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Sample records for neuroendocrine metabolic psychological

  1. Psychological and neuroendocrine reactivity to ostracism.

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    Zwolinski, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This study used the ostracism detection theory to investigate how ostracism impacts individuals in two ways: (1) immediate poststressor needs, mood, ruminative thoughts, and desire to affiliate, and (2) short-term affective and cortisol reactivity. A total of 58 college students were randomly assigned to the inclusion or ostracism conditions of Cyberball, a virtual ball-tossing game. Immediately following the experimental manipulation, ostracized participants reported more thwarted psychological need states, more negative mood, and fewer positive ruminative thoughts, relative to their included counterparts. Ostracized participants reported a greater interest in affiliating with others in online or in-person settings. In the short-term, ostracized males reported more hostility than included males, although the scores were within expected norms for most males. There was no relation between Cyberball condition and gender across time for depression, anxiety, or positive affect. Approximately 20 min after the onset of the stressor, women in the luteal phase and women taking oral contraceptives in the ostracized group displayed higher cortisol than their counterparts in the included group. Relative to baseline, however, cortisol did not reliably increase after the onset of the stressor. Ostracized females taking oral contraceptives showed the greatest decline in cortisol, compared to included oral contraceptive users. Overall, results suggest that most of the negative effects of ostracism are immediate and limited to psychological, not neuroendocrine, responses. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Physiology of leptin: energy homeostasis, neuroendocrine function and metabolism

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    Park, Hyeong-Kyu; Ahima, Rexford S.

    2014-01-01

    Leptin is secreted by adipose tissue and regulates energy homeostasis, neuroendocrine function, metabolism, immune function and other systems through its effects on the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. Leptin administration has been shown to restore metabolic and neuroendocrine abnormalities in individuals with leptin-deficient states, including hypothalamic amenorrhea and lipoatrophy. In contrast, obese individuals are resistant to leptin. Recombinant leptin is beneficial in patients with congenital leptin deficiency or generalized lipodystrophy. However, further research on molecular mediators of leptin resistance is needed for the development of targeted leptin sensitizing therapies for obesity and related metabolic diseases. PMID:25199978

  3. Neuroendocrine regulation of human bone metabolism

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    Vlug, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    The skeleton is perhaps the most multifunctional part of our body. It not only provides outer strength, a protective shell and enables locomotion, but it also hosts the bone marrow and serves many metabolic and endocrine functions. This thesis investigates two aspects of human bone metabolism,

  4. Neuroendocrine and cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress are attenuated in smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginty, Annie T; Jones, Alexander; Carroll, Douglas; Roseboom, Tessa J; Phillips, Anna C; Painter, Rebecca; de Rooij, Susanne R

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have now examined the association between smoking and the magnitude of physiological reactions to acute psychological stress. However, no large-scale study has demonstrated this association incorporating neuroendocrine in addition to cardiovascular reactions to stress. The

  5. AAS, growth hormone, and insulin abuse: psychological and neuroendocrine effects

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    Graham, Michael R; Evans, Peter; Davies, Bruce; Baker, Julien S

    2008-01-01

    The nontherapeutic use of prescription medicines by individuals involved in sport is increasing. Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are the most widely abused drug. Much of our knowledge of the psychological and physiological effects of human growth hormone (hGH) and insulin has been learned from deficiency states. As a consequence of the Internet revolution, previously unobtainable and expensive designer drugs, particularly recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) and insulin, have become freely available at ridiculously discounted prices from countries such as China and are being abused. These drugs have various physiological and psychological effects and medical personnel must become aware that such prescription medicine abuse appears to be used not only for performance and cosmetic reasons, but as a consequence of psychological pre-morbidity. PMID:18827854

  6. AAS, growth hormone, and insulin abuse: psychological and neuroendocrine effects

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    Michael R Graham

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Michael R Graham1, Peter Evans2, Bruce Davies1, Julien S Baker11Health and Exercise Science Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sport and Science, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd, Wales, United Kingdom; 2Royal Gwent Hospital, Newport, Gwent, United KingdomAbstract: The nontherapeutic use of prescription medicines by individuals involved in sport is increasing. Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS are the most widely abused drug. Much of our knowledge of the psychological and physiological effects of human growth hormone (hGH and insulin has been learned from deficiency states. As a consequence of the Internet revolution, previously unobtainable and expensive designer drugs, particularly recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH and insulin, have become freely available at ridiculously discounted prices from countries such as China and are being abused. These drugs have various physiological and psychological effects and medical personnel must become aware that such prescription medicine abuse appears to be used not only for performance and cosmetic reasons, but as a consequence of psychological pre-morbidity.Keywords: AAS, cosmesis, growth hormone, insulin, performance, strength

  7. The interplay between neuroendocrine activity and psychological stress-induced exacerbation of allergic asthma.

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    Miyasaka, Tomomitsu; Dobashi-Okuyama, Kaori; Takahashi, Tomoko; Takayanagi, Motoaki; Ohno, Isao

    2018-01-01

    Psychological stress is recognized as a key factor in the exacerbation of allergic asthma, whereby brain responses to stress act as immunomodulators for asthma. In particular, stress-induced enhanced type 2 T-helper (Th2)-type lung inflammation is strongly associated with asthma pathogenesis. Psychological stress leads to eosinophilic airway inflammation through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal pathway and autonomic nervous system. This is followed by the secretion of stress hormones into the blood, including glucocorticoids, epinephrine, and norepinephrine, which enhance Th2 and type 17 T-helper (Th17)-type asthma profiles in humans and rodents. Recent evidence has shown that a defect of the μ-opioid receptor in the brain along with a defect of the peripheral glucocorticoid receptor signaling completely disrupted stress-induced airway inflammation in mice. This suggests that the stress response facilitates events in the central nervous and endocrine systems, thus exacerbating asthma. In this review, we outline the recent findings on the interplay between stress and neuroendocrine activities followed by stress-induced enhanced Th2 and Th17 immune responses and attenuated regulatory T (Treg) cell responses that are closely linked with asthma exacerbation. We will place a special focus on our own data that has emphasized the continuity from central sensing of psychological stress to enhanced eosinophilic airway inflammation. The mechanism that modulates psychological stress-induced exacerbation of allergic asthma through neuroendocrine activities is thought to involve a series of consecutive pathological events from the brain to the lung, which implies there to be a "neuropsychiatry phenotype" in asthma. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Prenatal caffeine ingestion induces transgenerational neuroendocrine metabolic programming alteration in second generation rats

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    Luo, Hanwen [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Deng, Zixin; Liu, Lian; Shen, Lang; Kou, Hao; He, Zheng [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Ping, Jie; Xu, Dan [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Ma, Lu [Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, Public Health School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Chen, Liaobin, E-mail: lbchen@whu.edu.cn [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-02-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that prenatal caffeine ingestion induces an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome with alterations of glucose and lipid metabolic phenotypes in adult first generation (F1) of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rats, and the underlying mechanism is originated from a hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolic programming alteration in utero. This study aims to investigate the transgenerational effects of this programming alteration in adult second generation (F2). Pregnant Wistar rats were administered with caffeine (120 mg/kg·d) from gestational day 11 until delivery. Four groups in F2 were set according to the cross-mating between control and caffeine-induced IUGR rats. F2 were subjected to a fortnight ice water swimming stimulus on postnatal month 4, and blood samples were collected before and after stress. Results showed that the majority of the activities of HPA axis and phenotypes of glucose and lipid metabolism were altered in F2. Particularly, comparing with the control group, caffeine groups had an enhanced corticosterone levels after chronic stress. Compared with before stress, the serum glucose levels were increased in some groups whereas the triglyceride levels were decreased. Furthermore, total cholesterol gain rates were enhanced but the high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol gain rates were decreased in most caffeine groups after stress. These transgenerational effects were characterized partially with gender and parental differences. Taken together, these results indicate that the reproductive and developmental toxicities and the neuroendocrine metabolic programming mechanism by prenatal caffeine ingestion have transgenerational effects in rats, which may help to explain the susceptibility to metabolic syndrome and associated diseases in F2. - Highlights: • Caffeine-induced neuroendocrine metabolic programming of HPA has hereditary effect. • Caffeine

  9. Interaction between bone, the neuroendocrine system and metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limonard, E.J.

    2016-01-01

    Classically, the skeleton is defined by its mechanical properties, as a site for hematopoiesis and in mineral homeostasis. In recent years, a further-reaching role has been suggested for the skeleton. In this thesis, we investigate three novel aspects of human bone metabolism. In the first part we

  10. Brief mindfulness meditation training alters psychological and neuroendocrine responses to social evaluative stress.

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    Creswell, J David; Pacilio, Laura E; Lindsay, Emily K; Brown, Kirk Warren

    2014-06-01

    To test whether a brief mindfulness meditation training intervention buffers self-reported psychological and neuroendocrine responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in young adult volunteers. A second objective evaluates whether pre-existing levels of dispositional mindfulness moderate the effects of brief mindfulness meditation training on stress reactivity. Sixty-six (N=66) participants were randomly assigned to either a brief 3-day (25-min per day) mindfulness meditation training or an analytic cognitive training control program. All participants completed a standardized laboratory social-evaluative stress challenge task (the TSST) following the third mindfulness meditation or cognitive training session. Measures of psychological (stress perceptions) and biological (salivary cortisol, blood pressure) stress reactivity were collected during the social evaluative stress-challenge session. Brief mindfulness meditation training reduced self-reported psychological stress reactivity but increased salivary cortisol reactivity to the TSST, relative to the cognitive training comparison program. Participants who were low in pre-existing levels of dispositional mindfulness and then received mindfulness meditation training had the greatest cortisol reactivity to the TSST. No significant main or interactive effects were observed for systolic or diastolic blood pressure reactivity to the TSST. The present study provides an initial indication that brief mindfulness meditation training buffers self-reported psychological stress reactivity, but also increases cortisol reactivity to social evaluative stress. This pattern may indicate that initially brief mindfulness meditation training fosters greater active coping efforts, resulting in reduced psychological stress appraisals and greater cortisol reactivity during social evaluative stressors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prenatal caffeine ingestion induces transgenerational neuroendocrine metabolic programming alteration in second generation rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hanwen; Deng, Zixin; Liu, Lian; Shen, Lang; Kou, Hao; He, Zheng; Ping, Jie; Xu, Dan; Ma, Lu; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2014-02-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that prenatal caffeine ingestion induces an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome with alterations of glucose and lipid metabolic phenotypes in adult first generation (F1) of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rats, and the underlying mechanism is originated from a hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolic programming alteration in utero. This study aims to investigate the transgenerational effects of this programming alteration in adult second generation (F2). Pregnant Wistar rats were administered with caffeine (120mg/kg·d) from gestational day 11 until delivery. Four groups in F2 were set according to the cross-mating between control and caffeine-induced IUGR rats. F2 were subjected to a fortnight ice water swimming stimulus on postnatal month 4, and blood samples were collected before and after stress. Results showed that the majority of the activities of HPA axis and phenotypes of glucose and lipid metabolism were altered in F2. Particularly, comparing with the control group, caffeine groups had an enhanced corticosterone levels after chronic stress. Compared with before stress, the serum glucose levels were increased in some groups whereas the triglyceride levels were decreased. Furthermore, total cholesterol gain rates were enhanced but the high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol gain rates were decreased in most caffeine groups after stress. These transgenerational effects were characterized partially with gender and parental differences. Taken together, these results indicate that the reproductive and developmental toxicities and the neuroendocrine metabolic programming mechanism by prenatal caffeine ingestion have transgenerational effects in rats, which may help to explain the susceptibility to metabolic syndrome and associated diseases in F2. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Psychological processes of stress management and neuroendocrine regulation in incarcerated adolescent offenders: A pilot study].

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    Guillod, L; Habersaat, S; Suter, M; Jeanneret, T; Bertoni, C; Stéphan, P; Urben, S

    2016-10-10

    Adolescence is a stressful period where important biological, psychological and social changes occur. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable during this developmental period and can use various strategies to deal with daily stress, such as substance use or externalizing behaviors. In previous studies, stress in adolescents with externalizing behaviors was often linked to ineffective cognitive coping strategies (i.e., constructive thinking) and overlooking the biological aspects involved in stress management such as neuroendocrine regulation. Indeed, repeated activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in chronic stress situations may have long-term effects on subsequent cortisol regulation and lead to psychological difficulties. It was also shown that basal cortisol levels are lower in adolescents with externalizing behaviors. This study aims to assess the links between constructive thinking and neuroendocrine regulation in adolescent offenders and their association with externalizing symptoms (e.g., aggression, delinquency, psychopathic traits, substance use). Identifying particular biopsychological patterns can help to better understand stress management in youth with externalizing behaviors and to improve clinical treatments. Sixteen adolescent males aged from 12 to 18 years were recruited in an institution for juvenile offenders. Exclusion criteria were insufficient reasoning abilities assessed using the Raven Matrices Test. Regarding psychological dimensions, constructive thinking was assessed through the Constructive thinking inventory (CTI), psychopathic traits through the Youth psychopathic traits inventory (YPI), externalizing behaviors through 30 items (out of 113) and 2 subscales (aggressive behavior and delinquency problems) from the Child behavior checklist-youth self-report (CBCL), and substance use through the Dep-ado. Regarding biological dimensions, cortisol daily secretion and regulation were assessed through saliva samples

  13. A tachykinin-like neuroendocrine signalling axis couples central serotonin action and nutrient sensing with peripheral lipid metabolism

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    Palamiuc, Lavinia; Noble, Tallie; Witham, Emily; Ratanpal, Harkaranveer; Vaughan, Megan; Srinivasan, Supriya

    2017-01-01

    Serotonin, a central neuromodulator with ancient ties to feeding and metabolism, is a major driver of body fat loss. However, mechanisms by which central serotonin action leads to fat loss remain unknown. Here, we report that the FLP-7 neuropeptide and its cognate receptor, NPR-22, function as the ligand-receptor pair that defines the neuroendocrine axis of serotonergic body fat loss in Caenorhabditis elegans. FLP-7 is secreted as a neuroendocrine peptide in proportion to fluctuations in neural serotonin circuit functions, and its release is regulated from secretory neurons via the nutrient sensor AMPK. FLP-7 acts via the NPR-22/Tachykinin2 receptor in the intestine and drives fat loss via the adipocyte triglyceride lipase ATGL-1. Importantly, this ligand-receptor pair does not alter other serotonin-dependent behaviours including food intake. For global modulators such as serotonin, the use of distinct neuroendocrine peptides for each output may be one means to achieve phenotypic selectivity. PMID:28128367

  14. Dietary isoflavones alter regulatory behaviors, metabolic hormones and neuroendocrine function in Long-Evans male rats

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    Bu Lihong

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytoestrogens derived from soy foods (or isoflavones have received prevalent usage due to their 'health benefits' of decreasing: a age-related diseases, b hormone-dependent cancers and c postmenopausal symptoms. However, little is known about the influence of dietary phytoestrogens on regulatory behaviors, such as food and water intake, metabolic hormones and neuroendocrine parameters. This study examined important hormonal and metabolic health issues by testing the hypotheses that dietary soy-derived isoflavones influence: 1 body weight and adipose deposition, 2 food and water intake, 3 metabolic hormones (i.e., leptin, insulin, T3 and glucose levels, 4 brain neuropeptide Y (NPY levels, 5 heat production [in brown adipose tissue (BAT quantifying uncoupling protein (UCP-1 mRNA levels] and 6 core body temperature. Methods This was accomplished by conducting longitudinal studies where male Long-Evans rats were exposed (from conception to time of testing or tissue collection to a diet rich in isoflavones (at 600 micrograms/gram of diet or 600 ppm vs. a diet low in isoflavones (at approximately 10–15 micrograms/gram of diet or 10–15 ppm. Body, white adipose tissue and food intake were measured in grams and water intake in milliliters. The hormones (leptin, insulin, T3, glucose and NPY were quantified by radioimmunoassays (RIA. BAT UCP-1 mRNA levels were quantified by PCR and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis while core body temperatures were recorded by radio telemetry. The data were tested by analysis of variance (ANOVA (or where appropriate by repeated measures. Results Body and adipose tissue weights were decreased in Phyto-600 vs. Phyto-free fed rats. Food and water intake was greater in Phyto-600 animals, that displayed higher hypothalamic (NPY concentrations, but lower plasma leptin and insulin levels, vs. Phyto-free fed males. Higher thyroid levels (and a tendency for higher glucose levels and increased uncoupling

  15. Experimental Models of Maternal Obesity and Neuroendocrine Programming of Metabolic Disorders in Offspring

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    Clare M. Reynolds

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies have clearly shown that disease risk in later life is increased following a poor early life environment, a process preferentially termed developmental programming. In particular, this work clearly highlights the importance of the nutritional environment during early development with alterations in maternal nutrition, including both under- and overnutrition, increasing the risk for a range of cardiometabolic and neurobehavioral disorders in adult offspring characterized by both adipokine resistance and obesity. Although the mechanistic basis for such developmental programming is not yet fully defined, a common feature derived from experimental animal models is that of alterations in the wiring of the neuroendocrine pathways that control energy balance and appetite regulation during early stages of developmental plasticity. The adipokine leptin has also received significant attention with clear experimental evidence that normal regulation of leptin levels during the early life period is critical for the normal development of tissues and related signaling pathways that are involved in metabolic and cardiovascular homeostasis. There is also increasing evidence that alterations in the epigenome and other underlying mechanisms including an altered gut–brain axis may contribute to lasting cardiometabolic dysfunction in offspring. Ongoing studies that further define the mechanisms between these associations will allow for identification of early risk markers and implementation of strategies around interventions that will have obvious beneficial implications in breaking a programmed transgenerational cycle of metabolic disorders.

  16. LEPTIN AND OBESITY – NEUROENDOCRINE , METABOLIC AND ATHEROGENIC EFFECTS OF LEPTIN

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    Mišo Šabovič

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that was recently discovered. Leptin and leptin resistance play an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Leptin acts by binding to specific receptors in the hypothalamus to alter the expression of several neuropeptides that regulate food intake and energy expenditure. As commonly found, obese persons have leptin resistance and consequently attenuated effects of leptin. Mechanism underlying leptin resistance has not been explained yet: it might be the result of a receptor or post receptor defect, impaired transport of leptin through cerebrovascular barrier or inactivation of leptin by binding proteins. Phase I and II clinical trials proved that recombinant leptin administration to humans is safe. First results of the current phase III clinical trials demonstrated that leptin is moderately effective in the treatment of obesity.Conclusions. Beside anti-obesity effect, leptin can have important metabolic and neuroendocrine effects. It is involved in glucose metabolism and insulin secretion, pathogenesis of polymetabolic syndrome, diabetes and arterial hypertension. In addition it affects some processes of atherothrombosis. It interacts with and significantly influences hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal, thyroid, sexual glands and growth hormone axes. Explaining the mechanism of leptin resistance could be important for understanding the pathogenesis of obesity and associated pathologic states as polymetabolic syndrom, diabetes, arterial hipertension and atherothrombosis.

  17. Anxiety sensitivity, the menstrual cycle, and panic disorder: a putative neuroendocrine and psychological interaction.

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    Nillni, Yael I; Toufexis, Donna J; Rohan, Kelly J

    2011-11-01

    The 2:1 female-to-male sex difference in the prevalence of panic disorder (PD) suggests that there is a sex-specific vulnerability involved in the etiology and/or maintenance of this disorder. The purpose of this paper is to present a new conceptual model, which emphasizes the interaction between a cognitive vulnerability for PD, anxiety sensitivity, and the effects of progesterone and its metabolite, allopregnanolone, on behavioral and physiological responses to stress during the premenstrual phase. This interaction is proposed to be a potential sex-specific pathway that may initiate and/or maintain panic and anxiety symptoms in women. This review paper presents preliminary evidence from both the human and animal literatures to support this new model. Specific topics reviewed include: psychopathology related to the menstrual cycle, anxiety sensitivity and its relationship to the menstrual cycle, PMS, and PMDD, anxiety-modulating effects of progesterone and its neuroactive metabolite, allopregnanolone, and how results from the neuroendocrine literature relate to psychopathology or symptoms associated with the menstrual cycle. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Severe fatigue in adolescents : psychological, neuro-endocrine, and immunological characteristics

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    Wolbeek, M. ter

    2007-01-01

    Fatigue is a common complaint among adolescents. In a pilot study, we observed 8% of healthy adolescents to report fatigue severity which was comparable to fatigue severity reported by chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients. This observation led to an extensive investigation on psychological,

  19. Spouses’ Attachment Pairings Predict Neuroendocrine, Behavioral, and Psychological Responses to Marital Conflict

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    Beck, Lindsey A.; Pietromonaco, Paula R.; DeBuse, Casey J.; Powers, Sally I.; Sayer, Aline G.

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated how spouses’ attachment styles jointly contributed to their stress responses. Newlywed couples discussed relationship conflicts. Salivary cortisol indexed physiological stress; observer-rated behaviors indexed behavioral stress; self-reported distress indexed psychological stress. Multilevel modeling tested predictions that couples including one anxious and one avoidant partner or two anxious partners would show distinctive stress responses. As predicted, couples with anxious wives and avoidant husbands showed physiological reactivity in anticipation of conflict: Both spouses showed sharp increases in cortisol, followed by rapid declines. These couples also showed distinctive behaviors during conflict: Anxious wives had difficulty recognizing avoidant husbands’ distress, and avoidant husbands had difficulty approaching anxious wives for support. Contrary to predictions, couples including two anxious partners did not show distinctive stress responses. Findings suggest that the fit between partners’ attachment styles can improve understanding of relationships by specifying conditions under which partners’ attachment characteristics jointly influence individual and relationship outcomes. PMID:23773048

  20. Hyperactive neuroendocrine secretion causes size, feeding, and metabolic defects of C. elegans Bardet-Biedl syndrome mutants.

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    Brian H Lee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bardet-Biedl syndrome, BBS, is a rare autosomal recessive disorder with clinical presentations including polydactyly, retinopathy, hyperphagia, obesity, short stature, cognitive impairment, and developmental delays. Disruptions of BBS proteins in a variety of organisms impair cilia formation and function and the multi-organ defects of BBS have been attributed to deficiencies in various cilia-associated signaling pathways. In C. elegans, bbs genes are expressed exclusively in the sixty ciliated sensory neurons of these animals and bbs mutants exhibit sensory defects as well as body size, feeding, and metabolic abnormalities. Here we show that in contrast to many other cilia-defective mutants, C. elegans bbs mutants exhibit increased release of dense-core vesicles and organism-wide phenotypes associated with enhanced activities of insulin, neuropeptide, and biogenic amine signaling pathways. We show that the altered body size, feeding, and metabolic abnormalities of bbs mutants can be corrected to wild-type levels by abrogating the enhanced secretion of dense-core vesicles without concomitant correction of ciliary defects. These findings expand the role of BBS proteins to the regulation of dense-core-vesicle exocytosis and suggest that some features of Bardet-Biedl Syndrome may be caused by excessive neuroendocrine secretion.

  1. Neuroendocrine-immune interaction

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    Kemenade, van Lidy; Cohen, Nicholas; Chadzinska, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    It has now become accepted that the immune system and neuroendocrine system form an integrated part of our physiology. Immunological defense mechanisms act in concert with physiological processes like growth and reproduction, energy intake and metabolism, as well as neuronal development. Not only

  2. Neuroendocrine and Cardiac Metabolic Dysfunction and NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation in Adipose Tissue and Pancreas following Chronic Spinal Cord Injury in the Mouse

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    Gregory E. Bigford

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available CVD (cardiovascular disease represents a leading cause of mortality in chronic SCI (spinal cord injury. Several component risk factors are observed in SCI; however, the underlying mechanisms that contribute to these risks have not been defined. Central and peripheral chronic inflammation is associated with metabolic dysfunction and CVD, including adipokine regulation of neuroendocrine and cardiac function and inflammatory processes initiated by the innate immune response. We use female C57 Bl/6 mice to examine neuroendocrine, cardiac, adipose and pancreatic signaling related to inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in response to experimentally induced chronic SCI. Using immunohistochemical, -precipitation, and -blotting analysis, we show decreased POMC (proopiomelanocortin and increased NPY (neuropeptide-Y expression in the hypothalamic ARC (arcuate nucleus and PVN (paraventricular nucleus, 1-month post-SCI. Long-form leptin receptor (Ob-Rb, JAK2 (Janus kinase/STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3/p38 and RhoA/ROCK (Rho-associated kinase signaling is significantly increased in the heart tissue post-SCI, and we observe the formation and activation of the NLRP3 (NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 inflammasome in VAT (visceral adipose tissue and pancreas post-SCI. These data demonstrate neuroendocrine signaling peptide alterations, associated with central inflammation and metabolic dysfunction post-SCI, and provide evidence for the peripheral activation of signaling mechanisms involved in cardiac, VAT and pancreatic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction post-SCI. Further understanding of biological mechanisms contributing to SCI-related inflammatory processes and metabolic dysfunction associated with CVD pathology may help to direct therapeutic and rehabilitation countermeasures.

  3. A hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolic programmed alteration in offspring rats of IUGR induced by prenatal caffeine ingestion

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    Xu, D. [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wu, Y.; Liu, F.; Liu, Y.S.; Shen, L.; Lei, Y.Y.; Liu, J. [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Ping, J. [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Qin, J. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zhang, C. [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Chen, L.B. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Magdalou, J. [UMR 7561 CNRS-Nancy Université, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Wang, H., E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2012-11-01

    Caffeine is a definite factor of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Previously, we have confirmed that prenatal caffeine ingestion inhibits the development of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, and alters the glucose and lipid metabolism in IUGR fetal rats. In this study, we aimed to verify a programmed alteration of neuroendocrine metabolism in prenatal caffeine ingested-offspring rats. The results showed that prenatal caffeine (120 mg/kg.day) ingestion caused low body weight and high IUGR rate of pups; the concentrations of blood adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone in caffeine group were significantly increased in the early postnatal period followed by falling in late stage; the level of blood glucose was unchanged, while blood total cholesterol (TCH) and triglyceride (TG) were markedly enhanced in adult. After chronic stress, the concentrations and the gain rates of blood ACTH and corticosterone were obviously increased, meanwhile, the blood glucose increased while the TCH and TG decreased in caffeine group. Further, the hippocampal mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) expression in caffeine group was initially decreased and subsequently increased after birth. After chronic stress, the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1, glucocorticoid receptor (GR), MR as well as the MR/GR ratio were all significantly decreased. These results suggested that prenatal caffeine ingestion induced the dysfunction of HPA axis and associated neuroendocrine metabolic programmed alteration in IUGR offspring rats, which might be related with the functional injury of hippocampus. These observations provide a valuable experimental basis for explaining the susceptibility of IUGR offspring to metabolic syndrome and associated diseases. -- Highlights: ► Prenatal caffeine ingestion induced HPA axis dysfunction in IUGR offspring rats. ► Caffeine induced a neuroendocrine metabolic programmed alteration in offspring rats. ► Caffeine induced a functional injury

  4. Neuroendocrine, metabolic, and immune functions during the acute phase response of inflammatory stress in monosodium L-glutamate-damaged, hyperadipose male rat.

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    Castrogiovanni, Daniel; Gaillard, Rolf C; Giovambattista, Andrés; Spinedi, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    In rats, neonatal treatment with monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) induces several metabolic and neuroendocrine abnormalities, which result in hyperadiposity. No data exist, however, regarding neuroendocrine, immune and metabolic responses to acute endotoxemia in the MSG-damaged rat. We studied the consequences of MSG treatment during the acute phase response of inflammatory stress. Neonatal male rats were treated with MSG or vehicle (controls, CTR) and studied at age 90 days. Pituitary, adrenal, adipo-insular axis, immune, metabolic and gonadal functions were explored before and up to 5 h after single sub-lethal i.p. injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 150 microg/kg). Our results showed that, during the acute phase response of inflammatory stress in MSG rats: (1) the corticotrope-adrenal, leptin, insulin and triglyceride responses were higher than in CTR rats, (2) pro-inflammatory (TNFalpha) cytokine response was impaired and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokine response was normal, and (3) changes in peripheral estradiol and testosterone levels after LPS varied as in CTR rats. These data indicate that metabolic and neroendocrine-immune functions are altered in MSG-damaged rats. Our study also suggests that the enhanced corticotrope-corticoadrenal activity in MSG animals could be responsible, at least in part, for the immune and metabolic derangements characterizing hypothalamic obesity. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Testing the efficacy of pure versus guided mirror exposure in women with bulimia nervosa: A combination of neuroendocrine and psychological indices.

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    Díaz-Ferrer, Sandra; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Sonia; Ortega-Roldán, Blanca; Moreno-Domínguez, Silvia; Fernández-Santaella, M Carmen

    2015-09-01

    Body exposure improves body image problems in women with eating disorders. However it has almost always been combined with other interventions. Thus, the efficacy of body exposure alone (i.e., pure exposure) remains largely unclear. We aimed to compare the efficacy of two body exposure techniques through psychological and neuroendocrine indices recorded within and between successive sessions. Twenty-nine women with high body dissatisfaction and diagnosis of bulimia nervosa were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: Pure Exposure (n = 14) or Guided Exposure (n = 15). Participants received 6 exposure sessions. After each session, changes in thoughts (positive/negative) and body satisfaction were assessed. Also, we assessed the body discomfort experienced by participants within and between sessions. Finally, the changes in salivary cortisol levels within and between the initial and final treatment sessions were measured. Both groups showed a reduction in negative thoughts and a progressive increase in positive thoughts throughout the treatment. However, the increase in body satisfaction and the reduction in subjective discomfort within the sessions were greater in the pure exposure group. The cortisol levels during the initial and final treatment sessions decreased in both groups. Methodological limitations are reported. These results suggest that pure and guided exposures are effective interventions for improving thoughts and neuroendocrine responses, although pure exposure increased more body satisfaction feelings in bulimic women. Subjective discomfort also showed different patterns of change within and along sessions for each treatment. Reasons for these results are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Neuroendocrine circuits governing energy balance and stress regulation: functional overlap and therapeutic implications.

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    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Ryan, Karen K

    2014-06-03

    Significant comorbidities between obesity-related metabolic disease and stress-related psychological disorders suggest important functional interactions between energy balance and brain stress integration. Largely overlapping neural circuits control these systems, and this anatomical arrangement optimizes opportunities for mutual influence. Here we first review the current literature identifying effects of metabolic neuroendocrine signals on stress regulation, and vice versa. Next, the contributions of reward-driven food intake to these metabolic and stress interactions are discussed. Lastly, we consider the interrelationships between metabolism, stress, and reward in light of their important implications in the development of therapies for metabolism- or stress-related disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Metabolic and neuroendocrine responses to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. I: energy balance, metabolic changes, and fat loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Lagoy, A; Discenza, I; Papineau, G; Lewis, E; Braden, G; Romanelli, J; Braun, B; Silva, J E

    2012-08-01

    Obesity is a major health problem. Effective treatment requires understanding the homeostatic responses to caloric restriction. The aim was to study Roux-en-Y gastric bypass patients longitudinally for 6 months after surgery to identify major factors modulating fat loss. We studied 13 patients (11 females and two males) aged 41.2 ± 2 yr. Mean body mass index was 44.6 ± 1.2 kg/m(2), with 50 ± 1% body fat (58.3 kg). Selection excluded patients with confounding comorbidities or treatments. Caloric intake was reduced 742 ± 82 kcal/d by 1 month and 450 kcal/d between 2 and 4 months postoperatively. By 6 months, relative to baseline, body mass index decreased 24.8 ± 1.1%; percentage body fat, 37.3 ± 3.2% (21.7 kg); fat free mass (FFM), 9.7 ± 1.2%; and resting metabolic rate (RMR), 18.1 ± 4.3%. RMR correlated with FFM at all times (r = 0.71; P Fat loss did not correlate with the aggregate energy deficit or its individual components. Resting or postexercise respiratory exchange ratio (RER) was lowest, whereas plasma β-OH-butyrate and glycerol were highest, between 1 and 2 months after surgery. RER increased linearly with mild exercise, and fat loss correlated positively with physical activity level and RER. Although the ultimate cause for weight loss is the energy deficit, the variance in fat loss correlated with glucose oxidation, suggesting that glucose partition between oxidation (muscle) and storage (adipose tissue) is an important factor affecting fat loss in individuals submitted to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

  8. Neuroendocrine Immunoregulation in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Deckx

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, it is generally accepted that multiple sclerosis (MS is a complex multifactorial disease involving genetic and environmental factors affecting the autoreactive immune responses that lead to damage of myelin. In this respect, intrinsic or extrinsic factors such as emotional, psychological, traumatic, or inflammatory stress as well as a variety of other lifestyle interventions can influence the neuroendocrine system. On its turn, it has been demonstrated that the neuroendocrine system has immunomodulatory potential. Moreover, the neuroendocrine and immune systems communicate bidirectionally via shared receptors and shared messenger molecules, variously called hormones, neurotransmitters, or cytokines. Discrepancies at any level can therefore lead to changes in susceptibility and to severity of several autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Here we provide an overview of the complex system of crosstalk between the neuroendocrine and immune system as well as reported dysfunctions involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity, including MS. Finally, possible strategies to intervene with the neuroendocrine-immune system for MS patient management will be discussed. Ultimately, a better understanding of the interactions between the neuroendocrine system and the immune system can open up new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of MS as well as other autoimmune diseases.

  9. Current Concepts in Neuroendocrine Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In the last few years, it has become clear that a wide variety of environmental contaminants have specific effects on neuroendocrine systems in fish, amphibians, birds and mammals. While it is beyond the scope of this review to provide a comprehensive examination of all of these neuroendocrine disruptors, we will focus on select representative examples. Organochlorine pesticides bioaccumulate in neuroendocrine areas of the brain that directly regulate GnRH neurons, thereby altering the expression of genes downstream of GnRH signaling. Organochlorine pesticides can also agonize or antagonize hormone receptors, adversely affecting crosstalk between neurotransmitter systems. The impacts of polychlorinated biphenyls are varied and in many cases subtle. This is particularly true for neuroedocrine and behavioral effects of exposure. These effects impact sexual differentiation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and other neuroendocrine systems regulating the thyroid, metabolic, and stress axes and their physiological responses. Weakly estrogenic and anti-androgenic pollutants such as bisphenol A, phthalates, phytochemicals, and the fungicide vinclozolin can lead to severe and widespread neuroendocrine disruptions in discrete brain regions, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus, resulting in behavioral changes in a wide range of species. Behavioral features that have been shown to be affected by one or more these chemicals include cognitive deficits, heightened anxiety or anxiety-like, sociosexual, locomotor, and appetitive behaviors. Neuroactive pharmaceuticals are now widely detected in aquatic environments and water supplies through the release of wastewater treatment plant effluents. The antidepressant fluoxetine is one such pharmaceutical neuroendocrine disruptor. Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor that can affect multiple neuroendocrine pathways and behavioral circuits, including disruptive effects on reproduction and

  10. Neuropsychiatry phenotype in asthma: Psychological stress-induced alterations of the neuroendocrine-immune system in allergic airway inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isao Ohno

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the recognition of asthma as a syndrome with complex pathophysiological signs and symptoms, recent research has sought to classify asthma phenotypes based on its clinical and molecular pathological features. Psychological stress was first recognized as a potential immune system modulator of asthma at the end of the 19th century. The activation of the central nervous system (CNS upon exposure to psychological stress is integral for the initiation of signal transduction processes. The stress hormones, including glucocorticoids, epinephrine, and norepinephrine, which are secreted following CNS activation, are involved in the immunological alterations involved in psychological stress-induced asthma exacerbation. The mechanisms underlying this process may involve a pathological series of events from the brain to the lungs, which is attracting attention as a conceptually advanced phenotype in asthma pathogenesis. This review presents insights into the critical role of psychological stress in the development and exacerbation of allergic asthma, with a special focus on our own data that emphasizes on the continuity from the central sensing of psychological stress to enhanced eosinophilic airway inflammation.

  11. A fluorescence-coupled assay for gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA reveals metabolic stress-induced modulation of GABA content in neuroendocrine cancer.

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    Joseph E Ippolito

    Full Text Available Pathways involved in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA have been implicated in the pathogenesis of high grade neuroendocrine (NE neoplasms as well as neoplasms from a non-NE lineage. Using The Cancer Genome Atlas, overexpression of the GABA synthetic enzyme, glutamate decarboxylase 1 (GAD1, was found to be associated with decreased disease free-survival in prostate adenocarcinoma and decreased overall survival in clear cell renal cell carcinomas. Furthermore, GAD1 was found to be expressed in castrate-resistant prostate cancer cell lines, but not androgen-responsive cell lines. Using a novel fluorescence-coupled enzymatic microplate assay for GABA mediated through reduction of resazurin in a prostate neuroendocrine carcinoma (PNEC cell line, acid microenvironment-induced stress increased GABA levels while alkaline microenvironment-induced stress decreased GABA through modulation of GAD1 and glutamine synthetase (GLUL activities. Moreover, glutamine but not glucose deprivation decreased GABA through modulation of GLUL. Consistent with evidence in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms that GABA synthesis mediated through GAD1 may play a crucial role in surviving stress, GABA may be an important mediator of stress survival in neoplasms. These findings identify GABA synthesis and metabolism as a potentially important pathway for regulating cancer cell stress response as well as a potential target for therapeutic strategies.

  12. Neuroendocrine Role for VGF

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    Jo Edward Lewis

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The vgf gene (non-acronymic is highly conserved and was identified on the basis of its rapid induction in vitro by nerve growth factor, although can also be induced by brain derived neurotrophic factor, and glial derived growth factor. The VGF gene gives rise to a 68kDa precursor polypeptide which is induced robustly, relatively selectively and is synthesized exclusively in neuronal and neuroendocrine cells. Post-translational processing by neuroendocrine specific pro-hormone convertases in these cells results in the production of a number of smaller peptides. The VGF gene and peptides are widely expressed throughout the brain, particularly the hypothalamus and hippocampus, and in peripheral tissues including the pituitary gland, the adrenal glands and the pancreas, and in the gastrointestinal tract in both the myenteric plexus and in endocrine cells. VGF peptides have been associated with a number of neuroendocrine roles and in this mini-review we aim to describe these roles to highlight the importance of VGF as therapeutic target for a number of disorders, particularly those associated with energy metabolism, pain, reproduction and cognition.

  13. The etiology of hypertension in the metabolic syndrome part four: the systemic perspective--the role of the neuroendocrine and immune systems, and the challenge of integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vijay; McNeill, John H

    2006-10-01

    Insulin resistance can be regarded to be a cause, a consequence, a sustainer or a marker of the wider neuroendocrine dysfunction within which it occurs. In the final part of our series of reviews, we examine the systemic influences which operate within the metabolic syndrome: the endocrine system, the central nervous system and the immune system. We discuss strategies for integrating the array of information that is being gathered, in particular the need for computer simulation. We also advocate the need to move beyond the linear paradigm of 'cause and effect' and use causal networks to think about this system. We also discuss the need to understand the temperospatial organisation of the factors being studied. Finally, we draw together the data, concepts and hypotheses we have reviewed over the course of these four articles.

  14. Metabolic and Psychological Restricts of Nutrition Correction in Overweight Children

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    T.V. Chaychenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The publication provides an overview of materials concerning psychological and metabolic regulators of hunger/satiety and their impact at food behavior in overweight children. In the context of the obesity epidemic in the world, the recommended measures aimed at preventing its spread include increased physical activity and proper organization of child nutrition. At the same time, the effectiveness of these non-drug interventions is extremely low, and psychosocial dysfunction is considered to be its cause. Analysis of the mechanisms of excessive food intake occurrence shows that eating disorders in overweight children have metabolic neuroenteroendocrine basis with direct impact on hunger/satiety center. Constant stimulation of hedonic centers with the formation of physical dependence in children with reduced volitional qualities supported by parental attitude is the basis for an extremely low efficiency of nutrition correction in overweight. In order to improve the efficiency of weight control programs in children, in parallel with endocrinological/pediatric advice, the family-oriented educational programs and social and psychological interventions should be widely implemented.

  15. Relations between trauma experiences and psychological, physical and neuroendocrine functioning among Somali refugees: mediating role of coping with acculturation stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Kimberly; Jorden, Skye; Anisman, Hymie

    2008-08-01

    Refugees may be prone to stress-related psychological and physical health disorders, coupled with disturbances of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal functioning reflected by cortisol levels. It was suggested that traumatic encounters would directly influence stress-related outcomes, as well as indirectly influence them by undermining refugees' ability to cope with acculturation challenges. Somali refugees to Canada (N = 90) consistently reported encountering trauma, which was related to poorer self-reported outcomes (trauma symptoms, depressive affect, physical health), and these relations were mediated by increased use of emotion-focused (especially avoidant) coping strategies. Trauma symptoms and multiple traumatic experiences were associated with an exaggerated morning cortisol rise, but with a blunted response to stressor reminder cues. This blunted cortisol reactivity among participants encountering prior trauma was mediated by their increased propensity to cope by means of passive resignation. Evidently, refugees were at risk for stress-related dysfunction long after migrating, and the diminished capacity to cope with acculturation challenges was particularly important in this regard.

  16. Relationship between Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components with Psychological Distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Roohafza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Metabolic syndrome (MetS and psychological distress are hypothesized to have a bidirectional relationship. According to their high prevalence in most populations, appraisal of this theory would be of great clinical and research interest. Methods. Data were available as part of the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP. A total of 9553 men and women aged ≥19 years from three counties in central Iran were selected. Measurements consisted of serologic tests, anthropometrics, and self-reported 12-item general health questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was used to find the association between MetS, MetS components, and distress level. Results. The mean age of 9553 participants (50% male was 38.7 ± 15.8 years. After adjusting for demographic factors, MetS (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.01–1.37, central obesity (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.15–1.49, and hypertension (OR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.42–1.70 were associated with high distress level. However, after adding smoking status and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to the adjustment factors, hypertension (OR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.53–1.98 and central obesity (OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.17–1.55, but not the MetS, remained significantly associated with distress level. Conclusion. The presence of association between the MetS as well as its key components and high distress level signifies the importance of integrating psychological assessment and intervention in the standard management of MetS patients.

  17. Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumor > Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 11/ ... the body. It is important to remember that statistics on the survival rates for people with a ...

  18. [Effects of the overlapping between an experimental model of neuroendocrine obesity with arterial hypertension under blood pressure, body weight and metabolic and renal parameters in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Lara Beatriz Delfino; Cesaretti, Mario Luis Ribeiro; Voltera, Aline Francisco; Ginoza, Milton; Kohlmann, Osvaldo

    2011-01-01

    Increased body mass index and the metabolic syndrome are associated with decreased renal function and the development of end-stage kidney disease. To evaluate the effect of the overlap between an experimental model of obesity and genetic hypertension on the blood pressure, body weight and metabolic and kidney parameters of rats. We studied male rats of the Wistar (WST) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) strains. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) was administered in the neonatal period to both strains, to make up two groups: WST + MSG and SHR + MSG. Animals in the control groups (WST and SHR) received saline. After completing three months of life, a 12-week follow-up period ensued, during which bi-weekly measurements of body weight (BW) and tail-cuff blood pressure (TCBP) were obtained. Microalbuminuria was analyzed at weeks 0, 4, 8 and 12. At the end of the follow-up period, blood was obtained for fasting glucose, plasma creatinine, and lipid profile determinations. The kidneys were removed, stained, and the glomerular sclerosis index was calculated. The administration of MSG produced higher percentage body weight gain, higher fasting blood glucose and a higher degree of glomerular injury in WST-MSG and MSG-SHR rats, compared to their controls. Greater urinary albumin excretion was observed in SHR + MSG rats, when compared to SHR. There was no statistical difference in the TCBP, creatinine, and lipid profile. The association of neuroendocrine obesity and arterial hypertension promoted morphological and functional changes in the glomerulus. These changes were more severe than those observed in hypertensive-only rats.

  19. Metabolic and psychological response to 7-day fasting in obese patients with and without metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenying; Ostermann, Thomas; Hardt, Monika; Lüdtke, Rainer; Broecker-Preuss, Martina; Dobos, Gustav; Michalsen, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Extended modified fasting is a frequently practiced tradition in Europe. It is claimed to improve the cardiometabolic state and physical and psychological well-being by an evolutionary co-developed adaptation response. We aimed to investigate the cardiometabolic and psychological effects of a 7-day fast and differences of these responses between patients with or without metabolic syndrome (MetS). We investigated 30 female subjects (49.0 ± 8.1 years, BMI 30.4 ± 6.7 kg/m(2)) with (n = 12) and without (n = 18) MetS. All subjects participated in a 7-day fast according to Buchinger with a nutritional energy intake of 300 kcal/day and stepwise reintroduction of solid food thereafter. Outcomes were assessed baseline and after fasting and included measures of metabolic and glucoregulatory control, adipokines as well as psychological well-being as assessed by Profile of Mood States (POMS) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Mean weight decreased from 85.4 ± 18.8 kg to 79.7 ± 18.2 kg accompanied by systolic/diastolic blood pressure (BP) reduction of -16.2 mm Hg (95% CI: -9.1; -23.3 mm Hg) and -6.0 mm Hg (95% CI: -1.8; -10.3 mm Hg), each p Fasting led to marked decreases of levels of LDL-cholesterol, leptin, and insulin and increases of levels of adiponectin, leptin receptors, and resistin. Fasting-induced mood enhancement was reflected by decreased anxiety, depression, fatigue, and improved vigor. Patients with MetS showed some greater changes in B P, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, adiponectin, leptin, and sleep quality. Fasting was well-tolerated. Our results point to marked beneficial responses to 7-day modified fasting and a potential role in the prevention of the MetS. Randomized trials with longer observation periods should test the clinical effectiveness of fasting in metabolic diseases. © 2014 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  20. [Association between occupational psychological stress and metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Herong; Song, Hui; Tian, Rulong; Chen, Lijun; Zhang, Wei; Qiang, Yan

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the association between occupational psychological stress and metabolic syndrome (MS) in Hui and Han populations in Ningxia, China. A 1:1 matched case-control study was performed. A total of 600 unrelated patients aged from 20 to 60 years who were clearly diagnosed with MS in General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University and Wuzhong People's Hospital from October 2011 to October 2012 were collected as the case group (MS group). A total of 600 healthy people who underwent a regular health examination in the same hospital during the same period were selected as the control group with matched gender, nationality, and age (≤ ± 3 years). The self-designed questionnaire was used to investigate the general situations and do the physical examination, and the fasting venous blood samples were collected for laboratory biochemical blood tests. The Occupational Stress Inventory (OSI) was used to investigate the subjects' occupational stress factors and stress levels. With the increase in stress levels, the levels of WC, FPG, TG, AST, and UA were increased, WHR, SBP, and DBP first increased and then decreased, and the level of HDL-C increased. There were statistically significant differences in these parameters between the two groups (P stress test results showed that the total score of stress factors (t = 6.676, P work balance (t = 2.028, P differences in the scores of management role, work responsibilities, and organizational climate between the MS group and the control group (P>0.05). There were no significant differences in the total score of stress factors and the score of each factor between Hui and Han groups (P>0.05). The relative risks of MS in the people with moderate stress exposure were 2.325 and 2.331 times those in the people with mild stress exposure before and after adjustment for age, gender, education level, marriage status, smoking, and drinking, and the relative risks for MS in the people with severe stress exposure were 3.000 and 3

  1. Effects of ammonia-N stress on metabolic and immune function via the neuroendocrine system in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanting; Ren, Xianyun; Li, Jian; Zhai, Qianqian; Feng, Yanyan; Xu, Yang; Ma, Li

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immunological responses, such as phenoloxidase (PO), antibacterial, and bacteriolytic activities, and metabolic variables, such as oxyhemocyanin, lactate, and glucose levels, of Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to ambient ammonia-N at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 mg/L for 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h, and determine the effects of the eyestalk hormone on the metabolic and immune functions of unilateral eyestalk-ablated L. vannamei exposed to ambient ammonia-N at 10 mg/L. The actual concentrations of the control and test solutions were 0.04, 2.77, 6.01, 8.30, and 11.36 mg/L for ammonia-N and 0.01, 0.15, 0.32, 0.44, and 0.60 mg/L for NH3-N (unionized ammonia). The results showed a significant decrease in the PO, antibacterial, and bacteriolytic activities in the plasma as well as a significant increase in the glucose and lactate levels and decreased oxyhemocyanin levels in the hemolymph of L. vannamei exposed to elevated ammonia-N levels. These findings indicated that L. vannamei exposed to ammonia-N might demonstrate weakened metabolic and immunological responses. Moreover, eyestalk removal caused a dramatic decrease in PO, antibacterial, and bacteriolytic activities, which indicated that the eyestalk hormone in L. vannamei exhibited a higher immune response due to the induction of protective mechanisms against ammonia-N stress. Eyestalk removal also caused a dramatic decrease in glucose and lactate levels, suggesting that the eyestalk hormone is involved in glucose metabolism to meet the energy requirements under ammonia-N stress conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Early-life adversity programs emotional functions and the neuroendocrine stress system: the contribution of nutrition, metabolic hormones and epigenetic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Kit-Yi; Naninck, Eva F G; Schmidt, Mathias V; Lucassen, Paul J; Korosi, Aniko

    2015-01-01

    Clinical and pre-clinical studies have shown that early-life adversities, such as abuse or neglect, can increase the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. Remarkably, the lasting consequences of stress during this sensitive period on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and emotional function closely resemble the long-term effects of early malnutrition and suggest a possible common pathway mediating these effects. During early-life, brain development is affected by both exogenous factors, like nutrition and maternal care as well as by endogenous modulators including stress hormones. These elements, while mostly considered for their independent actions, clearly do not act alone but rather in a synergistic manner. In order to better understand how the programming by early-life stress takes place, it is important to gain further insight into the exact interplay of these key elements, the possible common pathways as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms that mediate their effects. We here review evidence that exposure to both early-life stress and early-life under-/malnutrition similarly lead to life-long alterations on the neuroendocrine stress system and modify emotional functions. We further discuss how the different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and next suggest a possible role for the early-life adversity induced alterations in metabolic hormones and nutrient availability in shaping later stress responses and emotional function throughout life, possibly via epigenetic mechanisms. Such knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies, which gives the advantage of viewing the synergistic action of a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity.

  3. Associations between APOE variants and metabolic traits and the impact of psychological stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia Inez Iqbal; Barefoot, John; Brummett, Berverly H.

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study, we observed that associations between APOE rs439401 and metabolic traits were moderated by chronic stress. Thus, in a population of stressed and non-stressed Danish men, we examined whether associations between APOE rs439401 and a panel of metabolic quantitative traits, all m...... metabolic traits which may lead to T2D and CVD were moderated by psychological stress....

  4. Hypothesis of the neuroendocrine cortisol pathway gene role in the comorbidity of depression, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gragnoli C

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Claudia Gragnoli1,21Center for Biotechnology and Department of Biology, College of Science and Technology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Molecular Biology Laboratory, Bios Biotech Multi-Diagnostic Health Center, Rome, ItalyAbstract: Depression, type 2 diabetes (T2D, and metabolic syndrome (MetS are often comorbid. Depression per se increases the risk for T2D by 60%. This risk is not accounted for by the use of antidepressant therapy. Stress causes hyperactivation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA axis, by triggering the hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH secretion, which stimulates the anterior pituitary to release the adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH, which causes the adrenal secretion of cortisol. Depression is associated with an increased level of cortisol, and CRH and ACTH at inappropriately “normal” levels, that is too high compared to their expected lower levels due to cortisol negative feedback. T2D and MetS are also associated with hypercortisolism. High levels of cortisol can impair mood as well as cause hyperglycemia and insulin resistance and other traits typical of T2D and MetS. We hypothesize that HPA axis hyperactivation may be due to variants in the genes of the CRH receptors (CRHR1, CRHR2, corticotropin receptors (or melanocortin receptors, MC1R-MC5R, glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1, mineralocorticoid receptor (NR3C2, and of the FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP5, and that these variants may be partially responsible for the clinical association of depression, T2D and MetS. In this review, we will focus on the correlation of stress, HPA axis hyperactivation, and the possible genetic role of the CRHR1, CRHR2, MCR1–5, NR3C1, and NR3C2 receptors and FKBP5 in the susceptibility to the comorbidity of depression, T2D, and MetS. New studies are needed to confirm the hypothesized role of these genes in the clinical association of depression, T2D, and MetS.Keywords: depression, type 2 diabetes

  5. PET/CT in Neuroendocrine Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellucci, Paolo; Ambrosini, Valentina; Montini, Giancarlo

    2008-04-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a rare group of neoplasms that originate from pluripotent stem cells or differentiated neuroendocrine cells, mostly localized in the bronchus, lungs, or gastroenteropancreatic tract. This issue reviews the results achieved with PET. The potential applications of the most commonly used receptor or metabolic positron-emitter radiopharmaceuticals in the field of NET to stage or restage disease, to detect unknown primary tumor, and to assess and monitor therapy response to different kind of treatments are analyzed. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Metabolic and cardiovascular adjustments during psychological stress and carotid artery intima-media thickness in youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Cardiovascular reactivity is associated with carotid artery intima-media thickness as early as childhood. Excess cardiovascular responses relative to the metabolic demand during psychological stress have been proposed as a mechanism for this association. It is not known whether measure...

  7. Pulmonary neuroendocrine (carcinoid) tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caplin, M E; Baudin, E; Ferolla, P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary carcinoids (PCs) are rare tumors. As there is a paucity of randomized studies, this expert consensus document represents an initiative by the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society to provide guidance on their management. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Bibliographical searches were...... carried out in PubMed for the terms 'pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors', 'bronchial neuroendocrine tumors', 'bronchial carcinoid tumors', 'pulmonary carcinoid', 'pulmonary typical/atypical carcinoid', and 'pulmonary carcinoid and diagnosis/treatment/epidemiology/prognosis'. A systematic review...... of the relevant literature was carried out, followed by expert review. RESULTS: PCs are well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors and include low- and intermediate-grade malignant tumors, i.e. typical (TC) and atypical carcinoid (AC), respectively. Contrast CT scan is the diagnostic gold standard for PCs...

  8. Effects of psychological stress on innate immunity and metabolism in humans: a systematic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushri Priyadarshini

    Full Text Available Stress is perhaps easiest to conceptualize as a process which allows an organism to accommodate for the demands of its environment such that it can adapt to the prevailing set of conditions. Psychological stress is an important component with the potential to affect physiology adversely as has become evident from various studies in the area. Although these studies have established numerous effects of psychological stress on physiology, a global strategy for the correlation of these effects has yet to begin. Our comparative and systematic analysis of the published literature has unraveled certain interesting molecular mechanisms as clues to account for some of the observed effects of psychological stress on human physiology. In this study, we attempt to understand initial phase of the physiological response to psychological stress by analyzing interactions between innate immunity and metabolism at systems level by analyzing the data available in the literature. In light of our gene association-networks and enrichment analysis we have identified candidate genes and molecular systems which might have some associative role in affecting psychological stress response system or even producing some of the observed terminal effects (such as the associated physiological disorders. In addition to the already accepted role of psychological stress as a perturbation that can disrupt physiological homeostasis, we speculate that it is potentially capable of causing deviation of certain biological processes from their basal level activity after which they can return back to their basal tones once the effects of stress diminish. Based on the derived inferences of our comparative analysis, we have proposed a probabilistic mechanism for how psychological stress could affect physiology such that these adaptive deviations are sometimes not able to bounce back to their original basal tones, and thus increase physiological susceptibility to metabolic and immune

  9. Taurine, energy drinks, and neuroendocrine effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Jonathan J; Geracioti, Thomas D

    2016-12-01

    Taurine is an amino acid found abundantly in brain, retina, heart, and reproductive organ cells, as well as in meat and seafood. But it is also a major ingredient in popular "energy drinks," which thus constitute a major source of taurine supplementation. Unfortunately, little is known about taurine's neuroendocrine effects. The authors review the sparse data and provide a basic background on the structure, synthesis, distribution, metabolism, mechanisms, effects, safety, and currently proposed therapeutic targets of taurine. Copyright © 2016 Cleveland Clinic.

  10. Neuroendocrine Tumor, diagnostic difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Oliveira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH secretion is a rare disease. A 51 years old woman, with a Cushing syndrome secondary to ectopic ACTH secretion, diagnosed in 2009, with mediastinal lymphadenopathy, whose biopsy was compatible with lung small cell carcinoma, staged as IIIB using TNM classification. No other lesions were found in patient study. The patient was submitted to chemotherapy, associated to ketoconazole 200 mg twice daily, with partial remission of both conditions. Three years later was admitted with an aggravation of Cushing syndrome. There was no evidence of progression of pulmonary disease. A cystic lesion in the pancreatic uncinated process was found by abdominal CT scan and with avid uptake by DOTANOC PET discreet in anterior mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Biopsy of pancreatic mass revealed a neuroendocrine tumor. Pulmonary masses were biopsied again and was in favor of neuroendocrine tumor. It was assumed the diagnosis of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor with mediastinal metastasis. The patient initiated lanreotid (120 mg, monthly, subcutaneous in association with ketoconazole. After 5 months of therapy, patient died with sepsis secondary to pneumonia. Neuroendocrine tumours are rare, difficult to diagnose and with poor prognosis when associated with ectopic ACTH secreting Cushing syndrome.

  11. GASTROENTEROPANCREATIC NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. Neuroendocrine tumors comprise heterogeneous group of neoplasms which originate from endocrine cells, both within endocrine organs and within the cells of diffuse endocrine system. These tumors have vari- able clinical behavior ranging from well-differentiated, slow growing tumors to ...

  12. Increased percentages of regulatory T cells are associated with inflammatory and neuroendocrine responses to acute psychological stress and poorer health status in older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronaldson, Amy; Gazali, Ahmad M; Zalli, Argita; Kaiser, Frank; Thompson, Stephen J; Henderson, Brian; Steptoe, Andrew; Carvalho, Livia

    2016-05-01

    The percentage of regulatory T cells (TRegs)-a subtype of T lymphocyte that suppresses the immune response-appears to be reduced in a number of stress-related diseases. The role of the TReg in stress-disease pathways has not yet been investigated. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between biological responsivity to acute psychosocial stress and the percentage of TRegs in healthy older adults. The secondary purpose was to measure the associations between TReg percentage and psychological and physical well-being in the participants. Salivary cortisol and plasma interleukin (IL)-6 samples were obtained from 121 healthy older men and women from the Whitehall II cohort following acute psychophysiological stress testing. Three years later at a follow-up visit, we measured TReg percentages and psychological and physical well-being were recorded using the Short Form 36 Health Survey and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Blunted cortisol responses (p = 0.004) and elevated IL-6 responses (p = 0.027) to acute psychophysiological stress were associated with greater TReg percentage independently of age, sex, BMI, smoking status, employment grade, time of testing, and baseline measures of cortisol and IL-6, respectively. Percentage of TRegs was associated cross-sectionally with lower physical (p = 0.043) and mental health status (p = 0.008), and higher levels of depressive symptoms (p = 0.002), independently of covariates. Increased levels of TRegs may act as a defence against increased inflammation and may be a pre-indication for chronically stressed individuals on the cusp of clinical illness.

  13. Psychological and Personality Predictors of Weight Loss and Comorbid Metabolic Changes After Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agüera, Zaida; García-Ruiz-de-Gordejuela, Amador; Vilarrasa, Nuria; Sanchez, Isabel; Baño, Marta; Camacho, Lucía; Granero, Roser; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Virgili, Nuria; Lopez-Urdiales, Rafael; de Bernabe, Mónica Montserrat-Gil; Garrido, Pilar; Monasterio, Carmen; Steward, Trevor; Pujol-Gebelli, Jordi; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Menchón, Jose M

    2015-11-01

    Bariatric surgery (BS) has proven to be the most effective treatment for weight loss and for improving comorbidities in severe obesity. A comprehensive psychological assessment prior to surgery is proposed to prepare patients for a successful post-surgical outcome. Therefore, the main aim of the present study was to assess psychological and personality predictors of BS outcome. The sample comprised 139 severely obese patients who underwent BS. Assessment measures included the Eating Disorders Inventory-2, the Symptom Checklist-Revised and the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised. Our results show that favourable BS outcome, after 2 years follow up, was associated with younger age, less depression, moderate anxiety symptoms and high cooperativeness levels. Likewise, metabolic improvements were found to be linked to younger age and certain psychopathological factors. In conclusion, our findings suggest that age, baseline body mass index, psychopathological indexes and personality traits predict successful BS outcome. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  14. Marital status, gender and cardiovascular mortality: behavioural, psychological distress and metabolic explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Gerard John; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Randall, Gemma; Hamer, Mark

    2009-07-01

    The intermediate processes through which the various unmarried states can increase the risk of subsequent cardiovascular disease mortality are incompletely understood. An understanding of these processes and how they may vary by gender is important for understanding why marital status is strongly and robustly associated with subsequent cardiovascular disease. In a prospective study of 13,889 Scottish men and women (mean age 52.3, Standard Deviation: 11.8 yrs, range 35-95, 56.1% female) without a history of clinically diagnosed cardiovascular disease, we examined the extent to which health behaviours (smoking, alcohol, physical activity), psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire-12 item) and metabolic dysregulation (obesity levels, and the presence of hypertension and diabetes) account for the association between marital status and cardiovascular mortality. There were 258 cardiovascular deaths over an average follow up of 7.1 (Standard Deviation=3.3) years. The risk of cardiovascular mortality was greatest in single, never married men and separated/divorced women compared with those that were married in gender stratified models that were adjusted for age and socio-economic group. In models that were separately adjusted, behavioural factors explained up to 33%, psychological distress explained up to 10% and metabolic dysregulation up to 16% of the relative change in the hazard ratios in the observed significant associations between marital status and cardiovascular mortality. Behavioural factors were particularly important in accounting for the relationship between being separated/divorced and cardiovascular mortality in both men and women (33% and 21% of the relative change in the hazard ratios, respectively). The findings suggest that health behaviour, psychological distress and metabolic dysregulation data have varying explanatory power for understanding the observed relationship between cardiovascular disease mortality and unmarried states.

