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Sample records for neurogenic communication disorders

  1. Introduction to Neurogenic Communication Disorders. Fifth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookshire, Robert H.

    This book provides an overview of the causes and symptoms, and the typical courses, treatments, and outcomes of neurogenic communication disorders. Chapter 1 reviews the human nervous system and neurologic causes of adult communication disorders. Chapter 2 discusses the neurologic assessment and arriving at a diagnosis, including the neurologist's…

  2. [Neurogenic communication disorders: how effective are relaxation therapy and acupuncture?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptok, M

    2008-12-01

    Not only neurologists but also ENT-physicians and phoniatricians have to prescribe speech and language therapy for patients with communication disorders. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has gained increasing popularity among patients. Many studies have investigated these procedures and positive effects on certain physical e. g., chronic pain and anxiety disorders could be validated. Unfortunately only few empirical investigations have targeted the use of CAM to treat neurogenic disorders of communication or cognition. In this review we provide an overview over general therapeutical principals of two widely used approaches, relaxation therapy and acupuncture. Then we survey the literature and summarize existent research literature regarding the effects of the treatment of neurogenic disorders including dementia.

  3. Neurogenic Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teachers Speech-Language Pathologists Physicians Employers Tweet Neurogenic Stuttering Parents of Preschoolers Parents of School-Age Children ... Pathologists Physicians Employers Download brochure What is neurogenic stuttering? Neurogenic stuttering is a type of fluency disorder ...

  4. A One Year Prospective Study of Neurogenic Stuttering Following Stroke: Incidence and Co-Occurring Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theys, C.; van Wieringen, A.; Sunaert, S.; Thijs, V.; De Nil, L. F.

    2011-01-01

    In this prospective study, data on incidence, stuttering characteristics, co-occurring speech disorders, and recovery of neurogenic stuttering in a large sample of stroke participants were assessed. Following stroke onset, 17 of 319 participants (5.3%; 95% CI, 3.2-8.3) met the criteria for neurogenic stuttering. Stuttering persisted in at least…

  5. [Laparoscopic cystectomy and transileal ureterostomy for neurogenic vesicosphincteric disorders. Evaluation of morbidity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillotreau, Julien; Gamé, Xavier; Castel-Lacanal, Evelyne; Mallet, Richard; De Boissezon, Xavier; Malavaud, Bernard; Marque, Philippe; Rischmann, Pascal

    2007-04-01

    To evaluate the morbidity and mortality of laparoscopic cystectomy combined with transileal ureterostomy to treat neurogenic vesicosphincteric disorders. Prospective study performed between february 2004 and april 2006 on 26 consecutive patients with a mean age of 55.0 +/- 12.7 years treated by laparoscopic cystectomy for neurogenic vesicosphincteric disorders. The underlying neurological disease was multiple sclerosis (MS) in 20 cases, spinal cord injury in 4 cases and transverse myelitis in 2 cases. The median preoperative ASA score was 3 (range: 2-3). No open conversion was necessary. One intraoperative complication was observed (vascular injury). No perioperative death was observed. The nasogastric tube was maintained postoperatively for an average of 8.69 +/- 5.9 hours. The mean time to resumption of oral fluids was 1.4 +/- 0.7 days and mean time to resumption of solids was 2.6 +/- 1.0 days. The mean time to resumption of bowel movements was 3.8 +/- 3.2 days. The mean intensive care stay was 3.9 +/- 1.1 days. Two postoperative complications were observed in the same patient (ileus and bronchial congestion). Postoperative narcotic analgesics were necessary in 60% of cases. The mean hospital stay was 10.3 +/- 4.1 days. Two late postoperative complications were observed in the same patient (two episodes of pyelonephritis). Laparoscopic cystectomy has a low morbidity in neurological patients, allowing early return of feeding and a moderate length of hospital stay.

  6. [Posttraumatic stress disorder in patients with neurogenic amnesia for the traumatic event].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podoll, K; Kunert, H J; Sass, H

    2000-10-01

    The development of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in patients with neurogenic amnesia for the traumatic event is recorded in 2 own patients and in 19 cases from the clinical literature. With a single exception, all patients were accident victims with closed head injuries. Only about three quarters of the patients completely fulfilled DSM-III-R criteria of PTSD. Nineteen patients displayed involuntary conscious memories of aspects of the traumatic event (presenting as recurrent intrusive thoughts, images or dreams) co-existent with a complete or partial lack of voluntary conscious memories of the trauma, suggesting that different memory systems and distinct brain mechanisms subserve these phenomena. The said clinical observations are discussed against the background of current neuropsychological models of multiple memory systems. The recorded cases demonstrate that declarative episodic memory is not necessary for symptoms of PTSD to emerge, whereas preserved functions of non-declarative memory systems represent a sufficient condition for the development of PTSD symptoms.

  7. Neurogenic Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T. Dorsher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital anomalies such as meningomyelocele and diseases/damage of the central, peripheral, or autonomic nervous systems may produce neurogenic bladder dysfunction, which untreated can result in progressive renal damage, adverse physical effects including decubiti and urinary tract infections, and psychological and social sequelae related to urinary incontinence. A comprehensive bladder-retraining program that incorporates appropriate education, training, medication, and surgical interventions can mitigate the adverse consequences of neurogenic bladder dysfunction and improve both quantity and quality of life. The goals of bladder retraining for neurogenic bladder dysfunction are prevention of urinary incontinence, urinary tract infections, detrusor overdistension, and progressive upper urinary tract damage due to chronic, excessive detrusor pressures. Understanding the physiology and pathophysiology of micturition is essential to select appropriate pharmacologic and surgical interventions to achieve these goals. Future perspectives on potential pharmacological, surgical, and regenerative medicine options for treating neurogenic bladder dysfunction are also presented.

  8. [Acute neurogenic pulmonary edema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roquefeuil, B

    1975-01-01

    Neurogenic edema, in the strict sense of the term, has at the present time practically not benefitted from precise hemodynamic investigations in human clinical practice, and owing to this fact, authors still classify them under the heading "mixed edema or of unknown pathogenesis". In contrast with this lack of information in man, animal experimental works are surprising by their coherence and the experimental facility of producing neurogenic edema (cranial hypertension by a small inflatable balloon and cisternal infection of fibrin). If one excludes the now ancient vagal theories (CAMERON 1949; CAMPBELL, 1949) which were never confirmed, all of the most recent experimental works (SARNOFF, 1952; DUCKER, 1968; LUISADA, 1967; MORITZ, 1974) confirm the adrenergic disorder of central origin during neurogenic A.P.E. which from the hemodynamic standpoint is like an authentic hemodynamic A.P.E. with raised left atrial pressure, pulmonary venous pressure and pulmonary capillary pressure.

  9. [Basic disorders in human communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaloza-López, Y; Gutiérrez-Silva, J; Andrade-Illañez, E N; Fierro-Evans, M A; Hernández-López, X

    1989-01-01

    This paper specifies the areas and disorders that concern human communication medicine. The frequency of the diverse disorders is analyzed in relation to age and sex, and the distribution in group ages of several disabling diseases is also discussed.

  10. Speech and Communication Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to being completely unable to speak or understand speech. Causes include Hearing disorders and deafness Voice problems, ... or those caused by cleft lip or palate Speech problems like stuttering Developmental disabilities Learning disorders Autism ...

  11. Evaluating Social (Pragmatic) Communication Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandy, William; Wang, Adele; Lee, Irene; Skuse, David

    2017-01-01

    Background: Social (pragmatic) communication disorder (SPCD) is a new diagnosis introduced by DSM-5, characterised by problems with verbal and nonverbal social communication. It is currently unclear whether SPCD is a valid diagnostic category, because little is known about the characteristics of those who meet its criteria. We sought to identify…

  12. Communication disorders in Nigerian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somefun, O A; Lesi, F E A; Danfulani, M A; Olusanya, B O

    2006-04-01

    Communication disorders have been acknowledged as a major public health issue because they compromise early childhood development, restrict vocational attainment and undermine the economic well being of the society. The aim of this study is to determine the pattern of communication disorders among children in a developing country and the requisite intervention services. This prospective study was conducted in Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos between January 2002 and June 2003 among children aged 6 months to 15 years that presented in the audiology clinic of the hospital with communication disorders. All the patients had neurological, otolaryngological, audiological and speech evaluations. A total of 184 patients were seen during the period out of whom 136 (74%) were between the ages of 6-47 months. Hearing impairment was documented in 120 (65.2%) children, speech disorders in 56 (30.4%), rhinolalia 2.2% and stuttering 2.2%. Of those with hearing impairment, 70% had delayed speech and language. Among children with speech disorders 78.6% had specific language impairment (SLI). Aetiological factors recorded for the communication disorders were seizures 10.9%, measles 8.7% meningitis 8.7%, birth asphyxia 6.5%, otitis media with effusion (OME) 4.3%, kernicterus 4.3%, congenital deformity 4.3%, ototoxicity 2.2%, cerebral palsy 2.2%, and undetermined causes 47.9%. Hearing impairment is the commonest communication disorder. Early detection and appropriate follow up is recommended for all children in their first year of life. The role of parents and caregivers in seeking early help should be strengthened while capacity building for the training of more audiologists and speech therapists should be pursued rapidly.

  13. Poststroke Communication Disorders and Dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fernández, Marlís; Brodsky, Martin B; Palmer, Jeffrey B

    2015-11-01

    Communication and swallowing disorders are common after stroke. Targeted surveillance followed by prompt evaluation and treatment is of paramount importance. The overall goals of rehabilitation for impaired swallowing and communication and swallowing deficits may differ based on the specific deficits caused by the stroke but the main goal is always to improve the patient's everyday interpersonal interactions and optimize participation in society. Fortunately, therapeutic or compensatory interventions can decrease the effects that communication and swallowing deficits have on the quality of life of stroke survivors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Botulinum Toxin Is Effective in the Management of Neurogenic Dysphagia. Clinical-Electrophysiological Findings and Tips on Safety in Different Neurological Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonsi, Enrico; Restivo, Domenico A.; Cosentino, Giuseppe; De Icco, Roberto; Bertino, Giulia; Schindler, Antonio; Todisco, Massimiliano; Fresia, Mauro; Cortese, Andrea; Prunetti, Paolo; Ramusino, Matteo C.; Moglia, Arrigo; Sandrini, Giorgio; Tassorelli, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: Neurogenic dysphagia linked to failed relaxation of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) can be treated by injecting botulinum toxin (BTX) into the cricopharyngeal (CP) muscle. We compared the effects of this treatment in different neurological disorders with dysphagia, to evaluate its efficacy over time including the response to a second injection. Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven patients with neurogenic dysphagia associated with incomplete or absent opening of the UES (24 with brainstem or hemispheric stroke, 21 with parkinsonian syndromes, 12 with multiple sclerosis, and 10 with spastic-dystonic syndromes secondary to post-traumatic encephalopathy) were treated with the injection of IncobotulinumtoxinA (dose 15–20 U) into the CP muscle under electromyographic guidance. The patients were assessed at baseline and after the first and second treatment through clinical evaluation and fiberoptic endoscopy of swallowing, while their dysphagia was quantified using the Dysphagia Outcome and Severity Scale (DOSS). An electrokinesiographic/electromyographic study of swallowing was performed at baseline. Results: Most patients responded to the first BTX treatment: 35 patients (52.2%) were classified as high responders (DOSS score increase >2 levels), while other 19 patients (28.4%) were low responders (DOSS score increase of ≤2 levels). The effect of the first treatment usually lasted longer than 4 months (67%), and in some cases up to a year. The treatment efficacy remained high also after the second injection: 31 patients (46.3%) qualified as high responders and other 22 patients (32.8%) showed a low response. Only in the parkinsonian syndromes group we observed a reduction in the percentage of high responders as compared with the first treatment. Side effects were mostly mild and reported in non-responders following the first injection. A severe side effect, consisting of ingestion pneumonia, was observed following the second BTX injection in

  15. Communicative strategies used by spouses of individuals with communication disorders related to stroke-induced aphasia and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Emilia; Hartelius, Lena; Saldert, Charlotta

    2014-11-01

    with aphasia. The types of strategies used by spouses of persons with neurogenic communicative disabilities seem to be more strongly associated with individual characteristics of communicative ability than with the type of disorder involved. The set of categories developed in this study needs to be trialled on larger groups of participants, and modified if and as necessary, before it can be regarded as a valid system for the description of such strategies in general. Once this has been done it may become a useful instrument in the assessment of the strategies used by communication partners of individuals with communicative disabilities. © 2014 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  16. Neurogenic stuttering: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, C; Amorim, H; Beca, G; Nunes, R

    2018-01-16

    Neurogenic stuttering is a disorder of neurologic origin in the rhythm of speech during which the patient knows exactly what he wants to say but is unable to because of an involuntary prolongation, cessation or repetition of a sound. To assemble new insights regarding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, evaluation and treatment of neurogenic stuttering. A review of all PubMed and Scopus published articles between January 2000 and September 2016 was performed. Thirty-three publications were analyzed. Neurogenic stuttering is a rare entity whose epidemiological incidence is yet not fully established. It is correlated with several neurological diseases and with several possible localizations within the nervous system. Notwithstanding the recent advances in the understanding of the underlying mechanism, it is not yet possible to establish a single pathophysiological mechanism of neurogenic stuttering. The differential diagnosis is complex and requires the detailed knowledge of other language disorders. The treatment is currently based on specific speech language therapy strategies. Neurogenic stuttering is a complex disorder which is not fully understood. Additional studies might help to better explain the underlying pathophysiological mechanism and to open doors to novel therapeutic methods.

  17. Handbook of Qualitative Research in Communication Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Martin J., Ed.; Müller, Nicole, Ed.; Nelson, Ryan L., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    This volume provides a comprehensive and in-depth handbook of qualitative research in the field of communication disorders. It introduces and illustrates the wide range of qualitative paradigms that have been used in recent years to investigate various aspects of communication disorders. The first part of the Handbook introduces in some detail the…

  18. Neurogenic Communication Disorders and Paralleling Agraphic Disturbances: Implications for Concerns in Basic Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jarnette, Glenda

    Vertical and lateral integration are two important nervous system integrations that affect the development of oral behaviors. There are three progressions in the vertical integration process for speech nervous system development: R-complex speech (ritualistic, memorized expressions), limbic speech (emotional expressions), and cortical speech…

  19. Children with Communication Disorders. ERIC Digest #E470 (Revised #419).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA.

    This digest defines the term "communication disorders," states prevalence rates for the condition, describes characteristics of children with communication disorders, and outlines educational implications. Thirteen publications on communication disorders and six organizational resources are listed. (JDD)

  20. Locating grey literature on communication disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpilko, Inna

    2005-01-01

    This article provides an overview of selected Web-based resources containing grey literature in the area of communication disorders. It is geared to practitioners, researchers, students, and consumers seeking reliable, freely available scientific information. Grey (or gray) literature has been defined as "that which is produced on all levels of government, academics, business, and industry in print and electronic formats, but which is not controlled by commercial publishers."1 This paper reviews various general reference sources potentially containing grey literature on communication disorders. This review includes identification of the methods specialists in this field use to obtain this valuable, yet often overlooked, literature. Access points and search tools for identifying grey literature on communication disorders are recommended. Commercial databases containing grey literature are not included. Conclusions presented in this article are considered complementary to traditionally published information resources on communication disorders, such as scholarly journals, online databases, etc.

  1. Perspectives on Individual Differences Affecting Therapeutic Change in Communication Disorders. New Directions in Communication Disorders Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Amy L., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume examines the ramifications of individual differences in therapy outcomes for a wide variety of communication disorders. In an era where evidence-based practice is the clinical profession's watchword, each chapter attacks this highly relevant issue from a somewhat different perspective. In some areas of communication disorders,…

  2. Differentiating Communication Disorders and Autism in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Neal, Daniene

    2010-01-01

    The diagnosis of autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS), particularly in young children has become a top priority in the fields of mental health and education. Core symptoms include rituals and stereotypies, social skills deficits, and problems in communication. Considerable overlap exists in symptoms for…

  3. Communication disorders after stroke in Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Elizabeth; Hersh, Deborah; Hayward, Colleen; Fraser, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Limited research exists on acquired communication disorders (ACD) in Aboriginal Australians despite their high rates of stroke. Their uptake of rehabilitation services is low, and little information is available on functional consequences for this population. This pilot study explored consequences of ACD for Aboriginal Australians after stroke, including their experiences of services received. Semi-structured interviews were collected with 13 Aboriginal people with ACD, and family members, in Perth. Ages ranged from 30 to 78 years and time post stroke from 0.5 to 29 years. A qualitative, thematic analysis of interview transcripts was undertaken. The key themes which emerged were "getting on with life", coping with change, independence/interdependence, the importance of communication for maintaining family and community connection, role and identity issues and viewing the stroke consequences within the broader context of co-morbidities. While similar life disruptions were found to those previously reported in the general stroke population, this study highlighted differences, which reflect the particular context of ACD for Aboriginal people and which need to be considered when planning future services. While implications are limited due to small numbers, the findings emphasise the importance of a holistic approach, and integration of communication treatments into community-led social activities. Implications for Rehabilitation Aboriginal Australians frequently experience a range of concurrent and complex co-morbidities and demanding social or family circumstances at the same time as coping with communication disorders post-stroke. A holistic approach to post stroke rehabilitation may be appropriate with services that accommodate communication disorders, delivered in collaboration with Aboriginal organisations, emphasising positive attitudes and reintegration into community as fully as possible. Communication and yarning are important for maintaining family and

  4. Classroom Challenges: Working with Pupils with Communication Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebron, Shupikai; Mhute, Isaac; Musingafi, Maxwell Constantine Chando

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of actively involving students with communication disorders in the formal education systems prompted this desktop study on some of the challenges and problems associated with students with communication disorders in the classroom. This paper examines the relationship between communication disorders and learning from a very basic and…

  5. Misinformation in eating disorder communications: Implications for science communication policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Benjamin

    Though eating disorders are a serious public health threat, misinformation about these potentially deadly diseases is widespread. This study examines eating disorder information from a wide variety of sources including medical journals, news reports, and popular social activist authors. Examples of misinformation were identified, and three aspects of eating disorders (prevalence, mortality, and etiology) were chosen as key indicators of scientific illiteracy about those illnesses. A case study approach was then adopted to trace examples of misinformation to their original sources whenever possible. A dozen examples include best-selling books, national eating disorder information clearinghouses; the news media; documentary feature films; and a PBS television Nova documentary program. The results provide an overview of the ways in which valid information becomes flawed, including poor journalism, lack of fact-checking, plagiarism, and typographical errors. Less obvious---and perhaps even more important---much of the misinformation results from scientific research being co-opted to promote specific sociopolitical agendas. These results highlight a significant gap in science communication between researchers, the medical community, and the public regarding these diseases, and recommendations to address the problem are offered.

  6. Language and communication in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinogradova K.N.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article is a review of English_language literature on the topic of development of language and communication in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. It is shown that language in ASD often differs from the one in typical development, particularly in terms of pragmatics, unusual intonation and echolalia, and difficulties in speech perception and comprehension may also be present. Nevertheless, it should be noted that the results of many studies in this area are controversial due to a variety of reasons and it is hardly possible to reach agreement on many questions in this area.

  7. Etiopathogenesis of neurogenic pulmonary edema

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šedý, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 160, 5-6 (2010), s. 152-154 ISSN 0043-5341 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : neurogenic pulmonary edema * intracranial pressure * sympathetic system Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  8. Neurogenic bladder in Hunter's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, K; Moda, Y; Sone, A; Tanaka, H; Hino, Y

    1994-01-01

    We encountered a rare patient with Hunter's syndrome who exhibited urinary retention as a result of a neurogenic bladder, uninhibited detrusor contractions, and detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia. Neurological findings were consistent with cervical myelopathy and cervical MR imaging showed very narrow segments at the cord level C2-4. We speculate that this Hunter's syndrome patient has cervical myelopathy and that this neurological dysfunction causes the neurogenic bladder. PMID:8014981

  9. Free Software for Disorders of Human Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Ricardo Rodríguez Dueñas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: New technologies are increasingly used by the health sector for its implementation in therapeutic interventions. However, in the case of speech therapists, there are many unknown free software-based tools which could support their daily work. This paper summarizes fourteen free software-based tools that can support interventions in early stimulation, assessment and control of voice and speech, several resources for augmentative and alternative communication and tools that facilitate access to the computer. Materials and methods: The information presented here is the result of a general review of software-based tools designed to treat human communication disorders. Criteria for inclusion and exclusion were established to select tools and these were installed and tested. Results: 22 tools were found and 14 were selected and classified in these categories: Early stimulation and capture attention, acoustic signal processing of voice, speech processing, Augmentative and Alternative Communication and Other; the latter includes tools for access to the computer without the need for advanced computer skills. Discussion: The set of tools discussed in this paper provides free computer-based tools to therapists in order to help their interventions, additionally, promotes the improvement of computer skills so necessary in today’s society of professionals.

  10. Health Care Provider Accommodations for Patients with Communication Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Michael I.; Baylor, Carolyn; Dudgeon, Brian J.; Starks, Helene; Yorkston, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Health care providers can experience increased diffculty communicating with adult patients during medical interactions when the patients have communication disorders. Meeting the communication needs of these patients can also create unique challenges for providers. The authors explore Communication Accommodation Theory (H. Giles, 1979) as a guide…

  11. Communication Supports for People with Motor Speech Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Elizabeth K.; Fager, Susan K.

    2017-01-01

    Communication supports for people with motor speech disorders can include strategies and technologies to supplement natural speech efforts, resolve communication breakdowns, and replace natural speech when necessary to enhance participation in all communicative contexts. This article emphasizes communication supports that can enhance…

  12. Sarcopenia, a Neurogenic Syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Kwan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia is an aging-associated condition, which is currently characterized by the loss of muscle mass and muscle strength. However, there is no consensus regarding its characterization hitherto. As the world older adult population is on the rise, the impact of sarcopenia becomes greater. Due to the lack of effective treatments, sarcopenia is still a persisting problem among the global older adults and should not be overlooked. As a result, it is vital to investigate deeper into the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of sarcopenia in order to develop more effective therapeutic interventions and to inscribe a more uniform characterization. The etiology of sarcopenia is currently found to be multifactorial, and most of the pharmacological researches are focused on the muscular factors in aging. Although the complete mechanism underlying the development of sarcopenia is still waiting to be elucidated, we propose in this article that the primary trigger of sarcopenia may be neurogenic in origin based on the intimate relationship between the nervous and muscular system, namely, the motor neuron and its underlying muscle fibers. Both of them are affected by the cellular environment and their physiological activity.

  13. Neurogenic and non neurogenic functions of endogenous neural stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica eButti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis is a lifelong process that occurs in two main neurogenic niches of the brain, namely in the subventricular zone (SVZ of the lateral ventricles and in the subgranular zone (SGZ of the dentate gyrus (DG in the hippocampus. In the 1960s, studies on adult neurogenesis have been hampered by the lack of established phenotypic markers. The precise tracing of neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs was therefore, not properly feasible. After the (partial identification of those markers, it was the lack of specific tools that hindered a proper experimental elimination and tracing of those cells to demonstrate their terminal fate and commitment. Nowadays, irradia-tion, cytotoxic drugs as well as genetic tracing/ablation procedures have moved the field forward and increased our understanding of neurogenesis processes in both physiological and pathological conditions. Newly formed NPC progeny from the SVZ can replace granule cells in the olfactory bulbs of rodents, thus contributing to orchestrate sophisticated odour behaviour. SGZ-derived new granule cells, instead, integrate within the DG where they play an essential role in memory functions. Furthermore, converging evidence claim that endogenous NPCs not only exert neurogenic functions, but might also have non-neurogenic homeostatic functions by the release of different types of neuroprotective molecules. Remarkably, these non-neurogenic homeostatic functions seem to be necessary, both in healthy and diseased conditions, for example for preventing or limiting tissue damage. In this review, we will discuss the neurogenic and the non-neurogenic functions of adult NPCs both in physiological and pathological conditions.

  14. Library Instruction in Communication Disorders: Which Databases Should Be Prioritized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowsky, Adelia

    2015-01-01

    The field of communication disorders encompasses the health science disciplines of both speech-­language pathology and audiology. Pertinent literature for communication disorders can be found in a number of databases. Librarians providing information literacy instruction may not have the time to cover more than a few resources. This study develops…

  15. Linguistics in the Service of Communication Disorders: New Frontiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravid, Dorit; Bar-On, Amalia; Dattner, Elitzur

    2013-01-01

    Linguistics and Communication Disorders are considered two different disciplines by most students and scholars in both fields as well as by researchers working in other relevant fields such as psychology and education. However, most core disorders, disabilities and delays in communicative ability directly concern language, especially in…

  16. Effects of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in the Rehabilitation of Communication and Deglutition Disorders: Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadenz, Camila Dalbosco; Moreira, Tais de Campos; Capobianco, Dirce Maria; Cassol, Mauriceia

    2015-01-01

    To systematically review randomized controlled trials that evaluate the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on rehabilitation aspects related to communication and swallowing functions. A search was conducted on PubMed, Clinical Trials, Cochrane Library, and ASHA electronic databases. Studies were judged according to the eligibility criteria and analyzed by 2 independent and blinded researchers. We analyzed 9 studies: 4 about aphasia, 3 about dysphagia, 1 about dysarthria in Parkinson's disease and 1 about linguistic deficits in Alzheimer's disease. All aphasia studies used low-frequency rTMS to stimulate Broca's homologous area. High-frequency rTMS was applied over the pharyngoesophageal cortex from the left and/or right hemisphere in the dysphagia studies and over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in the Parkinson's and Alzheimer's studies. Two aphasia and all dysphagia studies showed a significant improvement of the disorder, compared to the sham group. The other 2 studies related to aphasia found a benefit restricted to subgroups with a severe case or injury on the anterior portion of the language cortical area, respectively, whereas the Alzheimer's study demonstrated positive effects specific to auditory comprehension. There were no changes for vocal function in the Parkinson's study. The benefits of the technique and its applicability in neurogenic disorders related to communication and deglutition are still uncertain. Therefore, other randomized controlled trials are needed to clarify the optimal stimulation protocol for each disorder studied and its real effects. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Social communication deficits: Specific associations with Social Anxiety Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halls, Georgia; Cooper, Peter J; Creswell, Cathy

    2015-02-01

    Social communication deficits are prevalent amongst children with anxiety disorders; however whether they are over-represented specifically among children with Social Anxiety Disorder has not been examined. This study set out to examine social communication deficits among children with Social Anxiety Disorder in comparison to children with other forms of anxiety disorder. Parents of 404 children with a diagnosed anxiety disorder completed the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ; Rutter, M., Bailey, A., Lord, C., 2003. The Social Communication Questionnaire - Manual. Western Psychological Services, Los Angeles, CA). Children with a diagnosis of Social Anxiety Disorder (n=262) and anxious children without Social Anxiety Disorder (n=142) were compared on SCQ total and subscale scores and the frequency of participants scoring above clinical cut-offs. Children with Social Anxiety Disorder scored significantly higher than anxious children without Social Anxiety Disorder on the SCQ total (t(352)=4.85, p<.001, d=.55, r=.27), Reciprocal Social Interaction (t(351)=4.73, p<.001, d=.55, r=.27), communication (t(344)=3.62, p<.001, d=.43, r=.21) and repetitive, restrictive and stereotyped behaviors subscales (t(353)=3.15, p=.002, d=.37, r=.18). Furthermore, children with Social Anxiety Disorder were three times more likely to score above clinical cut-offs. The participants were a relatively affluent group of predominantly non-minority status. The social communication difficulties measure relied on parental report which could be influenced by extraneous factors. Treatments for Social Anxiety Disorder may benefit from a specific focus on developing social communication skills. Future research using objective assessments of underlying social communication skills is required. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Neurogenic inflammation in human and rodent skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmelz, M; Petersen, Lars Jelstrup

    2001-01-01

    The combination of vasodilation and protein extravasation following activation of nociceptors has been termed "neurogenic inflammation." In contrast to rodents, no neurogenic protein extravasation can be elicited in healthy human skin. Dermal microdialysis has considerably increased our knowledge...... about neurogenic inflammation in human skin, including the involvement of mast cells.......The combination of vasodilation and protein extravasation following activation of nociceptors has been termed "neurogenic inflammation." In contrast to rodents, no neurogenic protein extravasation can be elicited in healthy human skin. Dermal microdialysis has considerably increased our knowledge...

  19. Ageing with neurogenic bowel dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S D; Faaborg, Pia Møller; Finnerup, Nanna Brix

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study with postal survey was to describe changes in the patterns of neurogenic bowel dysfunction and bowel management in a population of people with spinal cord injury (SCI) followed for two decades. In 1996, a validated questionnaire on bowel function was sent to the...

  20. Prevalence of communication disorders in HIV-infected adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallail, K James; Downs, David; Scherz, Julie; Sweet, Donna; Zackula, Rosalee E

    2014-01-01

    Few adult patients with HIV/AIDS are evaluated for communication disorders. A broad inventory of the communication disorders was obtained in a convenience sample of 82 adult HIV/AIDS patients who presented for medical appointments. Each participant underwent a head and neck exam and a communications skills evaluation. Speech, language, and cognition were assessed using a 10-item test battery. A 14-item hearing test battery was conducted in a separate session. The primary outcomes were the presence and degree of communication disorders. Head and neck exams revealed 40% with ear-related issues. Only 2 participants showed normal findings on all 24 communication skills assessments. Four demonstrated normal findings on all speech-language-cognitive assessments, whereas 8 had normal findings on the complete hearing test battery. A relatively high prevalence of cognitive and language deficits and central auditory disturbances were found. Clinicians must recognize the potential for communication deficits even in a relatively healthy patient with HIV.

  1. Referential communication in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, Svenolof; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren

    2008-07-01

    Referential communication was studied in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) including children with autism and Asperger syndrome. The aim was to study alternative explanations for the children's communicative problems in such situations. Factors studied were theory of mind, IQ, verbal ability and memory. The main results demonstrated diminished performance in children with autism spectrum disorder, mirroring performance in everyday life, in comparison to verbal IQ and mental age matched typically developing children. Among children with autism spectrum disorders, there was a positive relationship between performance in referential communication and theory of mind. Memory capacity also proved to play a role in success in the task.

  2. Neurogenic stunned myocardium following hemorrhagic cerebral contusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deleu, D.; Miyares, F.; Kettern, M.; Kumar, S.; Hassens, Y.; Salim, K.

    2007-01-01

    Neurogenic stunned myocardium NSM is a well-known complication of subarachnoidal hemorrhage, but has been reported rarely in association with other central nervous system disorders. A case of NSM is described in a patient with hemorrhagic brain contusion associated with cerebral edema. An 18-year-old man was admitted with severe cranial trauma following a car roll-over. Six days after admission, he developed findings suggestive for NSM. The troponin T and creatine kinase-MB level were elevated and echocardiogram showed apical and inferoposterior hypokinesis and diffuse left ventricular akinesis with severely reduced ejection fraction 18%. Invasive measurements confirmed low cardiac output. His cardiac function resolved completely within 6 days after decompressive craniotomy. This case supports the presumed unifying role of the increased intracranial pressure, probably triggering a vigorous sympathetic outflow hyperactivity leading to NSM. (author)

  3. Referential Communication in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, Svenolof; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren

    2008-01-01

    Referential communication was studied in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) including children with autism and Asperger syndrome. The aim was to study alternative explanations for the children's communicative problems in such situations. Factors studied were theory of mind, IQ, verbal ability and memory. The main results demonstrated…

  4. Symbolic Communication Forms in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddock, Barbara A.; Armbrecht, Eric S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how early symbolic forms (and their associated communicative functions) are related to change in communication among a sample of 12 young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who produced two or fewer spoken words ("M" age = 28.75 months; 11 male, 1 female). Parents reported on children's…

  5. Dynamic Characters with Communication Disorders in Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotto, Carolyn D.; Ball, Angel L.

    2006-01-01

    Using quality children's literature with portrayals of characters that have communication impairments can be an effective teaching tool. Storybook characters with communication disorders can provide positive role models and promote understanding of diverse populations. Eighteen children's books were selected based on the following criteria:…

  6. Bibliometric profile of neurogenic bladder in the literature: a 20-year bibliometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenic bladder is a dysfunction of the lower urinary tract caused by nervous system disorder. We investigated the trends in publication of articles under the topic "neurogenic bladder" using bibliometric analysis. Articles on neurogenic bladder, published between 1995 and 2014, were retrieved from the ISI Web of Science citation database. We analyzed the search results for authors, countries, institutions, journals, and top-cited papers. A total of 1,904 articles were retrieved. There was a small increase in the number of articles on neurogenic bladder from 1995 (n = 43 to 2014 (n = 117. The USA was the leading country in the total number of articles (n = 598. However, the number of publications from China has rapidly increased, and China was ranked second in 2014. Emmanuel Chartier-Kastler (n = 65 was the most productive author, and University of Paris VI (Paris 6 (n = 61 was the most productive institution. The Journal of Urology published the greatest number of articles on this topic (n = 285. Articles on neurogenic bladder were often published in a professional journal under the category Urology & Nephrology, Neurosciences & Neurology, or Rehabilitation. Visualization analysis based on co-citation networks was conducted using CiteSpace III. Visualization analysis revealed that the hot spots in neurogenic bladder were botulinum toxin-A, prazosin, bethanechol, and afferent pathways. These findings provide new insight into the publication trends and hot spots in neurogenic bladder.

  7. Priorities for autism spectrum disorder risk communication and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudell, Michael; Tabor, Holly K; Dawson, Geraldine; Rossi, John; Newschaffer, Craig

    2013-11-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are an issue of increasing public health significance. The incidence of autism spectrum disorders has been increasing in recent years, and they are associated with significant personal and financial impacts for affected persons and their families. In recent years, a large number of scientific studies have been undertaken, which investigate genetic and environmental risk factors for autism, with more studies underway. At present, much remains unknown regarding autism spectrum disorder risk factors, but the emerging picture of causation is in many cases complex, with multiple genes and gene-environment interactions being at play. The complexity and uncertainty surrounding autism spectrum disorder risk factors raise a number of questions regarding the ethical considerations that should be taken into account when undertaking autism spectrum disorder risk communication. At present, however, little has been written regarding autism spectrum disorder risk communication and ethics. This article summarizes the findings of a recent conference investigating ethical considerations and policy recommendations in autism spectrum disorder risk communication, which to the authors' knowledge is the first of its kind. Here, the authors discuss a number of issues, including uncertainty; comprehension; inadvertent harm; justice; and the appropriate roles of clinicians, scientists, and the media in autism spectrum disorder risk communication.

  8. The treatment of erectile dysfunction in patients with neurogenic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shridharani, Anand N; Brant, William O

    2016-02-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) related to compromise of the nervous system is an increasingly common occurrence. This may be due to the multifactorial nature of ED, the myriad of disorders affecting the neurotransmission of erectogenic signals, and improved awareness and diagnosis of ED. Nevertheless, neurogenic ED remains poorly understood and characterized. Disease related factors such as depression, decreased physical and mental function, the burden of chronic illness, and loss of independence may preclude sexual intimacy and lead to ED as well. The amount of data regarding treatment options in subpopulations of differing neurologic disorders remains scarce except for men with spinal cord injury. The treatment options including phosphodiesterase inhibitors, intracavernosal or intraurethral vasoactive agents, vacuum erection devices (VED) and penile prosthetic implantation remain constant. This review discusses the options in specific neurologic conditions, and briefly provides insight into new and future developments that may reshape the management of neurogenic ED.

  9. Communication in autism spectrum disorder: a guide for pediatric nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amanda B; Elder, Jennifer H

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, one in every 68 children has autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014). ASD is a developmental disorder of the brain that is characterized by impairments in social interaction, communication, and repetitive patterns of behavior (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013). Nurses have a duty to provide high quality care to children with ASD. Effective communication is essential to providing quality care. Three main theories attempt to explain how the ASD brain functions and the implications on communication: lack of theory of mind, weak central coherence, and lack of executive function. Children with ASD have difficulties in vocalic, kinesthetic, and proxemic aspects of communication (Notbhom, 2006). Simple adaptations to environment and style can make the communication between nurses and children with ASD easier and more effective (Aylott, 2000; Green et al., 2010).

  10. Distributed communication: Implications of cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) for communication disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengst, Julie A

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes distributed communication as a promising theoretical framework for building supportive environments for child language development. Distributed communication is grounded in an emerging intersection of cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) and theories of communicative practices that argue for integrating accounts of language, cognition and culture. The article first defines and illustrates through selected research articles, three key principles of distributed communication: (a) language and all communicative resources are inextricably embedded in activity; (b) successful communication depends on common ground built up through short- and long-term histories of participation in activities; and (c) language cannot act alone, but is always orchestrated with other communicative resources. It then illustrates how these principles are fully integrated in everyday interactions by drawing from my research on Cindy Magic, a verbal make-believe game played by a father and his two daughters. Overall, the research presented here points to the remarkably complex communicative environments and sophisticated forms of distributed communication children routinely engage in as they interact with peer and adult communication partners in everyday settings. The article concludes by considering implications of these theories for, and examples of, distributed communication relevant to clinical intervention. Readers will learn about (1) distributed communication as a conceptual tool grounded in an emerging intersection of cultural-historical activity theory and theories of communicative practices and (2) how to apply distributed communication to the study of child language development and to interventions for children with communication disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Communication difficulties perceived by parents of children with developmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ingrid Ya I; Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux Miranda

    2014-01-01

    The child's inclusion in his/her social-cultural context is very important to his/her adaptation and well-being. The family has a major role as a facilitator of this process. Therefore the difficulties of these families in communicating with children with communication disorders are an important issue to be assessed in order to support orientations to families. The present study aimed to identify and compare communication difficulties perceived by parents of children with Down Syndrome (DS), Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Information was gathered with the use of a questionnaire with 24 questions regarding the perception of parents about their child communication disorders and the difficulties they identify. The questions were divided into four domains: 1 - Parents' personal difficulties; 2 - Parents' impression about themselves regarding their child; 3 - Parents' impressions about other persons' reactions to their child and 4 - Parents' impression about their child. Sixty parents were the subjects of this study: 20 had children with DS, 20 with SLI and 20 with ASD. All children had ages between 6 and 12 years. It was possible to observe that there was significant difference between the parents of ASD children with those of DS and SLI on the second, third and fourth domains. The questionnaire is effective to the identification of the communication disorders of ASD children based on their parents' reports but not to other developmental disorders.

  12. A Qualitative Study of Interference with Communicative Participation across Communication Disorders in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylor, Carolyn; Burns, Michael; Eadie, Tanya; Britton, Deanna; Yorkston, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the similarities and differences in self-reported restrictions in communicative participation across different communication disorders in community-dwelling adults. Method: Interviews were conducted with 44 adults representing 7 different medical conditions: spasmodic dysphonia, multiple sclerosis, stroke, stuttering,…

  13. Potential communicative acts in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddock, Barbara A; Pickett, Colleen; Ezzelgot, Jamie; Sheth, Shivani; Korte-Stroff, Emily; Loncke, Filip; Bock, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    To describe potential communicative acts in a sample of 17 children with autism spectrum disorders who produced few to no intelligible words (mean age = 32.82 months). Parents reported on children's potential communicative acts for 10 different communicative functions. A potential communicative act was defined as any behavior produced by an individual that may be interpreted by others to serve a communicative purpose. Significant associations were found between higher number of gesture types and increased scores on language comprehension, language expression, and non-verbal thinking measures. Relative to other types of potential communicative acts, parents reported that children used higher proportions of body movement. Number of body movement types was not related to child ability, while number of gesture types was related to receptive and expressive language. Findings underscore the link between language and gesture, and offer support for an ecological systems perspective of language learning.

  14. Subdimensions of social-communication impairment in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Somer L; Havdahl, Karoline Alexandra; Huerta, Marisela; Lord, Catherine

    2016-08-01

    More refined dimensions of social-communication impairment are needed to elucidate the clinical and biological boundaries of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and other childhood onset psychiatric disorders associated with social difficulties, as well as to facilitate investigations in treatment and long-term outcomes of these disorders. This study was intended to identify separable dimensions of clinician-observed social-communication impairments by examining scores on a widely used autism diagnostic instrument. Participants included verbally fluent children ages 3-13 years, who were given a clinical diagnosis of ASD (n = 120) or non-ASD (i.e. ADHD, language disorder, intellectual disability, mood or anxiety disorder; n = 118) following a comprehensive diagnostic assessment. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis examined the factor structure of algorithm items from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), Module 3. Results indicated that a three-factor model consisting of repetitive behaviors and two separate social-communication behavior factors had superior fit compared to a two-factor model that included repetitive behaviors and one social-communication behavior factor. In the three-factor model, impairments in 'Basic Social-Communication' behaviors (e.g. eye contact, facial expressions, gestures) were separated from impairments in 'Interaction quality.' Confirmatory factor analysis in an independent sample of children in the Simons Simplex Collection (SSC) further supported the division of social-communication impairments into these two factors. Scores in Interaction Quality were significantly associated with nonverbal IQ and male sex in the ASD group, and with age in the non-ASD group, while scores in basic social communication were not significantly associated with any of these child characteristics in either diagnostic group. Efforts to conceptualize level, or severity, of social-communication impairment in children with

  15. Integration and Mainstreaming of Communicatively Disordered Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Janet B.; Bozeman, Rhoushelle

    The paper presents an overview of the factors involved in providing successful mainstreaming experiences to severely language disordered (SLD) children. Among aspects considered are individualization, behavior management procedures, independent problem solving and decision making, group test taking skills and experiences, social emotional growth,…

  16. Florida Journal of Communication Disorders, 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhans, Joseph J., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This annual volume is a compilation of professional articles and proceedings from a conference addressing timely issues in speech-language pathology and audiology. Featured articles include: (1) "Glottal Airflow: Instrumentation and Interpretation" (Christine M. Sapienza); (2) "Clinical Implications of Motor Speech Disorders in…

  17. 76 FR 12744 - National Institute On Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis Panel; Clinical Trials-- Communications. Date..., [email protected] . Name of Committee: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders...

  18. Social Communication Questionnaire scoring procedures for autism spectrum disorder and the prevalence of potential social communication disorder in ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Richman, David M; Chesnut, Steven Randall; Little, Todd D

    2016-12-01

    In analyzing data from the National Database for Autism Research, we utilized Mokken scaling techniques as a means of creating a more effective and efficient screening procedure for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) via the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ). With a sample of 1,040, approximately 80% (n = 827) of the sample were males while approximately 20% (n = 213) were females. In regard to ethnicity, approximately 68% of the sample were White/Caucasian, while 7% were African American, 16% were Hispanic, 4% were Asian, and 1% were Native American or American Indian. As the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) states that, "individuals with a well-established DSM-IV diagnosis of autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder, or pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified should be given the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder," (American Psychiatric Association, 2013, p. 51), the primary labeling difference between the DSM-IV and the DSM-5 would appear to be in identifying social communication disorder as a newly introduced disorder in the DSM-5, which we discuss. Though school psychologists are not dependent on the DSM to the same extent as clinical psychologists to provide services, school psychology is invested in the effective and efficient assessment of ASD. The current study demonstrates how Mokken scaling procedures may be utilized with respect to ASD identification via the SCQ as well as providing information regarding the prevalence of potential social communication disorder as a new disorder and its discrimination with ASD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Metapragmatic Explicitation and Social Attribution in Social Communication Disorder and Developmental Language Disorder: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine; Lockton, Elaine; Collins, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study are to investigate metapragmatic (MP) ability in 6-11-year-old children with social communication disorder (SCD), developmental language disorder (DLD), and typical language development and to explore factors associated with MP explicitation and social understanding (SU). Method: In this cross-sectional study,…

  20. Improving Empathic Communication Skills in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koegel, Lynn Kern; Ashbaugh, Kristen; Navab, Anahita; Koegel, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    The literature suggests that many individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) experience challenges with recognizing and describing emotions in others, which may result in difficulties with the verbal expression of empathy during communication. Thus, there is a need for intervention techniques targeting this area. Using a multiple…

  1. Specific Syndromes and Associated Communication Disorders: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Dixie D.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The review, intended to provide speech-language pathologists and special educators with an awareness of genetics and specific syndromes involving speech, language, and hearing components, discusses basic etiologies of abnormal development and selected syndromes (such as Down's and Klinefelter's) that include communication disorders. (CL)

  2. Analysis of Compositional Data in Communication Disorders Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Lindsay; James, Peter; McNally, Richard; Pay, Helen; McConachie, Helen

    2009-01-01

    The study of communication and its disorders often involves coding several behaviors and examining the proportions with which individual behaviors are produced within data sets. Problems are encountered when studying multiple behaviors between data sets, because of the interdependence of the proportions: as one coded behavior increases, at least…

  3. Qualitative Research Interviews of Children with Communication Disorders: Methodological Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoin, D.; Scelles, R.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the qualitative research interview, an essential tool frequently used in the human and social sciences, conducted with children having communication disorders. Two distinct populations are addressed--children with intellectual disability and deaf children without related disabilities--with the aim of identifying the main…

  4. Author Impact Metrics in Communication Sciences and Disorder Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Andrew; Faucette, Sarah P.; Thomas, William Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to examine author-level impact metrics for faculty in the communication sciences and disorder research field across a variety of databases. Method: Author-level impact metrics were collected for faculty from 257 accredited universities in the United States and Canada. Three databases (i.e., Google Scholar, ResearchGate,…

  5. Fundamental Approaches in Molecular Biology for Communication Sciences and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Rebecca S.; Jette, Marie E.; King, Suzanne N.; Schaser, Allison; Thibeault, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This contemporary tutorial will introduce general principles of molecular biology, common deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA), and protein assays and their relevance in the field of communication sciences and disorders. Method: Over the past 2 decades, knowledge of the molecular pathophysiology of human disease has…

  6. Social Communication Questionnaire Scoring Procedures for Autism Spectrum Disorder and the Prevalence of Potential Social Communication Disorder in ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Richman, David M.; Chesnut, Steven Randall; Little, Todd D.

    2016-01-01

    In analyzing data from the National Database for Autism Research, we utilized Mokken scaling techniques as a means of creating a more effective and efficient screening procedure for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) via the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ). With a sample of 1,040, approximately 80% (n = 827) of the sample were males while…

  7. Communication of genetic information to families with inherited rhythm disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Charlotte; James, Cynthia; Ingles, Jodie

    2017-11-23

    Given the dynamic nature of the electrical activity of the heart and ongoing challenges in the diagnostics of inherited heart rhythm disorders, genetic information can be a vital aspect of family management. Communication of genetic information is complex, and the responsibility to convey this information to the family lies with the proband. Current practice falls short, requiring additional support from the clinician and multidisciplinary team. Communication is a 2-part iterative process, reliant on both the understanding of the probands and their ability to effectively communicate with relatives. With the surge of high-throughput genetic testing, results generated are increasingly complex, making the task of communication more challenging. Here we discuss 3 key issues. First, the probabilistic nature of genetic test results means uncertainty is inherent to the practice. Second, secondary findings may arise. Third, personal preferences, values, and family dynamics also come into play and must be acknowledged when considering how best to support effective communication. Here we provide insight into the challenges and provide practical advice for clinicians to support effective family communication. These strategies include acknowledging and managing genetic uncertainty, genetic counseling and informed consent, and consideration of personal and familial barriers to effective communication. We will explore the potential for developing resources to assist clinicians in providing patients with sufficient knowledge and support to communicate complex information to their at-risk relatives. Specialized multidisciplinary clinics remain the best equipped to manage patients and families with inherited heart rhythm disorders given the need for a high level of information and support. Copyright © 2017 Heart Rhythm Society. All rights reserved.

  8. 75 FR 10294 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... ON DEAFNESS AND OTHER COMMUNICATION DISORDERS, including consideration of personnel qualifications and performance, and the competence of individual investigators, the disclosure of which would... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal...

  9. Disorders of consciousness and communication. Ethical motivations and communication-enabling attributes of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburrini, Guglielmo; Mattia, Donatella

    2011-01-01

    Envisaged extensions of a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique allowing communication with patients affected by disorders of consciousness are here examined in connection with subjective symptom reporting, informed consent, and continued medical care decision-making. The principles of medical beneficence, personal autonomy protection, and the right to participate in social life are isolated as appropriate sources of ethical motivations for the use of fMRI-enabled communication. Consciousness requirements for each communication context are identified on the basis of qualitative distinctions between the access, phenomenal, and narrative varieties of consciousness. Ethically motivated uses of fMRI-enabled communication are hierarchically organized in terms of progressively more demanding consciousness requirements for successful communication. The outcomes of this analysis can be used to curb unrealistic expectations of these new scientific developments, and to promote mutual trust between medical doctors, patient surrogates and families.

  10. Communication Disorders and Challenging Behaviors: Supporting Children's Functional Communication Goals in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Katy

    2017-01-01

    Children with communication disorders may express frustrations through challenging behaviors such as aggressive behaviors and social withdrawal. Challenging behaviors may lead to difficulties with building social competencies including emotional regulation and peer engagement. Individualized planning of functional goals for children with…

  11. 76 FR 9031 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis Panel; Autism Supplements. Date: March 24, 2011. Time: 12... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis Panel; CDRC Member Conflicts Review. Date...

