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Sample records for neuroimaging initiative adni

  1. Validation of Alzheimer's disease CSF and plasma biological markers: the multicentre reliability study of the pilot European Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (E-ADNI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buerger, Katharina; Frisoni, Giovanni; Uspenskaya, Olga

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiatives ("ADNI") aim to validate neuroimaging and biochemical markers of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Data of the pilot European-ADNI (E-ADNI) biological marker programme of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma candidate biomarkers are reported. METHO...

  2. Argentina-Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative (Arg-ADNI: neuropsychological evolution profile after one-year follow up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Chrem Méndez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Argentina-Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative (Arg-ADNI study is a longitudinal prospective cohort of 50 participants at a single institution in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Longitudinal assessments on a neuropsychological test battery were performed on 15 controls, 24 mild cognitive impairment (MCI patients and 12 Alzheimer's disease (AD dementia patients. In our study population, there was a high prevalence of positive AD biomarkers in the AD group, 92.3% (12/13; and a low prevalence in the normal controls, 20%; almost half (48% of the patients diagnosed with MCI had positive amyloid detection. After a one year, the significant differences found at baseline on neuropsychological testing were similar at the follow-up assessment even though the AD group had significantly altered its functional performance (FAQ and CDR. The exception was semantic fluency, which showed greater impairment between the AD group and MCI and normal controls respectively. For these tests, the addition of AD biomarkers as a variable did not significantly alter the variations previously found for the established clinical group's model. Finally, the one-year conversion rate to dementia was 20% in the MCI cohort.

  3. Head motion evaluation and correction for PET scans with 18F-FDG in the Japanese Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative (J-ADNI) multi-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikari, Yasuhiko; Nishio, Tomoyuki; Makishi, Yoko; Miya, Yukari; Ito, Kengo; Koeppe, Robert A; Senda, Michio

    2012-08-01

    Head motion during 30-min (six 5-min frames) brain PET scans starting 30 min post-injection of FDG was evaluated together with the effect of post hoc motion correction between frames in J-ADNI multicenter study carried out in 24 PET centers on a total of 172 subjects consisting of 81 normal subjects, 55 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 36 mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Based on the magnitude of the between-frame co-registration parameters, the scans were classified into six levels (A-F) of motion degree. The effect of motion and its correction was evaluated using between-frame variation of the regional FDG uptake values on ROIs placed over cerebral cortical areas. Although AD patients tended to present larger motion (motion level E or F in 22 % of the subjects) than MCI (3 %) and normal (4 %) subjects, unignorable motion was observed in a small number of subjects in the latter groups as well. The between-frame coefficient of variation (SD/mean) was 0.5 % in the frontal, 0.6 % in the parietal and 1.8 % in the posterior cingulate ROI for the scans of motion level 1. The respective values were 1.5, 1.4, and 3.6 % for the scans of motion level F, but reduced by the motion correction to 0.5, 0.4 and 0.8 %, respectively. The motion correction changed the ROI value for the posterior cingulate cortex by 11.6 % in the case of severest motion. Substantial head motion occurs in a fraction of subjects in a multicenter setup which includes PET centers lacking sufficient experience in imaging demented patients. A simple frame-by-frame co-registration technique that can be applied to any PET camera model is effective in correcting for motion and improving quantitative capability.

  4. Inter-rater variability of visual interpretation and comparison with quantitative evaluation of 11C-PiB PET amyloid images of the Japanese Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (J-ADNI) multicenter study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Tomohiko; Ishii, Kenji; Sakata, Muneyuki; Ikari, Yasuhiko; Nishio, Tomoyuki; Ishii, Kazunari; Kato, Takashi; Ito, Kengo; Senda, Michio

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the inter-rater variability of the visual interpretation of 11 C-PiB PET images regarding the positivity/negativity of amyloid deposition that were obtained in a multicenter clinical research project, Japanese Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (J-ADNI). The results of visual interpretation were also compared with a semi-automatic quantitative analysis using mean cortical standardized uptake value ratio to the cerebellar cortex (mcSUVR). A total of 162 11 C-PiB PET scans, including 45 mild Alzheimer's disease, 60 mild cognitive impairment, and 57 normal cognitive control cases that had been acquired as J-ADNI baseline scans were analyzed. Based on visual interpretation by three independent raters followed by consensus read, each case was classified into positive, equivocal, and negative deposition (ternary criteria) and further dichotomized by merging the former two (binary criteria). Complete agreement of visual interpretation by the three raters was observed for 91.3% of the cases (Cohen κ = 0.88 on average) in ternary criteria and for 92.3% (κ = 0.89) in binary criteria. Cases that were interpreted as visually positive in the consensus read showed significantly higher mcSUVR than those visually negative (2.21 ± 0.37 vs. 1.27 ± 0.09, p < 0.001), and positive or negative decision by visual interpretation was dichotomized by a cut-off value of mcSUVR = 1.5. Significant positive/negative associations were observed between mcSUVR and the number of raters who evaluated as positive (ρ = 0.87, p < 0.0001) and negative (ρ = -0.85, p < 0.0001) interpretation. Cases of disagreement among raters showed generally low mcSUVR. Inter-rater agreement was almost perfect in 11 C-PiB PET scans. Positive or negative decision by visual interpretation was dichotomized by a cut-off value of mcSUVR = 1.5. As some cases of disagreement among raters tended to show low mcSUVR, referring to quantitative method may facilitate

  5. Inter-rater variability of visual interpretation and comparison with quantitative evaluation of {sup 11}C-PiB PET amyloid images of the Japanese Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (J-ADNI) multicenter study

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    Yamane, Tomohiko [Saitama Medical University Saitama International Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hidaka (Japan); Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Division of Molecular Imaging, Kobe (Japan); Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Team for Neuroimaging Research, Tokyo (Japan); Ishii, Kenji; Sakata, Muneyuki [Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Team for Neuroimaging Research, Tokyo (Japan); Ikari, Yasuhiko; Nishio, Tomoyuki [Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Division of Molecular Imaging, Kobe (Japan); Research Association for Biotechnology, Tokyo (Japan); Ishii, Kazunari [Kinki University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Osaka, Sayama (Japan); Kato, Takashi; Ito, Kengo [National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Department of Brain Science and Molecular Imaging, Obu (Japan); Senda, Michio [Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Division of Molecular Imaging, Kobe (Japan); Collaboration: J-ADNI Study Group

    2017-05-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the inter-rater variability of the visual interpretation of {sup 11}C-PiB PET images regarding the positivity/negativity of amyloid deposition that were obtained in a multicenter clinical research project, Japanese Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (J-ADNI). The results of visual interpretation were also compared with a semi-automatic quantitative analysis using mean cortical standardized uptake value ratio to the cerebellar cortex (mcSUVR). A total of 162 {sup 11}C-PiB PET scans, including 45 mild Alzheimer's disease, 60 mild cognitive impairment, and 57 normal cognitive control cases that had been acquired as J-ADNI baseline scans were analyzed. Based on visual interpretation by three independent raters followed by consensus read, each case was classified into positive, equivocal, and negative deposition (ternary criteria) and further dichotomized by merging the former two (binary criteria). Complete agreement of visual interpretation by the three raters was observed for 91.3% of the cases (Cohen κ = 0.88 on average) in ternary criteria and for 92.3% (κ = 0.89) in binary criteria. Cases that were interpreted as visually positive in the consensus read showed significantly higher mcSUVR than those visually negative (2.21 ± 0.37 vs. 1.27 ± 0.09, p < 0.001), and positive or negative decision by visual interpretation was dichotomized by a cut-off value of mcSUVR = 1.5. Significant positive/negative associations were observed between mcSUVR and the number of raters who evaluated as positive (ρ = 0.87, p < 0.0001) and negative (ρ = -0.85, p < 0.0001) interpretation. Cases of disagreement among raters showed generally low mcSUVR. Inter-rater agreement was almost perfect in {sup 11}C-PiB PET scans. Positive or negative decision by visual interpretation was dichotomized by a cut-off value of mcSUVR = 1.5. As some cases of disagreement among raters tended to show low mcSUVR, referring to quantitative method may

  6. The pilot European Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative of the European Alzheimer's Disease Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisoni, G.B.; Henneman, W.J.; Weiner, M.W.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In North America, the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) has established a platform to track the brain changes of Alzheimer's disease. A pilot study has been carried out in Europe to test the feasibility of the adoption of the ADNI platform (pilot E-ADNI). METHODS: Seven...... academic sites of the European Alzheimer's Disease Consortium (EADC) enrolled 19 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 22 with AD, and 18 older healthy persons by using the ADNI clinical and neuropsychological battery. ADNI compliant magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, cerebrospinal fluid...

  7. Mapping longitudinal scientific progress, collaboration and impact of the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Yao

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative (ADNI is a landmark imaging and omics study in AD. ADNI research literature has increased substantially over the past decade, which poses challenges for effectively communicating information about the results and impact of ADNI-related studies. In this work, we employed advanced information visualization techniques to perform a comprehensive and systematic mapping of the ADNI scientific growth and impact over a period of 12 years.Citation information of ADNI-related publications from 01/01/2003 to 05/12/2015 were downloaded from the Scopus database. Five fields, including authors, years, affiliations, sources (journals, and keywords, were extracted and preprocessed. Statistical analyses were performed on basic publication data as well as journal and citations information. Science mapping workflows were conducted using the Science of Science (Sci2 Tool to generate geospatial, topical, and collaboration visualizations at the micro (individual to macro (global levels such as geospatial layouts of institutional collaboration networks, keyword co-occurrence networks, and author collaboration networks evolving over time.During the studied period, 996 ADNI manuscripts were published across 233 journals and conference proceedings. The number of publications grew linearly from 2008 to 2015, so did the number of involved institutions. ADNI publications received much more citations than typical papers from the same set of journals. Collaborations were visualized at multiple levels, including authors, institutions, and research areas. The evolution of key ADNI research topics was also plotted over the studied period.Both statistical and visualization results demonstrate the increasing attention of ADNI research, strong citation impact of ADNI publications, the expanding collaboration networks among researchers, institutions and ADNI core areas, and the dynamic evolution of ADNI research topics. The visualizations

  8. The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative 3: Continued innovation for clinical trial improvement

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    Weiner, Michael W. [Dept. of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA (United States); Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Veitch, Dallas P. [Dept. of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA (United States); Aisen, Paul S. [Univ. of Southern California, San Diego, CA (United States); Beckett, Laurel A. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Cairns, Nigel J. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Green, Robert C. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Harvey, Danielle [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Jack, Clifford R. [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Jagust, William [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Morris, John C. [Univ. of Southern California, San Diego, CA (United States); Petersen, Ronald C. [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Salazar, Jennifer [Univ. of Southern California, San Diego, CA (United States); Saykin, Andrew J. [Indiana Univ. School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Shaw, Leslie M. [Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Toga, Arthur W. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Trojanowski, John Q. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-12-05

    Overall, the goal of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is to validate biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) clinical trials. ADNI-3, which began on August 1, 2016, is a 5-year renewal of the current ADNI-2 study. ADNI-3 will follow current and additional subjects with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment, and AD using innovative technologies such as tau imaging, magnetic resonance imaging sequences for connectivity analyses, and a highly automated immunoassay platform and mass spectroscopy approach for cerebrospinal fluid biomarker analysis. A Systems Biology/pathway approach will be used to identify genetic factors for subject selection/enrichment. Amyloid positron emission tomography scanning will be standardized using the Centiloid method. The Brain Health Registry will help recruit subjects and monitor subject cognition. Multimodal analyses will provide insight into AD pathophysiology and disease progression. Finally, ADNI-3 will aim to inform AD treatment trials and facilitate development of AD disease-modifying treatments.

  9. Geriatric medicine, Japanese Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative and biomarker development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Hiroyuki; Furukawa, Katsutoshi; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Kudo, Yukitsuka

    2010-01-01

    Due to a change in disease spectrum in aged countries, the primary role of geriatricians should be directed to an appropriate management and prevention of cognitive decline and dementia, swallowing and aspiration pneumonia and falls and fractures. Management of dementia constitutes a central part in the practice of geriatric medicine in order to support independence of life in elderly people. The current paradigm of cognitive function-based testing for the diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is going to drastically shift to a biomarker-based test approach, a shift that will correspond to the emergence of disease-modifying drugs. In addition, a new molecular imaging technique that visualizes neuronal protein deposits or pathological features has been developed in Japan and the U.S.A. Based on these achievements, the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) was proposed and initiated in 2005. The ADNI is a long-term observational study being conducted in the U.S.A., Europe, Australia, and Japan using identical protocols. The objectives of ADNI are: to establish methodology which will allow standard values related to long-term changes in imaging data, such as MRI and positron emission tomography (PET), in patients with AD and mild cognitive impairment and normal elderly persons; to obtain clinical indices, psychological test data, and blood/cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers to demonstrate the validity of image-based surrogate markers; and to establish optimum methods to monitor the therapeutic effects of disease-modifying drugs for AD. Patient enrollment in the Japanese ADNI has begun in July 2008. Imaging of AD pathology not only acts as a reliable biomarker with which to assay curative drug development by novel pharmaceutical companies, but it also helps health promotion toward AD prevention. (author)

  10. The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative: A review of papers published since its inception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Michael W.; Veitch, Dallas P.; Aisen, Paul S.; Beckett, Laurel A.; Cairns, Nigel J.; Green, Robert C.; Harvey, Danielle; Jack, Clifford R.; Jagust, William; Liu, Enchi; Morris, John C.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Schmidt, Mark E.; Shaw, Leslie; Shen, Li; Siuciak, Judith A.; Soares, Holly; Toga, Arthur W.; Trojanowski, John Q.

    2014-01-01

    The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is an ongoing, longitudinal, multicenter study designed to develop clinical, imaging, genetic, and biochemical biomarkers for the early detection and tracking of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The study aimed to enroll 400 subjects with early mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 200 subjects with early AD, and 200 normal control subjects; $67 million funding was provided by both the public and private sectors, including the National Institute on Aging, 13 pharmaceutical companies, and 2 foundations that provided support through the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health. This article reviews all papers published since the inception of the initiative and summarizes the results as of February 2011. The major accomplishments of ADNI have been as follows: (1) the development of standardized methods for clinical tests, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in a multicenter setting; (2) elucidation of the patterns and rates of change of imaging and CSF biomarker measurements in control subjects, MCI patients, and AD patients. CSF biomarkers are consistent with disease trajectories predicted by β-amyloid cascade (Hardy, J Alzheimers Dis 2006;9(Suppl 3):151–3) and tau-mediated neurodegeneration hypotheses for AD, whereas brain atrophy and hypometabolism levels show predicted patterns but exhibit differing rates of change depending on region and disease severity; (3) the assessment of alternative methods of diagnostic categorization. Currently, the best classifiers combine optimum features from multiple modalities, including MRI, [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET, CSF biomarkers, and clinical tests; (4) the development of methods for the early detection of AD. CSF biomarkers, β-amyloid 42 and tau, as well as amyloid PET may reflect the earliest steps in AD pathology in mildly symptomatic or even nonsymptomatic subjects, and are leading candidates

  11. Autopsy consent, brain collection, and standardized neuropathologic assessment of ADNI participants: the essential role of the neuropathology core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Nigel J; Taylor-Reinwald, Lisa; Morris, John C

    2010-05-01

    Our objectives are to facilitate autopsy consent, brain collection, and perform standardized neuropathologic assessments of all Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) participants who come to autopsy at the 58 ADNI sites in the USA and Canada. Building on the expertise and resources of the existing Alzheimer's Disease Research Center (ADRC) at Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, a Neuropathology Core (NPC) to serve ADNI was established with one new highly motivated research coordinator. The ADNI-NPC coordinator provides training materials and protocols to assist clinicians at ADNI sites in obtaining voluntary consent for brain autopsy in ADNI participants. Secondly, the ADNI-NPC maintains a central laboratory to provide uniform neuropathologic assessments using the operational criteria for the classification of AD and other pathologies defined by the National Alzheimer Coordinating Center (NACC). Thirdly, the ADNI-NPC maintains a state-of-the-art brain bank of ADNI-derived brain tissue to promote biomarker and multi-disciplinary clinicopathologic studies. During the initial year of funding of the ADNI Neuropathology Core, there was notable improvement in the autopsy rate to 44.4%. In the most recent year of funding (September 1(st), 2008 to August 31(st) 2009), our autopsy rate improved to 71.5%. Although the overall numbers to date are small, these data demonstrate that the Neuropathology Core has established the administrative organization with the participating sites to harvest brains from ADNI participants who come to autopsy. Within two years of operation, the Neuropathology Core has: (1) implemented a protocol to solicit permission for brain autopsy in ADNI participants at all 58 sites who die and (2) to send appropriate brain tissue from the decedents to the Neuropathology Core for a standardized, uniform, and state-of-the-art neuropathologic assessment. The benefit to ADNI of the implementation of the NPC is very clear

  12. Impact of analgesics on executive function and memory in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative Database.

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    Doan, Lisa; Choi, Daniel; Kline, Richard

    2017-10-01

    Pain is common in older adults but may be undertreated in part due to concerns about medication toxicity. Analgesics may affect cognition. In this retrospective cohort study, we used the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database to examine the interaction of cognitive status and medications, especially non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). We hypothesized NSAID use would be associated with cognition and that this could be mediated through changes in brain structure. In this post hoc analysis of the ADNI database, subjects were selected by searching the "concurrent medications log" for analgesic medications. Subjects were included if the analgesic was listed on the medication log prior to enrollment in ADNI and throughout the study. Subjects taking analgesics, particularly NSAIDs, at each study visit were compared to control subjects taking no analgesics. Using descriptive statistics as well as univariate, multivariate and repeated measure ANOVA, we explored the relationship between NSAID use and scores for executive function and memory related cognitive activities. We further took advantage of the extensive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data available in ADNI to test whether cognitive change was associated with brain structure. The multitude of imaging variables was compressed into a small number of features (five eigenvectors (EV)) using principal component analysis. There were 87 NSAID users, 373 controls, and 71 taking other analgesics. NSAID use was associated with higher executive function scores for cognitively normal (NL) subjects as well as subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). NSAID use was also associated with higher memory scores, but for NL females only. We analysed MRI data using principal component analysis to generate a set of five EVs. Examining NL and MCI subjects, one EV had significantly larger values in subjects taking NSAIDs versus control. This EV was one of two EVs which significantly correlated with

  13. Analysis of longitudinal diffusion-weighted images in healthy and pathological aging: An ADNI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruggel, Frithjof; Masaki, Fumitaro; Solodkin, Ana

    2017-02-15

    The widely used framework of voxel-based morphometry for analyzing neuroimages is extended here to model longitudinal imaging data by exchanging the linear model with a linear mixed-effects model. The new approach is employed for analyzing a large longitudinal sample of 756 diffusion-weighted images acquired in 177 subjects of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging initiative (ADNI). While sample- and group-level results from both approaches are equivalent, the mixed-effect model yields information at the single subject level. Interestingly, the neurobiological relevance of the relevant parameter at the individual level describes specific differences associated with aging. In addition, our approach highlights white matter areas that reliably discriminate between patients with Alzheimer's disease and healthy controls with a predictive power of 0.99 and include the hippocampal alveus, the para-hippocampal white matter, the white matter of the posterior cingulate, and optic tracts. In this context, notably the classifier includes a sub-population of patients with minimal cognitive impairment into the pathological domain. Our classifier offers promising features for an accessible biomarker that predicts the risk of conversion to Alzheimer's disease. Data used in preparation of this article were obtained from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database (adni.loni.usc.edu). As such, the investigators within the ADNI contributed to the design and implementation of ADNI and/or provided data but did not participate in analysis or writing of this report. A complete listing of ADNI investigators can be found at: http://adni.loni.usc.edu/wp-content/uploads/how to apply/ADNI Acknowledgement List.pdf. Significance statement This study assesses neuro-degenerative processes in the brain's white matter as revealed by diffusion-weighted imaging, in order to discriminate healthy from pathological aging in a large sample of elderly subjects. The analysis of time

  14. 2014 Update of the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative: A review of papers published since its inception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Michael W.; Veitch, Dallas P.; Aisen, Paul S.; Beckett, Laurel A.; Cairns, Nigel J.; Cedarbaum, Jesse; Green, Robert C.; Harvey, Danielle; Jack, Clifford R.; Jagust, William; Luthman, Johan; Morris, John C.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Shaw, Leslie; Shen, Li; Schwarz, Adam; Toga, Arthur W.; Trojanowski, John Q.

    2016-01-01

    The Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is an ongoing, longitudinal, multicenter study designed to develop clinical, imaging, genetic, and biochemical biomarkers for the early detection and tracking of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The initial study, ADNI-1, enrolled 400 subjects with early mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 200 with early AD, and 200 cognitively normal elderly controls. ADNI-1 was extended by a 2-year Grand Opportunities grant in 2009 and by a competitive renewal, ADNI-2, which enrolled an additional 550 participants and will run until 2015. This article reviews all papers published since the inception of the initiative and summarizes the results to the end of 2013. The major accomplishments of ADNI have been as follows: (1) the development of standardized methods for clinical tests, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in a multicenter setting; (2) elucidation of the patterns and rates of change of imaging and CSF biomarker measurements in control subjects, MCI patients, and AD patients. CSF biomarkers are largely consistent with disease trajectories predicted by β-amyloid cascade (Hardy, J Alzheimer’s Dis 2006;9(Suppl 3):151–3) and tau-mediated neurodegeneration hypotheses for AD, whereas brain atrophy and hypometabolism levels show predicted patterns but exhibit differing rates of change depending on region and disease severity; (3) the assessment of alternative methods of diagnostic categorization. Currently, the best classifiers select and combine optimum features from multiple modalities, including MRI, [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET, amyloid PET, CSF biomarkers, and clinical tests; (4) the development of blood biomarkers for AD as potentially noninvasive and low-cost alternatives to CSF biomarkers for AD diagnosis and the assessment of α-syn as an additional biomarker; (5) the development of methods for the early detection of AD. CSF biomarkers,

  15. Combining Two Large MRI Data Sets (AddNeuroMed and ADNI) Using Multivariate Data Analysis to Distinguish between Patients with Alzheimer's Disease and Healthy Controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westman, Eric; Simmons, Andrew; Muehlboeck, J.-Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    Background: The European Union AddNeuroMed project and the US-based Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) are two large multi-centre initiatives designed to analyse and validate biomarkers for AD. This study aims to compare and combine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from the two...... study cohorts using an automated image analysis pipeline and multivariate data analysis. Methods: A total of 664 subjects were included in this study (AddNeuroMed: 126 AD, 115 CTL, ADNI: 194 AD, 229 CTL) Data acquisition for the AddNeuroMed project was set up to be compatible with the ADNI study...... used are robust and that large data sets can be combined if MRI imaging protocols are carefully aligned....

  16. Influence of APOE Genotype on Hippocampal Atrophy over Time - An N=1925 Surface-Based ADNI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolun Li

    Full Text Available The apolipoprotein E (APOE e4 genotype is a powerful risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD. In the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI cohort, we previously reported significant baseline structural differences in APOE e4 carriers relative to non-carriers, involving the left hippocampus more than the right--a difference more pronounced in e4 homozygotes than heterozygotes. We now examine the longitudinal effects of APOE genotype on hippocampal morphometry at 6-, 12- and 24-months, in the ADNI cohort. We employed a new automated surface registration system based on conformal geometry and tensor-based morphometry. Among different hippocampal surfaces, we computed high-order correspondences, using a novel inverse-consistent surface-based fluid registration method and multivariate statistics consisting of multivariate tensor-based morphometry (mTBM and radial distance. At each time point, using Hotelling's T(2 test, we found significant morphological deformation in APOE e4 carriers relative to non-carriers in the full cohort as well as in the non-demented (pooled MCI and control subjects at each follow-up interval. In the complete ADNI cohort, we found greater atrophy of the left hippocampus than the right, and this asymmetry was more pronounced in e4 homozygotes than heterozygotes. These findings, combined with our earlier investigations, demonstrate an e4 dose effect on accelerated hippocampal atrophy, and support the enrichment of prevention trial cohorts with e4 carriers.

  17. Update on the MRI Core of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Clifford R; Bernstein, Matt A; Borowski, Bret J; Gunter, Jeffrey L; Fox, Nick C; Thompson, Paul M; Schuff, Norbert; Krueger, Gunnar; Killiany, Ronald J; DeCarli, Charles S; Dale, Anders M; Weiner, Michael W

    2010-01-01

    Functions of the ADNI MRI core fall into three categories: (1) those of the central MRI core lab at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, needed to generate high quality MRI data in all subjects at each time point; (2) those of the funded ADNI MRI core imaging analysis groups responsible for analyzing the MRI data, and (3) the joint function of the entire MRI core in designing and problem solving MR image acquisition, pre-processing and analyses methods. The primary objective of ADNI was and continues to be improving methods for clinical trials in Alzheimer's disease. Our approach to the present (“ADNI-GO”) and future (“ADNI-2”, if funded) MRI protocol will be to maintain MRI methodological consistency in previously enrolled “ADNI-1” subjects who are followed longitudinally in ADNI-GO and ADNI-2. We will modernize and expand the MRI protocol for all newly enrolled ADNI-GO and ADNI-2 subjects. All newly enrolled subjects will be scanned at 3T with a core set of three sequence types: 3D T1-weighted volume, FLAIR, and a long TE gradient echo volumetric acquisition for micro hemorrhage detection. In addition to this core ADNI-GO and ADNI-2 protocol, we will perform vendor specific pilot sub-studies of arterial spin labeling perfusion, resting state functional connectivity and diffusion tensor imaging. One each of these sequences will be added to the core protocol on systems from each MRI vendor. These experimental sub-studies are designed to demonstrate the feasibility of acquiring useful data in a multi-center (but single vendor) setting for these three emerging MRI applications. PMID:20451869

  18. Targeted metabolomics and medication classification data from participants in the ADNI1 cohort

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    St John-Williams, Lisa; Blach, Colette; Toledo, Jon B.; Rotroff, Daniel M.; Kim, Sungeun; Klavins, Kristaps; Baillie, Rebecca; Han, Xianlin; Mahmoudiandehkordi, Siamak; Jack, John; Massaro, Tyler J.; Lucas, Joseph E.; Louie, Gregory; Motsinger-Reif, Alison A.; Risacher, Shannon L.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Arnold, Matthias; Koal, Therese; Moseley, M. Arthur; Mangravite, Lara M.; Peters, Mette A.; Tenenbaum, Jessica D.; Thompson, J. Will; Kaddurah-Daouk, Rima

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease presenting major health and economic challenges that continue to grow. Mechanisms of disease are poorly understood but significant data point to metabolic defects that might contribute to disease pathogenesis. The Alzheimer Disease Metabolomics Consortium (ADMC) in partnership with Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is creating a comprehensive biochemical database for AD. Using targeted and non- targeted metabolomics and lipidomics platforms we are mapping metabolic pathway and network failures across the trajectory of disease. In this report we present quantitative metabolomics data generated on serum from 199 control, 356 mild cognitive impairment and 175 AD subjects enrolled in ADNI1 using AbsoluteIDQ-p180 platform, along with the pipeline for data preprocessing and medication classification for confound correction. The dataset presented here is the first of eight metabolomics datasets being generated for broad biochemical investigation of the AD metabolome. We expect that these collective metabolomics datasets will provide valuable resources for researchers to identify novel molecular mechanisms contributing to AD pathogenesis and disease phenotypes. PMID:29039849

  19. Targeted metabolomics and medication classification data from participants in the ADNI1 cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John-Williams, Lisa; Blach, Colette; Toledo, Jon B; Rotroff, Daniel M; Kim, Sungeun; Klavins, Kristaps; Baillie, Rebecca; Han, Xianlin; Mahmoudiandehkordi, Siamak; Jack, John; Massaro, Tyler J; Lucas, Joseph E; Louie, Gregory; Motsinger-Reif, Alison A; Risacher, Shannon L; Saykin, Andrew J; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Arnold, Matthias; Koal, Therese; Moseley, M Arthur; Mangravite, Lara M; Peters, Mette A; Tenenbaum, Jessica D; Thompson, J Will; Kaddurah-Daouk, Rima

    2017-10-17

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease presenting major health and economic challenges that continue to grow. Mechanisms of disease are poorly understood but significant data point to metabolic defects that might contribute to disease pathogenesis. The Alzheimer Disease Metabolomics Consortium (ADMC) in partnership with Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is creating a comprehensive biochemical database for AD. Using targeted and non- targeted metabolomics and lipidomics platforms we are mapping metabolic pathway and network failures across the trajectory of disease. In this report we present quantitative metabolomics data generated on serum from 199 control, 356 mild cognitive impairment and 175 AD subjects enrolled in ADNI1 using AbsoluteIDQ-p180 platform, along with the pipeline for data preprocessing and medication classification for confound correction. The dataset presented here is the first of eight metabolomics datasets being generated for broad biochemical investigation of the AD metabolome. We expect that these collective metabolomics datasets will provide valuable resources for researchers to identify novel molecular mechanisms contributing to AD pathogenesis and disease phenotypes.

  20. Training labels for hippocampal segmentation based on the EADC-ADNI harmonized hippocampal protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccardi, Marina; Bocchetta, Martina; Morency, Félix C; Collins, D Louis; Nishikawa, Masami; Ganzola, Rossana; Grothe, Michel J; Wolf, Dominik; Redolfi, Alberto; Pievani, Michela; Antelmi, Luigi; Fellgiebel, Andreas; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Teipel, Stefan; Duchesne, Simon; Jack, Clifford R; Frisoni, Giovanni B

    2015-02-01

    The European Alzheimer's Disease Consortium and Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) Harmonized Protocol (HarP) is a Delphi definition of manual hippocampal segmentation from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that can be used as the standard of truth to train new tracers, and to validate automated segmentation algorithms. Training requires large and representative data sets of segmented hippocampi. This work aims to produce a set of HarP labels for the proper training and certification of tracers and algorithms. Sixty-eight 1.5 T and 67 3 T volumetric structural ADNI scans from different subjects, balanced by age, medial temporal atrophy, and scanner manufacturer, were segmented by five qualified HarP tracers whose absolute interrater intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.953 and 0.975 (left and right). Labels were validated as HarP compliant through centralized quality check and correction. Hippocampal volumes (mm(3)) were as follows: controls: left = 3060 (standard deviation [SD], 502), right = 3120 (SD, 897); mild cognitive impairment (MCI): left = 2596 (SD, 447), right = 2686 (SD, 473); and Alzheimer's disease (AD): left = 2301 (SD, 492), right = 2445 (SD, 525). Volumes significantly correlated with atrophy severity at Scheltens' scale (Spearman's ρ = segmentation algorithms. The publicly released labels will allow the widespread implementation of the standard segmentation protocol. Copyright © 2015 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetic influence of apolipoprotein E4 genotype on hippocampal morphometry: An N = 725 surface-based Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jie; Leporé, Natasha; Gutman, Boris A; Thompson, Paul M; Baxter, Leslie C; Caselli, Richard J; Wang, Yalin

    2014-08-01

    The apolipoprotein E (APOE) e4 allele is the most prevalent genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Hippocampal volumes are generally smaller in AD patients carrying the e4 allele compared to e4 noncarriers. Here we examined the effect of APOE e4 on hippocampal morphometry in a large imaging database-the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). We automatically segmented and constructed hippocampal surfaces from the baseline MR images of 725 subjects with known APOE genotype information including 167 with AD, 354 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 204 normal controls. High-order correspondences between hippocampal surfaces were enforced across subjects with a novel inverse consistent surface fluid registration method. Multivariate statistics consisting of multivariate tensor-based morphometry (mTBM) and radial distance were computed for surface deformation analysis. Using Hotelling's T(2) test, we found significant morphological deformation in APOE e4 carriers relative to noncarriers in the entire cohort as well as in the nondemented (pooled MCI and control) subjects, affecting the left hippocampus more than the right, and this effect was more pronounced in e4 homozygotes than heterozygotes. Our findings are consistent with previous studies that showed e4 carriers exhibit accelerated hippocampal atrophy; we extend these findings to a novel measure of hippocampal morphometry. Hippocampal morphometry has significant potential as an imaging biomarker of early stage AD. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The EADC-ADNI Harmonized Protocol for manual hippocampal segmentation on magnetic resonance: Evidence of validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisoni, Giovanni B.; Jack, Clifford R.; Bocchetta, Martina; Bauer, Corinna; Frederiksen, Kristian S.; Liu, Yawu; Preboske, Gregory; Swihart, Tim; Blair, Melanie; Cavedo, Enrica; Grothe, Michel J.; Lanfredi, Mariangela; Martinez, Oliver; Nishikawa, Masami; Portegies, Marileen; Stoub, Travis; Ward, Chadwich; Apostolova, Liana G.; Ganzola, Rossana; Wolf, Dominik; Barkhof, Frederik; Bartzokis, George; DeCarli, Charles; Csernansky, John G.; deToledo-Morrell, Leyla; Geerlings, Mirjam I.; Kaye, Jeffrey; Killiany, Ronald J.; Lehéricy, Stephane; Matsuda, Hiroshi; O'Brien, John; Silbert, Lisa C.; Scheltens, Philip; Soininen, Hilkka; Teipel, Stefan; Waldemar, Gunhild; Fellgiebel, Andreas; Barnes, Josephine; Firbank, Michael; Gerritsen, Lotte; Henneman, Wouter; Malykhin, Nikolai; Pruessner, Jens C.; Wang, Lei; Watson, Craig; Wolf, Henrike; deLeon, Mony; Pantel, Johannes; Ferrari, Clarissa; Bosco, Paolo; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Duchesne, Simon; Duvernoy, Henri; Boccardi, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Background An international Delphi panel has defined a harmonized protocol (HarP) for the manual segmentation of the hippocampus on MR. The aim of this study is to study the concurrent validity of the HarP toward local protocols, and its major sources of variance. Methods Fourteen tracers segmented 10 Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) cases scanned at 1.5 T and 3T following local protocols, qualified for segmentation based on the HarP through a standard web-platform and resegmented following the HarP. The five most accurate tracers followed the HarP to segment 15 ADNI cases acquired at three time points on both 1.5 T and 3T. Results The agreement among tracers was relatively low with the local protocols (absolute left/right ICC 0.44/0.43) and much higher with the HarP (absolute left/right ICC 0.88/0.89). On the larger set of 15 cases, the HarP agreement within (left/right ICC range: 0.94/0.95 to 0.99/0.99) and among tracers (left/right ICC range: 0.89/0.90) was very high. The volume variance due to different tracers was 0.9% of the total, comparing favorably to variance due to scanner manufacturer (1.2), atrophy rates (3.5), hemispheric asymmetry (3.7), field strength (4.4), and significantly smaller than the variance due to atrophy (33.5%, P < .001), and physiological variability (49.2%, P < .001). Conclusions The HarP has high measurement stability compared with local segmentation protocols, and good reproducibility within and among human tracers. Hippocampi segmented with the HarP can be used as a reference for the qualification of human tracers and automated segmentation algorithms. PMID:25267715

  3. Adding Recognition Discriminability Index to the Delayed Recall Is Useful to Predict Conversion from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer's Disease in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, María J; Campos, Jorge; Vázquez, Silvia; Sevlever, Gustavo; Allegri, Ricardo F

    2017-01-01

    Background: Ongoing research is focusing on the identification of those individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who are most likely to convert to Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated whether recognition memory tasks in combination with delayed recall measure of episodic memory and CSF biomarkers can predict MCI to AD conversion at 24-month follow-up. Methods: A total of 397 amnestic-MCI subjects from Alzheimer's disease Neuroimaging Initiative were included. Logistic regression modeling was done to assess the predictive value of all RAVLT measures, risk factors such as age, sex, education, APOE genotype, and CSF biomarkers for progression to AD. Estimating adjusted odds ratios was used to determine which variables would produce an optimal predictive model, and whether adding tests of interaction between the RAVLT Delayed Recall and recognition measures (traditional score and d-prime) would improve prediction of the conversion from a-MCI to AD. Results: 112 (28.2%) subjects developed dementia and 285 (71.8%) subjects did not. Of the all included variables, CSF Aβ1-42 levels, RAVLT Delayed Recall, and the combination of RAVLT Delayed Recall and d-prime were predictive of progression to AD (χ 2 = 38.23, df = 14, p < 0.001). Conclusions: The combination of RAVLT Delayed Recall and d-prime measures may be predictor of conversion from MCI to AD in the ADNI cohort, especially in combination with amyloid biomarkers. A predictive model to help identify individuals at-risk for dementia should include not only traditional episodic memory measures (delayed recall or recognition), but also additional variables (d-prime) that allow the homogenization of the assessment procedures in the diagnosis of MCI.

  4. Multiple comparison procedures for neuroimaging genomewide association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Wen-Yu; Nichols, Thomas E; Ghosh, Debashis

    2015-01-01

    Recent research in neuroimaging has focused on assessing associations between genetic variants that are measured on a genomewide scale and brain imaging phenotypes. A large number of works in the area apply massively univariate analyses on a genomewide basis to find single nucleotide polymorphisms that influence brain structure. In this paper, we propose using various dimensionality reduction methods on both brain structural MRI scans and genomic data, motivated by the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) study. We also consider a new multiple testing adjustment method and compare it with two existing false discovery rate (FDR) adjustment methods. The simulation results suggest an increase in power for the proposed method. The real-data analysis suggests that the proposed procedure is able to find associations between genetic variants and brain volume differences that offer potentially new biological insights. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Tensor-based morphometry with stationary velocity field diffeomorphic registration: application to ADNI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossa, Matias; Zacur, Ernesto; Olmos, Salvador

    2010-07-01

    Tensor-based morphometry (TBM) is an analysis technique where anatomical information is characterized by means of the spatial transformations mapping a customized template with the observed images. Therefore, accurate inter-subject non-rigid registration is an essential prerequisite for both template estimation and image warping. Subsequent statistical analysis on the spatial transformations is performed to highlight voxel-wise differences. Most of previous TBM studies did not explore the influence of the registration parameters, such as the parameters defining the deformation and the regularization models. In this work performance evaluation of TBM using stationary velocity field (SVF) diffeomorphic registration was performed in a subset of subjects from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) study. A wide range of values of the registration parameters that define the transformation smoothness and the balance between image matching and regularization were explored in the evaluation. The proposed methodology provided brain atrophy maps with very detailed anatomical resolution and with a high significance level compared with results recently published on the same data set using a non-linear elastic registration method. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Tensor-based morphometry with mappings parameterized by stationary velocity fields in Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossa, Matías Nicolás; Zacur, Ernesto; Olmos, Salvador

    2009-01-01

    Tensor-based morphometry (TBM) is an analysis technique where anatomical information is characterized by means of the spatial transformations between a customized template and observed images. Therefore, accurate inter-subject non-rigid registration is an essential prerrequisite. Further statistical analysis of the spatial transformations is used to highlight some useful information, such as local statistical differences among populations. With the new advent of recent and powerful non-rigid registration algorithms based on the large deformation paradigm, TBM is being increasingly used. In this work we evaluate the statistical power of TBM using stationary velocity field diffeomorphic registration in a large population of subjects from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative project. The proposed methodology provided atrophy maps with very detailed anatomical resolution and with a high significance compared with results published recently on the same data set.

  7. Applications of Neuroimaging to Disease-Modification Trials in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam S. Fleisher

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical to development of new therapies for Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the ability to detect clinical or pathological change over time. Clinical outcome measures typically used in therapeutic trials have unfortunately proven to be relatively variable and somewhat insensitive to change in this slowly progressive disease. For this reason, development of surrogate biomarkers that identify significant disease-associated brain changes are necessary to expedite treatment development in AD. Since AD pathology is present in the brain many years prior to clinical manifestation, ideally we want to develop biomarkers of disease that identify abnormal brain structure or function even prior to cognitive decline. Magnetic resonance imaging, fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, new amyloid imaging techniques, and spinal fluid markers of AD all have great potential to provide surrogate endpoint measures for AD pathology. The Alzheimer’s disease neuroimaging initiative (ADNI was developed for the distinct purpose of evaluating surrogate biomarkers for drug development in AD. Recent evidence from ADNI demonstrates that imaging may provide more sensitive, and earlier, measures of disease progression than traditional clinical measures for powering clinical drug trials in Alzheimer's disease. This review discusses recently presented data from the ADNI dataset, and the importance of imaging in the future of drug development in AD.

  8. A computational method for computing an Alzheimer’s Disease Progression Score; experiments and validation with the ADNI dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedynak, Bruno M.; Liu, Bo; Lang, Andrew; Gel, Yulia; Prince, Jerry L.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the time-dependent changes of biomarkers related to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a key to assessing disease progression and to measuring the outcomes of disease-modifying therapies. In this paper, we validate an Alzheimer’s disease progression score model which uses multiple biomarkers to quantify the AD progression of subjects following three assumptions: (1) there is a unique disease progression for all subjects, (2) each subject has a different age of onset and rate of progression, and (3) each biomarker is sigmoidal as a function of disease progression. Fitting the parameters of this model is a challenging problem which we approach using an alternating least squares optimization algorithm. In order to validate this optimization scheme under realistic conditions, we use the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) cohort. With the help of Monte Carlo simulations, we show that most of the global parameters of the model are tightly estimated, thus enabling an ordering of the biomarkers that fit the model well, ordered as: the Rey auditory verbal learning test with 30 minutes delay, the sum of the two lateral hippocampal volumes divided by the intra-cranial volume, followed by (the clinical dementia rating sum of boxes score and the mini mental state examination score) in no particular order and lastly the Alzheimer’s disease assessment scale-cognitive subscale. PMID:25444605

  9. Emerging Global Initiatives in Neurogenetics: The Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics through Meta-analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearden, Carrie E; Thompson, Paul M

    2017-04-19

    The Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics through Meta-analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a global team science effort, now including over 800 scientists spread across 340 institutions in 35 countries, with the shared goal of understanding disease and genetic influences on the brain. This "crowdsourcing" approach to team neuroscience has unprecedented power for advancing our understanding of both typical and atypical human brain development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Fully Automated Atlas-Based Hippocampus Volumetry for Clinical Routine: Validation in Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment from the ADNI Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppa, Per; Hampel, Harald; Spies, Lothar; Fiebach, Jochen B; Dubois, Bruno; Buchert, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Hippocampus volumetry based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has not yet been translated into everyday clinical diagnostic patient care, at least in part due to limited availability of appropriate software tools. In the present study, we evaluate a fully-automated and computationally efficient processing pipeline for atlas based hippocampal volumetry using freely available Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) software in 198 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI1). Subjects were grouped into MCI stable and MCI to probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) converters according to follow-up diagnoses at 12, 24, and 36 months. Hippocampal grey matter volume (HGMV) was obtained from baseline T1-weighted MRI and then corrected for total intracranial volume and age. Average processing time per subject was less than 4 minutes on a standard PC. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of the corrected HGMV for identification of MCI to probable AD converters within 12, 24, and 36 months was 0.78, 0.72, and 0.71, respectively. Thus, hippocampal volume computed with the fully-automated processing pipeline provides similar power for prediction of MCI to probable AD conversion as computationally more expensive methods. The whole processing pipeline has been made freely available as an SPM8 toolbox. It is easily set up and integrated into everyday clinical patient care.

  11. Optimizing power to track brain degeneration in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment with tensor-based morphometry: an ADNI study of 515 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xue; Lee, Suh; Yanovsky, Igor; Leow, Alex D; Chou, Yi-Yu; Ho, April J; Gutman, Boris; Toga, Arthur W; Jack, Clifford R; Bernstein, Matt A; Reiman, Eric M; Harvey, Danielle J; Kornak, John; Schuff, Norbert; Alexander, Gene E; Weiner, Michael W; Thompson, Paul M

    2009-12-01

    Tensor-based morphometry (TBM) is a powerful method to map the 3D profile of brain degeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We optimized a TBM-based image analysis method to determine what methodological factors, and which image-derived measures, maximize statistical power to track brain change. 3D maps, tracking rates of structural atrophy over time, were created from 1030 longitudinal brain MRI scans (1-year follow-up) of 104 AD patients (age: 75.7+/-7.2 years; MMSE: 23.3+/-1.8, at baseline), 254 amnestic MCI subjects (75.0+/-7.2 years; 27.0+/-1.8), and 157 healthy elderly subjects (75.9+/-5.1 years; 29.1+/-1.0), as part of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). To determine which TBM designs gave greatest statistical power, we compared different linear and nonlinear registration parameters (including different regularization functions), and different numerical summary measures derived from the maps. Detection power was greatly enhanced by summarizing changes in a statistically-defined region-of-interest (ROI) derived from an independent training sample of 22 AD patients. Effect sizes were compared using cumulative distribution function (CDF) plots and false discovery rate methods. In power analyses, the best method required only 48 AD and 88 MCI subjects to give 80% power to detect a 25% reduction in the mean annual change using a two-sided test (at alpha=0.05). This is a drastic sample size reduction relative to using clinical scores as outcome measures (619 AD/6797 MCI for the ADAS-Cog, and 408 AD/796 MCI for the Clinical Dementia Rating sum-of-boxes scores). TBM offers high statistical power to track brain changes in large, multi-site neuroimaging studies and clinical trials of AD.

  12. Optimizing power to track brain degeneration in Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment with tensor-based morphometry: An ADNI study of 515 subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xue; Lee, Suh; Yanovsky, Igor; Leow, Alex D.; Chou, Yi-Yu; Ho, April J.; Gutman, Boris; Toga, Arthur W.; Jack, Clifford R.; Bernstein, Matt A.; Reiman, Eric M.; Harvey, Danielle J.; Kornak, John; Schuff, Norbert; Alexander, Gene E.; Weiner, Michael W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    Tensor-based morphometry (TBM) is a powerful method to map the 3D profile of brain degeneration in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We optimized a TBM-based image analysis method to determine what methodological factors, and which image-derived measures, maximize statistical power to track brain change. 3D maps, tracking rates of structural atrophy over time, were created from 1030 longitudinal brain MRI scans (1-year follow-up) of 104 AD patients (age: 75.7 ± 7.2 years; MMSE: 23.3 ± 1.8, at baseline), 254 amnestic MCI subjects (75.0 ± 7.2 years; 27.0 ± 1.8), and 157 healthy elderly subjects (75.9 ± 5.1 years; 29.1 ± 1.0), as part of the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). To determine which TBM designs gave greatest statistical power, we compared different linear and nonlinear registration parameters (including different regularization functions), and different numerical summary measures derived from the maps. Detection power was greatly enhanced by summarizing changes in a statistically-defined region-of-interest (ROI) derived from an independent training sample of 22 AD patients. Effect sizes were compared using cumulative distribution function (CDF) plots and false discovery rate methods. In power analyses, the best method required only 48 AD and 88 MCI subjects to give 80% power to detect a 25% reduction in the mean annual change using a two-sided test (at α = 0.05). This is a drastic sample size reduction relative to using clinical scores as outcome measures (619 AD/6797 MCI for the ADAS-Cog, and 408 AD/796 MCI for the Clinical Dementia Rating sum-of-boxes scores). TBM offers high statistical power to track brain changes in large, multi-site neuroimaging studies and clinical trials of AD. PMID:19615450

  13. Cognitive reserve and Aβ1-42 in mild cognitive impairment (Argentina-Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris P

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Paula Harris,1,2 Marcos Fernandez Suarez,1 Ezequiel I Surace,1,2 Patricio Chrem Méndez,1 María Eugenia Martín,1 María Florencia Clarens,1 Fernanda Tapajóz,1,2 Maria Julieta Russo,1 Jorge Campos,1 Salvador M Guinjoan,1,2 Gustavo Sevlever,1 Ricardo F Allegri1,2 1Instituto de Investigaciones Neurológicas, 2Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between cognitive reserve and concentration of Aβ1-42 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of patients with mild cognitive impairment, those with Alzheimer’s disease, and in control subjects. Methods: Thirty-three participants from the Argentina-Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database completed a cognitive battery, the Cognitive Reserve Questionnaire (CRQ, and an Argentinian accentuation reading test (TAP-BA as a measure of premorbid intelligence, and underwent lumbar puncture for CSF biomarker quantification. Results: The CRQ significantly correlated with TAP-BA, education, and Aβ1-42. When considering Aβ1-42 levels, significant differences were found in CRQ scores; higher levels of CSF Aβ1-42 were associated with higher CRQ scores. Conclusion: Reduced Aβ1-42 in CSF is considered as evidence of amyloid deposition in the brain. Previous results suggest that individuals with higher education, higher occupational attainment, and participation in leisure activities (cognitive reserve have a reduced risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. Our results support the notion that enhanced neural activity has a protective role in mild cognitive impairment, as evidenced by higher CSF Aβ1-42 levels in individuals with more cognitive reserve. Keywords: amyloid, biomarkers, cerebrospinal fluid, Alzheimer’s disease 

  14. Utility of combinations of biomarkers, cognitive markers, and risk factors to predict conversion from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer disease in patients in the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomar, Jesus J; Bobes-Bascaran, Maria T; Conejero-Goldberg, Concepcion; Davies, Peter; Goldberg, Terry E

    2011-09-01

    Biomarkers have become increasingly important in understanding neurodegenerative processes associated with Alzheimer disease. Markers include regional brain volumes, cerebrospinal fluid measures of pathological Aβ1-42 and total tau, cognitive measures, and individual risk factors. To determine the discriminative utility of different classes of biomarkers and cognitive markers by examining their ability to predict a change in diagnostic status from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer disease. Longitudinal study. We analyzed the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database to study patients with mild cognitive impairment who converted to Alzheimer disease (n = 116) and those who did not convert (n = 204) within a 2-year period. We determined the predictive utility of 25 variables from all classes of markers, biomarkers, and risk factors in a series of logistic regression models and effect size analyses. The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative public database. Primary outcome measures were odds ratios, pseudo- R(2)s, and effect sizes. In comprehensive stepwise logistic regression models that thus included variables from all classes of markers, the following baseline variables predicted conversion within a 2-year period: 2 measures of delayed verbal memory and middle temporal lobe cortical thickness. In an effect size analysis that examined rates of decline, change scores for biomarkers were modest for 2 years, but a change in an everyday functional activities measure (Functional Assessment Questionnaire) was considerably larger. Decline in scores on the Functional Assessment Questionnaire and Trail Making Test, part B, accounted for approximately 50% of the predictive variance in conversion from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer disease. Cognitive markers at baseline were more robust predictors of conversion than most biomarkers. Longitudinal analyses suggested that conversion appeared to be driven less by changes in the neurobiologic

  15. Improved diagnostic accuracy of Alzheimer's disease by combining regional cortical thickness and default mode network functional connectivity: Validated in the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ji Eun; Park, Bum Woo; Kim, Sang Joon; Kim, Ho Sung; Choi, Choong Gon; Jung, Seung Jung; Oh, Joo Young; Shim, Woo Hyun; Lee, Jae Hong; Roh, Jee Hoon

    2017-01-01

    To identify potential imaging biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease by combining brain cortical thickness (CThk) and functional connectivity and to validate this model's diagnostic accuracy in a validation set. Data from 98 subjects was retrospectively reviewed, including a study set (n = 63) and a validation set from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (n = 35). From each subject, data for CThk and functional connectivity of the default mode network was extracted from structural T1-weighted and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Cortical regions with significant differences between patients and healthy controls in the correlation of CThk and functional connectivity were identified in the study set. The diagnostic accuracy of functional connectivity measures combined with CThk in the identified regions was evaluated against that in the medial temporal lobes using the validation set and application of a support vector machine. Group-wise differences in the correlation of CThk and default mode network functional connectivity were identified in the superior temporal (p < 0.001) and supramarginal gyrus (p = 0.007) of the left cerebral hemisphere. Default mode network functional connectivity combined with the CThk of those two regions were more accurate than that combined with the CThk of both medial temporal lobes (91.7% vs. 75%). Combining functional information with CThk of the superior temporal and supramarginal gyri in the left cerebral hemisphere improves diagnostic accuracy, making it a potential imaging biomarker for Alzheimer's disease

  16. Genome-wide network-based pathway analysis of CSF t-tau/Aβ1-42 ratio in the ADNI cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Wang; Meng, Xianglian; Li, Jin; Zhang, Qiushi; Chen, Feng; Liu, Wenjie; Wang, Ying; Cheng, Sipu; Yao, Xiaohui; Yan, Jingwen; Kim, Sungeun; Saykin, Andrew J; Liang, Hong; Shen, Li

    2017-05-30

    The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of total tau (t-tau) and Aβ 1-42 are potential early diagnostic markers for probable Alzheimer's disease (AD). The influence of genetic variation on these CSF biomarkers has been investigated in candidate or genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, the investigation of statistically modest associations in GWAS in the context of biological networks is still an under-explored topic in AD studies. The main objective of this study is to gain further biological insights via the integration of statistical gene associations in AD with physical protein interaction networks. The CSF and genotyping data of 843 study subjects (199 CN, 85 SMC, 239 EMCI, 207 LMCI, 113 AD) from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) were analyzed. PLINK was used to perform GWAS on the t-tau/Aβ 1-42 ratio using quality controlled genotype data, including 563,980 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), with age, sex and diagnosis as covariates. Gene-level p-values were obtained by VEGAS2. Genes with p-value ≤ 0.05 were mapped on to a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network (9,617 nodes, 39,240 edges, from the HPRD Database). We integrated a consensus model strategy into the iPINBPA network analysis framework, and named it as CM-iPINBPA. Four consensus modules (CMs) were discovered by CM-iPINBPA, and were functionally annotated using the pathway analysis tool Enrichr. The intersection of four CMs forms a common subnetwork of 29 genes, including those related to tau phosphorylation (GSK3B, SUMO1, AKAP5, CALM1 and DLG4), amyloid beta production (CASP8, PIK3R1, PPA1, PARP1, CSNK2A1, NGFR, and RHOA), and AD (BCL3, CFLAR, SMAD1, and HIF1A). This study coupled a consensus module (CM) strategy with the iPINBPA network analysis framework, and applied it to the GWAS of CSF t-tau/Aβ1-42 ratio in an AD study. The genome-wide network analysis yielded 4 enriched CMs that share not only genes related to tau phosphorylation or amyloid beta

  17. Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative: a one-year follow up study using tensor-based morphometry correlating degenerative rates, biomarkers and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Alex D; Yanovsky, Igor; Parikshak, Neelroop; Hua, Xue; Lee, Suh; Toga, Arthur W; Jack, Clifford R; Bernstein, Matt A; Britson, Paula J; Gunter, Jeffrey L; Ward, Chadwick P; Borowski, Bret; Shaw, Leslie M; Trojanowski, John Q; Fleisher, Adam S; Harvey, Danielle; Kornak, John; Schuff, Norbert; Alexander, Gene E; Weiner, Michael W; Thompson, Paul M

    2009-04-15

    Tensor-based morphometry can recover three-dimensional longitudinal brain changes over time by nonlinearly registering baseline to follow-up MRI scans of the same subject. Here, we compared the anatomical distribution of longitudinal brain structural changes, over 12 months, using a subset of the ADNI dataset consisting of 20 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 40 healthy elderly controls, and 40 individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Each individual longitudinal change map (Jacobian map) was created using an unbiased registration technique, and spatially normalized to a geometrically-centered average image based on healthy controls. Voxelwise statistical analyses revealed regional differences in atrophy rates, and these differences were correlated with clinical measures and biomarkers. Consistent with prior studies, we detected widespread cerebral atrophy in AD, and a more restricted atrophic pattern in MCI. In MCI, temporal lobe atrophy rates were correlated with changes in mini-mental state exam (MMSE) scores, clinical dementia rating (CDR), and logical/verbal learning memory scores. In AD, temporal atrophy rates were correlated with several biomarker indices, including a higher CSF level of p-tau protein, and a greater CSF tau/beta amyloid 1-42 (ABeta42) ratio. Temporal lobe atrophy was significantly faster in MCI subjects who converted to AD than in non-converters. Serial MRI scans can therefore be analyzed with nonlinear image registration to relate ongoing neurodegeneration to a variety of pathological biomarkers, cognitive changes, and conversion from MCI to AD, tracking disease progression in 3-dimensional detail.

  18. Developmental neuroimaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehaene-Lambertz, G. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot (CEA/DSV/DRM), INSERM U562, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2006-07-01

    Cognitive capacities, such as language, mathematics, music, etc... are highly developed in humans as compared to animals. Numerous studies have found precursors of these capacities in infants: For example, infants are able to discriminate sentences in different languages (Mehler et al., 1988), distinguish sets of objects based on their numerosity (Feigenson et al., 2002) or recognize known faces (Bushnell, 1982). These abilities are not very different from those of other animals. Monkeys are also able to discriminate two human languages (Ramus et al., 2000), two quantities of items (Hauser et al., 2002), or respond to particular faces (Parr et al., 2000). In a few years, however, children surpass these animals. To explain the development of the cognitive capacities of our species, our approach consists in studying the initial stages of cerebral organization during the first months of life in order to characterize the critical parameters that allow infants to take advantage of their environment to achieve the adults' cognitive sophistication. Thanks to the recent progress of brain imaging, it is now possible to examine cerebral functioning of the very young child in entire security. In our team, we used two complementary methods: event-related potentials (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (f MRI). ERPs, used since numerous years in infants, consist of the recording of the brain electrical activity consecutive to the presentation of a stimulus. By using a careful experimental design, it is possible to infer the succession of processing stages that the stimulus follows and to measure their latency (Dehaene-Lambertz and Dehaene, 1994; Gliga and Dehaene-Lambertz, 2006). High-density ERPs system allows also to record even small topographical differences between conditions and thus to infer that the underlying network s involved in the tested conditions are different. With this method, we have decomposed syllable perception in infants and underscore a

  19. Developmental neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehaene-Lambertz, G.

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive capacities, such as language, mathematics, music, etc... are highly developed in humans as compared to animals. Numerous studies have found precursors of these capacities in infants: For example, infants are able to discriminate sentences in different languages (Mehler et al., 1988), distinguish sets of objects based on their numerosity (Feigenson et al., 2002) or recognize known faces (Bushnell, 1982). These abilities are not very different from those of other animals. Monkeys are also able to discriminate two human languages (Ramus et al., 2000), two quantities of items (Hauser et al., 2002), or respond to particular faces (Parr et al., 2000). In a few years, however, children surpass these animals. To explain the development of the cognitive capacities of our species, our approach consists in studying the initial stages of cerebral organization during the first months of life in order to characterize the critical parameters that allow infants to take advantage of their environment to achieve the adults' cognitive sophistication. Thanks to the recent progress of brain imaging, it is now possible to examine cerebral functioning of the very young child in entire security. In our team, we used two complementary methods: event-related potentials (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (f MRI). ERPs, used since numerous years in infants, consist of the recording of the brain electrical activity consecutive to the presentation of a stimulus. By using a careful experimental design, it is possible to infer the succession of processing stages that the stimulus follows and to measure their latency (Dehaene-Lambertz and Dehaene, 1994; Gliga and Dehaene-Lambertz, 2006). High-density ERPs system allows also to record even small topographical differences between conditions and thus to infer that the underlying network s involved in the tested conditions are different. With this method, we have decomposed syllable perception in infants and underscore a

  20. Three-dimensional neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toga, A.W.

    1990-01-01

    This book reports on new neuroimaging technologies that are revolutionizing the study of the brain be enabling investigators to visualize its structure and entire pattern of functional activity in three dimensions. The book provides a theoretical and practical explanation of the new science of creating three-dimensional computer images of the brain. The coverage includes a review of the technology and methodology of neuroimaging, the instrumentation and procedures, issues of quantification, analytic protocols, and descriptions of neuroimaging systems. Examples are given to illustrate the use of three-dimensional enuroimaging to quantitate spatial measurements, perform analysis of autoradiographic and histological studies, and study the relationship between brain structure and function

  1. Cross-View Neuroimage Pattern Analysis for Alzheimer's Disease Staging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidong eLiu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The research on staging of pre-symptomatic and prodromal phase of neurological disorders, e.g., Alzheimer's disease (AD, is essential for prevention of dementia. New strategies for AD staging with a focus on early detection, are demanded to optimize potential efficacy of disease-modifying therapies that can halt or slow the disease progression. Recently, neuroimaging are increasingly used as additional research-based markers to detect AD onset and predict conversion of MCI and normal control (NC to AD. Researchers have proposed a variety of neuroimaging biomarkers to characterize the patterns of the pathology of AD and MCI, and suggested that multi-view neuroimaging biomarkers could lead to better performance than single-view biomarkers in AD staging. However, it is still unclear what leads to such synergy and how to preserve or maximize. In an attempt to answer these questions, we proposed a cross-view pattern analysis framework for investigating the synergy between different neuroimaging biomarkers. We quantitatively analyzed 9 types of biomarkers derived from FDG-PET and T1-MRI, and evaluated their performance in a task of classifying AD, MCI and NC subjects obtained from the ADNI baseline cohort. The experiment results showed that these biomarkers could depict the pathology of AD from different perspectives, and output distinct patterns that are significantly associated with the disease progression. Most importantly, we found that these features could be separated into clusters, each depicting a particular aspect; and the inter-cluster features could always achieve better performance than the intra-cluster features in AD staging.

  2. Visualizing stages of cortical atrophy in progressive MCI from the ADNI cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Fonov, Vladimir; Coupé, Pierrick

    Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is considered a condition where patients are at risk of developing clinically definite Alzheimer’s disease (AD) with an annual conversion rate of approximately 15%[1]. AD is characterized by progressive brain atrophy with major impact on the cerebral cortex...... and visualize the cortical atrophy at different stages in patients who eventually converted to clinically definite AD. We selected patients with a diagnosis of MCI from the ADNI database who converted to AD during the follow-up period. T1-weighted MRI scans were collected at time of conversion(n=140...

  3. Tensor-based morphometry as a neuroimaging biomarker for Alzheimer's disease: an MRI study of 676 AD, MCI, and normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xue; Leow, Alex D; Parikshak, Neelroop; Lee, Suh; Chiang, Ming-Chang; Toga, Arthur W; Jack, Clifford R; Weiner, Michael W; Thompson, Paul M

    2008-11-15

    In one of the largest brain MRI studies to date, we used tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to create 3D maps of structural atrophy in 676 subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy elderly controls, scanned as part of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Using inverse-consistent 3D non-linear elastic image registration, we warped 676 individual brain MRI volumes to a population mean geometric template. Jacobian determinant maps were created, revealing the 3D profile of local volumetric expansion and compression. We compared the anatomical distribution of atrophy in 165 AD patients (age: 75.6+/-7.6 years), 330 MCI subjects (74.8+/-7.5), and 181 controls (75.9+/-5.1). Brain atrophy in selected regions-of-interest was correlated with clinical measurements--the sum-of-boxes clinical dementia rating (CDR-SB), mini-mental state examination (MMSE), and the logical memory test scores - at voxel level followed by correction for multiple comparisons. Baseline temporal lobe atrophy correlated with current cognitive performance, future cognitive decline, and conversion from MCI to AD over the following year; it predicted future decline even in healthy subjects. Over half of the AD and MCI subjects carried the ApoE4 (apolipoprotein E4) gene, which increases risk for AD; they showed greater hippocampal and temporal lobe deficits than non-carriers. ApoE2 gene carriers--1/6 of the normal group--showed reduced ventricular expansion, suggesting a protective effect. As an automated image analysis technique, TBM reveals 3D correlations between neuroimaging markers, genes, and future clinical changes, and is highly efficient for large-scale MRI studies.

  4. Online open neuroimaging mass meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Kempton, Matthew J.; Williams, Steven C. R.

    We describe a system for meta-analysis where a wiki stores numerical data in a simple format and a web service performs the numerical computation. We initially apply the system on multiple meta-analyses of structural neuroimaging data results. The described system allows for mass meta-analysis, e...

  5. Neuroimaging in dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkhof, Frederik [VU Univ. Medical Center, Amsterdam (NL). Dept. of Radiology and Image Analysis Center (IAC); Fox, Nick C. [UCL Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom). Dementia Research Centre; VU Univ. Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bastos-Leite, Antonio J. [Porto Univ. (Portugal). Dept. of Medical Imaging; Scheltens, Philip [VU Univ. Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Neurology and Alzheimer Center

    2011-07-01

    Against a background of an ever-increasing number of patients, new management options, and novel imaging modalities, neuroimaging is playing an increasingly important role in the diagnosis of dementia. This up-to-date, superbly illustrated book aims to provide a practical guide to the effective use of neuroimaging in the patient with cognitive decline. It sets out the key clinical and imaging features of the wide range of causes of dementia and directs the reader from clinical presentation to neuroimaging and on to an accurate diagnosis whenever possible. After an introductory chapter on the clinical background, the available ''toolbox'' of structural and functional neuroimaging techniques is reviewed in detail, including CT, MRI and advanced MR techniques, SPECT and PET, and image analysis methods. The imaging findings in normal ageing are then discussed, followed by a series of chapters that carefully present and analyze the key imaging findings in patients with dementias. A structured path of analysis follows the main presenting feature: disorders associated with primary gray matter loss, with white matter changes, with brain swelling, etc. Throughout, a practical approach is adopted, geared specifically to the needs of clinicians (neurologists, radiologists, psychiatrists, geriatricians) working in the field of dementia, for whom this book should prove an invaluable resource. (orig.)

  6. Introduction to neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orrison, W.W.

    1989-01-01

    The author focuses on neuroradiology with emphasis on the current imaging modalities. There are chapters on angiography, myelography, nuclear medicine, ultrasonography, computer tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The other chapters are dedicated to the spine, skull, head and neck, and pediatric neuroimaging

  7. Improved multimodal biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment diagnosis: data from ADNI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Torteya, Antonio; Treviño-Alvarado, Víctor; Tamez-Peña, José

    2013-02-01

    The accurate diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) confers many clinical research and patient care benefits. Studies have shown that multimodal biomarkers provide better diagnosis accuracy of AD and MCI than unimodal biomarkers, but their construction has been based on traditional statistical approaches. The objective of this work was the creation of accurate AD and MCI diagnostic multimodal biomarkers using advanced bioinformatics tools. The biomarkers were created by exploring multimodal combinations of features using machine learning techniques. Data was obtained from the ADNI database. The baseline information (e.g. MRI analyses, PET analyses and laboratory essays) from AD, MCI and healthy control (HC) subjects with available diagnosis up to June 2012 was mined for case/controls candidates. The data mining yielded 47 HC, 83 MCI and 43 AD subjects for biomarker creation. Each subject was characterized by at least 980 ADNI features. A genetic algorithm feature selection strategy was used to obtain compact and accurate cross-validated nearest centroid biomarkers. The biomarkers achieved training classification accuracies of 0.983, 0.871 and 0.917 for HC vs. AD, HC vs. MCI and MCI vs. AD respectively. The constructed biomarkers were relatively compact: from 5 to 11 features. Those multimodal biomarkers included several widely accepted univariate biomarkers and novel image and biochemical features. Multimodal biomarkers constructed from previously and non-previously AD associated features showed improved diagnostic performance when compared to those based solely on previously AD associated features.

  8. Big Data and Neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb-Vargas, Yenny; Chen, Shaojie; Fisher, Aaron; Mejia, Amanda; Xu, Yuting; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Caffo, Brian; Lindquist, Martin A

    2017-12-01

    Big Data are of increasing importance in a variety of areas, especially in the biosciences. There is an emerging critical need for Big Data tools and methods, because of the potential impact of advancements in these areas. Importantly, statisticians and statistical thinking have a major role to play in creating meaningful progress in this arena. We would like to emphasize this point in this special issue, as it highlights both the dramatic need for statistical input for Big Data analysis and for a greater number of statisticians working on Big Data problems. We use the field of statistical neuroimaging to demonstrate these points. As such, this paper covers several applications and novel methodological developments of Big Data tools applied to neuroimaging data.