  15. Neuroendocrine breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graça, Susana; Esteves, Joana; Costa, Sílvia; Vale, Sílvio; Maciel, Jorge

    2012-08-13

    Neuroendocrine breast cancer is thought to account for about 1% of all breast cancers. This rare type of breast malignancy is more common in older women and presents as a low-grade, slow-growing cancer. The most definitive markers that indicate neuroendocrine carcinoma are the presence of chromogranin, synaptophysin or neuron-specific enolase, in at least 50% of malignant tumour cells. The authors present a case report of an 83-year-old woman, admitted to their institution with right breast lump. Physical examination, mammography and ultrasonography showed a 2.4 cm nodule, probably a benign lesion (BI-RADS 3). A fine needle aspiration biopsy was performed and revealed proliferative epithelial papillary lesion. She was submitted to excisional biopsy and histology showed endocrine breast cancer well differentiated (G1). Immunohistochemically, tumour cells were positive for synaptophysin. These breast cancers are characterised for their excellent prognosis and conservative treatment is almost always enough to obtain patient cure.

  16. Associations between APOE variants and metabolic traits and the impact of psychological stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia I Iqbal Kring

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study, we observed that associations between APOE rs439401 and metabolic traits were moderated by chronic stress. Thus, in a population of stressed and non-stressed Danish men, we examined whether associations between APOE rs439401 and a panel of metabolic quantitative traits, all metabolic traits which may lead to T2D and CVD were moderated by psychological stress.Obese young men (n = 475, BMI ≥ 31.0 kg/m(2 and a randomly selected control group (n = 709 identified from a population of 141,800 men were re-examined in two surveys (S-46: mean age 46, S-49: mean age 49 years where anthropometric and biochemical measures were available. Psychological stress factors were assessed by a self-administered 7-item questionnaire. Each item had the possible response categories "yes" and "no" and assessed familial problems and conflicts. Summing positive responses constituted a stress item score, which was then dichotomized into stressed and non-stressed. Logistic regression analysis, applying a recessive genetic model, was used to assess odds ratios (OR of the associations between APOE rs439401 genotypes and adverse levels of metabolic traits.The APOE rs439401 TT-genotype associated positively with BMI (OR = 1.09 [1.01; 1.17], waist circumference (OR = 1.09 [1.02; 1.17] in stressed men at S-46. Positive associations were observed for fasting plasma glucose (OR = 1.42 [1.07; 1.87], serum triglycerides (OR = 1.41 [1.05; 1.91] and with fasting plasma insulin (OR = 1.48 [1.05; 2.08] in stressed men at S-49. Rs439401 TT-genotype also associated positively with surrogate measures of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; OR = 1.21 [1.03; 1.41] and inversely with insulin sensitivity (Stumvoll index; OR = 0.90 [0.82; 0.99], BIGTT-S(I; OR = 0.60 [0.43; 0.85] in stressed men. No significant associations were observed in non-stressed men, albeit the estimates showed similar but weaker trends as in stressed men.The present results suggest that the APOE rs439401

  17. DIABETES MELLITUS IN NEUROENDOCRINE DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Trigolosova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many endocrine diseases accompanied by development of secondary diabetes mellitus (sDM. The features of the development and course of sDM in acromegaly, Cushing’s syndrome, and growth hormone (GH deficiency are of particular interest as the prevalence of sDM associated with these pathologies is higher than that in the population. The main risk factors for sDM in acromegaly are age, female gender, arterial hypertension, family history of type 2 DM (T2DM, acromegaly activity, and duration and certain treatment methods of acromegaly. The differences of the sDM pathogenesis from pathogenesis of T2DM in the population are due to the opposite effect of GH and insulin-like growth factor 1 on glucose metabolism as well as to effect of acromegaly treatment on the mechanisms of diabetes development. The prevalence of diabetes in patients with GH deficiency, especially against the background of GH replacement therapy, is slightly higher than that in population. However, some studies have shown that GH replacement therapy may lead to normalization of the impaired glucose metabolism. High prevalence of metabolic syndrome (43% and visceral obesity in the GH deficiency are the causes of the development of lipotoxicity (free fatty acids excess and insulin resistance.In Cushing’s syndrome, the prevalence of early carbohydrate metabolism disturbances may reach 70%. In Cushing’s disease, chronic glucocorticoid excess determines insulin resistance and reduces insulin secretion, which results in hyperglycaemia. Currently, the recommendations for the treatment of sDM in acromegaly, hypercortisolism, and GH deficiency are the same as for the treatment of T2DM. However, as the pathogenesis is different in sDM and T2DM, the new algorithms for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment need to be developed. Prevention and timely treatment based on pathological principals will slow down the development of micro- and macrovascular complications leading to

  18. Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisseler-Eckhoff, Annette, E-mail: Annette.Fisseler-Eckhoff@hsk-wiesbaden.de; Demes, Melanie [Department of Pathology und Cytology, Dr. Horst-Schmidt-Kliniken (HSK), Wiesbaden 65199 (Germany)

    2012-07-31

    Neuroendocrine tumors may develop throughout the human body with the majority being found in the gastrointestinal tract and bronchopulmonary system. Neuroendocrine tumors are classified according to the grade of biological aggressiveness (G1–G3) and the extent of differentiation (well-differentiated/poorly-differentiated). The well-differentiated neoplasms comprise typical (G1) and atypical (G2) carcinoids. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas as well as small cell carcinomas (G3) are poorly-differentiated. The identification and differentiation of atypical from typical carcinoids or large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas and small cell carcinomas is essential for treatment options and prognosis. Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors are characterized according to the proportion of necrosis, the mitotic activity, palisading, rosette-like structure, trabecular pattern and organoid nesting. The given information about the histopathological assessment, classification, prognosis, genetic aberration as well as treatment options of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors are based on own experiences and reviewing the current literature available. Most disagreements among the classification of neuroendocrine tumor entities exist in the identification of typical versus atypical carcinoids, atypical versus large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas versus small cell carcinomas. Additionally, the classification is restricted in terms of limited specificity of immunohistochemical markers and possible artifacts in small biopsies which can be compressed in cytological specimens. Until now, pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors have been increasing in incidence. As compared to NSCLCs, only little research has been done with respect to new molecular targets as well as improving the classification and differential diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors of the lung.

  19. Changes in brain tryptophan metabolism elicited by ageing, social environment, and psychological stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Hideki; Ozaki, Norio; Shirokawa, Tetsuya; Isobe, Kenichi

    2008-03-01

    The kynurenine (KYN) pathway, which is initiated by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), is a tryptophan (TRP) metabolic pathway. It shares TRP with the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) pathway. In major depression, activation of the KYN pathway may deplete 5-HT. In the present study we investigated the influence of various risk factors for depression, such as ageing, social isolation and psychological stress, on TRP metabolism. Male ICR mice (postnatal day, PND, 21) were divided into two housing conditions, isolation and group housing, reared for 4 weeks (young adult) or 5 months (adult) and exposed to novelty stress. We measured TRP, KYN and 5-HT contents in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala and dorsal raphe nuclei to investigate the balance between the KYN and 5-HT pathways. Ageing decreased TRP and KYN and increased 5-HT. Thus, ageing shifted the balance to the latter. In the younger group, social isolation decreased TRP and KYN and increased the 5-HT/TRP ratio, whereas novelty stress increased TRP and KYN and decreased the 5-HT/TRP ratio. Thus, social isolation shifted the balance to the latter, whereas novelty stress shifted it to the former. In the older group, these effects were restricted to specific brain regions. Ageing and social isolation counteracted novelty stress effects on TRP metabolism.

  20. Neuroendocrine aspects of the response to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Diane B; O'Callaghan, James P

    2002-06-01

    Disruptions in homeostasis (ie, stress) place demands on the body that are met by the activation of 2 systems, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). Stressor-induced activation of the HPA axis and the SNS results in a series of neural and endocrine adaptations known as the "stress response" or "stress cascade." The stress cascade is responsible for allowing the body to make the necessary physiological and metabolic changes required to cope with the demands of a homeostatic challenge. Here we discuss the key elements of the HPA axis and the neuroendocrine response to stress. A challenge to homeostasis (a stressor) initiates the release of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus, which in turn results in release of adrenocortiotropin hormone (ACTH) into general circulation. ACTH then acts on the adrenal cortex resulting in release of a species-specific glucocorticoid into blood. Glucocorticoids act in a negative feedback fashion to terminate the release of CRH. The body strives to maintain glucocorticoid levels within certain boundaries and interference at any level of the axis will influence the other components via feedback loops. Over- or underproduction of cortisol can result in the devastating diseases of Cushing's and Addison's, respectively, but less severe dysregulation of the HPA axis can still have adverse health consequences. These include the deposition of visceral fat as well as cardiovascular disease (eg, atherosclerosis). Thus, chronic stress with its physical and psychological ramifications remains a persistent clinical problem for which new pharmacological treatment strategies are aggressively sought. To date, treatments have been based on the existing knowledge concerning the brain areas and neurobiological substrates that subserve the stress response. Thus, the CRH blocker, antalarmin, is being investigated as a treatment for chronic stress because it prevents CRH from having its

  1. Excess heart rate and systolic blood pressure during psychological stress in relation to metabolic demand in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiovascular responses during exercise are matched to the increased metabolic demand, but this may not be the case during psychological stress. No studies to date have tested this hypothesis in youth. Fifty-four youth, ages 13-16 years completed two visits. Heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressu...

  2. [Role of somatostatin analogs in the treatment of neuroendocrine tumours].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccurullo, V; Cascini, G L; Rambaldi, P F; Mansi, L

    2001-09-01

    Current therapeutic approaches in neuroendocrine tumours include surgery, radiotherapy and polychemotherapy. Different metabolic patterns of neuroendocrine tumours allow the use of a wide range of diagnostic options in nuclear medicine, due to the presence of a wide spectrum of radiotracers electively concentrating in these neoplasms. Nuclear medicine, and in particular 111In Octreotide (OCT) scintigraphy, 123I Methaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and pentavalent 99mTc-DMSA (V-DMSA), together with biohumoral markers, are currently able to locate tumours also not detectable using traditional diagnostic techniques. Somatostatin analogs, such as octreotide have become increasingly important over the years in the treatment of patients with neuroendocrine tumours. At present the therapeutic use of somatostatin analogs can be schematised as 1) pharmacological treatment (with cold octreotide); 2) surgical treatment (radioguided surgery); 3) radiometabolic treatment (with marked octreotide). The development of new synthetic molecules and new radiocompounds will probably open up interesting scenarios in the near future.

  3. Pitfalls in the diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors: atypical clinical and radiological findings as cause of medical mistakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajetta, Emilio; Catena, Laura; Ducceschi, Monika; Pusceddu, Sara; Milione, Massimo; Maccauro, Marco; Bajetta, Roberto; Procopio, Giuseppe; Buzzoni, Roberto; Formisano, Barbara; Di Guardo, Lorenza; Platania, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Carcinoids are infrequent neoplasms arising from neuroendocrine cells. Due to blurred symptoms and the presence of equivocal diagnostic findings, these tumors are sometimes misdiagnosed. Therefore, increased rates of false neuroendocrine tumors represent an emerging problem in clinical practice. Our aim is to alert clinicians on this matter by supplying them with useful warnings. In the specialized neuroendocrine tumor study Center Centro di Riferimento per lo Studio e la Cura dei Carcinoidi e dei Tumori Neuroendocrini (Ce.Ri.Ca), some patients highly suspected to have a neuroendocrine tumor have been recognized as having false neuroendocrine tumors. The related clinical and instrumental findings leading to a previous wrong neuroendocrine tumor diagnosis are reported. From July 2006 to December 2008, 88 consecutive cases of neuroendocrine tumors (Nets) were referred at Ce.Ri.Ca. In the former group, 8 cases of false Nets were discovered while in the remaining 80 cases a correct Net diagnosis was carried out. Watchful differential diagnoses and skill appraisal of laboratory investigations resulted in: chronic atrophic gastritis with enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia (4 cases), estrogen-deprivation syndrome (1), hypochondriac disorder (1), metabolic syndrome (1), and sarcoidosis (1). Neuroendocrine tumors are still relatively known clinical entities. To discriminate false neuroendocrine tumors from neuroendocrine tumors requires a good expertise and a large daily practice with the disease. Good knowledge and skillfulness in identifying biochemical alterations and false radiological positive results could avoid both patient inconvenience and very expensive workup. The importance of a multidisciplinary approach in specialized centers is emphasized.

  4. THE IMPORTANCE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PATIENT FOR THE EFFECTIVE TREATMENT OF METABOLIC SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Zavrazhnyh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim – the identification of hormonal and psychological characteristics of patients with metabolic syndrome (MS, determining the effectivenessof drug-free weight loss.Materials and methods. The study included 180 patients with MS (according to the criteria of ATP III, received dietary treatment and thermal bath at the spa. Anthropometric measures, the data of the daily blood pressure monitoring, blood levels of hormones (insulin, leptin, were assessed , following surveys were conducted – the definition of eating disorders (PP tests SANT (estimate well-being, activity, mood,anxiety and LOBI (diagnosis related to types of illness. According to the results of the course non-drug treatment, all patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1 – with a positive effect of therapy (n = 87 and 2nd – no effect (n = 93. The criterion for the division served as the simultaneous presence of four factors: decrease in body weight by 2 kg or more, reduction in waist circumference by 2 cm or more, decreasedlevels of triglycerides and blood glucose.Results. The group of patients therapy who proved to be ineffective, characterized by significantly higher levels of insulin and leptin, a predominance of emotiogenic PP, high self-esteem of his being. In relation to the state of neglect of the disease, its denial, indifference to the fate were prevailing. A correlation of levels of insulin and leptin levels with parameters of arterial pressure, PP, test results SANT.Conclusion. In patients with MS psychological and behavioral pattern that has adverse effects on weight loss and associated with the levels of leptin and insulin are diagnosed. Taking into account of these characteristics will increase the effectiveness of therapy.

  5. Sex-related psychological effects on metabolic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacerovsky-Bielesz, G; Lienhardt, S; Hagenhofer, M; Kacerovsky, M; Forster, E; Roth, R; Roden, M

    2009-05-01

    Women are at higher risk of diabetes-related cardiovascular complications than men. We tested the hypothesis that there are sex-specific differences in glucometabolic control, and in social and psychological factors. We also examined the influence of these factors on glucometabolic control. We examined 257 (126 men/131 women) consecutive patients (64 +/- 9 years, means +/- SD) of a metropolitan diabetes outpatient service employing clinical testing and standardised psychological questionnaires. Mean HbA(1c) (7.6 +/- 1.2%) was not different between women and men. Women patients on oral hypoglycaemic agents were better informed about diabetes (p = 0.012). They employed more strategies for coping with diabetes, including religion (p = 0.0001), active coping (p = 0.048) and distraction (p = 0.007). Women reported lower satisfaction with social support (p = 0.034), but not more depression than men. Although no differences were observed in compliance, insulin-treated patients were more satisfied with their therapy (p = 0.007). Variables predicting poor metabolic control were different in men (R(2) = 0.737, p = 0.012) and women (R(2) = 0.597, p = 0.019). Major predictors of high HbA(1c) included depressive coping, lower sexual desire, quality of life and internal locus of control, but high external doctor-related locus of control in women and frequent emotional experiences of hyperglycaemia in men. Lower quality of life, internal control and socioeconomic status, and higher prevalence of negative emotions probably prevented woman patients from achieving improved glucose control despite their better knowledge of and greater efforts to cope with diabetes. We suggest that women patients would benefit from individualised diabetes care offering social support, whereas men would benefit from knowledge-based diabetes management giving them more informational and instrumental support.

  6. THE IMPORTANCE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PATIENT FOR THE EFFECTIVE TREATMENT OF METABOLIC SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Zavrazhnyh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim – the identification of hormonal and psychological characteristics of patients with metabolic syndrome (MS, determining the effectivenessof drug-free weight loss.Materials and methods. The study included 180 patients with MS (according to the criteria of ATP III, received dietary treatment and thermal bath at the spa. Anthropometric measures, the data of the daily blood pressure monitoring, blood levels of hormones (insulin, leptin, were assessed , following surveys were conducted – the definition of eating disorders (PP tests SANT (estimate well-being, activity, mood,anxiety and LOBI (diagnosis related to types of illness. According to the results of the course non-drug treatment, all patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1 – with a positive effect of therapy (n = 87 and 2nd – no effect (n = 93. The criterion for the division served as the simultaneous presence of four factors: decrease in body weight by 2 kg or more, reduction in waist circumference by 2 cm or more, decreasedlevels of triglycerides and blood glucose.Results. The group of patients therapy who proved to be ineffective, characterized by significantly higher levels of insulin and leptin, a predominance of emotiogenic PP, high self-esteem of his being. In relation to the state of neglect of the disease, its denial, indifference to the fate were prevailing. A correlation of levels of insulin and leptin levels with parameters of arterial pressure, PP, test results SANT.Conclusion. In patients with MS psychological and behavioral pattern that has adverse effects on weight loss and associated with the levels of leptin and insulin are diagnosed. Taking into account of these characteristics will increase the effectiveness of therapy.

  7. Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Training in a Gym Setting Improves Cardio-Metabolic and Psychological Health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam O Shepherd

    Full Text Available Within a controlled laboratory environment, high-intensity interval training (HIT elicits similar cardiovascular and metabolic benefits as traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT. It is currently unclear how HIT can be applied effectively in a real-world environment.To investigate the hypothesis that 10 weeks of HIT, performed in an instructor-led, group-based gym setting, elicits improvements in aerobic capacity (VO2max, cardio-metabolic risk and psychological health which are comparable to MICT.Ninety physically inactive volunteers (42±11 y, 27.7±4.8 kg.m-2 were randomly assigned to HIT or MICT group exercise classes. HIT consisted of repeated sprints (15-60 seconds, >90% HRmax interspersed with periods of recovery cycling (≤25 min.session-1, 3 sessions.week-1. MICT participants performed continuous cycling (~70% HRmax, 30-45 min.session-1, 5 sessions.week-1. VO2max, markers of cardio-metabolic risk, and psychological health were assessed pre and post-intervention.Mean weekly training time was 55±10 (HIT and 128±44 min (MICT (p<0.05, with greater adherence to HIT (83±14% vs. 61±15% prescribed sessions attended, respectively; p<0.05. HIT improved VO2max, insulin sensitivity, reduced abdominal fat mass, and induced favourable changes in blood lipids (p<0.05. HIT also induced beneficial effects on health perceptions, positive and negative affect, and subjective vitality (p<0.05. No difference between HIT and MICT was seen for any of these variables.HIT performed in a real-world gym setting improves cardio-metabolic risk factors and psychological health in physically inactive adults. With a reduced time commitment and greater adherence than MICT, HIT offers a viable and effective exercise strategy to target the growing incidence of metabolic disease and psychological ill-being associated with physical inactivity.

  8. Dissociative symptoms and neuroendocrine dysregulation in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bob, Petr; Fedor-Freybergh, Peter; Jasova, Denisa; Bizik, Gustav; Susta, Marek; Pavlat, Josef; Zima, Tomas; Benakova, Hana; Raboch, Jiri

    2008-10-01

    Dissociative symptoms are traditionally attributed to psychological stressors that produce dissociated memories related to stressful life events. Dissociative disorders and dissociative symptoms including psychogenic amnesia, fugue, dissociative identity-disorder, depersonalization, derealization and other symptoms or syndromes have been reported as an epidemic psychiatric condition that may be coexistent with various psychiatric diagnoses such as depression, schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder or anxiety disorders. According to recent findings also the somatic components of dissociation may occur and influence brain, autonomic and neuroendocrine functions. At this time there are only few studies examining neuroendocrine response related to dissociative symptoms that suggest significant dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The aim of the present study is to perform examination of HPA axis functioning indexed by basal cortisol and prolactin and test their relationship to psychic and somatoform dissociative symptoms. Basal cortisol and prolactin and psychic and somatoform dissociative symptoms were assessed in 40 consecutive inpatients with diagnosis of unipolar depression mean age 43.37 (SD=12.21). The results show that prolactin and cortisol as indices of HPA axis functioning manifest significant relationship to dissociative symptoms. Main results represent highly significant correlations obtained by simple regression between psychic dissociative symptoms (DES) and serum prolactin (R=0.55, p=0.00027), and between somatoform dissociation (SDQ-20) and serum cortisol (R=-0.38, p=0.015). These results indicate relationship between HPA-axis reactivity and dissociative symptoms in unipolar depressive patients that could reflect passive coping behavior and disengagement.

  9. Polycystic ovary syndrome: a complex condition with psychological, reproductive and metabolic manifestations that impacts on health across the lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is of clinical and public health importance as it is very common, affecting up to one in five women of reproductive age. It has significant and diverse clinical implications including reproductive (infertility, hyperandrogenism, hirsutism), metabolic (insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, adverse cardiovascular risk profiles) and psychological features (increased anxiety, depression and worsened quality of life). Polycystic ovary syndrome is a heterogeneous condition and, as such, clinical and research agendas are broad and involve many disciplines. The phenotype varies widely depending on life stage, genotype, ethnicity and environmental factors including lifestyle and bodyweight. Importantly, PCOS has unique interactions with the ever increasing obesity prevalence worldwide as obesity-induced insulin resistance significantly exacerbates all the features of PCOS. Furthermore, it has clinical implications across the lifespan and is relevant to related family members with an increased risk for metabolic conditions reported in first-degree relatives. Therapy should focus on both the short and long-term reproductive, metabolic and psychological features. Given the aetiological role of insulin resistance and the impact of obesity on both hyperinsulinaemia and hyperandrogenism, multidisciplinary lifestyle improvement aimed at normalising insulin resistance, improving androgen status and aiding weight management is recognised as a crucial initial treatment strategy. Modest weight loss of 5% to 10% of initial body weight has been demonstrated to improve many of the features of PCOS. Management should focus on support, education, addressing psychological factors and strongly emphasising healthy lifestyle with targeted medical therapy as required. Monitoring and management of long-term metabolic complications is also an important part of routine clinical care. Comprehensive evidence-based guidelines are

  10. Neuroendocrine effects of cytokines in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivier, C

    1993-01-01

    The necessity ot maintain and/or restore homeostasis is an essential feature of mammals. This requires complex interactions between body cells, such as those from the immune and neuroendocrine systems, and in particular implies that the occurrence of immune activation be conveyed to the brain. It is now widely recognized that following infection, injury or inflammation, some immune cells (particularly macrophages) produce polypeptides called cytokines, interleukins or lymphokines /48/. These proteins provide the basis for intercellular communication between leukocytes (hence the name "interleukins") and mediate the immunoinflammatory responses (in particular T and B lymphocyte proliferation) /4,177/. In addition, interleukins (IL) can enter the general circulation and reach cells of the neuroendocrine axes, a phenomenon which represents one arm of the bidirectional communication links between the immune and the endocrine systems /25/. The early events which take place after presentation of an antigen (the so-called "acute-phase response" /89/) include metabolic and endocrine changes, such as changes in the circulating levels of insulin, TSH, GH, LH and ACTH, as well as adrenal and gonadal steroids /7,14/. This article reviews our present state of knowledge with regard to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes of the rodent in response to interleukins.

  11. Psychological Well-being and Metabolic Syndrome: Findings from the MIDUS National Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Jennifer Morozink; Ryff, Carol D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Psychological well-being predicts favorable cardiovascular outcomes, but less evidence addresses biological mediators underlying these effects. Therefore, cross-sectional and longitudinal associations among hedonic and eudaimonic well-being and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) were examined in a national sample. Methods Survey of Midlife in the U.S. participants (MIDUS; N = 1,205; 56.8% female; Mage(SD) = 57.5(11.6)) provided survey assessments of hedonic (positive affect, life satisfaction) and eudaimonic well-being (e.g., personal growth, purpose in life) at two waves 9-10 years apart. MetSyn components (waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and fasting glucose) were measured during an overnight clinic visit at time two only. Outcomes included a count of components meeting clinical criteria and a binary outcome reflective of MetSyn status. Results The unadjusted prevalence of MetSyn at time two was 36.6%. Life satisfaction [B(SE)= -.12(.04), p=.005], positive affect [B(SE)= -.10(.04), p=.009], and personal growth [B(SE)= -.10(.04), p=.012] predicted fewer MetSyn components and also lower risk of meeting diagnostic criteria in fully adjusted models. Results did not change when adjusting for depressive sypmtoms nor were they moderated by age, gender, race, or socioeconomic status. Life satisfaction [B(SE) = -.11(.05), p = .023] and a eudaimonic well-being composite [B(SE) = -.11(.05), p = .045] also predicted fewer components and lower risk of meeting diagnostic criteria in longitudinal models. Conclusions Psychosocial resources, including positive affect, life satisfaction, and personal growth, predicted reduced risk for MetSyn both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Further work should examine consequences of these linkages for cardiovascular outcomes in intervention contexts. PMID:25984827

  12. Neuroendocrine regulation of salt and water metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. McCann

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurons which release atrial natriuretic peptide (ANPergic neurons have their cell bodies in the paraventricular nucleus and in a region extending rostrally and ventrally to the anteroventral third ventricular (AV3V region with axons which project to the median eminence and neural lobe of the pituitary gland. These neurons act to inhibit water and salt intake by blocking the action of angiotensin II. They also act, after their release into hypophyseal portal vessels, to inhibit stress-induced ACTH release, to augment prolactin release, and to inhibit the release of LHRH and growth hormone-releasing hormone. Stimulation of neurons in the AV3V region causes natriuresis and an increase in circulating ANP, whereas lesions in the AV3V region and caudally in the median eminence or neural lobe decrease resting ANP release and the response to blood volume expansion. The ANP neurons play a crucial role in blood volume expansion-induced release of ANP and natriuresis since this response can be blocked by intraventricular (3V injection of antisera directed against the peptide. Blood volume expansion activates baroreceptor input via the carotid, aortic and renal baroreceptors, which provides stimulation of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus and possibly also serotonergic neurons in the raphe nuclei. These project to the hypothalamus to activate cholinergic neurons which then stimulate the ANPergic neurons. The ANP neurons stimulate the oxytocinergic neurons in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei to release oxytocin from the neural lobe which circulates to the atria to stimulate the release of ANP. ANP causes a rapid reduction in effective circulating blood volume by releasing cyclic GMP which dilates peripheral vessels and also acts within the heart to slow its rate and atrial force of contraction. The released ANP circulates to the kidney where it acts through cyclic GMP to produce natriuresis and a return to normal blood volume

  13. Metabolic Bone Disease in the Context of Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumor: Differentiation from Skeletal Metastasis, the Molecular PET-CT Imaging Features, and Exploring the Possible Etiopathologies Including Parathyroid Adenoma (MEN1) and Paraneoplastic Humoral Hypercalcemia of Malignancy Due to PTHrP Hypersecretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranade, Rohit; Basu, Sandip

    2017-01-01

    Three cases of metabolic bone disease in the setting of metastatic neuroendocrine tumor (NET) are illustrated with associated etiopathologies.  One of these cases harbored mixed lesions in the form of vertebral metastasis (biopsy proven) while the other skeletal lesions were caused due to metabolic bone disease related to multiple parathyroid adenomas. While the metastatic lesion was positive on 68Ga-DOTATATE positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), the lesions of metabolic bone disease were negative and the 18F-fluoride PET-CT demonstrated the features of metabolic bone scan. Similar picture of metabolic bone disease [18-sodium fluoride (18NaF)/68Ga-DOTATATE mismatch] was documented in the other two patients, while fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET-CT was variably positive, primarily showing tracer uptake in the metabolic skeletal lesions of the patient with hypersecretion of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) by the underlying tumor. Discordance between 18NaF PET-CT and 68Ga-DOTATATE PET-CT serves as a good marker for identification of metabolic bone disease and diagnosing such a clinical entity. In a patient of NET with metabolic bone disease and hypercalcemia, thus, two causes need to be considered: (i) Coexisting parathyroid adenoma in multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN-I) syndrome and (ii) humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM) related to hypersecretion of PTHrP by the tumor. The correct diagnosis of metabolic bone disease in metastatic NET can alter the management substantially. Interestingly, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) can emerge as a very promising treatment modality in patients of metabolic bone disease caused by HHM in the setting of NET.

  14. [Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the breast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anlauf, M; Neumann, M; Bomberg, S; Luczak, K; Heikaus, S; Gustmann, C; Antke, C; Ezziddin, S; Fottner, C; Pavel, M; Pape, U-F; Rinke, A; Lahner, H; Schott, M; Cremer, B; Hörsch, D; Baum, R P; Groh, U; Alkatout, I; Rudlowski, C; Scheler, P; Zirbes, T K; Hoffmann, J; Fehm, T; Gabbert, H E; Baldus, S E

    2015-05-01

    Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) of the breast are specific tumor entities. According to the literature up to 5% of breast neoplasms are malignant epithelial neoplasms of the breast. They are defined by a neuroendocrine (NE) architecture and cytology combined with an expression of the neuroendocrine vesicle markers chromogranin A and/or synaptophysin. The diagnosis is supplemented by the receptor status and the proliferative activity. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of 2012 the following groups of NEN are distinguished: (1) invasive breast carcinoma with NE differentiation, (2) well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor (NET) and (3) poorly differentiated small cell carcinoma (NEC). This review article focuses on (1) the definition and basic principles of diagnostics, (2) the history, nomenclature and WHO classification from 2003 and 2012, (3) the frequency of breast NEN, (4) the hereditary background and functional activity, (5) the expression of receptors and (6) the possible clinical implications. In addition, the first results of a retrospective single center study (n = 465 patients with breast cancer over a time period of 4 years) on the frequency of NEN of the breast at the Breast Center of the University Hospital Düsseldorf are presented. In this study a frequency of 4.5% of NEN was found based on a diagnostic cut-off of > 50% Chromogranin A and/or synaptophysin positive tumor cells.

  15. Is change bad? Personality change is associated with poorer psychological health and greater metabolic syndrome in midlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human, Lauren J.; Biesanz, Jeremy C.; Miller, Gregory E.; Chen, Edith; Lachman, Margie E.; Seeman, Teresa E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Personality change is emerging as an important predictor of health and well-being. Extending previous research, we examined whether two types of personality change, directional and absolute, are associated with both subjective and objective indicators of health. Method Utilizing the longitudinal Midlife in the United States Survey (MIDUS) data, we examined whether both types of change over 10 years were associated with psychological well-being, self-reported global health, and the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) components and diagnosis. Results Socially undesirable personality change (e.g., becoming less conscientious and more neurotic) and absolute personality change were independently associated with worse perceived health and well-being at Time 2. Notably, absolute personality change, regardless of the direction, was also associated with having a greater number of MetS components and a greater probability of diagnosis at Time 2. Conclusions In sum, too much personality change may be bad for one’s health: socially undesirable and absolute personality change were both associated with worse psychological health and worse metabolic profiles over 10 years. These findings suggest that personality change may contribute to psychological and physical health, and provide initial insight into potential intermediate links between personality change and distal outcomes such as mortality. PMID:22924900

  16. Is change bad? Personality change is associated with poorer psychological health and greater metabolic syndrome in midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human, Lauren J; Biesanz, Jeremy C; Miller, Gregory E; Chen, Edith; Lachman, Margie E; Seeman, Teresa E

    2013-06-01

    Personality change is emerging as an important predictor of health and well-being. Extending previous research, we examined whether two types of personality change, directional and absolute, are associated with both subjective and objective indicators of health. Utilizing the longitudinal Midlife in the United States survey (MIDUS) data, we examined whether both types of change over 10 years were associated with psychological well-being, self-reported global health, and the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) components and diagnosis. Socially undesirable personality change (e.g., becoming less conscientious and more neurotic) and absolute personality change were independently associated with worse perceived health and well-being at Time 2. Notably, absolute personality change, regardless of the direction, was also associated with having a greater number of MetS components and a greater probability of diagnosis at Time 2. In sum, too much personality change may be bad for one's health: Socially undesirable and absolute personality change were both associated with worse psychological health and worse metabolic profiles over 10 years. These findings suggest that personality change may contribute to psychological and physical health, and provide initial insight into potential intermediate links between personality change and distal outcomes such as mortality. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Psychological and Metabolic Correlates of Obesity in African-Americans and Caucasians

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oates, Christie S

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify whether there are unique biological, behavioral, psychological, and environmental factors specific to African- Americans that may promote the development of obesity...

  18. Safety and Tolerability of Everolimus as Second-line Treatment in Poorly Differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma / Neuroendocrine Carcinoma G3 (WHO 2010) and Neuroendocrine Tumor G3 - an Investigator Initiated Phase II Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-05

    Poorly Differentiated Malignant Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Grade 3; Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Grade 1 [Well-differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma] That Switched to G3; Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Grade 2 [Moderately Differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma] That Switched to G3; Neuroendocrine Tumor, Grade 3 and Disease Progression as Measured by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST 1.1.)

  19. Studies in neuroendocrine pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maickel, R. P.

    1976-01-01

    The expertise and facilities available within the Medical Sciences Program section on Pharmacology were used along with informational input from various NASA sources to study areas relevant to the manned space effort. Topics discussed include effects of drugs on deprivation-induced fluid consumption, brain biogenic amines, biochemical responses to stressful stimuli, biochemical and behavioral pharmacology of amphetamines, biochemical and pharmacological studies of analogues to biologically active indole compounds, chemical pharmacology: drug metabolism and disposition, toxicology, and chemical methodology. Appendices include a bibliography, and papers submitted for publication or already published.

  20. Functional imaging of neuroendocrine tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Tina; Knigge, Ulrich; Loft, Annika

    2010-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Functional techniques are playing a pivotal role in the imaging of cancer today. Our aim was to compare, on a head-to-head basis, 3 functional imaging techniques in patients with histologically verified neuroendocrine tumors: somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) with (111)In......-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-octreotide, scintigraphy with (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), and (18)F-FDG PET. METHODS: Ninety-six prospectively enrolled patients with neuroendocrine tumors underwent SRS, (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy, and (18)F-FDG PET on average within 40 d. The functional images were fused with low......-positive, of which 3 were also (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy-positive, giving a combined overall sensitivity of 96%. SRS also exceeded (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy and (18)F-FDG PET based on the number of lesions detected (393, 185, and 225, respectively) and tumor subtypes. (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy was superior to (18)F...

  1. Immune-Neuroendocrine Interactions and Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Jara

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between immune-neuroendocrine system is firmly established. The messengers of this connection are hormones, neuropeptides, neurotransmitters and cytokines. The immune-neuroendocrine system have the capacity to synthesize and release these molecules, which, in turn, can stimulate or suppress the activity of immune or neuroendocrine cells by binding to receptors. In fact, hormones, neuropeptides and neurotransmitters participate in innate and adaptive immune response.

  2. Cowden Syndrome and Concomitant Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Seppo W; Ringholm, Lene; Dali, Christine I

    2015-01-01

    Cowden Syndrome is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder. Patients with Cowden Syndrome are at increased risk of various benign and malignant neoplasms in breast, endometrium, thyroid, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary system. Neuroendocrine tumors are ubiquitous neoplasms that may...... occur anywhere in the human body. Bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine tumors include four different histological subtypes, among these, typical and atypical pulmonary carcinoids. No association between Cowden Syndrome and neuroendocrine tumors has previously been described. We present two cases of Cowden...

  3. CD200 Expression in Neuroendocrine Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jason E; Thompson, Kimberly; Kilgore, Mark R; Westerhoff, Maria; Murphy, Claire E; Papanicolau-Sengos, Antonios; McCormick, Kinsey A; Shankaran, Veena; Vandeven, Natalie; Miller, Faith; Blom, Astrid; Nghiem, Paul T; Kussick, Steven J

    2017-09-01

    CD200 expression has been well studied in hematopoietic malignancies; however, CD200 expression has not been well-characterized in neuroendocrine neoplasms. We examined CD200 expression in 391 neuroendocrine neoplasms from various anatomic sites. Tissue blocks containing pulmonary small cell carcinoma, pulmonary carcinoid, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, gastrointestinal carcinoid, and Merkel cell carcinoma were evaluated for CD200 expression by immunohistochemistry. A set of nonneuroendocrine carcinomas was stained for comparison. CD200 was expressed in 87% of the neuroendocrine neoplasms studied, including 60 of 72 (83%) pulmonary small cell carcinomas, 15 of 22 (68%) pulmonary carcinoids, three of four (75%) pulmonary large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, 125 of 146 (86%) Merkel cell carcinomas, 79 of 83 (95%) gastrointestinal luminal carcinoids, and 56 of 60 (93%) pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Thirty-two of 157 (20%) nonneuroendocrine carcinomas expressed CD200. In gastrointestinal carcinoid and pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms, CD200 negativity correlated with higher grade. CD200 is a relatively sensitive marker of neuroendocrine neoplasms and represents a potential therapeutic target in these difficult-to-treat malignancies.

  4. A Unique "Angiotensin-Sensitive" Neuronal Population Coordinates Neuroendocrine, Cardiovascular, and Behavioral Responses to Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kloet, Annette D; Wang, Lei; Pitra, Soledad; Hiller, Helmut; Smith, Justin A; Tan, Yalun; Nguyen, Dani; Cahill, Karlena M; Sumners, Colin; Stern, Javier E; Krause, Eric G

    2017-03-29

    Stress elicits neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioral responses that mitigate homeostatic imbalance and ensure survival. However, chronic engagement of such responses promotes psychological, cardiovascular, and metabolic impairments. In recent years, the renin-angiotensin system has emerged as a key mediator of stress responding and its related pathologies, but the neuronal circuits that orchestrate these interactions are not known. These studies combine the use of the Cre-recombinase/loxP system in mice with optogenetics to structurally and functionally characterize angiotensin type-1a receptor-containing neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, the goal being to determine the extent of their involvement in the regulation of stress responses. Initial studies use neuroanatomical techniques to reveal that angiotensin type-1a receptors are localized predominantly to the parvocellular neurosecretory neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. These neurons are almost exclusively glutamatergic and send dense projections to the exterior portion of the median eminence. Furthermore, these neurons largely express corticotrophin-releasing hormone or thyrotropin-releasing hormone and do not express arginine vasopressin or oxytocin. Functionally, optogenetic stimulation of these neurons promotes the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axes, as well as a rise in systolic blood pressure. When these neurons are optogenetically inhibited, the activity of these neuroendocrine axes are suppressed and anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze is dampened. Collectively, these studies implicate this neuronal population in the integration and coordination of the physiological responses to stress and may therefore serve as a potential target for therapeutic intervention for stress-related pathology.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Chronic stress leads to an array of physiological responses that ultimately

  5. Quality of life, psychological adjustment and metabolic control in youths with type 1 diabetes: a study with self- and parent-report questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Laura; Zucchini, Stefano; D'Alberton, Franco; Salardi, Silvana; Maltoni, Giulio; Bisacchi, Nicoletta; Elleri, Daniela; Cicognani, Alessandro

    2008-10-01

    To evaluate self and parent reports on quality of life (QoL) and psychological adjustment of youths with type 1 diabetes, in comparison to a general paediatric population, and identify relationships between disease duration, metabolic control and psychological parameters. Participants included 70 youths with type 1 diabetes and their parents. They were compared with 70 non-diabetic subjects. Data were analyzed in the whole group and in subgroups aged 6-10, 11-13 and 14-18 yr. All cases performed pediatric QoL, Child Behaviour Checklist, filled in by parents, and Youth Self-Report, filled in by youths. Data were compared with haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) values and disease duration. Self-reports showed a psychological adjustment of youths with type 1 diabetes similar to that of controls. Parent reports showed that parents of children with type 1 diabetes were more worried than those of controls (p psychological disturbances. In this group, for youth and parent reports, HbA1c levels correlated positively with psychological problems (p reports, in the whole group and in subgroups aged 6-10 and 11-13 yr, disease duration correlated positively with psychological adjustment (p psychological adjustment and QoL, with an association with disease duration reported by parents. In adolescence, both youths and their parents reported more emotional and behavioural problems, independent of disease duration. Better metabolic control and psychological well-being seemed directly related.

  6. The frequency of neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia in patients with pulmonary neuroendocrine tumours and non-neuroendocrine cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Selim M H; Goodwill, Joseph; Lim, Eric; Yap, Yoong K; Wells, Athol U; Hansell, David M; Davis, Peter; Selim, Abdel-Ghani; Abdel-Ghani, Syed; Goldstraw, Peter; Nicholson, Andrew G

    2009-09-01

    To evaluate the frequency of neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (NEH) in resected neuroendocrine tumours and non-neuroendocrine cell carcinomas and to study its relationship to selected clinical parameters. Random blocks without tumour from resected typical carcinoids (TCs, n = 46), atypical carcinoids (ACs, n = 14), large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (LCNECs, n = 18), small cell carcinomas (SCLCs, n = 22), adenocarcinomas (ADENOs, n = 26) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs, n = 18) were stained for CD56 and evaluated for linear proliferations, cell aggregates (>4 CD56+ cells), and tumourlets (<5 mm with basement membrane invasion). There was a statistically significant difference between the frequency of NEH in all neuroendocrine tumours (TC/AC/LCNEC/SCLC, 35/100, 35%) (P = 0.009) when compared with non-neuroendocrine carcinomas (ADENO/SCC, 6/44, 14%) and in the frequency of NEH in TC (21/46, 46%) versus all other tumours (AC/LCNEC/SCLC/SCC/ADENO, 20/98, 20%) (P = 0.001). There was increased frequency of NEH in peripheral TCs (8/13, 62%) compared with central TCs (14/33, 43%) (P = 0.33). There was no association between smoking history and NEH. Clinical and imaging data showed no evidence of an increased frequency of obliterative bronchiolitis in patients with NEH. NEH is significantly increased in the background lung of neuroendocrine tumours when compared with non-neuroendocrine carcinomas, supportive data for NEH having neoplastic potential.

  7. Gastrointestinal Surgery of Neuroendocrine Neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Palnæs; Olsen, Ingrid Marie Holst; Knigge, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Surgery is the only treatment that may cure the patient with gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) and should always be considered as the first-line treatment if radical resection can be achieved. Even in cases where radical surgery is not possible, palliative resection may...... be performed to reduce local or hormone-induced symptoms and to improve quality of life. The surgical procedures for GEP-NENs are accordingly described below. In most patients life-long follow-up is required, even following radical surgery, as recurrence may occur several years later....

  8. Niacin (Vitamin B-3) Supplementation in Patients with Serotonin-Producing Neuroendocrine Tumor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Grietje; van Faassen, Martijn; Kats-Ugurlu, Gursah; Vries, de Elisabeth G. E.; Kema, Ido P.; Walenkamp, Annemiek M. E.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Tryptophan is the precursor of serotonin and niacin (vitamin B3). The latter is critical for normal cellular metabolism. Tryptophan and niacin can be deficient in patients with serotonin producing neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Niacin deficiency can lead to severe symptoms including

  9. ORGANIZATION OF PSYCHOLOGY AND PEDAGOGICAL CARE IN CHILDREN WITH SEVERE CHRONIC HEREDITARY METABOLIC DISEASES REHABILITATION (AT THE MODEL OF MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Lazurenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the issue of correction-pedagogical influence, depending on severity and duration of the disease, structure of the health disorders, grade of the cognitive impairment, type of the emotional reactions and behavioral characteristics of the child, that means independence on the child’s age. The stages of corrective and pedagogical care, ways of work with family, organization of the education and training process for children with hereditary metabolic diseases (at the model of mucopolysaccharidosis are described. It is proved, that including of the corrective and pedagogical care into the rehabilitation provides the observation by the specialists the psychic development dynamics as one of the most significant indicators of children health, increases efficacy of enormous financial costs by means of children socialization and psychological potential of the able-bodied family members preserving. 

  10. Metabolic risk factors, coping with stress, and psychological well-being in patients with age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavar, Ivan; Lovrić, Sanjin; Vukojević, Mladenka; Sesar, Irena; Petric-Vicković, Ivanka; Sesar, Antonio

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the risk factors (age, obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, consumption of alchohol and drugs, positive family history, and exposure to sunlight), coping with stress, psychological well-being and age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). Forty patients with ARMD (case group) and 63 presbyopes (control group) participated in the study. Patient data were collected through general information questionnaire including patient habits, the COPE questionnaire that showed the way the patients handling stress, and the GHQ that analyzed the psychological aspects of their quality of life. These questionnaires were administered to the patients during ophthalmologic examination. The study involved 46 (44.66%) men and 57 (55.33%) women. Statistical analysis showed that the major risks for the development of ARMD were elevated cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol in plasma. A significantly higher number ofARMD patients had a positive family history when compared with presbyopes. This study showed presbyopes to cope with emotional problems significantly better and to have a lower level of social dysfunction when compared with ARMD patients. However, it is necessary to conduct further studies in a large number of patients to determine more accurately the pathophysiological mechanisms of metabolic factors as well as the impact of the disease on the quality of life in patients with ARMD.

  11. Acute metabolic, hormonal and psychological responses to cycling with superimposed electromyostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Patrick; Hein, Markus; Achtzehn, Silvia; Bloch, Wilhelm; Mester, Joachim

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of superimposed electromyostimulation (E) during cycling on the acute hormonal and metabolic response, as E might be a useful tool to intensify endurance training without performing high external workloads. Thirteen subjects participated in three experimental trials each lasting 60 min in a randomized order. (1) Cycling (C), (2) cycling with superimposed E (C + E) and (3) E. Human growth hormone (hGH), testosterone and cortisol were determined before (pre) and 0', 30', 60', 240' and 24 h after each intervention. Metabolic stimuli and perturbations were characterized by lactate and blood gas analysis (pH, base excess, bicarbonate, partial pressure of oxygen, partial pressure of carbon dioxide). Furthermore, changes of the person's perceived physical state were determined. C + E caused the highest increases in cortisol and hGH, followed by C and E. Testosterone levels showed no significant differences between C + E and C. Metabolic stress was highest during C + E, followed by C and E. C + E was also the most demanding intervention from an athlete's point of view. As cortisol and hGH are known to react in an intensity dependent manner, the present study showed that superimposed E is a useful method to intensify endurance training, even when performing low to moderate external workloads. Even at lower exercise intensities, additional E may allow one to induce a high (local) stimulus. It can be speculated, that these acute hormonal increases and metabolic perturbations, might play a positive role in optimizing long-term training adaptations, similar to those of intense training protocols.

  12. Breast Carcinoma With Unrecognized Neuroendocrine Differentiation Metastasizing to the Pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lene Svendstrup; Mortensen, Michael Bau; Detlefsen, Sönke

    2016-01-01

    , a second panel revealed positivity for estrogen receptors and GATA3. On review of the lumpectomy specimen, a significant neuroendocrine component was found, leading to the final diagnosis of breast carcinoma with neuroendocrine features metastasizing to the pancreas. Neuroendocrine markers...... are not routinely analyzed in breast tumors. Hence, metastases from breast carcinomas with unrecognized neuroendocrine features may lead to false diagnoses of primary neuroendocrine tumors at different metastatic sites, such as the pancreas....

  13. Development of the Neuroendocrine Hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbridge, Sarah; Stewart, Iain; Placzek, Marysia

    2016-03-15

    The neuroendocrine hypothalamus is composed of the tuberal and anterodorsal hypothalamus, together with the median eminence/neurohypophysis. It centrally governs wide-ranging physiological processes, including homeostasis of energy balance, circadian rhythms and stress responses, as well as growth and reproductive behaviours. Homeostasis is maintained by integrating sensory inputs and effecting responses via autonomic, endocrine and behavioural outputs, over diverse time-scales and throughout the lifecourse of an individual. Here, we summarize studies that begin to reveal how different territories and cell types within the neuroendocrine hypothalamus are assembled in an integrated manner to enable function, thus supporting the organism's ability to survive and thrive. We discuss how signaling pathways and transcription factors dictate the appearance and regionalization of the hypothalamic primordium, the maintenance of progenitor cells, and their specification and differentiation into neurons. We comment on recent studies that harness such programmes for the directed differentiation of human ES/iPS cells. We summarize how developmental plasticity is maintained even into adulthood and how integration between the hypothalamus and peripheral body is established in the median eminence and neurohypophysis. Analysis of model organisms, including mouse, chick and zebrafish, provides a picture of how complex, yet elegantly coordinated, developmental programmes build glial and neuronal cells around the third ventricle of the brain. Such conserved processes enable the hypothalamus to mediate its function as a central integrating and response-control mediator for the homeostatic processes that are critical to life. Early indications suggest that deregulation of these events may underlie multifaceted pathological conditions and dysfunctional physiology in humans, such as obesity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  14. Somatostatin-Immunoreactive Pancreaticoduodenal Neuroendocrine Neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund Luna, Iben; Monrad, Nina; Binderup, Tina

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Neuroendocrine neoplasms in the pancreas and duodenum with predominant or exclusive immunoreactivity for somatostatin (p-dSOMs) are rare, and knowledge on tumour biology, treatment, survival and prognostic factors is limited. This study aimes to describe clinical, pathological, and bio......OBJECTIVE: Neuroendocrine neoplasms in the pancreas and duodenum with predominant or exclusive immunoreactivity for somatostatin (p-dSOMs) are rare, and knowledge on tumour biology, treatment, survival and prognostic factors is limited. This study aimes to describe clinical, pathological...

  15. Contemporary nuclear medicine diagnostics of neuroendocrine tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Todorović-Tirnanić Mila; Artiko Vera; Pavlović Smiljana; Šobić-Šaranović Dragana; Obradović Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    The new positron emission tomography (PET/CT) methods for neuroendocrine tumors detection are presented and compared with classic, conventional methods. Conventional methods use a gamma scintillation camera for patients with neuroendocrine tumor imaging, after intravenous injection of one of the following radiopharmaceuticals: 1) somatostatin analogues labeled with indium-111 (111In-pentetreotide) or technetium-99m (99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC); 2) noradrenaline a...

  16. Neurobiology of the metabolic syndrome : An allostatic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Gertjan; Buwalda, Bauke

    2008-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of more or less related metabolic and cardiovascular derangements including visceral obesity, insulin resistance, blood and tissue dislipidemia, high blood pressure and it is often associated with neuroendocrine and immunological dysregulations. The aetiology of

  17. [EGFR-expression in pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnen, C; Winter, B U

    2006-03-01

    15 cases of pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (carcinoid-tumorlets, diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia/DIPNECH) and 20 neuroendocrine pulmonary tumors (10 carcinoid tumors, 5 large cell neuroendocrine, and 5 small cell neuroendocrine lung carcinomas) were immunohistochemically analyzed for the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, = HER-1). All cases of neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia exhibited a maximum EGFR expression (score 3 in 100% of cells) showing predominantly membranous, partly cytoplasmic staining. 4 ot the 10 carcinoid tumors were strongly positive for EGFR, whereas the other 6 were EGFR-negative. A total of 90% of large cell neuroendocrine and small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas were negative for EGFR. Overexpression of EGFR in pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia might be significant for the pathogenesis of these lesions. As DIPNECH is characterized by clinical signs and symptoms including mild cough and obstructive functional impairment, a specific antagonistic therapeutic trial could aim at blocking EGFR/HER-1 or its subsequent signal transduction pathway.

  18. Short-term effects of a non-dieting lifestyle intervention program on weight management, fitness, metabolic risk, and psychological well-being in obese premenopausal females with the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Sean; Borkoles, Erika; Polman, Remco

    2007-02-01

    Lifestyle modification has been widely acknowledged as the primary treatment for the metabolic syndrome (MetS). We examined the short-term effects of a non-dieting lifestyle intervention program, within the theoretical psychological framework of self-determination theory (SDT), on metabolic fitness and psychological well-being among premenopausal, clinically obese women. A secondary analysis of a randomized, controlled, 3 month, intensive, community-based lifestyle intervention study was performed on 31 pre-menopausal obese women with the MetS (56.4% of original study sample). These participants had been randomly allocated to a non-dieting lifestyle intervention group (n = 17) or waiting list control (n = 14). Among participants who completed repeat anthropometric and cardiorespiratory fitness measurements after 3 months intervention, the lifestyle intervention group showed a significant improvement in VO2 (mL.kg(-1).min(-1)) compared with control (test for interaction, p = 0.003). No significant difference was found for body mass. Metabolic improvements were evident for diastolic blood pressure and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in both groups. The lifestyle intervention group also showed significantly improved general psychological well-being compared with the control group (test for interaction, p = 0.0005). All of the psychological well-being subscales showed significant favourable changes in the intervention group as compared with controls. This short-term, non-dieting lifestyle intervention, consistent with the "Health at Every Size" (HAES) obesity treatment paradigm, significantly improved cardiorespiratory fitness and psychological well-being. Metabolic risk tended to improve after 3 months intervention with no significant difference in the resolution of the MetS between intervention and control participants.

  19. Impact of Prenatal Stress on Neuroendocrine Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile Viltart

    2007-01-01

    programming strongly, notably when hormonal surges occur during sensitive periods of development, so-called developmental windows of vulnerability. Stressful events occurring during the perinatal period may impinge on various aspects of the neuroendocrine programming, subsequently amending the offspring's growth, metabolism, sexual maturation, stress responses, and immune system. Such prenatal stress-induced modifications of the phenotypic plasticity of the progeny might ultimately result in the development of long-term diseases, from metabolic syndromes to psychiatric disorders. Yet, we would like to consider the outcome of this neuroendocrine programming from an evolutionary perspective. Early stressful events during gestation might indeed shape internal parameters of the developing organisms in order to adapt the progeny to its everyday environment and thus contribute to an increased reproductive success, or fitness, of the species. Moreover, parental care, adoption, or enriched environments after birth have been shown to reverse negative long-term consequences of a disturbed gestational environment. In this view, considering the higher potential for neonatal plasticity within the brain in human beings as compared to other species, long-term consequences of prenatal stress might not be as inexorable as suggested in animal-based studies published to date.

  20. A Drosophila LexA Enhancer-Trap Resource for Developmental Biology and Neuroendocrine Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kockel, Lutz; Huq, Lutfi M; Ayyar, Anika; Herold, Emma; MacAlpine, Elle; Logan, Madeline; Savvides, Christina; Kim, Grace E S; Chen, Jiapei; Clark, Theresa; Duong, Trang; Fazel-Rezai, Vahid; Havey, Deanna; Han, Samuel; Jagadeesan, Ravi; Kim, Eun Soo Jackie; Lee, Diane; Lombardo, Kaelina; Piyale, Ida; Shi, Hansen; Stahr, Lydia; Tung, Dana; Tayvah, Uriel; Wang, Flora; Wang, Ja-Hon; Xiao, Sarah; Topper, Sydni M; Park, Sangbin; Rotondo, Cheryl; Rankin, Anne E; Chisholm, Townley W; Kim, Seung K

    2016-10-13

    Novel binary gene expression tools like the LexA-LexAop system could powerfully enhance studies of metabolism, development, and neurobiology in Drosophila However, specific LexA drivers for neuroendocrine cells and many other developmentally relevant systems remain limited. In a unique high school biology course, we generated a LexA-based enhancer trap collection by transposon mobilization. The initial collection provides a source of novel LexA-based elements that permit targeted gene expression in the corpora cardiaca, cells central for metabolic homeostasis, and other neuroendocrine cell types. The collection further contains specific LexA drivers for stem cells and other enteric cells in the gut, and other developmentally relevant tissue types. We provide detailed analysis of nearly 100 new LexA lines, including molecular mapping of insertions, description of enhancer-driven reporter expression in larval tissues, and adult neuroendocrine cells, comparison with established enhancer trap collections and tissue specific RNAseq. Generation of this open-resource LexA collection facilitates neuroendocrine and developmental biology investigations, and shows how empowering secondary school science can achieve research and educational goals. Copyright © 2016 Kockel et al.

  1. Octreotide long-acting repeatable in the treatment of neuroendocrine tumors: patient selection and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yau H

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hanford Yau,1 Mustafa Kinaan,2 Suzanne L Quinn,3 Andreas G Moraitis3 1Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, University of California, San Francisco (Fresno Division, Fresno, CA, USA; 2Division of Internal Medicine, University of Central Florida College of Medicine, Orlando, FL, USA; 3Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Orlando VA Medical Center, Orlando, FL, USA Abstract: Over the past three decades, the incidence and prevalence of neuroendocrine tumors have gradually increased. Due to the slow-growing nature of these tumors, most cases are diagnosed at advanced stages. Prognosis and survival are associated with location of primary lesion, biochemical functional status, differentiation, initial staging, and response to therapy. Octreotide, the first synthetic somatostatin analog, was initially used for the management of gastrointestinal symptoms associated with functional carcinoid tumors. Its commercial development over time led to long-acting repeatable octreotide acetate, a long-acting version that provided greater administration convenience. Recent research demonstrates that octreotide’s efficacy has evolved beyond symptomatic management to targeted therapy with antitumoral effects. This review examines the history and development of octreotide, provides a synopsis on the classification, grading, and staging of neuroendocrine tumors, and reviews the evidence of long-acting repeatable octreotide acetate as monotherapy and in combination with other treatment modalities in the management of non-pituitary neuroendocrine tumors with special attention to recent high-quality Phase III trials. Keywords: carcinoid, everolimus, neuroendocrine tumor, octreotide LAR, somatostatin analog, ITMO, NETTER-1, PROMID, RADIANT-2

  2. A Drosophila LexA Enhancer-Trap Resource for Developmental Biology and Neuroendocrine Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kockel, Lutz; Huq, Lutfi M.; Ayyar, Anika; Herold, Emma; MacAlpine, Elle; Logan, Madeline; Savvides, Christina; Kim, Grace E. S.; Chen, Jiapei; Clark, Theresa; Duong, Trang; Fazel-Rezai, Vahid; Havey, Deanna; Han, Samuel; Jagadeesan, Ravi; Kim, Eun Soo Jackie; Lee, Diane; Lombardo, Kaelina; Piyale, Ida; Shi, Hansen; Stahr, Lydia; Tung, Dana; Tayvah, Uriel; Wang, Flora; Wang, Ja-Hon; Xiao, Sarah; Topper, Sydni M.; Park, Sangbin; Rotondo, Cheryl; Rankin, Anne E.; Chisholm, Townley W.; Kim, Seung K.

    2016-01-01

    Novel binary gene expression tools like the LexA-LexAop system could powerfully enhance studies of metabolism, development, and neurobiology in Drosophila. However, specific LexA drivers for neuroendocrine cells and many other developmentally relevant systems remain limited. In a unique high school biology course, we generated a LexA-based enhancer trap collection by transposon mobilization. The initial collection provides a source of novel LexA-based elements that permit targeted gene expression in the corpora cardiaca, cells central for metabolic homeostasis, and other neuroendocrine cell types. The collection further contains specific LexA drivers for stem cells and other enteric cells in the gut, and other developmentally relevant tissue types. We provide detailed analysis of nearly 100 new LexA lines, including molecular mapping of insertions, description of enhancer-driven reporter expression in larval tissues, and adult neuroendocrine cells, comparison with established enhancer trap collections and tissue specific RNAseq. Generation of this open-resource LexA collection facilitates neuroendocrine and developmental biology investigations, and shows how empowering secondary school science can achieve research and educational goals. PMID:27527793

  3. Tryptophan metabolism, its relation to inflammation and stress markers and association with psychological and cognitive functioning: Tasmanian Chronic Kidney Disease pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karu, Naama; McKercher, Charlotte; Nichols, David S; Davies, Noel; Shellie, Robert A; Hilder, Emily F; Jose, Matthew D

    2016-11-10

    Adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD) exhibit alterations in tryptophan metabolism, mainly via the kynurenine pathway, due to higher enzymatic activity induced mainly by inflammation. Indoles produced by gut-microflora are another group of tryptophan metabolites related to inflammation and conditions accompanying CKD. Disruptions in tryptophan metabolism have been associated with various neurological and psychological disorders. A high proportion of CKD patients self-report symptoms of depression and/or anxiety and decline in cognitive functioning. This pilot study examines tryptophan metabolism in CKD and explores associations with psychological and cognitive functioning. Twenty-seven adults with CKD were part of 49 patients recruited to participate in a prospective pilot study, initially with an eGFR of 15-29 mL/min/1.73 m2. Only participants with viable blood samples and complete psychological/cognitive data at a 2-year follow-up were included in the reported cross-sectional study. Serum samples were analysed by Liquid Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry, for tryptophan, ten of its metabolites, the inflammation marker neopterin and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis marker cortisol. The tryptophan breakdown index (kynurenine / tryptophan) correlated with neopterin (Pearson R = 0.51 P = 0.006) but not with cortisol. Neopterin levels also correlated with indoxyl sulfate (R = 0.68, P tryptophan (R range 0.5-0.7, all P ≤ 0.01), which were all negatively related to eGFR (P tryptophan breakdown via the kynurenine pathway, yet without sparing tryptophan metabolism through the 5-HT (serotonin) pathway in CKD patients. The multiple moderate associations between indole-3 acetic acid and psychological measures were a novel finding. The presented pilot data necessitate further exploration of these associations within a large prospective cohort to assess the broader significance of these findings.