  12. 77 FR 47859 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Advisory Council. The meeting will be open to the public as... privacy. Name of Committee: National Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Advisory Council. Date...

  13. 75 FR 17150 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Advisory Council. The meeting will be open to the public as... privacy. Name of Committee: National Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Advisory Council. Date...

  14. 76 FR 62423 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, Special Emphasis Panel, Clinical Trials. Date: October 24, 2011....nih.gov . Name of Committee: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, Special...

  15. 75 FR 18512 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis Panel, LRP's. Date: May 3, 2010. Time: 1 p.m... Committee: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis Panel, Meniere...

  16. 75 FR 54892 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis Panel; P30 Review. Date: October 1, 2010. Time... Sullivan, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Deafness and Other Communication Disorders...

  17. 76 FR 3918 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis Panel; P30 Review. Date: February 3, 2011. Time....gov . Name of Committee: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Special...

  18. 76 FR 49492 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Advisory Council. The meeting will be open to the public as... privacy. Name of Committee: National Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Advisory Council. Date...

  19. 77 FR 2077 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis Panel; Translating Basic Research Review. Date... cycle. Name of Committee: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special...

  20. 75 FR 3474 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis Panel; CDRC Member Conflicts. Date: February 17....nih.gov . Name of Committee: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special...

  1. 78 FR 1217 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis Panel Chemosensory P50 Review. Date: January [email protected] . Name of Committee: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders...

  2. 78 FR 20932 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Advisory Council. The meeting will be open to the public as... privacy. Name of Committee: National Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Advisory Council. Date...

  3. 78 FR 56902 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis Panel; Vestibular Clinical Trial Review. Date..., Bethesda, MD 20892, (301) 496-8683, [email protected] . Name of Committee: Communication Disorders...

  4. 76 FR 58023 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, including consideration of personnel qualifications..., National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, 5 Research Court, Room 1A13, Rockville...

  5. 77 FR 11562 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis Panel P30 Review Date: March 28, 2012. Time: 12... Related to Deafness and Communicative Disorders, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: February 21...

  6. 75 FR 62546 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, Special Emphasis Panel, CDRC Conflicts. Date: October 26, 2010....173, Biological Research Related to Deafness and Communicative Disorders, National Institutes of...

  7. 77 FR 28611 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Communication Disorders..., [email protected] . Name of Committee: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders...

  8. 77 FR 59405 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis Panel; Hearing--Clinical Trials & Translational... Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis Panel; Vestibular--Clinical Trials. Date: October 23...

  9. 76 FR 80375 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Advisory Council. The meeting will be open to the public as... privacy. Name of Committee: National Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Advisory Council. Date...

  10. 75 FR 80509 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Advisory Council. The meeting will be open to the public as... privacy. Name of Committee: National Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Advisory Council. Date...

  11. 77 FR 23489 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Advisory Council. The meeting will be open to the public as... invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Deafness and Other Communication Disorders...

  12. 77 FR 8888 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis Panel, Clinical Trial Review. Date: February 21.... 93.173, Biological Research Related to Deafness and Communicative Disorders, National Institutes of...

  13. 77 FR 28611 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis Panel; P50 Review. Date: June 1, 2012. Time: 11....173, Biological Research Related to Deafness and Communicative Disorders, National Institutes of...

  14. 78 FR 6333 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis Panel; VSL Fellowships. Date: February 21, 2013... Committee: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis Panel; Training...

  15. 75 FR 21643 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis Panel; P30 Core Research Center Review. Date... Communication Disorders, 6120 Executive Blvd., Ste. 400C, Rockville, MD 20852, 301-496-8683, [email protected

  16. 75 FR 157 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis Panel, Chemosensory Clinical Research Center..., Biological Research Related to Deafness and Communicative Disorders, National Institutes of Health, HHS...

  17. 75 FR 49501 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Advisory Council. The meeting will be open to the public as... privacy. Name of Committee: National Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Advisory Council. Date...

  18. 78 FR 54477 - National Institute On Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis Panel; NIDCD T32 Application Review... Program Nos. 93.173, Biological Research Related to Deafness and Communicative Disorders, National...

  19. 77 FR 64525 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Special Emphasis Panel; VSL Fellowships. Date: November 1, 2012..., Biological Research Related to Deafness and Communicative Disorders, National Institutes of Health, HHS...

  20. 76 FR 30179 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis Panel, R03-VSL. Date: June 1, 2011. Time: 11 a... Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis Panel, R03- Chemical Senses. Date...

  1. 76 FR 65738 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis Panel, CDRC Conflicts. Date: November 8, 2011....nih.gov . Name of Committee: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special...

  2. 77 FR 73474 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Advisory Council. The meeting will be open to the public as... privacy. Name of Committee: National Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Advisory Council. Date...

  3. 78 FR 28236 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis Panel, CS Translational. Date: June 4, [email protected] . Name of Committee: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders...

  4. 77 FR 35990 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis Panel; Investigator Initiated R01 Review. Date... Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis Panel; Clinical Trial Review. Date...

  5. 78 FR 46995 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Advisory Council. The meeting will be open to the public as... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Advisory Council...

  6. 76 FR 21385 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Advisory Council. The meeting will be open to the public as... privacy. Name of Committee: National Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Advisory Council. Date...

  7. 76 FR 30179 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Communication Disorders... Communicative Disorders, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: May 18, 2011. Jennifer S. Spaeth, Director...

  8. The human right to communicate and our need to listen: Learning from people with a history of childhood communication disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Jane; Baker, Elise; Crowe, Kathryn

    2018-02-01

    In 2013, the Australian Government Senate formed a committee for inquiry and report into the prevalence of speech, language, and communication disorders and speech pathology services in Australia. Submissions were sought from individuals and organisations. In this paper, submissions made by individuals with a history of childhood communication disorder were examined to explore their life experiences and the impact on their lives when the right to communicate could not be enacted. There were 305 submissions to the Australian Government Senate Committee Inquiry, of which 288 were publically accessible. In this study, the submissions (n = 17) from children or adults with a history of communication disorder (including speech, language and stuttering), who provided personal accounts of their experiences, were analysed using an interpretative phenomenological approach. Four themes emerged relating to: personal identity, life with communication disorder, the importance of help, and how life would be different without a communication disorder. This paper gives voice to children and adults with communication disorder. In listening to these voices, the impact of communication disorder on the right to communicate and on other human rights can be heard, and the need for a response is clear. However, the challenge is to determine how the voices of these individuals, and others like them, can be enabled to exert real influence on practice and policy so communication disorder will no longer be a barrier to attainment of their human rights.

  9. Applying principles of intercultural communication to personality disorder therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leising, Daniel

    2008-09-01

    Psychotherapy with patients who were diagnosed with a personality disorder bears a strong resemblance to intercultural communication. I suggest conceptualizing the situation of a patient with a personality disorder as being similar to that of an overseas traveller. Like the traveller, the patient faces the task of getting along in a social environment that does not share many of his or her ingrained values regarding 'appropriate' interpersonal behaviour. In order to reduce the potential for misunderstandings and interpersonal problems, the patient would benefit from (a) learning about the culturally accepted rules of interacting and (b) partly adopting those rules. Borrowing from training manuals for intercultural communication, I suggest a number of therapeutic principles that specifically address the discrepancies between the patient's habits and internalized values, and the cultural conventions that govern the social environment in which the patient lives.

  10. Exosomes as novel regulators of adult neurogenic niches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Federico Batiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis has been convincingly demonstrated in two regions of the mammalian brain: the sub-granular zone (SGZ of the dentate gyrus (DG in the hippocampus, and the sub-ventricular zone (SVZ of the lateral ventricles. SGZ newborn neurons are destined to the granular cell layer of the DG, while new neurons from the SVZ neurons migrate rostrally into the olfactory bulb. The process of adult neurogenesis persists throughout life and is supported by a pool of neural stem cells (NSCs, which reside in a unique and specialized microenvironment known as neurogenic niche. Neurogenic niches are structured by a complex organization of different cell types, including the NSC-neuron lineage, glial cells and vascular cells. Thus, cell-to-cell communication plays a key role in the dynamic modulation of homeostasis and plasticity of the adult neurogenic process. Specific cell-cell contacts and extracellular signals originated locally provide the necessary support and regulate the balance between self-renewal and differentiation of NSCs. Furthermore, extracellular signals originated at distant locations, including other brain regions or systemic organs, may reach the niche through the cerebrospinal fluid or the vasculature and influence its nature. The role of several secreted molecules, such as cytokines, growth factors, neurotransmitters, and hormones, in the biology of adult NSCs, has been systematically addressed. Interestingly, in addition to these well-recognized signals, a novel type of intercellular messengers has been identified recently: the extracellular vesicles (EVs. EVs, and particularly exosomes, are implicated in the transfer of mRNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs, proteins and lipids between cells and thus are able to modify the function of recipient cells. Exosomes appear to play a significant role in different stem cell niches such as the mesenchymal stem cell niche, cancer stem cell niche and pre-metastatic niche; however, their roles in adult

  11. Neurogenic Bladder in Lyme Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-hwa Kim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lyme disease is a multi-systemic, tick-borne infectious disease caused by a spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. Various urologic symptoms are associated with Lyme disease, which can be primary or late manifestations of the disease. Although voiding dysfunction is a rarely reported symptom in patients with Lyme disease, it is one of the most disabling complications of Lyme disease. Korea is not an endemic area of Lyme disease, thus, fewer cases have been reported. Herein, we report a case of a 32-year-old man with rapidly progressive bilateral ptosis, dysphagia, spastic paraparesis, and voiding difficulty in whom Lyme disease was diagnosed through serologic tests for antibodies and Western blot testing. A urodynamic study demonstrated detrusor areflexia and bulbocavernosus reflex tests showed delayed latency, indicating demyelination at S2-S4 levels. He received a 4-week course of intravenous ceftriaxone (2 g/day. The patient has recovered from the bilateral ptosis and spastic paraparesis but still suffers from neurogenic bladder.

  12. Validity of the Communication Function Classification System for use with preschool children with communication disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidecker, Mary Jo Cooley; Cunningham, Barbara Jane; Thomas-Stonell, Nancy; Oddson, Bruce; Rosenbaum, Peter

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate construct and predictive validity of the Communication Function Classification System (CFCS) for use with preschool children with a range of speech and language disorders. Seventy-seven preschool children with speech and language disorders (50 males, 27 females; mean 2y 7mo, standard deviation [SD] 1y) participated in this cohort study. Preschool children had speech and language, language-only, or speech-only disorders. Together with parent input, speech-language pathologists (SLPs) completed the CFCS at time 1. Parents and SLPs then independently completed a validated change-detecting functional communication outcome measure, the Focus on the outcomes of Communication Under Six (FOCUS), three times: at assessment (time 1), at the start of treatment (time 2), and at the end of treatment (time 3). There was a significant negative correlation between CFCS classifications and FOCUS scores at all three measurement points for the ratings by both parents and SLPs (correlations ranged from -0.60 to -0.76). As expected, no correlations between CFCS classifications and FOCUS change scores were statistically significant. This study provides evidence of construct and predictive validity of the CFCS, demonstrating its value as a discriminative tool for use with preschool children with a range of speech and language disorders. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  13. Two cases of neurogenic paralysis in medieval skeletal samples from Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Mario; Čavka, Mislav; Šlaus, Mario

    2014-12-01

    Osteological changes consistent with neurogenic paralysis were observed in one male and one female skeleton recovered from two Croatian medieval sites - Virje and Zadar. Both skeletons display limb asymmetry typical of neurogenic paralysis that occurs during the childhood. The male skeleton displays atrophy and shortening of the right arm and the right femur, while the female skeleton exhibits identical changes on the right arm and both legs. Additionally, both skeletons exhibit scoliotic changes of the spine, and the female skeleton also displays bilateral hip dysplasia. Differential diagnosis included disorders such as cerebral palsy, poliomyelitis, cerebrovascular accident, and Rasmussen's encephalitis. These are the first cases of neurogenic paralysis (cerebral palsy and/or paralytic poliomyelitis) identified in Croatian archeological series. The Virje skeleton is only the third case of hemiplegia identified from archeological contexts (first with spinal scoliosis), while the Zadar skeleton represents the first case of triplegia reported in the paleopathological literature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Communicative and social behavior of speech disordered children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiberger, W; Hügel, H

    1978-07-01

    The spheres covering behaviour disorders, social behaviour and communicative behaviour of speech impaired pupils which until now have been analyzed on a more theoretical level, ought to be studied using psychometric testing procedures and an esperimental observational situation in order to gain base data with which to set up a concrete catalogue of aims (learning program) based on the deficits thereby obtained. The study took place at the special school in Esslinger-Berkheim (Baden-Wurttemberg). By taking into account relevant specialized literature and the results of other studies, the following general hypotheses were advanced, namely, that the communication of speech handicapped children is troubled in respect of its content and relation, and that their social behaviour shows more egoistic than cooperative features. In order to determine social motivations and attitudes, we used Muller's "Social Motivation Test" (SMT) and Jorger's "Group test for the social attitude" (S-E-T). Due to the inconsistency between the attitudes measured by means of psychometric methods and the sbusequent free and genuine behaviour, an observational situation was developed during which the pupils, either in pairs or in groups of four and using puppets, took turns in thinking up a story, discussing the plot, roles, etc. and finally putting on the play. The whole was then analyzed by means of tape recordings and film shots, the interaction of the communicating partners being analyzed and categorized in two separate assessment stages: communicative behaviour and social behaviour. The pragmatic axioms of P. Watzlawick, the communication researcher, functioned as theoretical background. Flanders's linear time diagram was used as assessment system. Communicative and social learning aims were prepared in accordance with confirming hypotheses to enable a "preliminary area" for the practical work in (special) education to be defined. In addition, a rough outline was made of the conditional

  15. Neurogenic Pulmonary Edema (A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Gümüş

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenic pulmonary edema is a life threatening complication of severe central nervous system injury. The most common cause of neurogenic pulmonary edema is subarachnoid hemorrhage followed by head trauma and epilepsy. The rare causes are cervical spine trauma, multiplesclerosis, cerebellar hemorrhage and intracranial tumors. Neurogenic pulmonary edema is characterized by an increase in extravascular lung water in patients who have sustained a sudden change in neurologic condition. The exact pathophysiology is unclear but it probably involves an adrenergic response to the central nervous system injury which leads to increased catecholamine, pulmonary hydrostatic pressure and increased lung capillary permeability. The presenting symptoms are nonspecific and often include dyspnea, tachypnea, tachycardia, hypoxemia, pinkfroty secretion, bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and crackles. These symptoms start within minutes or hours and resolves 48-72 hours that typically for neurogenic pulmonary edema. Basic principles of treatment, surgical decompression, reduce intracranial pressure, controlled ventilation with suplemental oxygen, positive end expiratory pressure and diuresis. We report a case with neurogenic pulmonary edema that occured after head trauma. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2012; 10: 59-62

  16. The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS): A Promising Method for Improving Communication Skills of Learners with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Jennifer B.; Simpson, Richard L.; Lund, Emily M.

    2012-01-01

    Children and youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and other developmental delays frequently experience deficits in functional communication. Identifying and using suitable communication enhancement and augmentative and alternative communication supports is essential to achievement of positive outcomes for these learners. This article…

  17. Improving Empathic Communication Skills in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern Koegel, Lynn; Ashbaugh, Kristen; Navab, Anahita; Koegel, Robert L

    2016-03-01

    The literature suggests that many individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) experience challenges with recognizing and describing emotions in others, which may result in difficulties with the verbal expression of empathy during communication. Thus, there is a need for intervention techniques targeting this area. Using a multiple baseline across participants design, this study examined the effectiveness of a video-feedback intervention with a visual framework component to improve verbal empathetic statements and questions during conversation for adults with ASD. Following intervention, all participants improved in verbal expression of empathetic statements and empathetic questions during conversation with generalization and maintenance of gains. Furthermore, supplemental assessments indicated that each participant improved in their general level of empathy and confidence in communication skills.

  18. Measuring Social Communication Behaviors as a Treatment Endpoint in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostou, Evdokia; Jones, Nancy; Huerta, Marisela; Halladay, Alycia K.; Wang, Paul; Scahill, Lawrence; Horrigan, Joseph P.; Kasari, Connie; Lord, Cathy; Choi, Dennis; Sullivan, Katherine; Dawson, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    Social communication impairments are a core deficit in autism spectrum disorder. Social communication deficit is also an early indicator of autism spectrum disorder and a factor in long-term outcomes. Thus, this symptom domain represents a critical treatment target. Identifying reliable and valid outcome measures for social communication across a…

  19. Autism, Language Disorder, and Social (Pragmatic) Communication Disorder: DSM-V and Differential Diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Mark D; Jin, Xing Ming

    2015-08-01

    • Based on strong research evidence (1), the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has increased over the past decade, with a 2010 prevalence of 1:68 (1.5%) in children age 8 years. • Based on some research evidence as well as consensus (3), the most recent revision of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-V) identifies two core dimensions for the diagnosis of ASD: social (social communication and social interaction) and nonsocial (restricted, repetitive patterns of behaviors, interests, or activities). • Based on some research evidence as well as consensus (3) (31) (32) (33) (34), DSM-V identifies social pragmatic communication disorder (SPCD) as a dissociable dimension of language and communication ability that affects how individuals use language for social exchanges. SPCD is often found in children with language impairments and children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and other genetic/neurologic conditions. • Based on strong research evidence (2) (26) (27) (28), childhood language disorders affect 7.4% of kindergarteners, and 50% to 80% of these children experience persistent language, academic, and social-emotional difficulties into their adult years, despite having normal nonverbal cognitive abilities. • Based primarily on consensus due to lack of relevant clinical studies, differential diagnosis of autism and language disorders may require a multidisciplinary evaluation that takes into account a child’s overall development, including cognitive, communication, and social abilities. Monitoring the response to appropriate interventions and trajectory of development over time may improve the accuracy of diagnosis, especially in very young children.

  20. Effects of a Classroom-Based Pre-Literacy Intervention for Preschoolers with Communication Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Alyssa R.

    2013-01-01

    Children with communication disorders are often at risk of literacy difficulties, especially students that present with autism and/or speech sound disorders. This quasi-experimental study was designed to examine the effects of a 10-week "hybrid" intervention for preschool students with and without communication disorders in an integrated…

  1. 76 FR 14674 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis Panel; Review of Research Career Enhancement... Disorders, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: March 11, 2011. Jennifer S. Spaeth, Director, Office...

  2. 78 FR 1865 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Communication Disorders... Disorders, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: January 3, 2013. Anna Snouffer, Deputy Director...

  3. Neurogenic Stuttering and Lateralized Motor Deficits Induced by Tranylcypromine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Duffy

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of neurogenic stuttering induced by the monoamine oxidase inhibitor tranylcypromine is described. The association of neurogenic stuttering with acquired lateralized motor deficits in the patient described is discussed with reference to current theories regarding the pathogenesis of neurogenic stuttering.

  4. Analysis of Hair Trace Elements in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Communication Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalny, Anatoly V; Simashkova, Natalia V; Klyushnik, Tatiana P; Grabeklis, Andrei R; Radysh, Ivan V; Skalnaya, Margarita G; Tinkov, Alexey A

    2017-06-01

    The primary objective of the present study is analysis of hair trace elements content in children with communication disorder (CD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A total of 99 children from control, CD, and ASD groups (n = 33) were examined. All children were additionally divided into two subgroups according to age. Hair levels of trace elements were assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The difference was considered significant at p elements including the toxic ones, it can be proposed that children suffering from ASD are characterized by more profound alteration of metal handling and excretion in comparison to CD.

  5. 78 FR 57167 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Deafness and Other Communication [[Page 57168

  6. Pathogenetic Mechanisms of Neurogenic Pulmonary Edema

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šedý, Jiří; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Zicha, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 15 (2015), s. 1135-1145 ISSN 0897-7151 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/0259 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : baroreflex-induced bradycardia * blood pressure rise * blood volume redistribution * neurogenic pulmonary edema * spinal cord injury * sympathetic nervous system Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.377, year: 2015

  7. What determines neurogenic competence in glia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Marcos Romualdo; Götz, Magdalena; Berninger, Benedikt

    2010-05-01

    One of the most intriguing discoveries during the last decade of developmental neurobiology is the fact that both in the developing and adult nervous system neural stem cells often turn out to have a glial identity: Radial glia generates neurons in the developing telencephalon of fish, birds and mammals and astro/radial glial stem cells in specialized neurogenic zones give rise to new neurons throughout life. What are the extrinsic signals acting on and the intrinsic signals acting within these glial populations endowing these with a neurogenic potential, whilst most other glia seemingly lack it? Studies on postnatal astroglia shed interesting light on this question as they are the intermediate between neurogenic radial glia and mature parenchymal astrocytes. At least in vitro their decision to acquire a glial fate is not yet irrevocable as forced expression of a single neurogenic transcription factor enables them to transgress their lineage and to give rise to fully functional neurons acquiring specific subtype characteristics. But even bona fide non-neurogenic glia in the adult nervous system can regain some of their radial glial heritage following injury as exemplified by reactive astroglia in the cerebral cortex and Müller glia in the retina. In this review first we will follow the direction of the physiological times' arrow, along which radial glia become transformed on one side into mature astrocytes gradually losing their neurogenic potential, while some of them seem to escape this dire destiny to settle in the few neurogenic oases of the adult brain where they generate neurons and glia throughout life. But we will also see how pathophysiological conditions partially can reverse the arrow of time reactivating the parenchymal astroglia to re-acquire some of the hallmarks of neural stem cells or progenitors. We will close this review with some thoughts on the surprising compatibility of the co-existence of a neural stem cell and glial identity within the very

  8. Behaviour and communication analysis using ABA methodology principles for twins with autistic spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Berlot, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Autistic disorders are categorized as neurodevelopmental disorders and are considered incurable. People with autistic disorders have issues on various fields of operation – one of those is also the occurrence of inappropriate behavioral patterns and the ability to communicate with the environment. Especially the occurrence of inappropriate behavioral patterns and the inability to communicate with the environment have a strong impact on the inclusion of people with autistic disorders in differ...

  9. Alternative Speech Communication System for Persons with Severe Speech Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selouani, Sid-Ahmed; Sidi Yakoub, Mohammed; O'Shaughnessy, Douglas

    2009-12-01

    Assistive speech-enabled systems are proposed to help both French and English speaking persons with various speech disorders. The proposed assistive systems use automatic speech recognition (ASR) and speech synthesis in order to enhance the quality of communication. These systems aim at improving the intelligibility of pathologic speech making it as natural as possible and close to the original voice of the speaker. The resynthesized utterances use new basic units, a new concatenating algorithm and a grafting technique to correct the poorly pronounced phonemes. The ASR responses are uttered by the new speech synthesis system in order to convey an intelligible message to listeners. Experiments involving four American speakers with severe dysarthria and two Acadian French speakers with sound substitution disorders (SSDs) are carried out to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed methods. An improvement of the Perceptual Evaluation of the Speech Quality (PESQ) value of 5% and more than 20% is achieved by the speech synthesis systems that deal with SSD and dysarthria, respectively.

  10. 77 FR 8887 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis Panel; Outcome of Cochlear Implants... Call). Contact Person: Shiguang Yang, DVM, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Division of Extramural...

  11. 78 FR 66946 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as patentable material, and personal... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis Panel; Hearing Clinical Trial Review. Date...

  12. 77 FR 50705 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as patentable material, and personal... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis Panel, NIDCD P30 Review Meeting. Date...

  13. 75 FR 51279 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as patentable material, and personal... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis Panel, R24 RFA. Date: September 16, 2010. Time...

  14. 78 FR 73552 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Advisory Council. The meeting will be open to the public as.... The grant applications and the discussions could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial...

  15. 75 FR 33817 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as patentable material, and personal... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis Panel, Translational PAR. Date: July 8, 2010...

  16. 75 FR 33818 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as patentable material, and personal... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis Panel; VSL--SEP Review. Date: June 14, 2010...

  17. 77 FR 5036 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as patentable material, and personal... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis Panel; Affordable Hearing. Date: February 14...

  18. 77 FR 5032 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as patentable material, and personal... constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Communication Disorders...

  19. 78 FR 55267 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis Panel. Date: September 30, 2013. Time: 2:00 p.m...

  20. 78 FR 10621 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis Panel; NIDCD Vestibular Prosthesis Research...

  1. 78 FR 75929 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis Panel; NIDCD R21 Translational...

  2. 78 FR 23943 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis Panel; NIDCD SBIR and STTR Application Review...

  3. 75 FR 30408 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis Panel; P50 Clinical Research Center. Date: June...

  4. 78 FR 64224 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis...

  5. 78 FR 64229 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis...

  6. 76 FR 49493 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis Panel; P50 Review. Date: September...

  7. 78 FR 63994 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis...

  8. 75 FR 10296 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis Panel, Post Doctoral Fellowships SEP. Date...

  9. 76 FR 58024 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis Panel; R21/R33. Date: October 18, 2011. Time...

  10. 75 FR 77888 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis Panel; Accessible and Affordable Hearing Health...

  11. 78 FR 38066 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis Panel; NIDCD P50 Review Meeting. Date: July 17...

  12. 78 FR 64226 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the Communication Disorders Review Committee, October 03, 2013, 08:00 a.m. to October...

  13. 77 FR 57570 - National Institute On Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute On Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Communication Disorders...

  14. 78 FR 1863 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis Panel, Chemosensory Fellowships Review Meeting...

  15. 75 FR 72833 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Special Emphasis Panel. Clinical Research Center on Auditory...

  16. 78 FR 42529 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis Panel; R01--Vestibular Neural Prosthesis Review...

  17. 76 FR 35222 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis Panel, R24--NIDCD Community-Wide Scientific...

  18. 78 FR 63994 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis...

  19. 76 FR 51378 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Special Emphasis Panel, P50 Review. Date: September 27, 2011...

  20. 76 FR 21385 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, Special Emphasis Panel, R21/R33. Date: May 12, 2011. Time: 11...

  1. A Meta-Analysis of the Social Communication Questionnaire: Screening for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnut, Steven R.; Wei, Tianlan; Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Richman, David M.

    2017-01-01

    The current meta-analysis examines the previous research on the utility of the Social Communication Questionnaire as a screening instrument for autism spectrum disorder. Previously published reports have highlighted the inconsistencies between Social Communication Questionnaire-screening results and formal autism spectrum disorder diagnoses. The…

  2. Developmental and Communication Disorders in Children with Intellectual Disability: The Place Early Intervention for Effective Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Udeme Samuel; Olisaemeka, Angela Nneka; Edozie, Isioma Sitamalife

    2015-01-01

    The paper attempts to discuss the place of intervention in the developmental and communication disorders of children with intellectual disability for the purpose of providing effective inclusion programme. The definition of early intervention was stated, areas affected by children communication disorder such as language comprehension, fluency,…

  3. Do Developmental Communication Disorders Exist in the Signed Modality? Perspectives from Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinto-Pozos, David; Forber-Pratt, Anjali J.; Singleton, Jenny L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study focused on whether developmental communication disorders exist in American Sign Language (ASL) and how they might be characterized. ASL studies is an emerging field; educators and clinicians have minimal access to descriptions of communication disorders of the signed modality. Additionally, there are limited resources for…

  4. Redefining the survival of the fittest: communication disorders in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruben, R J

    2000-02-01

    To determine the economic effect on the US economy of the cost of caring for people with communication disorders as well as the cost of lost or degraded employment opportunities for people with such disorders, including disorders of hearing, voice, speech, and language. Survey of available historical and contemporary governmental and scholarly data concerning work force distribution and the epidemiology of disorders of hearing, voice, speech, and language. Analysis of epidemiological and economic data for industrialized countries, North America, and the United States. Communication disorders are estimated to have a prevalence of 5% to 10%. People with communication disorders may be more economically disadvantaged than those with less severe disabilities The data suggest that people with severe speech disabilities are more often found to be unemployed or in a lower economic class than people with hearing loss or other disabilities. Communication disorders may cost the United States from $154 billion to $186 billion per year, which is equal to 2.5% to 3% of the Gross National Product. Communication disorders reduce the economic output of the United States, whose economy has become dependent on communication-based employment. This trend will increase during the next century. The economic cost and the prevalence rates of communication disorders in the United States indicate that they will be a major public health challenge for the 21st century.

  5. Urofacial syndrome: A subset of neurogenic bladder dysfunction syndromes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K N Stamatiou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The urofacial syndrome is probably a subset of neurogenic bladder dysfunction syndromes characterized by detrusor-sphincter discoordination along with a characteristic inversion of facial expression with laughing. This characteristic facial expression can facilitate early detection of this disorder, which leads to poor bladder emptying with high residual urine, hydro-nephrosis with vesico-ureteral reflux and potentially renal failure if left untreated. The etiology of the urofacial syndrome is unknown. In our case, a 12-year-old boy of Middle-Eastern origin presented to the Outpatient Department of our hospital with left pyelonephritis, hydronephrosis and bladder dilatation. Voiding cystourethrography performed 15 days later revealed left vesicoureteral reflux. Cystoscopy revealed bladder trabeculation however an anatomic urethral obstruction was not noticed. Both, neurological examination and radiography of the lumbosacral spine were normal. Urodynamic evaluation revealed the typical findings of detrusor-sphincter discoordination.

  6. Microglia from neurogenic and non-neurogenic regions display differential proliferative potential and neuroblast support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Paul Marshall

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Microglia isolated from the neurogenic subependymal zone (SEZ and hippocampus (HC are capable of massive in vitro population expansion that is not possible with microglia isolated from non-neurogenic regions. We asked if this regional heterogeneity in microglial proliferative capacity is cell intrinsic, or is conferred by interaction with respective neurogenic or non-neurogenic niches. By combining SEZ and cerebral cortex (CTX primary tissue dissociates to generate heterospatial cultures, we find that exposure to the SEZ environment does not enhance CTX microglia expansion; however, the CTX environment exerts a suppressive effect on SEZ microglia expansion. Furthermore, addition of purified donor SEZ microglia to either CTX- or SEZ-derived cultures suppresses the expansion of host microglia, while the addition of donor CTX microglia enhances the over-all microglia yield. These data suggest that SEZ and CTX microglia possess intrinsic, spatially restricted characteristics that are independent of their in vitro environment, and that they represent unique and functionally distinct populations. Finally, we determined that the repeated supplementation of neurogenic SEZ cultures with expanded SEZ microglia allows for sustained levels of inducible neurogenesis, provided that the ratio of microglia to total cells remains within a fairly narrow range.

  7. Using communication to reduce challenging behaviors in individuals with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Tiffany L; Prelock, Patricia A

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the relationship between expressive communication impairments and common challenging behaviors in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability. The communication challenges of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder/Intellectual Disability are described and several evidence-based intervention strategies are proposed to support communication so as to decrease challenging behaviors. Recommendations for practice are offered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Neurogenic bladder in spinal cord injury patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Taweel W

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Waleed Al Taweel, Raouf SeyamDepartment of Urology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Neurogenic bladder dysfunction due to spinal cord injury poses a significant threat to the well-being of patients. Incontinence, renal impairment, urinary tract infection, stones, and poor quality of life are some complications of this condition. The majority of patients will require management to ensure low pressure reservoir function of the bladder, complete emptying, and dryness. Management typically begins with anticholinergic medications and clean intermittent catheterization. Patients who fail this treatment because of inefficacy or intolerability are candidates for a spectrum of more invasive procedures. Endoscopic managements to relieve the bladder outlet resistance include sphincterotomy, botulinum toxin injection, and stent insertion. In contrast, patients with incompetent sphincters are candidates for transobturator tape insertion, sling surgery, or artificial sphincter implantation. Coordinated bladder emptying is possible with neuromodulation in selected patients. Bladder augmentation, usually with an intestinal segment, and urinary diversion are the last resort. Tissue engineering is promising in experimental settings; however, its role in clinical bladder management is still evolving. In this review, we summarize the current literature pertaining to the pathology and management of neurogenic bladder dysfunction in patients with spinal cord injury.Keywords: neurogenic bladder, spinal cord injury, urodynamics, intestine, intermittent catheterization

  9. Sub-dimensions of social-communication impairment in autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, Somer L.; Havdahl, Karoline Alexandra; Huerta, Marisela; Lord, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: More refined dimensions of social-communication impairment are needed to elucidate the clinical and biological boundaries of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and other childhood onset psychiatric disorders associated with social difficulties, as well as to facilitate investigations in treatment and long-term outcomes of these disorders.METHODS: This study was intended to identify separable dimensions of clinician-observed social-communication impairments by examining scores on a wi...

  10. Augmentative and Alternative Communication Supports for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trembath, David; Iacono, Teresa; Lyon, Katie; West, Denise; Johnson, Hilary

    2014-01-01

    Many adults with autism spectrum disorders have complex communication needs and may benefit from the use of augmentative and alternative communication. However, there is a lack of research examining the specific communication needs of these adults, let alone the outcomes of interventions aimed at addressing them. The aim of this study was to…

  11. A meta-analysis of the social communication questionnaire: Screening for autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnut, Steven R; Wei, Tianlan; Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Richman, David M

    2017-11-01

    The current meta-analysis examines the previous research on the utility of the Social Communication Questionnaire as a screening instrument for autism spectrum disorder. Previously published reports have highlighted the inconsistencies between Social Communication Questionnaire-screening results and formal autism spectrum disorder diagnoses. The variations in accuracy resulted in some researchers questioning the validity of the Social Communication Questionnaire. This study systematically examined the accuracy of the Social Communication Questionnaire as a function of the methodological decisions made by researchers screening for autism spectrum disorder over the last 15 years. Findings from this study suggest that the Social Communication Questionnaire is an acceptable screening instrument for autism spectrum disorder (area under the curve = 0.885). Variations in methodological decisions, however, greatly influenced the accuracy of the Social Communication Questionnaire in screening for autism spectrum disorder. Of these methodological variations, using the Current instead of the Lifetime version of the Social Communication Questionnaire resulted in the largest detrimental effect ( d = -3.898), followed by using the Social Communication Questionnaire with individuals younger than 4 years of age ( d = -2.924) and relying upon convenience samples ( d = -4.828 for clinical samples, -2.734 for convenience samples, and -1.422 for community samples). Directions for future research and implications for using the Social Communication Questionnaire to screen for autism spectrum disorder are discussed.

  12. Preoperative neurogenic pulmonary edema: A dilemma for decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Lakkireddigari, Siva Kumar Reddy; Durga, Padmaja; Nayak, Madhukar; Ramchandran, Gopinath

    2012-01-01

    Neurogenic pulmonary edema may be a less-recognized consequence of obstructive hydrocephalus. The authors report a patient with acute obstructive hydrocephalus due to cerebellar metastatic lesion, who presented with neurogenic pulmonary edema. The edema resolved on placement of the ventriculoperitonial shunt. This report addresses the importance of recognition of neurogenic pulmonary edema as a possible perioperative complication resulting from an increase in intracranial pressure and the iss...

  13. Preoperative neurogenic pulmonary edema: A dilemma for decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva Kumar Reddy Lakkireddigari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenic pulmonary edema may be a less-recognized consequence of obstructive hydrocephalus. The authors report a patient with acute obstructive hydrocephalus due to cerebellar metastatic lesion, who presented with neurogenic pulmonary edema. The edema resolved on placement of the ventriculoperitonial shunt. This report addresses the importance of recognition of neurogenic pulmonary edema as a possible perioperative complication resulting from an increase in intracranial pressure and the issues involved with anesthetic management of co-existing neurogenic pulmonary edema and intracranial hypertension.

  14. Picture Exchange Communication System for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lauren E.

    2010-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurological disorder that manifests itself within an individual through cognitive, social, and academic deficits. As is true for all spectrum disorders, each individual may experience a range of deficits with varying severity. Many students with autism spectrum disorder experience difficulty in some area of…

  15. Mechanisms of neurogenic pulmonary edema development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šedý, Jiří; Zicha, Josef; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Jendelová, Pavla; Syková, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2008), s. 499-506 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR GA309/06/1246; GA MŠk 1M0538 Grant - others:GA MZd(CZ) 1A8697; GA MZd(CZ) NR8339 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512; CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : Neurogenic pulmonary edema * Rat * Lung Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.653, year: 2008

  16. Urinary Tract Infection and Neurogenic Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibben, Maxim J; Seed, Patrick; Ross, Sherry S; Borawski, Kristy M

    2015-11-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are frequent, recurrent, and lifelong for patients with neurogenic bladder and present challenges in diagnosis and treatment. Patients often present without classic symptoms of UTI but with abdominal or back pain, increased spasticity, and urinary incontinence. Failure to recognize and treat infections can quickly lead to life-threatening autonomic dysreflexia or sepsis, whereas overtreatment contributes to antibiotic resistance, thus limiting future treatment options. Multiple prevention methods are used but evidence-based practices are few. Prevention and treatment of symptomatic UTI requires a multimodal approach that focuses on bladder management as well as accurate diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Neurogenic bladder from occult herpes zoster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrock, J F; Walicke, P A; Swenson, M R

    1986-11-01

    Active infection with herpes zoster may cause acute urinary retention, especially when it involves sacral dermatomes. Although frank retention usually develops days to weeks after eruption of the typical rash, bladder incompetence infrequently develops first, raising concern over other, more ominous etiologies. In the case presented, rash appearance was delayed until six weeks after the initial onset of urinary retention, a much longer interval than previously reported. Occult herpes zoster infection should be considered in patients presenting with an acute neurogenic bladder of obscure cause.

  18. Communication partner training of enrolled nurses working in nursing homes with people with communication disorders caused by stroke or Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Karin; Forsgren, Emma; Hartelius, Lena; Saldert, Charlotta

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of a communication partner training programme directed to enrolled nurses working with people with communication disorders in nursing homes, using an individualised approach. Five dyads consisting of a person with stroke-induced aphasia (n = 4) or Parkinson's disease (PD) (n = 1) living in different nursing homes and his/her enrolled nurse participated in the study, which had a replicated single-subject design with multiple baselines across individuals. The main element of the intervention was supervised analysis of video-recorded natural interaction in everyday nursing situations and the formulation of individual goals to change particular communicative strategies. Outcome was measured via blinded assessments of filmed natural interaction obtained at baseline, intervention and follow-up and showed an increased use of the target communicative strategies. Subjective measures of goal attainment by the enrolled nurses were consistent with these results. Measures of perceived functional communication on behalf of the persons with communication disorders were mostly positive; four of five participants with communication disorders and two of five enrolled nurses reported improved functional communication after intervention. The use of an individualised communication partner training programme led to significant changes in natural interaction, which contributes importantly to a growing body of knowledge regarding communication partner training. Communication partner training can improve the communicative environment of people with communication disorders. For people with communication disorders who live in institutions, the main conversation partner is likely to be a professional caretaker. An individualised approach for communication partner training that focussed on specific communication patterns was successful in increasing the use of supportive strategies that enrolled nurses used in natural interaction with persons with communication disorders

  19. 75 FR 57473 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... and performance, and the competence of individual investigators, the disclosure of which would... personal qualifications and performance, and competence of individual investigators. Place: National... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal...

  20. The Picture Exchange Communication System and his application of child with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kozlová, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The bachelor thesis with title "The Picture Exchange Communication System and his application of child with autism spectrum disorder", deals with problems in communication of the children with autism spectrum disorders. One of the goals of the thesis is to submit a comprehensive overview of the essential knowledge of autism, history of autism, typical triad of symptoms (characteristic features of children with autism), etiology, and dividing autism by the adaptability. Another goal is to intr...

  1. Challenges to Augmentative and Alternative Communication Interventions with Autism Spectrum Disorder Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer-MacNair, Kristy

    2017-01-01

    Students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have challenges with communication, social interactions, and behavior, which can limit their functioning in school settings. They need to have functional communication skills to access the curriculum and have their needs met across all social environments. Special education teachers often experience…

  2. Communicative Acts of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in the Second Year of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumway, Stacy; Wetherby, Amy M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the communicative profiles of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the second year of life. Method: Communicative acts were examined in 125 children 18 to 24 months of age: 50 later diagnosed with ASD; 25 with developmental delays (DD); and 50 with typical development (TD). Precise measures of rate, functions, and…

  3. Impact of Milieu Teaching on Communication Skills of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen-Sandfort, Robyn J.; Whinnery, Stacie B.

    2013-01-01

    This 5-month study examined the impact of a behaviorally based naturalistic teaching strategy, milieu teaching, on the communication skills of preschool-aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in an early childhood special education (ECSE) classroom. A multiple baseline across participants design was used. Communication targets were…

  4. Risks for communication delays and disorders in infants in an urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... factors associated with communication disorders in South Africa is limited. Objective. To identify and describe risk factors for communication delays in infants 0 - 12 months of age at Daspoort Polyclinic in Gauteng. Methods. A structured interview schedule was utilised to conduct an interview with the caregiver participants.

  5. Validation of the Pictorial Infant Communication Scale for Preschool-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghilain, Christine S.; Parlade, Meaghan V.; McBee, Matthew T.; Coman, Drew C.; Owen, Taylor; Gutierrez, Anibal; Boyd, Brian; Odom, Samuel; Alessandri, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Joint attention, or the shared focus of attention between objects or events and a social partner, is a crucial milestone in the development of social communication and a notable area of deficit in children with autism spectrum disorder. While valid parent-report screening measures of social communication are available, the majority of these…

  6. Spontaneous Communication in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Review of Topographies and Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Cormac; Healy, Olive

    2011-01-01

    Lack of spontaneous communicative initiations appears to be a consistent problem in individuals with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD; Fujiki & Brinton, 2009). Spontaneous communication is emitted at a much lower frequency compared to individuals with language impairment and typically developing persons. Deficits of spontaneity in…

  7. Randomized Comparison of Two Communication Interventions for Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Paul; Stone, Wendy L.

    2006-01-01

    This randomized group experiment compared the efficacy of 2 communication interventions (Responsive Education and Prelinguistic Milieu Teaching [RPMT] and the Picture Exchange Communication System [PECS]) in 36 preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders. Each treatment was delivered 3 times per week, in 20-min sessions, for 6 months. The results…

  8. Applying Technology to Visually Support Language and Communication in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane, Howard C.; Laubscher, Emily H.; Schlosser, Ralf W.; Flynn, Suzanne; Sorce, James F.; Abramson, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The burgeoning role of technology in society has provided opportunities for the development of new means of communication for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This paper offers an organizational framework for describing traditional and emerging augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) technology, and highlights how tools…

  9. Communication Disorders in the School: Perspectives on Academic and Social Success an Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Karen L.; Fletcher, Kathryn; Decker, Blair

    2008-01-01

    The critical role of communication in schools cannot be understated. Communication skills are a necessity both in the academic and social atmosphere of the school environment. Unfortunately, there are a large number of children in the schools today identified with speech and language disorders. This special edition of "Psychology in the Schools"…

  10. Review of foreign approaches to development of communication in children with autistic spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soldatenkova E.N.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a generalized overview of international approaches to the evaluation and formation of communication in children with autism spectrum disor ders (ASD. Described radicals communication disorders in children with ASD. Analyzed foreign approaches (Communication system for the exchange of images (PECS Lori Frost and Andrew Bondy; options piktogramme6ideogrammic communication (bliss6symbolism, Loeb system, a system of sign language; Program in Applied verbal behavior; a Method of facilitating communication (FC and others used for the development of communication in children with ASD and donditions underlying these approaches. Examined differences in focus for the development of communication in children with ASD in domestic and foreign schools. The main conditions for the development of communication in children with ASD described in the framework of cultural historical psychology and activity approach, ensuring the inclusion of children with ASD in education.

  11. Risks for communication delays and disorders in infants in an urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    may result in conditions such as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. (FASD).[4,5] South ... communication delays or disorders in infants aged 0 12 months in an urban PHC ..... Results from the CHARGE (Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and ...

  12. Increasing Communication Skills: A Case Study of a Man with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Vision Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, S. Brian; Casey, Laura Baylot; Cea, Clayton R.; Bicard, David F.; Bicard, Sara E.

    2012-01-01

    According to the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, APA, 2000), autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by impairments in social and communicative behaviors with great variations in ability, depending on developmental level, intelligence, and chronological…

  13. The Effect of Communication Deficits on Anxiety Symptoms in Infants and Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Thompson E., III; Moree, Brittany N.; Dempsey, Timothy; Hess, Julie A.; Jenkins, Whitney S.; Fodstad, Jill C.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are life-long developmental disorders characterized by impairments in the development of reciprocal social and communication skills, abnormal language development, and a restricted repertoire of behaviors and interests. While it has been known for some time that children with ASD can evince elevated rates of…

  14. Assessing Early Communication Skills at 12 Months: A Retrospective Study of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Nathaniel Robert; Eadie, Patricia Ann; Prior, Margot Ruth; Reilly, Sheena

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early identification of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is currently limited by the absence of reliable biological markers for the disorder, as well as the reliability of screening and assessment tools for children aged between 6 and 18 months. Ongoing research has demonstrated the importance of early social communication skills in…

  15. Priorities for Autism Spectrum Disorder Risk Communication and Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudell, Michael; Tabor, Holly K.; Dawson, Geraldine; Rossi, John; Newschaffer, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are an issue of increasing public health significance. The incidence of autism spectrum disorders has been increasing in recent years, and they are associated with significant personal and financial impacts for affected persons and their families. In recent years, a large number of scientific studies have been undertaken,…

  16. Social-Communicative Effects of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerna, Anna; Esposito, Dalila; Conson, Massimiliano; Russo, Luigi; Massagli, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a common treatment choice for non-verbal children with autism. However, little empirical evidence is available on the usefulness of PECS in treating social-communication impairments in autism. Aims: To test the effects of PECS on social-communicative skills in children with autism,…

  17. Communication barriers among Spanish-speaking women with pelvic floor disorders: lost in translation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aqsa A; Sevilla, Claudia; Wieslander, Cecilia K; Moran, Meghan B; Rashid, Rezoana; Mittal, Brita; Maliski, Sally L; Rogers, Rebecca G; Anger, Jennifer T

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate barriers in communication and disease understanding among office staff and interpreters when communicating with Spanish-speaking women with pelvic floor disorders. We conducted a qualitative study to evaluate barriers to communication with Spanish-speaking women with pelvic floor disorders among office staff and interpreters. Sixteen office staff and interpreters were interviewed; interview questions focused on experiences with Spanish-speaking patients with pelvic floor disorders in the clinic setting. Interview transcripts were analyzed qualitatively using grounded theory methodology. Analysis of the interview transcripts revealed several barriers in communication as identified by office staff and interpreters. Three major classes were predominant: patient, interpreter, and system-related barriers. Patient-related barriers included a lack of understanding of anatomy and medical terminology and inhibited discussions due to embarrassment. Provider-related barriers included poor interpreter knowledge of pelvic floor vocabulary and the use of office staff without interpreting credentials. System-related barriers included poor access to information. From these preliminary themes, an emergent concept was revealed: it is highly likely that Spanish-speaking women with pelvic floor disorders have poor understanding of their condition owing to multiple obstacles in communication. There are many levels of barriers to communications with Latin women treated for pelvic floor disorders, arising from the patient, interpreter, and the system itself. These barriers contribute to a low level of understanding of their diagnosis, treatment options, and administered therapies.

  18. [Clonazepam in therapy of neurogenic syncopal states].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaeva, Z A

    2001-01-01

    27 patients with frequent neurogenic syncopes (NS) resistant to conventional therapy were treated with clonazepam. The average age of the patients was 29.8 +/- 11.6 years. There were 1-2 syncopes in a month. Both before and after the treatment an active orthostatic test was performed with ECG registration and following analysis of variability of the cardiac rhythm. Clonazepam was administered in a dose of 2-2.5 mg/day during 8-9 weeks. Clinical improvement in the form of a lack of syncopes was observed in 20 patients (74%); 3 patients (10%) had isolated lipothymic states; 2 patients discontinued the treatment because of side-effects (dizziness). The results of the examination of 23 patients 6 months after clonazepam therapy testified the stability of the therapeutic effect.

  19. Urinary tract infection in the neurogenic bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, Humberto R.

    2016-01-01

    There is a high incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract function. This results in significant morbidity and health care utilization. Multiple well-established risk factors unique to a neurogenic bladder (NB) exist while others require ongoing investigation. It is important for care providers to have a good understanding of the different structural, physiological, immunological and catheter-related risk factors so that they may be modified when possible. Diagnosis remains complicated. Appropriate specimen collection is of paramount importance and a UTI cannot be diagnosed based on urinalysis or clinical presentation alone. A culture result with a bacterial concentration of ≥103 CFU/mL in combination with symptoms represents an acceptable definition for UTI diagnosis in NB patients. Cystoscopy, ultrasound and urodynamics should be utilized for the evaluation of recurrent infections in NB patients. An acute, symptomatic UTI should be treated with antibiotics for 5–14 days depending on the severity of the presentation. Antibiotic selection should be based on local and patient-based resistance patterns and the spectrum should be as narrow as possible if there are no concerns regarding urosepsis. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) should not be treated because of rising resistance patterns and lack of clinical efficacy. The most important preventative measures include closed catheter drainage in patients with an indwelling catheter and the use of clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) over other methods of bladder management if possible. The use of hydrophilic or impregnated catheters is not recommended. Intravesical Botox, bacterial interference and sacral neuromodulation show significant promise for the prevention of UTIs in higher risk NB patients and future, multi-center, randomized controlled trials are required. PMID:26904414

  20. Reduced Tract Integrity of the Model for Social Communication Is a Neural Substrate of Social Communication Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yu-Chun; Chen, Yu-Jen; Hsu, Yung-Chin; Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2017-01-01

    Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with social communication deficits as one of the core symptoms. Recently, a five-level model for the social communication has been proposed in which white matter tracts corresponding to each level of the model are identified. Given that the model for social communication…

  1. Formulaic speech in disorders of language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Sidtis

    2014-04-01

    Formulaic language studies remain less well recognized in language disorders. Profiles of differential formulaic language abilities in neurological disease have implications for cerebral models of language and for clinical evaluation and treatment of neurogenic language disorders.

