of large databases of patients and healthy subjects, machine learning represents a powerful tool in the search for psychiatric biomarkers. Copyright © 2018 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The School Meals Initiative Implementation Study. First Year Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Sameer; Chattopadhyay, Manas; Sullivan, Colleen; Mallory, Larry; Steiger, Darby Miller; Daft, Lynn; Arcos, Alyssa; Wilbraham, Brooke

    This report, authorized by the Food and Nutrition Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, contains information on the School Meals Initiative for Healthy Children (SMI), a reform of school-meals programs aimed at upgrading the nutritional content of school meals. The purpose of the study was to describe and evaluate: (1) overall…

  9. Studies on the disbonding initiation of interfacial cracks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAdams, Brian J. (Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA); Pearson, Raymond A. (Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA)

    2005-08-01

    With the continuing trend of decreasing feature sizes in flip-chip assemblies, the reliability tolerance to interfacial flaws is also decreasing. Small-scale disbonds will become more of a concern, pointing to the need for a better understanding of the initiation stage of interfacial delamination. With most accepted adhesion metric methodologies tailored to predict failure under the prior existence of a disbond, the study of the initiation phenomenon is open to development and standardization of new testing procedures. Traditional fracture mechanics approaches are not suitable, as the mathematics assume failure to originate at a disbond or crack tip. Disbond initiation is believed to first occur at free edges and corners, which act as high stress concentration sites and exhibit singular stresses similar to a crack tip, though less severe in intensity. As such, a 'fracture mechanics-like' approach may be employed which defines a material parameter--a critical stress intensity factor (K{sub c})--that can be used to predict when initiation of a disbond at an interface will occur. The factors affecting the adhesion of underfill/polyimide interfaces relevant to flip-chip assemblies were investigated in this study. The study consisted of two distinct parts: a comparison of the initiation and propagation phenomena and a comparison of the relationship between sub-critical and critical initiation of interfacial failure. The initiation of underfill interfacial failure was studied by characterizing failure at a free-edge with a critical stress intensity factor. In comparison with the interfacial fracture toughness testing, it was shown that a good correlation exists between the initiation and propagation of interfacial failures. Such a correlation justifies the continuing use of fracture mechanics to predict the reliability of flip-chip packages. The second aspect of the research involved fatigue testing of tensile butt joint specimens to determine lifetimes at sub

  10. Real-World Neuroimaging Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    the Android platform on cell phones and tablet computers. The main feature of the system is a set of widgets on the home screen that allow the user to... MRI of an actual head with embedded dipole source points (Creare, Inc, [100]). Even though the initial attempts fall short of the necessary

  11. Comparative study of the neuropsychological and neuroimaging evaluations in children with dyslexia Estudo comparativo das avaliações neuropsicológicas e de neuroimagem em crianças com dislexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Genaro Arduini

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed retrospectively the neuroimaging exams of children with a confirmed diagnosis of dyslexia and correlated our findings with the evaluation of higher cortical functions. We studied 34 medical files of patients of the Ambulatory of Neuro-difficulties in Learning, FCM/UNICAMP. All of them had been sent to the ambulatory with primary or secondary complaints of difficulties at school and were submitted to neuropsychological evaluation and imaging exam (SPECT. From the children evaluated 58.8% had exams presenting dysfunction with 47% presenting hypoperfusion in the temporal lobe. As for the higher cortical functions, the most affected abilities were reading, writing and memory. There was significance between the hypoperfused areas and the variables schooling, reading, writing, memory and mathematic reasoning. The SPECTs showed hypoperfusion in areas involved in the reading and writing processes. Both are equivalent in terms of involved functional areas and are similar in children with or without specific dysfunctions in neuroimaging.Analisamos retrospectivamente exames de neuroimagem de crianças com diagnóstico de dislexia e correlacionamos os achados com avaliação das funções corticais superiores. Estudamos 34 prontuários de pacientes atendidos no Ambulatório de Neuro-Dificuldades de Aprendizado, FCM/UNICAMP, no período de 1994 a 2002. Todas foram encaminhadas com queixa primária ou secundária de dificuldade escolar e submetidas à avaliação neuropsicológica e exame de imagem (SPECT. Das crianças avaliadas, 58,8% apresentaram exames alterados. Dentre as alterações, 16 possuíam hipoperfusão no lobo temporal. Nas funções corticais superiores, as habilidades mais prejudicadas foram leitura, escrita e memória. Houve significância entre as áreas hipoperfundidas com a variável escolaridade, leitura, escrita, memória e raciocínio matemático. Os SPECTs mostraram hipoperfusão em áreas envolvidas nos processos de

  12. Hirayama disease: diagnostic essentials in neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanakis, Stylianos; Chourmouzi, Danae; Terzoudi, Aikaterini; Georgiou, Nikiforos; Giovannopoulou, Eirini

    2017-12-01

    A 22-year-old male presented with progressive muscular weakness of the upper extremities. MRI of the cervical spine established the final diagnosis of Hirayama disease (HD). HD is a rare disease with benign progress. Neurologists and radiologists should be aware of the specific neuroimaging signs of this rare clinical entity.

  13. Effects of Marijuana Use on Brain Structure and Function: Neuroimaging Findings from a Neurodevelopmental Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumback, T.; Castro, N.; Jacobus, J.; Tapert, S.

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana, behind only tobacco and alcohol, is the most popular recreational drug in America with prevalence rates of use rising over the past decade. A wide range of research has highlighted neurocognitive deficits associated with marijuana use, particularly when initiated during childhood or adolescence. Neuroimaging, describing alterations to brain structure and function, has begun to provide a picture of possible mechanisms associated with the deleterious effects of marijuana use. This chapter provides a neurodevelopmental framework from which recent data on brain structural and functional abnormalities associated with marijuana use is reviewed. Based on the current data, we provide aims for future studies to more clearly delineate the effects of marijuana on the developing brain and to define underlying mechanisms of the potential long-term negative consequences of marijuana use. PMID:27503447

  14. Neuroimaging in Psychiatry: A Review of the Background and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are two different types of neuroimaging of value in clinical psychiatry, namely: structural neuroimaging techniques (e.g., CT, MRI) which provide static images of the skull, and brain, and funnctional neuroimaging techniques (e.g., single photon emission CT [SPECT], positron emission tomography [PET], functional MRI ...

  15. STUDIES ON VINYL POLYMERIZATION WITH INITIATION SYSTEM CONTAINING AMINE DERIVATIVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Kunyuan; ZHANG Jingyi; FENG Xinde(S. T. Voong)

    1983-01-01

    Two main types of amine-containing initiation systems were studied in this work. In the case of MMA polymerization initiated by BPO-amine (DMT, DHET, DMA) redox systems, it was found that the polymerization rate and colour stability of the polymer for different amine systems were in the following order: DMT≈DHET>DMA. Accordingly, BPO-DMT and BPO-DHET are effective initiators. In the case of MEMA polymerization by amine (DMT, DHET, DMA) alone, it was found that the polymerization rate and the percentage of conversion for these different amine systems were in the following order: DMT≥DHET>DMA. The polymerization rate and the percentage of conversion also increased with the increase of DMT concentration. From the kinetic investigation the rate equation of Rp=K [DMT]1/2 [MEMA]3/2 was obtained, and the overall activation energy of polymerization was calculated to be 34.3 KJ/mol (8.2 Kcal/mol). Moreover, the polymerization of MEMA in the presence of DMT was strongly inhibited by hydroquinone, indicating the polymerization being free radical in nature. From these results, the mechanism of MEMA polymerization initiated by amine was proposed.

  16. Initial trade and design studies for the fusion engineering device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, C.A.; Steiner, D.; Smith, G.E.

    1981-06-01

    The Magnetic Fusion Energy Engineering Act of 1980 calls for the operation of a Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by 1990. It is the intent of the Act that the FED, in combination with other testing facilities, will establish the engineering feasibility of magnetic fusion energy. The Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC), under the guidance of a Technical Management Board (TMB), initiated a program of trade and design studies in October 1980 to support the selection of the FED concept. This document presents the results of these initial trade and design studies. Based on these results, a baseline configuration has been identified and the Design Center effort for the remainder of the fiscal year will be devoted to the development of a self-consistent FED design description

  17. Numerical study of the initial dynamics in tormac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydemir, A.Y.

    1979-01-01

    Using a single fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code, we study the initial plasma dynamics in Tormac, an experimental device which attempts to confine plasma in a toroidal, two-pole cusp field. The code is in two dimensions and includes classical electrical conductivity and a constant heat conductivity. The full set of nonlinear MHD equations for the mass density, fluid velocity, temperature, the poloidal flux function, and the poloidal current function are solved using a predictor-corrector method

  18. 'Crisis' and 'everyday' initiators: A qualitative study of coercion and agency in the context of methadone maintenance treatment initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon, Will; Small, Will; Anderson, Solanna; Maher, Lisa; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas; McNeil, Ryan

    2017-03-01

    Patient attrition is common among people enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) programs and most pronounced during the first year of treatment. However, the experiences of patients initiating MMT have been overlooked in the literature. This study explores experiences of MMT initiation among MMT patients, focusing on contextual influences on MMT initiation and perceptions of MMT and their subsequent influence on treatment retention. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 39 MMT patients in Vancouver, Canada. Individuals reporting enrolment in MMT were recruited from within two ongoing cohort studies comprised of people who use drugs. Interview transcripts were analysed using an inductive and iterative approach. Two groups of MMT initiators were identified: (i) 'crisis initiators' prescribed methadone following critical transition events, such as incarceration or pregnancy; and (ii) 'everyday initiators' enrolled in MMT as part of routine healthcare utilisation. While most 'crisis initiators' and some 'everyday initiators' described experiencing coercion during MMT initiation, 'crisis initiators' were further subjected to the coercive leveraging of their vulnerability to motivate 'consent' for MMT. 'Crisis initiators' developed negative views towards MMT and were more likely to discontinue treatment. Long-standing patient-provider relationships and open dialogue were associated with more positive views regarding MMT, regardless of the circumstances of initiation. Findings underscore the need for clear and effective communication regarding treatment regimens and expectations during MMT initiation. Furthermore, training in trauma-informed care may help reduce perceptions of coercion and rates of early treatment termination. [Damon W, Small W, Anderson S, Maher L, Wood E, Kerr T, McNeil R. Crisis' and 'everyday' initiators: A qualitative study of coercion and agency in the context of methadone maintenance treatment initiation. Drug

  19. Report to DOE on the evaluation of initial trapping studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breun, R.A.; Kesner, J.; Nonn, P.; Pian, T.; Post, R.S.; Scharer, J.; Smatlak, D.; Smith, D.; Yugo, J.; Yujiri, L.

    1978-12-01

    This report summarizes work up to Dec. 1, 1978 on the single mirror plug of Phaedrus. The design, construction and initial experiments proceeded without major problems. The results on RF trapping and heating steadily improved during the months of October and November with our best results being obtained during the last two weeks of November. These positive results are encouraging for RF heating in mirrors. The experiments to date have concentrated on heating stream gun plasmas. This plasma source has been well suited for our initial studies as it produces a hot, dense plasma over a long duration (approx. 1 msec). This has made diagnostics particularly straight forward. Because of the time scale we have carried out most of our work with the 200 kW source which is capable of running for long pulses

  20. Study of stress corrosion cracking initiation of high alloy materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blahetova, Marie; Cihal, Vladimir; Lasek, Stanislav [Department of Materials Engineering, VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, tr. 17. listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava - Poruba (Czech Republic)

    2004-07-01

    The stainless steels and related alloys with sufficient resistance to a general corrosion can be susceptible to a localized corrosion (pitting, cracking, intergranular corrosion) in certain environment under specific conditions. The Drop Evaporation Test (DET) was developed for study of stainless materials resistance to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) at elevated temperatures 100 - 300 deg. C under constant external load using a chloride containing water solution. In the contribution the initiation and propagation of short cracks as well as pits were observed during the test. The crack initiation and/or propagation can be influenced by the cyclic thermal stresses, when the diluted water solution drops cool down the hot sample. The coordinates measurement of microscopic pits and sharp corrosion crack tips by the travelling microscope method allowed to derive the crack growth lengths and rates of short cracks. (authors)

  1. Study of stress corrosion cracking initiation of high alloy materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blahetova, Marie; Cihal, Vladimir; Lasek, Stanislav

    2004-01-01

    The stainless steels and related alloys with sufficient resistance to a general corrosion can be susceptible to a localized corrosion (pitting, cracking, intergranular corrosion) in certain environment under specific conditions. The Drop Evaporation Test (DET) was developed for study of stainless materials resistance to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) at elevated temperatures 100 - 300 deg. C under constant external load using a chloride containing water solution. In the contribution the initiation and propagation of short cracks as well as pits were observed during the test. The crack initiation and/or propagation can be influenced by the cyclic thermal stresses, when the diluted water solution drops cool down the hot sample. The coordinates measurement of microscopic pits and sharp corrosion crack tips by the travelling microscope method allowed to derive the crack growth lengths and rates of short cracks. (authors)

  2. Neuromarketing: the hope and hype of neuroimaging in business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariely, Dan; Berns, Gregory S

    2010-04-01

    The application of neuroimaging methods to product marketing - neuromarketing - has recently gained considerable popularity. We propose that there are two main reasons for this trend. First, the possibility that neuroimaging will become cheaper and faster than other marketing methods; and second, the hope that neuroimaging will provide marketers with information that is not obtainable through conventional marketing methods. Although neuroimaging is unlikely to be cheaper than other tools in the near future, there is growing evidence that it may provide hidden information about the consumer experience. The most promising application of neuroimaging methods to marketing may come before a product is even released - when it is just an idea being developed.

  3. Autism Spectrum Disorder: Does Neuroimaging Support the DSM-5 Proposal for a Symptom Dyad? A Systematic Review of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Diffusion Tensor Imaging Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina-Camacho, Laura; Villero, Sonia; Fraguas, David; Boada, Leticia; Janssen, Joost; Navas-Sanchez, Francisco J.; Mayoral, Maria; Llorente, Cloe; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review of 208 studies comprising functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging data in patients with "autism spectrum disorder" (ASD) was conducted, in order to determine whether these data support the forthcoming DSM-5 proposal of a social communication and behavioral symptom dyad. Studies consistently reported…

  4. Mathematical modeling and visualization of functional neuroimages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup

    This dissertation presents research results regarding mathematical modeling in the context of the analysis of functional neuroimages. Specifically, the research focuses on pattern-based analysis methods that recently have become popular within the neuroimaging community. Such methods attempt...... sets are characterized by relatively few data observations in a high dimensional space. The process of building models in such data sets often requires strong regularization. Often, the degree of model regularization is chosen in order to maximize prediction accuracy. We focus on the relative influence...... be carefully selected, so that the model and its visualization enhance our ability to interpret the brain. The second part concerns interpretation of nonlinear models and procedures for extraction of ‘brain maps’ from nonlinear kernel models. We assess the performance of the sensitivity map as means...

  5. Global teaching and training initiatives for emerging cohort studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K. Paulus

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A striking disparity exists across the globe, with essentially no large-scale longitudinal studies ongoing in regions that will be significantly affected by the oncoming non-communicable disease epidemic. The successful implementation of cohort studies in most low-resource research environments presents unique challenges that may be aided by coordinated training programs. Leaders of emerging cohort studies attending the First World Cohort Integration Workshop were surveyed about training priorities, unmet needs and potential cross-cohort solutions to these barriers through an electronic pre-workshop questionnaire and focus groups. Cohort studies representing India, Mexico, Nigeria, South Africa, Sweden, Tanzania and Uganda described similar training needs, including on-the-job training, data analysis software instruction, and database and bio-bank management. A lack of funding and protected time for training activities were commonly identified constraints. Proposed solutions include a collaborative cross-cohort teaching platform with web-based content and interactive teaching methods for a range of research personnel. An international network for research mentorship and idea exchange, and modifying the graduate thesis structure were also identified as key initiatives. Cross-cohort integrated educational initiatives will efficiently meet shared needs, catalyze the development of emerging cohorts, speed closure of the global disparity in cohort research, and may fortify scientific capacity development in low-resource settings.

  6. Epileptic Seizures are Reduced by Autonomic Biofeedback Therapy Through Enhancement of Fronto-limbic Connectivity: A Controlled Trial and Neuroimaging Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Nagai

    2018-01-01

    Interpretation: Our clinical study provides evidence for autonomic biofeedback therapy as an effective and potent behavioral intervention for patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. This approach is non-pharmacological, non-invasive and seemingly side-effect free.

  7. Understanding initial undergraduate expectations and identity in computing studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Päivi; Butler, Matthew; Morgan, Michael; Nylen, Aletta; Peters, Anne-Kathrin; Sinclair, Jane; Kalvala, Sara; Pesonen, Erkki

    2018-03-01

    There is growing appreciation of the importance of understanding the student perspective in Higher Education (HE) at both institutional and international levels. This is particularly important in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics subjects such as Computer Science (CS) and Engineering in which industry needs are high but so are student dropout rates. An important factor to consider is the management of students' initial expectations of university study and career. This paper reports on a study of CS first-year students' expectations across three European countries using qualitative data from student surveys and essays. Expectation is examined from both short-term (topics to be studied) and long-term (career goals) perspectives. Tackling these issues will help paint a picture of computing education through students' eyes and explore their vision of its and their role in society. It will also help educators prepare students more effectively for university study and to improve the student experience.

  8. Beacon communities' public health initiatives: a case study analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoudi, Barbara L; Marcial, Laura H; Haque, Saira; Bailey, Robert; Chester, Kelley; Cunningham, Shellery; Riley, Amanda; Soper, Paula

    2014-01-01

    The Beacon Communities for Public Health (BCPH) project was launched in 2011 to gain a better understanding of the range of activities currently being conducted in population- and public health by the Beacon Communities. The project highlighted the successes and challenges of these efforts with the aim of sharing this information broadly among the public health community. The Beacon Community Program, designed to showcase technology-enabled, community-based initiatives to improve outcomes, focused on: building and strengthening health information technology (IT) infrastructure and exchange capabilities; translating investments in health IT to measureable improvements in cost, quality, and population health; and, developing innovative approaches to performance measurement, technology, and care delivery. Four multimethod case studies were conducted based on a modified sociotechnical framework to learn more about public health initiative implementation and use in the Beacon Communities. Our methodological approach included using document review and semistructured key informant interviews. NACCHO Model Practice Program criteria were used to select the public health initiatives included in the case studies. Despite differences among the case studies, common barriers and facilitators were found to be present in all areas of the sociotechnical framework application including structure, people, technology, tasks, overarching considerations, and sustainability. Overall, there were many more facilitators (range = 7-14) present for each Beacon compared to barriers (range = 4-6). Four influential promising practices were identified through the work: forging strong and sustainable partnerships; ensuring a good task-technology fit and a flexible and iterative design; fostering technology acceptance; and, providing education and demonstrating value. A common weakness was the lack of a framework or model for the Beacon Communities evaluation work. Sharing a framework or approach

  9. Beacon Communities’ Public Health Initiatives: A Case Study Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoudi, Barbara L.; Marcial, Laura H.; Haque, Saira; Bailey, Robert; Chester, Kelley; Cunningham, Shellery; Riley, Amanda; Soper, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The Beacon Communities for Public Health (BCPH) project was launched in 2011 to gain a better understanding of the range of activities currently being conducted in population- and public health by the Beacon Communities. The project highlighted the successes and challenges of these efforts with the aim of sharing this information broadly among the public health community. Background: The Beacon Community Program, designed to showcase technology-enabled, community-based initiatives to improve outcomes, focused on: building and strengthening health information technology (IT) infrastructure and exchange capabilities; translating investments in health IT to measureable improvements in cost, quality, and population health; and, developing innovative approaches to performance measurement, technology, and care delivery. Methods: Four multimethod case studies were conducted based on a modified sociotechnical framework to learn more about public health initiative implementation and use in the Beacon Communities. Our methodological approach included using document review and semistructured key informant interviews. NACCHO Model Practice Program criteria were used to select the public health initiatives included in the case studies. Findings: Despite differences among the case studies, common barriers and facilitators were found to be present in all areas of the sociotechnical framework application including structure, people, technology, tasks, overarching considerations, and sustainability. Overall, there were many more facilitators (range = 7–14) present for each Beacon compared to barriers (range = 4–6). Discussion: Four influential promising practices were identified through the work: forging strong and sustainable partnerships; ensuring a good task-technology fit and a flexible and iterative design; fostering technology acceptance; and, providing education and demonstrating value. Conclusions: A common weakness was the lack of a framework or model for

  10. Bridging Technometric Method and Innovation Process: An Initial Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumanti, A. A.; Reynaldo, R.; Samadhi, T. M. A. A.; Wiratmadja, I. I.; Dwita, A. C.