  4. Secretagogin is a novel marker for neuroendocrine differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkenkamp-Demtröder, Karin; Wagner, Ludwig; Brandt Sørensen, Flemming

    2005-01-01

    , synaptophysin) in neuroendocrine cells in crypts of normal mucosa, and in tumor cells of carcinoids. Secretagogin was strongly expressed in the cytosol and the nucleus of 19 well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoids and carcinoid metastases, as well as in neuroendocrine tumors from the lung, pancreas...

  5. Incidental neuroendocrine tumor of the appendiceal base less ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidental neuroendocrine tumor of the appendiceal base less than20 mm in diameter: is appendectomy enough? Landolsi Sana, Mannai Saber. Abstract. The appendixis the second primary site for neuroendocrine tumors. The management of incidentelly discovered neuroendocrine tumor of the appendiceal base less ...

  6. The Thyro-Gastric syndrome: from thyroid autoimmunity to neuroendocrine gastric tumors

    OpenAIRE

    VALDES SOCIN, Hernan Gonzalo; Beckers, Albert

    2011-01-01

    THE THYRO-GASTRIC SYNDROME: FROM THYROID AUTOIMMUNITY TO NEUROENDOCRINE GASTRIC TUMORS. In 1849, Prof Addison described a fatal case of anemia, or anemia perniciosa. Dr Biermer expanded this original description in 1872. Nowadays, this pathological condition associating a megaloglastic anemia associated with a metabolic polyneuropathy is recognized as Biermer disease. Biermer anemia or anemia perniciosa and its associated polyneuropathy are the consequence of vitamine B12 malabsorpti...

  7. Metabonomic profiling: a novel approach in neuroendocrine neoplasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinross, James M; Drymousis, Panagiotis; Jiménez, Beatriz; Frilling, Andrea

    2013-12-01

    A metabonomic phenotyping strategy was developed as part of a pilot study to define a diagnostic metabolic phenotype for neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN). Twenty-eight patients with NEN were prospectively recruited: small bowel NEN, n = 8; pancreatic NEN, n = 10; and others, n = 10 (mean age 49.4 years [26–81] male/female ratio 17:11). There were 17 healthy control patients. Urine samples were subjected to 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic profiling via the use of a Bruker Avance 600-MHz spectrometer (Bruker, Rheinstetten, Germany). Acquired spectral data were imported into SIMCA and MATLAB for supervised and unsupervised multivariate analysis. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis differentiated between NEN and healthy samples with accuracy (R(2)Y = 0.79, Q2Y = 0.53, area under the curve [AUC] 0.90). Orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis was able to distinguish between small bowel NEN and pancreatic NEN (R2Y = 0.91, Q2Y = 0.35). Subclass analysis also demonstrated class separation between functional and nonfunctional NEN (R2Y = 0.98, Q2Y = 0.77, AUC 0.6) and those with metastases (R2Y = 0.72 , Q2 Y = 0.41, AUC 0.86) due to variations in hippurate metabolism (P < .0001). Metabonomic analysis suggests that subgroups of NEN may possess a stratified metabolic phenotype. Metabolic profiling could provide novel biomarkers for NEN.

  8. Psychological and Neuroendocrine Determinants of Stress Regulation in Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Aleknavičiūtė (Jūratė)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractPsychosocial stress is a reaction to a real or interpreted threat to the integrity of an individual that manifests itself by biochemical, physiological, cognitive and behavioral changes. We assessed cognitive appraisal and psychophysiological responses during a standardized

  9. Efeitos da redução de peso superior a 5% nos perfis hemodinâmico, metabólico e neuroendócrino de obesos grau I Effects of greater-than-5% weight reduction on hemodynamic, metabolic and neuroendocrine profiles of grade I obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Biancardini Gomes Barbato

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da redução de peso superior a 5% nos perfis hemodinâmico, metabólico e neuroendócrino de obesos grau I. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional com 47 obesos grau I, média de idade de 33 anos, submetidos a orientação mensal quanto a dieta, exercício físico e comportamento alimentar, durante quatro meses. A pressão arterial, pelo método auscultatório, e a freqüência cardíaca, pelo método palpatório, foram avaliadas mensalmente, enquanto as seguintes variáveis (e respectivos métodos foram medidas no início e final do estudo: colesterol total, triglicerídeos, HDL-colesterol (enzimático, LDL-colesterol (fórmula de Friedwald, glicemia (enzimático hexoquinase, leptina, adiponectina, renina, aldosterona, insulina (radioimunoensaio e índice de resistência à insulina (HOMA. RESULTADOS: Observamos, após ajuste para outras variáveis, reduções significativas de 6 mmHg na pressão arterial diastólica, 7 pg/ml na renina, 13 mg/dl no colesterol total e 12 mg/dl no LDL-colesterol, no grupo com redução de peso superior a 5%. Notamos, também nesse grupo, tendência ao aumento de maior magnitude da adiponectina ao final do estudo, bem como diminuição três vezes maior dos níveis de glicemia, insulina e HOMA, e seis vezes maior da leptina. CONCLUSÃO: Medidas não-farmacológicas capazes de promover redução de peso superior a 5% produzem efeitos hemodinâmicos, metabólicos e neuroendócrinos que melhoram o risco cardiovascular de obesos.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of a greater-than-5% weight reduction in hemodynamic, metabolic, and neuroendocrine profiles of grade I obese subjects. METHODS: Observational study with 47 grade I obese subjects, with mean age of 33 years who received monthly orientation regarding diet, physical exercises, and eating behavior for four months. Blood pressure using the auscultatory method and pulse rate were assessed monthly, whereas the following variables (and

  10. FILLING IN THE GAPS OF CHRONIC PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS DISEASE MODELS: WHAT'S METABOLIC PROFILING HAVE TO DO WITH IT?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic psychological stress has profound effects on human health and well being, and it is generally accepted that psychological stress is a burgeoning public health problem in modern day life. However, models used to describe or predict stress-related disease are generally plagued by the paucity o...

  11. Gastroduodenal neuroendocrine neoplasms, including gastrinoma - management guidelines (recommended by the Polish Network of Neuroendocrine Tumours).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipiński, Michał; Rydzewska, Grażyna; Foltyn, Wanda; Andrysiak-Mamos, Elżbieta; Bałdys-Waligórska, Agata; Bednarczuk, Tomasz; Blicharz-Dorniak, Jolanta; Bolanowski, Marek; Boratyn-Nowicka, Agnieszka; Borowska, Małgorzata; Cichocki, Andrzej; Ćwikła, Jarosław B; Falconi, Massimo; Handkiewicz-Junak, Daria; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja; Jarząb, Barbara; Junik, Roman; Kajdaniuk, Dariusz; Kamiński, Grzegorz; Kolasińska-Ćwikła, Agnieszka; Kowalska, Aldona; Król, Robert; Królicki, Leszek; Kunikowska, Jolanta; Kuśnierz, Katarzyna; Lampe, Paweł; Lange, Dariusz; Lewczuk-Myślicka, Anna; Lewiński, Andrzej; Londzin-Olesik, Magdalena; Marek, Bogdan; Nasierowska-Guttmejer, Anna; Nowakowska-Duława, Ewa; Pilch-Kowalczyk, Joanna; Poczkaj, Karolina; Rosiek, Violetta; Ruchała, Marek; Siemińska, Lucyna; Sowa-Staszczak, Anna; Starzyńska, Teresa; Steinhof-Radwańska, Katarzyna; Strzelczyk, Janusz; Sworczak, Krzysztof; Syrenicz, Anhelli; Szawłowski, Andrzej; Szczepkowski, Marek; Wachuła, Ewa; Zajęcki, Wojciech; Zemczak, Anna; Zgliczyński, Wojciech; Kos-Kudła, Beata

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the updated Polish Neuroendocrine Tumour Network expert panel recommendations on the management of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) of the stomach and duodenum, including gastrinoma. The recommendations discuss the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical presentation of these tumours as well as their diagnosis, including biochemical, histopathological, and localisation diagnoses. The principles of treatment are discussed, including endoscopic, surgical, pharmacological, and radionuclide treatments. Finally, there are also recommendations on patient monitoring.

  12. Midgut neuroendocrine tumor presenting with acute intestinal ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantzoros, Ioannis; Savvala, Natalia Antigoni; Ioannidis, Orestis; Parpoudi, Styliani; Loutzidou, Lydia; Kyriakidou, Despoina; Cheva, Angeliki; Intzos, Vasileios; Tsalis, Konstantinos

    2017-12-07

    Neuroendocrine tumors represent a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that arise from neuroendocrine cells and secrete various peptides and bioamines. While gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors, commonly called carcinoids, account for about 2/3 of all neuroendocrine tumors, they are relatively rare. Small intestine neuroendocrine tumors originate from intestinal enterochromaffin cells and represent about 1/4 of small intestine neoplasms. They can be asymptomatic or cause nonspecific symptoms, which usually leads to a delayed diagnosis. Imaging modalities can aid diagnosis and surgery remains the mainstay of treatment. We present a case of a jejunal neuroendocrine tumor that caused nonspecific symptoms for about 1 year before manifesting with acute mesenteric ischemia. Abdominal X-rays revealed pneumatosis intestinalis and an abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography confirmed the diagnosis. The patient was submitted to segmental enterectomy. Histopathological study demonstrated a neuroendocrine tumor with perineural and arterial infiltration and lymph node metastasis. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient denied any adjuvant treatment.

  13. Quality of life, psychological adjustment, and adaptive functioning of patients with intoxication-type inborn errors of metabolism - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeltner, Nina A; Huemer, Martina; Baumgartner, Matthias R; Landolt, Markus A

    2014-10-25

    In recent decades, considerable progress in diagnosis and treatment of patients with intoxication-type inborn errors of metabolism (IT-IEM) such as urea cycle disorders (UCD), organic acidurias (OA), maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), or tyrosinemia type 1 (TYR 1) has resulted in a growing group of long-term survivors. However, IT-IEM still require intense patient and caregiver effort in terms of strict dietetic and pharmacological treatment, and the threat of metabolic crises is always present. Furthermore, crises can affect the central nervous system (CNS), leading to cognitive, behavioural and psychiatric sequelae. Consequently, the well-being of the patients warrants consideration from both a medical and a psychosocial viewpoint by assessing health-related quality of life (HrQoL), psychological adjustment, and adaptive functioning. To date, an overview of findings on these topics for IT-IEM is lacking. We therefore aimed to systematically review the research on HrQoL, psychological adjustment, and adaptive functioning in patients with IT-IEM. Relevant databases were searched with predefined keywords. Study selection was conducted in two steps based on predefined criteria. Two independent reviewers completed the selection and data extraction. Eleven articles met the inclusion criteria. Studies were of varying methodological quality and used different assessment measures. Findings on HrQoL were inconsistent, with some showing lower and others showing higher or equal HrQoL for IT-IEM patients compared to norms. Findings on psychological adjustment and adaptive functioning were more consistent, showing mostly either no difference or worse adjustment of IT-IEM patients compared to norms. Single medical risk factors for HrQoL, psychological adjustment, or adaptive functioning have been addressed, while psychosocial risk factors have not been addressed. Data on HrQoL, psychological adjustment, and adaptive functioning for IT-IEM are sparse. Studies are inconsistent in

  14. Medical Treatment of Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinke, Anja, E-mail: sprengea@staff.uni-marburg.de; Michl, Patrick; Gress, Thomas [Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Marburg, Baldinger Strasse, Marburg D-35043 (Germany)

    2012-02-08

    Treatment of the clinically and prognostically heterogeneous neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) should be based on a multidisciplinary approach, including surgical, interventional, medical and nuclear medicine-based therapeutic options. Medical therapies include somatostatin analogues, interferon-α, mTOR inhibitors, multikinase inhibitors and systemic chemotherapy. For the selection of the appropriate medical treatment the hormonal activity, primary tumor localization, tumor grading and growth behaviour as well as the extent of the disease must be considered. Somatostatin analogues are mainly indicated in hormonally active tumors for symptomatic relief, but antiproliferative effects have also been demonstrated, especially in well-differentiated intestinal NET. The efficacy of everolimus and sunitinib in patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNET) has been demonstrated in large placebo-controlled clinical trials. pNETs are also chemosensitive. Streptozocin-based chemotherapeutic regimens are regarded as current standard of care. Temozolomide in combination with capecitabine is an alternative that has shown promising results that need to be confirmed in larger trials. Currently, no comparative studies and no molecular markers are established that predict the response to medical treatment. Therefore the choice of treatment for each pNET patient is based on individual parameters taking into account the patient’s preference, expected side effects and established response criteria such as proliferation rate and tumor load. Platin-based chemotherapy is still the standard treatment for poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas. Clearly, there is an unmet need for new systemic treatment options in patients with extrapancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

  15. FDA Approves Lutathera for Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    FDA has approved Lutathera® for some people with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) that affect the digestive tract. On January 29, FDA approved Lutathera® for adult patients with advanced NETs that affect the pancreas or gastrointestinal tract, known as GEP-NETs.

  16. A pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor diagnosed during the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNET) are increasingly being discovered. A case of PNET diagnosed and treated during the management of acute appendicitis is presented and discussed. The importance of imaging modalities in patients with acute abdominal pain is emphasized. To the best our knowledge, this is the ...

  17. Nuclear Medicine Imaging of Neuroendocrine Tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brabander, Tessa; Kwekkeboom, Dik J.; Feelders, Richard A.; Brouwers, Adrienne H.; Teunissen, Jaap J. M.; Papotti, M; DeHerder, WW

    2015-01-01

    An important role is reserved for nuclear imaging techniques in the imaging of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) with In-111-DTPA-octreotide is currently the most important tracer in the diagnosis, staging and selection for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy

  18. Molecular neuroendocrine targets for obesity therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kloet, Annette D; Woods, Stephen C

    2010-10-01

    Although energy balance is tightly regulated in order to maintain a specific level of adiposity, the incidence of obesity continues to increase. Consequently, it is essential that effective therapeutics for the treatment and prevention of obesity be developed. This review provides a brief update on some recent advances in the characterization of neuroendocrine targets for obesity therapy. During the review period, considerable progress occurred in the understanding of previously described neuroendocrine regulators of energy balance, and several novel targets have been identified. Moreover, the understanding of the neural circuitry and molecular mechanisms of the neuroendocrine regulation of energy homeostasis has been expanded. Energy balance is maintained by neuroendocrine signals arising from many tissues including the gastrointestinal tract and adipose tissue. These signals are integral to the cessation of meals and to the ability of the brain to monitor energy status and respond accordingly. Many current targets for obesity therapy are based on manipulating the activity of these signals and their receptors; however, to date, clinical-weight loss based on this strategy has been minimal and alternative approaches such as combinatorial therapies are emerging.

  19. Other PET tracers for neuroendocrine tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, Klaas Pieter; Glaudemans, Andor W J M

    In this article the applicability of (124)I-MIBG and (11)C-5-HTP PET for the detection of abdominal gastro-enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors is discussed. (124)I-MIBG is a positron-emitting variant of (123)I-MIBG and therefore suited for PET imaging. Due to the better intrinsic characteristics

  20. Molecular neuroendocrine targets for obesity therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kloet, Annette D.; Woods, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review Although energy balance is tightly regulated in order to maintain a specific level of adiposity, the incidence of obesity continues to increase. Consequently, it is essential that effective therapeutics for the treatment and prevention of obesity be developed. This review provides a brief update on some recent advances in the characterization of neuroendocrine targets for obesity therapy. Recent findings During the review period, considerable progress occurred in the understanding of previously-described neuroendocrine regulators of energy balance, and several novel targets have been identified. Moreover, the understanding of the neural circuitry and molecular mechanisms of neuroendocrine regulators of energy homeostasis has been expanded. Summary Energy balance is maintained by neuroendocrine signals arising from many tissues including the gastrointestinal tract and adipose tissue. These signals are integral to the cessation of meals and to the ability of the brain to monitor energy status and respond accordingly. Many current targets for obesity therapy are based on manipulating the activity of these signals and their receptors; however, to date, clinical weight loss based on this strategy has been minimal and alternative approaches such as combinatorial therapies are emerging. PMID:20585249

  1. Medical Treatment of Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gress

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of the clinically and prognostically heterogeneous neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN should be based on a multidisciplinary approach, including surgical, interventional, medical and nuclear medicine-based therapeutic options. Medical therapies include somatostatin analogues, interferon-a, mTOR inhibitors, multikinase inhibitors and systemic chemotherapy. For the selection of the appropriate medical treatment the hormonal activity, primary tumor localization, tumor grading and growth behaviour as well as the extent of the disease must be considered. Somatostatin analogues are mainly indicated in hormonally active tumors for symptomatic relief, but antiproliferative effects have also been demonstrated, especially in well-differentiated intestinal NET. The efficacy of everolimus and sunitinib in patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNET has been demonstrated in large placebo-controlled clinical trials. pNETs are also chemosensitive. Streptozocin-based chemotherapeutic regimens are regarded as current standard of care. Temozolomide in combination with capecitabine is an alternative that has shown promising results that need to be confirmed in larger trials. Currently, no comparative studies and no molecular markers are established that predict the response to medical treatment. Therefore the choice of treatment for each pNET patient is based on individual parameters taking into account the patient’s preference, expected side effects and established response criteria such as proliferation rate and tumor load. Platin-based chemotherapy is still the standard treatment for poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas. Clearly, there is an unmet need for new systemic treatment options in patients with extrapancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

  2. Neuroendocrine axis of stress, metabolic syndrome and psychiatric disorders in cushing's sindrome Ejes neuroendocrinos del estrés, síndrome metabólico y alteraciones psiquiátricas del síndrome de Cushing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidy Alexandra Lezcano Tobón

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of abnormalities of the hypophysishypothalamus- adrenal gland axis (HHA in the ongoing stress and depression is analyzed. Besides, it is evidenced that some problems, until recently considered merely endocrine-metabolic such as Cushing's syndrome (either clinical or subclinical and obesity (mainly when it is part of the metabolic syndrome may have a common etiological basis, be it a primary event, a comorbidity or a trigger in individuals with genetic susceptibility to states of maladaptative chronic stress. Some harmful effects of severe and/or ongoing hypercortisolism on some brain areas and the possibility of permanent alterations in some neuronal circuits are described. Finally, and according to some clinical evidences, the potential therapeutic role of antiglucocorticoids in the management of refractory depression is explored, as well as the role that early psychiatric intervention and antidepressant pharmacological treatment may play in some patients with the metabolic syndrome or increased cardiovascular risk. Se analiza el papel de las anormalidades del eje hipotálamo-hipófisis-adrenales (HHA en el estrés sostenido y la depresión. Además se pone en evidencia que algunos problemas hasta hace poco considerados puramente endocrino-metabólicos como el síndrome de Cushing (SC (clínico o subclínico y la obesidad, principalmente cuando hace parte del síndrome metabólico (SM, pueden tener una base etiológica común, como evento primario, comorbilidad o disparador en individuos con susceptibilidad genética a los estados de estrés crónico maladaptativo. Se describen algunas acciones lesivas del hipercortisolismo severo y/o sostenido en algunas áreas cerebrales y la posibilidad de producir alteraciones permanentes en algunos circuitos neuronales. Por último se explora, de acuerdo con algunas evidencias clínicas, el papel terapéutico potencial de fármacos antiglucocorticoides en el manejo de la depresión refractaria y

  3. The regulation of reproductive neuroendocrine function by insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Andrew; Divall, Sara; Wu, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian reproductive hormone axis regulates gonadal steroid hormone levels and gonadal function essential for reproduction. The neuroendocrine control of the axis integrates signals from a wide array of inputs. The regulatory pathways important for mediating these inputs have been the subject of numerous studies. One class of proteins that have been shown to mediate metabolic and growth signals to the CNS includes Insulin and IGF-1. These proteins are structurally related and can exert endocrine and growth factor like action via related receptor tyrosine kinases. The role that insulin and IGF-1 play in controlling the hypothalamus and pituitary and their role in regulating puberty and nutritional control of reproduction has been studied extensively. This review summarizes the in vitro and in vivo models that have been used to study these neuroendocrine structures and the influence of these growth factors on neuroendocrine control of reproduction. PMID:24929098

  4. [Radioisotopic imaging of neuroendocrine tumours. Which radiopharmaceutical and which diagnostic procedure?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombardieri, E; Maccauro, M; Castellani, M R; Chiti, A; Procopio, G; Bajetta, E; Seregni, E

    2001-12-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours can be visualized by several nuclear medicine modalities based on different mechanisms of cellular uptake. The most widely used radiopharmaceutical are the metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I/131I MIBG) and pentetreotide (111In pentetreotide). The first tracer follows the metabolic pathway of norephinephrine while the second one binds to somatostatin receptors which are expressed with high intensity on the neuroendocrine tissue. Some radiopharmaceuticals (Anti-CEA, Anti-CgA, Anti-GD2 monoclonal antibodies) have today only an experimental value, others such as 99mTc(V)DMSA had in the past very limited indications (medullary thyroid cancer) but at present their production is going to be stopped. An interesting series of new peptides showing a great affinity for the receptors/structures expressed by the neuroendocrine tissue is under evaluation in order to obtain a better tumour specificity. Among the positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals, the 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), in spite it is considered the most widely used tracer for clinical PET in oncology, did not show a satisfactory uptake in the well differentiated neuroendocrine tissues. On the contrary 18F-FDG is the best radiopharmaceutical to visualize those rare poorly differentiated neurondocrine tumours with a high proliferative index. For this reason also in this area, new radiopharmaceuticals have been studies and developed. A serotonin precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) labelled with 11C has shown an increased uptake in carcinoids. Another radiopharmaceutical in development for PET is 11C L-DOPA which seems to be useful in visualizing endocrine pancreatic tumours. 18F-DOPA whole body PET may be a more promising imaging approach. Aim of this review is to summarize the potential of nuclear medicine techniques in the diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumours and to stresses the renewed role of nuclear medicine in the management of this disease.

  5. Contemporary nuclear medicine diagnostics of neuroendocrine tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović-Tirnanić Mila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The new positron emission tomography (PET/CT methods for neuroendocrine tumors detection are presented and compared with classic, conventional methods. Conventional methods use a gamma scintillation camera for patients with neuroendocrine tumor imaging, after intravenous injection of one of the following radiopharmaceuticals: 1 somatostatin analogues labeled with indium-111 (111In-pentetreotide or technetium-99m (99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC; 2 noradrenaline analogue labeled with iodine-131 or -123 (131I/123I-MIBG; or 3 99mTc(V-DMSA. Contemporary methods use PET/CT equipment for patients with neuroendocrine tumor imaging, after intravenous injection of pharmaceuticals labeled with positron emitters [fluorine-18 (18F, galium-68 (68Ga, or carbon-11 (11C]: 1 glucose analogue (18FDG; 2 somatostatin analogue (68Ga-DOTATOC/68Ga-DOTATATE/68Ga-DOTANOC; 3 aminoacid precursors of bioamines: [a dopamine precursor 18F-DOPA (6-18F-dihydroxyphenylalanine, b serotonin precursor 11C-5HTP (11C-5-hydroxytryptophan]; or 4 dopamine analogue 18F-DA (6-18F-fluorodopamine. Conventional and contemporary (PET/ CT somatostatin receptor detection showed identical high specificity (92%, but conventional had very low sensitivity (52% compared to PET/CT (97%. It means that almost every second neuroendocrine tumor detected by contemporary method cannot be discovered using conventional (classic method. In metastatic pheochromocytoma detection contemporary (PET/ CT methods (18F-DOPA and 18F-DA have higher sensitivity than conventional (131I/123I-MIBG. In medullary thyroid carcinoma diagnostics contemporary method (18F-DOPA is more sensitive than conventional 99mTc(V-DMSA method, and is similar to 18FDG, computed tomography and magnetic resonance. In carcinoid detection contemporary method (18F-DOPA shows similar results with contemporary somatostatin receptor detection, while for gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors it is worse. To conclude, contemporary (PET/CT methods for

  6. Disentangling puberty: novel neuroendocrine pathways and mechanisms for the control of mammalian puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendaño, M S; Vazquez, M J; Tena-Sempere, M

    2017-11-01

    Puberty is a complex developmental event, controlled by sophisticated regulatory networks that integrate peripheral and internal cues and impinge at the brain centers driving the reproductive axis. The tempo of puberty is genetically determined but is also sensitive to numerous modifiers, from metabolic and sex steroid signals to environmental factors. Recent epidemiological evidence suggests that the onset of puberty is advancing in humans, through as yet unknown mechanisms. In fact, while much knowledge has been gleaned recently on the mechanisms responsible for the control of mammalian puberty, fundamental questions regarding the intimate molecular and neuroendocrine pathways responsible for the precise timing of puberty and its deviations remain unsolved. By combining data from suitable model species and humans, we aim to provide a comprehensive summary of our current understanding of the neuroendocrine mechanisms governing puberty, with particular focus on its central regulatory pathways, underlying molecular basis and mechanisms for metabolic control. A comprehensive MEDLINE search of articles published mostly from 2003 to 2017 has been carried out. Data from cellular and animal models (including our own results) as well as clinical studies focusing on the pathophysiology of puberty in mammals were considered and cross-referenced with terms related with central neuroendocrine mechanisms, metabolic control and epigenetic/miRNA regulation. Studies conducted during the last decade have revealed the essential role of novel central neuroendocrine pathways in the control of puberty, with a prominent role of kisspeptins in the precise regulation of the pubertal activation of GnRH neurosecretory activity. In addition, different transmitters, including neurokinin-B (NKB) and, possibly, melanocortins, have been shown to interplay with kisspeptins in tuning puberty onset. Alike, recent studies have documented the role of epigenetic mechanisms, involving mainly

  7. Imaging of neuroendocrine tumours with gamma-emitting radiopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombardieri, E; Coliva, A; Maccauro, M; Seregni, E; Orunesu, E; Chiti, A; Lucignani, G

    2010-02-01

    Nuclear medicine can image some tumors by means of receptor specific radiopharmaceuticals, and offers the possibility to characterize cancer through the detection of its receptor expression. This is the case of neuroendocrine tumours (NETs), that are visualized by different radiolabelled somatostatin analogues that bind 5 distinct somatostatin receptor types (named sstr1-5) that show different tissue distribution. The subtypes sstr2 and sstr5 are the most commonly expressed in NETs. Until now the most widely used radiolabelled somatostatin analogue for planar and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has been [(111)In]pentetreotide, because of its commercial availability. Other analogues labelled with gamma emitting radionuclides are [(99m)Tc]EDDA/HYNIC-TOC, [(99m)Tc]P829, [(111)In]DOTA-lanreotide, [(111)In]DOTA-NOC-ATE, [(111)In]DOTA-BOC-ATE. However, these compounds have not been successful for the routine use. Moreover, NETs express various receptors that can be depicted by different radiopharmaceuticals, such as [(123)I]VIP and [(111)In]GLP-1. Besides this, some precursors of the catecholamines metabolism, as meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine (MIBG), labelled with (123)I or (131)I, accumulates in neuroendocrine tissues, in particular those of sympathoadrenal lineage. MIBG scintigraphy is currently indicated for neuroblastoma, paraganglioma and phaeocromocitoma. An impressive technological progress has been achieved recently with PET and, in particular, with the development of hybrid instrumentations (PET/CT) combining nuclear imaging with radiological imaging providing both functional and morphologic information. Among positron emitting tracers, the [(18)F]FDG is the most diffuse in oncology, but other more effective tracers are available for NETs, such as the analogues labelled with 68Ga. The diagnostic sensitivity and accuracy of these technology is superior to that of gamma emitting radiopharmaceuticals, but the fact that they are not still registered

  8. Colonic neuroendocrine carcinoma in a child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasi, Omai Al; Rifai, Ayman; Hugosson, Claes [King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Department of Radiology, MBC 28, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Sathiapalan, Rajeev; Kofide, Amani [King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Department of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Tulbah, Asthma Mahmoud Mohamed [King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Department of Pathology, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Al-Mehaidib, Ali [King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Department of Paediatrics, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2005-03-01

    A 10-year-old boy with congenital immunodeficiency (X-linked agammaglobulinaemia) presented with loss of appetite and weight, right-sided abdominal pain, diarrhoea and low-grade fever. Radiological investigations with barium follow-through, CT, PET and octreotide scans revealed a primary caecal/ascending proximal colonic mass with liver and bony metastases. Urine screen for 5HIAA was positive. Percutaneous liver biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of neuroendocrine carcinoma. The radiological work-up and the usefulness of various imaging modalities in the diagnosis of this rare paediatric tumour are discussed. The PET scan demonstrated the primary tumour and the metastatic locations more vividly than the octreotide scan, which is currently considered to be the most specific imaging modality for neuroendocrine masses. (orig.)

  9. Interventional treatment of neuroendocrine liver metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, U.; Hansen, C.P.; Stadil, F.

    2008-01-01

    Neuroendocrine gastroenteropancreatic tumours are rare with an incidence of 2-4/100.000 per year. More than 75% of the patients develop hepatic metastases, which reduce the five year survival from 70-80% to 30-40%. In addition to chemo- and biotherapy, interventional therapy of liver metastases s....... The symptomatic response rate is 90% with a mean duration of two years. Liver transplantation should be restricted to very few and highly selected patients without extrahepatic disease. Recurrence is inevitable in nearly all patients Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8......Neuroendocrine gastroenteropancreatic tumours are rare with an incidence of 2-4/100.000 per year. More than 75% of the patients develop hepatic metastases, which reduce the five year survival from 70-80% to 30-40%. In addition to chemo- and biotherapy, interventional therapy of liver metastases...

  10. Nuclear Image Analysis Study of Neuroendocrine Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Meeja; Baek, Taehwa; Baek, Jongho; Son, Hyunjin; Kang, Dongwook; Kim, Jooheon; Lee, Hyekyung

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a subjective disagreement about nuclear chromatin in the field of pathology. Objective values of red, green, and blue (RGB) light intensities for nuclear chromatin can be obtained through a quantitative analysis using digital images. Methods We examined 10 cases of well differentiated neuroendocrine tumors of the rectum, small cell lung carcinomas, and moderately differentiated squamous cell lung carcinomas respectively. For each case, we selected 30 representative cells a...

  11. Acute Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation in Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ru-Wen Teh; Tsoi, Daphne T.

    2012-01-01

    Malignancy is a common cause of disseminated intravascular coagulation and usually presents as a chronic disorder in solid organ tumours. We present a rare case of recurrent acute disseminated intravascular coagulation in neuroendocrine carcinoma after manipulation, firstly, by core biopsy and, later, by cytotoxic therapy causing a release of procoagulants and cytokines from lysed tumour cells. This is reminiscent of tumour lysis syndrome where massive quantities of intracellular electrolytes...

  12. Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the prostate gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoof, Pamela; Tsai-Nguyen, Ginger; Paulson, Scott; Syed, Almas; Mora, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Small cell prostate carcinoma (SCPC) has a clinical course and prognosis that is markedly different from that of common adenocarcinoma of the prostate. The patient in this case presented with fever of unknown origin, dyspnea, and near spinal cord compression. He was subsequently found to have widely metastatic high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma of prostatic origin. This case emphasizes that despite the commonality of prostate cancer, there are rare presentations of this common disease.

  13. [Surgical approach of gastroduodenal neuroendocrine neoplasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendrich, V; Bartsch, D K

    2016-04-01

    Gastroduodenal neuroendocrine tumors are rare but an increase in incidence has been recognized worldwide over the past 35 years. At the same time the prognosis of patients has substantially improved because the majority of these tumors can now be detected at an early stage. Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) of the stomach are the most frequent neoplasms of neuroendocrine origin in the gastrointestinal tract. The therapeutic management of these tumors is complicated by the fact that they must be classified not only by staging and grading but also according to their pathophysiological background (types). These types differ in biological behavior and therefore have an influence on the therapeutic concept. Because more than 90 % of duodenal NENs are often asymptomatic and are as a rule identified at a curable stage, resection of the tumor should always be the first line of therapy. The therapeutic strategies vary from local endoscopic resection (duodenotomy with excision) up to pancreas retaining duodenectomy and pylorus retaining or classical Whipple procedures. This article presents the various surgical approaches to gastric and duodenal NENs.

  14. Reproductive disturbances in multiple neuroendocrine tumor syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytras, Aristides; Tolis, George

    2009-12-01

    In the context of multiple neuroendocrine tumor syndromes, reproductive abnormalities may occur via a number of different mechanisms, such as hyperprolactinemia, increased GH/IGF-1 levels, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, hypercortisolism, hyperandrogenism, hyperthyroidism, gonadotropin hypersecretion, as well as, tumorigenesis or functional disturbances in gonads or other reproductive organs. Precocious puberty and/or male feminization is a feature of McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS), neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), Carney complex (CNC), and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS), while sperm maturation and ovulation defects have been described in MAS and CNC. Although tumorigenesis of reproductive organs due to a multiple neuroendocrine tumor syndrome is very rare, certain lesions are characteristic and very unusual in the general population. Awareness leading to their recognition is important especially when other endocrine abnormalities coexist, as occasionally they may even be the first manifestation of a syndrome. Lesions such as certain types of ovarian cysts (MAS, CNC), pseudogynecomastia due to neurofibromas of the nipple-areola area (NF1), breast disease (CNC and Cowden disease (CD)), cysts and 'hypernephroid' tumors of the epididymis or bilateral papillary cystadenomas (mesosalpinx cysts) and endometrioid cystadenomas of the broad ligament (von Hippel-Lindau disease), testicular Sertoli calcifying tumors (CNC, PJS) monolateral or bilateral macroochidism and microlithiasis (MAS) may offer diagnostic clues. In addition, multiple neuroendocrine tumor syndromes may be complicated by reproductive malignancies including ovarian cancer in CNC, breast and endometrial cancer in CD, breast malignancies in NF1, and malignant sex-cord stromal tumors in PJS.

  15. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Beggs, Rachel E

    2012-09-01

    Large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of the ampulla of Vater are rare and confer a very poor prognosis despite aggressive therapy. There are few case reports of large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of the ampulla of Vater in the literature and to date no studies have been done to establish optimal management. We describe a pooled case series from published reports of neuroendocrine carcinomas of the ampulla of Vater including a case which presented to our institution.

  16. Effects of active vs. passive recovery during Wingate-based training on the acute hormonal, metabolic and psychological response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Patrick; Mathes, Sebastian; Köhler, Karsten; Achtzehn, Silvia; Bloch, Wilhelm; Mester, Joachim

    2013-12-01

    The exercise-induced metabolic stress can be influenced by the mode of recovery and is associated with acute hormonal responses. Therefore, it is hypothesized that active recovery between high intensity intervals reduces the metabolic stimulus and therefore the hormonal response compared to passive recovery. 12 male cyclist/triathletes performed four 30s all-out intervals, either with active (A) or passive (P) recovery between each bout. Human growth hormone (hGH), testosterone and cortisol, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) were determined pre, 0', 30', 60' and 180' after both interventions. Metabolic stimuli and perturbations were characterized by lactate, blood gas (pH, BE, HCO3(-), PO2, PCO2), and spirometric analysis. Both interventions caused a transient increase in circulating levels of cortisol, testosterone, testosterone/cortisol-ratio, hGH, VEGF and HGF. Transient differences between A- and P-recovery were found only for testosterone and HGF directly after exercise, despite significant differences in metabolic disturbances (lactate, acid base status). Based on the data of testosterone, hGH and the testosterone/cortisol-ratio, as well as on the data of VEGF and HGF it appears that this kind of exercise protocol may promote anabolic processes and may lead to pro-angiogenic conditions independent of the mode of recovery. However transient differences between A- and P-recovery were shown for testosterone and HGF. In contrast, cortisol and hGH, which are known to be sensitive for metabolic perturbations (e.g. pH) showed no differences. Therefore, it is proposed that if a certain threshold for metabolic perturbations is exceeded, a hormonal response is induced, which does not differ between A- and P-recovery. © 2013.

  17. Quality and Timing of Stressors Differentially Impact on Brain Plasticity and Neuroendocrine-Immune Function in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Capoccia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that psychological stress is a major risk factor for psychiatric disorders. The basic mechanisms are still under investigation but involve changes in neuroendocrine-immune interactions, ultimately affecting brain plasticity. In this study we characterized central and peripheral effects of different stressors, applied for different time lengths, in adult male C57BL/6J mice. We compared the effects of repeated (7 versus 21 days restraint stress (RS and chronic disruption of social hierarchy (SS on neuroendocrine (corticosterone and immune function (cytokines and splenic apoptosis and on a marker of brain plasticity (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF . Neuroendocrine activation did not differ between SS and control subjects; by contrast, the RS group showed a strong neuroendocrine response characterized by a specific time-dependent profile. Immune function and hippocampal BDNF levels were inversely related to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation. These data show a fine modulation of the crosstalk between central and peripheral pathways of adaptation and plasticity and suggest that the length of stress exposure is crucial to determine its final outcome on health or disease.

  18. The Effect of Yokukansan, a Traditional Herbal Preparation Used for the Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia, on the Drug-Metabolizing Enzyme Activities in Healthy Male Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soraoka, Hiromi; Oniki, Kentaro; Matsuda, Kazuki; Ono, Tatsumasa; Taharazako, Kosuke; Uchiyashiki, Yoshihiro; Kamihashi, Ryoko; Kita, Ayana; Takashima, Ayaka; Nakagawa, Kazuko; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Kadowaki, Daisuke; Miyata, Keishi; Saruwatari, Junji

    2016-01-01

    The concomitant use of herb and prescription medications is increasing globally. Herb-drug interactions are therefore a clinically important problem. Yokukansan (YKS), a Japanese traditional herbal medicine, is one of the most frequently used herbal medicines. It is effective for treating the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. We investigated the potential effects of YKS on drug-metabolizing enzyme activities in humans. An open-label repeat-dose study was conducted in 26 healthy Japanese male volunteers (age: 22.7±2.3 years) with no history of smoking. An 8-h urine sample was collected after a 150-mg dose of caffeine and a 30-mg dose of dextromethorphan before and after the administration of YKS (2.5 g, twice a day for 1 week). The activities of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, CYP2D6, CYP3A, xanthine oxidase (XO) and N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) were assessed based on the urinary metabolic indices of caffeine and dextromethorphan, and the urinary excretion ratio of 6β-hydroxycortisol to cortisol. There were no statistically significant differences in the activities of the examined enzymes before or after the 7-d administration of YKS. Although further studies assessing the influence of YKS on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the substrates of the drug-metabolizing enzymes are needed to verify the present results, YKS is unlikely that a pharmacokinetic interaction will occur with concomitantly administered medications that are predominantly metabolized by the CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP3A, XO and NAT2.

  19. Relaxin-3/RXFP3 signaling and neuroendocrine function – A perspective on extrinsic hypothalamic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despina E Ganella

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Complex neural circuits within the hypothalamus that govern essential autonomic processes and associated behaviors signal using amino acid and monoamine transmitters and a variety of neuropeptide (hormone modulators, often via G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs and associated cellular pathways. Relaxin-3 is a recently identified neuropeptide that is highly conserved throughout evolution. Neurons expressing relaxin-3 are located in the brainstem, but broadly innervate the entire limbic system including the hypothalamus. Extensive anatomical data in rodents and non-human primate, and recent regulatory and functional data, suggest relaxin-3 signaling via its cognate GPCR, RXFP3, has a broad range of effects on neuroendocrine function associated with stress responses, feeding and metabolism, motivation and reward, and possibly sexual behavior and reproduction. Therefore, this article aims to highlight the growing appreciation of the relaxin-3/RXFP3 system as an important ‘extrinsic’ regulator of the neuroendocrine axis by reviewing its neuroanatomy and its putative roles in arousal-, stress- and feeding-related behaviors and links to associated neural substrates and signaling networks. Current evidence identifies RXFP3 as a potential therapeutic target for treatment of neuroendocrine disorders and related behavioral dysfunction.

  20. The special relationship: glia-neuron interactions in the neuroendocrine hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasadonte, Jerome; Prevot, Vincent

    2018-01-01

    Natural fluctuations in physiological conditions require adaptive responses involving rapid and reversible structural and functional changes in the hypothalamic neuroendocrine circuits that control homeostasis. Here, we discuss the data that implicate hypothalamic glia in the control of hypothalamic neuroendocrine circuits, specifically neuron-glia interactions in the regulation of neurosecretion as well as neuronal excitability. Mechanistically, the morphological plasticity displayed by distal processes of astrocytes, pituicytes and tanycytes modifies the geometry and diffusion properties of the extracellular space. These changes alter the relationship between glial cells of the hypothalamus and adjacent neuronal elements, especially at specialized intersections such as synapses and neurohaemal junctions. The structural alterations in turn lead to functional plasticity that alters the release and spread of neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and gliotransmitters, as well as the activity of discrete glial signalling pathways that mediate feedback by peripheral signals to the hypothalamus. An understanding of the contributions of these and other non-neuronal cell types to hypothalamic neuroendocrine function is thus critical both to understand physiological processes such as puberty, the maintenance of bodily homeostasis and ageing and to develop novel therapeutic strategies for dysfunctions of these processes, such as infertility and metabolic disorders.

  1. Programming of neuroendocrine self in the thymus and its defect in the development of neuroendocrine autoimmunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geenen, Vincent; Bodart, Gwennaëlle; Henry, Séverine; Michaux, Hélène; Dardenne, Olivier; Charlet-Renard, Chantal; Martens, Henri; Hober, Didier

    2013-01-01

    For centuries after its first description by Galen, the thymus was considered as only a vestigial endocrine organ until the discovery in 1961 by Jacques FAP Miller of its essential role in the development of T (thymo-dependent) lymphocytes. A unique thymus first appeared in cartilaginous fishes some 500 million years ago, at the same time or shortly after the emergence of the adaptive (acquired) immune system. The thymus may be compared to a small brain or a computer highly specialized in the orchestration of central immunological self-tolerance. This was a necessity for the survival of species, given the potent evolutionary pressure imposed by the high risk of autotoxicity inherent in the stochastic generation of the diversity of immune cell receptors that characterize the adaptive immune response. A new paradigm of “neuroendocrine self-peptides” has been proposed, together with the definition of “neuroendocrine self.” Neuroendocrine self-peptides are secreted by thymic epithelial cells (TECs) not according to the classic model of neuroendocrine signaling, but are processed for presentation by, or in association with, the thymic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins. The autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene/protein controls the transcription of neuroendocrine genes in TECs. The presentation of self-peptides in the thymus is responsible for the clonal deletion of self-reactive T cells, which emerge during the random recombination of gene segments that encode variable parts of the T cell receptor for the antigen (TCR). At the same time, self-antigen presentation in the thymus generates regulatory T (Treg) cells that can inhibit, in the periphery, those self-reactive T cells that escaped negative selection in the thymus. Several arguments indicate that the origin of autoimmunity directed against neuroendocrine glands results primarily from a defect in the intrathymic programming of self-tolerance to neuroendocrine functions. This defect may be genetic

  2. Blunted neuroendocrine stress reactivity in young women with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Het, Serkan; Vocks, Silja; Wolf, Jutta M; Hammelstein, Philipp; Herpertz, Stephan; Wolf, Oliver T

    2015-03-01

    Stress is known to influence risk and progression of eating disorders (EDs). However, studies investigating physiological and psychological stress responses under laboratory conditions in patients with Anorexia nervosa or Bulimia nervosa are scarce and often produce conflicting findings. We therefore aimed to compare the neuroendocrine and affective stress response in ED inpatients and healthy controls. Twenty-eight female inpatients with Anorexia or Bulimia nervosa and 26 healthy women were exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA) levels were assessed before as well as repeatedly after stress exposure, while heart rate and heart rate variability were determined before and during the TSST. Negative affective state was assessed at baseline and post-TSST. Compared to healthy controls, ED patients showed blunted cortisol stress responses combined with overall attenuated sAA levels. The latter was reflected in generally enhanced parasympathetic activity indicated by lower heart rate and stronger high-frequency heart rate variability throughout the TSST. Although patients reported more negative affect overall, they did not differ in their affective stress response. In summary, patients suffering from eating disorders show a blunted HPA axis reactivity to stress exposure and a generally reduced sympathetic/exaggerated parasympathetic nervous system activity. This combination may contribute to elevated health risks seen in eating disorder patients, such as enhanced inflammatory activity, and thus provide insight into the underlying stress-related mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Neuroendocrine tumour in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-06-26

    Jun 26, 2015 ... concomitant gastrin-producing neuroendocrine tumour was found. Neuroendocrine tumours. (NETs) are very rare neoplasms originating from a wide variety of endocrine and nervous system tissue with the ability to produce different hormones. A somatostatin- and gastrin- secreting NET in a patient with HIV ...

  4. Diffuse Neuroendocrine Cell Hyperplasia: Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevriye Cansız Ersöz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH is a rare pulmonary disorder characterised by a proliferation of neuroendocrine cells within the lung. It is believed that a minority of the patients with DIPNECH can develop carcinoid tumors. Here, we report two new cases of DIPNECH with coexisting carcinoid tumors.

  5. A short history of neuroendocrine tumours and their peptide hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Herder, Wouter W; Rehfeld, Jens F; Kidd, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of neuroendocrine tumours of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas started in 1870, when Rudolf Heidenhain discovered the neuroendocrine cells, which can lead to the development of these tumours. Siegfried Oberndorfer was the first to introduce the term carcinoid in 1907. The panc...

  6. Recognition memory tasks in neuroendocrine research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luine, Victoria

    2015-05-15

    The recognition memory tasks, novel object and novel object location, have been beneficial to neuroendocrine research concerning the effects of gonadal and adrenal hormones on cognitive function. This review discusses the advantages of these tasks in comparison with other learning and memory tasks. Experiments conducted across a number of laboratories show that gonadal hormones, both estradiol and testosterone, promote memory while the adrenal hormone, corticosterone, impairs memory. The effects of these steroid hormones on spine density in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus are also briefly presented. Overall, results show that these steroid hormones are potent modulators of memory consolidation in rodent models. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Neuroendocrine control of ionic balance in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Raymond W M; Kumai, Yusuke; Perry, Steve F

    2016-08-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an emerging model for integrative physiological research. In this mini-review, we discuss recent advances in the neuroendocrine control of ionic balance in this species, and identify current knowledge gaps and issues that would benefit from further investigation. Zebrafish inhabit a hypo-ionic environment and therefore are challenged by a continual loss of ions to the water. To maintain ionic homeostasis, they must actively take up ions from the water and reduce passive ion loss. The adult gill or the skin of larvae are the primary sites of ionic regulation. Current models for the uptake of major ions in zebrafish incorporate at least three types of ion transporting cells (also called ionocytes); H(+)-ATPase-rich cells for Na(+) uptake, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase-rich cells for Ca(2+) uptake, and Na(+)/Cl(-)-cotransporter expressing cells for both Na(+) and Cl(-) uptake. The precise molecular mechanisms regulating the paracellular loss of ions remain largely unknown. However, epithelial tight junction proteins, including claudins, are thought to play a critical role in reducing ion losses to the surrounding water. Using the zebrafish model, several key neuroendocrine factors were identified as regulators of epithelial ion movement, including the catecholamines (adrenaline and noradrenaline), cortisol, the renin-angiotensin system, parathyroid hormone and prolactin. Increasing evidence also suggests that gasotransmitters, such as H2S, are involved in regulating ion uptake. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Simultaneous (18)F-FDOPA PET/CT-guided biopsy and radiofrequency ablation of recurrent neuroendocrine hepatic metastasis: further step toward a theranostic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperiale, Alessio; Garnon, Julien; Bachellier, Philippe; Gangi, Afshin; Namer, Izzie Jacques

    2015-06-01

    PET/CT-guided biopsy may be useful to confirm the metabolic findings when conventional imaging fails to show morphological abnormalities. Herein, we report the results of simultaneous F-FDOPA (fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine) PET/CT-guided biopsy and RFA (radiofrequency ablation) in 1 patient with hepatic metastatic evolution of a well-differentiated ileal neuroendocrine tumor. Beyond FDG, FDOPA could be successfully recommended in patients with neuroendocrine tumor for planning PET/CT-guided diagnostic biopsy, ablative treatment, and immediate efficacy assessment in a 1-step examination.

  9. Neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate cancer – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Popescu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This review aims to provide practicing clinicians with the most recent knowledge of the biological nature of prostate cancer especially the information regarding neuroendocrine differentiation. Methods: Review of the literature using PubMed search and scientific journal publications. Results: Much progress has been made towards an understanding of the development and progression of prostate cancer. The prostate is a male accessory sex gland which produces a fraction of seminal fluid. The normal human prostate is composed of a stromal compartment (which contains: nerves, fibroblast, smooth muscle cells, macrophages surrounding glandular acins – epithelial cells. Neuroendocrine cells are one of the epithelial populations in the normal prostate and are believed to provide trophic signals trough the secretion of neuropeptides that diffuse and influence surrounding epithelial cells. Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in men. In prostate cancer, neuroendocrine cells can stimulate growth of surrounding prostate adenocarcinoma cells (proliferation of neighboring cancer cells in a paracrine manner by secretion of neuroendocrine products. Neuroendocrine prostate cancer is an aggressive variant of prostate cancer that commonly arises in later stages of castration resistant prostate cancer. The detection of neuroendocrine prostate cancer has clinical implications. These patients are often treated with platinum chemotherapy rather than with androgen receptor targeted therapies. Conclusion: This review shows the need to improve our knowledge regarding diagnostic and treatment methods of the Prostate Cancer, especially cancer cells with neuroendocrine phenotype.

  10. Neuroendocrine and immune characteristics of aging in avian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, M A; Lavoie, E

    2007-01-01

    Avian species show a remarkable diversity in lifespan. The differing lifespan patterns are found across a number of birds, in spite of higher body temperature and apparent increased metabolic rate. These characteristics make study of age-related changes of great interest, especially for understanding the biology of aging associated with surprisingly long lifespan in some birds. Our studies have focused on a short-lived avian model, the Japanese quail in order to describe reproductive aging and the neuroendocrine characteristics leading to reproductive senescence. Biomarkers of aging used in mammalian species include telomere length, oxidative damage, and selected metabolic indicators. These markers provide confirming evidence that the long-lived birds appear to age more slowly. A corollary area of interest is that of immune function and aging. Immune responses have been studied in selected wild birds and there has been a range of studies that have considered the effects of stress in wild and domestic species. Our laboratory studies have specifically tested response to immune challenge relative to aging in the quail model and these studies indicate that there is an age-related change in the qualitative aspects of the response. However, there are also intriguing differences in the ability of the aging quail to respond that differ from mammalian data. Finally, another approach to understanding aging is to attempt to develop or test strategies that may extend lifespan and presumably health. One area of great interest has been to consider the effect of calorie restriction, which is a treatment shown to extend lifespan in a variety of species. This approach is routinely used in domestic poultry as a means for extending reproductive function and enhancing health. Our data indicate that moderate calorie restriction has beneficial effects, and that physiological and endocrine responses reflect these benefits. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. PET tracers for somatostatin receptor imaging of neuroendocrine tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnbeck, Camilla Bardram; Knigge, Ulrich; Kjær, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors have shown rising incidence mainly due to higher clinical awareness and better diagnostic tools over the last 30 years. Functional imaging of neuroendocrine tumors with PET tracers is an evolving field that is continuously refining the affinity of new tracers in the search...... for the perfect neuroendocrine tumor imaging tracer. (68)Ga-labeled tracers coupled to synthetic somatostatin analogs with differences in affinity for the five somatostatin receptor subtypes are now widely applied in Europe. Comparison of sensitivity between the most used tracers - (68)Ga-DOTA-Tyr3-octreotide...

  12. Mixed adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine prostate cancer: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rittu Hingorani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neuroendocrine prostate cancer is rare but lethal. It is one of the most common extra pulmonary manifestations of small cell cancer. Case presentation: Here we present a case report of a 53-year-old male who presents with a mixed adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine prostate tumor on a background of previously normal prostate-specific antigen (PSA. His initial symptoms prior to diagnosis included decreased urine output and acute kidney injury (AKI. Conclusion: Neuroendocrine tumor does not elevate the PSA level and hence is often a late finding with a poor prognosis. Special staining on histopathogy is required to reveal this diagnosis.

  13. Neuroendocrine tumor of the inguinal node: A very rare presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niharika Bisht

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuroendocrine tumors are a broad family of tumors arising most commonly in the gastrointestinal tract and the bronchus pulmonary tree. The other common sounds are the parathyroid, pituitary and adrenal gland. Inguinal node as a primary presentation of a neuroendocrine tumor is an extremely rare presentation. We present the case of a 43-year-old-male who presented with the complaints of an inguinal node swelling without any other symptoms and on further evaluation was diagnosed to have a non-metastatic neuroendocrine tumor of the inguinal node. He was treated with a combination of chemotherapy and surgery and is presently awaiting completion chemotherapy.

  14. Neuroendocrine tumor presenting like lymphoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzi Bruno

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Neuroendocrine tumors are a rare but diverse group of malignancies that arise in a wide range of organ systems, including the mediastinum. Differential diagnosis includes other masses arising in the middle mediastinum such as lymphoma, pericardial, bronchogenic and enteric cysts, metastatic tumors, xanthogranuloma, systemic granuloma, diaphragmatic hernia, meningocele and paravertebral abscess. Case presentation We present a case of 42-year-old Caucasian man with a neuroendocrine tumor of the middle-posterior mediastinum and liver metastases, which resembled a lymphoma on magnetic resonance imaging. Conclusion The differential diagnosis in patients with mediastinal masses and liver lesions should include neuroendocrine tumor.

  15. Synchronous gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewertsen, Caroline; Henriksen, Birthe Merete; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs

    2009-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Gastric neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) are rare tumours that are divided into four subtypes depending on tumour characteristics. Patients with NECs are known to have an increased risk of synchronous and metachronous cancers mainly located in the gastrointestinal tract. A case...... of synchronous gastric NEC and hepatocellular carcinoma in a patient with several other precancerous lesions is presented. The patient had anaemia, and a gastric tumour and two duodenal polyps were identified on upper endoscopy. A CT scan of the abdomen revealed several lesions in the liver. The lesions were...... invisible on B-mode sonography and real-time sonography fused with CT was used to identify and biopsy one of the lesions. Histology showed hepatocellular carcinoma. A literature search showed that only one case of a hepatocellular carcinoma synchronous with a gastric NEC has been reported previously. TRIAL...

  16. Sensory, psychological, and metabolic dysfunction in HIV-associated peripheral neuropathy: A cross-sectional deep profiling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Tudor J.C.; Brown, Matthew; Ramirez, Juan D.; Perkins, James; Woldeamanuel, Yohannes W.; Williams, Amanda C. de C.; Orengo, Christine; Bennett, David L.H.; Bodi, Istvan; Cox, Sarah; Maier, Christoph; Krumova, Elena K.; Rice, Andrew S.C.

    2014-01-01

    HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is a frequent complication of HIV infection and a major source of morbidity. A cross-sectional deep profiling study examining HIV-SN was conducted in people living with HIV in a high resource setting using a battery of measures which included the following: parameters of pain and sensory symptoms (7 day pain diary, Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory [NPSI] and Brief Pain Inventory [BPI]), sensory innervation (structured neurological examination, quantitative sensory testing [QST] and intraepidermal nerve fibre density [IENFD]), psychological state (Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-20 [PASS-20], Depression Anxiety and Positive Outlook Scale [DAPOS], and Pain Catastrophizing Scale [PCS], insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index [ISI]), and quality of life (Short Form (36) Health Survey [SF-36]). The diagnostic utility of the Brief Peripheral Neuropathy Screen (BPNS), Utah Early Neuropathy Scale (UENS), and Toronto Clinical Scoring System (TCSS) were evaluated. Thirty-six healthy volunteers and 66 HIV infected participants were recruited. A novel triumvirate case definition for HIV-SN was used that required 2 out of 3 of the following: 2 or more abnormal QST findings, reduced IENFD, and signs of a peripheral neuropathy on a structured neurological examination. Of those with HIV, 42% fulfilled the case definition for HIV-SN (n = 28), of whom 75% (n = 21) reported pain. The most frequent QST abnormalities in HIV-SN were loss of function in mechanical and vibration detection. Structured clinical examination was superior to QST or IENFD in HIV-SN diagnosis. HIV-SN participants had higher plasma triglyceride, concentrations depression, anxiety and catastrophizing scores, and prevalence of insomnia than HIV participants without HIV-SN. PMID:24973717

  17. Targeted Therapies Improve Survival for Patients with Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2011, based on initial findings from two clinical trials, the Food and Drug Administration approved sunitinib and everolimus for patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Updated results from the everolimus trial were published in September 2016.

  18. Neuroendocrine tumors in the urinary bladder: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Ulamec

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs can be found in most organs, as well as in the urinary bladder. Some of the clinical and pathologic features of these tumors may be characteristic of the organ of origin, but most of the properties are shared by neuroendocrine neoplasms regardless of their anatomic site. In the bladder, NETs comprise less than 1% of all bladder tumors and can be found in a pure form or intermixed with urothelial carcinoma and its variants. Bladder NETs are classified into 2 subtypes: carcinoid tumor and neuroendocrine carcinoma, which is further subdivided into small cell and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. Characteristics of bladder NETs and its differential diagnosis are discussed herein.

  19. Neuroendocrine, immune and oxidative stress in shift workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraut, Brice; Bayon, Virginie; Léger, Damien

    2013-12-01

    Shift work is commonly associated with disturbed life rhythms, resulting in chronic exposure to circadian desynchronization and sleep restriction. Epidemiological data have shown that shift workers are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and breast cancer. In this review, we will explore how observed increases in neuroendocrine stress, non-specific immune responses and pro-oxidative status could act as biological mediators for these damaging health risks in shift workers. To explain these risks, compelling evidence from laboratory studies links circadian misalignment but also sleep restriction to disruptions in the neuroendocrine, immune and oxidative stress systems. Assessment of neuroendocrine, oxidative and immune stress in the shift worker population is still a limited and novel field, which may have considerable clinical relevance. Finally, we will consider the potential benefits of a countermeasure, such as napping, in minimizing the neuroendocrine and immune stress and cardiovascular risk imposed by shift work. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonelli, Francesco, E-mail: f.tonelli@dfc.unifi.it; Giudici, Francesco [Department of Clinical Physiopathology, Surgical Unit, Medical School, University of Florence, Largo Brambilla n° 3, Florence 50134 (Italy); Giusti, Francesca; Brandi, Maria Luisa [Department of Internal Medicine, Medical School and Regional Centre for Hereditary Endocrine Tumors, University of Florence, Largo Brambilla n° 3, Florence 50134 (Italy)

    2012-05-07

    We reviewed the literature about entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 syndrome (MEN1) to clarify their demographic features, localization imaging, practice, and appropriate therapeutical strategies, analyzing the current approach to entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in MEN1. Despite the fact that hyperparathyroidism is usually the first manifestation of MEN1, the penetrance of these tumors is similar. They are characterized by multiplicity of lesions, variable expression of the tumors, and propensity for malignant degeneration. Both the histological type and the size of MEN1 neuroendocrine tumors correlate with malignancy. Monitoring of pancreatic peptides and use of imaging exams allow early diagnosis and prompt surgical treatment, resulting in prevention of metastatic disease and improvement of long-term survival. Surgery is often the treatment of choice for MEN1-neuroendocrine tumors. The rationale for surgical approach is to curtail malignant progression of the disease, and to cure the associated biochemical syndrome, should it be present.

  1. Primary Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of Breast: A Rare Case Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Pathology, ESIC Medical College and PGIMSR, Rajajinagar, Bangalore, India. Abstract. Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma (PNEC) of breast was an unknown pathologic entity till recently due ... whole body computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed no extra mammary primary tumor.

  2. Differential Diagnosis in Neuroendocrine Neoplasms of the Larynx

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunt, Jennifer L; Ferlito, Alfio; Hellquist, Henrik; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Skálová, Alena; Slootweg, Pieter J; Willems, Stefan M; Cardesa, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of neuroendocrine neoplasms of the larynx is broad and includes lesions of epithelial, mesenchymal, and neuroectodermal origin. These lesions have overlapping clinical and pathologic aspects and must be carefully considered in the differential diagnosis of laryngeal

  3. [The role of endoscopy in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magno, L; Sivero, L; Napolitano, V; Ruggiero, S; Fontanarosa, G; Massa, S

    2010-01-01

    Versione italiana Riassunto: Il ruolo dell'endoscopia nei tumori neuroendocrini gastroenteropancreatici. L. Magno, L. Sivero, V. Napolitano, S. Ruggiero, G. Fontanarosa, S. Massa I tumori neuroendocrini (NET) gastro-entero-pancreatici (GEP) sono neoplasie rare che originano dalle cellule neuroendocrine del tubo digerente e del pancreas. L'endoscopia digestiva e l'ecoendoscopia rivestono un ruolo importante nella diagnosi, stadiazione e sorveglianza dei pazienti con NET. Inoltre, in casi selezionati, le tecniche endoscopiche operative consentono il trattamento di queste neoplasie in fase precoce. English version Summary: The role of endoscopy in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. L. Magno, L. Sivero, V. Napolitano, S. Ruggiero, G. Fontanarosa, S. Massa Gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are rare neoplasia arisen from neuroendocrine cells present in the gut mucosa and pancreas. Digestive endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasonography play a relevant role in NET diagnosis, stadiation and surveillance. Moreover, in selected patients, surgical endoscopy allows the tratment of these cancers at an early stage.