  2. Synostosis Between Pubic Bones due to Neurogenic, Heterotopic Ossification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Vaidyanathan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenic, heterotopic ossification is characterised by the formation of new, extraosseous (ectopic bone in soft tissue in patients with neurological disorders. A 33-year-old female, who was born with spina bifida, paraplegia, and diastasis of symphysis pubis, had indwelling urethral catheter drainage and was using oxybutynin bladder instillations. She was prescribed diuretic for swelling of feet, which aggravated bypassing of catheter. Hence, suprapubic cystostomy was performed. Despite anticholinergic therapy, there was chronic urine leak around the suprapubic catheter and per urethra. Therefore, the urethra was mobilised and closed. After closure of the urethra, there was no urine leak from the urethra, but urine leak persisted around the suprapubic catheter. Cystogram confirmed the presence of a Foley balloon inside the bladder; there was no urinary fistula. The Foley balloon ruptured frequently, leading to extrusion of the Foley catheter. X-ray of abdomen showed heterotopic bone formation bridging the gap across diastasis of symphysis pubis. CT of pelvis revealed heterotopic bone lying in close proximity to the balloon of the Foley catheter; the sharp edge of heterotopic bone probably acted like a saw and led to frequent rupture of the balloon of the Foley catheter. Unique features of this case are: (1 temporal relationship of heterotopic bone formation to suprapubic cystostomy and chronic urine leak; (2 occurrence of heterotopic ossification in pubic region; (3 complications of heterotopic bone formation viz. frequent rupture of the balloon of the Foley catheter by the irregular margin of heterotopic bone and difficulty in insertion of suprapubic catheter because the heterotopic bone encroached on the suprapubic track; (4 synostosis between pubic bones as a result of heterotopic ossification..Common aetiological factors for neurogenic, heterotopic ossification, such as forceful manipulation, trauma, or spasticity, were absent in this

  3. Botulinum Neurotoxin Injection for the Treatment of Recurrent Temporomandibular Joint Dislocation with and without Neurogenic Muscular Hyperactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Yoshida

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare treatment outcomes following intramuscular injection of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT in patients with recurrent temporomandibular joint dislocation, with and without muscle hyperactivity due to neurological diseases. Thirty-two patients (19 women and 13 men, mean age: 62.3 years with recurrent temporomandibular joint dislocation were divided into two groups: neurogenic (8 women and 12 men and habitual (11 women and 1 man. The neurogenic group included patients having neurological disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease or oromandibular dystonia, that are accompanied by muscle hyperactivity. BoNT was administered via intraoral injection to the inferior head of the lateral pterygoid muscle. In total, BoNT injection was administered 102 times (mean 3.2 times/patient. The mean follow-up duration was 29.5 months. The neurogenic group was significantly (p < 0.001 younger (47.3 years than the habitual group (84.8 years and required significantly (p < 0.01 more injections (4.1 versus 1.7 times to achieve a positive outcome. No significant immediate or delayed complications occurred. Thus, intramuscular injection of BoNT into the lateral pterygoid muscle is an effective and safe treatment for habitual temporomandibular joint dislocation. More injections are required in cases of neurogenic temporomandibular joint dislocation than in those of habitual dislocation without muscle hyperactivity.

  4. Development of the Parent Form of the Preschool Children's Communication Skills Scale and Comparison of the Communication Skills of Children with Normal Development and with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Aydan

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at developing an assessment scale for identifying preschool children's communication skills, at distinguishing children with communication deficiencies and at comparing the communication skills of children with normal development (ND) and those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were 427 children of up to 6 years of…

  5. A Review and Analysis of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) for Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorders Using a Paradigm of Communication Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostryn, Cheryl; Wolfe, Pamela S.; Rusch, Frank R.

    2008-01-01

    Research related to the use of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) with individuals having autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) was examined using a communication competence paradigm detailed by J. C. Light (1988, 1989, 2003). Communication components were operationalized based on skills identified in ASD research. A review was conducted…

  6. Effectiveness of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) on Communication and Speech for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flippin, Michelle; Reszka, Stephanie; Watson, Linda R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a popular communication-training program for young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This meta-analysis reviews the current empirical evidence for PECS in affecting communication and speech outcomes for children with ASD. Method: A systematic review of the literature on PECS…

  7. Ethical and Social Implications of Genetic Testing for Communication Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnos, Kathleen S.

    2008-01-01

    Advances in genetics and genomics have quickly led to clinical applications to human health which have far-reaching consequences at the individual and societal levels. These new technologies have allowed a better understanding of the genetic factors involved in a wide range of disorders. During the past decade, incredible progress has been made in…

  8. Association of adoptive child's thought disorders and schizophrenia spectrum disorders with their genetic liability for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, season of birth and parental Communication Deviance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roisko, Riikka; Wahlberg, Karl-Erik; Hakko, Helinä; Tienari, Pekka

    2015-04-30

    Joint effects of genotype and the environment have turned out to be significant in the development of psychotic disorders. The purpose of the present study was to assess the association of an adoptive child׳s thought and schizophrenia spectrum disorders with genetic and environmental risk indicators and their interactions. A subgroup of the total sample used in the Finnish Adoptive Family Study was considered in the present study. The subjects were 125 adoptees at a high (n=53) or low (n=72) genetic risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorders and their adoptive parents. The risk factors evaluated were the adoptive child's genetic risk for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, winter or spring birth and parental Communication Deviance (CD). Thought disorders in the adoptees were assessed using the Thought Disorder Index and diagnoses were made according to DSM-III-R criteria. The adoptive child׳s Thought Disorder Index was only associated with parental Communication Deviance. The adoptive child's heightened genetic risk or winter or spring birth or parental CD or their interactions did not predict the adoptee's schizophrenia spectrum disorder. The results suggest that studies taking several risk indicators and their interactions into account may change views on the mutual significance of well-known risk factors. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Speech and language therapists' views about AAC system acceptance by people with acquired communication disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampoulou, Eliada

    2018-04-18

    Some adults with acquired communication disorders are faced with an inability to communicate coherently through verbal speech with their communication partners. Despite the fact that a variety of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) aided systems is available to assist them in communicating, not all adults accept them. In Cyprus, there is scant research focusing on the factors that are linked to AAC system acceptance and abandonment. To address this gap, this research involves exploring the experiences of six speech and language therapists supporting adults with acquired communication disorders, who could benefit from the use of AAC systems. The main research question is: What are the factors that influence AAC system acceptance or abandonment? The method used for data collection, was semi-structured interviews and the transcripts were analyzed thematically. The findings show that a number of factors influence the acceptance of AAC systems. These include the time since onset and acceptance of disability, the person's attitude towards communication facilitators, and the perceptions about AAC systems. These findings indicate that the process of accepting an AAC system is multi-layered and these layers are interrelated. More research is warranted focusing directly on the experiences of people with acquired communication disorders and their communication partners. Implications for Rehabilitation The different myths about AAC systems need to be challenged such that awareness about their usefulness is raised. AAC specialists need to find ways to spread the message that AAC systems can actually support language, speech and communication through different dissemination avenues, such as articles in newspapers and talks through the media.

  10. A comparison of two assessments of high level cognitive communication disorders in mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, Tanya; Scott, Amanda; Bond, Annabelle; Paul, Eldho

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) frequently encounter cognitive communication disorders. Deficits can be subtle but can seriously influence an individual's ability to achieve life goals. Feedback from rehabilitation facilities indicated that high level cognitive communication disorders are not consistently identified in the acute setting. This study aimed to compare the cognitive communication results from two screening assessments, the Cognistat and the Cognitive Linguistic Quick Test (CLQT), in participants with a mild traumatic brain injury and to relate these findings to a range of prognostic indicators. Eighty-three adults post-TBI (16-81 years; 79.5% males) were recruited at an acute trauma centre. The language components of the two tests were analysed. The CLQT identified more participants with an impairment in language than the Cognistat, 19.3% compared to 1.2% (p communication deficits than the Cognistat in the acute setting.

  11. Social-communicative effects of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerna, Anna; Esposito, Dalila; Conson, Massimiliano; Russo, Luigi; Massagli, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a common treatment choice for non-verbal children with autism. However, little empirical evidence is available on the usefulness of PECS in treating social-communication impairments in autism. To test the effects of PECS on social-communicative skills in children with autism, concurrently taking into account standardized psychometric data, standardized functional assessment of adaptive behaviour, and information on social-communicative variables coded in an unstructured setting. Eighteen preschool children (mean age = 38.78 months) were assigned to two intervention approaches, i.e. PECS and Conventional Language Therapy (CLT). Both PECS (Phases I-IV) and CLT were delivered three times per week, in 30-min sessions, for 6 months. Outcome measures were the following: Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) domain scores for Communication and Reciprocal Social Interaction; Language and Personal-Social subscales of the Griffiths' Mental Developmental Scales (GMDS); Communication and Social Abilities domains of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS); and several social-communicative variables coded in an unstructured setting. Results demonstrated that the two groups did not differ at Time 1 (pre-treatment assessment), whereas at Time 2 (post-test) the PECS group showed a significant improvement with respect to the CLT group on the VABS social domain score and on almost all the social-communicative abilities coded in the unstructured setting (i.e. joint attention, request, initiation, cooperative play, but not eye contact). These findings showed that PECS intervention (Phases I-IV) can improve social-communicative skills in children with autism. This improvement is especially evident in standardized measures of adaptive behaviour and measures derived from the observation of children in an unstructured setting. © 2012 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  12. Do Communication Disorders Extend to Musical Messages?: An Answer from Children with Hearing Loss or Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, Christina M.; Gfeller, Kate; Driscoll, Virginia; Oleson, Jacob; McGregor, Karla

    2014-01-01

    Background Effective musical communication requires conveyance of the intended message in a manner perceptible to the receiver. Communication disorders that impair transmitting or decoding of structural features of music (e.g., pitch, timbre) and/or symbolic representation may result in atypical musical communication, which can have a negative impact on music therapy interventions. Objective This study compared recognition of symbolic representation of emotions or movements in music by two groups of children with different communicative characteristics: severe to profound hearing loss (using cochlear implants [CI]) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Their responses were compared to those of children with typical-development and normal hearing (TD-NH). Accuracy was examined as a function of communicative status, emotional or movement category, and individual characteristics. Methods Participants listened to recorded musical excerpts conveying emotions or movements and matched them with labels. Measures relevant to auditory and/or language function were also gathered. Results There was no significant difference between the ASD and TD-NH groups in identification of musical emotions or movements. However, the CI group was significantly less accurate than the other two groups in identification of both emotions and movements. Mixed effects logistic regression revealed different patterns of accuracy for specific emotions as a function of group. Conclusion Conveyance of emotions or movements through music may be decoded differently by persons with different types of communication disorders. Because music is the primary therapeutic tool in music therapy sessions, clinicians should consider these differential abilities when selecting music for clinical interventions focusing on emotions or movement. PMID:25691513

  13. Do communication disorders extend to musical messages? An answer from children with hearing loss or autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, Christina M; Gfeller, Kate; Driscoll, Virginia; Oleson, Jacob; McGregor, Karla

    2015-01-01

    Effective musical communication requires conveyance of the intended message in a manner perceptible to the receiver. Communication disorders that impair transmitting or decoding of structural features of music (e.g., pitch, timbre) and/or symbolic representation may result in atypical musical communication, which can have a negative impact on music therapy interventions. This study compared recognition of symbolic representation of emotions or movements in music by two groups of children with different communicative characteristics: severe to profound hearing loss (using cochlear implants [CI]) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Their responses were compared to those of children with typical-development and normal hearing (TD-NH). Accuracy was examined as a function of communicative status, emotional or movement category, and individual characteristics. Participants listened to recorded musical excerpts conveying emotions or movements and matched them with labels. Measures relevant to auditory and/or language function were also gathered. There was no significant difference between the ASD and TD-NH groups in identification of musical emotions or movements. However, the CI group was significantly less accurate than the other two groups in identification of both emotions and movements. Mixed effects logistic regression revealed different patterns of accuracy for specific emotions as a function of group. Conveyance of emotions or movements through music may be decoded differently by persons with different types of communication disorders. Because music is the primary therapeutic tool in music therapy sessions, clinicians should consider these differential abilities when selecting music for clinical interventions focusing on emotions or movement. © the American Music Therapy Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Communication Strategies to Counter Stigma and Improve Mental Illness and Substance Use Disorder Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma; Pescosolido, Bernice; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Barry, Colleen L

    2018-02-01

    Despite the high burden and poor rates of treatment associated with mental illness and substance use disorders, public support for allocating resources to improving treatment for these disorders is low. A growing body of research suggests that effective policy communication strategies can increase public support for policies benefiting people with these conditions. In October 2015, the Center for Mental Health and Addiction Policy Research at Johns Hopkins University convened an expert forum to identify what is currently known about the effectiveness of such policy communication strategies and produce recommendations for future research. One of the key conclusions of the forum was that communication strategies using personal narratives to engage audiences have the potential to increase public support for policies benefiting persons with mental illness or substance use disorders. Specifically, narratives combining personal stories with depictions of structural barriers to mental illness and substance use disorder treatment can increase the public's willingness to invest in the treatment system. Depictions of mental illness and violence significantly increase public stigma toward people with mental illness and are no more effective in increasing willingness to invest in mental health services than nonstigmatizing messages about structural barriers to treatment. Future research should prioritize development and evaluation of communication strategies to increase public support for evidence-based substance use disorder policies, including harm reduction policies-such as needle exchange programs-and policies expanding treatment.

  15. Animal Models of Speech and Vocal Communication Deficits Associated With Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopka, Genevieve; Roberts, Todd F

    2016-01-01

    Disruptions in speech, language, and vocal communication are hallmarks of several neuropsychiatric disorders, most notably autism spectrum disorders. Historically, the use of animal models to dissect molecular pathways and connect them to behavioral endophenotypes in cognitive disorders has proven to be an effective approach for developing and testing disease-relevant therapeutics. The unique aspects of human language compared with vocal behaviors in other animals make such an approach potentially more challenging. However, the study of vocal learning in species with analogous brain circuits to humans may provide entry points for understanding this human-specific phenotype and diseases. We review animal models of vocal learning and vocal communication and specifically link phenotypes of psychiatric disorders to relevant model systems. Evolutionary constraints in the organization of neural circuits and synaptic plasticity result in similarities in the brain mechanisms for vocal learning and vocal communication. Comparative approaches and careful consideration of the behavioral limitations among different animal models can provide critical avenues for dissecting the molecular pathways underlying cognitive disorders that disrupt speech, language, and vocal communication. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Participant characteristics and observed support in conversations involving people with communication disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Karin; Hartelius, Lena; Saldert, Charlotta

    2016-10-01

    Communication partner training is an increasingly common approach to improve the possibilities for people with communication disorders to participate in everyday interaction. So far, though, little is known about what conversation partner characteristics might influence the ability to be a supportive partner in conversation. The current study explored possible associations between the observed skill to support a person with communication difficulties in conversation and the following characteristics of the conversation partner; executive function, inference ability, age, education level and relationship to the person with communication disorder. The impact of the aetiology of the communication difficulties was also explored. Thirty-five dyads participated: 23 people with aphasia along with 18 significant others and five enrolled nurses and 12 people with Parkinson's disease along with 10 significant others and two enrolled nurses. Only tendencies of associations were found between observed skill to support conversation and executive function for the significant others and inference ability for the enrolled nurses. Although type of activity involved in the conversation may be a key factor, the results indicate that executive function and ability to make mental inferences may matter for the ability to support a person with communication disorder in conversation.

  17. Neurogenic myopathies and imaging of muscle denervation; Neurogene Myopathien und Bildgebung der Muskeldenervation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Wolf, C. [Reha-Zentrum Gernsbach, Neurologie, Gernsbach (Germany); Weber, M.A. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-12-15

    Neurogenic myopathies are primary diseases of the nervous system, which secondarily result in denervation of the target musculature. The spectrum of potential causes is manifold ranging from acute traumatic injuries and chronic compression to neurodegenerative, inflammatory, metabolic and neoplastic processes. The medical history, clinical neurological examination, and electrophysiological tests including electromyography and nerve conduction studies are crucial in diagnosing neuropathic myopathies. Electromyography is the gold standard for diagnosing muscle denervation. Additional imaging methods and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in particular, are capable of contributing valuable information. The MRI examination of denervated musculature shows edema, an increase in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and hyperperfusion. Chronic denervation results in fatty degeneration and atrophy of affected muscles, which are also detectable by MRI. Although the MRI findings in muscle denervation are relatively unspecific, they show a high sensitivity, comparable to electromyography. Dedicated MR neurography may often visualize the underlying lesion(s) of the innervating nerve(s). Besides high sensitivity, comparable to electromyography, MRI is capable of evaluating muscles which are inaccessible for needle electromyography. Due to its non-invasive character, MRI is ideal for follow-up examinations. The use of MRI is often a meaningful addition to the diagnostics of neurogenic myopathies. The extent and distribution pattern of muscular alterations often provide information on the localization of the causative nerve damage. A correct diagnosis or at least a narrowing down of possible differential diagnoses can often be achieved using MRI. (orig.) [German] Neurogene Myopathien sind Erkrankungen des Nervensystems, die sekundaer zur Denervierung der Zielmuskulatur fuehren. Das Spektrum potenzieller Ursachen ist vielfaeltig und umfasst akute traumatische Verletzungen

  18. Applying technology to visually support language and communication in individuals with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane, Howard C; Laubscher, Emily H; Schlosser, Ralf W; Flynn, Suzanne; Sorce, James F; Abramson, Jennifer

    2012-06-01

    The burgeoning role of technology in society has provided opportunities for the development of new means of communication for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This paper offers an organizational framework for describing traditional and emerging augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) technology, and highlights how tools within this framework can support a visual approach to everyday communication and improve language instruction. The growing adoption of handheld media devices along with applications acquired via a consumer-oriented delivery model suggests a potential paradigm shift in AAC for people with ASD.

  19. Technology-enabled management of communication and swallowing disorders in Parkinson's disease: a systematic scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoros, Deborah; Aldridge, Danielle; Hill, Anne J; Russell, Trevor

    2018-06-19

    Communication and swallowing disorders are highly prevalent in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). Maintenance of functional communication and swallowing over time is challenging for the person with PD and their families and may lead to social isolation and reduced quality of life if not addressed. Speech and language therapists (SLTs) face the conundrum of providing sustainable and flexible services to meet the changing needs of people with PD. Motor, cognitive and psychological issues associated with PD, medication regimens and dependency on others often impede attendance at a centre-based service. The access difficulties experienced by people with PD require a disruptive service approach to meet their needs. Technology-enabled management using information and telecommunications technologies to provide services at a distance has the potential to improve access, and enhance the quality of SLT services to people with PD. To report the status and scope of the evidence for the use of technology in the management of the communication and swallowing disorders associated with PD. Studies were retrieved from four major databases (PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE and Medline via Web of Science). Data relating to the types of studies, level of evidence, context, nature of the management undertaken, participant perspectives and the types of technologies involved were extracted for the review. A total of 17 studies were included in the review, 15 of which related to the management of communication and swallowing disorders in PD with two studies devoted to participant perspectives. The majority of the studies reported on the treatment of the speech disorder in PD using Lee Silverman Voice Treatment (LSVT LOUD ® ). Synchronous and asynchronous technologies were used in the studies with a predominance of the former. There was a paucity of research in the management of cognitive-communication and swallowing disorders. Research evidence supporting technology-enabled management of the

  20. Botulinum Toxin in Neurogenic Detrusor Overactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arturo Levi D'Ancona

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To evaluate the effects of botulinum toxin on urodynamic parameters and quality of life in patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity. Methods Thirty four adult patients with spinal cord injury and detrusor overactivity were selected. The patients received 300 units of botulinum toxin type A. The endpoints evaluated with the episodes of urinary incontinence and measured the maximum cystometric capacity, maximum amplitude of detrusor pressure and bladder compliance at the beginning and end of the study (24 weeks and evaluated the quality of life by applying the Qualiveen questionnaire. Results A significant decrease in the episodes of urinary incontinence was observed. All urodynamic parameters presented a significant improvement. The same was observed in the quality of life index and the specific impact of urinary problems scores from the Qualiveen questionnaire. Six patients did not complete the study, two due to incomplete follow-up, and four violated protocol and were excluded from the analyses. No systemic adverse events of botulinum toxin type A were reported. Conclusions A botulinum toxin type A showed a significantly improved response in urodynamics parameters and specific and general quality of life.

  1. The Effect of Karate Techniques Training on Communication Deficit of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Fatimah; Movahedi, Ahmadreza; Marandi, Sayed Mohammad; Sorensen, Carl

    2016-03-01

    This investigation examined the long term effect of Karate techniques training on communication of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Thirty school aged children with ASD were randomly assigned to an exercise (n = 15) or a control group (n = 15). Participants in the exercise group were engaged in 14 weeks of Karate techniques training. Communication deficit at baseline, post-intervention (week 14), and at 1 month follow up were evaluated. Exercise group showed significant reduction in communication deficit compared to control group. Moreover, reduction in communication deficit in the exercise group at one month follow up remained unchanged compared to post-intervention time. We concluded that teaching Karate techniques to children with ASD leads to significant reduction in their communication deficit.

  2. Assessment and Communication for People with Disorders of Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortner, Rupert; Allison, Brendan Z; Pichler, Gerald; Heilinger, Alexander; Sabathiel, Nikolaus; Guger, Christoph

    2017-08-01

    In this experiment, we demonstrate a suite of hybrid Brain-Computer Interface (BCI)-based paradigms that are designed for two applications: assessing the level of consciousness of people unable to provide motor response and, in a second stage, establishing a communication channel for these people that enables them to answer questions with either 'yes' or 'no'. The suite of paradigms is designed to test basic responses in the first step and to continue to more comprehensive tasks if the first tests are successful. The latter tasks require more cognitive functions, but they could provide communication, which is not possible with the basic tests. All assessment tests produce accuracy plots that show whether the algorithms were able to detect the patient's brain's response to the given tasks. If the accuracy level is beyond the significance level, we assume that the subject understood the task and was able to follow the sequence of commands presented via earphones to the subject. The tasks require users to concentrate on certain stimuli or to imagine moving either the left or right hand. All tasks are designed around the assumption that the user is unable to use the visual modality, and thus, all stimuli presented to the user (including instructions, cues, and feedback) are auditory or tactile.

  3. Motor-auditory-visual integration: The role of the human mirror neuron system in communication and communication disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bel, Ronald M; Pineda, Jaime A; Sharma, Anu

    2009-01-01

    The mirror neuron system (MNS) is a trimodal system composed of neuronal populations that respond to motor, visual, and auditory stimulation, such as when an action is performed, observed, heard or read about. In humans, the MNS has been identified using neuroimaging techniques (such as fMRI and mu suppression in the EEG). It reflects an integration of motor-auditory-visual information processing related to aspects of language learning including action understanding and recognition. Such integration may also form the basis for language-related constructs such as theory of mind. In this article, we review the MNS system as it relates to the cognitive development of language in typically developing children and in children at-risk for communication disorders, such as children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or hearing impairment. Studying MNS development in these children may help illuminate an important role of the MNS in children with communication disorders. Studies with deaf children are especially important because they offer potential insights into how the MNS is reorganized when one modality, such as audition, is deprived during early cognitive development, and this may have long-term consequences on language maturation and theory of mind abilities. Readers will be able to (1) understand the concept of mirror neurons, (2) identify cortical areas associated with the MNS in animal and human studies, (3) discuss the use of mu suppression in the EEG for measuring the MNS in humans, and (4) discuss MNS dysfunction in children with (ASD).

  4. Co-occurrence of communication disorder and psychiatric disorders in maltreated children and adolescents: relationship with global functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivanin, Luciene; Oliveira, Christian C de; Santos, Fernanda P Dos; Santos, Bernardo Dos; Scivoletto, Sandra

    2016-03-01

    To study the co-occurrence of psychiatric disorders (PD) and communication disorders (CD) and their relationship with global functioning in maltreated children and adolescents. The sample comprised 143 maltreated children and adolescents (55.8% male). All underwent clinical communication and psychiatric evaluations, as well as global functioning assessment using the Children's Global Assessment Scale (C-GAS). Four groups emerged from evaluation: Group 1 (n=7, 4.9%) did not exhibit any disorders; Group 2 (n=26, 18.2%) exhibited PD; Group 3 (n=34, 23.8%) exhibited CD; and Group 4 (n=76, 53.1%) exhibited both PD and CD on evaluation. Significant differences in global functioning scores were found between G1 and G2, G1 and G4, G2 and G4, and G3 and G4, with the highest C-GAS scores found in G1 and the lowest in G4. Rates of PD and CD are high in this maltreated population. The presence of PD has a major impact on C-GAS score, and the simultaneous presence of CD increases the already impaired function of PD. Demonstration of the additive effects of PD and CD on youth functioning suggests that professionals should be alert to the presence of both disorders to better act preventively and therapeutically in a high-risk population.

  5. Effective Pedagogical Strategies for Millennial University Students in Communication Sciences and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseberry-McKibbin, Celeste; Pieretti, Robert; Haberstock, Keith; Estrada, Jovany

    2016-01-01

    University instructors nationwide have been recognizing the increased importance of updating classroom teaching strategies to accommodate the needs of the millennial student generation. This article shares results of surveys of 323 university students in communication sciences and disorders and what they view as effective pedagogical strategies…

  6. The Use of Peer Networks to Increase Communicative Acts of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamps, Debra; Mason, Rose; Thiemann-Bourque, Kathy; Feldmiller, Sarah; Turcotte, Amy; Miller, Todd

    2014-01-01

    Peer networks including social groups using typical peers, scripted instruction, visual text cues, and reinforcement were examined with students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A multiple baseline design across four participants was used to measure students' use of communication acts with peers during free play following instruction. Peer…

  7. Online Communication Training for Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Sarah N.; Kammes, Rebecca; Nordquist, Erica

    2018-01-01

    Parent training is an essential part of quality programming for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, limited research exists exploring online training approaches to support parents of children with both ASD and complex communication needs (CCN; e.g., limited verbal ability), despite the many benefits that online training might…

  8. Assessment of Theory of Mind in Children with Communication Disorders: Role of Presentation Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Buijsen, Marit; Hendriks, Angelique; Ketelaars, Mieke; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2011-01-01

    Children with communication disorders have problems with both language and social interaction. The theory-of-mind hypothesis provides an explanation for these problems, and different tests have been developed to test this hypothesis. However, different modes of presentation are used in these tasks, which make the results difficult to compare. In…

  9. 78 FR 9708 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... and performance, and the competence of individual investigators, the disclosure of which would... qualifications and performance, and competence of individual investigators. Place: National Institutes of Health... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the...

  10. 77 FR 13347 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... and performance, and the competence of individual investigators, the disclosure of which would... qualifications and performance, and competence of individual investigators. Place: National Institutes of Health... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the...

  11. 76 FR 10041 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... and performance, and the competence of individual investigators, the disclosure of which would... qualifications and performance, and competence of individual investigators. Place: National Institutes of Health... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the...

  12. Towards an International Framework for Communication Disorders: Use of the ICF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threats, Travis T.

    2006-01-01

    There has been an interest in the World Health Organization's framework of functioning and disability by those in communication disorders since the original 1980 International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities, and Handicaps (ICIDH). In 2001, WHO published the substantially revised International Classification of Functioning, Disability,…

  13. The Effect of Karate Techniques Training on Communication Deficit of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Fatimah; Movahedi, Ahmadreza; Marandi, Sayed Mohammad; Sorensen, Carl

    2016-01-01

    This investigation examined the long term effect of Karate techniques training on communication of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Thirty school aged children with ASD were randomly assigned to an exercise (n = 15) or a control group (n = 15). Participants in the exercise group were engaged in 14 weeks of Karate techniques training.…

  14. Computer-mediated communication in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders and controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Aa, Christine; Pollmann, Monique; Plaat, Aske; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that people with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are attracted to computer-mediated communication (CMC). In this study, we compare CMC use in adults with high-functioning ASD (N = 113) and a control group (N = 72). We find that people with ASD spend more time on CMC than

  15. The Swedish Version of the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO-10). Psychometric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, Gudrun; Hagberg, Bibbi; Billstedt, Eva; Skoglund, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Johansson, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Psychometric properties of the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders schedule (DISCO) have only been studied in the UK. The authorised Swedish translation of the tenth version of the DISCO (DISCO-10) was used in interviews with close relatives of 91 Swedish patients referred for neuropsychiatrical assessment. Validity…

  16. Effects of Bilingual Tact Instruction for a Child with Communication Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Alberto L.; Rosales, Rocío

    2018-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of tact training when instruction was presented in English only compared to tact training in a bilingual format (in English and the home language, Portuguese) for a participant diagnosed with a communication disorder. The participant's parents completed a questionnaire describing his exposure to both languages prior to the…

  17. Assessing the Believability of Standardized Patients Trained to Portray Communication Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Michael I.; Struijk, Jennie; Herron, Lindsay; Mach, Helen; Yorkston, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the believability of standardized patients portraying individuals with communication disorders as part of a larger study in which standardized patients help train medical and allied health students about communication disorders. Method Two women portrayed persons with aphasia, and 2 men depicted persons with dysarthria associated with Parkinson's disease. Two stakeholder groups rated believability. Speech-language pathologists rated believability of videos online. Persons with aphasia rated aphasia videos during in-person sessions with the researchers. Results Targeted believability was 80 or higher (0–100 scale; 0 = not at all believable, 100 = very believable). For speech-language pathologist raters, average ratings met the target for the portrayals of the aphasia characteristics of word-finding problems, agrammaticism, nonverbal communication, and overall portrayal but not for auditory comprehension problems. Targets for the portrayals were met for the dysarthria characteristics of reduced speech movements, reduced loudness, reduced intonation, flat affect, and overall portrayal but not for speech rate. Ratings for different standardized patients portraying the same case were not significantly different from each other on most characteristics. Ratings from persons with aphasia were highly variable. Conclusion Standardized patients who do not have communication disorders can portray disorder characteristics in a believable manner. PMID:28595263

  18. Parental Perspectives of Communication about Sexuality in Families of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballan, Michelle S.

    2012-01-01

    To explore the content of communication about sexuality between parents and children with autism spectrum disorders, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 parents of children ages 6-13. Content analysis and ethnographic summary were used to interpret the data. Findings suggest that parent's perceptions of a child's behaviors and…

  19. Establishing a Pedagogical Framework for the Multicultural Course in Communication Sciences and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton-Ikard, RaMonda; Munoz, Maria L.; Thomas-Tate, Shurita; Keller-Bell, Yolanda

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To provide an overview of a model for teaching a foundational course in multicultural (MC) issues and to demonstrate how it can be modified for use in communication sciences and disorders (CSD) by integrating 3 primary dimensions of cultural competence: awareness, knowledge, and skills. Method: This tutorial begins by establishing the…

  20. Responsible Conduct of Research in Communication Sciences and Disorders: Faculty and Student Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minifie, Fred D.; Robey, Randall R.; Horner, Jennifer; Ingham, Janis C.; Lansing, Charissa; McCartney, James H.; Alldredge, Elham-Eid; Slater, Sarah C.; Moss, Sharon E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Two Web-based surveys (Surveys I and II) were used to assess perceptions of faculty and students in Communication Sciences and Disorders (CSD) regarding the responsible conduct of research (RCR). Method: Survey questions addressed 9 RCR domains thought important to the responsible conduct of research: (a) human subjects protections; (b)…

  1. A Library Research Course for Graduate and Professional Students in Communication Sciences and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tag, Sylvia G.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the formation and content of a required library and information research course for graduate and professional students enrolled in the Communication Sciences and Disorders Master of Arts degree program at Western Washington University. The course was created as a result of library assessment, student feedback, and faculty…

  2. Promoting social communication through music therapy in children with autism spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geretsegger, Monika

    In this book, a PhD study is presented that investigates if and how music therapy may help to promote social communication in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The study examined several dimensions of this complex field, and includes four articles: (i) a systematic review (Cochrane...

  3. Multilingual Aspects of Speech Sound Disorders in Children. Communication Disorders across Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Sharynne; Goldstein, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Multilingual Aspects of Speech Sound Disorders in Children explores both multilingual and multicultural aspects of children with speech sound disorders. The 30 chapters have been written by 44 authors from 16 different countries about 112 languages and dialects. The book is designed to translate research into clinical practice. It is divided into…

  4. Social (Pragmatic) Communication Disorder and Its Relation to the Autism Spectrum: Dilemmas Arising from the DSM-5 Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brukner-Wertman, Yael; Laor, Nathaniel; Golan, Ofer

    2016-01-01

    DSM-5 introduced two diagnoses describing neurodevelopmental deficits in social communication (SC); Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Social (Pragmatic) Communication Disorder (SPCD). These diagnoses are differentiated by Repetitive and Restricted Behaviors (RRB), required for an ASD diagnosis and absent in SPCD. We highlight the gaps between the…

  5. [Interventions to promote social communication in children with autism spectrum disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baixauli-Fortea, I; Rosello-Miranda, B; Berenguer-Forner, C; Colomer-Diago, C; Grau-Sevilla, M D

    2017-02-24

    The difficulties encountered when it comes to social communication are one of the core disorders experienced by persons with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This problem leads to feelings of loneliness and social exclusion, which negatively affect the quality of life. To review the characteristics of the main interventions in this field in high-functioning ASD. Strategies employed include social stories, comic-strip conversations or videomodelling, and interventions mediated by peers and multicomponent treatments. The design of the programmes used today has evolved towards more ecological approaches that take the family, teachers and companions into account in the treatment. The most recent literature reviews have found evidence of significant improvements following their implementation, which has been reflected in better social competence and lesser feelings of loneliness. The social communication intervention must combine individualised instruction with consideration of the child's environment and the motivation towards communicative interaction.

  6. Spontaneous initiation of communication in infants at low and heightened risk for autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, Breanna M; Wozniak, Robert H; Parladé, Meaghan V; Iverson, Jana M

    2013-10-01

    Communication spontaneously initiated by infants at heightened risk (HR; n = 15) for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is compared with that in low-risk (LR; n = 15) infants at 13 and 18 months of age. Infants were observed longitudinally during naturalistic in-home interaction and semistructured play with caregivers. At both ages, HR infants spontaneously produced Words, Communicative Non-Word Vocalizations, show and point Gestures, and Gesture + Non-Word Vocalization combinations at lower rates than LR peers. This difference also held for Gesture + Word combinations at 18 but not 13 months. At 36 months, all HR children were evaluated for ASD, and 3 received a diagnosis of autistic disorder. At both 13 and 18 months, these 3 children had been at or near the bottom of the distribution on all spontaneous communication variables.

  7. [General principles of effective communication between physician and patient with selected mental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszczyk, Justyna; Bobińska, Kinga; Filip, Maria; Gałecki, Piotr

    2015-04-01

    Faced with the growing frequency of mental disorders occurrence and considering the necessity of improving the patient care, it is particularly important that physicians of different specialties knew the general principles of effective communication with patients who are mentally ill. Equally important is to spread the knowledge of the symptomatology of various mental illnesses. Studies published by the Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology involving persons between 18 and 64 years old, show that 8 millions Poles suffers or suffered from mental disorders. This represents almost 25% of Polish society. The above data confirm, that basic knowledge of criteria for diagnosing mental disorders and their treatment by primary care physicians, determines the success of the entire health care system. It must be taken into consideration that frequently patients seeing general practitioner (GP) are suffering from more than one mental illness or it is accompanied by somatic disease. Adequate communication determines effective treatment. Simple yet exact message, ability to adapt it to patient and problems reported by him, is a valuable means in daily medical practice. It reduces the risk of iatrogenic disorder, encourages the efficiency of the entire therapeutic process. Good cooperation with the patient is also determined by patience, empathy, understanding, and competence. The aim of this study is to present the principles of effective communication between doctor and patient suffering from selected mental disorders. The article defines the concept of communication. It shows symptomatology of primary psychiatric disorders. Moreover, the most common difficulties in relationship between the doctor and the patient had been pointed. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  8. Neuropeptides, neurogenic inflammation and complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birklein, Frank; Schmelz, Martin

    2008-06-06

    This review explains symptoms and nature of neuropeptide signaling and its importance for clinical symptoms of CRPS. Neurogenic inflammation regularly accompanies excitation of primary afferent nociceptors. It has two major components-plasma extravasation and vasodilatation. The most important mediators are the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP). After peripheral trauma immune reaction (e.g. cytokines) and the attempts of the tissue to regenerate (e.g. growth factors) sensitize nociceptors and amplify neurogenic inflammation. This cascade of events has been demonstrated in rat models of CRPS. Clinical findings in these animals strongly resemble clinical findings in CRPS, and can be prevented by anti-cytokine and anti-neuropeptide treatment. In CRPS patients, there is meanwhile also plenty of evidence that neurogenic inflammation contributes to clinical presentation. Increased cytokine production was demonstrated, as well as facilitated neurogenic inflammation. Very recently even "non-inflammatory" signs of CRPS (hyperhidrosis, cold skin) have been linked to neuropeptide signaling. Surprisingly, there was even moderately increased neurogenic inflammation in unaffected body regions. This favors the possibility that CRPS patients share genetic similarities. The future search for genetic commonalities will help us to further unravel the "mystery" CRPS.

  9. The relationship of early communication concerns to developmental delay and symptoms of autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turygin, Nicole; Matson, Johnny L; Konst, Matthew; Williams, Lindsey

    2013-08-01

    Parental concerns related to communication are an oft-cited reason that children present to early intervention clinics. We examine the relationship between early communication first concerns (FCs) and symptoms of ASD. The present study included 3173 toddlers at risk for developmental delay. The Battelle Developmental Inventory, 2nd edition and the Baby and Infant Screen for Children with aUtIsm Traits (BISCUIT) were used to examine developmental quotient scores and autism symptoms. Significant results were observed with respect to FC group and gender. A significant effect of FC-Communication group was observed with respect to developmental quotient overall and subscale scores, as well as autism symptom scores. Those with communication disorders are a heterogeneous population and do not account for all children who will meet criteria for a diagnosis of an ASD.

  10. Effectiveness of the Picture Exchange Communication System as a Functional Communication Intervention for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Practice-Based Research Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Kai-Chien

    2008-01-01

    This research synthesis verifies the effectiveness of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) for improving the functional communication skills of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The research synthesis was focused on the degree to which variations in PECS training are associated with variations in functional…

  11. Comparing the Picture Exchange Communication System and the iPad™ for Communication of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Developmental Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Doris Adams; Flores, Margaret M.

    2014-01-01

    Both picture exchange, a low-tech picturebased communication system, and technologybased interventions, such as the iPad™ with communication application, are emerging treatments for students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), according to the National Autism Center (2009). Recently, investigations regarding the use of the Apple iPad™ to…

  12. Effects of Mother-Implemented Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) Training on Independent Communicative Behaviors of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ju Hee; Alber-Morgan, Sheila R.; Cannella-Malone, Helen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of mother-implemented Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) training on the independent communication of three young children with autism spectrum disorders. Three mothers were trained to teach their child PECS Phases 1 through 3B, which they did with high integrity. Moreover, all three children successfully…

  13. The Effects of Mother-Implemented Picture Exchange Communication System Training on Spontaneous Communicative Behaviors of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ju Hee

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined whether mothers could be taught to implement the picture exchange communication system (PECS) training with their child and investigated the effects of the mother-implemented PECS training on the spontaneous communication of young children with autism spectrum disorders. Three mothers were trained to teach their child…

  14. Cognitive-communication disorder following right hemisphere stroke: exploring rehabilitation access and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewetson, Ronelle; Cornwell, Petrea; Shum, David

    2017-07-01

    Rehabilitation positively influences return to activities and social roles in people with aphasia. The cognitive-communication disorder (CCD) found following a right hemisphere stroke has been less extensively researched with rehabilitation access and outcomes yet to be determined. To document rehabilitation access and outcomes for people with CCD post-stroke; and compare outcomes based on presence (viz CCD; aphasia) or absence of communication impairment. A retrospective chart audit was completed for patients with first onset unilateral stroke, with a hospital length of stay (LOS) of at least two days and a communication assessment by a speech pathologist. Data extracted included presence and severity of communication impairment, access to and LOS in a rehabilitation unit, and functional outcome measures recorded at rehabilitation discharge. The majority of the 115 patients who met inclusion criteria were living independently (n = 112, 97.4%) at the time of stroke. CCD (66%) was diagnosed with similar frequency to aphasia (68%). The presence of communication impairment did not result in significant differences in rehabilitation LOS and discharge destination when compared to hemispheric strokes without communication impairment. Severity of CCD was an independent predictor of functional gain by rehabilitation discharge. People with CCD require comparable access to rehabilitation as people with aphasia, and severity of CCD should be considered in determining rehabilitation LOS. A large number of people are discharged with ongoing CCD which warrants exploration of potential participation restrictions created by the communication impairment.

  15. A STUDY OF THOUGHT, LANGUAGE AND COMMUNICATION (T.L.C) DISORDERS IN SCHIZOPHRNIA*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumdar, Pralay Kumar; Chaturvedi, S.K.; Gopinath, P.S.

    1988-01-01

    SUMMARY This study examines in detail - i) the magnitude, nature and severity of thought disorder in schizophrenia, ii) the correlations between type and severity of thought disorder with socio-demographic and clinical variables, and iii) differences between different subtypes of schizophrenia. Forty five schizophrenics (Research Diagnostic Criteria) were assessed by ‘live’ interview as well as tape recorded interviews. Instruments used for assessment were (a) Scale for assessment of Thought, Language and Communication (Andreasen 1978), (b) Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (Overall & Gorham 1962), (c) Mini Mental State (Folstein 1975), and (d) Clinical and demographic data recording proforma. The Schizophrenic patients were subdivided as (i) Acute and chronic (R.D.C.), (ii) Paranoid and non-paranoid; and (iii) Negative, positive, mixed (Andreasen's criteria) and intragroup and intergroup differences were computed. Poverty of speech, tangentiality, derailment, loss of goal, perseveration were found to be the commonest thought disorders. Positive and negative thought disorders were seen in equiproportion in both positive and negative schizophrenics. Significant differences were noted between thought disorders and education as well as habitat. Rural patients more often had negative formal thought disorders. Literates had more often clanging, neologism, circumstantiality and echolalia. This study provides ample information on the nature of thought disorder in Indian schizophrenic subjects. PMID:21927321

  16. Teaching medical students about communication in speech-language disorders: Effects of a lecture and a workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldert, Charlotta; Forsgren, Emma; Hartelius, Lena

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to explore the effects of an interactive workshop involving speech-language pathology students on medical students' knowledge about communication in relation to speech-language disorders. Fifty-nine medical students received a lecture about speech-language disorders. Twenty-six of them also participated in a workshop on communication with patients with speech-language disorders. All students completed a 12-item questionnaire exploring knowledge and attitudes towards communication before and after the lecture or the workshop. The results from the two groups' self-ratings of confidence in knowledge were compared with expert-ratings of their ability to choose suitable communicative strategies. Both the lecture and the workshop increased the students' confidence in knowledge about speech-language disorders and how to support communication. Only the workshop group also displayed a statistically significant increase in expert-rated ability and changed their attitude regarding responsibility for the communication in cases of speech-language disorders. There were no statistically significant correlations between the student's own confidence ratings and the experts' ratings of ability. Increased confidence in knowledge from learning is not always reflected in actual knowledge in how to communicate. However, an interactive workshop proved to increase medical students' expert-rated ability and attitudes related to communication in cases of speech-language disorders.

  17. Counseling Issues: Addressing Behavioral and Emotional Considerations in the Treatment of Communication Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Aaron

    2018-02-06

    Counseling is an important fundamental professional activity and an established component of the speech-language pathology/audiology scope of practice as documented by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (2004a, 2016a). Appropriate incorporation of counseling into practice can optimize service provision, help address comorbid behavioral and emotional reactions to communication disorders, and enhance prognosis. Practitioner insecurity in incorporating counseling into practice has been documented by Phillips and Mendel (2008), as well as Atkins (2007). This tutorial seeks to present general counseling constructs and treatment applications primarily utilizing a humanistic counseling perspective. This tutorial incorporated relevant publications from communication disorders and counseling psychology literature databases over a 3-year period. The tutorial evolved through interviews with practicing speech-language pathology practitioners and educators and was undertaken to provide transparency and clarity to support the assertions and recommendations offered. This tutorial organizes and presents general counseling considerations along with specific suggestions, which can help practitioners who are seeking to expand their understanding, skill, and confidence in incorporating counseling into their practice. The tutorial identifies some of the potential and impactful comorbid emotional and behavioral responses to experiencing a communication disorder and/or to the treatment process for the communication disorder issue(s). Theoretically grounded considerations for mitigating such potentially impactful responses are offered. Continued and enhanced efforts may be necessary to meet American Speech-Language-Hearing Association's mandate for universal incorporation of empirically supported counseling approaches and in advancing universal speech-language pathology/audiology training in this area. It is hoped that this tutorial serves as an initial guide for addressing

  18. Interprofessional Communication Concerning Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Séverine; Gouyet, Thomas; Letourneux, Véronique Daubas; Mener, Eric; Huge, Sandrine; Petit, Audrey; Begue, Cyril

    2018-02-06

    Purpose Understanding and treating musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) requires coordination between the numerous healthcare professionals involved, including occupational physicians (OPs), general practitioners (GPs) and social insurance physicians (SIPs). The main objective of this study was to assess communication between OPs, GPs and SIPs in the management of MSDs. Methods This is a qualitative study in the form of semi-structured interviews with OPs in the French region of Brittany. The interviews were conducted until data saturation was achieved. The interviews were fully coded and analysed thematically using NVivo® software. Results The interviews were carried out among 17 OPs from companies and external occupational healthcare services who treated employees from various activity sectors. Different communication channels were used depending on the interlocutor, though they were mainly contacted by mail or phone. Most of the communication passed through the patient, either verbally or in writing. No major failure was detected in communication between the various types of practitioners, but instances of communication were influenced by various factors such as differences in perception, representation and objectives, as well as by how well the physicians knew each other. A number of instances of non-communication were found. Conclusion This study showed that patients play a key role in the interactions between different practitioners. It also revealed that different types of professional relationships depend on the objectives of the various interlocutors, which in turn vary according to their roles and competences.

  19. Communication disorders in individuals with cleft lip and palate: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagarajan Roopa

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The need for an interdisciplinary approach in the comprehensive management of individuals with cleft lip and palate is well recognized. This article provides an introduction to communication disorders in individuals with cleft lip and palate for members of cleft care teams. The speech pathologist is involved in identifying those infants who are at risk for communication disorders and also for initiating early intervention to prevent or mitigate communication disorders caused by the cleft. Even with early cleft repair, some children exhibit ′cleft palate speech′ characterized by atypical consonant productions, abnormal nasal resonance, abnormal nasal airflow, altered laryngeal voice quality, and nasal or facial grimaces. These manifestations are evaluated to identify those that (a are developmental, (b can be corrected through speech therapy alone, and, (c those that may require both surgery and speech therapy. Speech is evaluated perceptually using several types of stimuli. It is important to identify compensatory and obligatory errors in articulation. When velopharyngeal dysfunction is suspected, the assessment should include at least one direct measure such as nasoendoscopy or videofluoroscopy. This provides information about the adequacy of the velopharyngeal valve for speech production, and is useful for planning further management of velopharyngeal dysfunction. The basic principle of speech therapy in cleft lip and palate is to establish the correct placement of the articulators and appropriate air flow. Appropriate feedback is important during therapy for establishing the correct patterns of speech.