    2018-03-01

    The process of innovation is one of ways utilized to increase the capability of a technology component that reflects the need of SME. Technometric method can be used to identify to what extent the level of technology advancement in a SME is, and also which technology component that needs to be maximized in order to significantly deliver an innovation. This paper serves as an early study, which lays out a conceptual framework that identifies and elaborates the principles of innovation process from a well-established innovation model by Martin with the technometric method, based on the initial background research conducted at SME Ira Silver in Jogjakarta, Indonesia.

  11. Neuroimaging in nuclear medicine: drug addicted brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong-An; Kim, Dae-Jin [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15

    Addiction to illicit drugs in one of today's most important social issues. Most addictive drugs lead to irreversible parenchymal changes in the human brain. Neuroimaging data bring to light the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the abused drugs, and demonstrate that addiction is a disease of the brain. Continuous researches better illustrate the neurochemical alterations in brain function, and attempt to discover the links to consequent behavioral changes. Newer hypotheses and theories follow the numerous results, and more rational methods of approaching therapy are being developed. Substance abuse is on the rise in Korea, and social interest in the matter as well. On the other hand, diagnosis and treatment of drug addiction is still very difficult, because how the abused substance acts in the brain, or how it leads to behavioral problems in not widely known. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of drug addiction can improve the process of diagnosing addict patients, planning therapy, and predicting the prognosis . Neuroimaging approaches by nuclear medicine methods are expected to objectively judge behavioral and neurochemical changes, and response to treatment. In addition, as genes associated with addictive behavior are discovered, functional nuclear medicine images will aid in the assessment of individuals. Reviewing published literature on neuroimaging regarding nuclear medicine is expected to be of assistance to the management of drug addict patients. What's more, means of applying nuclear medicine to the care of drug addict patients should be investigated further.

  12. Neuroimaging in nuclear medicine: drug addicted brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong-An; Kim, Dae-Jin

    2006-01-01

    Addiction to illicit drugs in one of today's most important social issues. Most addictive drugs lead to irreversible parenchymal changes in the human brain. Neuroimaging data bring to light the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the abused drugs, and demonstrate that addiction is a disease of the brain. Continuous researches better illustrate the neurochemical alterations in brain function, and attempt to discover the links to consequent behavioral changes. Newer hypotheses and theories follow the numerous results, and more rational methods of approaching therapy are being developed. Substance abuse is on the rise in Korea, and social interest in the matter as well. On the other hand, diagnosis and treatment of drug addiction is still very difficult, because how the abused substance acts in the brain, or how it leads to behavioral problems in not widely known. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of drug addiction can improve the process of diagnosing addict patients, planning therapy, and predicting the prognosis . Neuroimaging approaches by nuclear medicine methods are expected to objectively judge behavioral and neurochemical changes, and response to treatment. In addition, as genes associated with addictive behavior are discovered, functional nuclear medicine images will aid in the assessment of individuals. Reviewing published literature on neuroimaging regarding nuclear medicine is expected to be of assistance to the management of drug addict patients. What's more, means of applying nuclear medicine to the care of drug addict patients should be investigated further

  13. Functional neuroimaging in Tourette syndrome:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debes, Nanette Marinette Monique Mol; Preel, Marie; Skov, Liselotte

    2017-01-01

    the presence of comorbidity, medical treatment, and severity of tics are considered in the various studies; most studies show that the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit seems to be involved in the generation of tics. Changes in this circuit seem to be correlated with tic severity. Correlations have been...... found between the presence of tics and hypermetabolism in various brain regions. Abnormalities of GABAergic, serotonergic, and dopaminergic neurotransmission in patients with TS have been suggested. During tic suppression, increased activity in the inferior frontal gyrus is seen. The premotor cortex...... might be involved in inhibition of motor control in subjects with TS. The right anterior insula is suggested to be a part of the urge–tic network. Several studies have shown altered motor network activations and sensorimotor gating deficits in subjects with TS. In future studies, inclusion of more well...

  14. Looking at the brains behind figurative language--a quantitative meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies on metaphor, idiom, and irony processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrn, Isabel C; Altmann, Ulrike; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2012-09-01

    A quantitative, coordinate-based meta-analysis combined data from 354 participants across 22 fMRI studies and one positron emission tomography (PET) study to identify the differences in neural correlates of figurative and literal language processing, and to investigate the role of the right hemisphere (RH) in figurative language processing. Studies that reported peak activations in standard space contrasting figurative vs. literal language processing at whole brain level in healthy adults were included. The left and right IFG, large parts of the left temporal lobe, the bilateral medial frontal gyri (medFG) and an area around the left amygdala emerged for figurative language processing across studies. Conditions requiring exclusively literal language processing did not activate any selective regions in most of the cases, but if so they activated the cuneus/precuneus, right MFG and the right IPL. No general RH advantage for metaphor processing could be found. On the contrary, significant clusters of activation for metaphor conditions were mostly lateralized to the left hemisphere (LH). Subgroup comparisons between experiments on metaphors, idioms, and irony/sarcasm revealed shared activations in left frontotemporal regions for idiom and metaphor processing. Irony/sarcasm processing was correlated with activations in midline structures such as the medFG, ACC and cuneus/precuneus. To test the graded salience hypothesis (GSH, Giora, 1997), novel metaphors were contrasted against conventional metaphors. In line with the GSH, RH involvement was found for novel metaphors only. Here we show that more analytic, semantic processes are involved in metaphor comprehension, whereas irony/sarcasm comprehension involves theory of mind processes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Neuroimaging of Narcolepsy and Kleine-Levin Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seung Bong

    2017-09-01

    Narcolepsy is a chronic neurologic disorder with the abnormal regulation of the sleep-wake cycle, resulting in excessive daytime sleepiness, disturbed nocturnal sleep, and manifestations related to rapid eye movement sleep, such as cataplexy, sleep paralysis, and hypnagogic hallucination. Over the past decade, numerous neuroimaging studies have been performed to characterize the pathophysiology and various clinical features of narcolepsy. This article reviews structural and functional brain imaging findings in narcolepsy and Kleine-Levin syndrome. Based on the current state of research, brain imaging is a useful tool to investigate and understand the neuroanatomic correlates and brain abnormalities of narcolepsy and other hypersomnia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Content-Related Interactions in Self-initiated Study Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Karen; Talanquer, Vicente

    2012-09-01

    The central goal of the present exploratory study was to investigate the nature of the content-related interactions in study groups independently organized by college organic chemistry students. We were particularly interested in the identification of the different factors that affected the emergence of opportunities for students to co-construct understanding and engage in higher levels of cognitive processing. Our results are based on the analysis of in situ observations of 34 self-initiated study sessions involving over a 100 students in three academic semesters. The investigation revealed three major types of social regulation processes, teaching, tutoring, and co-construction in the observed study sessions. However, the extent to which students engaged in each of them varied widely from one session to another. This variability was mostly determined by the specific composition of the study groups and the nature of the study tasks in which they were engaged. Decisions about how to organize the study session, the relative content knowledge and conceptual understanding expressed by the participants, as well as the cognitive level of the problems that guided group work had a strong impact on the nature of student interactions. Nevertheless, group talk in the observed study groups was mostly focused on low-level cognitive processes. The results of our work provide insights on how to better support students' productive engagement in study groups.

  17. Functional neuroimaging and childhood autism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boddaert, Nathalie [Service de Radiologie Pediatrique, Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital, Paris (France); Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, DRM, DSV, CEA, Orsay (France); Zilbovicius, Monica [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, DRM, DSV, CEA, Orsay (France); INSERM, Tours [France

    2002-01-01

    Childhood autism is now widely viewed as being of developmental neurobiological origin. Yet, localised structural and functional brain correlates of autism have to be established. Structural brain-imaging studies performed in autistic patients have reported abnormalities such as increased total brain volume and cerebellar abnormalities. However, none of these abnormalities fully account for the full range of autistic symptoms. Functional brain imaging, such as positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and functional MRI (fMRI) have added a new perspective to the study of normal and pathological brain functions. In autism, functional studies have been performed at rest or during activation. However, first-generation functional imaging devices were not sensitive enough to detect any consistent dysfunction. Recently, with improved technology, two independent groups have reported bilateral hypoperfusion of the temporal lobes in autistic children. In addition, activation studies, using perceptive and cognitive paradigms, have shown an abnormal pattern of cortical activation in autistic patients. These results suggest that different connections between particular cortical regions could exist in autism. The purpose of this review is to present the main results of rest and activation studies performed in autism. (orig.)

  18. Mechanisms of cognitive impairment in cerebral small vessel disease: multimodal MRI results from the St George's cognition and neuroimaging in stroke (SCANS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Lawrence

    Full Text Available Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD is a common cause of vascular cognitive impairment. A number of disease features can be assessed on MRI including lacunar infarcts, T2 lesion volume, brain atrophy, and cerebral microbleeds. In addition, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI is sensitive to disruption of white matter ultrastructure, and recently it has been suggested that additional information on the pattern of damage may be obtained from axial diffusivity, a proposed marker of axonal damage, and radial diffusivity, an indicator of demyelination. We determined the contribution of these whole brain MRI markers to cognitive impairment in SVD. Consecutive patients with lacunar stroke and confluent leukoaraiosis were recruited into the ongoing SCANS study of cognitive impairment in SVD (n = 115, and underwent neuropsychological assessment and multimodal MRI. SVD subjects displayed poor performance on tests of executive function and processing speed. In the SVD group brain volume was lower, white matter hyperintensity volume higher and all diffusion characteristics differed significantly from control subjects (n = 50. On multi-predictor analysis independent predictors of executive function in SVD were lacunar infarct count and diffusivity of normal appearing white matter on DTI. Independent predictors of processing speed were lacunar infarct count and brain atrophy. Radial diffusivity was a stronger DTI predictor than axial diffusivity, suggesting ischaemic demyelination, seen neuropathologically in SVD, may be an important predictor of cognitive impairment in SVD. Our study provides information on the mechanism of cognitive impairment in SVD.

  19. Cortical sensorimotor processing of painful pressure in patients with chronic lower back pain – An optical neuroimaging study using fNIRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Vrana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated sensorimotor processing of painful pressure stimulation on the lower back of patients with chronic lower back pain (CLBP by using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS to measure changes in cerebral hemodynamics and oxygenation. The main objectives were whether patients with CLBP show different relative changes in oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin (O2Hb and HHb in the supplementary motor area (SMA and primary somatosensory cortex (S1 compared to healthy controls (HC. Twelve patients with CLBP (32 ± 6.1 years; range: 24 – 44 years; 9 women and twenty HCs (33.5 ± 10.7 years; range 22-61 years; 8 women participated in the study. Painful and non-painful pressure stimulation was exerted with a thumb grip perpendicularly to the spinous process of the lumbar spine. A force sensor was attached at the spinous process in order control for pressure forces. Tactile stimulation was realized by a one-finger brushing. Hemodynamic changes in the SMA and S1 were measured bilaterally using a multi-channel continuous wave fNIRS imaging system and a multi-distant probe array. Patients with CLBP showed significant stimulus-evoked hemodynamic responses in O2Hb only in the right S1, while the healthy controls exhibited significant O2Hb changes bilaterally in both, SMA and S1. However, the group comparisons revealed no significant different hemodynamic responses in O2Hb and HHb in the SMA and S1 after both pressure stimulations. This non-significant result might be driven by the high inter-subject variability of hemodynamic responses that has been observed within the patients group. In conclusion, we could not find different stimulus-evoked hemodynamic responses in patients with CLBP compared to HCs. This indicates that neither S1 nor the SMA show a specificity for CLBP during pressure stimulation on the lower back. However, the results point to a potential subgrouping regarding task-related cortical activity within the CLBP group; a

  20. The impact of hearing aids and age-related hearing loss on auditory plasticity across three months - An electrical neuroimaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroud, Nathalie; Lemke, Ulrike; Reich, Philip; Matthes, Katarina L; Meyer, Martin

    2017-09-01

    The present study investigates behavioral and electrophysiological auditory and cognitive-related plasticity in three groups of healthy older adults (60-77 years). Group 1 was moderately hearing-impaired, experienced hearing aid users, and fitted with new hearing aids using non-linear frequency compression (NLFC on); Group 2, also moderately hearing-impaired, used the same type of hearing aids but NLFC was switched off during the entire period of study duration (NLFC off); Group 3 represented individuals with age-appropriate hearing (NHO) as controls, who were not different in IQ, gender, or age from Group 1 and 2. At five measurement time points (M1-M5) across three months, a series of active oddball tasks were administered while EEG was recorded. The stimuli comprised syllables consisting of naturally high-pitched fricatives (/sh/, /s/, and /f/), which are hard to distinguish for individuals with presbycusis. By applying a data-driven microstate approach to obtain global field power (GFP) as a measure of processing effort, the modulations of perceptual (P50, N1, P2) and cognitive-related (N2b, P3b) auditory evoked potentials were calculated and subsequently related to behavioral changes (accuracy and reaction time) across time. All groups improved their performance across time, but NHO showed consistently higher accuracy and faster reaction times than the hearing-impaired groups, especially under difficult conditions. Electrophysiological results complemented this finding by demonstrating longer latencies in the P50 and the N1 peak in hearing aid users. Furthermore, the GFP of cognitive-related evoked potentials decreased from M1 to M2 in the NHO group, while a comparable decrease in the hearing-impaired group was only evident at M5. After twelve weeks of hearing aid use of eight hours each day, we found a significantly lower GFP in the P3b of the group with NLFC on as compared to the group with NLFC off. These findings suggest higher processing effort, as

  1. Estudos neuropsicológicos e de neuroimagem associados ao estresse emocional na infância e adolescência Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies associated with emotional stress during childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Approbato de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    of the Medline/PubMed database with the terms related to neuropsychology, neuroimaging, abandonment experience, domestic violence, physical and sexual abuse and neglect. RESULTS: 607 articles were found but only 19 fit with the proposed subject and were selected. Despite the differences between the studies, there is evidence that groups with experience of early emotional stress show losses in neurocognitive functions such as attention, intelligence, language, executive functions, and decision-making, as well as changes in hippocampus, corpus callosum prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex. The occurrence of psychiatric disorders and behavioral disorders were also relevant in these individuals. DISCUSSION: Considering many negative consequences that early stress can cause in neuropsychological and mental development, there is a need for more research on the topic in order to develop specific strategies for diagnosis and treatment, besides the implementation of public policies for violence prevention in childhood and adolescence, especially in developing countries.

  2. Fast-mixed spectrum reactor interim report initial feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, G.J.; Cerbone, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    The report summarizes the results of an initial four-month feasibility study of the Fast-Mixed Spectrum Reactor (FMSR). Reactor physics, fuel cycle, and thermal-hydraulic analyses were performed on a reference design. These results when coupled to a fuel and materials evaluation performed in cooperation with the Argonne National Laboratory indicate that the FMSR is feasible provided the fuels, cladding, and subassembly ducts can survive a peak fuel burnup of 15 to 20 atom percent heavy metal and peak fluences of 8 x 10 23 (nvt > 0.1 MeV). The results of this short study have also provided a basis for exploring alternative designs requiring significantly lower peak burnup and fluences for their operation

  3. Effects of the South American psychoactive beverage ayahuasca on regional brain electrical activity in humans: a functional neuroimaging study using low-resolution electromagnetic tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riba, Jordi; Anderer, Peter; Jané, Francesc; Saletu, Bernd; Barbanoj, Manel J

    2004-01-01

    Ayahuasca, a South American psychotropic plant tea obtained from Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis, combines monoamine oxidase-inhibiting beta-carboline alkaloids with N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), a psychedelic agent showing 5-HT(2A) agonist activity. In a clinical research setting, ayahuasca has demonstrated a combined stimulatory and psychedelic effect profile, as measured by subjective effect self-assessment instruments and dose-dependent changes in spontaneous brain electrical activity, which parallel the time course of subjective effects. In the present study, the spatial distribution of ayahuasca-induced changes in brain electrical activity was investigated by means of low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). Electroencephalography recordings were obtained from 18 volunteers after the administration of a dose of encapsulated freeze-dried ayahuasca containing 0.85 mg DMT/kg body weight and placebo. The intracerebral power density distribution was computed with LORETA from spectrally analyzed data, and subjective effects were measured by means of the Hallucinogen Rating Scale (HRS). Statistically significant differences compared to placebo were observed for LORETA power 60 and 90 min after dosing, together with increases in all six scales of the HRS. Ayahuasca decreased power density in the alpha-2, delta, theta and beta-1 frequency bands. Power decreases in the delta, alpha-2 and beta-1 bands were found predominantly over the temporo-parieto-occipital junction, whereas theta power was reduced in the temporomedial cortex and in frontomedial regions. The present results suggest the involvement of unimodal and heteromodal association cortex and limbic structures in the psychological effects elicited by ayahuasca. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  4. Multiple brain atlas database and atlas-based neuroimaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowinski, W L; Fang, A; Nguyen, B T; Raphel, J K; Jagannathan, L; Raghavan, R; Bryan, R N; Miller, G A

    1997-01-01

    For the purpose of developing multiple, complementary, fully labeled electronic brain atlases and an atlas-based neuroimaging system for analysis, quantification, and real-time manipulation of cerebral structures in two and three dimensions, we have digitized, enhanced, segmented, and labeled the following print brain atlases: Co-Planar Stereotaxic Atlas of the Human Brain by Talairach and Tournoux, Atlas for Stereotaxy of the Human Brain by Schaltenbrand and Wahren, Referentially Oriented Cerebral MRI Anatomy by Talairach and Tournoux, and Atlas of the Cerebral Sulci by Ono, Kubik, and Abernathey. Three-dimensional extensions of these atlases have been developed as well. All two- and three-dimensional atlases are mutually preregistered and may be interactively registered with an actual patient's data. An atlas-based neuroimaging system has been developed that provides support for reformatting, registration, visualization, navigation, image processing, and quantification of clinical data. The anatomical index contains about 1,000 structures and over 400 sulcal patterns. Several new applications of the brain atlas database also have been developed, supported by various technologies such as virtual reality, the Internet, and electronic publishing. Fusion of information from multiple atlases assists the user in comprehensively understanding brain structures and identifying and quantifying anatomical regions in clinical data. The multiple brain atlas database and atlas-based neuroimaging system have substantial potential impact in stereotactic neurosurgery and radiotherapy by assisting in visualization and real-time manipulation in three dimensions of anatomical structures, in quantitative neuroradiology by allowing interactive analysis of clinical data, in three-dimensional neuroeducation, and in brain function studies.

  5. Evaluation of the contribution of the importance of neuroimaging for the diagnostics of dementias - comparison to the psychological diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hentschel, F.; Kreis, M.; Damian, M.; Syren, M.; Krumm, B.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: While psychology is accepted as a necessary component of the dementia diagnostics, the extended clinical diagnostics with neuroimaging is differently estimated. The goal of the study is the quantification of the individual contribution of the two different methods. Methods: Of 100 patient the diagnosis of entrance, the neurological, the psychological, and the final clinical diagnosis were documented. For both imaging and psychology the sensitivity, specificity, and the positive predictive value were computed. The diagnostic of each method was determined from the change of the final in relation to the initial clinical diagnosis. The neuroradiological investigation took place with MRI, the psychological examination used both usual power and special speed tests. Results: The extended clinical diagnostics led for 26% of the patients to the change of the clinical diagnosis. Imaging and psychology supplied different own but supplementing contributions. In the case of annihilation imaging contributed with 73.3%, psychology with 54.1% to the diagnosis of a neurodegenerative dementia, whereas the contributions to the diagnosis of a vascular dementia were 83.3% and 70.8%, respectively. However psychology diagnosed and quantified the dementia. The contribution of neuroimaging consisted in the differential diagnosis of the dementias organic causes of symptomatic clementias and vascular encephalopathy without dementia but with consequences for a secondary prophylaxis were additional information also. Conclusion: Psychology improves the diagnostic accuracy of dementias. Neuroimaging improves the differential diagnosis of dementias and supplies additional clinically relevant findings. In the qualified diagnostics and differential diagnostics of the dementias both methods are indispensable. (orig.) [de

  6. A neuroimaging study of pleasant and unpleasant olfactory perceptions of virgin olive oil; Estudio mediante neuroimagen de percepciones olfativas agradables y desagradables de aceites de oliva virgen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivancos, J.; Tena, N.; Morales, M.T.; Aparicio, R.; Garcia-Gonzalez, D.L.