  4. Calcitonin-negative primary neuroendocrine tumor of the thyroid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nonmedullary" in humans is a rare tumor that arises primarily in the thyroid gland and may be mistaken for medullary thyroid carcinoma; it is characterized by the immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of neuroendocrine markers and the absence of ...

  5. Anxiety, Family Functioning and Neuroendocrine Biomarkers in Obese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Pinto

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: These results highlight the importance of taking into account family functioning, parental mental state and gender, when investigating neuroendocrine biomarkers in obese children associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression.

  6. Benign gastric neuroendocrine tumors in three snow leopards (Panthera uncia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Elizabeth C; Naydan, Dianne K; Raphael, Bonnie L; McAloose, Denise

    2013-06-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors are relatively rare neoplasms arising from neuroendocrine cells that are distributed throughout the body and are predominant in the gastrointestinal tract. This report describes benign, well-differentiated gastric neuroendocrine tumors in three captive snow leopards (Panthera uncia). All tumors were well circumscribed, were within the gastric mucosa or submucosa, and had histologic and immunohistochemical features of neuroendocrine tumors. Histologic features included packeted cuboidal to columnar epithelial cells that were arranged in palisades or pseudorosettes and contained finely granular cellular cytoplasm with centrally placed, round nuclei. Cytoplasmic granules of neoplastic cells strongly expressed chromogranin A, variably expressed neuron-specific enolase, and did not express synaptophysin or gastrin. Each leopard died or was euthanatized for reasons unrelated to its tumor.

  7. The Neuroendocrine System and Stress, Emotions, Thoughts and Feelings**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillant, George E.

    2011-01-01

    The philosophy of mind is intimately connected with the philosophy of action. Therefore, concepts like free will, motivation, emotions (especially positive emotions), and also the ethical issues related to these concepts are of abiding interest. However, the concepts of consciousness and free will are usually discussed solely in linguistic, ideational and cognitive (i.e. “left brain”) terms. Admittedly, consciousness requires language and the left-brain, but the aphasic right brain is equally conscious; however, what it “hears” are more likely to be music and emotions. Joy can be as conscious as the conscious motivation produced by the left-brain reading a sign that says, “Danger mines!!” However, look in the index of a Western textbook of psychology, psychiatry or philosophy for positive emotions located in the limbic system. Notice how discussion of positive spiritual/emotional issues in consciousness and motivation are scrupulously ignored. For example, the popular notions of “love” being either Eros (raw, amoral instinct) or agape (noble, non-specific valuing of all other people) miss the motivational forest for the trees. Neither Eros (hypothalamic) nor agape (cortical) has a fraction of the power to relieve stress as attachment (limbic love), yet until the 1950s attachment was neither appreciated nor discussed by academic minds. This paper will point out that the prosocial, “spiritual” positive emotions like hope, faith, forgiveness, joy, compassion and gratitude are extremely important in the relief of stress and in regulation of the neuroendocrine system, protecting us against stress. The experimental work reviewed by Antonio Damasio and Barbara Fredrickson, and the clinical example of Alcoholics Anonymous, will be used to illustrate these points. PMID:21694965

  8. The neuroendocrine system and stress, emotions, thoughts and feelings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillant, George E

    2011-01-01

    The philosophy of mind is intimately connected with the philosophy of action. Therefore, concepts like free will, motivation, emotions (especially positive emotions), and also the ethical issues related to these concepts are of abiding interest. However, the concepts of consciousness and free will are usually discussed solely in linguistic, ideational and cognitive (i.e. "left brain") terms. Admittedly, consciousness requires language and the left-brain, but the aphasic right brain is equally conscious; however, what it "hears" are more likely to be music and emotions. Joy can be as conscious as the conscious motivation produced by the left-brain reading a sign that says, "Danger mines!!" However, look in the index of a Western textbook of psychology, psychiatry or philosophy for positive emotions located in the limbic system. Notice how discussion of positive spiritual/emotional issues in consciousness and motivation are scrupulously ignored. For example, the popular notions of "love" being either Eros (raw, amoral instinct) or agape (noble, non-specific valuing of all other people) miss the motivational forest for the trees. Neither Eros (hypothalamic) nor agape (cortical) has a fraction of the power to relieve stress as attachment (limbic love), yet until the 1950s attachment was neither appreciated nor discussed by academic minds. This paper will point out that the prosocial, "spiritual" positive emotions like hope, faith, forgiveness, joy, compassion and gratitude are extremely important in the relief of stress and in regulation of the neuroendocrine system, protecting us against stress. The experimental work reviewed by Antonio Damasio and Barbara Fredrickson, and the clinical example of Alcoholics Anonymous, will be used to illustrate these points.

  9. High grade neuroendocrine neoplasm of the antrum and orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntosh, Peter W; Jakobiec, Frederick A; Stagner, Anna M; Gilani, Sapideh; Fay, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Neuroendocrine malignancies-tumors characterized by the production of dense-core secretory granules-are most often encountered in the lungs and can also be found in extrapulmonary sites. Our patient had a primary neuroendocrine tumor of the antrum with an elusive cell of origin that secondarily invaded the inferior orbit. In the sinuses, neuroendocrine tumors may be confused with infectious sinusitis or squamous cell carcinoma. There are no known pathognomonic clinical or radiographic signs to distinguish these tumors from other conditions. Diagnosis depends on a biopsy with histopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis to identify biomarkers such as synaptophysin, chromogranin, CD56 and neuron specific enolase. Our patient's tumor defied precise immunohistochemical characterization because of its primitive character and erratic biomarker expression. The diagnosis oscillated between a neuroendocrine carcinoma and an ectopic esthesioneuroblastoma grade IV-hence the use of the more generic nosologic category of neuroendocrine neoplasm without specifying a neuronal or epithelial origin. Data to guide management are limited, particularly in the ophthalmic literature, and derive from experience with tumors of the sinonasal compartments. In the present case of a sino-orbital high grade neuroendocrine neoplasm, regional lymph node metastases developed shortly after presentation. The tumor has responded well to chemotherapy and radiation, but recurrence is often encountered within 2 years in this class of neoplasms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. AVIATION PSYCHOLOGY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    PSYCHOLOGY , AERONAUTICS, FLIGHT, PILOTS, PERCEPTION, ATTENTION, READING, MEMORY( PSYCHOLOGY ), PERSONALITY, EMOTIONS, FATIGUE(PHYSIOLOGY), AVIATION SAFETY, AVIATION ACCIDENTS, PSYCHOMOTOR TESTS, PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, TRAINING.

  11. Neuroendocrine and Immune System Responses with Spaceflights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Charles M.; Greenleaf, John E.; Jackson, Catherine G. R.

    1996-01-01

    Despite the fact that the first human was in space during 1961 and individuals have existed in a microgravity environment for more than a year, there are limited spaceflight data available on the responses of the neuroendocrine and immune systems. Because of mutual interactions between these respective integrative systems, it is inappropriate to assume that the responses of one have no impact on functions of the other. Blood and plasma volume consistently decrease with spaceflight; hence, blood endocrine and immune constituents will be modified by both gravitational and measurement influences. The majority of the in-flight data relates to endocrine responses that influence fluids and electrolytes during the first month in space. Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), aldo-sterone. and anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) appear to be elevated with little change in the atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP). Flight results longer than 60 d show increased ADH variability with elevations in angiotensin and cortisol. Although post-flight results are influenced by reentry and recovery events, ACTH and ADH appear to be consistently elevated with variable results being reported for the other hormones. Limited in-flight data on insulin and growth hormone levels suggest they are not elevated to counteract the loss in muscle mass. Post-flight results from short- and long-term flights indicate that thyroxine and insulin are increased while growth hormone exhibits minimal change. In-flight parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels are variable for several weeks after which they remain elevated. Post-flight PTH was increased on missions that lasted either 7 or 237 d, whereas calcitonin concentrations were increased after 1 wk but decreased after longer flights. Leukocytes are elevated in flights of various durations because of an increase in neutrophils. The majority of post-flight data indicates immunoglobulin concentrations are not significantly changed from pre-flight measurements. However, the numbers of T

  12. Dissociating behavioral, autonomic, and neuroendocrine effects of androgen steroids in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohtz, Amy S; Frye, Cheryl A

    2012-01-01

    Developments in behavioral assessment, autonomic and/or baseline reactivity, psychopharmacology, and genetics, have contributed significantly to the assessment of performance-enhancing drugs in animal models. Particular classes of steroid hormones: androgenic steroids are of interest. Anecdotally, the performance enhancing effects of androgens are attributed to anabolic events. However, there is a discrepancy between anecdotal evidence and investigative data. While some androgen steroids may promote muscle growth (myogenesis), effects of androgens on performance enhancement are not always seen. Indeed, some effects of androgens on performance may be attributable to their psychological and cardiovascular effects. As such, we consider androgen effects in terms of their behavioral, autonomic, and neuroendocrine components. Techniques are discussed in this chapter, some of which are well established, while others have been more recently developed to study androgen action. Androgens may be considered for their positive impact, negative consequence, or psychotropic properties. Thus, this review aims to elucidate some of the effects and/or mechanisms of androgens on behavioral, autonomic, and/or neuroendocrine assessment that may underlie their controversial performance enhancing effects.

  13. Neuroendocrine Carcinoma: Immunohistochemistry Department Of Cancer Institute 1996 - 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdani F

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Dispersed neuroendocrine system (D.N.S consists of a wide variety of cells that are present in the central and peripheral nervous system and in many classic endocrine organs and different tissues such as respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, skin, prostate, breast and also their neoplasm show neuroendocrine differentiation by electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry or biochemical techniques:"nMaterials and Methods: The present study has been carried out by case-series method in order to evaluating the characteristics of all types of neuroendocrine carcinoma: different anatomical locations during 5 years period in immunohistochemistry department of cancer institute."nResults: The diagnosis of 109 cases of neuroendocrine carcinoma consisting of neuroendocrine carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, medullary carcinoma of thyroid, carcinoid tumor and merkel cell carcinoma are confirmed that among them the most common diagnosis was related to neuroendocrine carcinoma (50.5 percent. The most prevalent age group was 40-49 years and male to female distribution were 56 percent and 44 percent respectively. Anatomical distribution of tumor show that about 30 percent of cases were metastatic carcinoma, 30 percent in thyroid, respiratory tract and head and neck region and remainder in a variety of tissues. In over 50 percent of cases one of endocrinoid patterns as trabecular, organoid or mixed of them were seen."nConclusion: Immunohistochemically N.S.E (Neuron Specific Enolase show high sensitivity with 96 percent positive reaction and more specific endocrine markers as chromogranin A in 80 percent and synaptophysin only in 24 percent because of lesser application of the latter. Also epithelial markers such as cytokeratin and E.M.A."n(Epithelial Membrane Antigen were positive in 69 percent and 74 percent respectively. Mean survival rate of all neuroendocrine carcinoma reached to 4.8 years with lowest survival of 4.3 years among small cell carcinoma and

  14. [Neuroendocrine factors in hypertension during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconu, Minodora; Ghiciuc, Cristina-Mihaela; Tarţău, Liliana; Lupuşoru, Cătălina-Elena

    2011-01-01

    Pregnancy induced hypertension is a condition of high blood pressure during early and mid-pregnancy. This type of hypertension is much like the chronic type, but it occurs only when the woman is pregnant and resolves completely after delivery. to evaluate some stress hormones in both normotensive and hypertensive pregnant women. The study investigated the correlation between pregnancy induced hypertension and different immune/inflammatory and other markers. This exploratory investigation was performed on pregnant women diagnosed with pregnancy-induced hypertension, admitted to the lasi Cuza Voda Hospital. The psychometric assessment was performed by using the daily stress test, daily hassle scale, blood pressure measurements, and determination of anthropometrical parameters. Some parameters, such as the neuroendocrine and immune/inflammatory ones, and specific parameters for pregnancy hypertension were determined. Our study revealed that blood pressure values presented significant differences between systolic, but not diastolic blood pressure values (p < 0.05). In 75% of subjects blood cortisol levels were not changed. Daily stress level assessment proved that low potential factors and an annoying environment had a high influence on both normotensive and hypertensive pregnant women. Hypertensive women also presented leukocytosis and thrombocytopenia. The research results showed that plasma cortisol level was higher in hypertensive pregnant women, compared with normotensives.

  15. Primary Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of Ocular Adnexa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Yamanouchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present our findings in a case of primary neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC of the lacrimal gland and a case of primary Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC of the eyelid. An 86-year-old man noticed a swelling of the left upper eyelid three months earlier. We performed excision biopsy and histopathological examination indicated that he had a primary NEC of the left lacrimal gland. He underwent chemotherapy followed by excision including the clinically visible margins and 50 Gy radiotherapy of the surgical margins. He had neither recurrence nor metastasis for 6 months since the last radiotherapy. An 80-year-old man noticed a nodule in the right upper eyelid and was referred to our hospital because the size was increasing rapidly. A complete surgical excision of the margins of the tumor was performed with histopathological confirmation of negative margins. The final diagnosis was a primary MCC of the right upper eyelid. After surgery, he underwent 50 Gy radiotherapy on the neck to prevent metastasis. No recurrence or metastasis was found for two years. Although primary NEC of the ocular adnexa is extremely rare, the tumor has high malignancy and readily metastasizes. Thus, combined therapy including surgery, radiotherapy, and/or chemotherapy is needed for complete management of NEC.

  16. Management of neuroendocrine tumors of unknown primary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandraki, Krystallenia; Angelousi, Anna; Boutzios, Georgios; Kyriakopoulos, Georgios; Rontogianni, Dimitra; Kaltsas, Gregory

    2017-12-04

    Neuroendocrine neoplams (NENs) are mostly relatively indolent malignancies but a significant number have metastatic disease at diagnosis mainly to the liver. Although in the majority of such cases the primary origin of the tumor can be identified, in approximately 11-22% no primary tumor is found and such cases are designated as NENs of unknown primary origin (UPO). This has significant therapeutic implications with respect to potentially resectable hepatic disease and/or application of appropriate medical therapy, either chemotherapeutic agents or targeted treatment, as the response to various treatments varies according to the origin of the primary tumor. This lack of tumor specific orientated treatment may also account for the relatively poorer prognosis of NENs of UPO compared to metastatic NENs with a known primary site. In the majority of cases the primary tumors are located in the small bowel and the lung, but a number may still elude detection. Occasionally the presence of a functional syndrome may direct to the specific tissue of origin but in the majority of cases a number of biochemical, imaging, histopathological and molecular modalities are utilized to help identify the primary origin of the tumor and direct treatment accordingly. Several diagnostic algorithms have recently been developed to help localize an occult primary tumor; however, in a number of cases no lesion is identified even after prolonged follow-up. It is expected that the delineation of the molecular signature of the different NENs may help identify such cases and provide appropriate treatment.

  17. Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms; Neuroendokrine Neoplasien des Pankreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiderwellen, K.; Lauenstein, T.C. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Essen (Germany); Sabet, A.; Poeppel, T.D. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Essen (Germany); Lahner, H. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Klinik fuer Endokrinologie und Stoffwechselerkrankungen, Essen (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) account for 1-2 % of all pancreatic neoplasms and represent a rare differential diagnosis. While some pancreatic NEN are hormonally active and exhibit endocrine activity associated with characteristic symptoms, the majority are hormonally inactive. Imaging techniques such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) or as combined PET/CT play a crucial role in the initial diagnosis, therapy planning and control. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and multiphase CT represent the reference methods for localization of the primary pancreatic tumor. Particularly in the evaluation of small liver lesions MRI is the method of choice. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy and somatostatin receptor PET/CT are of particular value for whole body staging and special aspects of further therapy planning. (orig.) [German] Neuroendokrine Neoplasien (NEN) des Pankreas stellen mit einem Anteil von 1-2 % aller pankreatischen Tumoren eine seltene Differenzialdiagnose dar. Ein Teil der Tumoren ist hormonell aktiv und faellt klinisch durch charakteristische Symptome auf, wohingegen der ueberwiegende Anteil hormonell inaktiv ist. Bildgebende Verfahren wie Sonographie, Computertomographie (CT), Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) und nicht zuletzt Positronenemissionstomographie (PET oder kombiniert als PET/CT) spielen eine zentrale Rolle fuer Erstdiagnose, Therapieplanung und -kontrolle. Die Endosonographie und die multiphasische CT stellen die Referenzmethoden zur Lokalisation des Primaertumors dar. Fuer die Differenzierung insbesondere kleiner Leberlaesionen bietet die MRT die hoechste Aussagekraft. Fuer das Ganzkoerperstaging und bestimmte Aspekte der Therapieplanung lassen sich die Somatostatinrezeptorszintigraphie und v. a. die Somatostatinrezeptor-PET/CT heranziehen. (orig.)

  18. Neuroendocrine stimulatory tests of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in psoriasis and correlative implications with psychopathological and immune parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanikas, Evangelos; Harsoulis, Faidon; Giouzepas, Ioannis; Griveas, Ioannis; Chrisomallis, Fotios

    2009-01-01

    Psoriasis constitutes one of the most representative examples of psychosomatic disorders. The published work investigating the psychological parameters and the way they interact during the course of the disease is extensive, whereas only a few studies have focused on the neuroendocrine framework of psoriasis. In the present study, the objective was to investigate the neuroendocrine parameters of psoriasis and the way they interact with psychopathological and immune variables. Patients with psoriasis (n=24) and the same number of matched healthy controls underwent psychiatric evaluation with interviews and psychometric questionnaires. Both of the groups underwent the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) test and the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) to investigate functional parameters of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The evaluation of immune variables included the estimation of the distribution of T-cell and natural killer lymphocytes. Levels of depressive and anxiety features were increased within subjects with psoriasis and they were significantly correlated with stressful life events and the extent of the disease. The adrenocorticotrophic hormone and cortisol levels increased after CRH infusion without significant differences between the two groups and the psoriatic subjects' cortisol suppression after DST was within normal range, though relatively blunted. No significant correlations were identified among neuroendocrine, psychopathological and immune parameters. No particular neuroendocrine profile has been identified among psoriatic patients and the hypothesized interaction with psychopathological and immune parameters was not replicated. Nevertheless, it is still premature to exclude the possibility that a subtle latent alteration of the HPA axis function might exist, in psoriasis, either stemming from the psychopathology or from the disease per se.

  19. Concomitant Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of Gallbladder and Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Aiello

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The neuroendocrine carcinoma is defined as a high-grade malignant neuroendocrine neoplasm arising from enterochromaffin cells, usually disposed in the mucosa of gastric and respiratory tracts. The localization in the gallbladder is rare. Knowledge of these gallbladder tumors is limited and based on isolated case reports. We describe a case of an incidental finding of small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the gallbladder, observed after cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis, in a 55-year-old female, who already underwent quadrantectomy and sentinel lymph-node biopsy for breast cancer. The patient underwent radiotherapy for breast cancer and six cycles of chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide. Eighteen months after surgery, the patient was free from disease. Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the gallbladder has poor prognosis. Because of the rarity of the reported cases, specific prognostic factors have not been identified. The coexistence of small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the gallbladder with another malignancy has been reported only once. The contemporary presence of the two neoplasms could reflect that bioactive agents secreted by carcinoid can promote phenotypic changes in susceptible cells and induce neoplastic transformation.

  20. SPECTRUM OF NEUROENDOCRINE TUMOURS- A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE EXPERIENCE

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    Pasupuleti Prathima

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Neuroendocrine tumours occur at various sites in the human body. They are considered as one of the close differentials for many tumours. Various benign and malignant tumours undergo neuroendocrine differentiation. Its incidence is slightly increasing due to advanced imaging modalities. Although rare, they can be seen in breast, gallbladder and skin. The aim of the study is to study the spectrum of neuroendocrine tumours from various sites, their clinical presentation, histomorphological features with immunohistochemistry and review of literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a retrospective study for a period of 3 years (June 2013-June 2016. Surgical resection specimens were included in the study. Out of the total specimens received, 24 cases were of neuroendocrine tumours. Differential diagnosis of small round cell tumours also was considered and a panel of immunohistochemical markers were included to rule out them. Biopsy specimens were excluded from the study. RESULTS Out of the 24 cases, 18 cases were benign lesions. 6 cases were malignant lesions. Female preponderance was noted. Peak incidence was seen in 20-30 years of age group. CONCLUSION Neuroendocrine tumours can occur anywhere in the body and it should be considered in one of the differential diagnosis. Diagnosis must be accurately made.

  1. Brain IGF-1 receptors control mammalian growth and lifespan through a neuroendocrine mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Kappeler

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Mutations that decrease insulin-like growth factor (IGF and growth hormone signaling limit body size and prolong lifespan in mice. In vertebrates, these somatotropic hormones are controlled by the neuroendocrine brain. Hormone-like regulations discovered in nematodes and flies suggest that IGF signals in the nervous system can determine lifespan, but it is unknown whether this applies to higher organisms. Using conditional mutagenesis in the mouse, we show that brain IGF receptors (IGF-1R efficiently regulate somatotropic development. Partial inactivation of IGF-1R in the embryonic brain selectively inhibited GH and IGF-I pathways after birth. This caused growth retardation, smaller adult size, and metabolic alterations, and led to delayed mortality and longer mean lifespan. Thus, early changes in neuroendocrine development can durably modify the life trajectory in mammals. The underlying mechanism appears to be an adaptive plasticity of somatotropic functions allowing individuals to decelerate growth and preserve resources, and thereby improve fitness in challenging environments. Our results also suggest that tonic somatotropic signaling entails the risk of shortened lifespan.

  2. Gender-specific cold responses induce a similar body-cooling rate but different neuroendocrine and immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solianik, Rima; Skurvydas, Albertas; Vitkauskienė, Astra; Brazaitis, Marius

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated whether there are any gender differences in body-heating strategies during cold stress and whether the immune and neuroendocrine responses to physiological stress differ between men and women. Thirty-two participants (18 men and 14 women) were exposed to acute cold stress by immersion to the manubrium level in 14 °C water. The cold stress continued until rectal temperature (TRE) reached 35.5 °C or for a maximum of 170 min. The responses to cold stress of various indicators of body temperature, insulation, metabolism, shivering, stress, and endocrine and immune function were compared between men and women. During cold stress, TRE and muscle and mean skin temperatures decreased in all subjects (Pcold strain did not differ between men and women, but men exhibited larger changes in the indicators of neuroendocrine (epinephrine level) and in immune (tumor necrosis factor-α level) responses (both Pcold stress, whereas women exhibited a greater insulative response. Despite the similar experience of cold strain in men and women, the neuroendocrine and immune responses were larger in men. Contrary to our expectations, the cooling rate was similar in men and women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Large-cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Lung: Unusual Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Serra Valdés

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of death among malignant tumors. Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors encompass a broad spectrum of tumors including the large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. The case of a 57-year-old white housewife with a history of smoking, diabetes, hypothyroidism and hypertension who sought medical attention because of headache, vomiting, weight loss, neuropsychiatric symptoms and metastatic inguinal lymphadenopathy is presented. The symptoms resulted from the extrapulmonary metastases found. Imaging studies, histology and immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of large-cell carcinoma of the lung with neuroendocrine pattern. This type of highly aggressive tumor is usually diagnosed when there are already multiple metastases, which affects the short-term prognosis. The aim of this paper is to inform the medical community of this case due to the scarce reports in the literature.

  4. Immune-Neuroendocrine Interactions: Evolution, Ecology, and Susceptibility to Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Johanna M C; Ottaviani, Enzo

    2017-11-16

    The integration between immune and neuroendocrine systems is crucial for maintaining homeostasis from invertebrates to humans. In the first, the phagocytic cell, i.e., the immunocyte, is the main actor, while in the latter, the principle player is the lymphocyte. Immunocytes are characterized by the presence of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) peptides, CRH, and other molecules that display a significant similarity to their mammalian counterparts regarding their functions, as both are mainly involved in fundamental functions such as immune (chemotaxis, phagocytosis, cytotoxicity, etc.) and neuroendocrine (stress) responses. Furthermore, the immune-neuroendocrine system provides vital answers to ecological and immunological demands in terms of economy and efficiency. Finally, susceptibility to disease emerges as the result of a continuous dynamic interaction between the world within and the world outside. New fields such as ecological immunology study the susceptibility to pathogens in an evolutionary perspective while the field of neuro-endocrine-immunology studies the susceptibility from a more immediate perspective.

  5. HER2-Positive Neuroendocrine Breast Cancer: Case Report and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevorgyan, Arpine; Bregni, Giacomo; Galli, Giulia; Zanardi, Elisa; de Braud, Filippo; Di Cosimo, Serena

    2016-12-01

    Neuroendocrine carcinoma is an uncommon histology for breast cancer. Our patient underwent right quadrantectomy for a neuroendocrine carcinoma in 1984 and had a bone relapse 30 years later. After thorough pathological and immunohistochemical analysis the diagnosis was confirmed and HER2 amplification was observed. Here we discuss the management, rationale and results of HER2-targeted therapy in advanced neuroendocrine breast carcinoma.

  6. Mediators of compassionate goal intervention effects on human neuroendocrine responses to the Trier Social Stress Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Thane M; Mayer, Stefanie E; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L; Scarsella, Gina M; McGuire, Adam P; Crocker, Jennifer; Abelson, James L

    2017-11-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is thought to mediate the effects of stress on illness. Research has identified a limited number of psychological variables that modulate human HPA responses to stressors (e.g. perceived control and social support). Prosocial goals can reduce subjective stress, but have not been carefully examined in experimental settings where pathways of impact on biological stress markers may be traced. Recent work demonstrated that coaching individuals to strive to help others reduced HPA responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) relative to other cognitive interventions. However, identification of mediational pathways, which were not examined in the original study, is necessary to determine whether the HPA buffering effects were due to helping motivations (compassionate goals; CGs) rather than via previously identified variables such as control or support. In this new analysis, we combined the original cortisol data with novel observer ratings of interpersonal behavior and psychological variables during the stress task, and conducted new, theory-driven analyses to determine psychological mediators for the intervention's effect on cortisol responses (N = 54; 21 females, 33 males; 486 cortisol samples). Control, support, and task ego-threat failed to account for the effects of the intervention. As hypothesized, self and observer-rated CGs, as well as observer-rated perceptions of participants' interpersonal behavior as morally desirable (but not as dominant or affiliative) were significant mediators of neuroendocrine responses. The findings suggest that stress-reduction interventions based on prosocial behavior should target particular motivational and interpersonal features.

  7. Post-traumatic intrahepatic splenosis mimicking a neuroendocrine tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Chee Weng; Menon, Tulsi; Rao, Sudhakar

    2013-03-06

    A 52-year-old man presented with abdominal pain with a background of splenectomy 25 years previously. Initial investigations lead to suspicion of a neuroendocrine tumour. Positron emission tomography octreotide scanning and chromogranin were raised. He subsequently underwent a lateral segmentectomy. The histopathology was consistent with splenosis. 1. Splenosis must be considered as differential in any patient with abdominal symptoms post-traumatic splenectomy. 2. Positron emission tomography (PET) octreotide scanning can detect splenosis giving false positives for a neuroendocrine tumour. This is the first case to describe such an association.

  8. Metastatic breast cancer presenting as a primary hindgut neuroendocrine tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okines, Alicia F C; Hawkes, Eliza A; Rao, Sheela; VAN As, Nicholas; Marsh, Henry; Riddell, Angela; Wilson, Philip O G; Osin, Peter; Wotherspoon, Andrew C; Wetherspoon, Andrew C

    2010-07-01

    The examination of limited, potentially non-representative fragments of tumour tissue from a core biopsy can be misleading and misdirect subsequent treatment, especially in cases where a primary tumour has not been identified. This case report is of a 65-year-old woman presenting with a destructive sacral mass, diagnosed on radiological imaging and core biopsy as a hindgut neuroendocrine tumour, which on histopathological review of the subsequently resected tumour was found instead to represent a metastasis from an occult hormone-positive breast cancer with neuroendocrine features.

  9. Unusual apocrine carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation: a cutaneous neoplasm may be analogous to neuroendocrine carcinoma with apocrine differentiation of breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Chen, Li-li; Li, Bin; Tian, Xiao-ying; Li, Zhi

    2015-06-10

    Cutaneous apocrine carcinoma (AC) is a rare adnexal neoplasm that histologically can mimic breast carcinoma metastatic to the skin or apocrine carcinoma arising in ectopic breast tissue. As extremely rare condition, neuroendocrine differentiation may be observed in AC although its etiology and pathogenesis is still unclear. We report here a case of unusual AC with neuroendocrine differentiation in right labium majus pudenda. A 43-year-old woman presented with a 6-month history of an asymptomatic pea-sized brownish nodule in right labium majus pudenda without enlargement of inguinal lymph nodes and bilateral breast nodules. The mass was totally resected. Microscopically, the tumor was solitary and located in the deep dermis without epidermal connection. Tumor cells were arranged in a micronodular or formed massive solid nests separated by densely fibroblastic stroma. Scattered glandular or rosette-like structures were identified within the tumor nodules. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were diffusely positive to CK7, CEA, GCDFP-15, synaptophysin, estrogen and progesterone receptors. Part of tumor cells expressed androgen receptor, but they were negative to CK20, CK5/6, p63 and S-100. Because of its rarity and histogenesis complexity, there exist diagnostic challenges for pathologists to differentiate cutaneous AC with neuroendocrine differentiation from other carcinomas with apocrine or neuroendocrine features. Our case demonstrates that the tumor shares some features with mammary carcinoma and might originate from mammary-like sweat gland in anogenital region. The results suggest that, for the first time, primary cutaneous AC with neuroendocrine differentiation may be analogous to the mammary neuroendocrine carcinoma with apocrine differentiation in histological feature and biological behavior. Virtual Slides: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/7732276716685708.

  10. Neuroendocrine regulation of somatic growth in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, XiangYan; Zhang, Wei; Zhuo, ZiJian; He, JiangYan; Yin, Zhan

    2015-02-01

    Growth is a polygenic trait that is under the influence of multiple physiological pathways regulating energy metabolism and muscle growth. Among the possible growth-regulating pathways in vertebrates, components of the somatotropic axis are thought to have the greatest influence. There is growing body of literature focusing on the somatotropic axis and its role regulating growth in fish. This includes research into growth hormone, upstream hypothalamic hormones, insulin-like growth factors, and downstream signaling molecules. Many of these signals have both somatic effects stimulating the growth of tissues and metabolic effects that play a role in nutrient metabolism. Signals of other endocrine axes exhibit profound effects on the function of the somatotropic axis in vivo. In this review we highlight recent advances in our understanding of the teleost fish endocrine somatotropic axis, including emerging research using genetic modified models. These studies have revealed new aspects and challenges associated with regulation of the important steps of somatic growth.

  11. Food cues do not modulate the neuroendocrine response to a prolonged fast in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snel, Marieke; Wijngaarden, Marjolein A; Bizino, Maurice B; van der Grond, Jeroen; Teeuwisse, Wouter M; van Buchem, Mark A; Jazet, Ingrid M; Pijl, Hanno

    2012-01-01

    Dietary restriction benefits health and increases lifespan in several species. Food odorants restrain the beneficial effects of dietary restriction in Drosophila melanogaster. We hypothesized that the presence of visual and odorous food stimuli during a prolonged fast modifies the neuroendocrine and metabolic response to fasting in humans. In this randomized, crossover intervention study, healthy young men (n = 12) fasted twice for 60 h; once in the presence and once in the absence of food-related visual and odorous stimuli. At baseline and on the last morning of each intervention, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. During the OGTT, blood was sampled and a functional MRI scan was made. The main effects of prolonged fasting were: (1) decreased plasma thyroid stimulating hormone and triiodothyronine levels; (2) downregulation of the pituitary-gonadal axis; (3) reduced plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, but increased glucose and insulin responses to glucose ingestion; (4) altered hypothalamic blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal in response to the glucose load (particularly during the first 20 min after ingestion); (5) increased resting energy expenditure. Exposure to food cues did not affect these parameters. This study shows that 60 h of fasting in young men (1) decreases the hypothalamic BOLD signal in response to glucose ingestion; (2) induces glucose intolerance; (3) increases resting energy expenditure, and (4) downregulates the pituitary-thyroid and pituitary-gonadal axes. Exposure to visual and odorous food cues did not alter these metabolic and neuroendocrine adaptations to nutrient deprivation. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. ENGINEERING PSYCHOLOGY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAN MACHINE SYSTEMS, APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY ), INFORMATION THEORY, ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING, PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ...PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, AUTOMATION, BRAIN, AUDITORY PERCEPTION, VISUAL PERCEPTION, MEMORY( PSYCHOLOGY ), MOTOR REACTIONS, NOISE, PERFORMANCE(HUMAN), USSR

  13. Aspectos neuroendocrinos de la obesidad Neuroendocrine aspects of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Perello

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available En la fisiopatología de la obesidad intervienen factores genéticos, sociales, metabólicos, endocrinos y neurológicos. Esta multifactoriedad junto al hecho que estos factores se interrelacionan a través de mecanismos muy complejos, que son sólo parcialmente conocidos, ha llevado a que la comprensión íntima de este trastorno resulte una tarea sumamente ardua. Por estos motivos, el conocimiento integral de esta afección plantea un desafío al que actualmente están abocados numerosos grupos de investigadores. El análisis de la obesidad como un trastorno neuroendocrino, propone el estudio de este fenómeno desde una visión particular que implica disfunciones en casi todos los órganos endocrinos y en el sistema nervioso central, fundamentalmente en la actividad hipotalámica. Estas alteraciones afectan principalmente a los ejes neuroendocrinos hipotálamo-hipofiso-adrenal, adipo-insular y al control hipotalámico, tanto de la ingesta de alimento como del almacenamiento y gasto energético. Este artículo plantea una actualización en este campo; en primer lugar, se realiza una breve descripción, en forma independiente, de los principales sistemas antes mencionados y luego una descripción de su funcionamiento normal integrado. Finalmente, se describen desregulaciones de estos mecanismos y se discute como ellas contribuirían al desarrollo y/o mantenimiento de la obesidad.Genetic, social, metabolic, endocrine and neural events participate in the physiopathological development of obesity. Because of the multifactorial background of obesity, up to now, it has been very difficult to fully understand the whole disease. In fact, the relationship between several signals, through very complex mechanisms, is only partially known. Obesity, from a neuroendocrine point of view, implies taking into account abnormalities in both hypothalamic and endocrine functions. Among altered functions in obesity, namely those involving the hypothalamo

  14. Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast: report of 2 cases and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Collado-Mesa, MD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuroendocrine tumors of the breast are very rare accounting for less than 0.1% of all breast cancers and less than 1% of all neuroendocrine tumors. Focal neuroendocrine differentiation can be found in different histologic types of breast carcinoma including in situ and invasive ductal or invasive lobular. However, primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast requires the expression of neuroendocrine markers in more than 50% of the cell population, the presence of ductal carcinoma in situ, and the absence of clinical evidence of concurrent primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of any other organ. Reports discussing the imaging characteristics of this rare carcinoma in different breast imaging modalities are scarce. We present 2 cases of primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast for which mammography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging findings and pathology findings are described. A review of the medical literature on this particular topic was performed, and the results are presented.

  15. Genetic analysis of an orbital metastasis from a primary hepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jacob Ø; von Holstein, Sarah L; Prause, Jan U

    2014-01-01

    hepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma. Primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumours are extremely rare, and the orbit is an extremely rare location for a neuroendocrine carcinoma metastasis. This is the first reported case of an orbital metastasis with origin from a primary hepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma.......A 71-year-old female with a known history of primary hepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma, presented with a visual defect, proptosis and restricted eye movements of the right eye. Biopsies from the orbit and from the primary hepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma showed similar morphological...... and immunohistochemical features, and high-resolution, array-based comparative genomic hybridization demonstrated loss of one copy each of chromosomes 3 and 18, and gain of 1q both in the primary hepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma and in the orbital tumour. The orbital mass was diagnosed as a metastasis from the primary...

  16. Neuroendocrine differentiation in a case of cervical cancer | Rashed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tumor; that further showed neuroendocrine differentiation, as demonstrated by chromogranin-A positivity. It is important to differentiate small cell carcinoma from other malignant tumors of the uterine cervix. Morphological features play an important role in making a diagnosis and the immunohistochemistry study can offer an ...

  17. Diffuse endocrine system, neuroendocrine tumors and immunity: what's new?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Pietro; Ferone, Diego

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades, research into the modulation of immunity by the neuroendocrine system has flourished, unravelling significant effects of several neuropeptides, including somatostatin (SRIH), and especially cortistatin (CST), on immune cells. Scientists have learnt that the diffuse neuroendocrine system can regulate the immune system at all its levels: innate immunity, adaptive immunity, and maintenance of immune tolerance. Compelling studies with animal models have demonstrated that some neuropeptides may be effective in treating inflammatory disorders, such as sepsis, and T helper 1-driven autoimmune diseases, like Crohn's disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Here, the latest findings concerning the neuroendocrine control of the immune system are discussed, with emphasis on SRIH and CST. The second part of the review deals with the immune response to neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). The anti-NET immune response has been described in the last years and it is still being characterized, similarly to what is happening for several other types of cancer. In parallel with investigations addressing the mechanisms by which the immune system contrasts NET growth and spreading, ground-breaking clinical trials of dendritic cell vaccination as immunotherapy for metastatic NETs have shown in principle that the immune reaction to NETs can be exploited for treatment. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the uterine cervix- a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. The present study describes 5 cases of large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the uterine cervix, evaluating their clinical features and pathological profiles. Methods. Clinical data were obtained from the patients' clinical files at the combined gynaecological-oncology unit of Johannesburg Hospital and ...

  19. Everolimus Effect on Gastrin and Glucagon in Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavel, Marianne E.; Chen, David; He, Wei; Cushman, Stephanie; Voi, Maurizio; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Baudin, Eric; Yao, James C.

    Objectives: The pharmacodynamic effects of everolimus on gastrointestinal hormone levels have not been described in patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs). We report the effects of everolimus on gastrin and glucagon levels in patients with progressive pNETin RADIANT-1 (a single-arm

  20. Towards a unified model of neuroendocrine-immune interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovsky, N

    2001-08-01

    Although the neuroendocrine system has immunomodulating potential, studies examining the relationship between stress, immunity and infection have, until recently, largely been the preserve of behavioural psychologists. Over the last decade, however, immunologists have begun to increasingly appreciate that neuroendocrine-immune interactions hold the key to understanding the complex behaviour of the immune system in vivo. The nervous, endocrine and immune systems communicate bidirectionally via shared messenger molecules variously called neurotransmitters, cytokines or hormones. Their classification as neurotransmitters, cytokines or hormones is more serendipity than a true reflection of their sphere of influence. Rather than these systems being discrete entities we would propose that they constitute, in reality, a single higher-order entity. This paper reviews current knowledge of neuroendocrine-immune interaction and uses the example of T-cell subset differentiation to show the previously under-appreciated importance of neuroendocrine influences in the regulation of immune function and, in particular, Th1/Th2 balance and diurnal variation there of.

  1. Surgical Treatment of an Isolated Metastatic Myocardial Neuroendocrine Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Christiano C B; Sayad, Dany; Strosberg, Jonathan; Faber, Cristiano; Saouma, Samer; Michaud, Tabitha

    2016-02-01

    We describe a patient diagnosed with a neuroendocrine tumor of the small intestine metastatic to the heart who underwent successful cardiac metastasectomy. The tumor was located on the right ventricle free wall, obstructing the right ventricular outflow tract. There was no valvular involvement. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Is human papillomavirus involved in laryngeal neuroendocrine carcinoma?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halmos, Gyorgy B; van der Laan, Tom P; van Hemel, Bettien M; Dikkers, Frederik G; Slagter-Menkema, Lorian; van der Laan, Bernard F A M; Schuuring, Ed

    The purpose of this study was to detect human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in laryngeal neuroendocrine carcinoma (LNEC) and to explore the possible relationship between HPV-induced malignant transformation and prognosis in LNEC. Ten cases of LNEC from a tertiary referral hospital were

  3. Neuroendocrine Tumour in a Patient with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report the case of an HIV-positive female patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 who was treated for recurrent peptic ulcer disease and later developed diabetes mellitus and chronic diarrhoea. A metastasising somatostatinoma was histologically proven and evidence of a concomitant gastrin-producing neuroendocrine ...

  4. Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the pancreas at dynamic enhanced CT: comparison between grade 3 neuroendocrine carcinoma and grade 1/2 neuroendocrine tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Kim, Kyung Won; Byun, Jae Ho [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ki Byung [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hoon; Hong, Seung-Mo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-01

    To identify the CT features in differentiating grade 3 neuroendocrine carcinomas from grade 1/2 neuroendocrine tumours. This study included 161 patients with surgically confirmed pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms. Pathology slides were reviewed to determine the tumour grade. CT image analysis included size, pattern, calcification, margin, pancreatic duct dilatation, bile duct dilatation, vascular invasion, arterial enhancement ratio, and portal enhancement ratio. We used 2 cm, 3 cm, and 4 cm as cutoff values of tumour size and 0.9 and 1.1 of enhancement ratio to determine the sensitivity and specificity. Pathology analysis identified 167 lesions in 161 patients. 154 lesions (92 %) were grade 1/2 and 13 (8 %) were grade 3. Portal enhancement ratio (< 1.1) showed high sensitivity and specificity 92.3 % and 80.5 %, respectively in differentiating grade 3 from grade 1/2. It showed the highest odds ratio (49.60), followed by poorly defined margin, size (> 3 cm), bile duct dilatation, and vascular invasion. When at least two of these five criteria were used in combination, the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing grade 3 were 92.3 % (12/13) and 87.7 % (135/154), respectively. By using specific CT findings, grade 3 can be differentiated from grade 1/2 with a high diagnostic accuracy leading to an appropriate imaging staging. (orig.)

  5. Military Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MILITARY FORCES(FOREIGN), *MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY , *TEXTBOOKS, USSR, ORGANIZATIONS, COMBAT READINESS, PSYCHOMOTOR FUNCTION, REASONING, SURVEYS...TRANSLATIONS, MILITARY TRAINING, OFFICER PERSONNEL, PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ), PERSONALITY, COMMUNISM, INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS, EMOTIONS.

  6. Diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines for gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (recommended by the Polish Network of Neuroendocrine Tumours).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos-Kudła, Beata; Blicharz-Dorniak, Jolanta; Strzelczyk, Janusz; Bałdys-Waligórska, Agata; Bednarczuk, Tomasz; Bolanowski, Marek; Boratyn-Nowicka, Agnieszka; Borowska, Małgorzata; Cichocki, Andrzej; Ćwikła, Jarosław B; Falconi, Massimo; Foltyn, Wanda; Handkiewicz-Junak, Daria; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja; Jarząb, Barbara; Junik, Roman; Kajdaniuk, Dariusz; Kamiński, Grzegorz; Kolasińska-Ćwikła, Agnieszka; Kowalska, Aldona; Król, Robert; Królicki, Leszek; Krzakowski, Maciej; Kunikowska, Jolanta; Kuśnierz, Katarzyna; Lampe, Paweł; Lange, Dariusz; Lewczuk-Myślicka, Anna; Lewiński, Andrzej; Lipiński, Michał; Londzin-Olesik, Magdalena; Marek, Bogdan; Nasierowska-Guttmejer, Anna; Nawrocki, Sergiusz; Nowakowska-Duława, Ewa; Pilch-Kowalczyk, Joanna; Rosiek, Violetta; Ruchała, Marek; Siemińska, Lucyna; Sowa-Staszczak, Anna; Starzyńska, Teresa; Steinhof-Radwańska, Katarzyna; Sworczak, Krzysztof; Syrenicz, Anhelli; Szawłowski, Andrzej; Szczepkowski, Marek; Wachuła, Ewa; Zajęcki, Wojciech; Zemczak, Anna; Zgliczyński, Wojciech; Zieniewicz, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Progress in the diagnostics and therapy of gastro-entero-pancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN), the published results of new randomised clinical trials, and the new guidelines issued by the European Neuroendocrine Tumour Society (ENETS) have led the Polish Network of Neuroendocrine Tumours to update the 2013 guidelines regarding management of these neoplasms. We present the general recommendations for the management of NENs, developed by experts during the Third Round Table Conference - Diagnostics and therapy of gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms: Polish recommendations in view of current European recommenda-tions, which took place in December 2016 in Żelechów near Warsaw. Drawing from the extensive experience of centres dealing with this type of neoplasms, we hope that we have managed to develop the optimal management system, applying the most recent achievements in the field of medicine, for these patients, and that it can be implemented effectively in Poland. These management guidelines have been arranged in the following order: gastric and duodenal NENs (including gastrinoma); pancreatic NENs; NENs of the small intestine and appendix, and colorectal NENs.

  7. Psychological Impact of Severe Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jennifer; Meng, Chelsea; Eng, Anna

    2016-12-01

    The causes of severe obesity are multifactorial and include metabolic, dietary, physical, and psychological aspects. Additionally, the impact of severe obesity affects more than one's physical health. This article attempts to explore the psychological impact of severe obesity specifically in the areas of mood, eating disorders, sleep disturbance, chronic pain, and quality of life. Additionally, obesity treatment options of lifestyle modification and bariatric surgery that include psychological assessment and/or cognitive behavioral intervention are discussed.

  8. Public speaking stress-induced neuroendocrine responses and circulating immune cell redistribution in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsenbruch, Sigrid; Lucas, Ayscha; Holtmann, Gerald; Haag, Sebastian; Gerken, Guido; Riemenschneider, Natalie; Langhorst, Jost; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Heijnen, Cobi J; Schedlowski, Manfred

    2006-10-01

    Augmented neuroendocrine stress responses and altered immune functions may play a role in the manifestation of functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. We tested the hypothesis that IBS patients would demonstrate enhanced psychological and endocrine responses, as well as altered stress-induced redistribution of circulating leukocytes and lymphocytes, in response to an acute psychosocial stressor when compared with healthy controls. Responses to public speaking stress were analyzed in N = 17 IBS patients without concurrent psychiatric conditions and N = 12 healthy controls. At baseline, immediately following public speaking, and after a recovery period, state anxiety, acute GI symptoms, cardiovascular responses, serum cortisol and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were measured, and numbers of circulating leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations were analyzed by flow cytometry. Public speaking led to significant cardiovascular activation, a significant increase in ACTH, and a redistribution of circulating leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations, including significant increases in natural killer cells and cytotoxic/suppressor T cells. IBS patients demonstrated significantly greater state anxiety both at baseline and following public speaking. However, cardiovascular and endocrine responses, as well as the redistribution of circulating leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations after public speaking stress, did not differ for IBS patients compared with controls. In IBS patients without psychiatric comorbidity, the endocrine response as well as the circulation pattern of leukocyte subpopulations to acute psychosocial stress do not differ from healthy controls in spite of enhanced emotional responses. Future studies should discern the role of psychopathology in psychological and biological stress responses in IBS.

  9. Trait mindfulness modulates neuroendocrine and affective responses to social evaluative threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kirk Warren; Weinstein, Netta; Creswell, J David

    2012-12-01

    Individual differences in mindfulness have been associated with numerous self-report indicators of stress, but research has not examined how mindfulness may buffer neuroendocrine and psychological stress responses under controlled laboratory conditions. The present study investigated the role of trait mindfulness in buffering cortisol and affective responses to a social evaluative stress challenge versus a control task. Participants completed measures of trait mindfulness, perceived stress, anxiety, and fear of negative evaluation before being randomized to complete the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST; Kirschbaum et al., 1993) or a control task. At points throughout the session, participants provided five saliva samples to assess cortisol response patterns, and completed four self-report measures of anxiety and negative affect to assess psychological responses. In accord with hypotheses, higher trait mindfulness predicted lower cortisol responses to the TSST, relative to the control task, as well as lower anxiety and negative affect. These relations remained significant when controlling for the role of other variables that predicted cortisol and affective responses. The findings suggest that trait mindfulness modulates cortisol and affective responses to an acute social stressor. Further research is needed to understand the neural pathways through which mindfulness impacts these responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Catechol-o-methyltransferase polymorphism and susceptibility to major depressive disorder modulates psychological stress response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jabbi, Mbemba; Kema, Ido R.; van der Pompe, Gieta; Meerman, Gerard J. te; Ormel, Johan; den Boer, Johan A.

    Objectives The stress response is related to both physiological and psychological factors and is strongly marked by a neuroendocrine component. Genetic factors are believed to underlie individual differences in the degree of stress resilience and thereby contribute in determining susceptibility to

  11. Psychoneuroimmunology and health psychology: an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutgendorf, Susan K; Costanzo, Erin S

    2003-08-01

    The biopsychosocial model describes interactions between psychosocial and biological factors in the etiology and progression of disease. How an individual interprets and responds to the environment determines responses to stress, influences health behaviors, contributes to the neuroendocrine and immune response, and may ultimately affect health outcomes. Health psychology interventions are designed to modulate the stress response and improve health behaviors by teaching individuals more adaptive methods of interpreting life challenges and more effective coping responses. These interactions are discussed in the context of aging.

  12. The future of nuclear medicine imaging of neuroendocrine tumors: on a clear day one might see forever..

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodei, Lisa [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Milan (Italy); Yale School of Medicine, Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, New Haven, CT (United States); Kidd, Mark; Modlin, Irvin M. [Yale School of Medicine, Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, New Haven, CT (United States); Prasad, Vikas [Charite University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin (Germany); Baum, Richard P. [Zentralklinik Bad Berka, THERANOSTICS Center for Molecular Radiotherapy and Molecular Imaging (PET/CT), ENETS Center of Excellence, Bad Berka (Germany); Drozdov, Ignat [Bering Limited, Richmond (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Early identification of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) is a critical prerequisite to establishing effective treatment. While substantial advances have occurred in the last two decades, there is little progress regarding the identification of small subcentimeter lesions and the determination of tumor proliferative rates and metabolic characteristics. At this time, delineation of lesions mainly utilizes various combinations of somatostatin receptor (SSR) density, glucose metabolism and Hounsfield units. This editorial addresses unmet needs in nuclear medicine (molecular) imaging with a view to identifying areas that require amplification. The principal goal is to amplify and extend the diagnostic and prognostic role of imaging. Specific focus is required to validate and standardize current techniques while introducing strategies that will resolve currently unmet needs.

  13. [Surgical treatment of gastroentero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, Takao; Takahata, Shunichi; Ueda, Junji; Ueki, Takashi; Nagai, Eishi; Mizumoto, Kazuhiro; Shimizu, Shuji; Tanaka, Masao

    2013-07-01

    The treatment of choice for gastroentero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor(NET)is resection. Because it is difficult to determine the histological grade of NET before operation, the treatment strategy is usually made based on an imaging study including the tumor's size. Some selected gastrointestinal NETs are indicated for endoscopic resection, while others are resected surgically with lymph node dissection. The types of resections for pancreatic NETs vary from enucleation to pancreatectomy with or without regional lymph node dissection, based on the type of excessive hormone, tumor size, distance from the main pancreatic duct, and the presence of type 1 multiple endocrine neoplasia. Hepatic metastases are also resected, if indicated, and even in patients having unresectable metastatic lesions, multidisciplinary therapy including reduction surgery of over 90% of tumor volume might lead to a favorable prognosis. Postoperative adjuvant therapy is recommended for neuroendocrine carcinoma, while there is no evidence to support adjuvant therapy for curatively resected well-differentiated NET.

  14. Insulinoma and gastrinoma syndromes from a single intrapancreatic neuroendocrine tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya B; Powell, Anathea C; Abu-Asab, Mones; Cochran, Craig; Lenz, Petra; Libutti, Steven K; Pingpank, James F; Tsokos, Maria; Gorden, Phillip

    2008-04-01

    The insulinoma syndrome is marked by fasting hypoglycemia and inappropriate elevations of insulin. The gastrinoma syndrome is characterized by hypergastrinemia, ulcer disease, and/or diarrhea. Rarely, insulinoma and gastrinoma coexist in the same patient simultaneously. Our objective was to determine the cause of a patient's hypoglycemic episodes and peptic ulcer disease. This is a clinical case report from the Clinical Research Center of the National Institutes of Health. One patient with hypoglycemic episodes and peptic ulcer disease had a surgical resection of neuroendocrine tumor. The patient was found to have a single tumor cosecreting both insulin and gastrin. Resection of this single tumor was curative. A single pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor may lead to the expression of both the hyperinsulinemic and hypergastrinemic syndromes.

  15. Neuropsychology of Neuroendocrine Dysregulation after Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Zihl

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine dysfunction is a common effect of traumatic brain injury (TBI. In addition to affecting the regulation of important body functions, the disruption of endocrine physiology can significantly impair mental functions, such as attention, memory, executive function, and mood. This mini-review focuses on alterations in mental functioning that are associated with neuroendocrine disturbances in adults who suffered TBI. It summarizes the contribution of hormones to the regulation of mental functions, the consequences of TBI on mental health and neuroendocrine homeostasis, and the effects of hormone substitution on mental dysfunction caused by TBI. The available empirical evidence suggests that comprehensive assessment of mental functions should be standard in TBI subjects presenting with hormone deficiency and that hormone replacement therapy should be accompanied by pre- and post-assessments.

  16. Primary Malignant Neuroendocrine Tumour of Pleura: First Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Das

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic tumours of pleura are the most common malignant tumours causing malignant pleural effusion. Lungs are the most common primary sites. Primary pleural tumours are rarely seen and diffuse malignant mesothelioma is the most common malignant tumour of pleura. Primary malignant neuroendocrine tumour of pleura is not reported in the literature. Here, we report a rare case of primary malignant neuroendocrine tumour of pleura in a fifty-two-year-old, nonsmoker female who presented with right-sided pleural effusion and ipsilateral, dull aching chest pain. Clinical presentations of inflammatory lesions like tuberculous pleuritis and benign and malignant neoplasms of pleura are indistinguishable; hence, fluid cytology, pleural biopsy, and immunohistochemistry are necessary for exact tissue diagnosis of the tumours, which is mandatory for correct treatment and prognostic assessment.

  17. Contemporary Incidence and Mortality Rates of Neuroendocrine Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanee, Shaheen; Moore, Aaron; Nutt, Max; Holland, Bradley; Dynda, Danuta; El-Zawahry, Ahmed; McVary, Kevin T

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to provide an update ever the incidence and mortality for neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC) in the United States. Using a large national database, we examined changes in age-adjusted incidence (AAIR), mortality rates (MR) and 5-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) for 378 patients diagnosed with NEPC between 1992 and 2011. Analysis was performed for all NEPC and for its two major sub-groups [small cell carcinoma (SCC) and neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC)]. AAIR of NEPC continues to rise in recent years (2004-2011:+6.8%/year, p>0.05). AAIR of SCC has been increasing significantly by 6.94%/year since 2001 (from 0.470 to 0.582/1,000,000 person years, pAAIR of SCC is increasing with no change in the MR of NEPC over the past 20 years. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  18. Massive gastrointestinal bleed due to multiple gastric neuroendocrine tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric neuroendocrine tumors (G-NETs are uncommon lesions which are usually diagnosed on histological evaluation of gastric polyps. These may occur sporadically or due to hypergastrinemia in the setting of atrophic gastritis or Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome. Large lesions may ulcerate and result in gastrointestinal bleeding. However, massive gastrointestinal bleeding is rare in patients with NETs. We report a 60-year-old lady who presented with massive gastrointestinal bleeding due to multiple G-NETs.

  19. Assessment of intracranial metastases from neuroendocrine tumors/carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M Ragab Shalaby

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most common sites of origin for neuroendocrine carcinoma are gastrointestinal tract and its accessory glands, and lungs. Materials and Methods: One-hundred fifty cases diagnosed with metastatic brain lesions were retrieved from hospital records within 5 years. For these cases, the primary neoplasm, histopathological classification, metastasis, treatment, and fate all were studied. Results: Intracranial deposits were detected in 10%. The primary lesion was in the lungs in 87% of patients, and 1 patient in the breast and 1 in esophagus. Pathological classification of the primary lesion was Grade 2 (MIB-1: 3–20% in 1 patient and neuroendocrine carcinoma (MIB-1: ≥21% in 14 patients. The median period from onset of the primary lesion up to diagnosis of brain metastasis was 12.8 months. About 33% of patients had a single metastasis whereas 67% patients had multiple metastases. Brain metastasis was extirpated in 33% of patients. Stereotactic radiotherapy alone was administered in 20% of patients, and brain metastasis was favorably controlled in most of the patients with coadministration of cranial irradiation as appropriate. The median survival period from diagnosis of brain metastasis was 8.1 months. Conclusion: Most of patients with brain metastasis from neuroendocrine carcinoma showed the primary lesion in the lungs, and they had multiple metastases to the liver, lymph nodes, bones, and so forth at the time of diagnosis of brain metastasis. The guidelines for accurate diagnosis and treatment of neuroendocrine carcinoma should be immediately established based on further analyses of those patients with brain metastasis.

  20. A Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of Undetermined Origin in a Dog

    OpenAIRE

    Kuwata, Kazunori; Shibutani, Makoto; Kemmochi, Yusuke; Taniai, Eriko; Morita, Reiko; Ogawa, Bunichiro; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi

    2010-01-01

    In this report, we describe a case of neuroendocrine carcinoma of undetermined origin in a dog. Necropsy revealed scattered small neoplastic nodules in the bilateral lungs and a small nodule in the parapancreatic lymph node. Histopathologically, both pulmonary and lymph nodal nodules showed a similar histologic pattern, with neoplastic cells being arranged in diffusely proliferating sheet-like cellular nests separated by variable amounts of fibrous septa, sometimes forming rosettes and duct-l...

  1. The Neuroendocrine Functions of the Parathyroid Hormone 2 Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpad eDobolyi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The G-protein coupled parathyroid hormone 2 receptor (PTH2R is concentrated in endocrine and limbic regions in the forebrain. Its endogenous ligand,tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39, is synthesized in only 2 brain regions, within the posterior thalamus and the lateral pons. TIP39-expressing neurons have a widespread projection pattern, which matches the PTH2R distribution in the brain. Neuroendocrine centers including the preoptic area, the periventricular, paraventricular, and arcuate nuclei contain the highest density of PTH2R-positive networks. The administration of TIP39 and an antagonist of the PTH2R as well as the investigation of mice that lack functional TIP39 and PTH2R revealed the involvement of the PTH2R in a variety of neural and neuroendocrine functions. TIP39 acting via the PTH2R modulates several aspects of the stress response. It evokes corticosterone release by activating corticotropin-releasing hormone-containing neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Block of TIP39 signaling elevates the anxiety state of animals and their fear response, and increases stress-induced analgesia. TIP39 has also been suggested to affect the release of additional pituitary hormones including arginine vasopressin and growth hormone. A role of the TIP39-PTH2R system in thermoregulation was also identified. TIP39 may play a role in maintaining body temperature in a cold environment via descending excitatory pathways from the preoptic area. Anatomical and functional studies also implicated the TIP39-PTH2R system in nociceptive information processing. Finally, TIP39 induced in postpartum dams may play a role in the release of prolactin during lactation. Potential mechanisms leading to the activation of TIP39 neurons and how they influence the neuroendocrine system are also described. The unique TIP39-PTH2R neuromodulator system provides the possibility for developing drugs with a novel mechanism of action to control

  2. Perinatal programming of neuroendocrine mechanisms connecting feeding behavior and stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Spencer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Feeding behavior is closely regulated by neuroendocrine mechanisms that can be influenced by stressful life events. However, the feeding response to stress varies among individuals with some increasing and others decreasing food intake after stress. In addition to the impact of acute lifestyle and genetic backgrounds, the early life environment can have a life-long influence on neuroendocrine mechanisms connecting stress to feeding behavior and may partially explain these opposing feeding responses to stress. In this review I will discuss the perinatal programming of adult hypothalamic stress and feeding circuitry. Specifically I will address how early life (prenatal and postnatal nutrition, early life stress, and the early life hormonal profile can program the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, the endocrine arm of the body’s response to stress long-term and how these changes can, in turn, influence the hypothalamic circuitry responsible for regulating feeding behavior. Thus, over- or under-feeding and / or stressful events during critical windows of early development can alter glucocorticoid (GC regulation of the HPA axis, leading to changes in the GC influence on energy storage and changes in GC negative feedback on HPA axis-derived satiety signals such as corticotropin-releasing-hormone. Furthermore, peripheral hormones controlling satiety, such as leptin and insulin are altered by early life events, and can be influenced, in early life and adulthood, by stress. Importantly, these neuroendocrine signals act as trophic factors during development to stimulate connectivity throughout the hypothalamus. The interplay between these neuroendocrine signals, the perinatal environment, and activation of the stress circuitry in adulthood thus strongly influences feeding behavior and may explain why individuals have unique feeding responses to similar stressors.