  20. Observation of Spontaneous Expressive Language (OSEL): A New Measure for Spontaneous and Expressive Language of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Other Communication Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Hyun; Junker, Dörte; Lord, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    A new language measure, the Observation of Spontaneous Expressive Language (OSEL), is intended to document spontaneous use of syntax, pragmatics, and semantics in 2-12-year-old children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and other communication disorders with expressive language levels comparable to typical 2-5 year olds. Because the purpose of…

  1. N-Cadherin Upregulation Promotes the Neurogenic Differentiation of Menstrual Blood-Derived Endometrial Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanli; Yang, Fen; Liang, Shengying; Liu, Qing; Fu, Sulei; Wang, Zhenyu; Yang, Ciqing; Lin, Juntang

    2018-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries are typically caused by either trauma or medical disorders, and recently, stem cell-based therapies have provided a promising treatment approach. Menstrual blood-derived endometrial stem cells (MenSCs) are considered an ideal therapeutic option for peripheral nerve repair due to a noninvasive collection procedure and their high proliferation rate and immunological tolerance. Here, we successfully isolated MenSCs and examined their biological characteristics including their morphology, multipotency, and immunophenotype. Subsequent in vitro studies demonstrated that MenSCs express high levels of neurotrophic factors, such as NT3, NT4, BDNF, and NGF, and are capable of transdifferentiating into glial-like cells under conventional induction conditions. Moreover, upregulation of N-cadherin (N-cad) mRNA and protein expression was observed after neurogenic differentiation. In vivo studies clearly showed that N-cad knockdown via in utero electroporation perturbed the migration and maturation of mouse neural precursor cells (NPCs). Finally, a further transfection assay also confirmed that N-cad upregulation in MenSCs results in the expression of S100. Collectively, our results confirmed the paracrine effect of MenSCs on neuroprotection as well as their potential for transdifferentiation into glial-like cells and demonstrated that N-cad upregulation promotes the neurogenic differentiation of MenSCs, thereby providing support for transgenic MenSC-based therapy for peripheral nerve injury.

  2. Developing a classification system of social communication functioning of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rezze, Briano; Rosenbaum, Peter; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Hidecker, Mary Jo Cooley; Stratford, Paul; Cousins, Martha; Camden, Chantal; Law, Mary

    2016-09-01

    Impairments in social communication are the hallmark of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Operationalizing 'severity' in ASD has been challenging; thus, stratifying by functioning has not been possible. The purpose of this study is to describe the development of the Autism Classification System of Functioning: Social Communication (ACSF:SC) and to evaluate its consistency within and between parent and professional ratings. (1) ACSF:SC development based on focus groups and surveys involving parents, educators, and clinicians familiar with preschoolers with ASD; and (2) evaluation of the intra- and interrater agreement of the ACSF:SC using weighted kappa (кw ). Seventy-six participants were involved in the development process. Core characteristics of social communication were ascertained: communicative intent; communicative skills and reciprocity; and impact of environment. Five ACSF:SC levels were created and content-validated across participants. Best capacity and typical performance agreement ratings varied as follows: intrarater agreement on 41 children was кw =0.61 to 0.69 for parents, and кw =0.71 to 0.95 for professionals; interrater agreement between professionals was кw =0.47 to 0.61, and between parents and professionals was кw =0.33 to 0.53. Perspectives from parents and professionals informed ACSF:SC development, providing common descriptions of the levels of everyday communicative abilities of children with ASD to complement the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Rater agreement demonstrates that the ACSF:SC can be used with acceptable consistency compared with other functional classification systems. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  3. Capitalizing on technology for developing communication skills in autism spectrum disorder: a single case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Veena; Kunnath, Suja Kurian; Philip, Vineetha Sara; Mohan, Lakshmi Santha; Thampi, Neethu

    2017-12-15

    In this case study, we discuss the application of a patient-centred clinical approach that led to the use of an assisted communication platform to combat severe communicative deficit in a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Initial assessment at four years of age revealed that the patient had rudimentary communication skills, with significant sensory integration dysfunction manifested as oral, olfactory, and tactile seeking behaviours; self-stimulatory behaviour; and complete dependence on caregiver for activities of daily living. Intensive, multi-disciplinary intervention resulted in minimal improvement in communicative skills and sensory seeking over six months. Subsequently, a tailor-made picture-assisted communication training with the mother as the communication facilitator was adopted. This approach was abandoned due to the patient's poor response and mother's low acceptance of picture-based interaction. A preference for printed material was observed in the patient. Accordingly, further management was focused on employing a computer-based interactive platform that the patient was taught to use over the course of a few months as a part of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) intervention program. This resulted in a remarkable improvement in the child's skills that now allowed for a better intentional communication of his thoughts and needs. This study highlights the importance of revisiting conventional rehabilitation strategies for communicative deficits and tailoring them according to the patient's needs and preferences. It also emphasises that besides excellent observation skills, clinicians must be willing to consider technology based approaches in patients responding poorly to traditional approaches in order to develop effective interventional programmes. Implication for Rehabilitation The current study highlights the importance of exploring the application of technology based intervention for building communication skills in the early

  4. [Indices of 24-hour monitoring of arterial blood pressure in patients with neurogenic syncope and patients with chronic constitution- dependent hypotension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaeva, Z A; Khapaev, B A; Fedotova, A V; Oknin, V Iu

    1999-01-01

    Clinical-psychologic study, spectral analysis of heart rate variability, 24-h monitoring of arterial pressure (AP) were performed in 20 patients with chronic constitutional arterial hypotension and in 18 patients with neurogenic syncopal states. Both groups were characterised by considerable manifestations of the syndrome of autonomic dystonia, by emotional-personal disorders that correlated with elevated level of slow-waves of the second order in heart rhythms' spectrum. That testified activation of supersegmental sympathetic-adrenal systems. Disorders in sympathetic-parasympathetic correlations were specific in each group. In patients with arterial hypotension disorder of circadian rhythm was observed in the form of superfluous decrease of diastolic AP during sleep. Circadian rhythms in patients with neurogenic syncopes have parameters characteristic for normals showing a preverved chronobiologic AP regulation. A role of the alterations revealed in pathogenesis of arterial hypotensionis discussed.

  5. Different communication strategies for disclosing a diagnosis of schizophrenia and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Saeed; Johal, Rupinder K; Ziff, Charlotte; Naeem, Farooq

    2017-10-24

    Delivering the diagnosis of a serious illness is an important skill in most fields of medicine, including mental health. Research has found that communication skills can impact on a person's recall and understanding of the diagnosis, treatment options and prognosis. People may feel confused and perplexed when information about their illness is not communicated properly. Sharing information about diagnosis of a serious mental illness is particularly challenging. The nature of mental illness is often difficult to explain since there may be no clear aetiology, and the treatment options and prognosis may vary enormously. In addition, newly diagnosed psychiatric patients, who are actively ill, often may not accept their diagnosis due to lack of insight or stigma attached to the condition. There are several interventions that aim to help clinicians to communicate life changing medical diagnoses to people; however, little is known specifically for delivering a diagnosis of schizophrenia. To evaluate evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) for the efficacy of different communication strategies used by clinicians to inform people about the diagnosis and outcome of schizophrenia compared with treatment as usual and to compare efficacy between different communication strategies. On 22 June 2015 and 29 June 2016, we searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Study-Based Register of Trials. We also searched sources of grey literature (e.g., dissertations, theses, clinical reports, evaluations published on websites, clinical guidelines and reports from regulatory agencies). We planned to include all relevant RCTs that included adults with schizophrenia or related disorders, including schizophreniform disorder, schizoaffective disorder and delusional disorder. The trials would have investigated the effects of communication strategy or strategies that helped clinicians deliver information specifically about a diagnosis of schizophrenia (which can also include

  6. [Communicative disorder prevalence and associated risk factors regarding informal workers in Popayan, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Pérez, Aura T; Sierra-Torres, Carlos H

    2014-01-01

    Determining the prevalence of alterations in informal workers’ audition, respiratory and vocal functions and their association with certain risk factors in Popayan, Colombia. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study of 186 informal workers (i.e. people selling things in the street). After signing an informed consent form, an interview was held to obtain data regarding sociodemographic and communicative variables. The workers were then evaluated using tests for tone audiometry, respiratory function and Wilson's voice profile. SPSS (v.19.0) was used for statistical analysis. Being older than 30 years of age (OR 5.84: 2.85-12.00 95%CI), having a poor educational level (2.81: 1.22-6.44 95%CI) and low socioeconomic status (4.54:1.89-10.91 95%CI) and prolonged working hours (2.64: 1.27-5.06 95%CI) were associated with auditive function disorders. Respiratory function disorders were associated with being female (1.83; 1.00-3.34 95%CI) and having prolonged working hours (2.04: 1.11-3.74 95%CI). Regarding vocal function, being over 30 years-old (3.36: 1.33-3.51 95%CI) and having a low educational level (3.67; 1.05-12.76 95%CI) were risk factors. Communicative factors related to auditive, respiratory and voice disorder were ear pain, hypertrophic tonsils, trauma, gastro-esophageal reflux, frequent cough, strong emotions and screaming. It is evident that alterations in informal workers'’ communicative system are associated with certain sociodemographic and communicative risk factors. This information provides a baseline for improving healthcare promotion and disease prevention strategies aimed at this population.

  7. User-Centered Design and Augmentative and Alternative Communication Apps for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Lubas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Communication difficulties are among the most frequent characteristics of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Lack of communication can have a significant impact on the child’s life. Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC apps are a common form of AAC interventions that involve a combination of affordable technology with software that can be utilized to assist with communication. While AAC apps have been found to have some impact on improving the communication skills of children with ASD, current research exploring this topic is still limited. Focusing on the design process of AAC apps may provide better insight into improving clinical outcomes and user success. The user-centered design process incorporates a continuous cycle of user feedback to help inform and improve the functions and the capabilities of the technology, and it is an essential component in AAC app development. This article outlines how the user-centered design process could be adopted for the development of AAC apps for children with ASD.

  8. Auditory and communicative abilities in the auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder and mutation in the Otoferlin gene: clinical cases study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Nayara Thais de Oliveira; Martinho-Carvalho, Ana Claudia; Cunha, Maria Claudia; Lewis, Doris Ruthi

    2012-01-01

    This study had the aim to investigate the auditory and communicative abilities of children diagnosed with Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder due to mutation in the Otoferlin gene. It is a descriptive and qualitative study in which two siblings with this diagnosis were assessed. The procedures conducted were: speech perception tests for children with profound hearing loss, and assessment of communication abilities using the Behavioral Observation Protocol. Because they were siblings, the subjects in the study shared family and communicative context. However, they developed different communication abilities, especially regarding the use of oral language. The study showed that the Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder is a heterogeneous condition in all its aspects, and it is not possible to make generalizations or assume that cases with similar clinical features will develop similar auditory and communicative abilities, even when they are siblings. It is concluded that the acquisition of communicative abilities involves subjective factors, which should be investigated based on the uniqueness of each case.

  9. iPad: Efficacy of Electronic Devices to Help Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder to Communicate in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankardas, Sulata Ajit; Rajanahally, Jayashree

    2017-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are known to have difficulty in social communication, with research indicating that children with ASD fail to develop functional speech (Lord and Rutter, 1994). Over the years a number of Augmented and Alternate Communication (AAC) devices have been used with children with ASD to overcome this barrier…

  10. Parent-Teacher Communication about Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Examination of Collaborative Problem-Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Gazi F.; Kim, Mina; Marcus, Steven C.; Sheridan, Susan M.; Mandell, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Effective parent-teacher communication involves problem-solving concerns about students. Few studies have examined problem-solving interactions between parents and teachers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with a particular focus on identifying communication barriers and strategies for improving them. This study examined the…

  11. Thought Disorder and Communication Deviance as Predictors of Outcome in Youth at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearden, Carrie E.; Wu, Keng Nei; Caplan, Rochelle; Cannon, Tyrone D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Given the fundamental role of thought disorder in schizophrenia, subtle communication disturbance may be a valuable predictor of subsequent development of psychosis. Here we examined the contribution of thought and communication disturbance to the prediction of outcome in adolescents identified as putatively prodromal for psychosis.…

  12. Developing a Schedule to Identify Social Communication Difficulties and Autism Spectrum Disorder in Young Children with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absoud, Michael; Parr, Jeremy R.; Salt, Alison; Dale, Naomi

    2011-01-01

    Available observational tools used in the identification of social communication difficulties and diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) rely partly on visual behaviours and therefore may not be valid in children with visual impairment. A pilot observational instrument, the Visual Impairment and Social Communication Schedule (VISS), was…

  13. Internet-Communication Disorder: It's a Matter of Social Aspects, Coping, and Internet-Use Expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, Elisa; Brand, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Online communication applications such as Facebook, WhatsApp, and Twitter are some of the most frequently used Internet applications. There is a growing amount of individuals suffering diminished control over their use of online communication applications which leads to diverse negative consequences in offline life. This could be referred to as Internet-communication disorder (ICD). The current study investigates the role of individual characteristics (e.g., psychopathological symptoms, feelings of loneliness) and specific cognitions. In a sample of 485 participants a structural equation model was tested to investigate predictors and mediators which may predict an excessive use. The results emphasize that a higher level of social loneliness and less perceived social support enhance the risk of a pathological use. The effects of psychopathological symptoms (depression and social anxiety) as well as individual characteristics (self-esteem, self-efficacy, and stress vulnerability) on ICD symptoms are mediated by Internet-use expectancies and dysfunctional coping mechanisms. The results illustrate mediation effects which are in line with the theoretical model by Brand et al. (2016). As suggested in the model social aspects seem to be key predictors of ICD symptoms. Further research should investigate convergent and divergent factors of other types of specific Internet-use disorders.

  14. Internet-Communication Disorder: It's a Matter of Social Aspects, Coping, and Internet-Use Expectancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, Elisa; Brand, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Online communication applications such as Facebook, WhatsApp, and Twitter are some of the most frequently used Internet applications. There is a growing amount of individuals suffering diminished control over their use of online communication applications which leads to diverse negative consequences in offline life. This could be referred to as Internet-communication disorder (ICD). The current study investigates the role of individual characteristics (e.g., psychopathological symptoms, feelings of loneliness) and specific cognitions. In a sample of 485 participants a structural equation model was tested to investigate predictors and mediators which may predict an excessive use. The results emphasize that a higher level of social loneliness and less perceived social support enhance the risk of a pathological use. The effects of psychopathological symptoms (depression and social anxiety) as well as individual characteristics (self-esteem, self-efficacy, and stress vulnerability) on ICD symptoms are mediated by Internet-use expectancies and dysfunctional coping mechanisms. The results illustrate mediation effects which are in line with the theoretical model by Brand et al. (2016). As suggested in the model social aspects seem to be key predictors of ICD symptoms. Further research should investigate convergent and divergent factors of other types of specific Internet-use disorders. PMID:27891107

  15. Signaling of noncomprehension in communication breakdowns in fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome, and autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gary E; Barstein, Jamie; Hornickel, Jane; Matherly, Sara; Durante, Genna; Losh, Molly

    The ability to indicate a failure to understand a message is a critical pragmatic (social) language skill for managing communication breakdowns and supporting successful communicative exchanges. The current study examined the ability to signal noncomprehension across different types of confusing message conditions in children and adolescents with fragile X syndrome (FXS), Down syndrome (DS), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and typical development (TD). Controlling for nonverbal mental age and receptive vocabulary skills, youth with comorbid FXS and ASD and those with DS were less likely than TD controls to signal noncomprehension of confusing messages. Youth with FXS without ASD and those with idiopathic ASD did not differ from controls. No sex differences were detected in any group. Findings contribute to current knowledge of pragmatic profiles in different forms of genetically-based neurodevelopmental disorders associated with intellectual disability, and the role of sex in the expression of such profiles. Upon completion of this article, readers will have learned about: (1) the social-communicative profiles of youth with FXS, DS, and ASD, (2) the importance of signaling noncomprehension in response to a confusing message, and (3) the similarities and differences in noncomprehension signaling in youth with FXS (with and without ASD), DS, idiopathic ASD, and TD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. What's New in Treating Inpatients With Personality Disorders?: Dialectical Behavior Therapy and Old-Fashioned, Good Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Sarah; Platt, Lois M

    2016-01-01

    Psychiatric unit inpatients often have serious mental illnesses with comorbid personality disorders. Mental illnesses usually respond favorably to medication and psychotherapy, but personality disorders do not. Two personality disorders are commonly seen on inpatient units: borderline and antisocial. These personality disorders may destabilize the milieu with disruptive behaviors and present a challenge to nurses. Difficult patient behaviors and therapeutic responses by nurses are examined. Dialectical behavior therapy techniques and good communication skills may be used by nurses to (a) interact therapeutically with patients with personality disorders and (b) protect other patients and the milieu. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Early Markers of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Infants and Toddlers Prospectively Identified in the Social Attention and Communication Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Josephine; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    The Social Attention and Communication Study involved the successful implementation of developmental surveillance of the early markers of autism spectrum disorders in a community-based setting. The objective in the current study was to determine the most discriminating and predictive markers of autism spectrum disorders used in the Social…

  18. Moderating Effects of Challenging Behaviors and Communication Deficits on Social Skills in Children Diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Hess, Julie A.; Mahan, Sara

    2013-01-01

    One-hundred nine children 3-16 years of age diagnosed with Autistic Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified, or Asperger's Syndrome were studied. Children resided in six states in the United States. Using moderation analysis via multiple regression, verbal communication and challenging behaviors and how they interact…

  19. The Efficiency of Peer Teaching of Developing Non Verbal Communication to Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshurman, Wael; Alsreaa, Ihsani

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the efficiency of peer teaching of developing non-verbal communication to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The study was carried out on a sample of (10) children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), diagnosed according to basics and criteria adopted at Al-taif qualification center at (2013) in The…

  20. Assessing early communication skills at 12 months: a retrospective study of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Nathaniel Robert; Eadie, Patricia Ann; Prior, Margot Ruth; Reilly, Sheena

    2015-07-01

    Early identification of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is currently limited by the absence of reliable biological markers for the disorder, as well as the reliability of screening and assessment tools for children aged between 6 and 18 months. Ongoing research has demonstrated the importance of early social communication skills in differentiating children later diagnosed with ASD from their typically developing (TD) peers, but researchers have not yet investigated whether these differences can be detected using community-ascertained systematic observation data as early as 12 months. To investigate whether differences in early social communication skills can be detected at 12 months of age, comparing children later diagnosed with ASD, and TD peers; and to determine whether differences remain when groupings are based on age of subsequent ASD diagnosis. From a prospective community-ascertained sample, we collected data on children in early life, then conducted retrospective analyses for those children who were later diagnosed with ASD by the age of 7 years, compared with matched TD peers. We analysed standardized observational data of early communication skills, collected using the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales-Developmental Profile (CSBS-DP) Behavior Sample, when participants were 12 months of age. Children in the ASD group exhibited significantly lower social communication skills than the TD group, including on the Total score and Social and Symbolic Composite scores of the CSBS-DP Behavior Sample. Differences on the Total score and Social Composite were also detected for both early and late ASD diagnosis groups when compared with the TD group. These findings give further support for the importance of social communication in assessing children at risk of ASD as early as 12 months of age. Future research could evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of direct observation of these early communication skills as diagnostic indicators for ASD at 12 months

  1. Causal effects on child language development: A review of studies in communication sciences and disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Clare R; Nulty, Karissa L; Betancourt, Mariana Aparicio; DeThorne, Laura S

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed recent studies published across key journals within the field of communication sciences and disorders (CSD) to survey what causal influences on child language development were being considered. Specifically, we reviewed a total of 2921 abstracts published within the following journals between 2003 and 2013: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools (LSHSS); American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology (AJSLP); Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research (JSLHR); Journal of Communication Disorders (JCD); and the International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders (IJLCD). Of the 346 eligible articles that addressed causal factors on child language development across the five journals, 11% were categorized as Genetic (37/346), 83% (287/346) were categorized as Environmental, and 6% (22/346) were categorized as Mixed. The bulk of studies addressing environmental influences focused on therapist intervention (154/296=52%), family/caregiver linguistic input (65/296=22%), or family/caregiver qualities (39/296=13%). A more in-depth review of all eligible studies published in 2013 (n=34) revealed that family/caregiver qualities served as the most commonly controlled environmental factor (e.g., SES) and only 3 studies explicitly noted the possibility of gene-environment interplay. This review highlighted the need to expand the research base for the field of CSD to include a broader range of environmental influences on child language development (e.g., diet, toxin exposure, stress) and to consider more directly the complex and dynamic interplay between genetic and environmental effects. Readers will be able to highlight causal factors on child language development that have been studied over the past decade in CSD and recognize additional influences worthy of consideration. In addition, readers will become familiar with basic tenets of developmental systems theory, including the complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors

  2. Reduced tract integrity of the model for social communication is a neural substrate of social communication deficits in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yu-Chun; Chen, Yu-Jen; Hsu, Yung-Chin; Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2017-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with social communication deficits as one of the core symptoms. Recently, a five-level model for the social communication has been proposed in which white matter tracts corresponding to each level of the model are identified. Given that the model for social communication subserves social language functions, we hypothesized that the tract integrity of the model for social communication may be reduced in ASD, and the reduction may be related to social communication deficits. Sixty-two right-handed boys with ASD and 55 typically developing (TD) boys received clinical evaluations, intelligence tests, the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ), and MRI scans. Generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA) was measured by diffusion spectrum imaging to indicate the microstructural integrity of the tracts for each level of the social communication model. Group difference in the tract integrity and its relationship with the SCQ subscales of social communication and social interaction were investigated. We found that the GFA values of the superior longitudinal fasciculus III (SLF III, level 1) and the frontal aslant tracts (FAT, level 2) were decreased in ASD compared to TD. Moreover, the GFA values of the SLF III and the FAT were associated with the social interaction subscale in ASD. The tract integrity of the model for social communication is reduced in ASD, and the reduction is associated with impaired social interaction. Our results support that reduced tract integrity of the model for social communication might be a neural substrate of social communication deficits in ASD. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  3. Brief report: parent-child sexuality communication and autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Laura G; Himle, Michael B

    2014-11-01

    While considerable research has focused on promoting independence and optimizing quality of life for adolescents and young adult with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), sexual development and sexuality education have been largely neglected. Experts recommend that parents be the primary source of sex education for adolescents with ASD, and that sex education be tailored to a child's developmental level. Prior studies show that parents of youth with ASD are uncertain about how to best communicate about sex and which topics to discuss with their children. In the current study we administered an online survey to 190 parents of adolescents with ASD in order to better understand sexuality communication patterns between parents and adolescents with both low and high functioning ASD.

  4. The effect of sung speech on socio-communicative responsiveness in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Arkoprovo; Sharda, Megha; Menon, Soumini; Arora, Iti; Kansal, Nayantara; Arora, Kavita; Singh, Nandini C

    2015-01-01

    There is emerging evidence to demonstrate the efficacy of music-based interventions for improving social functioning in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). While this evidence lends some support in favor of using song over spoken directives in facilitating engagement and receptive intervention in ASD, there has been little research that has investigated the efficacy of such stimuli on socio-communicative responsiveness measures. Here, we present preliminary results from a pilot study which tested whether sung instruction, as compared to spoken directives, could elicit greater number of socio-communicative behaviors in young children with ASD. Using an adapted single-subject design, three children between the ages of 3 and 4 years, participated in a programme consisting of 18 sessions, of which 9 were delivered with spoken directives and 9 with sung. Sessions were counterbalanced and randomized for three play activities-block matching, picture matching and clay play. All sessions were video-recorded for post-hoc observational coding of three behavioral metrics which included performance, frequency of social gesture and eye contact. Analysis of the videos by two independent raters indicated increased socio-communicative responsiveness in terms of frequency of social gesture as well as eye contact during sung compared to spoken conditions, across all participants. Our findings suggest that sung directives may play a useful role in engaging children with ASD and also serve as an effective interventional medium to enhance socio-communicative responsiveness.

  5. Internet communication of outpatients with Asperger's disorder or schizophrenia in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Takashi; Suzuki, Kunifumi

    2015-03-01

    There is insufficient information about the Internet usage of psychiatric patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the usage of Internet communication among subjects with Asperger's disorder (AD) or schizophrenia. A questionnaire survey was carried out in Japan among 29 outpatients with AD, 32 outpatients with schizophrenia, and 97 age-matched normal volunteers. This study limited the participants to young male adults (20- to 39-year-olds) using the Internet. People with a diagnosis of AD prefer personal computers to mobile phones as their Internet terminal, have an inclination to use anonymous media, and tend to think that they can communicate more correctly through the Internet than face-to-face communication. People with a diagnosis of schizophrenia employ the Internet to a degree almost similar to controls, and tend to rely on unknown persons, but also sometimes feel hurt when communicating on the Internet. Moreover, their sensitivity to the risks of the Internet tends to decrease with the aggravation of their psychotic symptoms. It may be important to pay attention to the excessive use of some limited media by people with a diagnosis of AD. Providing people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia with sufficient information about the risks of the Internet is also important. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. The effect of sung speech on socio-communicative responsiveness in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkoprovo ePaul

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There is emerging evidence to demonstrate the efficacy of music based interventions for improving social functioning in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD. While this evidence lends some support in favour of using song over spoken directives in facilitating engagement and receptive intervention in ASD, there has been little research that has investigated the efficacy of such stimuli on socio-communicative responsiveness measures. Here, we present preliminary results from a pilot study which tested whether sung instruction, as compared to spoken directives, could elicit greater number of socio-communicative behaviours in young children with ASD. Using an adapted single-subject design, three children between the ages of 3 and 4 years, participated in a programme consisting of 18 sessions, of which 9 were delivered with spoken directives and 9 with sung. Sessions were counterbalanced and randomized for three play activities - block matching, picture matching and clay play. All sessions were video-recorded for post-hoc observational coding of three behavioural metrics which included performance, frequency of social gesture and eye contact. Analysis of the videos by two independent raters indicated increased socio-communicative responsiveness in terms of frequency of social gesture as well as eye contact during sung compared to spoken conditions across all participants. Our findings suggest that sung directives may play a useful role in engaging children with ASD and also serve as an effective interventional medium to enhance socio-communicative responsiveness.

  7. Does occupational therapy play a role for communication in children with autism spectrum disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Michèle L J; Kehayia, Eva; Prelock, Patricia; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon; Snider, Laurie

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates occupational therapy for early communication in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The research explored the role of occupational therapists in supporting children with ASD to become better communicators by considering their inter-professional collaboration with speech-language pathologists. Convenience samples of 21 clinical occupational therapists and speech-language pathologists were recruited to participate in semi-structured audio-recorded focus groups, using a qualitative design. Distinct views included a child-centred focus from speech-language pathologists, whereas occupational therapists spoke of the child through societal viewpoints, which later pointed to occupational therapists' proficiency in enabling skill generalization in ASD. An equal partnership was consistently reported between these clinicians, who identified the same objectives, shared strategies, joint treatments, and ongoing collaboration as the four main facilitators to inter-professional collaboration when treating children with ASD. Three unique roles of occupational therapy comprised developing non-verbal and verbal communication pre-requisites, adapting the setting, educating-partnering-advocating for the child, and providing occupation-based intervention. These three themes meshed with the discipline-specific occupational therapy domains represented in the Person-Environment-Occupation framework. When working in inter-professional collaboration, speech-language pathologists and occupational therapists agree that occupational therapy is indispensable to early intervention in enabling communication in ASD.

  8. Online-specific fear of missing out and Internet-use expectancies contribute to symptoms of Internet-communication disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, Elisa; Oberst, Ursula; Stodt, Benjamin; Brand, Matthias

    2017-06-01

    Some of the most frequently used online applications are Facebook, WhatsApp, and Twitter. These applications allow individuals to communicate with other users, to share information or pictures, and to stay in contact with friends all over the world. However, a growing number of users suffer from negative consequences due to their excessive use of these applications, which can be referred to as Internet-communication disorder. The frequent use and easy access of these applications may also trigger the individual's fear of missing out on content when not accessing these applications. Using a sample of 270 participants, a structural equation model was analyzed to investigate the role of psychopathological symptoms and the fear of missing out on expectancies towards Internet-communication applications in the development of symptoms of an Internet-communication disorder. The results suggest that psychopathological symptoms predict higher fear of missing out on the individual's Internet-communication applications and higher expectancies to use these applications as a helpful tool to escape from negative feelings. These specific cognitions mediate the effect of psychopathological symptoms on Internet-communication disorder. Our results are in line with the theoretical model by Brand et al. (2016) as they show how Internet-related cognitive bias mediates the relationship between a person's core characteristics (e.g., psychopathological symptoms) and Internet-communication disorder. However, further studies should investigate the role of the fear of missing out as a specific predisposition, as well as specific cognition in the online context.

  9. Online-specific fear of missing out and Internet-use expectancies contribute to symptoms of Internet-communication disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Wegmann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most frequently used online applications are Facebook, WhatsApp, and Twitter. These applications allow individuals to communicate with other users, to share information or pictures, and to stay in contact with friends all over the world. However, a growing number of users suffer from negative consequences due to their excessive use of these applications, which can be referred to as Internet-communication disorder. The frequent use and easy access of these applications may also trigger the individual's fear of missing out on content when not accessing these applications. Using a sample of 270 participants, a structural equation model was analyzed to investigate the role of psychopathological symptoms and the fear of missing out on expectancies towards Internet-communication applications in the development of symptoms of an Internet-communication disorder. The results suggest that psychopathological symptoms predict higher fear of missing out on the individual's Internet-communication applications and higher expectancies to use these applications as a helpful tool to escape from negative feelings. These specific cognitions mediate the effect of psychopathological symptoms on Internet-communication disorder. Our results are in line with the theoretical model by Brand et al. (2016 as they show how Internet-related cognitive bias mediates the relationship between a person's core characteristics (e.g., psychopathological symptoms and Internet-communication disorder. However, further studies should investigate the role of the fear of missing out as a specific predisposition, as well as specific cognition in the online context.

  10. Spontaneous Bladder Perforation in an Infant Neurogenic Bladder: Laparoscopic Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cabezalí Barbancho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous bladder perforation is an uncommon event in childhood. It is usually associated with bladder augmentation. We are presenting a case of bladder rupture in an infant with neurogenic bladder without prior bladder surgery. Three days after lipomyelomeningocele excision the patient showed signs and symptoms of acute abdomen. The ultrasound exploration revealed significant amount of intraperitoneal free fluid and therefore a laparoscopic exploration was performed. A posterior bladder rupture was diagnosed and repaired laparoscopically. Currently, being 3 years old, she keeps successfully dry with clean intermittent catheterization. Neurogenic bladder voiding function can change at any time of its evolution and lead to complications. Early diagnosis of spontaneous bladder rupture is of paramount importance, so it is essential to think about it in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen.

  11. Neurogenic bowel dysfunction in patients with spinal cord injury, myelomeningocele, multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard A Awad

    2011-01-01

    Exciting new features have been described concerning neurogenic bowel dysfunction, including interactions between the central nervous system, the enteric nervous system, axonal injury, neuronal loss, neurotransmission of noxious and non-noxious stimuli, and the fields of gastroenterology and neurology. Patients with spinal cord injury, myelomeningocele, multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease present with serious upper and lower bowel dysfunctions characterized by constipation, incontinence, gastrointestinal motor dysfunction and altered visceral sensitivity. Spinal cord injury is associated with severe autonomic dysfunction, and bowel dysfunction is a major physical and psychological burden for these patients. An adult myelomeningocele patient commonly has multiple problems reflecting the multisystemic nature of the disease. Multiple sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disorder in which axonal injury, neuronal loss, and atrophy of the central nervous system can lead to permanent neurological damage and clinical disability. Parkinson's disease is a multisystem disorder involving dopaminergic, noradrenergic, serotoninergic and cholinergic systems, characterized by motor and non-motor symptoms. Parkinson's disease affects several neuronal structures outside the substantia nigra, among which is the enteric nervous system. Recent reports have shown that the lesions in the enteric nervous system occur in very early stages of the disease, even before the involvement of the central nervous system. This has led to the postulation that the enteric nervous system could be critical in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease, as it could represent the point of entry for a putative environmental factor to initiate the pathological process. This review covers the data related to the etiology, epidemiology, clinical expression, pathophysiology, genetic aspects, gastrointestinal motor dysfunction, visceral sensitivity, management, prevention and prognosis of neurogenic bowel

  12. Aspiration in children and adolescents with neurogenic dysphagia: comparison of clinical judgment and fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Sabrina; Hartlieb, Till; Müller, Arnd; Granel, Michael; Staudt, Martin

    2014-12-01

    A total of 30 children and adolescents with dysphagia due to various chronic neurological disorders were assessed for their risk of aspiration. This assessment was performed clinically by experienced speech and swallowing therapists, and verified thereafter by fiberoptic endoscopy. We found the clinical judgment to be correct in only 70% (for aspiration of saliva), 55% (of puree), and 67% (of thin liquids). We conclude that, because of this unacceptably high error rate of clinical assessment, a fiberoptic evaluation of swallowing is a necessary diagnostic step both for the planning of therapy and for the development of feeding strategies in children and adolescents with neurogenic dysphagia. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Peripheral tumor and tumor-like neurogenic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Evandro [Service de Radiologie et Imagerie Musculosquelettique, Centre de Consultation et Imagerie de l’Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Aubert, Sébastien, E-mail: sebastien.aubert@chru-lille.fr [Institut de Pathologie, Centre de Biologie-Pathologie, CHRU de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Wavreille, Guillaume, E-mail: guillaume.wavreille@chru-lille.fr [Service d’Orthopédie B, Hôpital R Salengro, CHRU de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Gheno, Ramon; Canella, Clarissa [Service de Radiologie et Imagerie Musculosquelettique, Centre de Consultation et Imagerie de l’Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Cotten, Anne, E-mail: anne.cotten@chru-lille.fr [Service de Radiologie et Imagerie Musculosquelettique, Centre de Consultation et Imagerie de l’Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU de Lille, 59037 Lille (France)

    2013-01-15

    Neoplasms of neurogenic origin account for about 12% of all benign and 8% of all malignant soft tissue neoplasms. Traumatic neuroma, Morton neuroma, lipomatosis of a nerve, nerve sheath ganglion, perineurioma, benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNST) are included in this group of pathologies. Clinical and radiologic evaluation of patients with neurogenic tumors and pseudotumors often reveals distinctive features. In this context, advanced imaging techniques, especially ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance (MR) play an important role in the characterization of these lesions. Imaging findings such as location of a soft tissue mass in the region of a major nerve, nerve entering or exiting the mass, fusiform shape, abnormalities of the muscle supplied by the nerve, split-fat sign, target sign and fascicular appearance should always evoke a peripheric nerve sheath neoplasm. Although no single imaging finding or combination of findings allows definitive differentiation between benign from malign peripheric neurogenic tumors, both US and MR imaging may show useful features that can lead us to a correct diagnosis and improve patient treatment. Traumatic neuromas and Morton neuromas are commonly associated to an amputation stump or are located in the intermetatarsal space. Lipomatosis of a nerve usually appears as a nerve enlargement, with thickened nerve fascicles, embedded in evenly distributed fat. Nerve sheath ganglion has a cystic appearance and commonly occurs at the level of the knee. Intraneural perineuroma usually affects young people and manifests as a focal and fusiform nerve enlargement. In this article, we review clinical characteristics and radiologic appearances of these neurogenic lesions, observing pathologic correlation, when possible.

  14. The pre-vertebrate origins of neurogenic placodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abitua, Philip Barron; Gainous, T Blair; Kaczmarczyk, Angela N; Winchell, Christopher J; Hudson, Clare; Kamata, Kaori; Nakagawa, Masashi; Tsuda, Motoyuki; Kusakabe, Takehiro G; Levine, Michael

    2015-08-27

    The sudden appearance of the neural crest and neurogenic placodes in early branching vertebrates has puzzled biologists for over a century. These embryonic tissues contribute to the development of the cranium and associated sensory organs, which were crucial for the evolution of the vertebrate "new head". A previous study suggests that rudimentary neural crest cells existed in ancestral chordates. However, the evolutionary origins of neurogenic placodes have remained obscure owing to a paucity of embryonic data from tunicates, the closest living relatives to those early vertebrates. Here we show that the tunicate Ciona intestinalis exhibits a proto-placodal ectoderm (PPE) that requires inhibition of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and expresses the key regulatory determinant Six1/2 and its co-factor Eya, a developmental process conserved across vertebrates. The Ciona PPE is shown to produce ciliated neurons that express genes for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), a G-protein-coupled receptor for relaxin-3 (RXFP3) and a functional cyclic nucleotide-gated channel (CNGA), which suggests dual chemosensory and neurosecretory activities. These observations provide evidence that Ciona has a neurogenic proto-placode, which forms neurons that appear to be related to those derived from the olfactory placode and hypothalamic neurons of vertebrates. We discuss the possibility that the PPE-derived GnRH neurons of Ciona resemble an ancestral cell type, a progenitor to the complex neuronal circuit that integrates sensory information and neuroendocrine functions in vertebrates.

  15. Early social-communicative and cognitive development of younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Wendy L; McMahon, Caitlin R; Yoder, Paul J; Walden, Tedra A

    2007-04-01

    To compare the early social-communicative development of younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) with that of younger siblings of children with typical development, using parental report and child-based measures. Group comparison. Vanderbilt University, between July 1, 2003, and July 31, 2006. Younger siblings of children with ASD (n = 64) and younger siblings of children with typical development (n = 42) between the ages of 12 and 23 months (mean, 16 months). Main Exposure Having a sibling with an ASD. Child-based measures included a cognitive assessment; an interactive screening tool assessing play, imitation, and communication; and a rating of autism symptoms. Parental report measures were an interview of social-communicative interactions and a questionnaire assessing language and communication skills. Younger siblings of children with ASD demonstrated weaker performance in nonverbal problem solving (mean difference [MD], 5.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.48-9.34), directing attention (MD, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.07-0.97), understanding words (MD, 33.30; 95% CI, 3.11-63.48), understanding phrases (MD, 4.56; 95% CI, 1.85-7.27), gesture use (MD, 1.49; 95% CI, 0.51-2.47), and social-communicative interactions with parents (MD, 1.32; 95% CI, 0.27-2.37), and had increased autism symptoms (MD, 2.54; 95% CI, 1.05-4.03), relative to control siblings. A substantial minority of the ASD sibling group exhibited lower performance relative to controls. Significant correlations between child-based measures and parental reports assessing similar constructs were found (r = -0.74 to 0.53; P range, .000-.002). The weaker performance found for children in the ASD sibling group may represent early-emerging features of the broader autism phenotype, thus highlighting the importance of developmental surveillance for younger siblings.

  16. Needs of students seeking careers in communication sciences and disorders and barriers to their success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuse, Akiko

    The purpose of this study was to identify the needs for and barriers to success of underrepresented students in the Communication Sciences and Disorders field and to determine factors linked to student persistence and academic achievement. An online survey was completed by 126 undergraduates pursuing graduate studies in Communication Sciences and Disorders. Data were subjected to Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis H tests. Survey responses indicated that financial matters exerted the most influence on students' preparation for and number of choices for graduate-school applications. However, socioeconomic status was associated with needed financial support for paying tuition and completing the admission process. In addition, students at lower socioeconomic status reported spending fewer hours studying for tests and earned lower grade-point averages than peers who self-identified with a relatively high socioeconomic status. The findings also show a relationship between students' grade-point averages and family members' levels of education. The majority reported that mothers had earned the highest degree in their household, followed by siblings, themselves, and fathers. The findings suggest that students of low socioeconomic status were less academically prepared than those self-reporting a higher status. Moreover, the presence of a role model, such as a college-educated family member, may affect academic performance. Therefore, interventions for students at risk of not gaining admissions to graduate school include financial assistance and mentoring and advising programs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of Communication in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in the United States and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esterbrook R.L.,

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of theoretical principles and methodological approaches within the framework of research schools both in the United States and Russia; these schools provide the basis for the development of effective learning and communication skills for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD. The authors consider the indicators for communication disorders in children with ASD, as well as the main strategies for overcoming them in the context of utilizing verbal behavior analysis (B.F. Skinner, M.L. Sundberg, J.W. Partington, and M.L. Barbera - USA, the tradition of cultural-historical psychology (L.S. Vygotsky, D.B. Elkonin, B.D. Elkonin - Russia, reflective-activity approach (A.N. Leontiev, V.K. Zaretsky – Russia, the theory of systemic dynamic localization of higher mental functions(A.R. Luria – Russia, and method of ”replacing ontogenesis” (B.A. Arkhipov, A.V. Semenovich Russia. Despite the differences in methodologies used by American and Russian scholars, the most important idea is that the researchers and practitioners of both schools have common goal: to concentrate their efforts on developing social interaction skills in children with ASD, which helps them to better adjust in their lives and function in the social environment

  18. Early markers of autism spectrum disorders in infants and toddlers prospectively identified in the Social Attention and Communication Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Josephine; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    The Social Attention and Communication Study involved the successful implementation of developmental surveillance of the early markers of autism spectrum disorders in a community-based setting. The objective in the current study was to determine the most discriminating and predictive markers of autism spectrum disorders used in the Social Attention and Communication Study at 12, 18 and 24 months of age, so that these could be used to identify children with autism spectrum disorders with greater accuracy. The percentage of 'yes/no' responses for each behavioural marker was compared between children with autistic disorder (n = 39), autism spectrum disorder (n = 50) and developmental and/or language delay (n = 20) from 12 to 24 months, with a logistic regression also conducted at 24 months. Across all ages, the recurring key markers of both autistic disorder and autism spectrum disorder were deficits in eye contact and pointing, and from 18 months, deficits in showing became an important marker. In combination, these behaviours, along with pretend play, were found to be the best group of predictors for a best estimate diagnostic classification of autistic disorder/autism spectrum disorder at 24 months. It is argued that the identified markers should be monitored repeatedly during the second year of life by community health-care professionals.

  19. Augmentative and alternative communication in daily clinical practice: strategies and tools for management of severe communication disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankoff, Denise J; Hatfield, Brooke

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates that augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) approaches can be used effectively by patients and their caregivers to improve communication skills. This article highlights strategies and tools for re-establishing communication competence by considering the complexity and diversity of communication interactions in an effort to maximize natural speech and language skills via a range of technologies that are implemented across the continuum of care rather than as a last resort.

  20. Motor competency and social communication skills in preschool children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Francesco; Lorenzo, Alessandro; Lucarelli, Elisabetta; Russo, Luigi; Fanizza, Isabella; Trabacca, Antonio

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between motor competency and social communication in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) compared with children with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) and typically developing (TD) children. Motor competency, ASD symptoms, and nonverbal Intelligent Quotient (IQ) were investigated through the following tests: Movement Assessment Battery for Children, second edition (MABC-2), Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ), Autism Classification System of Functioning: Social Communication (ACSF:SC) and Leiter International Performances Scale Revised (Leiter-R). The ASD + ID and ID groups had lower MABC-2-manual dexterity mean scores, MABC-2-aiming and catching mean scores, MABC-2-static and dynamic balance mean scores and MABC-2-TTS compared with the TD group (P < 0.05). In addition, the ASD + ID group had lower MABC-2-aiming and catching mean scores compared with the ID group. In the ASD + ID group, we found a significant negative correlation (P < 0.001) between MABC-2-aiming and catching scores with SCQ scores, nonverbal IQ and ACSF:SC levels. Our findings provide new insight into the common neuropsychological mechanisms underlying social communication and motor deficits in ASD. Multiple deficits in motor functioning may be present in ASD and ID, however deficits involving the ability to integrate motor and social cues are somewhat specific to ASD. Autism Res 2018. © 2018 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. This study highlighted the specificity of motor impairment in ASD comparing performances on a frequently used measure of motor impairment between clinical groups (ASD + ID and ID) and a non-clinical group. While previous research has suggested that multiple deficits in motor functioning may be present in ASD, our findings suggest that deficits in tasks involving the ability to integrate visual and motor cues (aiming and catching task) are somewhat specific to

  1. Neurogenic vision loss: Causes and outcome. An experience from a tertiary center in Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Verma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vision loss can be a consequence of numerous disorders of eye and neural pathway conveying visual input to brain. A variety of conditions can affect visual pathway producing neurogenic vision loss. The presentation and course of vision loss depends on the site of involvement and underlying etiology. We conducted this unprecedented study to evaluate the characteristics and outcome of various diseases of the visual pathway. Materials and Methods: In this prospective cohort study, we evaluated 64 patients with neurogenic visual impairment. Ophthalmological causes were excluded in all of them. Their presentation, ophthalmological characteristics and investigation findings were recorded. These patients were followed up till 6 months. Results: Out of 69 patients evaluated, 5 were excluded as they had ophthalmological abnormalities. The remaining 64 cases (113 eyes were enrolled. 54 cases were due to diseases of anterior visual pathway and rest 10 had cortical vision loss. The etiologic distribution is as follows: Isolated optic neuritis- 12 (19%, multiple sclerosis- 4 (6.3%, neuromyelitis optica- 5 (7.9%, tubercular meningitis- 15 (23.8%, non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy, ischemic optic neuropathy complicating cavernous sinus thrombosis, cryptococcal meningitis, malignant infiltration of optic nerve, Crouzon′s syndrome, calvarial thickening and traumatic occipital gliosis- 1 (1.6% case each, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, pituitary adenoma, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy- 3 (4.8% cases each, cortical venous thrombosis 5 (7.9%, subacute scleroing panencephalitis- 4 (6.3% cases. Conclusions: The diseases of anterior visual pathway were much more common than cortical vision loss. A majority of our patients had severe impairment of vision at presentation.

  2. The role of the temporal sequences in the Augmentative and Alternative Communication Systems for the Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saverio Fontani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Augmentative and Alternative Communication systems (AAC represent a promising integration for more effective models of special education specifically developed for the special educational needs of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. In this paper the historical foundations of the approach are presented, and its implications on the promotion of functional spontaneous communication skills based on the temporal sequences approach are discussed.  

  3. Transcutaneous stimulation of the posterior tibial nerve for treating refractory urge incontinence of idiopathic and neurogenic origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valles-Antuña, C; Pérez-Haro, M L; González-Ruiz de L, C; Quintás-Blanco, A; Tamargo-Diaz, E M; García-Rodríguez, J; San Martín-Blanco, A; Fernandez-Gomez, J M

    2017-09-01

    To assess the efficacy of treatment with transcutaneous posterior tibial nerve stimulation (TPTNS) in patients with urge urinary incontinence, of neurogenic or nonneurogenic origin, refractory to first-line therapeutic options. We included 65 patients with urge urinary incontinence refractory to medical treatment. A case history review, a urodynamic study and a somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) study were conducted before the TPTNS, studying the functional urological condition by means of a voiding diary. The treatment consisted of 10 weekly sessions of TPTNS lasting 30minutes. Some 57.7% of the patients showed abnormal tibial SEPs, and 42% showed abnormal pudendal SEPs. A statistically significant symptomatic improvement was observed in all clinical parameters after treatment with TPTNS, and 66% of the patients showed an overall improvement, regardless of sex, the presence of underlying neurological disorders, detrusor hyperactivity in the urodynamic study or SEP disorders. There were no adverse effects during the treatment. TPTNS is an effective and well tolerated treatment in patients with urge incontinence refractory to first-line therapies and should be offered early in the treatment strategy. New studies are needed to identify the optimal parameters of stimulation, the most effective treatment protocols and long-term efficacy, as well as its applicability to patients with a neurogenic substrate. Copyright © 2017 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. The Development of Coordinated Communication in Infants at Heightened Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parladé, Meaghan V.; Iverson, Jana M.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the extent to which developmental change in coordination of social communication in early infancy differentiates children eventually diagnosed with ASD from those not likely to develop the disorder. A prospective longitudinal design was used to compare 9 infants at heightened risk for ASD (HR) later diagnosed with ASD, to 13 HR infants with language delay, 28 HR infants with no diagnosis, and 30 low risk infants. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) analyses revealed that ASD infants exhibited significantly slower growth in coordinations overall and in gestures coordinated with vocalizations, even relative to HR infants with language delay. Disruption in the development of gesture-vocalization coordinations may result in negative cascading effects that negatively impact later social and linguistic development. PMID:25689930

  5. Issues in the use of visual supports to promote communication in individuals with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur-Kelly, Michael; Sigafoos, Jeff; Green, Vanessa; Mathisen, Bernice; Arthur-Kelly, Racheal

    2009-01-01

    Visual supports are widely used and generally regarded as an effective resource for intervention with individuals who function on the autism spectrum. More cross-contextual research into their efficacy is required. In this article, we selectively review the research literature around visual supports based on an original conceptual model that highlights their contribution in the interpersonal social and communicative milieu of classrooms, homes and other daily living contexts. Attention is drawn to a range of practical and research issues and challenges in the use of visual supports as well as evidence of their effectiveness in enhancing participation, learning and social membership in this population. Areas for further research relating to the introduction and use of visual supports with the autism spectrum disorder population are identified.