  9. Neuroimaging in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-LoberaBehavioral Sciences Institute and Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, SpainAbstract: Neuroimaging techniques have been useful tools for accurate investigation of brain structure and function in eating disorders. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and voxel-based morphometry have been the most relevant technologies in this regard. The purpose of this review is to update the existing data on neuroimaging in eating disorders. The main brain changes seem to be reversible to some extent after adequate weight restoration. Brain changes in bulimia nervosa seem to be less pronounced than in anorexia nervosa and are mainly due to chronic dietary restrictions. Different subtypes of eating disorders might be correlated with specific brain functional changes. Moreover, anorectic patients who binge/purge may have different functional brain changes compared with those who do not binge/purge. Functional changes in the brain might have prognostic value, and different changes with respect to the binding potential of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, and D2/D3 receptors may be persistent after recovering from an eating disorder.Keywords: neuroimaging, brain changes, brain receptors, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorders

  10. Neuroimaging of consciousness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavanna, Andrea Eugenio [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Neuropsychiatry; UCL Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom). Sobell Dept. of Motor, Neuroscience and Movement Disorders; Nani, Andrea [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom). Research Group BSMHFT; Blumenfeld, Hal [Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States). Depts. of Neurology, Neurobiology and Neurosurgery; Laureys, Steven (ed.) [Liege Univ. (Belgium). Cyclotron Research Centre

    2013-07-01

    An important reference work on a multidisciplinary and rapidly expanding area. Particular focus on the relevance of neuroimaging for the diagnosis and treatment of common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting consciousness. Written by world-class experts in the field. Relevant for clinicians, researchers, and scholars across different specialties. Within the field of neuroscience, the past few decades have witnessed an exponential growth of research into the brain mechanisms underlying both normal and pathological states of consciousness in humans. The development of sophisticated imaging techniques (above all fMRI and PET) to visualize and map brain activity in vivo has opened new avenues in our understanding of the pathological processes involved in common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting consciousness, such as epilepsy, coma, vegetative states, dissociative disorders, and dementia. This book presents the state of the art in neuroimaging exploration of the brain correlates of the alterations in consciousness across these conditions, with a particular focus on the potential applications for diagnosis and management. Although the book has a practical approach and is primarily targeted at neurologists, neuroradiologists, and psychiatrists, a wide range of researchers and health care professionals will find it an essential reference that explains the significance of neuroimaging of consciousness for clinical practice. Within the field of neuroscience, the past few decades have witnessed an exponential growth of research into the brain mechanisms underlying both normal and pathological states of consciousness in humans. The development of sophisticated imaging techniques (above all fMRI and PET) to visualize and map brain activity in vivo has opened new avenues in our understanding of the pathological processes involved in common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting consciousness, such as epilepsy, coma, vegetative states, dissociative disorders, and dementia. This

  11. Neuroimaging of consciousness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavanna, Andrea Eugenio; UCL Institute of Neurology, London; Nani, Andrea; Blumenfeld, Hal; Laureys, Steven

    2013-01-01

    An important reference work on a multidisciplinary and rapidly expanding area. Particular focus on the relevance of neuroimaging for the diagnosis and treatment of common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting consciousness. Written by world-class experts in the field. Relevant for clinicians, researchers, and scholars across different specialties. Within the field of neuroscience, the past few decades have witnessed an exponential growth of research into the brain mechanisms underlying both normal and pathological states of consciousness in humans. The development of sophisticated imaging techniques (above all fMRI and PET) to visualize and map brain activity in vivo has opened new avenues in our understanding of the pathological processes involved in common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting consciousness, such as epilepsy, coma, vegetative states, dissociative disorders, and dementia. This book presents the state of the art in neuroimaging exploration of the brain correlates of the alterations in consciousness across these conditions, with a particular focus on the potential applications for diagnosis and management. Although the book has a practical approach and is primarily targeted at neurologists, neuroradiologists, and psychiatrists, a wide range of researchers and health care professionals will find it an essential reference that explains the significance of neuroimaging of consciousness for clinical practice. Within the field of neuroscience, the past few decades have witnessed an exponential growth of research into the brain mechanisms underlying both normal and pathological states of consciousness in humans. The development of sophisticated imaging techniques (above all fMRI and PET) to visualize and map brain activity in vivo has opened new avenues in our understanding of the pathological processes involved in common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting consciousness, such as epilepsy, coma, vegetative states, dissociative disorders, and dementia. This

  12. Association between mitochondrial DNA variations and Alzheimer's Disease in the ADNI cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Anita; Derbeneva, Olga; Younes, Danny; Keator, David; Bakken, Trygve; Lvova, Maria; Brandon, Marty; Guffanti, Guia; Reglodi, Dora; Saykin, Andrew; Weiner, Michael; Macciardi, Fabio; Schork, Nicholas; Wallace, Douglas C.; Potkin, Steven G.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the central role of amyloid deposition in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the pathogenesis of AD still remains elusive at the molecular level. Increasing evidence suggests that compromised mitochondrial function contributes to the aging process and thus may increase the risk of AD. Dysfunctional mitochondria contribute to reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can lead to extensive macromolecule oxidative damage and the progression of amyloid pathology. Oxidative stress and amyloid toxicity leave neurons chemically vulnerable. Because the brain relies on aerobic metabolism, it is apparent that mitochondria are critical for the cerebral function. Mitochondrial DNA sequence-changes could shift cell dynamics and facilitate neuronal vulnerability. Therefore we postulated that mitochondrial DNA sequence polymorphisms may increase the risk of AD. We evaluated the role of mitochondrial haplogroups derived from 138 mitochondrial polymorphisms in 358 Caucasian ADNI subjects. Our results indicate that the mitochondrial haplogroup UK may confer genetic susceptibility to AD independently of the APOE4 allele. PMID:20538375

  13. Retrospective study on structural neuroimaging in first-episode psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Coentre

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. No consensus between guidelines exists regarding neuroimaging in first-episode psychosis. The purpose of this study is to assess anomalies found in structural neuroimaging exams (brain computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in the initial medical work-up of patients presenting first-episode psychosis. Methods. The study subjects were 32 patients aged 18–48 years (mean age: 29.6 years, consecutively admitted with first-episode psychosis diagnosis. Socio-demographic and clinical data and neuroimaging exams (CT and MRI were retrospectively studied. Diagnostic assessments were made using the Operational Criteria Checklist +. Neuroimaging images (CT and MRI and respective reports were analysed by an experienced consultant psychiatrist. Results. None of the patients had abnormalities in neuroimaging exams responsible for psychotic symptoms. Thirty-seven percent of patients had incidental brain findings not causally related to the psychosis (brain atrophy, arachnoid cyst, asymmetric lateral ventricles, dilated lateral ventricles, plagiocephaly and falx cerebri calcification. No further medical referral was needed for any of these patients. No significant differences regarding gender, age, diagnosis, duration of untreated psychosis, in-stay and cannabis use were found between patients who had neuroimaging abnormalities versus those without. Discussion. This study suggests that structural neuroimaging exams reveal scarce abnormalities in young patients with first-episode psychosis. Structural neuroimaging is especially useful in first-episode psychosis patients with neurological symptoms, atypical clinical picture and old age.

  14. Improved diagnostic accuracy of Alzheimer's disease by combining regional cortical thickness and default mode network functional connectivity: Validated in the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Eun; Park, Bum Woo; Kim, Sang Joon; Kim, Ho Sung; Choi, Choong Gon; Jung, Seung Jung; Oh, Joo Young; Shim, Woo Hyun [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Hong; Roh, Jee Hoon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-11-15

    To identify potential imaging biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease by combining brain cortical thickness (CThk) and functional connectivity and to validate this model's diagnostic accuracy in a validation set. Data from 98 subjects was retrospectively reviewed, including a study set (n = 63) and a validation set from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (n = 35). From each subject, data for CThk and functional connectivity of the default mode network was extracted from structural T1-weighted and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Cortical regions with significant differences between patients and healthy controls in the correlation of CThk and functional connectivity were identified in the study set. The diagnostic accuracy of functional connectivity measures combined with CThk in the identified regions was evaluated against that in the medial temporal lobes using the validation set and application of a support vector machine. Group-wise differences in the correlation of CThk and default mode network functional connectivity were identified in the superior temporal (p < 0.001) and supramarginal gyrus (p = 0.007) of the left cerebral hemisphere. Default mode network functional connectivity combined with the CThk of those two regions were more accurate than that combined with the CThk of both medial temporal lobes (91.7% vs. 75%). Combining functional information with CThk of the superior temporal and supramarginal gyri in the left cerebral hemisphere improves diagnostic accuracy, making it a potential imaging biomarker for Alzheimer's disease.

  15. Functional Neuroimaging in Psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Casale, Antonio; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Rapinesi, Chiara; Di Pietro, Simone; Alessi, Maria Chiara; Di Cesare, Gianluigi; Criscuolo, Silvia; De Rossi, Pietro; Tatarelli, Roberto; Girardi, Paolo; Ferracuti, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Psychopathy is associated with cognitive and affective deficits causing disruptive, harmful and selfish behaviour. These have considerable societal costs due to recurrent crime and property damage. A better understanding of the neurobiological bases of psychopathy could improve therapeutic interventions, reducing the related social costs. To analyse the major functional neural correlates of psychopathy, we reviewed functional neuroimaging studies conducted on persons with this condition. We searched the PubMed database for papers dealing with functional neuroimaging and psychopathy, with a specific focus on how neural functional changes may correlate with task performances and human behaviour. Psychopathy-related behavioural disorders consistently correlated with dysfunctions in brain areas of the orbitofrontal-limbic (emotional processing and somatic reaction to emotions; behavioural planning and responsibility taking), anterior cingulate-orbitofrontal (correct assignment of emotional valence to social stimuli; violent/aggressive behaviour and challenging attitude) and prefrontal-temporal-limbic (emotional stimuli processing/response) networks. Dysfunctional areas more consistently included the inferior frontal, orbitofrontal, dorsolateral prefrontal, ventromedial prefrontal, temporal (mainly the superior temporal sulcus) and cingulated cortices, the insula, amygdala, ventral striatum and other basal ganglia. Emotional processing and learning, and several social and affective decision-making functions are impaired in psychopathy, which correlates with specific changes in neural functions. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Neuroimaging of Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    Main purposes of neuroimaging in Alzheimer's disease have been moved from diagnosis of advanced Alzheimer's disease to diagnosis of very early Alzheimer's disease at a prodromal stage of mild cognitive impairment, prediction of conversion from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease, and differential diagnosis from other diseases causing dementia. Structural MRI studies and functional studies using fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET and brain perfusion SPECT are widely used in diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Outstanding progress in diagnostic accuracy of these neuroimaging modalities has been obtained using statistical analysis on a voxel-by-voxel basis after spatial normalization of individual scans to a standardized brain-volume template instead of visual inspection or a conventional region of interest technique. In a very early stage of Alzheimer's disease, this statistical approach revealed gray matter loss in the entorhinal and hippocampal areas and hypometabolism or hypoperfusion in the posterior cingulate cortex. These two findings might be related in view of anatomical knowledge that the regions are linked through the circuit of Papez. This statistical approach also offers accurate evaluation of therapeutical effects on brain metabolism or perfusion. The latest development in functional imaging relates to the final pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease-amyloid plaques. Amyloid imaging might be an important surrogate marker for trials of disease-modifying agents. (author)

  17. 4-Repeat Tauopathy Neuroimaging Initiative - Cycle 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-01

    Corticobasal Degeneration (CBD); Corticobasal Syndrome (CBS); Cortical-basal Ganglionic Degeneration (CBGD); Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP); Nonfluent Variant Primary Progressive Aphasia (nfvPPA); Oligosymptomatic/Variant Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (o/vPSP)

  18. Neuroimaging in Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Yildirim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging has been used in antisocial personality disorder since the invention of computed tomography and new modalities are introduced as technology advances. Magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging and radionuclide imaging are such techniques that are currently used in neuroimaging. Although neuroimaging is an indispensible tool for psychiatric reseach, its clinical utility is questionable until new modalities become more accessible and regularly used in clinical practice. The aim of this paper is to provide clinicians with an introductory knowledge on neuroimaging in antisocial personality disorder including basic physics principles, current contributions to general understanding of pathophysiology in antisocial personality disorder and possible future applications of neuroimaging. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(1: 98-108

  19. Neuroimaging of autism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoeven, Judith S; Cock, Paul de; Lagae, Lieven [University Hospitals of the Catholic University of Leuven, Department of Pediatrics, Leuven (Belgium); Sunaert, Stefan [University Hospitals of the Catholic University of Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium)

    2010-01-15

    Neuroimaging studies done by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have provided important insights into the neurobiological basis for autism. The aim of this article is to review the current state of knowledge regarding brain abnormalities in autism. Results of structural MRI studies dealing with total brain volume, the volume of the cerebellum, caudate nucleus, thalamus, amygdala and the area of the corpus callosum are summarised. In the past 5 years also new MRI applications as functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging brought considerable new insights in the pathophysiological mechanisms of autism. Dysfunctional activation in key areas of verbal and non-verbal communication, social interaction, and executive functions are revised. Finally, we also discuss white matter alterations in important communication pathways in the brain of autistic patients. (orig.)

  20. Neuroimaging of autism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhoeven, Judith S.; Cock, Paul de; Lagae, Lieven; Sunaert, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies done by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have provided important insights into the neurobiological basis for autism. The aim of this article is to review the current state of knowledge regarding brain abnormalities in autism. Results of structural MRI studies dealing with total brain volume, the volume of the cerebellum, caudate nucleus, thalamus, amygdala and the area of the corpus callosum are summarised. In the past 5 years also new MRI applications as functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging brought considerable new insights in the pathophysiological mechanisms of autism. Dysfunctional activation in key areas of verbal and non-verbal communication, social interaction, and executive functions are revised. Finally, we also discuss white matter alterations in important communication pathways in the brain of autistic patients. (orig.)

  1. Neuroimaging of neurotic disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, Yoshiro; Yahata, Noriaki

    2006-01-01

    Neuroimaging has been involved in recent biological approaches with evidence for neurotic disorders in place of diagnostic criteria on Freud theory hitherto. This review describes the present states of brain imaging in those disorders. Emotion has such three bases for environmental stimuli as recognition/evaluation of causable factors, manifestation, and its control, each of which occurs in various different regions connected by neuro-net work in the brain. The disorders are regarded as abnormality of the circuit that can be imaged. Documented and discussed are the actual regions imaged by MRI and PET in panic disorder, social phobia, phobias to specified things, posttraumatic stress disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The approach is thought important for elucidating not only the pathogenesis of the disorders but also the human emotional functions and mechanism of the mind, which may lead to a better treatment of the disorders in future. (T.I)

  2. Neuroimaging and electroconvulsive therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolwig, Tom G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the 1970s, a number of neuroimaging studies of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) have been conducted to elucidate the working action of this highly efficacious treatment modality. The technologies used are single photon emission tomography, positron emission tomography, magnetic...... in localized cortical and subcortical areas of the brain and have revealed differences in neurophysiology and metabolism between the hyperactive ictal state and the restorative interictal/postictal periods. Recent magnetic resonance imaging studies seem to pave way for new insights into ECT's effects...... on increased connectivity in the brain during depression. CONCLUSION: The existing data reveal considerable variations among studies and therefore do not yet allow the formulation of a unified hypothesis for the mechanism of ECT. The rapid developments in imaging technology, however, hold promises for further...

  3. Relationship between plasma analytes and SPARE-AD defined brain atrophy patterns in ADNI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon B Toledo

    Full Text Available Different inflammatory and metabolic pathways have been associated with Alzheimeŕs disease (AD. However, only recently multi-analyte panels to study a large number of molecules in well characterized cohorts have been made available. These panels could help identify molecules that point to the affected pathways. We studied the relationship between a panel of plasma biomarkers (Human DiscoveryMAP and presence of AD-like brain atrophy patterns defined by a previously published index (SPARE-AD at baseline in subjects of the ADNI cohort. 818 subjects had MRI-derived SPARE-AD scores, of these subjects 69% had plasma biomarkers and 51% had CSF tau and Aβ measurements. Significant analyte-SPARE-AD and analytes correlations were studied in adjusted models. Plasma cortisol and chromogranin A showed a significant association that did not remain significant in the CSF signature adjusted model. Plasma macrophage inhibitory protein-1α and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 showed a significant association with brain atrophy in the adjusted model. Cortisol levels showed an inverse association with tests measuring processing speed. Our results indicate that stress and insulin responses and cytokines associated with recruitment of inflammatory cells in MCI-AD are associated with its characteristic AD-like brain atrophy pattern and correlate with clinical changes or CSF biomarkers.

  4. Predictive modelling using neuroimaging data in the presence of confounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Anil; Monteiro, Joao M; Mourao-Miranda, Janaina

    2017-04-15

    When training predictive models from neuroimaging data, we typically have available non-imaging variables such as age and gender that affect the imaging data but which we may be uninterested in from a clinical perspective. Such variables are commonly referred to as 'confounds'. In this work, we firstly give a working definition for confound in the context of training predictive models from samples of neuroimaging data. We define a confound as a variable which affects the imaging data and has an association with the target variable in the sample that differs from that in the population-of-interest, i.e., the population over which we intend to apply the estimated predictive model. The focus of this paper is the scenario in which the confound and target variable are independent in the population-of-interest, but the training sample is biased due to a sample association between the target and confound. We then discuss standard approaches for dealing with confounds in predictive modelling such as image adjustment and including the confound as a predictor, before deriving and motivating an Instance Weighting scheme that attempts to account for confounds by focusing model training so that it is optimal for the population-of-interest. We evaluate the standard approaches and Instance Weighting in two regression problems with neuroimaging data in which we train models in the presence of confounding, and predict samples that are representative of the population-of-interest. For comparison, these models are also evaluated when there is no confounding present. In the first experiment we predict the MMSE score using structural MRI from the ADNI database with gender as the confound, while in the second we predict age using structural MRI from the IXI database with acquisition site as the confound. Considered over both datasets we find that none of the methods for dealing with confounding gives more accurate predictions than a baseline model which ignores confounding, although

  5. Food addiction and neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; von Deneen, Karen M; Tian, Jie; Gold, Mark S; Liu, Yijun

    2011-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious epidemic and one of the leading global health problems. However, much of the current debate has been fractious, and etiologies of obesity have been attributed to eating behavior (i.e. fast food consumption), personality, depression, addiction or genetics. One of the interesting new hypotheses for explaining the development of obesity involves a food addiction model, which suggests that food is not eaten as much for survival as pleasure and that hedonic overeating is relevant to both substance-related disorders and eating disorders. Accumulating evidence has shown that there are a number of shared neural and hormonal pathways as well as distinct differences in these pathways that may help researchers discover why certain individuals continue to overeat despite health and other consequences, and becomes more and more obese. Functional neuroimaging studies have further revealed that pleasant smelling, looking, and tasting food has reinforcing characteristics similar to drugs of abuse. Many of the brain changes reported for hedonic eating and obesity are also seen in various types of addictions. Most importantly, overeating and obesity may have an acquired drive similar to drug addiction with respect to motivation and incentive craving. In both cases, the desire and continued satisfaction occur after early and repeated exposure to stimuli. The acquired drive for eating food and relative weakness of the satiety signal would cause an imbalance between the drive and hunger/reward centers in the brain and their regulation. In the current paper, we first provide a summary of literature on food addition from eight different perspectives, and then we proposed a research paradigm that may allow screening of new pharmacological treatment on the basis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).

  6. Neuroimaging findings in movement disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topalov, N.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: Neuroimaging methods are of great importance for the differential diagnostic delimitation of movement disorders associated with structural damage (neoplasms, ischemic lesions, neuroinfections) from those associated with specific pathophysiological mechanisms (dysmetabolic disorders, neurotransmitter disorders). Learning objective: Presentation of typical imaging findings contributing to nosological differentiation in groups of movement disorders with similar clinical signs. In this presentation are discussed neuroimaging findings in Parkinson‘s disease, atypical parkinsonian syndromes (multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration), parkinsonism in genetically mediated diseases (Wilson’s disease, pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration – PKAN), vascular parkinsonism, hyperkinetic movement disorders (palatal tremor, Huntington‘s chorea, symptomatic chorea in ischemic stroke and diabetes, rubral tremor, ballismus, hemifacial spasm). Contemporary neuroimaging methods enable support for diagnostic and differential diagnostic precision of a number of hypo- and hyperkinetic movement disorders, which is essential for neurological clinical practice

  7. Changes in Brain Lateralization in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease: A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Study from Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available PurposeTo detect changes in brain lateralization in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI and Alzheimer’s disease (AD using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI.Materials and methodsData from 61 well-matched right-handed subjects were obtained from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, including 19 healthy controls (HCs, 25 patients with MCI, and 17 patients with AD. First, we divided 256 pairs of seed regions from each hemisphere covering the entire cerebral gray matter. Then, we used the intrinsic laterality index (iLI approach to quantify the functional laterality using fMRI. One-way ANOVA was employed to estimate the differences in iLI among the three groups. The sum, number and mean value of the iLI were calculated within the thresholds of 0 < |iLI| < 0.2, 0.2 ≤ |iLI| < 0.4, 0.4 ≤ |iLI| < 0.8, and |iLI| ≥ 0.8, to explore the changes in the lateralization of resting-state brain function in patients with MCI and AD.ResultsOne-way ANOVA revealed that the iLIs of the three groups were significantly different. The HCs showed a significant leftward interhemispheric difference within |iLI| ≥ 0.8. Compared with the HCs, the patients with MCI manifested a distinct abnormal rightward interhemispheric asymmetry, mainly within the thresholds of 0.2 ≤ |iLI| < 0.4 and 0.4 ≤ |iLI| < 0.8; in the patients with AD, the normal leftward lateralization that was observed in the HCs disappeared, and an abnormal rightward laterality was expressed within 0.4 ≤ |iLI| < 0.8. By directly comparing the patients with MCI with the patients with AD, an exclusive abnormal rightward laterality was observed in the patients with MCI within the 0.2 ≤ |iLI| < 0.4 threshold, and the normal leftward asymmetry vanished in the patients with AD within the |iLI| ≥ 0.8 threshold.ConclusionGlobal brain lateralization was different among three groups. The

  8. Neuroimaging, nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Takashi; Ito, Kengo; Arahata, Yutaka

    2007-01-01

    This chapter describes radionuclide imaging as it related to neurodegenerative dementias like Alzheimer's disease (AD), idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD), and normal aging, among the various diseases of the elderly. The role of neuroimaging with nuclear medicine is to detect changes in neural activities that are caused by these diseases. Such changes may be indirect phenomena, but the imaging of neural functions provides physicians with useful, objective information regarding pathophysiology in the brain. Brain activities change with age, with the elderly showing decreased brain function in memory, execution, and attention. Age-dependent reduction in the global mean of cerebral blood flow (CBF) has been reported in many studies that have used X-133 and O-15 labeled gas, the spatial resolution of which is low. Partial volume correction (PVC) is available through the segmentation of grey matter from high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Meltzer reported that age-related change disappeared after PVC. The relative distribution of CBF and glucose metabolism has been examined on a voxel-by-voxel basis in many studies. The areas negatively correlated with age are the anterior part of the brain, especially the dorsolateral and medial frontal areas, anterior cingulate cortices, frontolateral and perisylvian cortices, and basal ganglia. The areas positively correlated with age are the occipital lobe, temporal lobe, sensorimotor cortex, and primary visual cortex. It is not easy to define ''normal aging''. Aged people tend to have the potential for diseases like cerebral ischemia caused by arteriosclerosis. Ischemia results in volume loss of the gray matter and CBF. The ApoE e4 gene is a risk factor for AD, and carriers of the ApoE e4 allel show CBF-like AD even at a relatively young age. Hypo-glucose metabolism in the posterior cingulate cortex is seen in 5% of normal people over 50 years of age. This Alzheimer-like CBF/metabolic pattern needs further

  9. Attention to spoken word planning: Chronometric and neuroimaging evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, A.P.A.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews chronometric and neuroimaging evidence on attention to spoken word planning, using the WEAVER++ model as theoretical framework. First, chronometric studies on the time to initiate vocal responding and gaze shifting suggest that spoken word planning may require some attention,

  10. Finding related functional neuroimaging volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    We describe a content-based image retrieval technique for finding related functional neuroimaging experiments by voxelization of sets of stereotactic coordinates in Talairach space, comparing the volumes and reporting related volumes in a sorted list. Voxelization is accomplished by convolving ea...

  11. The Co-evolution of Neuroimaging and Psychiatric Neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyster, Timothy G; Mikell, Charles B; Sheth, Sameer A

    2016-01-01

    The role of neuroimaging in psychiatric neurosurgery has evolved significantly throughout the field's history. Psychiatric neurosurgery initially developed without the benefit of information provided by modern imaging modalities, and thus lesion targets were selected based on contemporary theories of frontal lobe dysfunction in psychiatric disease. However, by the end of the 20th century, the availability of structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) allowed for the development of mechanistic theories attempting to explain the anatamofunctional basis of these disorders, as well as the efficacy of stereotactic neuromodulatory treatments. Neuroimaging now plays a central and ever-expanding role in the neurosurgical management of psychiatric disorders, by influencing the determination of surgical candidates, allowing individualized surgical targeting and planning, and identifying network-level changes in the brain following surgery. In this review, we aim to describe the coevolution of psychiatric neurosurgery and neuroimaging, including ways in which neuroimaging has proved useful in elucidating the therapeutic mechanisms of neuromodulatory procedures. We focus on ablative over stimulation-based procedures given their historical precedence and the greater opportunity they afford for post-operative re-imaging, but also discuss important contributions from the deep brain stimulation (DBS) literature. We conclude with a discussion of how neuroimaging will transition the field of psychiatric neurosurgery into the era of precision medicine.

  12. Neuroimaging for psychotherapy research: current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarten, Carol P; Strauman, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews neuroimaging studies that inform psychotherapy research. An introduction to neuroimaging methods is provided as background for the increasingly sophisticated breadth of methods and findings appearing in psychotherapy research. We compiled and assessed a comprehensive list of neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, along with selected examples of other types of studies that also are relevant to psychotherapy research. We emphasized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) since it is the dominant neuroimaging modality in psychological research. We summarize findings from neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, including treatment for depression, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and schizophrenia. The increasing use of neuroimaging methods in the study of psychotherapy continues to refine our understanding of both outcome and process. We suggest possible directions for future neuroimaging studies in psychotherapy research.

  13. NeuroVault and the vision for data sharing in neuroimaging

    OpenAIRE

    Gorgolewski, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Talk from the 14 January 2014 "GlaxoSmithKline - Neurophysics Workshop on Skeptical Neuroimaging", an activity hosted at Imperial College and coordinated with the Neurophysics Marie Curie Initial Training Network of which GSK is a participant.

  14. Consensus paper: combining transcranial stimulation with neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebner, Hartwig R; Bergmann, Til O; Bestmann, Sven

    2009-01-01

    neuroimaging (online approach), TMS can be used to test how focal cortex stimulation acutely modifies the activity and connectivity in the stimulated neuronal circuits. TMS and neuroimaging can also be separated in time (offline approach). A conditioning session of repetitive TMS (rTMS) may be used to induce...... information obtained by neuroimaging can be used to define the optimal site and time point of stimulation in a subsequent experiment in which TMS is used to probe the functional contribution of the stimulated area to a specific task. In this review, we first address some general methodologic issues that need......In the last decade, combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-neuroimaging studies have greatly stimulated research in the field of TMS and neuroimaging. Here, we review how TMS can be combined with various neuroimaging techniques to investigate human brain function. When applied during...

  15. Neuroimaging and advanced social living

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    Background: Snow stated in 1959 a modern conflict between classical hermeneutic humanism and natural science which recently has been renewed by Kensei Hiwaki [2011]. However, the last decade has brought a breakthrough in the study of the neural base of mental processes by neuroimaging which may...... patients. Further, this healing principle explains classical relaxation procedures as yoga and meditation as coping techniques. 2. Mental balance between L(x) and NC is not a continued but a discrete variable of general risk attitude differentiating 4 sub-groups corresponding to the classical tempers which...

  16. Neuroimaging Endophenotypes in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Rajneesh; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that has a strong genetic basis, and is heterogeneous in its etiopathogenesis and clinical presentation. Neuroimaging studies, in concert with neuropathological and clinical research, have been instrumental in delineating trajectories of development in children with ASD. Structural neuroimaging has revealed ASD to be a disorder with general and regional brain enlargement, especially in the frontotemporal cortices, while functional neuroimaging studies have highlighted diminished connectivity, especially between frontal-posterior regions. The diverse and specific neuroimaging findings may represent potential neuroendophenotypes, and may offer opportunities to further understand the etiopathogenesis of ASD, predict treatment response and lead to the development of new therapies. PMID:26234701

  17. A simple tool for neuroimaging data sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eHaselgrove

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Data sharing is becoming increasingly common, but despite encouragement and facilitation by funding agencies, journals, and some research efforts, most neuroimaging data acquired today is still not shared due to political, financial, social, and technical barriers to sharing data that remain. In particular, technical solutions are few for researchers that are not a part of larger efforts with dedicated sharing infrastructures, and social barriers such as the time commitment required to share can keep data from becoming publicly available.We present a system for sharing neuroimaging data, designed to be simple to use and to provide benefit to the data provider. The system consists of a server at the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility (INCF and user tools for uploading data to the server. The primary design principle for the user tools is ease of use: the user identifies a directory containing DICOM data, provides their INCF Portal authentication, and provides identifiers for the subject and imaging session. The user tool anonymizes the data and sends it to the server. The server then runs quality control routines on the data, and the data and the quality control reports are made public. The user retains control of the data and may change the sharing policy as they need. The result is that in a few minutes of the user’s time, DICOM data can be anonymized and made publicly available, and an initial quality control assessment can be performed on the data. The system is currently functional, and user tools and access to the public image database are available at http://xnat.incf.org/.

  18. What's new in neuroimaging methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    The rapid advancement of neuroimaging methodology and availability has transformed neuroscience research. The answers to many questions that we ask about how the brain is organized depend on the quality of data that we are able to obtain about the locations, dynamics, fluctuations, magnitudes, and types of brain activity and structural changes. In this review, an attempt is made to take a snapshot of the cutting edge of a small component of the very rapidly evolving field of neuroimaging. For each area covered, a brief context is provided along with a summary of a few of the current developments and issues. Then, several outstanding papers, published in the past year or so, are described, providing an example of the directions in which each area is progressing. The areas covered include functional MRI (fMRI), voxel based morphometry (VBM), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), optical imaging, and positron emission tomography (PET). More detail is included on fMRI, as subsections include: functional MRI interpretation, new functional MRI contrasts, MRI technology, MRI paradigms and processing, and endogenous oscillations in functional MRI. PMID:19338512

  19. Online Open Neuroimaging Mass Meta-Analysis with a Wiki

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Arup; Kempton, Matthew J.; Williams, Steven C. R.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a system for meta-analysis where a wiki stores numerical data in a simple comma-separated values format and a web service performs the numerical statistical computation. We initially apply the system on multiple meta-analyses of structural neuroimaging data results. The described system...... allows for mass meta-analysis, e.g., meta-analysis across multiple brain regions and multiple mental disorders providing an overview of important relationships and their uncertainties in a collaborative environment....

  20. CSF biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease concord with amyloid-β PET and predict clinical progression: A study of fully automated immunoassays in BioFINDER and ADNI cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Oskar; Seibyl, John; Stomrud, Erik; Zetterberg, Henrik; Trojanowski, John Q; Bittner, Tobias; Lifke, Valeria; Corradini, Veronika; Eichenlaub, Udo; Batrla, Richard; Buck, Katharina; Zink, Katharina; Rabe, Christina; Blennow, Kaj; Shaw, Leslie M

    2018-03-01

    We studied whether fully automated Elecsys cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immunoassay results were concordant with positron emission tomography (PET) and predicted clinical progression, even with cutoffs established in an independent cohort. Cutoffs for Elecsys amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ), total tau/Aβ(1-42), and phosphorylated tau/Aβ(1-42) were defined against [ 18 F]flutemetamol PET in Swedish BioFINDER (n = 277) and validated against [ 18 F]florbetapir PET in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (n = 646). Clinical progression in patients with mild cognitive impairment (n = 619) was studied. CSF total tau/Aβ(1-42) and phosphorylated tau/Aβ(1-42) ratios were highly concordant with PET classification in BioFINDER (overall percent agreement: 90%; area under the curve: 94%). The CSF biomarker statuses established by predefined cutoffs were highly concordant with PET classification in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (overall percent agreement: 89%-90%; area under the curves: 96%) and predicted greater 2-year clinical decline in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Strikingly, tau/Aβ ratios were as accurate as semiquantitative PET image assessment in predicting visual read-based outcomes. Elecsys CSF biomarker assays may provide reliable alternatives to PET in Alzheimer's disease diagnosis. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Neuroimaging Biomarkers of Neurodegenerative Diseases and Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Risacher, Shannon L.; Saykin, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders leading to dementia are common diseases that affect many older and some young adults. Neuroimaging methods are important tools for assessing and monitoring pathological brain changes associated with progressive neurodegenerative conditions. In this review, the authors describe key findings from neuroimaging studies (magnetic resonance imaging and radionucleotide imaging) in neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and prodromal stages, famili...

  2. Neuroimaging and Research into Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabourin, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Neuroimaging techniques are becoming not only more and more sophisticated but are also coming to be increasingly accessible to researchers. One thing that one should take note of is the potential of neuroimaging research within second language acquisition (SLA) to contribute to issues pertaining to the plasticity of the adult brain and to general…

  3. Neuroimaging in psychiatry: from bench to bedside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Linden

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This perspective considers the present and the future role of different neuroimaging techniques in the field of psychiatry. After identifying shortcomings of the mainly symptom-focussed diagnostic processes and treatment decisions in modern psychiatry, we suggest topics where neuroimaging methods have the potential to help. These include better understanding of the pathophysiology, improved diagnoses, assistance in therapeutic decisions and the supervision of treatment success by direct assessment of improvement in disease-related brain functions. These different questions are illustrated by examples from neuroimaging studies, with a focus on severe mental and neuropsychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia, depression and dementia. Despite all reservations addressed in the article, we are optimistic, that neuroimaging has a huge potential with regard to the above-mentioned questions. We expect that neuroimaging will play an increasing role in the future refinement of the diagnostic process and aid in the development of new therapies in the field of psychiatry.

  4. [Exploring dream contents by neuroimaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Tomoyasu; Kamitani, Yukiyasu

    2014-04-01

    Dreaming is a subjective experience during sleep that is often accompanied by vivid perceptual and emotional contents. Because of its fundamentally subjective nature, the objective study of dream contents has been challenging. However, since the discovery of rapid eye movements during sleep, scientific knowledge on the relationship between dreaming and physiological measures including brain activity has accumulated. Recent advances in neuroimaging analysis methods have made it possible to uncover direct links between specific dream contents and brain activity patterns. In this review, we first give a historical overview on dream researches with a focus on the neurophysiological and behavioral signatures of dreaming. We then discuss our recent study in which visual dream contents were predicted, or decoded, from brain activity during sleep onset periods using machine learning-based pattern recognition of functional MRI data. We suggest that advanced analytical tools combined with neural and behavioral databases will reveal the relevance of spontaneous brain activity during sleep to waking experiences.

  5. Functional neuroimaging of sleep disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Chun; Zhao Jun; Guan Yihui

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disorders may affect the health and normal life of human badly. However, the pathophysiology underlying adult sleep disorders is still unclear. Functional neuroimaging can be used to investigate whether sleep disorders are associated with specific changes in brain structure or regional activity. This paper reviews functional brain imaging findings in major intrinsic sleep disorders (i.e., idiopathic insomnia, narcolepsy, and obstructive sleep apnea) and in abnormal motor behavior during sleep (i.e., periodic limb movement disorder and REM sleep behavior disorder). Metabolic/functional investigations (positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging) are mainly reviewed, as well as neuroanatomical assessments (voxel-based morphometry, magnetic resonance spectroscopy). Meanwhile, here are some brief introduction of different kinds of sleep disorders. (authors)

  6. Visual attention and the neuroimage bias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D A Baker

    Full Text Available Several highly-cited experiments have presented evidence suggesting that neuroimages may unduly bias laypeople's judgments of scientific research. This finding has been especially worrisome to the legal community in which neuroimage techniques may be used to produce evidence of a person's mental state. However, a more recent body of work that has looked directly at the independent impact of neuroimages on layperson decision-making (both in legal and more general arenas, and has failed to find evidence of bias. To help resolve these conflicting findings, this research uses eye tracking technology to provide a measure of attention to different visual representations of neuroscientific data. Finding an effect of neuroimages on the distribution of attention would provide a potential mechanism for the influence of neuroimages on higher-level decisions. In the present experiment, a sample of laypeople viewed a vignette that briefly described a court case in which the defendant's actions might have been explained by a neurological defect. Accompanying these vignettes was either an MRI image of the defendant's brain, or a bar graph depicting levels of brain activity-two competing visualizations that have been the focus of much of the previous research on the neuroimage bias. We found that, while laypeople differentially attended to neuroimagery relative to the bar graph, this did not translate into differential judgments in a way that would support the idea of a neuroimage bias.

  7. Learning Neuroimaging. 100 essential cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asis Bravo-Rodriguez, Francisco de; Diaz-Aguilera, Rocio; Hygino da Cruz, Luiz Celso

    2012-01-01

    Neuroradiology is the branch of radiology that comprises both imaging and invasive procedures related to the brain, spine and spinal cord, head, neck, organs of special sense (eyes, ears, nose), cranial and spinal nerves, and cranial, cervical, and spinal vessels. Special training and skills are required to enable the neuroradiologist to function as an expert diagnostic and therapeutic consultant and practitioner. In addition to knowledge of imaging findings, the neuroradiologist is required to learn the fundamentals of structural and functional neuroanatomy, neuropathology, and neuropathophysiology as well as the clinical manifestations of diseases of the brain, spine and spinal cord, head, neck, and organs of special sense. This book is intended as an introduction to neuroradiology and aims to provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of this highly specialized radiological subspecialty. One hundred illustrated cases from clinical practice are presented in a standard way. Each case is supported by representative images and is divided into three parts: a brief summary of the patient's medical history, a discussion of the disease, and a description of the most characteristic imaging features of the disorder. The focus is not only on common neuroradiological entities such as stroke and acute head trauma but also on less frequent disorders that the practitioner should recognize. Learning Neuroimaging: 100 Essential Cases is an ideal resource for neuroradiology and radiology residents, neurology residents, neurosurgery residents, nurses, radiology technicians, and medical students. (orig.)

  8. Learning Neuroimaging. 100 essential cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asis Bravo-Rodriguez, Francisco de [Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain). Diagnostic and Therapeutics Neuroradiology; Diaz-Aguilera, Rocio [Alto Guadalquivir Hospital, Andujar, Jaen (Spain). Dept. of Radiology; Hygino da Cruz, Luiz Celso [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). CDPI and IRM Ressonancia Magnetica

    2012-07-01

    Neuroradiology is the branch of radiology that comprises both imaging and invasive procedures related to the brain, spine and spinal cord, head, neck, organs of special sense (eyes, ears, nose), cranial and spinal nerves, and cranial, cervical, and spinal vessels. Special training and skills are required to enable the neuroradiologist to function as an expert diagnostic and therapeutic consultant and practitioner. In addition to knowledge of imaging findings, the neuroradiologist is required to learn the fundamentals of structural and functional neuroanatomy, neuropathology, and neuropathophysiology as well as the clinical manifestations of diseases of the brain, spine and spinal cord, head, neck, and organs of special sense. This book is intended as an introduction to neuroradiology and aims to provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of this highly specialized radiological subspecialty. One hundred illustrated cases from clinical practice are presented in a standard way. Each case is supported by representative images and is divided into three parts: a brief summary of the patient's medical history, a discussion of the disease, and a description of the most characteristic imaging features of the disorder. The focus is not only on common neuroradiological entities such as stroke and acute head trauma but also on less frequent disorders that the practitioner should recognize. Learning Neuroimaging: 100 Essential Cases is an ideal resource for neuroradiology and radiology residents, neurology residents, neurosurgery residents, nurses, radiology technicians, and medical students. (orig.)

  9. Developments in functional neuroimaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aine, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    A recent review of neuroimaging techniques indicates that new developments have primarily occurred in the area of data acquisition hardware/software technology. For example, new pulse sequences on standard clinical imagers and high-powered, rapidly oscillating magnetic field gradients used in echo planar imaging (EPI) have advanced MRI into the functional imaging arena. Significant developments in tomograph design have also been achieved for monitoring the distribution of positron-emitting radioactive tracers in the body (PET). Detector sizes, which pose a limit on spatial resolution, have become smaller (e.g., 3--5 mm wide) and a new emphasis on volumetric imaging has emerged which affords greater sensitivity for determining locations of positron annihilations and permits smaller doses to be utilized. Electromagnetic techniques have also witnessed growth in the ability to acquire data from the whole head simultaneously. EEG techniques have increased their electrode coverage (e.g., 128 channels rather than 16 or 32) and new whole-head systems are now in use for MEG. But the real challenge now is in the design and implementation of more sophisticated analyses to effectively handle the tremendous amount of physiological/anatomical data that can be acquired. Furthermore, such analyses will be necessary for integrating data across techniques in order to provide a truly comprehensive understanding of the functional organization of the human brain

  10. Functional neuroimaging in Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    Recent progress in the title is reviewed often referring to authors' investigations. The method eZIS developed by them is for automated diagnosis of brain perfusion SPECT, where voxel-based analysis can be done using a Z-score map calculable from patient's data and standard database with 3D-stereotactic surface projection. Decreases of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and of glucose metabolism detectable in specified brain regions by PET or SPECT in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), are found useful for predicting the stage progression of MCI to Alzheimer disease (AD) in future. Partial volume correction method, essentially the division of images of a gray matter SPECT by MR, has elevated the precision of cerebral image analysis. Differential diagnosis of AD and dementia with Lewy bodies, the second most common form of dementia, is possible by the difference of occipital perfusion or glucose metabolism. Evidences by rCBF SPECT as well as by symptomatic ones have been accumulated recently for the therapeutic effect of donepezil, an inhibitor of acetylcholine esterase used for AD treatment. PET and SPECT imaging for the assessment of rCBF and metabolism has thus played very important roles in AD diagnosis, staging, differentiation, prediction and drug effect assessment. Recent advance in voxel-based statistical analysis of PET and SPECT images has raised the value of neuroimaging in dementia. (T.I.)

  11. Neuroimaging Evidence of Comprehension Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Baker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to synthesize the emerging neuroimaging literature that reveals how the brain responds when readers and listeners encounter texts that demand monitoring of their ongoing comprehension processes. Much of this research has been undertaken by cognitive scientists who do not frame their work in metacognitive terms, and therefore it is less likely to be familiar to psychologists who study metacognition in educational contexts. The important role of metacognition in the development and use of academic skills is widely recognized. Metacognition is typically defined as the awareness and control of one's own cognitive processes. In the domain of reading, the most important metacognitive skill is comprehension monitoring, the evaluation and regulation of comprehension. Readers who monitor their understanding realize when they have encountered difficulty making sense of the text, and they apply error correction procedures to attempt to resolve the difficulty. Metacognition depends on executive control skills that continue to develop into early adulthood, in parallel with the maturation of the executive control regions of the prefrontal cortex. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and event-related potentials (ERP have been used for some time to study neural correlates of basic reading processes such as word identification, but it is only within recent years that researchers have turned to the higher-level processes of text comprehension. The article describes illustrative studies that reveal changes in neural activity when adults apply lexical, syntactic, or semantic standards to evaluate their understanding.

  12. Survey of protocols for the manual segmentation of the hippocampus: preparatory steps towards a joint EADC-ADNI harmonized protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccardi, Marina; Ganzola, Rossana; Bocchetta, Martina; Pievani, Michela; Redolfi, Alberto; Bartzokis, George; Camicioli, Richard; Csernansky, John G; de Leon, Mony J; deToledo-Morrell, Leyla; Killiany, Ronald J; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Pantel, Johannes; Pruessner, Jens C; Soininen, H; Watson, Craig; Duchesne, Simon; Jack, Clifford R; Frisoni, Giovanni B

    2011-01-01

    Manual segmentation from magnetic resonance imaging (MR) is the gold standard for evaluating hippocampal atrophy in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nonetheless, different segmentation protocols provide up to 2.5-fold volume differences. Here we surveyed the most frequently used segmentation protocols in the AD literature as a preliminary step for international harmonization. The anatomical landmarks (anteriormost and posteriormost slices, superior, inferior, medial, and lateral borders) were identified from 12 published protocols for hippocampal manual segmentation ([Abbreviation] first author, publication year: [B] Bartzokis, 1998; [C] Convit, 1997; [dTM] deToledo-Morrell, 2004; [H] Haller, 1997; [J] Jack, 1994; [K] Killiany, 1993; [L] Lehericy, 1994; [M] Malykhin, 2007; [Pa] Pantel, 2000; [Pr] Pruessner, 2000; [S] Soininen, 1994; [W] Watson, 1992). The hippocampi of one healthy control and one AD patient taken from the 1.5T MR ADNI database were segmented by a single rater according to each protocol. The accuracy of the protocols' interpretation and translation into practice was checked with lead authors of protocols through individual interactive web conferences. Semantically harmonized landmarks and differences were then extracted, regarding: (a) the posteriormost slice, protocol [B] being the most restrictive, and [H, M, Pa, Pr, S] the most inclusive; (b) inclusion [C, dTM, J, L, M, Pr, W] or exclusion [B, H, K, Pa, S] of alveus/fimbria; (c) separation from the parahippocampal gyrus, [C] being the most restrictive, [B, dTM, H, J, Pa, S] the most inclusive. There were no substantial differences in the definition of the anteriormost slice. This survey will allow us to operationalize differences among protocols into tracing units, measure their impact on the repeatability and diagnostic accuracy of manual hippocampal segmentation, and finally develop a harmonized protocol.

  13. Value of neuropsychological tests, neuroimaging, and biomarkers for diagnosing Alzheimer's disease in younger and older age cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmand, B.; Eikelenboom, P.; van Gool, W.A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the influence of age on the value of four techniques for diagnosing Alzheimer's disease (AD). DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n=179), individuals with AD

  14. ORIGINAL ARTICLE EEG changes and neuroimaging abnormalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    salah

    Clinical Genetics Department, Human Genetics & Genome Research Division, ... neuroimaging changes of the brain and EEG abnormalities in correlation to the ... level and by developmental changes2. .... for IQ as a confounding factor.30.

  15. Molecular neuroimaging in degenerative dementias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez Bonilla, J F; Carril Carril, J M

    2013-01-01

    In the context of the limitations of structural imaging, brain perfusion and metabolism using SPECT and PET have provided relevant information for the study of cognitive decline. The introduction of the radiotracers for cerebral amyloid imaging has changed the diagnostic strategy regarding Alzheimer's disease, which is currently considered to be a "continuum." According to this new paradigm, the increasing amyloid load would be associated to the preclinical phase and mild cognitive impairment. It has been possible to observe "in vivo" images using 11C-PIB and PET scans. The characteristics of the 11C-PIB image include specific high brain cortical area retention in the positive cases with typical distribution pattern and no retention in the negative cases. This, in combination with 18F-FDG PET, is the basis of molecular neuroimaging as a biomarker. At present, its prognostic value is being evaluated in longitudinal studies. 11C-PIB-PET has become the reference radiotracer to evaluate the presence of cerebral amyloid. However, its availability is limited due to the need for a nearby cyclotron. Therefore, 18F labeled radiotracers are being introduced. Our experience in the last two years with 11C-PIB, first in the research phase and then as being clinically applied, has shown the utility of the technique in the clinical field, either alone or in combination with FDG. Thus, amyloid image is a useful tool for the differential diagnosis of dementia and it is a potentially useful method for early diagnosis and evaluation of future treatments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  16. [How to start a neuroimaging study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narumoto, Jin

    2012-06-01

    In order to help researchers understand how to start a neuroimaging study, several tips are described in this paper. These include 1) Choice of an imaging modality, 2) Statistical method, and 3) Interpretation of the results. 1) There are several imaging modalities available in clinical research. Advantages and disadvantages of each modality are described. 2) Statistical Parametric Mapping, which is the most common statistical software for neuroimaging analysis, is described in terms of parameter setting in normalization and level of significance. 3) In the discussion section, the region which shows a significant difference between patients and normal controls should be discussed in relation to the neurophysiology of the disease, making reference to previous reports from neuroimaging studies in normal controls, lesion studies and animal studies. A typical pattern of discussion is described.

  17. Mathematical modeling and visualization of functional neuroimages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup

    This dissertation presents research results regarding mathematical modeling in the context of the analysis of functional neuroimages. Specifically, the research focuses on pattern-based analysis methods that recently have become popular analysis tools within the neuroimaging community. Such methods...... neuroimaging data sets are characterized by relatively few data observations in a high dimensional space. The process of building models in such data sets often requires strong regularization. Often, the degree of model regularization is chosen in order to maximize prediction accuracy. We focus on the relative...... be carefully selected, so that the model and its visualization enhance our ability to interpret brain function. The second part concerns interpretation of nonlinear models and procedures for extraction of ‘brain maps’ from nonlinear kernel models. We assess the performance of the sensitivity map as means...

  18. Molecular neuroimaging of emotional decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hidehiko

    2013-04-01

    With the dissemination of non-invasive human neuroimaging techniques such as fMRI and the advancement of cognitive science, neuroimaging studies focusing on emotions and social cognition have become established. Along with this advancement, behavioral economics taking emotional and social factors into account for economic decisions has been merged with neuroscientific studies, and this interdisciplinary approach is called neuroeconomics. Past neuroeconomics studies have demonstrated that subcortical emotion-related brain structures play an important role in "irrational" decision-making. The research field that investigates the role of central neurotransmitters in this process is worthy of further development. Here, we provide an overview of recent molecular neuroimaging studies to further the understanding of the neurochemical basis of "irrational" or emotional decision-making and the future direction, including clinical implications, of the field. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Turner syndrome: neuroimaging findings: structural and functional.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mullaney, Ronan

    2009-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of Turner syndrome can advance our understanding of the X chromosome in brain development, and the modulatory influence of endocrine factors. There is increasing evidence from neuroimaging studies that TX individuals have significant differences in the anatomy, function, and metabolism of a number of brain regions; including the parietal lobe; cerebellum, amygdala, hippocampus; and basal ganglia; and perhaps differences in "connectivity" between frontal and parieto-occipital regions. Finally, there is preliminary evidence that genomic imprinting, sex hormones and growth hormone have significant modulatory effects on brain maturation in TS.

  20. Real-World Neuroimaging Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    the Android platform on cell phones and tablet computers. The main feature of the system is a set of widgets on the home screen that allow the user to... MRI of an actual head with embedded dipole source points (Creare, Inc, [100]). Even though the initial attempts fall short of the necessary

  1. Paediatric population neuroimaging and the Generation R Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Tonya; Muetzel, Ryan L.; El Marroun, Hanan

    2018-01-01

    Paediatric population neuroimaging is an emerging field that falls at the intersection between developmental neuroscience and epidemiology. A key feature of population neuroimaging studies involves large-scale recruitment that is representative of the general population. One successful approach f...

  2. Meeting Curation Challenges in a Neuroimaging Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angus Whyte

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The SCARP project is a series of short studies with two aims; firstly to discover more about disciplinary approaches and attitudes to digital curation through ‘immersion’ in selected cases; secondly to apply known good practice, and where possible, identify new lessons from practice in the selected discipline areas. The study summarised here is of the Neuroimaging Group in the University of Edinburgh’s Division of Psychiatry, which plays a leading role in eScience collaborations to improve the infrastructure for neuroimaging data integration and reuse. The Group also aims to address growing data storage and curation needs, given the capabilities afforded by new infrastructure. The study briefly reviews the policy context and current challenges to data integration and sharing in the neuroimaging field. It then describes how curation and preservation risks and opportunities for change were identified throughout the curation lifecycle; and their context appreciated through field study in the research site. The results are consistent with studies of neuroimaging eInfrastructure that emphasise the role of local data sharing and reuse practices. These sustain mutual awareness of datasets and experimental protocols through sharing peer to peer, and among senior researchers and students, enabling continuity in research and flexibility in project work. This “human infrastructure” is taken into account in considering next steps for curation and preservation of the Group’s datasets and a phased approach to supporting data documentation.

  3. The search for neuroimaging and cognitive endophenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla W.; Kjærstad, Hanne L; Meluken, Iselin

    2017-01-01

    and structural neuroimaging. Seventy-seven cross-sectional studies met the inclusion criteria. The present review revealed that URs in comparison with HCs showed: (i) widespread deficits in verbal memory, sustained attention, and executive function; (ii) abnormalities in the reactivity to and regulation...

  4. PET radioligand injection for pig neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Munk, Ole Lajord; Landau, Anne M.

    2018-01-01

    Pigs are useful models in neuroimaging studies with positron emission tomography. Radiolabeled ligands are injected intravenously at the start of the scan and in pigs, the most easily accessible route of administration is the ear vein. However, in brain studies the short distance between the brai...

  5. Neuroimaging in childhood headache: a systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexiou, George A. [University of Ioannina, Department of Neurosurgery, Medical School, P.O. Box 103, Ioannina (Greece); Argyropoulou, Maria I. [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece)

    2013-07-15

    Headache is a common complaint in children, one that gives rise to considerable parental concern and fear of the presence of a space-occupying lesion. The evaluation and diagnosis of headache is very challenging for paediatricians, and neuroimaging by means of CT or MRI is often requested as part of the investigation. CT exposes children to radiation, while MRI is costly and sometimes requires sedation or general anaesthesia, especially in children younger than 6 years. This review of the literature on the value of neuroimaging in children with headache showed that the rate of pathological findings is generally low. Imaging findings that led to a change in patient management were in almost all cases reported in children with abnormal signs on neurological examination. Neuroimaging should be limited to children with a suspicious clinical history, abnormal neurological findings or other physical signs suggestive of intracranial pathology. Well-designed prospective studies are needed to better define the clinical findings that warrant neuroimaging in children with headache. (orig.)

  6. Traumatic Brain Injury: Nuclear Medicine Neuroimaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-Catasús, Carlos A; Vállez Garcia, David; Le Riverend Morales, Eloísa; Galvizu Sánchez, Reinaldo; Dierckx, Rudi; Dierckx, Rudi AJO; Otte, Andreas; de Vries, Erik FJ; van Waarde, Aren; Leenders, Klaus L

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an up-to-date review of nuclear medicine neuroimaging in traumatic brain injury (TBI). 18F-FDG PET will remain a valuable tool in researching complex mechanisms associated with early metabolic dysfunction in TBI. Although evidence-based imaging studies are needed, 18F-FDG PET

  7. Neuroimaging in childhood headache: a systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexiou, George A.; Argyropoulou, Maria I.

    2013-01-01

    Headache is a common complaint in children, one that gives rise to considerable parental concern and fear of the presence of a space-occupying lesion. The evaluation and diagnosis of headache is very challenging for paediatricians, and neuroimaging by means of CT or MRI is often requested as part of the investigation. CT exposes children to radiation, while MRI is costly and sometimes requires sedation or general anaesthesia, especially in children younger than 6 years. This review of the literature on the value of neuroimaging in children with headache showed that the rate of pathological findings is generally low. Imaging findings that led to a change in patient management were in almost all cases reported in children with abnormal signs on neurological examination. Neuroimaging should be limited to children with a suspicious clinical history, abnormal neurological findings or other physical signs suggestive of intracranial pathology. Well-designed prospective studies are needed to better define the clinical findings that warrant neuroimaging in children with headache. (orig.)

  8. Hirayama disease: diagnostic essentials in neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanakis, Stylianos; Chourmouzi, Danae; Terzoudi, Aikaterini; Georgiou, Nikiforos; Giovannopoulou, Eirini

    2017-12-01

    A 22-year-old male presented with progressive muscular weakness of the upper extremities. MRI of the cervical spine established the final diagnosis of Hirayama disease (HD). HD is a rare disease with benign progress. Neurologists and radiologists should be aware of the specific neuroimaging signs of this rare clinical entity.

  9. Statistical Challenges in "Big Data" Human Neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen M; Nichols, Thomas E

    2018-01-17

    Smith and Nichols discuss "big data" human neuroimaging studies, with very large subject numbers and amounts of data. These studies provide great opportunities for making new discoveries about the brain but raise many new analytical challenges and interpretational risks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Neuroimaging in Psychiatry: A Review of the Background and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are two different types of neuroimaging of value in clinical psychiatry, namely: structural neuroimaging techniques (e.g., CT, MRI) which provide static images of the skull, and brain, and funnctional neuroimaging techniques (e.g., single photon emission CT [SPECT], positron emission tomography [PET], functional MRI ...

  11. Diagnostic and prognostic value of amyloid PET textural and shape features: comparison with classical semi-quantitative rating in 760 patients from the ADNI-2 database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Bouallègue, Fayçal; Vauchot, Fabien; Mariano-Goulart, Denis; Payoux, Pierre

    2018-02-09

    We evaluated the performance of amyloid PET textural and shape features in discriminating normal and Alzheimer's disease (AD) subjects, and in predicting conversion to AD in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or significant memory concern (SMC). Subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative with available baseline 18 F-florbetapir and T1-MRI scans were included. The cross-sectional cohort consisted of 181 controls and 148 AD subjects. The longitudinal cohort consisted of 431 SMC/MCI subjects, 85 of whom converted to AD during follow-up. PET images were normalized to MNI space and post-processed using in-house software. Relative retention indices (SUVr) were computed with respect to pontine, cerebellar, and composite reference regions. Several textural and shape features were extracted then combined using a support vector machine (SVM) to build a predictive model of AD conversion. Diagnostic and prognostic performance was evaluated using ROC analysis and survival analysis with the Cox proportional hazard model. The three SUVr and all the tested features effectively discriminated AD subjects in cross-sectional analysis (all p textural and shape features predict conversion to AD with at least as good accuracy as classical SUVr.

  12. Neuromarketing: the hope and hype of neuroimaging in business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariely, Dan; Berns, Gregory S

    2010-04-01

    The application of neuroimaging methods to product marketing - neuromarketing - has recently gained considerable popularity. We propose that there are two main reasons for this trend. First, the possibility that neuroimaging will become cheaper and faster than other marketing methods; and second, the hope that neuroimaging will provide marketers with information that is not obtainable through conventional marketing methods. Although neuroimaging is unlikely to be cheaper than other tools in the near future, there is growing evidence that it may provide hidden information about the consumer experience. The most promising application of neuroimaging methods to marketing may come before a product is even released - when it is just an idea being developed.

  13. Neuroimaging studies of self-reflection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ying

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews some basic findings and methodological issues in neuroimaging studies of self-referential processing.As a general rule,making judgments about one's self,inclusive of personality trait adjectives or current mental states(person's prefer ences,norms,aesthetic values and feeling)uniformly generates medial prefrontal activations,regardless of stimulus materials(words or pictures)and modality(visual or auditory).Cingulate activations are also observed in association with most self-referential processing.Methodological issues include treating self-referential processing as either representing one's own personality traits or representing one's own current mental states.Finally,self-referential processing could Be considered as implement of "I think therefore I am" approach to neuroimaging the self.

  14. Mathematical modeling and visualization of functional neuroimages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup

    This dissertation presents research results regarding mathematical modeling in the context of the analysis of functional neuroimages. Specifically, the research focuses on pattern-based analysis methods that recently have become popular within the neuroimaging community. Such methods attempt...... sets are characterized by relatively few data observations in a high dimensional space. The process of building models in such data sets often requires strong regularization. Often, the degree of model regularization is chosen in order to maximize prediction accuracy. We focus on the relative influence...... be carefully selected, so that the model and its visualization enhance our ability to interpret the brain. The second part concerns interpretation of nonlinear models and procedures for extraction of ‘brain maps’ from nonlinear kernel models. We assess the performance of the sensitivity map as means...

  15. Neuroimaging Measures as Endophenotypes in Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith N. Braskie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Late onset Alzheimer's disease (AD is moderately to highly heritable. Apolipoprotein E allele ε4 (APOE4 has been replicated consistently as an AD risk factor over many studies, and recently confirmed variants in other genes such as CLU, CR1, and PICALM each increase the lifetime risk of AD. However, much of the heritability of AD remains unexplained. AD is a complex disease that is diagnosed largely through neuropsychological testing, though neuroimaging measures may be more sensitive for detecting the incipient disease stages. Difficulties in early diagnosis and variable environmental contributions to the disease can obscure genetic relationships in traditional case-control genetic studies. Neuroimaging measures may be used as endophenotypes for AD, offering a reliable, objective tool to search for possible genetic risk factors. Imaging measures might also clarify the specific mechanisms by which proposed risk factors influence the brain.

  16. Occipital headaches and neuroimaging in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, Joshua J; Gelfand, Amy A; Goadsby, Peter J; Bass, Nancy

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the common thinking, as reinforced by the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition (beta), that occipital headaches in children are rare and suggestive of serious intracranial pathology. We performed a retrospective chart review cohort study of all patients ≤18 years of age referred to a university child neurology clinic for headache in 2009. Patients were stratified by headache location: solely occipital, occipital plus other area(s) of head pain, or no occipital involvement. Children with abnormal neurologic examinations were excluded. We assessed location as a predictor of whether neuroimaging was ordered and whether intracranial pathology was found. Analyses were performed with cohort study tools in Stata/SE 13.0 (StataCorp, College Station, TX). A total of 308 patients were included. Median age was 12 years (32 months-18 years), and 57% were female. Headaches were solely occipital in 7% and occipital-plus in 14%. Patients with occipital head pain were more likely to undergo neuroimaging than those without occipital involvement (solely occipital: 95%, relative risk [RR] 10.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-77.3; occipital-plus: 88%, RR 3.7, 95% CI 1.5-9.2; no occipital pain: 63%, referent). Occipital pain alone or with other locations was not significantly associated with radiographic evidence of clinically significant intracranial pathology. Children with occipital headache are more likely to undergo neuroimaging. In the absence of concerning features on the history and in the setting of a normal neurologic examination, neuroimaging can be deferred in most pediatric patients when occipital pain is present. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  17. Neuroimaging in nuclear medicine: drug addicted brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong-An; Kim, Dae-Jin [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15

    Addiction to illicit drugs in one of today's most important social issues. Most addictive drugs lead to irreversible parenchymal changes in the human brain. Neuroimaging data bring to light the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the abused drugs, and demonstrate that addiction is a disease of the brain. Continuous researches better illustrate the neurochemical alterations in brain function, and attempt to discover the links to consequent behavioral changes. Newer hypotheses and theories follow the numerous results, and more rational methods of approaching therapy are being developed. Substance abuse is on the rise in Korea, and social interest in the matter as well. On the other hand, diagnosis and treatment of drug addiction is still very difficult, because how the abused substance acts in the brain, or how it leads to behavioral problems in not widely known. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of drug addiction can improve the process of diagnosing addict patients, planning therapy, and predicting the prognosis . Neuroimaging approaches by nuclear medicine methods are expected to objectively judge behavioral and neurochemical changes, and response to treatment. In addition, as genes associated with addictive behavior are discovered, functional nuclear medicine images will aid in the assessment of individuals. Reviewing published literature on neuroimaging regarding nuclear medicine is expected to be of assistance to the management of drug addict patients. What's more, means of applying nuclear medicine to the care of drug addict patients should be investigated further.

  18. Neuroimaging in nuclear medicine: drug addicted brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong-An; Kim, Dae-Jin

    2006-01-01

    Addiction to illicit drugs in one of today's most important social issues. Most addictive drugs lead to irreversible parenchymal changes in the human brain. Neuroimaging data bring to light the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the abused drugs, and demonstrate that addiction is a disease of the brain. Continuous researches better illustrate the neurochemical alterations in brain function, and attempt to discover the links to consequent behavioral changes. Newer hypotheses and theories follow the numerous results, and more rational methods of approaching therapy are being developed. Substance abuse is on the rise in Korea, and social interest in the matter as well. On the other hand, diagnosis and treatment of drug addiction is still very difficult, because how the abused substance acts in the brain, or how it leads to behavioral problems in not widely known. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of drug addiction can improve the process of diagnosing addict patients, planning therapy, and predicting the prognosis . Neuroimaging approaches by nuclear medicine methods are expected to objectively judge behavioral and neurochemical changes, and response to treatment. In addition, as genes associated with addictive behavior are discovered, functional nuclear medicine images will aid in the assessment of individuals. Reviewing published literature on neuroimaging regarding nuclear medicine is expected to be of assistance to the management of drug addict patients. What's more, means of applying nuclear medicine to the care of drug addict patients should be investigated further

  19. Functional neuroimaging in Tourette syndrome: recent perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debes NM

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanette Mol Debes, Marie Préel, Liselotte Skov Pediatric Department, Tourette Clinic, Herlev University Hospital, Herlev, DenmarkAbstract: The most recent functional neuroimaging studies on Tourette syndrome (TS are reviewed in this paper. Although it can be difficult to compare functional neuroimaging studies due to differences in methods, differences in age of the included subjects, and differences in the extent to which the presence of comorbidity, medical treatment, and severity of tics are considered in the various studies; most studies show that the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit seems to be involved in the generation of tics. Changes in this circuit seem to be correlated with tic severity. Correlations have been found between the presence of tics and hypermetabolism in various brain regions. Abnormalities of GABAergic, serotonergic, and dopaminergic neurotransmission in patients with TS have been suggested. During tic suppression, increased activity in the inferior frontal gyrus is seen. The premotor cortex might be involved in inhibition of motor control in subjects with TS. The right anterior insula is suggested to be a part of the urge–tic network. Several studies have shown altered motor network activations and sensorimotor gating deficits in subjects with TS. In future studies, inclusion of more well-defined subjects and further examination of premonitory urge and tic suppression is needed in order to increase the knowledge about the pathophysiology and treatment possibilities of TS. Keywords: functional neuroimaging, Tourette syndrome

  20. Neural correlates of fear: insights from neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garfinkel SN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sarah N Garfinkel,1,2 Hugo D Critchley1,2 1Sackler Centre for Consciousness Science, 2Department of Psychiatry, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK Abstract: Fear anticipates a challenge to one's well-being and is a reaction to the risk of harm. The expression of fear in the individual is a constellation of physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and experiential responses. Fear indicates risk and will guide adaptive behavior, yet fear is also fundamental to the symptomatology of most psychiatric disorders. Neuroimaging studies of normal and abnormal fear in humans extend knowledge gained from animal experiments. Neuroimaging permits the empirical evaluation of theory (emotions as response tendencies, mental states, and valence and arousal dimensions, and improves our understanding of the mechanisms of how fear is controlled by both cognitive processes and bodily states. Within the human brain, fear engages a set of regions that include insula and anterior cingulate cortices, the amygdala, and dorsal brain-stem centers, such as periaqueductal gray matter. This same fear matrix is also implicated in attentional orienting, mental planning, interoceptive mapping, bodily feelings, novelty and motivational learning, behavioral prioritization, and the control of autonomic arousal. The stereotyped expression of fear can thus be viewed as a special construction from combinations of these processes. An important motivator for understanding neural fear mechanisms is the debilitating clinical expression of anxiety. Neuroimaging studies of anxiety patients highlight the role of learning and memory in pathological fear. Posttraumatic stress disorder is further distinguished by impairment in cognitive control and contextual memory. These processes ultimately need to be targeted for symptomatic recovery. Neuroscientific knowledge of fear has broader relevance to understanding human and societal behavior. As yet, only some of

  1. Advances on functional neuroimaging in substance misuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Rongbin; Liu Xingdang; Han Mei

    2009-01-01

    Over the past decade, functional neuroimaging has contributed greatly to our knowledge about the neuropharmacology of substance misuse in man. In this review, discussed the application and the progress of the positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging in the substance misuse. After reading some papers, found that the dopamine transporter was significantly decreased in the brain of subjects with heroin abuse. Also observed a significant decrease of regional cerebral blood flow in bilateral cerebral frontal lobes, temporal lobes, the insula and the ipsilateral basal nuclei in substance misuse subjects. Taken together, functional images will lead the direction in future research formedication development of addiction treatment. (authors)

  2. Neuroimaging Features of San Luis Valley Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T. Whitehead

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 14-month-old Hispanic female with a history of double-outlet right ventricle and developmental delay in the setting of recombinant chromosome 8 syndrome was referred for neurologic imaging. Brain MR revealed multiple abnormalities primarily affecting midline structures, including commissural dysgenesis, vermian and brainstem hypoplasia/dysplasia, an interhypothalamic adhesion, and an epidermoid between the frontal lobes that enlarged over time. Spine MR demonstrated hypoplastic C1 and C2 posterior elements, scoliosis, and a borderline low conus medullaris position. Presented herein is the first illustration of neuroimaging findings from a patient with San Luis Valley syndrome.

  3. [Conversion disorder : functional neuroimaging and neurobiological mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, J; Piette, C; Salmon, E; Scantamburlo, G

    2017-04-01

    Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder often encountered in neurology services. This condition without organic lesions was and still is sometimes referred as an imaginary illness or feigning. However, the absence of organic lesions does not exclude the possibility of cerebral dysfunction. The etiologic mechanisms underlying this disorder remain uncertain even today.The advent of cognitive and functional imaging opens up a field of exploration for psychiatry in understanding the neurobiological mechanisms underlying mental disorders and especially the conversion disorder. This article reports several neuroimaging studies of conversion disorder and attempts to generate hypotheses about neurobiological mechanisms.

  4. Practical management of heterogeneous neuroimaging metadata by global neuroimaging data repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, Scott C; Crawford, Karen L; Toga, Arthur W

    2012-01-01

    Rapidly evolving neuroimaging techniques are producing unprecedented quantities of digital data at the same time that many research studies are evolving into global, multi-disciplinary collaborations between geographically distributed scientists. While networked computers have made it almost trivial to transmit data across long distances, collecting and analyzing this data requires extensive metadata if the data is to be maximally shared. Though it is typically straightforward to encode text and numerical values into files and send content between different locations, it is often difficult to attach context and implicit assumptions to the content. As the number of and geographic separation between data contributors grows to national and global scales, the heterogeneity of the collected metadata increases and conformance to a single standardization becomes implausible. Neuroimaging data repositories must then not only accumulate data but must also consolidate disparate metadata into an integrated view. In this article, using specific examples from our experiences, we demonstrate how standardization alone cannot achieve full integration of neuroimaging data from multiple heterogeneous sources and why a fundamental change in the architecture of neuroimaging data repositories is needed instead.

  5. Functional Neuroimaging of Motor Control inParkinson’s Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herz, Damian M; Eickhoff, Simon B; Løkkegaard, Annemette

    2014-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging has been widely used to study the activation patterns of the motor network in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), but these studies have yielded conflicting results. This meta-analysis of previous neuroimaging studies was performed to identify patterns of abnormal...... movement-related activation in PD that were consistent across studies. We applied activation likelihood estimation (ALE) of functional neuroimaging studies probing motor function in patients with PD. The meta-analysis encompassed data from 283 patients with PD reported in 24 functional neuroimaging studies...

  6. Outcome of oligodendroglioma treatment in the era of modern neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinberg, Lawrence R.; Silverman, Edward; Brem, Henry; Wharam, Moody D.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The benefit of routine postoperative radiotherapy for low grade oligodendroglioma remains controversial. Most published series include many patients treated before the availability of CT or MRI scans which allow early diagnosis, guide surgery, detect residual disease, improve radiotherapy, and detect asymptomatic recurrences. The purpose of this analysis is to determine whether observation rather than radiation continues to be an appropriate option for selected patients with the availability of modern neuroimaging. Materials and Methods: 58 patients (age 2-67 years, 6 pts. =2 poor prognostic factor (p=.04). Results: Two and five year actuarial freedom from local progression was 93 +/- 4% and 75% +/- 8% whereas 2 and 5 year overall survival was 94% +/- 3% and 80% +/- 7%. Despite the imbalance of prognostic factors, there was no significant difference whether or not postoperative RT was given. With RT, 2 and 4 year actuarial freedom from progression was 94% +/- 4% and 78% +/- 8%, whereas without RT it was 94% +/- 6% at 2 and 4 years. Similarly, 2 and 4 year actuarial survival was 94% +/- 4% and 78% +/- 8% with RT and was 91% +/- 8% without RT. (5(10)) recurrences were detected radiologically without new or progressive clinical symptoms. Conclusion: These data support the hypothesis that, in the era of modern neuroimaging, the initial observation of good risk patients and immediate irradiation of poor risk patients is an appropriate treatment approach which results in good medium term control and survival for low grade oligodendroglioma patients. A policy of treatment vs. observation based on selected prognostic factors will be tested prospectively in an intergroup trial for low grade glioma histologies

  7. Reproducibility of neuroimaging analyses across operating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatard, Tristan; Lewis, Lindsay B; Ferreira da Silva, Rafael; Adalat, Reza; Beck, Natacha; Lepage, Claude; Rioux, Pierre; Rousseau, Marc-Etienne; Sherif, Tarek; Deelman, Ewa; Khalili-Mahani, Najmeh; Evans, Alan C

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging pipelines are known to generate different results depending on the computing platform where they are compiled and executed. We quantify these differences for brain tissue classification, fMRI analysis, and cortical thickness (CT) extraction, using three of the main neuroimaging packages (FSL, Freesurfer and CIVET) and different versions of GNU/Linux. We also identify some causes of these differences using library and system call interception. We find that these packages use mathematical functions based on single-precision floating-point arithmetic whose implementations in operating systems continue to evolve. While these differences have little or no impact on simple analysis pipelines such as brain extraction and cortical tissue classification, their accumulation creates important differences in longer pipelines such as subcortical tissue classification, fMRI analysis, and cortical thickness extraction. With FSL, most Dice coefficients between subcortical classifications obtained on different operating systems remain above 0.9, but values as low as 0.59 are observed. Independent component analyses (ICA) of fMRI data differ between operating systems in one third of the tested subjects, due to differences in motion correction. With Freesurfer and CIVET, in some brain regions we find an effect of build or operating system on cortical thickness. A first step to correct these reproducibility issues would be to use more precise representations of floating-point numbers in the critical sections of the pipelines. The numerical stability of pipelines should also be reviewed.