  3. A Rare Case of Diffuse Idiopathic Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Cell Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godwin Ofikwu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH is a rare clinical condition with only about 100 cases reported in the literature. It is characterized by primary hyperplasia of pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNECs which are specialized epithelial cells located throughout the entire respiratory tract, from the trachea to the terminal airways. DIPNECH appears in various forms that include diffuse proliferation of scattered neuroendocrine cells, small nodules, or a linear proliferation. It is usually seen in middle-aged, nonsmoking women with symptoms of cough, dyspnea, and wheezing. We present a 45-year-old, nonsmoking woman who presented with symptoms of DIPNECH associated with bilateral pulmonary nodules and left hilar adenopathy. Of interest, DIPNECH in our patient was associated with metastatic pulmonary carcinoids, papillary carcinoma of the left breast, oncocytoma and angiomyolipoma of her left kidney, and cortical nodules suggestive of tuberous sclerosis. She had video assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS, modified radical mastectomy with reconstruction, and radical nephrectomy. She is currently symptom-free most of the time with over two years of follow-up.

  4. Neuroendocrine brake for the treatment of morbid obesity. Preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureo Ludovico de Paula

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To demonstrate the preliminary results of a newtechnique named neuroendocrine brake, for surgical treatment ofmorbid obesity. Methods: In November 2003, three patientsunderwent the neuroendocrine brake operation performed by thelaparoscopic approach. The mean age was 46.4 years; all patientswere female. Mean BMI was 42.3 kg/m2. The patients selectedpresented some relative or absolute contraindications to the useof gastrointestinal bypass techniques, including gastric ulcer anda family history of gastric malignancy(1 and chronic anemia (2.All patients had associated diseases, including type II diabetesmellitus (2, hypertension (2, obstructive sleep apnea (1,dyslipidemia (3, cholecystolithiasis (1, gastric ulcer (1 andchronic anemia (2. The laparoscopic technique consisted of anileal interposition at the proximal jejunum and longitudinalgastrectomy. Results: There was no conversion to open surgery orpostoperative complications. Sixteen months later, the meanpercentage of initial body weight loss was 44.6% and the meanBMI was 24.3 kg/m2. Glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol levelswere normalized, and sleep apnea showed remission. Conclusion:In spite of the reduced number of patients and short term followup, the good results suggest that the neuroendocrine brake maybecome an option for surgical treatment of morbid obesity in thenear future.

  5. Unusual Paraneoplastic Syndrome Accompanies Neuroendocrine Tumours of the Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Bertani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroendocrine tumours comprise a small percentage of pancreatic neoplasia (10% (1. Diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumours is difficult, especially if the tumours are small and nonfunctional. CT scans, MRI, and nuclear scans are sufficiently sensitive assessment tools for tumours with diameters of at least 2 cm; otherwise, the sensitivity and specificity of these techniques is less than 50% (2. Myasthenia gravis (MG is a heterogeneous neuromuscular junction disorder that is primarily caused when antibodies form against the acetylcholine receptors (Ab-AchR. MG can develop in conjunction with neoplasia, making MG a paraneoplastic disease. In those cases, MG is most commonly associated with thymomas and less frequently associated with extrathymic malignancies. The mechanism underlying this paraneoplastic syndrome has been hypothesized to involve an autoimmune response against the tumour cells (3. No published reports have linked malignant pancreatic diseases with MG. Here, we report the case of a young woman, negative for Ab-AchR, with a neuroendocrine tumour in the pancreatic head, who experienced a complete resolution of her MG-like syndrome after surgical enucleation of the tumour.

  6. A neuroendocrine carcinoma of undetermined origin in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwata, Kazunori; Shibutani, Makoto; Kemmochi, Yusuke; Taniai, Eriko; Morita, Reiko; Ogawa, Bunichiro; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi

    2010-09-01

    In this report, we describe a case of neuroendocrine carcinoma of undetermined origin in a dog. Necropsy revealed scattered small neoplastic nodules in the bilateral lungs and a small nodule in the parapancreatic lymph node. Histopathologically, both pulmonary and lymph nodal nodules showed a similar histologic pattern, with neoplastic cells being arranged in diffusely proliferating sheet-like cellular nests separated by variable amounts of fibrous septa, sometimes forming rosettes and duct-like structures. Scattered small necrotic foci and invasion to fibrous septa were typically observed. Neoplastic cells showed round to oval-shaped nuclei with prominent nucleoli and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm that were positive for Grimelius' silver impregnation staining and immunostaining with cytokeratin, synaptophysin, vasoactive intestinal peptide and chromogranin A, indicative of the development of a neuroendocrine carcinoma. However, judging from the distribution of tumors lacking the portion suggestive of the primary site in any organ examined, as well as no further indication of differentiation potential of neoplastic cells, this tumor has so far been diagnosed as neuroendocrine carcinoma of undetermined origin.

  7. Mucinous Carcinoma with Neuroendocrine Differentiation of Salivary Gland Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Frankie K; Zumsteg, Zachary S; Langevin, Claude-Jean; Ali, Nabilah; Maclary, Shawn; Balzer, Bonnie L; Ho, Allen S

    2017-06-01

    Primary mucinous adenocarcinomas of the salivary gland are rare malignancies defined by aggregates of epithelial cells suspended in large pools of extracellular mucin. We report a case of a giant mucinous adenocarcinoma of salivary gland origin, with low-grade cytoarchitectural features and neuroendocrine differentiation arising in the submental region. Grossly, the tumor measured 12.5 × 13.4 × 8.2 cm and replaced the bone and soft tissues of the anterior oral cavity. Microscopically, the neoplasm was composed of large extracellular pools of mucin, which contained papillary and acinar aggregates, and small nodules of ductal type epithelium with minimal nuclear enlargement, powdery chromatin and little pleomorphism. The nodules comprised 20 % of the tumor and showed morphologic and immunohistochemical evidence of neuroendocrine differentiation. Examination revealed histologic features comparable to mammary gland analogues in mucin predominance, ductal type morphology, expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors, and GATA-3 positivity. This is the first case reported of mucin-rich carcinoma of salivary gland origin exhibiting neuroendocrine differentiation.

  8. Staging of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: how we do it based on an evidence-based approach.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDermott, Shaunagh

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to other common types of malignant tumors, the vast majority of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are well differentiated and slowly growing with only a minority showing aggressive behavior. It is important to accurately stage patients radiologically so the correct treatment can be implemented and to improve prognosis. In this article, we critically appraise the current literature in an effort to establish the current role of radiologic imaging in the staging of neuroendocrine tumors. We also discuss our protocol for staging neuroendocrine tumors.

  9. Circadian adaptations to meal timing: Neuroendocrine mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danica F Patton

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythms of behavior and physiology are generated by central and peripheral circadian oscillators entrained by periodic environmental or physiological stimuli. A master circadian pacemaker in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus is directly entrained by daily light-dark cycles, and coordinates the timing of other oscillators by direct and indirect neural, hormonal and behavioral outputs. The daily rhythm of food intake provides stimuli that entrain most peripheral and central oscillators, some of which can drive a daily rhythm of food anticipatory activity if food is restricted to one daily mealtime. The location of food-entrainable oscillators (FEOs that drive food anticipatory rhythms, and the food-related stimuli that entrain these oscillators, remain to be clarified. Here, we critically examine the role of peripheral metabolic hormones as potential internal entrainment stimuli or outputs for FEOs controlling food anticipatory rhythms in rats and mice. Hormones for which data are available include corticosterone, ghrelin, leptin, insulin, glucagon, and glucagon-like peptide 1. All of these hormones exhibit daily rhythms of synthesis and secretion that are synchronized by meal timing. There is some evidence that ghrelin and leptin modulate the expression of food anticipatory rhythms, but none of the hormones examined so far are necessary for entrainment. Ghrelin and leptin likely modulate food-entrained rhythms by actions in hypothalamic circuits utilizing melanocortin and orexin signaling, although again food-entrained behavioral rhythms can persist in lesion and gene knockout models in which these systems are disabled. Actions of these hormones on circadian oscillators in central reward circuits remain to be evaluated. Food-entrained activity rhythms are likely mediated by a distributed system of circadian oscillators sensitive to multiple feeding related inputs. Metabolic hormones appear to play a modulatory role within this

  10. Temozolomide as second or third line treatment of patients with neuroendocrine carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ingrid Marie Holst; Sørensen, Jens B; Federspiel, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the clinical efficacy in recurrent neuroendocrine carcinomas is sparse. Treatment with temozolomide alone or in combination with capecitabine and bevacizumab has recently shown promising results....

  11. Psychological Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Low FODMAP Diet Complementary or Alternative Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Online Studies News You Can Use Living ... Low FODMAP Diet Complementary or Alternative Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Online Studies News You Can Use Living ...

  12. Treatment Outcomes, Growth Height, and Neuroendocrine Functions in Patients With Intracranial Germ Cell Tumors Treated With Chemoradiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odagiri, Kazumasa, E-mail: t086016a@yokohama-cu.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan); Department of Radiology, Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan); Omura, Motoko [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan); Department of Radiology, Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan); Hata, Masaharu [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan); Aida, Noriko; Niwa, Tetsu [Department of Radiology, Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan); Ogino, Ichiro [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan); Kigasawa, Hisato [Division of Hemato-oncology/Regeneration Medicine, Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan); Ito, Susumu [Department of Neurosurgery, Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan); Adachi, Masataka [Department of Endocrinology, Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan); Inoue, Tomio [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: We carried out a retrospective review of patients receiving chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for intracranial germ cell tumor (GCT) using a lower dose than those previously reported. To identify an optimal GCT treatment strategy, we evaluated treatment outcomes, growth height, and neuroendocrine functions. Methods and Materials: Twenty-two patients with GCT, including 4 patients with nongerminomatous GCT (NGGCT) were treated with CRT. The median age at initial diagnosis was 11.5 years (range, 6-19 years). Seventeen patients initially received whole brain irradiation (median dose, 19.8 Gy), and 5 patients, including 4 with NGGCT, received craniospinal irradiation (median dose, 30.6 Gy). The median radiation doses delivered to the primary site were 36 Gy for pure germinoma and 45 Gy for NGGCT. Seventeen patients had tumors adjacent to the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA), and 5 had tumors away from the HPA. Results: The median follow-up time was 72 months (range, 18-203 months). The rates of both disease-free survival and overall survival were 100%. The standard deviation scores (SDSs) of final heights recorded at the last assessment tended to be lower than those at initial diagnosis. Even in all 5 patients with tumors located away from the HPA, final height SDSs decreased (p = 0.018). In 16 patients with tumors adjacent to the HPA, 8 showed metabolic changes suggestive of hypothalamic obesity and/or growth hormone deficiency, and 13 had other pituitary hormone deficiencies. In contrast, 4 of 5 patients with tumors away from the HPA did not show any neuroendocrine dysfunctions except for a tendency to short stature. Conclusions: CRT for GCT using limited radiation doses resulted in excellent treatment outcomes. Even after limited radiation doses, insufficient growth height was often observed that was independent of tumor location. Our study suggests that close follow-up of neuroendocrine functions, including growth hormone, is essential for all patients with

  13. Investigative psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Canter, David V.

    2010-01-01

    The domain of Investigative Psychology covers all aspects of psychology that are relevant to the conduct of criminal or civil investigations. Its focus is on the ways in which criminal activities may be examined and understood in order for the detection of crime to be effective and legal proceedings to be appropriate. As such Investigative Psychology is concerned with psychological input to the full range of issues that relate to the management, investigation and prosecution of crime

  14. Effect of antidepressants on neuroendocrine axis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, H Y; Fang, V S; Tricou, B J; Robertson, A

    1982-01-01

    Unlike neuroleptic drugs, the effect of antidepressant drugs on the neuroendocrine axis in man is highly variable and may or may not be intimately related to their antidepressant action. However, the limited neuroendocrine data available does shed some light on the mechanism of action of these agents and raises some important questions, particularly about the regulation of PRL secretion and the interaction between various neurotransmitter systems. At one end of the spectrum, the ability of nomifensine and buproprion to lower serum PRL levels, presumably due to their ability to block the reuptake of DA by tuberoinfundibular DA neurons, suggests that it may be necessary to reconsider the conclusion that these neurons lack a DA reuptake mechanism or that these two agents are antidepressant by virtue of their ability to block DA uptake. Similarly, the inability of amphetamine or methylphenidate to decrease serum PRL levels in man suggests important differences between the tuberoinfundibular DA neurons in man and the rat. These findings also call into question the ability of these agents to block DA uptake or increase DA release in the tuberoinfundibular DA neurons. The finding that fluoxetine raises serum PRL levels, even in one subject, whereas zimelidine has not yet been shown to do so, and that fluoxetine does not potentiate the ability of 5-HTP to stimulate PRL secretion, has raised important questions about the role of 5-HT in PRL and GH regulation in man and the relationship between 5-HT and DA neurons in man. The occasional increase in serum PRL levels found in patients treated with lithium or the MAO inhibitor phenelzine are suggestive of important interindividual differences which may be revealed by neuroendocrine studies, differences which could be valuable in understanding the mechanism of action of these agents - e.g., does lithium decrease DA receptor sensitivity? - and fundamental aspects of neuroendocrine regulation - e.g., do the MAO inhibitors

  15. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  16. A novel injectable formulation of 6-fluoro-l-DOPA imaging agent for diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapani, Adriana; Tricarico, Domenico; Mele, Antonietta; Maqoud, Fatima; Mandracchia, Delia; Vitale, Paola; Capriati, Vito; Trapani, Giuseppe; Dimiccoli, Vincenzo; Tolomeo, Anna; Scilimati, Antonio

    2017-03-15

    Two [19F]F-l-DOPA (F-DOPA) new β-cyclodextrin (CD)-based dosage forms (FA and FB, respectively) have been studied and their physico-chemical and pharmacological features determined to overcome the administration site reactions showed by the currently used [18F]F-l-DOPA formulation (IASOdopa(®)) to perform PET-CT diagnosis in oncology (neuroendocrine tumors) and neurological (Parkinson's disease) field. Chemical stability of FA and FB was found to be longer than IASOdopa(®) by adding the thiol-antioxidant agent, L-Cysteine. (1)H and (19)F NMR investigations suggest the formation of an inclusion complex of F-DOPA with β-CD. In vitro experiments on the effects of FA and FB on mouse skeletal muscle fibers and on the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y and embryonal kidney tsA201 cell lines viability showed that FA was the most performant formulation compared to F-DOPA solutions. In vivo tolerability tests of FA on adult male rat showed no significant effects on body weight and no change in their dried organs weight. In addition, their metabolic and physiological parameters were not affected. In conclusion, [18F]F-l-DOPA, formulated as FA, constitutes a promising dosage form for PET-CT diagnosis of both neuroendocrine tumors and Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Age-Dependent Neuroendocrine Signaling from Sensory Neurons Modulates the Effect of Dietary Restriction on Longevity of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Marissa; Kim, Dennis H

    2017-01-01

    Dietary restriction extends lifespan in evolutionarily diverse animals. A role for the sensory nervous system in dietary restriction has been established in Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans, but little is known about how neuroendocrine signals influence the effects of dietary restriction on longevity. Here, we show that DAF-7/TGFβ, which is secreted from the C. elegans amphid, promotes lifespan extension in response to dietary restriction in C. elegans. DAF-7 produced by the ASI pair of sensory neurons acts on DAF-1/TGFβ receptors expressed on interneurons to inhibit the co-SMAD DAF-3. We find that increased activity of DAF-3 in the presence of diminished or deleted DAF-7 activity abrogates lifespan extension conferred by dietary restriction. We also observe that DAF-7 expression is dynamic during the lifespan of C. elegans, with a marked decrease in DAF-7 levels as animals age during adulthood. We show that this age-dependent diminished expression contributes to the reduced sensitivity of aging animals to the effects of dietary restriction. DAF-7 signaling is a pivotal regulator of metabolism and food-dependent behavior, and our studies establish a molecular link between the neuroendocrine physiology of C. elegans and the process by which dietary restriction can extend lifespan.

  18. From the brain-skin connection: the neuroendocrine-immune misalliance of stress and itch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arck, Petra; Paus, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    Perceived stress has long been allied with disturbances of the dynamic equilibrium established between the nervous, endocrine and immune systems, thus triggering or aggravating disease manifestation. Several common skin diseases are now acknowledged to be worsened by psychological stress, particularly immunodermatoses such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, seborrheic eczema, prurigo nodularis, lichen planus, chronic urticaria, alopecia areata and pruritus sine materia. Itch (pruritus) is perhaps the most common symptom associated with a majority of these inflammatory skin diseases, and acute as well as chronic stress perceptions are recognized to trigger or enhance pruritus. A wealth of mediators released systemically or locally in the skin in response to stress increase sensory innervation, upregulate the production of other pruritogenic agents, perpetuate (neurogenic) inflammation and lower the itch threshold. In the present review, we explore recent frontiers in both stress and pruritus research and portray the perpetuation of chronic skin inflammation and itch as a neuroendocrine-immune 'misalliance'. We argue that key candidate molecules of the stress response with strong pruritogenic potential, such as nerve growth factor, corticotropin-releasing hormone and substance P, and mast cells, which may be considered as 'central cellular switchboards of pruritogenic inflammation', need to be further explored systematically in order to develop more effective therapeutic combination strategies for itch management in chronic, stress-vulnerable inflammatory skin diseases. Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Nordic guidelines 2014 for diagnosis and treatment of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janson, Eva Tiensuu; Sorbye, Halfdan; Welin, Staffan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The diagnostic work-up and treatment of patients with neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) has undergone major recent advances and new methods are currently introduced into the clinic. An update of the WHO classification has resulted in a new nomenclature dividing NENs into neuroendocrine...

  20. Neuroendocrine dysregulations in sexually abused children and adolescents: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bicanic, I. A. E.; Meijer, M.; Sinnema, G.; van de Putte, E. M.; Olff, M.

    2008-01-01

    Several studies provided evidence for neuroendocrine dysregulations in adults with a history of child sexual abuse. This review focuses on neuroendocrine studies in sexually abused children and adolescents, dating from January 1, 1990 to January 1, 2007 and obtained from a systematic Medline Indexed

  1. Tracer development for detection and characterization of neuroendocrine tumors with PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neels, Olivier Christiaan

    2008-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors are slowly growing tumors which originate from neuroendocrine cells. These tumors can secrete several products. In case of overproduction of serotonin, symptoms such as flushing, diarrhea and right-sided heart disease can occur. Next to serotonin, other well known products are

  2. Neuroendocrine reactivity and recovery from work with different physical and mental demands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluiter, JK; Frings-Dresen, MHW; van der Beek, AJ; Meijman, TF; Heisterkamp, SH

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which the type or nature (physical, mental or mixed mental and physical) of work and work characteristics is related to the course of neuroendocrine reactivity and recovery from work. Methods Neuroendocrine reactivity and recovery

  3. Impact of psychological stress on the associations between apolipoprotein E variants and metabolic traits: findings in an American sample of caregivers and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kring, Sofia I Iqbal; Brummett, Beverly H; Barefoot, John; Garrett, Melanie E; Ashley-Koch, Allison E; Boyle, Stephen H; Siegler, Ilene C; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Williams, Redford B

    2010-06-01

    To examine the association between apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene variants and waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, serum insulin, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and serum triglycerides, all metabolic traits known as cardiovascular disease (CVD) endophenotypes, in a population of stressed individuals and controls. Abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, elevated serum lipid concentration, and APOE polymorphisms have been associated with CVD risk. Current evidence supports the hypothesis that gene-environment interactions modulate serum lipid concentrations. The association between rs769450, rs405509, rs439401, and metabolic traits were analyzed in a U.S. sample of 126 white caregivers of a relative with Alzheimer';s disease or other major dementia and 122 white controls. The associations were analyzed, using multivariate analysis of variance adjusted for age, sex, and medications. Significant multivariate interactions were found, using both additive (p = .009) and dominant (p = .047) models between rs439401 (C/T) and caregiver stress in relation to a profile of metabolic variables. Univariate analyses found the TT genotype to be associated with more adverse levels of waist circumference (interaction, p = .026), triglycerides (interaction, p = .001) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (interaction, p = .001) among caregivers but with a more favorable profile of these endophenotypes among controls. There were no significant associations or interactions involving the other two single nucleotide polymorphisms. The APOE rs439401 TT genotype is associated with an adverse metabolic profile among chronically stressed individuals compared with individuals not similarly stressed in whom a more favorable profile is expressed. Confirmation of these results in further research would indicate that the TT genotype can be used to identify persons at high risk for CVD when subjected to chronic stress.

  4. Impact of psychological stress on the associations between apolipoprotein E variants and metabolic traits: findings in an American sample of caregivers and controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia Iqbal; Brummett, Beverly H; Barefoot, John

    2010-01-01

    To examine the association between apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene variants and waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, serum insulin, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and serum triglycerides, all metabolic traits known as cardiovascular disease (CVD) endophenotypes, in a population...... of stressed individuals and controls. Abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, elevated serum lipid concentration, and APOE polymorphisms have been associated with CVD risk. Current evidence supports the hypothesis that gene-environment interactions modulate serum lipid concentrations....

  5. Minichromosome Maintenance Expression Defines Slow-Growing Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Schimmack

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Small intestinal neuroendocrine neoplasm (SI-NEN proliferation is quantified by Ki67 measurements which capture G1-G2M phases of the cell cycle. G0 and early G1 phases, typical of slow-growing cells, can be detected by minichromosome maintenance protein (MCM expression. We hypothesized that these replication licensing markers may provide clinically relevant information to augment Ki67 in low-grade neuroendocrine neoplasia. METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining (IHC, Western blot analysis, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and copy number variations of MCM2, MCM3, and Ki67 were undertaken in SI-NENs (n = 22. MCM and Ki67 expression was compared by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis (tissue microarray, independent set [n = 55]. Forty-three pancreatic NENs and 14 normal tissues were included as controls. RESULTS: In SI-NENs, MCM2 (mean: 21.2%: range: 16%-25% and MCM3 (28.7%: 22%-34% were detected in significantly more cells than Ki67 (2.3%: 0%-7%, P < .01. MCM2 mRNA correlated with Ki67 IHC (P < .05. MCM3 protein expression was higher in metastases (38-fold than in normal small intestine (P = .06 and was largely absent in normal neuroendocrine cells. There was considerable variation at the MCM copy number level (0-4 copies. MCM3 expression in proliferating cells significantly predicted overall survival (P < .002. Combinations of Ki67 and MCM2/3 in algorithms differentiated low and higher proliferative lesions (overall survival: 12 vs 6.1 years, P = .06. MCM expression was not informative in pancreatic NENs. CONCLUSION: MCMs are expressed in a higher proportion of NEN cells than Ki67 in slow-growing small intestinal lesions and correlate with survival. Assessment can be used to augment Ki67 to improve prognostic classification in these low-grade tumors.

  6. Spontaneous rupture of thymic neuroendocrine carcinoma: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chan Yeong; Lee, In Jae; Min, Soo Kee [Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Thymic neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) is a rare neoplasm with tendencies of local invasion and metastasis. Usually, it is detected incidentally or by its symptoms caused by mass effect. Rupture of the tumor is extremely rare. In this study, we report a case of a ruptured thymic NEC that was combined with a potentially fatal hemorrhage. This lesion was manifested as a progressive bulging of the right cardiac border on serial chest radiographs, and on CT as a large anterior mediastinal mass with heterogeneous enhancement, internal necrosis, and hematoma.

  7. Update on the management of neuroendocrine hepatic metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madoff, David C; Gupta, Sanjay; Ahrar, Kamran; Murthy, Ravi; Yao, James C

    2006-08-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are rare and represent a diverse collection of malignancies that occur in many organ systems throughout the body, including the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. Unfortunately, the majority of patients with NETs have hepatic metastases at the time of diagnosis. Although some patients may be asymptomatic, others have unusual clinical presentations and variable tumor growth patterns. Although many patients have long indolent courses, without treatment, most patients die within 5 years of diagnosis. This article reviews the care of patients with NETs and hepatic metastases, with emphasis on the increasingly important role of oncologic image-guided interventions.

  8. Treatment of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor with liver metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Zhao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (pNET is a rare type of pancreatic tumors. The incidence of pNET shows a gradually increasing trend in recent years. The most common organ of distant metastases is the liver. Surgical resection is still the optimal treatment for resectable, well-differentiated liver metastases with no evidence of extrahepatic spread. For unresectable patients, a combination of multiple modalities, such as transarterial chemoembolization, radiofrequency ablation, systemic chemotherapy, and molecular targeted therapy, can prolong the survival time of patients. Liver transplantation should be strictly evaluated on an individual basis.

  9. Mucinous Carcinoma with Neuroendocrine Differentiation of Salivary Gland Origin

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Frankie K.; Zumsteg, Zachary S.; Langevin, Claude-Jean; Ali, Nabilah; Maclary, Shawn; Balzer, Bonnie L.; Ho, Allen S.

    2016-01-01

    Primary mucinous adenocarcinomas of the salivary gland are rare malignancies defined by aggregates of epithelial cells suspended in large pools of extracellular mucin. We report a case of a giant mucinous adenocarcinoma of salivary gland origin, with low-grade cytoarchitectural features and neuroendocrine differentiation arising in the submental region. Grossly, the tumor measured 12.5 × 13.4 × 8.2 cm and replaced the bone and soft tissues of the anterior oral cavity. Microscopically, the neo...

  10. Psychoneuroendocrine research in depression. I. Hormone levels of different neuroendocrine axes and the dexamethasone suppression test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupprecht, R; Lesch, K P

    1989-01-01

    Psychoneuroendocrinology is of major importance in the biological research of depression. Most studies have focussed on the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis but other endocrine systems such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT), hypothalamic-pituitary-somatotropic (HPS), and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis have also been shown to be involved in the psychobiology of depression. There are close interrelations between various endocrine axes which possibly are affected during depressive illness. A variety of neuroendocrine abnormalities has been detected in depressive disorder but the pathophysiology of these derangements remains still unclear. Although the currently used neuroendocrine tests are not of diagnostic validity they may help to clarify the pathophysiological significance of the complex regulatory mechanisms of different neuroendocrine axes in affective disorders. Neuroendocrine regulation is determined both by peripheral and central mechanisms which both have to be adequately considered as well as potent interactions between various endocrine systems in further neuroendocrine depression research.

  11. Blood pressure control and treatment adherence in hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome: protocol of a randomized controlled study based on home blood pressure telemonitoring vs. conventional management and assessment of psychological determinants of adherence (TELEBPMET Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parati Gianfranco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate blood pressure control and poor adherence to treatment remain among the major limitations in the management of hypertensive patients, particularly of those at high risk of cardiovascular events. Preliminary evidence suggests that home blood pressure telemonitoring (HBPT might help increasing the chance of achieving blood pressure targets and improve patient’s therapeutic adherence. However, all these potential advantages of HBPT have not yet been fully investigated. Methods/design The purpose of this open label, parallel group, randomized, controlled study is to assess whether, in patients with high cardiovascular risk (treated or untreated essential arterial hypertension - both in the office and in ambulatory conditions over 24 h - and metabolic syndrome, long-term (48 weeks blood pressure control is more effective when based on HBPT and on the feedback to patients by their doctor between visits, or when based exclusively on blood pressure determination during quarterly office visits (conventional management (CM. A total of 252 patients will be enrolled and randomized to usual care (n=84 or HBPT (n=168. The primary study endpoint will be the rate of subjects achieving normal daytime ambulatory blood pressure targets ( Discussion The TELEBPMET Study will show whether HBPT is effective in improving blood pressure control and related medical and economic outcomes in hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome. It will also provide a comprehensive understanding of the psychological determinants of medication adherence and blood pressure control of these patients. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov: NCT01541566

  12. Study of the neuroendocrine and immunologic mechanism of fatigue caused by military operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin LI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To observe the regularity of the changes in neuroendocrine-immune system caused by fatigue due to military operations, and explore the mechanism by which fatigue occurs in military operations. Methods  The subjects were 240 soldiers belonging to a field artillery force. The medical history and physical examination were taken before military operations, and fatigue assessment scale was accomplished as well. The following variables were measured in all the subjects: pituitary-adrenal [adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, cortical hormone (B, 24-h urinary free cortisol (UFC], pituitary-gonadal [luteinizing hormone (LH, testosterone (T, estradiol (E2], pituitary-thyroid functions [serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, tetraiodothyronine (TT4, triiodothyronine (TT3, free thyroxine (FT4, and free triiodothyronine (FT3], and cellular immune parameters (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+, B, NK. After 7 d of large-scale and high-intensity field exercises, the above variables were again measured in all the subjects. Results  After high-intensity military operations, the unpleasant feelings were significantly increased, and the compulsive and psychotic scores significantly decreased in the soldiers. In addition, the pituitary-adrenal and pituitary-gonadal hormone levels also decreased (all PPPConclusion  The depressed psychological tolerance in soldiers is the psychological factor of fatigue after a high-intensity military operation. The hypocorticoidism and inhibition of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis are the pathophysiological basis of military operation fatigue. Suppression of immune function is an important reason for an increase of susceptibility to disease after high-intensity military operations.

  13. [Political psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  14. Genetic associations with neuroendocrine tumor risk: results from a genome-wide association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yeting; Ter-Minassian, Monica; Brais, Lauren; Brooks, Nichole; Waldron, Amanda; Chan, Jennifer A; Lin, Xihong; Kraft, Peter; Christiani, David C; Kulke, Matthew H

    2016-08-01

    The etiology of neuroendocrine tumors remains poorly defined. Although neuroendocrine tumors are in some cases associated with inherited genetic syndromes, such syndromes are rare. The majority of neuroendocrine tumors are thought to be sporadic. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify potential genetic risk factors for sporadic neuroendocrine tumors. Using germline DNA from blood specimens, we genotyped 909,622 SNPs using the Affymetrix 6.0 GeneChip, in a cohort comprising 832 neuroendocrine tumor cases from Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Massachusetts General Hospital and 4542 controls from the Harvard School of Public Health. An additional 241 controls from Dana-Farber Cancer Institute were used for quality control. We assessed risk associations in the overall cohort, and in neuroendocrine tumor subgroups. We identified no potential risk associations in the cohort overall. In the small intestine neuroendocrine tumor subgroup, comprising 293 cases, we identified risk associations with three SNPs on chromosome 12, all in strong LD. The three SNPs are located upstream of ELK3, a transcription factor implicated in angiogenesis. We did not identify clear risk associations in the bronchial or pancreatic neuroendocrine subgroups. This large-scale study provides initial evidence that presumed sporadic small intestine neuroendocrine tumors may have a genetic etiology. Our results provide a basis for further exploring the role of genes implicated in this analysis, and for replication studies to confirm the observed associations. Additional studies to evaluate potential genetic risk factors for sporadic pancreatic and bronchial neuroendocrine tumors are warranted. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  15. Neuroendocrine Tumours : From Radiomolecular Imaging to Radionuclide Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGIOS eLIMOURIS

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Transhepatic radionuclide infusion (THRI has been introduced as a new treatment approach for unresectable liver neuroendocrine metastatic lesions with the prerequisite of a positive In-111 Pentetreotide (Octreoscan. Patients with multiple liver neuroendocrine metastases can be locally treated after selective hepatic artery catheterization and infusion of radiolabelled somatostatin analogues, and in case of extra-hepatic secondary spread, after simple i.v. application. According to the world wide references, the average dose per session to each patient is 6.3±0.3 GBq (~ 160-180 mCi of In-111-DTPA-Phe1- Pentetreotide, 10-12 fold in total, administered monthly or of 4.1± 0.2 GBq (~105-116 mCi of Y-90 DOTA TOC, 3 fold in total or of 7.0 ± 0.4 GBq (~178-200 mCi of Lu-177 DOTA TATE, 4-6 fold in total (the choice of which being based on the tumor size, assessed by CT or MRI . Follow-up at monthly intervals has to be performed by means of ultrasonography (US. Treat- ment response has to be assessed according to the WHO criteria (RECIST or SWOG.

  16. Current Status of Radiopharmaceuticals for the Theranostics of Neuroendocrine Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melpomeni Fani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Nuclear medicine plays a pivotal role in the management of patients affected by neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs. Radiolabeled somatostatin receptor analogs are by far the most advanced radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and therapy (radiotheranostics of NENs. Their clinical success emerged receptor-targeted radiolabeled peptides as an important class of radiopharmaceuticals and it paved the way for the investigation of other radioligand-receptor systems. Besides the somatostatin receptors (sstr, other receptors have also been linked to NENs and quite a number of potential radiolabeled peptides have been derived from them. The Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor (GLP-1R is highly expressed in benign insulinomas, the Cholecystokinin 2 (CCK2/Gastrin receptor is expressed in different NENs, in particular medullary thyroid cancer, and the Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide (GIP receptor was found to be expressed in gastrointestinal and bronchial NENs, where interestingly, it is present in most of the sstr-negative and GLP-1R-negative NENs. Also in the field of sstr targeting new discoveries brought into light an alternative approach with the use of radiolabeled somatostatin receptor antagonists, instead of the clinically used agonists. The purpose of this review is to present the current status and the most innovative strategies for the diagnosis and treatment (theranostics of neuroendocrine neoplasms using a cadre of radiolabeled regulatory peptides targeting their receptors.

  17. Irritable bowel syndrome: the role of gut neuroendocrine peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Seim, Inge; Chopin, Lisa; Gundersen, Doris; Hatlebakk, Jan Gunnar; Hausken, Trygve

    2012-06-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic disorder with a prevalence ranging from 5 to 10 percent of the world's population. This condition is characterised by abdominal discomfort or pain, altered bowel habits, and often bloating and abdominal distension. IBS reduces quality of life in the same degree of impairment as major chronic diseases such as congestive heart failure and diabetes and the economic burden on the health care system and society is high. Abnormalities have been reported in the neuroendocrine peptides/amines of the stomach, small- and large intestine in patients with IBS. These abnormalities would cause disturbances in digestion, gastrointestinal motility and visceral hypersensitivity, which have been reported in patients with IBS. These abnormalities seem to contribute to the symptom development and appear to play a central role in the pathogenesis of IBS. Neuroendocrine peptides/amines are potential tools in the treatment and diagnosis of IBS. In particular, the cell density of duodenal chromogranin A expressing cells appears to be a good histopathological marker for the diagnosis of IBS with high sensitivity and specificity.

  18. Acute metabolic, hormonal, and psychological responses to strength training with superimposed EMS at the beginning and the end of a 6 week training period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, N; Wahl, P; Kleinöder, H; Wechsler, K; Achtzehn, S; Mester, J

    2015-12-01

    The aim was to determine metabolic and hormonal responses to strength training with or without superimposed electromyostimulation (EMS) at the beginning and the end of a 6 week training period. 20 strength trained subjects were randomly assigned to two groups. The first group (S) performed 4 sets of back squats with a constantly adjusted additional load of their individual 10 repetition maximum (10 RM) twice a week over 6 weeks. The second group (S+E) did the same training program with superimposed EMS on leg and trunk muscles. Physiological responses were determined before and after the first (TS 1) and the last training session (TS 12). No significant differences of hormonal responses could be observed between groups and TSs. However, small to large effects on metabolism occurred between groups and TSs. Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) was significantly higher 48h after TS 1 for S+E. Despite a higher DOMS after S+E, there is no acute effect of superimposed EMS on hormonal response to exhaustive resistance exercise. We suggest that, because of the high resistance during 10 RM bouts, most of the muscle fibers are already activated and superimposed EMS only activates few additional muscle fibers.

  19. Acute metabolic, hormonal, and psychological responses to strength training with superimposed EMS at the beginning and the end of a 6 week training period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, N.; Wahl, P.; Kleinöder, H.; Wechsler, K.; Achtzehn, S.; Mester, J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim was to determine metabolic and hormonal responses to strength training with or without superimposed electromyostimulation (EMS) at the beginning and the end of a 6 week training period. Methods: 20 strength trained subjects were randomly assigned to two groups. The first group (S) performed 4 sets of back squats with a constantly adjusted additional load of their individual 10 repetition maximum (10 RM) twice a week over 6 weeks. The second group (S+E) did the same training program with superimposed EMS on leg and trunk muscles. Physiological responses were determined before and after the first (TS 1) and the last training session (TS 12). Results: No significant differences of hormonal responses could be observed between groups and TSs. However, small to large effects on metabolism occurred between groups and TSs. Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) was significantly higher 48h after TS 1 for S+E. Conclusions: Despite a higher DOMS after S+E, there is no acute effect of superimposed EMS on hormonal response to exhaustive resistance exercise. We suggest that, because of the high resistance during 10 RM bouts, most of the muscle fibers are already activated and superimposed EMS only activates few additional muscle fibers. PMID:26636278

  20. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  1. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, A W

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism.

  2. German Military Psychology 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, *WEST GERMANY, MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY , PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, APTITUDE TESTS, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , PSYCHIATRY, MILITARY PROCUREMENT, CLASSIFICATION, SELECTION, PILOTS, AVIATION MEDICINE.

  3. Research Progress of Amino Acid Metabolism PET Imaging in Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIE Da-hong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Amino acid metabolism PET imaging plays a very important role in metabolism molecular imaging. Amino acid PET tracers include [1-11C]amino acid, labeling α-C amino acid, labeling side-chain amino acid, and N-substituted labeling amino acid. Uptake mechanism of these amino acids in tumor mainly involves in amino acid transport and amino acid metabolism PET imaging has an advantage of differential diagnosis of neuropsychiatric diseases, brain cancer, neuroendocrine tumor, and other tumors. The research progress of amino acid metabolism PET imaging in tumor were summarized.

  4. Specification of Drosophila corpora cardiaca neuroendocrine cells from mesoderm is regulated by Notch signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangbin Park

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila neuroendocrine cells comprising the corpora cardiaca (CC are essential for systemic glucose regulation and represent functional orthologues of vertebrate pancreatic α-cells. Although Drosophila CC cells have been regarded as developmental orthologues of pituitary gland, the genetic regulation of CC development is poorly understood. From a genetic screen, we identified multiple novel regulators of CC development, including Notch signaling factors. Our studies demonstrate that the disruption of Notch signaling can lead to the expansion of CC cells. Live imaging demonstrates localized emergence of extra precursor cells as the basis of CC expansion in Notch mutants. Contrary to a recent report, we unexpectedly found that CC cells originate from head mesoderm. We show that Tinman expression in head mesoderm is regulated by Notch signaling and that the combination of Daughterless and Tinman is sufficient for ectopic CC specification in mesoderm. Understanding the cellular, genetic, signaling, and transcriptional basis of CC cell specification and expansion should accelerate discovery of molecular mechanisms regulating ontogeny of organs that control metabolism.

  5. Octreotide-functionalized and resveratrol-loaded unimolecular micelles for targeted neuroendocrine cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenjin; Burke, Jocelyn F.; Pilla, Srikanth; Chen, Herbert; Jaskula-Sztul, Renata; Gong, Shaoqin

    2013-09-01

    Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a neuroendocrine tumor (NET) that is often resistant to standard therapies. Resveratrol suppresses MTC growth in vitro, but it has low bioavailability in vivo due to its poor water solubility and rapid metabolic breakdown, as well as lack of tumor-targeting ability. A novel unimolecular micelle based on a hyperbranched amphiphilic block copolymer was designed, synthesized, and characterized for NET-targeted delivery. The hyperbranched amphiphilic block copolymer consisted of a dendritic Boltorn® H40 core, a hydrophobic poly(l-lactide) (PLA) inner shell, and a hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) outer shell. Octreotide (OCT), a peptide that shows strong binding affinity to somatostatin receptors, which are overexpressed on NET cells, was used as the targeting ligand. Resveratrol was physically encapsulated by the micelle with a drug loading content of 12.1%. The unimolecular micelles exhibited a uniform size distribution and spherical morphology, which were determined by both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Cellular uptake, cellular proliferation, and Western blot analyses demonstrated that the resveratrol-loaded OCT-targeted micelles suppressed growth more effectively than non-targeted micelles. Moreover, resveratrol-loaded NET-targeted micelles affected MTC cells similarly to free resveratrol in vitro, with equal growth suppression and reduction in NET marker production. These results suggest that the H40-based unimolecular micelle may offer a promising approach for targeted NET therapy.

  6. The role of the endocannabinoid system in the neuroendocrine regulation of energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez-Silva, Francisco Javier; Cardinal, Pierre; Cota, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Animal and human studies carried out so far have established a role for the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in the regulation of energy balance. Here we critically discuss the role of the endocannabinoid signalling in brain structures, such as the hypothalamus and reward-related areas, and its interaction with neurotransmitter and neuropeptide systems involved in the regulation of food intake and body weight. The ECS has been found to interact with peripheral signals, like leptin, insulin, ghrelin and satiety hormones and the resulting effects on both central and peripheral mechanisms affecting energy balance and adiposity will be described. Furthermore, ECS dysregulation has been associated with the development of dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance and obesity; phenomena that are often accompanied by a plethora of neuroendocrine alterations which might play a causal role in determining ECS dysregulation. Despite the withdrawal of the first generation of cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1) antagonists from the pharmaceutical market due to the occurrence of psychiatric adverse events, new evidence suggests that peripherally restricted CB1 antagonists might be efficacious for the treatment of obesity and its associated metabolic disorders. Thus, a perspective on new promising strategies to selectively target the ECS in the context of energy balance regulation is given.

  7. Specification of Drosophila corpora cardiaca neuroendocrine cells from mesoderm is regulated by Notch signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangbin; Bustamante, Erika L; Antonova, Julie; McLean, Graeme W; Kim, Seung K

    2011-08-01

    Drosophila neuroendocrine cells comprising the corpora cardiaca (CC) are essential for systemic glucose regulation and represent functional orthologues of vertebrate pancreatic α-cells. Although Drosophila CC cells have been regarded as developmental orthologues of pituitary gland, the genetic regulation of CC development is poorly understood. From a genetic screen, we identified multiple novel regulators of CC development, including Notch signaling factors. Our studies demonstrate that the disruption of Notch signaling can lead to the expansion of CC cells. Live imaging demonstrates localized emergence of extra precursor cells as the basis of CC expansion in Notch mutants. Contrary to a recent report, we unexpectedly found that CC cells originate from head mesoderm. We show that Tinman expression in head mesoderm is regulated by Notch signaling and that the combination of Daughterless and Tinman is sufficient for ectopic CC specification in mesoderm. Understanding the cellular, genetic, signaling, and transcriptional basis of CC cell specification and expansion should accelerate discovery of molecular mechanisms regulating ontogeny of organs that control metabolism.

  8. Cognitive Performance and the Alteration of Neuroendocrine Hormones in Chronic Tension-Type Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Ping; Yu, Jin-Xia; Xia, Lan; Chen, Gui-Hai

    2017-03-24

    Tension-type headache (TTH) is the most prevalent primary headache. Chronic TTH (CTTH), the most serious form of TTH, is refractory, with a high socio-economic burden. Research studies have shown patients with migraine often had cognitive impairment, but few studies have focused on the cognition in patients with CTTH. In this study, we assumed that patients with CTTH also have cognitive impairments, which are modulated by the neuroendocrine state. Participants were recruited, including patients with CTTH and healthy controls. Cognitive ability was evaluated using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and the Nine Box Maze Test. The administration of neuroendocrine hormones has been established to be associated with cognitive performance, and we detected the hormonal changes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone. These results showed that compared to the controls, significant cognitive impairment and neuroendocrine dysfunction were present in the patients with CTTH. We also assessed the correlations between the neuroendocrine hormones and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score, 17-term Hamilton's Depression Scale score, pain intensity, and duration of pain to determine whether the neuroendocrine hormones had any associations with these symptoms of CTTH. These results showed that changes in neuroendocrine hormones were involved in these symptoms of CTTH. Intervention with the neuroendocrine state may be a strategy for CTTH treatment. © 2017 World Institute of Pain.

  9. Hypothalamic neuroendocrine circuitry is programmed by maternal obesity: interaction with postnatal nutritional environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Chen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Early life nutrition is critical for the development of hypothalamic neurons involved in energy homeostasis. We previously showed that intrauterine and early postnatal overnutrition programmed hypothalamic neurons expressing the appetite stimulator neuropeptide Y (NPY and suppressor proopiomelanocortin (POMC in offspring at weaning. However, the long-term effects of such programming and its interactions with post-weaning high-fat-diet (HFD consumption are unclear. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Female Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to chow or HFD for 5 weeks before mating, throughout gestation and lactation. On postnatal day 1, litters were adjusted to 3/litter to induce postnatal overnutrition (vs. 12 in control. At postnatal day 20, half of the rats from each maternal group were weaned onto chow or HFD for 15 weeks. Hypothalamic appetite regulators, and fuel (glucose and lipid metabolic markers were measured. RESULTS: Offspring from obese dams gained more weight than those from lean dams independent of post-weaning diet. Maternal obesity interacted with post-weaning HFD consumption to cause greater levels of hyperphagia, adiposity, hyperlipidemia, and glucose intolerance in offspring. This was linked to increased hypothalamic NPY signaling and leptin resistance in adult offspring. Litter size reduction had a detrimental impact on insulin and adiponectin, while hypothalamic NPY and POMC mRNA expression were suppressed in the face of normal energy intake and weight gain. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal obesity, postnatal litter size reduction and post-weaning HFD consumption caused obesity via different neuroendocrine mechanism. There were strong additive effects of maternal obesity and post-weaning HFD consumption to increase the metabolic disorders in offspring.

  10. Endocrine and neuroendocrine regulation of fathering behavior in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Sharon E

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care". Although paternal care is generally rare among vertebrates, care of eggs and young by male birds is extremely common and may take on a variety of forms across species. Thus, birds provide ample opportunities for investigating both the evolution of and the proximate mechanisms underpinning diverse aspects of fathering behavior. However, significant gaps remain in our understanding of the endocrine and neuroendocrine influences on paternal care in this vertebrate group. In this review, I focus on proximate mechanisms of paternal care in birds. I place an emphasis on specific hormones that vary predictably and/or unpredictably during the parental phase in both captive and wild birds: prolactin and progesterone are generally assumed to enhance paternal care, whereas testosterone and corticosterone are commonly-though not always correctly-assumed to inhibit paternal care. In addition, because endocrine secretions are not the sole mechanistic influence on paternal behavior, I also explore potential roles for certain neuropeptide systems (specifically the oxytocin-vasopressin nonapeptides and gonadotropin inhibitory hormone) and social and experiential factors in influencing paternal behavior in birds. Ultimately, mechanistic control of fathering behavior in birds is complex, and I suggest specific avenues for future research with the goal of narrowing gaps in our understanding of this complexity. Such avenues include (1) experimental studies that carefully consider not only endocrine and neuroendocrine mechanisms of paternal behavior, but also the ecology, phylogenetic history, and social context of focal species; (2) investigations that focus on individual variation in both hormonal and behavioral responses during the parental phase; (3) studies that investigate mechanisms of maternal and paternal care independently, rather than assuming that the mechanistic foundations of care are similar between the sexes; (4

  11. Reclassification of neuroendocrine tumors improves the separation of carcinoids and the prediction of survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, B.G.; Krasnik, M.; Lantuejoul, S.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The classification of neuroendocrine lung tumors has changed over the last decades. Reliable diagnoses are crucial for the quality of clinical databases. The purpose of this study is to determine to which extent the use of different diagnostic criteria of neuroendocrine lung tumors.......03). However, the number of removed lymph nodes were insufficient for definitive determination of the prognostic impact of node metastases. Regarding the revised diagnoses, a significant difference in survival between typical carcinoid, atypical carcinoid, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and small cell...

  12. Update on neuroendocrine regulation and medical intervention of reproduction in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mans, Christoph; Taylor, W Michael

    2008-01-01

    In avian species, reproductive disorders and undesirable behaviors commonly reflect abnormalities in the neuroendocrine regulation of the reproductive system. Current treatment options are often disappointing, show no long-lasting effect, or have significant side effects. A possible reason for our lack of success is a dearth of knowledge of the underlying neuroendocrine, behavioral, and autonomous physiology of the reproductive processes. Tremendous progress has been made in the last few years in our understanding of the neuroendocrine control of reproduction in birds. Advantage should be taken of these experimentally derived data to develop appropriate and safe treatment protocols for avian patients suffering from reproductive disorders.

  13. Sport Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotee, March L.

    1980-01-01

    Sport psychology is defined in terms of human behavior in athletic situations. The psychosocial cross-cultural setting provides a model for studying trait and state psychosocial attributes and suggests issues and concerns for further study. (JMF)

  14. [Advances of circulating biomarkers in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Luohai; Chen, Minhu; Chen, Jie

    2017-03-25

    Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplam (GEP-NEN) is a rare group of tumors with its incidence rising significantly in recent decades. Because of the late presentation of the disease and limitations in conventional biomarkers, about 50% of GEP-NEN patients manifests advanced disease when diagnosed. Therefore, it is vital to identify circulating biomarkers which can not only be used for early diagnosis but also accurately evaluating the biological behavior of GEP-NEN. This review summarizes the advances of circulating biomarkers in diagnosing and evaluating efficacy of treatment in GEP-NEN. Well-known circulating biomarkers include chromogranin A (CgA), pancreastatin (PST), chromogranin B (CgB), neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and pancreatic peptide(PP). Novel biomarkers including circulating tumor cell(CTC), microRNA and NETest are promising biomarkers with potential clinical benefit, but further researches are needed before their clinical applications.

  15. [Radioguided surgery in neuroendocrine tumors. A review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Talavera, P; Ruano, R; Rioja, M E; Cordero, J M; Razola, P; Vidal-Sicart, S

    2014-01-01

    Radioguided surgery can be a useful technique in the localization of neuroendocrine tumors. It detects more and smaller lesions compared to pre-surgical imaging and intraoperative digital palpation by the surgeon. It detects residual lesions and also indicates the shortest access route to the lesion. Nevertheless, its use has not become widespread because of technical difficulties. There is a limited number of published series, a lack of standardized protocol because of the great variability regarding type of radiopharmaceutical, dose of radiotracer, timing between injection and surgery. In this paper, we review these issues, describing the experience of different authors in diverse tumors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  16. Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor in a female wolf (Canis lupus lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraki, Ayako; Yoshida, Toshinori; Kawashima, Masahi; Murayama, Hirotada; Nagahara, Rei; Ito, Nanao; Shibutani, Makoto

    2017-03-23

    A 17-year-old female wolf (Canis lupus lupus) had a right lung mass that was adhered to the thoracic cavity. Histopathological examination revealed that the mass consisted of sheets, cord or ribbon-like structures of monotonous, small, cuboidal cells with round, oval or short-spindle nuclei and scant clear cytoplasm, demarcated by a fine fibrovascular stroma. Focal necrosis, congestion and thrombi were observed. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells diffusely expressed cytokeratin AE1/AE3, and some expressed chromogranin A, neural cell adhesion molecule (CD56) and thyroid transcription factor-1. The number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive tumor cells was low. A diagnosis of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor was based on the resemblance to carcinoids.

  17. Neuroendocrine Tumour of the Prostate: A Rare Variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozer Ural Cakici

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available About 95% of prostate cancers are adenocarcinomas. Neuroendocrine differentiation (NED is seen in virtually all cases of prostatic carcinoma, mostly in a focal pattern. Extensive NED is associated to aggressive disease with a poor prognosis and most cases are diagnosed in advanced stages.We present a 79-year- old male who was admitted to our department with severe lower urinary tract obstructive symptoms and weight loss. On digital rectal examination, the prostate was fixed to the rectum with irregular margins. Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA level was 1.9 ng/ml.Transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsies revealed small-cell carcinoma of the prostate. Multiple metastatic lesions in vertebral bones and iliac lymph nodes were detected by nuclear bone scan and abdominal computerised tomography CT. Thereafter, the patient was treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy and palliative radiotherapy.

  18. Leptin as immune mediator: Interaction between neuroendocrine and immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procaccini, Claudio; La Rocca, Claudia; Carbone, Fortunata; De Rosa, Veronica; Galgani, Mario; Matarese, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone/cytokine that links nutritional status with neuroendocrine and immune functions. Initially described as an anti-obesity hormone, leptin has subsequently been shown to exert pleiotropic effects, being also able to influence haematopoiesis, thermogenesis, reproduction, angiogenesis, and more importantly immune homeostasis. As a cytokine, leptin can affect both innate and adaptive immunity, by inducing a pro-inflammatory response and thus playing a key role in the regulation of the pathogenesis of several autoimmune/inflammatory diseases. In this review, we discuss the most recent advances on the role of leptin as immune-modulator in mammals and we also provide an overview on its main functions in non-mammalian vertebrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Circadian neuroendocrine physiology and electromagnetic field studies: Precautions and complexities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warman, G.R.; Tripp, H.M.; Harman, V.L.; Arendt, J

    2003-07-01

    The suppression of melatonin by exposure to low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) 'the melatonin hypothesis' has been invoked as a possible mechanism through which exposure to these fields may result in an increased incidence of cancer. While the effect of light on melatonin is well established, data showing a similar effect due to EMF exposure are sparse and, where present, are often poorly controlled. The current review focuses on the complexities associated with using melatonin as a marker and the dynamic nature of normal melatonin regulation by the circadian neuroendocrine axis. These are issues which the authors believe contribute significantly to the lack of consistency of results in the current literature. Recommendations on protocol design are also made which, if followed, should enable researchers to eliminate or control for many of the confounding factors associated with melatonin being an output from the circadian clock. (author)

  20. Neonatal testosterone suppresses a neuroendocrine pulse generator required for reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Jean-Marc; Cabelguen, Jean-Marie; Le Masson, Gwendal; Oliet, Stéphane H.; Ciofi, Philippe

    2014-02-01

    The pituitary gland releases hormones in a pulsatile fashion guaranteeing signalling efficiency. The determinants of pulsatility are poorly circumscribed. Here we show in magnocellular hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal oxytocin (OT) neurons that the bursting activity underlying the neurohormonal pulses necessary for parturition and the milk-ejection reflex is entirely driven by a female-specific central pattern generator (CPG). Surprisingly, this CPG is active in both male and female neonates, but is inactivated in males after the first week of life. CPG activity can be restored in males by orchidectomy or silenced in females by exogenous testosterone. This steroid effect is aromatase and caspase dependent, and is mediated via oestrogen receptor-α. This indicates the apoptosis of the CPG network during hypothalamic sexual differentiation, explaining why OT neurons do not burst in adult males. This supports the view that stereotypic neuroendocrine pulsatility is governed by CPGs, some of which are subjected to gender-specific perinatal programming.

  1. Whither Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Diane F

    2017-07-01

    Contemporary psychology is experiencing tremendous growth in neuroscience, and there is every indication that it will continue to gain in popularity notwithstanding the scarcity of academic positions for newly minted Ph.Ds. Despite the general perception that brain correlates "explain" or "cause" the mind and behavior, these correlates have not yet proven useful in understanding psychological processes, although they offer the possibility of early identification of some disorders. Other recent developments in psychology include increased emphasis on applications and more global representation among researchers and participants. In thinking about the way we want psychology to evolve, psychologists need to pay more than lip service to the idea that complex questions in psychology require multiple levels of analysis with contributions from biological (brain, hormones, and genetics), individual differences and social and cultural perspectives. Early career psychologists who can attain a breadth of knowledge will be well-positioned for a team approach to psychological inquiry. Finally, I offer the belief that an emphasis on enhancing critical thinking skills at all levels of education offers the best hope for the future.

  2. Immunohistochemical detection of dopamine D2 receptors in neuroendocrine tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlikowski, Marek; Pisarek, Hanna; Winczyk, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    Recently, dopamine D2 receptors (RD2) have been found to be expressed in neuroendocrine tumours (NET), the tumours which arise from the diffuse neuroendocrine cells. Moreover, successful trials of the treatment of NET with cabergoline - D2 agonist, have been reported. These findings increase the interest of investigating RD2 expression in NET. The expression of RD2 was investigated immunohistochemically using the antibody which recognises both short (S) and long (L) isoforms of the receptor in 17 NET samples taken from 15 patients. In 17 NET samples, a positive reaction with the anti-RD2 antibody occurred in 11 cases. In six cases, the localisation of the immunostaining was cytoplasmic and in nine cases it was nuclear. Only in one case was the receptor cell membrane-located, and in two cases the immunoreaction was also localised in the blood vessels walls. The relation between RD2 expression and the grade of malignancy examined by means of Ki-67 antigen expression needs further study. However, preliminary observations indicate that the nuclear localisation of RD2 is linked to higher tumour malignancy. The next investigated question was the co-expression of somatostatin and dopamine receptors. This question seems important because of the perspectives of somatostatin-dopamine chimeras application in NET treatment. In the samples examined by us, RD2 were co-expressed in 5/10 cases with sstr1, in 3/10 with sstr2A, in 2/9 with sstr2B, in 3/10 with sstr3, and in 5/10 with sstr5. Dopamine D2 receptors are revealed by means of immunohistochemistry in the majority of NET. They exhibit cytoplasmic and/or nuclear localisations, the latter being possibly linked to a higher grade of malignancy, and are often co-expressed with somatostatin receptors (mostly with subtypes1 and 5).

  3. Rb Loss is Characteristic of Prostatic Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hsueh-Li; Sood, Akshay; Rahimi, Hameed A.; Wang, Wenle; Gupta, Nilesh; Hicks, Jessica; Mosier, Stacy; Gocke, Christopher D.; Epstein, Jonathan I.; Netto, George J.; Liu, Wennuan; Isaacs, William B.; De Marzo, Angelo M.; Lotan, Tamara L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the prostate is likely to become increasingly common with recent advances in pharmacologic androgen suppression. Thus, developing molecular markers of small cell differentiation in prostate cancer will be important to guide diagnosis and therapy of this aggressive tumor. Experimental Design We examined the status of RB1, TP53 and PTEN in prostatic small cell and acinar carcinomas via immunohistochemistry (IHC), copy number alteration analysis and sequencing of formalin fixed paraffin-embedded specimens. Results We found Rb protein loss in 90% (26/29) of small cell carcinoma cases with RB1 allelic loss in 85% (11/13) of cases. Of acinar tumors occurring concurrently with prostatic small cell carcinoma, 43% (3/7) showed Rb protein loss. In contrast, only 7% (10/150) of primary high grade acinar carcinomas, 11% (4/35) of primary acinar carcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation, and 15% (2/13) of metastatic castrate resistant acinar carcinomas showed Rb protein loss. Loss of PTEN protein was seen in 63% (17/27) of small cell carcinomas, with 38% (5/13) showing allelic loss. By IHC, accumulation of p53 was observed in 56% (14/25) of small cell carcinomas, with 60% (6/10) of cases showing TP53 mutation. Conclusions Loss of RB1 by deletion is a common event in prostatic small cell carcinoma and can be detected by validated IHC assay. As Rb protein loss rarely occurs in high grade acinar tumors, these data suggest that Rb loss is a critical event in the development of small cell carcinomas and may be a useful diagnostic and potential therapeutic target. PMID:24323898

  4. Social stress contagion in rats: Behavioural, autonomic and neuroendocrine correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevali, Luca; Montano, Nicola; Statello, Rosario; Coudé, Gino; Vacondio, Federica; Rivara, Silvia; Ferrari, Pier Francesco; Sgoifo, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    The negative emotional consequences associated with life stress exposure in an individual can affect the emotional state of social partners. In this study, we describe an experimental rat model of social stress contagion and its effects on social behaviour and cardiac autonomic and neuroendocrine functions. Adult male Wistar rats were pair-housed and one animal (designated as "demonstrator" (DEM)) was submitted to either social defeat stress (STR) by an aggressive male Wild-type rat in a separate room or just exposed to an unfamiliar empty cage (control condition, CTR), once a day for 4 consecutive days. We evaluated the influence of cohabitation with a STR DEM on behavioural, cardiac autonomic and neuroendocrine outcomes in the cagemate (defined "observer" (OBS)). After repeated social stress, STR DEM rats showed clear signs of social avoidance when tested in a new social context compared to CTR DEM rats. Interestingly, also their cagemate STR OBSs showed higher levels of social avoidance compared to CTR OBSs. Moreover, STR OBS rats exhibited a higher heart rate and a larger shift of cardiac autonomic balance toward sympathetic prevalence (as indexed by heart rate variability analysis) immediately after the first reunification with their STR DEMs, compared to the control condition. This heightened cardiac autonomic responsiveness habituated over time. Finally, STR OBSs showed elevated plasma corticosterone levels at the end of the experimental protocol compared to CTR OBSs. These findings demonstrate that cohabitation with a DEM rat, which has experienced repeated social defeat stress, substantially disrupts social behaviour and induces short-lasting cardiac autonomic activation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hyperactivity in the OBS rat, thus suggesting emotional state-matching between the OBS and the DEM rats. We conclude that this rodent model may be further exploited for investigating the neurobiological bases of negative affective sharing between

  5. Morphological and immunohistochemical profile of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simtniece, Zane; Vanags, Andrejs; Strumfa, Ilze; Sperga, Maris; Vasko, Ervins; Prieditis, Peteris; Trapencieris, Peteris; Gardovskis, Janis

    2015-06-01

    The study represents a comprehensive retrospective morphological and immunohistochemical profiling of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (PNENs) in order to reveal the associations between morphological and molecular parameters. The local tumour spread (T), presence of metastases in regional lymph nodes (N) and distant organs (M), tumour grade (G) and resection line status (R) by pathology findings (pTNMGR), mitotic activity, perineural, vascular and lymphatic invasion were assessed in 16 surgically resected PNENs. By immunohistochemistry, expression of Ki-67, p53, p27, p21, cyclin D1, Bcl-2, E-cadherin, CD44, vimentin, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), microvascular density, and cytokeratin (CK) spectrum, along with neuroendocrine, intestinal and squamous markers were detected. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, Spearman's rank correlation, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis methods were applied; p<0.05 was considered significant. Ki-67, CK19, p63, vimentin and COX-2 were significantly up-regulated in PNENs in comparison to benign pancreatic islets. A complex network of morphological and molecular associations was identified. Ki-67 correlated with PNEN size (p=0.022), the World Health Organization 2004 and 2010 classification grades (p=0.021 and p=0.002), stage (p=0.028) and mitotic count (p=0.007) but among molecular markers--with CK19 (p=0.033) and vimentin (p=0.045). CK19 was significantly up-regulated in PNENs, having higher pT (p=0.018), pR (p=0.025), vascular (p=0.020), perineural (p=0.026) and lymphatic invasion (p=0.043). In conclusion, proliferation activity (by Ki-67), E-cadherin, vimentin and CK19 are important molecular characteristics of PNENs due to significant associations with morphological tumour characteristics, pTNMGR and invasive growth.