    2016-07-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used to collect information from neurons that receive direct input from olfactory bulbs when subjects smell virgin olive oil. The pleasant aroma of three extra virgin olive oils (var. Royal, Arbequina and Picual) and three virgin olive oils with sensory defects (rancid, fusty and winey/vinegary) were presented to 14 subjects while a fMRI scan acquired data from the brain activity. Data were subjected to a two-sample t test analysis, which allows a better interpretation of results particularly when data are studied across different subjects. Most of the activations, which were located in the frontal lobe, are related to the olfactory task regardless of the hedonic component of perception (e.g. Brodmann areas 10, 11). Comparing the samples with pleasant and unpleasant aromas, differences were found at the anterior cingulate gyrus (Brodmann area 32), at the temporal lobe (Brodmann area 38), and inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 47), while intense aromas activated Brodmann area 6. The actual perceptions described by the subjects and the concentration of the odorant compounds in the samples were considered in the interpretation of the results. [Spanish] La imagen por resonancia magnética funcional (fMRI) ha sido empleada para estudiar la información de la respuesta cerebral producida al estimular las neuronas que participan en el proceso olfatorio tras percibir el aroma del aceite de oliva virgen (AOV). Se utilizó fMRI para la adquisición de los datos de la actividad cerebral de 14 sujetos a los que se presentaron tres aceites de oliva vírgenes de aroma agradable (var. Royal, Arbequina and Picual) y tres aceites de oliva vírgenes con defectos sensoriales (rancio, atrojado, avinado/avinagrado). Los datos se sometieron a una prueba t para observar diferencias entre dos grupos, la cual permite una mejor interpretación de los resultados, particularmente cuando los datos se estudian a través de diferentes

  7. Biotinidase deficiency: a reversible metabolic encephalopathy. Neuroimaging and MR spectroscopic findings in a series of four patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, Shrinivas; Ganesan, Karthik; Hegde, Anaita

    2008-01-01

    Biotinidase deficiency is a metabolic disorder characterized by inability to recycle biotin with resultant delayed myelination. Clinical findings include seizures, ataxia, alopecia and dermatitis with atypical findings of myoclonic jerks, neuropathy and spastic paraparesis. Neuroradiological findings include cerebral atrophy, encephalopathy and widened extracerebral CSF spaces. Many of the clinical and neuroradiological features are reversible except sensorineural hearing loss and optic atrophy. To understand and describe the neuroimaging and spectroscopic findings of biotinidase deficiency. We evaluated the spectrum of neuroimaging and spectroscopic findings in four patients with biotinidase deficiency with follow-up studies in three patients. The imaging findings were encephalopathy, low cerebral volume, ventriculomegaly and widened extracerebral CSF spaces. Uncommon findings were caudate involvement, parieto-occipital cortical abnormalities and one patient with restricted diffusion. Two patients had subdural effusions, which is uncommon in biotinidase deficiency. 1 H-MR spectroscopy revealed elevated lactate, reversal of the choline/creatine ratio and decreased NAA peaks. Follow-up studies revealed complete reversal of imaging findings in two patients. Biotinidase deficiency is a reversible metabolic encephalopathy. This study highlights the importance of early and prompt cliniconeuroradiological diagnosis of biotinidase deficiency as it has an extremely good clinical outcome if treatment is initiated from early infancy. (orig.)

  8. Biotinidase deficiency: a reversible metabolic encephalopathy. Neuroimaging and MR spectroscopic findings in a series of four patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, Shrinivas [Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre, Department of CT and MRI, Mumbai (India); Ganesan, Karthik [Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre, Department of CT and MRI, Mumbai (India); University of California, San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Hegde, Anaita [Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre, Department of Paediatrics, Mumbai (India)

    2008-08-15

    Biotinidase deficiency is a metabolic disorder characterized by inability to recycle biotin with resultant delayed myelination. Clinical findings include seizures, ataxia, alopecia and dermatitis with atypical findings of myoclonic jerks, neuropathy and spastic paraparesis. Neuroradiological findings include cerebral atrophy, encephalopathy and widened extracerebral CSF spaces. Many of the clinical and neuroradiological features are reversible except sensorineural hearing loss and optic atrophy. To understand and describe the neuroimaging and spectroscopic findings of biotinidase deficiency. We evaluated the spectrum of neuroimaging and spectroscopic findings in four patients with biotinidase deficiency with follow-up studies in three patients. The imaging findings were encephalopathy, low cerebral volume, ventriculomegaly and widened extracerebral CSF spaces. Uncommon findings were caudate involvement, parieto-occipital cortical abnormalities and one patient with restricted diffusion. Two patients had subdural effusions, which is uncommon in biotinidase deficiency. {sup 1}H-MR spectroscopy revealed elevated lactate, reversal of the choline/creatine ratio and decreased NAA peaks. Follow-up studies revealed complete reversal of imaging findings in two patients. Biotinidase deficiency is a reversible metabolic encephalopathy. This study highlights the importance of early and prompt cliniconeuroradiological diagnosis of biotinidase deficiency as it has an extremely good clinical outcome if treatment is initiated from early infancy. (orig.)

  9. Initial Studies of Core and Edge Transport of NSTX Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synakowski, E.J.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Bush, C.E.; Bourdelle, C.; Darrow, D.; Dorland, W.; Ejiri, A.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Gates, D.A.; Kaye, S.M.; Kubota, S.; Kugel, H.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Maingi, R.; Maqueda, R.J.; Menard, J.E.; Mueller, D.; Rosenberg, A.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Stutman, D.; Taylor, G.; Johnson, D.W.; Kaita, R.; Ono, M.; Paoletti, F.; Peebles, W.; Peng, Y-K.M.; Roquemore, A.L.; Skinner, C.H.; Soukhanovskii, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    Rapidly developing diagnostic, operational, and analysis capability is enabling the first detailed local physics studies to begin in high-beta plasmas of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). These studies are motivated in part by energy confinement times in neutral-beam-heated discharges that are favorable with respect to predictions from the ITER-89P scaling expression. Analysis of heat fluxes based on profile measurements with neutral-beam injection (NBI) suggest that the ion thermal transport may be exceptionally low, and that electron thermal transport is the dominant loss channel. This analysis motivates studies of possible sources of ion heating not presently accounted for by classical collisional processes. Gyrokinetic microstability studies indicate that long wavelength turbulence with k(subscript ''theta'') rho(subscript ''i'') ∼ 0.1-1 may be suppressed in these plasmas, while modes with k(subscript ''theta'') rho(subscript ''i'') ∼ 50 may be robust. High-harmonic fast-wave (HHFW) heating efficiently heats electrons on NSTX, and studies have begun using it to assess transport in the electron channel. Regarding edge transport, H-mode [high-confinement mode] transitions occur with either NBI or HHFW heating. The power required for low-confinement mode (L-mode) to H-mode transitions far exceeds that expected from empirical edge-localized-mode-free H-mode scaling laws derived from moderate aspect ratio devices. Finally, initial fluctuation measurements made with two techniques are permitting the first characterizations of edge turbulence

  10. Neuroimaging in cockroach phobia: An experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Rivero; Manuel Herrero; Conrado Viña; Yolanda Álvarez-Pérez; Wenceslao Peñate

    2017-01-01

    Antecedentes/Objetivo: En este estudio se exploran las características en neuroimagen de personas con fobia específica a peque ̃ nos animales (cucarachas), para determinar si existen diferencias en la actividad cerebral entre personas con y sin fobia a las cucarachas, bajo condi- ciones de estimulación fóbica y no fóbica. Método : Se estudiaron 24 adultos (12 con fobia). El diagnóstico de fobia específica se obtuvo mediante una entrevista estructurada y cuestionarios. Todos fueron expuestos ...

  11. Neuroimaging in cockroach phobia: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rivero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes/Objetivo: En este estudio se exploran las características en neuroimagen de personas con fobia específica a peque ̃ nos animales (cucarachas, para determinar si existen diferencias en la actividad cerebral entre personas con y sin fobia a las cucarachas, bajo condi- ciones de estimulación fóbica y no fóbica. Método : Se estudiaron 24 adultos (12 con fobia. El diagnóstico de fobia específica se obtuvo mediante una entrevista estructurada y cuestionarios. Todos fueron expuestos a una presentación en video 3D durante una sesión de RMNf. Resultados: El grupo con fobia mostró activaciones diferenciales significativas, que fueron congruentes con el modelo de doble ruta en el procesamiento del miedo, a través del tálamo- amígdala (ruta I, y tálamo-corteza entorrinal-hipocampo-subículo-amígdala (ruta II. Además, se encontraron activaciones diferenciales en el globo pálido, en el giro hipocampal, ínsula, y en los pars orbitalis, triangularis y opercularis. Con respecto al grupo control, no se observaron activaciones de la ínsula ni el cingulado. Conclusiones: Parece evidenciarse un modelo de doble ruta en el procesamiento de estímulos fóbicos. Este doble proceso puede tener implicaciones para el tratamiento psicológico de las fobias específicas.

  12. An ERP study on initial second language vocabulary learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, Yen Na; Midgley, Katherine J; Holcomb, Phillip J; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the very initial phases of orthographic and semantic acquisition in monolingual native English speakers learning Chinese words under controlled laboratory conditions. Participants engaged in 10 sessions of vocabulary learning, four of which were used to obtain ERPs. Performance in behavioral tests improved over sessions, and these data were used to define fast and slow learners. Most important is that ERPs in the two groups of learners revealed qualitatively distinct learning patterns. Only fast learners showed a left-lateralized increase in N170 amplitude with training. Furthermore, only fast learners showed an increased N400 amplitude with training, with a distinct anterior distribution. Slow learners, on the other hand, showed a posterior positive effect, with increasingly positive-going waveforms in occipital sites as training progressed. Possible mechanisms underlying these qualitative differences are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  13. The Shepherd's Crook Sign: A New Neuroimaging Pareidolia in Joubert Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, Andrew T; Maertens, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    By pareidolically recognizing specific patterns indicative of particular diseases, neuroimagers reinforce their mnemonic strategies and improve their neuroimaging diagnostic skills. Joubert Syndrome (JS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized clinically by mental retardation, episodes of abnormal deep and rapid breathing, abnormal eye movements, and ataxia. Many neuroimaging signs characteristic of JS have been reported. In retrospective case study, two consanguineous neonates diagnosed with JS were evaluated with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and neurosonography. Both cranial ultrasound and MRI of the brain showed the characteristic molar tooth sign. There was a shepherd's crook in the sagittal views of the posterior fossa where the shaft of the crook is made by the brainstem and the pons. The arc of the crook is made by the abnormal superior cerebellar peduncle and cerebellar hemisphere. By ultrasound, the shepherd's crook sign was seen through the posterior fontanelle only. CT imaging also showed the shepherd's crook sign. Neuroimaging diagnosis of JS, which already involves the pareidolical recognition of specific patterns indicative of the disease, can be improved by recognition of the shepherd's crook sign on MRI, CT, and cranial ultrasound. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  14. Hormone therapy after the Women's Health Initiative: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holtrop Jodi S

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Publication of results from the Women's Health Initiative study in July 2002 was a landmark event in biomedical science related to postmenopausal women. The purpose of this study was to describe the impact of new hormone therapy recommendations on patients' attitudes and decision-making in a primary care practice. Methods A questionnaire including structured and open-ended questions was administered in a family practice office waiting room from August through October 2003. Rationale for taking or not taking hormone therapy was specifically sought. Women 50–70 years old attending for office visits were invited to participate. Data were analyzed qualitatively and with descriptive statistics. Chart review provided medication use rates for the entire practice cohort of which the sample was a subset. Results Respondents (n = 127 were predominantly white and well educated, and were taking hormone therapy at a higher rate (38% than the overall rate (26% for women of the same age range in this practice. Belief patterns about hormone therapy were, in order of frequency, 'use is risky', 'vindication or prior beliefs', 'benefit to me outweighs risk', and 'unaware of new recommendations'. Twenty-eight out of 78 women continued hormones use after July 2002. Of 50 women who initially stopped hormone therapy after July 2002, 12 resumed use. Women who had stopped hormone therapy were a highly symptomatic group. Responses with emotional overtones such as worry, confusion, anger, and grief were common. Conclusion Strategies for decision support about hormone therapy should explicitly take into account women's preferences about symptom relief and the trade-offs among relevant risks. Some women may need emotional support during transitions in hormone therapy use.

  15. Self-development: integrating cognitive, socioemotional, and neuroimaging perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Jennifer H; Peake, Shannon J

    2012-01-01

    This review integrates cognitive, socioemotional, and neuroimaging perspectives on self-development. Neural correlates of key processes implicated in personal and social identity are reported from studies of children, adolescents, and adults, including autobiographical memory, direct and reflected self-appraisals, and social exclusion. While cortical midline structures of medial prefrontal cortex and medial posterior parietal cortex are consistently identified in neuroimaging studies considering personal identity from a primarily cognitive perspective ("who am I?"), additional regions are implicated by studies considering personal and social identity from a more socioemotional perspective ("what do others think about me, where do I fit in?"), especially in child or adolescent samples. The involvement of these additional regions (including tempo-parietal junction and posterior superior temporal sulcus, temporal poles, anterior insula, ventral striatum, anterior cingulate cortex, middle cingulate cortex, and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex) suggests mentalizing, emotion, and emotion regulation are central to self-development. In addition, these regions appear to function atypically during personal and social identity tasks in autism and depression, exhibiting a broad pattern of hypoactivation and hyperactivation, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cholinergic modulation of cognition: Insights from human pharmacological functional neuroimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Paul; Driver, Jon; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from lesion and cortical-slice studies implicate the neocortical cholinergic system in the modulation of sensory, attentional and memory processing. In this review we consider findings from sixty-three healthy human cholinergic functional neuroimaging studies that probe interactions of cholinergic drugs with brain activation profiles, and relate these to contemporary neurobiological models. Consistent patterns that emerge are: (1) the direction of cholinergic modulation of sensory cortex activations depends upon top-down influences; (2) cholinergic hyperstimulation reduces top-down selective modulation of sensory cortices; (3) cholinergic hyperstimulation interacts with task-specific frontoparietal activations according to one of several patterns, including: suppression of parietal-mediated reorienting; decreasing ‘effort’-associated activations in prefrontal regions; and deactivation of a ‘resting-state network’ in medial cortex, with reciprocal recruitment of dorsolateral frontoparietal regions during performance-challenging conditions; (4) encoding-related activations in both neocortical and hippocampal regions are disrupted by cholinergic blockade, or enhanced with cholinergic stimulation, while the opposite profile is observed during retrieval; (5) many examples exist of an ‘inverted-U shaped’ pattern of cholinergic influences by which the direction of functional neural activation (and performance) depends upon both task (e.g. relative difficulty) and subject (e.g. age) factors. Overall, human cholinergic functional neuroimaging studies both corroborate and extend physiological accounts of cholinergic function arising from other experimental contexts, while providing mechanistic insights into cholinergic-acting drugs and their potential clinical applications. PMID:21708219

  17. Neuroimaging in status epilepticus secondary to paraneoplastic autoimmune encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarria-Estrada, S.; Toledo, M.; Lorenzo-Bosquet, C.; Cuberas-Borrós, G.; Auger, C.; Siurana, S.; Rovira, À.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To describe the characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of paraneoplastic autoimmune encephalitis in patients with new-onset status epilepticus. Materials and methods: The neuroimaging and clinical data of five patients with paraneoplastic autoimmune encephalitis debuting as status epilepticus were retrospectively reviewed. All patients met the criteria for definite paraneoplastic syndrome and all underwent brain MRI during the status epilepticus episode or immediately after recovery. Results: All patients showed hyperintense lesions on T2-weighted imaging (WI) involving the limbic structures, specifically the hippocampus. Three of them showed additional extra-limbic areas of signal abnormalities. The areas of T2 hyperintensity were related to the electroclinical onset of the seizures. In three patients, various techniques were used to study cerebral perfusion, such as arterial spin labelling MRI, single photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) and 2-[ 18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)-positron-emission tomography (PET). Arterial spin labelling showed hyperperfusion overlapping the inflammatory lesions, whereas PET and SPECT disclosed increased perfusion and increased metabolism. The subtraction SPECT co-registered to MRI (SISCOM) demonstrated hypermetabolism outside the areas of encephalitis. After clinical recovery, follow-up MRI revealed the development of atrophy in the initially affected hippocampus. Two patients who had recurrent paraneoplastic autoimmune encephalitis manifesting as status epilepticus showed new T2 lesions involving different structures. Conclusion: The presence of limbic and extra-limbic T2 signal abnormalities in new-onset status epilepticus should suggest the diagnosis of a paraneoplastic syndrome, especially when status epilepticus is refractory to treatment. The lesions are consistently seen as hyperintense on T2WI. - Highlights: • New onset status epilepticus can be caused by paraneoplastic encephalitis.

  18. Neuroimaging in status epilepticus secondary to paraneoplastic autoimmune encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarria-Estrada, S., E-mail: ssarria@idi-cat.org [Magnetic Resonance Unit, Radiology Department, Vall d' Hebrón University Hospital, Barcelona (Spain); Toledo, M. [Epilepsy Unit, Neurology Department, Vall d' Hebrón University Hospital, Barcelona (Spain); Lorenzo-Bosquet, C.; Cuberas-Borrós, G. [Nuclear Medicine Department, Vall d' Hebrón University Hospital, Barcelona (Spain); Auger, C.; Siurana, S.; Rovira, À. [Magnetic Resonance Unit, Radiology Department, Vall d' Hebrón University Hospital, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-08-15

    Aim: To describe the characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of paraneoplastic autoimmune encephalitis in patients with new-onset status epilepticus. Materials and methods: The neuroimaging and clinical data of five patients with paraneoplastic autoimmune encephalitis debuting as status epilepticus were retrospectively reviewed. All patients met the criteria for definite paraneoplastic syndrome and all underwent brain MRI during the status epilepticus episode or immediately after recovery. Results: All patients showed hyperintense lesions on T2-weighted imaging (WI) involving the limbic structures, specifically the hippocampus. Three of them showed additional extra-limbic areas of signal abnormalities. The areas of T2 hyperintensity were related to the electroclinical onset of the seizures. In three patients, various techniques were used to study cerebral perfusion, such as arterial spin labelling MRI, single photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) and 2-[{sup 18}F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)-positron-emission tomography (PET). Arterial spin labelling showed hyperperfusion overlapping the inflammatory lesions, whereas PET and SPECT disclosed increased perfusion and increased metabolism. The subtraction SPECT co-registered to MRI (SISCOM) demonstrated hypermetabolism outside the areas of encephalitis. After clinical recovery, follow-up MRI revealed the development of atrophy in the initially affected hippocampus. Two patients who had recurrent paraneoplastic autoimmune encephalitis manifesting as status epilepticus showed new T2 lesions involving different structures. Conclusion: The presence of limbic and extra-limbic T2 signal abnormalities in new-onset status epilepticus should suggest the diagnosis of a paraneoplastic syndrome, especially when status epilepticus is refractory to treatment. The lesions are consistently seen as hyperintense on T2WI. - Highlights: • New onset status epilepticus can be caused by paraneoplastic encephalitis

  19. GENE X ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA AND BIPOLAR DISORDER:EVIDENCE FROM NEUROIMAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Alexis Geoffroy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Schizophrenia (SZ and Bipolar disorder (BD are considered as severe multifactorial diseases, stemming from genetic and environmental influences. Growing evidence supports gene x environment (GxE interactions in these disorders and neuroimaging studies can help us to understand how those factors mechanistically interact. No reviews synthesized the existing data of neuroimaging studies in these issues.Methods: We conduct a systematic review on the neuroimaging studies exploring GxE interactions relative to SZ or BD in PubMed.Results: First results of the influence of genetic and environmental risks on brain structures came from monozygotic twin pairs concordant and discordant for SZ or BD. Few structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI studies have explored the GxE interactions. No other imaging methods were found. Two main GxE interactions on brain volumes have arisen. First, an interaction between genetic liability to SZ and obstetric complications on gray matter, cerebrospinal fluid and hippocampal volumes. Second, cannabis use and genetic liability interaction effects on cortical thickness and white matter volumes.Conclusion: Combining GxE interactions and neuroimaging domains is a promising approach. Genetic risk and environmental exposures such as cannabis or obstetrical complications seem to interact leading to specific neuroimaging cerebral alterations in SZ. They are suggestive of GxE interactions that confer phenotypic abnormalities in SZ and possibly BD. We need further, larger neuroimaging studies of GxE interactions for which we may propose a framework focusing on GxE interactions data already known to have a clinical effect such as infections, early stress, urbanicity and substance abuse.