  8. Neuroimaging of herpesvirus infections in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baskin, Henry J. [Cincinnati Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Hedlund, Gary [Primary Children' s Medical Center, Department of Medical Imaging, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2007-10-15

    Six members of the herpesvirus family cause well-described neurologic disease in children: herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2), varicella-zoster (VZV), Epstein-Barr (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6). When herpesviruses infect the central nervous system (CNS), the clinical presentation is non-specific and often confounding. The clinical urgency is often underscored by progressive neurologic deficits, seizures, or even death, and prompt diagnosis and treatment rely heavily on neuroimaging. This review focuses on the spectrum of cerebral manifestations caused by these viruses, particularly on non-congenital presentations. Recent advances in our understanding of these viruses are discussed, including new polymerase chain reaction techniques that allow parallel detection, which has improved our recognition that the herpesviruses are neurotropic and involve the CNS more often than previously thought. Evolving knowledge has also better elucidated viral neuropathology, particularly the role of VZV vasculitis in the brain, HHV-6 in febrile seizures, and herpesvirus reactivation in immunosuppressed patients. The virology, clinical course, and CNS manifestations of each virus are reviewed, followed by descriptions of neuroimaging findings when these agents infect the brain. Characteristic but often subtle imaging findings are discussed, as well as technical pearls covering appropriate use of MRI and MRI adjuncts to help differentiate viral infection from mimics. (orig.)

  9. Neuroimaging of herpesvirus infections in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskin, Henry J.; Hedlund, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Six members of the herpesvirus family cause well-described neurologic disease in children: herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2), varicella-zoster (VZV), Epstein-Barr (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6). When herpesviruses infect the central nervous system (CNS), the clinical presentation is non-specific and often confounding. The clinical urgency is often underscored by progressive neurologic deficits, seizures, or even death, and prompt diagnosis and treatment rely heavily on neuroimaging. This review focuses on the spectrum of cerebral manifestations caused by these viruses, particularly on non-congenital presentations. Recent advances in our understanding of these viruses are discussed, including new polymerase chain reaction techniques that allow parallel detection, which has improved our recognition that the herpesviruses are neurotropic and involve the CNS more often than previously thought. Evolving knowledge has also better elucidated viral neuropathology, particularly the role of VZV vasculitis in the brain, HHV-6 in febrile seizures, and herpesvirus reactivation in immunosuppressed patients. The virology, clinical course, and CNS manifestations of each virus are reviewed, followed by descriptions of neuroimaging findings when these agents infect the brain. Characteristic but often subtle imaging findings are discussed, as well as technical pearls covering appropriate use of MRI and MRI adjuncts to help differentiate viral infection from mimics. (orig.)

  10. Neuroimaging. Recent issues and future progresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2002-01-01

    Recent advances in the technology of non-invasive neuroimaging techniques, include X-ray CT, magnetic resonance imaging, positron CT, etc. The trend of neuroimaging is from the diagnosis of the brain structural change to the functional localization of the brain function with accurate topographical data. Brain activation studies disclosed the responsible regions in the brain for various kinds of paradigms, including motor, sensory, cognitive functions. Another aspect of brain imaging shows the pathophysiological changes of the neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease by abnormal CBF or metabolism changes. It is very important to note that the neurotransmitter receptor imaging is now available for various kinds of transmitters. We recently developed a new tracer for nicotinic type acetylcholine receptor, which might be involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease and its treatment. In the near future, we will be able to visualize the proteins in the brain such as amyloid protein, which will make us to diagnose Alzheimer's patients accurately, and with respect to neuroscience research, not only neuronal functional localizations but also relationship between them will become important to disclose the functional aspects of the brain. (author)

  11. Effects of Marijuana Use on Brain Structure and Function: Neuroimaging Findings from a Neurodevelopmental Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Brumback, T.; Castro, N.; Jacobus, J.; Tapert, S.

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana, behind only tobacco and alcohol, is the most popular recreational drug in America with prevalence rates of use rising over the past decade. A wide range of research has highlighted neurocognitive deficits associated with marijuana use, particularly when initiated during childhood or adolescence. Neuroimaging, describing alterations to brain structure and function, has begun to provide a picture of possible mechanisms associated with the deleterious effects of marijuana use. This ch...

  12. Turner Syndrome: Neuroimaging Findings--Structural and Functional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, Ronan; Murphy, Declan

    2009-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of Turner syndrome can advance our understanding of the X chromosome in brain development, and the modulatory influence of endocrine factors. There is increasing evidence from neuroimaging studies that TX individuals have significant differences in the anatomy, function, and metabolism of a number of brain regions; including…

  13. The progress and clinical application of radionuclide neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wenxin; He Pinyu

    2008-01-01

    Development of site-specific brain radiopharmaceuticals extends the the functional neuroimaging applications in the diagnosis and monitoring treatments of various neurologic and psychiatric disorders. This article highlights recent advances and clinical applications of the functional neuroimaging in Parkinson disease, epilepsy, dementia, substance abuse, psychiatric disorders and brain functional research. (authors)

  14. Pituitary gland in psychiatric disorders: a review of neuroimaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Murad

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, it was reviewed neuroimaging results of the pituitary gland in psychiatric disorders, particularly schizophrenia, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and somatoform disorders. The author made internet search in detail by using PubMed database including the period between 1980 and 2012 October. It was included in the articles in English, Turkish and French languages on pituitary gland in psychiatric disorders through structural or functional neuroimaging results. After searching mentioned in the Methods section in detail, investigations were obtained on pituitary gland neuroimaging in a variety of psychiatric disorders. There have been so limited investigations on pituitary neuroimaging in psychiatric disorders including major psychiatric illnesses like schizophrenia and mood disorders. Current findings are so far from the generalizability of the results. For this reason, it is required to perform much more neuroimaging studies of pituitary gland in all psychiatric disorders to reach the diagnostic importance of measuring it.

  15. Can Emotional and Behavioral Dysregulation in Youth Be Decoded from Functional Neuroimaging?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana C L Portugal

    Full Text Available High comorbidity among pediatric disorders characterized by behavioral and emotional dysregulation poses problems for diagnosis and treatment, and suggests that these disorders may be better conceptualized as dimensions of abnormal behaviors. Furthermore, identifying neuroimaging biomarkers related to dimensional measures of behavior may provide targets to guide individualized treatment. We aimed to use functional neuroimaging and pattern regression techniques to determine whether patterns of brain activity could accurately decode individual-level severity on a dimensional scale measuring behavioural and emotional dysregulation at two different time points.A sample of fifty-seven youth (mean age: 14.5 years; 32 males was selected from a multi-site study of youth with parent-reported behavioral and emotional dysregulation. Participants performed a block-design reward paradigm during functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI. Pattern regression analyses consisted of Relevance Vector Regression (RVR and two cross-validation strategies implemented in the Pattern Recognition for Neuroimaging toolbox (PRoNTo. Medication was treated as a binary confounding variable. Decoded and actual clinical scores were compared using Pearson's correlation coefficient (r and mean squared error (MSE to evaluate the models. Permutation test was applied to estimate significance levels.Relevance Vector Regression identified patterns of neural activity associated with symptoms of behavioral and emotional dysregulation at the initial study screen and close to the fMRI scanning session. The correlation and the mean squared error between actual and decoded symptoms were significant at the initial study screen and close to the fMRI scanning session. However, after controlling for potential medication effects, results remained significant only for decoding symptoms at the initial study screen. Neural regions with the highest contribution to the pattern regression model

  16. Value of neuropsychological tests, neuroimaging, and biomarkers for diagnosing Alzheimer's disease in younger and older age cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmand, Ben; Eikelenboom, Piet; van Gool, Willem A.

    2011-01-01

    To examine the influence of age on the value of four techniques for diagnosing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Observational cohort study. Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n = 179), individuals with AD (n = 91), and normal controls (n = 105).

  17. Neuroimaging for drug addiction and related behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvaz, M.A.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik, P.A.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2011-01-01

    In this review, we highlight the role of neuroimaging techniques in studying the emotional and cognitive-behavioral components of the addiction syndrome by focusing on the neural substrates subserving them. The phenomenology of drug addiction can be characterized by a recurrent pattern of subjective experiences that includes drug intoxication, craving, bingeing, and withdrawal with the cycle culminating in a persistent preoccupation with obtaining, consuming, and recovering from the drug. In the past two decades, imaging studies of drug addiction have demonstrated deficits in brain circuits related to reward and impulsivity. The current review focuses on studies employing positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate these behaviors in drug-addicted human populations. We begin with a brief account of drug addiction followed by a technical account of each of these imaging modalities. We then discuss how these techniques have uniquely contributed to a deeper understanding of addictive behaviors.

  18. Approach to ''Mind'' using functional neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    This review mainly describes authors' recent investigations concerning neuroimages approaching to even human ''mind'' using techniques of PET, SPECT and functional MRI (fMRI). Progress of such studies greatly owes to the development of image statistics of the brain like statistical parametric mapping (www.fil.ion.ucl.ac.uk/spm/), and brain standards (www.mrc-cbu.cam.ac.uk/Imaging/mnispace.html, and ric.uthscsa.edu/projects/talairach daemon.html). The author discusses and presents images in cases of hallucinations (SPECT and H 2 15 O-PET), autism (SPECT), sleep, depression, and its therapy by transcaranial magnetic stimulation. These studies are expected to contribute to diagnosis and therapy of endogenous neurological disorders. (T.I.)

  19. Approach to ''Mind'' using functional neuroimaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi [Saitama Medical School, Hospital, Moroyama, Saitama (Japan)

    2006-05-15

    This review mainly describes authors' recent investigations concerning neuroimages approaching to even human ''mind'' using techniques of PET, SPECT and functional MRI (fMRI). Progress of such studies greatly owes to the development of image statistics of the brain like statistical parametric mapping (www.fil.ion.ucl.ac.uk/spm/), and brain standards (www.mrc-cbu.cam.ac.uk/Imaging/mnispace.html, and ric.uthscsa.edu/projects/talairach daemon.html). The author discusses and presents images in cases of hallucinations (SPECT and H{sub 2}{sup 15}O-PET), autism (SPECT), sleep, depression, and its therapy by transcaranial magnetic stimulation. These studies are expected to contribute to diagnosis and therapy of endogenous neurological disorders. (T.I.)

  20. The teen brain: insights from neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giedd, Jay N

    2008-04-01

    Few parents of a teenager are surprised to hear that the brain of a 16-year-old is different from the brain of an 8-year-old. Yet to pin down these differences in a rigorous scientific way has been elusive. Magnetic resonance imaging, with the capacity to provide exquisitely accurate quantifications of brain anatomy and physiology without the use of ionizing radiation, has launched a new era of adolescent neuroscience. Longitudinal studies of subjects from ages 3-30 years demonstrate a general pattern of childhood peaks of gray matter followed by adolescent declines, functional and structural increases in connectivity and integrative processing, and a changing balance between limbic/subcortical and frontal lobe functions, extending well into young adulthood. Although overinterpretation and premature application of neuroimaging findings for diagnostic purposes remains a risk, converging data from multiple imaging modalities is beginning to elucidate the implications of these brain changes on cognition, emotion, and behavior.

  1. Silent stroke and advance in neuroimaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Yasushi; Sadoshima, Seizo; Hasuo, Kanehiro; Saku, Yoshisuke; Fujishima, Masatoshi (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1990-10-01

    Recently, silent strokes are more frequently demonstrated by CT and MRI with the advance of neuroimaging. The infarcted lesions unrelated to the neurological symptoms were detected in 8, 30, 28, 34, 60, 63% of the patients with cerebral infarction in 1977-78, 1982, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988, respectively, by CT and/or MRI, and the asymptomatic patients with incidentally diagnosed cerebral infarction were amounted to 16% (8 of 51 cases) in 1988. Of the recent 50 patients with cerebral infarction examined by CT and MRI, asymptomatic cerebrovascular lesions were detected in 25 (50%) by CT and in 35 (70%) by MRI. MRI also revealed asymptomatic old hemorrhage in 7 (14%). The clinical significance of silent stroke was discussed. (author).

  2. Neuroimaging for drug addiction and related behaviors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvaz M. A.; Parvaz, M.A.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik,P.A.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2011-10-01

    In this review, we highlight the role of neuroimaging techniques in studying the emotional and cognitive-behavioral components of the addiction syndrome by focusing on the neural substrates subserving them. The phenomenology of drug addiction can be characterized by a recurrent pattern of subjective experiences that includes drug intoxication, craving, bingeing, and withdrawal with the cycle culminating in a persistent preoccupation with obtaining, consuming, and recovering from the drug. In the past two decades, imaging studies of drug addiction have demonstrated deficits in brain circuits related to reward and impulsivity. The current review focuses on studies employing positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate these behaviors in drug-addicted human populations. We begin with a brief account of drug addiction followed by a technical account of each of these imaging modalities. We then discuss how these techniques have uniquely contributed to a deeper understanding of addictive behaviors.

  3. Neuroimaging of child abuse: A critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heledd eHart

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Childhood maltreatment is a severe stressor that can lead to the development of behaviour problems and affect brain structure and function. This review summarizes the current evidence for the effects of early childhood maltreatment on behavior, cognition and the brain in adults and children. Neuropsychological studies suggest an association between child abuse and deficits in IQ, memory, executive function and emotion discrimination. Structural neuroimaging studies provide evidence for deficits in brain volume, grey and white matter of several regions, most prominently the dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex but also hippocampus, amygdala, and corpus callosum. Diffusion tensor imaging studies show evidence for deficits in structural interregional connectivity between these areas, suggesting neural network abnormalities. Functional imaging studies support this evidence by reporting atypical activation in the same brain regions during executive function and emotion processing. There are, however, several limitations of the abuse research literature which are discussed, most prominently the lack of control for co-morbid psychiatric disorders, which make it difficult to disentangle which of the above effects are due to maltreatment, the associated psychiatric conditions or a combination or interaction between both. Overall, the better controlled studies that show a direct correlation between childhood abuse and brain measures suggest that the most prominent deficits associated with early childhood abuse are in the function and structure of lateral and ventromedial fronto-limbic brain areas and networks that mediate behavioural and affect control. Future, large scale multimodal neuroimaging studies in medication-naïve subjects, however, are needed that control for psychiatric co-morbidities in order to elucidate the structural and functional brain sequelae that are associated with early environmental adversity, independently of secondary

  4. Neuroimaging features of Cornelia de Lange syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, Matthew T. [Department of Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Nagaraj, Usha D. [Department of Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Cincinnati Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Pearl, Phillip L. [Department of Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Neurology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome is a rare genetic disease characterized by distinctive facial dysmorphia and dwarfism. Multiple organ system involvement is typical. Various central nervous system (CNS) aberrations have been described in the pathology literature; however, the spectrum of neuroimaging manifestations is less well documented. To present neuroimaging findings from a series of eight patients with Cornelia de Lange syndrome. The CT/MR database at a single academic children's hospital was searched for the terms ''Cornelia'', ''Brachmann'' and ''de Lange.'' The search yielded 18 exams from 16 patients. Two non-CNS and six exams without available images were excluded. Ten exams from eight patients were evaluated by a board-certified neuroradiologist. All patients had skull base dysplasia, most with an unusual coronal basioccipital cleft (7/8). All brain MR exams showed microcephaly, volume loss and gyral simplification (5/5). Six patients had an absent massa intermedia. Four patients had small globe anterior segments; three had optic pathway hypoplasia. Basilar artery fenestration was present in two patients; vertebrobasilar hypoplasia was present in one patient. The inner ear vestibules were dysplastic in two patients. One patient had pachymeningeal thickening. Spinal anomalies included scoliosis, segmentation anomalies, endplate irregularities, basilar invagination, foramen magnum stenosis and tethered spinal cord. Typical imaging manifestations of Cornelia de Lange syndrome include skull base dysplasia with coronal clival cleft, cerebral and brainstem volume loss, and gyral simplification. Membranous labyrinth dysplasia, anterior segment and optic pathway hypoplasia, basilar artery fenestration, absent massa intermedia and spinal anomalies may also be present. (orig.)

  5. Neuroimaging features of Cornelia de Lange syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehead, Matthew T.; Nagaraj, Usha D.; Pearl, Phillip L.

    2015-01-01

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome is a rare genetic disease characterized by distinctive facial dysmorphia and dwarfism. Multiple organ system involvement is typical. Various central nervous system (CNS) aberrations have been described in the pathology literature; however, the spectrum of neuroimaging manifestations is less well documented. To present neuroimaging findings from a series of eight patients with Cornelia de Lange syndrome. The CT/MR database at a single academic children's hospital was searched for the terms ''Cornelia'', ''Brachmann'' and ''de Lange.'' The search yielded 18 exams from 16 patients. Two non-CNS and six exams without available images were excluded. Ten exams from eight patients were evaluated by a board-certified neuroradiologist. All patients had skull base dysplasia, most with an unusual coronal basioccipital cleft (7/8). All brain MR exams showed microcephaly, volume loss and gyral simplification (5/5). Six patients had an absent massa intermedia. Four patients had small globe anterior segments; three had optic pathway hypoplasia. Basilar artery fenestration was present in two patients; vertebrobasilar hypoplasia was present in one patient. The inner ear vestibules were dysplastic in two patients. One patient had pachymeningeal thickening. Spinal anomalies included scoliosis, segmentation anomalies, endplate irregularities, basilar invagination, foramen magnum stenosis and tethered spinal cord. Typical imaging manifestations of Cornelia de Lange syndrome include skull base dysplasia with coronal clival cleft, cerebral and brainstem volume loss, and gyral simplification. Membranous labyrinth dysplasia, anterior segment and optic pathway hypoplasia, basilar artery fenestration, absent massa intermedia and spinal anomalies may also be present. (orig.)

  6. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis complicating dengue infection with neuroimaging mimicking multiple sclerosis: A report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, S; Botross, N; Rusli, B N; Riad, A

    2016-11-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) complicating dengue infection is still exceedingly rare even in endemic countries such as Malaysia. Here we report two such cases, the first in an elderly female patient and the second in a young man. Both presented with encephalopathy, brainstem involvement and worsening upper and lower limb weakness. Initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain was normal in the first case. Serum for dengue Ig M and NS-1 was positive in both cases. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed pleocytosis in both with Dengue IgM and NS-1 positive in the second case but not done in the first. MRI brain showed changes of perpendicular subcortical palisading white matter, callosal and brainstem disease mimicking multiple sclerosis (MS) in both patients though in the former case there was a lag between the onset of clinical symptoms and MRI changes which was only clarified on reimaging. The temporal evolution and duration of the clinical symptoms, CSF changes and neuroimaging were more suggestive of Dengue ADEM rather than an encephalitis though initially the first case began as dengue encephalitis. Furthermore in dengue encephalitis neuroimaging is usually normal or rarely edema, haemorrhage, brainstem, thalamic or focal lesions are seen. Therefore, early recognition of ADEM as a sequelae of dengue infection with neuroimaging mimicking MS and repeat imaging helped in identifying these two cases. Treatment with intravenous steroids followed by maintenance oral steroids produced good outcome in both patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Brain glucose metabolism during hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes: insights from functional and metabolic neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooijackers, Hanne M M; Wiegers, Evita C; Tack, Cees J; van der Graaf, Marinette; de Galan, Bastiaan E

    2016-02-01

    Hypoglycemia is the most frequent complication of insulin therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes. Since the brain is reliant on circulating glucose as its main source of energy, hypoglycemia poses a threat for normal brain function. Paradoxically, although hypoglycemia commonly induces immediate decline in cognitive function, long-lasting changes in brain structure and cognitive function are uncommon in patients with type 1 diabetes. In fact, recurrent hypoglycemia initiates a process of habituation that suppresses hormonal responses to and impairs awareness of subsequent hypoglycemia, which has been attributed to adaptations in the brain. These observations sparked great scientific interest into the brain's handling of glucose during (recurrent) hypoglycemia. Various neuroimaging techniques have been employed to study brain (glucose) metabolism, including PET, fMRI, MRS and ASL. This review discusses what is currently known about cerebral metabolism during hypoglycemia, and how findings obtained by functional and metabolic neuroimaging techniques contributed to this knowledge.

  8. Neuroimaging in CMV congenital infected neonates: how and when.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanari, M; Capretti, M G; Lazzarotto, T; Gabrielli, L; Rizzollo, S; Mostert, M; Manzoni, P

    2012-05-01

    Neonatal congenital infections are an important cause of mortality, morbidity and long-term neurodevelopmental and sensorineural sequelae. Many pathogens can cause in utero infection, and among them, cytomegalovirus (CMV) plays a prominent role. In developed countries, CMV poses major health problems as it is the most common pathogen leading to congenital infection, and the leading cause of nonhereditary deafness in children. Evaluation of central nervous system (CNS) involvement in congenital CMV infected newborns is mandatory to better assess the severity of the disease, to guide adequate treatment, to define prognosis, and to tailor follow-up observations and parents' counselling. Cerebral ultrasonography (cUS), Computed Tomography (CT), and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are the currently available techniques to evaluate infants with suspected or proven congenital CMV infection. In congenital CMV infection, their role in early detection and confirmation of cerebral involvement within the first month of life is crucial to initiate specific treatment with antivirals. Neonatologists, paediatricians and radiologists should be aware of the role, the limitations and the inherent risks related to the use of these specific neuroimaging diagnostic tools in these infants. In this article we will discuss from a neonatological perspective the advantages, disadvantages, risks and limitations of each imaging technique. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Neuroimaging in adult penetrating brain injury: a guide for radiographers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temple, Nikki; Donald, Cortny; Skora, Amanda [Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia); Reed, Warren, E-mail: warren.reed@sydney.edu.au [Medical Image Optimisation and Perception Group, Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    Penetrating brain injuries (PBI) are a medical emergency, often resulting in complex damage and high mortality rates. Neuroimaging is essential to evaluate the location and extent of injuries, and to manage them accordingly. Currently, a myriad of imaging modalities are included in the diagnostic workup for adult PBI, including skull radiography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography, with each modality providing their own particular benefits. This literature review explores the current modalities available for investigating PBI and aims to assist in decision making for the appropriate use of diagnostic imaging when presented with an adult PBI. Based on the current literature, the authors have developed an imaging pathway for adult penetrating brain injury that functions as both a learning tool and reference guide for radiographers and other health professionals. Currently, CT is recommended as the imaging modality of choice for the initial assessment of PBI patients, while MRI is important in the sub-acute setting where it aids prognosis prediction and rehabilitation planning, Additional follow-up imaging, such as angiography, should be dependent upon clinical findings.

  10. Neuroimaging in adult penetrating brain injury: a guide for radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temple, Nikki; Donald, Cortny; Skora, Amanda; Reed, Warren

    2015-01-01

    Penetrating brain injuries (PBI) are a medical emergency, often resulting in complex damage and high mortality rates. Neuroimaging is essential to evaluate the location and extent of injuries, and to manage them accordingly. Currently, a myriad of imaging modalities are included in the diagnostic workup for adult PBI, including skull radiography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography, with each modality providing their own particular benefits. This literature review explores the current modalities available for investigating PBI and aims to assist in decision making for the appropriate use of diagnostic imaging when presented with an adult PBI. Based on the current literature, the authors have developed an imaging pathway for adult penetrating brain injury that functions as both a learning tool and reference guide for radiographers and other health professionals. Currently, CT is recommended as the imaging modality of choice for the initial assessment of PBI patients, while MRI is important in the sub-acute setting where it aids prognosis prediction and rehabilitation planning, Additional follow-up imaging, such as angiography, should be dependent upon clinical findings

  11. Neuroimage in neuroecthodermic diseases Part II: Tuberous Sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menor, F.; Marti-Bonmati, L.; Poyatos, C.; Cortina, H.; Esteban, J.M.; Vilar, J.

    1993-01-01

    A prospective clinicoradiological study has been carried out in 36 patients with tuberous sclerosis. The neuroimaging studies detected some type of disorder in 94% of patients, contributing significantly to the positive diagnosis of the disease. CT was better for viewing periventricular nodules, while MR was more reliable in disclosing the number and location of cortical and white matter lesions. The use of gadolinium-DTPA in MR demonstrated frequent uptake by the periventricular nodules which was exceptional in the cortical and subcortical lesions. The use of contrast, both in CT and in MR, enhanced the images of the 7 presumed giant-cell astrocytomas detected in 6 patients. Uptake by the tumors was always much greater than that observed in the nodules, being and important criterion for the differentiation between nodules and small tumors. The appearance and topography of these CNS lesions can be reasonably well explained by considering the disease to be a disorder of the migration of dysgenic cells. We have found no consistent correlation between the neuroradiological findings and the clinical evolution of the patients. MR and CT are similarly useful in the diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis. Given that MR is more effective in the detection of the set of intracranial lesions, it could be used as the initial technique, resorting to CT in those cases in which the clinical evidence is highly suggestive and the MR study is negative. Periodic MR control is not justified unless there is suspicion of tumor implantation or growth

  12. The 'wet mind': water and functional neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bihan, Denis

    2007-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging has emerged as an important approach to study the brain and the mind. Surprisingly, although they are based on radically different physical approaches both positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) make brain activation imaging possible through measurements involving water molecules. So far, PET and MRI functional imaging have relied on the principle that neuronal activation and blood flow are coupled through metabolism. However, a new paradigm has emerged to look at brain activity through the observation with MRI of the molecular diffusion of water. In contrast with the former approaches diffusion MRI has the potential to reveal changes in the intrinsic water physical properties during brain activation, which could be more intimately linked to the neuronal activation mechanisms and lead to an improved spatial and temporal resolution. However, this link has yet to be fully confirmed and understood. To shed light on the possible relationship between water and brain activation, this introductory paper reviews the most recent data on the physical properties of water and on the status of water in biological tissues, and evaluates their relevance to brain diffusion MRI. The biophysical mechanisms of brain activation are then reassessed to reveal their intimacy with the physical properties of water, which may come to be regarded as the 'molecule of the mind'. (invited topical review)

  13. Neuroimaging studies in people with gender incongruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Guillamon, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The current review gives an overview of brain studies in transgender people. First, we describe studies into the aetiology of feelings of gender incongruence, primarily addressing the sexual differentiation hypothesis: does the brain of transgender individuals resemble that of their natal sex, or that of their experienced gender? Findings from neuroimaging studies focusing on brain structure suggest that the brain phenotypes of trans women (MtF) and trans men (FtM) differ in various ways from control men and women with feminine, masculine, demasculinized and defeminized features. The brain phenotypes of people with feelings of gender incongruence may help us to figure out whether sex differentiation of the brain is atypical in these individuals, and shed light on gender identity development. Task-related imaging studies may show whether brain activation and task performance in transgender people is sex-atypical. Second, we review studies that evaluate the effects of cross-sex hormone treatment on the brain. This type of research provides knowledge on how changes in sex hormone levels may affect brain structure and function.

  14. Neuroimaging for spine and spinal cord surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyanagi, Izumi [Hokkaido Neurosurgical Memorial Hospital (Japan); Iwasaki, Yoshinobu; Hida, Kazutoshi

    2001-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging of the spine and spinal cord are described based upon our clinical experiences with spinal disorders. Preoperative neuroradiological examinations, including magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and computerized tomography (CT) with three-dimensional reconstruction (3D-CT), were retrospectively analyzed in patients with cervical spondylosis or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (130 cases), spinal trauma (43 cases) and intramedullary spinal cord tumors (92 cases). CT scan and 3D-CT were useful in elucidating the spine pathology associated with degenerative and traumatic spine diseases. Visualization of the deformity of the spine or fracture-dislocation of the spinal column with 3D-CT helped to determine the correct surgical treatment. MR imaging was most important in the diagnosis of both spine and spinal cord abnormalities. The axial MR images of the spinal cord were essential in understanding the laterality of the spinal cord compression in spinal column disorders and in determining surgical approaches to the intramedullary lesions. Although non-invasive diagnostic modalities such as MR imaging and CT scans are adequate for deciding which surgical treatment to use in the majority of spine and spinal cord disorders, conventional myelography is still needed in the diagnosis of nerve root compression in some cases of cervical spondylosis. (author)

  15. How Shakespeare tempests the brain: neuroimaging insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keidel, James L; Davis, Philip M; Gonzalez-Diaz, Victorina; Martin, Clara D; Thierry, Guillaume

    2013-04-01

    Shakespeare made extensive use of the functional shift (FS), a rhetorical device involving a change in the grammatical status of words, e.g., using nouns as verbs. Previous work using event-related brain potentials showed how FS triggers a surprise effect inviting mental re-evaluation, seemingly independent of semantic processing. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain activation in participants making judgements on the semantic relationship between sentences -some containing a Shakespearean FS- and subsequently presented words. Behavioural performance in the semantic decision task was high and unaffected by sentence type. However, neuroimaging results showed that sentences featuring FS elicited significant activation beyond regions classically activated by typical language tasks, including the left caudate nucleus, the right inferior frontal gyrus and the right inferior temporal gyrus. These findings show how Shakespeare's grammatical exploration forces the listener to take a more active role in integrating the meaning of what is said. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Neuroimaging in pre-motor Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Barber

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease begins long before the onset of clinical motor symptoms, resulting in substantial cell loss by the time a diagnosis can be made. The period between the onset of neurodegeneration and the development of motoric disease would be the ideal time to intervene with disease modifying therapies. This pre-motor phase can last many years, but the lack of a specific clinical phenotype means that objective biomarkers are needed to reliably detect prodromal disease. In recent years, recognition that patients with REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD are at particularly high risk of future parkinsonism has enabled the development of large prodromal cohorts in which to investigate novel biomarkers, and neuroimaging has generated some of the most promising results to date. Here we review investigations undertaken in RBD and other pre-clinical cohorts, including modalities that are well established in clinical Parkinson's as well as novel imaging methods. Techniques such as high resolution MRI of the substantia nigra and functional imaging of Parkinsonian brain networks have great potential to facilitate early diagnosis. Further longitudinal studies will establish their true value in quantifying prodromal neurodegeneration and predicting future Parkinson's.

  17. Neuroimaging of Fear-Associated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, John A; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-01-01

    Fear conditioning has been commonly used as a model of emotional learning in animals and, with the introduction of functional neuroimaging techniques, has proven useful in establishing the neurocircuitry of emotional learning in humans. Studies of fear acquisition suggest that regions such as amygdala, insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and hippocampus play an important role in acquisition of fear, whereas studies of fear extinction suggest that the amygdala is also crucial for safety learning. Extinction retention testing points to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex as an essential region in the recall of the safety trace, and explicit learning of fear and safety associations recruits additional cortical and subcortical regions. Importantly, many of these findings have implications in our understanding of the pathophysiology of psychiatric disease. Recent studies using clinical populations have lent insight into the changes in regional activity in specific disorders, and treatment studies have shown how pharmaceutical and other therapeutic interventions modulate brain activation during emotional learning. Finally, research investigating individual differences in neurotransmitter receptor genotypes has highlighted the contribution of these systems in fear-associated learning. PMID:26294108

  18. The experience of art: insights from neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Marcos

    2013-01-01

    The experience of art is a complex one. It emerges from the interaction of multiple cognitive and affective processes. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies are revealing the broadly distributed network of brain regions upon which it relies. This network can be divided into three functional components: (i) prefrontal, parietal, and temporal cortical regions support evaluative judgment, attentional processing, and memory retrieval; (ii) the reward circuit, including cortical, subcortical regions, and some of its regulators, is involved in the generation of pleasurable feelings and emotions, and the valuation and anticipation of reward; and (iii) attentional modulation of activity in low-, mid-, and high-level cortical sensory regions enhances the perceptual processing of certain features, relations, locations, or objects. Understanding how these regions act in concert to produce unique and moving art experiences and determining the impact of personal and cultural meaning and context on this network the biological foundation of the experience of art--remain future challenges. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Neuroimaging revolutionizes therapeutic approaches to chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borsook David

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An understanding of how the brain changes in chronic pain or responds to pharmacological or other therapeutic interventions has been significantly changed as a result of developments in neuroimaging of the CNS. These developments have occurred in 3 domains : (1 Anatomical Imaging which has demonstrated changes in brain volume in chronic pain; (2 Functional Imaging (fMRI that has demonstrated an altered state in the brain in chronic pain conditions including back pain, neuropathic pain, and complex regional pain syndromes. In addition the response of the brain to drugs has provided new insights into how these may modify normal and abnormal circuits (phMRI or pharmacological MRI; (3 Chemical Imaging (Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy or MRS has helped our understanding of measures of chemical changes in chronic pain. Taken together these three domains have already changed the way in which we think of pain – it should now be considered an altered brain state in which there may be altered functional connections or systems and a state that has components of degenerative aspects of the CNS.

  20. Neuroimaging with functional near infrared spectroscopy: From formation to interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Vega, Javier; Treviño-Palacios, Carlos G.; Orihuela-Espina, Felipe

    2017-09-01

    Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is gaining momentum as a functional neuroimaging modality to investigate the cerebral hemodynamics subsequent to neural metabolism. As other neuroimaging modalities, it is neuroscience's tool to understand brain systems functions at behaviour and cognitive levels. To extract useful knowledge from functional neuroimages it is critical to understand the series of transformations applied during the process of the information retrieval and how they bound the interpretation. This process starts with the irradiation of the head tissues with infrared light to obtain the raw neuroimage and proceeds with computational and statistical analysis revealing hidden associations between pixels intensities and neural activity encoded to end up with the explanation of some particular aspect regarding brain function.To comprehend the overall process involved in fNIRS there is extensive literature addressing each individual step separately. This paper overviews the complete transformation sequence through image formation, reconstruction and analysis to provide an insight of the final functional interpretation.

  1. Structural neuroimaging in neuropsychology: History and contemporary applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Erin D

    2017-11-01

    Neuropsychology's origins began long before there were any in vivo methods to image the brain. That changed with the advent of computed tomography in the 1970s and magnetic resonance imaging in the early 1980s. Now computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are routinely a part of neuropsychological investigations with an increasing number of sophisticated methods for image analysis. This review examines the history of neuroimaging utilization in neuropsychological investigations, highlighting the basic methods that go into image quantification and the various metrics that can be derived. Neuroimaging methods and limitations for identify what constitutes a lesion are discussed. Likewise, the influence of various demographic and developmental factors that influence quantification of brain structure are reviewed. Neuroimaging is an integral part of 21st Century neuropsychology. The importance of neuroimaging to advancing neuropsychology is emphasized. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Terminology development towards harmonizing multiple clinical neuroimaging research repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jessica A; Pasquerello, Danielle; Turner, Matthew D; Keator, David B; Alpert, Kathryn; King, Margaret; Landis, Drew; Calhoun, Vince D; Potkin, Steven G; Tallis, Marcelo; Ambite, Jose Luis; Wang, Lei

    2015-07-01

    Data sharing and mediation across disparate neuroimaging repositories requires extensive effort to ensure that the different domains of data types are referred to by commonly agreed upon terms. Within the SchizConnect project, which enables querying across decentralized databases of neuroimaging, clinical, and cognitive data from various studies of schizophrenia, we developed a model for each data domain, identified common usable terms that could be agreed upon across the repositories, and linked them to standard ontological terms where possible. We had the goal of facilitating both the current user experience in querying and future automated computations and reasoning regarding the data. We found that existing terminologies are incomplete for these purposes, even with the history of neuroimaging data sharing in the field; and we provide a model for efforts focused on querying multiple clinical neuroimaging repositories.

  3. Neuroimaging findings in pediatric sports-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Michael J; Leiter, Jeff; Hall, Thomas; McDonald, Patrick J; Sawyer, Scott; Silver, Norm; Bunge, Martin; Essig, Marco

    2015-09-01

    The goal in this review was to summarize the results of clinical neuroimaging studies performed in patients with sports-related concussion (SRC) who were referred to a multidisciplinar ypediatric concussion program. The authors conducted a retrospective review of medical records and neuroimaging findings for all patients referred to a multidisciplinary pediatric concussion program between September 2013 and July 2014. Inclusion criteria were as follows: 1) age ≤ 19 years; and 2) physician-diagnosed SRC. All patients underwent evaluation and follow-up by the same neurosurgeon. The 2 outcomes examined in this review were the frequency of neuroimaging studies performed in this population (including CT and MRI) and the findings of those studies. Clinical indications for neuroimaging and the impact of neuroimaging findings on clinical decision making were summarized where available. This investigation was approved by the local institutional ethics review board. A total of 151 patients (mean age 14 years, 59% female) were included this study. Overall, 36 patients (24%) underwent neuroimaging studies, the results of which were normal in 78% of cases. Sixteen percent of patients underwent CT imaging; results were normal in 79% of cases. Abnormal CT findings included the following: arachnoid cyst (1 patient), skull fracture (2 patients), suspected intracranial hemorrhage (1 patient), and suspected hemorrhage into an arachnoid cyst (1 patient). Eleven percent of patients underwent MRI; results were normal in 75% of cases. Abnormal MRI findings included the following: intraparenchymal hemorrhage and sylvian fissure arachnoid cyst (1 patient); nonhemorrhagic contusion (1 patient); demyelinating disease (1 patient); and posterior fossa arachnoid cyst, cerebellar volume loss, and nonspecific white matter changes (1 patient). Results of clinical neuroimaging studies are normal in the majority of pediatric patients with SRC. However, in selected cases neuroimaging can provide

  4. When Should Neuroimaging be Applied in the Criminal Court?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    When does neuroimaging constitute a sufficiently developed technology to be put into use in the work of determining whether or not a defendant is guilty of crime? This question constitutes the starting point of the present paper. First, it is suggested that an overall answer is provided by what i......-suited for delivering the sort of theoretical guidance that is required for assessing the desirability of using neuroimaging in the work of the criminal court....

  5. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging underpinnings of schizoaffective disorder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madre, M; Canales-Rodríguez, E J; Ortiz-Gil, J; Murru, A; Torrent, C; Bramon, E; Perez, V; Orth, M; Brambilla, P; Vieta, E; Amann, B L

    2016-07-01

    The neurobiological basis and nosological status of schizoaffective disorder remains elusive and controversial. This study provides a systematic review of neurocognitive and neuroimaging findings in the disorder. A comprehensive literature search was conducted via PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus and Web of Knowledge (from 1949 to 31st March 2015) using the keyword 'schizoaffective disorder' and any of the following terms: 'neuropsychology', 'cognition', 'structural neuroimaging', 'functional neuroimaging', 'multimodal', 'DTI' and 'VBM'. Only studies that explicitly examined a well defined sample, or subsample, of patients with schizoaffective disorder were included. Twenty-two of 43 neuropsychological and 19 of 51 neuroimaging articles fulfilled inclusion criteria. We found a general trend towards schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder being related to worse cognitive performance than bipolar disorder. Grey matter volume loss in schizoaffective disorder is also more comparable to schizophrenia than to bipolar disorder which seems consistent across further neuroimaging techniques. Neurocognitive and neuroimaging abnormalities in schizoaffective disorder resemble more schizophrenia than bipolar disorder. This is suggestive for schizoaffective disorder being a subtype of schizophrenia or being part of the continuum spectrum model of psychosis, with schizoaffective disorder being more skewed towards schizophrenia than bipolar disorder. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Nipype: A flexible, lightweight and extensible neuroimaging data processing framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof eGorgolewski

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Current neuroimaging software offer users an incredible opportunity to analyze their data in different ways, with different underlying assumptions. Several sophisticated software packages (e.g., AFNI, BrainVoyager, FSL, FreeSurfer, Nipy, R, SPM are used to process and analyze large and often diverse (highly multi-dimensional data. However, this heterogeneous collection of specialized applications creates several issues that hinder replicable, efficient and optimal use of neuroimaging analysis approaches: 1 No uniform access to neuroimaging analysis software and usage information; 2 No framework for comparative algorithm development and dissemination; 3 Personnel turnover in laboratories often limits methodological continuity and training new personnel takes time; 4 Neuroimaging software packages do not address computational efficiency; and 5 Methods sections in journal articles are inadequate for reproducing results. To address these issues, we present Nipype (Neuroimaging in Python: Pipelines and Interfaces; http://nipy.org/nipype, an open-source, community-developed, software package and scriptable library. Nipype solves the issues by providing Interfaces to existing neuroimaging software with uniform usage semantics and by facilitating interaction between these packages using Workflows. Nipype provides an environment that encourages interactive exploration of algorithms, eases the design of Workflows within and between packages, allows rapid comparative development of algorithms and reduces the learning curve necessary to use different packages. Nipype supports both local and remote execution on multi-core machines and clusters, without additional scripting. Nipype is BSD licensed, allowing anyone unrestricted usage. An open, community-driven development philosophy allows the software to quickly adapt and address the varied needs of the evolving neuroimaging community, especially in the context of increasing demand for reproducible research.

  7. Neuroimaging in Mental Health Care: Voices in Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily L. Borgelt

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Images of brain function, popularly called neuroimages, have become a mainstay of contemporary communication about neuroscience and mental health. Paralleling media coverage of neuroimaging research and the high visibility of clinics selling scans is pressure from sponsors to move basic research about brain function along the translational pathway. Indeed, neuroimaging benefit mental health care with early or tailored intervention, opportunities for education and planning, and access to resources afforded by objectification of disorder. However, risks of premature technology transfer, such as misinterpretation, misrepresentation, and increased stigmatization, could compromise patient care.Stakeholder views on neuroimaging for mental health care are a largely untapped resource of information and guidance for translational efforts. We argue that the insights of key stakeholders – researchers, healthcare providers, patients, and families - have an essential role to play upstream in professional, critical, and ethical discourse about neuroimaging in mental health. Here we integrate previously orthogonal lines of inquiry involving stakeholder research to describe the translational landscape as well as challenges on its horizon.

  8. Near-infrared neuroimaging with NinPy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary E Strangman

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been substantial recent growth in the use of non-invasive optical brain imaging in studies of human brain function in health and disease. Near-infrared neuroimaging (NIN is one of the most promising of these techniques and, although NIN hardware continues to evolve at a rapid pace, software tools supporting optical data acquisition, image processing, statistical modeling and visualization remain less refined. Python, a modular and computationally efficient development language, can support functional neuroimaging studies of diverse design and implementation. In particular, Python's easily readable syntax and modular architecture allow swift prototyping followed by efficient transition to stable production systems. As an introduction to our ongoing efforts to develop Python software tools for structural and functional neuroimaging, we discuss: (i the role of noninvasive diffuse optical imaging in measuring brain function, (ii the key computational requirements to support NIN experiments, (iii our collection of software tools to support near-infrared neuroimaging, called NinPy, and (iv future extensions of these tools that will allow integration of optical with other structural and functional neuroimaging data sources. Source code for the software discussed here will be made available at www.nmr.mgh.harvard.edu/Neural_SystemsGroup/software.html.

  9. Neuroimaging Studies Of Striatum In Cognition, Part I: Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Sebastien eProvost

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The striatum has traditionally mainly been associated with playing a key role in the modulation of motor functions. Indeed, lesion studies in animals and studies of some neurological conditions in humans have brought further evidence to this idea. However, better methods of investigation have raised concerns about this notion, and it was proposed that the striatum could also be involved in different types of functions including cognitive ones. Although the notion was originally a matter of debate, it is now well accepted that the caudate nucleus contributes to cognition, while the putamen could be involved in motor functions, and to some extent in cognitive functions as well. With the arrival of modern neuroimaging techniques in the early 1990, knowledge supporting the cognitive aspect of the striatum has greatly increased, and a substantial number of scientific papers were published studying the role of the striatum in healthy individuals. For the first time, it was possible to assess the contribution of specific areas of the brain during the execution of a cognitive task. Neuroanatomical studies have described functional loops involving the striatum and the prefrontal cortex suggesting a specific interaction between these two structures. This review examines the data up to date and provides strong evidence for a specific contribution of the fronto-striatal regions in different cognitive processes, such as set-shifting, self-initiated responses, rule learning, action-contingency, and planning. Finally, a new two-level functional model involving the prefrontal cortex and the dorsal striatum is proposed suggesting an essential role of the dorsal striatum in selecting between competing potential responses or actions, and in resolving a high level of ambiguity.

  10. Audit of a policy of magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion-weighted imaging as first-line neuroimaging for in-patients with clinically suspected acute stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, B.T.; Wainwright, A.; Meagher, T.; Briley, D.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To audit the feasibility and use of diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as initial neuroimaging for in-patients with clinically suspected acute stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In April 2000, MRI with DW and T2-weighted sequence was locally instituted as initial neuroimaging for patients with clinically suspected acute stroke. This retrospective study reviewed imaging performed for in-patients with suspected acute stroke over a 9-month period. Data were collected on image type, result and need for repeat imaging. RESULTS: During the study period, 124 patients had neuroimaging for suspected cerebrovascular accident, and 119 were MRI safe. Eighty-eight (73.9%) patients underwent DW MRI as first-line investigation. Five patients were not MRI safe and 31 had computed tomography (CT) as first-line imaging due to lack of available MRI capacity. Repeat neuroimaging was performed in 16 (12.9%) patients. Study times were comparable for both types of neuroimaging: a mean of 13 min for MRI and 11 min for CT. CONCLUSION: The audit standard was achieved in 88 (73.9%) patients. The use of DW MRI as a first-line investigation for patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute stroke is achievable in a district general hospital setting

  11. Audit of a policy of magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion-weighted imaging as first-line neuroimaging for in-patients with clinically suspected acute stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, B.T.; Wainwright, A.; Meagher, T.; Briley, D

    2003-03-01

    AIM: To audit the feasibility and use of diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as initial neuroimaging for in-patients with clinically suspected acute stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In April 2000, MRI with DW and T2-weighted sequence was locally instituted as initial neuroimaging for patients with clinically suspected acute stroke. This retrospective study reviewed imaging performed for in-patients with suspected acute stroke over a 9-month period. Data were collected on image type, result and need for repeat imaging. RESULTS: During the study period, 124 patients had neuroimaging for suspected cerebrovascular accident, and 119 were MRI safe. Eighty-eight (73.9%) patients underwent DW MRI as first-line investigation. Five patients were not MRI safe and 31 had computed tomography (CT) as first-line imaging due to lack of available MRI capacity. Repeat neuroimaging was performed in 16 (12.9%) patients. Study times were comparable for both types of neuroimaging: a mean of 13 min for MRI and 11 min for CT. CONCLUSION: The audit standard was achieved in 88 (73.9%) patients. The use of DW MRI as a first-line investigation for patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute stroke is achievable in a district general hospital setting.

  12. Machine Learning for Neuroimaging with Scikit-Learn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre eAbraham

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Statistical machine learning methods are increasingly used for neuroimaging data analysis. Their main virtue is their ability to model high-dimensional datasets, e.g. multivariate analysis of activation images or resting-state time series. Supervised learning is typically used in decoding or encoding settings to relate brain images to behavioral or clinical observations, while unsupervised learning can uncover hidden structures in sets of images (e.g. resting state functional MRI or find sub-populations in large cohorts. By considering different functional neuroimaging applications, we illustrate how scikit-learn, a Python machine learning library, can be used to perform some key analysis steps. Scikit-learn contains a very large set of statistical learning algorithms, both supervised and unsupervised, and its application to neuroimaging data provides a versatile tool to study the brain.

  13. Looking inside the brain the power of neuroimaging

    CERN Document Server

    Le Bihan, Denis

    2014-01-01

    It is now possible to witness human brain activity while we are talking, reading, or thinking, thanks to revolutionary neuroimaging techniques like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These groundbreaking advances have opened infinite fields of investigation—into such areas as musical perception, brain development in utero, and faulty brain connections leading to psychiatric disorders—and have raised unprecedented ethical issues. In Looking Inside the Brain, one of the leading pioneers of the field, Denis Le Bihan, offers an engaging account of the sophisticated interdisciplinary research in physics, neuroscience, and medicine that have led to the remarkable neuroimaging methods that give us a detailed look into the human brain. Introducing neurological anatomy and physiology, Le Bihan walks readers through the historical evolution of imaging technology—from the x-ray and CT scan to the PET scan and MRI—and he explains how neuroimaging uncovers afflictions like stroke or cancer and the workings of high...

  14. Imperial College near infrared spectroscopy neuroimaging analysis framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orihuela-Espina, Felipe; Leff, Daniel R; James, David R C; Darzi, Ara W; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes the Imperial College near infrared spectroscopy neuroimaging analysis (ICNNA) software tool for functional near infrared spectroscopy neuroimaging data. ICNNA is a MATLAB-based object-oriented framework encompassing an application programming interface and a graphical user interface. ICNNA incorporates reconstruction based on the modified Beer-Lambert law and basic processing and data validation capabilities. Emphasis is placed on the full experiment rather than individual neuroimages as the central element of analysis. The software offers three types of analyses including classical statistical methods based on comparison of changes in relative concentrations of hemoglobin between the task and baseline periods, graph theory-based metrics of connectivity and, distinctively, an analysis approach based on manifold embedding. This paper presents the different capabilities of ICNNA in its current version.

  15. Machine learning for neuroimaging with scikit-learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Alexandre; Pedregosa, Fabian; Eickenberg, Michael; Gervais, Philippe; Mueller, Andreas; Kossaifi, Jean; Gramfort, Alexandre; Thirion, Bertrand; Varoquaux, Gaël

    2014-01-01

    Statistical machine learning methods are increasingly used for neuroimaging data analysis. Their main virtue is their ability to model high-dimensional datasets, e.g., multivariate analysis of activation images or resting-state time series. Supervised learning is typically used in decoding or encoding settings to relate brain images to behavioral or clinical observations, while unsupervised learning can uncover hidden structures in sets of images (e.g., resting state functional MRI) or find sub-populations in large cohorts. By considering different functional neuroimaging applications, we illustrate how scikit-learn, a Python machine learning library, can be used to perform some key analysis steps. Scikit-learn contains a very large set of statistical learning algorithms, both supervised and unsupervised, and its application to neuroimaging data provides a versatile tool to study the brain.

  16. Incidental Findings in Neuroimaging: Ethical and Medicolegal Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid advances in neurosciences in the last three decades, there has been an exponential increase in the use of neuroimaging both in basic sciences and clinical research involving human subjects. During routine neuroimaging, incidental findings that are not part of the protocol or scope of research agenda can occur and they often pose a challenge as to how they should be handled to abide by the medicolegal principles of research ethics. This paper reviews the issue from various ethical (do no harm, general duty to rescue, and mutual benefits and owing) and medicolegal perspectives (legal liability, fiduciary duties, Law of Tort, and Law of Contract) with a suggested protocol of approach.

  17. EEG changes and neuroimaging abnormalities in relevance to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Autism is currently viewed as a genetically determined neurodevelopmental disorder although its defi nite underlying etiology remains to be established. Aim of the Study: Our purpose was to assess autism related morphological neuroimaging changes of the brain and EEG abnormalities in correlation to the ...

  18. Neuroimaging of aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Sterzer

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of functional and structural neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural bases of aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents. Most functional neuroimaging studies have persued the hypothesis that pathological aggression is a consequence of deficits in the neural circuits involved in emotion processing. There is converging evidence for deficient neural responses to emotional stimuli in youths with a propensity towards aggressive behaviour. In addition, recent neuroimaging work has suggested that aggressive behaviour is also associated with abnormalities in neural processes that subserve both the inhibitory control of behaviour and the flexible adaptation of behaviour in accord with reinforcement information. Structural neuroimaging studies in children and adolescents with conduct problems are still scarce, but point to deficits in brain structures in volved in the processing of social information and in the regulation of social and goal directed behaviour. The indisputable progress that this research field has made in recent years notwithstanding, the overall picture is still rather patchy and there are inconsistencies between studies that await clarification. Despite this, we attempt to provide an integrated view on the neural abnormalities that may contribute to various forms of juvenile aggression and violence, and discuss research strategies that may help to provide a more profound understanding of these important issues in the future.

  19. Imaging stress effects on memory: a review of neuroimaging studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stegeren, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To review and give an overview of neuroimaging studies that look at the role of stress (hormones) on memory. Method: An overview will be given of imaging studies that looked at the role of stress (hormones) on memory. Stress is here defined as the acute provocation of the sympathetic

  20. SHIWA workflow interoperability solutions for neuroimaging data analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korkhov, Vladimir; Krefting, Dagmar; Montagnat, Johan; Truong Huu, Tram; Kukla, Tamas; Terstyanszky, Gabor; Manset, David; Caan, Matthan; Olabarriaga, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging is a field that benefits from distributed computing infrastructures (DCIs) to perform data- and compute-intensive processing and analysis. Using grid workflow systems not only automates the processing pipelines, but also enables domain researchers to implement their expertise on how to

  1. Porcupine : A visual pipeline tool for neuroimaging analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mourik, Tim; Snoek, Lukas; Knapen, T; Norris, David G

    The field of neuroimaging is rapidly adopting a more reproducible approach to data acquisition and analysis. Data structures and formats are being standardised and data analyses are getting more automated. However, as data analysis becomes more complicated, researchers often have to write longer

  2. Update on neuroimaging phenotypes of mid-hindbrain malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jissendi-Tchofo, Patrice [University Hospital of Lille (CHRU), Department of Neuroradiology, MRI 3T Research, Plateforme Imagerie du vivant, IMPRT-IFR 114, Lille-Cedex (France); CHU Saint-Pierre, Radiology Department, Pediatric Neuroradiology Section, Brussels (Belgium); Severino, Mariasavina [Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Neuroradiology Unit, Genoa (Italy); Nguema-Edzang, Beatrice; Toure, Cisse; Soto Ares, Gustavo [University Hospital of Lille (CHRU), Department of Neuroradiology, MRI 3T Research, Plateforme Imagerie du vivant, IMPRT-IFR 114, Lille-Cedex (France); Barkovich, Anthony James [University of California, Neuroradiology Section, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-10-23

    Neuroimaging techniques including structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional positron emission tomography (PET) are useful in categorizing various midbrain-hindbrain (MHB) malformations, both in allowing diagnosis and in helping to understand the developmental processes that were disturbed. Brain imaging phenotypes of numerous malformations are characteristic features that help in guiding the genetic testing in case of direct neuroimaging-genotype correlation or, at least, to differentiate among MHB malformations entities. The present review aims to provide the reader with an update of the use of neuroimaging applications in the fine analysis of MHB malformations, using a comprehensive, recently proposed developmental and genetic classification. We have performed an extensive systematic review of the literature, from the embryology main steps of MHB development through the malformations entities, with regard to their molecular and genetic basis, conventional MRI features, and other neuroimaging characteristics. We discuss disorders in which imaging features are distinctive and how these features reflect the structural and functional impairment of the brain. Recognition of specific MRI phenotypes, including advanced imaging features, is useful to recognize the MHB malformation entities, to suggest genetic investigations, and, eventually, to monitor the disease outcome after supportive therapies. (orig.)

  3. Contributions of neuroimaging in singing voice studies: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geová Oliveira de Amorim

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT It is assumed that singing is a highly complex activity, which requires the activation and interconnection of sensorimotor areas. The aim of the current research was to present the evidence from neuroimaging studies in the performance of the motor and sensory system in the process of singing. Research articles on the characteristics of human singing analyzed by neuroimaging, which were published between 1990 and 2016, and indexed and listed in databases such as PubMed, BIREME, Lilacs, Web of Science, Scopus, and EBSCO were chosen for this systematic review. A total of 9 articles, employing magnetoencephalography, functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and electrocorticography were chosen. These neuroimaging approaches enabled the identification of a neural network interconnecting the spoken and singing voice, to identify, modulate, and correct pitch. This network changed with the singer's training, variations in melodic structure and harmonized singing, amusia, and the relationship among the brain areas that are responsible for speech, singing, and the persistence of musicality. Since knowledge of the neural networks that control singing is still scarce, the use of neuroimaging methods to elucidate these pathways should be a focus of future research.

  4. 25 years of neuroimaging in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, Bradley R.; Welsh, Robert C.; Feldman, Eva L.

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal motor neuron disease for which a precise cause has not yet been identified. Standard CT or MRI evaluation does not demonstrate gross structural nervous system changes in ALS, so conventional neuroimaging techniques have provided little insight into the pathophysiology of this disease. Advanced neuroimaging techniques—such as structural MRI, diffusion tensor imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy—allow evaluation of alterations of the nervous system in ALS. These alterations include focal loss of grey and white matter and reductions in white matter tract integrity, as well as changes in neural networks and in the chemistry, metabolism and receptor distribution in the brain. Given their potential for investigation of both brain structure and function, advanced neuroimaging methods offer important opportunities to improve diagnosis, guide prognosis, and direct future treatment strategies in ALS. In this article, we review the contributions made by various advanced neuroimaging techniques to our understanding of the impact of ALS on different brain regions, and the potential role of such measures in biomarker development. PMID:23917850

  5. Diagnostic and therapeutic utility of neuroimaging in depression: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Toby; Cleare, Anthony J; Herane, Andrés; Young, Allan H; Arnone, Danilo

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of studies have used neuroimaging to further our understanding of how brain structure and function are altered in major depression. More recently, these techniques have begun to show promise for the diagnosis and treatment of depression, both as aids to conventional methods and as methods in their own right. In this review, we describe recent neuroimaging findings in the field that might aid diagnosis and improve treatment accuracy. Overall, major depression is associated with numerous structural and functional differences in neural systems involved in emotion processing and mood regulation. Furthermore, several studies have shown that the structure and function of these systems is changed by pharmacological and psychological treatments of the condition and that these changes in candidate brain regions might predict clinical response. More recently, "machine learning" methods have used neuroimaging data to categorize individual patients according to their diagnostic status and predict treatment response. Despite being mostly limited to group-level comparisons at present, with the introduction of new methods and more naturalistic studies, neuroimaging has the potential to become part of the clinical armamentarium and may improve diagnostic accuracy and inform treatment choice at the patient level.

  6. Linking Essential Tremor to the Cerebellum-Neuroimaging Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerasa, Antonio; Quattrone, Aldo

    2016-06-01

    Essential tremor (ET) is the most common pathological tremor disorder in the world, and post-mortem evidence has shown that the cerebellum is the most consistent area of pathology in ET. In the last few years, advanced neuroimaging has tried to confirm this evidence. The aim of the present review is to discuss to what extent the evidence provided by this field of study may be generalised. We performed a systematic literature search combining the terms ET with the following keywords: MRI, VBM, MRS, DTI, fMRI, PET and SPECT. We summarised and discussed each study and placed the results in the context of existing knowledge regarding the cerebellar involvement in ET. A total of 51 neuroimaging studies met our search criteria, roughly divided into 19 structural and 32 functional studies. Despite clinical and methodological differences, both functional and structural imaging studies showed similar findings but without defining a clear topography of neurodegeneration. Indeed, the vast majority of studies found functional and structural abnormalities in several parts of the anterior and posterior cerebellar lobules, but it remains to be established to what degree these neural changes contribute to clinical symptoms of ET. Currently, advanced neuroimaging has confirmed the involvement of the cerebellum in pathophysiological processes of ET, although a high variability in results persists. For this reason, the translation of this knowledge into daily clinical practice is again partially limited, although new advanced multivariate neuroimaging approaches (machine-learning) are proving interesting changes of perspective.

  7. Neuroimaging in psychiatric pharmacogenetics research: the promise and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, Mary; Smith, Ryan M; Chenoweth, Meghan J; Bhattacharjee, Abesh Kumar; Kelsoe, John R; Tyndale, Rachel F; Lerman, Caryn

    2013-11-01

    The integration of research on neuroimaging and pharmacogenetics holds promise for improving treatment for neuropsychiatric conditions. Neuroimaging may provide a more sensitive early measure of treatment response in genetically defined patient groups, and could facilitate development of novel therapies based on an improved understanding of pathogenic mechanisms underlying pharmacogenetic associations. This review summarizes progress in efforts to incorporate neuroimaging into genetics and treatment research on major psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and addiction. Methodological challenges include: performing genetic analyses in small study populations used in imaging studies; inclusion of patients with psychiatric comorbidities; and the extensive variability across studies in neuroimaging protocols, neurobehavioral task probes, and analytic strategies. Moreover, few studies use pharmacogenetic designs that permit testing of genotype × drug effects. As a result of these limitations, few findings have been fully replicated. Future studies that pre-screen participants for genetic variants selected a priori based on drug metabolism and targets have the greatest potential to advance the science and practice of psychiatric treatment.

  8. Functional neuroimaging of emotional learning and autonomic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peper, Martin; Herpers, Martin; Spreer, Joachim; Hennig, Jürgen; Zentner, Josef

    2006-06-01

    This article provides a selective overview of the functional neuroimaging literature with an emphasis on emotional activation processes. Emotions are fast and flexible response systems that provide basic tendencies for adaptive action. From the range of involved component functions, we first discuss selected automatic mechanisms that control basic adaptational changes. Second, we illustrate how neuroimaging work has contributed to the mapping of the network components associated with basic emotion families (fear, anger, disgust, happiness), and secondary dimensional concepts that organise the meaning space for subjective experience and verbal labels (emotional valence, activity/intensity, approach/withdrawal, etc.). Third, results and methodological difficulties are discussed in view of own neuroimaging experiments that investigated the component functions involved in emotional learning. The amygdala, prefrontal cortex, and striatum form a network of reciprocal connections that show topographically distinct patterns of activity as a correlate of up and down regulation processes during an emotional episode. Emotional modulations of other brain systems have attracted recent research interests. Emotional neuroimaging calls for more representative designs that highlight the modulatory influences of regulation strategies and socio-cultural factors responsible for inhibitory control and extinction. We conclude by emphasising the relevance of the temporal process dynamics of emotional activations that may provide improved prediction of individual differences in emotionality.

  9. Uncovering the etiology of conversion disorder: insights from functional neuroimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejareh dar, Maryam; Kanaan, Richard AA

    2016-01-01

    Conversion disorder (CD) is a syndrome of neurological symptoms arising without organic cause, arguably in response to emotional stress, but the exact neural substrates of these symptoms and the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood with the hunt for a biological basis afoot for centuries. In the past 15 years, novel insights have been gained with the advent of functional neuroimaging studies in patients suffering from CDs in both motor and nonmotor domains. This review summarizes recent functional neuroimaging studies including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT), and positron emission tomography (PET) to see whether they bring us closer to understanding the etiology of CD. Convergent functional neuroimaging findings suggest alterations in brain circuits that could point to different mechanisms for manifesting functional neurological symptoms, in contrast with feigning or healthy controls. Abnormalities in emotion processing and in emotion-motor processing suggest a diathesis, while differential reactions to certain stressors implicate a specific response to trauma. No comprehensive theory emerges from these clues, and all results remain preliminary, but functional neuroimaging has at least given grounds for hope that a model for CD may soon be found. PMID:26834476

  10. Visualization of nonlinear kernel models in neuroimaging by sensitivity maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Lund, Torben Ellegaard

    2011-01-01

    There is significant current interest in decoding mental states from neuroimages. In this context kernel methods, e.g., support vector machines (SVM) are frequently adopted to learn statistical relations between patterns of brain activation and experimental conditions. In this paper we focus on v...

  11. Nonhuman primate positron emission tomography neuroimaging in drug abuse research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Leonard Lee; Murnane, Kevin Sean

    2011-05-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) neuroimaging in nonhuman primates has led to significant advances in our current understanding of the neurobiology and treatment of stimulant addiction in humans. PET neuroimaging has defined the in vivo biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of abused drugs and related these findings to the time course of behavioral effects associated with their addictive properties. With novel radiotracers and enhanced resolution, PET neuroimaging techniques have also characterized in vivo drug interactions with specific protein targets in the brain, including neurotransmitter receptors and transporters. In vivo determinations of cerebral blood flow and metabolism have localized brain circuits implicated in the effects of abused drugs and drug-associated stimuli. Moreover, determinations of the predisposing factors to chronic drug use and long-term neurobiological consequences of chronic drug use, such as potential neurotoxicity, have led to novel insights regarding the pathology and treatment of drug addiction. However, similar approaches clearly need to be extended to drug classes other than stimulants. Although dopaminergic systems have been extensively studied, other neurotransmitter systems known to play a critical role in the pharmacological effects of abused drugs have been largely ignored in nonhuman primate PET neuroimaging. Finally, the study of brain activation with PET neuroimaging has been replaced in humans mostly by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). There has been some success in implementing pharmacological fMRI in awake nonhuman primates. Nevertheless, the unique versatility of PET imaging will continue to complement the systems-level strengths of fMRI, especially in the context of nonhuman primate drug abuse research.

  12. Diagnostic and therapeutic utility of neuroimaging in depression: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wise T

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Toby Wise,1 Anthony J Cleare,1 Andrés Herane,1,2 Allan H Young,1 Danilo Arnone1 1King’s College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Department of Psychological Medicine, Centre for Affective Disorders, London, United Kingdom; 2Clínica Psiquiátrica Universitaria, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile Abstract: A growing number of studies have used neuroimaging to further our understanding of how brain structure and function are altered in major depression. More recently, these techniques have begun to show promise for the diagnosis and treatment of depression, both as aids to conventional methods and as methods in their own right. In this review, we describe recent neuroimaging findings in the field that might aid diagnosis and improve treatment accuracy. Overall, major depression is associated with numerous structural and functional differences in neural systems involved in emotion processing and mood regulation. Furthermore, several studies have shown that the structure and function of these systems is changed by pharmacological and psychological treatments of the condition and that these changes in candidate brain regions might predict clinical response. More recently, “machine learning” methods have used neuroimaging data to categorize individual patients according to their diagnostic status and predict treatment response. Despite being mostly limited to group-level comparisons at present, with the introduction of new methods and more naturalistic studies, neuroimaging has the potential to become part of the clinical armamentarium and may improve diagnostic accuracy and inform treatment choice at the patient level. Keywords: depression, mood disorder, neuroimaging, diagnosis, treatment

  13. The Neuro-Image: Alain Resnais's Digital Cinema without the Digits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisters, P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes to read cinema in the digital age as a new type of image, the neuroimage. Going back to Gilles Deleuze's cinema books and it is argued that the neuro-image is based in the future. The cinema of Alain Resnais is analyzed as a neuro-image and digital cinema .

  14. Wernicke's encephalopathy with chorea: Neuroimaging findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jivago S. Sabatini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We present a case report of motor and cognitive disorders in a 36-year-old woman with a history of twelve years of heavy alcohol abuse. The patient presented depressive symptoms over the course of one year after a loss in the family, evolving with ataxia, bradykinesia and choreiform movements. Progressive cognitive decline, sleep alterations and myalgia were also reported during the course of disease evolution. Physical examination revealed spastic paraparesis with fixed flexion of the hips and knees with important pain upon extension of these joints. Initial investigation suggested the diagnosis of thiamine deficiency by brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI.

  15. [Physiopathology of autobiographical memory in aging: episodic and semantic distinction, clinical findings and neuroimaging studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piolino, Pascale; Martinelli, Pénélope; Viard, Armelle; Noulhiane, Marion; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice

    2010-01-01

    From an early age, autobiographical memory models our feeling of identity and continuity. It grows throughout lifetime with our experiences and is built up from general self-knowledge and specific memories. The study of autobiographical memory depicts the dynamic and reconstructive features of this type of long-term memory, combining both semantic and episodic aspects, its strength and fragility. In this article, we propose to illustrate the properties of autobiographical memory from the field of cognitive psychology, neuropsychology and neuroimaging research through the analysis of the mechanisms of disturbance in normal and Alzheimer's disease. We show that the cognitive and neural bases of autobiographical memory are distinct in both cases. In normal aging, autobiographical memory retrieval is mainly dependent on frontal/executive function and on sense of reexperiencing specific context connected to hippocampal regions regardless of memory remoteness. In Alzheimer's disease, autobiographical memory deficit, characterized by a Ribot's temporal gradient, is connected to different regions according to memory remoteness. Our functional neuroimaging results suggest that patients at the early stage can compensate for their massive deficit of episodic recent memories correlated to hippocampal alteration with over general remote memories related to prefrontal regions. On the whole, the research findings allowed initiating new autobiographical memory studies by comparing normal and pathological aging and developing cognitive methods of memory rehabilitation in patients based on preserved personal semantic capacity. © Société de Biologie, 2010.

  16. Identifying Treatment Response of Sertraline in a Teenager with Selective Mutism using Electrophysiological Neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugene, Andy R; Masiak, Jolanta

    2016-06-01

    Selective Mutism is described as the inability to verbally express oneself in anxiety provoking social situations and may result in awkward social interactions in school-aged children. In this case-report we present the baseline electrophysiological neuroimaging results and after treatment with Sertraline for 6-weeks. A 20-channel EEG event-related potential recording was acquired during an internal voice task at baseline prior to the initiation of 50mg of Sertraline and then repeated 6-weeks after treatment with Sertraline. EEG signals were processed for movement, eye-blink, and muscle artifacts and ERP signal averaging was completed. ERPs were analyzed using Standard Low Resolution Brain Electromagnetic Tomography (sLORETA). At baseline, Sertraline increased the neuronal activation in the middle temporal gyrus and the anterior cingulate gyrus from baseline in the patient following 6-weeks of treatment. Our findings suggest that electrophysiological neuroimaging may provide a creative approach for personalizing medicine by providing insight to the pharmacodynamics of antidepressants.

  17. Sharing privacy-sensitive access to neuroimaging and genetics data: a review and preliminary validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwate, Anand D; Plis, Sergey M; Turner, Jessica A; Arbabshirani, Mohammad R; Calhoun, Vince D

    2014-01-01

    The growth of data sharing initiatives for neuroimaging and genomics represents an exciting opportunity to confront the "small N" problem that plagues contemporary neuroimaging studies while further understanding the role genetic markers play in the function of the brain. When it is possible, open data sharing provides the most benefits. However, some data cannot be shared at all due to privacy concerns and/or risk of re-identification. Sharing other data sets is hampered by the proliferation of complex data use agreements (DUAs) which preclude truly automated data mining. These DUAs arise because of concerns about the privacy and confidentiality for subjects; though many do permit direct access to data, they often require a cumbersome approval process that can take months. An alternative approach is to only share data derivatives such as statistical summaries-the challenges here are to reformulate computational methods to quantify the privacy risks associated with sharing the results of those computations. For example, a derived map of gray matter is often as identifiable as a fingerprint. Thus alternative approaches to accessing data are needed. This paper reviews the relevant literature on differential privacy, a framework for measuring and tracking privacy loss in these settings, and demonstrates the feasibility of using this framework to calculate statistics on data distributed at many sites while still providing privacy.