  6. Clonality analysis of neuroendocrine cells in gastric adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling-Ling; Yao, Gen-You; Zhao, Zhong-Sheng; Wei, Xiao-Li; Xu, Ru-Jun

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To achieve a better understanding of the origination of neuroendocrine (NE) cells in gastric adenocarcinoma. METHODS: In this study, 120 cases of gastric adenocarcinoma were obtained. First, frozen section-immunohistochemistrical samples were selected from a large quantity of neuroendocrine cells. Second, laser capture microdissection was used to get target cells from gastric adenocarcinoma and whole genome amplification was applied to get a large quantity of DNA for further study. Third, genome-wide microsatellite abnormalities [microsatellite instability (MSI), loss of heterozygosity (LOH)] and p53 mutation were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-single-strand conformation polymer- phism-silver staining and PCR-sequencing in order to identify the clonality of NE cells. RESULTS: The total incidence rate of MSI was 27.4%, while LOH was 17.9%. Ten cases had a highest concordance for the two types of cells. The other samples had similar microsatellite changes, except for cases 7 and 10. Concordant p53 mutations exhibited in sample 4, 14, 21 and 27, and there were different mutations between two kinds of cells in case 7. In case 17, mutation took place only in adenocarcinoma cells. p53 mutation was closely related with degree of differentiation, tumor-node-metastasis stage, vessel invasion and lymph node metastasis. In brief, NE and adenocarcinoma cells showed the same MSI, LOH or p53 mutation in most cases (27/30). In the other three cases, different MSI, LOH or p53 mutation occurred. CONCLUSION: NE and the gastric adenocarcinoma cells may mainly derive from the same stem cells, but the remaining cases showing different origin needs further investigation. PMID:23983439

  7. Malnutrition Predicts Clinical Outcome in Patients with Neuroendocrine Neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maasberg, Sebastian; Knappe-Drzikova, Barbora; Vonderbeck, Dorothée; Jann, Henning; Weylandt, Karsten H; Grieser, Christian; Pascher, Andreas; Schefold, Jörg C; Pavel, Marianne; Wiedenmann, Bertram; Sturm, Andreas; Pape, Ulrich-Frank

    2017-01-01

    Malnutrition is a common problem in oncological diseases, influencing treatment outcomes, treatment complications, quality of life and survival. The potential role of malnutrition has not yet been studied systematically in neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN), which, due to their growing prevalence and additional therapeutic options, provide an increasing clinical challenge to diagnosis and management. The aim of this cross-sectional observational study, which included a long-term follow-up, was therefore to define the prevalence of malnutrition in 203 patients with NEN using various methodological approaches, and to analyse the short- and long-term outcome of malnourished patients. A detailed subgroup analysis was also performed to define risk factors for poorer outcome. When applying malnutrition screening scores, 21-25% of the NEN patients were at risk of or demonstrated manifest malnutrition. This was confirmed by anthropometric measurements, by determination of serum surrogate parameters such as albumin as well as by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), particularly phase angle α. The length of hospital stay was significantly longer in malnourished NEN patients, while long-term overall survival was highly significantly reduced. Patients with high-grade (G3) neuroendocrine carcinomas, progressive disease and undergoing chemotherapy were at particular risk of malnutrition associated with a poorer outcome. Multivariate analysis confirmed the important and highly significant role of malnutrition as an independent prognostic factor for NEN besides proliferative capacity (G3 NEC). Malnutrition is therefore an underrecognized problem in NEN patients which should systematically be diagnosed by widely available standard methods such as Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS), serum albumin assessment and BIA, and treated to improve both short- and long-term outcomes. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Multidisciplinary Approach to the Treatment of Obese Adolescents: Effects on Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Inflammatory Profile, and Neuroendocrine Regulation of Energy Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Raimunda Dâmaso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevention of obesity and health concerns related to body fat is a major challenge worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of a medically supervised, multidisciplinary approach, on reduction in the prevalence of obesity related comorbidities, inflammatory profile, and neuroendocrine regulation of energy balance in a sample of obese adolescents. A total of 97 postpuberty obese adolescents were enrolled in this study. Body composition, neuropeptides, and adipokines were analysed. The metabolic syndrome was defined by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF. The abdominal ultrasonography was performed to measure visceral, subcutaneous fat and hepatic steatosis. All measures were performed at baseline and after one year of therapy. The multidisciplinary management promoted the control of obesity reducing body fat mass. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome, asthma, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, binge eating, and hyperleptinemia was reduced. An improvement in the inflammatory profile was demonstrated by an increase in anti-inflammatory adiponectin and reduction in proinflammatory adipokines, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, interleukin-6 concentrations, and in the Lep/Adipo ratio. Moreover, a reduction in the AgRP and an increase in the alfa-MSH were noted. The multidisciplinary approach not only reduced obesity but also is efficacious in cardiovascular risk factors, inflammatory profile, and neuroendocrine regulation of energy balance.

  9. Multidisciplinary Approach to the Treatment of Obese Adolescents: Effects on Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Inflammatory Profile, and Neuroendocrine Regulation of Energy Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dâmaso, Ana Raimunda; de Piano, Aline; Campos, Raquel Munhoz da Silveira; Corgosinho, Flávia Campos; Siegfried, Wolfgang; Caranti, Danielle Arisa; Masquio, Deborah Cristina Landi; Carnier, June; Sanches, Priscila de Lima; Leão da Silva, Patrícia; Nascimento, Cláudia Maria Oller; Oyama, Lila Missae; Dantas, Alexandre Dâmaso Aguilera; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Tufik, Sergio; Tock, Lian

    2013-01-01

    The prevention of obesity and health concerns related to body fat is a major challenge worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of a medically supervised, multidisciplinary approach, on reduction in the prevalence of obesity related comorbidities, inflammatory profile, and neuroendocrine regulation of energy balance in a sample of obese adolescents. A total of 97 postpuberty obese adolescents were enrolled in this study. Body composition, neuropeptides, and adipokines were analysed. The metabolic syndrome was defined by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). The abdominal ultrasonography was performed to measure visceral, subcutaneous fat and hepatic steatosis. All measures were performed at baseline and after one year of therapy. The multidisciplinary management promoted the control of obesity reducing body fat mass. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome, asthma, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), binge eating, and hyperleptinemia was reduced. An improvement in the inflammatory profile was demonstrated by an increase in anti-inflammatory adiponectin and reduction in proinflammatory adipokines, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, interleukin-6 concentrations, and in the Lep/Adipo ratio. Moreover, a reduction in the AgRP and an increase in the alfa-MSH were noted. The multidisciplinary approach not only reduced obesity but also is efficacious in cardiovascular risk factors, inflammatory profile, and neuroendocrine regulation of energy balance. PMID:24285955

  10. A Delphic consensus assessment : imaging and biomarkers in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor disease management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberg, Kjell; Krenning, Eric; Sundin, Anders; Bodei, Lisa; Kidd, Mark; Tesselaar, Margot; Ambrosini, Valentina; Baum, Richard P.; Kulke, Matthew; Pavel, Marianne; Cwikla, Jaroslaw; Drozdov, Ignat; Falconi, Massimo; Fazio, Nicola; Frilling, Andrea; Jensen, Robert; Koopmans, Klaus; Korse, Tiny; Kwekkeboom, Dik; Maecke, Helmut; Paganelli, Giovanni; Salazar, Ramon; Severi, Stefano; Strosberg, Jonathan; Prasad, Vikas; Scarpa, Aldo; Grossman, Ashley; Walenkamp, Annemiek; Cives, Mauro; Virgolini, Irene; Kjaer, Andreas; Modlin, Irvin M.

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of the clinical management of neuroendocrine neoplasia (NEN) is exacerbated by limitations in imaging modalities and a paucity of clinically useful biomarkers. Limitations in currently available imaging modalities reflect difficulties in measuring an intrinsically indolent disease,

  11. Epigenetic programming of the neuroendocrine stress response by adult life stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirven, B.C.J.; Homberg, J.R.; Kozicz, L.T.; Henckens, M.J.A.G.

    2017-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is critically involved in the neuroendocrine regulation of stress adaptation, and the restoration of homeostasis following stress exposure. Dysregulation of this axis is associated with stress-related pathologies like major depressive disorder,

  12. Expression of p53 protein in high-grade gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Abir Salwa; Grönberg, Malin; Federspiel, Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine carcinomas (GEP-NECs) are aggressive, rapidly proliferating tumors. Therapeutic response to current chemotherapy regimens is usually short lasting. The aim of this study was to examine the expression and potential clinical importance of immunoreac...

  13. Middle ear adenoma with neuroendocrine differentiation: relate of two cases and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bittencourt, Aline Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adenomas with neuroendocrine differentiation are defined as neuroendocrine neoplasms, and they are rarely found in the head and neck. Objective: To describe two cases of a middle ear adenoma with neuroendocrine differentiation, with a literature review. Case Report: Patient 1 was a 41-year-old woman who presented with a 3-year history of left aural fullness associated with ipsilateral “hammer beating” tinnitus. Patient 2 was a 41-year-old male who presented with unilateral conductive hearing loss. Conclusion: Adenoma with neuroendocrine differentiation of the middle ear is a rare entity, but it should be considered in patients with tinnitus, aural fullness, and a retrotympanic mass and remembered as a diferential diagnosis of tympanic paraganglioma.

  14. Genetic and molecular coordinates of neuroendocrine lung tumors, with emphasis on small-cell lung carcinomas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koutsami, Marilena K; Doussis-Anagnostopoulou, Ipatia; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G; Gorgoulis, Vassilis G

    2002-01-01

    .... Current information on established and putative diagnostic and prognostic markers of neuroendocrine tumors are evaluated, with a special reference to small-cell lung carcinoma, due to its higher...

  15. Chemotherapy for pulmonary large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas : Does the regimen matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, Jules L.; van Suylen, Robert Jan; Thunnissen, Erik; den Bakker, Michael A.; Groen, Harry J.; Smit, Egbert F.; Damhuis, Ronald A.; van den Broek, Esther C.; Speel, Ernst-Jan M.; Dingemans, Anne-Marie C.

    Pulmonary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) is rare. Chemotherapy for metastatic LCNEC ranges from small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) regimens to nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) chemotherapy regimens. We analysed outcomes of chemotherapy treatments for LCNEC. The Netherlands Cancer

  16. Middle ear adenoma with neuroendocrine differentiation: relate of two cases and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Aline Gomes; Tsuji, Robinson Koji; Cabral, Francisco; Pereira, Larissa Vilela; Fonseca, Anna Carolina de Oliveira; Alves, Venâncio; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Adenomas with neuroendocrine differentiation are defined as neuroendocrine neoplasms, and they are rarely found in the head and neck. Objective: To describe two cases of a middle ear adenoma with neuroendocrine differentiation, with a literature review. Case Report: Patient 1 was a 41-year-old woman who presented with a 3-year history of left aural fullness associated with ipsilateral “hammer beating” tinnitus. Patient 2 was a 41-year-old male who presented with unilateral conductive hearing loss. Conclusion: Adenoma with neuroendocrine differentiation of the middle ear is a rare entity, but it should be considered in patients with tinnitus, aural fullness, and a retrotympanic mass and remembered as a diferential diagnosis of tympanic paraganglioma. PMID:25992031

  17. Expression of Neuroendocrine Markers in Normal and Neoplastic Tissue with an Emphasis on Ghrelin and Obestatin

    OpenAIRE

    Grönberg, Malin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to characterize the expression of the peptides ghrelin and obestatin, as well as other neuroendocrine markers in human normal tissues, in invasive breast cancer and a wide panel of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). In normal tissues the expression of ghrelin and obestatin was mainly localized to the gastric mucosa, and in lesser extent in the remaining gastrointestinal tract, endocrine pancreas and mammary glands. Double immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that ghre...

  18. Terminal neuroendocrine differentiation of human prostate carcinoma cells in response to increased intracellular cyclic AMP.

    OpenAIRE

    Bang, Y J; Pirnia, F; Fang, W G; Kang, W K; Sartor, O; Whitesell, L; Ha, M J; Tsokos, M.; Sheahan, M D; Nguyen, P.

    1994-01-01

    Recent clinicopathologic studies have shown that many prostatic adenocarcinomas express focal neuroendocrine differentiation and that neuroendocrine differentiation is most apparent in advanced anaplastic tumors. While studying growth-regulatory signal transduction events in human prostate carcinoma cell lines, we found that in two of four cell lines, the androgen-sensitive line LNCaP and the highly metastatic androgen-independent line PC-3-M, elevation of cAMP through addition of cAMP analog...

  19. Carcinome neuroendocrine du sein: à propos d'un cas et revue de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le carcinome neuroendocrine primitif du sein est une tumeur rare qui a été reconnue par la dernière édition de la classification OMS du cancer du sein publiée en 2003. Le diagnostic est évoqué sur des critères morphologiques et confirmé par l'expression des marqueurs neuroendocrines (chromogranine et ...

  20. Psychological Spacetime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Gideon Conway

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been an accepted scientific fact in physics for almost 100 years that time speeds up and slows down for an observer based on factors—such as motion and gravity—that affect space. Yet this fact, drawn from the theory of relativity, has not been widely integrated into the study of the psychology of time. The present article helps to fill in this gap between physics and psychology by reviewing evidence concerning what a psychological spacetime processor—one that accounted for the theory of relativity’s empirically validated predictions of the compensatory relationship between time and space—would look like. This model of the spacetime processor suggests that humans should have a psychological mechanism for slowing time down as motion speeds up, a prediction that already has widespread research support. We also discuss several novel hypotheses directly suggested by the spacetime model and a set of related speculations that emerge when considering spacetime (some of which have already received empirical support. Finally, we compare and contrast three very different potential reasons why we might have developed a spacetime processor in the first place. We conclude that the spacetime model shows promise for organizing existing data on time perception and generating novel hypotheses for researchers to pursue. Considering how humans might process spacetime helps reduce the existing gap between our understanding of physics and our understanding of human psychology.

  1. Political psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Susanna; Johnson, Kate M; Beall, Erica; Meindl, Peter; Smith, Benjamin; Graham, Jesse

    2014-07-01

    Political psychology is a dynamic field of research that offers a unique blend of approaches and methods in the social and cognitive sciences. Political psychologists explore the interactions between macrolevel political structures and microlevel factors such as decision-making processes, motivations, and perceptions. In this article, we provide a broad overview of the field, beginning with a brief history of political psychology research and a summary of the primary methodological approaches in the field. We then give a more detailed account of research on ideology and social justice, two topics experiencing a resurgence of interest in current political psychology. Finally, we cover research on political persuasion and voting behavior. By summarizing these major areas of political psychology research, we hope to highlight the wide variety of theoretical and methodological approaches of cognitive scientists working at the intersection of psychology and political science. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:373-385. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1293 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Altered Neuroendocrine Immune Responses, a Two-Sword Weapon against Traumatic Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ce; Gao, Jie; Du, Juan; Yang, Xuetao; Jiang, Jianxin

    2017-01-01

    During the occurrence and development of injury (trauma, hemorrhagic shock, ischemia and hypoxia), the neuroendocrine and immune system act as a prominent navigation leader and possess an inter-system crosstalk between the reciprocal information dissemination. The fundamental reason that neuroendocrinology and immunology could mix each other and permeate toward the field of traumatology is owing to their same biological languages or chemical information molecules (hormones, neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, cytokines and their corresponding receptors) shared by the neuroendocrine and immune systems. The immune system is not only modulated by the neuroendocrine system, but also can modulate the biological functions of the neuroendocrine system. The interactive linkage of these three systems precipitates the complicated space-time patterns for the courses of traumatic inflammation. Recently, compelling evidence indicates that the network linkage pattern that initiating agents of neuroendocrine responses, regulatory elements of immune cells and effecter targets for immune regulatory molecules arouse the resistance mechanism disorders, which supplies the beneficial enlightenment for the diagnosis and therapy of traumatic complications from the view of translational medicine. Here we review the alternative protective and detrimental roles as well as possible mechanisms of the neuroendocrine immune responses in traumatic inflammation.

  3. The Structure of the Neuroendocrine Hypothalamus: The Neuroanatomical Legacy of Geoffrey Harris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Alan G.

    2015-01-01

    In November 1955 Geoffrey Harris published a paper based on the Christian A. Herter Lecture he had given earlier that year at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. The paper reviewed the contemporary research that was starting to explain how the hypothalamus controlled the pituitary gland. In the process of doing this Harris introduced a set of properties that would help define the neuroendocrine hypothalamus. They included: a) three criteria that putative releasing factors for adenohypophysial hormones would have to fulfill; b) an analogy between the representation of body parts in sensory and motor cortices and the spatial localization of neuroendocrine function in the hypothalamus; and c) the idea that neuroendocrine neurons were motor neurons, with the pituitary stalk functioning as a Sherringtonian final common pathway through which the impact of sensory and emotional events on neuroendocrine neurons had to pass to control pituitary hormone release. Were these properties a sign that the major neuroscientific discoveries being made in the early 1950s were beginning to influence neuroendocrinology? The present article discusses two main points: the context and significance of Harris's Herter Lecture for how our understanding of neuroendocrine anatomy (particularly as it relates to the control of the adenohypophysis) has developed since 1955; and within this framework, how novel and powerful techniques are taking our understanding of the structure of the neuroendocrine hypothalamus to new levels. PMID:25994006

  4. Metabolic aspects of the ghrelin system: Role of acylated and unacylated ghrelin in glucose homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Gauna (Carlotta)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn the last decade the discovery of ghrelin, a gut peptide discovered in 1999 by Kojima and colleagues (1), has led to the identification of a complex system that introduced new perspectives in neuroendocrine and metabolic research. Ghrelin is a peptide-hormone of 28 amino acids,

  5. Psychological IVF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrian, Stine Willum

    2015-01-01

    During ethnographic fieldwork at a fertility clinic in Denmark, I became intrigued by emotions. In particular, I found an incidence labelled ‘psychological IVF’ theoretically provocative as it challenged my views on materializations, which I was preparing to study. This paper centres on the story...... of psychological IVF, and I use this narrative to consider emotions and materialization methodologically. I also ask how emotions at fertility clinics can be conceptualized to enable analysis of their materialization, change, and effects. In order to do so, I develop the term ‘emotional choreography......’. This theoretical work has three aims. First, it seeks to illustrate how the story of psychological IVF offers a rich range of materializations of emotions. Secondly, this work proposes a feminist materialist conceptualization of emotions that is both non-representational and posthuman. This conceptualization draws...

  6. Personality and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina R; Costa, Paul T; Uda, Manuela; Ferrucci, Luigi; Schlessinger, David; Terracciano, Antonio

    2010-12-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has paralleled the sharp increase in obesity. Given its tremendous physical, emotional, and financial burden, it is of critical importance to identify who is most at risk and the potential points of intervention. Psychological traits, in addition to physiological and social risk factors, may contribute to metabolic syndrome. The objective of the present research is to test whether personality traits are associated with metabolic syndrome in a large community sample. Participants (N = 5,662) from Sardinia, Italy, completed a comprehensive personality questionnaire, the NEO-PI-R, and were assessed on all components of metabolic syndrome (waist circumference, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting glucose). Logistic regressions were used to predict metabolic syndrome from personality traits, controlling for age, sex, education, and current smoking status. Among adults over age 45 (n = 2,419), Neuroticism and low Agreeableness were associated with metabolic syndrome, whereas high Conscientiousness was protective. Individuals who scored in the top 10% on Conscientiousness were approximately 40% less likely to have metabolic syndrome (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.41-0.92), whereas those who scored in the lowest 10% on Agreeableness were 50% more likely to have it (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.09-2.16). At the facet level, traits related to impulsivity and hostility were the most strongly associated with metabolic syndrome. The present research indicates that those with fewer psychological resources are more vulnerable to metabolic syndrome and suggests a psychological component to other established risk factors.

  7. The effectiveness and applicability of different lifestyle interventions for enhancing wellbeing: the study design for a randomized controlled trial for persons with metabolic syndrome risk factors and psychological distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity and stress are among the most common lifestyle-related health problems. Most of the current disease prevention and management models are not satisfactorily cost-effective and hardly reach those who need them the most. Therefore, novel evidence-based controlled interventions are necessary to evaluate models for prevention and treatment based on self-management. This randomized controlled trial examines the effectiveness, applicability, and acceptability of different lifestyle interventions with individuals having symptoms of metabolic syndrome and psychological distress. The offered interventions are based on cognitive behavioral approaches, and are designed for enhancing general well-being and supporting personalized lifestyle changes. Methods/Design 339 obese individuals reporting stress symptoms were recruited and randomized to either (1) a minimal contact web-guided Cognitive Behavioral Therapy-based (CBT) intervention including an approach of health assessment and coaching methods, (2) a mobile-guided intervention comprising of mindfulness, acceptance and value-based exercises, (3) a face-to-face group intervention using mindfulness, acceptance and value-based approach, or (4) a control group. The participants were measured three times during the study (pre = week 0, post = week 10, and follow-up = week 36). Psychological well-being, lifestyles and habits, eating behaviors, and user experiences were measured using online surveys. Laboratory measurements for physical well-being and general health were performed including e.g. liver function, thyroid glands, kidney function, blood lipids and glucose levels and body composition analysis. In addition, a 3-day ambulatory heart rate and 7-day movement data were collected for analyzing stress, recovery, physical activity, and sleep patterns. Food intake data were collected with a 48 -hour diet recall interview via telephone. Differences in the effects of the interventions would be

  8. The effectiveness and applicability of different lifestyle interventions for enhancing wellbeing: the study design for a randomized controlled trial for persons with metabolic syndrome risk factors and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappalainen, Raimo; Sairanen, Essi; Järvelä, Elina; Rantala, Sanni; Korpela, Riitta; Puttonen, Sampsa; Kujala, Urho M; Myllymäki, Tero; Peuhkuri, Katri; Mattila, Elina; Kaipainen, Kirsikka; Ahtinen, Aino; Karhunen, Leila; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Järnefelt, Heli; Laitinen, Jaana; Kutinlahti, Eija; Saarelma, Osmo; Ermes, Miikka; Kolehmainen, Marjukka

    2014-04-04

    Obesity and stress are among the most common lifestyle-related health problems. Most of the current disease prevention and management models are not satisfactorily cost-effective and hardly reach those who need them the most. Therefore, novel evidence-based controlled interventions are necessary to evaluate models for prevention and treatment based on self-management. This randomized controlled trial examines the effectiveness, applicability, and acceptability of different lifestyle interventions with individuals having symptoms of metabolic syndrome and psychological distress. The offered interventions are based on cognitive behavioral approaches, and are designed for enhancing general well-being and supporting personalized lifestyle changes. 339 obese individuals reporting stress symptoms were recruited and randomized to either (1) a minimal contact web-guided Cognitive Behavioral Therapy-based (CBT) intervention including an approach of health assessment and coaching methods, (2) a mobile-guided intervention comprising of mindfulness, acceptance and value-based exercises, (3) a face-to-face group intervention using mindfulness, acceptance and value-based approach, or (4) a control group. The participants were measured three times during the study (pre = week 0, post = week 10, and follow-up = week 36). Psychological well-being, lifestyles and habits, eating behaviors, and user experiences were measured using online surveys. Laboratory measurements for physical well-being and general health were performed including e.g. liver function, thyroid glands, kidney function, blood lipids and glucose levels and body composition analysis. In addition, a 3-day ambulatory heart rate and 7-day movement data were collected for analyzing stress, recovery, physical activity, and sleep patterns. Food intake data were collected with a 48 -hour diet recall interview via telephone. Differences in the effects of the interventions would be examined using multiple

  9. Neuroendocrine and behavioral implications of endocrine disrupting chemicals in quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, M.A.; Abdelnabi, M.A.; Henry, P.; McGary, S.; Thompson, N.; Wu, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Studies in our laboratory have focused on endocrine, neuroendocrine, and behavioral components of reproduction in the Japanese quail. These studies considered various stages in the life cycle, including embryonic development, sexual maturation, adult reproductive function, and aging. A major focus of our research has been the role of neuroendocrine systems that appear to synchronize both endocrine and behavioral responses. These studies provide the basis for our more recent research on the impact of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on reproductive function in the Japanese quail. These endocrine active chemicals include pesticides, herbicides, industrial products, and plant phytoestrogens. Many of these chemicals appear to mimic vertebrate steroids, often by interacting with steroid receptors. However, most EDCs have relatively weak biological activity compared to native steroid hormones. Therefore, it becomes important to understand the mode and mechanism of action of classes of these chemicals and sensitive stages in the life history of various species. Precocial birds, such as the Japanese quail, are likely to be sensitive to EDC effects during embryonic development, because sexual differentiation occurs during this period. Accordingly, adult quail may be less impacted by EDC exposure. Because there are a great many data available on normal development and reproductive function in this species, the Japanese quail provides an excellent model for examining the effects of EDCs. Thus, we have begun studies using a Japanese quail model system to study the effects of EDCs on reproductive endocrine and behavioral responses. In this review, we have two goals: first, to provide a summary of reproductive development and sexual differentiation in intact Japanese quail embryos, including ontogenetic patterns in steroid hormones in the embryonic and maturing quail. Second, we discuss some recent data from experiments in our laboratory in which EDCs have been tested in

  10. Guidelines for the management of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (including bronchopulmonary and thymic neoplasms). Part II-specific NE tumour types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oberg, Kjell; Astrup, Lone Bording; Eriksson, Barbro

    2004-01-01

    Part II of the guidelines contains a description of epidemiology, histopathology, clinical presentation, diagnostic procedure, treatment, and survival for each type of neuroendocrine tumour. We are not only including gastroenteropancreatic tumours but also bronchopulmonary and thymic neuroendocrine...... tumours. These guidelines essentially cover basic knowledge in the diagnosis and management of the different forms of neuroendocrine tumour. We have, however, tried to give more updated information about the epidemiology and histopathology, which is essential for the clinical management of these tumours....

  11. Metabolic Myopathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Am A Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Metabolic Myopathies Metabolic Myopathies Fast Facts Metabolic myopathies are rare genetic ... no family history of the condition. What are metabolic myopathies? Metabolic myopathies are genetic defects that interfere ...

  12. Pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinoma mimicking neurocysticercosis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, John C; Robinson, Stephen R; Schell, Andrew; Vaughan, Stephen

    2016-06-02

    Neurocysticercosis occurs when the eggs of the pork tapeworm (Taenia solium) migrate and hatch into larvae within the central nervous system. Neurocysticercosis is the most common cause of seizures in the developing world and is characterized on brain imaging by cysts in different stages of evolution. In Canada, cases of neurocysticercosis are rare and most of these patients acquire the disease outside of Canada. We report the case of a patient with multiple intracranial lesions whose history and diagnostic imaging were consistent with neurocysticercosis. Pathological investigations ultimately demonstrated that her brain lesions were secondary to malignancy. Brain metastases are considered to be the most common cause of intracranial cystic lesions. We present the case of a 60-year-old Canadian-born Caucasian woman with a subacute history of ataxia, lower extremity hyper-reflexia, and otalgia who resided near a pig farm for most of her childhood. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed that she had multiple heterogeneous intracranial cysts, suggestive of neurocysticercosis. Despite a heavy burden of disease, serological tests for cysticercosis were negative. This result and a lack of the central scolices on neuroimaging that are pathognomonic of neurocysticercosis prompted whole-body computed tomography imaging to identify another etiology. The whole-body computed tomography revealed right hilar lymphadenopathy associated with soft tissue nodules in her chest wall and abdomen. A biopsy of an anterior chest wall nodule demonstrated high-grade poorly differentiated carcinoma with necrosis, which stained strongly positive for thyroid transcription factor-1 and synaptophysin on immunohistochemistry. A diagnosis of stage 4 metastatic small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma was made and our patient was referred for oncological palliative treatment. This case illustrates the importance of the diagnostic approach to intracranial lesions. Our patient

  13. Spectrum of malignant somatostatin-producing neuroendocrine tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moayedoddin, Baback; Booya, Fargol; Wermers, Robert A; Lloyd, Ricardo V; Rubin, Joseph; Thompson, Geoffrey B; Fatourechi, Vahab

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical manifestations and outcome of patients with somatostatinomas--rare neuroendocrine tumors of pancreaticoduodenal origin. We searched the medical archives and tumor registry of our institution for somatostatinomas or somatostatin-staining tumors for the 12-year period from January 1990 to February 2002. In addition, we reviewed laboratory databases for patients who had an elevated serum somatostatin level. Patients with a neuroendocrine tumor and an elevated serum somatostatin level or somatostatin-positive tumor immunostaining were included in this study. Eleven patients qualified (9 men and 2 women; median age at diagnosis, 45 years; age range, 22 to 73). The diagnosis of a somatostatinoma was made by immunostaining of the tumor in 9 patients and by finding elevated serum somatostatin levels in 2. Five primary tumors were of duodenal and 6 of pancreatic origin. Psammoma body formation and association with neurofibromatosis were seen only in the duodenal tumors. The known primary tumor sizes varied from 2 to 6 cm. Liver metastatic lesions were present in 6 patients, abdominal lymph node involvement was found in 10 patients, and lung, spleen, and ovarian metastatic involvement was noted in 1 patient each. Diabetes was present in 4 patients (36%) and cholelithiasis in 7 (64%). The presence of a mass led to the diagnosis in most patients with primary duodenal tumors, whereas patients with pancreatic tumors were more likely to have endocrine manifestations. A Whipple procedure was performed in 6 patients, distal pancreatectomy in 3, hepatic artery embolization or ligation in 3, and partial hepatectomy in 1. Cancer-related death occurred in 4 patients, 1 to 8 years after diagnosis (median, 4.5 years). At last follow-up, 2 patients were alive without evidence of disease (8 and 10 years after diagnosis), and 3 were alive with liver metastatic lesions. The status of 2 patients was unclear. Somatostatinomas occurred with approximately equal frequency

  14. CLINICAL VALUE OF CHROMOGRANIN A IN GASTROENTEROPANCREATIC NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Lyubimova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neuroendocrine tumors (NET is a heterogeneous group of neoplasms characterized by hypersecretion of biologically active sub- stances that manifests by specific syndromes and determines the clinical course of the disease. The most common NET types are those of gastrointestinal tract. The obligatory biochemical marker used in the examination of NET patients is chromogranin A (CgA.Aim: Evaluation of the CgA value for diagnostics and monitoring of gastrointestinal NETs.Materials and methods: A comparative study of plasma CgA levels was performed in 146 patients with gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tu- mors and 66 healthy individuals using the enzyme immunoassay “Chromogranin A ELISA kit” (Dako A/S, Denmark.Results: CgA levels were significantly higher in patients with NETs of all localizations, such as pancreas, stomach, gut, small and large bowel, than in the healthy subjects (р < 0.000001. In NET patients, CgA secretion was highly variable, with the highest value in the group of patients with gastric NETs (102000 U/l. The highest CgA medians were detected in patients with small intestinal (183.9 U/l, colon (148.4 U/l and pancreatic (135.9 U/l NETs. There was an association between CgA secretion and extension or activity of NETs, with the highest median values in patients with hepatic metastases (395 U/l and those with carcinoid syndrome (352 U/l. The clinical significance of CgA as a NET marker was assessed using the cut-off value of 33 U/l, calculated according to the results in the control group. Overall diagnostic sensitivity of CgA in NET patients was high (85.8% with a specificity of 98.5%. Conclusion: The results obtained confirm a high sensitivity of CgA as a NET marker whose determination helps to improve accuracy of diagnostics and to assess NET prevalence.

  15. Space psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  16. Deployment psychology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abel

    breaking fashion, brings into a single compendium the growing body of literatures, since Yerkes's work, which point to the ... [they] reflect on how they have changed”.3 From the outset of this text, there is a very real and palpable sense .... embedded and enmeshed. At times, Deployment psychology appears to ignore the.

  17. High-Dose Lanreotide in the Treatment of Poorly Differentiated Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Carcinoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Van Fraeyenhove

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs, including poorly differentiated carcinomas (NECs, are rarely encountered. The majority of these tumors do not secrete excess hormones, but functioning NETs produce large amounts of vasoactive peptides and may cause carcinoid syndrome. Synthetic somatostatin analogs (SSAs have been widely used in NETs for control of hormonal syndromes. Here, we present a case of poorly differentiated, grade 3 pancreatic NEC associated with carcinoid syndrome, for which adequate symptom control was achieved for 2 years and 4 months using the long-acting SSA lanreotide Autogel®. In February 2009, a 55-year-old woman presented with episodes of flushing, diarrhea and epigastric pain. Imaging techniques revealed the presence of a metabolically active mass expressing somatostatin receptors in the hilar area of the liver. Histopathological examination confirmed the malignant nature of the mass, which was identified as a poorly differentiated grade 3 pancreatic NEC (TNM staging: T4NxM0. Therapeutic options were limited for the patient because of the extent of the primary mass involving the celiac axis, severe gastrointestinal toxicity experienced as a side effect of chemotherapy with cisplatin-etoposide and, later in the course of the disease, extensive liver metastases and carcinoid heart syndrome. Along with a palliative debulking surgery and right portal vein embolization, biotherapy with a high dose of lanreotide Autogel (120 mg/14 days contributed to alleviation of symptoms caused by hormone overproduction, even after the development of liver metastases. These results suggest that patients with poorly differentiated NECs who exhibit signs of carcinoid syndrome can benefit from treatment with somatostatin analogs.

  18. Drug effects on neuroendocrine regulation; Proceedings of the International Symposium, Snowmass-at-Aspen, Colo., July 17-19, 1972

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, E. (Editor); Gispen, W. H.; Marks, B. H.; De Wied, D.

    1973-01-01

    Subjects related to the characterization of neuroendocrine systems are discussed, taking into account the need for the precise identification and rigorous description of their operations. Steroid effects on neuroendocrine system performance are considered along with biogenic amine effects on neuroendocrine systems and the influence of drugs of abuse on neuroendocrine behavior. Other topics explored include pituitary-adrenal influences on avoidance and approach behavior of the rat, the adrenocortical mediation of the effects of early life experiences, and the implication of noradrenaline in avoidance learning in the rat. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  19. 2-deoxy-D-glucose-induced metabolic stress enhances resistance to Listeria monocytogenes infection in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, E. S.; Bates, R. A.; Koebel, D. A.; Fuchs, B. B.; Sonnenfeld, G.

    1998-01-01

    Exposure to different forms of psychological and physiological stress can elicit a host stress response, which alters normal parameters of neuroendocrine homeostasis. The present study evaluated the influence of the metabolic stressor 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG; a glucose analog, which when administered to rodents, induces acute periods of metabolic stress) on the capacity of mice to resist infection with the facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. Female BDF1 mice were injected with 2-DG (500 mg/kg b. wt.) once every 48 h prior to, concurrent with, or after the onset of a sublethal dose of virulent L. monocytogenes. Kinetics of bacterial growth in mice were not altered if 2-DG was applied concurrently or after the start of the infection. In contrast, mice exposed to 2-DG prior to infection demonstrated an enhanced resistance to the listeria challenge. The enhanced bacterial clearance in vivo could not be explained by 2-DG exerting a toxic effect on the listeria, based on the results of two experiments. First, 2-DG did not inhibit listeria replication in trypticase soy broth. Second, replication of L. monocytogenes was not inhibited in bone marrow-derived macrophage cultures exposed to 2-DG. Production of neopterin and lysozyme, indicators of macrophage activation, were enhanced following exposure to 2-DG, which correlated with the increased resistance to L. monocytogenes. These results support the contention that the host response to 2-DG-induced metabolic stress can influence the capacity of the immune system to resist infection by certain classes of microbial pathogens.

  20. Circadian Tick-Talking Across the Neuroendocrine System and Suprachiasmatic Nuclei Circuits: The Enigmatic Communication Between the Molecular and Electrical Membrane Clocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, M D C

    2015-07-01

    As with many processes in nature, appropriate timing in biological systems is of paramount importance. In the neuroendocrine system, the efficacy of hormonal influence on major bodily functions, such as reproduction, metabolism and growth, relies on timely communication within and across many of the brain's homeostatic systems. The activity of these circuits is tightly orchestrated with the animal's internal physiological demands and external solar cycle by a master circadian clock. In mammals, this master clock is located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), where the ensemble activity of thousands of clock neurones generates and communicates circadian time cues to the rest of the brain and body. Many regions of the brain, including areas with neuroendocrine function, also contain local daily clocks that can provide feedback signals to the SCN. Although much is known about the molecular processes underpinning endogenous circadian rhythm generation in SCN neurones and, to a lesser extent, extra-SCN cells, the electrical membrane clock that acts in partnership with the molecular clockwork to communicate circadian timing across the brain is poorly understood. The present review focuses on some circadian aspects of reproductive neuroendocrinology and processes involved in circadian rhythm communication in the SCN, aiming to identify key gaps in our knowledge of cross-talk between our daily master clock and neuroendocrine function. The intention is to highlight our surprisingly limited understanding of their interaction in the hope that this will stimulate future work in these areas. © 2015 The Author. Journal of Neuroendocrinology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  1. Differential expression of the PTEN tumor suppressor protein in fetal and adult neuroendocrine tissues and tumors: progressive loss of PTEN expression in poorly differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Luoquan; Ignat, Ana; Axiotis, Constantine A

    2002-06-01

    Genetic alteration and loss of expression of tumor suppressor gene PTEN has been found in carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium, as well as in gliomas. PTEN expression in neural crest/neuroendocrine (NC/NE) tissues and in neoplasms has not been reported. This study examines PTEN expression in embryonal, fetal, and adult tissues by immunohistochemistry. The authors found high PTEN expression in embryonal, fetal, and adult NC/NE tissues. The authors also study the PTEN expression in NC/NE neoplasms (N = 37), including 5 melanocytic nevi, 2 melanomas, 9 carcinoids, 2 moderately differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas, 13 poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas, 2 paragangliomas, 2 pheochromocytomas, 2 medullary thyroid carcinomas, and 1 neuroblastoma. All carcinoid tumors and melanocytic nevi showed moderate or strong immunostaining for PTEN. In contrast, the majority of poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (7 of 13) were negative for PTEN (54%); the remainder showed diminished reactivity. The two melanomas studied were also negative for PTEN immunostaining. The paragangliomas, pheochromocytomas, medullary thyroid carcinomas, and neuroblastoma all showed a strong PTEN stain. The authors postulate that PTEN is a differentiation marker for NC/NE tissue and tumors and that loss of PTEN expression may represent an important step in the progression of NE tumors.

  2. High grade neuroendocrine lung tumors: pathological characteristics, surgical management and prognostic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, Bertrand; Cazes, Aurélie; Mordant, Pierre; Foucault, Christophe; Dujon, Antoine; Guillevin, Elizabeth Fabre; Barthes, Françoise Le Pimpec; Riquet, Marc

    2013-09-01

    Among non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC), large cell carcinoma (LCC) is credited of significant adverse prognosis. Its neuroendocrine subtype has even a poorer diagnosis, with long-term survival similar to small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Our purpose was to review the surgical characteristics of those tumors. The clinical records of patients who underwent surgery for lung cancer in two French centers from 1980 to 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. We more particularly focused on patients with LCC or with high grade neuroendocrine lung tumors. High grade neuroendocrine tumors were classified as pure large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (pure LCNEC), NSCLC combined with LCNEC (combined LCNEC), and SCLC combined with LCNEC (combined SCLC). There were 470 LCC and 155 high grade neuroendocrine lung tumors, with no difference concerning gender, mean age, smoking habits. There were significantly more exploratory thoracotomies in LCC, and more frequent postoperative complications in high grade neuroendocrine lung tumors. Pathologic TNM and 5-year survival rates were similar, with 5-year ranging from 34.3% to 37.6% for high grade neuroendocrine lung tumors and LCC, respectively. Induction and adjuvant therapy were not associated with an improved prognosis. The subgroups of LCNEC (pure NE, combined NE) and combined SCLC behaved similarly, except visceral pleura invasion, which proved more frequent in combined NE and less frequent in combined SCLC. Survival analysis showed a trend toward a lower 5-year survival in case of combined SCLC. Therefore, LCC, LCNEC and combined SCLC share the same poor prognosis, but surgical resection is associated with long-term survival in about one third of patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Locally-advanced primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angarita, Fernando A; Rodríguez, Jorge L; Meek, Eugenio; Sánchez, Jesus O; Tawil, Mauricio; Torregrosa, Lilian

    2013-06-05

    Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast is a heterogeneous group of rare tumors with positive immunoreactivity to neuroendocrine markers in at least 50% of cells. Diagnosis also requires that other primary sites be ruled out and that the same tumor show histological evidence of a breast in situ component. Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast rarely presents as locally advanced disease and less frequently with such widespread metastatic disease as described herein. The review accompanying this case report is the first to provide an overview of all the cases of primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast published in the literature and encompasses detailed information regarding epidemiology, histogenesis, clinical and histologic diagnosis criteria, classification, surgical and adjuvant treatment, as well as prognosis. We also provide recommendations for common clinical and histologic pitfalls associated with this tumor. We describe a case of a 51-year-old Hispanic woman initially diagnosed with locally-advanced invasive ductal carcinoma that did not respond to neoadjuvant treatment. After undergoing modified radical mastectomy the final surgical pathology showed evidence of alveolar-type primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast. The patient was treated with cisplatin/etoposide followed by paclitaxel/carboplatinum. Thirteen months after surgery the patient is alive, but developed pulmonary, bone, and hepatic metastasis. The breast in situ component of primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast may prevail on a core biopsy samples increasing the probability of underdiagnosing this tumor preoperatively. Being aware of the existence of this disease allows for timely diagnosis and management. Optimal treatment requires simultaneous consideration of both the neuroendocrine and breast in situ tumor features.

  4. NOTCH SIGNALLING MODULATES HYPOXIA-INDUCED NEUROENDOCRINE DIFFERENTIATION OF HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danza, Giovanna; Di Serio, Claudia; Rosati, Fabiana; Lonetto, Giuseppe; Sturli, Niccolò; Kacer, Doreen; Pennella, Antonio; Ventimiglia, Giuseppina; Barucci, Riccardo; Piscazzi, Annamaria; Prudovsky, Igor; Landriscina, Matteo; Marchionni, Niccolò; Tarantini, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Prostate carcinoma is among the most common causes of cancer-related death in men, representing 15% of all male malignancies in developed countries. Neuroendocrine differentiation has been associated with tumor progression, poor prognosis and with the androgen-independent status. Currently, no successful therapy exists for advanced, castration-resistant disease. Because hypoxia has been linked to prostate cancer progression and unfavourable outcome, we sought to determine whether hypoxia would impact the degree of neuroendocrine differentiation of prostate cancer cells, in vitro. Results exposure of LNCaP cells to low oxygen tension induced a neuroendocrine phenotype, associated with an increased expression of the transcription factor neurogenin3 and neuroendocrine markers, such as neuron-specific enolase, chromogranin A and β3-tubulin. Moreover, hypoxia triggered a significant decrease of Notch 1 and Notch 2 mRNA and protein expression, with subsequent down regulation of Notch-mediated signalling, as demonstrated by reduced levels of the Notch target genes, Hes1 and Hey1. Neuroendocrine differentiation was promoted by attenuation of Hes1 transcription, as cells expressing a dominant negative form of Hes1 displayed increased levels of neuroendocrine markers under normoxic conditions. Although hypoxia down regulated Notch 1 and Notch 2 mRNA transcription and receptor activation also in the androgen independent cell lines, PC3 and Du145, it did not change the extent of NE differentiation in these cultures, suggesting that androgen sensitivity may be required for transdifferentiation to occur. Conclusions hypoxia induces neuroendocrine differentiation of LNCaP cells in vitro, which appears to be driven by the inhibition of Notch signalling with subsequent down-regulation of Hes1 transcription. PMID:22172337

  5. Epidemiology of neuroendocrine cancers in an Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Colin; Price, Timothy; Townsend, Amanda; Karapetis, Christos; Kotasek, Dusan; Singhal, Nimit; Tracey, Elizabeth; Roder, David

    2010-06-01

    The aim was to explore incidence, mortality and case survivals for invasive neuroendocrine cancers in an Australian population and consider cancer control implications. Directly age-standardised incidence and mortality rates were investigated from 1980 to 2006, plus disease-specific survivals. Annual incidence per 100,000 increased from 1.7 in 1980-1989 to 3.3 in 2000-2006. A corresponding mortality increase was not observed, although numbers of deaths were low, reducing statistical power. Increases in incidence affected both sexes and were more evident for female lung, large bowel (excluding appendix), and unknown primary site. Common sites were lung (25.9%), large bowel (23.3%) (40.9% were appendix), small intestine (20.6%), unknown primary (15.0%), pancreas (6.5%), and stomach (3.7%). Site distribution did not vary by sex (p = 0.260). Younger ages at diagnosis applied for lung (p = 0.002) and appendix (p colon (excluding appendix). Incidence rates are increasing. Research is needed into possible aetiological factors for lung and large-bowel sites, including tobacco smoking, and excess body weight and lack of exercise, respectively; and Crohn's disease as a possible precursor condition.

  6. An unusual association of neuroendocrine tumors in MEN 1A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsavsky, Mariela; Reyes-García, Rebeca; Alonso García, Guillermo; Muñoz-Torres, Manuel

    2012-09-01

    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 is an autonomic dominant disease with a high degree of penetrance. It is characterized by combinations of over 20 different endocrine and nonendocrine tumors. A 25-year-old woman was referred for 1 year-evolution amenorrhea and bilateral galactorrhea. She also had fasting hypoglycaemia and hypercalcemia, and she was diagnosed of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1A. Resection of three parathyroid glands was performed showing hyperplasia of principal cells. Post-parathyroidectomy serum levels of calcium and intact PTH were normal but 3 years later serum calcium levels rose again. A 99mTc-sestamibi scan showed increased uptake in the low right area compatible with adenoma. After biochemical test showing probable insulinoma, somatostatin receptor scintigraphy showed a focal captation in head and body of pancreas. MRI found two nodules in the same localization. An antral gastrectomy, total pancreatoduodenectomy, colecistectomy and truncal vagotomy was performed and histopathologic examination revealed a combination of neuroendocrine tumors: gastrinomas, somastotinomas, glucagonomas and insulinomas. After surgery she started with tingling in fingers, toes and lips, and calcium levels was 5.9 mg/dl and PTH intact 3 pg/ml. A new 99m Tc-sestamibi scan showed no captation and cervical ultrasonography was normal. Now, 2 years later, she continues with normal calcium and i-PTH levels. This report represents an unusual case of MEN 1A with association of insulinomas, gastrinomas glucagonomas and somatostatinomas in the same patient.

  7. [Genetic and neuroendocrine aspects in autism spectrum disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, Norma; Manuel-Apolinar, Leticia; de la Chesnaye, Elsa; Guerra-Araiza, Christian

    The autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was described in 1943 and is defined as a developmental disorder that affects social interaction and communication. It is usually identified in early stages of development from 18 months of age. Currently, autism is considered a neurological disorder with a spectrum covering cases of different degrees, which is associated with genetic factors, not genetic and environmental. Among the genetic factors, various syndromes have been described that are associated with this disorder. Also, the neurobiology of autism has been studied at the genetic, neurophysiological, neurochemical and neuropathological levels. Neuroimaging techniques have shown multiple structural abnormalities in these patients. There have also been changes in the serotonergic, GABAergic, catecholaminergic and cholinergic systems related to this disorder. This paper presents an update of the information presented in the genetic and neuroendocrine aspects of autism spectrum disorder. Copyright © 2014 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of neuroendocrine markers in renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kauppila Saila

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the study was to examine serotonin, CD56, neurone-specific enolase (NSE, chromogranin A and synaptophysin by immunohistochemistry in renal cell carcinomas (RCCs with special emphasis on patient outcome. Methods We studied 152 patients with primary RCCs who underwent surgery for the removal of kidney tumours between 1990 and 1999. The mean follow-up was 90 months. The expression of neuroendocrine (NE markers was determined by immunohistochemical staining using commercially available monoclonal antibodies. Results were correlated with patient age, clinical stage, Fuhrman grade and patient outcome. Results Eight percent of tumours were positive for serotonin, 18% for CD56 and 48% for NSE. Chromogranin A immunostaining was negative and only 1% of the tumours were synaptophysin immunopositive. The NSE immunopositivity was more common in clear cell RCCs than in other subtypes (p = 0.01. The other NE markers did not show any association with the histological subtype. Tumours with an immunopositivity for serotonin had a longer RCC-specific survival and tumours with an immunopositivity for CD56 and NSE had a shorter RCC-specific survival but the difference was not significant. There was no relationship between stage or Fuhrman grade and immunoreactivity for serotonin, CD56 and NSE. Conclusions Serotonin, CD56 and NSE but not synaptophysin and chromogranin A are expressed in RCCs. However, the prognostic potential of these markers remains obscure.

  9. Ileal neuroendocrine tumors and heart: not only valvular consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calissendorff, Jan; Maret, Eva; Sundin, Anders; Falhammar, Henrik

    2015-04-01

    Ileal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) often progress slowly, but because of their generally nonspecific symptoms, they have often metastasized to local lymph nodes and to the liver by the time the patient presents. Biochemically, most of these patients have increased levels of whole blood serotonin, urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and chromogranin A. Imaging work-up generally comprises computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging and somatostatin receptor scintigraphy, or in recent years positron emission tomography with 68Ga-labeled somatostatin analogs, allowing for detection of even sub-cm lesions. Carcinoid heart disease with affected leaflets, mainly to the right side of the heart, is a well-known complication and patients routinely undergo echocardiography to diagnose and monitor this. Multitasking surgery is currently recognized as first-line treatment for ileal NETs with metastases and carcinoid heart disease. Open heart surgery and valve replacement are advocated in patients with valvular disease and progressive heart failure. When valvulopathy in the tricuspid valve results in right-sided heart failure, a sequential approach, performing valve replacement first before intra-abdominal tumor-reductive procedures are conducted, reduces the risk of bleeding. Metastases to the myocardium from ileal NETs are seen in heart metastases are detected, with the addition of diuretics and fluid restriction in cases of heart failure. Myocardial metastases are rarely treated by surgical resection.

  10. Genetic and epigenetic drivers of neuroendocrine tumours (NET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Domenico, Annunziata; Wiedmer, Tabea; Marinoni, Ilaria; Perren, Aurel

    2017-09-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours (NET) of the gastrointestinal tract and the lung are a rare and heterogeneous group of tumours. The molecular characterization and the clinical classification of these tumours have been evolving slowly and show differences according to organs of origin. Novel technologies such as next-generation sequencing revealed new molecular aspects of NET over the last years. Notably, whole-exome/genome sequencing (WES/WGS) approaches underlined the very low mutation rate of well-differentiated NET of all organs compared to other malignancies, while the engagement of epigenetic changes in driving NET evolution is emerging. Indeed, mutations in genes encoding for proteins directly involved in chromatin remodelling, such as DAXX and ATRX are a frequent event in NET. Epigenetic changes are reversible and targetable; therefore, an attractive target for treatment. The discovery of the mechanisms underlying the epigenetic changes and the implication on gene and miRNA expression in the different subgroups of NET may represent a crucial change in the diagnosis of this disease, reveal new therapy targets and identify predictive markers. Molecular profiles derived from omics data including DNA mutation, methylation, gene and miRNA expression have already shown promising results in distinguishing clinically and molecularly different subtypes of NET. In this review, we recapitulate the major genetic and epigenetic characteristics of pancreatic, lung and small intestinal NET and the affected pathways. We also discuss potential epigenetic mechanisms leading to NET development. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  11. Outcome and CT differentiation of gallbladder neuroendocrine tumours from adenocarcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae-Hyung [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Se Hyung [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Hospital and Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung Boon [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Joon Koo [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    To retrospectively investigate clinical outcome and differential CT features of gallbladder (GB) neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) from adenocarcinomas (ADCs). Nineteen patients with poorly-differentiated (PD) NETs and 19 patients with PD ADCs were enrolled. Clinical outcome was compared by the Kaplan-Meier method. We assessed qualitative and quantitative CT features to identify significant differential CT features of PD NETs from ADCs using univariate and multivariate analyses. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used for quantitative CT features. PD NETs showed poorer prognosis with significantly shorter median survival days than ADCs (363 vs. 590 days, P = 0.03). On univariate analysis, NETs more frequently manifested as GB-replacing type and showed well-defined margins accompanied with intact overlying mucosa. On multivariate analysis, well-defined margin was the sole significant CT differentiator (odds ratio = 27.817, P = 0.045). Maximum size of hepatic and lymph node (LN) metastases was significantly larger in NETs (11.0 cm and 4.62 cm) than ADCs (2.40 cm and 2.41 cm). Areas under ROC curves for tumour-to-mucosa ratio, maximum size of hepatic and LN metastasis were 0.772, 0.932 and 0.919, respectively (P < 0.05). GB PD NETs show poorer prognosis than ADCs. Well-defined margin, larger hepatic and LN metastases are useful CT differentiators of GB NETs from ADCs. (orig.)

  12. The many faces of neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate cancer progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane eTerry

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In normal prostate, neuroendocrine (NE cells are rare and interspersed among the epithelium. These cells are believed to provide trophic signals to epithelial cell populations through the secretion of an abundance of neuropeptides that can diffuse to influence surrounding cells. In the setting of prostate cancer (PC, NE cells can also stimulate surrounding prostate adenocarcinoma cell growth, but in some cases adenocarcinoma cells themselves acquire NE characteristics. This epithelial plasticity is associated with decreased androgen receptor (AR signaling and the accumulation of neuronal and stem cell characteristics. Transformation to a NE phenotype is one proposed mechanism of resistance to contemporary AR targeted treatments, is associated with poor prognosis, and thought to represent up to 25% of lethal PCs. Importantly, the advent of high-throughput technologies has started to provide clues for understanding the complex molecular profiles of tumors exhibiting NE differentiation. Here, we discuss these recent advances, the multifaceted manner by which a NE-like state may arise during the different stages of disease progression, and the potential benefit of this knowledge for the management of patients with advanced PC

  13. LEARNING THEORY AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY , *ADJUSTMENT( PSYCHOLOGY ), LEARNING, LEARNING, BEHAVIOR, PERSONALITY, ANXIETY, ATTITUDES( PSYCHOLOGY ), NEUROSES, MENTAL DISORDERS...PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ), VERBAL BEHAVIOR, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , DIAGNOSIS(MEDICINE), THERAPY.

  14. [Sleep and metabolic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micić, Dragan D; Šumarac-Dumanović, Mirjana; Šušić, Veselinka; Pejković, Danica; Polovina, Snežana

    2011-01-01

    In the 20th century, the prevalence of obesity has been increasing worldwide at an alarming rate and it is followed by an increase in the diseases for which obesity is major risk factor, like metabolic syndrome, diabetes type 2 and hypertension. These facts has been resulting in explosion of investigation devoted to explanation of pathogenetic mechanisms of this serious social and medical problems with the main idea to find adequate way of prevention as well as of treatment. Together with the observed epidemy of obesity and Type 2 diabetes, it was found parallel tendency for sleep curtailment, that was confirmed in numerous epidemiological studies, that coincide with its beginning and progress with this two epidemies. This facts lead to investigations with the idea to try to explaine possible mechanisms of the association between sleep curtailment, obesity, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and polycistic ovary syndrome. Having in mind that insulin resistance is one of the fundamental pathogenetic mechanism in these disorders, numerous studies were done with the aim to explain association between sleep curtailment and insulin resistance in obesity, Type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and polycistic ovary syndrome. It was demonstrated that sleep curtailment may affect energy homeostasis of human organism with the effects on body weight increase through three different ways: appetite increase, prolongation of time for food intake and through decrease of energy expenditure. There are several postulated mechanism for the effect of sleep curtailment on development of insulin resistance as well as for predisposition for Type 2 diabetes. Among possible mechanism are included: increase of sympathetic neuronal acitvity, decreased cerebral utilisation of glucose, increase in evening cortisol values, growth hormone increase and disorder of neuroendocrine control of appetite which increases the risk for getting the body weight. Metabolic systems are of particular interest in

  15. Neuroendocrine, Metabolic and Cardiovascular Responses to Exercise Differ Among Healthy Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-12-20

    ester hydrolase 21 Figure 3. Mechanisms of Action for CRH and A VP Stimulated Release of ACTH and ~~ endorphin by Anterior Pituitary Corticotrophs. eRH...responders. However, in vitro studies investigating this possibility showed no direct actions of lactate on rat anterior pituitary p- endorphin and...2. Figure 3. Regulation 01 the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Hypothalamic Control 01 Pituitary ACTH and A VP Release Mechanisms 01 Action

  16. Psychological barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, T. C.

    2004-01-01

    of lifestyle changes and pharmacological therapy in preventing future complications. Negative emotions and preconceptions about treatment can also discourage adherence to treatment plans. 'Psychological Insulin resistance' caused by fear and concerns about insulin and daily insulin injections can discourage...... many patients from starting insulin therapy, even if oral agents have failed. Depression, stress and anxiety represent further obstacles to optimum self-care and the attainment of glucose goals. Healthcare professionals should endeavour to understand and accommodate these issues when setting personal...

  17. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the kidney with cardiac metastasis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moeka Shimbori

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the kidney is a rare and generally very aggressive disease. We present a case of a patient with primary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the kidney with cardiac metastasis. Case presentation A 59-year-old Japanese man presented to his previous physician with hematuria. Computed tomography revealed masses in the heart and right kidney, and fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography showed abnormal uptake in the heart. A cardiac biopsy under transesophageal echocardiographic guidance revealed a metastatic tumor. Subsequently, multiple lung lesions were detected, and a right nephrectomy was performed after these metastases were suspected to have originated from renal carcinoma. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the kidney was ultimately diagnosed. Pancreatic metastasis was detected on computed tomography postoperatively. Three courses of chemotherapy with carboplatin and irinotecan were administered, and were temporarily effective against the metastatic lesions in the lungs and pancreas. However, our patient’s general condition deteriorated with the progression of the lesions, and he died 9 months after his initial examination. Conclusions Multi-agent chemotherapy, including platinum-based drugs was effective against large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma metastases, albeit only temporarily. This is the first reported case of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma with cardiac metastasis.

  18. Transformation of Nonfunctioning Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Carcinoma Cells into Insulin Producing Cells after Treatment with Sunitinib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hun Ohn

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of severe hypoglycemia after sunitinib treatment for pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma. We describe the initial clinical presentation, laboratory results, pathologic findings, and managment in a patient with a nonfunctioning pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma with liver metastases who developed life threatening hypoglycemia after 2 months of sunitinib therapy. A 46-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with loss of consciousness from hypoglycemia. Serum C-peptide and insulin levels at fasting state revealed that the hypoglycemia resulted from endogenous hyperinsulinemia. She had been diagnosed with nonfunctioning pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma based on a biopsy of metastatic cervical lymph node and was being treated with sunitinib, a small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Immunohistochemical stain of the metastatic liver mass demonstrated that the initially nonfunctioning neuroendocrine carcinoma cells had changed into insulin-producing cells after sunitinib therapy. Transarterial chemoembolization of the liver masses and systemic chemotherapy with streptozotocin/adriamycin relieved the hypoglycemia. A nonfunctioning pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma was transformed into an insulin-producing tumor after treatment with sunitinib, causing endogenous hyperinsulinemia and severe hypoglycemia.

  19. Chromogranin A as serum marker for neuroendocrine neoplasia: comparison with neuron-specific enolase and the alpha-subunit of glycoprotein hormones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.R.E. Nobels (Frank); D.J. Kwekkeboom (Dirk Jan); W. Coopmans; C.H.H. Schoenmakers (Christian); J. Lindemans (Jan); E.P. Krenning (Eric); R. Bouillon (Roger); S.W.J. Lamberts (Steven); W.W. de Herder (Wouter)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractChromogranin A (CgA) is gaining acceptance as a serum marker of neuroendocrine tumors. Its specificity in differentiating between neuroendocrine and nonneuroendocrine tumors, its sensitivity to detect small tumors, and its clinical value, compared with other

  20. CT differentiation of poorly-differentiated gastric neuroendocrine tumours from well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumours and gastric adenocarcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Ho; Kim, Se Hyung; Shin, Cheong-il; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Hospital, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min-A [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    To evaluate the differential CT features of gastric poorly-differentiated neuroendocrine tumours (PD-NETs) from well-differentiated NETs (WD-NETs) and gastric adenocarcinomas (ADCs) and to suggest differential features of hepatic metastases from gastric NETs and ADCs. Our study population was comprised of 36 patients with gastric NETs (18 WD-NETs, 18 PD-NETs) and 38 patients with gastric ADCs who served as our control group. Multiple CT features were assessed to identify significant differential CT findings of PD-NETs from WD-NETs and ADCs. In addition, CT features of hepatic metastases including the metastasis-to-liver ratio were analyzed to differentiate metastatic NETs from ADCs. The presence of metastatic lymph nodes was the sole differentiator of PD-NETs from WD-NETs (P =.001, odds ratio = 56.67), while the presence of intact overlying mucosa with mucosal tenting was the sole significant CT feature differentiating PD-NETs from ADCs (P =.047, odds ratio = 15.3) For hepatic metastases, metastases from NETs were more hyper-attenuated than those from ADCs. The presence of metastatic LNs and intact overlying mucosa with mucosal tenting are useful CT discriminators of PD-NETs from WD-NETs and ADCs, respectively. In addition, a higher metastasis-to-liver ratio may help differentiate hepatic metastases of gastric NETs from those of gastric ADCs with high accuracy. (orig.)