  20. Publication trends in neuroimaging of minimally conscious states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Garnett

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We used existing and customized bibliometric and scientometric methods to analyze publication trends in neuroimaging research of minimally conscious states and describe the domain in terms of its geographic, contributor, and content features. We considered publication rates for the years 2002–2011, author interconnections, the rate at which new authors are added, and the domains that inform the work of author contributors. We also provided a content analysis of clinical and ethical themes within the relevant literature. We found a 27% growth in the number of papers over the period of study, professional diversity among a wide range of peripheral author contributors but only few authors who dominate the field, and few new technical paradigms and clinical themes that would fundamentally expand the landscape. The results inform both the science of consciousness as well as parallel ethics and policy studies of the potential for translational challenges of neuroimaging in research and health care of people with disordered states of consciousness.

  1. [Neuropsychology of Tourette's disorder: cognition, neuroimaging and creativity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espert, R; Gadea, M; Alino, M; Oltra-Cucarella, J

    2017-02-24

    Tourette's disorder is the result of fronto-striatal brain dysfunction affecting people of all ages, with a debut in early childhood and continuing into adolescence and adulthood. This article reviews the main cognitive, functional neuroimaging and creativity-related studies in a disorder characterized by an excess of dopamine in the brain. Given the special cerebral configuration of these patients, neuropsychological alterations, especially in executive functions, should be expected. However, the findings are inconclusive and are conditioned by factors such as comorbidity with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder, age or methodological variables. On the other hand, the neuroimaging studies carried out over the last decade have been able to explain the clinical symptoms of Tourette's disorder patients, with special relevance for the supplementary motor area and the anterior cingulate gyrus. Finally, although there is no linear relationship between excess of dopamine and creativity, the scientific literature emphasizes an association between Tourette's disorder and musical creativity, which could be translated into intervention programs based on music.

  2. Neuroimaging of amblyopia and binocular vision: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Olivier; Frankó, Edit

    2014-01-01

    Amblyopia is a cerebral visual impairment considered to derive from abnormal visual experience (e.g., strabismus, anisometropia). Amblyopia, first considered as a monocular disorder, is now often seen as a primarily binocular disorder resulting in more and more studies examining the binocular deficits in the patients. The neural mechanisms of amblyopia are not completely understood even though they have been investigated with electrophysiological recordings in animal models and more recently with neuroimaging techniques in humans. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about the brain regions that underlie the visual deficits associated with amblyopia with a focus on binocular vision using functional magnetic resonance imaging. The first studies focused on abnormal responses in the primary and secondary visual areas whereas recent evidence shows that there are also deficits at higher levels of the visual pathways within the parieto-occipital and temporal cortices. These higher level areas are part of the cortical network involved in 3D vision from binocular cues. Therefore, reduced responses in these areas could be related to the impaired binocular vision in amblyopic patients. Promising new binocular treatments might at least partially correct the activation in these areas. Future neuroimaging experiments could help to characterize the brain response changes associated with these treatments and help devise them.

  3. Neuroimaging of amblyopia and binocular vision: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier eJoly

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Amblyopia is a cerebral visual impairment considered to derive from abnormal visual experience (e.g., strabismus, anisometropia. Amblyopia, first considered as a monocular disorder, is now often seen as a primarily binocular disorder resulting in more and more studies examining the binocular deficits in the patients. The neural mechanisms of amblyopia are not completely understood even though they have been investigated with electrophysiological recordings in animal models and more recently with neuroimaging techniques in humans. In this review, we summarise the current knowledge about the brain regions that underlie the visual deficits associated with amblyopia with a focus on binocular vision using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. The first studies focused on abnormal responses in the primary and secondary visual areas whereas recent evidence show that there are also deficits at higher levels of the visual pathways within the parieto-occipital and temporal cortices. These higher level areas are part of the cortical network involved in 3D vision from binocular cues. Therefore, reduced responses in these areas could be related to the impaired binocular vision in amblyopic patients. Promising new binocular treatments might at least partially correct the activation in these areas. Future neuroimaging experiments could help to characterise the brain response changes associated with these treatments and help devise them.

  4. Small and medium power reactors: project initiation study, Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    In conformity with the Agency's promotional role in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, IAEA has provided, over the past 20 years, assistance to Member States, particularly developing countries, in planning for the introduction of nuclear power plants in the Small and Medium range (SMPR). However these efforts did not produce any significant results in the market introduction of these reactors, due to various factors. In 1983 the Agency launched a new SMPR Project Initiation Study with the objective of surveying the available designs, examining the major factors influencing the decision-making processes in Developing Countries and thereby arriving at an estimate of the potential market. Two questionnaires were used to obtain information from possible suppliers and prospective buyers. The Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD assisted in making a study of the potential market in industrialized countries. The information gained during the study and discussed during a Technical Committee Meeting on SMPRs held in Vienna in March 1985, along with the contribution by OECD-NEA is embodied in the present report

  5. Advances on functional neuroimaging in substance misuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Rongbin; Liu Xingdang; Han Mei

    2009-01-01

    Over the past decade, functional neuroimaging has contributed greatly to our knowledge about the neuropharmacology of substance misuse in man. In this review, discussed the application and the progress of the positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging in the substance misuse. After reading some papers, found that the dopamine transporter was significantly decreased in the brain of subjects with heroin abuse. Also observed a significant decrease of regional cerebral blood flow in bilateral cerebral frontal lobes, temporal lobes, the insula and the ipsilateral basal nuclei in substance misuse subjects. Taken together, functional images will lead the direction in future research formedication development of addiction treatment. (authors)

  6. Neuroimaging Features of San Luis Valley Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T. Whitehead

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 14-month-old Hispanic female with a history of double-outlet right ventricle and developmental delay in the setting of recombinant chromosome 8 syndrome was referred for neurologic imaging. Brain MR revealed multiple abnormalities primarily affecting midline structures, including commissural dysgenesis, vermian and brainstem hypoplasia/dysplasia, an interhypothalamic adhesion, and an epidermoid between the frontal lobes that enlarged over time. Spine MR demonstrated hypoplastic C1 and C2 posterior elements, scoliosis, and a borderline low conus medullaris position. Presented herein is the first illustration of neuroimaging findings from a patient with San Luis Valley syndrome.

  7. Big Earth Data Initiative: Metadata Improvement: Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozimor, John; Habermann, Ted; Farley, John

    2016-01-01

    Big Earth Data Initiative (BEDI) The Big Earth Data Initiative (BEDI) invests in standardizing and optimizing the collection, management and delivery of U.S. Government's civil Earth observation data to improve discovery, access use, and understanding of Earth observations by the broader user community. Complete and consistent standard metadata helps address all three goals.

  8. Study of the initiation of subcooled boiling during power transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanVleet, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental investigation of boiling initiation during power transients has been conducted for horizontal-cylinder heating elements in degassed distilled water. Platinum elements, 0.127 and 0.250 mm in diameter, were internally heated electrically at a controlled superficial heat flux (power applied divided by surface area) increasing linearly with time at rates of 0.035 and 0.35 MW/m 2 s and corresponding test durations of 20 and 2 seconds. Tests were carried out at saturation temperatures from 100 to 195 0 C with bulk fluid subcooling from 0 to 30 K. During the course of a power transient, element temperature and superficial heat flux were measured electrically and the boiling initiation time was determined optically. It was found that the conditions for boiling initiation depended strongly on the pressure-temperature history of the heating element and surround fluid prior to the transient. Boiling initiation times were found to agree qualitatively with predictions of a model based on the contact-angle hysteresis concept. Brief prepressurization prior to a transient was found to increase dramatically the temperature and heat flux required for boiling initiation because of deactivation of boiling initiation sites. However, sites were re-activated during the transient and, in subsequent tests without prepressurization, no elevation in boiling initiation conditions was observed and results were in quantitative agreement with predictions of the model

  9. Outcome of oligodendroglioma treatment in the era of modern neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinberg, Lawrence R.; Silverman, Edward; Brem, Henry; Wharam, Moody D.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The benefit of routine postoperative radiotherapy for low grade oligodendroglioma remains controversial. Most published series include many patients treated before the availability of CT or MRI scans which allow early diagnosis, guide surgery, detect residual disease, improve radiotherapy, and detect asymptomatic recurrences. The purpose of this analysis is to determine whether observation rather than radiation continues to be an appropriate option for selected patients with the availability of modern neuroimaging. Materials and Methods: 58 patients (age 2-67 years, 6 pts. =2 poor prognostic factor (p=.04). Results: Two and five year actuarial freedom from local progression was 93 +/- 4% and 75% +/- 8% whereas 2 and 5 year overall survival was 94% +/- 3% and 80% +/- 7%. Despite the imbalance of prognostic factors, there was no significant difference whether or not postoperative RT was given. With RT, 2 and 4 year actuarial freedom from progression was 94% +/- 4% and 78% +/- 8%, whereas without RT it was 94% +/- 6% at 2 and 4 years. Similarly, 2 and 4 year actuarial survival was 94% +/- 4% and 78% +/- 8% with RT and was 91% +/- 8% without RT. (5(10)) recurrences were detected radiologically without new or progressive clinical symptoms. Conclusion: These data support the hypothesis that, in the era of modern neuroimaging, the initial observation of good risk patients and immediate irradiation of poor risk patients is an appropriate treatment approach which results in good medium term control and survival for low grade oligodendroglioma patients. A policy of treatment vs. observation based on selected prognostic factors will be tested prospectively in an intergroup trial for low grade glioma histologies

  10. Reproducibility of neuroimaging analyses across operating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatard, Tristan; Lewis, Lindsay B; Ferreira da Silva, Rafael; Adalat, Reza; Beck, Natacha; Lepage, Claude; Rioux, Pierre; Rousseau, Marc-Etienne; Sherif, Tarek; Deelman, Ewa; Khalili-Mahani, Najmeh; Evans, Alan C

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging pipelines are known to generate different results depending on the computing platform where they are compiled and executed. We quantify these differences for brain tissue classification, fMRI analysis, and cortical thickness (CT) extraction, using three of the main neuroimaging packages (FSL, Freesurfer and CIVET) and different versions of GNU/Linux. We also identify some causes of these differences using library and system call interception. We find that these packages use mathematical functions based on single-precision floating-point arithmetic whose implementations in operating systems continue to evolve. While these differences have little or no impact on simple analysis pipelines such as brain extraction and cortical tissue classification, their accumulation creates important differences in longer pipelines such as subcortical tissue classification, fMRI analysis, and cortical thickness extraction. With FSL, most Dice coefficients between subcortical classifications obtained on different operating systems remain above 0.9, but values as low as 0.59 are observed. Independent component analyses (ICA) of fMRI data differ between operating systems in one third of the tested subjects, due to differences in motion correction. With Freesurfer and CIVET, in some brain regions we find an effect of build or operating system on cortical thickness. A first step to correct these reproducibility issues would be to use more precise representations of floating-point numbers in the critical sections of the pipelines. The numerical stability of pipelines should also be reviewed.

  11. Neuroimaging of herpesvirus infections in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baskin, Henry J. [Cincinnati Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Hedlund, Gary [Primary Children' s Medical Center, Department of Medical Imaging, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2007-10-15

    Six members of the herpesvirus family cause well-described neurologic disease in children: herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2), varicella-zoster (VZV), Epstein-Barr (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6). When herpesviruses infect the central nervous system (CNS), the clinical presentation is non-specific and often confounding. The clinical urgency is often underscored by progressive neurologic deficits, seizures, or even death, and prompt diagnosis and treatment rely heavily on neuroimaging. This review focuses on the spectrum of cerebral manifestations caused by these viruses, particularly on non-congenital presentations. Recent advances in our understanding of these viruses are discussed, including new polymerase chain reaction techniques that allow parallel detection, which has improved our recognition that the herpesviruses are neurotropic and involve the CNS more often than previously thought. Evolving knowledge has also better elucidated viral neuropathology, particularly the role of VZV vasculitis in the brain, HHV-6 in febrile seizures, and herpesvirus reactivation in immunosuppressed patients. The virology, clinical course, and CNS manifestations of each virus are reviewed, followed by descriptions of neuroimaging findings when these agents infect the brain. Characteristic but often subtle imaging findings are discussed, as well as technical pearls covering appropriate use of MRI and MRI adjuncts to help differentiate viral infection from mimics. (orig.)

  12. Neuroimaging of herpesvirus infections in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskin, Henry J.; Hedlund, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Six members of the herpesvirus family cause well-described neurologic disease in children: herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2), varicella-zoster (VZV), Epstein-Barr (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6). When herpesviruses infect the central nervous system (CNS), the clinical presentation is non-specific and often confounding. The clinical urgency is often underscored by progressive neurologic deficits, seizures, or even death, and prompt diagnosis and treatment rely heavily on neuroimaging. This review focuses on the spectrum of cerebral manifestations caused by these viruses, particularly on non-congenital presentations. Recent advances in our understanding of these viruses are discussed, including new polymerase chain reaction techniques that allow parallel detection, which has improved our recognition that the herpesviruses are neurotropic and involve the CNS more often than previously thought. Evolving knowledge has also better elucidated viral neuropathology, particularly the role of VZV vasculitis in the brain, HHV-6 in febrile seizures, and herpesvirus reactivation in immunosuppressed patients. The virology, clinical course, and CNS manifestations of each virus are reviewed, followed by descriptions of neuroimaging findings when these agents infect the brain. Characteristic but often subtle imaging findings are discussed, as well as technical pearls covering appropriate use of MRI and MRI adjuncts to help differentiate viral infection from mimics. (orig.)

  13. Initial Studies on Alkaloids from Lombok Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B. Bremner

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Initial investigation of medicinal plants from Lombok has resulted in the collection of 100 plant species predicted to have antimicrobial, including antimalarial, properties according to local medicinal uses. These plants represent 49 families and 80 genera; 23% of the plants tested positively for alkaloids. Among the plants testing positive, five have been selected for further investigation involving structure elucidation and antimicrobial testing on the extracted alkaloids. Initial work on structural elucidation of some of the alkaloids is reported briefly.

  14. Effects of Marijuana Use on Brain Structure and Function: Neuroimaging Findings from a Neurodevelopmental Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Brumback, T.; Castro, N.; Jacobus, J.; Tapert, S.

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana, behind only tobacco and alcohol, is the most popular recreational drug in America with prevalence rates of use rising over the past decade. A wide range of research has highlighted neurocognitive deficits associated with marijuana use, particularly when initiated during childhood or adolescence. Neuroimaging, describing alterations to brain structure and function, has begun to provide a picture of possible mechanisms associated with the deleterious effects of marijuana use. This ch...

  15. Study of Updating Initiating Event Frequency using Prognostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyeonmin; Lee, Sang-Hwan; Park, Jun-seok; Kim, Hyungdae; Chang, Yoon-Suk; Heo, Gyunyoung

    2014-01-01

    The Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) model enables to find the relative priority of accident scenarios, weak points in achieving accident prevention or mitigation, and insights to improve those vulnerabilities. Thus, PSA consider realistic calculation for precise and confidence results. However, PSA model still 'conservative' aspects in the procedures of developing a PSA model. One of the sources for the conservatism is caused by the assumption of safety analysis and the estimation of failure frequency. Recently, Surveillance, Diagnosis, and Prognosis (SDP) is a growing trend in applying space and aviation systems in particular. Furthermore, a study dealing with the applicable areas and state-of-the-art status of the SDP in nuclear industry was published. SDP utilizing massive database and information technology among such enabling techniques is worthwhile to be highlighted in terms of the capability of alleviating the conservatism in the conventional PSA. This paper review the concept of integrating PSA and SDP and suggest the updated methodology of Initiating Event (IE) using prognostics. For more detailed, we focus on IE of the Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR) considering tube degradation. This paper is additional research of previous our suggested the research. In this paper, the concept of integrating PSA and SDP are suggested. Prognostics algorithms in SDP are applied at IE, Bes in the Level 1 PSA. As an example, updating SGTR IE and its ageing were considered. Tube ageing were analyzed by using PASTA and Monte Carlo method. After analyzing the tube ageing, conventional SGTR IE were updated by using Bayesian approach. The studied method can help to cover the static and conservatism in PSA

  16. Study of Updating Initiating Event Frequency using Prognostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyeonmin; Lee, Sang-Hwan; Park, Jun-seok; Kim, Hyungdae; Chang, Yoon-Suk; Heo, Gyunyoung [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) model enables to find the relative priority of accident scenarios, weak points in achieving accident prevention or mitigation, and insights to improve those vulnerabilities. Thus, PSA consider realistic calculation for precise and confidence results. However, PSA model still 'conservative' aspects in the procedures of developing a PSA model. One of the sources for the conservatism is caused by the assumption of safety analysis and the estimation of failure frequency. Recently, Surveillance, Diagnosis, and Prognosis (SDP) is a growing trend in applying space and aviation systems in particular. Furthermore, a study dealing with the applicable areas and state-of-the-art status of the SDP in nuclear industry was published. SDP utilizing massive database and information technology among such enabling techniques is worthwhile to be highlighted in terms of the capability of alleviating the conservatism in the conventional PSA. This paper review the concept of integrating PSA and SDP and suggest the updated methodology of Initiating Event (IE) using prognostics. For more detailed, we focus on IE of the Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR) considering tube degradation. This paper is additional research of previous our suggested the research. In this paper, the concept of integrating PSA and SDP are suggested. Prognostics algorithms in SDP are applied at IE, Bes in the Level 1 PSA. As an example, updating SGTR IE and its ageing were considered. Tube ageing were analyzed by using PASTA and Monte Carlo method. After analyzing the tube ageing, conventional SGTR IE were updated by using Bayesian approach. The studied method can help to cover the static and conservatism in PSA.

  17. The progress and clinical application of radionuclide neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wenxin; He Pinyu

    2008-01-01

    Development of site-specific brain radiopharmaceuticals extends the the functional neuroimaging applications in the diagnosis and monitoring treatments of various neurologic and psychiatric disorders. This article highlights recent advances and clinical applications of the functional neuroimaging in Parkinson disease, epilepsy, dementia, substance abuse, psychiatric disorders and brain functional research. (authors)

  18. Functional and molecular neuroimaging of menopause and hormone replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comasco, Erika; Frøkjær, Vibe; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2014-01-01

    The level of gonadal hormones to which the female brain is exposed considerably changes across the menopausal transition, which in turn, is likely to be of great relevance for neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders. However, the neurobiological consequences of these hormone fluctuat......The level of gonadal hormones to which the female brain is exposed considerably changes across the menopausal transition, which in turn, is likely to be of great relevance for neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders. However, the neurobiological consequences of these hormone...... fluctuations and of hormone replacement therapy in the menopause have only begun to be understood. The present review summarizes the findings of thirty-five studies of human brain function, including functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron and single-photon computed emission tomography studies, in peri......-controlled multi-modal prospective neuroimaging studies as well as investigation on the related molecular mechanisms of effects of menopausal hormonal variations on the brain....

  19. The Florida State Initial Teacher Certification Test: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Charles M.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the development of the art certification examination which was designed for the Florida State Initial Teacher Certification Test. Discusses problems of subjectivity, content, and question format. Suggests criteria which can guide the development of viable college art education programs that can adequately prepare teachers in the areas of…

  20. A Delphi Study and Initial Validation of Counselor Supervision Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuer Colburn, Anita A.; Grothaus, Tim; Hays, Danica G.; Milliken, Tammi

    2016-01-01

    The authors addressed the lack of supervision training standards for doctoral counseling graduates by developing and validating an initial list of supervision competencies. They used content analysis, Delphi polling, and content validity methods to generate a list, vetted by 2 different panels of supervision experts, of 33 competencies grouped…

  1. Silent stroke and advance in neuroimaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Yasushi; Sadoshima, Seizo; Hasuo, Kanehiro; Saku, Yoshisuke; Fujishima, Masatoshi (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1990-10-01

    Recently, silent strokes are more frequently demonstrated by CT and MRI with the advance of neuroimaging. The infarcted lesions unrelated to the neurological symptoms were detected in 8, 30, 28, 34, 60, 63% of the patients with cerebral infarction in 1977-78, 1982, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988, respectively, by CT and/or MRI, and the asymptomatic patients with incidentally diagnosed cerebral infarction were amounted to 16% (8 of 51 cases) in 1988. Of the recent 50 patients with cerebral infarction examined by CT and MRI, asymptomatic cerebrovascular lesions were detected in 25 (50%) by CT and in 35 (70%) by MRI. MRI also revealed asymptomatic old hemorrhage in 7 (14%). The clinical significance of silent stroke was discussed. (author).