  6. Clinical and Treatment Features of Orbital Neurogenic Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Bingöl Kızıltunç

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the clinical and treatment features of orbital neurogenic tumors. Material and Method: The records of 35 patients with orbital neurogenic tumors who were diagnosed and treated at Ankara University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, between 1998 and 2011 were evaluated retrospectively. Results: Orbitotomy via a cutaneous approach was performed in 21 (60% cases and orbitotomy via a transconjunctival approach was performed in 7 (20% cases. Three (8% cases had been operated at different centers. Four (12% cases were diagnosed clinically. Total excisional biopsy was performed in 11 (31.4% cases, subtotal excisional biopsy was performed in 7 (20%, and incisional biopsy was performed in 10 (28.6% cases. 14 (40% 35 cases were diagnosed as meningioma, 12 (34% as peripheral nerve sheath tumor, and 9 (26% cases were diagnosed as optic nerve glioma. Six (43% meningioma cases were optic nerve sheath meningioma, 5 (36% were sphenoid wing meningioma, 2 (14% were ectopic meningioma, and 1 (7% was perisellar meningioma. Six (50% of peripheral nerve sheath tumors were schwannoma, 2 (16% were solitary neurofibroma, 4 (34% were plexiform neurofibroma. External beam radiotherapy was performed in 15 (42.8% cases, cyberknife radiosurgery in 1 (2.8% , chemotherapy in 1 (2.8%, and enucleation ( because of neovascular glaucoma and vitreous hemorrhage was performed in 1 (2.8% case. Discussion: The most common orbital neurogenic tumors are meningioma, peripheral nerve sheath tumor, and optic nerve glioma. For meningioma and glioma, external beam radiotherapy is required; for schwannoma and solitary neurofibroma, total excisional biopsy is the preferred treatment. The success of visual and anatomic results are high after treatment. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 335-9

  7. A narrative analysis of a speech pathologist's work with Indigenous Australians with acquired communication disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersh, Deborah; Armstrong, Elizabeth; Bourke, Noni

    2015-01-01

    To explore in detail the narrative of a speech pathologist (SP) working with Indigenous Australian clients with acquired communication disorders following stroke or brain injury. There is some evidence that Indigenous clients do not find speech pathology rehabilitation to be culturally appropriate but, currently, there is very little published on the nature of this service or the experiences of SPs who provide this rehabilitation. This research uses both thematic and structural narrative analysis of data from a semi-structured, in-depth interview with a SP to examine the adaptations that she made to address the needs of her adult neurological caseload of (mainly) Indigenous Australians from both urban and remote regions. The thematic analysis resulted in a core theme of flexibility and four other sub-themes: awareness of cultural context, client focus/person-centredness, being practical and working ethically. The structural narrative analysis allowed insight into the nature of clinical reasoning in a context lacking predictability and where previous clinical certainties required adaptation. Individual, detailed narratives are useful in exposing the challenges and clinical reasoning behind culturally sensitive practice. Implications for Rehabilitation Speech pathologists (SPs) can learn from hearing the clinical stories of colleagues with experience of providing rehabilitation in culturally diverse contexts, as well as from ongoing training in culturally competent and safe practices. Such stories help bridge understanding from the general to the particular. SPs working with Indigenous Australians with acquired communication disorders post-stroke and brain injury may find it helpful to consider how the themes, drawn from an interview with the clinician in this study - flexibility, awareness of cultural context, person-centredness, being practical and working ethically - might apply to their practice. Narratives may be helpful in staff training and form an important

  8. Neurogenic inflammation: a study of rat trigeminal ganglion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Kim Anker; Edvinsson, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is linked to neurogenic inflammation and to migraine. Activation of the trigeminovascular system plays a prominent role during migraine attacks with the release of CGRP. The trigeminal ganglion (TG) contains three main cell types: neurons, satellite glial...... cells (SGC) and Schwann cells; the first two have before been studied in vitro separately. Culture of rat TG provides a method to induce inflammation and the possibility to evaluate the different cell types in the TG simultaneously. We investigated expression levels of various inflammatory cytokines...

  9. Congenital contractural arachnodactyly with neurogenic muscular atrophy: case report

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    Scola Rosana Herminia

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 3-1/2-year-old girl with hypotonia, multiple joint contractures, hip luxation, arachnodactyly, adducted thumbs, dolichostenomelia, and abnormal external ears suggesting the diagnosis of congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA. The serum muscle enzimes were normal and the needle electromyography showed active and chronic denervation. The muscle biopsy demonstrated active and chronic denervation compatible with spinal muscular atrophy. Analysis of exons 7 and 8 of survival motor neuron gene through polymerase chain reaction did not show deletions. Neurogenic muscular atrophy is a new abnormality associated with CCA, suggesting that CCA is clinically heterogeneous.

  10. Social communication in children with autism spectrum disorder (asd): Correlation between DSM-5 and autism classification system of functioning-social communication (ACSF:SC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Francesco; Fanizza, Isabella; Russo, Luigi; Lucarelli, Elisabetta; Alessandro, Lorenzo; Pasca, Maria Grazia; Trabacca, Antonio

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to classify children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) according to Autism Classification System of Functioning: Social Communication (ACSF:SC) criteria, in order to investigate the association between social communication ability, ASD severity, adaptive functioning, cognitive abilities and psychoeducational profile. The severity of social communication impairment was specified through Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5th edition (DSM-5) and ACSF:SC tool. The ADOS-2, Vineland-II and PEP-3 were administered to all participants. We found a positive correlation between DSM-5 levels and ACSF:SC-Typical Performance (r = 0.35; P = 0.007) and ACSF:SC-Capacity (r = 0.31; P = 0.01) levels. Children included in the five levels of ACSF:SC (Typical Performance and Capacity) showed statistically significant differences in ADOS-2 (Social Affect), Vineland-II (Communication and Socialization), and PEP-3 (Communication, motor skills, maladaptive behavior) scores. The results of this study indicate that ACSF:SC provide a better understanding of functional profile of children with ASD based on the social communication abilities. Children with greater severity of social communication showed more difficulty in adaptive behavior and psychoeducational profiles. In conclusion, the ACSF:SC could help clinicians and therapists not only to understand the strength and weakness of preschool children with ASD but also to devise specific treatment in order to promote their social integration. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1249-1258. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. [A communication intervention in autism spectrum disorder by means of the programme 'More than Words'. A case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baixauli-Fortea, I; Gascon-Herranz, N; de Carlos-Isla, M; Colomer-Diago, C

    2018-03-01

    The 'More than Words' programme aims to enable parents to take advantage of day-to-day situations as communication learning settings, through the use of instruction in responsive-type interaction strategies. To describe the effects of this programme on the communication skills of a child with autism spectrum disorder and on the language the parents use to address him. A three-phase design (pre-intervention, intervention and post-intervention) was employed, in which the responsive interactions of the parents and the child's communicative acts were measured. The intervention can modify the parents' communicative style, especially when the family receives guidance from a speech therapist. Nevertheless, the responsive nature of the parents' communication tends to diminish when the intervention finishes. Conversely, the child's communicative acts increase, with a medium-sized effect of the treatment. The 'More than Words' programme can be a good starting point for parents to become familiar with strategies that foster communication with their children who have autism spectrum disorder.

  12. Multiple-input multiple-output visible light communication system based on disorder dispersion components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Zhang, Qi; Hao, Yue; Zhou, Xin-hui; Yi, Ming-dong; Wei, Wei; Huang, Wei; Li, Xing-ao

    2017-10-01

    A multiple-input multiple-output visible light communication (VLC) system based on disorder dispersion components is presented. Instead of monochromatic sources and large size photodetectors used in the traditional VLC systems, broadband sources with different spectra act as the transmitters and a compact imaging chip sensor accompanied by a disorder dispersion component and a calculating component serve as the receivers in the proposed system. This system has the merits of small size, more channels, simple structure, easy integration, and low cost. Simultaneously, the broadband sources are suitable to act as illumination sources for their white color. A regularized procedure is designed to solve a matrix equation for decoding the signals at the receivers. A proof-of-concept experiment using on-off keying modulation has been done to prove the feasibility of the design. The experimental results show that the signals decoded by the receivers fit well with those generated from the transmitters, but the bit error ratio is increased with the number of the signal channels. The experimental results can be further improved using a high-speed charge-coupled device, decreasing noises, and increasing the distance between the transmitters and the receivers.

  13. Autism spectrum disorders. Recent advances in the research on the impairment in social communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Nobumasa [Showa Univ., School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Yamasue, Hidenori; Jinde, Seiichiro [Tokyo Univ., Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Watanabe, Keiichiro [Tokyo Univ., Health Service Center, Tokyo (Japan); Sadamatsu, Miyuki [Nara Medical Univ., School of Medicine, Kashihara, Nara (Japan)

    2010-09-15

    Since the discovery of early infantile autism (1943), the etiology of the disease has for long been a matter of dispute-from a form of innate schizophrenia, maltreatment by 'refrigerator mother', to dysfunction of speech development. After the re-discovery of Asperger syndrome by Wing (1981), the concept of this diverse syndrome complex has merged to pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) or autism spectrum disorders (ASD). People suffering from Asperger syndrome do not show impairments in speech development, in fact, they have good linguistic abilities. They can explain their own psychopathology, which helps in the understanding of classical autism with profound mental retardation. Currently, ASD is prevalent in 1 of 150 births with strong genetic inheritance. ASD is therefore thought a psychiatric common disease. Asperger syndrome has frequently been the subject of neuroimaging studies, since social communication is an important characteristic of human behavior. This review encompasses a historical and clinical overview of ASD and puts force the current perspectives on the researches in animal models, genetic studies of animal and human samples, and neuroimaging studies. Our current focus is the possible role of oxytocin, which was recently found to have an effect on empathy, in the etiology of ASD. (author)

  14. Autism spectrum disorders. Recent advances in the research on the impairment in social communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Nobumasa; Yamasue, Hidenori; Jinde, Seiichiro; Watanabe, Keiichiro; Sadamatsu, Miyuki

    2010-01-01

    Since the discovery of early infantile autism (1943), the etiology of the disease has for long been a matter of dispute-from a form of innate schizophrenia, maltreatment by 'refrigerator mother', to dysfunction of speech development. After the re-discovery of Asperger syndrome by Wing (1981), the concept of this diverse syndrome complex has merged to pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) or autism spectrum disorders (ASD). People suffering from Asperger syndrome do not show impairments in speech development, in fact, they have good linguistic abilities. They can explain their own psychopathology, which helps in the understanding of classical autism with profound mental retardation. Currently, ASD is prevalent in 1 of 150 births with strong genetic inheritance. ASD is therefore thought a psychiatric common disease. Asperger syndrome has frequently been the subject of neuroimaging studies, since social communication is an important characteristic of human behavior. This review encompasses a historical and clinical overview of ASD and puts force the current perspectives on the researches in animal models, genetic studies of animal and human samples, and neuroimaging studies. Our current focus is the possible role of oxytocin, which was recently found to have an effect on empathy, in the etiology of ASD. (author)

  15. The behaviour of young children with social communication disorders during dyadic interaction with peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Suzanne M; Faulkner, Dorothy M; Farley, Laura R

    2014-02-01

    Children with social communication disorders are known to experience more problematic peer relations than typically-developing children. However, detailed observation of their behaviour and communication during interaction with peers has not previously been undertaken. Micro-analytic observational methods were used to analyse the audio-taped interaction of children (N = 112) selected from mainstream schools (ages 5-6 years-old) on a computerised dyadic collaborative task. Comparisons were made between children with average-to-high- and low-pragmatic language skill as measured by the Test of Pragmatic Skills. Dyads were composed of an average-to-high-skilled child plus a low-skilled child (32 dyads), or of two average-to-high-skilled children (24 dyads). Consistently with their pragmatic language scores, low-skilled children were more likely to ignore other children's questions and requests than were average-to-high-skilled children. When average-to-high-skilled children worked with low-skilled children, as opposed to with other average-to-high-skilled children, they showed some sensitivity and adaptation to these children's difficulties; they used significantly more directives, clarification and provided more information. However, there was a cost in terms of the emotional tone of these interactions; when working with low-skilled children, the average-to-high-skilled children expressed considerably more negative feelings towards their partners than with another average-to-high-skilled child. In conclusion, observation of the interaction of average-to-high- and low-skilled children suggests promise for peer-assisted interventions and specifies which communicative behaviours could be targeted. However, care should be taken to manage the affective climate of these interactions for the benefit of all children involved.

  16. Early social communication in infants with fragile X syndrome and infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Laura J; Brady, Nancy C; McCary, Lindsay; Rague, Lisa; Roberts, Jane E

    2017-12-01

    Little research in fragile X syndrome (FXS) has prospectively examined early social communication. To compare early social communication in infants with FXS, infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASIBs), and typically developing (TD) infants. Participants were 18 infants with FXS, 21 ASIBs, and 22 TD infants between 7.5-14.5 months. Social communication was coded using the Communication Complexity Scale during the administration of Autism Observation Scale for Infants. Descriptively different patterns were seen across the three groups. Overall infants with FXS had lower social communication than ASIBs or TD infants when controlling for nonverbal cognitive abilities. However, infants with FXS had similar levels of social communication as ASIBs or TD infants during peek-a-boo. No differences were observed between ASIBs and TD infants. For all infants, higher social communication was related to lower ASD risk. Findings provide insight into the developmental course of social communication in FXS. The dynamic nature of social games may help to stimulate communication in infants with FXS. Language interventions with a strong social component may be particularly effective for promoting language development in FXS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Behavioral and physiological responses to child-directed speech as predictors of communication outcomes in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Linda R; Baranek, Grace T; Roberts, Jane E; David, Fabian J; Perryman, Twyla Y

    2010-08-01

    To determine the extent to which behavioral and physiological responses during child-directed speech (CDS) correlate concurrently and predictively with communication skills in young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Twenty-two boys with ASD (initial mean age: 35 months) participated in a longitudinal study. At entry, behavioral (i.e., percentage looking) and physiological (i.e., vagal activity) measures were collected during the presentation of CDS stimuli. A battery of standardized communication measures was administered at entry and readministered 12 months later. Percentage looking during CDS was strongly correlated with all entry and follow-up communication scores; vagal activity during CDS was moderately to strongly correlated with entry receptive language, follow-up expressive language, and social-communicative adaptive skills. After controlling for entry communication skills, vagal activity during CDS accounted for significant variance in follow-up communication skills, but percentage looking during CDS did not. Behavioral and physiological responses to CDS are significantly related to concurrent and later communication skills of children with ASD. Furthermore, higher vagal activity during CDS predicts better communication outcomes 12 months later, after initial communication skills are accounted for. Further research is needed to better understand the physiological mechanisms underlying variable responses to CDS among children with ASD.

  18. Principals' Opinions on the Role of Speech-Language Pathologists Serving Students with Communication Disorders Involved in Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzman, Mitzi J.; Sanger, Dixie

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to survey the opinions of principals concerning the role of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) serving students with communication disorders who have been involved in violence. Method: A mixed methods design involving 678 questionnaires was mailed to elementary, middle, and high school principals in a…

  19. The Use of Videotape Recordings to Teach Clinical Skills (Evaluation and Remediation) In the Fields of Communicative Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billeaud, Frances P.

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the benefits derived by speech and language pathology students who used video tape recordings to learn diagnosis of communication disorders, to observe professional therapists and therapy programs, and to improve their own clinical techniques through self-observation. The use of video tapes to teach clinical…

  20. The Effectiveness of a Joint Attention Training Program on Improving Communication Skills of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, Mourad Ali

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of a joint attention intervention program on improving joint attention and communication skills in children with autism disorder. Participants were ten children between the ages of five and seven who attended a school for children with developmental disabilities (Tarbya Fekrya ). A pre-post…

  1. Masked Visual Analysis: Minimizing Type I Error in Visually Guided Single-Case Design for Communication Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Tara McAllister; Hitchcock, Elaine R.; Ferron, John

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Single-case experimental designs are widely used to study interventions for communication disorders. Traditionally, single-case experiments follow a response-guided approach, where design decisions during the study are based on participants' observed patterns of behavior. However, this approach has been criticized for its high rate of…

  2. Variability in Classroom Social Communication: Performance of Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders and Typically Developing Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellmer, Liselotte; Olswang, Lesley B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors examined how variability in classroom social communication performance differed between children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and pair-matched, typically developing peers. Method: Twelve pairs of children were observed in their classrooms, 40 min per day (20 min per child) for 4 days over a…

  3. Brief Report: A Mobile Application to Treat Prosodic Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Other Communication Impairments: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Elizabeth Schoen; Paul, Rhea; Shic, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the acceptability of a mobile application, "SpeechPrompts," designed to treat prosodic disorders in children with ASD and other communication impairments. Ten speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in public schools and 40 of their students, 5-19 years with prosody deficits participated. Students received treatment with…

  4. Brief Report: Do the Nature of Communication Impairments in Autism Spectrum Disorders Relate to the Broader Autism Phenotype in Parents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lauren J.; Maybery, Murray T.; Wray, John; Ravine, David; Hunt, Anna; Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.

    2013-01-01

    Extensive empirical evidence indicates that the lesser variant of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) involves a communication impairment that is similar to, but milder than, the deficit in clinical ASD. This research explored the relationship between the broader autism phenotype (BAP) among parents, an index of genetic liability for ASD, and proband…

  5. Supporting Parents to Facilitate Communication and Joint Attention in Their Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Two Pilot Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prelock, Patricia A.; Calhoun, James; Morris, Hope; Platt, Gretchen

    2011-01-01

    This article describes 2 pilot studies partnering early interventionists and families in targeting social communication and joint attention abilities for young children with autism spectrum disorders. Both parent-intervention trainings involved opportunities for interventionists to partner with families. One pilot utilized "More than Words" (MTW;…

  6. Effects of Script Training on the Peer-to-Peer Communication of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter-Cho, Katherine; Lang, Russell; Davenport, Katy; Moore, Melissa; Lee, Allyson; Howell, Alexandria; Drew, Christine; Dawson, Dana; Charlop, Marjorie H.; Falcomata, Terry; O'Reilly, Mark

    2015-01-01

    A multiple baseline design across participants was used to demonstrate the effects of a script-training procedure on the peer-to-peer communication of 3 children with autism spectrum disorder during group play with peers. Both scripted and unscripted initiations as well as responses to peers increased for all 3 participants. Stimulus…

  7. Understanding Why Speech-Language Pathologists Rarely Pursue a PhD in Communication Sciences and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myotte, Theodore; Hutchins, Tiffany L.; Cannizzaro, Michael S.; Belin, Gayle

    2011-01-01

    Masters-level speech-language pathologists in communication sciences and disorders (n = 122) completed a survey soliciting their reasons for not pursuing doctoral study. Factor analysis revealed a four-factor solution including one reflecting a lack of interest in doctoral study (Factor 2) and one reflecting practical financial concerns (Factor…

  8. Neurogenic gene regulatory pathways in the sea urchin embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zheng; Angerer, Lynne M; Angerer, Robert C

    2016-01-15

    During embryogenesis the sea urchin early pluteus larva differentiates 40-50 neurons marked by expression of the pan-neural marker synaptotagmin B (SynB) that are distributed along the ciliary band, in the apical plate and pharyngeal endoderm, and 4-6 serotonergic neurons that are confined to the apical plate. Development of all neurons has been shown to depend on the function of Six3. Using a combination of molecular screens and tests of gene function by morpholino-mediated knockdown, we identified SoxC and Brn1/2/4, which function sequentially in the neurogenic regulatory pathway and are also required for the differentiation of all neurons. Misexpression of Brn1/2/4 at low dose caused an increase in the number of serotonin-expressing cells and at higher dose converted most of the embryo to a neurogenic epithelial sphere expressing the Hnf6 ciliary band marker. A third factor, Z167, was shown to work downstream of the Six3 and SoxC core factors and to define a branch specific for the differentiation of serotonergic neurons. These results provide a framework for building a gene regulatory network for neurogenesis in the sea urchin embryo. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Neurogenic muscle hypertrophy in a 12-year-old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zutelija Fattorini, Matija; Gagro, Alenka; Dapic, Tomislav; Krakar, Goran; Marjanovic, Josip

    2017-01-01

    Muscular hypertrophy secondary to denervation is very rare, but well-documented phenomena in adults. This is the first report of a child with neurogenic unilateral hypertrophy due to S1 radiculopathy. A 12-year-old girl presented with left calf hypertrophy and negative history of low back pain or trauma. The serum creatinine kinase level and inflammatory markers were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging showed muscle hypertrophy of the left gastrocnemius and revealed a protruded lumbar disc at the L5-S1 level. The protruded disc abuts the S1 root on the left side. Electromyography showed mild left S1 radiculopathy. Passive stretching and work load might clarify the origin of neurogenic hypertrophy but there is still a need for further evidence. Clinical, laboratory, magnetic resonance imaging and electromyography findings showed that S1 radiculopathy could be a cause of unilateral calf swelling in youth even in the absence of a history of back or leg pain. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Malignant neurogenic neoplasms of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuczkowski, J.; Starzynska, A.

    1996-01-01

    The authors present 17 cases of malignant neurogenic neoplasms of the head and neck observed in the Department of Otolaryngology in the years 1948-1993. The latest opinions on etiopathology, diagnosis and treatment of these tumors were described. Age and sex of patients, localization of tumor, symptoms histopathology and treatment were analyzed. Progressions of the disease were estimated retrospectively. It has been proved that these tumors develop quickly, give pain and paresthesia. Their diagnosis is very difficult because of their submucosal growth and difficult histopathological interpretation. A characteristic feature of these neurogenic tumors is the ability to give distant metastases. This feature differentiates them from squamous neoplasms, which give mainly nodal metastases. All the patients were subjected to surgery combined with conventional or high voltage radiotherapy. The positive effect of combined chemotherapy in cases of esthesioneuroblastoma is worthy of note. The prognosis in these tumors is often unfavorable. In the group under discussion 13 patients died because of recurrences, two patients are considered to be cured and the remaining 2 patients have had no recurrence for 2 and 3 years. (author)

  11. Potential Therapies by Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes in CNS Diseases: Focusing on the Neurogenic Niche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Luarte

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative disorders are one of the leading causes of death and disability and one of the biggest burdens on health care systems. Novel approaches using various types of stem cells have been proposed to treat common neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s Disease, Parkinson’s Disease, or stroke. Moreover, as the secretome of these cells appears to be of greater benefit compared to the cells themselves, the extracellular components responsible for its therapeutic benefit have been explored. Stem cells, as well as most cells, release extracellular vesicles such as exosomes, which are nanovesicles able to target specific cell types and thus to modify their function by delivering proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Exosomes have recently been tested in vivo and in vitro as therapeutic conveyors for the treatment of diseases. As such, they could be engineered to target specific populations of cells within the CNS. Considering the fact that many degenerative brain diseases have an impact on adult neurogenesis, we discuss how the modulation of the adult neurogenic niches may be a therapeutic target of stem cell-derived exosomes. These novel approaches should be examined in cellular and animal models to provide better, more effective, and specific therapeutic tools in the future.

  12. Neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD) translation and linguistic validation to classical Arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallek, A; Elleuch, M H; Ghroubi, S

    2016-09-01

    To translate and linguistically validate in classical Arabic; the French version of the neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD). Arabic translation of the NBD score was obtained by the "forward translation/backword translation" method. Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and spinal cord injury were included. Evaluation of intestinal and anorectal disorders was conducted by the self-administered questionnaire NBD, which was filled twice two weeks apart. An item-by-item analysis was made. The feasibility, acceptability, internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha, and test-retest repeatability by non-parametric Spearman correlation were studied. Twenty-three patients with colorectal disorders secondary to neurological disease were included, the average age was 40.79±9.16years and the sex-ratio was 1.85. The questionnaire was feasible and acceptable, no items were excluded. The spearman correlation was of 0.842. Internal consistency was judged good through the Cronbach's alpha was of 0.896. The Arabic version of NBD was reproducible and construct validity was satisfactory. The study of its responsiveness to change with a larger number of patients will be the subject of further work. 4. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. What's on Your Mind? Conversation Topics Chosen by People With Degenerative Cognitive-Linguistic Disorders for Communication Boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried-Oken, Melanie; Daniels, Darlene; Ettinger, Olivia; Mooney, Aimee; Noethe, Glory; Rowland, Charity

    2015-05-01

    Conversational topics chosen by a group of adults with degenerative cognitive-linguistic disorders for personalized communication board development were examined. The patient-generated themes commonly selected are presented to guide treatment planning and communication board development. Communication boards were created for 109 adults as part of a larger research project. One autobiographical topic that each participant would enjoy discussing multiple times was represented on each communication board with 16 pictures and word labels. For this review, topics were collapsed into general themes through a consensus process and examined by gender and age. Sixty unique conversational topics were identified from 109 participants and collapsed into 9 general themes: Hobbies, Family, Travel, Work, Home/Places I've Lived, Sports/Fitness, Religion, Animals, and World War II. Age and gender produced variations in themes chosen, though no significance in rank orders was found across groups. Topics selected by adults with degenerative cognitive-linguistic disorders for communication boards resemble common conversational adult themes and do not center around basic needs or medical issues. Differences in gender and age for topic selection tend to be based on traditional roles. These general themes should be used when creating personalized communication boards for those who benefit from conversational aids.

  14. Females have stronger neurogenic response than males after non-specific nasal challenge in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomljenovic, Dejan; Baudoin, Tomislav; Megla, Zeljka Bukovec; Geber, Goran; Scadding, Glenis; Kalogjera, Livije

    2018-07-01

    interaction between inflammatory cells and the neurogenic response, which is gender- related, and which may affect symptom profiles after challenges. Different regulation of neurogenic inflammation in females may have impact on symptoms and endotyping in respiratory disorders, not only in allergic rhinitis, but also asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis and irritant -induced cough. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Professional perceptions of the effectiveness of visual communication systems and their applications for functional communication interventions for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aims This study investigated the perceptions of educational professionals in regard to the effectiveness of visual communication systems and their applications as a functional communication intervention for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD. Methods One hundred and one individuals from diverse educational backgrounds, school districts, educational services, and various states were surveyed for this study. All participants in this study served individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder in a clinical and/or school setting. Results The study found that aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC systems were widely utilized, and participants perceived these systems as the most effective for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder. It also found that the use of low level tech aided augmentative communication systems such as Picture Exchange System and high level tech systems such as voice output systems that were strictly computer based, were dependent on the individual's abilities and needs. Finally, the study found that the use of photography and photo journaling techniques had positive outcomes for individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder and other students in the learning environment. Conclusions The results revealed that the overall consensus of educational professionals that serve individuals with ASD agreed that aided AAC systems were more effective methods to foster and enhance functional communication. In terms of effectiveness of the level of technology utilized within the system, it depends on the needs and abilities of the individual with ASD. Participants, however, did agree that photography and photo journaling techniques may provide positive attributes to all students and not only those diagnosed with ASD. Implications The ability to modify or alter the ways in which AAC systems are created and implemented may address the need to individualize the systems in terms of the needs and

  16. Integrating Language, Pragmatics, and Social Intervention in a Single-Subject Case Study of a Child with a Developmental Social Communication Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine; Gaile, Jacqueline; Lockton, Elaine; Freed, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This clinical focus article presents an illustration of a complex communication intervention, the Social Communication Intervention Programme (SCIP), as delivered to a child who has a social communication disorder (SCD). The SCIP intervention combined language processing and pragmatic and social understanding therapies in a program of…

  17. Enhancing clinical communication assessments using an audiovisual BCI for patients with disorders of consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; He, Yanbin; Qu, Jun; Xie, Qiuyou; Lin, Qing; Ni, Xiaoxiao; Chen, Yan; Pan, Jiahui; Laureys, Steven; Yu, Ronghao; Li, Yuanqing

    2017-08-01

    Objective. The JFK coma recovery scale-revised (JFK CRS-R), a behavioral observation scale, is widely used in the clinical diagnosis/assessment of patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). However, the JFK CRS-R is associated with a high rate of misdiagnosis (approximately 40%) because DOC patients cannot provide sufficient behavioral responses. A brain-computer interface (BCI) that detects command/intention-specific changes in electroencephalography (EEG) signals without the need for behavioral expression may provide an alternative method. Approach. In this paper, we proposed an audiovisual BCI communication system based on audiovisual ‘yes’ and ‘no’ stimuli to supplement the JFK CRS-R for assessing the communication ability of DOC patients. Specifically, patients were given situation-orientation questions as in the JFK CRS-R and instructed to select the answers using the BCI. Main results. Thirteen patients (eight vegetative state (VS) and five minimally conscious state (MCS)) participated in our experiments involving both the BCI- and JFK CRS-R-based assessments. One MCS patient who received a score of 1 in the JFK CRS-R achieved an accuracy of 86.5% in the BCI-based assessment. Seven patients (four VS and three MCS) obtained unresponsive results in the JFK CRS-R-based assessment but responsive results in the BCI-based assessment, and 4 of those later improved scores in the JFK CRS-R-based assessment. Five patients (four VS and one MCS) obtained usresponsive results in both assessments. Significance. The experimental results indicated that the audiovisual BCI could provide more sensitive results than the JFK CRS-R and therefore supplement the JFK CRS-R.

  18. Audiometric Profiles in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Does Subclinical Hearing Loss Impact Communication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demopoulos, Carly; Lewine, Jeffrey David

    2016-01-01

    Rates of hearing impairment in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are higher than those reported in the general population. Although ASD is not caused by hearing impairment, it may exacerbate symptomatology. Participants with ASD (N = 60) and typically developing peers (N = 16) aged 5-18 years underwent a comprehensive audiological screening (pure tone audiometry, uncomfortable loudness level, tympanometry, acoustic reflexes, distortion product otoacoustic emissions, and auditory brainstem response) and assessment of communication abilities (expressive/receptive language, articulation, phonological awareness, and vocal affect recognition). Incidence of abnormal findings on at least one measure of audiological functioning was higher for the ASD group (55%) than controls (14.9%) or the general population estimate (6%). The presence of sound sensitivity was also considerably higher for the ASD group (37%) compared with controls (0%) or general population estimates (8-15%). When participants with ASD were dichotomized into groups with and without evidence of clinical audiological abnormality, no significant differences were identified on measures of communication; however, results of correlational analyses indicated that variability in hearing thresholds at middle range frequencies (2000 Hz) was significantly related to performance on all measures of speech articulation and language after correction for multiple comparisons (r = -0.48 to r = -0.53, P <  0.0045). These findings suggest that dichotomized classification of clinical audiology may not be sufficient to understand the role of subclinical hearing loss in ASD symptomatology and that treatment studies for mild/subclinical hearing loss in this population may be worthwhile. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Outcomes of bowel program in spinal cord injury patients with neurogenic bowel dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal Ozisler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to determine gastrointestinal problems associated with neurogenic bowel dysfunction in spinal cord injury patients and to assess the efficacy of bowel program on gastrointestinal problems and the severity of neurogenic bowel dysfunction. Fifty-five spinal cord injury patients were included in this study. A bowel program according to the characteristics of neurogenic bowel dysfunction was performed for each patient. Before and after bowel program, gastrointestinal problems (constipation, difficult intestinal evacuation, incontinence, abdominal pain, abdominal distension, loss of appetite, hemorrhoids, rectal bleeding and gastrointestinal induced autonomic dysreflexia and bowel evacuation methods (digital stimulation, oral medication, suppositories, abdominal massage, Valsalva maneuver and manual evacuation were determined. Neurogenic bowel dysfunction score was used to assess the severity of neurogenic bowel dysfunction. At least one gastrointestinal problem was identified in 44 (80% of the 55 patients before bowel program. Constipation (56%, 31/55 and incontinence (42%, 23/55 were the most common gastrointestinal problems. Digital rectal stimulation was the most common method for bowel evacuation, both before (76%, 42/55 and after (73%, 40/55 bowel program. Oral medication, enema and manual evacuation application rates were significantly decreased and constipation, difficult intestinal evacuation, abdominal distention, and abdominal pain rates were significantly reduced after bowel program. In addition, mean neurogenic bowel dysfunction score was decreased after bowel program. An effective bowel program decreases the severity of neurogenic bowel dysfunction and reduces associated gastrointestinal problems in patients with spinal cord injury.

  20. Internet-communication disorder: It’s a matter of social aspects, coping, and Internet-use expectancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Wegmann

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Online communication applications such as Facebook, WhatsApp, and Twitter are some of the most frequently used Internet applications. There is a growing amount of individuals suffering diminished control over their use of online communication applications which leads to diverse negative consequences in offline life. This could be referred to as Internet-communication disorder. The current study investigates the role of individual characteristics (e.g., psychopathological symptoms, feelings of loneliness and specific cognitions assessing the contribution of an Internet-communication disorder (ICD. In a sample of 485 participants a structural equation model was tested to investigate predictors and mediators which may predict an excessive use. The results emphasize that a higher level of social loneliness and less perceived social support enhance the risk of a pathological use. The effects of psychopathological symptoms (depression and social anxiety as well as individual characteristics (self-esteem, self-efficacy, and stress vulnerability on ICD symptoms are mediated by Internet-use expectancies and dysfunctional coping mechanisms. The results illustrate mediation effects which are in line with the theoretical model by Brand et al. (2016. As suggested in the model social aspects seem to be key predictors of ICD symptoms. Further research should investigate convergent and divergent factors of other types of specific Internet-use disorders.

  1. Imitation and communication skills development in children with pervasive developmental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea De Giacomo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Andrea De Giacomo1, Claudia Portoghese1, Domenico Martinelli2, Isabella Fanizza1, Luciano L’Abate3, Lucia Margari11Child Neurological and Psychiatric Unit, Department of Neurological and Psychiatric sciences, University of Bari, Italy; 2Department of Biomedical science and Oncology, University of Bari, Italy; 3Department of Psychology, Georgia State University Abstract: This study evaluates the correlation between failure to develop spontaneous imitation and language skills in pervasive developmental disorders. Sixty-four children between the age of 3 and 8 years were assessed using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R, the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS, and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS, as well as direct observation of imitation. The sample was subdivided into a verbal and a nonverbal group. Analysis of mean scores on the CARS “imitation” items and of ADI-R “spontaneous imitation” and “pointing to express interest” revealed a statistically significant difference between verbal and nonverbal groups, with more severe impairment/higher scores in the nonverbal than the verbal group. These results suggest that nonverbal children have specifically impaired imitation and pointing skills.Keywords: autism, imitation, communication, language, pointing

  2. Communication between physicians and patients with suspected or diagnosed binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornstein, Susan G; Keck, Paul E; Herman, Barry K; Puhl, Rebecca M; Wilfley, Denise E; DiMarco, Ilyse D

    2015-01-01

    Physician-patient conversations were examined to identify barriers to effective discussions about binge eating disorder (BED) arising from discrepancies in how physicians and patients communicate about BED. Conversations between suspected or diagnosed BED patients (n = 38) and psychiatrists (n = 11) were recorded and the transcripts were reviewed for BED-related lexical terms using automated conversation analysis software. Researchers disambiguated multivalent terms and combined similar terms. The results showed that psychiatrists evaluated some diagnostic criteria (e.g., the absence of compensatory behavior) but not others (e.g., eating more rapidly than normal), focused more on symptoms in relation to weight and generally discussed weight-related issues more often than did patients, and asked about the type of food consumed more often than the diagnostic criterion related to the quantity of food consumed. In contrast, patients used terminology that attempted to clarify the relationships between feelings, coping strategies, and compulsion to binge eat when discussing binge eating episodes. These findings suggest that educational materials promoting more effective physician-patient dialogues regarding eating behaviors in general, and BED specifically, may be beneficial. Conversations should highlight the BED diagnostic criteria, assessment of patients' emotions and sense of lack of control, and relationships between body weight and BED.

  3. Auditory Processing Disorder in Relation to Developmental Disorders of Language, Communication and Attention: A Review and Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Piers; Bishop, Dorothy

    2009-01-01

    Background: Auditory Processing Disorder (APD) does not feature in mainstream diagnostic classifications such as the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition" (DSM-IV), but is frequently diagnosed in the United States, Australia and New Zealand, and is becoming more frequently diagnosed in the United Kingdom. Aims: To…

  4. Endobronchial neurogenic tumor: A combination of traumatic neuroma and neurofibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Tandon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic neuromas are uncommon and benign lesions arising from a peripheral nerve injury during surgery. Here we describe a case with histopathologic features of both a traumatic neuroma and neurofibroma in a patient without integumentary physical exam findings nor prior surgical history. A 54 year old male was admitted for surgical debridement of a foot ulcer. During pre-operative evaluation and review of imaging multiple CT scans revealed a stable, 4 mm endobronchial lesion in the left lower lobe. Given history of nicotine abuse, bronchoscopy was performed. Bronchoscopy showed a pearly, polypoid lesion. Histopathological results showed strong positivity for S-100 protein and spindle cell proliferation. Repeat CT chest showed no new lesions in the bronchial tree. The rarity of this case is noted not only by the limited number of bronchial neurogenic tumors, but the combined features in this case of a traumatic neuroma and neurofibroma which has not been described.

  5. Surgical Management of Neurogenic Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gor, Ronak A; Elliott, Sean P

    2017-08-01

    Surgery for patients with neurogenic urinary tract dysfunction (nLUTD) is indicated when medical therapy fails, to correct conditions affecting patient safety, or when surgery can enhance the quality of life better than nonoperative management. Examples include failure of maximal medical therapy, inability to perform or aversion to clean intermittent catheterization, refractory incontinence, and complications from chronic, indwelling catheters. Adults with nLUTD have competing risk factors, including previous operations, obesity, poor nutritional status, complex living arrangements, impaired dexterity/paralysis, and impaired executive and cognitive function. Complications are common in this subgroup of patients requiring enduring commitments from surgeons, patients, and their caretakers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Speech disorders - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorder; Voice disorders; Vocal disorders; Disfluency; Communication disorder - speech disorder; Speech disorder - stuttering ... evaluation tools that can help identify and diagnose speech disorders: Denver Articulation Screening Examination Goldman-Fristoe Test of ...

  7. Telemonitoring with respect to mood disorders and information and communication technologies: overview and presentation of the PSYCHE project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javelot, Hervé; Spadazzi, Anne; Weiner, Luisa; Garcia, Sonia; Gentili, Claudio; Kosel, Markus; Bertschy, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews what we know about prediction in relation to mood disorders from the perspective of clinical, biological, and physiological markers. It then also presents how information and communication technologies have developed in the field of mood disorders, from the first steps, for example, the transition from paper and pencil to more sophisticated methods, to the development of ecological momentary assessment methods and, more recently, wearable systems. These recent developments have paved the way for the use of integrative approaches capable of assessing multiple variables. The PSYCHE project stands for Personalised monitoring SYstems for Care in mental HEalth.

  8. Telemonitoring with respect to Mood Disorders and Information and Communication Technologies: Overview and Presentation of the PSYCHE Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Javelot

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews what we know about prediction in relation to mood disorders from the perspective of clinical, biological, and physiological markers. It then also presents how information and communication technologies have developed in the field of mood disorders, from the first steps, for example, the transition from paper and pencil to more sophisticated methods, to the development of ecological momentary assessment methods and, more recently, wearable systems. These recent developments have paved the way for the use of integrative approaches capable of assessing multiple variables. The PSYCHE project stands for Personalised monitoring SYstems for Care in mental HEalth.

  9. Safety considerations for patients with communication disorders in rehabilitation medicine settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristian, Adrian; Giammarino, Claudia; Olds, Michael; Adams, Elizabeth; Moriarty, Christina; Ratner, Sabina; Mural, Shruti; Stobart, Eric C

    2012-05-01

    Communication barriers can pose a significant safety risk for patients. Individuals in a communication-vulnerable state are commonly seen in rehabilitation settings. These patients cannot adequately communicate their symptoms, wants, and needs to providers. Causes of communication barriers include neurologic impairments, such as stroke, cerebral palsy, and Parkinson disease, and language barriers. The ability of clinicians to adequately diagnose, treat, and monitor these patients is also hindered. This article identifies key communication barriers and strategies that clinicians can use to effectively communicate with these patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Fluoxetine treatment ameliorates depression induced by perinatal arsenic exposure via a neurogenic mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Christina R.; Solomon, Benjamin R.; Ulibarri, Adam L.; Allan, Andrea M.

    2014-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies have reported an association between arsenic exposure and increased rates of psychiatric disorders, including depression, in exposed populations. We have previously demonstrated that developmental exposure to low amounts of arsenic induces depression in adulthood along with several morphological and molecular aberrations, particularly associated with the hippocampus and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. The extent and potential reversibility of this toxin-induced damage has not been characterized to date. In this study, we assessed the effects of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant, on adult animals exposed to arsenic during development. Perinatal arsenic exposure (PAE) induced depressive-like symptoms in a mild learned helplessness task and in the forced swim task after acute exposure to a predator odor (2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline, TMT). Chronic fluoxetine treatment prevented these behaviors in both tasks in arsenic-exposed animals and ameliorated arsenic-induced blunted stress responses, as measured by corticosterone (CORT) levels before and after TMT exposure. Morphologically, chronic fluoxetine treatment reversed deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) after PAE, specifically differentiation and survival of neural progenitor cells. Protein expression of BDNF, CREB, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and HDAC2 was significantly increased in the dentate gyrus of arsenic animals after fluoxetine treatment. This study demonstrates that damage induced by perinatal arsenic exposure is reversible with chronic fluoxetine treatment resulting in restored resiliency to depression via a neurogenic mechanism. PMID:24952232

  11. Developing a schedule to identify social communication difficulties and autism spectrum disorder in young children with visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absoud, Michael; Parr, Jeremy R; Salt, Alison; Dale, Naomi

    2011-03-01

    Available observational tools used in the identification of social communication difficulties and diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) rely partly on visual behaviours and therefore may not be valid in children with visual impairment. A pilot observational instrument, the Visual Impairment and Social Communication Schedule (VISS), was developed to aid in identifying social communication difficulties and ASD in young children with visual impairment affected by congenital disorders of the peripheral visual system (disorders of the globe, retina, and anterior optic nerve). The VISS was administered to 23 consecutive children (age range 1 y 9 mo-6 y 11 mo, mean 4 y 1 mo [SD 1.6]; 12 males, 11 females) with visual impairment (nine with severe and 14 with profound visual impairment). Item analysis was carried out by fit of the items to the Rasch model. Validity of the VISS was explored by comparison with the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) score, and the clinical ASD diagnosis (n=9). Correlation between the VISS and CARS total scores was highly significant (Spearman's rho=-0.89; p=0.01). Below threshold rating on the VISS (score of 35) showed good agreement with the clinical ASD diagnosis (sensitivity 89%, specificity 100%). This preliminary study shows the VISS to be a promising schedule to aid the identification of ASD in young children with visual impairment. © The Authors. Journal compilation © Mac Keith Press 2010.

  12. "… Trial and error …": Speech-language pathologists' perspectives of working with Indigenous Australian adults with acquired communication disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Frances Clare; Brown, Louise; Siyambalapitiya, Samantha; Plant, Christopher

    2016-10-01

    This study explored speech-language pathologists' (SLPs) perspectives about factors that influence clinical management of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults with acquired communication disorders (e.g. aphasia, motor speech disorders). Using a qualitative phenomenological approach, seven SLPs working in North Queensland, Australia with experience working with this population participated in semi-structured in-depth interviews. Qualitative content analysis was used to identify categories and overarching themes within the data. Four categories, in relation to barriers and facilitators, were identified from participants' responses: (1) The Practice Context; (2) Working Together; (3) Client Factors; and (4) Speech-Language Pathologist Factors. Three overarching themes were also found to influence effective speech pathology services: (1) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Cultural Practices; (2) Information and Communication; and (3) Time. This study identified many complex and inter-related factors which influenced SLPs' effective clinical management of this caseload. The findings suggest that SLPs should employ a flexible, holistic and collaborative approach in order to facilitate effective clinical management with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with acquired communication disorders.

  13. Parents' Adoption of Social Communication Intervention Strategies: Families Including Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Who are Minimally Verbal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shire, Stephanie Y; Goods, Kelly; Shih, Wendy; Distefano, Charlotte; Kaiser, Ann; Wright, Courtney; Mathy, Pamela; Landa, Rebecca; Kasari, Connie

    2015-06-01

    Notably absent from the intervention literature are parent training programs targeting school-aged children with autism who have limited communication skills (Tager-Flusberg and Kasari in Autism Res 6:468-478, 2013). Sixty-one children with autism age 5-8 with minimal spontaneous communication received a 6-month social communication intervention including parent training. Parent-child play interactions were coded for parents' strategy implementation and children's time jointly engaged (Adamson et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 39:84-96, 2009). Parents mastered an average of 70% of the strategies. Further analyses indicated some gains in implementation occurred from mere observation of sessions, while the greatest gains occurred in the first month of active coaching and workshops. Children's joint engagement was associated with parents' implementation success across time demonstrating parents' implementation was relevant to children's social engagement.

  14. Thinking about a reader's mind: fostering communicative clarity in the compositions of youth with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Michael; Peskin, Joan; San Juan, Valerie

    2013-10-01

    A critical component of effective communication is the ability to consider the knowledge state of one's audience, yet individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have difficulty representing the mental states of others. In the present study, youth with high-functioning ASD were trained to consider their reader's knowledge states in their compositions using a novel computer-based task. After two training trials, participants who received visual feedback from a confederate demonstrated significantly greater communicative clarity on the training measure compared to a control group. The improvements from training transferred to similar and very different tasks, and were maintained approximately 6 weeks post-intervention. These results provide support for the sustained efficacy of a rapid and motivating communication intervention for youth with high-functioning ASD.

  15. The role of research methodology in the rational use of technology in monitoring and preventing communication disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiari, Brasília M; Goulart, Bárbara N G

    2009-09-01

    Studies showing stronger scientific evidence related to speech, language and hearing pathology (SLP) have an impact on the prevention and rehabilitation of human communication and gained ground in SLP research agenda. In this paper we discuss some aspects and directions that should be considered for in-depth knowledge about speech, language and hearing needs in different population groups (age group, gender and other variables according to specific related disorders) for improved comprehensive care, successful efforts and effective use of financial and human resources. It is also discussed the decision making process for requesting complementary evaluations and tests, from routine to highly complex ones, that should be based on each test and/or procedure and their contribution to the diagnosis and therapeutic planning. In fact, it is crucial to have reliable parameters for planning, preventing and treating human communication and its related disorders. Epidemiology, biostatistics and social sciences can contribute with more specific information in human communication sciences and guide more specific studies on the international science and technology agenda, improving communication sciences involvement in the international health-related scientific scenario.

  16. Effects of electrotherapy in treatment of neurogenic bladder in children with occult spinal dysraphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirović Dragana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Neurogenic bladder can develop as a result of various degrees of neurogenic lesion in spina bifida. The degree of bladder dysfunction depends on the level and type of spina bifida. Due to results upon complete diagnostic protocols, treatment options are applied. Objective Comparison of therapy results of patients with occult spinal dysraphism with neurogenic bladder that under-went medicamentous therapy and medicamentous with electrotherapy treatment. Methods We had 49 patients with neurogenic bladder that were treated at the University Children's Hospital in Belgrade in the period 2003-2008. The first group of children received medicamentous therapy and the second group received medicamentous therapy with transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation. In both groups we evaluated 4 symptoms: daily enuresis, enuresis nocturna, urgency and frequency and 4 urodynamic parameters: lower bladder capacity, unstable contractions and residual urine and detrusor sphincter dyssynergia. Follow-up urodynamic evaluation was done after 3, 6 and 12 months respectively. Results Our findings pointed out a high statistical significance of improvement in all evaluated urodynamic parameters of neurogenic bladder (predominantly in bladder capacity in the group of children with combined therapy as well in resolution of symptoms (predominantly enuresis nocturna, urgency and frequency. Conclusion Combined therapy is more efficient in treatment of children with neurogenic bladder. Electrotherapy is non-invasive, easily applicable and has had a significant place in treatment of children with dysfunctional voiding.

  17. Gestural Communication in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders during Mother-Child Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrogiuseppe, Marilina; Capirci, Olga; Cuva, Simone; Venuti, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders display atypical development of gesture production, and gesture impairment is one of the determining factors of autism spectrum disorder diagnosis. Despite the obvious importance of this issue for children with autism spectrum disorder, the literature on gestures in autism is scarce and contradictory. The…

  18. Sciatic nerve compression by neurogenic heterotopic ossification: use of CT to determine surgical indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salga, Marjorie; Jourdan, Claire; Durand, Marie-Christine; Hangard, Chloe; Carlier, Robert-Yves; Denormandie, Philippe; Genet, Francois

    2015-01-01

    To describe the characteristics of neurogenic heterotopic ossification (NHO) based on clinical tests, electroneuromyography (ENMG) and CT in a database of patients with lesions of the central nervous system who required sciatic nerve neurolysis along with posterior hip NHO resection, and to determine the respective roles of ENMG and CT in the management of posterior hip NHOs in patients who are unable to communicate or express pain. The consistency of the ENMG results with clinical findings, CT results and macroscopic signs of lesions was retrospectively assessed after sciatic nerve neurolysis and ablation of 55 posterior hip NHOs. Sciatic nerve neurolysis was necessary in 55 cases (47.4 %; 55 out of 116). CT showed contact of the NHO with the nerve in all cases: 5 in contact with no deflection, 3 in contact with deflection, 21 moulded into a gutter and 26 entrapped in the NHO. There were clinical signs of sciatic nerve lesion in 21.8 % of cases (12 out of 55). ENMG showed signs of sciatic nerve lesions in only 55.6 % (10 out of 18), only 4 of whom presented with clinical signs of a nerve lesion. No significant relationship was found between clinical symptoms and ENMG findings of sciatic nerve compression (n = 13, p = 0.77). Nerve compression by NHO is likely an underdiagnosed condition, particularly in patients who are unable to communicate. Diagnosis of sciatic compression by NHO should be based on regular clinical examinations and CT. ENMG is not sufficiently sensitive to be used alone for surgical decision-making. (orig.)