  18. Sharing privacy-sensitive access to neuroimaging and genetics data: a review and preliminary validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand D. Sarwate

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The growth of data sharing initiatives for neuroimaging and genomics represents an exciting opportunity to confront the ``small $N$'' problem that plagues contemporary neuroimaging studies while further understanding the role genetic markers play in in the function of the brain. When it is possible, open data sharing provides the most benefits. However some data cannot be shared at all due to privacy concerns and/or risk of re-identification. Sharing other data sets is hampered by the proliferation of complex data use agreements (DUAs which preclude truly automated data mining. These DUAs arise because of concerns about the privacy and confidentiality for subjects; though many do permit direct access to data, they often require a cumbersome approval process that can take months. An alternative approach is to only share data derivatives such as statistical summaries -- the challenges here are to reformulate computational methods to quantify the privacy risks associated with sharing the results of those computations. For example, a derived map of gray matter is often as identifiable as a fingerprint. Thus alternative approaches to accessing data are needed. This paper reviews the relevant literature on differential privacy, a framework for measuring and tracking privacy loss in these settings, and demonstrates the feasibility of using this framework to calculate statistics on data distributed at many sites while still providing privacy.

  19. Sharing privacy-sensitive access to neuroimaging and genetics data: a review and preliminary validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwate, Anand D.; Plis, Sergey M.; Turner, Jessica A.; Arbabshirani, Mohammad R.; Calhoun, Vince D.

    2014-01-01

    The growth of data sharing initiatives for neuroimaging and genomics represents an exciting opportunity to confront the “small N” problem that plagues contemporary neuroimaging studies while further understanding the role genetic markers play in the function of the brain. When it is possible, open data sharing provides the most benefits. However, some data cannot be shared at all due to privacy concerns and/or risk of re-identification. Sharing other data sets is hampered by the proliferation of complex data use agreements (DUAs) which preclude truly automated data mining. These DUAs arise because of concerns about the privacy and confidentiality for subjects; though many do permit direct access to data, they often require a cumbersome approval process that can take months. An alternative approach is to only share data derivatives such as statistical summaries—the challenges here are to reformulate computational methods to quantify the privacy risks associated with sharing the results of those computations. For example, a derived map of gray matter is often as identifiable as a fingerprint. Thus alternative approaches to accessing data are needed. This paper reviews the relevant literature on differential privacy, a framework for measuring and tracking privacy loss in these settings, and demonstrates the feasibility of using this framework to calculate statistics on data distributed at many sites while still providing privacy. PMID:24778614

  20. Thunderclap headache: Diagnostic considerations and neuroimaging features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortimer, A.M.; Bradley, M.D.; Stoodley, N.G.; Renowden, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Thunderclap headache (TCH) is an acute and severe headache that has maximum intensity at onset; TCH can be primary or secondary. Primary TCH is diagnosed when no underlying cause is discovered; however, imaging is crucial in distinguishing secondary causes, which are wide-ranging. The radiologist should be aware of the list of potential diagnoses. Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is the most common cause of secondary TCH. Aneurysmal SAH accounts for the majority of cases, although other causes should also be considered and these include perimesencephalic haemorrhage, arteriovenous malformations, and dural arteriovenous fistula as well as reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome. Conditions that may present with TCH, with or without SAH include cervical artery dissection and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Ischaemic stroke, pituitary apoplexy, and posterior reversible leucoencephalopathy are other potential causes, whereas non-vascular causes include colloid cysts of the third ventricle and spontaneous intracranial hypotension. Imaging features are reviewed with reference to clues gleaned from initial imaging using computed tomography, as well as characteristics that should be sought using magnetic resonance imaging or angiographic imaging

  1. A Two-Study Comparison of Clinical and MRI Markers of Transition from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Devanand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A published predictor model in a single-site cohort study (questionable dementia, QD that contained episodic verbal memory (SRT total recall, informant report of function (FAQ, and MRI measures was tested using logistic regression and ROC analyses with comparable measures in a second multisite cohort study (Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, ADNI. There were 126 patients in QD and 282 patients in ADNI with MCI followed for 3 years. Within each sample, the differences in AUCs between the statistical models were very similar. Adding hippocampal and entorhinal cortex volumes to the model containing AVLT/SRT, FAQ, age and MMSE increased the area under the curve (AUC in ADNI but not QD, with sensitivity increasing by 2% in ADNI and 2% in QD for a fixed specificity of 80%. Conversely, adding episodic verbal memory (SRT/AVLT and FAQ to the model containing age, Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE, hippocampal and entorhinal cortex volumes increased the AUC in ADNI and QD, with sensitivity increasing by 17% in ADNI and 10% in QD for 80% specificity. The predictor models showed similar differences from each other in both studies, supporting independent validation. MRI hippocampal and entorhinal cortex volumes showed limited added predictive utility to memory and function measures.

  2. Pain perception and hypnosis: findings from recent functional neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Casale, Antonio; Ferracuti, Stefano; Rapinesi, Chiara; Serata, Daniele; Caltagirone, Saverio Simone; Savoja, Valeria; Piacentino, Daria; Callovini, Gemma; Manfredi, Giovanni; Sani, Gabriele; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Girardi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Hypnosis modulates pain perception and tolerance by affecting cortical and subcortical activity in brain regions involved in these processes. By reviewing functional neuroimaging studies focusing on pain perception under hypnosis, the authors aimed to identify brain activation-deactivation patterns occurring in hypnosis-modulated pain conditions. Different changes in brain functionality occurred throughout all components of the pain network and other brain areas. The anterior cingulate cortex appears to be central in modulating pain circuitry activity under hypnosis. Most studies also showed that the neural functions of the prefrontal, insular, and somatosensory cortices are consistently modified during hypnosis-modulated pain conditions. Functional neuroimaging studies support the clinical use of hypnosis in the management of pain conditions.

  3. Predicting Age Using Neuroimaging: Innovative Brain Ageing Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, James H; Franke, Katja

    2017-12-01

    The brain changes as we age and these changes are associated with functional deterioration and neurodegenerative disease. It is vital that we better understand individual differences in the brain ageing process; hence, techniques for making individualised predictions of brain ageing have been developed. We present evidence supporting the use of neuroimaging-based 'brain age' as a biomarker of an individual's brain health. Increasingly, research is showing how brain disease or poor physical health negatively impacts brain age. Importantly, recent evidence shows that having an 'older'-appearing brain relates to advanced physiological and cognitive ageing and the risk of mortality. We discuss controversies surrounding brain age and highlight emerging trends such as the use of multimodality neuroimaging and the employment of 'deep learning' methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Functional Neuro-Imaging and Post-Traumatic Olfactory Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Richard J.; Sheehan, William; Thurber, Steven; Roberts, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate via a research literature survey the anterior neurological significance of decreased olfactory functioning following traumatic brain injuries. Materials and Methods: A computer literature review was performed to locate all functional neuro-imaging studies on patients with post-traumatic anosmia and other olfactory deficits. Results: A convergence of findings from nine functional neuro-imaging studies indicating evidence for reduced metabolic activity at rest or relative hypo-perfusion during olfactory activations. Hypo-activation of the prefrontal regions was apparent in all nine post-traumatic samples, with three samples yielding evidence of reduced activity in the temporal regions as well. Conclusions: The practical ramifications include the reasonable hypothesis that a total anosmic head trauma patient likely has frontal lobe involvement. PMID:21716782

  5. Incidental Findings in Neuroimaging: Ethical and Medicolegal Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Leung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid advances in neurosciences in the last three decades, there has been an exponential increase in the use of neuroimaging both in basic sciences and clinical research involving human subjects. During routine neuroimaging, incidental findings that are not part of the protocol or scope of research agenda can occur and they often pose a challenge as to how they should be handled to abide by the medicolegal principles of research ethics. This paper reviews the issue from various ethical (do no harm, general duty to rescue, and mutual benefits and owing and medicolegal perspectives (legal liability, fiduciary duties, Law of Tort, and Law of Contract with a suggested protocol of approach.

  6. Cognitive and emotional processes during dreaming: a neuroimaging view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desseilles, Martin; Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Sterpenich, Virginie; Schwartz, Sophie

    2011-12-01

    Dream is a state of consciousness characterized by internally-generated sensory, cognitive and emotional experiences occurring during sleep. Dream reports tend to be particularly abundant, with complex, emotional, and perceptually vivid experiences after awakenings from rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. This is why our current knowledge of the cerebral correlates of dreaming, mainly derives from studies of REM sleep. Neuroimaging results show that REM sleep is characterized by a specific pattern of regional brain activity. We demonstrate that this heterogeneous distribution of brain activity during sleep explains many typical features in dreams. Reciprocally, specific dream characteristics suggest the activation of selective brain regions during sleep. Such an integration of neuroimaging data of human sleep, mental imagery, and the content of dreams is critical for current models of dreaming; it also provides neurobiological support for an implication of sleep and dreaming in some important functions such as emotional regulation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Understanding the impact of TV commercials: electrical neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchiato, Giovanni; Kong, Wanzeng; Maglione, Anton Giulio; Wei, Daming

    2012-01-01

    Today, there is a greater interest in the marketing world in using neuroimaging tools to evaluate the efficacy of TV commercials. This field of research is known as neuromarketing. In this article, we illustrate some applications of electrical neuroimaging, a discipline that uses electroencephalography (EEG) and intensive signal processing techniques for the evaluation of marketing stimuli. We also show how the proper usage of these methodologies can provide information related to memorization and attention while people are watching marketing-relevant stimuli. We note that temporal and frequency patterns of EEG signals are able to provide possible descriptors that convey information about the cognitive process in subjects observing commercial advertisements (ads). Such information could be unobtainable through common tools used in standard marketing research. Evidence of this research shows how EEG methodologies could be employed to better design new products that marketers are going to promote and to analyze the global impact of video commercials already broadcast on TV.

  8. The utility of neuroimaging in the management of dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uduak E Williams

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is a syndrome of progressive dysfunction of two or more cognitive domains associated with impairment of activities of daily living. An understanding of the pathophysiology of dementia and its early diagnosis is important in the pursuit of possible disease modifying therapy for dementia. Neuroimaging has greatly transformed this field of research as its function has changed from a mere tool for diagnosing treatable causes of dementia to an instrument for pre-symptomatic diagnosis of dementia. This review focuses on the diagnostic utility of neuroimaging in the management of progressive dementias. Structural imaging techniques like computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging highlights the anatomical, structural and volumetric details of the brain; while functional imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography, arterial spin labeling, single photon emission computerized tomography and blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging focuses on chemistry, circulatory status and physiology of the different brain structures and regions.

  9. Nervous System Injury and Neuroimaging of Zika Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shanshan; Zeng, Yu; Lerner, Alexander; Gao, Bo; Law, Meng

    2018-01-01

    In 2016, World Health Organization announced Zika virus infection and its neurological sequalae are a public health emergency of global scope. Preliminary studies have confirmed a relationship between Zika virus infection and certain neurological disorders, including microcephaly and Guillain–Barre syndrome (GBS). The neuroimaging features of microcephaly secondary to Zika virus infection include calcifications at the junction of gray–white matter and subcortical white matter with associated cortical abnormalities, diminution of white matter, large ventricles with or without hydrocephalus, cortical malformations, hypoplasia of cerebellum and brainstem, and enlargement of cerebellomedullary cistern. Contrast enhancement of the cauda equine nerve roots is the typical neuroimaging finding of GBS associated with Zika virus. This review describes the nervous system disorders and associated imaging findings seen in Zika virus infection, with the aim to improve the understanding of this disease. Imaging plays a key role on accurate diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of this disease. PMID:29740383

  10. Neuroimaging the Effectiveness of Substance Use Disorder Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Elizabeth A; Wiers, Corinde E; Lindgren, Elsa; Miller, Gregg; Volkow, Nora D; Wang, Gene-Jack

    2016-09-01

    Neuroimaging techniques to measure the function and biochemistry of the human brain such as positron emission tomography (PET), proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), are powerful tools for assessing neurobiological mechanisms underlying the response to treatments in substance use disorders. Here, we review the neuroimaging literature on pharmacological and behavioral treatment in substance use disorder. We focus on neural effects of medications that reduce craving (e.g., naltrexone, bupropion hydrochloride, baclofen, methadone, varenicline) and that improve cognitive control (e.g., modafinil, N-acetylcysteine), of behavioral treatments for substance use disorders (e.g., cognitive bias modification training, virtual reality, motivational interventions) and neuromodulatory interventions such as neurofeedback and transcranial magnetic stimulation. A consistent finding for the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions identifies the improvement of executive control networks and the dampening of limbic activation, highlighting their values as targets for therapeutic interventions in substance use disorders.

  11. Neuroimaging in aging: brain maintenance [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Nyberg

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies of the aging brain provide support that the strongest predictor of preserved memory and cognition in older age is brain maintenance, or relative lack of brain pathology. Evidence for brain maintenance comes from different levels of examination, but up to now relatively few studies have used a longitudinal design. Examining factors that promote brain maintenance in aging is a critical task for the future and may be combined with the use of new techniques for multimodal imaging.

  12. Partial Least Squares tutorial for analyzing neuroimaging data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Van Roon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Partial least squares (PLS has become a respected and meaningful soft modeling analysis technique that can be applied to very large datasets where the number of factors or variables is greater than the number of observations. Current biometric studies (e.g., eye movements, EKG, body movements, EEG are often of this nature. PLS eliminates the multiple linear regression issues of over-fitting data by finding a few underlying or latent variables (factors that account for most of the variation in the data. In real-world applications, where linear models do not always apply, PLS can model the non-linear relationship well. This tutorial introduces two PLS methods, PLS Correlation (PLSC and PLS Regression (PLSR and their applications in data analysis which are illustrated with neuroimaging examples. Both methods provide straightforward and comprehensible techniques for determining and modeling relationships between two multivariate data blocks by finding latent variables that best describes the relationships. In the examples, the PLSC will analyze the relationship between neuroimaging data such as Event-Related Potential (ERP amplitude averages from different locations on the scalp with their corresponding behavioural data. Using the same data, the PLSR will be used to model the relationship between neuroimaging and behavioural data. This model will be able to predict future behaviour solely from available neuroimaging data. To find latent variables, Singular Value Decomposition (SVD for PLSC and Non-linear Iterative PArtial Least Squares (NIPALS for PLSR are implemented in this tutorial. SVD decomposes the large data block into three manageable matrices containing a diagonal set of singular values, as well as left and right singular vectors. For PLSR, NIPALS algorithms are used because it provides amore precise estimation of the latent variables. Mathematica notebooks are provided for each PLS method with clearly labeled sections and subsections. The

  13. [Neuroimaging and Blood Biomarkers in Functional Prognosis after Stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, João Paulo; Costa, Joana Santos; Sargento-Freitas, João; Oliveira, Sandra; Mendes, Bruno; Laíns, Jorge; Pinheiro, João

    2016-11-01

    Stroke remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality around the world and it is associated with an important long-term functional disability. Some neuroimaging resources and certain peripheral blood or cerebrospinal fluid proteins can give important information about etiology, therapeutic approach, follow-up and functional prognosis in acute ischemic stroke patients. However, among the scientific community, there is currently more interest in the stroke vital prognosis over the functional prognosis. Predicting the functional prognosis during acute phase would allow more objective rehabilitation programs and better management of the available resources. The aim of this work is to review the potential role of acute phase neuroimaging and blood biomarkers as functional recovery predictors after ischemic stroke. Review of the literature published between 2005 and 2015, in English, using the terms "ischemic stroke", "neuroimaging" e "blood biomarkers". We included nine studies, based on abstract reading. Computerized tomography, transcranial doppler ultrasound and diffuse magnetic resonance imaging show potential predictive value, based on the blood flow study and the evaluation of stroke's volume and localization, especially when combined with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. Several biomarkers have been studied as diagnostic, risk stratification and prognostic tools, namely the S100 calcium binding protein B, C-reactive protein, matrix metalloproteinases and cerebral natriuretic peptide. Although some biomarkers and neuroimaging techniques have potential predictive value, none of the studies were able to support its use, alone or in association, as a clinically useful functionality predictor model. All the evaluated markers were considered insufficient to predict functional prognosis at three months, when applied in the first hours after stroke. Additional studies are necessary to identify reliable predictive markers for functional

  14. Making Individual Prognoses in Psychiatry Using Neuroimaging and Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Ronald J; Mourão-Miranda, Janaina; Schnack, Hugo G

    2018-04-22

    Psychiatric prognosis is a difficult problem. Making a prognosis requires looking far into the future, as opposed to making a diagnosis, which is concerned with the current state. During the follow-up period, many factors will influence the course of the disease. Combined with the usually scarcer longitudinal data and the variability in the definition of outcomes/transition, this makes prognostic predictions a challenging endeavor. Employing neuroimaging data in this endeavor introduces the additional hurdle of high dimensionality. Machine-learning techniques are especially suited to tackle this challenging problem. This review starts with a brief introduction to machine learning in the context of its application to clinical neuroimaging data. We highlight a few issues that are especially relevant for prediction of outcome and transition using neuroimaging. We then review the literature that discusses the application of machine learning for this purpose. Critical examination of the studies and their results with respect to the relevant issues revealed the following: 1) there is growing evidence for the prognostic capability of machine-learning-based models using neuroimaging; and 2) reported accuracies may be too optimistic owing to small sample sizes and the lack of independent test samples. Finally, we discuss options to improve the reliability of (prognostic) prediction models. These include new methodologies and multimodal modeling. Paramount, however, is our conclusion that future work will need to provide properly (cross-)validated accuracy estimates of models trained on sufficiently large datasets. Nevertheless, with the technological advances enabling acquisition of large databases of patients and healthy subjects, machine learning represents a powerful tool in the search for psychiatric biomarkers. Copyright © 2018 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Neuroimaging in human MDMA (Ecstasy) users: A cortical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Ronald L; Roberts, Deanne M; Joers, James M

    2009-01-01

    MDMA (3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine) has been used by millions of people worldwide as a recreational drug. MDMA and Ecstasy are often used synonymously but it is important to note that the purity of Ecstasy sold as MDMA is not certain. MDMA use is of public health concern, not so much because MDMA produces a common or severe dependence syndrome, but rather because rodent and non-human primate studies have indicated that MDMA (when administered at certain dosages and intervals) can cause long-lasting reductions in markers of brain serotonin (5-HT) that appear specific to fine diameter axons arising largely from the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR). Given the popularity of MDMA, the potential for the drug to produce long-lasting or permanent 5-HT axon damage or loss, and the widespread role of 5-HT function in the brain, there is a great need for a better understanding of brain function in human users of this drug. To this end, neuropsychological, neuroendocrine, and neuroimaging studies have all suggested that human MDMA users may have long-lasting changes in brain function consistent with 5-HT toxicity. Data from animal models leads to testable hypotheses regarding MDMA effects on the human brain. Because neuropsychological and neuroimaging findings have focused on the neocortex, a cortical model is developed to provide context for designing and interpreting neuroimaging studies in MDMA users. Aspects of the model are supported by the available neuroimaging data but there are controversial findings in some areas and most findings have not been replicated across different laboratories and using different modalities. This paper reviews existing findings in the context of a cortical model and suggests directions for future research. PMID:18991874

  16. The utility of neuroimaging in the management of dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Uduak E Williams; Ekanem E Philip Ephraim; Sidney K Oparah

    2015-01-01

    Dementia is a syndrome of progressive dysfunction of two or more cognitive domains associated with impairment of activities of daily living. An understanding of the pathophysiology of dementia and its early diagnosis is important in the pursuit of possible disease modifying therapy for dementia. Neuroimaging has greatly transformed this field of research as its function has changed from a mere tool for diagnosing treatable causes of demen...

  17. The Power of Neuroimaging Biomarkers for Screening Frontotemporal Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    McMillan, Corey T.; Avants, Brian B.; Cook, Philip; Ungar, Lyle; Trojanowski, John Q.; Grossman, Murray

    2014-01-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a clinically and pathologically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disease that can result from either frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) or Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology. It is critical to establish statistically powerful biomarkers that can achieve substantial cost-savings and increase feasibility of clinical trials. We assessed three broad categories of neuroimaging methods to screen underlying FTLD and AD pathology in a clinical FTD series: global ...

  18. Functional neuroimaging of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ruimin

    2001-01-01

    Dementing illnesses comprise Alzheimer's disease (AD), Pick's disease, Multi-infarct dementia (MID) and other neurological disorders. These diseases have different clinical characters respectively. Neuropsychological examinations can help to diagnose and differential diagnose dementias. The development of neuroimaging dementias is more and more rapid. 18 F-FDG PET method shows neo-cortical hypometabolism occurring in the biparietal-temporal lobes and left-right asymmetry of AD patients in the early stage. It can also differential diagnose Ad from other dementias

  19. Human fear conditioning and extinction in neuroimaging: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Sehlmeyer

    Full Text Available Fear conditioning and extinction are basic forms of associative learning that have gained considerable clinical relevance in enhancing our understanding of anxiety disorders and facilitating their treatment. Modern neuroimaging techniques have significantly aided the identification of anatomical structures and networks involved in fear conditioning. On closer inspection, there is considerable variation in methodology and results between studies. This systematic review provides an overview of the current neuroimaging literature on fear conditioning and extinction on healthy subjects, taking into account methodological issues such as the conditioning paradigm. A Pubmed search, as of December 2008, was performed and supplemented by manual searches of bibliographies of key articles. Two independent reviewers made the final study selection and data extraction. A total of 46 studies on cued fear conditioning and/or extinction on healthy volunteers using positron emission tomography or functional magnetic resonance imaging were reviewed. The influence of specific experimental factors, such as contingency and timing parameters, assessment of conditioned responses, and characteristics of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli, on cerebral activation patterns was examined. Results were summarized descriptively. A network consisting of fear-related brain areas, such as amygdala, insula, and anterior cingulate cortex, is activated independently of design parameters. However, some neuroimaging studies do not report these findings in the presence of methodological heterogeneities. Furthermore, other brain areas are differentially activated, depending on specific design parameters. These include stronger hippocampal activation in trace conditioning and tactile stimulation. Furthermore, tactile unconditioned stimuli enhance activation of pain related, motor, and somatosensory areas. Differences concerning experimental factors may partly explain the variance

  20. Recent progress of neuroimaging studies on sleeping brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Yuka

    2012-01-01

    Although sleep is a familiar phenomenon, its functions are yet to be elucidated. Understanding these functions of sleep is an important focus area in neuroscience. Electroencephalography (EEG) has been the predominantly used method in human sleep research but does not provide detailed spatial information about brain activation during sleep. To supplement the spatial information provided by this method, researchers have started using a combination of EEG and various advanced neuroimaging techniques that have been recently developed, including positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this paper, we will review the recent progress in sleep studies, especially studies that have used such advanced neuroimaging techniques. First, we will briefly introduce several neuroimaging techniques available for use in sleep studies. Next, we will review the spatiotemporal brain activation patterns during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, the dynamics of functional connectivity during sleep, and the consolidation of learning and memory during sleep; studies on the neural correlates of dreams, which have not yet been identified, will also be discussed. Lastly, possible directions for future research in this area will be discussed. (author)

  1. Neuroimaging Studies Illustrate the Commonalities Between Ageing and Brain Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, James H

    2018-07-01

    The lack of specificity in neuroimaging studies of neurological and psychiatric diseases suggests that these different diseases have more in common than is generally considered. Potentially, features that are secondary effects of different pathological processes may share common neurobiological underpinnings. Intriguingly, many of these mechanisms are also observed in studies of normal (i.e., non-pathological) brain ageing. Different brain diseases may be causing premature or accelerated ageing to the brain, an idea that is supported by a line of "brain ageing" research that combines neuroimaging data with machine learning analysis. In reviewing this field, I conclude that such observations could have important implications, suggesting that we should shift experimental paradigm: away from characterizing the average case-control brain differences resulting from a disease toward methods that place individuals in their age-appropriate context. This will also lead naturally to clinical applications, whereby neuroimaging can contribute to a personalized-medicine approach to improve brain health. © 2018 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Design and rationale for examining neuroimaging genetics in ischemic stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Anne-Katrin; Schirmer, Markus D.; Donahue, Kathleen L.; Cloonan, Lisa; Irie, Robert; Winzeck, Stefan; Bouts, Mark J.R.J.; McIntosh, Elissa C.; Mocking, Steven J.; Dalca, Adrian V.; Sridharan, Ramesh; Xu, Huichun; Frid, Petrea; Giralt-Steinhauer, Eva; Holmegaard, Lukas; Roquer, Jaume; Wasselius, Johan; Cole, John W.; McArdle, Patrick F.; Broderick, Joseph P.; Jimenez-Conde, Jordi; Jern, Christina; Kissela, Brett M.; Kleindorfer, Dawn O.; Lemmens, Robin; Lindgren, Arne; Meschia, James F.; Rundek, Tatjana; Sacco, Ralph L.; Schmidt, Reinhold; Sharma, Pankaj; Slowik, Agnieszka; Thijs, Vincent; Woo, Daniel; Worrall, Bradford B.; Kittner, Steven J.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Rosand, Jonathan; Golland, Polina; Wu, Ona

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To describe the design and rationale for the genetic analysis of acute and chronic cerebrovascular neuroimaging phenotypes detected on clinical MRI in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) within the scope of the MRI–GENetics Interface Exploration (MRI-GENIE) study. Methods: MRI-GENIE capitalizes on the existing infrastructure of the Stroke Genetics Network (SiGN). In total, 12 international SiGN sites contributed MRIs of 3,301 patients with AIS. Detailed clinical phenotyping with the web-based Causative Classification of Stroke (CCS) system and genome-wide genotyping data were available for all participants. Neuroimaging analyses include the manual and automated assessments of established MRI markers. A high-throughput MRI analysis pipeline for the automated assessment of cerebrovascular lesions on clinical scans will be developed in a subset of scans for both acute and chronic lesions, validated against gold standard, and applied to all available scans. The extracted neuroimaging phenotypes will improve characterization of acute and chronic cerebrovascular lesions in ischemic stroke, including CCS subtypes, and their effect on functional outcomes after stroke. Moreover, genetic testing will uncover variants associated with acute and chronic MRI manifestations of cerebrovascular disease. Conclusions: The MRI-GENIE study aims to develop, validate, and distribute the MRI analysis platform for scans acquired as part of clinical care for patients with AIS, which will lead to (1) novel genetic discoveries in ischemic stroke, (2) strategies for personalized stroke risk assessment, and (3) personalized stroke outcome assessment. PMID:28852707

  3. [Recent progress of neuroimaging studies on sleeping brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Yuka

    2012-06-01

    Although sleep is a familiar phenomenon, its functions are yet to be elucidated. Understanding these functions of sleep is an important focus area in neuroscience. Electroencephalography (EEG) has been the predominantly used method in human sleep research but does not provide detailed spatial information about brain activation during sleep. To supplement the spatial information provided by this method, researchers have started using a combination of EEG and various advanced neuroimaging techniques that have been recently developed, including positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this paper, we will review the recent progress in sleep studies, especially studies that have used such advanced neuroimaging techniques. First, we will briefly introduce several neuroimaging techniques available for use in sleep studies. Next, we will review the spatiotemporal brain activation patterns during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, the dynamics of functional connectivity during sleep, and the consolidation of learning and memory during sleep; studies on the neural correlates of dreams, which have not yet been identified, will also be discussed. Lastly, possible directions for future research in this area will be discussed.

  4. Effects of Marijuana Use on Brain Structure and Function: Neuroimaging Findings from a Neurodevelopmental Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumback, T.; Castro, N.; Jacobus, J.; Tapert, S.

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana, behind only tobacco and alcohol, is the most popular recreational drug in America with prevalence rates of use rising over the past decade. A wide range of research has highlighted neurocognitive deficits associated with marijuana use, particularly when initiated during childhood or adolescence. Neuroimaging, describing alterations to brain structure and function, has begun to provide a picture of possible mechanisms associated with the deleterious effects of marijuana use. This chapter provides a neurodevelopmental framework from which recent data on brain structural and functional abnormalities associated with marijuana use is reviewed. Based on the current data, we provide aims for future studies to more clearly delineate the effects of marijuana on the developing brain and to define underlying mechanisms of the potential long-term negative consequences of marijuana use. PMID:27503447

  5. A Neuroimaging Web Services Interface as a Cyber Physical System for Medical Imaging and Data Management in Brain Research: Design Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizarraga, Gabriel; Li, Chunfei; Cabrerizo, Mercedes; Barker, Warren; Loewenstein, David A; Duara, Ranjan; Adjouadi, Malek

    2018-04-26

    Structural and functional brain images are essential imaging modalities for medical experts to study brain anatomy. These images are typically visually inspected by experts. To analyze images without any bias, they must be first converted to numeric values. Many software packages are available to process the images, but they are complex and difficult to use. The software packages are also hardware intensive. The results obtained after processing vary depending on the native operating system used and its associated software libraries; data processed in one system cannot typically be combined with data on another system. The aim of this study was to fulfill the neuroimaging community’s need for a common platform to store, process, explore, and visualize their neuroimaging data and results using Neuroimaging Web Services Interface: a series of processing pipelines designed as a cyber physical system for neuroimaging and clinical data in brain research. Neuroimaging Web Services Interface accepts magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, diffusion tensor imaging, and functional magnetic resonance imaging. These images are processed using existing and custom software packages. The output is then stored as image files, tabulated files, and MySQL tables. The system, made up of a series of interconnected servers, is password-protected and is securely accessible through a Web interface and allows (1) visualization of results and (2) downloading of tabulated data. All results were obtained using our processing servers in order to maintain data validity and consistency. The design is responsive and scalable. The processing pipeline started from a FreeSurfer reconstruction of Structural magnetic resonance imaging images. The FreeSurfer and regional standardized uptake value ratio calculations were validated using Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative input images, and the results were posted at the Laboratory of Neuro Imaging data archive. Notable

  6. What do people with dementia and their carers want to know about neuroimaging for dementia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Featherstone, Hannah; Butler, Marie-Louise; Ciblis, Aurelia; Bokde, Arun L; Mullins, Paul G; McNulty, Jonathan P

    2017-05-01

    Neuroimaging forms an important part of dementia diagnosis. Provision of information on neuroimaging to people with dementia and their carers may aid understanding of the pathological, physiological and psychosocial changes of the disease, and increase understanding of symptoms. This qualitative study aimed to investigate participants' knowledge of the dementia diagnosis pathway, their understanding of neuroimaging and its use in diagnosis, and to determine content requirements for a website providing neuroimaging information. Structured interviews and a focus group were conducted with carers and people with dementia. The findings demonstrate an unmet need for information on neuroimaging both before and after the examination. Carers were keen to know about neuroimaging at a practical and technical level to help avoid diagnosis denial. People with dementia requested greater information, but with a caveat to avoid overwhelming detail, and were less likely to favour an Internet resource.

  7. Neuroimaging: do we really need new contrast agents for MRI?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, T.P.L.; Chuang, N.; Roberts, H.C.

    2000-01-01

    The use of exogenous contrast media in magnetic resonance imaging of the brain has brought dramatic improvement in the sensitivity of detection and delineation of pathological structures, such as primary and metastatic brain tumors, inflammation and ischemia. Disruption of the blood brain barrier leads to accumulation of the intravenously injected contrast material in the extravascular space, leading to signal enhancement. Magnetic resonance angiography benefits from T 1 -shortening effects of contrast agent, improving small vessel depiction and providing vascular visualization even in situations of slow flow. High speed dynamic MRI after bolus injection of contrast media allows tracer kinetic modeling of cerebral perfusion. Progressive enhancement over serial post-contrast imaging allows modeling of vascular permeability and thus quantitative estimation of the severity of blood brain barrier disruption. With such an array of capabilities and ever improving technical abilities, it seems that the role of contrast agents in MR neuroimaging is established and the development of new agents may be superfluous. However, new agents are being developed with prolonged intravascular residence times, and with in-vivo binding of ever-increasing specificity. Intravascular, or blood pool, agents are likely to benefit magnetic resonance angiography of the carotid and cerebral vessels; future agents may allow the visualization of therapeutic drug delivery, the monitoring of, for example, gene expression, and the imaging evaluation of treatment efficacy. So while there is a substantial body of work that can be performed with currently available contrast agents, especially in conjunction with optimized image acquisition strategies, post processing, and mathematical analysis, there are still unrealized opportunities for novel contrast agent introduction, particularly those exploiting biological specificity. This article reviews the current use of contrast media in magnetic resonance

  8. Multiple brain atlas database and atlas-based neuroimaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowinski, W L; Fang, A; Nguyen, B T; Raphel, J K; Jagannathan, L; Raghavan, R; Bryan, R N; Miller, G A

    1997-01-01

    For the purpose of developing multiple, complementary, fully labeled electronic brain atlases and an atlas-based neuroimaging system for analysis, quantification, and real-time manipulation of cerebral structures in two and three dimensions, we have digitized, enhanced, segmented, and labeled the following print brain atlases: Co-Planar Stereotaxic Atlas of the Human Brain by Talairach and Tournoux, Atlas for Stereotaxy of the Human Brain by Schaltenbrand and Wahren, Referentially Oriented Cerebral MRI Anatomy by Talairach and Tournoux, and Atlas of the Cerebral Sulci by Ono, Kubik, and Abernathey. Three-dimensional extensions of these atlases have been developed as well. All two- and three-dimensional atlases are mutually preregistered and may be interactively registered with an actual patient's data. An atlas-based neuroimaging system has been developed that provides support for reformatting, registration, visualization, navigation, image processing, and quantification of clinical data. The anatomical index contains about 1,000 structures and over 400 sulcal patterns. Several new applications of the brain atlas database also have been developed, supported by various technologies such as virtual reality, the Internet, and electronic publishing. Fusion of information from multiple atlases assists the user in comprehensively understanding brain structures and identifying and quantifying anatomical regions in clinical data. The multiple brain atlas database and atlas-based neuroimaging system have substantial potential impact in stereotactic neurosurgery and radiotherapy by assisting in visualization and real-time manipulation in three dimensions of anatomical structures, in quantitative neuroradiology by allowing interactive analysis of clinical data, in three-dimensional neuroeducation, and in brain function studies.

  9. Frequency Constrained ShiftCP Modeling of Neuroimaging Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Hansen, Lars Kai; Madsen, Kristoffer H.

    2011-01-01

    The shift invariant multi-linear model based on the CandeComp/PARAFAC (CP) model denoted ShiftCP has proven useful for the modeling of latency changes in trial based neuroimaging data[17]. In order to facilitate component interpretation we presently extend the shiftCP model such that the extracted...... components can be constrained to pertain to predefined frequency ranges such as alpha, beta and gamma activity. To infer the number of components in the model we propose to apply automatic relevance determination by imposing priors that define the range of variation of each component of the shiftCP model...

  10. Visualization of nonlinear kernel models in neuroimaging by sensitivity maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup; Hansen, Lars Kai; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard

    There is significant current interest in decoding mental states from neuroimages. In this context kernel methods, e.g., support vector machines (SVM) are frequently adopted to learn statistical relations between patterns of brain activation and experimental conditions. In this paper we focus...... on visualization of such nonlinear kernel models. Specifically, we investigate the sensitivity map as a technique for generation of global summary maps of kernel classification methods. We illustrate the performance of the sensitivity map on functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) data based on visual stimuli. We...

  11. Functional neuroimaging in the assessment of cerebral ischaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartor, K.; Heiland, S.

    1997-01-01

    Cerebral infarct causes over 170, 000 deaths per year in the United States. Recent developments in neuroimaging are providing an insight into focal cerebral ischaemia, including its pathophysiology and the area of brain at risk. Perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) allows evaluation of the blood supply to the ischaemic area, and diffusion-weighted MR permits assessment of tissue damage. Although both functional imaging techniques require some refinement, it is likely that they will soon become part of the normal clinical routine and allow accurate characterisation of pathology. It is expected that this may eventually lead to the development of new treatments. (orig.)

  12. Neuroimaging of Narcolepsy and Kleine-Levin Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seung Bong

    2017-09-01

    Narcolepsy is a chronic neurologic disorder with the abnormal regulation of the sleep-wake cycle, resulting in excessive daytime sleepiness, disturbed nocturnal sleep, and manifestations related to rapid eye movement sleep, such as cataplexy, sleep paralysis, and hypnagogic hallucination. Over the past decade, numerous neuroimaging studies have been performed to characterize the pathophysiology and various clinical features of narcolepsy. This article reviews structural and functional brain imaging findings in narcolepsy and Kleine-Levin syndrome. Based on the current state of research, brain imaging is a useful tool to investigate and understand the neuroanatomic correlates and brain abnormalities of narcolepsy and other hypersomnia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Accelerating Neuroimage Registration through Parallel Computation of Similarity Metric.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Gang Luo

    Full Text Available Neuroimage registration is crucial for brain morphometric analysis and treatment efficacy evaluation. However, existing advanced registration algorithms such as FLIRT and ANTs are not efficient enough for clinical use. In this paper, a GPU implementation of FLIRT with the correlation ratio (CR as the similarity metric and a GPU accelerated correlation coefficient (CC calculation for the symmetric diffeomorphic registration of ANTs have been developed. The comparison with their corresponding original tools shows that our accelerated algorithms can greatly outperform the original algorithm in terms of computational efficiency. This paper demonstrates the great potential of applying these registration tools in clinical applications.

  14. Visualization of Nonlinear Classification Models in Neuroimaging - Signed Sensitivity Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup; Schmah, Tanya; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard

    2012-01-01

    Classification models are becoming increasing popular tools in the analysis of neuroimaging data sets. Besides obtaining good prediction accuracy, a competing goal is to interpret how the classifier works. From a neuroscientific perspective, we are interested in the brain pattern reflecting...... the underlying neural encoding of an experiment defining multiple brain states. In this relation there is a great desire for the researcher to generate brain maps, that highlight brain locations of importance to the classifiers decisions. Based on sensitivity analysis, we develop further procedures for model...... direction the individual locations influence the classification. We illustrate the visualization procedure on a real data from a simple functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment....

  15. The impacts of cognitive-behavioral therapy on the treatment of phobic disorders measured by functional neuroimaging techniques: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Galvao-de Almeida

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Functional neuroimaging techniques represent fundamental tools in the context of translational research integrating neurobiology, psychopathology, neuropsychology, and therapeutics. In addition, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT has proven its efficacy in the treatment of anxiety disorders and may be useful in phobias. The literature has shown that feelings and behaviors are mediated by specific brain circuits, and changes in patterns of interaction should be associated with cerebral alterations. Based on these concepts, a systematic review was conducted aiming to evaluate the impact of CBT on phobic disorders measured by functional neuroimaging techniques. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted including studies published between January 1980 and April 2012. Studies written in English, Spanish or Portuguese evaluating changes in the pattern of functional neuroimaging before and after CBT in patients with phobic disorders were included. Results: The initial search strategy retrieved 45 studies. Six of these studies met all inclusion criteria. Significant deactivations in the amygdala, insula, thalamus and hippocampus, as well as activation of the medial orbitofrontal cortex, were observed after CBT in phobic patients when compared with controls. Conclusion: In spite of their technical limitations, neuroimaging techniques provide neurobiological support for the efficacy of CBT in the treatment of phobic disorders. Further studies are needed to confirm this conclusion.

  16. Neuroimaging in status epilepticus secondary to paraneoplastic autoimmune encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarria-Estrada, S.; Toledo, M.; Lorenzo-Bosquet, C.; Cuberas-Borrós, G.; Auger, C.; Siurana, S.; Rovira, À.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To describe the characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of paraneoplastic autoimmune encephalitis in patients with new-onset status epilepticus. Materials and methods: The neuroimaging and clinical data of five patients with paraneoplastic autoimmune encephalitis debuting as status epilepticus were retrospectively reviewed. All patients met the criteria for definite paraneoplastic syndrome and all underwent brain MRI during the status epilepticus episode or immediately after recovery. Results: All patients showed hyperintense lesions on T2-weighted imaging (WI) involving the limbic structures, specifically the hippocampus. Three of them showed additional extra-limbic areas of signal abnormalities. The areas of T2 hyperintensity were related to the electroclinical onset of the seizures. In three patients, various techniques were used to study cerebral perfusion, such as arterial spin labelling MRI, single photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) and 2-[ 18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)-positron-emission tomography (PET). Arterial spin labelling showed hyperperfusion overlapping the inflammatory lesions, whereas PET and SPECT disclosed increased perfusion and increased metabolism. The subtraction SPECT co-registered to MRI (SISCOM) demonstrated hypermetabolism outside the areas of encephalitis. After clinical recovery, follow-up MRI revealed the development of atrophy in the initially affected hippocampus. Two patients who had recurrent paraneoplastic autoimmune encephalitis manifesting as status epilepticus showed new T2 lesions involving different structures. Conclusion: The presence of limbic and extra-limbic T2 signal abnormalities in new-onset status epilepticus should suggest the diagnosis of a paraneoplastic syndrome, especially when status epilepticus is refractory to treatment. The lesions are consistently seen as hyperintense on T2WI. - Highlights: • New onset status epilepticus can be caused by paraneoplastic encephalitis.

  17. Neuroimaging in status epilepticus secondary to paraneoplastic autoimmune encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarria-Estrada, S., E-mail: ssarria@idi-cat.org [Magnetic Resonance Unit, Radiology Department, Vall d' Hebrón University Hospital, Barcelona (Spain); Toledo, M. [Epilepsy Unit, Neurology Department, Vall d' Hebrón University Hospital, Barcelona (Spain); Lorenzo-Bosquet, C.; Cuberas-Borrós, G. [Nuclear Medicine Department, Vall d' Hebrón University Hospital, Barcelona (Spain); Auger, C.; Siurana, S.; Rovira, À. [Magnetic Resonance Unit, Radiology Department, Vall d' Hebrón University Hospital, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-08-15

    Aim: To describe the characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of paraneoplastic autoimmune encephalitis in patients with new-onset status epilepticus. Materials and methods: The neuroimaging and clinical data of five patients with paraneoplastic autoimmune encephalitis debuting as status epilepticus were retrospectively reviewed. All patients met the criteria for definite paraneoplastic syndrome and all underwent brain MRI during the status epilepticus episode or immediately after recovery. Results: All patients showed hyperintense lesions on T2-weighted imaging (WI) involving the limbic structures, specifically the hippocampus. Three of them showed additional extra-limbic areas of signal abnormalities. The areas of T2 hyperintensity were related to the electroclinical onset of the seizures. In three patients, various techniques were used to study cerebral perfusion, such as arterial spin labelling MRI, single photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) and 2-[{sup 18}F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)-positron-emission tomography (PET). Arterial spin labelling showed hyperperfusion overlapping the inflammatory lesions, whereas PET and SPECT disclosed increased perfusion and increased metabolism. The subtraction SPECT co-registered to MRI (SISCOM) demonstrated hypermetabolism outside the areas of encephalitis. After clinical recovery, follow-up MRI revealed the development of atrophy in the initially affected hippocampus. Two patients who had recurrent paraneoplastic autoimmune encephalitis manifesting as status epilepticus showed new T2 lesions involving different structures. Conclusion: The presence of limbic and extra-limbic T2 signal abnormalities in new-onset status epilepticus should suggest the diagnosis of a paraneoplastic syndrome, especially when status epilepticus is refractory to treatment. The lesions are consistently seen as hyperintense on T2WI. - Highlights: • New onset status epilepticus can be caused by paraneoplastic encephalitis

  18. Behavioural, computational, and neuroimaging studies of acquired apraxia of speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirrie J Ballard

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A critical examination of speech motor control depends on an in-depth understanding of network connectivity associated with Brodmann areas 44 and 45 and surrounding cortices. Damage to these areas has been associated with two conditions - the speech motor programming disorder apraxia of speech (AOS and the linguistic / grammatical disorder of Broca’s aphasia. Here we focus on AOS, which is most commonly associated with damage to posterior Broca's area and adjacent cortex. We provide an overview of our own studies into the nature of AOS, including behavioral and neuroimaging methods, to explore components of the speech motor network that are associated with normal and disordered speech motor programming in AOS. Behavioral, neuroimaging, and computational modeling studies are indicating that AOS is associated with impairment in learning feedforward models and/or implementing feedback mechanisms and with the functional contribution of BA6. While functional connectivity methods are not yet routinely applied to the study of AOS, we highlight the need for focusing on the functional impact of localised lesions throughout the speech network, as well as larger scale comparative studies to distinguish the unique behavioral and neurological signature of AOS. By coupling these methods with neural network models, we have a powerful set of tools to improve our understanding of the neural mechanisms that underlie AOS, and speech production generally.

  19. Neuroimaging of nonaccidental head trauma: pitfalls and controversies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernando, Sujan [University of Missouri-Kansas School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Kansas City, MO (United States); Obaldo, Ruby E. [The University of Kansas Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Kansas City, MO (United States); Walsh, Irene R. [The University of Missouri-Kansas City, Children' s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Emergency Medicine, Kansas City, MO (United States); Lowe, Lisa H. [The University of Missouri-Kansas City, Children' s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Radiology, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2008-08-15

    Although certain neuroimaging appearances are highly suggestive of abuse, radiological findings are often nonspecific. The objective of this review is to discuss pitfalls, controversies, and mimics occurring in neuroimaging of nonaccidental head trauma in order to allow the reader to establish an increased level of comfort in distinguishing between nonaccidental and accidental head trauma. Specific topics discussed include risk factors, general biomechanics and imaging strategies in nonaccidental head trauma, followed by the characteristics of skull fractures, normal prominent tentorium and falx versus subdural hematoma, birth trauma versus nonaccidental head trauma, hyperacute versus acute on chronic subdural hematomas, expanded subarachnoid space versus subdural hemorrhage, controversy regarding subdural hematomas associated with benign enlarged subarachnoid spaces, controversy regarding hypoxia as a cause of subdural hematoma and/or retinal hemorrhages without trauma, controversy regarding the significance of retinal hemorrhages related to nonaccidental head trauma, controversy regarding the significance of subdural hematomas in general, and pitfalls of glutaric aciduria type 1 and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis mimicking nonaccidental head trauma. (orig.)

  20. Neuroimaging in the Diagnostic Evaluation of Eye Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatmáry, Gabriella

    2016-09-01

    Ocular or eye pain is a frequent complaint encountered not only by eye care providers but neurologists. Isolated eye pain is non-specific and non-localizing; therefore, it poses significant differential diagnostic problems. A wide range of neurologic and ophthalmic disorders may cause pain in, around, or behind the eye. These include ocular and orbital diseases and primary and secondary headaches. In patients presenting with an isolated and chronic eye pain, neuroimaging is usually normal. However, at the beginning of a disease process or in low-grade disease, the eye may appear "quiet," misleading a provider lacking familiarity with underlying disorders and high index of clinical suspicion. Delayed diagnosis of some neuro-ophthalmic causes of eye pain could result in significant neurologic and ophthalmic morbidity, conceivably even mortality. This article reviews some recent advances in imaging of the eye, the orbit, and the brain, as well as research in which neuroimaging has advanced the discovery of the underlying pathophysiology and the complex differential diagnosis of eye pain.

  1. DFBIdb: a software package for neuroimaging data management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Christopher L; Wood, Amanda G

    2010-12-01

    We present DFBIdb: a suite of tools for efficient management of neuroimaging project data. Specifically, DFBIdb was designed to allow users to quickly perform routine management tasks of sorting, archiving, exploring, exporting and organising raw data. DFBIdb was implemented as a collection of Python scripts that maintain a project-based, centralised database that is based on the XCEDE 2 data model. Project data is imported from a filesystem hierarchy of raw files, which is an often-used convention of imaging devices, using a single script that catalogues meta-data into a modified XCEDE 2 data model. During the import process data are reversibly anonymised, archived and compressed. The import script was designed to support multiple file formats and features an extensible framework that can be adapted to novel file formats. An ACL-based security model, with accompanying graphical management tools, was implemented to provide a straightforward method to restrict access to raw and meta-data. Graphical user interfaces are provided for data exploration. DFBIdb includes facilities to export, convert and organise customisable subsets of project data according to user-specified criteria. The command-line interface was implemented to allow users to incorporate database commands into more complex scripts that may be utilised to automate data management tasks. By using DFBIdb, neuroimaging laboratories will be able to perform routine data management tasks in an efficient manner.

  2. Publication trends in neuroimaging of minimally conscious states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Garnett

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We used existing and customized bibliometric and scientometric methods to analyze publication trends in neuroimaging research of minimally conscious states and describe the domain in terms of its geographic, contributor, and content features. We considered publication rates for the years 2002–2011, author interconnections, the rate at which new authors are added, and the domains that inform the work of author contributors. We also provided a content analysis of clinical and ethical themes within the relevant literature. We found a 27% growth in the number of papers over the period of study, professional diversity among a wide range of peripheral author contributors but only few authors who dominate the field, and few new technical paradigms and clinical themes that would fundamentally expand the landscape. The results inform both the science of consciousness as well as parallel ethics and policy studies of the potential for translational challenges of neuroimaging in research and health care of people with disordered states of consciousness.

  3. [Neuropsychology of Tourette's disorder: cognition, neuroimaging and creativity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espert, R; Gadea, M; Alino, M; Oltra-Cucarella, J

    2017-02-24

    Tourette's disorder is the result of fronto-striatal brain dysfunction affecting people of all ages, with a debut in early childhood and continuing into adolescence and adulthood. This article reviews the main cognitive, functional neuroimaging and creativity-related studies in a disorder characterized by an excess of dopamine in the brain. Given the special cerebral configuration of these patients, neuropsychological alterations, especially in executive functions, should be expected. However, the findings are inconclusive and are conditioned by factors such as comorbidity with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder, age or methodological variables. On the other hand, the neuroimaging studies carried out over the last decade have been able to explain the clinical symptoms of Tourette's disorder patients, with special relevance for the supplementary motor area and the anterior cingulate gyrus. Finally, although there is no linear relationship between excess of dopamine and creativity, the scientific literature emphasizes an association between Tourette's disorder and musical creativity, which could be translated into intervention programs based on music.

  4. Self-development: integrating cognitive, socioemotional, and neuroimaging perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Jennifer H; Peake, Shannon J

    2012-01-01

    This review integrates cognitive, socioemotional, and neuroimaging perspectives on self-development. Neural correlates of key processes implicated in personal and social identity are reported from studies of children, adolescents, and adults, including autobiographical memory, direct and reflected self-appraisals, and social exclusion. While cortical midline structures of medial prefrontal cortex and medial posterior parietal cortex are consistently identified in neuroimaging studies considering personal identity from a primarily cognitive perspective ("who am I?"), additional regions are implicated by studies considering personal and social identity from a more socioemotional perspective ("what do others think about me, where do I fit in?"), especially in child or adolescent samples. The involvement of these additional regions (including tempo-parietal junction and posterior superior temporal sulcus, temporal poles, anterior insula, ventral striatum, anterior cingulate cortex, middle cingulate cortex, and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex) suggests mentalizing, emotion, and emotion regulation are central to self-development. In addition, these regions appear to function atypically during personal and social identity tasks in autism and depression, exhibiting a broad pattern of hypoactivation and hyperactivation, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. PET-based molecular nuclear neuro-imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Ho

    2004-01-01

    Molecular nuclear neuro-imaging in CNS drug discovery and development can be divided into four categories that are clearly inter-related. (1) Neuroreceptor mapping to examine the involvement of specific neurotransmitter system in CNS diseases, drug occupancy characteristics and perhaps examine mechanisms of action;(2) Structural and spectroscopic imaging to examine morphological changes and their consequences;(3) Metabolic mapping to provide evidence of central activity and CNS fingerprinting the neuroanatomy of drug effects;(4) Functional mapping to examine disease-drug interactions. In addition, targeted delivery of therapeutic agents could be achieved by modifying stem cells to release specific drugs at the site of transplantation('stem cell pharmacology'). Future exploitation of stem cell biology, including enhanced release of therapeutic factors through genetic stem cell engineering might thus constitute promising pharmaceutical approaches to treating diseases of the nervous system. With continued improvements in instrumentation, identification of better imaging probes by innovative chemistry, molecular nuclear neuro-imaging promise to play increasingly important roles in disease diagnosis and therapy

  6. Cholinergic modulation of cognition: Insights from human pharmacological functional neuroimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Paul; Driver, Jon; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from lesion and cortical-slice studies implicate the neocortical cholinergic system in the modulation of sensory, attentional and memory processing. In this review we consider findings from sixty-three healthy human cholinergic functional neuroimaging studies that probe interactions of cholinergic drugs with brain activation profiles, and relate these to contemporary neurobiological models. Consistent patterns that emerge are: (1) the direction of cholinergic modulation of sensory cortex activations depends upon top-down influences; (2) cholinergic hyperstimulation reduces top-down selective modulation of sensory cortices; (3) cholinergic hyperstimulation interacts with task-specific frontoparietal activations according to one of several patterns, including: suppression of parietal-mediated reorienting; decreasing ‘effort’-associated activations in prefrontal regions; and deactivation of a ‘resting-state network’ in medial cortex, with reciprocal recruitment of dorsolateral frontoparietal regions during performance-challenging conditions; (4) encoding-related activations in both neocortical and hippocampal regions are disrupted by cholinergic blockade, or enhanced with cholinergic stimulation, while the opposite profile is observed during retrieval; (5) many examples exist of an ‘inverted-U shaped’ pattern of cholinergic influences by which the direction of functional neural activation (and performance) depends upon both task (e.g. relative difficulty) and subject (e.g. age) factors. Overall, human cholinergic functional neuroimaging studies both corroborate and extend physiological accounts of cholinergic function arising from other experimental contexts, while providing mechanistic insights into cholinergic-acting drugs and their potential clinical applications. PMID:21708219

  7. Investigating the pathogenesis of posttraumatic stress disorder with neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, R K; Shin, L M; Rauch, S L

    2001-01-01

    Rapidly evolving brain neuroimaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) are proving fruitful in exploring the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Structural abnormalities in PTSD found with MRI include nonspecific white matter lesions and decreased hippocampal volume. These abnormalities may reflect pretrauma vulnerability to develop PTSD, or they may be a consequence of traumatic exposure, PTSD, and/or PTSD sequelae. Functional neuroimaging symptom provocation and cognitive activation paradigms using PET measurement of regional cerebral blood flow have revealed greater activation of the amygdala and anterior paralimbic structures (which are known to be involved in processing negative emotions such as fear), greater deactivation of Broca's region (motor speech) and other nonlimbic cortical regions, and failure of activation of the cingulate cortex (which possibly plays an inhibitory role) in response to trauma-related stimuli in individuals with PTSD. Functional MRI research has shown the amygdala to be hyperresponsive to fear-related stimuli in this disorder. Research with PET suggests that cortical, notably hippocampal, metabolism is suppressed to a greater extent by pharmacologic stimulation of the noradrenergic system in persons with PTSD. The growth of knowledge concerning the anatomical and neurochemical basis of this important mental disorder will hopefully eventually lead to rational psychological and pharmacologic treatments.

  8. PET-based molecular nuclear neuro-imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Ho [Gil Medical Center, Gachon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-04-01

    Molecular nuclear neuro-imaging in CNS drug discovery and development can be divided into four categories that are clearly inter-related. (1) Neuroreceptor mapping to examine the involvement of specific neurotransmitter system in CNS diseases, drug occupancy characteristics and perhaps examine mechanisms of action;(2) Structural and spectroscopic imaging to examine morphological changes and their consequences;(3) Metabolic mapping to provide evidence of central activity and CNS fingerprinting the neuroanatomy of drug effects;(4) Functional mapping to examine disease-drug interactions. In addition, targeted delivery of therapeutic agents could be achieved by modifying stem cells to release specific drugs at the site of transplantation('stem cell pharmacology'). Future exploitation of stem cell biology, including enhanced release of therapeutic factors through genetic stem cell engineering might thus constitute promising pharmaceutical approaches to treating diseases of the nervous system. With continued improvements in instrumentation, identification of better imaging probes by innovative chemistry, molecular nuclear neuro-imaging promise to play increasingly important roles in disease diagnosis and therapy.

  9. Neuroimaging of nonaccidental head trauma: pitfalls and controversies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernando, Sujan; Obaldo, Ruby E.; Walsh, Irene R.; Lowe, Lisa H.

    2008-01-01

    Although certain neuroimaging appearances are highly suggestive of abuse, radiological findings are often nonspecific. The objective of this review is to discuss pitfalls, controversies, and mimics occurring in neuroimaging of nonaccidental head trauma in order to allow the reader to establish an increased level of comfort in distinguishing between nonaccidental and accidental head trauma. Specific topics discussed include risk factors, general biomechanics and imaging strategies in nonaccidental head trauma, followed by the characteristics of skull fractures, normal prominent tentorium and falx versus subdural hematoma, birth trauma versus nonaccidental head trauma, hyperacute versus acute on chronic subdural hematomas, expanded subarachnoid space versus subdural hemorrhage, controversy regarding subdural hematomas associated with benign enlarged subarachnoid spaces, controversy regarding hypoxia as a cause of subdural hematoma and/or retinal hemorrhages without trauma, controversy regarding the significance of retinal hemorrhages related to nonaccidental head trauma, controversy regarding the significance of subdural hematomas in general, and pitfalls of glutaric aciduria type 1 and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis mimicking nonaccidental head trauma. (orig.)

  10. Neuroimaging of amblyopia and binocular vision: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Olivier; Frankó, Edit

    2014-01-01

    Amblyopia is a cerebral visual impairment considered to derive from abnormal visual experience (e.g., strabismus, anisometropia). Amblyopia, first considered as a monocular disorder, is now often seen as a primarily binocular disorder resulting in more and more studies examining the binocular deficits in the patients. The neural mechanisms of amblyopia are not completely understood even though they have been investigated with electrophysiological recordings in animal models and more recently with neuroimaging techniques in humans. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about the brain regions that underlie the visual deficits associated with amblyopia with a focus on binocular vision using functional magnetic resonance imaging. The first studies focused on abnormal responses in the primary and secondary visual areas whereas recent evidence shows that there are also deficits at higher levels of the visual pathways within the parieto-occipital and temporal cortices. These higher level areas are part of the cortical network involved in 3D vision from binocular cues. Therefore, reduced responses in these areas could be related to the impaired binocular vision in amblyopic patients. Promising new binocular treatments might at least partially correct the activation in these areas. Future neuroimaging experiments could help to characterize the brain response changes associated with these treatments and help devise them.

  11. Neuroimaging of amblyopia and binocular vision: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier eJoly

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Amblyopia is a cerebral visual impairment considered to derive from abnormal visual experience (e.g., strabismus, anisometropia. Amblyopia, first considered as a monocular disorder, is now often seen as a primarily binocular disorder resulting in more and more studies examining the binocular deficits in the patients. The neural mechanisms of amblyopia are not completely understood even though they have been investigated with electrophysiological recordings in animal models and more recently with neuroimaging techniques in humans. In this review, we summarise the current knowledge about the brain regions that underlie the visual deficits associated with amblyopia with a focus on binocular vision using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. The first studies focused on abnormal responses in the primary and secondary visual areas whereas recent evidence show that there are also deficits at higher levels of the visual pathways within the parieto-occipital and temporal cortices. These higher level areas are part of the cortical network involved in 3D vision from binocular cues. Therefore, reduced responses in these areas could be related to the impaired binocular vision in amblyopic patients. Promising new binocular treatments might at least partially correct the activation in these areas. Future neuroimaging experiments could help to characterise the brain response changes associated with these treatments and help devise them.

  12. Model sparsity and brain pattern interpretation of classification models in neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Churchill, Nathan W

    2012-01-01

    Interest is increasing in applying discriminative multivariate analysis techniques to the analysis of functional neuroimaging data. Model interpretation is of great importance in the neuroimaging context, and is conventionally based on a ‘brain map’ derived from the classification model. In this ...

  13. NeuroDebian Virtual Machine Deployment Facilitates Trainee-Driven Bedside Neuroimaging Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alexander; Kenney-Jung, Daniel; Botha, Hugo; Tillema, Jan-Mendelt

    2017-01-01

    Freely available software, derived from the past 2 decades of neuroimaging research, is significantly more flexible for research purposes than presently available clinical tools. Here, we describe and demonstrate the utility of rapidly deployable analysis software to facilitate trainee-driven translational neuroimaging research. A recipe and video tutorial were created to guide the creation of a NeuroDebian-based virtual computer that conforms to current neuroimaging research standards and can exist within a HIPAA-compliant system. This allows for retrieval of clinical imaging data, conversion to standard file formats, and rapid visualization and quantification of individual patients' cortical and subcortical anatomy. As an example, we apply this pipeline to a pediatric patient's data to illustrate the advantages of research-derived neuroimaging tools in asking quantitative questions "at the bedside." Our goal is to provide a path of entry for trainees to become familiar with common neuroimaging tools and foster an increased interest in translational research.

  14. Neuroimaging in refractory epilepsy. Current practice and evolving trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramli, N.; Rahmat, K.; Lim, K.S.; Tan, C.T.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Neuroimaging is imperative in diagnostic work up and therapeutic assessment of refractory epilepsy. • Identification of epileptogenic zone on EEG, MRI and functional imaging improves the success of surgery. • High performance MRI greatly enhanced metabolic information and elucidate brain functions. • Optimisation of epilepsy protocols in structural and functional MRI are presented in this article. - Abstract: Identification of the epileptogenic zone is of paramount importance in refractory epilepsy as the success of surgical treatment depends on complete resection of the epileptogenic zone. Imaging plays an important role in the locating and defining anatomic epileptogenic abnormalities in patients with medically refractory epilepsy. The aim of this article is to present an overview of the current MRI sequences used in epilepsy imaging with special emphasis of lesion seen in our practices. Optimisation of epilepsy imaging protocols are addressed and current trends in functional MRI sequences including MR spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging and fusion MR with PET and SPECT are discussed

  15. Neuroimaging of psychopathy and antisocial behavior: a targeted review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, R J R

    2010-02-01

    The goal of this article is to provide a selective and targeted review of the neuroimaging literature on psychopathic tendencies and antisocial behavior and to explore the extent to which this literature supports recent cognitive neuroscientific models of psychopathy and antisocial behavior. The literature reveals that individuals who present with an increased risk for reactive, but not instrumental, aggression show increased amygdala responses to emotionally evocative stimuli. This is consistent with suggestions that such individuals are primed to respond strongly to an inappropriate extent to threatening or frustrating events. In contrast, individuals with psychopathic tendencies show decreased amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex responses to emotionally provocative stimuli or during emotional learning paradigms. This is consistent with suggestions that such individuals face difficulties with basic forms of emotional learning and decision making.

  16. Neuroimaging in refractory epilepsy. Current practice and evolving trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramli, N. [Department of Biomedical Imaging, University Malaya Research Imaging Centre (Malaysia); Rahmat, K., E-mail: katt_xr2000@yahoo.com [Department of Biomedical Imaging, University Malaya Research Imaging Centre (Malaysia); Lim, K.S.; Tan, C.T. [Neurology Unit, Department of Medicine, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Neuroimaging is imperative in diagnostic work up and therapeutic assessment of refractory epilepsy. • Identification of epileptogenic zone on EEG, MRI and functional imaging improves the success of surgery. • High performance MRI greatly enhanced metabolic information and elucidate brain functions. • Optimisation of epilepsy protocols in structural and functional MRI are presented in this article. - Abstract: Identification of the epileptogenic zone is of paramount importance in refractory epilepsy as the success of surgical treatment depends on complete resection of the epileptogenic zone. Imaging plays an important role in the locating and defining anatomic epileptogenic abnormalities in patients with medically refractory epilepsy. The aim of this article is to present an overview of the current MRI sequences used in epilepsy imaging with special emphasis of lesion seen in our practices. Optimisation of epilepsy imaging protocols are addressed and current trends in functional MRI sequences including MR spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging and fusion MR with PET and SPECT are discussed.

  17. Motivating forces of human actions. Neuroimaging reward and social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Henrik; Abler, Birgit; Ciaramidaro, Angela; Erk, Susanne

    2005-11-15

    In neuroeconomics, reward and social interaction are central concepts to understand what motivates human behaviour. Both concepts are investigated in humans using neuroimaging methods. In this paper, we provide an overview about these results and discuss their relevance for economic behaviour. For reward it has been shown that a system exists in humans that is involved in predicting rewards and thus guides behaviour, involving a circuit including the striatum, the orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala. Recent studies on social interaction revealed a mentalizing system representing the mental states of others. A central part of this system is the medial prefrontal cortex, in particular the anterior paracingulate cortex. The reward as well as the mentalizing system is engaged in economic decision-making. We will discuss implications of this study for neuromarketing as well as general implications of these results that may help to provide deeper insights into the motivating forces of human behaviour.

  18. Cranial neuroimaging in pregnancy and the post-partum period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortimer, A.M.; Bradley, M.D.; Likeman, M.; Stoodley, N.G.; Renowden, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Several diverse neurological conditions may be seen during pregnancy and the post partum period. These usually require neuroimaging for definitive diagnosis and range from a predisposition to neurovascular abnormalities, such as acute ischaemic stroke and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, through to more specific pregnancy-related conditions, such as eclampsia/posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy and post-partum angiopathy. Additionally, the pregnant patient is predisposed to pituitary disease. It is necessary that the radiologist has an awareness of these conditions to allow swift specific diagnoses or suggest the most appropriate diagnosis when imaging findings are non-specific. We describe epidemiological and radiological features to allow the radiologist to guide the clinician in management, and review guidelines for safe cranial imaging of the pregnant patient

  19. Recent neuroimaging techniques in mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Heather G; Vanderploeg, Rodney D; Curtiss, Glenn; Warden, Deborah L

    2007-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized by acute physiological changes that result in at least some acute cognitive difficulties and typically resolve by 3 months postinjury. Because the majority of mild TBI patients have normal structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/computed tomography (CT) scans, there is increasing attention directed at finding objective physiological correlates of persistent cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms through experimental neuroimaging techniques. The authors review studies utilizing these techniques in patients with mild TBI; these techniques may provide more sensitive assessment of structural and functional abnormalities following mild TBI. Particular promise is evident with fMRI, PET, and SPECT scanning, as demonstrated by associations between brain activation and clinical outcomes.

  20. Functional and molecular neuroimaging of menopause and hormone replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comasco, Erika; Frøkjær, Vibe; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2014-01-01

    The level of gonadal hormones to which the female brain is exposed considerably changes across the menopausal transition, which in turn, is likely to be of great relevance for neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders. However, the neurobiological consequences of these hormone fluctuat......The level of gonadal hormones to which the female brain is exposed considerably changes across the menopausal transition, which in turn, is likely to be of great relevance for neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders. However, the neurobiological consequences of these hormone...... fluctuations and of hormone replacement therapy in the menopause have only begun to be understood. The present review summarizes the findings of thirty-five studies of human brain function, including functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron and single-photon computed emission tomography studies, in peri......-controlled multi-modal prospective neuroimaging studies as well as investigation on the related molecular mechanisms of effects of menopausal hormonal variations on the brain....

  1. Clinical functional MRI. Persurgical functional neuroimaging. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stippich, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The second, revised edition of this successful textbook provides an up-to-date description of the use of preoperative fMRI in patients with brain tumors and epilepsies. State of the art fMRI procedures are presented, with detailed consideration of practical aspects, imaging and data processing, normal and pathological findings, and diagnostic possibilities and limitations. Relevant information on brain physiology, functional neuroanatomy, imaging technique, and methodology is provided by recognized experts in these fields. Compared with the first edition, chapters have been updated to reflect the latest developments and in particular the current use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and resting-state fMRI. Entirely new chapters are included on resting-state presurgical fMRI and the role of DTI and tractography in brain tumor surgery. Further chapters address multimodality functional neuroimaging, brain plasticity, and pitfalls, tips, and tricks.

  2. Clinical functional MRI. Persurgical functional neuroimaging. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stippich, Christoph (ed.) [Univ. Hospitals Basel (Switzerland). Division of Diagnostic and Inventional Neuroradiology

    2015-06-01

    The second, revised edition of this successful textbook provides an up-to-date description of the use of preoperative fMRI in patients with brain tumors and epilepsies. State of the art fMRI procedures are presented, with detailed consideration of practical aspects, imaging and data processing, normal and pathological findings, and diagnostic possibilities and limitations. Relevant information on brain physiology, functional neuroanatomy, imaging technique, and methodology is provided by recognized experts in these fields. Compared with the first edition, chapters have been updated to reflect the latest developments and in particular the current use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and resting-state fMRI. Entirely new chapters are included on resting-state presurgical fMRI and the role of DTI and tractography in brain tumor surgery. Further chapters address multimodality functional neuroimaging, brain plasticity, and pitfalls, tips, and tricks.

  3. Multimodal Neuroimaging Differences in Nicotine Abstinent vs. Satiated Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaarani, Bader; Spechler, Philip A; Ivanciu, Alexandra; Snowe, Mitchell; Nickerson, Joshua P; Higgins, Stephen T; Garavan, Hugh

    2018-04-06

    Research on cigarette smokers suggests cognitive and behavioral impairments. However, much remains unclear how the functional neurobiology of smokers is influenced by nicotine state. Therefore, we sought to determine which state, be it acute nicotine abstinence or satiety, would yield the most robust differences compared to non-smokers when assessing neurobiological markers of nicotine dependence. Smokers(N=15) and sociodemographically matched non-smokers(N=15) were scanned twice using a repeated-measures design. Smokers were scanned after a 24-hour nicotine abstinence, and immediately after smoking their usual brand cigarette. The neuroimaging battery included a stop-signal task of response inhibition and pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF). Whole brain voxel-wise ANCOVAs were carried out on stop success and stop fail SST contrasts and CBF maps to assess differences among non-, abstinent and satiated smokers. Cluster-correction was performed using AFNI's 3dClustSim to achieve a significance of pSmokers exhibited higher brain activation in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), a brain region known to be involved in inhibitory control, during successful response inhibitions relative to non-smokers. This effect was significantly higher during nicotine abstinence relative to satiety. Smokers also exhibited lower CBF in the bilateral IFG than non-smokers. These hypo-perfusions were not different between abstinence and satiety. These findings converge on alterations in smokers in prefrontal circuits known to be critical for inhibitory control. These effects are present, even when smokers are satiated, but the neural activity required to achieve performance equal to controls is increased when smokers are in acute abstinence. Our multi-modal neuroimaging study gives neurobiological insights into the cognitive demands of maintaining abstinence and suggest targets for assessing the efficacy of therapeutic interventions.