  2. An empirical comparison of different approaches for combining multimodal neuroimaging data with support vector machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pettersson-Yeo, W.; Benetti, S.; Marquand, A.F.; Joules, R.; Catani, M.; Williams, S.C.; Allen, P.; McGuire, P.; Mechelli, A.

    2014-01-01

    In the pursuit of clinical utility, neuroimaging researchers of psychiatric and neurological illness are increasingly using analyses, such as support vector machine, that allow inference at the single-subject level. Recent studies employing single-modality data, however, suggest that classification

  3. Identifying predictors, moderators, and mediators of antidepressant response in major depressive disorder: neuroimaging approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Mary L; Chase, Henry W; Sheline, Yvette I; Etkin, Amit; Almeida, Jorge R C; Deckersbach, Thilo; Trivedi, Madhukar H

    2015-02-01

    Despite significant advances in neuroscience and treatment development, no widely accepted biomarkers are available to inform diagnostics or identify preferred treatments for individuals with major depressive disorder. In this critical review, the authors examine the extent to which multimodal neuroimaging techniques can identify biomarkers reflecting key pathophysiologic processes in depression and whether such biomarkers may act as predictors, moderators, and mediators of treatment response that might facilitate development of personalized treatments based on a better understanding of these processes. The authors first highlight the most consistent findings from neuroimaging studies using different techniques in depression, including structural and functional abnormalities in two parallel neural circuits: serotonergically modulated implicit emotion regulation circuitry, centered on the amygdala and different regions in the medial prefrontal cortex; and dopaminergically modulated reward neural circuitry, centered on the ventral striatum and medial prefrontal cortex. They then describe key findings from the relatively small number of studies indicating that specific measures of regional function and, to a lesser extent, structure in these neural circuits predict treatment response in depression. Limitations of existing studies include small sample sizes, use of only one neuroimaging modality, and a focus on identifying predictors rather than moderators and mediators of differential treatment response. By addressing these limitations and, most importantly, capitalizing on the benefits of multimodal neuroimaging, future studies can yield moderators and mediators of treatment response in depression to facilitate significant improvements in shorter- and longer-term clinical and functional outcomes.

  4. The ENIGMA Consortium : large-scale collaborative analyses of neuroimaging and genetic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, Paul M.; Stein, Jason L.; Medland, Sarah E.; Hibar, Derrek P.; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Renteria, Miguel E.; Toro, Roberto; Jahanshad, Neda; Schumann, Gunter; Franke, Barbara; Wright, Margaret J.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Agartz, Ingrid; Alda, Martin; Alhusaini, Saud; Almasy, Laura; Almeida, Jorge; Alpert, Kathryn; Andreasen, Nancy C.; Andreassen, Ole A.; Apostolova, Liana G.; Appel, Katja; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Aribisala, Benjamin; Bastin, Mark E.; Bauer, Michael; Bearden, Carrie E.; Bergmann, Orjan; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Blangero, John; Bockholt, Henry J.; Boen, Erlend; Bois, Catherine; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Booth, Tom; Bowman, Ian J.; Bralten, Janita; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Brunner, Han G.; Brohawn, David G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Buitelaar, Jan; Bulayeva, Kazima; Bustillo, Juan R.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Schmaal, Lianne; van Tol, Marie-Jose

    The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in neuroscience,

  5. The ENIGMA Consortium: large-scale collaborative analyses of neuroimaging and genetic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, Paul M.; Stein, Jason L.; Medland, Sarah E.; Hibar, Derrek P.; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Renteria, Miguel E.; Toro, Roberto; Jahanshad, Neda; Schumann, Gunter; Franke, Barbara; Wright, Margaret J.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Agartz, Ingrid; Alda, Martin; Alhusaini, Saud; Almasy, Laura; Almeida, Jorge; Alpert, Kathryn; Andreasen, Nancy C.; Andreassen, Ole A.; Apostolova, Liana G.; Appel, Katja; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Aribisala, Benjamin; Bastin, Mark E.; Bauer, Michael; Bearden, Carrie E.; Bergmann, Orjan; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Blangero, John; Bockholt, Henry J.; Bøen, Erlend; Bois, Catherine; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Booth, Tom; Bowman, Ian J.; Bralten, Janita; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Brunner, Han G.; Brohawn, David G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Buitelaar, Jan; Bulayeva, Kazima; Bustillo, Juan R.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cantor, Rita M.; Carless, Melanie A.; Caseras, Xavier; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chang, Kiki D.; Ching, Christopher R. K.; Christoforou, Andrea; Cichon, Sven; Clark, Vincent P.; Conrod, Patricia; Coppola, Giovanni; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Curran, Joanne E.; Czisch, Michael; Deary, Ian J.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; den Braber, Anouk; Delvecchio, Giuseppe; Depondt, Chantal; de Haan, Lieuwe; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Dima, Danai; Dimitrova, Rali; Djurovic, Srdjan; Dong, Hongwei; Donohoe, Gary; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Dyer, Thomas D.; Ehrlich, Stefan; Ekman, Carl Johan; Elvsåshagen, Torbjørn; Emsell, Louise; Erk, Susanne; Espeseth, Thomas; Fagerness, Jesen; Fears, Scott; Fedko, Iryna; Fernández, Guillén; Fisher, Simon E.; Foroud, Tatiana; Fox, Peter T.; Francks, Clyde; Frangou, Sophia; Frey, Eva Maria; Frodl, Thomas; Frouin, Vincent; Garavan, Hugh; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Glahn, David C.; Godlewska, Beata; Goldstein, Rita Z.; Gollub, Randy L.; Grabe, Hans J.; Grimm, Oliver; Gruber, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.; Göring, Harald H. H.; Hagenaars, Saskia; Hajek, Tomas; Hall, Geoffrey B.; Hall, Jeremy; Hardy, John; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hass, Johanna; Hatton, Sean N.; Haukvik, Unn K.; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hickie, Ian B.; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoehn, David; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hollinshead, Marisa; Holmes, Avram J.; Homuth, Georg; Hoogman, Martine; Hong, L. Elliot; Hosten, Norbert; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Hwang, Kristy S.; Jack, Clifford R.; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnston, Caroline; Jönsson, Erik G.; Kahn, René S.; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Kelly, Sinead; Kim, Sungeun; Kochunov, Peter; Koenders, Laura; Krämer, Bernd; Kwok, John B. J.; Lagopoulos, Jim; Laje, Gonzalo; Landen, Mikael; Landman, Bennett A.; Lauriello, John; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Lee, Phil H.; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Lemaître, Herve; Leonardo, Cassandra D.; Li, Chiang-Shan; Liberg, Benny; Liewald, David C.; Liu, Xinmin; Lopez, Lorna M.; Loth, Eva; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Luciano, Michelle; Macciardi, Fabio; Machielsen, Marise W. J.; Macqueen, Glenda M.; Malt, Ulrik F.; Mandl, René; Manoach, Dara S.; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Matarin, Mar; Mather, Karen A.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mattingsdal, Morten; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; McMahon, Francis J.; McMahon, Katie L.; Meisenzahl, Eva; Melle, Ingrid; Milaneschi, Yuri; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W.; Morris, Derek W.; Moses, Eric K.; Mueller, Bryon A.; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Mwangi, Benson; Nauck, Matthias; Nho, Kwangsik; Nichols, Thomas E.; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Nugent, Allison C.; Nyberg, Lars; Olvera, Rene L.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Ophoff, Roel A.; Pandolfo, Massimo; Papalampropoulou-Tsiridou, Melina; Papmeyer, Martina; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Peterson, Charles P.; Pfennig, Andrea; Phillips, Mary; Pike, G. Bruce; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Potkin, Steven G.; Pütz, Benno; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Rasmussen, Jerod; Rietschel, Marcella; Rijpkema, Mark; Risacher, Shannon L.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rose, Emma J.; Royle, Natalie A.; Rujescu, Dan; Ryten, Mina; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Salami, Alireza; Satterthwaite, Theodore D.; Savitz, Jonathan; Saykin, Andrew J.; Scanlon, Cathy; Schmaal, Lianne; Schnack, Hugo G.; Schork, Andrew J.; Schulz, S. Charles; Schür, Remmelt; Seidman, Larry; Shen, Li; Shoemaker, Jody M.; Simmons, Andrew; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Smith, Colin; Smoller, Jordan W.; Soares, Jair C.; Sponheim, Scott R.; Sprooten, Emma; Starr, John M.; Steen, Vidar M.; Strakowski, Stephen; Strike, Lachlan; Sussmann, Jessika; Sämann, Philipp G.; Teumer, Alexander; Toga, Arthur W.; Tordesillas-Gutierrez, Diana; Trabzuni, Daniah; Trost, Sarah; Turner, Jessica; van den Heuvel, Martijn; van der Wee, Nic J.; van Eijk, Kristel; van Erp, Theo G. M.; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; van 't Ent, Dennis; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Valdés Hernández, Maria C.; Veltman, Dick J.; Versace, Amelia; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Robert; Walter, Henrik; Wang, Lei; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Weale, Michael E.; Weiner, Michael W.; Wen, Wei; Westlye, Lars T.; Whalley, Heather C.; Whelan, Christopher D.; White, Tonya; Winkler, Anderson M.; Wittfeld, Katharina; Woldehawariat, Girma; Wolf, Christiane; Zilles, David; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Schofield, Peter R.; Freimer, Nelson B.; Lawrence, Natalia S.; Drevets, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in neuroscience,

  6. The ENIGMA Consortium: Large-scale collaborative analyses of neuroimaging and genetic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.M. Thompson (Paul); J.L. Stein; S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth); D.P. Hibar (Derrek); A.A. Vásquez (Arias); M.E. Rentería (Miguel); R. Toro (Roberto); N. Jahanshad (Neda); G. Schumann (Gunter); B. Franke (Barbara); M.J. Wright (Margaret); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); I. Agartz (Ingrid); M. Alda (Martin); S. Alhusaini (Saud); L. Almasy (Laura); K. Alpert (Kathryn); N.C. Andreasen; O.A. Andreassen (Ole); L.G. Apostolova (Liana); K. Appel (Katja); N.J. Armstrong (Nicola); B. Aribisala (Benjamin); M.E. Bastin (Mark); M. Bauer (Michael); C.E. Bearden (Carrie); Ø. Bergmann (Ørjan); E.B. Binder (Elisabeth); J. Blangero (John); H.J. Bockholt; E. Bøen (Erlend); M. Bois (Monique); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); T. Booth (Tom); I.J. Bowman (Ian); L.B.C. Bralten (Linda); R.M. Brouwer (Rachel); H.G. Brunner; D.G. Brohawn (David); M. Buckner; J.K. Buitelaar (Jan); K. Bulayeva (Kazima); J. Bustillo; V.D. Calhoun (Vince); D.M. Cannon (Dara); R.M. Cantor; M.A. Carless (Melanie); X. Caseras (Xavier); G. Cavalleri (Gianpiero); M.M. Chakravarty (M. Mallar); K.D. Chang (Kiki); C.R.K. Ching (Christopher); A. Christoforou (Andrea); S. Cichon (Sven); V.P. Clark; P. Conrod (Patricia); D. Coppola (Domenico); B. Crespo-Facorro (Benedicto); J.E. Curran (Joanne); M. Czisch (Michael); I.J. Deary (Ian); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); A. den Braber (Anouk); G. Delvecchio (Giuseppe); C. Depondt (Chantal); L. de Haan (Lieuwe); G.I. de Zubicaray (Greig); D. Dima (Danai); R. Dimitrova (Rali); S. Djurovic (Srdjan); H. Dong (Hongwei); D.J. Donohoe (Dennis); A. Duggirala (Aparna); M.D. Dyer (Matthew); S.M. Ehrlich (Stefan); C.J. Ekman (Carl Johan); T. Elvsåshagen (Torbjørn); L. Emsell (Louise); S. Erk; T. Espeseth (Thomas); J. Fagerness (Jesen); S. Fears (Scott); I. Fedko (Iryna); G. Fernandez (Guillén); S.E. Fisher (Simon); T. Foroud (Tatiana); P.T. Fox (Peter); C. Francks (Clyde); S. Frangou (Sophia); E.M. Frey (Eva Maria); T. Frodl (Thomas); V. Frouin (Vincent); H. Garavan (Hugh); S. Giddaluru (Sudheer); D.C. Glahn (David); B. Godlewska (Beata); R.Z. Goldstein (Rita); R.L. Gollub (Randy); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); O. Grimm (Oliver); O. Gruber (Oliver); T. Guadalupe (Tulio); R.E. Gur (Raquel); R.C. Gur (Ruben); H.H.H. Göring (Harald); S. Hagenaars (Saskia); T. Hajek (Tomas); G.B. Hall (Garry); J. Hall (Jeremy); J. Hardy (John); C.A. Hartman (Catharina); J. Hass (Johanna); W. Hatton; U.K. Haukvik (Unn); K. Hegenscheid (Katrin); J. Heinz (Judith); I.B. Hickie (Ian); B.C. Ho (Beng ); D. Hoehn (David); P.J. Hoekstra (Pieter); M. Hollinshead (Marisa); A.J. Holmes (Avram); G. Homuth (Georg); M. Hoogman (Martine); L.E. Hong (L.Elliot); N. Hosten (Norbert); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); H.E. Hulshoff Pol (Hilleke); K.S. Hwang (Kristy); C.R. Jack Jr. (Clifford); S. Jenkinson (Sarah); C. Johnston; E.G. Jönsson (Erik); R.S. Kahn (René); D. Kasperaviciute (Dalia); S. Kelly (Steve); S. Kim (Shinseog); P. Kochunov (Peter); L. Koenders (Laura); B. Krämer (Bernd); J.B.J. Kwok (John); J. Lagopoulos (Jim); G. Laje (Gonzalo); M. Landén (Mikael); B.A. Landman (Bennett); J. Lauriello; S. Lawrie (Stephen); P.H. Lee (Phil); S. Le Hellard (Stephanie); H. Lemaître (Herve); C.D. Leonardo (Cassandra); C.-S. Li (Chiang-shan); B. Liberg (Benny); D.C. Liewald (David C.); X. Liu (Xinmin); L.M. Lopez (Lorna); E. Loth (Eva); A. Lourdusamy (Anbarasu); M. Luciano (Michelle); F. MacCiardi (Fabio); M.W.J. Machielsen (Marise); G.M. MacQueen (Glenda); U.F. Malt (Ulrik); R. Mandl (René); D.S. Manoach (Dara); J.-L. Martinot (Jean-Luc); M. Matarin (Mar); R. Mather; M. Mattheisen (Manuel); M. Mattingsdal (Morten); A. Meyer-Lindenberg; C. McDonald (Colm); A.M. McIntosh (Andrew); F.J. Mcmahon (Francis J); K.L. Mcmahon (Katie); E. Meisenzahl (Eva); I. Melle (Ingrid); Y. Milaneschi (Yuri); S. Mohnke (Sebastian); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); D.W. Morris (Derek W); E.K. Moses (Eric); B.A. Mueller (Bryon ); S. Muñoz Maniega (Susana); T.W. Mühleisen (Thomas); B. Müller-Myhsok (Bertram); B. Mwangi (Benson); M. Nauck (Matthias); K. Nho (Kwangsik); T.E. Nichols (Thomas); L.G. Nilsson; A.C. Nugent (Allison); L. Nyberg (Lisa); R.L. Olvera (Rene); J. Oosterlaan (Jaap); R.A. Ophoff (Roel); M. Pandolfo (Massimo); M. Papalampropoulou-Tsiridou (Melina); M. Papmeyer (Martina); T. Paus (Tomas); Z. Pausova (Zdenka); G. Pearlson (Godfrey); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); C.P. Peterson (Charles); A. Pfennig (Andrea); M. Phillips (Mary); G.B. Pike (G Bruce); J.B. Poline (Jean Baptiste); S.G. Potkin (Steven); B. Pütz (Benno); A. Ramasamy (Adaikalavan); J. Rasmussen (Jerod); M. Rietschel (Marcella); M. Rijpkema (Mark); S.L. Risacher (Shannon); J.L. Roffman (Joshua); R. Roiz-Santiañez (Roberto); N. Romanczuk-Seiferth (Nina); E.J. Rose (Emma); N.A. Royle (Natalie); D. Rujescu (Dan); M. Ryten (Mina); P.S. Sachdev (Perminder); A. Salami (Alireza); T.D. Satterthwaite (Theodore); J. Savitz (Jonathan); A.J. Saykin (Andrew); C. Scanlon (Cathy); L. Schmaal (Lianne); H. Schnack (Hugo); N.J. Schork (Nicholas); S.C. Schulz (S.Charles); R. Schür (Remmelt); L.J. Seidman (Larry); L. Shen (Li); L. Shoemaker (Lawrence); A. Simmons (Andrew); S.M. Sisodiya (Sanjay); C. Smith (Colin); J.W. Smoller; J.C. Soares (Jair); S.R. Sponheim (Scott); R. Sprooten (Roy); J.M. Starr (John); V.M. Steen (Vidar); S. Strakowski (Stephen); L.T. Strike (Lachlan); J. Sussmann (Jessika); P.G. Sämann (Philipp); A. Teumer (Alexander); A.W. Toga (Arthur); D. Tordesillas-Gutierrez (Diana); D. Trabzuni (Danyah); S. Trost (Sarah); J. Turner (Jessica); M. van den Heuvel (Martijn); N.J. van der Wee (Nic); K.R. van Eijk (Kristel); T.G.M. van Erp (Theo G.); N.E.M. van Haren (Neeltje E.); D. van 't Ent (Dennis); M.J.D. van Tol (Marie-José); M.C. Valdés Hernández (Maria); D.J. Veltman (Dick); A. Versace (Amelia); H. Völzke (Henry); R. Walker (Robert); H.J. Walter (Henrik); L. Wang (Lei); J.M. Wardlaw (J.); M.E. Weale (Michael); M.W. Weiner (Michael); W. Wen (Wei); L.T. Westlye (Lars); H.C. Whalley (Heather); C.D. Whelan (Christopher); T.J.H. White (Tonya); A.M. Winkler (Anderson); K. Wittfeld (Katharina); G. Woldehawariat (Girma); A. Björnsson (Asgeir); D. Zilles (David); M.P. Zwiers (Marcel); A. Thalamuthu (Anbupalam); J.R. Almeida (Jorge); C.J. Schofield (Christopher); N.B. Freimer (Nelson); N.S. Lawrence (Natalia); D.A. Drevets (Douglas)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in

  7. Identifying Predictors, Moderators, and Mediators of Antidepressant Response in Major Depressive Disorder: Neuroimaging Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Mary L.; Chase, Henry W.; Sheline, Yvette I.; Etkin, Amit; Almeida, Jorge R.C.; Deckersbach, Thilo; Trivedi, Madhukar H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Despite significant advances in neuroscience and treatment development, no widely accepted biomarkers are available to inform diagnostics or identify preferred treatments for individuals with major depressive disorder. Method In this critical review, the authors examine the extent to which multimodal neuroimaging techniques can identify biomarkers reflecting key pathophysiologic processes in depression and whether such biomarkers may act as predictors, moderators, and mediators of treatment response that might facilitate development of personalized treatments based on a better understanding of these processes. Results The authors first highlight the most consistent findings from neuroimaging studies using different techniques in depression, including structural and functional abnormalities in two parallel neural circuits: serotonergically modulated implicit emotion regulation circuitry, centered on the amygdala and different regions in the medial prefrontal cortex; and dopaminergically modulated reward neural circuitry, centered on the ventral striatum and medial prefrontal cortex. They then describe key findings from the relatively small number of studies indicating that specific measures of regional function and, to a lesser extent, structure in these neural circuits predict treatment response in depression. Conclusions Limitations of existing studies include small sample sizes, use of only one neuroimaging modality, and a focus on identifying predictors rather than moderators and mediators of differential treatment response. By addressing these limitations and, most importantly, capitalizing on the benefits of multimodal neuroimaging, future studies can yield moderators and mediators of treatment response in depression to facilitate significant improvements in shorter- and longer-term clinical and functional outcomes. PMID:25640931

  8. Neuroimaging features of Cornelia de Lange syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, Matthew T. [Department of Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Nagaraj, Usha D. [Department of Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Cincinnati Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Pearl, Phillip L. [Department of Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Neurology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome is a rare genetic disease characterized by distinctive facial dysmorphia and dwarfism. Multiple organ system involvement is typical. Various central nervous system (CNS) aberrations have been described in the pathology literature; however, the spectrum of neuroimaging manifestations is less well documented. To present neuroimaging findings from a series of eight patients with Cornelia de Lange syndrome. The CT/MR database at a single academic children's hospital was searched for the terms ''Cornelia'', ''Brachmann'' and ''de Lange.'' The search yielded 18 exams from 16 patients. Two non-CNS and six exams without available images were excluded. Ten exams from eight patients were evaluated by a board-certified neuroradiologist. All patients had skull base dysplasia, most with an unusual coronal basioccipital cleft (7/8). All brain MR exams showed microcephaly, volume loss and gyral simplification (5/5). Six patients had an absent massa intermedia. Four patients had small globe anterior segments; three had optic pathway hypoplasia. Basilar artery fenestration was present in two patients; vertebrobasilar hypoplasia was present in one patient. The inner ear vestibules were dysplastic in two patients. One patient had pachymeningeal thickening. Spinal anomalies included scoliosis, segmentation anomalies, endplate irregularities, basilar invagination, foramen magnum stenosis and tethered spinal cord. Typical imaging manifestations of Cornelia de Lange syndrome include skull base dysplasia with coronal clival cleft, cerebral and brainstem volume loss, and gyral simplification. Membranous labyrinth dysplasia, anterior segment and optic pathway hypoplasia, basilar artery fenestration, absent massa intermedia and spinal anomalies may also be present. (orig.)