  1. Poorly-differentiated colorectal neuroendocrine tumour: CT differentiation from well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumour and poorly-differentiated adenocarcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Ji Hee [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Se Hyung [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Joon Koo [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    The differentiation of poorly-differentiated neuroendocrine tumours (PD-NETs), well-differentiated NETs (WD-NETs), and adenocarcinomas (ADCs) is important due to different management options and prognoses. This study is to find the differential CT features of colorectal PD-NETs from WD-NETs and ADCs. CT features of 25 colorectal WD-NETs, 36 PD-NETs, and 36 ADCs were retrospectively reviewed. Significant variables were assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses. Receiver operating characteristics analysis determined the optimal cut-off value of tumour and lymph node (LN) size. Large size, rectum location, ulceroinfiltrative morphology without intact overlying mucosa, heterogeneous attenuation with necrosis, presence of ≥3 enlarged LNs, and metastasis were significant variables to differentiate PD-NETs from WD-NETs (P < 0.05). High attenuation on arterial phase, persistently high enhancement pattern, presence of ≥6 enlarged LNs, large LN size, and wash-in/wash-out enhancement pattern of liver metastasis were significant variables to differentiate PD-NETs from ADCs (P < 0.05). Compared to WD-NETs, colorectal PD-NETs are usually large, heterogeneous, and ulceroinfiltrative mass without intact overlying mucosa involving enlarged LNs and metastasis. High attenuation on arterial phase, presence of enlarged LNs with larger size and greater number, and wash-in/wash-out enhancement pattern of liver metastasis can be useful CT discriminators of PD-NETs from ADCs. (orig.)

  2. Psychological Theories of Acculturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozer, Simon

    2018-01-01

    of acculturation also include cognate disciplines such as cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, and anthropology.The expansion of psychological theories of acculturation has led to advancements in the field of research as well as the bifurcation of epistemological and methodological approaches...... advancements, together with greater mobility. Acculturation psychology aims to comprehend the dynamic psychological processes and outcomes emanating from intercultural contact. Acculturation psychology has been a growing field of research within cross-cultural psychology. Today, psychological theories...

  3. Randomized crossover study in patients with neuroendocrine tumors to assess patient preference for lanreotide Autogel® given by either self/partner or a health care professional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanson V

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Viktor Johanson,1 Benedicte Wilson,2 Anna Abrahamsson,3 Constantin Jianu,4 Jan Calissendorff,5 Najme Wall,6 Henning Grønbæk,7 Jon Florholmen,8 Anders Öhberg,9 Dan Granberg101Department of Surgery, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden; 2Department of Medical Gastroenterology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark; 3Karolinska Institutet, Department of Hepatology, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden; 4Department of Gastroenterology and Liver Disease, St Olav Hospital, Trondheim, Norway; 5Karolinska Institutet, Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Sweden; 6Department of Oncology, Linköping University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden; 7Department of Medicine V, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 8Department of Gastroenterology and Nutrition, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway; 9Medical Department, Ipsen AB, Stockholm, Sweden; 10Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Endocrine Oncology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, SwedenBackground: Lanreotide Autogel® is supplied in prefilled syringes. Therefore, it is possible for patients with neuroendocrine tumors to use self-/partner-administered injections. The primary objective of this study was to assess the proportion of patients preferring self/partner injections over injections administered by health care professionals, and to describe the impact of self/partner administration on efficacy, safety, and costs.Methods: Of 62 eligible patients, 26 (42% patients with neuroendocrine tumors treated with a stable dose of lanreotide Autogel 90 mg or 120 mg every 4 weeks agreed to participate in this Phase IV, international, open-label, crossover study, conducted at hospitals in Sweden, Norway, and Denmark. Patients were randomized to two blocks, starting with administration of lanreotide Autogel by either self/partner or a health care professional. Preference for injections administered by self

  4. Metabolic signals in sleep regulation: recent insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla C

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Charu Shukla, Radhika Basheer Department of Psychiatry, VA Boston Healthcare System, Harvard Medical School, West Roxbury, MA, USA Abstract: Sleep and energy balance are essential for health. The two processes act in concert to regulate central and peripheral homeostasis. During sleep, energy is conserved due to suspended activity, movement, and sensory responses, and is redirected to restore and replenish proteins and their assemblies into cellular structures. During wakefulness, various energy-demanding activities lead to hunger. Thus, hunger promotes arousal, and subsequent feeding, followed by satiety that promotes sleep via changes in neuroendocrine or neuropeptide signals. These signals overlap with circuits of sleep-wakefulness, feeding, and energy expenditure. Here, we will briefly review the literature that describes the interplay between the circadian system, sleep-wake, and feeding-fasting cycles that are needed to maintain energy balance and a healthy metabolic profile. In doing so, we describe the neuroendocrine, hormonal/peptide signals that integrate sleep and feeding behavior with energy metabolism. Keywords: sleep, energy balance, hypothalamus, metabolism, homeostasis

  5. Primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast: a report of two cases and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spinelli C

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Primary neuroendocrine carcinomas of the breast are extremely rare. Neuroendocrine tumors mainly occur in the broncopolmonary system and gastrointestinal tract. The diagnosis of small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SCNC of the breast can only be made if a non mammary site is excluded or if an in situ component can be found. We are going to describe two cases and to discuss their clinical, radiological and pathological manifestations. Introduction: Neuroendocrine tumors are rare and slow-growing neoplasias derived from neuroendocrine cells. We describe two cases of small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast and discuss their clinical, radiological and pathological manifestations. Case report: Our patients are two Italian females (38 and 36 year-old with no family history of breast disease. In both cases the diagnosis was confirmed after surgery, when immunohistochemistry revealed a neuroendocrine differentiation of the tumor. The patients are alive and disease free after more than ten years of follow-up. Conclusion: Primary neuroendocrine carcinomas of the breast are extremely rare. The diagnosis of SCNC of the breast can only be made if a non mammary site is excluded or if an in situ component can be found. After surgery, a strict follow-up including octreotide scan should be performed and this doesn’t differ from the one of the usual breast carcinoma.

  6. Maternal neuroendocrine serum levels in exclusively breastfeeding mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuebe, Alison M; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Pearson, Brenda; Pedersen, Cort; Grewen, Karen

    2015-05-01

    Low milk supply is a common cause of early weaning, and supply issues are associated with dysregulation of thyroid function and prolactin. However, hormone levels compatible with successful breastfeeding are not well defined, limiting interpretation of clinical lab results. In this study we sought to quantify ranges for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (T4), total T4, and prolactin in a cohort of exclusively breastfeeding women. Women planning to breastfeed were recruited in the third trimester of pregnancy. Maternal endocrine function was assessed before and after a breastfeeding session at 2 and 8 weeks postpartum. We used paired t tests to determine whether values changed from the 2- to 8-week visit. Of 52 study participants, 28 were exclusively breastfeeding, defined as only breastmilk feeds in the prior 7 days, at both the 2- and 8-week study visits. Endocrine function changed with time since delivery: the TSH level was higher, whereas total T4, free T4, and prolactin levels were lower, at the 8-week visit than at the 2-week visit (by paired t test, p≤0.01). We found a wide range of prolactin values at the 8-week visit, with a 5th percentile value of 9 ng/dL before feeding and 74 ng/dL at 10 minutes after feeding. Neuroendocrine function changes during the first 8 weeks after birth, and a wide range of values is compatible with successful breastfeeding. Further studies are needed to define reference values in breastfeeding women.

  7. Lu-177 DOTATATE dosimetry for neuroendocrine tumor: single center experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, MA; Masud, MA; Zaini, MZ; Salleh, RA; Lee, BN; Zainon, R.

    2017-05-01

    Lu-177 labelled with DOTATE is widely acceptable to treat Neuroendocrine Tumor (NET) disease and it better improvement of quality of patients’ life since few years ago. However, the radionuclide toxicity becomes the main limitation of the (NET) treatment. Therefore, we performed a pilot study aimed to estimate radiation absorbed doses to dose-limiting organs to develop a systemic therapy with Lu-177 in NET patients. In this study, five set of planar whole body images was acquired every 0.5 hour, 4 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours after Lu-177 administrations. The planar image acquisition was done using Philip Brightview X with Medium Energy General Purpose Collimator (MEGP) collimator. All patients’ images in Conjugate View (CV) format were transferred into PMOD 3.7 Software for Region of Interest (ROI) analysis. The ROI were drawn at selected organs such as kidneys, liver, spleen and bladder. This study found that the mean absorbed dose for kidneys 0.62 ± 0.26 Gy/GBq, liver 0.63 ± 0.28 Gy/GBq, spleen 0.83 ± 0.73 Gy/GBq and bladder 0.14 ± 0.07 Gy/GBq. The radionuclide kinetic for the whole body 99.7 ± 0.1 percent at 0.5 hours, 79.5 ± 10.7 percent at 4 hours, 56.6 ± 10.3 percent at 24 hours, 43.2 ± 7.9 percent at 48 hours and 37.1 ± 9.0 percent at 72 hours. This study verifies that this planar quantitative method able to determine organ at risk and the result line with other published data.

  8. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  9. Psychology of religion: perspectives from cultural psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    After a brief introduction, this paper tries to establish what type of psychology the psychology of religion is. Having introduced cultural psychology in general, some theories applicable in research on religion are presented, and some examples of cultural psychological research of religious

  10. Similar cold stress induces sex-specific neuroendocrine and working memory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solianik, Rima; Skurvydas, Albertas; Urboniene, Daiva; Eimantas, Nerijus; Daniuseviciute, Laura; Brazaitis, Marius

    2015-01-01

    Men have higher cold-induced neuroendocrine response than women; nevertheless, it is not known whether a different stress hormone rise elicits different effects on cognition during whole body cooling. The objective was to compare the effect of cold-induced neuroendocrine responses on the performance of working memory sensitive tasks between men and women. The cold stress continued until rectal temperature reached 35.5 degree C or for a maximum of 170 min. Working memory performance and stress hormone concentrations were monitored. During cold stress, body temperature variables dropped in all subjects (P stress raised plasma epinephrine and serum cortisol levels only in men (P stress adversely affected memory performance in men but not in women (P stress in men and women induces sex-specific neuroendocrine and working memory responses.

  11. Failed Lactation and Perinatal Depression: Common Problems with Shared Neuroendocrine Mechanisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewen, Karen; Pedersen, Cort A.; Propper, Cathi; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In the early postpartum period, mother and infant navigate a critical neuroendocrine transition from pregnancy to lactation. Two major clinical problems that occur during this transition are failed lactation and perinatal mood disorders. These disorders often overlap in clinical settings. Failed lactation is common. Although all major medical organizations recommend 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding, only 13% of women in the United States achieve this recommendation. Perinatal mood disorders affect 10% of mothers, with substantial morbidity for mother and child. We hypothesize that shared neuroendocrine mechanisms contribute to both failed lactation and perinatal mood disorders. In this hypothesis article, we discuss data from both animal models and clinical studies that suggest neuroendocrine mechanisms that may underlie these two disorders. Research to elucidate the role of these underlying mechanisms may identify treatment strategies both to relieve perinatal depression and to enable women to achieve their infant feeding goals. PMID:22204416

  12. Standardisation of imaging in neuroendocrine tumours: results of a European delphi process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricke, J. E-mail: jens@charite.de; Klose, K.-J.; Mignon, M.; Oeberg, K.; Wiedenmann, B

    2001-01-01

    In 1998 and 1999, a delphi consensus procedure was performed to establish guidelines for standardised diagnostic imaging of neuroendocrine tumours. The procedure included four consecutive workshops of a European group of experts in neuroendocrine tumours as well as feedback given by specialists from the departments of radiology, nuclear medicine, surgery and internal medicine of the according home institutions. Diverging approaches among the centres, which became apparent during the discussion, reflect a lack of controlled studies specifically for rare subgroups of neuroendocrine tumours. This paper summarises the standards for diagnostic imaging as developed during the delphi process. In particular, the diagnostic workflows as well as the technical properties of different imaging modalities are described in detail.

  13. [Aldehyde reductase activity and blood aldo-keto reductase spectrum in adolescents with neuroendocrine obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuleshova, D K; Davydov, V V; Shvets, V N

    2012-01-01

    Investigation of aldehyde-reductase activity and blood aldo-keto reductase spectrum has been performed in 13-15 and 16-18-years old adolescents with obesity to clear up the mechanisms of neuroendocrine obesity at the age of puberty. It has been established that basal aldehyde reductase activity and blood aldo-keto reductase spectrum of healthy adolescents in early puberty do not differ from those of healthy adolescents in late puberty. A decreased aldehyde reductase activity and some alterations in blood aldo-keto reductase spectrum have been observed in late puberty in adolescents with neuroendocrine obesity. In adolescents with obesity there have been registered some changes in blood aldo-keto reductase spectrum which are not accompanied by any alterations in its aldehyde reductase activity. The results obtained suggest that certain prerequisites are formed in late puberty to complicate the course of neuroendocrine obesity.

  14. [Adolescent psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemerle, Sophie

    2005-05-31

    Adolescence is a transitional period dominated by puberty modifications. These modifications must come with a psychological work leading towards increased self containing from parents and also towards the choice of an own life orientation. In order to do so, adolescent must satisfy his needs to be able to change. This process will not run smoothly. The troubled adolescent will express himself with groans or acting out more than with words. This modus operandi is typical of that age. The general practitioner will be in the front line in being attentive to the adolescent and his parents needs.

  15. Relationship between cancer and psychology: an updated history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, C M; Angelucci, D; Ferri, M; Maccauro, G; Caraffa, A; Doyle, R; Fulcheri, M; Cianchetti, E

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism and formation of cancer have always been topics of interest for scientists, even for doctors in ancient times. Nowadays a great role for cancer is played by psychological stress which promotes relevant changes in neuronal activity and gene regulations across the different brain areas. It has been reported by many authors that stress can have an important role in the immune system and may be relevant in the formation of cancer. Our observations, in accordance with other research studies, confirm the importance of the influence of depression, linked to neuroendocrine stress, on the enhancement of cancer pathogenesis by inhibiting anti-tumor immune responses. In this article we review the past and present history of the relationship between cancer and psychology.

  16. Mental health in the aged: prevalence, covariates and related neuroendocrine, cardiovascular and inflammatory factors of successful aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klug Günther

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although aging is accompanied by diminished functioning, many elderly individuals preserve a sense of well-being. While the concept of "successful aging" has been popular for many decades, little is known about its psycho-physiologic and endocrine underpinnings. KORA-Age is a population-based, longitudinal study designed to determine the prevalence of successfully aged men and women between 65 and 94 years old in the MONICA/KORA Augsburg cohort of randomly selected inhabitants. Specifically, we aim to identify predictors of successful aging and to elucidate bio-psychosocial mechanisms that maintain mental health and successful adaptation despite adverse experiences of life and aging. Methods/Design Components of successful aging were assessed in a telephone survey of 4,127 participants (2008-2009 enrolled in the MONICA/KORA cohort, on average, 13 years earlier. Psychosocial, somatic and behavioural predictors are used to determine factors that contribute to successful aging. An age-stratified random sub-sample (n = 1,079 participated in a personal interview where further psychological mechanisms that may underlie successful adaptation (resilience, social support, attachment were examined. The interactions among neuroendocrine systems in the aging process are investigated by studying the cortisol/dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate ratio, the level of insulin-like growth factor I, and oxytocin. Discussion Longitudinal determinants of successful aging can be assessed based on a follow-up of an average of 13 years. A comprehensive analysis of biological as well as physio-psychological information provides a unique opportunity to investigate relevant outcomes such as resilience and frailty in the elderly population.

  17. [Small cell neuroendocrine tumour of the bladder: with reference to a case and bibliographical revision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahoz Tornos, A; Marrón Penón, Maria C; Pardo López, Maria L; Nogueras Gimeno, M A; Pujol Obis, E; Del Villar Sordo, V

    2006-09-01

    The small cell neuroendocrine tumour is an infrecuent neoplasia, with inmunohistochemistry being the key to diagnosis. We present a new case making reference to treatment and its evolution there after. The clinic, diagnosis and treatment of this tumour is described. Bibliographical revision follours. The neuroendocrine tumour of small cell is an infrecuent neoplasia, in which the inmunohistochemistry study is key in the diagnosis. The differential diagnosis includes the high degree diferentiation transitionals cells carcinoma and primary and secondary linfoma. The standard treatment is based on chemotherapy plus surgery.

  18. Endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of neuroendocrine tumors of the digestive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivero Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors evaluated the role of endoscopic techniques in the diagnosis and in the potential treatment of neuroendocrine tumors (NET localized in the gastro-entero-pancreatic system, on the basis of their experience and of the international literature. NET are rare tumors that arise from neuroendocrine cells of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. It is a possibility that both the digestive endoscopy and EUS play an important role in the diagnosis, staging and surveillance of this disease. In some cases, especially in the early stages, surgical endoscopy allows the treatment of such tumors.

  19. [Neuroendocrine tumors of digestive system: morphologic spectrum and cell proliferation (Ki67 index)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delektorskaia, V V; Kushliskiĭ, N E

    2013-01-01

    This review deals with the analysis of up-to-date concepts ofdiferent types of human neuroendocrine tumors of the digestive system. It summarizes the information on the specifics of recent histological classifications and criteria of morphological diagnosis accounting histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical parameters. Current issues of the nomenclature as well as various systems of grading and staging are discussed. In the light of these criteria the results of the own research clinical value of the determination of cell proliferation in primary and metastatic gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms on the basis of evaluation of the Ki67 antigen expression are also presented.

  20. Primary neuroendocrine tumour of the breast: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tato-Varela, Sara; Albalat-Fernández, Rosa; Pabón-Fernández, Sara; Zarco, Enrique Rodríguez; Calle-Marcos, Manolo La

    2015-01-01

    Primary neuroendocrine tumour of the breast is a rare entity that first appeared in the 2003 World Health Organisation (WHO) classification of breast tumours. The data currently available on its prognosis are contradictory, although it seems clear that histological varieties such as small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma have a worse prognosis, due to their low degree of differentiation. The treatment of choice is surgery, and the indications for chemotherapy or radiotherapy do not differ greatly from those used for other breast tumours. It is crucial to underline the difficulty of establishing treatment protocols due to the low incidence of this histological type.

  1. Neuroendocrine stress reactivity of male C57BL/6N mice following chronic oral corticosterone exposure during adulthood or adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahanoor, Ziasmin; Sultana, Razia; Baker, Madelyn R; Romeo, Russell D

    2017-12-01

    Adolescence is associated with the maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the major neuroendocrine axis mediating the hormonal stress response. Adolescence is also a period in development marked by a variety of stress-related vulnerabilities, including psychological and physiological dysfunctions. Many of these vulnerabilities are accompanied by a disrupted HPA axis. In adult mice, a model of disrupted HPA function has been developed using oral chronic corticosterone administration via the drinking water, which results in various physiological and neurobehavioral abnormalities, including changes in stress reactivity and anxiety-like behaviors. In an effort to further complement and extend this model, we tested the impact of HPA disruption in adolescent mice. We also examined whether this disruption led to different outcomes depending on whether the treatment happened during adolescence or adulthood. In the current set of experiments, we exposed adult (70days of age) or adolescent (30days of age) male C57BL/6N mice to 4 weeks of either 0 or 25μg/ml oral corticosterone via their drinking water. We measured body weight during treatment and plasma corticosterone levels and activation of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), as indexed by FOS immunohistochemistry, before and after a 30min session of restraint stress. Our data indicate that adolescent animals exposed to chronic corticosterone showed weight loss during treatment, an effect not observed in adults. Further, we found stress failed to elevate plasma corticosterone levels in treated mice, regardless of whether exposure occurred in adulthood or adolescence. Despite this reduced hormonal responsiveness, we found significant neural activation in the PVN of both adult- and adolescent-treated mice, indicating a dissociation between stress-induced peripheral and central stress responses following chronic corticosterone exposure. Moreover, stress-induced neural activation in the PVN was unaffected

  2. [Shifts in metabolism and its regulation under the effect of spaceflight factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larina, I M; Nichiporuk, I A; Veselova, O M; Vasilieva, G Yu; Popova, I A

    2013-01-01

    The review deals with the results of studying the adaptive changes in metabolism and its neuroendocrine regulation in humans and animals under the effect of spaceflight factors and ground-based simulation of the gravitational unloading. The majority of the investigations were concerned with the water-electrolyte and mineral turnover, as well as protein, lipid and carbohydrates metabolism. Biochemical measurements of the body liquids (blood, urine and saliva) before, in and after space flight or in ground simulation experiments were used as indictors of the status of sympathoadrenal, hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal and other systems involved in systemic regulation of metabolism, and also strength of stress-reaction to adversities. The authors generalized data on the interrelation and interaction of the neuroendocrine and psychophysiological status both in the real and simulated conditions of space flight.

  3. Endoscopic treatment of sporadic small duodenal and ampullary neuroendocrine tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gincul, Rodica; Ponchon, Thierry; Napoleon, Bertrand; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Guillaud, Olivier; Saurin, Jean-Christophe; Ciocirlan, Mihai; Lepilliez, Vincent; Pioche, Mathieu; Lefort, Christine; Adham, Mustapha; Pialat, Jean; Chayvialle, Jean-Alain; Walter, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    Background and study aim: As duodenal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are rare, their optimal management has not been clearly established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and outcome of endoscopic treatment of duodenal NETs. Patients and methods: We reviewed the files of all patients who underwent endoscopic resection of a sporadic duodenal or ampullary NET between 1996 and 2014 at two centers. Results: A total of 29 patients with 32 uT1N0M0 NETs < 20 mm were included. Treatment consisted of endoscopic mucosal resection in 19 cases, and cap aspiration in 13 cases. Prior submucosal saline injection was used in 15 cases. Mortality was 3 % (one severe bleeding). Morbidity was 38 % (11/29). At post-resection analysis, mean tumor size was 8.9 mm (range 3 - 17 mm), 29 lesions were stage pT1, one was pT2, and 2 were pTx because of piecemeal resection. All NETs were well differentiated. A total of 27 lesions were classified as grade 1 and 5 were grade 2. The resection was R0, R1, and Rx for 16, 14, and 2 lesions, respectively. Three R1 patients underwent additional surgical treatment, with no residual tumor on the surgical specimen but with positive metastatic lymph nodes in two cases. One patient was lost to follow-up. Finally, 24 patients were included in the follow-up analysis. The median follow-up period was 56 months (range 6 - 175 months). Two patients presented a tumor recurrence during the follow-up period. Conclusions: Endoscopic treatment of small duodenal NETs was associated with significant morbidity, a difficulty in obtaining an R0 specimen, and the risk of lymph node metastasis. Nevertheless, it represents an interesting alternative in small grade 1 duodenal lesions and in patients at high surgical risk. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Genomic alterations in neuroendocrine cancers of the ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghmour, George; Prouet, Philippe; Wiedower, Eric; Jamy, Omer Hassan; Feldman, Rebecca; Chandler, Jason C; Pandey, Manjari; Martin, Mike G

    2016-08-26

    As we have previously reported, small cell carcinoma of the ovary (SCCO) is a rare, aggressive form of ovarian cancer associated with poor outcomes. In an effort to identify new treatment options, we utilized comprehensive genomic profiling to assess the potential for novel therapies in SCCO. Patients with SCCO, SCCO-HT (hypercalcemic type), neuroendocrine tumors of the ovary (NET-O), and small cell carcinoma of the lung (SCLC) profiled by Caris Life Sciences between 2007-2015 were identified. Tumors were assessed with up to 21 IHC stains, in situ hybridization of cMET, EGFR, HER2 and PIK3CA, and next-generation sequencing (NGS) as well as Sanger sequencing of selected genes. Forty-six patients with SCCO (10 SCCO, 18 SCCO-HT, 18 NET-O) were identified as well as 58 patients with SCLC for comparison. Patients with SCCO and SCCO-HT were younger (median 42 years [range 12-75] and 26 years [range 8-40], respectively) than patients with NET-O 62 [range 13-76] or SCLC 66 [range 36-86]. SCCO patients were more likely to be metastatic (70 %) than SCCO-HT (50 %) or NET-O (33 %) patients, but at a similar rate to SCLC patients (65 %). PD1 expression varied across tumor type with SCCO (100 %), SCCO-HT (60 %), NET-O (33 %) vs SCLC (42 %). PDL1 expression also varied with SCCO (50 %), SCCO-HT (20 %), NET-O (33 %) and SCLC (0 %). No amplifications were identified in cMET, EGFR, or HER2 and only 1 was found in PIK3CA (NET-O). Actionable mutations were rare with 1 patient with SCCO having a BRCA2 mutation and 1 patient with NET-O having a PIK3CA mutation. No other actionable mutations were identified. No recurrent actionable mutations or rearrangements were identified using this platform in SCCO. IHC patterns may help guide the use of chemotherapy in these rare tumors.

  5. Polycultural psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael W; Chiu, Chi-yue; Liu, Zhi

    2015-01-03

    We review limitations of the traditional paradigm for cultural research and propose an alternative framework, polyculturalism. Polyculturalism assumes that individuals' relationships to cultures are not categorical but rather are partial and plural; it also assumes that cultural traditions are not independent, sui generis lineages but rather are interacting systems. Individuals take influences from multiple cultures and thereby become conduits through which cultures can affect each other. Past literatures on the influence of multiple cultural identities and cultural knowledge legacies can be better understood within a polyculturalist rubric. Likewise, the concept elucidates how cultures are changed by contact with other cultures, enabling richer psychological theories of intercultural influence. Different scientific paradigms about culture imply different ideologies and policies; polyculturalism's implied policy of interculturalism provides a valuable complement to the traditional policy frames of multiculturalism and colorblindness.

  6. Neuroendocrine response to CRF stimulation in veterans with and without PTSD in consideration of war zone era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golier, Julia A; Caramanica, Kimberly; Yehuda, Rachel

    2012-03-01

    Gulf War veterans. Self-reported childhood trauma was greater in veterans of the Gulf War than Vietnam or OEF/OIF, but did not account for the observed differences. There was a significant effect of group on the cortisol response to CRF, reflecting greater responsivity in both of the deployed groups (PTSD+ and PTSD-) compared to the non-exposed group which could be accounted for by baseline differences in cortisol levels; unlike the ACTH response, the cortisol response did not differ by era. There were no effects of group, era, or their interaction on the DHEA and CBG response to CRF. A uniform pattern of PTSD-related alterations in the response to intravenous CRF was not found. Rather, PTSD-related alterations were found only in veterans of the 1991 Gulf War, and were characterized by an enhanced pituitary response to CRF which may reflect increased sensitivity of pituitary corticotrophs or CRF hyposecretion. Together with previous neuroendocrine findings, the data suggest the HPA axis is dysregulated in Gulf War veterans in unique ways which may reflect the long-term effects of environmental exposures in addition to disease effects. Further work is needed to characterize these effects and their impact on long-term psychological and medical outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Healthy Lifestyle Score Is Associated with Cardiometabolic and Neuroendocrine Risk Factors among Puerto Rican Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Falcón, Luis M; Gao, Xiang; Tucker, Katherine L; Mattei, Josiemer

    2015-07-01

    Although individual healthy lifestyle behaviors may reduce cardiovascular disease risk, few studies have analyzed the combined effect of multiple lifestyle components as one all-inclusive measure on such outcomes, much less in minority populations. We aimed to develop a Healthy Lifestyle Score (HLS) that included several lifestyle recommendations and to test its association with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and allostatic load (AL) and their cardiometabolic and neuroendocrine factors in Puerto Ricans. In a cross-sectional study in 787 Puerto Ricans living in Boston (aged 45-75 y), we developed an HLS that ranged from 0 to 190 (higher score indicative of healthier lifestyle) and included 5 components (diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviors, smoking, social support and network, and sleep). Multivariable-adjusted models were used to test associations between the HLS and biomarkers of dysregulation and odds of MetS and high AL (≥4 out of 10 components). The HLS showed adequate internal consistency (ρ = 0.31-0.69) and was inversely associated with urinary cortisol (β ± SE = -0.22 ± 0.11; P = 0.042), epinephrine (-0.20 ± 0.09; P = 0.017), and norepinephrine (-0.26 ± 0.11; P = 0.016); waist circumference (-0.014 ± 0.004; P = 0.003); and serum insulin (-0.30 ± 0.13; P = 0.028) and positively associated with plasma HDL cholesterol (0.007 ± 0.003; P = 0.021) after adjustment for potential confounders. For each 20-unit increase in HLS, participants had 19% (95% CI: 2%, 33%) and 25% (11%, 36%) lower odds of MetS or AL, respectively. Healthier scores for social support and network and smoking components were associated with lower odds of high AL (P lifestyle components. Following an overall healthy lifestyle that comprises a combination of multiple behaviors may provide stronger protection against MetS and AL in Puerto Rican adults than individual components. The HLS may be a useful tool for examining health-related outcomes. This trial was registered at

  8. Prognostic value of 18F-FLT PET in patients with neuroendocrine neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnbeck, Camilla B.; Knigge, Ulrich; Langer, Seppo W.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) constitute a heterogeneous group of tumors arising in various organs and with a large span of aggressiveness and survival rates. The Ki-67 proliferation index is presently used as the key marker of prognosis, and treatment guidelines are largely based on this index...

  9. Occurrence of second primary malignancies in patients with neuroendocrine tumors of the digestive tract and pancreas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Kamp (Kimberly); R.A. Damhuis (Ronald); R.A. Feelders (Richard); W.W. de Herder (Wouter)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAn increased association between neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas (GEP-NET) and other second primary malignancies has been suggested. We determined whether there is indeed an increased risk for second primary malignancies in GEP-NET patients compared with

  10. Topotecan Monotherapy in Heavily Pretreated Patients with Progressive Advanced Stage Neuroendocrine Carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ingrid Marie Holst; Knigge, Ulrich; Federspiel, Birgitte

    2014-01-01

    neuroendocrine carcinomas (Ki67>20%, G3) successively treated with oral topotecan 2.3 mg/m(2) d1-5 every 3 weeks. All patients had previously received treatment with carboplatin/etoposide. Demographic, clinical and pathological features were recorded. CT-evaluations according to RECIST 1.1 were performed after...

  11. Survival of egg-laying controlling neuroendocrine cells during reproductive senescence of a mollusc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, C.

    2004-01-01

    During brain aging neuronal degradation occurs. In some neurons this may result in degeneration and cell death, still other neurons may survive and maintain their basic properties. The present study deals with survival of the egg-laying controlling neuroendocrine caudodorsal cells (CDCs) during

  12. Effect of reserpine on development and its neuro-endocrine regulation in Galleria mellonella

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cymborowski, B.; Sørensen, Ilona Kryspin

    1975-01-01

    1. Studies were made on the effect of reserpine on development and its neuro-endocrine regulation in Galleria mellonella. It was shown that resperine greatly restricts the development of this insect. 2. Reserpine causes inhibition of the activity of the neurosecretory cells of pars intercerebralis...

  13. Does Fetal antigen 1 (FA1) identify cells with regenerative, endocrine and neuroendocrine potentials?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte Floridon; Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Thorsen, Poul

    2000-01-01

    in the subcellular localisation indicating differential post-translational/post-transcriptional modifications during fetal development. FA1 may be a new marker of cellular subtypes with a regenerative potential and of specific cells with endocrine or neuroendocrine functions. Udgivelsesdato: 2000-Aug...

  14. Neuro-endocrine control of reproduction in hermaphroditic freshwater snails: mechanisms and evolution.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Invertebrates are used extensively as model species to investigate neuro-endocrine processes regulating behaviors, and many of these processes may be extrapolated to vertebrates. However, when it comes to reproductive processes, many of these model species differ notably in their mode of

  15. Paraneoplastic syndromes in patients with laryngeal neuroendocrine carcinomas : clinical manifestations and prognostic significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferlito, Alfio; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Bishop, Justin A.; Hunt, Jennifer L.; Vander Poorten, Vincent; Williams, Michelle D.; Triantafyllou, Asterios; Devaney, Kenneth O.; Gnepp, Douglas R.; Kusafuka, Kimihide; Halmos, Gyorgy B.; Westra, William H.; Takes, Robert P.; Thompson, Lester D. R.

    Paraneoplastic syndromes are associated with a variety of malignant neoplasms and are systemic and non-metastatic manifestations that develop in a minority of cancer patients. This review examines all published cases of paraneoplastic syndromes associated with neuroendocrine carcinomas of the

  16. Paraneoplastic syndromes in patients with laryngeal neuroendocrine carcinomas: clinical manifestations and prognostic significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferlito, A.; Rinaldo, A.; Bishop, J.A.; Hunt, J.L.; Poorten, V. Van der; Williams, M.D.; Triantafyllou, A.; Devaney, K.O.; Gnepp, D.R.; Kusafuka, K.; Halmos, G.B.; Westra, W.H.; Takes, R.P.; Thompson, L.D.

    2016-01-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes are associated with a variety of malignant neoplasms and are systemic and non-metastatic manifestations that develop in a minority of cancer patients. This review examines all published cases of paraneoplastic syndromes associated with neuroendocrine carcinomas of the

  17. The combination of neuroendocrine tumor and mucinous neoplasm of the appendix: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Hie Bum; Lee, Nam Kyung; Kim, Suk; Park, Won Young; Kim, Jae Hun [Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Primary neoplasm of the appendix is an uncommon pathology, representing 0.5-1% of all appendix specimens. Especially, simultaneous occurrence of two tumors of the appendix was rarely documented. We report a case of the concomitant neuroendocrine tumor and the mucinous neoplasm of the appendix on abdominal computed tomography, in a 62-year-old female who came for a check-up.

  18. Rare neuroendocrine tumours : Results of the surveillance of rare cancers in Europe project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwan, Jan Maarten; Trama, Annalisa; Otter, Renee; Larranaga, Nerea; Tavilla, Andrea; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Dei Tos, Angelo Paolo; Baudin, Eric; Poston, Graeme; Links, Thera

    Because of the low incidence, and limited opportunities for large patient volume experiences, there are very few relevant studies of neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). A large population-based database (including cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 2002 and registered in 76 population-based cancer

  19. Interrelation between Neuroendocrine Disturbances and Medical Complications Encountered during Rehabilitation after TBI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline I. E. Renner

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury is not a discrete event but an unfolding sequence of damage to the central nervous system. Not only the acute phase but also the subacute and chronic period after injury, i.e., during inpatient rehabilitation, is characterized by multiple neurotransmitter alterations, cellular dysfunction, and medical complications causing additional secondary injury. Neuroendocrine disturbances also influence neurological outcome and are easily overlooked as they often present with diffuse symptoms such as fatigue, depression, poor concentration, or a decline in overall cognitive function; these are also typical sequelae of traumatic brain injury. Furthermore, neurological complications such as hydrocephalus, epilepsy, fatigue, disorders of consciousness, paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity, or psychiatric-behavioural symptoms may mask and/or complicate the diagnosis of neuroendocrine disturbances, delay appropriate treatment and impede neurorehabilitation. The present review seeks to examine the interrelation between neuroendocrine disturbances with neurological complications frequently encountered after moderate to severe TBI during rehabilitation. Common neuroendocrine disturbances and medical complications and their clinical implications are discussed.

  20. Giant type III well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor of the stomach: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Bellorin

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The incidence of gastric neuroendocrine tumors has been increasing during the last decade, underscoring the need to improve our understanding of their biology and behavior. When identified histologically, patient outcomes depend on appropriate determination of tumor biology and subsequent choice of treatment.

  1. Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Rectum Presenting with Extensive Metastatic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Minocha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Rectal large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC is a poorly differentiated neoplasm that is very rare and belongs within the poorest prognostic subgroup among primary colorectal neoplasms. Here, we describe a case of LCNEC of the rectum, which highlights the aggressive clinical course and poor prognosis associated with this disease. Case Presentation. We report a case of a 63-year-old male who presented to our hospital with a one-month history of lower abdominal pain, constipation, and weight loss. A computed tomography (CT scan of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis revealed a rectal mass as well as metastatic disease of the liver and lung. Flexible sigmoidoscopy revealed a fungating, ulcerated and partially obstructing rectal mass located 6 cm from the anal verge. This mass was biopsied and pathological examination of the resected specimen revealed features consistent with a large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. Conclusion. Rectal large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas are rare and have a significantly worse prognosis than adenocarcinomas. At diagnosis, a higher stage and metastatic disease are likely to be found. It is important to differentiate large cell, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas from adenocarcinomas of the colon and rectum pathologically because patients may benefit from alternative cytotoxic chemotherapeutic regimens.

  2. Neuroendocrine coupling across adolescence and the longitudinal influence of early life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttle, Paula L; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Klein, Marjorie H; Essex, Marilyn J

    2015-09-01

    Drawing on conceptual models illustrating the advantages of a multisystemic, interactive, developmental approach to understanding development, the present study examines the covariation of stress and sex hormones across the adolescent transition and the effect of early life stress (ELS) on neuroendocrine coupling to gain insight into atypical development. Morning levels of cortisol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were assessed at ages 11, 13, and 15; ELS was assessed during the infancy and preschool periods. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that cortisol-DHEA coupling patterns progressed to tight, positive coupling across adolescence. Cortisol-testosterone coupling was positive at age 11 but became more negative at ages 13 and 15. Exposure to ELS resulted in more adultlike neuroendocrine coupling patterns earlier in life than non-exposed youth; however the effect of ELS on cortisol-testosterone coupling was unique to girls. Results illustrate trajectories of neuroendocrine coupling that may be unique to adolescence. Moderation by ELS suggests that early stress exposure may prompt earlier adultlike neuroendocrine coupling, particularly within girls, which may contribute to early pubertal development. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Tissue microarray analysis as a screening tool for neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brask, Julie Benedicte; Talman, Maj-Lis Møller; Wielenga, Vera Timmermans

    2014-07-01

    Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast (NCB) is a fairly recent diagnostic entity added by WHO in 2003. Since then, studies have indicated that NCB potentially displays a worse prognosis than invasive ductal carcinoma. However, due to a lack of standard use of immunohistochemical staining for neuroendocrine markers and the fact that NCB may only show slight neuroendocrine morphology that can easily be overlooked, NCB is often underdiagnosed. Consequently, there is a need for fast and reliable detection method for NCB. Here, we take a first step toward finding an easy way of identifying NCB by investigating the usefulness of tissue microarray (TMA) analysis as a screening tool. We present our findings with regard to sensitivity and specificity compared with whole-mount sections. The material consists of 240 cases of breast cancer divided into 20 TMA blocks that were all immunohistochemically stained for the neuroendocrine markers chromogranin A and synaptophysin. Cases positive in more than 50% of the tumor cells were accepted in accordance with WHO (2003) standards of NCB. Sensitivity and specificity for TMA sections vs whole-mount sections were found to be 100% and 97.8%, respectively, suggesting that TMA analysis is a reliable method for NCB detection. © 2013 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Neuroendocrine tumor of the appendix inside an incarcerated Amyand’s hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Y. Elbanna

    2015-01-01

    An incidental finding of neuroendocrine tumor of the appendix in a patient with s hernia is extremely rare. A high index of suspicion is the key to diagnose such a coincidence in order to safely and optimally treat such a condition.

  5. Use of radioactive substances in diagnosis and treatment of neuroendocrine tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Andreas; Knigge, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Radionuclides are needed both for nuclear medicine imaging as well as for peptide-receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) of neuroendocrine tumors (NET). Imaging is important in the initial diagnostic work-up and for staging NETs. In therapy planning, somatostatin receptor imaging (SRI) is used when...

  6. The influence of postnatal handling on adult neuroendocrine and behavioural stress reactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerlo, P; Horvath, KM; Nagy, GM; Bohus, B; Koolhaas, JM

    1999-01-01

    Environmental stimuli during early stages of life can influence the development of an organism and may result in permanent changes in adult behaviour and physiology. In the present study we investigated the influence of early postnatal handling on adult neuroendocrine and behavioural stress

  7. Neuroendocrine and Behavioral Effects of Vasopressin in Resting and Mild Stress Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buwalda, B.; Nyakas, C.; Koolhaas, J.M.; Bohus, B.

    1993-01-01

    Neuroendocrine and behavioral effects of subcutaneously administered AVP (6 mug/kg b.wt.) were determined in resting conditions and after the mild stress of transportation to and placement in a novel environment. In resting conditions, systemic administration of AVP caused a rapid increase in blood

  8. Childhood neuroendocrine tumours : a descriptive study revealing clues for genetic predisposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diets, I J; Nagtegaal, I D; Loeffen, J; de Blaauw, I; Waanders, E; Hoogerbrugge, N; Jongmans, M C J

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) are rare in children and limited data are available. We aimed to specify tumour and patient characteristics and to investigate the role of genetic predisposition in the aetiology of paediatric NETs. METHODS: Using the Dutch Pathology Registry PALGA, we

  9. Genetics of Endocrine and Neuroendocrine Neoplasias (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endocrine and neuroendocrine neoplasias may be inherited in syndromes such as multiple endocrine neoplasia types 1 and 2 (MEN1 and MEN2), familial pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma, and Carney-Stratakis syndrome. Learn about the genetics, clinical manifestations, and management of these hereditary cancer syndromes in this expert-reviewed summary.

  10. A case of giant prolactinoma, initially misdiagnosed as sinonasal neuroendocrine carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasaman Mohtasebi, M.D.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Giant prolactinomas are defined as pituitary tumors greater than 4 cm, often associated with very high prolactin level (>1000 ng/mL. They are relatively rare tumors and can present differently from typical prolactinomas. They can be highly invasive, resulting in acute neurological complication at the time of presentation. We present a case of a young woman with giant prolactinoma initially misdiagnosed as sinonasal neuroendocrine carcinoma. The acute presentation of headache, ptosis and impending brain herniation, requiring emergent ventriculostomy and intubation, led to the clinical suspicion of a more sinister diagnosis. Transnasal biopsy of the mass was consistent with sinonasal neuroendocrine carcinoma, and chemotherapy was planned. Laboratory testing, however, revealed an elevated prolactin (27,400 ng/mL, after 1:100 dilution. Re-review of pathology with additional immunohistochemical staining was requested and confirmed the diagnosis of prolactinoma. After 5 months of cabergoline treatment, prolactin level has decreased to 118 ng/mL. There has been a marked reduction in tumor size and an almost complete resolution of neurological symptoms. Given their atypical presentation and potential for sharing common immunohistochemical stains with other neuroendocrine neoplasms, giant prolactinomas extending into the nasal cavity can be misdiagnosed as other neuroendocrine neoplasms which may develop at this site. Accurate diagnosis is imperative to prevent unnecessary surgery and/or radiation and to ensure implementation of dopamine agonist therapy.

  11. Nordic Guidelines 2010 for diagnosis and treatment of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janson, Eva Tiensuu; Sørbye, Halfdan; Welin, Staffan

    2010-01-01

    The diagnostic work-up and treatment of patients with neuroendocrine tumours has undergone a major change during the last decade. New diagnostic possibilities and treatment options have been developed. These Nordic guidelines, written by a group with a major interest in the subject, summarises ou...

  12. Neuroendocrine-immune interaction: regulation of inflammation via G-protein coupled receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.; Aa, van der L.M.; Chadzinska, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroendocrine- and immune systems interact in a bi-directional fashion to communicate the status of pathogen recognition to the brain and the immune response is influenced by physiological changes. The network of ligands and their receptors involved includes cytokines and chemokines,

  13. Carcinoid Syndrome and Carcinoid Heart Disease as Manifestations of Non-Metastatic Ovarian Neuroendocrine Tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Simões-Pereira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The carcinoid syndrome is rare but it is associated with carcinoid heart disease in more than a half of the cases. Carcinoid heart disease is typically characterised by morphological and functional modifications of right-sided valves. Its aetiology is probable multifactorial but serotonin appears to play a key role in the development of this valvular disease. Unlike gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumours, ovarian neuroendocrine tumours can present with carcinoid syndrome and carcinoid heart disease in the absence of liver metastases; such ovarian neuroendocrine tumours are a unique clinical entity. The additional burden of cardiac impairment in these patients represents a significant reduction in survival. Early recognition and surgical valve replacement before advanced heart failure is established may improve the clinical outcome. We report the case of a woman with an ovarian neuroendocrine tumour and highly symptomatic carcinoid heart disease who was submitted to tumour resection followed by valvuloplasty. She demonstrated an outstanding clinical improvement and has remained free of tumour and symptomatology.

  14. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ANTARCTIC LIVING,

    Science.gov (United States)

    POLAR REGIONS, ECOLOGY), (*ADJUSTMENT( PSYCHOLOGY ), POLAR REGIONS), (*NAVAL PERSONNEL, ADJUSTMENT( PSYCHOLOGY )), LEADERSHIP, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , EMOTIONS , PERFORMANCE(ENGINEERING), ACCLIMATIZATION, STRESS( PSYCHOLOGY )

  15. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation/morphology: A clinicopathological and genetic study of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chisato Ohe, MD

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC with neuroendocrine differentiation/morphology (NED/NEM is exceedingly rare. We present three cases of ChRCC with NED/NEM, two of which showed positivity for neuroendocrine markers on immunohistochemical analysis. Patients ranged in age from 49 to 79 years (mean: 64.3 years. One of the three patients died of metastatic disease to multiple organs. Of the remaining two patients, one is currently alive without disease and the other is alive with disease. Histologically, all three tumors were composed of conventional ChRCC and NEM showed glandular and rosette formation. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were positive for CK7, KAI1, E-cadherin, and c-kit in both ChRCC and neuroendocrine areas in three cases. CD56 and synaptophysin immunoreactivity were detected in two cases; in only the neuroendocrine area in one case and in both components in the other. Neuroendocrine granules were ultrastructurally observed at both neuroendocrine and conventional areas of ChRCC. Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH study indicated losses of chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 10, 17, 21, and Y in both conventional ChRCC and NED in one case. In addition, losses of chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, 10, 13, 16p, 17, and 21 were observed in both components of the remaining one tumor. Furthermore, loss of chromosome 5 was identified only in the neuroendocrine area in this case. We concluded that the neuroendocrine area may reflect dedifferentiation within ChRCC. It is possible that losses of chromosomes 4, 5, and 16p may be involved in the neuroendocrine differentiation or progression of ChRCC.

  16. The Dialectic Psychology perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveros M., Ricardo; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    The present paper exposes the dialectic psychology perspectives in the twentieth first century Peru. We ponder about the dialectics psychology denomination, connecting them to other denominations used in the materialist psychology trend. We analyze the relations between dialectics psychology and social neuroscience, delimiting both the psychological sciences field and the neuroscience field. We develop issues from the emancipator project of dialectics psychology, precising personal developmen...

  17. Notch signaling modulates hypoxia-induced neuroendocrine differentiation of human prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danza, Giovanna; Di Serio, Claudia; Rosati, Fabiana; Lonetto, Giuseppe; Sturli, Niccolò; Kacer, Doreen; Pennella, Antonio; Ventimiglia, Giuseppina; Barucci, Riccardo; Piscazzi, Annamaria; Prudovsky, Igor; Landriscina, Matteo; Marchionni, Niccolò; Tarantini, Francesca

    2012-02-01

    Prostate carcinoma is among the most common causes of cancer-related death in men, representing 15% of all male malignancies in developed countries. Neuroendocrine differentiation (NED) has been associated with tumor progression, poor prognosis, and with the androgen-independent status. Currently, no successful therapy exists for advanced, castration-resistant disease. Because hypoxia has been linked to prostate cancer progression and unfavorable outcome, we sought to determine whether hypoxia would impact the degree of neuroendocrine differentiation of prostate cancer cells in vitro. Exposure of LNCaP cells to low oxygen tension induced a neuroendocrine phenotype, associated with an increased expression of the transcription factor neurogenin3 and neuroendocrine markers, such as neuron-specific enolase, chromogranin A, and β3-tubulin. Moreover, hypoxia triggered a significant decrease of Notch 1 and Notch 2 mRNA and protein expression, with subsequent downregulation of Notch-mediated signaling, as shown by reduced levels of the Notch target genes, Hes1 and Hey1. NED was promoted by attenuation of Hes1 transcription, as cells expressing a dominant-negative form of Hes1 displayed increased levels of neuroendocrine markers under normoxic conditions. Although hypoxia downregulated Notch 1 and Notch 2 mRNA transcription and receptor activation also in the androgen-independent cell lines, PC-3 and Du145, it did not change the extent of NED in these cultures, suggesting that androgen sensitivity may be required for transdifferentiation to occur. Hypoxia induces NED of LNCaP cells in vitro, which seems to be driven by the inhibition of Notch signaling with subsequent downregulation of Hes1 transcription. ©2011 AACR.

  18. Evaluation of the risk factors associated with rectal neuroendocrine tumors: a big data analytic study from a health screening center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, Jeung Hui; Hong, Sung Noh; Min, Byung-Hoon; Lee, Jun Haeng; Chang, Dong Kyung; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Kim, Jae Jun; Choi, Sun Kyu; Jung, Sin-Ho; Son, Hee Jung; Kim, Young-Ho

    2016-12-01

    Rectal neuroendocrine tumor (NET) is the most common NET in Asia. The risk factors associated with rectal NETs are unclear because of the overall low incidence rate of these tumors and the associated difficulty in conducting large epidemiological studies on rare cases. The aim of this study was to exploit the benefits of big data analytics to assess the risk factors associated with rectal NET. A retrospective case-control study was conducted, including 102 patients with histologically confirmed rectal NETs and 52,583 healthy controls who underwent screening colonoscopy at the Center for Health Promotion of the Samsung Medical Center in Korea between January 2002 and December 2012. Information on different risk factors was collected and logistic regression analysis applied to identify predictive factors. Four factors were significantly associated with rectal NET: higher levels of cholesterol [odds ratio (OR) = 1.007, 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.001-1.013, p = 0.016] and ferritin (OR = 1.502, 95 % CI, 1.167-1.935, p = 0.002), presence of metabolic syndrome (OR = 1.768, 95 % CI, 1.071-2.918, p = 0.026), and family history of cancer among first-degree relatives (OR = 1.664, 95 % CI, 1.019-2.718, p = 0.042). The findings of our study demonstrate the benefits of using big data analytics for research and clinical risk factor studies. Specifically, in this study, this analytical method was applied to identify higher levels of serum cholesterol and ferritin, metabolic syndrome, and family history of cancer as factors that may explain the increasing incidence and prevalence of rectal NET.

  19. Psychology Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchero, Renee' A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…

  20. Psychology's Renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Leif D; Simmons, Joseph; Simonsohn, Uri

    2018-01-04

    In 2010-2012, a few largely coincidental events led experimental psychologists to realize that their approach to collecting, analyzing, and reporting data made it too easy to publish false-positive findings. This sparked a period of methodological reflection that we review here and call Psychology's Renaissance. We begin by describing how psychologists' concerns with publication bias shifted from worrying about file-drawered studies to worrying about p-hacked analyses. We then review the methodological changes that psychologists have proposed and, in some cases, embraced. In describing how the renaissance has unfolded, we attempt to describe different points of view fairly but not neutrally, so as to identify the most promising paths forward. In so doing, we champion disclosure and preregistration, express skepticism about most statistical solutions to publication bias, take positions on the analysis and interpretation of replication failures, and contend that meta-analytical thinking increases the prevalence of false positives. Our general thesis is that the scientific practices of experimental psychologists have improved dramatically.

  1. Evolutionary developmental psychology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    King, Ashley C; Bjorklund, David F

    2010-01-01

    The field of evolutionary developmental psychology can potentially broaden the horizons of mainstream evolutionary psychology by combining the principles of Darwinian evolution by natural selection...

  2. Metabolic Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    A metabolic panel is a group of tests that measures different chemicals in the blood. These tests are usually ... kidneys and liver. There are two types: basic metabolic panel (BMP) and comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP). The ...

  3. Metabolic acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acidosis - metabolic ... Metabolic acidosis occurs when the body produces too much acid. It can also occur when the kidneys ... from the body. There are several types of metabolic acidosis. Diabetic acidosis develops when acidic substances, known ...

  4. Metabolic neuropathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuropathy - metabolic ... damage can be caused by many different things. Metabolic neuropathy may be caused by: A problem with ... is one of the most common causes of metabolic neuropathies. People who are at the highest risk ...

  5. Metabolic flexibility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Storlien, Len; Oakes, Nick D; Kelley, David E

    2004-01-01

    ...). Such capacities characterize the healthy state and can be termed 'metabolic flexibility'. However, increasing evidence points to metabolic inflexibility as a key dysfunction of the cluster of disease states encompassed by the term 'metabolic syndrome...

  6. Obesity Impairs the Action of the Neuroendocrine Ghrelin System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigman, Jeffrey M.; Bouret, Sebastien G.; Andrews, Zane B.

    2016-01-01

    Ghrelin is a metabolic hormone that promotes energy conservation by regulating appetite and energy expenditure. Although some studies suggest that antagonizing ghrelin function attenuates body weight gain and glucose intolerance on a high calorie diet, there is little information about the metabolic actions of ghrelin in the obese state. In this review, we discuss the novel concept of obesity-induced central ghrelin resistance in neural circuits regulating behavior, and impaired ghrelin secretion from the stomach. Interestingly, weight loss restores ghrelin secretion and function, and we hypothesize that ghrelin resistance is a mechanism designed to protect a higher body weight set-point established during times of food availability, to maximize energy reserves during a time of food scarcity. PMID:26542050

  7. Study of Efficacy and Safety of PDR001 in Patients With Advanced or Metastatic, Well-differentiated, Non-functional Neuroendocrine Tumors of Pancreatic, Gastrointestinal (GI), or Thoracic Origin or Poorly-differentiated Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Carcinoma (GEP-NEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Well-differentiated Non-functional NET of Thoracic Origin; Well-differentiated Non-functional NET of Gastrointestinal Origin; Well-differentiated Non-functional NET of Pancreatic Origin; Poorly-differentiated Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

  8. Psychology of psychology? A theoretization of psychological science through historical and socio-anthropological analysis of Psychology as institution

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Žužek-Kres

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a "new" history of psychology, which is also termed as "psychology of psychology". In some academic communities this unconventional history of psychology represents today an accepted approach to epistemological questions about psychological concepts and it enables an insight into social contextualization of Psychology as an institution. The conclusion presents a referential and institutional context where this psychology of psychology is realized.

  9. Interactions between sleep, stress, and metabolism: From physiological to pathological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Hirotsu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Poor sleep quality due to sleep disorders and sleep loss is highly prevalent in the modern society. Underlying mechanisms show that stress is involved in the relationship between sleep and metabolism through hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA axis activation. Sleep deprivation and sleep disorders are associated with maladaptive changes in the HPA axis, leading to neuroendocrine dysregulation. Excess of glucocorticoids increase glucose and insulin and decrease adiponectin levels. Thus, this review provides overall view of the relationship between sleep, stress, and metabolism from basic physiology to pathological conditions, highlighting effective treatments for metabolic disturbances.

  10. A massive hepatic tumor demonstrating hepatocellular, cholangiocarcinoma and neuroendocrine lineages: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Beard

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: This is one of the only reports of a hepatic tumor arising from hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma and neuroendocrine lineages. Increased awareness of this tumor type may optimize improve future management.

  11. Androgen deprivation of the PC-310 [correction of prohormone convertase-310] human prostate cancer model system induces neuroendocrine differentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Jongsma (Johan); M.H. Oomen; M.A. Noordzij (Marinus); W.M. van Weerden (Wytske); G.J. Martens; Th.H. van der Kwast (Theo); F.H. Schröder (Fritz); G.J. van Steenbrugge (Gert Jan)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractNeuroendocrine (NE) cells are androgen-independent cells and secrete growth-modulating neuropeptides via a regulated secretory pathway (RSP). We studied NE differentiation after androgen withdrawal in the androgen-dependent prostate cancer xenograft PC-310.

  12. Hepatic arterial embolization and chemoembolization for the treatment of patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumors: variables affecting response rates and survival

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Sanjay; Johnson, Marcella M; Murthy, Ravi; Ahrar, Kamran; Wallace, Michael J; Madoff, David C; McRae, Stephen E; Hicks, Marshall E; Rao, Sujaya; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas; Ajani, Jaffer A; Yao, James C

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prognostic variables that influence response and survival in patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumors who are treated with hepatic arterial embolization (HAE...

  13. Diagnosis and Treatment of Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: Current Data on a Prospectively Collected, Retrospectively Analyzed Clinical Multicenter Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Niederle, Martin B.; Niederle, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Clinical information concerning diagnosis, symptoms, and treatment of 277 patients with gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors (including pancreatic tumors) diagnosed prospectively within 1 year were analyzed. Endoscopic and surgical techniques are the key to both correct diagnosis and effective treatment.

  14. Introduction to Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lesley

    Designed for community students interested in learning about psychology as a field of study, this module offers group and individual activities to involve the beginning student in research, experimentation and discussion. Unit 1, "What Is Psychology?," includes the use of animals in psychology, ethics, the history of psychology, an…

  15. Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…

  16. Genetic strain differences in learned fear inhibition associated with variation in neuroendocrine, autonomic, and amygdala dendritic phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Marguerite C; Macpherson, Kathryn P; Lederle, Lauren; Graybeal, Carolyn; Gaburro, Stefano; Debrouse, Lauren M; Ihne, Jessica L; Bravo, Javier A; O'Connor, Richard M; Ciocchi, Stephane; Wellman, Cara L; Lüthi, Andreas; Cryan, John F; Singewald, Nicolas; Holmes, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    Mood and anxiety disorders develop in some but not all individuals following exposure to stress and psychological trauma. However, the factors underlying individual differences in risk and resilience for these disorders, including genetic variation, remain to be determined. Isogenic inbred mouse strains provide a valuable approach to elucidating these factors. Here, we performed a comprehensive examination of the extinction-impaired 129S1/SvImJ (S1) inbred mouse strain for multiple behavioral, autonomic, neuroendocrine, and corticolimbic neuronal morphology phenotypes. We found that S1 exhibited fear overgeneralization to ambiguous contexts and cues, impaired context extinction and impaired safety learning, relative to the (good-extinguishing) C57BL/6J (B6) strain. Fear overgeneralization and impaired extinction was rescued by treatment with the front-line anxiety medication fluoxetine. Telemetric measurement of electrocardiogram signals demonstrated autonomic disturbances in S1 including poor recovery of fear-induced suppression of heart rate variability. S1 with a history of chronic restraint stress displayed an attenuated corticosterone (CORT) response to a novel, swim stressor. Conversely, previously stress-naive S1 showed exaggerated CORT responses to acute restraint stress or extinction training, insensitivity to dexamethasone challenge, and reduced hippocampal CA3 glucocorticoid receptor mRNA, suggesting downregulation of negative feedback control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Analysis of neuronal morphology in key neural nodes within the fear and extinction circuit revealed enlarged dendritic arbors in basolateral amygdala neurons in S1, but normal infralimbic cortex and prelimbic cortex dendritic arborization. Collectively, these data provide convergent support for the utility of the S1 strain as a tractable model for elucidating the neural, molecular and genetic basis of persistent, excessive fear.

  17. Intravenous injection of Evans Blue labels magnocellular neuroendocrine cells of the rat supraoptic nucleus in situ and after dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, M L; Cobbett, P

    1992-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that intravenous injection of neuronal tracers, e.g. horseradish peroxidase or Fast Blue, can retrogradely label neurons in brain areas that project outside the blood-brain barrier, e.g. magnocellular neuroendocrine neurons of the hypothalamus. Here we have shown that 24 h after intravenous injection of the fluorescent retrograde tracer Evans Blue, the same population of magnocellular neuroendocrine neurons is labeled in the paraventricular, supraoptic and accessory magnocellular nuclei. Parvicellular neuroendocrine cells in the paraventricular nuclei are also labeled. Most Evans Blue-labeled magnocellular neuroendocrine cells in the supraoptic nucleus could be stained immunocytochemically for neurophysins, suggesting that these neurons continue to produce their peptide hormones after taking up the fluorescent dye. Ultrastructural observation of supraoptic cells retrogradely labeled with Evans Blue shows that 95% of the neurons appeared healthy. There was no ultrastructural evidence of degeneration, hyperstimulation, or interruption of the axoplasmic flow. Labeling the neuroendocrine cells with Evans Blue did not alter the size of magnocellular cells, the animal's fluid balance or ingestive behavior. Following enzymatic/mechanical dissociation of the supraoptic nucleus from animals that had been injected with Evans Blue 24 h previously, phase-bright neurons that often contained fluorescent material were observed, thus identifying these neurons as neuroendocrine. Recording from identified neuroendocrine cells showed that these neurons generated spontaneous or current-evoked overshooting action potentials with an afterhyperpolarization and had negative resting membrane potentials. Action potential broadening, a feature of magnocellular neurons, was observed during bursts of action potentials elicited by depolarizing current injection. Taken together, this work would suggest that Evans Blue is non-toxic at the doses used and that it

  18. The physiological basis of human sexual arousal: neuroendocrine sexual asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motofei, Ion G; Rowland, David L

    2005-04-01

    Normal sexual arousal and response suppose an integrated process involving both physiological and psychological processes. However, the current understanding of sexual arousal does not provide a coherent model that accounts for the integration of multiple physiological systems that subsequently generate a coordinated sexual response at both the spinal peripheral and cerebral central levels. Herein we suggest a model that involves both sympathetic and parasympathetic activation during sexual arousal via the two classes of gonadal hormones, androgens and oestrogens. We discuss the manner in which gonadal hormones may activate such a system, transforming pre-pubertal (non-erotic) genital stimulation to post-pubertal erogenization of stimulation and subsequent sexual arousal. Finally, we indicate that the different balance of androgens and oestrogens in men and women may generate asymmetric effects on each of the components of the autonomic nervous system, thereby explaining some of the differences in patterns of sexual arousal and the responses cycle across the sexes.