  19. Prediction of outcome in neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia within 72 hours of acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickenstein, Guntram W; Höhlig, Carolin; Prosiegel, Mario; Koch, Horst; Dziewas, Rainer; Bodechtel, Ulf; Müller, Rainer; Reichmann, Heinz; Riecker, Axel

    2012-10-01

    Stroke is the most frequent cause of neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia (NOD). In the acute phase of stroke, the frequency of NOD is greater than 50% and, half of this patient population return to good swallowing within 14 days while the other half develop chronic dysphagia. Because dysphagia leads to aspiration pneumonia, malnutrition, and in-hospital mortality, it is important to pay attention to swallowing problems. The question arises if a prediction of severe chronic dysphagia is possible within the first 72 hours of acute stroke. On admission to the stroke unit, all stroke patients were screened for swallowing problems by the nursing staff within 2 hours. Patients showing signs of aspiration were included in the study (n = 114) and were given a clinical swallowing examination (CSE) by the swallowing/speech therapist within 24 hours and a swallowing endoscopy within 72 hours by the physician. The primary outcome of the study was the functional communication measure (FCM) of swallowing (score 1-3, tube feeding dependency) on day 90. The grading system with the FCM swallowing and the penetration-aspiration scale (PAS) in the first 72 hours was tested in a multivariate analysis for its predictive value for tube feeding-dependency on day 90. For the FCM level 1 to 3 (P dysphagia scales to prevent aspiration pneumonia and malnutrition. A dysphagia program can lead to better communication within the stroke unit team to initiate the appropriate diagnostics and swallowing therapy as soon as possible. Copyright © 2012 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sciatic nerve compression by neurogenic heterotopic ossification: use of CT to determine surgical indications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salga, Marjorie [Hopital Raymond Poincare, APHP, CIC-IT 805, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Garches (France); Jourdan, Claire [Hopital Raymond Poincare, APHP, CIC-IT 805, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Garches (France); Universite de Versailles Saint Quentin en Yvelines, Handi-Resp, (EA4047), Versailles (France); Durand, Marie-Christine [Hopital Raymond Poincare, APHP, CIC-IT 805, Department of Neurophysiology, Garches (France); Universite de Versailles Saint Quentin en Yvelines, Groupement de Recherche Clinique et Technologique sur le Handicap (GRCTH, EA 4497), Versailles (France); Hangard, Chloe; Carlier, Robert-Yves [Hopital Raymond Poincare, APHP, CIC-IT 805, Department of Medical Imaging, Garches (France); Denormandie, Philippe [Universite de Versailles Saint Quentin en Yvelines, Groupement de Recherche Clinique et Technologique sur le Handicap (GRCTH, EA 4497), Versailles (France); Hopital Raymond Poincare, APHP, CIC-IT 805, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Garches (France); Genet, Francois [Hopital Raymond Poincare, APHP, CIC-IT 805, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Garches (France); Universite de Versailles Saint Quentin en Yvelines, Groupement de Recherche Clinique et Technologique sur le Handicap (GRCTH, EA 4497), Versailles (France); Military Medical Service, Hopital d' Instruction des Armees Percy, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Clamart (France)

    2014-09-14

    To describe the characteristics of neurogenic heterotopic ossification (NHO) based on clinical tests, electroneuromyography (ENMG) and CT in a database of patients with lesions of the central nervous system who required sciatic nerve neurolysis along with posterior hip NHO resection, and to determine the respective roles of ENMG and CT in the management of posterior hip NHOs in patients who are unable to communicate or express pain. The consistency of the ENMG results with clinical findings, CT results and macroscopic signs of lesions was retrospectively assessed after sciatic nerve neurolysis and ablation of 55 posterior hip NHOs. Sciatic nerve neurolysis was necessary in 55 cases (47.4 %; 55 out of 116). CT showed contact of the NHO with the nerve in all cases: 5 in contact with no deflection, 3 in contact with deflection, 21 moulded into a gutter and 26 entrapped in the NHO. There were clinical signs of sciatic nerve lesion in 21.8 % of cases (12 out of 55). ENMG showed signs of sciatic nerve lesions in only 55.6 % (10 out of 18), only 4 of whom presented with clinical signs of a nerve lesion. No significant relationship was found between clinical symptoms and ENMG findings of sciatic nerve compression (n = 13, p = 0.77). Nerve compression by NHO is likely an underdiagnosed condition, particularly in patients who are unable to communicate. Diagnosis of sciatic compression by NHO should be based on regular clinical examinations and CT. ENMG is not sufficiently sensitive to be used alone for surgical decision-making. (orig.)

  1. The relationship of motor skills and social communicative skills in school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Megan; Lord, Catherine; Ulrich, Dale A

    2013-07-01

    Motor skill deficits are present and persist in school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; Staples & Reid, 2010). Yet the focus of intervention is on core impairments, which are part of the diagnostic criteria for ASD, deficits in social communication skills. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the functional motor skills, of 6- to 15-year-old children with high-functioning ASD, predict success in standardized social communicative skills. It is hypothesized that children with better motor skills will have better social communicative skills. A total of 35 children with ASD between the ages of 6-15 years participated in this study. The univariate GLM (general linear model) tested the relationship of motor skills on social communicative skills holding constant age, IQ, ethnicity, gender, and clinical ASD diagnosis. Object-control motor skills significantly predicted calibrated ASD severity (p skills have greater social communicative skill deficits. How this relationship exists behaviorally, needs to be explored further.

  2. Executive function predicts theory of mind but not social verbal communication in school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouklari, Evangelia-Chrysanthi; Tsermentseli, Stella; Auyeung, Bonnie

    2018-05-01

    The association between Executive Function (EF) and Theory of Mind (ToM) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been mainly investigated using false belief tasks, whilst less is known about the EF effect on other ToM facets. Furthermore, the role EF plays in social communication in ASD is mainly assessed using parent-report EF ratings rather than direct assessment. The aim of this study was to shed more light on the effect of performance-based EF measures on ToM and social communication in middle childhood in ASD relative to neurotypical controls. Cross-sectional data were collected from 64 matched, school-aged children with and without ASD (8-12 years old), tested on measures of EF (inhibition, working memory, cognitive flexibility), ToM mental state/emotion recognition and social verbal communication. Significant group differences were observed only in selective EF skills (inhibition &cognitive flexibility) and social verbal communication. EF working memory contributed to the explained variance of ToM but not social verbal communication in middle childhood. These findings suggest that EF and ToM are still associated in middle childhood and EF may be a crucial predictor of ToM across childhood in ASD. Implications are discussed regarding the social-cognitive impairment relationship in ASD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Exploring the Use of Information and Communication Technology by People With Mood Disorder: A Systematic Review and Metasynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulford, Hamish; McSwiggan, Linda; Kroll, Thilo; MacGillivray, Stephen

    2016-07-01

    There is a growing body of evidence relating to how information and communication technology (ICT) can be used to support people with physical health conditions. Less is known regarding mental health, and in particular, mood disorder. To conduct a metasynthesis of all qualitative studies exploring the use of ICTs by people with mood disorder. Searches were run in eight electronic databases using a systematic search strategy. Qualitative and mixed-method studies published in English between 2007 and 2014 were included. Thematic synthesis was used to interpret and synthesis the results of the included studies. Thirty-four studies were included in the synthesis. The methodological design of the studies was qualitative or mixed-methods. A global assessment of study quality identified 22 studies as strong and 12 weak with most having a typology of findings either at topical or thematic survey levels of data transformation. A typology of ICT use by people with mood disorder was created as a result of synthesis. The systematic review and metasynthesis clearly identified a gap in the research literature as no studies were identified, which specifically researched how people with mood disorder use mobile ICT. Further qualitative research is recommended to understand the meaning this type of technology holds for people. Such research might provide valuable information on how people use mobile technology in their lives in general and also, more specifically, how they are being used to help with their mood disorders.

  4. COMMUNICATIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor and D. Barney

    2010-01-01

    CMS Centres, Outreach and the 7 TeV Media Event The new CMS Communications group is now established and is addressing three areas that are critical to CMS as it enters the physics operations phase: - Communications Infrastructure, including almost 50 CMS Centres Worldwide, videoconferencing systems, and CERN meeting rooms - Information systems, including the internal and external Web sites as well as the document preparation and management systems - Outreach and Education activities, including working with print, radio and TV media, visits to CMS, and exhibitions. The group has been active in many areas, with the highest priority being accorded to needs of CMS operations and preparations for the major media event planned for 7 TeV collisions. Unfortunately the CMS Centre@CERN suffered a major setback when, on 21st December, a cooling water pipe froze and burst on the floor above the CMS Centre main room. Water poured through the ceiling, flooding the floor and soaking some of the consoles, before e...

  5. COMMUNICATIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Petrilli

    2013-01-01

    The organisation of the Open Days at the end of September was the single biggest effort of the CMS Communications Group this year. We would like to thank all volunteers for their hard work to show our Point 5 facilities and explain science and technology to the general public. During two days more than 5,000 people visited the CMS detector underground and profited from the surface activities, which included an exhibition on CMS, a workshop on superconductivity, and an activity for our younger visitors involving wooden Kapla blocks. The Communications Group took advantage of the preparations to produce new CMS posters that can be reused at other venues. Event display images have been produced not just for this occasion but also for other exhibits, education purposes, publications etc. During the Open Days, Gilles Jobin, 2012 winner of CERN Collide@CERN prize, performed his Quantum show in Point 5, with the light installation of German artist Julius von Bismarck. Image 3: CERN Open Days at CMS wel...

  6. 'Look at me when I am talking to you': evidence and assessment of social pragmatics interventions for children with autism and social communication disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Cheryl D; Kurtz, Marie; Panchik, Ann; Pitterle, Kathleen

    2014-04-01

    This article provides an analysis of the effectiveness of commonly used interventions for social pragmatic interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and social communication disorders. Several evidence-based social skills interventions are emerging, including peer mentoring, social skills groups, and video modeling. Social stories are effective as supports for improved interactions but generalization is limited. Research supports the need for multimodality and individualized treatment programs. Research validates that video and visual learning is highly effective with children with ASD when utilized with specific, appropriate targets. Multiple studies have shown that picture-based communication systems are effective at improving functional communication with moderate effects on social communication. Despite limitations in research, there is strong evidence in the existing literature for the role of alternative augmentative communication in improving both functional and social communication. Social pragmatic interventions when individualized are effective for improving language, adaptive behavior and social skills.

  7. The Impact of Interrupted Use of a Speech Generating Device on the Communication Acts of a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeley, Richard A.; Pulliam, Mary Hannah; Catt, Merrill; McDaniel, D. Mike

    2015-01-01

    This case study examined the initial and renewed impact of speech generating devices on the expressive communication behaviors of a child with autism spectrum disorder. The study spanned six years of interrupted use of two speech generating devices. The child's communication behaviors were analyzed from video recordings and included communication…

  8. The Effectiveness of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): A South African Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Julia; Geiger, Martha

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of introducing the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) on the frequency of requesting and commenting and the length of verbal utterances of two children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who presented with some spoken language, but limited use of language in communicative exchanges. A mixed research…

  9. Social Communication Disorder outside Autism? A Diagnostic Classification Approach to Delineating Pragmatic Language Impairment, High Functioning Autism and Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Jenny; Adams, Catherine; Lockton, Elaine; Green, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Developmental disorders of language and communication present considerable diagnostic challenges due to overlapping of symptomatology and uncertain aetiology. We aimed to further elucidate the behavioural and linguistic profile associated with impairments of social communication occurring outside of an autism diagnosis. Methods: Six to…

  10. Myopathy in CRPS-I: disuse or neurogenic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsman, Natalie M; Geertzen, Jan H B; Dijkstra, Pieter U; van den Dungen, Jan J A M; den Dunnen, Wilfred F A

    2009-08-01

    The diagnosis Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I (CRPS-I) is based on clinical symptoms, including motor symptoms. Histological changes in muscle tissue may be present in the chronic phase of CRPS-I. Aim of this study was to analyze skeletal muscle tissue from amputated limbs of patients with CRPS-I, in order to gain more insight in factors that may play a role in changes in muscles in CRPS-I. These changes may be helpful in clarifying the pathophysiology of CRPS-I. Fourteen patients with therapy resistant and longstanding CRPS-I, underwent an amputation of the affected limb. In all patients histological analysis showed extensive changes in muscle tissue, such as fatty degeneration, fibre atrophy and nuclear clumping, which was not related to duration of CRPS-I prior to amputation. In all muscles affected, both type 1 and type 2 fibre atrophy was found, without selective type 2 fibre atrophy. In four patients, type grouping was observed, indicating a sequence of denervation and reinnervation of muscle tissue. In two patients even large group atrophy was present, suggesting new denervation after reinnervation. Comparison between subgroups in arms and legs showed no difference in the number of changes in muscle tissue. Intrinsic and extrinsic muscles were affected equally. Our findings show that in the chronic phase of CRPS-I extensive changes can be seen in muscle tissue, not related to duration of CRPS-I symptoms. Signs of neurogenic myopathy were present in five patients.

  11. Evaluation of neurogenic dysphagia in Iraqi patients with acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Zeki N; Al-Shimmery, Ehsan K; Taha, Mufeed A

    2010-04-01

    To clinically assess neurogenic dysphagia, and to correlate its presence with demographic features, different stroke risk factors, anatomical arterial territorial stroke types, and pathological stroke types. Seventy-two stroke inpatients were studied between July 2007 and February 2008, at the Departments of Medicine and Neurology at Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, and Rizgary Teaching Hospital, Erbil, Iraq. All patients were assessed using the Mann Assessment of Swallowing Ability score (MASA), Modified Rankin Scale, and the Stroke Risk Scorecard. All patients were reassessed after one month. There were 40 males and 32 females. Sixty-eight patients had ischemic stroke, and 4 had primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). According to the MASA score, 55% of anterior circulation stroke (ACS) cases were associated with dysphasia, and 91% of lateral medullary syndrome cases were associated with dysphagia. Fifty-six percent of ACS dysphagic cases improved within the first month. Forty percent of dysphagic patients died in the one month follow up period, and in most, death was caused by aspiration pneumonia. We observed no significant differences regarding demographic features of dysphagia. Dysphagia can be an indicator of the severity of stroke causing higher mortality and morbidity in affected patients. It was not related to the stroke risk factors and the type of stroke. It is essential from a prognostic point of view to assess swallowing, and to treat its complications early.

  12. Challenges in the management of nutritional disorders and communicable diseases in child day care centers: a quantitative and qualitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantyner, Tulio; Konstantyner, Thais Cláudia Roma de Oliveira; Toloni, Maysa Helena Aguiar; Longo-Silva, Giovana; Taddei, José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo

    2017-03-01

    In Brazil, although many children from low income families attend day care centers with appropriate hygiene practices and food programs, they have nutritional disorders and communicable diseases. This quantitative and qualitative cross-sectional study identified staff challenges in child day care centers and suggested alternative activity management to prevent nutritional disorders and communicable diseases. The study included 71 nursery teachers and 270 children from public and philanthropic day care centers (teacher to child ratios of 1:2.57 and 1:6.40, respectively). Interviews and focus groups were conducted with teachers and parents, and anthropometry and blood samples were drawn from the children by digital puncture. Children in philanthropic child day care centers were more likely to be hospitalized due to communicable diseases. Teachers from philanthropic child day care centers had lower age, income and education and higher work responsibilities based on the number of children and working time. The focus groups characterized institutions with organized routines, standard food practices, difficulties with caretaking, and lack of training to provide healthcare to children. Strategies to improve children's health in day care settings should focus on training of teachers about healthcare and nutrition.

  13. Evaluation of the Criterion and Convergent Validity of the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders in Young and Low-Functioning Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maljaars, Jarymke; Noens, Ilse; Scholte, Evert; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina

    2012-01-01

    The Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO; Wing, 2006) is a standardized, semi-structured and interviewer-based schedule for diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The objective of this study was to evaluate the criterion and convergent validity of the DISCO-11 ICD-10 algorithm in young and low-functioning…

  14. Communication Disorders and Use of Intervention Services among Children Aged 3-17 Years: United States, 2012. NCHS Data Brief. Number 205

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Lindsey I.; Vahratian, Anjel; Hoffman, Howard J.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the proportion of children with voice, swallowing, speech, or language disorders who receive intervention services is a Healthy People 2020 goal (1). Timely receipt of intervention services is shown to be effective for treatment of communication disorders (2-5). Using data from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), this…

  15. Facilitating Interdisciplinary Competence: Collaboration between Undergraduate Baccalaureate Nursing Students and Graduate Students Specializing in Communication Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Libba Reed; Burrus, Embry; Willis, Laura; Grabowsky, Adelia

    2016-01-01

    The fast-paced nature of the healthcare setting, coupled with the number of allied professionals involved, demands accurate and concise written communication. It is imperative that written communication between nursing and allied professionals be clear to ensure that the highest quality of care is provided and that patient safety is maintained.…

  16. Do communication and social interaction skills differ across youth diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, or dual diagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salley, Brenda; Gabrielli, Joy; Smith, Catherine M; Braun, Matthew

    2015-12-01

    Given the well-documented symptom overlap between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), careful evaluation of potential differentiation and overlap is critical for accurate diagnostic decisions. Although research has considered the use of symptom checklists and parent/teacher report questionnaires for symptom differentiation, standardized observational methods, typically utilized in the context of ASD evaluation, have received less attention. The present study examined the continuum of communication and social interaction impairment for youth diagnosed with ASD and ADHD, as indexed by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS). Participants were 209 youth ages 3 to 18 years with ASD, ADHD, Dual Diagnosis (ASD+ADHD) or No Diagnosis. Differences across diagnostic groups were observed for mean communication and social interaction total scores on the ADOS, with the highest scores (i.e., greater impairment) observed for the ASD group and lowest scores for the ADHD and No Diagnosis groups. Results provide the first evidence for use of the ADOS for distinguishing youth who have ADHD alone versus ASD alone or co-occurring ASD+ADHD. Findings are discussed in light of implications for clinical practice and future research.

  17. Communicating genetic risk information for common disorders in the era of genomic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenbach, Denise M; Christensen, Kurt D; Sparks, Jeffrey A; Green, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    Communicating genetic risk information in ways that maximize understanding and promote health is increasingly important given the rapidly expanding availability and capabilities of genomic technologies. A well-developed literature on risk communication in general provides guidance for best practices, including presentation of information in multiple formats, attention to framing effects, use of graphics, sensitivity to the way numbers are presented, parsimony of information, attentiveness to emotions, and interactivity as part of the communication process. Challenges to communicating genetic risk information include deciding how best to tailor it, streamlining the process, deciding what information to disclose, accepting that communications may have limited influence, and understanding the impact of context. Meeting these challenges has great potential for empowering individuals to adopt healthier lifestyles and improve public health, but will require multidisciplinary approaches and collaboration.

  18. Brief Report: Parent-Reported Problems Related to Communication, Behavior and Interests in Children with Autistic Disorder and Their Impact on Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øien, Roald; Eisemann, Martin R

    2016-01-01

    Parents of children with Autism spectrum disorders often report elevated levels of stress, depression and anxiety compared to parents of children with other developmental disorders. The present study investigated experiences of mothers of children with autistic disorder, both boys and girls. The results show that mothers report problems related to communication, behavior and interests of their child, which impact their quality of life. There were also differences between boys and girls.

  19. Parental Romantic Expectations and Parent-Child Sexuality Communication in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Laura G.; Himle, Michael B.; Strassberg, Donald S.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder, parental romantic expectations, and parental provision of sexuality and relationship education in an online sample of 190 parents of youth 12-18 years of age with a parent-reported diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. Regression analyses were conducted…

  20. Communication Deficits and the Motor System: Exploring Patterns of Associations in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, M.; Shui, A. M.; Nowinski, L. A.; Golas, S. B.; Ferrone, C.; O'Rourke, J. A.; McDougle, C. J.

    2017-01-01

    Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have notable difficulties in motor, speech and language domains. The connection between motor skills (oral-motor, manual-motor) and speech and language deficits reported in other developmental disorders raises important questions about a potential relationship between motor skills and…

  1. Health disorders related to learning the welding trade: assessment of approaches to risk communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Alves Bonow

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to assess the identification of health disorders as self-reported by apprentices of welding and to analyze the strength of the relationship between age and time of experience with self-reported health disorders before and after a socio-environmental nursing intervention. METHOD: this quasi-experimental, non-randomized, before-and-after study was conducted with 86 welding apprentices from a private entity. RESULTS: the results show a significant difference for the pre- and post-test means and an increase in the post-test mean score for the cardiovascular, respiratory and cutaneous systems. There was also a negative correlation between the apprentices' ages and the identification of health disorders. CONCLUSION: the socio-environmental nursing intervention enabled obtaining information on health disorders related to welding. In turn, such information enabled the apprentices to assess information and self-report health disorders.

  2. Relations Among Detection of Syllable Stress, Speech Abnormalities, and Communicative Ability in Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargas, Niko; López, Beatriz; Morris, Paul; Reddy, Vasudevi

    2016-04-01

    To date, the literature on perception of affective, pragmatic, and grammatical prosody abilities in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been sparse and contradictory. It is interesting to note that the primary perception of syllable stress within the word structure, which is crucial for all prosody functions, remains relatively unexplored in ASD. Thus, in the current study, we explored syllable stress perception sensitivity and its relationship to speech production abnormalities and communicative ability in adults with ASD. A same-different syllable stress perception task using pairs of identical 4-syllable words was delivered to 42 adults with/without high-functioning ASD, matched for age, to investigate primary speech perception ability in ASD. Speech production and communicative ability in ASD was measured using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (Lord et al., 2000). As predicted, the results showed that adults with ASD were less sensitive in making judgments about syllable stress relative to controls. Also, partial correlations revealed a key association of speech production abnormalities with stress perception sensitivity, rather than communicative ability. Our findings provide empirical evidence for deficits on primary syllable stress perception in ASD and its role on sociocommunicative difficulties. This information could facilitate the development of effective interventions for speech and language therapy and social communication.

  3. Communication Application for Use During the First Dental Visit for Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Adriana Gledys; Molina, Eder Cassola; Diniz, Michele Baffi; Santos, Maria Teresa Botti Rodrigues; Guaré, Renata Oliveira

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate an application (app) facilitating patient-professional communication among individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and compare it with the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). Forty nine- to 15-year-olds were randomly divided into two groups: G1 (app; N equals 20) and G2 (PECS; N equals 20). Initially, the visual contact timing of the groups was measured. Pictures of a room, ground, chair, dentist, mouth, low-speed handpiece, and air-water syringe were presented to both groups. Each picture was shown up to three times per appointment to evaluate whether or not the child accepted the procedure. After dental prophylaxis, caries experience was recorded. The prevalence of dental caries was 37.5 percent. Differences in the number of attempts required for each picture to acquire the skill proposed were found between the groups (Mann-Whitney, PPicture Exchange Communication System for dentist-patient communication, decreasing the number of appointments required for preventive dental care and clinical examinations.

  4. Variability in classroom social communication: performance of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and typically developing peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellmer, Liselotte; Olswang, Lesley B

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the authors examined how variability in classroom social communication performance differed between children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and pair-matched, typically developing peers. Twelve pairs of children were observed in their classrooms, 40 min per day (20 min per child) for 4 days over a 2-week period. Coders documented classroom social communication during situations of Cooperation and following School Rules by recording performance on handheld computers using the Social Communication Coding System (SCCS). The SCCS consists of 6 behavioral dimensions (prosocial/engaged, passive/disengaged, irrelevant, hostile/coercive, assertive, and adult seeking). The frequency of occurrence and duration of each dimension were recorded. These measures were then used to examine variability in performance within and across days (changeability and stability, respectively). Independent of classroom situation, children with FASD were more variable than their typically developing peers in terms of changing behavioral dimensions more often (changeability) and varying their behavior more from day to day (stability). Documenting performance variability may provide a clearer understanding of the classroom social communication difficulties of the child with mild FASD.

  5. Brief Report: A Mobile Application to Treat Prosodic Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Other Communication Impairments: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Elizabeth Schoen; Paul, Rhea; Shic, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the acceptability of a mobile application, SpeechPrompts, designed to treat prosodic disorders in children with ASD and other communication impairments. Ten speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in public schools and 40 of their students, 5-19 years with prosody deficits participated. Students received treatment with the software over eight weeks. Pre- and post-treatment speech samples and student engagement data were collected. Feedback on the utility of the software was also obtained. SLPs implemented the software with their students in an authentic education setting. Student engagement ratings indicated students' attention to the software was maintained during treatment. Although more testing is warranted, post-treatment prosody ratings suggest that SpeechPrompts has potential to be a useful tool in the treatment of prosodic disorders.

  6. Harnessing Big Data for Communicable Tropical and Sub-Tropical Disorders: Implications From a Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianfredi, Vincenza; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Nucci, Daniele; Martini, Mariano; Rosselli, Roberto; Minelli, Liliana; Moretti, Massimo

    2018-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), communicable tropical and sub-tropical diseases occur solely, or mainly in the tropics, thriving in hot, and humid conditions. Some of these disorders termed as neglected tropical diseases are particularly overlooked. Communicable tropical/sub-tropical diseases represent a diverse group of communicable disorders occurring in 149 countries, favored by tropical and sub-tropical conditions, affecting more than one billion people and imposing a dramatic societal and economic burden. A systematic review of the extant scholarly literature was carried out, searching in PubMed/MEDLINE and Scopus. The search string used included proper keywords, like big data, nontraditional data sources, social media, social networks, infodemiology, infoveillance, novel data streams (NDS), digital epidemiology, digital behavior, Google Trends, Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, Instagram, Pinterest, Ebola, Zika, dengue, Chikungunya, Chagas, and the other neglected tropical diseases. 47 original, observational studies were included in the current systematic review: 1 focused on Chikungunya, 6 on dengue, 19 on Ebola, 2 on Malaria, 1 on Mayaro virus, 2 on West Nile virus, and 16 on Zika. Fifteen were dedicated on developing and validating forecasting techniques for real-time monitoring of neglected tropical diseases, while the remaining studies investigated public reaction to infectious outbreaks. Most studies explored a single nontraditional data source, with Twitter being the most exploited tool (25 studies). Even though some studies have shown the feasibility of utilizing NDS as an effective tool for predicting epidemic outbreaks and disseminating accurate, high-quality information concerning neglected tropical diseases, some gaps should be properly underlined. Out of the 47 articles included, only 7 were focusing on neglected tropical diseases, while all the other covered communicable tropical/sub-tropical diseases, and the main determinant of

  7. The reliability of differentiating neurogenic claudication from vascular claudication based on symptomatic presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Mélissa; Rosas-Arellano, M Patricia; Gurr, Kevin R; Bailey, Stewart I; Taylor, David C; Grewal, Ruby; Lawlor, D Kirk; Bailey, Chris S

    2013-12-01

    Intermittent claudication can be neurogenic or vascular. Physicians use a profile based on symptom attributes to differentiate the 2 types of claudication, and this guides their investigations for diagnosis of the underlying pathology. We evaluated the validity of these symptom attributes in differentiating neurogenic from vascular claudication. Patients with a diagnosis of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) or peripheral vascular disease (PVD) who reported claudication answered 14 questions characterizing their symptoms. We determined the sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative likelihood ratios (PLR and NLR) for neurogenic and vascular claudication for each symptom attribute. We studied 53 patients. The most sensitive symptom attribute to rule out LSS was the absence of "triggering of pain with standing alone" (sensitivity 0.97, NLR 0.050). Pain alleviators and symptom location data showed a weak clinical significance for LSS and PVD. Constellation of symptoms yielded the strongest associations: patients with a positive shopping cart sign whose symptoms were located above the knees, triggered with standing alone and relieved with sitting had a strong likelihood of neurogenic claudication (PLR 13). Patients with symptoms in the calf that were relieved with standing alone had a strong likelihood of vascular claudication (PLR 20.0). The classic symptom attributes used to differentiate neurogenic from vascular claudication are at best weakly valid independently. However, certain constellation of symptoms are much more indicative of etiology. These results can guide general practitioners in their evaluation of and investigation for claudication.

  8. Development of the Aboriginal Communication Assessment After Brain Injury (ACAABI): A screening tool for identifying acquired communication disorders in Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Elizabeth M; Ciccone, Natalie; Hersh, Deborah; Katzenellebogen, Judith; Coffin, Juli; Thompson, Sandra; Flicker, Leon; Hayward, Colleen; Woods, Deborah; McAllister, Meaghan

    2017-06-01

    Acquired communication disorders (ACD), following stroke and traumatic brain injury, may not be correctly identified in Aboriginal Australians due to a lack of linguistically and culturally appropriate assessment tools. Within this paper we explore key issues that were considered in the development of the Aboriginal Communication Assessment After Brain Injury (ACAABI) - a screening tool designed to assess the presence of ACD in Aboriginal populations. A literature review and consultation with key stakeholders were undertaken to explore directions needed to develop a new tool, based on existing tools and recommendations for future developments. The literature searches revealed no existing screening tool for ACD in these populations, but identified tools in the areas of cognition and social-emotional wellbeing. Articles retrieved described details of the content and style of these tools, with recommendations for the development and administration of a new tool. The findings from the interview and focus group views were consistent with the approach recommended in the literature. There is a need for a screening tool for ACD to be developed but any tool must be informed by knowledge of Aboriginal language, culture and community input in order to be acceptable and valid.

  9. Developmental Disorders of Communication With Special Reference to Deaf Children With Additional Handicaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denmark, John C.

    1971-01-01

    Reviews 9 examples of "non-communicating children" whose probelms stem from: 1) intellectual impairment; 2) mental illness; 3) congenital verbal agnosia; 4) physical disease; or, 5) early profound deafness. (MB)

  10. [Review of 1,172 clinical cases with human communication disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Díaz, M R; de Pustilnik, N F; Tortolero, Y

    1976-01-01

    The study comprised 1,172 clinical cases that were classified according to sex, age and speech disorders. A review is made on the most common alterations that they present, the selective treatment in each type and their rehabilitation.

  11. Diagnostic value of "dysphagia limit" for neurogenic dysphagia: 17 years of experience in 1278 adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogdu, Ibrahim; Kiylioglu, Nefati; Tarlaci, Sultan; Tanriverdi, Zeynep; Alpaydin, Sezin; Acarer, Ahmet; Baysal, Leyla; Arpaci, Esra; Yuceyar, Nur; Secil, Yaprak; Ozdemirkiran, Tolga; Ertekin, Cumhur

    2015-03-01

    Neurogenic dysphagia (ND) is a prevalent condition that accounts for significant mortality and morbidity worldwide. Screening and follow-up are critical for early diagnosis and management which can mitigate its complications and be cost-saving. The aims of this study are to provide a comprehensive investigation of the dysphagia limit (DL) in a large diverse cohort and to provide a longitudinal assessment of dysphagia in a subset of subjects. We developed a quantitative and noninvasive method for objective assessment of dysphagia by using laryngeal sensor and submental electromyography. DL is the volume at which second or more swallows become necessary to swallow the whole amount of bolus. This study represents 17 years experience with the DL approach in assessing ND in a cohort of 1278 adult subjects consisting of 292 healthy controls, 784 patients with dysphagia, and 202 patients without dysphagia. A total of 192 of all patients were also reevaluated longitudinally over a period of 1-19 months. DL has 92% sensitivity, 91% specificity, 94% positive predictive value, and 88% negative predictive value with an accuracy of 0.92. Patients with ALS, stroke, and movement disorders have the highest sensitivity (85-97%) and positive predictive value (90-99%). The clinical severity of dysphagia has significant negative correlation with DL (r=-0.67, pdysphagia and it can be performed in an EMG laboratory. Our study provides specific quantitative features of DL test that can be readily utilized by the neurologic community and nominates DL as an objective and robust method to evaluate dysphagia in a wide range of neurologic conditions. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An electrophysiological approach to the diagnosis of neurogenic dysphagia: implications for botulinum toxin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonsi, E; Merlo, I M; Ponzio, M; Montomoli, C; Tassorelli, C; Biancardi, C; Lozza, A; Martignoni, E

    2010-01-01

    Botulinum toxin (BTX) injection into the cricopharyngeal (CP) muscle has been proposed for the treatment of neurogenic dysphagia due to CP hyperactivity. The aim was to determine whether an electrophysiological method exploring oropharyngeal swallowing could guide treatment and discriminate responders from non-responders, based on the association of CP dysfunction with other electrophysiological abnormalities of swallowing. Patients with different neurological disorders were examined: Parkinson disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, multiple system atrophy-Parkinson variant, multiple system atrophy cerebellar variant, stroke, multiple sclerosis and ataxia telangiectasia. All patients presented with clinical dysphagia, and with complete absence of CP muscle inhibition during the hypopharyngeal phase of swallowing. Each patient underwent clinical and electrophysiological investigations before and after treatment with BTX into the CP muscle of one side (15 units of Botox). Clinical and electrophysiological procedures were performed in a blind manner by two different investigators. The following electrophysiological measures were analysed: (1) duration of EMG activity of suprahyoid/submental muscles (SHEMG-D); (2) duration of laryngopharyngeal mechanogram (LPM-D); (3) duration of the inhibition of the CP muscle EMG activity (CPEMG-ID); and (4) interval between onset of EMG activity of suprahyoid/submental muscles and onset of laryngopharyngeal mechanogram (I-SHEMG-LPM). Two months after treatment, 50% of patients showed a significant improvement. Patients with prolonged or reduced SHEMG-D values and prolonged I-SHEMG-LPM values did not respond to BTX. Therefore, values for which BTX had no effect (warning values) were identified. This electrophysiological method can recognise swallowing abnormalities which may affect the outcome of the therapeutic approach to dysphagia with BTX treatment.

  13. Having Older Siblings is Associated with Less Severe Social Communication Symptoms in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Itzchak, Esther; Zukerman, Gil; Zachor, Ditza A

    2016-11-01

    Among typically developing children, having sibling relationships promotes the development of social skills. This is a retrospective study of the effect of having sibling/s on the severity of the clinical presentation of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The study included 112 children, 99 males and 15 females, mean age 29.6 ± 9.2 months, diagnosed with ASD. The study population was composed of a group of children with ASD who had older typically developing sibling/s (n = 56) pair-matched for age and cognitive level to a group of children with ASD without sibling/s. Each participant underwent a comprehensive assessment using standardized tests. The group with older sibling/s had less severe observed social deficits (Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Social Affect calibrated severity scales [ADOS-SA-CSS]) and fewer reported non-verbal communication impairments (Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised [ADI-R]). Regression analyses revealed that, for the ADOS-SA-CSS, higher cognitive level and having older sibling/s were associated with less severe observed social affect deficits. This model explained 32.0 % of the variance. For the ADI-R communication scores, older age, higher cognitive level and having older sibling/s were associated with less severe reported non-verbal communication impairments. This model explained 33.0 % of the variance. The main finding in this study is that a familial factor, specifically having older sibling/s, was associated with better social communication abilities in children with ASD, in addition to age and cognitive ability. Having sibling/s may offer opportunities for the child with ASD to experience social interactions with children and to acquire communication skills.

  14. Altered Cortical Thickness and Tract Integrity of the Mirror Neuron System and Associated Social Communication in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Hsiang-Yun; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Hsu, Yung-Chin; Chen, Yu-Jen; Lo, Yu-Chun; Shih, Yao-Chia; Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies using neural activity recording and neuroimaging techniques have reported functional deficits in the mirror neuron system (MNS) for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, a few studies focusing on gray and white matter structures of the MNS have yielded inconsistent results. The current study recruited adolescents and young adults with ASD (aged 15-26 years) and age-matched typically developing (TD) controls (aged 14-25 years). The cortical thickness (CT) and microstructural integrity of the tracts connecting the regions forming the classical MNS were investigated. High-resolution T1-weighted imaging and diffusion spectrum imaging were performed to quantify the CT and tract integrity, respectively. The structural covariance of the CT of the MNS regions revealed a weaker coordination of the MNS network in ASD. A strong correlation was found between the integrity of the right frontoparietal tracts and the social communication subscores measured by the Chinese version of the Social Communication Questionnaire. The results showed that there were no significant mean differences in the CTs and tract integrity between the ASD and TD groups, but revealed a moderate or even reverse age effect on the frontal MNS structures in ASD. In conclusion, aberrant structural coordination may be an underlying factor affecting the function of the MNS in ASD patients. The association between the right frontoparietal tracts and social communication performance implies a neural correlate of communication processing in the autistic brain. This study provides evidence of abnormal MNS structures and their influence on social communication in individuals with ASD. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Prospective identification of autism spectrum disorders in infancy and toddlerhood using developmental surveillance: the social attention and communication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Josephine; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2010-06-01

    Despite behavioral markers of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) being evident within the first year of life, there remains little research on the prospective identification of these children in a community-based setting before 18 months. The aim in the Social Attention and Communication Study was to identify infants and toddlers at risk of an ASD during their first 2 years. A total of 241 Maternal and Child Health nurses were trained on the early signs of ASDs at 8, 12, 18 and 24 months. Using a developmental surveillance approach with a community-based sample, a cohort of 20,770 children was monitored on early social attention and communication behaviors. Those infants/toddlers identified as "at risk" were referred to the Social Attention and Communication Study team from 12 months for developmental and diagnostic assessments at 6 monthly intervals, until 24 months. A total of 216 children were referred, with 110 being further assessed. Of these, 89 children were classified with an ASD at 24 months, and 20 children had developmental and/or language delays, resulting in a Positive Predictive value of 81%. The estimated rate of ASDs in the Social Attention and Communication Study cohort ranged from 1:119 to 1:233 children. Estimated sensitivity ranged from 69% to 83.8%, and estimated specificity ranged from 99.8% to 99.9%. Developmental surveillance of social and communication behaviors, which differ according to the age at which the child is monitored, enables the accurate identification of children at risk for ASDs between 12 and 24 months. Education on the early signs is recommended for all primary health care professionals to facilitate early identification of ASDs.

  16. Thin Versus Thick Description: Analyzing Representations of People and Their Life Worlds in the Literature of Communication Sciences and Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengst, Julie A; Devanga, Suma; Mosier, Hillary

    2015-11-01

    Evidence-based practice relies on clinicians to translate research evidence for individual clients. This study, the initial phase of a broader research project, examines the textual resources of such translations by analyzing how people with acquired cognitive-communication disorders (ACCD) and their life worlds have been represented in Communication Sciences and Disorders (CSD) research articles. Using textual analysis, we completed a categorical analysis of 6,059 articles published between 1936 and 2012, coding for genre, population, and any evidence of thick representations of people and their life worlds, and a discourse analysis of representations used in 56 ACCD research articles, identifying thin and thick representations in 4 domains (derived from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health) and across article sections. The categorical analysis identified a higher percentage of ACCD articles with some evidence of thick representation (30%) compared with all CSD articles (12%) sampled. However, discourse analysis of ACCD research articles found that thick representations were quite limited; 34/56 articles had thin representational profiles, 19/56 had mixed profiles, and 3/56 had thick profiles. These findings document the dominance of thin representations in the CSD literature, which we suggest makes translational work more difficult. How clinicians translate such evidence will be addressed in the next research phase, an interview study of speech-language pathologists.

  17. Masked Visual Analysis: Minimizing Type I Error in Visually Guided Single-Case Design for Communication Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Tara McAllister; Hitchcock, Elaine R; Ferron, John

    2017-06-10

    Single-case experimental designs are widely used to study interventions for communication disorders. Traditionally, single-case experiments follow a response-guided approach, where design decisions during the study are based on participants' observed patterns of behavior. However, this approach has been criticized for its high rate of Type I error. In masked visual analysis (MVA), response-guided decisions are made by a researcher who is blinded to participants' identities and treatment assignments. MVA also makes it possible to conduct a hypothesis test assessing the significance of treatment effects. This tutorial describes the principles of MVA, including both how experiments can be set up and how results can be used for hypothesis testing. We then report a case study showing how MVA was deployed in a multiple-baseline across-subjects study investigating treatment for residual errors affecting rhotics. Strengths and weaknesses of MVA are discussed. Given their important role in the evidence base that informs clinical decision making, it is critical for single-case experimental studies to be conducted in a way that allows researchers to draw valid inferences. As a method that can increase the rigor of single-case studies while preserving the benefits of a response-guided approach, MVA warrants expanded attention from researchers in communication disorders.

  18. Detrusor Arreflexia as an End Stage of Neurogenic Bladder in HAM/TSP?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Tannus

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The HTLV-1 virus is a known agent involved in the development of HAM/TSP. Past studies have typically observed patients with autonomic dysfunction consisting of detrusor overactivity and detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia, with the occasional observation of underactive detrusor or detrusor arreflexia. However, studies have not yet evaluated the progression of neurogenic bladder over time. In this paper, we describe a HAM/TSP patient with the initial development of overactive detrusor, and subsequent development of detrusor arreflexia. Given a paucity of studies characterizing the effects of HTLV-1 on the autonomic nervous system, particularly aspects controlling continence, this patient's clinical course may represent one type of end point for patients with HAM/TSP and neurogenic bladder. Further cohort or case-series studies, with particular emphasis on the progression of neurogenic bladder, are needed to evaluate the significance of this described case in relation to typical disease progression patterns.

  19. Unilateral phrenic nerve stimulation for neurogenic hypoventilation in Arnold Chiari malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Garg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Long- term ventilator dependence in patients with neurogenic hypoventilation is associated with significant morbidity and restricts mobility. Diaphragmatic pacing by phrenic nerve stimulation (PNS is a viable alternative. This is a case report of patient with Arnold-Chiari malformation with extensive syrinx who had neurogenic hypoventilation during sleep even after foramen magnum decompression and resolution of the syrinx. Unilateral PNS was done using spinal cord stimulator. With intermittent stimulation for 8 h while asleep, patient could be weaned off the ventilator completely. At 2 years follow- up, patient is ambulant and has returned to his routine activities. PNS is a good treatment tool in patients with neurogenic hypoventilation. Spinal cord stimulator can be used with optimal results. This is first such reported case of using spinal cord stimulator for PNS from India.

  20. X-ray diagnostic sign for the differentiation of neurogenic and primary muscular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palvoelgyi, R.; Gallai, M.

    1981-01-01

    The authors give an account of X-ray examinations of the limb musculature of 70 patients suffering from neurogenic muscular diseases, 42 suffering from primary muscular diseases and 45 suffering from senile degeneration of the muscles. Different degree of damage to different parts of the same muscle could only been observed in one case of neurogenic atrophy (in the postpoliomyelitic states) and in two cases of senile degeneration, while it was found in 11 cases (20%) for the other muscular diseases. In the latter cases the more severe muscle damage, which could be demonstrated radiographically, was always found in the part of the muscle adjacent to a tendon. On the above reasons the authors consider that radiographically demonstrable partial or uneven damage to any particular muscle can be used as a new diagnostical information in distinguishing muscular diseases from neurogenic muscular atrophy. (orig.) [de

  1. Harnessing Reddit to Understand the Written-Communication Challenges Experienced by Individuals With Mental Health Disorders: Analysis of Texts From Mental Health Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Albert; Conway, Mike

    2018-04-10

    Mental disorders such as depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia are common, incapacitating, and have the potential to be fatal. Despite the prevalence and gravity of mental disorders, our knowledge concerning everyday challenges associated with them is relatively limited. One of the most studied deficits related to everyday challenges is language impairment, yet we do not know how mental disorders can impact common forms of written communication, for example, social media. The aims of this study were to investigate written communication challenges manifest in online mental health communities focusing on depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia, as well as the impact of participating in these online mental health communities on written communication. As the control, we selected three online health communities focusing on positive emotion, exercising, and weight management. We examined lexical diversity and readability, both important features for measuring the quality of writing. We used four well-established readability metrics that consider word frequencies and syntactic complexity to measure writers' written communication ability. We then measured the lexical diversity by calculating the percentage of unique words in posts. To compare lexical diversity and readability among communities, we first applied pairwise independent sample t tests, followed by P value adjustments using the prespecified Hommel procedure to adjust for multiple comparison. To measure the changes, we applied linear least squares regression to the readability and lexical diversity scores against the interaction sequence for each member, followed by pairwise independent sample t tests and P value adjustments. Given the large sample of members, we also report effect sizes and 95% CIs for the pairwise comparisons. On average, members of depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia communities showed indications of difficulty expressing their ideas compared with three other

  2. Intravesical prostatic protrusion correlates well with storage symptoms in elderly male patients with non-neurogenic overactive bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Yen Lu

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: In elderly male patients with non-neurogenic OAB, more severe storage symptoms are associated with a lower maximum flow rate and a more prominent IPP, indicating that a significant cause of male non-neurogenic OAB is prostate associated.

  3. Botulinum toxin A for treatment of neurogenic detrusor overactivity and incontinence in patients with spinal cord lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagi, Per; Biering-Sørensen, Fin

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of intravesical botulinum toxin A (BTA) in the treatment of severe neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) with incontinence in patients with spinal cord lesions (SCLs).......To evaluate the efficacy of intravesical botulinum toxin A (BTA) in the treatment of severe neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) with incontinence in patients with spinal cord lesions (SCLs)....

  4. Parental romantic expectations and parent-child sexuality communication in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Laura G; Himle, Michael B; Strassberg, Donald S

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder, parental romantic expectations, and parental provision of sexuality and relationship education in an online sample of 190 parents of youth 12-18 years of age with a parent-reported diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. Regression analyses were conducted separately for youth with autism spectrum disorder + parent-reported average or above IQ and youth with autism spectrum disorder + parent-reported below average IQ. For youth with autism spectrum disorder + parent-reported average or above IQ, autism spectrum disorder severity predicted parental romantic expectations, but not parental provision of sexuality and relationship education. For youth with autism spectrum disorder + parent-reported below average IQ, parental romantic expectations mediated the relationship between autism spectrum disorder severity and parent provision of sexuality and relationship education. This supports the importance of carefully considering intellectual functioning in autism spectrum disorder sexuality research and suggests that acknowledging and addressing parent expectations may be important for parent-focused sexuality and relationship education interventions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Metacognition in speech and language therapy for children with social (pragmatic) communication disorders: implications for a theory of therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaile, Jacqueline; Adams, Catherine

    2018-01-01

    Metacognition is a significant component of complex interventions for children who have developmental language disorders. Research into how metacognition operates in the content or process of developmental language therapy delivery is limited. Identification and description of proposed active therapy components, such as metacognition, may contribute to our understanding of how to deliver complex communication interventions in an optimal manner. To analyse aspects of metacognition during therapy derived from a manualized speech and language intervention (the Social Communication Intervention Programme-SCIP) as delivered to children who have social (pragmatic) communication disorder (SPCD) and to examine the dynamic process of delivering therapy. A purposive sample of eight filmed therapy sessions was selected from the video data corpus of intervention-arm participants within a randomized controlled trial. The child-therapist interactions during therapy sessions from five children (aged between 5;11 and 10;3) in the SCIP trial were transcribed. Filmed sessions represented a variety of communication profiles and SCIP therapy content. Starting from existing theory on metacognition, cycles of iterative analysis were performed using a mixed inductive-deductive qualitative analysis. A preliminary list of metacognitive content embedded in the intervention was developed into a metacognitive coding framework (MCF). A thematic analysis of the identified metacognitive content of the intervention was then carried out across the whole sample. Thematic analysis revealed the presence of metacognition in the content and delivery of SCIP intervention. Four main themes of metacognitive person, task and strategy knowledge, and monitoring/control were identified. Metacognition was a feature of how children's ability to monitor language, pragmatic and social interaction skills, in themselves and other people, was developed. Task design and delivery methods were found to play a

  6. Use of a Picture Exchange Communication System for preventive procedures in individuals with autism spectrum disorder: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Adriana Gledys; Diniz, Michele Baffi; Rodrigues Dos Santos, Maria Teresa Botti; Guaré, Renata Oliveira

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in order to facilitate patient-professional communication during preventive procedures. In this study, 26 patients with ASD, between 5 and 19 years of age (10±3.3 y), were divided into two groups: G1 (n = 13) with no previous experience of dental treatment, and G2 (n = 13), with such previous experience. The initial approach followed the principles of the Son-Rise Program®. The seven PECSs presented the routine of the dental office: "room," "ground," "chair," "dentist," "mouth," "low," and "triple." Each PEC was used up to three times in order to acquire the skill proposed. It was verified that G2 required a greater number of times to achieve the acceptance of PECS "ground," "dentist," "mouth," and "triple" (p communication during preventive procedures, including for ASD patients with previous dental experience. © 2016 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Internet Communication Disorder and the structure of the human brain: initial insights on WeChat addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christian; Zhao, Zhiying; Sindermann, Cornelia; Xu, Lei; Fu, Meina; Li, Jialin; Zheng, Xiaoxiao; Li, Keshuang; Kendrick, Keith M; Dai, Jing; Becker, Benjamin

    2018-02-01

    WeChat represents one of the most popular smartphone-based applications for communication. Although the application provides several useful features that simplify daily life, a growing number of users spend excessive amounts of time on the application. This may lead to interferences with everyday life and even to addictive patterns of use. In the context of the ongoing discussion on Internet Communication Disorder (ICD), the present study aimed to better characterize the addictive potential of communication applications, using WeChat as an example, by examining associations between individual variations in tendencies towards WeChat addiction and brain structural variations in fronto-striatal-limbic brain regions. To this end levels of addictive tendencies, frequency of use and structural MRI data were assessed in n = 61 healthy participants. Higher tendencies towards WeChat addiction were associated with smaller gray matter volumes of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, a key region for monitoring and regulatory control in neural networks underlying addictive behaviors. Moreover, a higher frequency of the paying function was associated with smaller nucleus accumbens volumes. Findings were robust after controlling for levels of anxiety and depression. The present results are in line with previous findings in substance and behavioral addictions, and suggest a similar neurobiological basis in ICD.