  9. Neuroimaging features of Cornelia de Lange syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehead, Matthew T.; Nagaraj, Usha D.; Pearl, Phillip L.

    2015-01-01

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome is a rare genetic disease characterized by distinctive facial dysmorphia and dwarfism. Multiple organ system involvement is typical. Various central nervous system (CNS) aberrations have been described in the pathology literature; however, the spectrum of neuroimaging manifestations is less well documented. To present neuroimaging findings from a series of eight patients with Cornelia de Lange syndrome. The CT/MR database at a single academic children's hospital was searched for the terms ''Cornelia'', ''Brachmann'' and ''de Lange.'' The search yielded 18 exams from 16 patients. Two non-CNS and six exams without available images were excluded. Ten exams from eight patients were evaluated by a board-certified neuroradiologist. All patients had skull base dysplasia, most with an unusual coronal basioccipital cleft (7/8). All brain MR exams showed microcephaly, volume loss and gyral simplification (5/5). Six patients had an absent massa intermedia. Four patients had small globe anterior segments; three had optic pathway hypoplasia. Basilar artery fenestration was present in two patients; vertebrobasilar hypoplasia was present in one patient. The inner ear vestibules were dysplastic in two patients. One patient had pachymeningeal thickening. Spinal anomalies included scoliosis, segmentation anomalies, endplate irregularities, basilar invagination, foramen magnum stenosis and tethered spinal cord. Typical imaging manifestations of Cornelia de Lange syndrome include skull base dysplasia with coronal clival cleft, cerebral and brainstem volume loss, and gyral simplification. Membranous labyrinth dysplasia, anterior segment and optic pathway hypoplasia, basilar artery fenestration, absent massa intermedia and spinal anomalies may also be present. (orig.)

  10. Neuroimaging classification of progression patterns in glioblastoma: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Rory J; Senthil, Keerthi K; Yan, Jiun-Lin; Price, Stephen J

    2018-03-30

    Our primary objective was to report the current neuroimaging classification systems of spatial patterns of progression in glioblastoma. In addition, we aimed to report the terminology used to describe 'progression' and to assess the compliance with the Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) Criteria. We conducted a systematic review to identify all neuroimaging studies of glioblastoma that have employed a categorical classification system of spatial progression patterns. Our review was registered with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) registry. From the included 157 results, we identified 129 studies that used labels of spatial progression patterns that were not based on radiation volumes (Group 1) and 50 studies that used labels that were based on radiation volumes (Group 2). In Group 1, we found 113 individual labels and the most frequent were: local/localised (58%), distant/distal (51%), diffuse (20%), multifocal (15%) and subependymal/subventricular zone (15%). We identified 13 different labels used to refer to 'progression', of which the most frequent were 'recurrence' (99%) and 'progression' (92%). We identified that 37% (n = 33/90) of the studies published following the release of the RANO classification were adherent compliant with the RANO criteria. Our review reports significant heterogeneity in the published systems used to classify glioblastoma spatial progression patterns. Standardization of terminology and classification systems used in studying progression would increase the efficiency of our research in our attempts to more successfully treat glioblastoma.

  11. Motivating forces of human actions. Neuroimaging reward and social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Henrik; Abler, Birgit; Ciaramidaro, Angela; Erk, Susanne

    2005-11-15

    In neuroeconomics, reward and social interaction are central concepts to understand what motivates human behaviour. Both concepts are investigated in humans using neuroimaging methods. In this paper, we provide an overview about these results and discuss their relevance for economic behaviour. For reward it has been shown that a system exists in humans that is involved in predicting rewards and thus guides behaviour, involving a circuit including the striatum, the orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala. Recent studies on social interaction revealed a mentalizing system representing the mental states of others. A central part of this system is the medial prefrontal cortex, in particular the anterior paracingulate cortex. The reward as well as the mentalizing system is engaged in economic decision-making. We will discuss implications of this study for neuromarketing as well as general implications of these results that may help to provide deeper insights into the motivating forces of human behaviour.

  12. Reading the Freudian theory of sexual drives from a functional neuroimaging perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge eStoléru

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the essential tasks of neuropsychoanalysis is to investigate the neural correlates of sexual drives. Here, we consider the four defining characteristics of sexual drives as delineated by Freud: their pressure, aim, object, and source. We systematically examine the relations between these characteristics and the four-component neurophenomenological model that we have proposed based on functional neuroimaging studies, which comprises a cognitive, a motivational, an emotional and an autonomic/neuroendocrine component. Functional neuroimaging studies of sexual arousal have thrown a new light on the four fundamental characteristics of sexual drives by identifying their potential neural correlates. While these studies are essentally consistent with the Freudian model of drives, the main difference emerging between the functional neuroimaging perspective on sexual drives and the Freudian theory relates to the source of drives. From a functional neuroimaging perspective sources of sexual drives, conceived by psychoanalysis as processes of excitation occurring in a peripheral organ, do not seem, at least in adult subjects, to be an essential part of the determinants of sexual arousal. It is rather the central processing of visual or genital stimuli that gives to these stimuli their sexually arousing and sexually pleasurable character.

  13. Study on penetration-induced initiation of energetic fragment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xiangxin; Xu, Heyang

    2017-09-01

    In order to investigate penetration-induced initiation of energetic fragment penetrating target, PTFE/Al (mass ratio 73.5/26.5) pressed and sintered into a Ф8mm × 8mm cylinder. To form energetic fragment, the cylinder was put into a closed container made by 35CrMnSiA. The container is 12mm long, 2mm thick. Energetic fragments were launched by a 14.5mm ballistic gun with a series of velocities and the penetrate process was simulated by AUTODYN-3D. The results show that the stress peak of energetic material exceed the initiation threshold, and energetic material will deflagrate, when energetic fragments impact velocity more than 800 m/s. The research results can provide reference for designs of energetic warhead.

  14. Case Study of Crack Initiation from Bi-material Notches

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klusák, Jan; Knésl, Zdeněk

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 452-453, - (2011), s. 449-452 ISSN 1013-9826. [Fracture and Damage Mechanics /9./. Nagasaki, 20.09.2010-22.09.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/2049; GA ČR GA101/08/0994 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Crack initiation * bi-material notch * fracture mechanics Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  15. Appliance Call Center: A Successful Mixed-Initiative Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cheetham, William E.; Goebel, Kai

    2007-01-01

    Customer service is defined as the ability of a company to afford the service requestor with the expressed need. Due to the increasing importance of service offerings as a revenue source and increasing competition among service providers, it is important for companies to optimize both the customer experience as well as the associated cost of providing the service. For more complex interactions with higher value, mixed-initiative systems provide an avenue that gives a good balance between the ...

  16. Institutional initiatives in professional scientific ethics: three case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickless, Edmund; Bilham, Nic

    2015-04-01

    Learned and professional scientific bodies can play a vital role in promoting ethical behaviours, giving practical substance to theoretical consideration of geoethical principles and complementing the efforts of individual scientists and practitioners to behave in a professional and ethical manner. Institutions may do this through mandatory professional codes of conduct, by developing guidelines and initiatives to codify and stimulate the uptake of best practice, and through wider initiatives to engender a culture conducive to such behaviours. This presentation will outline three current institutional initiatives which directly or indirectly address scientific ethics: i. The UK Science Council's Declaration on Diversity, Equality and Inclusion. ii. Development and promulgation of the American Geosciences Institute's (AGI) Guidelines for Ethical Professional Conduct. iii. The American Geophysical Union's (AGU) Scientific Code of Conduct and Professional Ethics. The focus of the Science Council and its member bodies (including the Geological Society of London) on diversity is of central importance when considering ethical behaviours in science. First, improving equality and diversity in the science workforce is at the heart of ethical practice, as well as being essential to meeting current and future skills needs. Second, in addition to demographic diversity (whether in terms of gender, race, economic status, sexuality or gender identity, etc), an important dimension of diversity in science is to allow space for a plurality of scientific views, and to nurture dissenting voices - essential both to the development of scientific knowledge and to its effective communication to non-technical audiences.

  17. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis complicating dengue infection with neuroimaging mimicking multiple sclerosis: A report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, S; Botross, N; Rusli, B N; Riad, A

    2016-11-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) complicating dengue infection is still exceedingly rare even in endemic countries such as Malaysia. Here we report two such cases, the first in an elderly female patient and the second in a young man. Both presented with encephalopathy, brainstem involvement and worsening upper and lower limb weakness. Initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain was normal in the first case. Serum for dengue Ig M and NS-1 was positive in both cases. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed pleocytosis in both with Dengue IgM and NS-1 positive in the second case but not done in the first. MRI brain showed changes of perpendicular subcortical palisading white matter, callosal and brainstem disease mimicking multiple sclerosis (MS) in both patients though in the former case there was a lag between the onset of clinical symptoms and MRI changes which was only clarified on reimaging. The temporal evolution and duration of the clinical symptoms, CSF changes and neuroimaging were more suggestive of Dengue ADEM rather than an encephalitis though initially the first case began as dengue encephalitis. Furthermore in dengue encephalitis neuroimaging is usually normal or rarely edema, haemorrhage, brainstem, thalamic or focal lesions are seen. Therefore, early recognition of ADEM as a sequelae of dengue infection with neuroimaging mimicking MS and repeat imaging helped in identifying these two cases. Treatment with intravenous steroids followed by maintenance oral steroids produced good outcome in both patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Recent neuroimaging techniques in mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Heather G; Vanderploeg, Rodney D; Curtiss, Glenn; Warden, Deborah L

    2007-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized by acute physiological changes that result in at least some acute cognitive difficulties and typically resolve by 3 months postinjury. Because the majority of mild TBI patients have normal structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/computed tomography (CT) scans, there is increasing attention directed at finding objective physiological correlates of persistent cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms through experimental neuroimaging techniques. The authors review studies utilizing these techniques in patients with mild TBI; these techniques may provide more sensitive assessment of structural and functional abnormalities following mild TBI. Particular promise is evident with fMRI, PET, and SPECT scanning, as demonstrated by associations between brain activation and clinical outcomes.

  19. Fever as an initial manifestation of spondyloarthritis: A retrospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Jin Byun

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate a wide spectrum of clinical features of adult patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA whose initial manifestation was fever, using the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS classification criteria.We retrospectively collected the electronic medical records of hospitalized SpA patients who initially presented to the Severance Hospital (Seoul, Korea with fever from January 2010 to May 2016. As a control group, we also recruited one-hundred consecutive patients who were diagnosed with SpA in our outpatient clinic. Clinical features and laboratory findings were compared in two patient groups.There were 26 patients who had fever as initial presentation of SpA (reactive arthritis 50%, undifferentiated SpA 26.9%, ankylosing spondylitis 15.4%, enteropathic arthritis 3.8%, psoriatic arthritis 3.8%. Peripheral SpA was more common in febrile SpA patients than in control SpA patients (65.4% vs 24.0%, p<0.001. Febrile SpA patients were less frequently HLA-B27 positive than control SpA patients (52.2% vs 77.0%, p<0.05. At baseline, systemic inflammatory markers were significantly higher in the febrile SpA patients (white blood cell count, 11.57 vs 7.81 cells/μL, p<0.001; erythrocyte sedimentation rate, 69.2 vs 41.0 mm/h, p<0.001; C-reactive protein, 109.6 vs 15.3 mg/L, p<0.001. The proportion of patients treated with systemic steroids was significantly higher in febrile SpA patients (57.7% vs. 11.0%, p<0.001. The proportion of patients who visited rheumatology specialty was significantly lower in febrile SpA patients than in control SpA patients (7.7% vs 59.0%, p<0.001.Various subgroups of SpA can be presented with fever as an initial manifestation. Febrile SpA patients demonstrated higher systemic inflammation and a lower chance to visit rheumatology in early stage. When evaluating febrile patients with any clinical features of SpA, clinicians are advised to consider performing SpA-focused evaluation including HLA-B27

  20. Towards a model-based cognitive neuroscience of stopping - a neuroimaging perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Alexandra; Forstmann, Birte U; Matzke, Dora

    2018-07-01

    Our understanding of the neural correlates of response inhibition has greatly advanced over the last decade. Nevertheless the specific function of regions within this stopping network remains controversial. The traditional neuroimaging approach cannot capture many processes affecting stopping performance. Despite the shortcomings of the traditional neuroimaging approach and a great progress in mathematical and computational models of stopping, model-based cognitive neuroscience approaches in human neuroimaging studies are largely lacking. To foster model-based approaches to ultimately gain a deeper understanding of the neural signature of stopping, we outline the most prominent models of response inhibition and recent advances in the field. We highlight how a model-based approach in clinical samples has improved our understanding of altered cognitive functions in these disorders. Moreover, we show how linking evidence-accumulation models and neuroimaging data improves the identification of neural pathways involved in the stopping process and helps to delineate these from neural networks of related but distinct functions. In conclusion, adopting a model-based approach is indispensable to identifying the actual neural processes underlying stopping. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Multimodal Neuroimaging Differences in Nicotine Abstinent vs. Satiated Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaarani, Bader; Spechler, Philip A; Ivanciu, Alexandra; Snowe, Mitchell; Nickerson, Joshua P; Higgins, Stephen T; Garavan, Hugh

    2018-04-06

    Research on cigarette smokers suggests cognitive and behavioral impairments. However, much remains unclear how the functional neurobiology of smokers is influenced by nicotine state. Therefore, we sought to determine which state, be it acute nicotine abstinence or satiety, would yield the most robust differences compared to non-smokers when assessing neurobiological markers of nicotine dependence. Smokers(N=15) and sociodemographically matched non-smokers(N=15) were scanned twice using a repeated-measures design. Smokers were scanned after a 24-hour nicotine abstinence, and immediately after smoking their usual brand cigarette. The neuroimaging battery included a stop-signal task of response inhibition and pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF). Whole brain voxel-wise ANCOVAs were carried out on stop success and stop fail SST contrasts and CBF maps to assess differences among non-, abstinent and satiated smokers. Cluster-correction was performed using AFNI's 3dClustSim to achieve a significance of pSmokers exhibited higher brain activation in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), a brain region known to be involved in inhibitory control, during successful response inhibitions relative to non-smokers. This effect was significantly higher during nicotine abstinence relative to satiety. Smokers also exhibited lower CBF in the bilateral IFG than non-smokers. These hypo-perfusions were not different between abstinence and satiety. These findings converge on alterations in smokers in prefrontal circuits known to be critical for inhibitory control. These effects are present, even when smokers are satiated, but the neural activity required to achieve performance equal to controls is increased when smokers are in acute abstinence. Our multi-modal neuroimaging study gives neurobiological insights into the cognitive demands of maintaining abstinence and suggest targets for assessing the efficacy of therapeutic interventions.

  2. Neural correlates of the LSD experience revealed by multimodal neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, Robin L; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh; Roseman, Leor; Kaelen, Mendel; Droog, Wouter; Murphy, Kevin; Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Schenberg, Eduardo E; Nest, Timothy; Orban, Csaba; Leech, Robert; Williams, Luke T; Williams, Tim M; Bolstridge, Mark; Sessa, Ben; McGonigle, John; Sereno, Martin I; Nichols, David; Hellyer, Peter J; Hobden, Peter; Evans, John; Singh, Krish D; Wise, Richard G; Curran, H Valerie; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J

    2016-04-26

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is the prototypical psychedelic drug, but its effects on the human brain have never been studied before with modern neuroimaging. Here, three complementary neuroimaging techniques: arterial spin labeling (ASL), blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) measures, and magnetoencephalography (MEG), implemented during resting state conditions, revealed marked changes in brain activity after LSD that correlated strongly with its characteristic psychological effects. Increased visual cortex cerebral blood flow (CBF), decreased visual cortex alpha power, and a greatly expanded primary visual cortex (V1) functional connectivity profile correlated strongly with ratings of visual hallucinations, implying that intrinsic brain activity exerts greater influence on visual processing in the psychedelic state, thereby defining its hallucinatory quality. LSD's marked effects on the visual cortex did not significantly correlate with the drug's other characteristic effects on consciousness, however. Rather, decreased connectivity between the parahippocampus and retrosplenial cortex (RSC) correlated strongly with ratings of "ego-dissolution" and "altered meaning," implying the importance of this particular circuit for the maintenance of "self" or "ego" and its processing of "meaning." Strong relationships were also found between the different imaging metrics, enabling firmer inferences to be made about their functional significance. This uniquely comprehensive examination of the LSD state represents an important advance in scientific research with psychedelic drugs at a time of growing interest in their scientific and therapeutic value. The present results contribute important new insights into the characteristic hallucinatory and consciousness-altering properties of psychedelics that inform on how they can model certain pathological states and potentially treat others.

  3. Application of neuroanatomical ontologies for neuroimaging data annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A Turner

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The annotation of functional neuroimaging results for data sharing and reuse is particularly challenging, due to the diversity of terminologies of neuroanatomical structures and cortical parcellation schemes. To address this challenge, we extended the Foundational Model of Anatomy Ontology (FMA to include cytoarchitectural, Brodmann area labels, and a morphological cortical labeling scheme (e.g., the part of Brodmann area 6 in the left precentral gyrus. This representation was also used to augment the neuroanatomical axis of RadLex, the ontology for clinical imaging. The resulting neuroanatomical ontology contains explicit relationships indicating which brain regions are “part of” which other regions, across cytoarchitectural and morphological labeling schemas. We annotated a large functional neuroimaging dataset with terms from the ontology and applied a reasoning engine to analyze this dataset in conjunction with the ontology, and achieved successful inferences from the most specific level (e.g., how many subjects showed activation in a sub-part of the middle frontal gyrus to more general (how many activations were found in areas connected via a known white matter tract?. In summary, we have produced a neuroanatomical ontology that harmonizes several different terminologies of neuroanatomical structures and cortical parcellation schemes. This neuranatomical ontology is publicly available as a view of FMA at the Bioportal website at http://rest.bioontology.org/bioportal/ontologies/download/10005. The ontological encoding of anatomic knowledge can be exploited by computer reasoning engines to make inferences about neuroanatomical relationships described in imaging datasets using different terminologies. This approach could ultimately enable knowledge discovery from large, distributed fMRI studies or medical record mining.

  4. Initial Ferritic Wall Mode studies on HBT-EP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Paul; Bialek, J.; Boozer, A.; Mauel, M. E.; Levesque, J. P.; Navratil, G. A.

    2013-10-01

    Low-activation ferritic steels are leading material candidates for use in next-generation fusion development experiments such as a prospective US component test facility and DEMO. Understanding the interaction of plasmas with a ferromagnetic wall will provide crucial physics for these experiments. Although the ferritic wall mode (FWM) was seen in a linear machine, the FWM was not observed in JFT-2M, probably due to eddy current stabilization. Using its high-resolution magnetic diagnostics and positionable walls, HBT-EP has begun exploring the dynamics and stability of plasma interacting with high-permeability ferritic materials tiled to reduce eddy currents. We summarize a simple model for plasma-wall interaction in the presence of ferromagnetic material, describe the design of a recently-installed set of ferritic shell segments, and report initial results. Supported by U.S. DOE Grant DE-FG02-86ER53222.