  4. Insulin action in the human brain: evidence from neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullmann, S; Heni, M; Fritsche, A; Preissl, H

    2015-06-01

    Thus far, little is known about the action of insulin in the human brain. Nonetheless, recent advances in modern neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) or magnetoencephalography (MEG), have made it possible to investigate the action of insulin in the brain in humans, providing new insights into the pathogenesis of brain insulin resistance and obesity. Using MEG, the clinical relevance of the action of insulin in the brain was first identified, linking cerebral insulin resistance with peripheral insulin resistance, genetic predisposition and weight loss success in obese adults. Although MEG is a suitable tool for measuring brain activity mainly in cortical areas, fMRI provides high spatial resolution for cortical as well as subcortical regions. Thus, the action of insulin can be detected within all eating behaviour relevant regions, which include regions deeply located within the brain, such as the hypothalamus, midbrain and brainstem, as well as regions within the striatum. In this review, we outline recent advances in the field of neuroimaging aiming to investigate the action of insulin in the human brain using different routes of insulin administration. fMRI studies have shown a significant insulin-induced attenuation predominantly in the occipital and prefrontal cortical regions and the hypothalamus, successfully localising insulin-sensitive brain regions in healthy, mostly normal-weight individuals. However, further studies are needed to localise brain areas affected by insulin resistance in obese individuals, which is an important prerequisite for selectively targeting brain insulin resistance in obesity. © 2015 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  5. Neural correlates of the LSD experience revealed by multimodal neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, Robin L; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh; Roseman, Leor; Kaelen, Mendel; Droog, Wouter; Murphy, Kevin; Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Schenberg, Eduardo E; Nest, Timothy; Orban, Csaba; Leech, Robert; Williams, Luke T; Williams, Tim M; Bolstridge, Mark; Sessa, Ben; McGonigle, John; Sereno, Martin I; Nichols, David; Hellyer, Peter J; Hobden, Peter; Evans, John; Singh, Krish D; Wise, Richard G; Curran, H Valerie; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J

    2016-04-26

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is the prototypical psychedelic drug, but its effects on the human brain have never been studied before with modern neuroimaging. Here, three complementary neuroimaging techniques: arterial spin labeling (ASL), blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) measures, and magnetoencephalography (MEG), implemented during resting state conditions, revealed marked changes in brain activity after LSD that correlated strongly with its characteristic psychological effects. Increased visual cortex cerebral blood flow (CBF), decreased visual cortex alpha power, and a greatly expanded primary visual cortex (V1) functional connectivity profile correlated strongly with ratings of visual hallucinations, implying that intrinsic brain activity exerts greater influence on visual processing in the psychedelic state, thereby defining its hallucinatory quality. LSD's marked effects on the visual cortex did not significantly correlate with the drug's other characteristic effects on consciousness, however. Rather, decreased connectivity between the parahippocampus and retrosplenial cortex (RSC) correlated strongly with ratings of "ego-dissolution" and "altered meaning," implying the importance of this particular circuit for the maintenance of "self" or "ego" and its processing of "meaning." Strong relationships were also found between the different imaging metrics, enabling firmer inferences to be made about their functional significance. This uniquely comprehensive examination of the LSD state represents an important advance in scientific research with psychedelic drugs at a time of growing interest in their scientific and therapeutic value. The present results contribute important new insights into the characteristic hallucinatory and consciousness-altering properties of psychedelics that inform on how they can model certain pathological states and potentially treat others.

  6. Ethical concepts and future challenges of neuroimaging: an Islamic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Delaimy, Wael K

    2012-09-01

    Neuroscience is advancing at a rapid pace, with new technologies and approaches that are creating ethical challenges not easily addressed by current ethical frameworks and guidelines. One fascinating technology is neuroimaging, especially functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Although still in its infancy, fMRI is breaking new ground in neuroscience, potentially offering increased understanding of brain function. Different populations and faith traditions will likely have different reactions to these new technologies and the ethical challenges they bring with them. Muslims are approximately one-fifth of world population and they have a specific and highly regulated ethical and moral code, which helps them deal with scientific advances and decision making processes in an Islamically ethical manner. From this ethical perspective, in light of the relevant tenets of Islam, neuroimaging poses various challenges. The privacy of spirituality and the thought process, the requirement to put community interest before individual interest, and emphasis on conscious confession in legal situations are Islamic concepts that can pose a challenge for the use of something intrusive such as an fMRI. Muslim moral concepts such as There shall be no harm inflicted or reciprocated in Islam and Necessities overrule prohibitions are some of the criteria that might appropriately be used to guide advancing neuroscience. Neuroscientists should be particularly prudent and well prepared in implementing neuroscience advances that are breaking new scientific and ethical ground. Neuroscientists should also be prepared to assist in setting the ethical frameworks in place in advance of what might be perceived as runaway applications of technology.

  7. Porcupine: A visual pipeline tool for neuroimaging analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim van Mourik

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The field of neuroimaging is rapidly adopting a more reproducible approach to data acquisition and analysis. Data structures and formats are being standardised and data analyses are getting more automated. However, as data analysis becomes more complicated, researchers often have to write longer analysis scripts, spanning different tools across multiple programming languages. This makes it more difficult to share or recreate code, reducing the reproducibility of the analysis. We present a tool, Porcupine, that constructs one's analysis visually and automatically produces analysis code. The graphical representation improves understanding of the performed analysis, while retaining the flexibility of modifying the produced code manually to custom needs. Not only does Porcupine produce the analysis code, it also creates a shareable environment for running the code in the form of a Docker image. Together, this forms a reproducible way of constructing, visualising and sharing one's analysis. Currently, Porcupine links to Nipype functionalities, which in turn accesses most standard neuroimaging analysis tools. Our goal is to release researchers from the constraints of specific implementation details, thereby freeing them to think about novel and creative ways to solve a given problem. Porcupine improves the overview researchers have of their processing pipelines, and facilitates both the development and communication of their work. This will reduce the threshold at which less expert users can generate reusable pipelines. With Porcupine, we bridge the gap between a conceptual and an implementational level of analysis and make it easier for researchers to create reproducible and shareable science. We provide a wide range of examples and documentation, as well as installer files for all platforms on our website: https://timvanmourik.github.io/Porcupine. Porcupine is free, open source, and released under the GNU General Public License v3.0.

  8. Neuroimaging classification of progression patterns in glioblastoma: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Rory J; Senthil, Keerthi K; Yan, Jiun-Lin; Price, Stephen J

    2018-03-30

    Our primary objective was to report the current neuroimaging classification systems of spatial patterns of progression in glioblastoma. In addition, we aimed to report the terminology used to describe 'progression' and to assess the compliance with the Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) Criteria. We conducted a systematic review to identify all neuroimaging studies of glioblastoma that have employed a categorical classification system of spatial progression patterns. Our review was registered with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) registry. From the included 157 results, we identified 129 studies that used labels of spatial progression patterns that were not based on radiation volumes (Group 1) and 50 studies that used labels that were based on radiation volumes (Group 2). In Group 1, we found 113 individual labels and the most frequent were: local/localised (58%), distant/distal (51%), diffuse (20%), multifocal (15%) and subependymal/subventricular zone (15%). We identified 13 different labels used to refer to 'progression', of which the most frequent were 'recurrence' (99%) and 'progression' (92%). We identified that 37% (n = 33/90) of the studies published following the release of the RANO classification were adherent compliant with the RANO criteria. Our review reports significant heterogeneity in the published systems used to classify glioblastoma spatial progression patterns. Standardization of terminology and classification systems used in studying progression would increase the efficiency of our research in our attempts to more successfully treat glioblastoma.

  9. Application of neuroanatomical ontologies for neuroimaging data annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A Turner

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The annotation of functional neuroimaging results for data sharing and reuse is particularly challenging, due to the diversity of terminologies of neuroanatomical structures and cortical parcellation schemes. To address this challenge, we extended the Foundational Model of Anatomy Ontology (FMA to include cytoarchitectural, Brodmann area labels, and a morphological cortical labeling scheme (e.g., the part of Brodmann area 6 in the left precentral gyrus. This representation was also used to augment the neuroanatomical axis of RadLex, the ontology for clinical imaging. The resulting neuroanatomical ontology contains explicit relationships indicating which brain regions are “part of” which other regions, across cytoarchitectural and morphological labeling schemas. We annotated a large functional neuroimaging dataset with terms from the ontology and applied a reasoning engine to analyze this dataset in conjunction with the ontology, and achieved successful inferences from the most specific level (e.g., how many subjects showed activation in a sub-part of the middle frontal gyrus to more general (how many activations were found in areas connected via a known white matter tract?. In summary, we have produced a neuroanatomical ontology that harmonizes several different terminologies of neuroanatomical structures and cortical parcellation schemes. This neuranatomical ontology is publicly available as a view of FMA at the Bioportal website at http://rest.bioontology.org/bioportal/ontologies/download/10005. The ontological encoding of anatomic knowledge can be exploited by computer reasoning engines to make inferences about neuroanatomical relationships described in imaging datasets using different terminologies. This approach could ultimately enable knowledge discovery from large, distributed fMRI studies or medical record mining.

  10. Evaluation of the contribution of the importance of neuroimaging for the diagnostics of dementias - comparison to the psychological diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hentschel, F.; Kreis, M.; Damian, M.; Syren, M.; Krumm, B.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: While psychology is accepted as a necessary component of the dementia diagnostics, the extended clinical diagnostics with neuroimaging is differently estimated. The goal of the study is the quantification of the individual contribution of the two different methods. Methods: Of 100 patient the diagnosis of entrance, the neurological, the psychological, and the final clinical diagnosis were documented. For both imaging and psychology the sensitivity, specificity, and the positive predictive value were computed. The diagnostic of each method was determined from the change of the final in relation to the initial clinical diagnosis. The neuroradiological investigation took place with MRI, the psychological examination used both usual power and special speed tests. Results: The extended clinical diagnostics led for 26% of the patients to the change of the clinical diagnosis. Imaging and psychology supplied different own but supplementing contributions. In the case of annihilation imaging contributed with 73.3%, psychology with 54.1% to the diagnosis of a neurodegenerative dementia, whereas the contributions to the diagnosis of a vascular dementia were 83.3% and 70.8%, respectively. However psychology diagnosed and quantified the dementia. The contribution of neuroimaging consisted in the differential diagnosis of the dementias organic causes of symptomatic clementias and vascular encephalopathy without dementia but with consequences for a secondary prophylaxis were additional information also. Conclusion: Psychology improves the diagnostic accuracy of dementias. Neuroimaging improves the differential diagnosis of dementias and supplies additional clinically relevant findings. In the qualified diagnostics and differential diagnostics of the dementias both methods are indispensable. (orig.) [de

  11. Running Neuroimaging Applications on Amazon Web Services: How, When, and at What Cost?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara M. Madhyastha

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of this paper is to identify and describe current best practices for using Amazon Web Services (AWS to execute neuroimaging workflows “in the cloud.” Neuroimaging offers a vast set of techniques by which to interrogate the structure and function of the living brain. However, many of the scientists for whom neuroimaging is an extremely important tool have limited training in parallel computation. At the same time, the field is experiencing a surge in computational demands, driven by a combination of data-sharing efforts, improvements in scanner technology that allow acquisition of images with higher image resolution, and by the desire to use statistical techniques that stress processing requirements. Most neuroimaging workflows can be executed as independent parallel jobs and are therefore excellent candidates for running on AWS, but the overhead of learning to do so and determining whether it is worth the cost can be prohibitive. In this paper we describe how to identify neuroimaging workloads that are appropriate for running on AWS, how to benchmark execution time, and how to estimate cost of running on AWS. By benchmarking common neuroimaging applications, we show that cloud computing can be a viable alternative to on-premises hardware. We present guidelines that neuroimaging labs can use to provide a cluster-on-demand type of service that should be familiar to users, and scripts to estimate cost and create such a cluster.

  12. Neurobiological narratives: Experiences of mood disorder through the lens of neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchman, Daniel Z; Borgelt, Emily L; Whiteley, Louise Emma

    2013-01-01

    of receiving neuroimaging for prediction, diagnosis and planning treatment. The participants discussed the potential role of neuroimages in (i) mitigating stigma; (ii) supporting morally loaded explanations of mental illness due to an imbalance of brain chemistry; (iii) legitimising psychiatric symptoms, which...... illness view functional neuroimaging, or of the potential psychological impacts of its clinical use. We conducted 12 semi-structured interviews with adults diagnosed with major depression or bipolar disorder, probing their experiences with mental health care and their perspectives on the prospect...... to biologisation of mental illness, and argue for bringing these voices into upstream ethics discussion....

  13. Biotinidase deficiency: a reversible metabolic encephalopathy. Neuroimaging and MR spectroscopic findings in a series of four patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, Shrinivas; Ganesan, Karthik; Hegde, Anaita

    2008-01-01

    Biotinidase deficiency is a metabolic disorder characterized by inability to recycle biotin with resultant delayed myelination. Clinical findings include seizures, ataxia, alopecia and dermatitis with atypical findings of myoclonic jerks, neuropathy and spastic paraparesis. Neuroradiological findings include cerebral atrophy, encephalopathy and widened extracerebral CSF spaces. Many of the clinical and neuroradiological features are reversible except sensorineural hearing loss and optic atrophy. To understand and describe the neuroimaging and spectroscopic findings of biotinidase deficiency. We evaluated the spectrum of neuroimaging and spectroscopic findings in four patients with biotinidase deficiency with follow-up studies in three patients. The imaging findings were encephalopathy, low cerebral volume, ventriculomegaly and widened extracerebral CSF spaces. Uncommon findings were caudate involvement, parieto-occipital cortical abnormalities and one patient with restricted diffusion. Two patients had subdural effusions, which is uncommon in biotinidase deficiency. 1 H-MR spectroscopy revealed elevated lactate, reversal of the choline/creatine ratio and decreased NAA peaks. Follow-up studies revealed complete reversal of imaging findings in two patients. Biotinidase deficiency is a reversible metabolic encephalopathy. This study highlights the importance of early and prompt cliniconeuroradiological diagnosis of biotinidase deficiency as it has an extremely good clinical outcome if treatment is initiated from early infancy. (orig.)

  14. Biotinidase deficiency: a reversible metabolic encephalopathy. Neuroimaging and MR spectroscopic findings in a series of four patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, Shrinivas [Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre, Department of CT and MRI, Mumbai (India); Ganesan, Karthik [Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre, Department of CT and MRI, Mumbai (India); University of California, San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Hegde, Anaita [Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre, Department of Paediatrics, Mumbai (India)

    2008-08-15

    Biotinidase deficiency is a metabolic disorder characterized by inability to recycle biotin with resultant delayed myelination. Clinical findings include seizures, ataxia, alopecia and dermatitis with atypical findings of myoclonic jerks, neuropathy and spastic paraparesis. Neuroradiological findings include cerebral atrophy, encephalopathy and widened extracerebral CSF spaces. Many of the clinical and neuroradiological features are reversible except sensorineural hearing loss and optic atrophy. To understand and describe the neuroimaging and spectroscopic findings of biotinidase deficiency. We evaluated the spectrum of neuroimaging and spectroscopic findings in four patients with biotinidase deficiency with follow-up studies in three patients. The imaging findings were encephalopathy, low cerebral volume, ventriculomegaly and widened extracerebral CSF spaces. Uncommon findings were caudate involvement, parieto-occipital cortical abnormalities and one patient with restricted diffusion. Two patients had subdural effusions, which is uncommon in biotinidase deficiency. {sup 1}H-MR spectroscopy revealed elevated lactate, reversal of the choline/creatine ratio and decreased NAA peaks. Follow-up studies revealed complete reversal of imaging findings in two patients. Biotinidase deficiency is a reversible metabolic encephalopathy. This study highlights the importance of early and prompt cliniconeuroradiological diagnosis of biotinidase deficiency as it has an extremely good clinical outcome if treatment is initiated from early infancy. (orig.)

  15. The neuroimaging of Leigh syndrome: case series and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonfante, Eliana; Riascos, Roy F.; Koenig, Mary Kay; Adejumo, Rahmat B.; Perinjelil, Vinu

    2016-01-01

    Leigh syndrome by definition is (1) a neurodegenerative disease with variable symptoms, (2) caused by mitochondrial dysfunction from a hereditary genetic defect and (3) accompanied by bilateral central nervous system lesions. A genetic etiology is confirmed in approximately 50% of patients, with more than 60 identified mutations in the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Here we review the clinical features and imaging studies of Leigh syndrome and describe the neuroimaging findings in a cohort of 17 children with genetically confirmed Leigh syndrome. MR findings include lesions in the brainstem in 9 children (53%), basal ganglia in 13 (76%), thalami in 4 (24%) and dentate nuclei in 2 (12%), and global atrophy in 2 (12%). The brainstem lesions were most frequent in the midbrain and medulla oblongata. With follow-up an increased number of lesions from baseline was observed in 7 of 13 children, evolution of the initial lesion was seen in 6, and complete regression of the lesions was seen in 3. No cerebral white matter lesions were found in any of the 17 children. In concordance with the literature, we found that Leigh syndrome follows a similar pattern of bilateral, symmetrical basal ganglia or brainstem changes. Lesions in Leigh syndrome evolve over time and a lack of visible lesions does not exclude the diagnosis. Reversibility of lesions is seen in some patients, making the continued search for treatment and prevention a priority for clinicians and researchers. (orig.)

  16. The neuroimaging of Leigh syndrome: case series and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfante, Eliana; Riascos, Roy F. [The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Koenig, Mary Kay [The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Child and Adolescent Neurology, Mitochondrial Center of Excellence Leigh Clinic, Houston, TX (United States); Adejumo, Rahmat B.; Perinjelil, Vinu [The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Child and Adolescent Neurology, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Leigh syndrome by definition is (1) a neurodegenerative disease with variable symptoms, (2) caused by mitochondrial dysfunction from a hereditary genetic defect and (3) accompanied by bilateral central nervous system lesions. A genetic etiology is confirmed in approximately 50% of patients, with more than 60 identified mutations in the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Here we review the clinical features and imaging studies of Leigh syndrome and describe the neuroimaging findings in a cohort of 17 children with genetically confirmed Leigh syndrome. MR findings include lesions in the brainstem in 9 children (53%), basal ganglia in 13 (76%), thalami in 4 (24%) and dentate nuclei in 2 (12%), and global atrophy in 2 (12%). The brainstem lesions were most frequent in the midbrain and medulla oblongata. With follow-up an increased number of lesions from baseline was observed in 7 of 13 children, evolution of the initial lesion was seen in 6, and complete regression of the lesions was seen in 3. No cerebral white matter lesions were found in any of the 17 children. In concordance with the literature, we found that Leigh syndrome follows a similar pattern of bilateral, symmetrical basal ganglia or brainstem changes. Lesions in Leigh syndrome evolve over time and a lack of visible lesions does not exclude the diagnosis. Reversibility of lesions is seen in some patients, making the continued search for treatment and prevention a priority for clinicians and researchers. (orig.)

  17. Pituitary tumours in adolescence: clinical behaviour and neuroimaging features of seven cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, S; Morioka, T; Suzuki, S; Takeshita, I; Fukui, M; Iwaki, T

    2001-05-01

    The clinicopathologic features of seven paediatric patients with pituitary adenomas (2 male, 5 female; mean age 14.3 years) were reviewed. There were three non-functioning adenomas, three prolactinomas, and one growth hormone producing adenoma. Five patients presented with visual field deficits, and six patients had endocrine symptoms, which included menstrual irregularities in all female patients, pubertal delay in two females, and growth delay and gigantism in one case each. On neuroimaging studies, five adenomas showed parasellar extension, while the remaining two prolactinomas were intrasellar microadenomas. While two patients with prolactinomas received good results with bromocriptine treatment alone, the remaining five patients underwent either craniotomy or transsphenoidal surgery. Postoperatively, visual disturbances improved markedly in all patients. Two patients also received replacement hormonal therapy. While six patients have been stable for 3.6 years on average, one non-functioning tumour recurred 2 years after the initial transcranial subtotal resection of the tumour. Although there are still many unknowns concerning the biology and optimal treatments for paediatric pituitary adenomas, many of them are assumed to be relatively rapidly growing tumours, while others merely have an earlier tumour genesis than in adults. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  18. Neuroimaging Impaired Response Inhibition and Salience Attribution in Human Drug Addiction: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilverstand, Anna; Huang, Anna S; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Goldstein, Rita Z

    2018-06-06

    The impaired response inhibition and salience attribution (iRISA) model proposes that impaired response inhibition and salience attribution underlie drug seeking and taking. To update this model, we systematically reviewed 105 task-related neuroimaging studies (n > 15/group) published since 2010. Results demonstrate specific impairments within six large-scale brain networks (reward, habit, salience, executive, memory, and self-directed networks) during drug cue exposure, decision making, inhibitory control, and social-emotional processing. Addicted individuals demonstrated increased recruitment of these networks during drug-related processing but a blunted response during non-drug-related processing, with the same networks also being implicated during resting state. Associations with real-life drug use, relapse, therapeutic interventions, and the relevance to initiation of drug use during adolescence support the clinical relevance of the results. Whereas the salience and executive networks showed impairments throughout the addiction cycle, the reward network was dysregulated at later stages of abuse. Effects were similar in alcohol, cannabis, and stimulant addiction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Multimodal neuroimaging of male and female brain structure in health and disease across the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanshad, Neda; Thompson, Paul M

    2017-01-02

    Sex differences in brain development and aging are important to identify, as they may help to understand risk factors and outcomes in brain disorders that are more prevalent in one sex compared with the other. Brain imaging techniques have advanced rapidly in recent years, yielding detailed structural and functional maps of the living brain. Even so, studies are often limited in sample size, and inconsistent findings emerge, one example being varying findings regarding sex differences in the size of the corpus callosum. More recently, large-scale neuroimaging consortia such as the Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta Analysis Consortium have formed, pooling together expertise, data, and resources from hundreds of institutions around the world to ensure adequate power and reproducibility. These initiatives are helping us to better understand how brain structure is affected by development, disease, and potential modulators of these effects, including sex. This review highlights some established and disputed sex differences in brain structure across the life span, as well as pitfalls related to interpreting sex differences in health and disease. We also describe sex-related findings from the ENIGMA consortium, and ongoing efforts to better understand sex differences in brain circuitry. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Neuroscience Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Neuroscience Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Neuroimaging findings of congenital Zika virus infection: a pictorial essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare Mehrjardi, Mohammad; Poretti, Andrea; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Werner, Heron; Keshavarz, Elham; Araujo Júnior, Edward

    2017-03-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne arbovirus from the Flaviviridae family. It had caused several epidemics since its discovery in 1947, but there was no significant attention to this virus until the recent outbreak in Brazil in 2015. The main concern is the causal relationship between prenatal ZIKV infection and congenital microcephaly, which has been confirmed recently. Moreover, ZIKV may cause other central nervous system abnormalities such as brain parenchymal atrophy with secondary ventriculomegaly, intracranial calcification, malformations of cortical development (such as polymicrogyria, and lissencephaly-pachygyria), agenesis/hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, cerebellar and brainstem hypoplasia, sensorineural hearing-loss, and ocular abnormalities as well as arthrogryposis in the infected fetuses. Postnatal (acquired) ZIKV infection usually has an asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic course, while prenatal (congenital) ZIKV infection has a more severe course and may cause severe brain anomalies that are described as congenital Zika syndrome. In this pictorial essay, we aim to illustrate the prenatal and postnatal neuroimaging findings that may be seen in fetuses and neonates with congenital Zika syndrome, and will discuss possible radiological differential diagnoses. A detailed knowledge of these findings is paramount for an early correct diagnosis, prognosis determination, and counseling of the affected children and families.

  1. Neuroimaging of person perception: A social-visual interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jeffrey A; Freeman, Jonathan B

    2017-12-21

    The visual system is able to extract an enormous amount of socially relevant information from the face, including social categories, personality traits, and emotion. While facial features may be directly tied to certain perceptions, emerging research suggests that top-down social cognitive factors (e.g., stereotypes, social-conceptual knowledge, prejudice) considerably influence and shape the perceptual process. The rapid integration of higher-order social cognitive processes into visual perception can give rise to systematic biases in face perception and may potentially act as a mediating factor for intergroup behavioral and evaluative biases. Drawing on neuroimaging evidence, we review the ways that top-down social cognitive factors shape visual perception of facial features. This emerging work in social and affective neuroscience builds upon work on predictive coding and perceptual priors in cognitive neuroscience and visual cognition, suggesting domain-general mechanisms that underlie a social-visual interface through which social cognition affects visual perception. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Chronic Methamphetamine Abuse and Corticostriatal Deficits Revealed by Neuroimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Edythe D.; Kohno, Milky; Morales, Angelica; Ballard, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Despite aggressive efforts to contain it, methamphetamine use disorder continues to be major public health problem; and with generic behavioral therapies still the mainstay of treatment for methamphetamine abuse, rates of attrition and relapse remain high. This review summarizes the findings of structural, molecular, and functional neuroimaging studies of methamphetamine abusers, focusing on cortical and striatal abnormalities and their potential contributions to cognitive and behavioral phenotypes that can serve to promote compulsive drug use. These studies indicate that individuals with a history of chronic methamphetamine abuse often display several signs of corticostriatal dysfunction, including abnormal gray- and white-matter integrity, monoamine neurotransmitter system deficiencies, neuroinflammation, poor neuronal integrity, and aberrant patterns of brain connectivity and function, both when engaged in cognitive tasks and at rest. More importantly, many of these neural abnormalities were found to be linked with certain addiction-related phenotypes that may influence treatment response (e.g., poor self-control, cognitive inflexibility, maladaptive decision-making), raising the possibility that they may represent novel therapeutic targets. PMID:25451127

  3. On the role of general system theory for functional neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Klaas Enno

    2004-12-01

    One of the most important goals of neuroscience is to establish precise structure-function relationships in the brain. Since the 19th century, a major scientific endeavour has been to associate structurally distinct cortical regions with specific cognitive functions. This was traditionally accomplished by correlating microstructurally defined areas with lesion sites found in patients with specific neuropsychological symptoms. Modern neuroimaging techniques with high spatial resolution have promised an alternative approach, enabling non-invasive measurements of regionally specific changes of brain activity that are correlated with certain components of a cognitive process. Reviewing classic approaches towards brain structure-function relationships that are based on correlational approaches, this article argues that these approaches are not sufficient to provide an understanding of the operational principles of a dynamic system such as the brain but must be complemented by models based on general system theory. These models reflect the connectional structure of the system under investigation and emphasize context-dependent couplings between the system elements in terms of effective connectivity. The usefulness of system models whose parameters are fitted to measured functional imaging data for testing hypotheses about structure-function relationships in the brain and their potential for clinical applications is demonstrated by several empirical examples.

  4. The Virtual Brain Integrates Computational Modeling and Multimodal Neuroimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirner, Michael; McIntosh, Anthony R.; Jirsa, Viktor K.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Brain function is thought to emerge from the interactions among neuronal populations. Apart from traditional efforts to reproduce brain dynamics from the micro- to macroscopic scales, complementary approaches develop phenomenological models of lower complexity. Such macroscopic models typically generate only a few selected—ideally functionally relevant—aspects of the brain dynamics. Importantly, they often allow an understanding of the underlying mechanisms beyond computational reproduction. Adding detail to these models will widen their ability to reproduce a broader range of dynamic features of the brain. For instance, such models allow for the exploration of consequences of focal and distributed pathological changes in the system, enabling us to identify and develop approaches to counteract those unfavorable processes. Toward this end, The Virtual Brain (TVB) (www.thevirtualbrain.org), a neuroinformatics platform with a brain simulator that incorporates a range of neuronal models and dynamics at its core, has been developed. This integrated framework allows the model-based simulation, analysis, and inference of neurophysiological mechanisms over several brain scales that underlie the generation of macroscopic neuroimaging signals. In this article, we describe how TVB works, and we present the first proof of concept. PMID:23442172

  5. Clinical and neuroimage findings of dementia with lewy bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Do Young; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Jae Woo

    2002-01-01

    Dementia with lewy bodies (DLB) is the second common degenerative dementia and has several characteristics including fluctuating cognition, visual hallucination and Parkinsonism. We investigated clinical manifestations and neuroimaging findings in DLB patients. Ten probable DLB patients were included in this study. Brain MRI, Tc-99m HMPAO brain perfusion SPECT and I-123 IPT SPECT were performed. All patients were men and mean age of onset was 64.2 years (range from 54 to 80). All had fluctuating cognition and Parkinsonism, and 8 had visual hallucination. Dementia preceded Parkinsonism in 3 patients. Fluctuation of K-MMSE ranges from 3 to 8 points. Rest tremor was seen in 5 patients. Brain MRI showed cortical atrophy in all patients. Tc-99m brain perfusion SPECT showed hypoperfusion in occipital area as well as fronto-temporo-parietal areas. I-123 IPT SPECT revealed reduced uptake comparable to Parkinson's disease in the striatum. DLB should be first considered as one of possible diagnosis in patients showing dementia in the early stage of Parkinsonism. Hypoperfusion in the occipital area was thought to be a characteristic finding in DLB and to be helpful in differentiating DLB from other degenerative dementias

  6. Functional neuroimaging of normal aging: Declining brain, adapting brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Motoaki

    2016-09-01

    Early functional neuroimaging research on normal aging brain has been dominated by the interest in cognitive decline. In this framework the age-related compensatory recruitment of prefrontal cortex, in terms of executive system or reduced lateralization, has been established. Further details on these compensatory mechanisms and the findings reflecting cognitive decline, however, remain the matter of intensive investigations. Studies in another framework where age-related neural alteration is considered adaptation to the environmental change are recently burgeoning and appear largely categorized into three domains. The age-related increase in activation of the sensorimotor network may reflect the alteration of the peripheral sensorimotor systems. The increased susceptibility of the network for the mental-state inference to the socioemotional significance may be explained by the age-related motivational shift due to the altered social perception. The age-related change in activation of the self-referential network may be relevant to the focused positive self-concept of elderly driven by a similar motivational shift. Across the domains, the concept of the self and internal model may provide the theoretical bases of this adaptation framework. These two frameworks complement each other to provide a comprehensive view of the normal aging brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Sturge-Weber syndrome. The current neuro-imaging data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boukobza, M.; Cambra, M.R.; Merland, J.J.; Enjolras, O.

    2000-01-01

    Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) is a rare congenital sporadic disease with neuro-ocular and cutaneous vascular findings. Clinically, the full-blown condition consists of a facial port-wine stain (PWS) the V1 facial trigeminal skin area, alone or in combination with V2 and V3 PWS, seizures and ocular abnormalities (glaucoma and choroidal angioma). Radiologically, a leptomeningeal (pial) capillary and venous malformation, mostly located in the parieto-occipital area, cerebral atrophy and calcifications are demonstrated. An ipsilateral enlarged choroid plexus may be an early anatomic symptom. Development neuro-diagnostic technique for the screening of infants with an at-risk V1 PWS, as well as for the follow-up of patients with evidence SWS. Accelerated myelination in the involved hemisphere may be early diagnostic feature before 6 months of age. Later, hyperintensity of white matter on T2 is considered a symptom of gliosis. Clinically, progression of the diseases is associated with anatomic changes and correlates with the extent of the pial vascular anomaly, extent and severity of cerebral atrophy, and white matter abnormalities. A neonatal neuro-imaging work-up, using CT or MRI, may not demonstrate the pial anomaly and should be repeated after 6 to 12 months in an at-risk infant with V1 PWS. (authors)

  8. The Power of Neuroimaging Biomarkers for Screening Frontotemporal Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Corey T.; Avants, Brian B.; Cook, Philip; Ungar, Lyle; Trojanowski, John Q.; Grossman, Murray

    2014-01-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a clinically and pathologically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disease that can result from either frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) or Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology. It is critical to establish statistically powerful biomarkers that can achieve substantial cost-savings and increase feasibility of clinical trials. We assessed three broad categories of neuroimaging methods to screen underlying FTLD and AD pathology in a clinical FTD series: global measures (e.g., ventricular volume), anatomical volumes of interest (VOIs) (e.g., hippocampus) using a standard atlas, and data-driven VOIs using Eigenanatomy. We evaluated clinical FTD patients (N=93) with cerebrospinal fluid, gray matter (GM) MRI, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess whether they had underlying FTLD or AD pathology. Linear regression was performed to identify the optimal VOIs for each method in a training dataset and then we evaluated classification sensitivity and specificity in an independent test cohort. Power was evaluated by calculating minimum sample sizes (mSS) required in the test classification analyses for each model. The data-driven VOI analysis using a multimodal combination of GM MRI and DTI achieved the greatest classification accuracy (89% SENSITIVE; 89% SPECIFIC) and required a lower minimum sample size (N=26) relative to anatomical VOI and global measures. We conclude that a data-driven VOI approach employing Eigenanatomy provides more accurate classification, benefits from increased statistical power in unseen datasets, and therefore provides a robust method for screening underlying pathology in FTD patients for entry into clinical trials. PMID:24687814

  9. Neuroimaging of the Injured Pediatric Brain: Methods and New Lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Emily L; Babikian, Talin; Giza, Christopher C; Thompson, Paul M; Asarnow, Robert F

    2018-02-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public health problem in the United States, especially for children and adolescents. Current epidemiological data estimate over 600,000 patients younger than 20 years are treated for TBI in emergency rooms annually. While many patients experience a full recovery, for others there can be long-lasting cognitive, neurological, psychological, and behavioral disruptions. TBI in youth can disrupt ongoing brain development and create added family stress during a formative period. The neuroimaging methods used to assess brain injury improve each year, providing researchers a more detailed characterization of the injury and recovery process. In this review, we cover current imaging methods used to quantify brain disruption post-injury, including structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion MRI, functional MRI, resting state fMRI, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), with brief coverage of other methods, including electroencephalography (EEG), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and positron emission tomography (PET). We include studies focusing on pediatric moderate-severe TBI from 2 months post-injury and beyond. While the morbidity of pediatric TBI is considerable, continuing advances in imaging methods have the potential to identify new treatment targets that can lead to significant improvements in outcome.

  10. Functional neuroimaging of semantic and episodic musical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platel, Hervé

    2005-12-01

    The distinction between episodic and semantic memory has become very popular since it was first proposed by Tulving in 1972. So far, very few neuropsychological, psychophysical, and imaging studies have related to the mnemonic aspects of music, notably on the long-term memory features, and practically nothing is known about the functional anatomy of long-term memory for music. Numerous functional imaging studies have shown that retrieval from semantic and episodic memory is subserved by distinct neural networks. For instance, the HERA model (hemispheric encoding/retrieval asymmetry) ascribes to the left prefrontal cortex a preferential role in the encoding process of episodic material and the recall of semantic information, while the right prefrontal cortex would preferentially operate in the recall of episodic information. However, these results were essentially obtained with verbal and visuo-spatial material. We have done a study to determine the neural substrates underlying the semantic and episodic components of music using familiar and nonfamiliar melodic tunes. Two distinct patterns of activations were found: bilateral activation of the middle and superior frontal areas and precuneus for episodic memory, and activation of the medial and orbital frontal cortex bilaterally, left angular gyrus, and the anterior part of the left middle and superior temporal gyri for semantic memory. We discuss these findings in light of the available neuropsychological data obtained in brain-damaged subjects and functional neuroimaging studies.

  11. [Neuroimaging and the neurobiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiepek, Günter; Tominschek, Igor; Karch, Susanne; Mulert, Christoph; Pogarell, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    The following review is focusing on results of functional neuroimaging. After some introductory remarks on the phenomenology, epidemiology, and psychotherapy approaches of obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) the most important OCD-related brain regions are presented. Obviously, not only the prominent cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical feedback loops are involved, as functional brain imaging studies tell us, but also other regions as the inferior parietal lobe, the anterior and posterior cingulate gyrus, insula, amygdala, cerebellum, and others. Subclassifications using factor-analysis methods support the hypothesis, that most important subtypes ("washing/contamination fear", "obsessions/checking", "symmetry/ordering", "hoarding") involve different, but partially overlapping brain areas. Stimulation paradigms in fMRI-research are commonly based on symptom provocation by visual or tactile stimuli, or on action-monitoring and error-monitoring tasks. Deficits in action-monitoring and planning are discussed to be one of the basic dysfunctions of OCD. Finally, results of psychotherapeutic induced variations of brain activations in OCD are presented.

  12. Neuroimaging and obesity: current knowledge and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnell, S.; Gibson, C.; Benson, L.; Ochner, C. N.; Geliebter, A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Neuroimaging is becoming increasingly common in obesity research as investigators try to understand the neurological underpinnings of appetite and body weight in humans. Positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies examining responses to food intake and food cues, dopamine function and brain volume in lean vs. obese individuals are now beginning to coalesce in identifying irregularities in a range of regions implicated in reward (e.g. striatum, orbitofrontal cortex, insula), emotion and memory (e.g. amygdala, hippocampus), homeostatic regulation of intake (e.g. hypothalamus), sensory and motor processing (e.g. insula, precentral gyrus), and cognitive control and attention (e.g. prefrontal cortex, cingulate). Studies of weight change in children and adolescents, and those at high genetic risk for obesity, promise to illuminate causal processes. Studies examining specific eating behaviours (e.g. external eating, emotional eating, dietary restraint) are teaching us about the distinct neural networks that drive components of appetite, and contribute to the phenotype of body weight. Finally, innovative investigations of appetite-related hormones, including studies of abnormalities (e.g. leptin deficiency) and interventions (e.g. leptin replacement, bariatric surgery), are shedding light on the interactive relationship between gut and brain. The dynamic distributed vulnerability model of eating behaviour in obesity that we propose has scientific and practical implications. PMID:21902800

  13. Functional neuroimaging of conversion disorder: the role of ancillary activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Matthew J; Ghaffar, Omar; Staines, W Richard; Downar, Jonathan; Feinstein, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Previous functional neuroimaging studies investigating the neuroanatomy of conversion disorder have yielded inconsistent results that may be attributed to small sample sizes and disparate methodologies. The objective of this study was to better define the functional neuroanatomical correlates of conversion disorder. Ten subjects meeting clinical criteria for unilateral sensory conversion disorder underwent fMRI during which a vibrotactile stimulus was applied to anesthetic and sensate areas. A block design was used with 4 s of stimulation followed by 26 s of rest, the pattern repeated 10 times. Event-related group averages of the BOLD response were compared between conditions. All subjects were right-handed females, with a mean age of 41. Group analyses revealed 10 areas that had significantly greater activation (p conversion symptoms are associated with a pattern of abnormal cerebral activation comprising neural networks implicated in emotional processing and sensory integration. Further study of the roles and potential interplay of these networks may provide a basis for an underlying psychobiological mechanism of conversion disorder.

  14. Neural mechanisms of mindfulness and meditation: Evidence from neuroimaging studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William; R; Marchand

    2014-01-01

    Mindfulness is the dispassionate,moment-by-moment awareness of sensations,emotions and thoughts.Mindfulness-based interventions are being increasingly used for stress,psychological well being,coping with chronic illness as well as adjunctive treatments for psychiatric disorders.However,the neural mechanisms associated with mindfulness have not been well characterized.Recent functional and structural neuroimaging studies are beginning to provide insights into neural processes associated with the practice of mindfulness.A review of this literature revealed compelling evidence that mindfulness impacts the function of the medial cortex and associated default mode network as well as insula and amygdala.Additionally,mindfulness practice appears to effect lateral frontal regions and basal ganglia,at least in some cases.Structural imaging studies are consistent with these findings and also indicate changes in the hippocampus.While many questions remain unanswered,the current literature provides evidence of brain regions and networks relevant for understanding neural processes associated with mindfulness.

  15. Bayesian Optimization for Neuroimaging Pre-processing in Brain Age Classification and Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenessa Lancaster

    2018-02-01

    optimization framework to the new dataset, out-performing the parameters optimized for the initial training dataset. Our study outlines the proof-of-principle that neuroimaging models for brain-age prediction can use Bayesian optimization to derive case-specific pre-processing parameters. Our results suggest that different pre-processing parameters are selected when optimization is conducted in specific contexts. This potentially motivates use of optimization techniques at many different points during the experimental process, which may improve statistical sensitivity and reduce opportunities for experimenter-led bias.

  16. Substrates of neuropsychological functioning in stimulant dependence: a review of functional neuroimaging research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crunelle, C.L.; Veltman, D.J.; Booij, J.; van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, K.; van den Brink, W.

    2012-01-01

    Stimulant dependence is associated with neuropsychological impairments. Here, we summarize and integrate the existing neuroimaging literature on the neural substrates of neuropsychological (dys)function in stimulant dependence, including cocaine, (meth-)amphetamine, ecstasy and nicotine dependence,

  17. Substrates of neuropsychological functioning in stimulant dependence: a review of functional neuroimaging research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crunelle, Cleo L.; Veltman, Dick J.; Booij, Jan; Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, Katelijne; den Brink, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Stimulant dependence is associated with neuropsychological impairments. Here, we summarize and integrate the existing neuroimaging literature on the neural substrates of neuropsychological (dys) function in stimulant dependence, including cocaine, (meth-) amphetamine, ecstasy and nicotine

  18. Responsible Reporting : Neuroimaging News in the Age of Responsible Research and Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Irja Marije; Arentshorst, Marlous; Broerse, Jacqueline; Kupper, J.F.H.

    Besides offering opportunities in both clinical and non-clinical domains, the application of novel neuroimaging technologies raises pressing dilemmas. 'Responsible Research and Innovation' (RRI) aims to stimulate research and innovation activities that take ethical and social considerations into

  19. Guidelines for the ethical use of neuroimages in medical testimony: report of a multidisciplinary consensus conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, C C; Sze, G; Rommelfanger, K S; Kinlaw, K; Banja, J D; Wolpe, P R

    2014-04-01

    With rapid advances in neuroimaging technology, there is growing concern over potential misuse of neuroradiologic imaging data in legal matters. On December 7 and 8, 2012, a multidisciplinary consensus conference, Use and Abuse of Neuroimaging in the Courtroom, was held at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia. Through this interactive forum, a highly select group of experts-including neuroradiologists, neurologists, forensic psychiatrists, neuropsychologists, neuroscientists, legal scholars, imaging statisticians, judges, practicing attorneys, and neuroethicists-discussed the complex issues involved in the use of neuroimaging data entered into legal evidence and for associated expert testimony. The specific contexts of criminal cases, child abuse, and head trauma were especially considered. The purpose of the conference was to inform the development of guidelines on expert testimony for the American Society of Neuroradiology and to provide principles for courts on the ethical use of neuroimaging data as evidence. This report summarizes the conference and resulting recommendations.

  20. Conceptual and methodological challenges for neuroimaging studies of autistic spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzone, Luigi; Curatolo, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are a set of complex developmental disabilities defined by impairment in social interaction and communication, as well as by restricted interests or repetitive behaviors. Neuroimaging studies have substantially advanced our understanding of the neural mechanisms that underlie the core symptoms of ASDs. Nevertheless, a number of challenges still remain in the application of neuroimaging techniques to the study of ASDs. We review three major conceptua...

  1. A systematic review of temporal discounting in eating disorders and obesity:behavioural and neuroimaging findings

    OpenAIRE

    McClelland, Jessica; Dalton, Bethan; Kekic, Maria; Bartholdy, Savani; Campbell, Iain C; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Eating Disorders (ED) and obesity are suggested to involve a spectrum of self-regulatory control difficulties. Temporal discounting (TD) tasks have been used to explore this idea. This systematic review examines behavioural and neuroimaging TD data in ED and obesity.METHOD: Using PRISMA guidelines, we reviewed relevant articles in MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Embase from inception until 17th August 2016. Studies that reported behavioural differences in TD and/or TD neuroimaging data in ED...

  2. Constructive interference in steady-state/FIESTA-C clinical applications in neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkami, Makarand

    2011-01-01

    Full text: High spatial resolution is one of the major problems in neuroimaging, par ticularly in cranial and spinal nerve imaging. Constructive interference in steady-state/fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition with phase cycling is a robust sequence in imaging the cranial and spinal nerve patholo gies. This pictorial review is a concise article about the applications of this sequence in neuroimaging with clinical examples.

  3. Responsible Reporting: Neuroimaging News in the Age of Responsible Research and Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Irja Marije; Kupper, Frank; Arentshorst, Marlous; Broerse, Jacqueline

    2016-08-01

    Besides offering opportunities in both clinical and non-clinical domains, the application of novel neuroimaging technologies raises pressing dilemmas. 'Responsible Research and Innovation' (RRI) aims to stimulate research and innovation activities that take ethical and social considerations into account from the outset. We previously identified that Dutch neuroscientists interpret "responsible innovation" as educating the public on neuroimaging technologies via the popular press. Their aim is to mitigate (neuro)hype, an aim shared with the wider emerging RRI community. Here, we present results of a media-analysis undertaken to establish whether the body of articles in the Dutch popular press presents balanced conversations on neuroimaging research to the public. We found that reporting was mostly positive and framed in terms of (healthcare) progress. There was rarely a balance between technology opportunities and limitations, and even fewer articles addressed societal or ethical aspects of neuroimaging research. Furthermore, neuroimaging metaphors seem to favour oversimplification. Current reporting is therefore more likely to enable hype than to mitigate it. How can neuroscientists, given their self-ascribed social responsibility, address this conundrum? We make a case for a collective and shared responsibility among neuroscientists, journalists and other stakeholders, including funders, committed to responsible reporting on neuroimaging research.

  4. Heads in the Cloud: A Primer on Neuroimaging Applications of High Performance Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar S. Shatil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With larger data sets and more sophisticated analyses, it is becoming increasingly common for neuroimaging researchers to push (or exceed the limitations of standalone computer workstations. Nonetheless, although high-performance computing platforms such as clusters, grids and clouds are already in routine use by a small handful of neuroimaging researchers to increase their storage and/or computational power, the adoption of such resources by the broader neuroimaging community remains relatively uncommon. Therefore, the goal of the current manuscript is to: 1 inform prospective users about the similarities and differences between computing clusters, grids and clouds; 2 highlight their main advantages; 3 discuss when it may (and may not be advisable to use them; 4 review some of their potential problems and barriers to access; and finally 5 give a few practical suggestions for how interested new users can start analyzing their neuroimaging data using cloud resources. Although the aim of cloud computing is to hide most of the complexity of the infrastructure management from end-users, we recognize that this can still be an intimidating area for cognitive neuroscientists, psychologists, neurologists, radiologists, and other neuroimaging researchers lacking a strong computational background. Therefore, with this in mind, we have aimed to provide a basic introduction to cloud computing in general (including some of the basic terminology, computer architectures, infrastructure and service models, etc., a practical overview of the benefits and drawbacks, and a specific focus on how cloud resources can be used for various neuroimaging applications.

  5. Heads in the Cloud: A Primer on Neuroimaging Applications of High Performance Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatil, Anwar S; Younas, Sohail; Pourreza, Hossein; Figley, Chase R

    2015-01-01

    With larger data sets and more sophisticated analyses, it is becoming increasingly common for neuroimaging researchers to push (or exceed) the limitations of standalone computer workstations. Nonetheless, although high-performance computing platforms such as clusters, grids and clouds are already in routine use by a small handful of neuroimaging researchers to increase their storage and/or computational power, the adoption of such resources by the broader neuroimaging community remains relatively uncommon. Therefore, the goal of the current manuscript is to: 1) inform prospective users about the similarities and differences between computing clusters, grids and clouds; 2) highlight their main advantages; 3) discuss when it may (and may not) be advisable to use them; 4) review some of their potential problems and barriers to access; and finally 5) give a few practical suggestions for how interested new users can start analyzing their neuroimaging data using cloud resources. Although the aim of cloud computing is to hide most of the complexity of the infrastructure management from end-users, we recognize that this can still be an intimidating area for cognitive neuroscientists, psychologists, neurologists, radiologists, and other neuroimaging researchers lacking a strong computational background. Therefore, with this in mind, we have aimed to provide a basic introduction to cloud computing in general (including some of the basic terminology, computer architectures, infrastructure and service models, etc.), a practical overview of the benefits and drawbacks, and a specific focus on how cloud resources can be used for various neuroimaging applications.

  6. Heads in the Cloud: A Primer on Neuroimaging Applications of High Performance Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatil, Anwar S.; Younas, Sohail; Pourreza, Hossein; Figley, Chase R.

    2015-01-01

    With larger data sets and more sophisticated analyses, it is becoming increasingly common for neuroimaging researchers to push (or exceed) the limitations of standalone computer workstations. Nonetheless, although high-performance computing platforms such as clusters, grids and clouds are already in routine use by a small handful of neuroimaging researchers to increase their storage and/or computational power, the adoption of such resources by the broader neuroimaging community remains relatively uncommon. Therefore, the goal of the current manuscript is to: 1) inform prospective users about the similarities and differences between computing clusters, grids and clouds; 2) highlight their main advantages; 3) discuss when it may (and may not) be advisable to use them; 4) review some of their potential problems and barriers to access; and finally 5) give a few practical suggestions for how interested new users can start analyzing their neuroimaging data using cloud resources. Although the aim of cloud computing is to hide most of the complexity of the infrastructure management from end-users, we recognize that this can still be an intimidating area for cognitive neuroscientists, psychologists, neurologists, radiologists, and other neuroimaging researchers lacking a strong computational background. Therefore, with this in mind, we have aimed to provide a basic introduction to cloud computing in general (including some of the basic terminology, computer architectures, infrastructure and service models, etc.), a practical overview of the benefits and drawbacks, and a specific focus on how cloud resources can be used for various neuroimaging applications. PMID:27279746

  7. [Functional Neuroimaging Pilot Study of Borderline Personality Disorder in Adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBoeuf, Amélie; Guilé, Jean-Marc; Labelle, Réal; Luck, David

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is being increasingly recognized by clinicians working with adolescents, and the reliability and validity of the diagnosis have been established in the adolescent population. Adolescence is known to be a period of high risk for BPD development as most patients identify the onset of their symptoms to be in the adolescent period. As with other mental health disorders, personality disorder, are thought to result from the interaction between biological and environmental factors. Functional neuroimaging studies are reporting an increasing amount of data on abnormal neuronal functions in BPD adult patients. However, no functional neuroimaging studies have been conducted in adolescents with BPD.Objectives This pilot project aims to evaluate the feasibility of a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study coupled with clinical and psychological measures in adolescent girls with a diagnosis of BPD. It also aims to identify neuronal regions of interest (ROI) for the study of BPD in adolescent girls.Method Six female adolescents meeting DSM-IV criteria for BPD and 6 female adolescents without psychiatric disorder were recruited. Both groups were evaluated for BPD symptoms, depressive symptoms, impulsivity, affective lability, and other potential psychiatric comorbidities. We used fMRI to compare patterns of regional brain activation between these two groups as they viewed 20 positive, 20 negative and 20 neutral emotion-inducing pictures, which were presented in random order.Results Participants were recruited over a period of 22 months. The protocol was well tolerated by participants. Mean age of the BPD group and control group was 15.8 ± 0.9 years-old and 15.5 ± 1.2 years-old respectively. Psychiatric comorbidity and use of medication was common among participants in the BPD group. This group showed higher impulsivity and affective lability scores. For the fMRI task, BPD patients demonstrated greater differences in activation

  8. Differentiating emotional processing and attention in psychopathy with functional neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nathaniel E; Steele, Vaughn R; Maurer, J Michael; Rao, Vikram; Koenigs, Michael R; Decety, Jean; Kosson, David S; Calhoun, Vince D; Kiehl, Kent A

    2017-06-01

    Individuals with psychopathy are often characterized by emotional processing deficits, and recent research has examined the specific contexts and cognitive mechanisms that underlie these abnormalities. Some evidence suggests that abnormal features of attention are fundamental to emotional deficits in persons with psychopathy, but few studies have demonstrated the neural underpinnings responsible for such effects. Here, we use functional neuroimaging to examine attention-emotion interactions among incarcerated individuals (n = 120) evaluated for psychopathic traits using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). Using a task designed to manipulate attention to emotional features of visual stimuli, we demonstrate effects representing implicit emotional processing, explicit emotional processing, attention-facilitated emotional processing, and vigilance for emotional content. Results confirm the importance of considering mechanisms of attention when evaluating emotional processing differences related to psychopathic traits. The affective-interpersonal features of psychopathy (PCL-R Factor 1) were associated with relatively lower emotion-dependent augmentation of activity in visual processing areas during implicit emotional processing, while antisocial-lifestyle features (PCL-R Factor 2) were associated with elevated activity in the amygdala and related salience network regions. During explicit emotional processing, psychopathic traits were associated with upregulation in the medial prefrontal cortex, insula, and superior frontal regions. Isolating the impact of explicit attention to emotional content, only Factor 1 was related to upregulation of activity in the visual processing stream, which was accompanied by increased activity in the angular gyrus. These effects highlight some important mechanisms underlying abnormal features of attention and emotional processing that accompany psychopathic traits.

  9. Multiple Sclerosis in Malaysia: Demographics, Clinical Features, and Neuroimaging Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Viswanathan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Multiple sclerosis (MS is an uncommon disease in multiracial Malaysia. Diagnosing patients with idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating diseases has been greatly aided by the evolution in diagnostic criterion, the identification of new biomarkers, and improved accessibility to neuroimaging in the country. Objectives. To investigate the spectrum of multiple sclerosis in Malaysia. Methods. Retrospective analysis with longitudinal follow-up of patients referred to a single tertiary medical center with neurology services in Malaysia. Results. Out of 245 patients with idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disease, 104 patients had multiple sclerosis. Female to male ratio was 5 : 1. Mean age at onset was 28.6 ± 9.9 years. The Malays were the predominant racial group affected followed by the Chinese, Indians, and other indigenous groups. Subgroup analysis revealed more Chinese having neuromyelitis optica and its spectrum disorders rather than multiple sclerosis. Positive family history was reported in 5%. Optic neuritis and myelitis were the commonest presentations at onset of disease, and relapsing remitting course was the commonest disease pattern observed. Oligoclonal band positivity was 57.6%. At disease onset, 61.5% and 66.4% fulfilled the 2005 and 2010 McDonald’s criteria for dissemination in space. Mean cord lesion length was 1.86 ± 1.65 vertebral segments in the relapsing remitting group as opposed to 6.25 ± 5.18 vertebral segments in patients with neuromyelitis optica and its spectrum disorders. Conclusion. The spectrum of multiple sclerosis in Malaysia has changed over the years. Further advancement in diagnostic criteria will no doubt continue to contribute to the evolution of this disease here.

  10. Multiple Sclerosis in Malaysia: Demographics, Clinical Features, and Neuroimaging Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, S.; Rose, N.; Masita, A.; Dhaliwal, J. S.; Puvanarajah, S. D.; Rafia, M. H.; Muda, S.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an uncommon disease in multiracial Malaysia. Diagnosing patients with idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating diseases has been greatly aided by the evolution in diagnostic criterion, the identification of new biomarkers, and improved accessibility to neuroimaging in the country. Objectives. To investigate the spectrum of multiple sclerosis in Malaysia. Methods. Retrospective analysis with longitudinal follow-up of patients referred to a single tertiary medical center with neurology services in Malaysia. Results. Out of 245 patients with idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disease, 104 patients had multiple sclerosis. Female to male ratio was 5 : 1. Mean age at onset was 28.6 ± 9.9 years. The Malays were the predominant racial group affected followed by the Chinese, Indians, and other indigenous groups. Subgroup analysis revealed more Chinese having neuromyelitis optica and its spectrum disorders rather than multiple sclerosis. Positive family history was reported in 5%. Optic neuritis and myelitis were the commonest presentations at onset of disease, and relapsing remitting course was the commonest disease pattern observed. Oligoclonal band positivity was 57.6%. At disease onset, 61.5% and 66.4% fulfilled the 2005 and 2010 McDonald's criteria for dissemination in space. Mean cord lesion length was 1.86 ± 1.65 vertebral segments in the relapsing remitting group as opposed to 6.25 ± 5.18 vertebral segments in patients with neuromyelitis optica and its spectrum disorders. Conclusion. The spectrum of multiple sclerosis in Malaysia has changed over the years. Further advancement in diagnostic criteria will no doubt continue to contribute to the evolution of this disease here. PMID:24455266

  11. Neuroimaging and the search for a cure for Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrella, Jeffrey R

    2013-12-01

    As radiologists, our role in the workup of the dementia patient has long been limited by the sensitivity of our imaging tools and lack of effective treatment options. Over the past 30 years, we have made tremendous strides in understanding the genetic, molecular, and cellular basis of Alzheimer disease (AD). We now know that the pathologic features of AD are present 1 to 2 decades prior to development of symptoms, though currently approved symptomatic therapies are administered much later in the disease course. The search for true disease-modifying therapy continues and many clinical trials are underway. Current outcome measures, based on cognitive tests, are relatively insensitive to pathologic disease progression, requiring long, expensive trials with large numbers of participants. Biomarkers, including neuroimaging, have great potential to increase the power of trials by matching imaging methodology with therapeutic mechanism. One of the most important advances over the past decade has been the development of in vivo imaging probes targeted to amyloid beta protein, and one agent is already available for clinical use. Additional advances include automated volumetric imaging methods to quantitate cerebral volume loss. Use of such techniques in small, early phase trials are expected to significantly increase the number and quality of candidate drugs for testing in larger trials. In addition to a critical role in trials, structural, molecular, and functional imaging techniques can give us a window on the etiology of AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. This combination of developments has potential to bring diagnostic radiology to the forefront in AD research, therapeutic trials, and patient care. ©RSNA, 2013.

  12. 'Number-forms' in neuroimaging?;- a PET activation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowell, S.F.; Code, C.; Harasty, J.; Egan, G.F.; Watson, J.D.G.; University of New South Wales,; Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, NSW; University of Melbourne, VIC; University of Exeter,

    2000-01-01

    Full text: In 1880 Francis Galton reported a mental imagery study in which imagers were able to describe and draw arithmetic operations called 'number-forms' (NF). While many studies have reported NFs, little is known about their neural basis. We report a PET case study of a normal volunteer who invoked NFs during mental arithmetic tasks. This PET study used two conditions, repetition and calculation, presented bi-aurally while the subject was blindfolded. The calculation condition required the subject to say out loud the answers to arithmetic tasks, eg. 'nineteen minus seven'. A post-test protocol for vividness of visual imagery during calculation (PVVIC), based on the interviews of Galton (1880) and Seron and colleagues (1992), identified AF, a 43year-old women, as the highest imager (PVVIC - 95%) from a group of 12 normal volunteers. She was able to accurately describe and draw a well-used imagery strategy for mental arithmetic. Her results were contrasted with non-imager, FM (PVVIC - 10%). AF's MRI guided PET results showed significant rCBF activations during the calculation tasks including the right precuneus, right superior frontal gyrus (BA8), left superior parietal lobe (BA7), left visual cortex, medial thalamus and cerebellum. Except for the activation in the right BA8, common to both subjects, AF's areas were not activated by FM. These data confirm previous PET findings that the precuneus plays a major role in mental imagery and point to a neural network for mental imagery during simple calculation. AF's imagery strategies could be the first number-forms reported in a neuroimaging study. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  13. Neural, cognitive, and neuroimaging markers of the suicidal brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobanski T

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Sobanski,1 Karl-Jürgen Bär,2 Gerd Wagner2 1Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatic Medicine, Thüringen-Kliniken "Georgius Agricola" GmbH, Saalfeld, Germany; 2Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Psychiatric Brain and Body Research Group Jena, Jena University Hospital, Jena, GermanyAbstract: Suicidal behavior (SB is characterized by the occurrence of suicide attempts with substantial intent to die. SB is a major health problem worldwide. In the great majority of cases, SB occurs in patients suffering from psychiatric disorders, mainly from affective disorders or schizophrenia. Despite this high association, there is growing evidence from genetic studies that SB might represent a psychiatric condition on its own. This review provides an overview of the most significant neurobiological and neurocognitive findings in SB. We provide evidence for specific dysfunctions within the serotonergic system, for distinct morphological abnormalities in the gray and white matter composition as well as for neurofunctional alterations in the fronto-striatal network. Additionally, the putative role of impulsivity and hopelessness as trait-like risk factors for SB is outlined. Both the personality traits are associated with altered prefrontal cortex function and deficits in cognitive and affective control similar to the findings in SB. Given the difficulties of clinical risk assessment, there is a need to identify specific markers that can predict SB more reliably. Some recent neurocognitive and functional/structural neuroimaging findings might be appropriate to use as SB indicators in the close future.Keywords: suicidal behavior, biological markers, serotonin, hopelessness, impulsivity, major depressive disorder, fMRI, PET, SPECT

  14. Neuroimaging study of Fukuyama type congenital muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murasugi, Hiroko

    1992-01-01

    Fukuyama type congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD) has been attracting attention in recent years because of its brain malformation and progressive muscular dystrophy. The intravitam recognition of brain malformation has been remarkably enhanced by the advent of noninvasive neuroimaging techniques such as CT and MRI. In this study, 87 cranial CT scans and 22 MRIs of the brain, carried out on 60 patients with FCMD, were systematically surveyed, and the correlation between neuroradiological findings and clinical disabilities, and, in two autopsy cases, neuropathological findings was evaluated. Four cases of lissencephalic, 29 of pachygyric, and one of polymicrogyric (suspected) brain surface, and 2 normal brain surfaces were recognized. The patients with lissencephalic brain surface were compared using Dobyns' criteria. Grading of pachygyria was judged as bilateral II in 52% of cases and bilateral I in 48%. The surface of the occipital lobe could not be confirmed with either CT or MRI. Polymicrogyria was suspected using MRI but could not confirmed with CT. Five caces of lissencephaly had never learned any meaningful words and all but one were bedridden because of poor head control. The abilities of patients were better when the grading of pachygyria was milder. Mental disability and peak motor function correlate more closely with the degree and extent of brain malformation than with muscle degeneration. The decrease in radiodensity in the white matter was remarkable in 12 out of 19 cases (63%), and was usually bilaterally symmetrical. An increase in radiodensity in the white matter with age was observed in 3 patients. The rate of myelination was slower than normal in 3 out of the 6 cases. (author)

  15. Neuroimaging study of Fukuyama type congenital muscular dystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murasugi, Hiroko (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1992-11-01

    Fukuyama type congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD) has been attracting attention in recent years because of its brain malformation and progressive muscular dystrophy. The intravitam recognition of brain malformation has been remarkably enhanced by the advent of noninvasive neuroimaging techniques such as CT and MRI. In this study, 87 cranial CT scans and 22 MRIs of the brain, carried out on 60 patients with FCMD, were systematically surveyed, and the correlation between neuroradiological findings and clinical disabilities, and, in two autopsy cases, neuropathological findings was evaluated. Four cases of lissencephalic, 29 of pachygyric, and one of polymicrogyric (suspected) brain surface, and 2 normal brain surfaces were recognized. The patients with lissencephalic brain surface were compared using Dobyns' criteria. Grading of pachygyria was judged as bilateral II in 52% of cases and bilateral I in 48%. The surface of the occipital lobe could not be confirmed with either CT or MRI. Polymicrogyria was suspected using MRI but could not confirmed with CT. Five caces of lissencephaly had never learned any meaningful words and all but one were bedridden because of poor head control. The abilities of patients were better when the grading of pachygyria was milder. Mental disability and peak motor function correlate more closely with the degree and extent of brain malformation than with muscle degeneration. The decrease in radiodensity in the white matter was remarkable in 12 out of 19 cases (63%), and was usually bilaterally symmetrical. An increase in radiodensity in the white matter with age was observed in 3 patients. The rate of myelination was slower than normal in 3 out of the 6 cases. (author).

  16. Functional and molecular neuroimaging of menopause and hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika eComasco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of gonadal hormones to which the female brain is exposed considerably changes across the menopausal transition, which in turn, is likely to be of great relevance for neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders. However, the neurobiological consequences of these hormone fluctuations and of hormone replacement therapy in the menopause have only begun to be understood. This review summarizes the findings of thirty-four studies of human brain function, including functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron and single-photon computed emission tomography studies, in peri- and postmenopausal women treated with estrogen, or estrogen-progestagen replacement therapy. Seven studies using gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist intervention as a model of hormonal withdrawal are also included. Cognitive paradigms are employed by the majority of studies evaluating the effect of unopposed estrogen or estrogen-progestagen treatment on peri- and postmenopausal women’s brain. In randomized-controlled trials, estrogen treatment enhances activation of fronto-cingulate regions during cognitive functioning, though in many cases no difference in cognitive performance was present. Progestagens seems to counteract the effects of estrogens. Findings on cognitive functioning during acute ovarian hormone withdrawal suggest a decrease in activation of the inferior frontal gyrus, thus essentially corroborating the findings in postmenopausal women. Studies of the cholinergic and serotonergic systems indicate these systems as biological mediators of hormonal influences on the brain. More, hormonal replacement appears to increase cerebral blood flow in cortical regions. On the other hand, studies on emotion processing in postmenopausal women are lacking. These results call for well-powered randomized-controlled multi-modal prospective neuroimaging studies as well as investigation on the related molecular mechanisms of effects of menopausal hormonal

  17. Functional neuroimaging insights into the physiology of human sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Schabus, Manuel; Desseilles, Martin; Sterpenich, Virginie; Bonjean, Maxime; Maquet, Pierre

    2010-12-01

    Functional brain imaging has been used in humans to noninvasively investigate the neural mechanisms underlying the generation of sleep stages. On the one hand, REM sleep has been associated with the activation of the pons, thalamus, limbic areas, and temporo-occipital cortices, and the deactivation of prefrontal areas, in line with theories of REM sleep generation and dreaming properties. On the other hand, during non-REM (NREM) sleep, decreases in brain activity have been consistently found in the brainstem, thalamus, and in several cortical areas including the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), in agreement with a homeostatic need for brain energy recovery. Benefiting from a better temporal resolution, more recent studies have characterized the brain activations related to phasic events within specific sleep stages. In particular, they have demonstrated that NREM sleep oscillations (spindles and slow waves) are indeed associated with increases in brain activity in specific subcortical and cortical areas involved in the generation or modulation of these waves. These data highlight that, even during NREM sleep, brain activity is increased, yet regionally specific and transient. Besides refining the understanding of sleep mechanisms, functional brain imaging has also advanced the description of the functional properties of sleep. For instance, it has been shown that the sleeping brain is still able to process external information and even detect the pertinence of its content. The relationship between sleep and memory has also been refined using neuroimaging, demonstrating post-learning reactivation during sleep, as well as the reorganization of memory representation on the systems level, sometimes with long-lasting effects on subsequent memory performance. Further imaging studies should focus on clarifying the role of specific sleep patterns for the processing of external stimuli, as well as the consolidation of freshly encoded information during sleep.

  18. Dissociable genetic contributions to error processing: a multimodal neuroimaging study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yigal Agam

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies reliably identify two markers of error commission: the error-related negativity (ERN, an event-related potential, and functional MRI activation of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC. While theorized to reflect the same neural process, recent evidence suggests that the ERN arises from the posterior cingulate cortex not the dACC. Here, we tested the hypothesis that these two error markers also have different genetic mediation.We measured both error markers in a sample of 92 comprised of healthy individuals and those with diagnoses of schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder or autism spectrum disorder. Participants performed the same task during functional MRI and simultaneously acquired magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography. We examined the mediation of the error markers by two single nucleotide polymorphisms: dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4 C-521T (rs1800955, which has been associated with the ERN and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T (rs1801133, which has been associated with error-related dACC activation. We then compared the effects of each polymorphism on the two error markers modeled as a bivariate response.We replicated our previous report of a posterior cingulate source of the ERN in healthy participants in the schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder groups. The effect of genotype on error markers did not differ significantly by diagnostic group. DRD4 C-521T allele load had a significant linear effect on ERN amplitude, but not on dACC activation, and this difference was significant. MTHFR C677T allele load had a significant linear effect on dACC activation but not ERN amplitude, but the difference in effects on the two error markers was not significant.DRD4 C-521T, but not MTHFR C677T, had a significant differential effect on two canonical error markers. Together with the anatomical dissociation between the ERN and error-related dACC activation, these findings suggest that

  19. Neurofunctional systems. 3D reconstructions with correlated neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretschmann, H.J.; Fiekert, W.; Gerke, M.; Vogt, H.; Weirich, D.; Wesemann, M.; Weinrich, W.