  8. Tracheostomy in Young Children: Implications for Assessment and Treatment of Communication and Feeding Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Bonnie M.; McGowan, Joy Silverman

    1989-01-01

    The article reviews studies showing that speech and language intervention during the period of cannulation can benefit tracheostomized and ventilator-dependent children by improving their communicative functioning while decreasing their frustration with the tracheostomy placement. Therapeutic interventions with feeding skills are also recommended.…

  9. Symbolization Levels in Communicative Behaviors of Children Showing Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, Jeffrey A.; Lapidus, Leah Blumberg

    1988-01-01

    A total of 48 children (aged 4-14) with severe pervasive developmental disturbance, exhibiting mutism, echolalia, or nonecholalic speech, were observed in their communicative behaviors across modalities. Levels of symbolization in gesture, play, and drawing were significantly intercorrelated and were most strongly correlated with the criterion…

  10. Relationships among Relational Communication Processes and Consultation Outcomes for Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erchul, William P.; DuPaul, George J.; Grissom, Priscilla F.; Junod, Rosemary E. Vile; Jitendra, Asha K.; Mannella, Mark C.; Tresco, Katy E.; Flammer-Rivera, Lizette M.; Volpe, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Consultation has been shown to be an effective means to deliver school-based psychological services. The purpose of this study was to link patterns of consultant and teacher verbal interactions to consultation outcomes. Relational communication (Rogers & Escudero, 2004) was the research perspective taken, and the source of the consultation…

  11. Brief Report: Parent-Child Sexuality Communication and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Laura G.; Himle, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    While considerable research has focused on promoting independence and optimizing quality of life for adolescents and young adult with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), sexual development and sexuality education have been largely neglected. Experts recommend that parents be the primary source of sex education for adolescents with ASD, and that sex…

  12. Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Antisocial behavior Impulse control problems Substance use disorder Suicide Many children and teens with ODD also have other mental health disorders, such as: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Conduct disorder Depression Anxiety Learning and communication disorders Treating these other ...

  13. Harnessing Big Data for Communicable Tropical and Sub-Tropical Disorders: Implications From a Systematic Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenza Gianfredi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available AimAccording to the World Health Organization (WHO, communicable tropical and sub-tropical diseases occur solely, or mainly in the tropics, thriving in hot, and humid conditions. Some of these disorders termed as neglected tropical diseases are particularly overlooked. Communicable tropical/sub-tropical diseases represent a diverse group of communicable disorders occurring in 149 countries, favored by tropical and sub-tropical conditions, affecting more than one billion people and imposing a dramatic societal and economic burden.MethodsA systematic review of the extant scholarly literature was carried out, searching in PubMed/MEDLINE and Scopus. The search string used included proper keywords, like big data, nontraditional data sources, social media, social networks, infodemiology, infoveillance, novel data streams (NDS, digital epidemiology, digital behavior, Google Trends, Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, Instagram, Pinterest, Ebola, Zika, dengue, Chikungunya, Chagas, and the other neglected tropical diseases.Results47 original, observational studies were included in the current systematic review: 1 focused on Chikungunya, 6 on dengue, 19 on Ebola, 2 on Malaria, 1 on Mayaro virus, 2 on West Nile virus, and 16 on Zika. Fifteen were dedicated on developing and validating forecasting techniques for real-time monitoring of neglected tropical diseases, while the remaining studies investigated public reaction to infectious outbreaks. Most studies explored a single nontraditional data source, with Twitter being the most exploited tool (25 studies.ConclusionEven though some studies have shown the feasibility of utilizing NDS as an effective tool for predicting epidemic outbreaks and disseminating accurate, high-quality information concerning neglected tropical diseases, some gaps should be properly underlined. Out of the 47 articles included, only 7 were focusing on neglected tropical diseases, while all the other covered communicable tropical

  14. Communication disorders in palliative care: investigating the views, attitudes and beliefs of speech and language therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawksley, Rosy; Ludlow, Fiona; Buttimer, Heather; Bloch, Steven

    2017-11-02

    Speech and language therapists (SLTs) provide intervention for communication and swallowing to patients with life-limiting conditions, such as dementia and head and neck cancer. The role of the SLT in palliative care is difficult to define. Much is known about the clinical aspects of this role; however, little is known about the core values, beliefs and expectations of SLTs working in this sector, particularly with regard to their role in supporting patients' communication. Through a series of semi-structured interviews and a follow-up focus group, this report aimed to form a picture of the experiences and views of SLTs about their communication role in palliative care. Results suggest that SLTs are forging a self-identity in a sector that is itself constantly evolving, which causes difficulties in defining their role. Participants report that other health professionals have a poor understanding of the SLT's role. SLTs may benefit from palliative care-specific guidelines and increased interprofessional awareness of their role in order to become better integrated into the palliative care sector.

  15. Increasing Interest of Mass Communication Media and the General Public in the Distribution of Tweets About Mental Disorders: Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Mon, Miguel Angel; Asunsolo Del Barco, Angel; Lahera, Guillermo; Quintero, Javier; Ferre, Francisco; Pereira-Sanchez, Victor; Ortuño, Felipe; Alvarez-Mon, Melchor

    2018-05-28

    The contents of traditional communication media and new internet social media reflect the interests of society. However, certain barriers and a lack of attention towards mental disorders have been previously observed. The objective of this study is to measure the relevance of influential American mainstream media outlets for the distribution of psychiatric information and the interest generated in these topics among their Twitter followers. We investigated tweets generated about mental health conditions and diseases among 15 mainstream general communication media outlets in the United States of America between January 2007 and December 2016. Our study strategy focused on identifying several psychiatric terms of primary interest. The number of retweets generated from the selected tweets was also investigated. As a control, we examined tweets generated about the main causes of death in the United States of America, the main chronic neurological degenerative diseases, and HIV. In total, 13,119 tweets about mental health disorders sent by the American mainstream media outlets were analyzed. The results showed a heterogeneous distribution but preferential accumulation for a select number of conditions. Suicide and gender dysphoria accounted for half of the number of tweets sent. Variability in the number of tweets related to each control disease was also found (5998). The number of tweets sent regarding each different psychiatric or organic disease analyzed was significantly correlated with the number of retweets generated by followers (1,030,974 and 424,813 responses to mental health disorders and organic diseases, respectively). However, the probability of a tweet being retweeted differed significantly among the conditions and diseases analyzed. Furthermore, the retweeted to tweet ratio was significantly higher for psychiatric diseases than for the control diseases (odds ratio 1.11, CI 1.07-1.14; Pmedia outlets and the general public demonstrate a preferential

  16. Neurogenic pulmonary edema due to ventriculo-atrial shunt dysfunction: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Ana Sofia; Menezes, Sónia; Silva, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary edema is caused by the accumulation of fluid within the air spaces and the interstitium of the lung. Neurogenic pulmonary edema is a clinical syndrome characterized by the acute onset of pulmonary edema following a significant central nervous system insult. It may be a less-recognized consequence of raised intracranial pressure due to obstructive hydrocephalus by blocked ventricular shunts. It usually appears within minutes to hours after the injury and has a high mortality rate if not recognized and treated appropriately. We report a patient with acute obstructive hydrocephalus due to ventriculo-atrial shunt dysfunction, proposed to urgent surgery for placement of external ventricular drainage, who presented with neurogenic pulmonary edema preoperatively. She was anesthetized and supportive treatment was instituted. At the end of the procedure the patient showed no clinical signs of respiratory distress, as prompt reduction in intracranial pressure facilitated the regression of the pulmonary edema. This report addresses the importance of recognition of neurogenic pulmonary edema as a possible perioperative complication resulting from an increase in intracranial pressure. If not recognized and treated appropriately, neurogenic pulmonary edema can lead to acute cardiopulmonary failure with global hypoperfusion and hypoxia. Therefore, awareness of and knowledge about the occurrence, clinical presentation and treatment are essential. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Neurogenic pulmonary edema due to ventriculo-atrial shunt dysfunction: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sofia Cruz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pulmonary edema is caused by the accumulation of fluid within the air spaces and the interstitium of the lung. Neurogenic pulmonary edema is a clinical syndrome characterized by the acute onset of pulmonary edema following a significant central nervous system insult. It may be a less-recognized consequence of raised intracranial pressure due to obstructive hydrocephalus by blocked ventricular shunts. It usually appears within minutes to hours after the injury and has a high mortality rate if not recognized and treated appropriately. CASE REPORT: We report a patient with acute obstructive hydrocephalus due to ventriculo-atrial shunt dysfunction, proposed to urgent surgery for placement of external ventricular drainage, who presented with neurogenic pulmonary edema preoperatively. She was anesthetized and supportive treatment was instituted. At the end of the procedure the patient showed no clinical signs of respiratory distress, as prompt reduction in intracranial pressure facilitated the regression of the pulmonary edema. CONCLUSIONS: This report addresses the importance of recognition of neurogenic pulmonary edema as a possible perioperative complication resulting from an increase in intracranial pressure. If not recognized and treated appropriately, neurogenic pulmonary edema can lead to acute cardiopulmonary failure with global hypoperfusion and hypoxia. Therefore, awareness of and knowledge about the occurrence, clinical presentation and treatment are essential.

  18. [A swollen, painless calf caused by neurogenic muscle (pseudo)-hypertrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Zwarts, M.J.; Engelen, B.G.M. van

    2003-01-01

    Neurogenic muscle (pseudo) hypertrophy of the calf was diagnosed in a 60-year-old man, who presented with chronic, painless and unilateral calf enlargement caused by a chronic S1 radiculopathy due to a lumbar disc hernia in the L5-S1 interspace. The differential diagnosis of a swelling of the calf

  19. Longterm quiescent cells in the aged human subventricular neurogenic system specifically express GFAP-delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berge, S.A.; Middeldorp, J.; Zhang, C.E.; Curtis, M.A.; Leonard, B.W.; Mastroeni, D.; Voorn, P.; van de Berg, W.D.J.; Huitinga, I.; Hol, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    A main neurogenic niche in the adult human brain is the subventricular zone (SVZ). Recent data suggest that the progenitors that are born in the human SVZ migrate via the rostral migratory stream (RMS) towards the olfactory bulb (OB), similar to what has been observed in other mammals. A

  20. Neurogenic Stunned Myocardium Associated with Acute Spinal Cord Infarction: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian A. Beauchamp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Neurogenic stunned myocardium (NSM is a reversible cardiomyopathy resulting in transient left ventricular apical ballooning presumed to result from catecholamine surge occurring under physiologic stress. Acute spinal cord ischemia is a rare ischemic vascular lesion. We report a case of neurogenic stunned myocardium occurring in the setting of acute spinal cord infarction. Methods. Singe case report was used. Results. We present the case of a 63-year-old female with a history of prior lacunar stroke, hypertension, chronic back pain, and hypothyroidism who presented with a brief episode of diffuse abdominal and bilateral lower extremity pain which progressed within minutes to bilateral lower extremity flaccid paralysis. MRI of the spinal cord revealed central signal hyperintensity of T2-weighted imaging from conus to T8 region, concerning for acute spinal cord ischemia. Transthoracic echocardiogram was performed to determine if a cardiac embolic phenomenon may have precipitated this ischemic event and showed left ventricular apical hypokinesis and ballooning concerning for NSM. Conclusion. Neurogenic stunned myocardium is a reversible cardiomyopathy which has been described in patients with physiologic stress resulting in ventricular apical ballooning. Our case suggests that it is possible for neurogenic stunned myocardium to occur in the setting of acute spinal cord ischemia.

  1. A Clinician Survey of Speech and Non-Speech Characteristics of Neurogenic Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theys, Catherine; van Wieringen, Astrid; De Nil, Luc F.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents survey data on 58 Dutch-speaking patients with neurogenic stuttering following various neurological injuries. Stroke was the most prevalent cause of stuttering in our patients, followed by traumatic brain injury, neurodegenerative diseases, and other causes. Speech and non-speech characteristics were analyzed separately for…

  2. QTL replication and targeted association highlight the nerve growth factor gene for nonverbal communication deficits in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, A T-H; Yoon, J; Geschwind, D H; Cantor, R M

    2013-02-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has a heterogeneous etiology that is genetically complex. It is defined by deficits in communication and social skills and the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviors. Genetic analyses of heritable quantitative traits that correlate with ASD may reduce heterogeneity. With this in mind, deficits in nonverbal communication (NVC) were quantified based on items from the Autism Diagnostic Interview Revised. Our previous analysis of 228 families from the Autism Genetics Research Exchange (AGRE) repository reported 5 potential quantitative trait loci (QTL). Here we report an NVC QTL replication study in an independent sample of 213 AGRE families. One QTL was replicated (Panalysis of 476 haplotype blocks with 708 AGRE families using the Family Based Association Test (FBAT). Blocks in two QTL genes were associated with NVC with a P-value of 0.001. Three associated haplotype blocks were intronic to the Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) gene (P=0.001, 0.001, 0.002), and one was intronic to KCND3 (P=0.001). Individual haplotypes within the associated blocks drove the associations (0.003, 0.0004 and 0.0002) for NGF and 0.0001 for KCND3. Using the same methods, these genes were tested for association with NVC in an independent sample of 1517 families from an Autism Genome Project (AGP). NVC was associated with a haplotype in an adjacent NGF block (P=0.0005) and one 46 kb away from the associated block in KCND3 (0.008). These analyses illustrate the value of QTL and targeted association studies for genetically complex disorders such as ASD. NGF is a promising risk gene for NVC deficits.

  3. Inhibition by ketamine and amphetamine analogs of the neurogenic nitrergic vasodilations in porcine basilar arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Mei-Fang; Lai, Su-Yu; Kung, Po-Cheng; Lin, Yo-Cheng; Yang, Hui-I; Chen, Po-Yi; Liu, Ingrid Y.; Lua, Ahai Chang; Lee, Tony Jer-Fu

    2016-01-01

    The abuse of ketamine and amphetamine analogs is associated with incidence of hypertension and strokes involving activation of sympathetic activities. Large cerebral arteries at the base of the brain from several species receive dense sympathetic innervation which upon activation causes parasympathetic-nitrergic vasodilation with increased regional blood flow via axo-axonal interaction mechanism, serving as a protective mechanism to meet O 2 demand in an acutely stressful situation. The present study was designed to examine effects of ketamine and amphetamine analogs on axo-axonal interaction-mediated neurogenic nitrergic vasodilation in porcine basilar arteries using techniques of blood-vessel myography, patch clamp and two-electrode voltage clamp, and calcium imaging. In U46619-contracted basilar arterial rings, nicotine (100 μM) and electrical depolarization of nitrergic nerves by transmural nerve stimulation (TNS, 8 Hz) elicited neurogenic nitrergic vasodilations. Ketamine and amphetamine analogs concentration-dependently inhibited nicotine-induced parasympathetic-nitrergic vasodilation without affecting that induced by TNS, nitroprusside or isoproterenol. Ketamine and amphetamine analogs also concentration-dependently blocked nicotine-induced inward currents in Xenopus oocytes expressing α3β2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), and nicotine-induced inward currents as well as calcium influxes in rat superior cervical ganglion neurons. The potency in inhibiting both inward-currents and calcium influxes is ketamine > methamphetamine > hydroxyamphetamine. These results indicate that ketamine and amphetamine analogs, by blocking nAChRs located on cerebral perivascular sympathetic nerves, reduce nicotine-induced, axo-axonal interaction mechanism-mediated neurogenic dilation of the basilar arteries. Chronic abuse of these drugs, therefore, may interfere with normal sympathetic-parasympathetic interaction mechanism resulting in diminished neurogenic

  4. Neurogenética en el Perú, ejemplo de investigación traslacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Mazzetti

    Full Text Available La neurogenética es una disciplina emergente en el Perú que vincula la investigación básica con la práctica clínica. El Centro de Investigación Básica en Neurogenética, es el único centro en el Perú dedicado a la atención especializada de enfermedades neurogenéticas. La investigación en esta área está estrechamente ligada a la enfermedad de Huntington, desde la genotipificación del gen HTT por PCR, hasta los actuales estudios de haplogrupos en esta enfermedad. La investigación en otras enfermedades monogénicas permitió la implementación de metodologías alternativas para la genotipificación del síndrome X frágil y distrofia miotónica tipo 1. Esfuerzos colaborativos nacionales e internacionales han permitido conocer nuevas variantes genéticas en enfermedades complejas, como la enfermedad de Parkinson y Alzheimer. El entrenamiento multidisciplinario y la mentoría fomentan la formación de nuevos especialistas en neurogenética, permitiendo el crecimiento sostenido de esta disciplina en el país. El impulso de la investigación en el Perú ha impulsado el crecimiento de la investigación en neurogenética; sin embargo, las limitaciones en infraestructura, tecnología y capacitación aún son un reto para el crecimiento de investigación en esta disciplina

  5. Emotional dysregulation in borderline personality disorder and its influence on communication behavior and feelings in romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miano, Annemarie; Grosselli, Luna; Roepke, Stefan; Dziobek, Isabel

    2017-08-01

    Dysfunction in romantic relationships constitutes one of the most burdensome symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD). The aim of this study was to ascertain how emotional dysregulation affects behavior and relationship related feelings of women with BPD in threatening conversations with their own romantic partner. Thirty couples in which the women were diagnosed with BPD and 34 healthy control (HC) couples were videotaped while discussing personally threatening (i.e., personal failure) and relationship-threatening (i.e., separation) themes. Third party raters evaluated stress and communication behaviors during the conversations. Relationship related feelings, i.e., closeness and relationship insecurity, were assessed by self-report. Overall, women with BPD were rated as more stressed in threatening situations than HC women and their partners, but not more stressed in relationship-threatening than personally threatening situations. A heightened stress response of women with BPD predicted more negative and less positive communication behaviors and a stronger decline in self-rated closeness to the partner compared to HC. Stress-induced increases in relationship insecurity were specific to women with BPD. Our results highlight the central role of emotional dysregulation in interpersonal dysfunctions of persons with BPD and the need to address individual emotion regulation strategies more explicitly in dyadic contexts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Improving therapeutic outcomes in autism spectrum disorders: Enhancing social communication and sensory processing through the use of interactive robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorato, Felippe; Przybylowski, Leon; Sarko, Diana K

    2017-07-01

    For children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), social robots are increasingly utilized as therapeutic tools in order to enhance social skills and communication. Robots have been shown to generate a number of social and behavioral benefits in children with ASD including heightened engagement, increased attention, and decreased social anxiety. Although social robots appear to be effective social reinforcement tools in assistive therapies, the perceptual mechanism underlying these benefits remains unknown. To date, social robot studies have primarily relied on expertise in fields such as engineering and clinical psychology, with measures of social robot efficacy principally limited to qualitative observational assessments of children's interactions with robots. In this review, we examine a range of socially interactive robots that currently have the most widespread use as well as the utility of these robots and their therapeutic effects. In addition, given that social interactions rely on audiovisual communication, we discuss how enhanced sensory processing and integration of robotic social cues may underlie the perceptual and behavioral benefits that social robots confer. Although overall multisensory processing (including audiovisual integration) is impaired in individuals with ASD, social robot interactions may provide therapeutic benefits by allowing audiovisual social cues to be experienced through a simplified version of a human interaction. By applying systems neuroscience tools to identify, analyze, and extend the multisensory perceptual substrates that may underlie the therapeutic benefits of social robots, future studies have the potential to strengthen the clinical utility of social robots for individuals with ASD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A shared framework for the common mental disorders and Non-Communicable Disease: key considerations for disease prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Adrienne; Jacka, Felice N; Quirk, Shae E; Cocker, Fiona; Taylor, C Barr; Oldenburg, Brian; Berk, Michael

    2015-02-05

    Historically, the focus of Non Communicable Disease (NCD) prevention and control has been cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cancer and chronic respiratory diseases. Collectively, these account for more deaths than any other NCDs. Despite recent calls to include the common mental disorders (CMDs) of depression and anxiety under the NCD umbrella, prevention and control of these CMDs remain largely separate and independent. In order to address this gap, we apply a framework recently proposed by the Centers for Disease Control with three overarching objectives: (1) to obtain better scientific information through surveillance, epidemiology, and prevention research; (2) to disseminate this information to appropriate audiences through communication and education; and (3) to translate this information into action through programs, policies, and systems. We conclude that a shared framework of this type is warranted, but also identify opportunities within each objective to advance this agenda and consider the potential benefits of this approach that may exist beyond the health care system.

  8. The use of hand gestures to communicate about nonpresent objects in mind among children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Wing-Chee; Lui, Ming; Wong, Tze-Kiu; Sit, Long-Tin

    2015-04-01

    The current study examined whether children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), in comparison with typically developing children, perceive and produce gestures to identify nonpresent objects (i.e., referent-identifying gestures), which is crucial for communicating ideas in a discourse. An experimenter described the uses of daily-life objects to 6- to 12-year-old children both orally and with gestures. The children were then asked to describe how they performed daily activities using those objects. All children gestured. A gesture identified a nonpresent referent if it was produced in the same location that had previously been established by the experimenter. Children with ASD gestured at the specific locations less often than typically developing children. Verbal and spatial memory were positively correlated with the ability to produce referent-identifying gestures for all children. However, the positive correlation between Raven's Children Progressive Matrices score and the production of referent-identifying gestures was found only in children with ASD. Children with ASD might be less able to perceive and produce referent-identifying gestures and may rely more heavily on visual-spatial skills in producing referent-identifying gestures. The results have clinical implications for designing an intervention program to enhance the ability of children with ASD to communicate about nonpresent objects with gestures.

  9. The relationship of periodontal disease to diseases and disorders at distant sites: communication to health care professionals and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamster, Ira B; DePaola, Dominick P; Oppermann, Rui V; Papapanou, Panos N; Wilder, Rebecca S

    2008-10-01

    The body of research defining relationships among periodontal disease and certain systemic diseases and disorders has been expanding, and questions have been raised regarding what information should be conveyed to health care professionals and patients. Representatives from dentistry, medicine, the academic community and the insurance industry convened a two-day workshop July 23 and 24, 2007. The workshop participants achieved general consensus on a number of issues, including the need for greater cooperation between the health care professions. This cooperation should translate into improved clinical care as physicians refer patients for dental care, and dentists are proactive in regard to the general health of their patients. Communication to health care professionals requires a multifaceted approach that includes publication of research findings in medical and dental journals, cooperation among professional organizations and initiatives at the local level such as presentations at medical grand rounds. Dental schools should play a role in their health science centers. Communication with patients may improve through the use of targeted informational brochures in the offices of medical specialists, appropriate media campaigns and efforts led by local dental organizations. It is too early to provide specific recommendations regarding the treatment of periodontal disease to improve specific health outcomes, but dentists can become advocates for a general health promotion and disease prevention message. The lifestyles approach includes an improved diet, smoking cessation, appropriate hygiene practices and stress reduction. These strategies can improve oral and general health outcomes.

  10. The left middle temporal gyrus in the middle of an impaired social-affective communication network in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Je-Yeon; Kim, Jae-Chang; Ku, Jeonghun; Shin, Jung-Eun; Kim, Jae-Jin; Choi, Soo-Hee

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies on patients diagnosed with social anxiety disorder (SAD) reported changed patterns of the resting-state functional connectivity network (rs-FCN) between the prefrontal cortices and other prefrontal, amygdalar or striatal regions. Using a graph theory approach, this study explored the modularity-based community profile and patterns of inter-/intra-modular communication for the rs-FCN in SAD. In total, for 28 SAD patients and 27 healthy controls (HC), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were acquired in resting-state and subjected to a graph theory analysis. The within-module degree z-score for a hub region [out of a total of 10 hub regions ranked using the participation coefficient] named left middle temporal gyrus was impaired in SAD compared to HC, proportional to the severity of clinician-scored and patient-reported functional impairment in SAD. Most of participants included in this study were undergraduate students in their early-to-mid 20's. This study showed the importance of functional communication from the left middle temporal gyrus with other opercular-insular-subcortical regions for better objective functioning and lesser subjective disability in SAD. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Communicating a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder - a qualitative study of parents' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Mandy; Bernard, Paul; Forge, Jenny

    2013-07-01

    Not enough is known about parents' experiences of receiving the news that their child warrants a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Sharing this information with parents is an important and difficult part of Child and Adolescent Mental Health (CAMH) practice. Qualitative methodology was used to explore the experiences of the 'feedback session' with nine sets of parents in a community Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS) in North East England. Parents gave vivid accounts of their experiences and described issues relating to the structure, style and content of the session. The experiences of CAMHS users should inform the development of good practice in this important area.

  12. Online Social Communication Patterns among Young Adult Women with Histories of Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Szwedo, David E.; Ahmad, Shaikh I.; Samuels, Andrea Stier; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about adult women with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), however available evidence suggests that they experience social impairment. Online social networking websites such as Facebook have become endemic outlets through which emerging adults communicate with peers. No study has examined the peer interactions of emerging adults with childhood histories of ADHD in this developmentally relevant online domain. Participants in the current study were an ethnically diverse sample of 228 women, 140 of whom met diagnostic criteria for ADHD in childhood and 88 who composed a matched comparison sample. These women were assessed at three time points spanning 10 years (mean age = 9.6 at Wave 1, 14.1 at Wave 2, 19.6 at Wave 3). After statistical control of demographic covariates and comorbidites, childhood ADHD diagnosis predicted, by emerging adulthood, a greater stated preference for online social communication and a greater tendency to have used online methods to interact with strangers. A childhood diagnosis of ADHD also predicted observations of fewer Facebook friends and less closeness and support from Facebook friends in emerging adulthood. These associations were mediated by a composite of face-to-face peer relationship impairment during childhood and adolescence. Intriguingly, women with persistent diagnoses of ADHD from childhood to emerging adulthood differed from women with consistent comparison status in their online social communication; women with intermittent diagnoses of ADHD had scores intermediate between the other two groups. Results are discussed within the context of understanding the social relationships of women with childhood histories of ADHD. PMID:25894439

  13. Online social communication patterns among emerging adult women with histories of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Szwedo, David E; Ahmad, Shaikh I; Samuels, Andrea Stier; Hinshaw, Stephen P

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about adult women with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, available evidence suggests that they experience social impairment. Online social networking websites such as Facebook have become endemic outlets through which emerging adults communicate with peers. No study has examined the peer interactions of emerging adults with childhood histories of ADHD in this developmentally relevant online domain. Participants in the current study were an ethnically diverse sample of 228 women, 140 of whom met diagnostic criteria for ADHD in childhood and 88 who composed a matched comparison sample. These women were assessed at 3 time points spanning 10 years (mean age = 9.6 at Wave 1, 14.1 at Wave 2, 19.6 at Wave 3). After statistical control of demographic covariates and comorbidities, childhood ADHD diagnosis predicted, by emerging adulthood, a greater stated preference for online social communication and a greater tendency to have used online methods to interact with strangers. A childhood diagnosis of ADHD also predicted observations of fewer Facebook friends and less closeness and support from Facebook friends in emerging adulthood. These associations were mediated by a composite of face-to-face peer relationship impairment during childhood and adolescence. Intriguingly, women with persistent diagnoses of ADHD from childhood to emerging adulthood differed from women with consistent comparison status in their online social communication; women with intermittent diagnoses of ADHD had scores intermediate between the other 2 groups. Results are discussed within the context of understanding the social relationships of women with childhood histories of ADHD. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. The Associations among Motor Ability, Social-Communication Skills, and Participation in Daily Life Activities in Children with Low-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Limor; Moran, Adva; Bart, Orit

    2017-01-01

    Decreased motor ability is a common feature in autism, leading to the proposal of a motor-social link in autism. The purpose of the study was to assess the contribution of motor abilities and social-communication skills to children's participation in daily activities, among children with low-functioning autism spectrum disorder (LFASD).…

  15. A Further Comparison of Manual Signing, Picture Exchange, and Speech-Generating Devices as Communication Modes for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Larah; Sutherland, Dean; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    We compared acquisition of, and preference for, manual signing (MS), picture exchange (PE), and speech-generating devices (SGDs) in four children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Intervention was introduced across participants in a non-concurrent multiple-baseline design and acquisition of the three communication modes was compared in an…

  16. Divergence of Age-Related Differences in Social-Communication: Improvements for Typically Developing Youth but Declines for Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Gregory L.; Dudley, Katerina; Anthony, Laura; Pugliese, Cara E.; Orionzi, Bako; Clasen, Liv; Lee, Nancy Raitano; Giedd, Jay N.; Martin, Alex; Raznahan, Armin; Kenworthy, Lauren

    2017-01-01

    Although social-communication difficulties and repetitive behaviors are hallmark features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and persist across the lifespan, very few studies have compared age-related differences in these behaviors between youth with ASD and same-age typically developing (TD) peers. We examined this issue using SRS-2 (Social…

  17. Parent-Reported Patterns of Loss and Gain in Communication in 1- to 2-Year-Old Children Are Not Unique to Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignell, Amanda; Williams, Katrina; Prior, Margot; Donath, Susan; Reilly, Sheena; Bavin, Edith L.; Eadie, Patricia; Morgan, Angela T.

    2017-01-01

    We compared loss and gain in communication from 1 to 2 years in children later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (n = 41), language impairment (n = 110) and in children with typical language development at 7 years (n = 831). Participants were selected from a prospective population cohort study of child language (the Early Language in…

  18. Effects of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) on Maladaptive Behavior in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Dana; McDonald, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the literature investigating the functional relationship between the use of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) and maladaptive behavior (i.e., aggression, tantrums) in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Digital searches were conducted to identify single subject design studies…

  19. The Impact of the Picture Exchange Communication System on Requesting and Speech Development in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Similar Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Jennifer B.; Simpson, Richard L.; Corbin-Newsome, Jawanda

    2008-01-01

    By definition children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) experience difficulty understanding and using language. Accordingly, visual and picture-based strategies such as the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) show promise in ameliorating speech and language deficits. This study reports the results of a multiple baseline across…

  20. The Role of Supported Joint Engagement and Parent Utterances in Language and Social Communication Development in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Yoder, Paul J.; Hochman, Julia M.; Watson, Linda R.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined associations between three parent-child engagement states and social communication, expressive language, and receptive language at 8 month follow-up, in 63 preschool-age children with autism spectrum disorder. We extend the literature on supported joint engagement by dividing this state into higher order (HSJE) and lower order…

  1. Camp Campus: College Preparation for Adolescents and Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism, Asperger Syndrome, and Other Social Communication Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retherford, Kristine S.; Schreiber, Linda R.

    2015-01-01

    Camp Campus is a 1-week campus experience for juniors or seniors in high school or high school graduates who are diagnosed with high-functioning autism, Asperger syndrome, or a related social communication disorder and who plan to attend college. Participants experience campus life by partaking of campus services, living and dining on campus,…

  2. Abnormal Corpus Callosum Connectivity, Socio-Communicative Deficits, and Motor Deficits in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaie, Ryuzo; Mohri, Ikuko; Kagitani-Shimono, Kuriko; Tachibana, Masaya; Matsuzaki, Junko; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Fujita, Norihiko; Taniike, Masako

    2014-01-01

    In addition to social and communicative deficits, many studies have reported motor deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study investigated the macro and microstructural properties of the corpus callosum (CC) of 18 children with ASD and 12 typically developing controls using diffusion tensor imaging tractography. We aimed to explore…

  3. Current Methods of Evaluating Speech-Language Outcomes for Preschoolers with Communication Disorders: A Scoping Review Using the ICF-CY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Barbara Jane; Washington, Karla N.; Binns, Amanda; Rolfe, Katelyn; Robertson, Bernadette; Rosenbaum, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this scoping review was to identify current measures used to evaluate speech-language outcomes for preschoolers with communication disorders within the framework of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-Children and Youth Version (ICF-CY; World Health Organization, 2007). Method: The review…

  4. Do Children with Social Communication Disorder Have Explicit Knowledge of Pragmatic Rules They Break? A Comparison of Conversational Pragmatic Ability and Metapragmatic Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockton, Elaine; Adams, Catherine; Collins, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children who have social communication disorder (CwSCD) demonstrate persistent difficulties with language pragmatics in conversations and other verbal interactions. Speech-language interventions for these children often include promotion of metapragmatic awareness (MPA); that is, the ability to identify explicitly and reflect upon…

  5. Evaluating the impact of treatment for sleep/wake disorders on recovery of cognition and communication in adults with chronic TBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman-Hakes, Catherine; Murray, Brian; Moineddin, Rahim; Rochon, Elizabeth; Cullen, Nora; Gargaro, Judith; Colantonio, Angela

    2013-01-01

    To longitudinally examine objective and self-reported outcomes for recovery of cognition, communication, mood and participation in adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and co-morbid post-traumatic sleep/wake disorders. Prospective, longitudinal, single blind outcome study. Community-based. Ten adults with moderate-severe TBI and two adults with mild TBI and persistent symptoms aged 18-58 years. Six males and six females, who were 1-22 years post-injury and presented with self-reported sleep/wake disturbances with onset post-injury. Individualized treatments for sleep/wake disorders that included sleep hygiene recommendations, pharmacological interventions and/or treatments for sleep apnea with follow-up. Insomnia Severity Index, Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories, Latrobe Communication Questionnaire, Speed and Capacity of Language Processing, Test of Everyday Attention, Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status, Daily Cognitive-Communication and Sleep Profile. Group analysis revealed positive trends in change for each measure and across sub-tests of all measures. Statistically significant changes were noted in insomnia severity, p = 0.0003; depression severity, p = 0.03; language, p = 0.01; speed of language processing, p = 0.007. These results add to a small but growing body of evidence that sleep/wake disorders associated with TBI exacerbate trauma-related cognitive, communication and mood impairments. Treatment for sleep/wake disorders may optimize recovery and outcomes.

  6. Effects of a Conversation-Based Intervention on the Linguistic Skills of Children with Motor Speech Disorders Who Use Augmentative and Alternative Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Gloria; Clarke, Michael T.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a conversation-based intervention on the expressive vocabulary and grammatical skills of children with severe motor speech disorders and expressive language delay who use augmentative and alternative communication. Method: Eight children aged from 8 to 13 years participated in the study.…

  7. Communicative Strategies Used by Spouses of Individuals with Communication Disorders Related to Stroke-Induced Aphasia and Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Emilia; Hartelius, Lena; Saldert, Charlotta

    2014-01-01

    Background: A communicative disability interferes with the affected person's ability to take active part in social interaction, but non-disabled communication partners may use different strategies to support communication. However, it is not known whether similar strategies can be used to compensate for different types of communicative…

  8. Training Peer Partners to Use a Speech-Generating Device With Classmates With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Exploring Communication Outcomes Across Preschool Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann-Bourque, Kathy S; McGuff, Sara; Goldstein, Howard

    2017-09-18

    This study examined effects of a peer-mediated intervention that provided training on the use of a speech-generating device for preschoolers with severe autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and peer partners. Effects were examined using a multiple probe design across 3 children with ASD and limited to no verbal skills. Three peers without disabilities were taught to Stay, Play, and Talk using a GoTalk 4+ (Attainment Company) and were then paired up with a classmate with ASD in classroom social activities. Measures included rates of communication acts, communication mode and function, reciprocity, and engagement with peers. Following peer training, intervention effects were replicated across 3 peers, who all demonstrated an increased level and upward trend in communication acts to their classmates with ASD. Outcomes also revealed moderate intervention effects and increased levels of peer-directed communication for 3 children with ASD in classroom centers. Additional analyses revealed higher rates of communication in the added context of preferred toys and snack. The children with ASD also demonstrated improved communication reciprocity and peer engagement. Results provide preliminary evidence on the benefits of combining peer-mediated and speech-generating device interventions to improve children's communication. Furthermore, it appears that preferred contexts are likely to facilitate greater communication and social engagement with peers.

  9. Communication and decision-making in mental health: A systematic review focusing on Bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Alana; Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Kiln, Felicity; Juraskova, Ilona

    2016-07-01

    To systematically review studies of communication and decision-making in mental health-based samples including BP patients. Qualitative systematic review of studies using PsychINFO, MEDLINE, SCOPUS, CINAHL, and EMBASE (January 2000-March 2015). One author assessed study eligibility, verified by two co-authors. Data were independently extracted by two authors, and cross-checked by another co-author. Two independent raters assessed eligible studies using a validated quality appraisal. Of 519 articles retrieved, 13 studies were included (i.e., 10 quantitative/1 qualitative/1 mixed-methods). All were cross-sectional; twelve were rated good/strong quality (>70%). Four inter-related themes emerged: patient characteristics and patient preferences, quality of patient-clinician interactions, and influence of SDM/patient-centred approach on patient outcomes. Overall BP patients, like others, have unmet decision-making needs, and desire greater involvement. Clinician consultation behaviour influenced patient involvement; interpersonal aspects (e.g., empathy, listening well) fostered therapeutic relationships and positive patient outcomes, including: improved treatment adherence, patient satisfaction with care, and reduced suicidal ideation. This review reveals a paucity of studies reporting bipolar-specific findings. To inform targeted BP interventions, greater elucidation of unmet decision-making needs is needed. Eliciting patient preferences and developing a collaborative therapeutic alliance may be particularly important in BP, promoting improved patient outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Diagnostic difficulties in the differentiation of neurogenic tumors of the parapharyngeal space in helical CT evaluations: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czerniewicz-Kaminska, A.; Nowicki, J.; Jazwiec, P.; Kedzierski, B.; Janeczek, T.; Wilczynski, K.; Prudlak, E.

    2005-01-01

    Computerized tomography (CT) with contrast infusion and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) play important roles in establishing the place of origin of neurogenic tumors. In this article we do not compare these two methods, but focus on the crucial role of CT imaging in the estimation and differential diagnosis of these tumors. We present the case of a 50-year-old man with clinical symptoms of peritonsillar abscess, which appeared to be a neurogenic tumor. The images obtained were deemed ambiguous. The possibility of a parotid gland tumor or a tumor of neurogenic origin was assumed. In this case we observed atypical clinical and radiological symptoms. The final diagnosis was based on a combination of radiological, clinical, and microbiological features of the tumor. Thanks to the cooperation of many professionals, we managed to establish the diagnosis of neuroangiofibroma, which exemplifies a tumor of the borderline, including elements of the neurogenic sheath and connective and chromaffin tissue. (author)

  11. Effectiveness of interspinous implant surgery in patients with intermittent neurogenic claudication: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moojen, W.A.; Arts, M.P.; Bartels, R.H.M.A.; Jacobs, W.C.; Peul, W.C.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Despite an increasing implantation rate of interspinous process distraction (IPD) devices in the treatment of intermittent neurogenic claudication (INC), definitive evidence on the clinical effectiveness of implants is lacking. The main objective of this review was to perform a

  12. The role of research methodology in the rational use of technology in monitoring and preventing communication disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brasília M. Chiari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies showing stronger scientific evidence related to speech, language and hearing pathology (SLP have an impact on the prevention and rehabilitation of human communication and gained ground in SLP research agenda. In this paper we discuss some aspects and directions that should be considered for in-depth knowledge about speech, language and hearing needs in different population groups (age group, gender and other variables according to specific related disorders for improved comprehensive care, successful efforts and effective use of financial and human resources. It is also discussed the decision making process for requesting complementary evaluations and tests, from routine to highly complex ones, that should be based on each test and/or procedure and their contribution to the diagnosis and therapeutic planning. In fact, it is crucial to have reliable parameters for planning, preventing and treating human communication and its related disorders. Epidemiology, biostatistics and social sciences can contribute with more specific information in human communication sciences and guide more specific studies on the international science and technology agenda, improving communication sciences involvement in the international health-related scientific scenario.Estudos que demonstram mais evidências científicas associadas ao impacto da Fonoaudiologia na prevenção e reabilitação da comunicação humana vêm ganhando maior espaço na agenda fonoaudiológica. Neste artigo discutimos alguns aspectos relacionados a essa questão, bem como direcionamentos a se-rem considerados para que conhecimento mais detalhado relacionado à Fonoaudiologia em estratos diferentes da população (como faixa etária, sexo, etc. associadas a estes agravos esteja disponível, a fim de contribuir com a integralidade e efetividade dos recursos humanos e financeiros na atenção à saúde. Além disso, discutimos aspectos inerentes à solicitação de avaliações e exames

  13. Early pragmatic language difficulties in siblings of children with autism: implications for DSM-5 social communication disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Meghan; Young, Gregory S; Hutman, Ted; Johnson, Scott; Schwichtenberg, A J; Ozonoff, Sally

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated early pragmatic language skills in preschool-age siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and examined correspondence between pragmatic language impairments and general language difficulties, autism symptomatology, and clinical outcomes. Participants were younger siblings of children with ASD (high-risk, n = 188) or typical development (low-risk, n = 119) who were part of a prospective study of infants at risk for ASD; siblings without ASD outcomes were included in analyses. Pragmatic language skills were measured via the Language Use Inventory (LUI). At 36 months, the high-risk group had significantly lower parent-rated pragmatic language scores than the low-risk group. When defining pragmatic language impairment (PLI) as scores below the 10(th) percentile on the LUI, 35% of the high-risk group was identified with PLI versus 10% of the low-risk group. Children with PLI had higher rates of general language impairment (16%), defined as scores below the 10(th) percentile on the Receptive or Expressive Language subscales of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, relative to those without PLI (3%), but most did not evidence general language impairments. Children with PLI had significantly higher ADOS scores than those without PLI and had higher rates of clinician-rated atypical clinical best estimate outcomes (49%) relative to those without PLI (15%). Pragmatic language problems are present in some siblings of children with ASD as early as 36 months of age. As the new DSM-5 diagnosis of Social (Pragmatic) Communication Disorder (SCD) is thought to occur more frequently in family members of individuals with ASD, it is possible that some of these siblings will meet criteria for SCD as they get older. Close monitoring of early pragmatic language development in young children at familial risk for ASD is warranted. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  14. Neuroanatomic alterations and social and communication deficits in monozygotic twins discordant for autism disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Shanti R; Reiss, Allan L; Tatusko, Danielle H; Ikuta, Ichiro; Kazmerski, Dana B; Botti, Jo-Anna C; Burnette, Courtney P; Kates, Wendy R

    2009-08-01

    Investigating neuroanatomic differences in monozygotic twins who are discordant for autism can help unravel the relative contributions of genetics and environment to this pervasive developmental disorder. The authors used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate several brain regions of interest in monozygotic twins who varied in degree of phenotypic discordance for narrowly defined autism. The subjects were 14 pairs of monozygotic twins between the ages of 5 and 14 years old and 14 singleton age- and gender-matched typically developing comparison subjects. The monozygotic twin group was a cohort of children with narrowly defined autistic deficits and their co-twins who presented with varying levels of autistic deficits. High-resolution MRIs were acquired and volumetric/area measurements obtained for the frontal lobe, amygdala, and hippocampus and subregions of the prefrontal cortex, corpus callosum, and cerebellar vermis. No neurovolumetric/area differences were found between twin pairs. Relative to typically developing comparison subjects, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volumes and anterior areas of the corpus callosum were significantly altered in autistic twins, and volumes of the posterior vermis were altered in both autistic twins and co-twins. Intraclass correlation analysis of brain volumes between children with autism and their co-twins indicated that the degree of within-pair neuroanatomic concordance varied with brain region. In the group of subjects with narrowly defined autism only, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and posterior vermis volumes were significantly associated with the severity of autism based on scores from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic. These findings support previous research demonstrating alterations in the prefrontal cortex, corpus callosum, and posterior vermis in children with autism and further suggest that alterations are associated with the severity of the autism phenotype. Continued research

  15. A systematic review and comparison of questionnaires in the management of spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis and the neurogenic bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, B; Stothers, L; Macnab, A; Lazare, D; Nigro, M

    2016-03-01

    Validated questionnaires are increasingly the preferred method used to obtain historical information. Specialized questionnaires exist validated for patients with neurogenic disease including neurogenic bladder. Those currently available are systematically reviewed and their potential for clinical and research use are described. A systematic search via Medline and PubMed using the key terms questionnaire(s) crossed with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) for the years 1946 to January 22, 2014 inclusive. Additional articles were selected from review of references in the publications identified. Only peer reviewed articles published in English were included. 18 questionnaires exist validated for patients with neurogenic bladder; 14 related to MS, 3 for SCI, and 1 for neurogenic bladder in general; with 4 cross-validated in both MS and SCI. All 18 are validated for both male and female patients; 59% are available only in English. The domains of psychological impact and physical function are represented in 71% and 76% of questionnaires, respectively. None for the female population included elements to measure symptoms of prolapse. The last decade has seen an expansion of validated questionnaires to document bladder symptoms in neurogenic disease. Disease specific instruments are available for incorporation into the clinical setting for MS and SCI patients with neurogenic bladder. The availability of caregiver and interview options enhances suitability in clinical practice as they can be adapted to various extents of disability. Future developments should include expanded language validation to the top 10 global languages reported by the World Health Organization. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The iPad and mobile technology revolution: benefits and challenges for individuals who require augmentative and alternative communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, David; Light, Janice

    2013-06-01

    The iPad and other mobile technologies provide powerful new tools to potentially enhance communication for individuals with developmental disabilities, acquired neurogenic disorders, and degenerative neurological conditions. These mobile technologies offer a number of potential benefits, including: (a) increased awareness and social acceptance of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), (b) greater consumer empowerment in accessing AAC solutions, (c) increased adoption of AAC technologies, (d) greater functionality and interconnectivity, and (e) greater diffusion of AAC research and development. However, there remain a number of significant challenges that must be addressed if these benefits are to be fully realized: (a) to ensure the focus is on communication, not just technology, (b) to develop innovative models of AAC service delivery to ensure successful outcomes, (c) to ensure ease of access for all individuals who require AAC, and, (d) to maximize AAC solutions to support a wide variety of communication functions. There is an urgent need for effective collaboration among key stakeholders to support research and development activities, and to ensure the successful implementation of mobile technologies to enhance communication outcomes for individuals who require AAC and their families.

  17. Chronic Renal Failure Secondary to Unrecognized Neurogenic Bladder in A Child with Myelodysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shameem; Paul, Siba Prosad

    2017-01-01

    Myelodysplasia includes a group of developmental anomalies resulting from defects that occur during neural tube closure. Urological morbidity in patients with myelodysplasia is significant and if not treated appropriately in a timely manner can potentially lead to progressive renal failure, requiring dialysis or transplantation. We report the case of a 13-year old girl with neurogenic bladder who presented chronic renal failure secondary to lipomyelomeningocele with retethering of cord. She was managed with urinary indwelling catheterization until optimization of renal function and then underwent detethering of cord with excision and repair of residual lipomeningomyelocele. Her renal parameters improved gradually over weeks and then were managed on self clean intermittent catheterization. The case emphasizes the need for considering retethering of spinal cord in children with myelodysplasia where symptoms of neurogenic bladder and recurrent urinary tract infections occur.

  18. Neurogenic plasma exudation mediates grain dust-induced tissue injury in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X P; Von Essen, S; Rubinstein, I

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether an aqueous extract of grain sorghum dust (GDE) elicits neurogenic plasma exudation in the oral mucosa in vivo. Using intravital microscopy, we found that GDE elicited significant, concentration-dependent leaky site formation and an increase in clearance of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran (FITC-dextran; mol mass 70 kDa) from the hamster cheek pouch (P grain sorghum dust elicits immediate oral mucosa inflammation in vivo.