  5. Neuroimaging in CMV congenital infected neonates: how and when.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanari, M; Capretti, M G; Lazzarotto, T; Gabrielli, L; Rizzollo, S; Mostert, M; Manzoni, P

    2012-05-01

    Neonatal congenital infections are an important cause of mortality, morbidity and long-term neurodevelopmental and sensorineural sequelae. Many pathogens can cause in utero infection, and among them, cytomegalovirus (CMV) plays a prominent role. In developed countries, CMV poses major health problems as it is the most common pathogen leading to congenital infection, and the leading cause of nonhereditary deafness in children. Evaluation of central nervous system (CNS) involvement in congenital CMV infected newborns is mandatory to better assess the severity of the disease, to guide adequate treatment, to define prognosis, and to tailor follow-up observations and parents' counselling. Cerebral ultrasonography (cUS), Computed Tomography (CT), and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are the currently available techniques to evaluate infants with suspected or proven congenital CMV infection. In congenital CMV infection, their role in early detection and confirmation of cerebral involvement within the first month of life is crucial to initiate specific treatment with antivirals. Neonatologists, paediatricians and radiologists should be aware of the role, the limitations and the inherent risks related to the use of these specific neuroimaging diagnostic tools in these infants. In this article we will discuss from a neonatological perspective the advantages, disadvantages, risks and limitations of each imaging technique. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Neuroimaging in adult penetrating brain injury: a guide for radiographers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temple, Nikki; Donald, Cortny; Skora, Amanda [Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia); Reed, Warren, E-mail: warren.reed@sydney.edu.au [Medical Image Optimisation and Perception Group, Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    Penetrating brain injuries (PBI) are a medical emergency, often resulting in complex damage and high mortality rates. Neuroimaging is essential to evaluate the location and extent of injuries, and to manage them accordingly. Currently, a myriad of imaging modalities are included in the diagnostic workup for adult PBI, including skull radiography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography, with each modality providing their own particular benefits. This literature review explores the current modalities available for investigating PBI and aims to assist in decision making for the appropriate use of diagnostic imaging when presented with an adult PBI. Based on the current literature, the authors have developed an imaging pathway for adult penetrating brain injury that functions as both a learning tool and reference guide for radiographers and other health professionals. Currently, CT is recommended as the imaging modality of choice for the initial assessment of PBI patients, while MRI is important in the sub-acute setting where it aids prognosis prediction and rehabilitation planning, Additional follow-up imaging, such as angiography, should be dependent upon clinical findings.

  7. Neuroimaging in adult penetrating brain injury: a guide for radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temple, Nikki; Donald, Cortny; Skora, Amanda; Reed, Warren

    2015-01-01

    Penetrating brain injuries (PBI) are a medical emergency, often resulting in complex damage and high mortality rates. Neuroimaging is essential to evaluate the location and extent of injuries, and to manage them accordingly. Currently, a myriad of imaging modalities are included in the diagnostic workup for adult PBI, including skull radiography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography, with each modality providing their own particular benefits. This literature review explores the current modalities available for investigating PBI and aims to assist in decision making for the appropriate use of diagnostic imaging when presented with an adult PBI. Based on the current literature, the authors have developed an imaging pathway for adult penetrating brain injury that functions as both a learning tool and reference guide for radiographers and other health professionals. Currently, CT is recommended as the imaging modality of choice for the initial assessment of PBI patients, while MRI is important in the sub-acute setting where it aids prognosis prediction and rehabilitation planning, Additional follow-up imaging, such as angiography, should be dependent upon clinical findings

  8. Neuroimaging for spine and spinal cord surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyanagi, Izumi [Hokkaido Neurosurgical Memorial Hospital (Japan); Iwasaki, Yoshinobu; Hida, Kazutoshi

    2001-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging of the spine and spinal cord are described based upon our clinical experiences with spinal disorders. Preoperative neuroradiological examinations, including magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and computerized tomography (CT) with three-dimensional reconstruction (3D-CT), were retrospectively analyzed in patients with cervical spondylosis or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (130 cases), spinal trauma (43 cases) and intramedullary spinal cord tumors (92 cases). CT scan and 3D-CT were useful in elucidating the spine pathology associated with degenerative and traumatic spine diseases. Visualization of the deformity of the spine or fracture-dislocation of the spinal column with 3D-CT helped to determine the correct surgical treatment. MR imaging was most important in the diagnosis of both spine and spinal cord abnormalities. The axial MR images of the spinal cord were essential in understanding the laterality of the spinal cord compression in spinal column disorders and in determining surgical approaches to the intramedullary lesions. Although non-invasive diagnostic modalities such as MR imaging and CT scans are adequate for deciding which surgical treatment to use in the majority of spine and spinal cord disorders, conventional myelography is still needed in the diagnosis of nerve root compression in some cases of cervical spondylosis. (author)

  9. How Shakespeare tempests the brain: neuroimaging insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keidel, James L; Davis, Philip M; Gonzalez-Diaz, Victorina; Martin, Clara D; Thierry, Guillaume

    2013-04-01

    Shakespeare made extensive use of the functional shift (FS), a rhetorical device involving a change in the grammatical status of words, e.g., using nouns as verbs. Previous work using event-related brain potentials showed how FS triggers a surprise effect inviting mental re-evaluation, seemingly independent of semantic processing. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain activation in participants making judgements on the semantic relationship between sentences -some containing a Shakespearean FS- and subsequently presented words. Behavioural performance in the semantic decision task was high and unaffected by sentence type. However, neuroimaging results showed that sentences featuring FS elicited significant activation beyond regions classically activated by typical language tasks, including the left caudate nucleus, the right inferior frontal gyrus and the right inferior temporal gyrus. These findings show how Shakespeare's grammatical exploration forces the listener to take a more active role in integrating the meaning of what is said. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Neuroimaging revolutionizes therapeutic approaches to chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borsook David

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An understanding of how the brain changes in chronic pain or responds to pharmacological or other therapeutic interventions has been significantly changed as a result of developments in neuroimaging of the CNS. These developments have occurred in 3 domains : (1 Anatomical Imaging which has demonstrated changes in brain volume in chronic pain; (2 Functional Imaging (fMRI that has demonstrated an altered state in the brain in chronic pain conditions including back pain, neuropathic pain, and complex regional pain syndromes. In addition the response of the brain to drugs has provided new insights into how these may modify normal and abnormal circuits (phMRI or pharmacological MRI; (3 Chemical Imaging (Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy or MRS has helped our understanding of measures of chemical changes in chronic pain. Taken together these three domains have already changed the way in which we think of pain – it should now be considered an altered brain state in which there may be altered functional connections or systems and a state that has components of degenerative aspects of the CNS.

  11. Pain as a fact and heuristic: how pain neuroimaging illuminates moral dimensions of law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustilnik, Amanda C

    2012-05-01

    In legal domains ranging from tort to torture, pain and its degree do important definitional work by delimiting boundaries of lawfulness and of entitlements. Yet, for all the work done by pain as a term in legal texts and practice, it has a confounding lack of external verifiability. Now, neuroimaging is rendering pain and myriad other subjective states at least partly ascertainable. This emerging ability to ascertain and quantify subjective states is prompting a "hedonic" or a "subjectivist" turn in legal scholarship, which has sparked a vigorous debate as to whether the quantification of subjective states might affect legal theory and practice. Subjectivists contend that much values-talk in law has been a necessary but poor substitute for quantitative determinations of subjective states--determinations that will be possible in the law's "experiential future." This Article argues the converse: that pain discourse in law frequently is a heuristic for values. Drawing on interviews and laboratory visits with neuroimaging researchers, this Article shows current and in-principle limitations of pain quantification through neuroimaging. It then presents case studies on torture-murder, torture, the death penalty, and abortion to show the largely heuristic role of pain discourse in law. Introducing the theory of "embodied morality," the Article describes how moral conceptions of rights and duties are informed by human physicality and constrained by the limits of empathic identification. Pain neuroimaging helps reveal this dual factual and heuristic nature of pain in the law, and thus itself points to the translational work required for neuroimaging to influence, much less transform, legal practice and doctrine.

  12. Foresight studies and reform initiatives in construction: Lessons for developing countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses construction foresight studies and construction reform initiatives with a view to identifying lessons for developing countries. It notes the number of construction reform initiatives over the last 60 years, mostly...

  13. Neuroimaging with functional near infrared spectroscopy: From formation to interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Vega, Javier; Treviño-Palacios, Carlos G.; Orihuela-Espina, Felipe

    2017-09-01

    Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is gaining momentum as a functional neuroimaging modality to investigate the cerebral hemodynamics subsequent to neural metabolism. As other neuroimaging modalities, it is neuroscience's tool to understand brain systems functions at behaviour and cognitive levels. To extract useful knowledge from functional neuroimages it is critical to understand the series of transformations applied during the process of the information retrieval and how they bound the interpretation. This process starts with the irradiation of the head tissues with infrared light to obtain the raw neuroimage and proceeds with computational and statistical analysis revealing hidden associations between pixels intensities and neural activity encoded to end up with the explanation of some particular aspect regarding brain function.To comprehend the overall process involved in fNIRS there is extensive literature addressing each individual step separately. This paper overviews the complete transformation sequence through image formation, reconstruction and analysis to provide an insight of the final functional interpretation.

  14. Structural neuroimaging in neuropsychology: History and contemporary applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Erin D

    2017-11-01

    Neuropsychology's origins began long before there were any in vivo methods to image the brain. That changed with the advent of computed tomography in the 1970s and magnetic resonance imaging in the early 1980s. Now computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are routinely a part of neuropsychological investigations with an increasing number of sophisticated methods for image analysis. This review examines the history of neuroimaging utilization in neuropsychological investigations, highlighting the basic methods that go into image quantification and the various metrics that can be derived. Neuroimaging methods and limitations for identify what constitutes a lesion are discussed. Likewise, the influence of various demographic and developmental factors that influence quantification of brain structure are reviewed. Neuroimaging is an integral part of 21st Century neuropsychology. The importance of neuroimaging to advancing neuropsychology is emphasized. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. The neuroimaging of Leigh syndrome: case series and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonfante, Eliana; Riascos, Roy F.; Koenig, Mary Kay; Adejumo, Rahmat B.; Perinjelil, Vinu

    2016-01-01

    Leigh syndrome by definition is (1) a neurodegenerative disease with variable symptoms, (2) caused by mitochondrial dysfunction from a hereditary genetic defect and (3) accompanied by bilateral central nervous system lesions. A genetic etiology is confirmed in approximately 50% of patients, with more than 60 identified mutations in the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Here we review the clinical features and imaging studies of Leigh syndrome and describe the neuroimaging findings in a cohort of 17 children with genetically confirmed Leigh syndrome. MR findings include lesions in the brainstem in 9 children (53%), basal ganglia in 13 (76%), thalami in 4 (24%) and dentate nuclei in 2 (12%), and global atrophy in 2 (12%). The brainstem lesions were most frequent in the midbrain and medulla oblongata. With follow-up an increased number of lesions from baseline was observed in 7 of 13 children, evolution of the initial lesion was seen in 6, and complete regression of the lesions was seen in 3. No cerebral white matter lesions were found in any of the 17 children. In concordance with the literature, we found that Leigh syndrome follows a similar pattern of bilateral, symmetrical basal ganglia or brainstem changes. Lesions in Leigh syndrome evolve over time and a lack of visible lesions does not exclude the diagnosis. Reversibility of lesions is seen in some patients, making the continued search for treatment and prevention a priority for clinicians and researchers. (orig.)

  16. The neuroimaging of Leigh syndrome: case series and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfante, Eliana; Riascos, Roy F. [The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Koenig, Mary Kay [The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Child and Adolescent Neurology, Mitochondrial Center of Excellence Leigh Clinic, Houston, TX (United States); Adejumo, Rahmat B.; Perinjelil, Vinu [The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Child and Adolescent Neurology, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Leigh syndrome by definition is (1) a neurodegenerative disease with variable symptoms, (2) caused by mitochondrial dysfunction from a hereditary genetic defect and (3) accompanied by bilateral central nervous system lesions. A genetic etiology is confirmed in approximately 50% of patients, with more than 60 identified mutations in the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Here we review the clinical features and imaging studies of Leigh syndrome and describe the neuroimaging findings in a cohort of 17 children with genetically confirmed Leigh syndrome. MR findings include lesions in the brainstem in 9 children (53%), basal ganglia in 13 (76%), thalami in 4 (24%) and dentate nuclei in 2 (12%), and global atrophy in 2 (12%). The brainstem lesions were most frequent in the midbrain and medulla oblongata. With follow-up an increased number of lesions from baseline was observed in 7 of 13 children, evolution of the initial lesion was seen in 6, and complete regression of the lesions was seen in 3. No cerebral white matter lesions were found in any of the 17 children. In concordance with the literature, we found that Leigh syndrome follows a similar pattern of bilateral, symmetrical basal ganglia or brainstem changes. Lesions in Leigh syndrome evolve over time and a lack of visible lesions does not exclude the diagnosis. Reversibility of lesions is seen in some patients, making the continued search for treatment and prevention a priority for clinicians and researchers. (orig.)

  17. Pituitary tumours in adolescence: clinical behaviour and neuroimaging features of seven cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, S; Morioka, T; Suzuki, S; Takeshita, I; Fukui, M; Iwaki, T

    2001-05-01

    The clinicopathologic features of seven paediatric patients with pituitary adenomas (2 male, 5 female; mean age 14.3 years) were reviewed. There were three non-functioning adenomas, three prolactinomas, and one growth hormone producing adenoma. Five patients presented with visual field deficits, and six patients had endocrine symptoms, which included menstrual irregularities in all female patients, pubertal delay in two females, and growth delay and gigantism in one case each. On neuroimaging studies, five adenomas showed parasellar extension, while the remaining two prolactinomas were intrasellar microadenomas. While two patients with prolactinomas received good results with bromocriptine treatment alone, the remaining five patients underwent either craniotomy or transsphenoidal surgery. Postoperatively, visual disturbances improved markedly in all patients. Two patients also received replacement hormonal therapy. While six patients have been stable for 3.6 years on average, one non-functioning tumour recurred 2 years after the initial transcranial subtotal resection of the tumour. Although there are still many unknowns concerning the biology and optimal treatments for paediatric pituitary adenomas, many of them are assumed to be relatively rapidly growing tumours, while others merely have an earlier tumour genesis than in adults. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  18. Neuroimaging Impaired Response Inhibition and Salience Attribution in Human Drug Addiction: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilverstand, Anna; Huang, Anna S; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Goldstein, Rita Z

    2018-06-06

    The impaired response inhibition and salience attribution (iRISA) model proposes that impaired response inhibition and salience attribution underlie drug seeking and taking. To update this model, we systematically reviewed 105 task-related neuroimaging studies (n > 15/group) published since 2010. Results demonstrate specific impairments within six large-scale brain networks (reward, habit, salience, executive, memory, and self-directed networks) during drug cue exposure, decision making, inhibitory control, and social-emotional processing. Addicted individuals demonstrated increased recruitment of these networks during drug-related processing but a blunted response during non-drug-related processing, with the same networks also being implicated during resting state. Associations with real-life drug use, relapse, therapeutic interventions, and the relevance to initiation of drug use during adolescence support the clinical relevance of the results. Whereas the salience and executive networks showed impairments throughout the addiction cycle, the reward network was dysregulated at later stages of abuse. Effects were similar in alcohol, cannabis, and stimulant addiction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Multimodal neuroimaging of male and female brain structure in health and disease across the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanshad, Neda; Thompson, Paul M

    2017-01-02

    Sex differences in brain development and aging are important to identify, as they may help to understand risk factors and outcomes in brain disorders that are more prevalent in one sex compared with the other. Brain imaging techniques have advanced rapidly in recent years, yielding detailed structural and functional maps of the living brain. Even so, studies are often limited in sample size, and inconsistent findings emerge, one example being varying findings regarding sex differences in the size of the corpus callosum. More recently, large-scale neuroimaging consortia such as the Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta Analysis Consortium have formed, pooling together expertise, data, and resources from hundreds of institutions around the world to ensure adequate power and reproducibility. These initiatives are helping us to better understand how brain structure is affected by development, disease, and potential modulators of these effects, including sex. This review highlights some established and disputed sex differences in brain structure across the life span, as well as pitfalls related to interpreting sex differences in health and disease. We also describe sex-related findings from the ENIGMA consortium, and ongoing efforts to better understand sex differences in brain circuitry. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Neuroscience Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Neuroscience Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Quality improvement initiatives in a case management service: case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Deborah J

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the importance of quality practices in underpinning the person-centred approach at a Community Options Program (COP) case management service in northern NSW. The NSW community care sector does not have a statutory excellence body to identify, promote and support improved practices and quality and safety across community services, and therefore the COP provider decided to establish a dedicated role to focus on the quality improvement of its service. The subsequent quality improvement initiatives have included mapping the clients' journey through the service, identifying areas to standardise practice, and creating service pathways. The clients' journey was used as the framework to identify where standardised practice was required, and a robust process was implemented to develop over 25 good practice guidelines and tools that addressed the variations in practice and enabled the service pathways to be developed. Prior to trialling the guidelines and tools, staff received education sessions on the anticipated changes to practice, and the practicality and applicability of the guidelines were evaluated at the end of the trials. This information was reviewed and the guidelines were amended accordingly before being rolled out. The guidelines have been in use for over 12 months and have provided the benchmark against which to audit practice, and have resulted in key performance improvements such as an increase in client review rates and a rise in the feedback response rate from clients, with a noticeable shift in the comments about the brokered support worker to acknowledging the role of their case manager. Formalising informal supports for those clients that lived alone also increased, which means these people are less reliant on services and there is a reduced risk of social isolation.

  1. When Should Neuroimaging be Applied in the Criminal Court?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    When does neuroimaging constitute a sufficiently developed technology to be put into use in the work of determining whether or not a defendant is guilty of crime? This question constitutes the starting point of the present paper. First, it is suggested that an overall answer is provided by what i......-suited for delivering the sort of theoretical guidance that is required for assessing the desirability of using neuroimaging in the work of the criminal court....

  2. Initial study on burnable poisons in the Dragon HTR design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, U; Pedersen, J

    1971-06-15

    A first study on the effects of burnable poisons in a High Temperature Reactor is given in this paper, and some of the problems concerning the layout and distribution of burnable poison sticks in the core are explained. Time has not allowed us to obtain satisfactory solutions to these problems, but we hope, that this study could form the basis of valuable discussions on ways and means to overcome the difficulties of burnable poison management in HTRs.

  3. Bayesian Optimization for Neuroimaging Pre-processing in Brain Age Classification and Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenessa Lancaster

    2018-02-01

    optimization framework to the new dataset, out-performing the parameters optimized for the initial training dataset. Our study outlines the proof-of-principle that neuroimaging models for brain-age prediction can use Bayesian optimization to derive case-specific pre-processing parameters. Our results suggest that different pre-processing parameters are selected when optimization is conducted in specific contexts. This potentially motivates use of optimization techniques at many different points during the experimental process, which may improve statistical sensitivity and reduce opportunities for experimenter-led bias.

  4. Does health differ between participants and non-participants in the MRI-HUNT study, a population based neuroimaging study? The Nord-Trøndelag health studies 1984–2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honningsvåg, Lasse-Marius; Linde, Mattias; Håberg, Asta; Stovner, Lars Jacob; Hagen, Knut

    2012-01-01

    Bias with regard to participation in epidemiological studies can have a large impact on the generalizability of results. Our aim was to investigate the direction and magnitude of potential bias by comparing health-related factors among participants and non-participants in a MRI-study based on HUNT, a large Norwegian health survey. Of 14,033 individuals aged 50–65, who had participated in all three large public health surveys within the Norwegian county of Nord-Trøndelag (HUNT 1, 2 and 3), 1,560 who lived within 45 minutes of travel from the city of Levanger were invited to a MRI study (MRI-HUNT). The sample of participants in MRI-HUNT (n = 1,006) were compared with those who were invited but did not participate (n = 554) and with those who were eligible but not invited (n = 12,473), using univariate analyses and logistic regression analyses adjusting for age and education level. Self-reported health did not differ between the three groups, but participants had a higher education level and were somewhat younger than the two other groups. In the adjusted multivariate analyses, obesity was consistently less prevalent among participants. Significant differences in blood pressure and cholesterol were also found. This is the first large population-based study comparing participants and non-participants in an MRI study with regard to general health. The groups were not widely different, but participants had a higher level of education, and were less likely to be obese and have hypertension, and were slightly younger than non-participants. The observed differences between participants and non-invited individuals are probably partly explained by the inclusion criterion that participants had to live within 45 minutes of transport to where the MRI examination took place. One will expect that the participants have somewhat less brain morphological changes related to cardiovascular risk factors than the general population. Such consequences underline the crucial importance

  5. Aphasia and Topic Initiation in Conversation: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Scott E.; Candlin, Christopher N.; Ferguson, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Background: Aphasiologists often research, assess and treat linguistic impairment and its consequences for daily life separately. Studies that link the language used by people with aphasia to routine communicative activities may expand the linguistic forms treated as relevant for successful communication by people with aphasia. Previous research…

  6. Complex decision-making: initial results of an empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Luigi Baldi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A brief survey of key literature on emotions and decision-making introduces an empirical study of a group of university students exploring the effects of decision-making complexity on error risk. The results clearly show that decision-making under stress in the experimental group produces significantly more errors than in the stress-free control group.