    1998-01-01

    This book introduces, for the first time, computer-generated images of the neurofunctional systems of the human brain. These images are more accurate than drawings. The main views presented are of the medial lemniscus system, auditory system, visual system, basal ganglia, corticospinal system, and the limbic system. The arteries and sulci of the cerebral hemispheres are also illustrated by computer. These images provide a three-dimensional orientation of the intracranial space and help, for example, to assess vascular functional disturbance of the brain. Clinicians will find these images valuable for the spatial interpretation of magnetic resonance (MR), computed tomography (CT), and positron emission tomography (PET) images since many neurofunctional systems cannot be visualized as isolated structures in neuroimaging. Computer-assisted surface reconstructions of the neurofunctional systems and the cerebral arteries serve as a basis for constructing these computer-generated images. The surface reconstructions are anatomically realistic having been created from brain sections with minimal deformations. The method of computer graphics, known as ray tracing, produces digital images form these reconstructions. The computer-generated methods are explained. The computer-generated images are accompanied by illustrations and texts on neuroanatomy and clinical practice. The neurofunctional systems of the human brain are also shown in sections so that the reader can mentally reconstruct the neurofunctional systems, thus facilitating the transformation of information into textbooks and atlantes of MR and CT imaging. The aim of this book is acquaint the reader with the three-dimensional aspects of the neurofunctional systems and the cerebral arteries of the human brain using methods of computer graphics. Computer scientists and those interested in this technique are provided with basic neuroanatomic and neurofunctional information. Physicians will have a clearer understanding

  20. Neurofunctional systems. 3D reconstructions with correlated neuroimaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretschmann, H.J.; Fiekert, W.; Gerke, M.; Vogt, H.; Weirich, D.; Wesemann, M. [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany). Abt. Neuroanatomie; Weinrich, W. [Staedtisches Krankenhaus Nordstadt, Hannover (Germany). Abt. fuer Neurologie

    1998-12-31

    This book introduces, for the first time, computer-generated images of the neurofunctional systems of the human brain. These images are more accurate than drawings. The main views presented are of the medial lemniscus system, auditory system, visual system, basal ganglia, corticospinal system, and the limbic system. The arteries and sulci of the cerebral hemispheres are also illustrated by computer. These images provide a three-dimensional orientation of the intracranial space and help, for example, to assess vascular functional disturbance of the brain. Clinicians will find these images valuable for the spatial interpretation of magnetic resonance (MR), computed tomography (CT), and positron emission tomography (PET) images since many neurofunctional systems cannot be visualized as isolated structures in neuroimaging. Computer-assisted surface reconstructions of the neurofunctional systems and the cerebral arteries serve as a basis for constructing these computer-generated images. The surface reconstructions are anatomically realistic having been created from brain sections with minimal deformations. The method of computer graphics, known as ray tracing, produces digital images form these reconstructions. The computer-generated methods are explained. The computer-generated images are accompanied by illustrations and texts on neuroanatomy and clinical practice. The neurofunctional systems of the human brain are also shown in sections so that the reader can mentally reconstruct the neurofunctional systems, thus facilitating the transformation of information into textbooks and atlantes of MR and CT imaging. The aim of this book is acquaint the reader with the three-dimensional aspects of the neurofunctional systems and the cerebral arteries of the human brain using methods of computer graphics. Computer scientists and those interested in this technique are provided with basic neuroanatomic and neurofunctional information. Physicians will have a clearer understanding

  1. [Functional neuroimaging in the diagnosis of patients with Parkinsonism: Update and recommendations for clinical use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbizu, J; Luquin, M R; Abella, J; de la Fuente-Fernández, R; Fernandez-Torrón, R; García-Solís, D; Garrastachu, P; Jiménez-Hoyuela, J M; Llaneza, M; Lomeña, F; Lorenzo-Bosquet, C; Martí, M J; Martinez-Castrillo, J C; Mir, P; Mitjavila, M; Ruiz-Martínez, J; Vela, L

    2014-01-01

    Functional Neuroimaging has been traditionally used in research for patients with different Parkinsonian syndromes. However, the emergence of commercial radiotracers together with the availability of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and, more recently, positron emission tomography (PET) have made them available for clinical practice. Particularly, the development of clinical evidence achieved by functional neuroimaging techniques over the past two decades have motivated a progressive inclusion of several biomarkers in the clinical diagnostic criteria for neurodegenerative diseases that occur with Parkinsonism. However, the wide range of radiotracers designed to assess the involvement of different pathways in the neurodegenerative process underlying Parkinsonian syndromes (dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway integrity, basal ganglia and cortical neuronal activity, myocardial sympathetic innervation), and the different neuroimaging techniques currently available (scintigraphy, SPECT and PET), have generated some controversy concerning the best neuroimaging test that should be indicated for the differential diagnosis of Parkinsonism. In this article, a panel of nuclear medicine and neurology experts has evaluated the functional neuroimaging techniques emphazising practical considerations related to the diagnosis of patients with uncertain origin parkinsonism and the assessment Parkinson's disease progression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  2. The Shepherd's Crook Sign: A New Neuroimaging Pareidolia in Joubert Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, Andrew T; Maertens, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    By pareidolically recognizing specific patterns indicative of particular diseases, neuroimagers reinforce their mnemonic strategies and improve their neuroimaging diagnostic skills. Joubert Syndrome (JS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized clinically by mental retardation, episodes of abnormal deep and rapid breathing, abnormal eye movements, and ataxia. Many neuroimaging signs characteristic of JS have been reported. In retrospective case study, two consanguineous neonates diagnosed with JS were evaluated with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and neurosonography. Both cranial ultrasound and MRI of the brain showed the characteristic molar tooth sign. There was a shepherd's crook in the sagittal views of the posterior fossa where the shaft of the crook is made by the brainstem and the pons. The arc of the crook is made by the abnormal superior cerebellar peduncle and cerebellar hemisphere. By ultrasound, the shepherd's crook sign was seen through the posterior fontanelle only. CT imaging also showed the shepherd's crook sign. Neuroimaging diagnosis of JS, which already involves the pareidolical recognition of specific patterns indicative of the disease, can be improved by recognition of the shepherd's crook sign on MRI, CT, and cranial ultrasound. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  3. Integration of a neuroimaging processing pipeline into a pan-canadian computing grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavoie-Courchesne, S; Chouinard-Decorte, F; Doyon, J; Bellec, P; Rioux, P; Sherif, T; Rousseau, M-E; Das, S; Adalat, R; Evans, A C; Craddock, C; Margulies, D; Chu, C; Lyttelton, O

    2012-01-01

    The ethos of the neuroimaging field is quickly moving towards the open sharing of resources, including both imaging databases and processing tools. As a neuroimaging database represents a large volume of datasets and as neuroimaging processing pipelines are composed of heterogeneous, computationally intensive tools, such open sharing raises specific computational challenges. This motivates the design of novel dedicated computing infrastructures. This paper describes an interface between PSOM, a code-oriented pipeline development framework, and CBRAIN, a web-oriented platform for grid computing. This interface was used to integrate a PSOM-compliant pipeline for preprocessing of structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging into CBRAIN. We further tested the capacity of our infrastructure to handle a real large-scale project. A neuroimaging database including close to 1000 subjects was preprocessed using our interface and publicly released to help the participants of the ADHD-200 international competition. This successful experiment demonstrated that our integrated grid-computing platform is a powerful solution for high-throughput pipeline analysis in the field of neuroimaging.

  4. ABrIL - Advanced Brain Imaging Lab : a cloud based computation environment for cooperative neuroimaging projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves Tafula, Sérgio M; Moreira da Silva, Nádia; Rozanski, Verena E; Silva Cunha, João Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Neuroscience is an increasingly multidisciplinary and highly cooperative field where neuroimaging plays an important role. Neuroimaging rapid evolution is demanding for a growing number of computing resources and skills that need to be put in place at every lab. Typically each group tries to setup their own servers and workstations to support their neuroimaging needs, having to learn from Operating System management to specific neuroscience software tools details before any results can be obtained from each setup. This setup and learning process is replicated in every lab, even if a strong collaboration among several groups is going on. In this paper we present a new cloud service model - Brain Imaging Application as a Service (BiAaaS) - and one of its implementation - Advanced Brain Imaging Lab (ABrIL) - in the form of an ubiquitous virtual desktop remote infrastructure that offers a set of neuroimaging computational services in an interactive neuroscientist-friendly graphical user interface (GUI). This remote desktop has been used for several multi-institution cooperative projects with different neuroscience objectives that already achieved important results, such as the contribution to a high impact paper published in the January issue of the Neuroimage journal. The ABrIL system has shown its applicability in several neuroscience projects with a relatively low-cost, promoting truly collaborative actions and speeding up project results and their clinical applicability.

  5. Lin4Neuro: a customized Linux distribution ready for neuroimaging analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Kiyotaka; Dan, Ippeita; Rorden, Christopher; Ohnishi, Takashi; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Okamoto, Masako; Yamashita, Fumio; Asada, Takashi

    2011-01-25

    A variety of neuroimaging software packages have been released from various laboratories worldwide, and many researchers use these packages in combination. Though most of these software packages are freely available, some people find them difficult to install and configure because they are mostly based on UNIX-like operating systems. We developed a live USB-bootable Linux package named "Lin4Neuro." This system includes popular neuroimaging analysis tools. The user interface is customized so that even Windows users can use it intuitively. The boot time of this system was only around 40 seconds. We performed a benchmark test of inhomogeneity correction on 10 subjects of three-dimensional T1-weighted MRI scans. The processing speed of USB-booted Lin4Neuro was as fast as that of the package installed on the hard disk drive. We also installed Lin4Neuro on a virtualization software package that emulates the Linux environment on a Windows-based operation system. Although the processing speed was slower than that under other conditions, it remained comparable. With Lin4Neuro in one's hand, one can access neuroimaging software packages easily, and immediately focus on analyzing data. Lin4Neuro can be a good primer for beginners of neuroimaging analysis or students who are interested in neuroimaging analysis. It also provides a practical means of sharing analysis environments across sites.

  6. Patient and Process Factors Associated With Type of First Neuroimaging and Delayed Diagnosis in Childhood Arterial Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daverio, Marco; Bressan, Silvia; Gregori, Dario; Babl, Franz E; Mackay, Mark T

    2016-09-01

    In-hospital factors contribute more to delayed diagnosis of childhood arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) than prehospital factors. We aimed to explore process and patient factors associated with type of and timing to neuroimaging in childhood AIS in the emergency department (ED). This was a retrospective hospital registry-based study of children with AIS, presenting to an Australian tertiary pediatric ED between January 2003 and December 2012. Neuroimaging data and timelines of care were also collected from referring hospitals for transferred patients. Seventy-one AIS episodes and 19 transient ischemic attacks were recorded. The majority (56%) were initially seen at a referring hospital. Patients underwent computed tomography (CT) as first scan more frequently than magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as first scan (61% vs. 32%) at both the referring and the tertiary hospitals. Time to first scan as CT was significantly shorter compared with MRI (median = 1.5 hours vs. 10.9 hours, p first presenting to a referring hospital and those directly accessing the tertiary center. Patient characteristics including age, past medical history, conscious state, focal symptoms, and signs on arrival were not associated with the type of first neuroimaging or time to diagnostic MRI. Patients presenting during weekends were less likely to receive an MRI as first scan (odds ratio [OR] = 0.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.1-0.8), while time to MRI was significantly longer for children presenting after hours (5 pm-8 am; median = 17.6 hours vs. 8.4 hours, p = 0.026). MRI overall and as first scan was associated with a higher use of sedation than CT (OR = 6.5, 95% CI = 1.3-32.9; and OR = 3.9, 95% CI = 1.3-11.8), particularly for children younger than 5 years of age (OR = 12.5, 95% CI = 3-52.4). Strategies to improve rapid diagnosis of pediatric stroke should include shared regional hospital networks protocols to optimize local imaging strategies and where possible rapid transfer to the

  7. Presymptomatic and longitudinal neuroimaging in neurodegeneration--from snapshots to motion picture: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Christina; Elamin, Marwa; Hardiman, Orla; Bede, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Recent quantitative neuroimaging studies have been successful in capturing phenotype and genotype-specific changes in dementia syndromes, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative conditions. However, the majority of imaging studies are cross-sectional, despite the obvious superiority of longitudinal study designs in characterising disease trajectories, response to therapy, progression rates and evaluating the presymptomatic phase of neurodegenerative conditions. The aim of this work is to perform a systematic review of longitudinal imaging initiatives in neurodegeneration focusing on methodology, optimal statistical models, follow-up intervals, attrition rates, primary study outcomes and presymptomatic studies. Longitudinal imaging studies were identified from 'PubMed' and reviewed from 1990 to 2014. The search terms 'longitudinal', 'MRI', 'presymptomatic' and 'imaging' were utilised in combination with one of the following degenerative conditions; Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease, frontotemporal dementia, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, ataxia, HIV, alcohol abuse/dependence. A total of 423 longitudinal imaging papers and 103 genotype-based presymptomatic studies were identified and systematically reviewed. Imaging techniques, follow-up intervals and attrition rates showed significant variation depending on the primary diagnosis. Commonly used statistical models included analysis of annualised percentage change, mixed and random effect models, and non-linear cumulative models with acceleration-deceleration components. Although longitudinal imaging studies have the potential to provide crucial insights into the presymptomatic phase and natural trajectory of neurodegenerative processes a standardised design is required to enable meaningful data interpretation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under

  8. Neuroimaging studies of the striatum in cognition Part I: healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provost, Jean-Sebastien; Hanganu, Alexandru; Monchi, Oury

    2015-01-01

    The striatum has traditionally mainly been associated with playing a key role in the modulation of motor functions. Indeed, lesion studies in animals and studies of some neurological conditions in humans have brought further evidence to this idea. However, better methods of investigation have raised concerns about this notion, and it was proposed that the striatum could also be involved in different types of functions including cognitive ones. Although the notion was originally a matter of debate, it is now well-accepted that the caudate nucleus contributes to cognition, while the putamen could be involved in motor functions, and to some extent in cognitive functions as well. With the arrival of modern neuroimaging techniques in the early 1990, knowledge supporting the cognitive aspect of the striatum has greatly increased, and a substantial number of scientific papers were published studying the role of the striatum in healthy individuals. For the first time, it was possible to assess the contribution of specific areas of the brain during the execution of a cognitive task. Neuroanatomical studies have described functional loops involving the striatum and the prefrontal cortex suggesting a specific interaction between these two structures. This review examines the data up to date and provides strong evidence for a specific contribution of the fronto-striatal regions in different cognitive processes, such as set-shifting, self-initiated responses, rule learning, action-contingency, and planning. Finally, a new two-level functional model involving the prefrontal cortex and the dorsal striatum is proposed suggesting an essential role of the dorsal striatum in selecting between competing potential responses or actions, and in resolving a high level of ambiguity.

  9. Mind-Body Practices and the Adolescent Brain: Clinical Neuroimaging Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anup; Newberg, Andrew B

    Mind-Body practices constitute a large and diverse group of practices that can substantially affect neurophysiology in both healthy individuals and those with various psychiatric disorders. In spite of the growing literature on the clinical and physiological effects of mind-body practices, very little is known about their impact on central nervous system (CNS) structure and function in adolescents with psychiatric disorders. This overview highlights findings in a select group of mind-body practices including yoga postures, yoga breathing techniques and meditation practices. Mind-body practices offer novel therapeutic approaches for adolescents with psychiatric disorders. Findings from these studies provide insights into the design and implementation of neuroimaging studies for adolescents with psychiatric disorders. Clinical neuroimaging studies will be critical in understanding how different practices affect disease pathogenesis and symptomatology in adolescents. Neuroimaging of mind-body practices on adolescents with psychiatric disorders will certainly be an open and exciting area of investigation.

  10. International Cognition and Cancer Task Force Recommendations for Neuroimaging Methods in the Study of Cognitive Impairment in Non-CNS Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprez, Sabine; Kesler, Shelli R; Saykin, Andrew J; Silverman, Daniel H S; de Ruiter, Michiel B; McDonald, Brenna C

    2018-03-01

    Cancer- and treatment-related cognitive changes have been a focus of increasing research since the early 1980s, with meta-analyses demonstrating poorer performance in cancer patients in cognitive domains including executive functions, processing speed, and memory. To facilitate collaborative efforts, in 2011 the International Cognition and Cancer Task Force (ICCTF) published consensus recommendations for core neuropsychological tests for studies of cancer populations. Over the past decade, studies have used neuroimaging techniques, including structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography, to examine the underlying brain basis for cancer- and treatment-related cognitive declines. As yet, however, there have been no consensus recommendations to guide researchers new to this field or to promote the ability to combine data sets. We first discuss important methodological issues with regard to neuroimaging study design, scanner considerations, and sequence selection, focusing on concerns relevant to cancer populations. We propose a minimum recommended set of sequences, including a high-resolution T1-weighted volume and a resting state fMRI scan. Additional advanced imaging sequences are discussed for consideration when feasible, including task-based fMRI and diffusion tensor imaging. Important image data processing and analytic considerations are also reviewed. These recommendations are offered to facilitate increased use of neuroimaging in studies of cancer- and treatment-related cognitive dysfunction. They are not intended to discourage investigator-initiated efforts to develop cutting-edge techniques, which will be helpful in advancing the state of the knowledge. Use of common imaging protocols will facilitate multicenter and data-pooling initiatives, which are needed to address critical mechanistic research questions.

  11. GENE X ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA AND BIPOLAR DISORDER:EVIDENCE FROM NEUROIMAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Alexis Geoffroy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Schizophrenia (SZ and Bipolar disorder (BD are considered as severe multifactorial diseases, stemming from genetic and environmental influences. Growing evidence supports gene x environment (GxE interactions in these disorders and neuroimaging studies can help us to understand how those factors mechanistically interact. No reviews synthesized the existing data of neuroimaging studies in these issues.Methods: We conduct a systematic review on the neuroimaging studies exploring GxE interactions relative to SZ or BD in PubMed.Results: First results of the influence of genetic and environmental risks on brain structures came from monozygotic twin pairs concordant and discordant for SZ or BD. Few structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI studies have explored the GxE interactions. No other imaging methods were found. Two main GxE interactions on brain volumes have arisen. First, an interaction between genetic liability to SZ and obstetric complications on gray matter, cerebrospinal fluid and hippocampal volumes. Second, cannabis use and genetic liability interaction effects on cortical thickness and white matter volumes.Conclusion: Combining GxE interactions and neuroimaging domains is a promising approach. Genetic risk and environmental exposures such as cannabis or obstetrical complications seem to interact leading to specific neuroimaging cerebral alterations in SZ. They are suggestive of GxE interactions that confer phenotypic abnormalities in SZ and possibly BD. We need further, larger neuroimaging studies of GxE interactions for which we may propose a framework focusing on GxE interactions data already known to have a clinical effect such as infections, early stress, urbanicity and substance abuse.

  12. Neuroimaging in pediatric traumatic head injury: diagnostic considerations and relationships to neurobehavioral outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, E D

    1999-08-01

    Contemporary neuorimaging techniques in child traumatic brain injury are reviewed, with an emphasis on computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. A brief overview of MR spectroscopy (MRS), functional MR imaging (fMRI), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and magnetoencephalography (MEG) is also provided because these techniques will likely constitute important neuroimaging techniques of the future. Numerous figures are provided to illustrate the multifaceted manner in which traumatic deficits can be imaged and the role of neuroimaging information as it relates to TBI outcome.

  13. Neuroimaging studies of aggressive and violent behavior: current findings and implications for criminology and criminal justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufkin, Jana L; Luttrell, Vickie R

    2005-04-01

    With the availability of new functional and structural neuroimaging techniques, researchers have begun to localize brain areas that may be dysfunctional in offenders who are aggressive and violent. Our review of 17 neuroimaging studies reveals that the areas associated with aggressive and/or violent behavioral histories, particularly impulsive acts, are located in the prefrontal cortex and the medial temporal regions. These findings are explained in the context of negative emotion regulation, and suggestions are provided concerning how such findings may affect future theoretical frameworks in criminology, crime prevention efforts, and the functioning of the criminal justice system.

  14. EFNS Task Force on Teaching of Neuroimaging in Neurology Curricula in Europe : present status and recommendations for the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantano, P; Chollet, F; Paulson, O; von Kummer, R; Laihinen, A; Leenders, K; Yancheva, S

    A Task Force on 'Teaching of Neuroimaging in Neurology Curricula in Europe' was appointed in September 1998 by the education committee of the European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS) in order to: (1) examine the present status of teaching of neuroimaging in the training of neurology in

  15. EFNS Task Force on Teaching of Neuroimaging in Neurology Curricula in Europe : present status and recommendations for the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantano, P; Chollet, F; Paulson, O; von Kummer, R; Laihinen, A; Leenders, K; Yancheva, S

    2001-01-01

    A Task Force on 'Teaching of Neuroimaging in Neurology Curricula in Europe' was appointed in September 1998 by the education committee of the European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS) in order to: (1) examine the present status of teaching of neuroimaging in the training of neurology in

  16. Correlation analysis of findings from neuroimaging and histopathology in focal cortical dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Mingping; Fan Jianzhong; Jiang Zirong; Bao Qiang; Du Ruibin; Ritter, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To characterize neuroimaging features of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) retrospectively and correlate those with pathological findings, which may improve our understanding of neuroimaging characteristics of FCD. Methods: Clinical information and neuroimaging findings of 28 cases with FCD proved by pathology were retrospectively reviewed, and neuroimaging features of FCD were correlated with the pathological changes. Results: MRI revealed abnormal changes in 24 of 28 patients (85.7%) and no abnormalities were observed in 4 cases. Focal cortical thickening and blurring of the gray- white matter junction were the major features of FCD on MRI. Accompanied abnormal MR signals can also be observed in cortical or subcortical white matter in FCD. The radial band of hyperintensity in subcortical white matter tapering to the ventricle is one of the characteristic features of FCD on MRI. On FDG-PET examination, focal hypometabolism were revealed in 9 of 14 cases (64.3%). Histologically, cortical dyslamination was accompanied by various degrees of dysmorphic neurons and balloon cells in cortical and subcortical areas. Subcortical white matter dysmyelination and spongiotic necrotic changes were found in some cases with FCD. Conclusion: High resolution MRI can reveal most of the lesions in FCD, including abnormal changes of cortical and subcortical white matter, which makes MRI the best pre-operation examination for FCD. (authors)

  17. Adolescent Schizophrenia: A Methodologic Review of the Current Neuroimaging and Neuropsychologic Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findling, Robert L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the methodology in articles that have reported structural neuroimaging or neuropsychological data in adolescent patients with schizophrenia. Identification of methodological issues led to the finding that, at present, no conclusions can be made regarding the presence or absence of neuropsychologic dysfunction or structural…

  18. Reading the Freudian theory of sexual drives from a functional neuroimaging perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge eStoléru

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the essential tasks of neuropsychoanalysis is to investigate the neural correlates of sexual drives. Here, we consider the four defining characteristics of sexual drives as delineated by Freud: their pressure, aim, object, and source. We systematically examine the relations between these characteristics and the four-component neurophenomenological model that we have proposed based on functional neuroimaging studies, which comprises a cognitive, a motivational, an emotional and an autonomic/neuroendocrine component. Functional neuroimaging studies of sexual arousal have thrown a new light on the four fundamental characteristics of sexual drives by identifying their potential neural correlates. While these studies are essentally consistent with the Freudian model of drives, the main difference emerging between the functional neuroimaging perspective on sexual drives and the Freudian theory relates to the source of drives. From a functional neuroimaging perspective sources of sexual drives, conceived by psychoanalysis as processes of excitation occurring in a peripheral organ, do not seem, at least in adult subjects, to be an essential part of the determinants of sexual arousal. It is rather the central processing of visual or genital stimuli that gives to these stimuli their sexually arousing and sexually pleasurable character.

  19. Functional neuroimaging studies of episodic memory. Functional dissociation in the medial temporal lobe structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukiura, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    Previous functional neuroimaging studies have demonstrated the critical role of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) regions in the encoding and retrieval of episodic memory. It has also been shown that an emotional factor in human memory enhances episodic encoding and retrieval. However, there is little evidence regarding the specific contribution of each MTL region to the relational, contextual, and emotional processes of episodic memory. The goal of this review article is to identify differential activation patterns of the processes between MTL regions. Results from functional neuroimaging studies of episodic memory show that the hippocampus is involved in encoding the relation between memory items, whereas the entorhinal and perirhinal cortices (anterior parahippocampal gyrus) contribute to the encoding of a single item. Additionally, the parahippocampal cortex (posterior parahippocampal gyrus) is selectively activated during the processing of contextual information of episodic memory. A similar pattern of functional dissociation is found in episodic memory retrieval. Functional neuroimaging has also shown that emotional information of episodic memory enhances amygdala-MTL correlations and that this enhancement is observed during both the encoding and retrieval of emotional memories. These findings from pervious neuroimaging studies suggest that different MTL regions could organize memory for personally experienced episodes via the 'relation' and 'context' factors of episodic memory, and that the emotional factor of episodes could modulate the functional organization in the MTL regions. (author)

  20. Data mining a functional neuroimaging database for functional segregation in brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Balslev, Daniela; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2006-01-01

    We describe a specialized neuroinformatic data mining technique in connection with a meta-analytic functional neuroimaging database: We mine for functional segregation within brain regions by identifying journal articles that report brain activations within the regions and clustering the abstract...

  1. Exploring responsible innovation : Dutch public perceptions of the future of medical neuroimaging technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arentshorst, Marlous E.; Broerse, Jacqueline E W; de Cock Buning, J.T.

    2016-01-01

    Insight into public perceptions provides opportunities to take public desires and concerns into account in an early phase of innovation development in order to maximise the potential benefits for users of the future. Public perceptions of neuroimaging in health care are presented in this article,

  2. Attention to pain! A neurocognitive perspective on attentional modulation of pain in neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torta, D M; Legrain, V; Mouraux, A; Valentini, E

    2017-04-01

    Several studies have used neuroimaging techniques to investigate brain correlates of the attentional modulation of pain. Although these studies have advanced the knowledge in the field, important confounding factors such as imprecise theoretical definitions of attention, incomplete operationalization of the construct under exam, and limitations of techniques relying on measuring regional changes in cerebral blood flow have hampered the potential relevance of the conclusions. Here, we first provide an overview of the major theories of attention and of attention in the study of pain to bridge theory and experimental results. We conclude that load and motivational/affective theories are particularly relevant to study the attentional modulation of pain and should be carefully integrated in functional neuroimaging studies. Then, we summarize previous findings and discuss the possible neural correlates of the attentional modulation of pain. We discuss whether classical functional neuroimaging techniques are suitable to measure the effect of a fluctuating process like attention, and in which circumstances functional neuroimaging can be reliably used to measure the attentional modulation of pain. Finally, we argue that the analysis of brain networks and spontaneous oscillations may be a crucial future development in the study of attentional modulation of pain, and why the interplay between attention and pain, as examined so far, may rely on neural mechanisms shared with other sensory modalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An empirical comparison of different approaches for combining multimodal neuroimaging data with support vector machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pettersson-Yeo, W.; Benetti, S.; Marquand, A.F.; Joules, R.; Catani, M.; Williams, S.C.; Allen, P.; McGuire, P.; Mechelli, A.

    2014-01-01

    In the pursuit of clinical utility, neuroimaging researchers of psychiatric and neurological illness are increasingly using analyses, such as support vector machine, that allow inference at the single-subject level. Recent studies employing single-modality data, however, suggest that classification

  4. Identifying predictors, moderators, and mediators of antidepressant response in major depressive disorder: neuroimaging approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Mary L; Chase, Henry W; Sheline, Yvette I; Etkin, Amit; Almeida, Jorge R C; Deckersbach, Thilo; Trivedi, Madhukar H

    2015-02-01

    Despite significant advances in neuroscience and treatment development, no widely accepted biomarkers are available to inform diagnostics or identify preferred treatments for individuals with major depressive disorder. In this critical review, the authors examine the extent to which multimodal neuroimaging techniques can identify biomarkers reflecting key pathophysiologic processes in depression and whether such biomarkers may act as predictors, moderators, and mediators of treatment response that might facilitate development of personalized treatments based on a better understanding of these processes. The authors first highlight the most consistent findings from neuroimaging studies using different techniques in depression, including structural and functional abnormalities in two parallel neural circuits: serotonergically modulated implicit emotion regulation circuitry, centered on the amygdala and different regions in the medial prefrontal cortex; and dopaminergically modulated reward neural circuitry, centered on the ventral striatum and medial prefrontal cortex. They then describe key findings from the relatively small number of studies indicating that specific measures of regional function and, to a lesser extent, structure in these neural circuits predict treatment response in depression. Limitations of existing studies include small sample sizes, use of only one neuroimaging modality, and a focus on identifying predictors rather than moderators and mediators of differential treatment response. By addressing these limitations and, most importantly, capitalizing on the benefits of multimodal neuroimaging, future studies can yield moderators and mediators of treatment response in depression to facilitate significant improvements in shorter- and longer-term clinical and functional outcomes.

  5. Integrating Functional Brain Neuroimaging and Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience in Child Psychiatry Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavuluri, Mani N.; Sweeney, John A.

    2008-01-01

    The use of cognitive neuroscience and functional brain neuroimaging to understand brain dysfunction in pediatric psychiatric disorders is discussed. Results show that bipolar youths demonstrate impairment in affective and cognitive neural systems and in these two circuits' interface. Implications for the diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric…

  6. The ENIGMA Consortium : large-scale collaborative analyses of neuroimaging and genetic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, Paul M.; Stein, Jason L.; Medland, Sarah E.; Hibar, Derrek P.; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Renteria, Miguel E.; Toro, Roberto; Jahanshad, Neda; Schumann, Gunter; Franke, Barbara; Wright, Margaret J.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Agartz, Ingrid; Alda, Martin; Alhusaini, Saud; Almasy, Laura; Almeida, Jorge; Alpert, Kathryn; Andreasen, Nancy C.; Andreassen, Ole A.; Apostolova, Liana G.; Appel, Katja; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Aribisala, Benjamin; Bastin, Mark E.; Bauer, Michael; Bearden, Carrie E.; Bergmann, Orjan; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Blangero, John; Bockholt, Henry J.; Boen, Erlend; Bois, Catherine; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Booth, Tom; Bowman, Ian J.; Bralten, Janita; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Brunner, Han G.; Brohawn, David G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Buitelaar, Jan; Bulayeva, Kazima; Bustillo, Juan R.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Schmaal, Lianne; van Tol, Marie-Jose

    The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in neuroscience,

  7. The ENIGMA Consortium: large-scale collaborative analyses of neuroimaging and genetic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, Paul M.; Stein, Jason L.; Medland, Sarah E.; Hibar, Derrek P.; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Renteria, Miguel E.; Toro, Roberto; Jahanshad, Neda; Schumann, Gunter; Franke, Barbara; Wright, Margaret J.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Agartz, Ingrid; Alda, Martin; Alhusaini, Saud; Almasy, Laura; Almeida, Jorge; Alpert, Kathryn; Andreasen, Nancy C.; Andreassen, Ole A.; Apostolova, Liana G.; Appel, Katja; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Aribisala, Benjamin; Bastin, Mark E.; Bauer, Michael; Bearden, Carrie E.; Bergmann, Orjan; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Blangero, John; Bockholt, Henry J.; Bøen, Erlend; Bois, Catherine; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Booth, Tom; Bowman, Ian J.; Bralten, Janita; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Brunner, Han G.; Brohawn, David G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Buitelaar, Jan; Bulayeva, Kazima; Bustillo, Juan R.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cantor, Rita M.; Carless, Melanie A.; Caseras, Xavier; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chang, Kiki D.; Ching, Christopher R. K.; Christoforou, Andrea; Cichon, Sven; Clark, Vincent P.; Conrod, Patricia; Coppola, Giovanni; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Curran, Joanne E.; Czisch, Michael; Deary, Ian J.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; den Braber, Anouk; Delvecchio, Giuseppe; Depondt, Chantal; de Haan, Lieuwe; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Dima, Danai; Dimitrova, Rali; Djurovic, Srdjan; Dong, Hongwei; Donohoe, Gary; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Dyer, Thomas D.; Ehrlich, Stefan; Ekman, Carl Johan; Elvsåshagen, Torbjørn; Emsell, Louise; Erk, Susanne; Espeseth, Thomas; Fagerness, Jesen; Fears, Scott; Fedko, Iryna; Fernández, Guillén; Fisher, Simon E.; Foroud, Tatiana; Fox, Peter T.; Francks, Clyde; Frangou, Sophia; Frey, Eva Maria; Frodl, Thomas; Frouin, Vincent; Garavan, Hugh; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Glahn, David C.; Godlewska, Beata; Goldstein, Rita Z.; Gollub, Randy L.; Grabe, Hans J.; Grimm, Oliver; Gruber, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.; Göring, Harald H. H.; Hagenaars, Saskia; Hajek, Tomas; Hall, Geoffrey B.; Hall, Jeremy; Hardy, John; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hass, Johanna; Hatton, Sean N.; Haukvik, Unn K.; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hickie, Ian B.; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoehn, David; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hollinshead, Marisa; Holmes, Avram J.; Homuth, Georg; Hoogman, Martine; Hong, L. Elliot; Hosten, Norbert; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Hwang, Kristy S.; Jack, Clifford R.; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnston, Caroline; Jönsson, Erik G.; Kahn, René S.; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Kelly, Sinead; Kim, Sungeun; Kochunov, Peter; Koenders, Laura; Krämer, Bernd; Kwok, John B. J.; Lagopoulos, Jim; Laje, Gonzalo; Landen, Mikael; Landman, Bennett A.; Lauriello, John; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Lee, Phil H.; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Lemaître, Herve; Leonardo, Cassandra D.; Li, Chiang-Shan; Liberg, Benny; Liewald, David C.; Liu, Xinmin; Lopez, Lorna M.; Loth, Eva; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Luciano, Michelle; Macciardi, Fabio; Machielsen, Marise W. J.; Macqueen, Glenda M.; Malt, Ulrik F.; Mandl, René; Manoach, Dara S.; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Matarin, Mar; Mather, Karen A.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mattingsdal, Morten; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; McMahon, Francis J.; McMahon, Katie L.; Meisenzahl, Eva; Melle, Ingrid; Milaneschi, Yuri; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W.; Morris, Derek W.; Moses, Eric K.; Mueller, Bryon A.; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Mwangi, Benson; Nauck, Matthias; Nho, Kwangsik; Nichols, Thomas E.; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Nugent, Allison C.; Nyberg, Lars; Olvera, Rene L.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Ophoff, Roel A.; Pandolfo, Massimo; Papalampropoulou-Tsiridou, Melina; Papmeyer, Martina; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Peterson, Charles P.; Pfennig, Andrea; Phillips, Mary; Pike, G. Bruce; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Potkin, Steven G.; Pütz, Benno; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Rasmussen, Jerod; Rietschel, Marcella; Rijpkema, Mark; Risacher, Shannon L.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rose, Emma J.; Royle, Natalie A.; Rujescu, Dan; Ryten, Mina; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Salami, Alireza; Satterthwaite, Theodore D.; Savitz, Jonathan; Saykin, Andrew J.; Scanlon, Cathy; Schmaal, Lianne; Schnack, Hugo G.; Schork, Andrew J.; Schulz, S. Charles; Schür, Remmelt; Seidman, Larry; Shen, Li; Shoemaker, Jody M.; Simmons, Andrew; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Smith, Colin; Smoller, Jordan W.; Soares, Jair C.; Sponheim, Scott R.; Sprooten, Emma; Starr, John M.; Steen, Vidar M.; Strakowski, Stephen; Strike, Lachlan; Sussmann, Jessika; Sämann, Philipp G.; Teumer, Alexander; Toga, Arthur W.; Tordesillas-Gutierrez, Diana; Trabzuni, Daniah; Trost, Sarah; Turner, Jessica; van den Heuvel, Martijn; van der Wee, Nic J.; van Eijk, Kristel; van Erp, Theo G. M.; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; van 't Ent, Dennis; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Valdés Hernández, Maria C.; Veltman, Dick J.; Versace, Amelia; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Robert; Walter, Henrik; Wang, Lei; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Weale, Michael E.; Weiner, Michael W.; Wen, Wei; Westlye, Lars T.; Whalley, Heather C.; Whelan, Christopher D.; White, Tonya; Winkler, Anderson M.; Wittfeld, Katharina; Woldehawariat, Girma; Wolf, Christiane; Zilles, David; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Schofield, Peter R.; Freimer, Nelson B.; Lawrence, Natalia S.; Drevets, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in neuroscience,

  8. The ENIGMA Consortium: Large-scale collaborative analyses of neuroimaging and genetic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.M. Thompson (Paul); J.L. Stein; S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth); D.P. Hibar (Derrek); A.A. Vásquez (Arias); M.E. Rentería (Miguel); R. Toro (Roberto); N. Jahanshad (Neda); G. Schumann (Gunter); B. Franke (Barbara); M.J. Wright (Margaret); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); I. Agartz (Ingrid); M. Alda (Martin); S. Alhusaini (Saud); L. Almasy (Laura); K. Alpert (Kathryn); N.C. Andreasen; O.A. Andreassen (Ole); L.G. Apostolova (Liana); K. Appel (Katja); N.J. Armstrong (Nicola); B. Aribisala (Benjamin); M.E. Bastin (Mark); M. Bauer (Michael); C.E. Bearden (Carrie); Ø. Bergmann (Ørjan); E.B. Binder (Elisabeth); J. Blangero (John); H.J. Bockholt; E. Bøen (Erlend); M. Bois (Monique); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); T. Booth (Tom); I.J. Bowman (Ian); L.B.C. Bralten (Linda); R.M. Brouwer (Rachel); H.G. Brunner; D.G. Brohawn (David); M. Buckner; J.K. Buitelaar (Jan); K. Bulayeva (Kazima); J. Bustillo; V.D. Calhoun (Vince); D.M. Cannon (Dara); R.M. Cantor; M.A. Carless (Melanie); X. Caseras (Xavier); G. Cavalleri (Gianpiero); M.M. Chakravarty (M. Mallar); K.D. Chang (Kiki); C.R.K. Ching (Christopher); A. Christoforou (Andrea); S. Cichon (Sven); V.P. Clark; P. Conrod (Patricia); D. Coppola (Domenico); B. Crespo-Facorro (Benedicto); J.E. Curran (Joanne); M. Czisch (Michael); I.J. Deary (Ian); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); A. den Braber (Anouk); G. Delvecchio (Giuseppe); C. Depondt (Chantal); L. de Haan (Lieuwe); G.I. de Zubicaray (Greig); D. Dima (Danai); R. Dimitrova (Rali); S. Djurovic (Srdjan); H. Dong (Hongwei); D.J. Donohoe (Dennis); A. Duggirala (Aparna); M.D. Dyer (Matthew); S.M. Ehrlich (Stefan); C.J. Ekman (Carl Johan); T. Elvsåshagen (Torbjørn); L. Emsell (Louise); S. Erk; T. Espeseth (Thomas); J. Fagerness (Jesen); S. Fears (Scott); I. Fedko (Iryna); G. Fernandez (Guillén); S.E. Fisher (Simon); T. Foroud (Tatiana); P.T. Fox (Peter); C. Francks (Clyde); S. Frangou (Sophia); E.M. Frey (Eva Maria); T. Frodl (Thomas); V. Frouin (Vincent); H. Garavan (Hugh); S. Giddaluru (Sudheer); D.C. Glahn (David); B. Godlewska (Beata); R.Z. Goldstein (Rita); R.L. Gollub (Randy); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); O. Grimm (Oliver); O. Gruber (Oliver); T. Guadalupe (Tulio); R.E. Gur (Raquel); R.C. Gur (Ruben); H.H.H. Göring (Harald); S. Hagenaars (Saskia); T. Hajek (Tomas); G.B. Hall (Garry); J. Hall (Jeremy); J. Hardy (John); C.A. Hartman (Catharina); J. Hass (Johanna); W. Hatton; U.K. Haukvik (Unn); K. Hegenscheid (Katrin); J. Heinz (Judith); I.B. Hickie (Ian); B.C. Ho (Beng ); D. Hoehn (David); P.J. Hoekstra (Pieter); M. Hollinshead (Marisa); A.J. Holmes (Avram); G. Homuth (Georg); M. Hoogman (Martine); L.E. Hong (L.Elliot); N. Hosten (Norbert); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); H.E. Hulshoff Pol (Hilleke); K.S. Hwang (Kristy); C.R. Jack Jr. (Clifford); S. Jenkinson (Sarah); C. Johnston; E.G. Jönsson (Erik); R.S. Kahn (René); D. Kasperaviciute (Dalia); S. Kelly (Steve); S. Kim (Shinseog); P. Kochunov (Peter); L. Koenders (Laura); B. Krämer (Bernd); J.B.J. Kwok (John); J. Lagopoulos (Jim); G. Laje (Gonzalo); M. Landén (Mikael); B.A. Landman (Bennett); J. Lauriello; S. Lawrie (Stephen); P.H. Lee (Phil); S. Le Hellard (Stephanie); H. Lemaître (Herve); C.D. Leonardo (Cassandra); C.-S. Li (Chiang-shan); B. Liberg (Benny); D.C. Liewald (David C.); X. Liu (Xinmin); L.M. Lopez (Lorna); E. Loth (Eva); A. Lourdusamy (Anbarasu); M. Luciano (Michelle); F. MacCiardi (Fabio); M.W.J. Machielsen (Marise); G.M. MacQueen (Glenda); U.F. Malt (Ulrik); R. Mandl (René); D.S. Manoach (Dara); J.-L. Martinot (Jean-Luc); M. Matarin (Mar); R. Mather; M. Mattheisen (Manuel); M. Mattingsdal (Morten); A. Meyer-Lindenberg; C. McDonald (Colm); A.M. McIntosh (Andrew); F.J. Mcmahon (Francis J); K.L. Mcmahon (Katie); E. Meisenzahl (Eva); I. Melle (Ingrid); Y. Milaneschi (Yuri); S. Mohnke (Sebastian); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); D.W. Morris (Derek W); E.K. Moses (Eric); B.A. Mueller (Bryon ); S. Muñoz Maniega (Susana); T.W. Mühleisen (Thomas); B. Müller-Myhsok (Bertram); B. Mwangi (Benson); M. Nauck (Matthias); K. Nho (Kwangsik); T.E. Nichols (Thomas); L.G. Nilsson; A.C. Nugent (Allison); L. Nyberg (Lisa); R.L. Olvera (Rene); J. Oosterlaan (Jaap); R.A. Ophoff (Roel); M. Pandolfo (Massimo); M. Papalampropoulou-Tsiridou (Melina); M. Papmeyer (Martina); T. Paus (Tomas); Z. Pausova (Zdenka); G. Pearlson (Godfrey); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); C.P. Peterson (Charles); A. Pfennig (Andrea); M. Phillips (Mary); G.B. Pike (G Bruce); J.B. Poline (Jean Baptiste); S.G. Potkin (Steven); B. Pütz (Benno); A. Ramasamy (Adaikalavan); J. Rasmussen (Jerod); M. Rietschel (Marcella); M. Rijpkema (Mark); S.L. Risacher (Shannon); J.L. Roffman (Joshua); R. Roiz-Santiañez (Roberto); N. Romanczuk-Seiferth (Nina); E.J. Rose (Emma); N.A. Royle (Natalie); D. Rujescu (Dan); M. Ryten (Mina); P.S. Sachdev (Perminder); A. Salami (Alireza); T.D. Satterthwaite (Theodore); J. Savitz (Jonathan); A.J. Saykin (Andrew); C. Scanlon (Cathy); L. Schmaal (Lianne); H. Schnack (Hugo); N.J. Schork (Nicholas); S.C. Schulz (S.Charles); R. Schür (Remmelt); L.J. Seidman (Larry); L. Shen (Li); L. Shoemaker (Lawrence); A. Simmons (Andrew); S.M. Sisodiya (Sanjay); C. Smith (Colin); J.W. Smoller; J.C. Soares (Jair); S.R. Sponheim (Scott); R. Sprooten (Roy); J.M. Starr (John); V.M. Steen (Vidar); S. Strakowski (Stephen); L.T. Strike (Lachlan); J. Sussmann (Jessika); P.G. Sämann (Philipp); A. Teumer (Alexander); A.W. Toga (Arthur); D. Tordesillas-Gutierrez (Diana); D. Trabzuni (Danyah); S. Trost (Sarah); J. Turner (Jessica); M. van den Heuvel (Martijn); N.J. van der Wee (Nic); K.R. van Eijk (Kristel); T.G.M. van Erp (Theo G.); N.E.M. van Haren (Neeltje E.); D. van 't Ent (Dennis); M.J.D. van Tol (Marie-José); M.C. Valdés Hernández (Maria); D.J. Veltman (Dick); A. Versace (Amelia); H. Völzke (Henry); R. Walker (Robert); H.J. Walter (Henrik); L. Wang (Lei); J.M. Wardlaw (J.); M.E. Weale (Michael); M.W. Weiner (Michael); W. Wen (Wei); L.T. Westlye (Lars); H.C. Whalley (Heather); C.D. Whelan (Christopher); T.J.H. White (Tonya); A.M. Winkler (Anderson); K. Wittfeld (Katharina); G. Woldehawariat (Girma); A. Björnsson (Asgeir); D. Zilles (David); M.P. Zwiers (Marcel); A. Thalamuthu (Anbupalam); J.R. Almeida (Jorge); C.J. Schofield (Christopher); N.B. Freimer (Nelson); N.S. Lawrence (Natalia); D.A. Drevets (Douglas)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in

  9. Neuroimaging standards for research into small vessel disease and its contribution to ageing and neurodegeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardlaw, J.M.; Smith, E.E.; Biessels, G.J.; Cordonnier, C.; Fazekas, F.; Frayne, R.; Lindley, R.I.; O'Brien, J. T.; Barkhof, F.; Benavente, O.R.; Black, S.E.; Brayne, C.; Breteler, M.; Chabriat, H.; deCarli, C.; de Leeuw, F.E.; Doubal, F.; Duering, M.; Fox, N.C.; Greenberg, S.; Hachinski, V.; Kilimann, I.; Mok, V.; van Oostenbrugge, R.; Pantoni, L.; Speck, O.; Stephan, B.C.M.; Teipel, S.; Viswanathan, A.; Werring, D.; Chen, C.; Smith, C.; van Buchem, M.; Norrving, B.; Gorelick, P.B.; Dichgans, M.

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a common accompaniment of ageing. Features seen on neuroimaging include recent small subcortical infarcts, lacunes, white matter hyperintensities, perivascular spaces, microbleeds, and brain atrophy. SVD can present as a stroke or cognitive decline, or can have

  10. Combining non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation with neuroimaging and electrophysiology: Current approaches and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Til Ole; Karabanov, Anke; Hartwigsen, Gesa; Thielscher, Axel; Siebner, Hartwig Roman

    2016-10-15

    Non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation (NTBS) techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial current stimulation (TCS) are important tools in human systems and cognitive neuroscience because they are able to reveal the relevance of certain brain structures or neuronal activity patterns for a given brain function. It is nowadays feasible to combine NTBS, either consecutively or concurrently, with a variety of neuroimaging and electrophysiological techniques. Here we discuss what kind of information can be gained from combined approaches, which often are technically demanding. We argue that the benefit from this combination is twofold. Firstly, neuroimaging and electrophysiology can inform subsequent NTBS, providing the required information to optimize where, when, and how to stimulate the brain. Information can be achieved both before and during the NTBS experiment, requiring consecutive and concurrent applications, respectively. Secondly, neuroimaging and electrophysiology can provide the readout for neural changes induced by NTBS. Again, using either concurrent or consecutive applications, both "online" NTBS effects immediately following the stimulation and "offline" NTBS effects outlasting plasticity-inducing NTBS protocols can be assessed. Finally, both strategies can be combined to close the loop between measuring and modulating brain activity by means of closed-loop brain state-dependent NTBS. In this paper, we will provide a conceptual framework, emphasizing principal strategies and highlighting promising future directions to exploit the benefits of combining NTBS with neuroimaging or electrophysiology. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Data mining a functional neuroimaging database for functional|segregation in brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup

    2006-01-01

    We describe a specialized neuroinformatic data mining technique in connection with a meta-analytic functional neuroimaging database: We mine for functional segregation within brain regions by identifying journal articles that report brain activations within the regions and clustering the abstract...

  12. Mining for associations between text and brain activation in a functional neuroimaging database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Hansen, Lars Kai; Balslev, D.

    2004-01-01

    We describe a method for mining a neuroimaging database for associations between text and brain locations. The objective is to discover association rules between words indicative of cognitive function as described in abstracts of neuroscience papers and sets of reported stereotactic Talairach...

  13. Identifying Predictors, Moderators, and Mediators of Antidepressant Response in Major Depressive Disorder: Neuroimaging Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Mary L.; Chase, Henry W.; Sheline, Yvette I.; Etkin, Amit; Almeida, Jorge R.C.; Deckersbach, Thilo; Trivedi, Madhukar H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Despite significant advances in neuroscience and treatment development, no widely accepted biomarkers are available to inform diagnostics or identify preferred treatments for individuals with major depressive disorder. Method In this critical review, the authors examine the extent to which multimodal neuroimaging techniques can identify biomarkers reflecting key pathophysiologic processes in depression and whether such biomarkers may act as predictors, moderators, and mediators of treatment response that might facilitate development of personalized treatments based on a better understanding of these processes. Results The authors first highlight the most consistent findings from neuroimaging studies using different techniques in depression, including structural and functional abnormalities in two parallel neural circuits: serotonergically modulated implicit emotion regulation circuitry, centered on the amygdala and different regions in the medial prefrontal cortex; and dopaminergically modulated reward neural circuitry, centered on the ventral striatum and medial prefrontal cortex. They then describe key findings from the relatively small number of studies indicating that specific measures of regional function and, to a lesser extent, structure in these neural circuits predict treatment response in depression. Conclusions Limitations of existing studies include small sample sizes, use of only one neuroimaging modality, and a focus on identifying predictors rather than moderators and mediators of differential treatment response. By addressing these limitations and, most importantly, capitalizing on the benefits of multimodal neuroimaging, future studies can yield moderators and mediators of treatment response in depression to facilitate significant improvements in shorter- and longer-term clinical and functional outcomes. PMID:25640931

  14. Neonatal Cerebral Sinovenous Thrombosis : Neuroimaging and Long-term Follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersbergen, Karina J.; Groenendaal, Floris; Benders, Manon J. N. L.; de Vries, Linda S.

    Neonates are known to have a higher risk of cerebral sinovenous thrombosis than children of other age groups. The exact incidence in neonates remains unknown and is likely to be underestimated, as clinical presentation is nonspecific and diagnosis can only be made when dedicated neuroimaging

  15. Towards a model-based cognitive neuroscience of stopping - a neuroimaging perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Alexandra; Forstmann, Birte U; Matzke, Dora

    2018-07-01

    Our understanding of the neural correlates of response inhibition has greatly advanced over the last decade. Nevertheless the specific function of regions within this stopping network remains controversial. The traditional neuroimaging approach cannot capture many processes affecting stopping performance. Despite the shortcomings of the traditional neuroimaging approach and a great progress in mathematical and computational models of stopping, model-based cognitive neuroscience approaches in human neuroimaging studies are largely lacking. To foster model-based approaches to ultimately gain a deeper understanding of the neural signature of stopping, we outline the most prominent models of response inhibition and recent advances in the field. We highlight how a model-based approach in clinical samples has improved our understanding of altered cognitive functions in these disorders. Moreover, we show how linking evidence-accumulation models and neuroimaging data improves the identification of neural pathways involved in the stopping process and helps to delineate these from neural networks of related but distinct functions. In conclusion, adopting a model-based approach is indispensable to identifying the actual neural processes underlying stopping. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Restoring the Generalizability of SVM Based Decoding in High Dimensional Neuroimage Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Trine Julie; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2011-01-01

    Variance inflation is caused by a mismatch between linear projections of test and training data when projections are estimated on training sets smaller than the dimensionality of the feature space. We demonstrate that variance inflation can lead to an increased neuroimage decoding error rate...

  17. The role of social stimuli content in neuroimaging studies investigating alcohol cue-reactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groefsema, M.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Luijten, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cue-reactivity is thought to play a fundamental role in the maintenance of addiction. The incentive sensitization theory proposes that conditioned responses are related to increased sensitivity of the reward-related dopaminergic pathways in the brain. However, neuroimaging studies on

  18. Hypomyelination and congenital cataract: neuroimaging features of a novel inherited white matter disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, A.; Biancheri, R.; Zara, F.; Bruno, C.; Uziel, G.; van der Knaap, M.S.; Minetti, C.; Tortori-Donati, P.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hypomyelination and congenital cataract (HCC) is an autosomal recessive white matter disease caused by deficiency of hyccin, a membrane protein implicated in both central and peripheral myelination. We aimed to describe the neuroimaging features of this novel entity.

  19. Pain as a fact and heuristic: how pain neuroimaging illuminates moral dimensions of law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustilnik, Amanda C

    2012-05-01

    In legal domains ranging from tort to torture, pain and its degree do important definitional work by delimiting boundaries of lawfulness and of entitlements. Yet, for all the work done by pain as a term in legal texts and practice, it has a confounding lack of external verifiability. Now, neuroimaging is rendering pain and myriad other subjective states at least partly ascertainable. This emerging ability to ascertain and quantify subjective states is prompting a "hedonic" or a "subjectivist" turn in legal scholarship, which has sparked a vigorous debate as to whether the quantification of subjective states might affect legal theory and practice. Subjectivists contend that much values-talk in law has been a necessary but poor substitute for quantitative determinations of subjective states--determinations that will be possible in the law's "experiential future." This Article argues the converse: that pain discourse in law frequently is a heuristic for values. Drawing on interviews and laboratory visits with neuroimaging researchers, this Article shows current and in-principle limitations of pain quantification through neuroimaging. It then presents case studies on torture-murder, torture, the death penalty, and abortion to show the largely heuristic role of pain discourse in law. Introducing the theory of "embodied morality," the Article describes how moral conceptions of rights and duties are informed by human physicality and constrained by the limits of empathic identification. Pain neuroimaging helps reveal this dual factual and heuristic nature of pain in the law, and thus itself points to the translational work required for neuroimaging to influence, much less transform, legal practice and doctrine.

  20. Manufacturing Initiative

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) Project supports multiple activities within the Administration's National Manufacturing Initiative. A key component of...

  1. Functional neuroimaging and presenting psychiatric features in frontotemporal dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, M F; McMurtray, A; Chen, A K; Shapira, J S; Mishkin, F; Miller, B L

    2006-01-01

    Background Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a behavioural syndrome caused by degeneration of the frontal and anterior temporal lobes. Behavioural disturbances include psychiatric features. Whether patients with FTD present with psychiatric features varies with the initial neuroanatomical variability of FTD. Objective To identify presenting psychiatric changes not part of diagnostic criteria of FTD and contrast them with the degree of hemispheric asymmetry and frontal and temporal hypoperfusion on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. Methods 74 patients who met consensus criteria for FTD were evaluated at a two year follow up. All had brain SPECT on initial presentation. Results of an FTD psychiatric checklist were contrasted with ratings of regional hypoperfusion. Results The regions of predominant hypoperfusion did not correlate with differences on FTD demographic variables but were associated with presenting psychiatric features. Dysthymia and anxiety were associated with right temporal hypoperfusion. “Moria” or frivolous behaviour also occurred with temporal lobe changes, especially on the right. The only significant frontal lobe feature was the presence of a peculiar physical bearing in association with right frontal hypoperfusion. Conclusions Patients with FTD may present with psychiatric changes distinct from the behavioural diagnostic criteria for this disorder. Early temporal involvement is associated with frivolous behaviour and right temporal involvement is associated with emotional disturbances. In contrast, those with right frontal disease may present with alterations in non‐verbal behaviour. PMID:16043457

  2. Altered Brain Activity in Unipolar Depression Revisited: Meta-analyses of Neuroimaging Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Veronika I; Cieslik, Edna C; Serbanescu, Ilinca; Laird, Angela R; Fox, Peter T; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2017-01-01

    During the past 20 years, numerous neuroimaging experiments have investigated aberrant brain activation during cognitive and emotional processing in patients with unipolar depression (UD). The results of those investigations, however, vary considerably; moreover, previous meta-analyses also yielded inconsistent findings. To readdress aberrant brain activation in UD as evidenced by neuroimaging experiments on cognitive and/or emotional processing. Neuroimaging experiments published from January 1, 1997, to October 1, 2015, were identified by a literature search of PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar using different combinations of the terms fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging), PET (positron emission tomography), neural, major depression, depression, major depressive disorder, unipolar depression, dysthymia, emotion, emotional, affective, cognitive, task, memory, working memory, inhibition, control, n-back, and Stroop. Neuroimaging experiments (using fMRI or PET) reporting whole-brain results of group comparisons between adults with UD and healthy control individuals as coordinates in a standard anatomic reference space and using an emotional or/and cognitive challenging task were selected. Coordinates reported to show significant activation differences between UD and healthy controls during emotional or cognitive processing were extracted. By using the revised activation likelihood estimation algorithm, different meta-analyses were calculated. Meta-analyses tested for brain regions consistently found to show aberrant brain activation in UD compared with controls. Analyses were calculated across all emotional processing experiments, all cognitive processing experiments, positive emotion processing, negative emotion processing, experiments using emotional face stimuli, experiments with a sex discrimination task, and memory processing. All meta-analyses were calculated across experiments independent of reporting an increase or decrease of activity in

  3. Unilateral initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on arms control which is generally thought of in terms of formal negotiations with an opponent, with the resulting agreements embodied in a treaty. This is not surprising, since arms control discussions between opponents are both important and politically visible. There are, however, strong reasons for countries to consider and frequently take unilateral initiatives. To do so is entirely consistent with the established major precepts of arms control which state that arms control is designed to reduce the risk of war, the costs of preparing for war, and the death and destruction if war should come. Unilateral initiatives on what weapons are purchased, which ones are eliminated and how forces are deployed can all relate to these objectives. There are two main categories of motives for unilateral initiatives in arms control. In one category, internal national objectives are the dominant, often sole, driving force; the initiative is undertaken for our own good

  4. Ports Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Ports Initiative works in collaboration with the port industry, communities, and government to improve environmental performance and increase economic prosperity. This effort helps people near ports breath cleaner air and live better lives.

  5. Effects of traumatic brain injury and posttraumatic stress disorder on Alzheimer's disease in veterans, using the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Michael W; Veitch, Dallas P; Hayes, Jacqueline; Neylan, Thomas; Grafman, Jordan; Aisen, Paul S; Petersen, Ronald C; Jack, Clifford; Jagust, William; Trojanowski, John Q; Shaw, Leslie M; Saykin, Andrew J; Green, Robert C; Harvey, Danielle; Toga, Arthur W; Friedl, Karl E; Pacifico, Anthony; Sheline, Yvette; Yaffe, Kristine; Mohlenoff, Brian

    2014-06-01

    Both traumatic brain injury (TBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are common problems resulting from military service, and both have been associated with increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia resulting from Alzheimer's disease (AD) or other causes. This study aims to use imaging techniques and biomarker analysis to determine whether traumatic brain injury (TBI) and/or PTSD resulting from combat or other traumas increase the risk for AD and decrease cognitive reserve in Veteran subjects, after accounting for age. Using military and Department of Veterans Affairs records, 65 Vietnam War veterans with a history of moderate or severe TBI with or without PTSD, 65 with ongoing PTSD without TBI, and 65 control subjects are being enrolled in this study at 19 sites. The study aims to select subject groups that are comparable in age, gender, ethnicity, and education. Subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia are being excluded. However, a new study just beginning, and similar in size, will study subjects with TBI, subjects with PTSD, and control subjects with MCI. Baseline measurements of cognition, function, blood, and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers; magnetic resonance images (structural, diffusion tensor, and resting state blood-level oxygen dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging); and amyloid positron emission tomographic (PET) images with florbetapir are being obtained. One-year follow-up measurements will be collected for most of the baseline procedures, with the exception of the lumbar puncture, the PET imaging, and apolipoprotein E genotyping. To date, 19 subjects with TBI only, 46 with PTSD only, and 15 with TBI and PTSD have been recruited and referred to 13 clinics to undergo the study protocol. It is expected that cohorts will be fully recruited by October 2014. This study is a first step toward the design and statistical powering of an AD prevention trial using at-risk veterans as subjects, and provides the basis for a larger, more comprehensive study of dementia risk factors in veterans. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Longitudinal changes in white matter disease and cognition in the first year of the Alzheimer disease neuroimaging initiative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmichael, Owen; Schwarz, Christopher; Drucker, David; Fletcher, Evan; Harvey, Danielle; Beckett, Laurel; Jack, Clifford R.; Weiner, Michael; Decarli, Charles; Abdi, Herve; Abeliovich, Asa; Abellan van Kan, Gabor; Abner, Erin; Acharya, Deepa; Adams, Nicholas; Adler, Daniel; Agrusti, Antonella; Agyemang, Alex; Ahdidan, Jamila; Ahn, Jae Eun; Aisen, Paul; Aksu, Yaman; Al-Akhras, Mousa; Alarcon, Marcelo; Alberca, Roman; Alexander, Gene; Alexander, Daniel; Almeida, Fabio; Anand, Rishi; Anand, Shyam; Andrew, Marilee; Anjum, Ayesha; Aoyama, Eiji; Ard, Michael Colin; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Armor, Tom; Arnold, Steven; Asatryan, Albert; Ashe-McNalley, Cody; Ashiga, Hirokazu; Assareh, Arezoo; Aubry, Florent; Avants, Brian; Avinash, Gopal; Awasthi, Sukrati; Ayan-Oshodi, Mosun; Bagci, Ulas; Bai, Shuyang; Baker, John; Banks, Sarah; Bard, Jonathan; Barnes, Josephine; Barret, Olivier; Bartzokis, George; Barua, Neil; Bauer, Corinna; Becker, James; Bednar, Martin; Beg, Mirza Faisal; Bek, Stephan; Bernard, Charlotte; Bertram, Lars; Bhagwagar, Zubin; Biffi, Alessandro; Bilgic, Basar; Bishnoi, Mahesh; Bishop, Courtney; Bittner, Daniel; Black, Ronald; Blennow, Kaj; Bogorodzki, Piotr; Bokde, Arun; Bonner-Jackson, Aaron; Boppana, Madhu; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Bowes, Mike; Bowman, Gene; Bowman, DuBois; Braskie, Meredith; Brewer, James; Brickman, Adam; Broadbent, Steve; Brooks, David; Browndyke, Jeffrey; Bruat, Vanessa; Brunton, Simon; Buchert, Ralph; Buchsbaum, Monte; Buckley, Chris; Burger, Cyrill; Burns, Jeffrey; Burton, David; Butman, John; Cabeza, Rafael; Cairns, Nigel; Callhoff, Johanna; Calvini, Piero; Campbell, Aaron; Cantillon, Marc; Capella, Heraldo; Cardona-Sanclemente, Luis Eduardo; Carle, Adam; Carmasin, Jeremy; Carranza-Ath, Fredy; Casanova, Ramon; Cash, David; Cella, Massimo; Celsis, Pierre; Chan, Lung Tat Andrew; Chaney, Megan; Chanu, Pascal; Chao, Linda; Charil, Arnaud; Chemali, Zeina; Chen, Baojiang; Chen, Kewei; Chen, Ting; Chen, Minhua; Chen, Gennan; Chen, Rong; Cheng, Wei-Chen; Chertkow, Howard; Chiang, Gloria; Chiba, Koji; Chisholm, Jane; Cho, Youngsang; Choe, John; Choubey, Suresh; Christensen, Anette Luther; Clark, Chris; Clark, David; Clarkson, Matt; Clayton, David; Clunie, David; Coimbra, Alexandre; Compton, David; Crane, Paul; Crans, Gerald; Croop, Robert; Crowther, Daniel; Crum, William; Cui, Yue; Curry, Charles; Curtis, Steven; Cutter, Gary; Daiello, Lori; Dake, Michael; Dale, Anders; Damato, Vito Domenico; Darby, Eveleen; Darkner, Sune; Davatzikos, Christos; Dave, Jay; David, Renaud; Davidson, Julie; de Bruijne, Marleen; de Meyer, Geert; de Nunzio, Giorgio; de Santi, Susan; Dechairo, Bryan; DeDuck, Kristina; Dejkam, Arsalan; Delfino, Manuel; Delpassand, Ebrahim; Deniz, Oscar; Denney, Douglas; DeOrchis, Vincent; Depy Carron, Delphine; deToledo-Morrell, Leyla; Devanand, Davangere; Devanarayan, Viswanath; Diaz, Gloria; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Dickerson, Bradford; Dinov, Ivo; Dodge, Hiroko; Donohue, Michael; Dowling, Maritza; Drzezga, Alex; Duan, Xujun; Duchesne, Simon; Duff, Kevin; Dukart, Jurgen; Durazzo, Timothy; Dykstra, Kevin; Earl, Nancy; Edula, Goutham; Ekin, Ahmet; Engelman, Corinne; Epstein, Noam; Erten-Lyons, Deniz; Eskildsen, Simon; Falcone, Guido; Fan, Yong; Farnum, Michael; Farrer, Lindsay; Farzan, Ali; Feldman, Howard; Feng, Yan; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Fernandes, Michel; Fernandez, Elsa; Ferrarini, Luca; Ferreira, Luiz; Ferrer, Eugene; Figurski, Michal; Filipovych, Roman; Finch, Stephen; Finlay, Daniel; Fiot, Jean-Baptiste; Flenniken, Derek; Fletcher, P. Thomas; Flynn Longmire, Crystal; Forman, Mark; Forsythe, Alan; Fox-Bosetti, Sabrina; Francis, Alexander L.; Franco-Villalobos, Conrado; Franko, Edit; Freeman, Stefanie; Friedrich, Christoph M.; Friesenhahn, Michel; Frings, Lars; Frisoni, Giovanni; Fritzsche, Klaus; Fujimoto, Yoko; Fujiwara, Ken; Fullerton, Terence; Furney, Simon; Gallins, Paul; Gamst, Anthony; Gan, Ke; Garcia, Maria Teresa; Garcia-Linares, Antonio; Garg, Gaurav; Gaser, Christian; Gastineau, Edward; Gavidia, Giovana; Gazdzinski, Stefan; Ge, Qi; Gemme, Gianluca; German, Dwight; Ghassabi, Zeinab; Gil, Juan E.; Gill, Ryan; Gitelman, Darren; Gleason, Carey; Godbey, Michael; Goghari, Vina; Gold, Michael; Goldberg, Terry; Gomeni, Roberto; Gong, Shangwenyan; Gonzales, Celedon; Gordon, Brian; Gorriz, Juan Manuel; Grachev, Igor; Grandey, Emily; Grasela, Thaddeus; Gratt, Jeremy; Gray, Katherine; Greenberg, Barry; Gregg, Keith; Gregory, Erik; Greicius, Michael; Greve, Douglas; Grill, Joshua; Gross, Alan; Guo, Lianghao; Guo, Hongbin; Guo, Jeffrey; Habeck, Christian; Hai, Yizhen; Haight, Thaddeus; Hakansson, Kristina; Hammarstrom, Per; Hampel, Harald; Han, Tony; Han, Jian; Hanif, Muhammad; Hanna, Yousef; Hardy, Peter; Hasan, Md Kamrul; Hazart, Aurelien; Hazel, James; He, Yong; He, Huiguang; Head, Denise; Heckemann, Rolf; Heidebrink, Judith; Henderson, David; Henrard, Sebastien; Herholz, Karl; Hernandez, Monica; Hess, Christopher; Hobart, Jeremy; Hoffman, John; Holder, Daniel; Honigberg, Lee; Horsfield, Mark; Hsu, Wei-Wen; Hsu, Ailing; Hu, Zhenghui; Hu, Zhiwei; Hu, Xiaolan; Hu, William; Huang, Shu-Pang; Huang, Chun-Jung; Huang, Fude; Huang, Yifan; Huang, Juebin; Huang, Chingwen; Hubbard, Rebecca; Huentelman, Matthew; Hui, Shen; Huppertz, Hans-Jurgen; Hurko, Orest; Hurt, Stephen; Huyck, Susan; Hwang, Scott; Hyun, JungMoon; Ifeachor, Emmanuel; Iglesias, Martina; Ikari, Yasuhiko; Immermann, Fred; Inoue, Lurdes; Insel, Philip; Irizarry, Michael; Irungu, Benson mwangi; Ishibashi, Taro; Ishii, Kenji; Ismail, Shahina; Ito, Kaori; Ito, Momoyo; Iwatsubo, Takeshi; Iyer, Madhumitha; Jacobson, Mark; Jacobson, Alex; Jafari, Aria; Jafari-Khouzani, Kourosh; Jaffe, Carl; Jagust, William; Jara, Hernan; Jaros, Mark; Jefferson, Angela; Jiang, Tianzi; Johnson, David K.; Juengling, Freimut; Juh, Rahyeong; Julin, Per; Bhaskar, Uday; Kadish, Bill; Kahle-Wrobleski, Kristin; Kallam, Hanimi Reddy; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Karageorgiou, Elissaios; Karantzoulis, Stella; Karasev, Peter; Kauwe, John; Kawakami, Hirofumi; Kazimipoor, Borhan; Kelleher, Thomas; Kennedy, Richard; Kerr, Douglas; Kerrouche, Nacer; Khalil, Iya; Khalil, Andre; Khatry, Deepak; Kihel, Badra; Killeen, Neil; Killiany, Ron; Kim, Hyewon; Kim, Heeyoung; Kim, Yeonhee; Kim, Jong Hun; Kimberg, Daniel; Kimura, Tokunori; King, Richard; Kirby, Justin; Kita, Hiroshi; Klimas, Michael; Klopfenstein, Erin; Kobayashi, Dione; Koikkalainen, Juha; Kokomoor, Anders; Kolasny, Anthony; Kondo, Yusuke; Koppel, Jeremy; Korolev, Igor; Kotran, Nickolas; Kouassi, Alex; Koutsouleris, Nikolaos; Kozma, Lynn; Kramer, Joel; Kratzer, Martina; Kuceyeski, Amy; Kuhn, Felix Pierre; Kulkarni, Mauktik; Kumar, Sreedhar; Kuo, Hsun Ting; Kuo, Julie; Kurosawa, Ken; Kwon, Oh Hun; Laforet, Genevieve; Lai, Song; Lakatos, Anita; Landau, Susan; Landen, Jaren; Lane, Richard; Langbaum, Jessica; Lanius, Vivian; Lavault, Romain; Laxamana, Joel; Le, Trung; Leahy, Richard; Lee, Noah; Lee, Vita; Lee, Joseph H.; Lee, Jong-Min; Lee, Dongsoo; Lee, Junyoung; Lefkimmiatis, Stamatis; Lemaitre, Herve; Lenz, Robert; Lester, Gayle; Levey, Allan; Li, Rui; Li, Wenjun; Li, Shanshan; Li, Lexin; Li, Shi-jiang; Li, Gang; Li, Lin; Li, Yi; Li, Jinhe; Li, Chin-Shang; Liang, Peipeng; Liang, Lichen; Liao, Yuan-Lin; Lin, Mingkuan; Lin, Lan; Lin, Ling-chih; Liu, Tao; Liu, Meijie; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Dazhong; Liu, Pu; Liu, Songling; Liu, Xiuwen; Liu, Tianming; Lo, Raymond; Logovinsky, Veronika; Lois, Augusto; Long, Xiaojing; Long, Ziyi; Looi, Jeffrey; Lu, Yuan; Lu, Po-Haong; Lukic, Ana; Lull, Juan J.; Lynch, John; Ma, Lei; Mackin, Scott; Magda, Sebastian; Maglio, Silvio; Mak, Henry Ka-Fung; Malave, Vicente; Mandal, Pravat; Mangin, Jean-Francois; Manohar, Deepak; Mansouri, Chemseddine; Mantri, Ninad; Manzour, Amir; Marambaud, Philippe; Marchewka, Artur; Marek, Kenneth; Markind, Samuel; Marshall, Gad; Martin, Jacob; Mather, Mara; Mathis, Chester; Matoug, Sofia; Matsuo, Yoshiyuki; Matthews, Dawn; Mayo, Agustin; McEvoy, Linda; McGeown, William; McIntyre, John; McQuail, Joseph; Meadowcroft, Mark; Meda, Shashwath; Mehta, Nirav; Mele, Valeria; Mendonca, Brian; Menendez, Manuel; Meredith, Jere; Merrill, David; Mesulam, Marek-Marsel; Meyer, Carsten; Mez, Jesse; Mickael, Guedj; Miftahof, Roustem; Mikhno, Arthur; Miller, David; Min, Ye; Miri, Roham; Mirza, Mubeena; Mitsis, Effie; Mohan, Ananth; Monno, Laura; Montana, Giovanni; Moore, Dana; Birgani, Parmida Moradi; Moratal, David; Morimoto, Bruce; Mortamet, Benedicte; Motyl, Rafal; Mueller, Notger; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Mulder, Emma; Murphy, Michael; Murray, Brian; Musiek, Erik; Myers, Amanda; Najafi, Shahla; Nazeri, Arash; Nettiksimmons, Jasmine; Neu, Scott; Neves, Simone; Ng, Yen-Bee; Nguyen, Danh; Nguyen, Nghi; Nguyen Xuan, Tuong; Nielsen, Casper; Nuneez Benjumea, Francisco; O'Neil, Alison; Obisesan, Thomas; Oh, Dong Hoon; Oh, Joonmi; Okonkwo, Ozioma; Olde Rikkert, Marcel; Ollesch, Julian; Olmos, Salvador; Ostrowitzki, Susanne; Oswald, Annahita; Ott, Brian; Ourselin, Sebastien; Ouyang, Gaoxiang; Paiva, Renata; Pan, Zhifang; Pande, Yogesh; Pardoe, Heath; Park, Kee Hyung; Park, Hyunjin; Parsey, Ramin; Parveen, Riswana; Paskavitz, James; Patel, Yogen; Patil, Manasi; Paul, Robert; Pawlak, Mikolaj; Peavy, Guerry; Peng, Yahong; Pepin, Jean louis; Perea, Rodrigo; Perneczky, Robert; Petitti, Diana; Petrella, Jeffrey; Peyrat, Jean-Marc; Pezoa, Jorge; Pham, Chi-Tuan; Phillips, Nicole; Piovezan, Mauro; Podhorski, Adam; Pollari, Mika; Pontecorvo, Michael; Poppenk, Jordan; Posner, Holly; Potkin, Steven; Poulin, Stephane; Prasad, Gautam; Prenger, Kurt; Prieto, Elena; Prince, Jerry; Puchakayala, Shashidhar Reddy; Qin, Wei; Qiu, Ruolun; Qiu, Wendy; Qiu, Anqi; Qualls, Constance Dean; Rabie, Huwaida; Rajeesh, Rajeesh; Rajeesh, J. Rajeesh; Rallabandi, V. P. Subramanyam; Ramage, Amy; Randolph, Christopher; Raniga, Parnesh; Rao, Divya; Rao, Anil; Raubertas, Richard; Ray, Debashis; Razak, Hana; Redolfi, Alberto; Reid, Andrew; Reilhac, Anthonin; Reinsberger, Claus; Restrepo, Lucas; Retico, Alessandra; Rezaeitabar, Yousef; Richards, John; Richter, Mirco; Riddle, William; Ries, Michele; Rincon, Mariano; Rischall, Matt; Robieson, Weining; Rocha-Rego, Vanessa; Rogalski, Emily; Rogers, Elizabeth; Rojas, Ignacio; Romero, Klaus; Rosand, Jonathan; Rosen, Ori; Rosen, Allyson; Rosenberg, Paul; Ross, David; Ross, Joel; Rousseau, Francois; Rowe, Christopher; Rubin, Daniel; Ruiz, Agustin; Rusinek, Henry; Ryan, Laurie; Saad, Ahmed; Sabbagh, Marway; Sabuncu, Mert; Sachs, Michael; Sacuiu, Simona; Sadeghi, Ali; Said, Yasmine; Saint-Aubert, Laure; Sakata, Muneyuki; Salat, David; Salmon, David; Salomi, Sharmila; Salter, Hugh; Samwald, Matthias; Sanchez, Luciano; Sanjo, Nobuo; Sankaranarayanan, Preethi; Sato, Shinji; Sato, Hajime; Saumier, Daniel; Savio, Alexandre; Sawada, Ikuhisa; Saykin, Andrew; Schaffer, J. David; Scharre, Douglas; Schlosser, Gretchen; Schmand, Ben; Schmansky, Nick; Schmidt, Mark; Schneider, Lon; Schramm, Hauke; Schuerch, Markus; Schwartz, Eben; Schwartz, Craig; Schwarz, Adam; Seethamraju, Ravi; Seixas, Flavio; Selnes, Per; Senjem, Matthew; Senlin, Wang; Seo, Sang Won; Sethuraman, Gopalan; Sevigny, Jeffrey; Sfikas, Giorgos; Shahbaba, Babak; Shams, Soheil; Shankle, William; Shattuck, David; Shaw, Leslie; Sheela, Jaba; Shen, Weijia; Shera, David; Sherman, John; Sherman, Michelle; Sherva, Richard; Shimizu, Keiji; Shuler, Catherine; Shulman, Joshua; Siegel, Rene; Siemers, Eric; Silveira, Margarida; Silver, Michael; Silverman, Daniel; Simmons, Andy; Simpson, Ivor; Singh, Simer Preet; Singh, Nikhil; Siuciak, Judy; Sjogren, Niclas; Skup, Martha; Small, Gary; Smith, Benjamin; Smith, Michael; Smith, Charles; Smyth, Timothy; Snow, Sarah; Soares, Holly; Soldea, Octavian; Solomon, Paul; Solomon, Alan; Song, Mingli; Song, Changhong; Sorensen, Greg; Soudah, Eduardo; Spampinato, Maria Vittoria; Spenger, Christian; Sperling, Reisa; Spiegel, Rene; Spies, Lothar; Squarcia, Sandro; Squire, Larry; Staff, Roger; Stern, Yaakov; Strittmatter, Stephen; Styren, Scot; Sugishita, Morihiro; Sugishita, Kazuyuki; Sukkar, Rafid; Sun, Jia; Sun, Yu; Sundell, Karen; Suri, Muhammad; Swan, Melanie; Takagi, Toshihisa; Takahasi, Tetsuhiko; Takeuchi, Tomoko; Tang, Songyuan; Tanner, William; Tao, Wenwen; Tao, Dacheng; Tariot, Pierre; Tarjoman, Mana; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Taylor-Reinwald, Lisa; Terlizzi, Rita; Thiele, Frank; Thomas, Ronald; Thomas, Benjamin; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Wesley; Thornton-Wells, Tricia; Thurfjell, Lennart; Titeux, Laurence; Tolli, Tuomas; Toma, Ahmed; Tomita, Naoki; Toro, Roberto; Tosun, Duygu; Toussaint, Paule; Toyoshiba, Hiroyoshi; Tractenberg, Rochelle E.; Trittschuh, Emily; Truran, Diana; Tsechpenakis, Gavriil; Tucker-Drob, Elliot; Tung, Joyce; Uesugi, Humito; Ullrich, Lauren; Umadevi Venkataraju, Kannan; Umar, Nisser; Uzunbas, Gokhan; Valdivia, Fernando; van Horn, John; van Leemput, Koen; van Train, Kenneth; van Zeeland, Ashley; Vargas, Gabriel; Vasanawala, Minal; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Verwaerde, Philippe; Videbaek, Charlotte; Vidoni, Eric; Vigneron, Vincent; Villanueva-Meyer, Javier; Visser, Pieter Jelle; Vitolo, Ottavio; Vlassenko, Andrei; Volkau, Ihar; Vounou, Maria; Wade, Sara; Walhovd, Kristine B.; Wallace, Douglas; Wan, Hong; Wang, Angela; Wang, Li-San; Wang, Yongmei Michelle; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Alex; Wang, Lubin; Wang, Yalin; Wang, Tiger; Wang, Yue; Wang, Huanli; Wang, Huali; Ward, Michael; Warfield, Simon; Waring, Stephen; Webb, David; Wei, Lili; Wen, Shu-Hui; Wenjing, Li; Wenzel, Fabian; Westlye, Lars T.; Whitcher, Brandon; Whitwell, Jennifer; WilliamFaltaos, Demiana; Williams, David; Wilmot, Beth; Wingo, Thomas; Winkler, Andreas; Wiste, Heather; Wolfson, Tanya; Wolke, Ira; Wolz, Robin; Woo, Jongwook; Woo, Ellen; Woods, Lynn; Worth, Andrew; Worth, Eric; Wouters, Hans; Wu, Liang; Wu, Xiaoling; Wu, Yi Gen; Wu, Teresa; Wyman, Bradley; Wyss-Coray, Tony; Xiao, Liu; Xu, Guofan; Xu, Jun; Yamane, Tomohiko; Yamashita, Fumio; Yamazawa, Maki; Yan, Yunyi; Yan, Pingkun; Yang, Qing X.; Yang, Zhitong; Ye, Byoung Seok; Ye, Jieping; Yee, Laura; Yesavage, Jerome; Yip, WaiKuan; Yoo, Bongin; Yuan, Kai; Yushkevich, Paul; Zagorodnov, Vitali; Zagorski, Michael; Zawadzki, Rezi; Zeitzer, Jamie; Zhang, Linda; Zhang, Lijun; Zhang, Tianhao; Zhang, Huixiong; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Kurt; Zhao, Qinying; Zhao, Peng; Zhen, Xiantong; Zheng, Yuanjie; Zhijun, Yao; Zhou, Sheng; Zhou, Bin; Zhou, Luping; Zhu, Wanlin; Zhu, Hongtu; Zou, Heng

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate relationships between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based measures of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), measured at baseline and longitudinally, and 1-year cognitive decline using a large convenience sample in a clinical trial design with a relatively mild profile of

  7. Evolving Evidence for the Value of Neuroimaging Methods and Biological Markers in Subjects Categorized with Subjective Cognitive Decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lista, Simone; Molinuevo, Jose L; Cavedo, Enrica; Rami, Lorena; Amouyel, Philippe; Teipel, Stefan J; Garaci, Francesco; Toschi, Nicola; Habert, Marie-Odile; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; O'Bryant, Sid E; Johnson, Leigh; Galluzzi, Samantha; Bokde, Arun L W; Broich, Karl; Herholz, Karl; Bakardjian, Hovagim; Dubois, Bruno; Jessen, Frank; Carrillo, Maria C; Aisen, Paul S; Hampel, Harald

    2015-09-24

    There is evolving evidence that individuals categorized with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) are potentially at higher risk for developing objective and progressive cognitive impairment compared to cognitively healthy individuals without apparent subjective complaints. Interestingly, SCD, during advancing preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD), may denote very early, subtle cognitive decline that cannot be identified using established standardized tests of cognitive performance. The substantial heterogeneity of existing SCD-related research data has led the Subjective Cognitive Decline Initiative (SCD-I) to accomplish an international consensus on the definition of a conceptual research framework on SCD in preclinical AD. In the area of biological markers, the cerebrospinal fluid signature of AD has been reported to be more prevalent in subjects with SCD compared to healthy controls; moreover, there is a pronounced atrophy, as demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging, and an increased hypometabolism, as revealed by positron emission tomography, in characteristic brain regions affected by AD. In addition, SCD individuals carrying an apolipoprotein ɛ4 allele are more likely to display AD-phenotypic alterations. The urgent requirement to detect and diagnose AD as early as possible has led to the critical examination of the diagnostic power of biological markers, neurophysiology, and neuroimaging methods for AD-related risk and clinical progression in individuals defined with SCD. Observational studies on the predictive value of SCD for developing AD may potentially be of practical value, and an evidence-based, validated, qualified, and fully operationalized concept may inform clinical diagnostic practice and guide earlier designs in future therapy trials.