  19. Surgical Management of Anatomic Bladder Outlet Obstruction in Males with Neurogenic Bladder Dysfunction: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordhoff, Toscane C; Groen, Jan; Scheepe, Jeroen R; Blok, Bertil F M

    2018-03-15

    Surgical treatment of anatomic bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) may be indicated in males with neurogenic bladder dysfunction. A bothersome complication after surgery is urinary incontinence. To identify the optimal practice in the surgical treatment of anatomic BOO in males with neurogenic bladder dysfunction, due to multiple sclerosis, Parkinson disease, spinal cord injury (SCI), spina bifida, or cerebrovascular accident (CVA). A systematic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement. Medline, Embase, Cochrane controlled trial databases, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched for publications until January 2017. A total of 930 abstracts were screened. Eight studies were included. The types of anatomic BOO discussed were benign prostate obstruction, urethral stricture, and bladder neck sclerosis. The identified surgical treatments were transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) in patients with Parkinson, CVA or SCI, endoscopic treatment of urethral stricture by laser ablation or urethrotomy (mainly in SCI patients), and bladder neck resection (BNR) in SCI patients. The outcome of TURP may be highly variable, and includes persistent or de novo urinary incontinence, regained normal micturition control, and urinary continence. Good results were seen in BNR and endoscopic urethrotomy studies. Laser ablation and cold knife urethrotomy resulted in restarting intermittent catheterization or adequate voiding. Overall, a high risk of bias was found. This systematic review provides an overview of the current literature on the outcome of several surgical approaches of different types of anatomic BOO in males with neurogenic bladder dysfunction. Identifying the optimal practice was impossible due to limited availability of high-quality studies. The outcome of several surgical approaches in males with neurogenic bladder dysfunction with benign prostate obstruction, urethral stricture

  20. Neurogenic period of ascending tract neurons in the upper lumbar spinal cord of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandi, K.N.; Beal, J.A.; Knight, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    Although the neurogenic period for neurons in the lumbar spinal cord has been clearly established (Days 12 through 16 of gestation), it is not known when the neurogenesis of ascending tract neurons is completed within this period. The purpose of the present study was to determine the duration of the neurogenic period for projection neurons of the ascending tracts. To label neurons undergoing mitosis during this period, tritiated thymidine was administered to fetal rats on Embryonic (E) Days E13 through E16 of gestation. Ascending tract neurons of the lumbar cord were later (Postnatal Days 40-50) labeled in each animal with a retrograde tracer, Fluoro-Gold, applied at the site of a hemisection at spinal cord segment C3. Ascending tract neurons which were undergoing mitosis in the upper lumbar cord were double labeled, i.e., labeled with both tritiated thymidine and Fluoro-Gold. On Day E13, 89-92% of the ascending tract neurons were double labeled; on Day E14, 35-37%; and on Day E15, 1-4%. Results showed, then, that some ascending tract neurons were double labeled through Day E15 and were, therefore, proliferating in the final one-third of the neurogenic period. Ascending tract neurons proliferating on Day E15 were confined to laminae III, IV, V, and X and the nucleus dorsalis. Long tract neurons in the superficial dorsal horn (laminae I and II), on the other hand, were found to have completed neurogenesis on Day E14 of gestation. Results of the present study show that spinal neurogenesis of ascending projection neurons continues throughout most of the neurogenic period and does not completely follow the well-established ventral to dorsal gradient

  1. Notch receptor expression in neurogenic regions of the adult zebrafish brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa de Oliveira-Carlos

    Full Text Available The adult zebrash brain has a remarkable constitutive neurogenic capacity. The regulation and maintenance of its adult neurogenic niches are poorly understood. In mammals, Notch signaling is involved in stem cell maintenance both in embryonic and adult CNS. To better understand how Notch signaling is involved in stem cell maintenance during adult neurogenesis in zebrafish we analysed Notch receptor expression in five neurogenic zones of the adult zebrafish brain. Combining proliferation and glial markers we identified several subsets of Notch receptor expressing cells. We found that 90 [Formula: see text] of proliferating radial glia express notch1a, notch1b and notch3. In contrast, the proliferating non-glial populations of the dorsal telencephalon and hypothalamus rarely express notch3 and about half express notch1a/1b. In the non-proliferating radial glia notch3 is the predominant receptor throughout the brain. In the ventral telencephalon and in the mitotic area of the optic tectum, where cells have neuroepithelial properties, notch1a/1b/3 are expressed in most proliferating cells. However, in the cerebellar niche, although progenitors also have neuroepithelial properties, only notch1a/1b are expressed in a high number of PCNA [Formula: see text] cells. In this region notch3 expression is mostly in Bergmann glia and at low levels in few PCNA [Formula: see text] cells. Additionally, we found that in the proliferation zone of the ventral telencephalon, Notch receptors display an apical high to basal low gradient of expression. Notch receptors are also expressed in subpopulations of oligodendrocytes, neurons and endothelial cells. We suggest that the partial regional heterogeneity observed for Notch expression in progenitor cells might be related to the cellular diversity present in each of these neurogenic niches.

  2. Neurogenic pulmonary edema induced by spinal cord injury in spontaneously hypertensive and Dahl salt hypertensive rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šedý, Jiří; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Zicha, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 6 (2011), s. 975-979 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510; GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/0336; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : hypertension * neurogenic pulmonary edema * Dahl salt-sensitive rats * SHR Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.555, year: 2011

  3. Three children with autism spectrum disorder learn to perform a three-step communication sequence using an iPad®-based speech-generating device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, Hannah; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio E; O'Reilly, Mark F; van der Meer, Larah; Carnett, Amarie; Stevens, Michelle; Roche, Laura; Hodis, Flaviu; Green, Vanessa A; Sutherland, Dean; Lang, Russell; Marschik, Peter B

    2014-12-01

    Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have limited or absent speech and might therefore benefit from learning to use a speech-generating device (SGD). The purpose of this study was to evaluate a procedure aimed at teaching three children with ASD to use an iPad(®)-based SGD to make a general request for access to toys, then make a specific request for one of two toys, and then communicate a thank-you response after receiving the requested toy. A multiple-baseline across participants design was used to determine whether systematic instruction involving least-to-most-prompting, time delay, error correction, and reinforcement was effective in teaching the three children to engage in this requesting and social communication sequence. Generalization and follow-up probes were conducted for two of the three participants. With intervention, all three children showed improvement in performing the communication sequence. This improvement was maintained with an unfamiliar communication partner and during the follow-up sessions. With systematic instruction, children with ASD and severe communication impairment can learn to use an iPad-based SGD to complete multi-step communication sequences that involve requesting and social communication functions. Copyright © 2014 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Neurogenic heterotopic ossification: epidemiology and morphology on conventional radiographs in an early neurological rehabilitation population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seipel, R.; Langner, S.; Lippa, M.; Kuehn, J.P.; Hosten, N.; Platz, T.

    2012-01-01

    To retrospectively evaluate neurogenic heterotopic ossification in an early neurological rehabilitation population (phases B and C) with respect to epidemiology and morphology on conventional radiographs. Over a 4-year period, 1,463 patients treated at a clinic for early neurological rehabilitation were evaluated for clinical symptoms of neurogenic heterotopic ossification. In case of clinical suspicion, plain radiographs of the expected sites were obtained. If heterotopic ossification was detected, the initial and subsequent radiographs were retrospectively analyzed for sites, size, and morphology. Immature lesions were categorized as small (<10 mm) or large (10-100 mm). The prevalence rate of neurogenic heterotopic ossification was 2.05%. The condition was most common in young male adults. The hip was the most common site accounting for more than half of the cases. Two or more ossifications were seen in 56.7% of the affected patients with approximately two-thirds showing bilateral symmetric involvement of corresponding joint regions. The size of ossifications strongly varied interindividually. Small immature lesions demonstrated less progression in size than large lesions during maturation (P < 0.05). Standard radiographs, as a fast and inexpensive technique, allow the expected size progression of heterotopic ossifications during maturation to be estimated, which is relevant in terms of therapeutic decisions, patient mobilization, and neurological rehabilitation. (orig.)

  5. Enhanced Dentate Neurogenesis after Brain Injury Undermines Long-Term Neurogenic Potential and Promotes Seizure Susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Neuberger

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal dentate gyrus is a focus of enhanced neurogenesis and excitability after traumatic brain injury. Increased neurogenesis has been proposed to aid repair of the injured network. Our data show that an early increase in neurogenesis after fluid percussion concussive brain injury is transient and is followed by a persistent decrease compared with age-matched controls. Post-injury changes in neurogenesis paralleled changes in neural precursor cell proliferation and resulted in a long-term decline in neurogenic capacity. Targeted pharmacology to restore post-injury neurogenesis to control levels reversed the long-term decline in neurogenic capacity. Limiting post-injury neurogenesis reduced early increases in dentate excitability and seizure susceptibility. Our results challenge the assumption that increased neurogenesis after brain injury is beneficial and show that early post-traumatic increases in neurogenesis adversely affect long-term outcomes by exhausting neurogenic potential and enhancing epileptogenesis. Treatments aimed at limiting excessive neurogenesis can potentially restore neuroproliferative capacity and limit epilepsy after brain injury.

  6. What Picture Descriptions Can Reveal about Disordered Communication and the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Agis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of descriptions of the “Cookie Theft” picture from the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination have been shown to (1 distinguish between controls, and chronic mild, moderate, and severe aphasia(Craig et al., 1993; Yorkston & Beukelman, 1980; and (2 distinguish distinct profiles of deficits in chronic right hemisphere (RH stroke (Myers, 1978; Trupe & Hillis, 1985. We hypothesized that analysis of the “Cookie Theft” picture descriptions in acute stroke would also: (1 provide quantitative measures of severity of communication impairment that correlate with volume of infarct or volume of lesion in key regions of interest; and (2 provide quantitative measures of hemispatial attention that distinguish RH from left hemisphere (LH stroke and from controls. Methods: We analyzed picture descriptions of patients with acute ischemic LH (n=28, RH (n=25 stroke, and healthy controls (n=25 for total content units (CU produced by previously studied healthy controls during picture descriptions (Yorkston & Beukelman, 1980, syllables/CU, and ratio of left page:right page CU (LCU:RCU. CUs defined as nouns, adjective, and verbs relevant to the picture. Diffusion-weighted images were registered to a common atlas, to measure volume of infarct and percent damage to regions of interest without knowledge of behavioral analysis. We evaluated differences across groups with ANOVA and across pairs of groups with t-tests. We evaluated correlations between each measure and volume of infarct and percent damage to 6 cortical and 3 white matter regions of interest in each hemisphere (inferior frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, angular gyrus, and supramarginal gyrus; superior fronto-occipital fasciculus, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and sagittal stratum with Pearson correlations. Results: There were no differences between groups in age, education, or sex distribution. LH and RH patients produced fewer CU (p<0.0001 and

  7. Inhibition by ketamine and amphetamine analogs of the neurogenic nitrergic vasodilations in porcine basilar arteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Mei-Fang [Department of Medical Research, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Tzu Chi Center for Vascular Medicine, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Tzu Chi University of Science and Technology, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Lai, Su-Yu; Kung, Po-Cheng; Lin, Yo-Cheng [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Medicine, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Yang, Hui-I [Department of Medical Research, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Chen, Po-Yi [Department of Medical Research, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Medicine, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Liu, Ingrid Y. [Department of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Lua, Ahai Chang [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Biotechnology & Graduate Institute of Medical Biotechnology, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Lee, Tony Jer-Fu, E-mail: tlee@mail.tcu.edu.tw [Department of Medical Research, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Tzu Chi Center for Vascular Medicine, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Department of Life Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Medicine, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Department of Pharmacology, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, IL (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The abuse of ketamine and amphetamine analogs is associated with incidence of hypertension and strokes involving activation of sympathetic activities. Large cerebral arteries at the base of the brain from several species receive dense sympathetic innervation which upon activation causes parasympathetic-nitrergic vasodilation with increased regional blood flow via axo-axonal interaction mechanism, serving as a protective mechanism to meet O{sub 2} demand in an acutely stressful situation. The present study was designed to examine effects of ketamine and amphetamine analogs on axo-axonal interaction-mediated neurogenic nitrergic vasodilation in porcine basilar arteries using techniques of blood-vessel myography, patch clamp and two-electrode voltage clamp, and calcium imaging. In U46619-contracted basilar arterial rings, nicotine (100 μM) and electrical depolarization of nitrergic nerves by transmural nerve stimulation (TNS, 8 Hz) elicited neurogenic nitrergic vasodilations. Ketamine and amphetamine analogs concentration-dependently inhibited nicotine-induced parasympathetic-nitrergic vasodilation without affecting that induced by TNS, nitroprusside or isoproterenol. Ketamine and amphetamine analogs also concentration-dependently blocked nicotine-induced inward currents in Xenopus oocytes expressing α3β2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), and nicotine-induced inward currents as well as calcium influxes in rat superior cervical ganglion neurons. The potency in inhibiting both inward-currents and calcium influxes is ketamine > methamphetamine > hydroxyamphetamine. These results indicate that ketamine and amphetamine analogs, by blocking nAChRs located on cerebral perivascular sympathetic nerves, reduce nicotine-induced, axo-axonal interaction mechanism-mediated neurogenic dilation of the basilar arteries. Chronic abuse of these drugs, therefore, may interfere with normal sympathetic-parasympathetic interaction mechanism resulting in diminished neurogenic

  8. Pro-ana versus Pro-recovery: A Content Analytic Comparison of Social Media Users' Communication about Eating Disorders on Twitter and Tumblr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branley, Dawn B; Covey, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To compare how people communicate about eating disorders on two popular social media platforms - Twitter and Tumblr. Materials and Methods: Thematic analysis was conducted to characterize the types of communications posted, and a content analysis was undertaken of between-platform differences. Results: Three types of content (pro-ana, anti-ana, and pro-recovery) were posted on each platform. Overall, across both platforms, extreme pro-ana posts were in the minority compared to anti-ana and pro-recovery. Pro-ana posts (including 'thinspiration') were more common on Twitter than Tumblr, whereas anti-ana and pro-recovery posts were more common on Tumblr. Conclusion: The findings have implications for future research and health care relating to the treatment and prevention of eating disorders. Developers of future interventions targeting negative pro-ana content should remain aware of the need to avoid any detrimental impact on positive online support.

  9. An evaluation of speech production in two boys with neurodevelopmental disorders who received communication intervention with a speech-generating device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Laura; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio E; O'Reilly, Mark F; Schlosser, Ralf W; Stevens, Michelle; van der Meer, Larah; Achmadi, Donna; Kagohara, Debora; James, Ruth; Carnett, Amarie; Hodis, Flaviu; Green, Vanessa A; Sutherland, Dean; Lang, Russell; Rispoli, Mandy; Machalicek, Wendy; Marschik, Peter B

    2014-11-01

    Children with neurodevelopmental disorders often present with little or no speech. Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) aims to promote functional communication using non-speech modes, but it might also influence natural speech production. To investigate this possibility, we provided AAC intervention to two boys with neurodevelopmental disorders and severe communication impairment. Intervention focused on teaching the boys to use a tablet computer-based speech-generating device (SGD) to request preferred stimuli. During SGD intervention, both boys began to utter relevant single words. In an effort to induce more speech, and investigate the relation between SGD availability and natural speech production, the SGD was removed during some requesting opportunities. With intervention, both participants learned to use the SGD to request preferred stimuli. After learning to use the SGD, both participants began to respond more frequently with natural speech when the SGD was removed. The results suggest that a rehabilitation program involving initial SGD intervention, followed by subsequent withdrawal of the SGD, might increase the frequency of natural speech production in some children with neurodevelopmental disorders. This effect could be an example of response generalization. Copyright © 2014 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [The Spanish adapted version of the Children's Communication Checklist identifies disorders of pragmatic use of language and differentiates between clinical subtypes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Eguilaz, N; Magallon, S; Sanchez-Carpintero, R; Narbona, J

    2016-01-01

    The Children's Communication Checklist (CCC) by Bishop is a useful scale for evaluation of pragmatic verbal abilities in school children. The aim of the study is to ascertain the validity and reliability of the CCC in Spanish. Answers to the CCC items by parents of 360 children with normal intelligence were analyzed. There were five groups: 160 control children; 68 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 77 with procedural non-verbal disorder, 25 children with social communication disorder and 30 with autism spectrum disorder. Investigations included: factorial analysis in order to cluster checklist items, reliability analyses of the proposed scales and discriminant analysis to check whether the scale correctly classifies children with pragmatic verbal abilities. Seven factors were obtained (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin: 0.852) with moderate similarity with those of the original scale: social relationships, interests, and five more that can be grouped into pragmatic verbal ability (conversational abilities, coherence-comprehension, empathy nonverbal communication and appropriateness). All factors are significantly correlated with each other in the control group, and the five that compose pragmatic verbal ability correlate with each other in the clinical groups (Pearson r). The scales have good reliability (Cronbach's alpha: 0.914). The questionnaire correctly classifies 98.9% of grouped cases with and without pragmatic disorder and 78% of subjects in their appropriate clinical group. Besides, the questionnaire allows to differentiate the pathologies according to the presence and intensity of the symptoms. This Spanish version of the CCC is highly valid and reliable. The proposed statistics can be used as normative-reference values.

  11. Analysis of chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei and hematological disorders among workers of wireless communication instruments and cell phone (Mobile) users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldawy, H.A.; Khattab, F.I.; Hassan, N.H.A.; Amin, Y.M.; Mahmoud, M.M.A.

    2003-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the hazardous effect of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) such as chromosomal aberration, disturbed micronucleus formation and hematological disorders that may detected among workers of wireless communication instruments and mobile phone users. Seven individuals ( 3 males and 4 females) of a central workers in the microwave unit of the wireless station and 7 users of Mobil phone (4 males and 3 females ) were volunteered to give blood samples. Chromosomes and micronucleus were prepared for cytogenetic analysis as well as blood film for differential count. The results obtained in the microwave group indicated that, the total summation of all types of aberrations (chromosomes and chromatid aberrations) had a frequency of 6. 14% for the exposed group, whereas, the frequency in the control group amounted to 1.57%. In Mobil phone users, the total summation of all types of aberrations(chromosome and chromatid aberrations) had a frequency of 4.43% for the exposed group and 1.71% for the control group. The incidence of the total number of micronuclei in the exposed microwave group was increased 4.3 folds as compared with those of the control group The incidence of the total number of micronuclei in the exposed mobile phone group was increased 2 fold as compared with those in the control group. On the other hand, normal ranges of total white blood cells counts were determined for mobile phone users but abnormalities in the differential counts of the different types of the white blood cells such as neutropenia, eosinophilia and lymphocytosis were observed in the individuals number 1,2,3,7 in microwave group

  12. [Communicative and social-adaptive profile in children with autism spectrum disorder: a new approach based on the DSM-5 criteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, D; Garcia-Fernandez, M; Garcia-Retamero, R; Carballo, G

    2017-07-16

    Following the adoption of the new international diagnosis classification from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5), autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been established as a dimensional category that includes other disorders that were previously considered as separate entities. Previous research has shown that some people with this disorder exhibit different communicative and linguistic profiles. Therefore, contradictory results could be found among people who receive the same diagnosis. To distinguish structural language aspects (expression and comprehension), interactive aspects (pragmatics), and social adaptation between children with an ASD-level 1 of support and children with typical development. Seventeen children with Asperger syndrome (according to the DSM-IV-TR), and 20 children with typical development between 7 and 12 years old. We have equated diagnosis of Asperger syndrome with ASD-level 1 of support. We have evaluated intelligence quotient, communication, and social adaptation with direct and indirect standardized parental scales. We have found significant differences in comprehension (p = 0.025), interaction (p = 0.001), and social adaptation (p = 0.001) between the two groups. Subjects with ASD-level 1 of support demonstrate an average intelligence quotient, and good expressive structure (syntax and semantic level), which may be different from other children who receive the same diagnosis, due to the wide heterogeneity of the disorder. Nevertheless, our subjects have problems related to comprehension of grammar structure, pragmatics, and social adaptation. These difficulties could be related to emotional and social problems.

  13. Observation of classroom social communication: do children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders spend their time differently than their typically developing peers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olswang, Lesley B; Svensson, Liselotte; Astley, Susan

    2010-12-01

    In this research, the authors examined how social communication profiles during classroom activities differed between children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and typically developing pair-matched peers. Twelve pairs of children were observed in their classrooms 20 min a day for 4 days across 2 weeks. Coders documented classroom social communication by recording performance on handheld computers using the Social Communication Coding System (L. B. Olswang, L. Svensson, T. E. Coggins, J. Beilinson, & A. L. Donaldson, 2006). The Social Communication Coding System consists of 6 behavioral dimensions (prosocial/engaged, passive/disengaged, irrelevant, hostile/coercive, assertive, and adult seeking) that account for all verbal and nonverbal productions during a specified timeframe. The frequency of occurrence and duration of each dimension (as measured by proportion of time and average length of time spent performing each dimension) were recorded. Children with FASD had significantly more occurrences of passive/disengaged and irrelevant behavior, and the proportion and average length of time in these behaviors were larger and longer than those of their peers. Further, children with FASD had significantly more occurrences of prosocial/engaged behavior; however, the proportion and average length of time that they spent being prosocial were smaller and shorter than those of their peers. Implications Results suggest children with mild FASD performed differently than their peers in regard to classroom social communication, which was consistent with parent and teacher behavioral reports.

  14. Environmental enrichment, age and PPARα interact to regulate proliferation in neurogenic niches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita ePerez-Martin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα ligands have been shown to modulate recovery after brain insults such as ischemia and irradiation by enhancing neurogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of the genetic deletion of PPARα receptors on the proliferative rate of neural precursor cells (NPC in the adult brain. The study was performed in aged Pparα-/- mice exposed to nutritional (treats and environmental (games enrichments for 20 days. We performed immunohistochemical analyses of cells containing the replicating cell DNA marker 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdU+ and the immature neuronal marker doublecortin (Dcx+ in the main neurogenic zones of the adult brain: subgranular zone of dentate gyrus (SGZ, subventricular zone of lateral ventricles (SVZ and/or hypothalamus. Results indicated a reduction in the number of BrdU+ cells in the neurogenic zones analyzed as well as Dcx+ cells in the SGZ during aging (2, 6, 18 months. Pparα deficiency alleviated the age-related reduction of NPC proliferation (BrdU+ cells in the SVZ of the 18-months-old mice. While no genotype effect on NPC proliferation was detected in the SGZ during aging, an accentuated reduction in the number of Dcx+ cells was observed in the SGZ of the 6-months-old Pparα-/- mice. Exposing the 18-months-old mice to nutritional and environmental enrichments reversed the Pparα-/--induced impairment of NPC proliferation in the neurogenic zones analyzed. The enriched environment did not modify the number of SGZ Dcx+ cells in the 18 months old Pparα-/- mice. These results identify PPARα receptors as a potential target to counteract the naturally observed decline in adult NPC proliferation associated with aging and impoverished environments.

  15. [Major influential factors of the micturition alert device dedicated to neurogenic bladders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhuo; Hou, Chunlin; Zheng, Xianyou; Xu, Zhen; Wang, Wanhong; Lin, Haodong

    2008-08-01

    To study major influential factors of the micturition alert device dedicated to neurogenic bladders for the product design and clinical application of the device. One ferrite permanent magnet with thickness and diameter of 3 mm and 10 mm, respectively, and three NdFeB permanent magnets with the thickness of 3 mm and diameter of 10, 15 and 20 mm, respectively, were used. The effects of thickness of the abdominal wall as well as the position and type of permanent magnets on the micturition alert device dedicated to neurogenic bladders were measured in vitro simulated test, when the abdominal wall was set to 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 cm, respectively, and the position of permanent magnets was 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 cm, respectively. The effect of the geomagnetic field on the device was measured under the condition that the thickness of the simulated abdominal wall was set to 2, 3, 4 and 5 cm, respectively, and the position of permanent magnets was 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 cm, respectively. The value showed in the warning unit was positively correlated with the position of the ferrite permanent magnet only when the thickness of the simulated abdominal wall was 2 cm (r=0.632, P NdFeB permanent magnets was significant (r > 0.622, P NdFeB permanent magnets, but weakened with the increasing thickness of the simulated abdominal wall. The effect of the geomagnetic field was correlated with the exposition of the body, the position of the permanent magnet and the thickness of the abdominal wall. The major influential factors of the micturition alert device dedicated to neurogenic bladder include the magnetism and location of the permanent magnet, the thickness of the abdominal wall and the geomagnetic field. These factors are correlated with and affect each other. Reasonable allocation of these factors may optimize the device.

  16. Edema pulmonar neurogênico: relato de dois casos Neurogenic pulmonary edema: report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desanka Dragosavac

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available O edema pulmonar neurogênico é rara e grave complicação de pacientes com traumatismo craniencefálico (TCE. Pode ocorrer também em outras patologias do sistema nervoso central, tais como acidentes vasculares cerebrais (AVC, tumores ou após crises epilépticas, entre outras. Foram avaliados 36 casos com TCE grave e quatro pacientes com AVC, internados na UTI geral, no período de janeiro a setembro 1995. Nesse intervalo de tempo foram diagnosticados dois casos de edema pulmonar neurogênico, um ocorrendo em paciente com TCE grave e outro em paciente com AVC hemorrágico. O diagnóstico foi estabelecido pelo rápido desenvolvimento de edema pulmonar, com hipoxemia grave, queda da complacência pulmonar e infiltrados difusos bilaterais sem história prévia de aspiração traqueal ou outro fator de risco para o desenvolvimento de síndrome de angústia respiratória aguda. No primeiro paciente com trauma craniencefálico, o edema neurogênico foi diagnosticado na internação, uma hora após o trauma, com concomitante reação inflamatória grave e boa evolução em três dias. O outro caso, com AVC hemorrágico, desenvolveu edema neurogênico no quarto dia após drenagem de hematoma intraparenquimatoso, evoluindo para o óbito.Neurogenic pulmonary edema is a rare and serious complication in patients with head injury. It also may develop after a variety of cerebral insults such as subarachnoid hemorrhage, brain tumors and after epileptic seizures. Thirty six patients with severe head injury and four patients with cerebrovascular insults treated in Intensive Care Unit of HC-UNICAMP from January to September 1995 were evaluated. In this period there were two patients with neurogenic pulmonary edema, one with head injury and other with intracerebral hemorrhage. Diagnosis was made by rapid onset of pulmonary edema, severe hypoxemia, decrease of pulmonary complacence and diffuse pulmonary infiltrations, without previous history of tracheal

  17. A step-wise approach to sperm retrieval in men with neurogenic anejaculation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Ohl, Dana A; Sønksen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Normal fertility is dependent on intravaginal delivery of semen through ejaculation. This process is highly dependent on an intact ejaculatory reflex arc, which can be disrupted through any type of trauma or disease causing damage to the CNS and/or peripheral nerves. Neurogenic anejaculation...... is most commonly associated with spinal cord injury. This aetiology is especially relevant because most men with spinal cord injuries are injured at reproductive age. Assisted ejaculation in the form of penile vibratory stimulation is the first choice for sperm retrieval in such patients because...

  18. [Electromyographic differential diagnosis in cases of abducens nerve paresis with nuclear or distal neurogenic sive myogenic origine (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuser, M

    1979-09-01

    Abducens nerve paresis may be of nuclear, of peripheral distal neurogenic origine, or is simulated by a myogenic weakness of abduction. Polygraphic emg analysis of the oculoauricularphenomenon (oap) permits a differentiation. In the emg, the oap proved to be a physiologic and constant automatic and always bilateral interaction between the hemolateral abducens nerve and both Nn. faciales with corresponding and obligatory coinnervation of the Mm. retroauricularis of the external ear. In case of medullary, nuclear or internuclear lesions, the oap is disturbed, instable, diminished or abolished, whereas in distal neurogenic or myogenic paresis, even in complete paralysis the oap is bilaterally well preserved.

  19. Parents' Adoption of Social Communication Intervention Strategies: Families Including Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Who Are Minimally Verbal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shire, Stephanie Y.; Goods, Kelly; Shih, Wendy; Distefano, Charlotte; Kaiser, Ann; Wright, Courtney; Mathy, Pamela; Landa, Rebecca; Kasari, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Notably absent from the intervention literature are parent training programs targeting school-aged children with autism who have limited communication skills (Tager-Flusberg and Kasari in "Autism Res" 6:468-478, 2013). Sixty-one children with autism age 5-8 with minimal spontaneous communication received a 6-month social communication…

  20. Examining Parent Perceptions Regarding the Use of Augmentative and Alternative Communication Interventions for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Felita

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. This quantitative study examined parent perceptions regarding augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) interventions for their children with autism to determine if, according to parent perceptions, a relationship existed between AAC and functional communication. Those faced with cognitive and developmental delays like autism face…

  1. Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Evaluating the Impact of a Home-Based Intervention to Promote Their Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConkey, Roy; Truesdale-Kennedy, Maria; Crawford, Heather; McGreevy, Elaine; Reavey, Michaela; Cassidy, Arlene

    2010-01-01

    The complexities that practitioners face in evaluating interventions are illustrated in this article. An early intervention programme (known as Keyhole), based mainly around Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communications handicapped CHildren (TEACCH), Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) and Hanen approaches, was delivered…

  2. SVCT2 vitamin C transporter expression in progenitor cells of the postnatal neurogenic niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Patricia; Cisternas, Pedro; Salazar, Katterine; Silva-Alvarez, Carmen; Oyarce, Karina; Jara, Nery; Espinoza, Francisca; Martínez, Agustín D.; Nualart, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Known as a critical antioxidant, recent studies suggest that vitamin C plays an important role in stem cell generation, proliferation and differentiation. Vitamin C also enhances neural differentiation during cerebral development, a function that has not been studied in brain precursor cells. We observed that the rat neurogenic niche is structurally organized at day 15 of postnatal development, and proliferation and neural differentiation increase at day 21. In the human brain, a similar subventricular niche was observed at 1-month of postnatal development. Using immunohistochemistry, sodium-vitamin C cotransporter 2 (SVCT2) expression was detected in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and rostral migratory stream (RMS). Low co-distribution of SVCT2 and βIII-tubulin in neuroblasts or type-A cells was detected, and minimal co-localization of SVCT2 and GFAP in type-B or precursor cells was observed. Similar results were obtained in the human neurogenic niche. However, BrdU-positive cells also expressed SVCT2, suggesting a role of vitamin C in neural progenitor proliferation. Primary neurospheres prepared from rat brain and the P19 teratocarcinoma cell line, which forms neurospheres in vitro, were used to analyze the effect of vitamin C in neural stem cells. Both cell types expressed functional SVCT2 in vitro, and ascorbic acid (AA) induced their neural differentiation, increased βIII-tubulin and SVCT2 expression, and amplified vitamin C uptake. PMID:23964197

  3. Prospective evaluation of antibiotic treatment for urological procedure in patients presenting with neurogenic bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weglinski, L; Rouzaud, C; Even, A; Bouchand, F; Davido, B; Duran, C; Salomon, J; Perronne, C; Denys, P; Chartier-Kastler, E; Dinh, A

    2016-09-01

    Patients presenting with neurogenic bladder often require urological procedures (urodynamic testing and botulinum toxin injections) and a preventive antibiotic therapy. We aimed to assess the efficacy of this little known strategy in a cohort of patients. All patients presenting with neurogenic bladder who underwent urological procedure were included in the study. They received an antibiotic therapy in accordance with the urine cytobacteriological examination results. The antibiotic therapy was initiated two days before the procedure and prolonged up until two days after the procedure if the culture was positive. Patients were treated with a single dose of fosfomycin-trometamol in case of a negative culture. The main study outcome was the occurrence of urinary tract infection (UTI), defined by a positive urine culture and symptoms, up until 14 days after the procedure. A total of 80 urological procedures were performed. Mean patient age was 47±13.1 years (sex ratio 1.22); 59 (73.8%) presented with asymptomatic bacteriuria before the procedure. Nine (11.1%) UTIs were recorded on Day 14, of which one (1.2%) was febrile. Two patients required an additional curative antibiotic therapy. No patient was hospitalized. Overall, 77.8% of UTIs were cured without antibiotic therapy. Screening and treating asymptomatic bacteriuria before urological procedures seems unnecessary and vainly exposes this population at high risk of infectious diseases to antibiotic therapies. This data should be confirmed by a randomized clinical trial. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects and Safety of Aqueous Extract of Poncirus fructus in Spinal Cord Injury with Neurogenic Bowel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hee Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the effects and safety of the aqueous extract of the dried, immature fruit of Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf., known as Poncirus fructus (PF, in spinal cord injury (SCI patients with neurogenic bowel. Methods. Thirty-one SCI patients with neurogenic bowel were recruited. Patients were evaluated based on clinical information, constipation score, Bristol Stool Form Scale, stool retention score using plain abdominal radiograph, and colon transit time. PF was administered in dosages of 800 mg each prior to breakfast and lunch for 14 days. Results. The morphological feature of the stool before and after administration indicated a statistically significant difference from 3.52 ± 1.33 to 4.32 ± 1.44 points (p<0.05. Stool retention score before and after administration of PF was represented with low significance (7.25 ± 1.60 to 6.46 ± 1.53 points in the whole colon (p<0.05, and the colon transit time was significantly shortened (57.41 ± 20.7 to 41.2 ± 25.5 hours in terms of the whole transit time (p<0.05. Side effects were observed in 7 people (28.0% consisting of 2 people with soft stools and 5 people with diarrhea. Conclusion. For SCI patients, PF administration significantly improved defecation patterns, defecation retention, and colon transit time. PF could be an effective aid to improve colonic motility and constipation.

  5. Cocaine and MDMA Induce Cellular and Molecular Changes in Adult Neurogenic Systems: Functional Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Capilla-Gonzalez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of the brain to generate new adult neurons is a recent discovery that challenges the old theory of an immutable adult brain. A new and fascinating field of research now focuses on this regenerative process. The two brain systems that constantly produce new adult neurons, known as the adult neurogenic systems, are the dentate gyrus (DG of the hippocampus and the lateral ventricules/olfactory bulb system. Both systems are involved in memory and learning processes. Different drugs of abuse, such as cocaine and MDMA, have been shown to produce cellular and molecular changes that affect adult neurogenesis. This review summarizes the effects that these drugs have on the adult neurogenic systems. The functional relevance of adult neurogenesis is obscured by the functions of the systems that integrate adult neurons. Therefore, we explore the effects that cocaine and MDMA produce not only on adult neurogenesis, but also on the DG and olfactory bulbs. Finally, we discuss the possible role of new adult neurons in cocaine- and MDMA-induced impairments. We conclude that, although harmful drug effects are produced at multiple physiological and anatomical levels, the specific consequences of reduced hippocampus neurogenesis are unclear and require further exploration.

  6. Are neural crest stem cells the missing link between hematopoietic and neurogenic niches?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile eCoste

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic niches are defined as cellular and molecular microenvironments that regulate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC function together with stem cell autonomous mechanisms. Many different cell types have been characterized as contributors to the formation of HSC niches, such as osteoblasts, endothelial cells, Schwann cells, and mesenchymal progenitors. These mesenchymal progenitors have themselves been classified as CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL12-abundant reticular (CAR cells, stem cell factor expressing cells, or nestin-positive mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, which have been recently identified as neural crest-derived cells (NCSCs. Together, these cells are spatially associated with HSCs and believed to provide appropriate microenvironments for HSC self-renewal, differentiation, mobilization and hibernation both by cell-to-cell contact and soluble factors. Interestingly, it appears that regulatory pathways governing the hematopoietic niche homeostasis are operating in the neurogenic niche as well. Therefore, this review paper aims to compare both the regulation of hematopoietic and neurogenic niches, in order to highlight the role of NCSCs and nervous system components in the development and the regulation of the hematopoietic system.

  7. Are neural crest stem cells the missing link between hematopoietic and neurogenic niches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coste, Cécile; Neirinckx, Virginie; Gothot, André; Wislet, Sabine; Rogister, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoietic niches are defined as cellular and molecular microenvironments that regulate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function together with stem cell autonomous mechanisms. Many different cell types have been characterized as contributors to the formation of HSC niches, such as osteoblasts, endothelial cells, Schwann cells, and mesenchymal progenitors. These mesenchymal progenitors have themselves been classified as CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL) 12-abundant reticular (CAR) cells, stem cell factor expressing cells, or nestin-positive mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which have been recently identified as neural crest-derived cells (NCSCs). Together, these cells are spatially associated with HSCs and believed to provide appropriate microenvironments for HSC self-renewal, differentiation, mobilization and hibernation both by cell-cell contact and soluble factors. Interestingly, it appears that regulatory pathways governing the hematopoietic niche homeostasis are operating in the neurogenic niche as well. Therefore, this review paper aims to compare both the regulation of hematopoietic and neurogenic niches, in order to highlight the role of NCSCs and nervous system components in the development and the regulation of the hematopoietic system.

  8. The vascular and neurogenic factors associated with erectile dysfunction in patients after pelvic fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Guan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Erectile dysfunction (ED is a common complication of pelvic fractures. To identify the vascular and neurogenic factors associated with ED, 120 patients admitted with ED after traumatic pelvic fracture between January 2009 and June 2013 were enrolled in this study. All patients answered the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5 questionnaire. Nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT testing confirmed the occurrence of ED in 96 (80% patients on whom penile duplex ultrasound and neurophysiological testing were further performed. Of these ED patients 29 (30% were demonstrated only with vascular abnormality, 41 (42.7% were detected only with neural abnormality, 26 (27.1% revealed mixed abnormalities. Of the 55 patients (29+26 with vascular problems, 7 patients (12.7% with abnormal arterial response to intracavernous injection of Bimix (15mg papaverine and 1mg phentolamine, 31 (56.4% with corporal veno-occlusive dysfunction and 17 (30.9% had both problems. Of the 67 (41+26 patients with abnormal neurophysiological outcomes, 51 (76.1% with abnormal bulbocavernosus reflex (BCR, 20 (29.9% with pathological pudendal nerve evoked potentials (PDEPs and 25 (37.3% with abnormal posterior tibial somatosensory nerve evoked potentials (PTSSEPs. Our observation indicated that neurogenic factors are important for the generation of ED in patients with pelvic fracture; venous impotence is more common than arteriogenic ED.

  9. Malignant neurogenic neoplasms of the head and neck; Zlosliwe nowotwory neurogenne glowy i szyi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuczkowski, J.; Starzynska, A. [Akademia Medyczna, Gdansk (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    The authors present 17 cases of malignant neurogenic neoplasms of the head and neck observed in the Department of Otolaryngology in the years 1948-1993. The latest opinions on etiopathology, diagnosis and treatment of these tumors were described. Age and sex of patients, localization of tumor, symptoms histopathology and treatment were analyzed. Progressions of the disease were estimated retrospectively. It has been proved that these tumors develop quickly, give pain and paresthesia. Their diagnosis is very difficult because of their submucosal growth and difficult histopathological interpretation. A characteristic feature of these neurogenic tumors is the ability to give distant metastases. This feature differentiates them from squamous neoplasms, which give mainly nodal metastases. All the patients were subjected to surgery combined with conventional or high voltage radiotherapy. The positive effect of combined chemotherapy in cases of esthesioneuroblastoma is worthy of note. The prognosis in these tumors is often unfavorable. In the group under discussion 13 patients died because of recurrences, two patients are considered to be cured and the remaining 2 patients have had no recurrence for 2 and 3 years. (author) 15 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  10. Neurogenic function in rats with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis that experienced early-life status epilepticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunleavy, Mark; Schindler, Clara K; Shinoda, Sachiko; Crilly, Shane; Henshall, David C

    2014-01-01

    Status epilepticus in the adult brain invariably causes an increase in hippocampal neurogenesis and the appearance of ectopic cells and this has been implicated as a causal factor in epileptogenesis. The effect of status epilepticus on neurogenesis in the developing brain is less well characterized and models of early-life seizures typically do not reproduce the hippocampal damage common to human mesial temporal sclerosis. We recently reported that evoking status epilepticus by intra-amygdala microinjection of kainic acid in post-natal (P) day 10 rats caused substantial acute neuronal death within the ipsilateral hippocampus and rats later developed unilateral hippocampal sclerosis and spontaneous recurrent seizures. Here, we examined the expression of a selection of genes associated with neurogenesis and assessed neurogenic function in this model. Protein levels of several markers of neurogenesis including polysialic acid neural cell adhesion molecule, neuroD and doublecortin were reduced in the hippocampus three days after status epilepticus in P10 rats. In contrast, protein levels of neurogenesis markers were similar to control in rats at P55. Pulse-chase experiments using thymidine analogues suggested there was a reduction in new neurons at 72 h after status epilepticus in P10 rats, whereas numbers of new neurons labelled in epileptic rats at P55 with hippocampal sclerosis were similar to controls. The present study suggests that status epilepticus in the immature brain suppresses neurogenesis but the neurogenic potential is retained in animals that later develop hippocampal sclerosis. PMID:25755841

  11. Autoimmune encephalitis and sleep disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan HUANG

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Research shows that autoimmune encephalitis is associated with sleep disorders. Paraneoplastic neurological syndrome (PNS with Ma2 antibodies can cause sleep disorders, particularly narcolepsy and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD. Limbic encephalitis (LE and Morvan syndrome, associated with voltage - gated potassium channel (VGKC-complex antibodies, which include leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1 antibody and contactin-associated protein 2 (Caspr2, can result in profound insomnia and other sleep disorders. Central neurogenic hypoventilation are found in patients with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor encephalitis, whereas obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, stridor and parasomnia are prominent features of encephalopathy associated with IgLON5 antibodies. Sleep disorders are cardinal manifestations in patients with autoimmune encephalitis. Immunotherapy possiblely can improve clinical symptoms and prognosis in a positive way. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.10.004

  12. Online public reactions to fMRI communication with patients with disorders of consciousness: Quality of life, end-of-life decision making, and concerns with misdiagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Jennifer A; Sun, Jeffrey A; Racine, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the news media have reported on the discovery of covert awareness and the establishment of limited communication using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) neuroimaging technique with several brain-injured patients thought to have been in a vegetative state. This discovery has raised many ethical, legal, and social questions related to quality of life, end-of-life decision making, diagnostic and prognostic accuracy in disorders of consciousness, resource allocation, and other issues. This project inquires into the public responses to these discoveries. We conducted a thematic analysis of online comments (n = 779) posted in response to 15 news articles and blog posts regarding the case of a Canadian patient diagnosed for 12 years as in a vegetative state, but who was reported in 2012 as having been able to communicate via fMRI. The online comments were coded using an iteratively refined codebook structured around 14 main themes. Among the most frequent public reactions revealed in the online comments were discussions of the quality of life of patients with disorders of consciousness, whether life-sustaining treatment should be withdrawn (and whether the fMRI communication technique should be used to ask patients about this), and misgivings about the accuracy of diagnosis in disorders of consciousness and brain death. These public perspectives are relevant to the obligations of clinicians, lawyers, and public policymakers to patients, families, and the public. Future work should consider how best to alleviate families' concerns as this type of research shakes their faith in diagnostic accuracy, to clarify the legal rules relating to advance directives in this context, and to address the manner in which public messaging might help to alleviate any indirect impact on confidence in the organ donation system.

  13. Patient Preferences for Receiving Remote Communication Support for Lifestyle Physical Activity Behaviour Change: The Perspective of Patients with Musculoskeletal Disorders from Three Hospital Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. McPhail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined patients’ preference ratings for receiving support via remote communication to increase their lifestyle physical activity. Methods. People with musculoskeletal disorders (n=221 of 296 eligible accessing one of three clinics provided preference ratings for “how much” they wanted to receive physical activity support via five potential communication modalities. The five ratings were generated on a horizontal analogue rating scale (0 represented “not at all”; 10 represented “very much”. Results. Most (n=155, 70% desired referral to a physical activity promoting intervention. “Print and post” communications had the highest median preference rating (7/10, followed by email and telephone (both 5/10, text messaging (1/10, and private Internet-based social network messages (0/10. Desire to be referred was associated with higher preference for printed materials (coefficient = 2.739, p<0.001, telephone calls (coefficient = 3.000, p<0.001, and email (coefficient = 2.059, p=0.02. Older age was associated with lower preference for email (coefficient = −0.100, p<0.001, texting (coefficient = −0.096, p<0.001, and social network messages (coefficient = −0.065, p<0.001. Conclusion. Patients desiring support to be physically active indicated preferences for interventions with communication via print, email, or telephone calls.

  14. Communication of carrier status information following universal newborn screening for sickle cell disorders and cystic fibrosis: qualitative study of experience and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, J; Ulph, F; Cullinan, T; Qureshi, N

    2009-11-01

    To describe and explore current practice, methods and experience of communicating carrier status information following newborn screening for cystic fibrosis (CF) and sickle cell (SC) disorders, to inform practice and further research. Three linked qualitative studies. All nine health regions in England. Child health screening coordinators in all English health regions, health professionals communicating results to parents and parents of newborn carriers. A preliminary phase of semi-structured telephone interviews with child health screening coordinators in all nine English health regions, and thematic analysis of data; semi-structured face-to-face interviews with purposeful samples of 67 family members of 51 infants identified by universal newborn screening as carriers of CF or SC with data analysis by constant comparison; and semi-structured telephone interviews, and focus groups, with a key informant sample of 16 differing health professionals currently tasked with communicating results to parents in a range of ways, with thematic analysis of data. Methods for and respondents' experiences of communication of carrier results varied considerably within and between regions, and within and between SC and CF contexts. Approaches ranged from letter or telephone call alone, to in-person communication in the clinic or at home, with health professionals from haemoglobinopathy, CF, screening and genetics backgrounds, or from community and primary care, such as health visitors with SC carrier results. Health professionals identified pros and cons of different methods, preferring opportunity for face-to-face communication with parents where possible, particularly for CF carrier results. They were concerned by regional variations in protocols, the lack of availability of translated information on SC carrier results, and the feasibility of sustaining more 'specialist' involvement at current levels, particularly for SC carriers. Parents were often poorly prepared for the

  15. Non-responsiveness to intervention: children with autism spectrum disorders who do not rapidly respond to communication interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Jennifer B; Lashley, Erin; Rispoli, Mandy Jenkins

    2010-01-01

    Providing a detailed description of two participants who failed to acquire functional communication skills following a verbal modelling intervention and Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) training. Single-case research; Independent verbal requests, imitated verbal requests, word approximations and independent picture requests were assessed in a toddler and a pre-schooler with autism before and during two interventions. Although both participants used some vocalizations over the course of the study, experimental control was not demonstrated and the participants did not acquire a functional communication system prior to the cessation of intervention. Future research should include additional, detailed reports that provide insight to why some children with autism do not respond to particular communication interventions and should investigate the pairing of particular child characteristics with targeted interventions.

  16. The improvement of autism spectrum disorders on children communication ability with PECS method Multimedia Augmented Reality-Based

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taryadi; Kurniawan, I.

    2018-01-01

    This research was done to examine the usage of PECS method (Picture Exchange Communication System) multimedia augmented reality based as a learning alternative in training the communication of autism childen. The aim of this research were developing an approach to improve the communication ability before and after an intervension with PECS multimedia augmented reality method. The subject of this research were 12 autism children in Inclusion school in Pekalongan region. The experiment method was used with the single subject research approach. The research resulted that the average ability level in communication before and after the treatment has shown 47% while during the treatment the average level is 65%. Whereas there is an improvement after intervension stage with the average of 76%..

  17. Neurogenic bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause skin to break down and lead to pressure sores Kidney damage if the bladder becomes too full, ... dysfunction; NBSD Patient Instructions Multiple sclerosis - discharge Preventing pressure ulcers Images Voiding cystourethrogram References Chapple CR, Osman NI. ...

  18. Follow-up of Long-term Treatment with Clean Intermittent Catheterization for Neurogenic Bladder in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panuwat Lertsithichai

    2004-04-01

    Conclusions: For most patients and with close long-term follow-up, early treatment of neurogenic bladder using CIC in children born with myelomeningocele yields better results than late treatment. In our experience, treatment is recommended as soon as possible, especially during the first year of life.

  19. [Giant prostatic calculus with neurogenic bladder disease and prostate diverticulum: a case report and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Shi; Quan, Chang-Yi; Li, Gang; Cai, Qi-Liang; Hu, Bin; Wang, Jiu-Wei; Niu, Yuan-Jie

    2013-02-01

    To study the etiology, clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment of giant prostatic calculus with neurogenic bladder disease and prostate diverticulum. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of a case of giant prostatic calculus with neurogenic bladder disease and prostate diverticulum and reviewed the relevant literature. The patient was a 37-year-old man, with urinary incontinence for 22 years and intermittent dysuria with frequent micturition for 9 years, aggravated in the past 3 months. He had received surgery for spina bifida and giant vesico-prostatic calculus. The results of preoperative routine urinary examination were as follows: WBC 17 -20/HPF, RBC 12 - 15/HPF. KUB, IVU and pelvic CT revealed spina bifida occulta, neurogenic bladder and giant prostatic calculus. The patient underwent TURP and transurethral lithotripsy with holmium-YAG laser. The prostatic calculus was carbonate apatite in composition. Urinary dynamic images at 2 weeks after surgery exhibited significant improvement in the highest urine flow rate and residual urine volume. Seventeen months of postoperative follow-up showed dramatically improved urinary incontinence and thicker urine stream. Prostate diverticulum with prostatic giant calculus is very rare, and neurogenic bladder may play a role in its etiology. Cystoscopy is an accurate screening method for its diagnosis. For the young patients and those who wish to retain sexual function, TURP combined with holmium laser lithotripsy can be employed, and intraoperative rectal examination should be taken to ensure complete removal of calculi.

  20. Neurogenic bladder evaluation and management after spinal cord injury: Current practice among urologists working in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Taweel, Waleed; Alkhayal, Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the current trends in the management and surveillance of the NB population secondary to spinal cord injury (SCI) or myelomeningocele by certified urologist working in Saudi Arabia and to compare it to the current guidelines. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a 12-points questionnaire distributed to urologists working in Saudi Arabia and registered at the Saudi medical association. The assessment and follow-up of upper and lower urinary tract function in neurogenic bladder patients, their optimal frequency and management of related infections were the topics of inquiry. Of the 272 urologists surveyed, 105 responded, yielding a response rate of 38%. Eighty-nine percent of respondents said that ultrasound was their diagnostic tool of choice for upper tract evaluation. Sixty-one percent of respondents said that they would follow their patients with a multichannel urodynamic study. Forty percent of urologists stated that they would treat asymptomatic bacteriuria. Clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) was the most common modality chosen for the management of neurogenic bladder in patients with emptying difficulties. This study confirms that most urologists in Saudi Arabia involved with neurogenic bladder management. However, more than one third of the urologists do not have urodynamic machine and only two of the reporting practitioners has a videourodynamic machine. The results emphasize the need for clear guidelines in this field of urology in Saudi Arabia. Highly specialized rehabilitation centers for neurogenic bladder secondary to SCI are required for optimal care and urologist teaching.