  7. Complex decision-making: initial results of an empirical study

    OpenAIRE

    Pier Luigi Baldi

    2011-01-01

    A brief survey of key literature on emotions and decision-making introduces an empirical study of a group of university students exploring the effects of decision-making complexity on error risk. The results clearly show that decision-making under stress in the experimental group produces significantly more errors than in the stress-free control group.

  8. Small modular biopower initiative Phase 1 feasibility studies executive summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bain, R.

    2000-03-06

    The Phase 1 objective is a feasibility study that includes a market assessment, resource assessment, preliminary system design, and assessment of relevant environmental and safety considerations, and evaluation of financial and cost issues, and a preliminary business plan and commercialization strategy. Each participating company will share at least 20% of the cost of the first phase.

  9. Evaluating a Tacit Knowledge Sharing Initiative: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbins, Claire; Corrigan, Siobhan; Garavan, Thomas N.; O'Connor, Christy; Leahy, Damien; Long, David; Murphy, Eamonn

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present a case study illustrating the issues involved in the tacit knowledge conversion process and to determine whether such conversion delivers value to the organisation in terms of business value and return on investment (ROI). Design/methodology/approach: A single-case multiple baseline participants experimental…

  10. New initiative in studies of Earth's deep interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Thorne

    A multidisciplinary U.S. research community is undertaking a new coordinated effort to study the state and dynamics of the Earth's deep mantle and core. At an open meeting held at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, from September 11 to 12, 1992, over 120 Earth scientists gathered to discuss this new program, which is an outgrowth of activity during the previous year by an ad hoc steering committee. The research program will be coordinated by a community-based scientific organization and supported through competitive research proposals submitted to the National Science Foundation with the aim of facilitating cooperative research projects cutting across traditional disciplinary and institutional boundaries.The new organization is the U.S. Studies of the Earth's Deep Interior (SEDI) Coordinating Committee. This committee will facilitate communication among the U.S. SEDI research community, federal funding agencies, the AGU Committee for Studies of the Earth's Interior (SEI), the Union SEDI Committee of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, and the general public (Figure 1).

  11. Patient and Process Factors Associated With Type of First Neuroimaging and Delayed Diagnosis in Childhood Arterial Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daverio, Marco; Bressan, Silvia; Gregori, Dario; Babl, Franz E; Mackay, Mark T

    2016-09-01

    In-hospital factors contribute more to delayed diagnosis of childhood arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) than prehospital factors. We aimed to explore process and patient factors associated with type of and timing to neuroimaging in childhood AIS in the emergency department (ED). This was a retrospective hospital registry-based study of children with AIS, presenting to an Australian tertiary pediatric ED between January 2003 and December 2012. Neuroimaging data and timelines of care were also collected from referring hospitals for transferred patients. Seventy-one AIS episodes and 19 transient ischemic attacks were recorded. The majority (56%) were initially seen at a referring hospital. Patients underwent computed tomography (CT) as first scan more frequently than magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as first scan (61% vs. 32%) at both the referring and the tertiary hospitals. Time to first scan as CT was significantly shorter compared with MRI (median = 1.5 hours vs. 10.9 hours, p first presenting to a referring hospital and those directly accessing the tertiary center. Patient characteristics including age, past medical history, conscious state, focal symptoms, and signs on arrival were not associated with the type of first neuroimaging or time to diagnostic MRI. Patients presenting during weekends were less likely to receive an MRI as first scan (odds ratio [OR] = 0.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.1-0.8), while time to MRI was significantly longer for children presenting after hours (5 pm-8 am; median = 17.6 hours vs. 8.4 hours, p = 0.026). MRI overall and as first scan was associated with a higher use of sedation than CT (OR = 6.5, 95% CI = 1.3-32.9; and OR = 3.9, 95% CI = 1.3-11.8), particularly for children younger than 5 years of age (OR = 12.5, 95% CI = 3-52.4). Strategies to improve rapid diagnosis of pediatric stroke should include shared regional hospital networks protocols to optimize local imaging strategies and where possible rapid transfer to the

  12. Initial studies on temperature impact of humic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashalidis, I.; Colocassidou, C.; Costa, C.N.; Efstathiou, A.M.; Buckau, G.

    2004-01-01

    The impact of temperature on the stability of the humic acid Gohy-573(HA) is studied. The studies are made both in order to add general knowledge about humic acid but also in order to provide the basis for experimental setup of studies, and judgment of published data, on the metal ion humate complexation as a function of temperature. Methods applied are mass spectroscopy as a function of temperature elevation up to 240 C, and UV/Vis spectroscopy. Mass spectroscopy is conducted under inertgas atmosphere in order to avoid burning with air oxygen. UV/Vis spectra are measured after storage of humic acid solution (pH=6.0, I=0.1 M NaClO 4 ) at temperatures up to 95 C. The reversibility of changes is also studied by UV/Vis spectroscopy after subsequent storage at room temperature. Already at 50 C release of water is observed from dried humic acid with a peak around 60 C. A second large water release is found with the maximum around 100 C. Above 100 C also carbon dioxide is released, followed by release of carbon monoxide above 130 C. The carbon monoxide and dioxide releases show two distinct maxima at around 180 and 210 C. The UV/Vis spectra show an increase in the absorption towards short wavelengths with increasing temperature and storage time. Already at 60 C, considerable changes occur after storage for one week. At 95 C the change in the spectral feature after 24 h is in the order of that found for 1 week storage at 80 C. After storage at elevated temperatures, the changes in the spectra remain even after 1 week of storage at room temperature. Release of water, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide at high temperature is certainly related to oxidation with the high oxygen inventory in humic acid. The nature of the water release and changes in the UV/Vis spectra at lower temperature is not fully clear. Further experiments, including complexation properties, fluorescence spectroscopy and IR-reflection spectroscopy at elevated temperature are under consideration. (orig.)

  13. Initial studies of submarine groundwater discharge in Mississippi coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiller, A. M.; Moore, W. S.; Joung, D. J.; Box, H.; Ho, P.; Whitmore, L. M.; Gilbert, M.; Anderson, H.

    2017-12-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is a critical component of coastal ecosystems, affecting biogeochemistry and productivity. The SGD flux and effect on the ecosystem of the Mississippi (MS) Bight has not previously been studied. We have determined Ba, δ18O of water, and Ra-isotopes, together with nutrients, chlorophyll, and dissolved oxygen (DO) during multiple cruises from fall 2015 to summer 2016. Water isotope distributions (δ18O) show that, although the MS River Delta bounds the western side of the Bight, nonetheless, Mobile Bay and other local rivers are the Bight's dominant freshwater sources. But elevated dissolved Ba and Ra isotopes cannot be explained by river input. Spatially, SGD in the MS Bight occurs over a wide area, with hot spots near the barrier islands (e.g., Chandeleurs, Horn and Dauphin Islands) and the mouth of Mobile Bay, probably in association with old buried river channels, or dredged ship channels. Based on their high concentrations in saline groundwaters sampled on the barrier islands, the elevated Ba and Ra in MS Bight water are likely due to SGD. In subsurface waters, long-lived Ra isotopes were negatively correlated with DO during spring and summer 2016, suggesting direct discharge of DO-depleted groundwater and/or accumulation of SGD-derived Ra and microbial DO consumption under strongly stratified conditions. Our ongoing study suggests that seasonal variability in flushing, water stratification, and SGD input play important roles in biological production and bottom water hypoxia in the MS Bight.

  14. Nuclear astrophysics at ISAC with DRAGON: Initial studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olin, Art; Bishop, Shawn; D'Auria, John M.; Lamey, Michael; Liu, Wenjie; Wrede, Chris; Buchmann, Lothar; Chen, Alan; Hunter, Don; Laird, Alison M.; Ottewell, Dave; Rogers, Joel; Chatterjee, Mohan L.; Engel, Sabine; Strieder, Frank; Gigliotti, Dario; Hussein, Ahmed; Greife, Uwe; Jewett, Cybele; Hutcheon, Dave

    2002-01-01

    The new DRAGON recoil separator facility, designed and built to measure directly the rates of radiative proton and alpha capture reactions important for nuclear astrophysics, is now in operation at the TRIUMF-ISAC radioactive beams facility in Vancouver, Canada. Experiments have been conducted for the first time on the 21Na(p,γ)22Mg reaction. The evolution of nova explosions, and particularly their 22Na abundance, depends sensitively on this reaction rate. The radioactive 21Na beam with an intensity of up to 5 x 108 /s was directed onto a windowless hydrogen gas target (3.8 x 1018 H atoms/cm2). Prompt reaction gamma rays were detected using a BGO array and separated reaction products detected using a silicon strip detector at the end of the 20.8 m recoil mass separator. Yield measurements recording simultaneously singles and coincident signals were performed by scanning in energy over the known resonance reported previously in 22Mg at Ecm = 212 keV, and in addition, over a strong resonance observed at Ecm ≅822 keV. Known resonances in the 21Ne(p,γ)22Na, 20Ne(p,γ)21Na, and 24Mg(p,γ)25Al reactions have been used to calibrate the DRAGON. Studies are in progress to further define the performance of the DRAGON facility. Status of the data analysis and results from system performance studies will be presented along with a brief description of the new ISAC and DRAGON facilities

  15. Neuroimaging of tic disorders with co-existing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Royal, Jason M; Peterson, Bradley S

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tourette syndrome (TS) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are common and debilitating neuropsychiatric illnesses that typically onset in the preschool years. Recently, both conditions have been subject to neuroimaging studies, with the aim of understanding...... contrast these findings with those in ADHD without comorbid tic disorders. RESULTS: The frequent comorbidity of TS and ADHD may reflect a common underlying neurobiological substrate, and studies confirm the hypothesized involvement of fronto-striatal circuits in both TS and ADHD. However, poor inhibitory...

  16. The brain imaging data structure, a format for organizing and describing outputs of neuroimaging experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Gorgolewski, Krzysztof J.; Auer, Tibor; Calhoun, Vince D.; Craddock, R. Cameron; Das, Samir; Duff, Eugene P.; Flandin, Guillaume; Ghosh, Satrajit S.; Glatard, Tristan; Halchenko, Yaroslav O.; Handwerker, Daniel A.; Hanke, Michael; Keator, David; Li, Xiangrui; Michael, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques has defined modern neuroimaging. Since its inception, tens of thousands of studies using techniques such as functional MRI and diffusion weighted imaging have allowed for the non-invasive study of the brain. Despite the fact that MRI is routinely used to obtain data for neuroscience research, there has been no widely adopted standard for organizing and describing the data collected in an imaging experiment....

  17. Presymptomatic and longitudinal neuroimaging in neurodegeneration--from snapshots to motion picture: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Christina; Elamin, Marwa; Hardiman, Orla; Bede, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Recent quantitative neuroimaging studies have been successful in capturing phenotype and genotype-specific changes in dementia syndromes, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative conditions. However, the majority of imaging studies are cross-sectional, despite the obvious superiority of longitudinal study designs in characterising disease trajectories, response to therapy, progression rates and evaluating the presymptomatic phase of neurodegenerative conditions. The aim of this work is to perform a systematic review of longitudinal imaging initiatives in neurodegeneration focusing on methodology, optimal statistical models, follow-up intervals, attrition rates, primary study outcomes and presymptomatic studies. Longitudinal imaging studies were identified from 'PubMed' and reviewed from 1990 to 2014. The search terms 'longitudinal', 'MRI', 'presymptomatic' and 'imaging' were utilised in combination with one of the following degenerative conditions; Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease, frontotemporal dementia, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, ataxia, HIV, alcohol abuse/dependence. A total of 423 longitudinal imaging papers and 103 genotype-based presymptomatic studies were identified and systematically reviewed. Imaging techniques, follow-up intervals and attrition rates showed significant variation depending on the primary diagnosis. Commonly used statistical models included analysis of annualised percentage change, mixed and random effect models, and non-linear cumulative models with acceleration-deceleration components. Although longitudinal imaging studies have the potential to provide crucial insights into the presymptomatic phase and natural trajectory of neurodegenerative processes a standardised design is required to enable meaningful data interpretation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under

  18. An observational study of the initial management of hypothyroidism in France: the ORCHIDÉE study

    OpenAIRE

    Delemer, Brigitte; Aubert, Jean-Pierre; Nys, Pierre; Landron, Frédéric; Bouée, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    Objective To document the initial management of hypothyroidism in France with respect to diagnostic setting, investigations, and therapeutic approach. Design Observational study of the management by primary care practitioners (PCPs) and endocrinologists of patients diagnosed with, and treated for, hypothyroidism during the enrollment period or the previous 6 months. Methods A representative sample of PCPs and endocrinologists enrolled up to five consecutive patients and reported sociodemograp...

  19. Ultrasound cylindrical phased array for transoesophageal thermal therapy: initial studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melodelima, David; Lafon, Cyril; Prat, Frederic; Birer, Alain; Cathignol, Dominique

    2002-01-01

    This work was undertaken to investigate the feasibility of constructing a cylindrical phased array composed of 64 elements spread around the periphery (OD 10.6 mm) for transoesophageal ultrasound thermotherapy. The underlying operating principle of this applicator is to rotate a plane ultrasound beam electronically. For this purpose, eight adjacent transducers were successively excited with appropriate delay times so as to generate a plane wave. The exposure direction was changed by exciting a different set of eight elements. For these feasibility studies, we used a cylindrical prototype (OD 10.6 mm) composed of 16 elementary transducers distributed over a quarter of the cylinder, all operating at 4.55 MHz. The active part was mechanically reinforced by a rigid damper structure behind the transducers. It was shown that an ultrasound field similar to that emitted by a plane transducer could be generated. Ex vivo experiments on pig's liver demonstrated that the ultrasound beam could be accurately rotated to generate sector-based lesions to a suitable depth (up to 19 mm). Throughout these experiments, exposures lasting 20 s were delivered at an acoustic intensity of 17 W cm -2 . By varying the power from exposure to exposure, the depth of the lesion at different angles could be controlled

  20. Numerical study of multiscale compaction-initiated detonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, J. R.; Schwendeman, D. W.; Kapila, A. K.

    2018-02-01

    A multiscale model of heterogeneous condensed-phase explosives is examined computationally to determine the course of transient events following the application of a piston-driven stimulus. The model is a modified version of that introduced by Gonthier (Combust Sci Technol 175(9):1679-1709, 2003. https://doi.org/10.1080/00102200302373) in which the explosive is treated as a porous, compacting medium at the macro-scale and a collection of closely packed spherical grains capable of undergoing reaction and diffusive heat transfer at the meso-scale. A separate continuum description is ascribed to each scale, and the two scales are coupled together in an energetically consistent manner. Following piston-induced compaction, localized energy deposition at the sites of intergranular contact creates hot spots where reaction begins preferentially. Reaction progress at the macro-scale is determined by the spatial average of that at the grain scale. A parametric study shows that combustion at the macro-scale produces an unsteady detonation with a cyclical character, in which the lead shock loses strength and is overtaken by a stronger secondary shock generated in the partially reacted material behind it. The secondary shock in turn becomes the new lead shock and the process repeats itself.

  1. Synergy of image analysis for animal and human neuroimaging supports translational research on drug abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido eGerig

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI in animals models of neuropathology is of increasing interest to the neuroscience community. In this work, we present our approach to create optimal translational studies that include both animal and human neuroimaging data within the frameworks of a study of postnatal neuro-development in intra-uterine cocaine exposure. We propose the use of non-invasive neuroimaging to study developmental brain structural and white matter pathway abnormalities via sMRI and DTI, as advanced MR imaging technology is readily available and automated image analysis methodology have recently been transferred from the human to animal imaging setting. For this purpose, we developed a synergistic, parallel approach to imaging and image analysis for the human and the rodent branch of our study. We propose an equivalent design in both the selection of the developmental assessment stage and the neuroimaging setup. This approach brings significant advantages to study neurobiological features of early brain development that are common to animals and humans but also preserve analysis capabilities only possible in animal research. This paper presents the main framework and individual methods for the proposed cross-species study design, as well as preliminary DTI cross-species comparative results in the intra-uterine cocaine exposure study.

  2. Nipype: A flexible, lightweight and extensible neuroimaging data processing framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof eGorgolewski

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Current neuroimaging software offer users an incredible opportunity to analyze their data in different ways, with different underlying assumptions. Several sophisticated software packages (e.g., AFNI, BrainVoyager, FSL, FreeSurfer, Nipy, R, SPM are used to process and analyze large and often diverse (highly multi-dimensional data. However, this heterogeneous collection of specialized applications creates several issues that hinder replicable, efficient and optimal use of neuroimaging analysis approaches: 1 No uniform access to neuroimaging analysis software and usage information; 2 No framework for comparative algorithm development and dissemination; 3 Personnel turnover in laboratories often limits methodological continuity and training new personnel takes time; 4 Neuroimaging software packages do not address computational efficiency; and 5 Methods sections in journal articles are inadequate for reproducing results. To address these issues, we present Nipype (Neuroimaging in Python: Pipelines and Interfaces; http://nipy.org/nipype, an open-source, community-developed, software package and scriptable library. Nipype solves the issues by providing Interfaces to existing neuroimaging software with uniform usage semantics and by facilitating interaction between these packages using Workflows. Nipype provides an environment that encourages interactive exploration of algorithms, eases the design of Workflows within and between packages, allows rapid comparative development of algorithms and reduces the learning curve necessary to use different packages. Nipype supports both local and remote execution on multi-core machines and clusters, without additional scripting. Nipype is BSD licensed, allowing anyone unrestricted usage. An open, community-driven development philosophy allows the software to quickly adapt and address the varied needs of the evolving neuroimaging community, especially in the context of increasing demand for reproducible research.

  3. MILLISECOND PULSAR SCINTILLATION STUDIES WITH LOFAR: INITIAL RESULTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archibald, Anne M.; Kondratiev, Vladislav I.; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Stinebring, Daniel R.

    2014-01-01

    High-precision timing of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) over years to decades is a promising technique for direct detection of gravitational waves at nanohertz frequencies. Time-variable, multi-path scattering in the interstellar medium is a significant source of noise for this detector, particularly as timing precision approaches 10 ns or better for MSPs in the pulsar timing array. For many MSPs, the scattering delay above 1 GHz is at the limit of detectability; therefore, we study it at lower frequencies. Using the LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR) radio telescope, we have analyzed short (5-20 minutes) observations of 3 MSPs in order to estimate the scattering delay at 110-190 MHz, where the number of scintles is large and, hence, the statistical uncertainty in the scattering delay is small. We used cyclic spectroscopy, still relatively novel in radio astronomy, on baseband-sampled data to achieve unprecedented frequency resolution while retaining adequate pulse-phase resolution. We detected scintillation structure in the spectra of the MSPs PSR B1257+12, PSR J1810+1744, and PSR J2317+1439 with diffractive bandwidths of 6 ± 3, 2.0 ± 0.3, and ∼7 kHz, respectively, where the estimate for PSR J2317+1439 is reliable to about a factor of two. For the brightest of the three pulsars, PSR J1810+1744, we found that the diffractive bandwidth has a power-law behavior Δν d ∝ν α , where ν is the observing frequency and α = 4.5 ± 0.5, consistent with a Kolmogorov inhomogeneity spectrum. We conclude that this technique holds promise for monitoring the scattering delay of MSPs with LOFAR and other high-sensitivity, low-frequency arrays like the low-frequency component of the Square Kilometre Array

  4. MILLISECOND PULSAR SCINTILLATION STUDIES WITH LOFAR: INITIAL RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archibald, Anne M.; Kondratiev, Vladislav I.; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Stinebring, Daniel R., E-mail: archibald@astron.nl, E-mail: kondratiev@astron.nl, E-mail: hessels@astron.nl, E-mail: dan.stinebring@oberlin.edu [ASTRON, The Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990-AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands)

    2014-08-01

    High-precision timing of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) over years to decades is a promising technique for direct detection of gravitational waves at nanohertz frequencies. Time-variable, multi-path scattering in the interstellar medium is a significant source of noise for this detector, particularly as timing precision approaches 10 ns or better for MSPs in the pulsar timing array. For many MSPs, the scattering delay above 1 GHz is at the limit of detectability; therefore, we s