  8. Combining non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation with neuroimaging and electrophysiology: Current approaches and future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, Til Ole; Karabanov, Anke; Hartwigsen, Gesa

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation (NTBS) techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial current stimulation (TCS) are important tools in human systems and cognitive neuroscience because they are able to reveal the relevance of certain brain structures...... are technically demanding. We argue that the benefit from this combination is twofold. Firstly, neuroimaging and electrophysiology can inform subsequent NTBS, providing the required information to optimize where, when, and how to stimulate the brain. Information can be achieved both before and during the NTBS...... experiment, requiring consecutive and concurrent applications, respectively. Secondly, neuroimaging and electrophysiology can provide the readout for neural changes induced by NTBS. Again, using either concurrent or consecutive applications, both "online" NTBS effects immediately following the stimulation...

  9. Functional neuroimaging studies in addiction: multisensory drug stimuli and neural cue reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalachkov, Yavor; Kaiser, Jochen; Naumer, Marcus J

    2012-02-01

    Neuroimaging studies on cue reactivity have substantially contributed to the understanding of addiction. In the majority of studies drug cues were presented in the visual modality. However, exposure to conditioned cues in real life occurs often simultaneously in more than one sensory modality. Therefore, multisensory cues should elicit cue reactivity more consistently than unisensory stimuli and increase the ecological validity and the reliability of brain activation measurements. This review includes the data from 44 whole-brain functional neuroimaging studies with a total of 1168 subjects (812 patients and 356 controls). Correlations between neural cue reactivity and clinical covariates such as craving have been reported significantly more often for multisensory than unisensory cues in the motor cortex, insula and posterior cingulate cortex. Thus, multisensory drug cues are particularly effective in revealing brain-behavior relationships in neurocircuits of addiction responsible for motivation, craving awareness and self-related processing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative study of the neuropsychological and neuroimaging evaluations in children with dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduini, Rodrigo Genaro; Capellini, Simone Aparecida; Ciasca, Sylvia Maria

    2006-06-01

    We analyzed retrospectively the neuroimaging exams of children with a confirmed diagnosis of dyslexia and correlated our findings with the evaluation of higher cortical functions. We studied 34 medical files of patients of the Ambulatory of Neuro-difficulties in Learning, FCM/UNICAMP. All of them had been sent to the ambulatory with primary or secondary complaints of difficulties at school and were submitted to neuropsychological evaluation and imaging exam (SPECT). From the children evaluated 58.8% had exams presenting dysfunction with 47% presenting hypoperfusion in the temporal lobe. As for the higher cortical functions, the most affected abilities were reading, writing and memory. There was significance between the hypoperfused areas and the variables schooling, reading, writing, memory and mathematic reasoning. The SPECTs showed hypoperfusion in areas involved in the reading and writing processes. Both are equivalent in terms of involved functional areas and are similar in children with or without specific dysfunctions in neuroimaging.

  11. Heterogeneity within autism spectrum disorders: what have we learned from neuroimaging studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhoshel Krystyna Lenroot

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD display significant heterogeneity. Although most neuroimaging studies in ASD have been designed to identify commonalities among affected individuals, rather than differences, some studies have explored variation within ASD. There have been two general types of approaches used for this in the neuroimaging literature to date: comparison of subgroups within ASD, and analyses using dimensional measures to link clinical variation to brain differences. This review focuses on structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies that have used these approaches to begin to explore heterogeneity between individuals with ASD. Although this type of data is yet sparse, recognition is growing of the limitations of behaviourally defined categorical diagnoses for understanding neurobiology. Study designs that are more informative regarding the sources of heterogeneity in ASD have the potential to improve our understanding of the neurobiological processes underlying ASD.

  12. The search for neuroimaging biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease with advanced MRI techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tie-Qiang (Karolinska Huddinge - Medical Physics, Stockholm (Sweden)), email: tieqiang.li@karolinska.se; Wahlund, Lars-Olof (Dept. of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2011-02-15

    The aim of this review is to examine the recent literature on using advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques for finding neuroimaging biomarkers that are sensitive to the detection of risks for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Since structural MRI techniques, such as brain structural volumetry and voxel based morphometry (VBM), have been widely used for AD studies and extensively reviewed, we will only briefly touch on the topics of volumetry and morphometry. The focus of the current review is about the more recent developments in the search for AD neuroimaging biomarkers with functional MRI (fMRI), resting-state functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), arterial spin-labeling (ASL), and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)

  13. NEUROIMAGING AND PATTERN RECOGNITION TECHNIQUES FOR AUTOMATIC DETECTION OF ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupali Kamathe

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the most common form of dementia with currently unavailable firm treatments that can stop or reverse the disease progression. A combination of brain imaging and clinical tests for checking the signs of memory impairment is used to identify patients with AD. In recent years, Neuroimaging techniques combined with machine learning algorithms have received lot of attention in this field. There is a need for development of automated techniques to detect the disease well before patient suffers from irreversible loss. This paper is about the review of such semi or fully automatic techniques with detail comparison of methods implemented, class labels considered, data base used and the results obtained for related study. This review provides detailed comparison of different Neuroimaging techniques and reveals potential application of machine learning algorithms in medical image analysis; particularly in AD enabling even the early detection of the disease- the class labelled as Multiple Cognitive Impairment.

  14. The search for neuroimaging biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease with advanced MRI techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Tie-Qiang; Wahlund, Lars-Olof

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this review is to examine the recent literature on using advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques for finding neuroimaging biomarkers that are sensitive to the detection of risks for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Since structural MRI techniques, such as brain structural volumetry and voxel based morphometry (VBM), have been widely used for AD studies and extensively reviewed, we will only briefly touch on the topics of volumetry and morphometry. The focus of the current review is about the more recent developments in the search for AD neuroimaging biomarkers with functional MRI (fMRI), resting-state functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), arterial spin-labeling (ASL), and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)

  15. Neuroimaging findings in children with retinopathy-confirmed cerebral malaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potchen, Michael J. [Michigan State University, Department of Radiology, 184 Radiology Building, East Lansing, MI 48824-1303 (United States)], E-mail: mjp@rad.msu.edu; Birbeck, Gretchen L. [Michigan State University, International Neurologic and Psychiatric Epidemiology Program, 324 West Fee Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)], E-mail: Gretchen.Birbeck@ht.msu.edu; DeMarco, J. Kevin [Michigan State University, Department of Radiology, 184 Radiology Building, East Lansing, MI 48824-1303 (United States)], E-mail: jkd@rad.msu.edu; Kampondeni, Sam D. [University of Malawi, Department of Radiology, Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre (Malawi)], E-mail: kamponde@msu.edu; Beare, Nicholas [St. Paul' s Eye Unit, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Prescot Street, Liverpool L7 8XP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: nbeare@btinternet.com; Molyneux, Malcolm E. [Malawi-Liverpool-Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme, College of Medicine (Malawi); School of Tropical Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom)], E-mail: mmolyneux999@google.com; Taylor, Terrie E. [Michigan State University, College of Osteopathic Medicine, B309-B West Fee Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); University of Malawi, College of Medicine, Blantyre Malaria Project, Blantyre (Malawi)], E-mail: taylort@msu.edu

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: To describe brain CT findings in retinopathy-confirmed, paediatric cerebral malaria. Materials and methods: In this outcomes study of paediatric cerebral malaria, a subset of children with protracted coma during initial presentation was scanned acutely. Survivors experiencing adverse neurological outcomes also underwent a head CT. All children had ophthalmological examination to confirm the presence of the retinopathy specific for cerebral malaria. Independent interpretation of CT images was provided by two neuroradiologists. Results: Acute brain CT findings in three children included diffuse oedema with obstructive hydrocephalus (2), acute cerebral infarctions in multiple large vessel distributions with secondary oedema and herniation (1), and oedema of thalamic grey matter (1). One child who was reportedly normal prior to admission had parenchymal atrophy suggestive of pre-existing CNS injury. Among 56 survivors (9-84 months old), 15 had adverse neurologic outcomes-11/15 had a follow-up head CT, 3/15 died and 1/15 refused CT. Follow-up head CTs obtained 7-18 months after the acute infection revealed focal and multifocal lobar atrophy correlating to regions affected by focal seizures during the acute infection (5/11). Other findings were communicating hydrocephalus (2/11), vermian atrophy (1/11) and normal studies (3/11). Conclusions: The identification of pre-existing imaging abnormalities in acute cerebral malaria suggests that population-based studies are required to establish the rate and nature of incidental imaging abnormalities in Malawi. Children with focal seizures during acute cerebral malaria developed focal cortical atrophy in these regions at follow-up. Longitudinal studies are needed to further elucidate mechanisms of CNS injury and death in this common fatal disease.

  16. Neuroimaging findings in children with retinopathy-confirmed cerebral malaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potchen, Michael J.; Birbeck, Gretchen L.; DeMarco, J. Kevin; Kampondeni, Sam D.; Beare, Nicholas; Molyneux, Malcolm E.; Taylor, Terrie E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To describe brain CT findings in retinopathy-confirmed, paediatric cerebral malaria. Materials and methods: In this outcomes study of paediatric cerebral malaria, a subset of children with protracted coma during initial presentation was scanned acutely. Survivors experiencing adverse neurological outcomes also underwent a head CT. All children had ophthalmological examination to confirm the presence of the retinopathy specific for cerebral malaria. Independent interpretation of CT images was provided by two neuroradiologists. Results: Acute brain CT findings in three children included diffuse oedema with obstructive hydrocephalus (2), acute cerebral infarctions in multiple large vessel distributions with secondary oedema and herniation (1), and oedema of thalamic grey matter (1). One child who was reportedly normal prior to admission had parenchymal atrophy suggestive of pre-existing CNS injury. Among 56 survivors (9-84 months old), 15 had adverse neurologic outcomes-11/15 had a follow-up head CT, 3/15 died and 1/15 refused CT. Follow-up head CTs obtained 7-18 months after the acute infection revealed focal and multifocal lobar atrophy correlating to regions affected by focal seizures during the acute infection (5/11). Other findings were communicating hydrocephalus (2/11), vermian atrophy (1/11) and normal studies (3/11). Conclusions: The identification of pre-existing imaging abnormalities in acute cerebral malaria suggests that population-based studies are required to establish the rate and nature of incidental imaging abnormalities in Malawi. Children with focal seizures during acute cerebral malaria developed focal cortical atrophy in these regions at follow-up. Longitudinal studies are needed to further elucidate mechanisms of CNS injury and death in this common fatal disease.

  17. Neuroimaging of tic disorders with co-existing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Royal, Jason M; Peterson, Bradley S

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tourette syndrome (TS) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are common and debilitating neuropsychiatric illnesses that typically onset in the preschool years. Recently, both conditions have been subject to neuroimaging studies, with the aim of understanding...... contrast these findings with those in ADHD without comorbid tic disorders. RESULTS: The frequent comorbidity of TS and ADHD may reflect a common underlying neurobiological substrate, and studies confirm the hypothesized involvement of fronto-striatal circuits in both TS and ADHD. However, poor inhibitory...

  18. A systematic literature review of neuroimaging research on developmental stuttering between 1995 and 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchell, Andrew C; Civier, Oren; Ballard, Kirrie J; Sowman, Paul F

    2018-03-01

    Stuttering is a disorder that affects millions of people all over the world. Over the past two decades, there has been a great deal of interest in investigating the neural basis of the disorder. This systematic literature review is intended to provide a comprehensive summary of the neuroimaging literature on developmental stuttering. It is a resource for researchers to quickly and easily identify relevant studies for their areas of interest and enable them to determine the most appropriate methodology to utilize in their work. The review also highlights gaps in the literature in terms of methodology and areas of research. We conducted a systematic literature review on neuroimaging studies on developmental stuttering according to the PRISMA guidelines. We searched for articles in the pubmed database containing "stuttering" OR "stammering" AND either "MRI", "PET", "EEG", "MEG", "TMS"or "brain" that were published between 1995/​01/​01 and 2016/​01/​01. The search returned a total of 359 items with an additional 26 identified from a manual search. Of these, there were a total of 111 full text articles that met criteria for inclusion in the systematic literature review. We also discuss neuroimaging studies on developmental stuttering published throughout 2016. The discussion of the results is organized first by methodology and second by population (i.e., adults or children) and includes tables that contain all items returned by the search. There are widespread abnormalities in the structural architecture and functional organization of the brains of adults and children who stutter. These are evident not only in speech tasks, but also non-speech tasks. Future research should make greater use of functional neuroimaging and noninvasive brain stimulation, and employ structural methodologies that have greater sensitivity. Newly planned studies should also investigate sex differences, focus on augmenting treatment, examine moments of dysfluency and longitudinally or

  19. Mindcontrol: Organize, quality control, annotate, edit, and collaborate on neuroimaging processing results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisha Keshavan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mindcontrol is an open-source web-based dashboard to quality control and curate neuroimaging data. At Neurohackweek 2016, a group assembled to add new features to the Mindcontrol interface. Contributors used Python, Javascript, and Git to configure Mindcontrol for the ABIDE and CoRR open datasets, and add new types of plots to the interface. All contributions are freely available online, and the code is being actively maintained at http://www.github.com/akeshavan/mindcontrol.

  20. Pyrcca: regularized kernel canonical correlation analysis in Python and its applications to neuroimaging

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Y Bilenko; Jack L Gallant; Jack L Gallant

    2016-01-01

    In this article we introduce Pyrcca, an open-source Python package for performing canonical correlation analysis (CCA). CCA is a multivariate analysis method for identifying relationships between sets of variables. Pyrcca supports CCA with or without regularization, and with or without linear, polynomial, or Gaussian kernelization. We first use an abstract example to describe Pyrcca functionality. We then demonstrate how Pyrcca can be used to analyze neuroimaging data. Specifically, we use Py...

  1. The speed of passionate love, as a subliminal prime: A high-density electrical neuroimaging stud

    OpenAIRE

    Cacioppo Stephanie; Grafton Scott T.; Bianchi-Demicheli F

    2012-01-01

    In line with the psychological model of self expansion recent neuroimaging evidence shows an overlap between the brain network mediating passionate love and that involved in self representation. Nevertheless little remains known about the temporal dynamics of these brain areas. To address this question we recorded brain activity from 20 healthy participants using high density electrophysiological recordings while participants were performing a cognitive priming paradigm known to activate the ...

  2. The brain imaging data structure, a format for organizing and describing outputs of neuroimaging experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Gorgolewski, Krzysztof J.; Auer, Tibor; Calhoun, Vince D.; Craddock, R. Cameron; Das, Samir; Duff, Eugene P.; Flandin, Guillaume; Ghosh, Satrajit S.; Glatard, Tristan; Halchenko, Yaroslav O.; Handwerker, Daniel A.; Hanke, Michael; Keator, David; Li, Xiangrui; Michael, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques has defined modern neuroimaging. Since its inception, tens of thousands of studies using techniques such as functional MRI and diffusion weighted imaging have allowed for the non-invasive study of the brain. Despite the fact that MRI is routinely used to obtain data for neuroscience research, there has been no widely adopted standard for organizing and describing the data collected in an imaging experiment....

  3. How Acute Total Sleep Loss Affects the Attending Brain: A Meta-Analysis of Neuroimaging Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Dinges, David F.; Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Attention is a cognitive domain that can be severely affected by sleep deprivation. Previous neuroimaging studies have used different attention paradigms and reported both increased and reduced brain activation after sleep deprivation. However, due to large variability in sleep deprivation protocols, task paradigms, experimental designs, characteristics of subject populations, and imaging techniques, there is no consensus regarding the effects of sleep loss on the attending brain. The aim of this meta-analysis was to identify brain activations that are commonly altered by acute total sleep deprivation across different attention tasks. Design: Coordinate-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies of performance on attention tasks during experimental sleep deprivation. Methods: The current version of the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach was used for meta-analysis. The authors searched published articles and identified 11 sleep deprivation neuroimaging studies using different attention tasks with a total of 185 participants, equaling 81 foci for ALE analysis. Results: The meta-analysis revealed significantly reduced brain activation in multiple regions following sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness, including bilateral intraparietal sulcus, bilateral insula, right prefrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex, and right parahippocampal gyrus. Increased activation was found only in bilateral thalamus after sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness. Conclusion: Acute total sleep deprivation decreases brain activation in the fronto-parietal attention network (prefrontal cortex and intraparietal sulcus) and in the salience network (insula and medial frontal cortex). Increased thalamic activation after sleep deprivation may reflect a complex interaction between the de-arousing effects of sleep loss and the arousing effects of task performance on thalamic activity. Citation: Ma N, Dinges DF, Basner M, Rao H. How acute total

  4. Maternal Relationship, Social Skills and Parental Behavior Through Neuroimaging Techniques and Behavioral Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Serra, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Mother child relationship is the first and the most important social relationship as it has implications on psychological and neural development of the individual. Here we investigated mother child relationship focusing on different aspects and using a combination of behavioural and neuroimaging techniques. In the first study we addressed the association between brain connectivity and interpersonal competences which are at the basis of every social interaction including the ones involved in m...

  5. Mindcontrol: Organize, quality control, annotate, edit, and collaborate on neuroimaging processing results

    OpenAIRE

    Keshavan, Anisha; Madan, Christopher; Datta, Esha; McDonough, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Mindcontrol is an open-source web-based dashboard to quality control and curate neuroimaging data. At Neurohackweek 2016, a group assembled to add new features to the Mindcontrol interface. Contributors used Python, Javascript, and Git to configure Mindcontrol for the ABIDE and CoRR open datasets, and add new types of plots to the interface. All contributions are freely available online, and the code is being actively maintained at http://www.github.com/akeshavan/mindcontrol.

  6. Internet and Gaming Addiction: A Systematic Literature Review of Neuroimaging Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Daria J. Kuss; Mark D. Griffiths

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, research has accumulated suggesting that excessive Internet use can lead to the development of a behavioral addiction. Internet addiction has been considered as a serious threat to mental health and the excessive use of the Internet has been linked to a variety of negative psychosocial consequences. The aim of this review is to identify all empirical studies to date that used neuroimaging techniques to shed light upon the emerging mental health problem of Internet and gami...

  7. Single Subject Prediction of Brain Disorders in Neuroimaging: Promises and Pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbabshirani, Mohammad R.; Plis, Sergey; Sui, Jing; Calhoun, Vince D.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging-based single subject prediction of brain disorders has gained increasing attention in recent years. Using a variety of neuroimaging modalities such as structural, functional and diffusion MRI, along with machine learning techniques, hundreds of studies have been carried out for accurate classification of patients with heterogeneous mental and neurodegenerative disorders such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. More than 500 studies have been published during the past quarter century on single subject prediction focused on a multiple brain disorders. In the first part of this study, we provide a survey of more than 200 reports in this field with a focus on schizophrenia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer's disease (AD), depressive disorders, autism spectrum disease (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Detailed information about those studies such as sample size, type and number of extracted features and reported accuracy are summarized and discussed. To our knowledge, this is by far the most comprehensive review of neuroimaging-based single subject prediction of brain disorders. In the second part, we present our opinion on major pitfalls of those studies from a machine learning point of view. Common biases are discussed and suggestions are provided. Moreover, emerging trends such as decentralized data sharing, multimodal brain imaging, differential diagnosis, disease subtype classification and deep learning are also discussed. Based on this survey, there are extensive evidences showing the great potential of neuroimaging data for single subject prediction of various disorders. However, the main bottleneck of this exciting field is still the limited sample size, which could be potentially addressed by modern data sharing models such as the ones discussed in this paper. Emerging big data technologies and advanced data-intensive machine learning methodologies such as deep learning have coincided with an increasing need

  8. Sex steroids and brain structure in pubertal boys and girls: a mini-review of neuroimaging studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peper, J.S.; Hulshoff Pol, H.E.; Crone, E.A.; van Honk, J.

    2011-01-01

    Puberty is an important period during development hallmarked by increases in sex steroid levels. Human neuroimaging studies have consistently reported that in typically developing pubertal children, cortical and subcortical gray matter is decreasing, whereas white matter increases well into

  9. Hypnosis and pain perception: An Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Casale, Antonio; Ferracuti, Stefano; Rapinesi, Chiara; De Rossi, Pietro; Angeletti, Gloria; Sani, Gabriele; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Girardi, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    Several studies reported that hypnosis can modulate pain perception and tolerance by affecting cortical and subcortical activity in brain regions involved in these processes. We conducted an Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) meta-analysis on functional neuroimaging studies of pain perception under hypnosis to identify brain activation-deactivation patterns occurring during hypnotic suggestions aiming at pain reduction, including hypnotic analgesic, pleasant, or depersonalization suggestions (HASs). We searched the PubMed, Embase and PsycInfo databases; we included papers published in peer-reviewed journals dealing with functional neuroimaging and hypnosis-modulated pain perception. The ALE meta-analysis encompassed data from 75 healthy volunteers reported in 8 functional neuroimaging studies. HASs during experimentally-induced pain compared to control conditions correlated with significant activations of the right anterior cingulate cortex (Brodmann's Area [BA] 32), left superior frontal gyrus (BA 6), and right insula, and deactivation of right midline nuclei of the thalamus. HASs during experimental pain impact both cortical and subcortical brain activity. The anterior cingulate, left superior frontal, and right insular cortices activation increases could induce a thalamic deactivation (top-down inhibition), which may correlate with reductions in pain intensity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The ENIGMA Consortium: large-scale collaborative analyses of neuroimaging and genetic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Paul M; Stein, Jason L; Medland, Sarah E; Hibar, Derrek P; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Renteria, Miguel E; Toro, Roberto; Jahanshad, Neda; Schumann, Gunter; Franke, Barbara; Wright, Margaret J; Martin, Nicholas G; Agartz, Ingrid; Alda, Martin; Alhusaini, Saud; Almasy, Laura; Almeida, Jorge; Alpert, Kathryn; Andreasen, Nancy C; Andreassen, Ole A; Apostolova, Liana G; Appel, Katja; Armstrong, Nicola J; Aribisala, Benjamin; Bastin, Mark E; Bauer, Michael; Bearden, Carrie E; Bergmann, Orjan; Binder, Elisabeth B; Blangero, John; Bockholt, Henry J; Bøen, Erlend; Bois, Catherine; Boomsma, Dorret I; Booth, Tom; Bowman, Ian J; Bralten, Janita; Brouwer, Rachel M; Brunner, Han G; Brohawn, David G; Buckner, Randy L; Buitelaar, Jan; Bulayeva, Kazima; Bustillo, Juan R; Calhoun, Vince D; Cannon, Dara M; Cantor, Rita M; Carless, Melanie A; Caseras, Xavier; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Chang, Kiki D; Ching, Christopher R K; Christoforou, Andrea; Cichon, Sven; Clark, Vincent P; Conrod, Patricia; Coppola, Giovanni; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Curran, Joanne E; Czisch, Michael; Deary, Ian J; de Geus, Eco J C; den Braber, Anouk; Delvecchio, Giuseppe; Depondt, Chantal; de Haan, Lieuwe; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Dima, Danai; Dimitrova, Rali; Djurovic, Srdjan; Dong, Hongwei; Donohoe, Gary; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Dyer, Thomas D; Ehrlich, Stefan; Ekman, Carl Johan; Elvsåshagen, Torbjørn; Emsell, Louise; Erk, Susanne; Espeseth, Thomas; Fagerness, Jesen; Fears, Scott; Fedko, Iryna; Fernández, Guillén; Fisher, Simon E; Foroud, Tatiana; Fox, Peter T; Francks, Clyde; Frangou, Sophia; Frey, Eva Maria; Frodl, Thomas; Frouin, Vincent; Garavan, Hugh; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Glahn, David C; Godlewska, Beata; Goldstein, Rita Z; Gollub, Randy L; Grabe, Hans J; Grimm, Oliver; Gruber, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C; Göring, Harald H H; Hagenaars, Saskia; Hajek, Tomas; Hall, Geoffrey B; Hall, Jeremy; Hardy, John; Hartman, Catharina A; Hass, Johanna; Hatton, Sean N; Haukvik, Unn K; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hickie, Ian B; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoehn, David; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Hollinshead, Marisa; Holmes, Avram J; Homuth, Georg; Hoogman, Martine; Hong, L Elliot; Hosten, Norbert; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Hwang, Kristy S; Jack, Clifford R; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnston, Caroline; Jönsson, Erik G; Kahn, René S; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Kelly, Sinead; Kim, Sungeun; Kochunov, Peter; Koenders, Laura; Krämer, Bernd; Kwok, John B J; Lagopoulos, Jim; Laje, Gonzalo; Landen, Mikael; Landman, Bennett A; Lauriello, John; Lawrie, Stephen M; Lee, Phil H; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Lemaître, Herve; Leonardo, Cassandra D; Li, Chiang-Shan; Liberg, Benny; Liewald, David C; Liu, Xinmin; Lopez, Lorna M; Loth, Eva; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Luciano, Michelle; Macciardi, Fabio; Machielsen, Marise W J; Macqueen, Glenda M; Malt, Ulrik F; Mandl, René; Manoach, Dara S; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Matarin, Mar; Mather, Karen A; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mattingsdal, Morten; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M; McMahon, Francis J; McMahon, Katie L; Meisenzahl, Eva; Melle, Ingrid; Milaneschi, Yuri; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W; Morris, Derek W; Moses, Eric K; Mueller, Bryon A; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Mwangi, Benson; Nauck, Matthias; Nho, Kwangsik; Nichols, Thomas E; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Nugent, Allison C; Nyberg, Lars; Olvera, Rene L; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Ophoff, Roel A; Pandolfo, Massimo; Papalampropoulou-Tsiridou, Melina; Papmeyer, Martina; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Penninx, Brenda W; Peterson, Charles P; Pfennig, Andrea; Phillips, Mary; Pike, G Bruce; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Potkin, Steven G; Pütz, Benno; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Rasmussen, Jerod; Rietschel, Marcella; Rijpkema, Mark; Risacher, Shannon L; Roffman, Joshua L; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rose, Emma J; Royle, Natalie A; Rujescu, Dan; Ryten, Mina; Sachdev, Perminder S; Salami, Alireza; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Savitz, Jonathan; Saykin, Andrew J; Scanlon, Cathy; Schmaal, Lianne; Schnack, Hugo G; Schork, Andrew J; Schulz, S Charles; Schür, Remmelt; Seidman, Larry; Shen, Li; Shoemaker, Jody M; Simmons, Andrew; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Smith, Colin; Smoller, Jordan W; Soares, Jair C; Sponheim, Scott R; Sprooten, Emma; Starr, John M; Steen, Vidar M; Strakowski, Stephen; Strike, Lachlan; Sussmann, Jessika; Sämann, Philipp G; Teumer, Alexander; Toga, Arthur W; Tordesillas-Gutierrez, Diana; Trabzuni, Daniah; Trost, Sarah; Turner, Jessica; Van den Heuvel, Martijn; van der Wee, Nic J; van Eijk, Kristel; van Erp, Theo G M; van Haren, Neeltje E M; van 't Ent, Dennis; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Valdés Hernández, Maria C; Veltman, Dick J; Versace, Amelia; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Robert; Walter, Henrik; Wang, Lei; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Weale, Michael E; Weiner, Michael W; Wen, Wei; Westlye, Lars T; Whalley, Heather C; Whelan, Christopher D; White, Tonya; Winkler, Anderson M; Wittfeld, Katharina; Woldehawariat, Girma; Wolf, Christiane; Zilles, David; Zwiers, Marcel P; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Schofield, Peter R; Freimer, Nelson B; Lawrence, Natalia S; Drevets, Wayne

    2014-06-01

    The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in neuroscience, genetics, and medicine, ENIGMA studies have analyzed neuroimaging data from over 12,826 subjects. In addition, data from 12,171 individuals were provided by the CHARGE consortium for replication of findings, in a total of 24,997 subjects. By meta-analyzing results from many sites, ENIGMA has detected factors that affect the brain that no individual site could detect on its own, and that require larger numbers of subjects than any individual neuroimaging study has currently collected. ENIGMA's first project was a genome-wide association study identifying common variants in the genome associated with hippocampal volume or intracranial volume. Continuing work is exploring genetic associations with subcortical volumes (ENIGMA2) and white matter microstructure (ENIGMA-DTI). Working groups also focus on understanding how schizophrenia, bipolar illness, major depression and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affect the brain. We review the current progress of the ENIGMA Consortium, along with challenges and unexpected discoveries made on the way.

  11. The iconography of mourning and its neural correlates: a functional neuroimaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labek, Karin; Berger, Samantha; Buchheim, Anna; Bosch, Julia; Spohrs, Jennifer; Dommes, Lisa; Beschoner, Petra; Stingl, Julia C; Viviani, Roberto

    2017-08-01

    The present functional neuroimaging study focuses on the iconography of mourning. A culture-specific pattern of body postures of mourning individuals, mostly suggesting withdrawal, emerged from a survey of visual material. When used in different combinations in stylized drawings in our neuroimaging study, this material activated cortical areas commonly seen in studies of social cognition (temporo-parietal junction, superior temporal gyrus, and inferior temporal lobe), empathy for pain (somatosensory cortex), and loss (precuneus, middle/posterior cingular gyrus). This pattern of activation developed over time. While in the early phases of exposure lower association areas, such as the extrastriate body area, were active, in the late phases activation in parietal and temporal association areas and the prefrontal cortex was more prominent. These findings are consistent with the conventional and contextual character of iconographic material, and further differentiate it from emotionally negatively valenced and high-arousing stimuli. In future studies, this neuroimaging assay may be useful in characterizing interpretive appraisal of material of negative emotional valence. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Design and rationale for examining neuroimaging genetics in ischemic stroke: The MRI-GENIE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Anne-Katrin; Schirmer, Markus D; Donahue, Kathleen L; Cloonan, Lisa; Irie, Robert; Winzeck, Stefan; Bouts, Mark J R J; McIntosh, Elissa C; Mocking, Steven J; Dalca, Adrian V; Sridharan, Ramesh; Xu, Huichun; Frid, Petrea; Giralt-Steinhauer, Eva; Holmegaard, Lukas; Roquer, Jaume; Wasselius, Johan; Cole, John W; McArdle, Patrick F; Broderick, Joseph P; Jimenez-Conde, Jordi; Jern, Christina; Kissela, Brett M; Kleindorfer, Dawn O; Lemmens, Robin; Lindgren, Arne; Meschia, James F; Rundek, Tatjana; Sacco, Ralph L; Schmidt, Reinhold; Sharma, Pankaj; Slowik, Agnieszka; Thijs, Vincent; Woo, Daniel; Worrall, Bradford B; Kittner, Steven J; Mitchell, Braxton D; Rosand, Jonathan; Golland, Polina; Wu, Ona; Rost, Natalia S

    2017-10-01

    To describe the design and rationale for the genetic analysis of acute and chronic cerebrovascular neuroimaging phenotypes detected on clinical MRI in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) within the scope of the MRI-GENetics Interface Exploration (MRI-GENIE) study. MRI-GENIE capitalizes on the existing infrastructure of the Stroke Genetics Network (SiGN). In total, 12 international SiGN sites contributed MRIs of 3,301 patients with AIS. Detailed clinical phenotyping with the web-based Causative Classification of Stroke (CCS) system and genome-wide genotyping data were available for all participants. Neuroimaging analyses include the manual and automated assessments of established MRI markers. A high-throughput MRI analysis pipeline for the automated assessment of cerebrovascular lesions on clinical scans will be developed in a subset of scans for both acute and chronic lesions, validated against gold standard, and applied to all available scans. The extracted neuroimaging phenotypes will improve characterization of acute and chronic cerebrovascular lesions in ischemic stroke, including CCS subtypes, and their effect on functional outcomes after stroke. Moreover, genetic testing will uncover variants associated with acute and chronic MRI manifestations of cerebrovascular disease. The MRI-GENIE study aims to develop, validate, and distribute the MRI analysis platform for scans acquired as part of clinical care for patients with AIS, which will lead to (1) novel genetic discoveries in ischemic stroke, (2) strategies for personalized stroke risk assessment, and (3) personalized stroke outcome assessment.

  13. Temporal Explorations in Cosmic Consciousness: Intra-Agential Entanglements and the Neuro-Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Pisters

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available When Deleuze in the 1980s argued that ‘the brain is the screen’ he introduced the concepts of movement-image and time-image, two different modes of cinema with particular ontological and aesthetic characteristics. Contemporary cinema, however, has moved into yet another aesthetic mode, which I have proposed to call the neuro-image. One of the characteristics of the neuro-image is that we no longer follow the movements and actions of characters in a certain space (as in the movement-image, nor see the world coloured through their eyes (as in the time-image, but we (often quite literally experience brain worlds more directly, from within mental landscapes. In this essay I will investigate in which ways these brain worlds aesthetically express an embodied and embedded brain, addressing the new materialist dimensions of the neuro-image in a journey of cosmic cinema and, to speak with Barad, ‘meeting the universe halfway.’

  14. Tinnitus Neural Mechanisms and Structural Changes in the Brain: The Contribution of Neuroimaging Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonetti, Patricia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Tinnitus is an abnormal perception of sound in the absence of an external stimulus. Chronic tinnitus usually has a high impact in many aspects of patients' lives, such as emotional stress, sleep disturbance, concentration difficulties, and so on. These strong reactions are usually attributed to central nervous system involvement. Neuroimaging has revealed the implication of brain structures in the auditory system. Objective This systematic review points out neuroimaging studies that contribute to identifying the structures involved in the pathophysiological mechanism of generation and persistence of various forms of tinnitus. Data Synthesis Functional imaging research reveals that tinnitus perception is associated with the involvement of the nonauditory brain areas, including the front parietal area; the limbic system, which consists of the anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula, and amygdala; and the hippocampal and parahippocampal area. Conclusion The neuroimaging research confirms the involvement of the mechanisms of memory and cognition in the persistence of perception, anxiety, distress, and suffering associated with tinnitus.

  15. The Java Image Science Toolkit (JIST) for Rapid Prototyping and Publishing of Neuroimaging Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Blake C.; Bogovic, John A.; Carass, Aaron; Bazin, Pierre-Louis; Prince, Jerry L.; Pham, Dzung

    2010-01-01

    Non-invasive neuroimaging techniques enable extraordinarily sensitive and specific in vivo study of the structure, functional response and connectivity of biological mechanisms. With these advanced methods comes a heavy reliance on computer-based processing, analysis and interpretation. While the neuroimaging community has produced many excellent academic and commercial tool packages, new tools are often required to interpret new modalities and paradigms. Developing custom tools and ensuring interoperability with existing tools is a significant hurdle. To address these limitations, we present a new framework for algorithm development that implicitly ensures tool interoperability, generates graphical user interfaces, provides advanced batch processing tools, and, most importantly, requires minimal additional programming or computational overhead. Java-based rapid prototyping with this system is an efficient and practical approach to evaluate new algorithms since the proposed system ensures that rapidly constructed prototypes are actually fully-functional processing modules with support for multiple GUI's, a broad range of file formats, and distributed computation. Herein, we demonstrate MRI image processing with the proposed system for cortical surface extraction in large cross-sectional cohorts, provide a system for fully automated diffusion tensor image analysis, and illustrate how the system can be used as a simulation framework for the development of a new image analysis method. The system is released as open source under the Lesser GNU Public License (LGPL) through the Neuroimaging Informatics Tools and Resources Clearinghouse (NITRC). PMID:20077162

  16. Synergy of image analysis for animal and human neuroimaging supports translational research on drug abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido eGerig

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI in animals models of neuropathology is of increasing interest to the neuroscience community. In this work, we present our approach to create optimal translational studies that include both animal and human neuroimaging data within the frameworks of a study of postnatal neuro-development in intra-uterine cocaine exposure. We propose the use of non-invasive neuroimaging to study developmental brain structural and white matter pathway abnormalities via sMRI and DTI, as advanced MR imaging technology is readily available and automated image analysis methodology have recently been transferred from the human to animal imaging setting. For this purpose, we developed a synergistic, parallel approach to imaging and image analysis for the human and the rodent branch of our study. We propose an equivalent design in both the selection of the developmental assessment stage and the neuroimaging setup. This approach brings significant advantages to study neurobiological features of early brain development that are common to animals and humans but also preserve analysis capabilities only possible in animal research. This paper presents the main framework and individual methods for the proposed cross-species study design, as well as preliminary DTI cross-species comparative results in the intra-uterine cocaine exposure study.

  17. Is the statistic value all we should care about in neuroimaging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Taylor, Paul A; Cox, Robert W

    2017-02-15

    Here we address an important issue that has been embedded within the neuroimaging community for a long time: the absence of effect estimates in results reporting in the literature. The statistic value itself, as a dimensionless measure, does not provide information on the biophysical interpretation of a study, and it certainly does not represent the whole picture of a study. Unfortunately, in contrast to standard practice in most scientific fields, effect (or amplitude) estimates are usually not provided in most results reporting in the current neuroimaging publications and presentations. Possible reasons underlying this general trend include (1) lack of general awareness, (2) software limitations, (3) inaccurate estimation of the BOLD response, and (4) poor modeling due to our relatively limited understanding of FMRI signal components. However, as we discuss here, such reporting damages the reliability and interpretability of the scientific findings themselves, and there is in fact no overwhelming reason for such a practice to persist. In order to promote meaningful interpretation, cross validation, reproducibility, meta and power analyses in neuroimaging, we strongly suggest that, as part of good scientific practice, effect estimates should be reported together with their corresponding statistic values. We provide several easily adaptable recommendations for facilitating this process. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. The Java Image Science Toolkit (JIST) for rapid prototyping and publishing of neuroimaging software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Blake C; Bogovic, John A; Carass, Aaron; Bazin, Pierre-Louis; Prince, Jerry L; Pham, Dzung L; Landman, Bennett A

    2010-03-01

    Non-invasive neuroimaging techniques enable extraordinarily sensitive and specific in vivo study of the structure, functional response and connectivity of biological mechanisms. With these advanced methods comes a heavy reliance on computer-based processing, analysis and interpretation. While the neuroimaging community has produced many excellent academic and commercial tool packages, new tools are often required to interpret new modalities and paradigms. Developing custom tools and ensuring interoperability with existing tools is a significant hurdle. To address these limitations, we present a new framework for algorithm development that implicitly ensures tool interoperability, generates graphical user interfaces, provides advanced batch processing tools, and, most importantly, requires minimal additional programming or computational overhead. Java-based rapid prototyping with this system is an efficient and practical approach to evaluate new algorithms since the proposed system ensures that rapidly constructed prototypes are actually fully-functional processing modules with support for multiple GUI's, a broad range of file formats, and distributed computation. Herein, we demonstrate MRI image processing with the proposed system for cortical surface extraction in large cross-sectional cohorts, provide a system for fully automated diffusion tensor image analysis, and illustrate how the system can be used as a simulation framework for the development of a new image analysis method. The system is released as open source under the Lesser GNU Public License (LGPL) through the Neuroimaging Informatics Tools and Resources Clearinghouse (NITRC).

  19. Quantifying cognition and behavior in normal aging, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Diana L.; Sijbers, Jan; Romero, Eduardo

    2017-11-01

    The diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is based on neuropsychological evaluation of the patient. Different cognitive and memory functions are assessed by a battery of tests that are composed of items devised to specifically evaluate such upper functions. This work aims to identify and quantify the factors that determine the performance in neuropsychological evaluation by conducting an Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA). For this purpose, using data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), EFA was applied to 67 item scores taken from the baseline neuropsychological battery of the three phases of ADNI study. The found factors are directly related to specific brain functions such as memory, behavior, orientation, or verbal fluency. The identification of factors is followed by the calculation of factor scores given by weighted linear combinations of the items scores.

  20. Dizziness in a community hospital: central neurological causes, clinical predictors, and diagnostic yield and cost of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Hussam; Govindu, Rukma; Fouda, Ragai; Zohdy, Wael; Supsupin, Emilio

    2017-03-01

    Objectives : Neuroimaging is contributing to the rising costs of dizziness evaluation. This study examined the rate of central neurological causes of dizziness, relevant clinical predictors, and the costs and diagnostic yields of neuroimaging in dizziness assessment. Methods : We retrospectively reviewed the records of 521 adult patients who visited the hospital during a 12-month period with dizziness as the chief complaint. Clinical findings were analyzed using Fisher's exact test to determine how they correlated with central neurological causes of dizziness identified by neuroimaging. Costs and diagnostic yields of neuroimaging were calculated. Results : Of the 521 patients, 1.5% had dizziness produced by central neurological causes. Gait abnormalities, limb ataxia, diabetes mellitus, and the existence of multiple neurological findings predicted central causes. Cases were associated with gait abnormalities, limb ataxia, diabetes mellitus, and the existence of multiple neurological findings . Brain computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed in 42% and 9.5% of the examined cases, respectively, with diagnostic yields of 3.6% and 12%, respectively. Nine cases of dizziness were diagnosed from 269 brain scans, costing $607 914. Conclusion : Clinical evaluation can predict the presence of central neurological causes of dizziness, whereas neuroimaging is a costly and low-yield approach. Guidelines are needed for physicians, regarding the appropriateness of ordering neuroimaging studies. Abbreviations : OR: odds ratio; CI: confidence interval; ED: emergency department; CT: computed tomography; MRI: magnetic resonance imaging; HINTS: Head impulse, Nystagmus, Test of skew.

  1. Initial Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    increased. In the initial study presented here, the time it takes to pass an intersection is studied in details. Two major signal-controlled four-way intersections in the center of the city Aalborg are studied in details to estimate the congestion levels in these intersections, based on the time it takes...

  2. Efeitos cerebrais da maconha: resultados dos estudos de neuroimagem Brain effects of cannabis: neuroimaging findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alexandre Crippa

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A maconha é a droga ilícita mais utilizada. Apesar disto, apenas um pequeno número de estudos investigaram as conseqüências neurotóxicas de longo prazo do uso de cannabis. As técnicas de neuroimagem se constituem em poderosos instrumentos para investigar alterações neuroanatômicas e neurofuncionais e suas correlações clínicas e neuropsicológicas. Uma revisão computadorizada da literatura foi conduzida nos indexadores MEDLINE e PsycLIT entre 1966 e novembro de 2004 com os termos 'cannabis', 'marijuana', 'neuroimaging', 'magnetic resonance', 'computed tomography', 'positron emission tomography', 'single photon emission computed tomography", 'SPET', 'MRI' e 'CT'. Estudos de neuroimagem estrutural apresentam resultados conflitantes, com a maioria dos estudos não relatando atrofia cerebral ou alterações volumétricas regionais. Contudo, há uma pequena evidência de que usuários de longo prazo que iniciaram um uso regular no início da adolescência apresentam atrofia cerebral assim como redução na substância cinzenta. Estudos de neuroimagem funcional relatam aumento na atividade neural em regiões que podem estar relacionadas com intoxicação por cannabis e alteração do humor (lobos frontais mesial e orbital e redução na atividade de regiões relacionadas com funções cognitivas prejudicadas durante a intoxicação aguda. A questão crucial se efeitos neurotóxicos residuais ocorrem após o uso prolongado e regular de maconha permanece obscura, não existindo até então estudo endereçando esta questão diretamente. Estudos de neuroimagem com melhores desenhos, combinados com avaliação cognitiva, podem ser elucidativos neste aspecto.Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug. Despite this, only a small number of studies have investigated the long-term neurotoxic consequences of cannabis use. Structural and functional neuroimaging techniques are powerful research tools to investigate possible cannabis

  3. Pediatric neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tidwell, A.S.; Solano, M.; Schelling, S.H.

    1994-01-01

    In this article, some of the common and not-so-common neuropediatric disorders were discussed. As in the full-grown animal, abnormalities of the CNS in the pediatric animal patient may be classified according to the type of insult present (eg, malformation, injury, neoplasia, inflammation, or degeneration). To recognize the imaging manifestations of such disorders, an appreciation of normal anatomy, the pathological response of nervous system tissue to insult, and the principles of image interpretation is required. These fundamentals may then be applied to any CNS disease, regardless of frequency and to any animal patient, regardless of age

  4. Relevance of neuroimaging for neurocognitive and behavioral outcome after pediatric traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Königs, Marsh; Pouwels, Petra Jw; Ernest van Heurn, L W; Bakx, Roel; Jeroen Vermeulen, R; Carel Goslings, J; Poll-The, Bwee Tien; van der Wees, Marleen; Catsman-Berrevoets, Coriene E; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to (1) investigate the neuropathology of mild to severe pediatric TBI and (2) elucidate the predictive value of conventional and innovative neuroimaging for functional outcome. Children aged 8-14 years with trauma control (TC) injury (n = 27) were compared to children with mild TBI and risk factors for complicated TBI (mild RF+ , n = 20) or moderate/severe TBI (n = 17) at 2.8 years post-injury. Neuroimaging measures included: acute computed tomography (CT), volumetric analysis on post-acute conventional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and post-acute diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, analyzed using tract-based spatial statistics and voxel-wise regression). Functional outcome was measured using Common Data Elements for neurocognitive and behavioral functioning. The results show that intracranial pathology on acute CT-scans was more prevalent after moderate/severe TBI (65%) than after mild RF+ TBI (35%; p = .035), while both groups had decreased white matter volume on conventional MRI (ps ≤ .029, ds ≥ -0.74). The moderate/severe TBI group further showed decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in a widespread cluster affecting all white matter tracts, in which regional associations with neurocognitive functioning were observed (FSIQ, Digit Span and RAVLT Encoding) that consistently involved the corpus callosum. FA had superior predictive value for functional outcome (i.e. intelligence, attention and working memory, encoding in verbal memory and internalizing problems) relative to acute CT-scanning (i.e. internalizing problems) and conventional MRI (no predictive value). We conclude that children with mild RF+ TBI and moderate/severe TBI are at risk of persistent white matter abnormality. Furthermore, DTI has superior predictive value for neurocognitive out-come relative to conventional neuroimaging.

  5. Conceptual and methodological challenges for neuroimaging studies of autistic spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzone Luigi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASDs are a set of complex developmental disabilities defined by impairment in social interaction and communication, as well as by restricted interests or repetitive behaviors. Neuroimaging studies have substantially advanced our understanding of the neural mechanisms that underlie the core symptoms of ASDs. Nevertheless, a number of challenges still remain in the application of neuroimaging techniques to the study of ASDs. We review three major conceptual and methodological challenges that complicate the interpretation of findings from neuroimaging studies in ASDs, and that future imaging studies should address through improved designs. These include: (1 identification and implementation of tasks that more specifically target the neural processes of interest, while avoiding the confusion that the symptoms of ASD may impose on both the performance of the task and the detection of brain activations; (2 the inconsistency that disease heterogeneity in persons with ASD can generate on research findings, particularly heterogeneity of symptoms, symptom severity, differences in IQ, total brain volume, and psychiatric comorbidity; and (3 the problems with interpretation of findings from cross-sectional studies of persons with ASD across differing age groups. Failure to address these challenges will continue to hinder our ability to distinguish findings that outline the causes of ASDs from brain processes that represent downstream or compensatory responses to the presence of the disease. Here we propose strategies to address these issues: 1 the use of simple and elementary tasks, that are easier to understand for autistic subjects; 2 the scanning of a more homogenous group of persons with ASDs, preferably at younger age; 3 the performance of longitudinal studies, that may provide more straight forward and reliable results. We believe that this would allow for a better understanding of both the central pathogenic

  6. Automatic analysis (aa: efficient neuroimaging workflows and parallel processing using Matlab and XML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhodri eCusack

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen neuroimaging data becoming richer, with larger cohorts of participants, a greater variety of acquisition techniques, and increasingly complex analyses. These advances have made data analysis pipelines complex to set up and run (increasing the risk of human error and time consuming to execute (restricting what analyses are attempted. Here we present an open-source framework, automatic analysis (aa, to address these concerns. Human efficiency is increased by making code modular and reusable, and managing its execution with a processing engine that tracks what has been completed and what needs to be (redone. Analysis is accelerated by optional parallel processing of independent tasks on cluster or cloud computing resources. A pipeline comprises a series of modules that each perform a specific task. The processing engine keeps track of the data, calculating a map of upstream and downstream dependencies for each module. Existing modules are available for many analysis tasks, such as SPM-based fMRI preprocessing, individual and group level statistics, voxel-based morphometry, tractography, and multi-voxel pattern analyses (MVPA. However, aa also allows for full customization, and encourages efficient management of code: new modules may be written with only a small code overhead. aa has been used by more than 50 researchers in hundreds of neuroimaging studies comprising thousands of subjects. It has been found to be robust, fast and efficient, for simple single subject studies up to multimodal pipelines on hundreds of subjects. It is attractive to both novice and experienced users. aa can reduce the amount of time neuroimaging laboratories spend performing analyses and reduce errors, expanding the range of scientific questions it is practical to address.

  7. The "handwriting brain": a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies of motor versus orthographic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planton, Samuel; Jucla, Mélanie; Roux, Franck-Emmanuel; Démonet, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    Handwriting is a modality of language production whose cerebral substrates remain poorly known although the existence of specific regions is postulated. The description of brain damaged patients with agraphia and, more recently, several neuroimaging studies suggest the involvement of different brain regions. However, results vary with the methodological choices made and may not always discriminate between "writing-specific" and motor or linguistic processes shared with other abilities. We used the "Activation Likelihood Estimate" (ALE) meta-analytical method to identify the cerebral network of areas commonly activated during handwriting in 18 neuroimaging studies published in the literature. Included contrasts were also classified according to the control tasks used, whether non-specific motor/output-control or linguistic/input-control. These data were included in two secondary meta-analyses in order to reveal the functional role of the different areas of this network. An extensive, mainly left-hemisphere network of 12 cortical and sub-cortical areas was obtained; three of which were considered as primarily writing-specific (left superior frontal sulcus/middle frontal gyrus area, left intraparietal sulcus/superior parietal area, right cerebellum) while others related rather to non-specific motor (primary motor and sensorimotor cortex, supplementary motor area, thalamus and putamen) or linguistic processes (ventral premotor cortex, posterior/inferior temporal cortex). This meta-analysis provides a description of the cerebral network of handwriting as revealed by various types of neuroimaging experiments and confirms the crucial involvement of the left frontal and superior parietal regions. These findings provide new insights into cognitive processes involved in handwriting and their cerebral substrates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. COINS: An innovative informatics and neuroimaging tool suite built for large heterogeneous datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam eScott

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The availability of well-characterized neuroimaging data with large numbers of subjects, especially for clinical populations, is critical to advancing our understanding of the healthy and diseased brain. Such data enables questions to be answered in a much more generalizable manner and also has the potential to yield solutions derived from novel methods that were conceived after the original studies' implementation. Though there is currently growing interest in data sharing, the neuroimaging community has been struggling for years with how to best encourage sharing data across brain imaging studies. With the advent of studies that are much more consistent across sites (e.g., resting fMRI, diffusion tensor imaging, and structural imaging the potential of pooling data across studies continues to gain momentum.At the Mind Research Network (MRN, we have developed the COllaborative Informatics and Neuroimaging Suite (COINS; http://coins.mrn.org to provide researchers with an information system based on an open-source model that includes web-based tools to manage studies, subjects, imaging, clinical data and other assessments. The system currently hosts data from 9 institutions, over 300 studies, over 14,000 subjects, and over 19,000 MRI, MEG, and EEG scan sessions in addition to more than 180,000 clinical assessments. In this paper we provide a description of COINS with comparison to a valuable and popular system known as XNAT. Although there are many similarities between COINS and other electronic data management systems, the differences that may concern researchers in the context of multi-site, multi-organizational data-sharing environments with intuitive ease of use and PHI security are emphasized as important attributes.

  9. How acute total sleep loss affects the attending brain: a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Dinges, David F; Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi

    2015-02-01

    Attention is a cognitive domain that can be severely affected by sleep deprivation. Previous neuroimaging studies have used different attention paradigms and reported both increased and reduced brain activation after sleep deprivation. However, due to large variability in sleep deprivation protocols, task paradigms, experimental designs, characteristics of subject populations, and imaging techniques, there is no consensus regarding the effects of sleep loss on the attending brain. The aim of this meta-analysis was to identify brain activations that are commonly altered by acute total sleep deprivation across different attention tasks. Coordinate-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies of performance on attention tasks during experimental sleep deprivation. The current version of the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach was used for meta-analysis. The authors searched published articles and identified 11 sleep deprivation neuroimaging studies using different attention tasks with a total of 185 participants, equaling 81 foci for ALE analysis. The meta-analysis revealed significantly reduced brain activation in multiple regions following sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness, including bilateral intraparietal sulcus, bilateral insula, right prefrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex, and right parahippocampal gyrus. Increased activation was found only in bilateral thalamus after sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness. Acute total sleep deprivation decreases brain activation in the fronto-parietal attention network (prefrontal cortex and intraparietal sulcus) and in the salience network (insula and medial frontal cortex). Increased thalamic activation after sleep deprivation may reflect a complex interaction between the de-arousing effects of sleep loss and the arousing effects of task performance on thalamic activity. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  10. Neuroimaging Studies of Essential Tremor: How Well Do These Studies Support/Refute the Neurodegenerative Hypothesis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elan D. Louis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tissue‐based research has recently led to a new patho‐mechanistic model of essential tremor (ET—the cerebellar degenerative model. We are not aware of a study that has reviewed the current neuroimaging evidence, focusing on whether the studies support or refute the neurodegenerative hypothesis of ET. This was our aim.Methods: References for this review were identified by searches of PubMed (1966 to February 2014.Results: Several neuroimaging methods have been used to study ET, most of them based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. The methods most specific to address the question of neurodegeneration are MRI‐based volumetry, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and diffusion‐weighted imaging. Studies using each of these methods provide support for the presence of cerebellar degeneration in ET, finding reduced cerebellar brain volumes, consistent decreases in cerebellar N‐acetylaspartate, and increased mean diffusivity. Other neuroimaging techniques, such as functional MRI and positron emission tomography (PET are less specific, but still sensitive to potential neurodegeneration. These techniques are used for measuring a variety of brain functions and their impairment. Studies using these modalities also largely support cerebellar neuronal impairment. In particular, changes in 11C‐flumazenil binding in PET studies and changes in iron deposition in an MRI study provide evidence along these lines. The composite data point to neuronal impairment and likely neuronal degeneration in ET.Discussion: Recent years have seen a marked increase in the number of imaging studies of ET. As a whole, the combined data provide support for the presence of cerebellar neuronal degeneration in this disease.

  11. Disorders of Consciousness: Painless or Painful Conditions?—Evidence from Neuroimaging Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Pistoia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The experience of pain in disorders of consciousness is still debated. Neuroimaging studies, using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI, Positron Emission Tomography (PET, multichannel electroencephalography (EEG and laser-evoked potentials, suggest that the perception of pain increases with the level of consciousness. Brain activation in response to noxious stimuli has been observed in patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS, which is also referred to as a vegetative state (VS, as well as those in a minimally conscious state (MCS. However, all of these techniques suggest that pain-related brain activation patterns of patients in MCS more closely resemble those of healthy subjects. This is further supported by fMRI findings showing a much greater functional connectivity within the structures of the so-called pain matrix in MCS as compared to UWS/VS patients. Nonetheless, when interpreting the results, a distinction is necessary between autonomic responses to potentially harmful stimuli and conscious experience of the unpleasantness of pain. Even more so if we consider that the degree of residual functioning and cortical connectivity necessary for the somatosensory, affective and cognitive-evaluative components of pain processing are not yet clear. Although procedurally challenging, the particular value of the aforementioned techniques in the assessment of pain in disorders of consciousness has been clearly demonstrated. The study of pain-related brain activation and functioning can contribute to a better understanding of the networks underlying pain perception while addressing clinical and ethical questions concerning patient care. Further development of technology and methods should aim to increase the availability of neuroimaging, objective assessment of functional connectivity and analysis at the level of individual cases as well as group comparisons. This will enable neuroimaging to truly become a clinical tool to

  12. Automatic analysis (aa): efficient neuroimaging workflows and parallel processing using Matlab and XML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Rhodri; Vicente-Grabovetsky, Alejandro; Mitchell, Daniel J; Wild, Conor J; Auer, Tibor; Linke, Annika C; Peelle, Jonathan E

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen neuroimaging data sets becoming richer, with larger cohorts of participants, a greater variety of acquisition techniques, and increasingly complex analyses. These advances have made data analysis pipelines complicated to set up and run (increasing the risk of human error) and time consuming to execute (restricting what analyses are attempted). Here we present an open-source framework, automatic analysis (aa), to address these concerns. Human efficiency is increased by making code modular and reusable, and managing its execution with a processing engine that tracks what has been completed and what needs to be (re)done. Analysis is accelerated by optional parallel processing of independent tasks on cluster or cloud computing resources. A pipeline comprises a series of modules that each perform a specific task. The processing engine keeps track of the data, calculating a map of upstream and downstream dependencies for each module. Existing modules are available for many analysis tasks, such as SPM-based fMRI preprocessing, individual and group level statistics, voxel-based morphometry, tractography, and multi-voxel pattern analyses (MVPA). However, aa also allows for full customization, and encourages efficient management of code: new modules may be written with only a small code overhead. aa has been used by more than 50 researchers in hundreds of neuroimaging studies comprising thousands of subjects. It has been found to be robust, fast, and efficient, for simple-single subject studies up to multimodal pipelines on hundreds of subjects. It is attractive to both novice and experienced users. aa can reduce the amount of time neuroimaging laboratories spend performing analyses and reduce errors, expanding the range of scientific questions it is practical to address.

  13. The clinical outcome and neuroimaging of acute encephalopathy after status epilepticus in Dravet syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaojuan; Ye, Jintang; Zeng, Qi; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Xiaoling; Liu, Aijie; Yang, Zhixian; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wu, Xiru; Zhang, Yuehua

    2018-06-01

    To analyze the clinical outcome and neuroimaging over a long duration follow-up in the currently largest series of acute encephalopathy after status epilepticus in patients with Dravet syndrome. Clinical and neuroimaging data of patients with Dravet syndrome with a history of acute encephalopathy (coma >24h) after status epilepticus from February 2005 to December 2016 at Peking University First Hospital were reviewed retrospectively. Thirty-five patients (15 males, 20 females) with a history of acute encephalopathy were enrolled from a total of 624 patients with Dravet syndrome (5.6%). The median onset age of acute encephalopathy was 3 years 1 month. The duration of status epilepticus varied between 40 minutes to 12 hours. Thirty-four patients had a high fever when status epilepticus occurred, and only one had a normal temperature. Coma lasted from 2 to 20 days. Twelve patients died and 23 survived with massive neurological regression. The median follow-up time was 2 years 1 month. Neuroimaging of 20 out of 23 survivors during the recovery phase showed diverse degrees of cortical atrophy with or without subcortical lesions. Acute encephalopathy after status epilepticus is more prone to occur in patients with Dravet syndrome who had a high fever. The mortality rate is high in severe cases. Survivors are left with severe neurological sequelae but often with either no seizure or low seizure frequency. Acute encephalopathy is more prone to occur in patients with Dravet syndrome with a high fever. The mortality rate is high for acute encephalopathy after status epilepticus in patients with Dravet syndrome. Survivors have neurological sequelae. © 2018 The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Mac Keith Press.

  14. Distinguishing between unipolar depression and bipolar depression: current and future clinical and neuroimaging perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso de Almeida, Jorge Renner; Phillips, Mary Louise

    2013-01-15

    Differentiating bipolar disorder (BD) from recurrent unipolar depression (UD) is a major clinical challenge. Main reasons for this include the higher prevalence of depressive relative to hypo/manic symptoms during the course of BD illness and the high prevalence of subthreshold manic symptoms in both BD and UD depression. Identifying objective markers of BD might help improve accuracy in differentiating between BD and UD depression, to ultimately optimize clinical and functional outcome for all depressed individuals. Yet, only eight neuroimaging studies to date have directly compared UD and BD depressed individuals. Findings from these studies suggest more widespread abnormalities in white matter connectivity and white matter hyperintensities in BD than UD depression, habenula volume reductions in BD but not UD depression, and differential patterns of functional abnormalities in emotion regulation and attentional control neural circuitry in the two depression types. These findings suggest different pathophysiologic processes, especially in emotion regulation, reward, and attentional control neural circuitry in BD versus UD depression. This review thereby serves as a call to action to highlight the pressing need for more neuroimaging studies, using larger samples sizes, comparing BD and UD depressed individuals. These future studies should also include dimensional approaches, studies of at-risk individuals, and more novel neuroimaging approaches, such as connectivity analysis and machine learning. Ultimately, these approaches might provide biomarkers to identify individuals at future risk for BD versus UD and biological targets for more personalized treatment and new treatment developments for BD and UD depression. Copyright © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A Bayesian spatial model for neuroimaging data based on biologically informed basis functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Ismael; Oldehinkel, Marianne; van Oort, Erik S B; Garcia-Solis, David; Mir, Pablo; Beckmann, Christian F; Marquand, Andre F

    2017-11-01

    The dominant approach to neuroimaging data analysis employs the voxel as the unit of computation. While convenient, voxels lack biological meaning and their size is arbitrarily determined by the resolution of the image. Here, we propose a multivariate spatial model in which neuroimaging data are characterised as a linearly weighted combination of multiscale basis functions which map onto underlying brain nuclei or networks or nuclei. In this model, the elementary building blocks are derived to reflect the functional anatomy of the brain during the resting state. This model is estimated using a Bayesian framework which accurately quantifies uncertainty and automatically finds the most accurate and parsimonious combination of basis functions describing the data. We demonstrate the utility of this framework by predicting quantitative SPECT images of striatal dopamine function and we compare a variety of basis sets including generic isotropic functions, anatomical representations of the striatum derived from structural MRI, and two different soft functional parcellations of the striatum derived from resting-state fMRI (rfMRI). We found that a combination of ∼50 multiscale functional basis functions accurately represented the striatal dopamine activity, and that functional basis functions derived from an advanced parcellation technique known as Instantaneous Connectivity Parcellation (ICP) provided the most parsimonious models of dopamine function. Importantly, functional basis functions derived from resting fMRI were more accurate than both structural and generic basis sets in representing dopamine function in the striatum for a fixed model order. We demonstrate the translational validity of our framework by constructing classification models for discriminating parkinsonian disorders and their subtypes. Here, we show that ICP approach is the only basis set that performs well across all comparisons and performs better overall than the classical voxel-based approach

  16. The clinical value of large neuroimaging data sets in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toga, Arthur W

    2012-02-01

    Rapid advances in neuroimaging and cyberinfrastructure technologies have brought explosive growth in the Web-based warehousing, availability, and accessibility of imaging data on a variety of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders and conditions. There has been a prolific development and emergence of complex computational infrastructures that serve as repositories of databases and provide critical functionalities such as sophisticated image analysis algorithm pipelines and powerful three-dimensional visualization and statistical tools. The statistical and operational advantages of collaborative, distributed team science in the form of multisite consortia push this approach in a diverse range of population-based investigations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Making MR Imaging Child's Play - Pediatric Neuroimaging Protocol, Guidelines and Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschle, Nora M.; Lee, Michelle; Buechler, Roman; Christodoulou, Joanna A.; Chang, Maria; Vakil, Monica; Stering, Patrice L.; Gaab, Nadine

    2009-01-01

    Within the last decade there has been an increase in the use of structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural basis of human perception, cognition and behavior 1, 2. Moreover, this non-invasive imaging method has grown into a tool for clinicians and researchers to explore typical and atypical brain development. Although advances in neuroimaging tools and techniques are apparent, (f)MRI in young pediatric populations remains relatively infrequent 2. Practical as well as technical challenges when imaging children present clinicians and research teams with a unique set of problems 3, 2. To name just a few, the child participants are challenged by a need for motivation, alertness and cooperation. Anxiety may be an additional factor to be addressed. Researchers or clinicians need to consider time constraints, movement restriction, scanner background noise and unfamiliarity with the MR scanner environment2,4-10. A progressive use of functional and structural neuroimaging in younger age groups, however, could further add to our understanding of brain development. As an example, several research groups are currently working towards early detection of developmental disorders, potentially even before children present associated behavioral characteristics e.g.11. Various strategies and techniques have been reported as a means to ensure comfort and cooperation of young children during neuroimaging sessions. Play therapy 12, behavioral approaches 13, 14,15, 16-18 and simulation 19, the use of mock scanner areas 20,21, basic relaxation 22 and a combination of these techniques 23 have all been shown to improve the participant's compliance and thus MRI data quality. Even more importantly, these strategies have proven to increase the comfort of families and children involved 12. One of the main advances of such techniques for the clinical practice is the possibility of avoiding sedation or general anesthesia (GA) as a way to manage children

  18. Nonlinear Denoising and Analysis of Neuroimages With Kernel Principal Component Analysis and Pre-Image Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup; Abrahamsen, Trine Julie; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the use of kernel principal component analysis (PCA) and the inverse problem known as pre-image estimation in neuroimaging: i) We explore kernel PCA and pre-image estimation as a means for image denoising as part of the image preprocessing pipeline. Evaluation of the denoising...... procedure is performed within a data-driven split-half evaluation framework. ii) We introduce manifold navigation for exploration of a nonlinear data manifold, and illustrate how pre-image estimation can be used to generate brain maps in the continuum between experimentally defined brain states/classes. We...

  19. An empirical comparison of different approaches for combining multimodal neuroimaging data with support vector machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson-Yeo, William; Benetti, Stefania; Marquand, Andre F; Joules, Richard; Catani, Marco; Williams, Steve C R; Allen, Paul; McGuire, Philip; Mechelli, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    In the pursuit of clinical utility, neuroimaging researchers of psychiatric and neurological illness are increasingly using analyses, such as support vector machine, that allow inference at the single-subject level. Recent studies employing single-modality data, however, suggest that classification accuracies must be improved for such utility to be realized. One possible solution is to integrate different data types to provide a single combined output classification; either by generating a single decision function based on an integrated kernel matrix, or, by creating an ensemble of multiple single modality classifiers and integrating their predictions. Here, we describe four integrative approaches: (1) an un-weighted sum of kernels, (2) multi-kernel learning, (3) prediction averaging, and (4) majority voting, and compare their ability to enhance classification accuracy relative to the best single-modality classification accuracy. We achieve this by integrating structural, functional, and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging data, in order to compare ultra-high risk (n = 19), first episode psychosis (n = 19) and healthy control subjects (n = 23). Our results show that (i) whilst integration can enhance classification accuracy by up to 13%, the frequency of such instances may be limited, (ii) where classification can be enhanced, simple methods may yield greater increases relative to more computationally complex alternatives, and, (iii) the potential for classification enhancement is highly influenced by the specific diagnostic comparison under consideration. In conclusion, our findings suggest that for moderately sized clinical neuroimaging datasets, combining different imaging modalities in a data-driven manner is no "magic bullet" for increasing classification accuracy. However, it remains possible that this conclusion is dependent on the use of neuroimaging modalities that had little, or no, complementary information to offer one another, and that the

  20. Culture-sensitive neural substrates of human cognition: a transcultural neuroimaging approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shihui; Northoff, Georg

    2008-08-01

    Our brains and minds are shaped by our experiences, which mainly occur in the context of the culture in which we develop and live. Although psychologists have provided abundant evidence for diversity of human cognition and behaviour across cultures, the question of whether the neural correlates of human cognition are also culture-dependent is often not considered by neuroscientists. However, recent transcultural neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that one's cultural background can influence the neural activity that underlies both high- and low-level cognitive functions. The findings provide a novel approach by which to distinguish culture-sensitive from culture-invariant neural mechanisms of human cognition.

  1. Effect of Spatial Alignment Transformations in PCA and ICA of Functional Neuroimages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukic, Ana S.; Wernick, Miles N.; Yang, Yongui

    2007-01-01

    this observation is true, not only for spatial ICA, but also for temporal ICA and for principal component analysis (PCA). In each case we find conditions that the spatial alignment operator must satisfy to ensure invariance of the results. We illustrate our findings using functional magnetic-resonance imaging (f......It has been previously observed that spatial independent component analysis (ICA), if applied to data pooled in a particular way, may lessen the need for spatial alignment of scans in a functional neuroimaging study. In this paper we seek to determine analytically the conditions under which...

  2. Stroke in systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome: risk factors, clinical manifestations, neuroimaging, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Amorim, L C D; Maia, F M; Rodrigues, C E M

    2017-04-01

    Neurologic disorders are among the most common and important clinical manifestations associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), mainly those that affect the central nervous system (CNS). Risk of cerebrovascular events in both conditions is increased, and stroke represents one of the most severe complications, with an incidence rate between 3% and 20%, especially in the first five years of diagnosis. This article updates the data regarding the risk factors, clinical manifestations, neuroimaging, and treatment of stroke in SLE and APS.

  3. Looking for truth and finding lies: the prospects for a nascent neuroimaging of deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Sean A; Kaylor-Hughes, Catherine J

    2008-01-01

    Lying is ubiquitous and has acquired many names. In 'natural experiments', both pathological lying and truthfulness implicate prefrontal cortices. Recently, the advent of functional neuroimaging has allowed investigators to study deception in the non-pathological state. Prefrontal cortices are again implicated, although the regions identified vary across experiments. Forensic application of such technology (to the detection of deceit) requires the solution of tractable technical problems. Whether we 'should' detect deception remains an ethical problem: one for societies to resolve. However, such a procedure would only appear to be ethical when subjects volunteer to participate, as might occur during the investigation of alleged miscarriages of justice. We demonstrate how this might be approached.

  4. Linking variability in brain chemistry and circuit function through multimodal human neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, Patrick M; Hariri, A R

    2012-01-01

    and dopamine system and its effects on threat- and reward-related brain function, we review evidence for how such a multimodal neuroimaging strategy can be successfully implemented. Furthermore, we discuss how multimodal PET-fMRI can be integrated with techniques such as imaging genetics, pharmacological......Identifying neurobiological mechanisms mediating the emergence of individual differences in behavior is critical for advancing our understanding of relative risk for psychopathology. Neuroreceptor positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can be used...

  5. The diagnostic yield of neuroimaging in sixth nerve palsy - Sankara Nethralaya Abducens Palsy Study (SNAPS: Report 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay Gopinathan Nair

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim was to assess the etiology of sixth nerve palsy and on the basis of our data, to formulate a diagnostic algorithm for the management in sixth nerve palsy. Design: Retrospective chart review. Results: Of the 104 neurologically isolated cases, 9 cases were attributable to trauma, and 95 (86.36% cases were classified as nontraumatic, neurologically isolated cases. Of the 95 nontraumatic, isolated cases of sixth nerve palsy, 52 cases were associated with vasculopathic risk factors, namely diabetes and hypertension and were classified as vasculopathic sixth nerve palsy (54.7%, and those with a history of sixth nerve palsy from birth (6 cases were classified as congenital sixth nerve palsy (6.3%. Of the rest, neuroimaging alone yielded a cause in 18 of the 37 cases (48.64%. Of the other 19 cases where neuroimaging did not yield a cause, 6 cases were attributed to preceding history of infection (3 upper respiratory tract infection and 3 viral illnesses, 2 cases of sixth nerve palsy were found to be a false localizing sign in idiopathic intracranial hypertension and in 11 cases, the cause was undetermined. In these idiopathic cases of isolated sixth nerve palsy, neuroimaging yielded no positive findings. Conclusions: In the absence of risk factors, a suggestive history, or positive laboratory and clinical findings, neuroimaging can serve as a useful diagnostic tool in identifying the exact cause of sixth nerve palsy. Furthermore, we recommend an algorithm to assess the need for neuroimaging in sixth nerve palsy.

  6. Potential neuroimaging biomarkers of pathologic brain changes in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Qingwei; D'Onofrio, Grazia; Sancarlo, Daniele; Bao, Zhijun; Greco, Antonio; Yu, Zhuowei

    2016-05-16

    Neuroimaging-biomarkers of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) allow an early diagnosis in preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The goal in this paper was to review of biomarkers for Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), with emphasis on neuroimaging biomarkers. A systematic review was conducted from existing literature that draws on markers and evidence for new measurement techniques of neuroimaging in AD, MCI and non-demented subjects. Selection criteria included: 1) age ≥ 60 years; 2) diagnosis of AD according to NIAAA criteria, 3) diagnosis of MCI according to NIAAA criteria with a confirmed progression to AD assessed by clinical follow-up, and 4) acceptable clinical measures of cognitive impairment, disability, quality of life, and global clinical assessments. Seventy-two articles were included in the review. With the development of new radioligands of neuroimaging, today it is possible to measure different aspects of AD neuropathology, early diagnosis of MCI and AD become probable from preclinical stage of AD to AD dementia and non-AD dementia. The panel of noninvasive neuroimaging-biomarkers reviewed provides a set methods to measure brain structural and functional pathophysiological changes in vivo, which are closely associated with preclinical AD, MCI and non-AD dementia. The dynamic measures of these imaging biomarkers are used to predict the disease progression in the early stages and improve the assessment of therapeutic efficacy in these diseases in future clinical trials.

  7. Openness initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, S.S.

    1995-01-01

    Although antinuclear campaigns seem to be effective, public communication and education efforts on low-level radioactive waste have mixed results. Attempts at public information programs on low-level radioactive waste still focus on influencing public opinion. A question then is: open-quotes Is it preferable to have a program focus on public education that will empower individuals to make informed decisions rather than trying to influence them in their decisions?close quotes To address this question, a case study with both quantitative and qualitative data will be used. The Ohio Low-Level Radioactive Waste Education Program has a goal to provide people with information they want/need to make their own decisions. The program initiated its efforts by conducting a statewide survey to determine information needed by people and where they turned for that information. This presentation reports data from the survey and then explores the program development process in which programs were designed and presented using the information. Pre and post data from the programs reveal attitude and knowledge shifts

  8. Openness initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, S.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Although antinuclear campaigns seem to be effective, public communication and education efforts on low-level radioactive waste have mixed results. Attempts at public information programs on low-level radioactive waste still focus on influencing public opinion. A question then is: {open_quotes}Is it preferable to have a program focus on public education that will empower individuals to make informed decisions rather than trying to influence them in their decisions?{close_quotes} To address this question, a case study with both quantitative and qualitative data will be used. The Ohio Low-Level Radioactive Waste Education Program has a goal to provide people with information they want/need to make their own decisions. The program initiated its efforts by conducting a statewide survey to determine information needed by people and where they turned for that information. This presentation reports data from the survey and then explores the program development process in which programs were designed and presented using the information. Pre and post data from the programs reveal attitude and knowledge shifts.

  9. Neuroimaging in aphasia treatment research: Consensus and practical guidelines for data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinzer, Marcus; Beeson, Pélagie M.; Cappa, Stefano; Crinion, Jenny; Kiran, Swathi; Saur, Dorothee; Parrish, Todd; Crosson, Bruce; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2012-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging is the most widely used imaging technique to study treatment-induced recovery in post-stroke aphasia. The longitudinal design of such studies adds to the challenges researchers face when studying patient populations with brain damage in cross-sectional settings. The present review focuses on issues specifically relevant to neuroimaging data analysis in aphasia treatment research identified in discussions among international researchers at the Neuroimaging in Aphasia Treatment Research Workshop held at Northwestern University (Evanston, Illinois, USA). In particular, we aim to provide the reader with a critical review of unique problems related to the pre-processing, statistical modeling and interpretation of such data sets. Despite the fact that data analysis procedures critically depend on specific design features of a given study, we aim to discuss and communicate a basic set of practical guidelines that should be applicable to a wide range of studies and useful as a reference for researchers pursuing this line of research. PMID:22387474

  10. Methodological aspects of functional neuroimaging at high field strength: a critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheef, L.; Landsberg, M.W.; Boecker, H.

    2007-01-01

    The last few years have proven that high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is superior in nearly every way to conventional equipment up to 1.5 tesla (T). Following the global success of 3T-scanners in research institutes and medical practices, a new generation of MRI devices with field strengths of 7T and higher is now on the horizon. The introduction of ultra high fields has brought MRI technology closer to the physical limitations and increasingly greater costs are required to achieve this goal. This article provides a critical overview of the advantages and problems of functional neuroimaging using ultra high field strengths. This review is principally limited to T2*-based functional imaging techniques not dependent on contrast agents. The main issues include the significance of high field technology with respect to SNR, CNR, resolution, and sequences, as well as artifacts, noise exposure, and SAR. Of great relevance is the discussion of parallel imaging, which will presumably determine the further development of high and ultra high field strengths. Finally, the importance of high field strengths for functional neuroimaging is explained by selected publications. (orig.)

  11. Neurobiological Foundations of Acupuncture: The Relevance and Future Prospect Based on Neuroimaging Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Bai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture is currently gaining popularity as an important modality of alternative and complementary medicine in the western world. Modern neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and magnetoencephalography open a window into the neurobiological foundations of acupuncture. In this review, we have summarized evidence derived from neuroimaging studies and tried to elucidate both neurophysiological correlates and key experimental factors involving acupuncture. Converging evidence focusing on acute effects of acupuncture has revealed significant modulatory activities at widespread cerebrocerebellar brain regions. Given the delayed effect of acupuncture, block-designed analysis may produce bias, and acupuncture shared a common feature that identified voxels that coded the temporal dimension for which multiple levels of their dynamic activities in concert cause the processing of acupuncture. Expectation in acupuncture treatment has a physiological effect on the brain network, which may be heterogeneous from acupuncture mechanism. “Deqi” response, bearing clinical relevance and association with distinct nerve fibers, has the specific neurophysiology foundation reflected by neural responses to acupuncture stimuli. The type of sham treatment chosen is dependent on the research question asked and the type of acupuncture treatment to be tested. Due to the complexities of the therapeutic mechanisms of acupuncture, using multiple controls is an optimal choice.

  12. Clinical and neuroimaging correlates of antiphospholipid antibodies in multiple sclerosis: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Toledo Eduardo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (APLA in multiple sclerosis (MS patients has been reported frequently but no clear relationship between APLA and the clinical and neuroimaging features of MS have heretofore been shown. We assessed the clinical and neuroimaging features of MS patients with plasma APLA. Methods A consecutive cohort of 24 subjects with relapsing-remitting (RR MS were studied of whom 7 were in remission (Rem and 17 in exacerbation (Exc. All subjects were examined and underwent MRI of brain. Patients' plasma was tested by standard ELISA for the presence of both IgM and IgG antibodies using a panel of 6 targets: cardiolipin (CL, β2 glycoprotein I (β2GPI, Factor VII/VIIa (FVIIa, phosphatidylcholine (PC, phosphatidylserine (PS and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE. Results In exacerbation up to 80% of MS subjects had elevated titers of IgM antibodies directed against the above antigens. However, in remission, less than half of MS patients had elevated titers of IgM antibodies against one or more of the above antigens. This difference was significant, p Conclusion The findings of this preliminary study show that increased APLA IgM is associated with exacerbations of MS. Currently, the significance of this association in pathogenesis of MS remains unknown. However, systematic longitudinal studies to measure APLA in larger cohorts of patients with relapsing-remitting MS, particularly before and after treatment with immunomodulatory agents, are needed to confirm these preliminary findings.

  13. BIDS apps: Improving ease of use, accessibility, and reproducibility of neuroimaging data analysis methods.

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    Krzysztof J Gorgolewski

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The rate of progress in human neurosciences is limited by the inability to easily apply a wide range of analysis methods to the plethora of different datasets acquired in labs around the world. In this work, we introduce a framework for creating, testing, versioning and archiving portable applications for analyzing neuroimaging data organized and described in compliance with the Brain Imaging Data Structure (BIDS. The portability of these applications (BIDS Apps is achieved by using container technologies that encapsulate all binary and other dependencies in one convenient package. BIDS Apps run on all three major operating systems with no need for complex setup and configuration and thanks to the comprehensiveness of the BIDS standard they require little manual user input. Previous containerized data processing solutions were limited to single user environments and not compatible with most multi-tenant High Performance Computing systems. BIDS Apps overcome this limitation by taking advantage of the Singularity container technology. As a proof of concept, this work is accompanied by 22 ready to use BIDS Apps, packaging a diverse set of commonly used neuroimaging algorithms.

  14. Prediction of Driving Safety in Individuals with Homonymous Hemianopia and Quadrantanopia from Clinical Neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Vaphiades

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study aimed to determine whether it is possible to predict driving safety of individuals with homonymous hemianopia or quadrantanopia based upon a clinical review of neuroimages that are routinely available in clinical practice. Methods. Two experienced neuroophthalmologists viewed a summary report of the CT/MRI scans of 16 participants with homonymous hemianopic or quadrantanopic field defects which indicated the site and extent of the lesion and they made predictions regarding whether participants would be safe/unsafe to drive. Driving safety was independently defined at the time of the study using state-recorded motor vehicle crashes (all crashes and at-fault for the previous 5 years and ratings of driving safety determined through a standardized on-road driving assessment by a certified driving rehabilitation specialist. Results. The ability to predict driving safety was highly variable regardless of the driving safety measure, ranging from 31% to 63% (kappa levels ranged from −0.29 to 0.04. The level of agreement between the neuroophthalmologists was only fair (kappa = 0.28. Conclusions. Clinical evaluation of summary reports of currently available neuroimages by neuroophthalmologists is not predictive of driving safety. Future research should be directed at identifying and/or developing alternative tests or strategies to better enable clinicians to make these predictions.

  15. Prediction of driving safety in individuals with homonymous hemianopia and quadrantanopia from clinical neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaphiades, Michael S; Kline, Lanning B; McGwin, Gerald; Owsley, Cynthia; Shah, Ritu; Wood, Joanne M

    2014-01-01

    Background. This study aimed to determine whether it is possible to predict driving safety of individuals with homonymous hemianopia or quadrantanopia based upon a clinical review of neuroimages that are routinely available in clinical practice. Methods. Two experienced neuroophthalmologists viewed a summary report of the CT/MRI scans of 16 participants with homonymous hemianopic or quadrantanopic field defects which indicated the site and extent of the lesion and they made predictions regarding whether participants would be safe/unsafe to drive. Driving safety was independently defined at the time of the study using state-recorded motor vehicle crashes (all crashes and at-fault) for the previous 5 years and ratings of driving safety determined through a standardized on-road driving assessment by a certified driving rehabilitation specialist. Results. The ability to predict driving safety was highly variable regardless of the driving safety measure, ranging from 31% to 63% (kappa levels ranged from -0.29 to 0.04). The level of agreement between the neuroophthalmologists was only fair (kappa = 0.28). Conclusions. Clinical evaluation of summary reports of currently available neuroimages by neuroophthalmologists is not predictive of driving safety. Future research should be directed at identifying and/or developing alternative tests or strategies to better enable clinicians to make these predictions.

  16. Working memory deficits in high-functioning adolescents with autism spectrum disorders: neuropsychological and neuroimaging correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barendse, Evelien M; Hendriks, Marc Ph; Jansen, Jacobus Fa; Backes, Walter H; Hofman, Paul Am; Thoonen, Geert; Kessels, Roy Pc; Aldenkamp, Albert P

    2013-06-04

    Working memory is a temporary storage system under attentional control. It is believed to play a central role in online processing of complex cognitive information and may also play a role in social cognition and interpersonal interactions. Adolescents with a disorder on the autism spectrum display problems in precisely these domains. Social impairments, communication difficulties, and repetitive interests and activities are core domains of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and executive function problems are often seen throughout the spectrum. As the main cognitive theories of ASD, including the theory of mind deficit hypotheses, weak central coherence account, and the executive dysfunction theory, still fail to explain the broad spectrum of symptoms, a new perspective on the etiology of ASD is needed. Deficits in working memory are central to many theories of psychopathology, and are generally linked to frontal-lobe dysfunction. This article will review neuropsychological and (functional) brain imaging studies on working memory in adolescents with ASD. Although still disputed, it is concluded that within the working memory system specific problems of spatial working memory are often seen in adolescents with ASD. These problems increase when information is more complex and greater demands on working memory are made. Neuroimaging studies indicate a more global working memory processing or connectivity deficiency, rather than a focused deficit in the prefrontal cortex. More research is needed to relate these working memory difficulties and neuroimaging results in ASD to the behavioral difficulties as seen in individuals with a disorder on the autism spectrum.

  17. A systemic literature review of neuroimaging studies in women with breast cancer treated with adjuvant chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Andryszak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced cognitive deficits in patients with breast cancer, predominantly in attention and verbal memory, have been observed in numerous studies. These neuropsychological findings are corroborated by the results of neuroimaging studies. The aim of this paper was to survey the reports on cerebral structural and functional alterations in women with breast cancer treated with chemotherapy (CTx. First, we discuss the host-related and disease-related mechanisms underlying cognitive impairment after CTx. We point out the direct and indirect neurotoxic effect of cytostatics, which may cause: a damage to neurons or glial cells, changes in neurotransmitter levels, deregulation of the immune system and/or cytokine release. Second, we focus on the results of neuroimaging studies on brain structure and function that revealed decreased: density of grey matter, integrity of white matter and volume of multiple brain regions, as well as their lower activation during cognitive task performance. Finally, we concentrate on compensatory mechanisms, which activate additional brain areas or neural connection to reach the premorbid cognitive efficiency.

  18. The central extended amygdala in fear and anxiety: Closing the gap between mechanistic and neuroimaging research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Andrew S; Shackman, Alexander J

    2017-11-30

    Anxiety disorders impose a staggering burden on public health, underscoring the need to develop a deeper understanding of the distributed neural circuits underlying extreme fear and anxiety. Recent work highlights the importance of the central extended amygdala, including the central nucleus of the amygdala (Ce) and neighboring bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST). Anatomical data indicate that the Ce and BST form a tightly interconnected unit, where different kinds of threat-relevant information can be integrated to assemble states of fear and anxiety. Neuroimaging studies show that the Ce and BST are engaged by a broad spectrum of potentially threat-relevant cues. Mechanistic work demonstrates that the Ce and BST are critically involved in organizing defensive responses to a wide range of threats. Studies in rodents have begun to reveal the specific molecules, cells, and microcircuits within the central extended amygdala that underlie signs of fear and anxiety, but the relevance of these tantalizing discoveries to human experience and disease remains unclear. Using a combination of focal perturbations and whole-brain imaging, a new generation of nonhuman primate studies is beginning to close this gap. This work opens the door to discovering the mechanisms underlying neuroimaging measures linked to pathological fear and anxiety, to understanding how the Ce and BST interact with one another and with distal brain regions to govern defensive responses to threat, and to developing improved intervention strategies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Sparse multivariate measures of similarity between intra-modal neuroimaging datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J. Rosa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of neuroimaging studies are now based on either combining more than one data modality (inter-modal or combining more than one measurement from the same modality (intra-modal. To date, most intra-modal studies using multivariate statistics have focused on differences between datasets, for instance relying on classifiers to differentiate between effects in the data. However, to fully characterize these effects, multivariate methods able to measure similarities between datasets are needed. One classical technique for estimating the relationship between two datasets is canonical correlation analysis (CCA. However, in the context of high-dimensional data the application of CCA is extremely challenging. A recent extension of CCA, sparse CCA (SCCA, overcomes this limitation, by regularizing the model parameters while yielding a sparse solution. In this work, we modify SCCA with the aim of facilitating its application to high-dimensional neuroimaging data and finding meaningful multivariate image-to-image correspondences in intra-modal studies. In particular, we show how the optimal subset of variables can be estimated independently and we look at the information encoded in more than one set of SCCA transformations. We illustrate our framework using Arterial Spin Labelling data to investigate multivariate similarities between the effects of two antipsychotic drugs on cerebral blood flow.

  20. The same analysis approach: Practical protection against the pitfalls of novel neuroimaging analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görgen, Kai; Hebart, Martin N; Allefeld, Carsten; Haynes, John-Dylan

    2017-12-27

    Standard neuroimaging data analysis based on traditional principles of experimental design, modelling, and statistical inference is increasingly complemented by novel analysis methods, driven e.g. by machine learning methods. While these novel approaches provide new insights into neuroimaging data, they often have unexpected properties, generating a growing literature on possible pitfalls. We propose to meet this challenge by adopting a habit of systematic testing of experimental design, analysis procedures, and statistical inference. Specifically, we suggest to apply the analysis method used for experimental data also to aspects of the experimental design, simulated confounds, simulated null data, and control data. We stress the importance of keeping the analysis method the same in main and test analyses, because only this way possible confounds and unexpected properties can be reliably detected and avoided. We describe and discuss this Same Analysis Approach in detail, and demonstrate it in two worked examples using multivariate decoding. With these examples, we reveal two sources of error: A mismatch between counterbalancing (crossover designs) and cross-validation which leads to systematic below-chance accuracies, and linear decoding of a nonlinear effect, a difference in variance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Neuroimaging assessment of early and late neurobiological sequelae of traumatic brain injury: implications for CTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eSundman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI has been increasingly accepted as a major external risk factor for neurodegenerative morbidity and mortality. Recent evidence indicates that the resultant chronic neurobiological sequelae following head trauma may, at least in part, contribute to a pathologically distinct disease known as Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE. The clinical manifestation of CTE is variable, but the symptoms of this progressive disease include impaired memory and cognition, affective disorders (i.e., impulsivity, aggression, depression, suicidality, etc., and diminished motor control. Notably, mounting evidence suggests that the pathology contributing to CTE may be caused by repetitive exposure to subconcussive hits to the head, even in those with no history of a clinically evident head injury. Given the millions of athletes and military personnel with potential exposure to repetitive subconcussive insults and TBI, CTE represents an important public health issue. However, the incidence rates and pathological mechanisms are still largely unknown, primarily due to the fact that there is no in vivo diagnostic tool. The primary objective of this manuscript is to address this limitation and discuss potential neuroimaging modalities that may be capable of diagnosing CTE in vivo through the detection of tau and other known pathological features. Additionally, we will discuss the challenges of TBI research, outline the known pathology of CTE (with an emphasis on Tau, review current neuroimaging modalities to assess the potential routes for in vivo diagnosis, and discuss the future directions of CTE research.

  2. Testosterone in the brain: neuroimaging findings and the potential role for neuropsychopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfer, Peter; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Kasper, Siegfried

    2013-02-01

    Testosterone plays a substantial role in a number of physiological processes in the brain. It is able to modulate the expression of certain genes by binding to androgen receptors. Acting via neurotransmitter receptors, testosterone shows the potential to mediate a non-genomic so-called "neuroactive effect". Various neurotransmitter systems are also influenced by the aromatized form of testosterone, estradiol. The following article summarizes the findings of preclinical and clinical neuroimaging studies including structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI/fMRI), voxel based morphometry (VBM), as well as pharmacological fMRI (phfMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) regarding the effects of testosterone on the human brain. The impact of testosterone on the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders and on sex-related prevalence differences have been supported by a wide range of clinical studies. An antidepressant effect of testosterone can be implicitly explained by its effects on the limbic system--especially amygdala, a major target in the treatment of depression--solidly demonstrated by a large body of neuroimaging findings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  3. A Review of the Effectiveness of Neuroimaging Modalities for the Detection of Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyot, Franck; Arciniegas, David B.; Brazaitis, Michael P.; Curley, Kenneth C.; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Gandjbakhche, Amir; Herscovitch, Peter; Hinds, Sidney R.; Manley, Geoffrey T.; Razumovsky, Alexander; Riley, Jason; Salzer, Wanda; Shih, Robert; Smirniotopoulos, James G.; Stocker, Derek

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the United States was 3.5 million cases in 2009, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. It is a contributing factor in 30.5% of injury-related deaths among civilians. Additionally, since 2000, more than 260,000 service members were diagnosed with TBI, with the vast majority classified as mild or concussive (76%). The objective assessment of TBI via imaging is a critical research gap, both in the military and civilian communities. In 2011, the Department of Defense (DoD) prepared a congressional report summarizing the effectiveness of seven neuroimaging modalities (computed tomography [CT], magnetic resonance imaging [MRI], transcranial Doppler [TCD], positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, electrophysiologic techniques [magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography], and functional near-infrared spectroscopy) to assess the spectrum of TBI from concussion to coma. For this report, neuroimaging experts identified the most relevant peer-reviewed publications and assessed the quality of the literature for each of these imaging technique in the clinical and research settings. Although CT, MRI, and TCD were determined to be the most useful modalities in the clinical setting, no single imaging modality proved sufficient for all patients due to the heterogeneity of TBI. All imaging modalities reviewed demonstrated the potential to emerge as part of future clinical care. This paper describes and updates the results of the DoD report and also expands on the use of angiography in patients with TBI. PMID:26176603

  4. Neuroimaging to Investigate Multisystem Involvement and Provide Biomarkers in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradat, Pierre-François; El Mendili, Mohamed-Mounir

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging allows investigating the extent of neurological systems degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Advanced MRI methods can detect changes related to the degeneration of upper motor neurons but have also demonstrated the participation of other systems such as the sensory system or basal ganglia, demonstrating in vivo that ALS is a multisystem disorder. Structural and functional imaging also allows studying dysfunction of brain areas associated with cognitive signs. From a biomarker perspective, numerous studies using diffusion tensor imaging showed a decrease of fractional anisotropy in the intracranial portion of the corticospinal tract but its diagnostic value at the individual level remains limited. A multiparametric approach will be required to use MRI in the diagnostic workup of ALS. A promising avenue is the new methodological developments of spinal cord imaging that has the advantage to investigate the two motor system components that are involved in ALS, that is, the lower and upper motor neuron. For all neuroimaging modalities, due to the intrinsic heterogeneity of ALS, larger pooled banks of images with standardized image acquisition and analysis procedures are needed. In this paper, we will review the main findings obtained with MRI, PET, SPECT, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in ALS. PMID:24949452

  5. A Functional Neuroimaging Analysis of the Trail Making Test-B: Implications for Clinical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D. Allen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent progress has been made using fMRI as a clinical assessment tool, often employing analogues of traditional “paper and pencil” tests. The Trail Making Test (TMT, popular for years as a neuropsychological exam, has been largely ignored in the realm of neuroimaging, most likely because its physical format and administration does not lend itself to straightforward adaptation as an fMRI paradigm. Likewise, there is relatively more ambiguity about the neural systems associated with this test than many other tests of comparable clinical use. In this study, we describe an fMRI version of Trail Making Test-B (TMTB that maintains the core functionality of the TMT while optimizing its use for both research and clinical settings. Subjects (N = 32 were administered the Functional Trail Making Test-B (f-TMTB. Brain region activations elicited by the f-TMTB were consistent with expectations given by prior TMT neurophysiological studies, including significant activations in the ventral and dorsal visual pathways and the medial pre-supplementary motor area. The f-TMTB was further evaluated for concurrent validity with the traditional TMTB using an additional sample of control subjects (N = 100. Together, these results support the f-TMTB as a viable neuroimaging adaptation of the TMT that is optimized to evoke maximally robust fMRI activation with minimal time and equipment requirements.

  6. Neuroimaging findings in the at-risk mental state: a review of recent literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Stephen J; Reniers, Renate L E P; Heinze, Kareen

    2013-01-01

    The at-risk mental state (ARMS) has been the subject of much interest during the past 15 years. A great deal of effort has been expended to identify neuroimaging markers that can inform our understanding of the risk state and to help predict who will transition to frank psychotic illness. Recently, there has been an explosion of neuroimaging literature from people with an ARMS, which has meant that reviews and meta-analyses lack currency. Here we review papers published in the past 2 years, and contrast their findings with previous reports. While it is clear that people in the ARMS do show brain alterations when compared with healthy control subjects, there is an overall lack of consistency as to which of these alterations predict the development of psychosis. This problem arises because of variations in methodology (in patient recruitment, region of interest, method of analysis, and functional task employed), but there has also been too little effort put into replicating previous research. Nonetheless, there are areas of promise, notably that activation of the stress system and increased striatal dopamine synthesis seem to mark out patients in the ARMS most at risk for later transition. Future studies should focus on these areas, and on network-level analysis, incorporating graph theoretical approaches and intrinsic connectivity networks.

  7. Multisite, multimodal neuroimaging of chronic urological pelvic pain: Methodology of the MAPP Research Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffry R. Alger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP Research Network is an ongoing multi-center collaborative research group established to conduct integrated studies in participants with urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome (UCPPS. The goal of these investigations is to provide new insights into the etiology, natural history, clinical, demographic and behavioral characteristics, search for new and evaluate candidate biomarkers, systematically test for contributions of infectious agents to symptoms, and conduct animal studies to understand underlying mechanisms for UCPPS. Study participants were enrolled in a one-year observational study and evaluated through a multisite, collaborative neuroimaging study to evaluate the association between UCPPS and brain structure and function. 3D T1-weighted structural images, resting-state fMRI, and high angular resolution diffusion MRI were acquired in five participating MAPP Network sites using 8 separate MRI hardware and software configurations. We describe the neuroimaging methods and procedures used to scan participants, the challenges encountered in obtaining data from multiple sites with different equipment/software, and our efforts to minimize site-to-site variation.

  8. Generalized reduced rank latent factor regression for high dimensional tensor fields, and neuroimaging-genetic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Chenyang; Nichols, Thomas E; Hua, Xue; Ching, Christopher R K; Rolls, Edmund T; Thompson, Paul M; Feng, Jianfeng

    2017-01-01

    We propose a generalized reduced rank latent factor regression model (GRRLF) for the analysis of tensor field responses and high dimensional covariates. The model is motivated by the need from imaging-genetic studies to identify genetic variants that are associated with brain imaging phenotypes, often in the form of high dimensional tensor fields. GRRLF identifies from the structure in the data the effective dimensionality of the data, and then jointly performs dimension reduction of the covariates, dynamic identification of latent factors, and nonparametric estimation of both covariate and latent response fields. After accounting for the latent and covariate effects, GRLLF performs a nonparametric test on the remaining factor of interest. GRRLF provides a better factorization of the signals compared with common solutions, and is less susceptible to overfitting because it exploits the effective dimensionality. The generality and the flexibility of GRRLF also allow various statistical models to be handled in a unified framework and solutions can be efficiently computed. Within the field of neuroimaging, it improves the sensitivity for weak signals and is a promising alternative to existing approaches. The operation of the framework is demonstrated with both synthetic datasets and a real-world neuroimaging example in which the effects of a set of genes on the structure of the brain at the voxel level were measured, and the results compared favorably with those from existing approaches. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Initiative hard coal; Initiative Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhardt, J.

    2007-08-02

    In order to decrease the import dependence of hard coal in the European Union, the author has submitted suggestions to the director of conventional sources of energy (directorate general for energy and transport) of the European community, which found a positive resonance. These suggestions are summarized in an elaboration 'Initiative Hard Coal'. After clarifying the starting situation and defining the target the presupposition for a better use of hard coal deposits as raw material in the European Union are pointed out. On that basis concrete suggestions for measures are made. Apart from the conditions of the deposits it concerns thereby also new mining techniques and mining-economical developments, connected with tasks for the mining-machine industry. (orig.)

  10. Neuroimaging and neuromodulation approaches to study eating behavior and prevent and treat eating disorders and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Val-Laillet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional, molecular and genetic neuroimaging has highlighted the existence of brain anomalies and neural vulnerability factors related to obesity and eating disorders such as binge eating or anorexia nervosa. In particular, decreased basal metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and striatum as well as dopaminergic alterations have been described in obese subjects, in parallel with increased activation of reward brain areas in response to palatable food cues. Elevated reward region responsivity may trigger food craving and predict future weight gain. This opens the way to prevention studies using functional and molecular neuroimaging to perform early diagnostics and to phenotype subjects at risk by exploring different neurobehavioral dimensions of the food choices and motivation processes. In the first part of this review, advantages and limitations of neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, positron emission tomography (PET, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, pharmacogenetic fMRI and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS will be discussed in the context of recent work dealing with eating behavior, with a particular focus on obesity. In the second part of the review, non-invasive strategies to modulate food-related brain processes and functions will be presented. At the leading edge of non-invasive brain-based technologies is real-time fMRI (rtfMRI neurofeedback, which is a powerful tool to better understand the complexity of human brain–behavior relationships. rtfMRI, alone or when combined with other techniques and tools such as EEG and cognitive therapy, could be used to alter neural plasticity and learned behavior to optimize and/or restore healthy cognition and eating behavior. Other promising non-invasive neuromodulation approaches being explored are repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS and transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS. Converging evidence points at

  11. Neuroimaging and neuromodulation approaches to study eating behavior and prevent and treat eating disorders and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val-Laillet, D; Aarts, E; Weber, B; Ferrari, M; Quaresima, V; Stoeckel, L E; Alonso-Alonso, M; Audette, M; Malbert, C H; Stice, E

    2015-01-01

    Functional, molecular and genetic neuroimaging has highlighted the existence of brain anomalies and neural vulnerability factors related to obesity and eating disorders such as binge eating or anorexia nervosa. In particular, decreased basal metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and striatum as well as dopaminergic alterations have been described in obese subjects, in parallel with increased activation of reward brain areas in response to palatable food cues. Elevated reward region responsivity may trigger food craving and predict future weight gain. This opens the way to prevention studies using functional and molecular neuroimaging to perform early diagnostics and to phenotype subjects at risk by exploring different neurobehavioral dimensions of the food choices and motivation processes. In the first part of this review, advantages and limitations of neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), pharmacogenetic fMRI and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) will be discussed in the context of recent work dealing with eating behavior, with a particular focus on obesity. In the second part of the review, non-invasive strategies to modulate food-related brain processes and functions will be presented. At the leading edge of non-invasive brain-based technologies is real-time fMRI (rtfMRI) neurofeedback, which is a powerful tool to better understand the complexity of human brain-behavior relationships. rtfMRI, alone or when combined with other techniques and tools such as EEG and cognitive therapy, could be used to alter neural plasticity and learned behavior to optimize and/or restore healthy cognition and eating behavior. Other promising non-invasive neuromodulation approaches being explored are repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS). Converging evidence points at the value of

  12. Neuroimaging and neuromodulation approaches to study eating behavior and prevent and treat eating disorders and obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val-Laillet, D.; Aarts, E.; Weber, B.; Ferrari, M.; Quaresima, V.; Stoeckel, L.E.; Alonso-Alonso, M.; Audette, M.; Malbert, C.H.; Stice, E.

    2015-01-01

    Functional, molecular and genetic neuroimaging has highlighted the existence of brain anomalies and neural vulnerability factors related to obesity and eating disorders such as binge eating or anorexia nervosa. In particular, decreased basal metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and striatum as well as dopaminergic alterations have been described in obese subjects, in parallel with increased activation of reward brain areas in response to palatable food cues. Elevated reward region responsivity may trigger food craving and predict future weight gain. This opens the way to prevention studies using functional and molecular neuroimaging to perform early diagnostics and to phenotype subjects at risk by exploring different neurobehavioral dimensions of the food choices and motivation processes. In the first part of this review, advantages and limitations of neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), pharmacogenetic fMRI and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) will be discussed in the context of recent work dealing with eating behavior, with a particular focus on obesity. In the second part of the review, non-invasive strategies to modulate food-related brain processes and functions will be presented. At the leading edge of non-invasive brain-based technologies is real-time fMRI (rtfMRI) neurofeedback, which is a powerful tool to better understand the complexity of human brain–behavior relationships. rtfMRI, alone or when combined with other techniques and tools such as EEG and cognitive therapy, could be used to alter neural plasticity and learned behavior to optimize and/or restore healthy cognition and eating behavior. Other promising non-invasive neuromodulation approaches being explored are repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS). Converging evidence points at the value of

  13. Neuroimaging in dementia and Alzheimer's disease: Current protocols and practice in the Republic of Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, I.; Butler, M.-L.; Ciblis, A.; McNulty, J.P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Neuroimaging plays an essential supportive role in the diagnosis of dementia, assisting in establishing the dementia subtype(s). This has significant value in both treatment and care decisions and has important implications for prognosis. This study aims to explore the development and nature of neuroimaging protocols currently used in the assessment of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: An online questionnaire was designed and distributed to lead radiography personnel working in computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) departments (n = 94) in both hospital-based and out-patient imaging centres in the Republic of Ireland. Results: Response rates for each modality ranged from 42 to 44%. CT, MRI, and PET were used to specifically diagnose dementia or AD by 43%, 40% and 50% of responding centres respectively. Of these, dementia-specific neuroimaging protocols were utilised in 33%, 50% and 100% of CT, MRI and PET centres respectively, with the remainder using either standard or other non-specific protocols. Both radiologists and clinical specialist radiographers participated in the development of the majority of protocols. The Royal College of Radiologists (RCR) guidelines were most commonly referenced as informing protocol development, however, none of the MRI respondents were able to identify any guidelines used to inform MR protocol development. Conclusion: Currently there is no consensus in Ireland on optimal dementia/AD neuroimaging protocols, particularly for PET and MRI. Similarly the use of validated and published guidelines to inform protocols is not universal. - Highlights: • We examined the nature of neuroimaging protocols for dementia and Alzheimer's disease in Ireland. • Dementia or Alzheimer's disease-specific protocols were used by between 33 and 100% of centres depending on modality. • Stated dementia-specific protocols were identical for CT whereas

  14. Deformation-Based Atrophy Estimation for Alzheimer’s Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) - the most common form of dementia, is a term used for accelerated memory loss and cognitive abilities enough to severely hamper day-to-day activities. One of the most globally accepted markers for AD is atrophy, in mainly the brain parenchyma. The goal of the PhD project...... and a new way to estimate atrophy from a deformation field. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed solution but applying it on the publicly available Alzheimer’s disease neuroimaging data (ADNI) initiative and compare to existing state-of-art atrophy estimation methods....

  15. Association between cortical thickness and CSF biomarkers in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohades, Sara; Dubois, Jonathan; Parent, Maxime

    regional cortical thinning (CT) measured by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and brain amyloidosis (measured by CSF Ab 1-42 concentrations), or tau hyperphosphorylation (tau 181; p-tau) in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) patients. We test the hypothesis that the association...... (CN; n¼8) were obtained from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) cohort. Cortical surface reconstruction and group registration were generated using Freesurfer. A general linear model was used to conduct regressions between CSF markers and cortical thickness. Results: Correlation...

  16. A disease state fingerprint for evaluation of Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattila, Jussi; Koikkalainen, Juha; Virkki, Arho

    2011-01-01

    Diagnostic processes of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are evolving. Knowledge about disease-specific biomarkers is constantly increasing and larger volumes of data are being measured from patients. To gain additional benefits from the collected data, a novel statistical modeling and data visualization...... interpretation of the information. To model the AD state from complex and heterogeneous patient data, a statistical Disease State Index (DSI) method underlying the DSF has been developed. Using baseline data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), the ability of the DSI to model disease...

  17. Neuroimaging of post-traumatic higher brain dysfunction using 123I-Iomazenil (IMZ) SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawara, Jyoji; Kamiyama, Kenji; Takahashi, Masaaki; Nakamura, Hirohiko

    2010-01-01

    In patients with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), higher brain dysfunctions which consist of cognitive impairments such as memory, attention, performance and social behavioral disturbances could be rarely apparent. However, higher brain dysfunctions should be identified by neuropsychological tests and supported by a social welfare for handicapped patients. Acknowledgement of higher brain dysfunctions after MTBI without obvious brain damages on morphological neuroimagings could be a social issue under controversy. An imaging of cortical neuron damages in patients with higher brain dysfunctions after MTBI was studied by functional neuroimaging using 123 I-Iomazenil (IMZ) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Statistical imaging analyses using 3 dimensional stereotactic surface projections (3D-SSP) for 123 I-IMZ SPECT and 123 I-IMP SPECT as cerebral blood flow (CBF) studies were performed in 11 patients with higher brain dysfunctions after MTBI. In all patients with higher brain dysfunctions defined by neuropsychological tests, cortical neuron damages were observed in bilateral medial frontal lobes, but reduction of CBF in bilateral medial frontal lobes were less obviously showed in 8 patients (apparent in 3 and little in 5). Group comparison of 3D-SSP of 123 I-IMZ SPECT between 11 patients and 18 normal controls demonstrated significant selective loss of cortical neuron in bilateral medial frontal gyrus (MFG). Extent of abnormal pixels on each cortical gyrus using stereotactic extraction estimation (SEE) for 3D-SSP of 123 I-IMZ SPECT confirmed that 8 patients had abnormal pixel extent >10% in bilateral MFG and 5 patients had abnormal pixel extent >10% in bilateral anterior cingulate gyrus. In patients with MTBI, higher brain dysfunctions seems to correlate with selective loss of cortical neuron within bilateral MFG which could be caused by Wallerian degeneration as secondary phenomena after diffuse axonal injury within corpus callosum. Statistical

  18. Sustained effects of ecstasy on the human brain: a prospective neuroimaging study in novel users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Win, Maartje M L; Jager, Gerry; Booij, Jan; Reneman, Liesbeth; Schilt, Thelma; Lavini, Cristina; Olabarriaga, Sílvia D; den Heeten, Gerard J; van den Brink, Wim

    2008-11-01

    Previous studies have suggested toxic effects of recreational ecstasy use on the serotonin system of the brain. However, it cannot be excluded that observed differences between users and non-users are the cause rather than the consequence of ecstasy use. As part of the Netherlands XTC Toxicity (NeXT) study, we prospectively assessed sustained effects of ecstasy use on the brain in novel ecstasy users using repeated measurements with a combination of different neuroimaging parameters of neurotoxicity. At baseline, 188 ecstasy-naive volunteers with high probability of first ecstasy use were examined. After a mean period of 17 months follow-up, neuroimaging was repeated in 59 incident ecstasy users and 56 matched persistent ecstasy-naives and their outcomes were compared. Neuroimaging included [(123)I]beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-iodophenyl)tropane (CIT) SPECT to measure serotonin transporter densities as indicators of serotonergic function; (1)H-MR spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) to measure brain metabolites as indicators of neuronal damage; diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to measure the apparent diffusion coefficient and fractional anisotropy (FA) of the diffusional motion of water molecules in the brain as indicators of axonal integrity; and perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) to measure regional relative cerebral blood volume (rrCBV) which indicates brain perfusion. With this approach, both structural ((1)H-MRS and DTI) and functional ([(123)I]beta-CIT SPECT and PWI) aspects of neurotoxicity were combined. Compared to persistent ecstasy-naives, novel low-dose ecstasy users (mean 6.0, median 2.0 tablets) showed decreased rrCBV in the globus pallidus and putamen; decreased FA in thalamus and frontoparietal white matter; increased FA in globus pallidus; and increased apparent diffusion coefficient in the thalamus. No changes in serotonin transporter densities and brain metabolites were observed. These findings suggest sustained effects of ecstasy on brain microvasculature, white

  19. Neuroimaging after mild traumatic brain injury: Review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrus Eierud

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper broadly reviews the study of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI, across the spectrum of neuroimaging modalities. Among the range of imaging methods, however, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is unique in its applicability to studying both structure and function. Thus we additionally performed meta-analyses of MRI results to examine 1 the issue of anatomical variability and consistency for functional MRI (fMRI findings, 2 the analogous issue of anatomical consistency for white-matter findings, and 3 the importance of accounting for the time post injury in diffusion weighted imaging reports. As we discuss, the human neuroimaging literature consists of both small and large studies spanning acute to chronic time points that have examined both structural and functional changes with mTBI, using virtually every available medical imaging modality. Two key commonalities have been used across the majority of imaging studies. The first is the comparison between mTBI and control populations. The second is the attempt to link imaging results with neuropsychological assessments. Our fMRI meta-analysis demonstrates a frontal vulnerability to mTBI, demonstrated by decreased signal in prefrontal cortex compared to controls. This vulnerability is further highlighted by examining the frequency of reported mTBI white matter anisotropy, in which we show a strong anterior-to-posterior gradient (with anterior regions being more frequently reported in mTBI. Our final DTI meta-analysis examines a debated topic arising from inconsistent anisotropy findings across studies. Our results support the hypothesis that acute mTBI is associated with elevated anisotropy values and chronic mTBI complaints are correlated with depressed anisotropy. Thus, this review and set of meta-analyses demonstrate several important points about the ongoing use of neuroimaging to understand the functional and structural changes that occur throughout the time course of mTBI recovery

  20. Neuroimaging in aphasia treatment research: Standards for establishing the effects of treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, Swathi; Ansaldo, Ana; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Cherney, Leora R.; Howard, David; Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Meinzer, Marcus; Thompson, Cynthia K

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to discuss experimental design options available for establishing the effects of treatment in studies that aim to examine the neural mechanisms associated with treatment-induced language recovery in aphasia, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We present both group and single-subject experimental or case-series design options for doing this and address advantages and disadvantages of each. We also discuss general components of and requirements for treatment research studies, including operational definitions of variables, criteria for defining behavioral change and treatment efficacy, and reliability of measurement. Important considerations that are unique to neuroimaging-based treatment research are addressed, pertaining to the relation between the selected treatment approach and anticipated changes in language processes/functions and how such changes are hypothesized to map onto the brain. PMID:23063559

  1. Improving the analysis, storage and sharing of neuroimaging data using relational databases and distributed computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, Uri; Skipper, Jeremy I; Wilde, Michael J; Nusbaum, Howard C; Small, Steven L

    2008-01-15

    The increasingly complex research questions addressed by neuroimaging research impose substantial demands on computational infrastructures. These infrastructures need to support management of massive amounts of data in a way that affords rapid and precise data analysis, to allow collaborative research, and to achieve these aims securely and with minimum management overhead. Here we present an approach that overcomes many current limitations in data analysis and data sharing. This approach is based on open source database management systems that support complex data queries as an integral part of data analysis, flexible data sharing, and parallel and distributed data processing using cluster computing and Grid computing resources. We assess the strengths of these approaches as compared to current frameworks based on storage of binary or text files. We then describe in detail the implementation of such a system and provide a concrete description of how it was used to enable a complex analysis of fMRI time series data.

  2. Neuroanatomy of episodic and semantic memory in humans: a brief review of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Lázaro, Haydée G; Ramirez-Carmona, Rocio; Lara-Romero, Ruben; Roldan-Valadez, Ernesto

    2012-01-01

    One of the most basic functions in every individual and species is memory. Memory is the process by which information is saved as knowledge and retained for further use as needed. Learning is a neurobiological phenomenon by which we acquire certain information from the outside world and is a precursor to memory. Memory consists of the capacity to encode, store, consolidate, and retrieve information. Recently, memory has been defined as a network of connections whose function is primarily to facilitate the long-lasting persistence of learned environmental cues. In this review, we present a brief description of the current classifications of memory networks with a focus on episodic memory and its anatomical substrate. We also present a brief review of the anatomical basis of memory systems and the most commonly used neuroimaging methods to assess memory, illustrated with magnetic resonance imaging images depicting the hippocampus, temporal lobe, and hippocampal formation, which are the main brain structures participating in memory networks.

  3. Neuroimaging of tic disorders with co-existing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Royal, Jason M; Peterson, Bradley S

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tourette syndrome (TS) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are common and debilitating neuropsychiatric illnesses that typically onset in the preschool years. Recently, both conditions have been subject to neuroimaging studies, with the aim of understanding...... contrast these findings with those in ADHD without comorbid tic disorders. RESULTS: The frequent comorbidity of TS and ADHD may reflect a common underlying neurobiological substrate, and studies confirm the hypothesized involvement of fronto-striatal circuits in both TS and ADHD. However, poor inhibitory...... their underlying neurobiological correlates. OBJECTIVE: The relation of TS and ADHD is discussed against the background of findings from previous Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies. METHODS: We review the designs and major findings of previous studies that have examined TS with comorbid ADHD, and we briefly...

  4. Virtual brain mapping: Meta-analysis and visualization in functional neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup

    Results from functional neuroimaging such as positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance are often reported as sets of 3-dimensional coordinates in Talairach stereotactic space. By utilizing data collected in the BrainMap database and from our own small XML database we can...... data matrix. By conditioning on elements in the databases other than the coordinate data, e.g., anatomical labels associated with many coordinates we can make conditional novelty detection identifying outliers in the database that might be errorneous entries or seldom occuring patterns. In the Brain......Map database we found errors, e.g., stemming from confusion of centimeters and millimeters during entering and errors in the original article. Conditional probability density modeling also enables generation of probabilistic atlases and automatic probabilistic anatomical labeling of new coordinates...

  5. Pyrcca: regularized kernel canonical correlation analysis in Python and its applications to neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Y Bilenko

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce Pyrcca, an open-source Python package for performing canonical correlation analysis (CCA. CCA is a multivariate analysis method for identifying relationships between sets of variables. Pyrcca supports CCA with or without regularization, and with or without linear, polynomial, or Gaussian kernelization. We first use an abstract example to describe Pyrcca functionality. We then demonstrate how Pyrcca can be used to analyze neuroimaging data. Specifically, we use Pyrcca to implement cross-subject comparison in a natural movie functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiment by finding a data-driven set of functional response patterns that are similar across individuals. We validate this cross-subject comparison method in Pyrcca by predicting responses to novel natural movies across subjects. Finally, we show how Pyrcca can reveal retinotopic organization in brain responses to natural movies without the need for an explicit model.

  6. Pyrcca: Regularized Kernel Canonical Correlation Analysis in Python and Its Applications to Neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilenko, Natalia Y; Gallant, Jack L

    2016-01-01

    In this article we introduce Pyrcca, an open-source Python package for performing canonical correlation analysis (CCA). CCA is a multivariate analysis method for identifying relationships between sets of variables. Pyrcca supports CCA with or without regularization, and with or without linear, polynomial, or Gaussian kernelization. We first use an abstract example to describe Pyrcca functionality. We then demonstrate how Pyrcca can be used to analyze neuroimaging data. Specifically, we use Pyrcca to implement cross-subject comparison in a natural movie functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment by finding a data-driven set of functional response patterns that are similar across individuals. We validate this cross-subject comparison method in Pyrcca by predicting responses to novel natural movies across subjects. Finally, we show how Pyrcca can reveal retinotopic organization in brain responses to natural movies without the need for an explicit model.

  7. Animal minds and neuroimaging--bridging the gap between science and ethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, Tom

    2014-04-01

    As Colin Allen has argued, discussions between science and ethics about the mentality and moral status of nonhuman animals often stall on account of the fact that the properties that ethics presents as evidence of animal mentality and moral status, namely consciousness and sentience, are not observable "scientifically respectable" properties. In order to further discussion between science and ethics, it seems, therefore, that we need to identify properties that would satisfy both domains. In this article I examine the mentality and moral status of nonhuman animals from the perspective of neuroethics. By adopting this perspective, we can see how advances in neuroimaging regarding (1) research into the neurobiology of pain, (2) "brain reading," and (3) the minimally conscious state may enable us to identify properties that help bridge the gap between science and ethics, and hence help further the debate about the mentality and moral status of nonhuman animals.

  8. [Leigh's encephalopathy (subacute necrotizing encephalopathy). Documentation of its evolution through neuroimaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, J A; González-Ferrer, S; Martínez, C; Prieto-Carrasquero, M; Delgado, W; Mora La Cruz, E

    1996-09-01

    A 30 months-old boy developed bilateral nistagmus, tremor, gait disturbance, hypotonia and disartria. The diagnose of Leigh encephalopathy was suggested on the basis of clinical, neuroimaging and laboratory findings. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at an early stage revealed bilateral and symmetric lesions in the putamen, appearing as hyperintense signal on T2-weighted images. Twelve months later a relatively large hypertense area in the posterior brainstem was observed. At this stage, the patient exhibited marked deterioration, dystonic manifestations, rigidity and respiratory disturbances. He died 6 months later for respiratory arrest during bronconeumonic infection. We believe MRI is a valuable means to allow assessment of the evolution of the disease.

  9. The brain imaging data structure, a format for organizing and describing outputs of neuroimaging experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgolewski, Krzysztof J; Auer, Tibor; Calhoun, Vince D; Craddock, R Cameron; Das, Samir; Duff, Eugene P; Flandin, Guillaume; Ghosh, Satrajit S; Glatard, Tristan; Halchenko, Yaroslav O; Handwerker, Daniel A; Hanke, Michael; Keator, David; Li, Xiangrui; Michael, Zachary; Maumet, Camille; Nichols, B Nolan; Nichols, Thomas E; Pellman, John; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Rokem, Ariel; Schaefer, Gunnar; Sochat, Vanessa; Triplett, William; Turner, Jessica A; Varoquaux, Gaël; Poldrack, Russell A

    2016-06-21

    The development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques has defined modern neuroimaging. Since its inception, tens of thousands of studies using techniques such as functional MRI and diffusion weighted imaging have allowed for the non-invasive study of the brain. Despite the fact that MRI is routinely used to obtain data for neuroscience research, there has been no widely adopted standard for organizing and describing the data collected in an imaging experiment. This renders sharing and reusing data (within or between labs) difficult if not impossible and unnecessarily complicates the application of automatic pipelines and quality assurance protocols. To solve this problem, we have developed the Brain Imaging Data Structure (BIDS), a standard for organizing and describing MRI datasets. The BIDS standard uses file formats compatible with existing software, unifies the majority of practices already common in the field, and captures the metadata necessary for most common data processing operations.

  10. [Seeking the aetiology of autistic spectrum disorder. Part 2: Functional neuroimaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryńska, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Multiple functional imaging techniques help to a better understanding of the neurobiological basis of autism-spectrum disorders (ASD). The early functional imaging studies on ASD focused on task-specific methods related to core symptom domains and explored patterns of activation in response to face processing, theory of mind tasks, language processing and executive function tasks. On the other hand, fMRI research in ASD focused on the development of functional connectivity methods and has provided evidence of alterations in cortical connectivity in ASD and establish autism as a disorder of under-connectivity among the brain regions participating in cortical networks. This atypical functional connectivity in ASD results in inefficiency and poor integration of processing in network connections to achieve task performance. The goal of this review is to summarise the actual neuroimaging functional data and examine their implication for understanding of the neurobiology of ASD.

  11. Neural basis of attachment-caregiving systems interaction:insights from neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia eLenzi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The attachment and the caregiving system are complementary systems which are active simultaneously in infant and mother interactions. This ensures the infant survival and optimal social, emotional and cognitive development. In this brief review we first define the characteristics of these two behavioral systems and the theory that links them, according to what Bowlby called the attachment-caregiving social bond (Bowlby, 1969. We then follow with those neuroimaging studies that have focused on this particular issue, i.e. those which have studied the activation of the careging system in women (using infant stimuli and have explored how the individual attachment model (through the Adult Attachment Interview modulates its activity. Studies report altered activation in limbic and prefrontal areas and in basal ganglia and hypothalamus/pituitary regions. These altered activations are thought to be the neural substrate of the attachment-caregiving systems interaction.

  12. The Quantitative Evaluation of Functional Neuroimaging Experiments: Mutual Information Learning Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, Ulrik; Hansen, Lars Kai; Anderson, Jon

    2002-01-01

    Learning curves are presented as an unbiased means for evaluating the performance of models for neuroimaging data analysis. The learning curve measures the predictive performance in terms of the generalization or prediction error as a function of the number of independent examples (e.g., subjects......) used to determine the parameters in the model. Cross-validation resampling is used to obtain unbiased estimates of a generic multivariate Gaussian classifier, for training set sizes from 2 to 16 subjects. We apply the framework to four different activation experiments, in this case \\$\\backslash......\\$[/sup 15/ O]water data sets, although the framework is equally valid for multisubject fMRI studies. We demonstrate how the prediction error can be expressed as the mutual information between the scan and the scan label, measured in units of bits. The mutual information learning curve can be used...

  13. Neuroimaging of developmental psychopathologies: the importance of self-regulatory and neuroplastic processes in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spessot, Alexandra L; Plessen, Kerstin J; Peterson, Bradley S

    2004-01-01

    for these developmental and plastic processes during the transition from adolescence into adulthood. Tourette syndrome (TS), defined as the chronic presence of motor and vocal tics, has been increasingly conceptualized as a disorder of impaired self-regulatory control. This disordered control is thought to give rise...... to semicompulsory urges to perform the movements that constitute simple tics, complex tics, or compulsions. Neuroimaging studies suggest that the expression of the genetic diathesis to TS is influenced by genetic and nongenetic factors affecting activity-dependent reorganization of neuroregulatory systems, thereby...... influencing the phenotype, illness severity, and adult outcome of tic disorders. Similar developmental processes during adolescence likely determine the phenotype and natural history of a broad range of other complex neuropsychiatric disorders of childhood onset, and they likely contribute to the acquisition...

  14. Atypical Neuroimaging Manifestations of Linear Scleroderma “en coup de sabre”

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. ALLMENDINGER, Andrew; A. RICCI, Joseph; S. DESAI, Naman; VISWANADHAN, Narayan; RODRIGUEZ, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Linear scleroderma “en coup de sabre” is a subset of localized scleroderma with band-like sclerotic lesions typically involving the fronto-parietal regions of the scalp. Patients often present with neurologic symptoms. On imaging, patients may have lesions in the cerebrum ipsilateral to the scalp abnormality. Infratentorial lesions and other lesions not closely associated with the overlying scalp abnormality, such as those found in the cerebellum, have been reported, but are extremely uncommon. We present a case of an 8-year-old boy with a left fronto-parietal “en coup de sabre” scalp lesion and describe the neuroimaging findings of a progressively enlarging left cerebellar lesion discovered incidentally on routine magnetic resonance imaging. Interestingly, the patient had no neurologic symptoms given the size of the mass identified. PMID:26401155

  15. The Future of Contextual Fear Learning for PTSD Research: A Methodological Review of Neuroimaging Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Daniel E; Risbrough, Victoria B; Simmons, Alan N; Acheson, Dean T; Stout, Daniel M

    2017-10-21

    There has been a great deal of recent interest in human models of contextual fear learning, particularly due to the use of such paradigms for investigating neural mechanisms related to the etiology of posttraumatic stress disorder. However, the construct of "context" in fear conditioning research is broad, and the operational definitions and methods used to investigate contextual fear learning in humans are wide ranging and lack specificity, making it difficult to interpret findings about neural activity. Here we will review neuroimaging studies of contextual fear acquisition in humans. We will discuss the methodology associated with four broad categories of how contextual fear learning is manipulated in imaging studies (colored backgrounds, static picture backgrounds, virtual reality, and configural stimuli) and highlight findings for the primary neural circuitry involved in each paradigm. Additionally, we will offer methodological recommendations for human studies of contextual fear acquisition, including using stimuli that distinguish configural learning from discrete cue associations and clarifying how context is experimentally operationalized.

  16. A review of structural neuroimaging in schizophrenia: from connectivity to connectomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne L Wheeler

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In patients with schizophrenia neuroimaging studies have revealed global differences with some brain regions showing focal abnormalities. Examining neurocircuitry, diffusion-weighted imaging studies have identified altered structural integrity of white matter in frontal and temporal brain regions and tracts such as the cingulum bundles, uncinate fasciculi and corpus callosum associated with the illness. Furthermore, structural co-variance analyses have revealed altered structural relationships among regional morphology in the thalamus, frontal, temporal and parietal cortices in schizophrenia patients. The distributed nature of these abnormalities in schizophrenia suggests that multiple brain circuits are impaired, a neural feature that may be better addressed with network level analyses. However, even with the advent of these newer analyses, a large amount of variability in findings remains, likely partially due to the considerable heterogeneity of this disorder.

  17. Early neuroimaging findings of glioblastoma mimicking non-neoplastic cerebral lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Tae-Young; Jung, Shin

    2007-09-01

    A 54-year-old man and a 63-year-old woman presented with glioblastoma manifesting as seizure and headache, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging of the two patients revealed hypointense area on T(1)-weighted imaging, and hyperintense area on T(2)-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging, with no enhancement after gadolinium administration. Both patients underwent conservative therapy under diagnoses of non-neoplastic cerebral lesion. Six months later, they suffered aggravated symptoms and new neurological deficits. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging revealed hypointense area on diffusion-weighted imaging and ring enhancement on T(1)-weighted imaging with gadolinium at the site of the previously detected lesions. The tumors showed growth pattern of superficial origin. The large enhanced masses were totally removed through craniotomy under neuronavigator guidance. The histological diagnoses were glioblastoma. Glioblastoma may mimic non-neoplastic conditions on neuroimaging in the early stages. Close follow up of such patients is essential.

  18. The contributions of cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging to understanding mechanisms of behavior change in addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Jon; Naqvi, Nasir H; Debellis, Robert; Breiter, Hans C

    2013-06-01

    In the last decade, there has been an upsurge of interest in understanding the mechanisms of behavior change (MOBC) and effective behavioral interventions as a strategy to improve addiction-treatment efficacy. However, there remains considerable uncertainty about how treatment research should proceed to address the MOBC issue. In this article, we argue that limitations in the underlying models of addiction that inform behavioral treatment pose an obstacle to elucidating MOBC. We consider how advances in the cognitive neuroscience of addiction offer an alternative conceptual and methodological approach to studying the psychological processes that characterize addiction, and how such advances could inform treatment process research. In addition, we review neuroimaging studies that have tested aspects of neurocognitive theories as a strategy to inform addiction therapies and discuss future directions for transdisciplinary collaborations across cognitive neuroscience and MOBC research. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  19. NeuroLOG: sharing neuroimaging data using an ontology-based federated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibaud, Bernard; Kassel, Gilles; Dojat, Michel; Batrancourt, Bénédicte; Michel, Franck; Gaignard, Alban; Montagnat, Johan

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the design of the NeuroLOG middleware data management layer, which provides a platform to share heterogeneous and distributed neuroimaging data using a federated approach. The semantics of shared information is captured through a multi-layer application ontology and a derived Federated Schema used to align the heterogeneous database schemata from different legacy repositories. The system also provides a facility to translate the relational data into a semantic representation that can be queried using a semantic search engine thus enabling the exploitation of knowledge embedded in the ontology. This work shows the relevance of the distributed approach for neurosciences data management. Although more complex than a centralized approach, it is also more realistic when considering the federation of large data sets, and open strong perspectives to implement multi-centric neurosciences studies.

  20. Epistemics for Learning Disabilities: Contributions from Magnetoencephalography, a Functional Neuroimaging Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VÍCTOR SANTIUSTE-BERMEJO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The syndrome known as Learning Disabilities (LD was described by S. Kirk in 1963. From that point on, institutions from the US, Canada and Spain have engaged in refining the concept and classification of LDs. The Complutense University in Spain, has proposed a descriptive and all-embracing definition, and has studied the different manifestations of LD, pursuing the description of biological markers and neurological features of LD’s main expressions: dyslexia, dyscalculia, dysorthographia, Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder –ADHD, and so forth. Findings in LD using functional neuroimaging techniques, namely Magnetoencephalography (MEG, are described. MEG is a non-invasive technique, which records magnetic fields naturally generated by the brain and their spatial distribution. It allows simultaneous functional and structural information. MEG is therefore used in the study of primary and superior cognitive functions, in surveillance of patterns of normal cognitive function and those specific to the different LD clinical manifestations.

  1. The prefrontal cortex: insights from functional neuroimaging using cognitive activation tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goethals, Ingeborg; Van de Wiele, Christophe; Dierckx, Rudi [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Polikliniek 7, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000, Ghent (Belgium); Audenaert, Kurt [Department of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)

    2004-03-01

    This review presents neuroimaging studies which have explored the functional anatomy of a variety of cognitive processes represented by the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Overall, these studies have demonstrated that standard prefrontal neuroactivation tasks recruit a widely distributed network within the brain of which the PFC consistently forms a part. As such, these results are in keeping with the notion that executive functions within the PFC rely not only on anterior (mainly prefrontal) brain areas, but also on posterior (mainly parietal) brain regions. Moreover, intervention of similar brain regions in a large number of different executive tasks suggests that higher-level cognitive functions may best be understood in terms of an interactive network of specialised anterior as well as posterior brain regions. (orig.)