  19. 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC imaging in the evaluation of pancreatic masses which are potential neuroendocrine tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Zhen; Zhang, Jingjing; Jin, Xiaona; Huo, Li; Zhu, Zhaohui; Xing, Haiqun; Li, Fang

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the accuracy of the findings and the diagnoses of Tc-hydrazinonicotinyl-Tyr3-octreotide scan (Tc-HYNIC-TOC imaging) in patients with pancreatic masses which were potential neuroendocrine tumors. Records of total 20 patients with pancreatic masses were retrospectively reviewed. All of the patients had been revealed by abdominal contrast CT and possibility of neuroendocrine tumors could not be excluded by CT imaging before Tc-HYNIC-TOC imaging. Tc-HYNIC-TOC imaging was performed at 1 and 4 hours post-tracer injection, and SPECT/CT images of the abdomen were also acquired. The image findings were compared to final diagnoses which were made from pathological examination. Among all 20 pancreatic masses evaluated, there were 16 malignant lesions which included 1 ductal adenocarcinoma and 15 neuroendocrine tumors. Tc-HYNIC-TOC imaging identified 14 of 15 pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and excluded 4 of 5 lesions which were not neuroendocrine tumors. The overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy was therefore 93.3% (14 of 15), 80% (4 of 5), and 90.0% (18 of 20), respectively, in our patient population. Tc-HYNIC-TOC imaging provides reasonable accuracy in the evaluation pancreatic mass suspected to be neuroendocrine tumors.

  20. A NEW INCOME IN PEDIATRIC PATHOLOGY: GASTROENTEROPANCREATIC NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS. PART I: PANCREATIC TUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranda DIACONESCU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP NET represent a heterogenous group of neoplasms: carcinoids (serotoninomas and gastroenteropancreatic (insulinomas, gastrinomas, VIPomas, glucagonomas, somatostatinomas respectively, unified by their origin (neuroendocrine cells, histology and immunohistochemical profile. Unlike their frequency in adults, the rarity of these lesions in childhood makes difficult their early diagnosis. Many tumors can be asymptomatic or may show non-specific features, the diagnosis being nevertheless based on clinical signs, dosage of hormonal specific peptides, nuclear medicine imaging and pathology confirmation. Baseline tests should also include chromogranine A and sinaptophysine. Localising studies comprise CT, MRI, somatostatine receptor scintigraphy and ultrasonography completed by endoscopy. Surgery is the mainstay therapy of GEP NET, as a complete removal can potentially cure the disease; debulking and metastasis surgery, together with adjuvant medical therapy can alleviate some symptoms, sometimes for a long period. Survival is variable, depending on tumour’s type, stage, histology and also on the completeness of the treatment.

  1. Evaluation of neuroendocrine tumors with 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC TOC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artiko, Vera; Afgan, Aida; Petrović, Jelena; Radović, Branislava; Petrović, Nebojša; Vlajković, Marina; Šobić-Šaranović, Dragana; Obradović, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the short review of our preliminary results obtained with 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC. The total of 495 patients with different neuroendocrine tumors were investigated during last few years. There have been 334 true positive (TP), 73 true negative (TN), 6 false positive (FP) and 82 false negative findings (FN). Diagnosis was made according to SPECT findings in 122 patients (25%). The mean T/NT ratio for TP cases was significantly higher (p Tektrotyd is a useful method for diagnosis, staging and follow up of the patients suspected to have neuroendocrine tumors. SPECT had important role in diagnosis. It is also helpful in the appropriate choice of the therapy, including the peptide receptor radionuclide therapy. In the absence of 68Ga-labeled peptides and PET/CT, the special emphasize should be given to application of SPECT/CT as well as to the radioguided surgery.

  2. An Eustachian Tube Neuroendocrine Carcinoma: A Previously Undescribed Entity and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin J. le Nobel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary sinonasal and middle ear neuroendocrine carcinomas are rare malignancies of the head and neck. Owing to the rarity of these tumors, the clinical behavior and optimal management of these tumors are not well defined. We present a case of an incidentally discovered sinonasal neuroendocrine carcinoma that was found to originate from the Eustachian tube, which has not previously been described in the literature. This patient was treated with primary surgical resection using a combination of transnasal and transaural approaches and achieved an incomplete resection. Follow-up imaging demonstrated continued tumor growth in the Eustachian tube as well as a new growth in the ipsilateral cerebellopontine angle and findings suspicious of perineural invasion. However, the tumor exhibited a benign growth pattern and despite continued growth the patient did not receive additional treatment and he remains asymptomatic 35 months following his original surgery.

  3. Neuroendocrine regulation of feminine sexual behavior: lessons from rodent models and thoughts about humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaustein, Jeffrey D

    2008-01-01

    Much has been learned concerning the neuroendocrine processes and cellular mechanisms by which steroid hormones influence reproductive behaviors in rodents and other animals. In this review, a short discussion of hormones and feminine sexual behavior in some rodent species is followed by an outline of the main principles that have been learned from these studies. Examples are given of the importance of considering the timing of hormone treatments, dosage of hormone, use of a specific hormone, particular class of hormones, or form of hormone, interactions between hormones, route of administration, peripheral factors that influence hormonal response, and the possible mechanisms of action by which hormones and other factors influence sexual behaviors. Although cellular studies in humans are presently impossible to perform, mechanistic studies in rodents may provide clues about the neuroendocrine mechanisms by which hormones act and interact in the brain to influence behavior in all species, including humans.

  4. Neuroendocrine and renal effects of intravascular volume expansion in compensated heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabrielsen, A; Bie, P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    2001-01-01

    To examine if the neuroendocrine link between volume sensing and renal function is preserved in compensated chronic heart failure [HF, ejection fraction 0.29 +/- 0.03 (mean +/- SE)] we tested the hypothesis that intravascular and central blood volume expansion by 3 h of water immersion (WI) elicits...... sustained angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy, n = 9) absolute and fractional sodium excretion increased (P Renal free water clearance increased during WI in control subjects but not in HF......, albeit plasma vasopressin concentrations were similar in the two groups. In conclusion, the neuroendocrine link between volume sensing and renal sodium excretion is preserved in compensated HF. The natriuresis of WI is, however, modulated by the prevailing ANG II and Aldo concentrations. In contrast...

  5. PICK1 expression in the Drosophila central nervous system primarily occurs in the neuroendocrine system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Anna M; Nässel, Dick R; Madsen, Kenneth L

    2009-01-01

    in the adult and larval Drosophila central nervous system. PICK1 was found in cell bodies in the subesophageal ganglion, the antennal lobe, the protocerebrum, and the neuroendocrine center pars intercerebralis. The cell types that express PICK1 were identified using GAL4 enhancer trap lines. The PICK1...... (AMPA) receptor subunit GluR2 and the dopamine transporter. PICK1 is strongly implicated in GluR2 trafficking and synaptic plasticity. In mammals, PICK1 has been characterized extensively in cell culture studies. To study PICK1 in an intact system, we characterized PICK1 expression immunohistochemically...... neurons in the neuroendocrine system, which express the transcription factor DIMM and the amidating enzyme peptidylglycine-alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase (PHM). The PICK1-positive cells include neurosecretory cells that produce the insulin-like peptide dILP2. PICK1 expression in insulin-producing cells...

  6. Tissue microarray analysis as a screening tool for neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, Julie Benedicte; Talman, Maj-Lis Møller; Wielenga, Vera Timmermans

    2014-01-01

    by investigating the usefulness of tissue microarray (TMA) analysis as a screening tool. We present our findings with regard to sensitivity and specificity compared with whole-mount sections. The material consists of 240 cases of breast cancer divided into 20 TMA blocks that were all immunohistochemically stained...... for the neuroendocrine markers chromogranin A and synaptophysin. Cases positive in more than 50% of the tumor cells were accepted in accordance with WHO (2003) standards of NCB. Sensitivity and specificity for TMA sections vs whole-mount sections were found to be 100% and 97.8%, respectively, suggesting that TMA......Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast (NCB) is a fairly recent diagnostic entity added by WHO in 2003. Since then, studies have indicated that NCB potentially displays a worse prognosis than invasive ductal carcinoma. However, due to a lack of standard use of immunohistochemical staining...

  7. ASCL1 and NEUROD1 Reveal Heterogeneity in Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Tumors and Regulate Distinct Genetic Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D. Borromeo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC is a high-grade pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor. The transcription factors ASCL1 and NEUROD1 play crucial roles in promoting malignant behavior and survival of human SCLC cell lines. Here, we find that ASCL1 and NEUROD1 identify heterogeneity in SCLC, bind distinct genomic loci, and regulate mostly distinct genes. ASCL1, but not NEUROD1, is present in mouse pulmonary neuroendocrine cells, and only ASCL1 is required in vivo for tumor formation in mouse models of SCLC. ASCL1 targets oncogenic genes including MYCL1, RET, SOX2, and NFIB while NEUROD1 targets MYC. ASCL1 and NEUROD1 regulate different genes that commonly contribute to neuronal function. ASCL1 also regulates multiple genes in the NOTCH pathway including DLL3. Together, ASCL1 and NEUROD1 distinguish heterogeneity in SCLC with distinct genomic landscapes and distinct gene expression programs.

  8. Imaging findings of neuroendocrine neoplasm in biliary duct with liver metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jung Hwa; Chung, Dong Jin; Hahn, Sung Tae; Lee, Jae Moon [Dept. of Radiology, Yeouido St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    A 64-year-old man was transferred to our hospital because of indigestion and jaundice. The initial abdominal CT and MRI revealed a 2.0 cm enhancing mass in the proximal common bile duct (CBD) with several enlarged lymph nodes. The mass was presumed to be a cholangiocarcinoma, and a CBD segmental resection and choledochojejunostomy was performed. However, the final diagnosis was that of a mixed endocrine-exocrine carcinoma, a high-grade neuroendocrine neoplasm. Seven months after the operation, a follow-up abdominal CT study revealed multiple small arterial enhancing nodules in both hepatic lobes. A sono-guided liver biopsy confirmed these as metastastic mixed endocrine-exocrine carcinoma. This case is unique in that the imaging study regarding the neuroendocrine neoplasm of biliary duct has not been previously reported.

  9. Melatonin acutely improves the neuroendocrine architecture of sleep in blind individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Stefan; Smolnik, Rüdiger; Herms, Markus; Born, Jan; Fehm, Horst L

    2003-11-01

    In blind individuals, the absence of light cues results in disturbances of sleep and sleep-related neuroendocrine patterns. The Zeitgeber influence of light on the timing of sleep is assumed to be mediated by melatonin, a hormone of the pineal gland, whose secretion is inhibited by light and enhanced during darkness. Here, we investigated whether a single administration of melatonin improves sleep and associated neuroendocrine patterns in blind individuals. In a double-blind crossover study, 12 totally blind subjects received 5 mg melatonin and placebo orally 1 h before bedtime starting at 2300 h. The dose used enhanced blood melatonin concentrations to clearly supraphysiological levels. Melatonin increased total sleep time and sleep efficiency (P blind individuals the single administration of a clearly pharmacological dose of melatonin can improve sleep function by synchronizing in time the inhibition of pituitary-adrenal activity with central nervous sleep processes.

  10. Salmonella Typhi sense host neuroendocrine stress hormones and release the toxin haemolysin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavolos, Michail H; Bulmer, David M; Spencer, Hannah; Rampioni, Giordano; Schmalen, Ira; Baker, Stephen; Pickard, Derek; Gray, Joe; Fookes, Maria; Winzer, Klaus; Ivens, Alasdair; Dougan, Gordon; Williams, Paul; Khan, C M Anjam

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. typhi) causes typhoid fever. We show that exposure of S. typhi to neuroendocrine stress hormones results in haemolysis, which is associated with the release of haemolysin E in membrane vesicles. This effect is attributed to increased expression of the small RNA micA and RNA chaperone Hfq, with concomitant downregulation of outer membrane protein A. Deletion of micA or the two-component signal-transduction system, CpxAR, abolishes the phenotype. The hormone response is inhibited by the β-blocker propranolol. We provide mechanistic insights into the basis of neuroendocrine hormone-mediated haemolysis by S. typhi, increasing our understanding of inter-kingdom signalling. PMID:21331094

  11. Combined choriocarcinoma, neuroendocrine cell carcinoma and tubular adenocarcinoma in the stomach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yasumitsu; Hara, Takuo; Nozawa, Hiroshi; Oyama, Kaeko; Ohta, Naohiro; Omura, Kenji; Watanabe, Go; Niwa, Hideki

    2008-01-01

    We described a patient with adenocarcinoma of the stomach combined with choriocarcinoma and neuroendocrine cell carcinoma. An 85-year-old man visited our hospital because of appetite loss. Gastric fiberscopy revealed a large tumor occupying the cardial region and anterior wall of the gastric body. The patient underwent total gastrectomy with lymphnode dissection and partial resection of the liver. Choriocarcinoma, small cell carcinoma and tubular adenocarcinoma existed in the gastric tumor. The choriocarcinomatous foci contained cells positive for beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (B-hCG) and human placental lactogen mainly in syncytiotrophoblastic cells. The small cell carcinomatous foci contained cells positive for synaptophysin, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and chromogranin A. The prognosis for gastric adenocarcinoma with choriocarcinoma and neuroendocrine cell carcinoma is exceedingly poor. This patient died about 2 mo after the first complaint from hepatic failure. This is the first reported case of gastric cancer with these three pathological features. PMID:18506939

  12. Expression of developing neural transcription factors in diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Antonio García; Zarco, Enrique Rodríguez; Arjona, Juan Carlos Girón; Moreno, María José Ríos; Rodríguez, Katherine Gallardo; Benítez, Ana Vallejo; Cámpora, Ricardo González

    2016-09-01

    DIPNECH is characterized by neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia, tumorlets, and eventually carcinoid tumors. Although it is regarded by some authors as a preneoplastic condition, this issue is controversial. New pathologic criteria have recently been proposed for the diagnosis of DIPNECH, and a subgroup of carcinoid tumors expressing developing neural transcription factors (DNTFs), with clinicopathologic features similar to those of DIPNECH, has been recognized. This paper reports on the clinical and pathological findings in three cases of DIPNECH and investigates the expression of three DNTFs (TTF1, ASCL1, and POU3F2). All patients were female, with a mean age of 63 years, and all lesions were located in the periphery of the lung. In two cases, typical carcinoids were associated with a spindle-cell component. All neuroendocrine proliferations were DNTF positive. The morphologic (spindle-cell component), phenotypic (DNTF expression), and clinicopathologic (peripheral tumors, female predominance) similarities suggest that DIPNECH may be a preneoplastic lesion for peripheral carcinoids.

  13. Role of Sleep and Sleep Loss in Hormonal Release and Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Leproult, Rachel; Van Cauter, Eve

    2009-01-01

    Compared to a few decades ago, adults, as well as children, sleep less. Sleeping as little as possible is often seen as an admirable behavior in contemporary society. However, sleep plays a major role in neuroendocrine function and glucose metabolism. Evidence that the curtailment of sleep duration may have adverse health effects has emerged in the past 10 years. Accumulating evidence from both epidemiologic studies and well-controlled laboratory studies indicates that chronic partial sleep l...

  14. Cultural Psychology and Deconstructing Developmental Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Crafter, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This paper looks at points of convergence and divergence between the different branches of cultural psychology and Burman's ideas in Deconstructing Developmental Psychology (DDP). The paper discusses the relationship between the developing ideas in cultural psychology over time and some of the shared theoretical and conceptual criticisms put forward in DDP. This takes into account some of the differences between symbolic approach, activity theory and an individualistic approach to cultural ps...

  15. Sport psychology: psychologic issues and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Christopher M

    2006-08-01

    This article has briefly highlighted the area of sport psychology as it relates to performance psychology skills (mental training), including a historical overview and current topics overview. The use of mental training skills may be of interest to the practicing physical medicine and rehabilitation professional in the treatment of his or her patients. It is important that the physical medicine professional recognize what sport or performance psychology represents within the paradigm of psychologic interventions. Referring to an individual based on his or her training (licensed psychologist versus mental training consultant) is essential for the appropriate management of psychologic issues related to performance. The issues related to the psychologic rehabilitation of the injured athlete are of importance to the medical staff; the overview of affective responses can assist in understanding the normal and adaptive responses of the injured athlete. Finally, a brief description of a psychologist's role within a sports medicine and rehabilitation practice is presented. The psychologic issues that are present in the world of sport and elite performance are numerous, and not all are mentioned in this article. Issues of eating disorders, substance abuse, and psychologic health with athletes should be further explored within the physical medicine and rehabilitation discipline as well as in the sports medicine discipline. The ever-evolving psychologic dynamics of individuals involved in sport and elite performance are intriguing and unique. A specialized knowledge base, training, and experience in providing psychologic services are required to treat this unique population. Counseling and clinical issues of the athlete and elite performer require further attention in the realm of psychologic interventions, including further exploration of the efficacy of interventions for performance enhancement. The field of applied sport psychology may offer the physical medicine

  16. Identity of psychology, identity and psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Mirjana Nastran Ule

    2003-01-01

    The article deals with epistemic issues of modern psychology with the starting hypothesis being that scientific psychology must satisfy three main interests: scientific, practical and emancipatory interest. Particularly important is the emancipatory interest, which is based on the social reflection of scientific work and conclusions. Psychological knowledge involves not only neutral descriptions of facts, but also implicit rules, expectations regarding values or norms, and criticism of undesi...

  17. Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia diagnosed by tranbronchoscopic cryoprobe biopsy technique

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Ravi; Collazo‐Gonzalez, Carolina; Andrews, Arthur; Johnson, Jean; Rumbak, Mark; Smith, Maxwell

    2017-01-01

    Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) remains a poorly understood clinical entity. It is currently classified as a premalignant condition by the World Health Organization (WHO). Symptoms are similar to those associated with obstructive lung disease, including breathlessness and cough. The presentation is often initially ascribed to other diseases such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Here, we present what we believe is the first described ca...

  18. Neuroendocrine regulation of long-term pair maintenance in the monogamous zebra finch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Nora H; Soma, Kiran K

    2015-11-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "SBN 2014". Understanding affiliative behavior is critical to understanding social organisms. While affiliative behaviors are present across a wide range of taxa and contexts, much of what is known about the neuroendocrine regulation of affiliation comes from studies of pair-bond formation in prairie voles. This leaves at least three gaps in our current knowledge. First, little is known about long-term pair-bond maintenance. Second, few studies have examined non-mammalian systems, even though monogamy is much more common in birds than in mammals. Third, the influence of breeding condition on affiliation is largely unknown. The zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) is an excellent model system for examining the neuroendocrine regulation of affiliative behaviors, including the formation and maintenance of a long-term pair bond. Zebra finches form genetically monogamous pair bonds, which they actively maintain throughout the year. The genomic and neuroanatomical resources, combined with the wealth of knowledge on the ecology and ethology of wild zebra finches, give this model system unique advantages to study the neuroendocrine regulation of pair bonding. Here, we review the endocrinology of opportunistic breeding in zebra finches, the sex steroid profiles of breeding and non-breeding zebra finches (domesticated and wild), and the roles of sex steroids and other signaling molecules in pair-maintenance behaviors in the zebra finch and other monogamous species. Studies of zebra finches and other songbirds will be useful for broadly understanding the neuroendocrine regulation of affiliative behaviors, including pair bonding and monogamy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. New model for gastroenteropancreatic large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: establishment of two clinically relevant cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Krieg

    Full Text Available Recently, a novel WHO-classification has been introduced that divided gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NEN according to their proliferation index into G1- or G2-neuroendocrine tumors (NET and poorly differentiated small-cell or large-cell G3-neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC. Our knowledge on primary NECs of the GEP-system is limited due to the rarity of these tumors and chemotherapeutic concepts of highly aggressive NEC do not provide convincing results. The aim of this study was to establish a reliable cell line model for NEC that could be helpful in identifying novel druggable molecular targets. Cell lines were established from liver (NEC-DUE1 or lymph node metastases (NEC-DUE2 from large cell NECs of the gastroesophageal junction and the large intestine, respectively. Morphological characteristics and expression of neuroendocrine markers were extensively analyzed. Chromosomal aberrations were mapped by array comparative genomic hybridization and DNA profiling was analyzed by DNA fingerprinting. In vitro and in vivo tumorigenicity was evaluated and the sensitivity against chemotherapeutic agents assessed. Both cell lines exhibited typical morphological and molecular features of large cell NEC. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that both cell lines retained their malignant properties. Whereas NEC-DUE1 and -DUE2 were resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs such as cisplatin, etoposide and oxaliplatin, a high sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil was observed for the NEC-DUE1 cell line. Taken together, we established and characterized the first GEP large-cell NEC cell lines that might serve as a helpful tool not only to understand the biology of these tumors, but also to establish novel targeted therapies in a preclinical setup.

  20. Results after surgical treatment of liver metastases in patients with high-grade gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galleberg, R. B.; Knigge, U; Tiensuu Janson, E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine carcinomas (GEP-NEC) are generally characterized by synchronous metastases, high aggressiveness and a dismal prognosis. Current international guidelines do not recommend surgical treatment of liver metastases, however the existing data are scarce......, particularly for the group with a Ki-67 in the relatively lower G3 range. Our findings indicate a possible role for surgical treatment of liver metastases in the management of this patient population....

  1. Cutaneous squamous and neuroendocrine carcinoma: genetically and immunohistochemically different from Merkel cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulitzer, Melissa P; Brannon, A Rose; Berger, Michael F; Louis, Peter; Scott, Sasinya N; Jungbluth, Achim A; Coit, Daniel G; Brownell, Isaac; Busam, Klaus J

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous neuroendocrine (Merkel cell) carcinoma most often arises de novo in the background of a clonally integrated virus, the Merkel cell polyomavirus, and is notable for positive expression of retinoblastoma 1 (RB1) protein and low expression of p53 compared with the rare Merkel cell polyomavirus-negative Merkel cell carcinomas. Combined squamous and Merkel cell tumors are consistently negative for Merkel cell polyomavirus. Little is known about their immunophenotypic or molecular profile. Herein, we studied 10 combined cutaneous squamous cell and neuroendocrine carcinomas for immunohistochemical expression of p53, retinoblastoma 1 protein, neurofilament, p63, and cytokeratin 20 (CK20). We compared mutation profiles of five combined Merkel cell carcinomas and seven ‘pure’ Merkel cell carcinomas using targeted next-generation sequencing. Combined tumors were from the head, trunk, and leg of Caucasian males and one female aged 52–89. All cases were highly p53- and p63-positive and neurofilament-negative in the squamous component, whereas RB1-negative in both components. Eight out of 10 were p53-positive, 3/10 p63-positive, and 3/10 focally neurofilament-positive in the neuroendocrine component. Six out of 10 were CK20-positive in any part. By next-generation sequencing, combined tumors were highly mutated, with an average of 48 mutations per megabase compared with pure tumors, which showed 1.25 mutations per megabase. RB1 and p53 mutations were identified in all five combined tumors. Combined tumors represent an immunophenotypically and genetically distinct variant of primary cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinomas, notable for a highly mutated genetic profile, significant p53 expression and/or mutation, absent RB1 expression in the context of increased RB1 mutation, and minimal neurofilament expression. PMID:26022453

  2. Guidelines for the management of neuroendocrine tumours by the Brazilian gastrointestinal tumour group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechelmann, Rachel P; Weschenfelder, Rui F; Costa, Frederico P; Andrade, Aline Chaves; Osvaldt, Alessandro Bersch; Quidute, Ana Rosa P; Dos Santos, Allan; Hoff, Ana Amélia O; Gumz, Brenda; Buchpiguel, Carlos; Vilhena Pereira, Bruno S; Lourenço Junior, Delmar Muniz; da Rocha Filho, Duilio Reis; Fonseca, Eduardo Antunes; Riello Mello, Eduardo Linhares; Makdissi, Fabio Ferrari; Waechter, Fabio Luiz; Carnevale, Francisco Cesar; Coura-Filho, George B; de Paulo, Gustavo Andrade; Girotto, Gustavo Colagiovanni; Neto, João Evangelista Bezerra; Glasberg, João; Casali-da-Rocha, Jose Claudio; Rego, Juliana Florinda M; de Meirelles, Luciana Rodrigues; Hajjar, Ludhmila; Menezes, Marcos; Bronstein, Marcello D; Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit; Fragoso, Maria Candida Barisson Villares; Pereira, Maria Adelaide Albergaria; Barros, Milton; Forones, Nora Manoukian; do Amaral, Paulo Cezar Galvão; de Medeiros, Raphael Salles Scortegagna; Araujo, Raphael L C; Bezerra, Regis Otaviano França; Peixoto, Renata D'Alpino; Aguiar, Samuel; Ribeiro, Ulysses; Pfiffer, Tulio; Hoff, Paulo M; Coutinho, Anelisa K

    2017-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours are a heterogeneous group of diseases with a significant variety of diagnostic tests and treatment modalities. Guidelines were developed by North American and European groups to recommend their best management. However, local particularities and relativisms found worldwide led us to create Brazilian guidelines. Our consensus considered the best feasible strategies in an environment involving more limited resources. We believe that our recommendations may be extended to other countries with similar economic standards.

  3. Carcinome neuroendocrine du sein: à propos d'un cas et revue de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les carcinomes neuroendocrines primitifs (CNEP) du sein sont des tumeurs rares. Ils sont actuellement inclus dans la dernière classification de l'OMS des tumeurs du sein. Nous rapportons un cas de localisation mammaire chez une patiente de 39 ans. Il s'agissait d'une tumeur localement avancée ayant nécessité une ...

  4. Adolescent caffeine consumption increases adulthood anxiety-related behavior and modifies neuroendocrine signaling

    OpenAIRE

    O’Neill, Casey E.; Newsom, Ryan J.; Stafford, Jacob; Scott, Talia; Archuleta, Solana; Levis, Sophia C.; Spencer, Robert L.; Campeau, Serge; Bachtell, Ryan K.

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine is a commonly used psychoactive substance and consumption by children and adolescents continues to rise. Here, we examine the lasting effects of adolescent caffeine consumption on anxiety-related behaviors and several neuroendocrine measures in adulthood. Adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats consumed caffeine (0.3 g/L) for 28 consecutive days from postnatal day 28 (P28) to P55. Age-matched control rats consumed water. Behavioral testing for anxiety-related behavior began in adulthood ...

  5. Characterization of prostate neuroendocrine cancers and therapeutic management: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargos, P; Ferretti, L; Gross-Goupil, M; Orre, M; Cornelis, F; Henriques de Figueiredo, B; Houédé, N; Merino, C; Roubaud, G; Dallaudiére, B; Richaud, P; Fléchon, A

    2014-09-01

    Neuroendocrine prostate cancers (NEPCs) are rare. The current lack of consensus for clinical, biological and pathological characterization as well as therapeutic approach makes the management of those tumors a clinical challenge. This literature review aims to summarize available data on the characterization and management of patients with prostate cancer with a neuroendocrine element. We try to identify major controversies and uncertainties in order to understand all aspects of this particular entity. We searched for all articles published and registered in the MEDLINE database before 31 November 2013 with the following search terms: (('prostatic neoplasms' (MeSH Terms)) AND ('carcinoma, neuroendocrine' (MeSH Terms)) OR ('carcinoma, small cell' (MeSH Terms))) AND (English (Language)). Case reports, letters or comments were excluded. We then selected relevant articles from titles and abstracts. Overall, 278 articles published between 1976 and November 2013 were identified. No definition of NEPC seems to be clearly established. Natural history of the disease reveals poor prognosis with median survival of up to 10 to 13 months. Histological characterization appears difficult. Serum markers could be helpful with some controversies in terms of prognostic significance. Concerning management, the majority of patients received local treatment combined with chemotherapy in case of early and localized disease. Few clinical trials described strategy for metastatic disease. The exploration of the different pathways implicated in the neuroendocrine differentiation of prostate cancers is essential for the comprehension of castration-resistance mechanisms. It will enable the identification of optimal therapeutic strategies for which no recommendation is currently established. Inclusion in prospective clinical trials appears necessary to identify the adequate strategy.

  6. Primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast: The histogenetic diatribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabibi D

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article entitled “Primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast: a report of two cases and review of the literature” by Spinelli et al. [1]. The authors stated that “the histogenesis is still unclear because the presence of neuroendocrine cells in normal breast has not been proved conclusively”. Moreover they reported two histogenetic hypotheses, the first one stating that “small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SCNC is a variant of metaplastic carcinoma arising from a lobular or ductal carcinoma”, the second one claiming that “it is a distinct type of breast carcinoma different from the usual type”. We appreciate this case report and we agree with the authors on the histogenetic diatribe of this rare type of breast neoplasia. In this background, we would highlight our previous case report about a solid variant of mammary adenoid cystic carcinoma merging with "small cell carcinoma" [2] in which we found positivity for CD10 and S100 and negativity for estrogen receptors, both in sbACC and in SCC, in keeping with a myoepithelial origin of both neoplastic areas [3] supporting the hypothesis that the “two components share the same histogenetic myoepithelial origin and represent an example of dedifferentiation along neuroendocrine phenotype lines occurring in a multipotential neoplastic stem line, already committed towards a myoepithelial phenotype”. These findings are in keeping with the first hypothesis about the metaplastic, divergent histogenetic nature of SNSC and we think that this rare SNSC, albeit arising from a different tumor, could be introduced in this case review of the literature, also for its contribute to the histogenetic diatribe.

  7. Medullary thyroid carcinoma and duodenal calcitonin-secreting neuroendocrine tumour: more than coincidence?

    OpenAIRE

    Huguet, I; Lamas, C; Vera, R; Lomas, A; Quilez, R P; Grossman, A.; Botella, F.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms whose management can be problematic. In many cases, multiple tumours may occur in the same patient or his or her family, and some of these have now been defined genetically, although in other cases the underlying gene or genes involved remain unclear. We describe a patient, a 63-year-old female, who was diagnosed with a medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), which was confirmed pathologically after thyroidectomy, but who...

  8. Brachytherapy should not be omitted when treating locally advanced neuroendocrine cervical cancer with definitive chemoradiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Tyler P; Amini, Arya; Schefter, Tracey E; Behbakht, Kian; Fisher, Christine M

    Neuroendocrine cervical cancer is a rare malignancy with a poor prognosis, yet there is a paucity of data to guide treatment decisions when managing patients with this diagnosis. Specifically, there are little data to aid practitioners in deciding if there is added value to brachytherapy given the additional time, cost, discomfort, and toxicity to patients. We used the National Cancer Data Base to identify women with locally advanced neuroendocrine cervical cancer treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy to determine if the addition of brachytherapy improves outcomes in this disease. We also assessed outcomes based on chemotherapy timing in this cohort. We identified 100 patients with locally advanced nonmetastatic neuroendocrine cervical cancer that were treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy between 2004 and 2012. There was a substantial improvement in overall survival when brachytherapy was administered in addition to external beam radiotherapy. In multivariate analysis, the addition of brachytherapy, compared with external beam radiotherapy alone, was associated with an improved median survival of 48.6 vs. 21.6 months (hazard ratio (HR), 0.475; 95% CI, 0.255-0.883; p = 0.019). We observed no difference in overall survival for patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy compared with the group who received chemotherapy started concurrently with radiation (HR, 0.851; 95% CI, 0.483-1.500; p = 0.578). Brachytherapy should be considered an essential component of definitive chemoradiotherapy for the treatment of neuroendocrine cervical cancer. Chemotherapy timing, however, does not impact outcome. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Historizing epistemology in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Gordana

    2010-12-01

    The conflict between the psychometric methodological framework and the particularities of human experiences reported in psychotherapeutic context led Michael Schwarz to raise the question whether psychology is based on a methodological error. I take this conflict as a heuristic tool for the reconstruction of the early history of psychology, which bears witness to similar epistemological conflicts, though the dominant historiography of psychology has largely forgotten alternative conceptions and their valuable insights into complexities of psychic phenomena. In order to work against the historical amnesia in psychology I suggest to look at cultural-historical contexts which decisively shaped epistemological choices in psychology. Instead of keeping epistemology and history of psychology separate, which nurtures individualism and naturalism in psychology, I argue for historizing epistemology and for historical psychology. From such a historically reflected perspective psychology in contemporary world can be approached more critically.

  10. Late neuro endocrinological sequelae of radiation therapy; Effets tardifs de la radiotherapie sur la sphere neuroendocrine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieri, S.; Bernier, J. [Ospedale San Giovanni (Switzerland); Sklar, C. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Constine, L. [Rochester Univ., NY (United States)

    1997-12-01

    When the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA) is included in the treatment field in children and adults, a variety of neuroendocrine disturbances are more common than has been appreciated in the past. Clinical damage to the pituitary and thyroid glands usually occurs months to years after treatment, and is preceded by a long subclinical phase. Primary brain tumors represent the largest group of malignant solid tumors in children. The survival rates of 50 reported in the literature are achieved at the expense of late occurring effects. Radiation-induced abnormalities are generally dose-dependent. Growth hormone deficiency and premature sexual development can occur at doses as low as 18 Gy in conventional fractionation, and is the most common neuroendocrine problem in children. In patients treated with > 40 Gy on the HPA, deficiency of gonadotropins, thyroid stimulation hormone, and adrenocorticotropin (> 50 Gy), hyperprolactinemia can be seen, especially among young women. Most neuroendocrine disturbances that develop as a result of HPA can be treated efficiently, provided that an early detection of these endocrine dysfunctions abnormalities is done. (authors)

  11. Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms: Basic Biology, Current Treatment Strategies and Prospects for the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Ohmoto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (pNENs are rare tumors accounting for only 1%–2% of all pancreatic tumors. pNENs are pathologically heterogeneous and are categorized into three groups (neuroendocrine tumor: NET G1, NET G2; and neuroendocrine carcinoma: NEC on the basis of the Ki-67 proliferation index and the mitotic count according to the 2010 World Health Organization (WHO classification of gastroenteropancreatic NENs. NEC in this classification includes both histologically well-differentiated and poorly differentiated subtypes, and modification of the WHO 2010 classification is under discussion based on genetic and clinical data. Genomic analysis has revealed NETs G1/G2 have genetic alterations in chromatin remodeling genes such as MEN1, DAXX and ATRX, whereas NECs have an inactivation of TP53 and RB1, and these data suggest that different treatment approaches would be required for NET G1/G2 and NEC. While there are promising molecular targeted drugs, such as everolimus or sunitinib, for advanced NET G1/G2, treatment stratification based on appropriate predictive and prognostic biomarkers is becoming an important issue. The clinical outcome of NEC is still dismal, and a more detailed understanding of the genetic background together with preclinical studies to develop new agents, including those already under investigation for small cell lung cancer (SCLC, will be needed to improve the prognosis.

  12. The clinical value of scintigraphy of neuroendocrine tumors using (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artiko, V; Sobic-Saranovic, D; Pavlovic, S; Petrovic, M; Zuvela, M; Antic, A; Matic, S; Odalovic, S; Petrovic, N; Milovanovic, A; Obradovic, V

    2012-01-01

    To assess the value of whole body scintigraphy using (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC (Tektrotyd) and with single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) in the detection of primary and metastatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Thirty patients with different neuroendocrine tumors, mainly gastroenteropancreatic (GEP), were investigated. Whole body scintigraphy was performed 2 h (if necessary 10 min and 24h) after i.v. administration of 740 Mbq (99m)Tc-Tektrotyd, Polatom. In cases of unclear findings obtained by whole body scintigraphy, investigation was followed by SPECT. From 12 patients with NETs of unknown origin, there were 10 true positive (TP), and 2 false negative (FN) findings. Diagnosis was made with SPECT in 6 patients. From 8 patients with gut carcinoids, there were 4 TP, 2 true negative (TN), one FN, and one false positive (FP) finding. Diagnosis was made with SPECT in 2 patients. From 7 patients with neuroendocrine pancreatic carcinomas there were 4 TP and 3 TN findings. Diagnosis was made with SPECT in 2 patients. From 3 patients with gastrinomas there were 2 TP findings and one TN findings. Diagnosis was made with SPECT findings in 2 patients. Sensitivity of (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC was 87%, specificity 86%, positive predictive value 95%, negative predictive value 67% and accuracy 87%. We concluded that scintigraphy with (99m)Tc-Tektrotyd is an useful method for diagnosis, staging and follow up of the patients with NETs.

  13. Gastric non-secreting neuroendocrine tumor and hypochlorhydria-related hypergastrinemia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biolato, Marco; Alfieri, Sergio; Ianiro, Gianluca; Pizzoferrato, Marco; Gasbarrini, Giovanni

    2013-02-22

    Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is characterized by recurrent peptic ulcers and diarrhea that result from gastrin-secreting neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract; nevertheless, severe hypergastrinemia may also have alternative pathogenetic explanations. A 61-year-old woman of Caucasian origin presented with a history of epigastric pain and early satiety, severe hypergastrinemia (approximately 2000 pg/mL) and a neuroendocrine polyp in the corpus of her stomach. Chronic atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia was present, but she denied use of acid suppressant drugs and the results of tests for Helicobacter pylori as well as gastric parietal cell and intrinsic factor antibodies were negative. She underwent a radical gastric tangential resection. Six months later, serum gastrin was still elevated despite lack of recurrence of tumor. The clinical picture was suggestive for a hypochlorhydria-related hypergastrinemia with subsequent development of a non-secreting carcinoid. We suggest a periodic endoscopic follow-up in patients with severe hypochlorhydria-related hypergastrinemia in order to earlier detect neuroendocrine polyps.

  14. Primary neuroendocrine tumor of the sacrum: case report and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dujardin, Fanny; Muret, Anne de [Hopital Trousseau, CHRU de Tours, Department of Pathology, Tours (France); Beaussart, Pauline; Waynberger, Eric [Hopital Trousseau, CHRU de Tours, Department of Radiology, Tours (France); Rosset, Philippe [Hopital Trousseau, CHRU de Tours, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tours (France); Mulleman, Denis [Hopital Trousseau, CHRU de Tours, Department of Rheumatology, Tours (France); Pinieux, Gonzague de [Hopital Trousseau, CHRU de Tours, Department of Pathology, Tours (France); Hopital Trousseau, CHRU de Tours, Service d' Anatomie et Cytologie Pathologiques, Tours Cedex 09 (France)

    2009-08-15

    Primary carcinoid tumor (well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor) of the bone involving the sacrum is extremely rare. We report the case of a 72-year-old man who presented with a 20-year history of intermittent low back pain and was found to have an intraosseous sacral mass on imaging. A needle biopsy revealed that this lesion was a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor. Workup did not show any primary tumor or other metastatic disease. There was no associated tailgut cyst or sacrococcygeal teratoma. The lesion was treated with radiation therapy because a surgical approach was rejected. The patient is free of metastatic disease after 28 years evolution of the lesion, retrospectively seen to be present on a conventional radiography performed in 1980. A review of the literature revealed 20 case reports of neuroendocrine tumors arising from the presacral region (with or without associated tailgut cyst or sacrococcygeal teratoma) and sometimes extending to the sacrum. One additional case was located within the neural canal and involved the sacrum, the presacral region, and the rectal wall. Our case is the only tumor arising primarily from the sacrum. The long evolution of this lesion without any other location makes metastatic disease very improbable and this case appears to be a unique example of primary intraosseous sacral carcinoid tumor. (orig.)

  15. Multiple neuroendocrine responses to chronic social stress: interaction between individual characteristics and situational factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mormède, P; Lemaire, V; Castanon, N; Dulluc, J; Laval, M; Le Moal, M

    1990-06-01

    After four weeks of individual housing, male Wistar rats (selected for high or low spontaneous aggressiveness by multiple round-robin encounters) were housed three per cage and submitted to four weeks of chronic social stress consisting of changing membership in the social groups by daily rotation of the animals among cages every day according to a random permutation procedure. In addition, half the males in each condition were housed with three females. Each environmental condition triggered different neuroendocrine changes. Cohabitation with females increased the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis activity, including enlargement of adrenals and increased circulating corticosterone levels. On the other hand, daily rotation of the rats between different social groups activated part of the sympathetic nervous system, such as increased phenylethanolamine N-methyl transferase (PNMT) activity in the adrenals. The level of aggressiveness, however, had no direct influence but interacted with environmental factors on such neuroendocrine measures as circulating testosterone or plasma renin activity. These results indicate that during chronic stress, there is no single, unique response by the animal, but a highly complex set of neuroendocrine changes, dependent on the interaction between individual characteristics (the level of aggressiveness is an example) and situational factors.

  16. INSL5 may be a unique marker of colorectal endocrine cells and neuroendocrine tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashima, Hirosato, E-mail: hmashima1-tky@umin.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology, Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita 010-8543 (Japan); Ohno, Hideki [Division of Advanced Medical Science, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Yamada, Yumi; Sakai, Toshitaka; Ohnishi, Hirohide [Department of Gastroenterology, Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita 010-8543 (Japan)

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► INSL5 is expressed in enteroendocrine cells along the colorectum. ► INSL5 is expressed increasingly from proximal colon to rectum. ► INSL5 co-localizes rarely with chromogranin A. ► All rectal neuroendocrine tumors examined expressed INSL5. -- Abstract: Insulin-like peptide 5 (INSL5) is a member of the insulin superfamily, and is a potent agonist for RXFP4. We have shown that INSL5 is expressed in enteroendocrine cells (EECs) along the colorectum with a gradient increase toward the rectum. RXFP4 is ubiquitously expressed along the digestive tract. INSL5-positive EECs have little immunoreactivity to chromogranin A (CgA) and might be a unique marker of colorectal EECs. CgA-positive EECs were distributed normally along the colorectum in INSL5 null mice, suggesting that INSL5 is not required for the development of CgA-positive EECs. Exogenous INSL5 did not affect the proliferation of human colon cancer cell lines, and chemically-induced colitis in INSL5 null mice did not show any significant changes in inflammation or mucosal healing compared to wild-type mice. In contrast, all of the rectal neuroendocrine tumors examined co-expressed INSL5 and RXFP4. INSL5 may be a unique marker of colorectal EECs, and INSL5–RXFP4 signaling might play a role in an autocrine/paracrine fashion in the colorectal epithelium and rectal neuroendocrine tumors.

  17. Convergent evolution of neuroendocrine control of phenotypic plasticity in pupal colour in butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starnecker, G.; Hazel, W.

    1999-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity in pupal colour occurs in three families of butterflies (the Nymphalidae, Papilionidae and Pieridae), typically in species whose pupation sites vary unpredictably in colour. In all species studied to date, larvae ready for pupation respond to environmental cues associated with the colour of their pupation sites and moult into cryptic light (yellow–green) or dark (brown–black) pupae. In nymphalids and pierids, pupal colour is controlled by a neuroendocrine factor, pupal melanization-reducing factor (PMRF), the release of which inhibits the melanization of the pupal cuticle resulting in light pupae. In contrast, the neuroendocrine factor controlling pupal colour in papilionid butterflies results in the production of brown pupae. PMRF was extracted from the ventral nerve chains of the peacock butterfly Inachis io (Nymphalidae) and black swallowtail butterfly Papilio polyxenes (Papilionidae). When injected into pre-pupae, the extracts resulted in yellow pupae in I. io but brown pupae in P. polyxenes. These results suggest that the same neuroendocrine factor controls the plasticity in pupal colour, but that plasticity in pupal colour in these species has evolved independently (convergently).

  18. Expanded criteria for debulking of liver metastasis also apply to pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Rosemary E; Pommier, SuEllen J; Pommier, Rodney F

    2017-11-02

    Recently, there has been a move toward decreasing the threshold for liver debulking for metastatic carcinoid tumors from 90% to 70%. The debulking threshold and factors that predict outcomes of liver debulking operations specifically among pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are not well defined. Records of patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors undergoing liver debulking with a threshold of 70% from 2006 to 2016 were reviewed. Extrahepatic metastases and positive margins by enucleation were allowed. Liver progression-free survival and overall survival were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method for various factors and compared by log-rank. Factors also were correlated with liver progression-free survival and overall survival by multivariate regression analyses. Forty-two patients underwent 44 operations, of which 24 resulted in 100% debulking, 12 resulted in ≥90% debulking, and 8 resulted in ≥70% debulking. Median liver progression-free survival was 11 months. The 5-year overall survival rate was 81%. There were no significant differences in outcome based on percent debulked. Only liver metastasis ≥5 cm correlated with liver progression-free survival and overall survival. Consideration should be given to expanding the criteria for liver debulking in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors to include a new threshold of >70% debulking, intermediate grade tumors, positive margins, and extrahepatic metastases; these criteria yield results indistinguishable from complete resection. Using these expanded criteria will increase the number of patients eligible for an operation and maintain high survival rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Circadian variation in neuroendocrine response to L-dopa in patients with restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Borreguero, Diego; Larrosa, Oscar; Granizo, Juan José; de la Llave, Yolanda; Hening, Wayne A

    2004-06-15

    To investigate circadian changes in dopaminergic function by means of a neuroendocrine challenge (growth hormone and prolactin responses to an acute oral administration of L-dopa) in patients with idiopathic restless legs syndrome (RLS) and controls. Randomized administration of the L-dopa neuroendocrine challenge. Sleep disorders laboratory at a 500-bed academic hospital. Twelve patients diagnosed with idiopathic RLS and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Following a comprehensive evaluation that included nocturnal polysomnographic study, all participants underwent the L-dopa neuroendocrine challenge on 2 occasions (11 am and 11 pm). Subjects were previously randomly assigned to the time of first challenge (11 am or 11 pm). On each occasion, subjects took 200 mg of L-dopa (plus 50 mg carbidopa) by mouth. Blood was drawn 20 minutes and 5 minutes before administration of the drug, as well as 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 102, and 120 minutes after administration. Prechallenge levels of plasma values of growth hormone or prolactin did not differ in the 2 subject groups. Following only the nighttime administration of L-dopa, RLS patients manifested a more pronounced inhibition of prolactin release and an increase in growth hormone secretion. Prolactin plasma levels were significantly correlated to the periodic limb movement index on the polysomnogram. These findings may reflect enhanced circadian variations in dopaminergic function and support an increased sensitivity at night of dopamine receptors in patients with RLS.

  20. A case of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the bladder with prolonged spontaneous remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Vincent; Zwi, Jonathan; Hanning, Fritha; Lim, Remy; Williams, Andrew; Cadwallader, Jon

    2017-05-01

    Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the urinary bladder are rare. We present a case of a 72-year-old man who presented with back pain and acute renal failure. Ultrasound showed a soft tissue mass in the base of the bladder causing bilateral ureteric obstruction. Subsequent biopsy of this mass demonstrated neuroendocrine carcinoma. He was commenced on neoadjuvant chemotherapy (carboplatin/etoposide) and proceeded to a radical cysto-prostatectomy. Histology revealed a LCNEC involving the bladder, T4a with invasion through to adipose tissue and posteriorly at perivesical resection margins. In addition, there was a Gleason score 9 prostatic adenocarcinoma, distinct from the neuroendocrine carcinoma. Following surgery, the patient developed gross local-regional recurrence and refused further systemic therapy. However, 1 year following referral to palliative care, a further CT-PET showed complete spontaneous remission of his disease. There are only few case reports of LCNEC of the urinary bladder therefore the pathogenesis and treatment protocol are still unclear. This case report highlights the unpredictable nature of this disease.

  1. Dimethyl-Benz(aanthracene: A mammary carcinogen and a neuroendocrine disruptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Kerdelhué

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs are potent carcinogens. Among these, dimethylbenz(aanthracene (DMBA is well known for its capacity to induce mammary carcinomas in female Sprague-Dawley (SD rats. Ovariectomy suppresses the susceptibility of this model to DMBA, thus suggesting that the inducible action of the carcinogen depends on ovarian hormones. The promotion of DMBA-induced adenocarcinoma is accompanied by a series of neuroendocrine disruptions of both Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Gonadal (HPG and Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA axes and of the secretion of melatonin during the latency period of 2 months that precedes the occurrence of the first mammary tumor. The present review analyses the various neuroendocrine disruptions that occur along the HPG and the HPA axes, and the marked inhibitory effect of the carcinogen on melatonin secretion. The possible relationships between the neuroendocrine disruptions, which essentially consist in an increased pre-ovulatory secretion of 17β-estradiol and prolactin, associated with a marked reduction of melatonin secretion, and the decrease in gene expression of the receptors for aryl-hydrocarbons receptor (AhR and 17β-estradiol (ERα; ERβ are also discussed.

  2. Common Diagnostic Challenges in the Histopathologic Diagnosis of Neuroendocrine Lung Tumors: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Valente

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine tumors are an uncommon group of neoplasms, accounting for about 20% of all lung carcinomas, arising from stem cells of the bronchial epithelium known as Kulchitsky cells. In the past, these tumors were grouped among benign or less aggressive malignant pulmonary tumors. Currently, according to the 2004 World Health Organization categorization, these tumors are separated into 4 subtypes characterized by increasing biologic aggressiveness: low-grade (typical carcinoid; TC, intermediate-grade (atypical carcinoid; AC and high-grade (large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, LCNEC, and small-cell lung carcinoma, SCLC. They differ by morphologic, immunohistochemical and structural features. At histopathologic analysis, these tumors share progressive increase in a number of mitotic figures per 10 high-power fields and in the extent of necrosis, with TC having the lowest values and SCLC having the highest. TCs and ACs make up approximately 1–2% of all primary lung tumors. Differentiating ACs from TCs or LCNEC and SCLC is clinically important because the treatment modalities and prognoses for these types of tumors are different. We report a case of misdiagnosis of bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine tumor in a young woman which has heavily influenced her clinical history.

  3. Neuroendocrine stress responses predict catecholamine-dependent working memory-related dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernaus, Dennis; Quaedflieg, Conny W E M; Offermann, Jan Stefan; Casales Santa, Marta M; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse

    2018-01-01

    It is generally thought that the effect of acute stress on higher-order functions such as working memory is, for an important part, mediated by central catecholamine activity. However, little is known about the association between neuroendocrine stress responses and catecholamine-dependent working memory-related brain function in the absence of stress. Here, we investigate for the first time in healthy humans (n = 18) how neuroendocrine responses to stress (cortisol and alpha-amylase) relate to fronto-parietal working memory activity changes in response to atomoxetine, a noradrenaline transporter inhibitor that selectively increases extracellular cortical dopamine and noradrenaline. We observed positive correlations between stress-induced cortisol (Pearson's r = 0.75, P working memory-related activity in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Stress-induced cortisol increases furthermore correlated with supramarginal gyrus working memory-related activity (r = 0.79, P working memory activity on placebo and greater working memory activity increases following atomoxetine in high stress responders. These results further corroborate the notion that neuroendocrine responses to stress are an informative proxy of catecholamine function relevant to higher order functions and provide novel hints on the complex relationship between acute stress, catecholamine function and working memory. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Classification of gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors; Klassifikation gastroenteropankreatischer neuroendokriner Tumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perren, A. [Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technische UniversitaetMuenchen, Institut fuer Pathologie und pathologische Anatomie, Muenchen (Germany); Schmitt, A. [Universitaetsspital Zuerich, Institut fuer Klinische Pathologie, Departement Pathologie, Zuerich (Switzerland); Komminoth, P. [Stadtspital Triemli, Zuerich (Switzerland). Institut fuer Pathologie; Pavel, M. [Charite, Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany). Medizinische Klinik mit Schwerpunkt Hepatologie and Gastroenterologie

    2009-03-15

    Tumors of the disseminated/diffuse neuroendocrine system (NET) are characterized by a common phenotype. However, the biology varies according to histomorphology, endocrine symptoms and organ of origin. The WHO classification takes these differences into account and uses a common framework, where the parameters size and extent of invasion vary according to the organ of origin. In order to achieve a further standardization of reporting the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS) recently proposed a tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging and grading system for gastro-entero-pancreatic NET. (orig.) [German] Tumoren des disseminierten/diffusen neuroendokrinen Systems sind durch einen gemeinsamen Phaenotyp gekennzeichnet. In ihrer Biologie unterscheiden sich neuroendokrine Tumoren (NET) jedoch bzgl. Morphologie, endokrinologischer Symptomatik und Ursprungsorgan. Die WHO-Klassifikation traegt diesen Unterschieden Rechnung und klassifiziert NET nach einem einheitlichen Vorgehen, wobei die Parameter Groesse und Invasionstiefe je nach Ursprungsorgan variieren. Um die Nomenklatur weiter zu vereinheitlichen, wurde vor kurzem von der ''European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society'' (ENETS) der Vorschlag einer TNM-Stadien-Einteilung und Graduierung gastroenteropankreatischer NET vorgelegt. (orig.)

  5. Occult Primary Neuroendocrine Tumor Metastasis to the Breast Detected on Screening Mammogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Policeni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic tumors are rare in the breast. Well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (WDNETs are slow-growing neoplasms that arise from neuroendocrine cells, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract and bronchial tree. Metastatic WDNET to the breast is a rare entity. We present a case report of ileal WDNET metastatic to the breast which was initially identified as a small mass in the patient′s left breast on screening mammography. Targeted ultrasound identified a suspicious mass, and ultrasound-guided percutaneous core biopsy was performed. Pathology revealed metastatic WDNET. Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was then performed and demonstrated left axillary Level 2 lymphadenopathy, and liver lesions were suspicious for metastasis. The patient underwent abdominal computed tomography (CT to evaluate for distant metastatic disease. A spiculated mass was found near the ileocecal valve, suggestive of primary ileal WDNET. In addition, CT identified multiple liver lesions, most compatible with metastasis. Indium 111 OctreoScan confirmed radiotracer uptake in the ileum consistent with primary neuroendocrine tumor. In this report, we review the imaging characteristics of metastatic WDNET to the breast by different imaging modalities including mammogram, ultrasound, and breast MRI.

  6. INSM1 Demonstrates Superior Performance to the Individual and Combined Use of Synaptophysin, Chromogranin and CD56 for Diagnosing Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Thoracic Cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooper, Lisa M; Sharma, Rajni; Li, Qing Kay; Illei, Peter B; Westra, William H

    2017-11-01

    Despite the importance of recognizing neuroendocrine differentiation when diagnosing tumors of the thoracic cavity, the sensitivity of traditional neuroendocrine markers is suboptimal, particularly for high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas such as small cell lung carcinoma and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. To increase sensitivity, neuroendocrine markers are routinely ordered as panels of multiple immunostains where any single positive marker is regarded as sufficient evidence of neuroendocrine differentiation. Insulinoma-associated protein 1 (INSM1) is a well-validated transcription factor of neuroendocrine differentiation that has only recently been evaluated for diagnostic use. We performed INSM1 immunohistochemistry on a large series of thoracic neuroendocrine and non-neuroendocrine tumors and compared its performance to synaptophysin, chromogranin, and CD56. INSM1 was positive in 94.9% of small cell lung carcinomas and 91.3% of large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, compared with 74.4% and 78.3% with the combined panel of traditional markers. INSM1 also stained all (100%) of the atypical carcinoids, typical carcinoids and mediastinal paragangliomas, but only 3.3% of adenocarcinomas and 4.2% of squamous cell carcinomas. Overall, INSM1 demonstrated a sensitivity of 96.4% across all grades of thoracic neuroendocrine tumors, significantly more than the 87.4% using the panel of traditional markers (P=0.02). INSM1 is sufficiently sensitive and specific to serve as a standalone first-line marker of neuroendocrine differentiation. A more restrained approach to immunohistochemical analysis of small thoracic biopsies is appropriate given the expanding demand on this limited material for therapeutic biomarker analysis.

  7. Relationship of dopamine type 2 receptor binding potential with fasting neuroendocrine hormones and insulin sensitivity in human obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Julia P; Kessler, Robert M; Feurer, Irene D; Volkow, Nora D; Patterson, Bruce W; Ansari, Mohammad S; Li, Rui; Marks-Shulman, Pamela; Abumrad, Naji N

    2012-05-01

    Midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons, which are involved with reward and motivation, are modulated by hormones that regulate food intake (insulin, leptin, and acyl ghrelin [AG]). We hypothesized that these hormones are associated with deficits in DA signaling in obesity. We assessed the relationships between fasting levels of insulin and leptin, and AG, BMI, and insulin sensitivity index (S(I)) with the availability of central DA type 2 receptor (D2R). We measured D2R availability using positron emission tomography and [(18)F]fallypride (radioligand that competes with endogenous DA) in lean (n = 8) and obese (n = 14) females. Fasting hormones were collected prior to scanning and S(I) was determined by modified oral glucose tolerance test. Parametric image analyses revealed associations between each metabolic measure and D2R. The most extensive findings were negative associations of AG with clusters involving the striatum and inferior temporal cortices. Regional regression analyses also found extensive negative relationships between AG and D2R in the caudate, putamen, ventral striatum (VS), amygdala, and temporal lobes. S(I) was negatively associated with D2R in the VS, while insulin was not. In the caudate, BMI and leptin were positively associated with D2R availability. The direction of associations of leptin and AG with D2R availability are consistent with their opposite effects on DA levels (decreasing and increasing, respectively). After adjusting for BMI, AG maintained a significant relationship in the VS. We hypothesize that the increased D2R availability in obese subjects reflects relatively reduced DA levels competing with the radioligand. Our findings provide evidence for an association between the neuroendocrine hormones and DA brain signaling in obese females.

  8. Metabolic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as your liver, muscles, and body fat. A metabolic disorder occurs when abnormal chemical reactions in your ... that produce the energy. You can develop a metabolic disorder when some organs, such as your liver ...

  9. Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic syndrome is a group of conditions that put you at risk for heart disease and diabetes. These ... doctors agree on the definition or cause of metabolic syndrome. The cause might be insulin resistance. Insulin is ...

  10. Mixed Neuroendocrine-Nonneuroendocrine Neoplasms (MiNENs): Unifying the Concept of a Heterogeneous Group of Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, Stefano; Sessa, Fausto; Uccella, Silvia

    2016-12-01

    The wide application of immunohistochemistry to the study of tumors has led to the recognition that epithelial neoplasms composed of both a neuroendocrine and nonneuroendocrine component are not as rare as traditionally believed. It has been recommended that mixed neuroendocrine-nonneuroendocrine epithelial neoplasms are classified as only those in which either component represents at least 30 % of the lesion but this cutoff has not been universally accepted. Moreover, since their pathogenetic and clinical features are still unclear, mixed neuroendocrine-nonneuroendocrine epithelial neoplasms are not included as a separate clinicopathological entity in most WHO classifications, although they have been observed in virtually all organs. In the WHO classification of digestive tumors, mixed neuroendocrine-nonneuroendocrine neoplasm is considered a specific type and is defined as mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma, a definition that has not been accepted for other organs. In fact, this term does not adequately convey the morphological and biological heterogeneity of digestive mixed neoplasms and has created some misunderstanding among both pathologists and clinicians. In the present study, we have reviewed the literature on mixed neuroendocrine-nonneuroendocrine epithelial neoplasms reported in the pituitary, thyroid, nasal cavity, larynx, lung, digestive system, urinary system, male and female genital organs, and skin to give the reader an overview of the most important clinicopathological features and morphological criteria for diagnosing each entity. We also propose to use the term "mixed neuroendocrine-nonneuroendocrine neoplasm (MiNEN)" to define and to unify the concept of this heterogeneous group of neoplasms, which show different characteristics mainly depending on the type of neuroendocrine and nonneuroendocrine components.

  11. Risk factors of type 1 gastric neuroendocrine neoplasia in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis. A retrospective, multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, Davide; Ravizza, Davide; Ferolla, Piero; Faggiano, Antongiulio; Grimaldi, Franco; Albertelli, Manuela; Ricci, Claudio; Santini, Donatella; Brighi, Nicole; Fazio, Nicola; Colao, Annamaria; Ferone, Diego; Tomassetti, Paola

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the presence of risk factors for a type 1 gastric neuroendocrine neoplasia in a large cohort of patients with chronic atrophic gastritis. The study design consisted of an Italian multicentre, retrospective analysis. The study included all consecutive patients with chronic atrophic gastritis with or without type 1 gastric neuroendocrine neoplasias followed at the participating centres. Two hundred and twenty-nine patients with chronic atrophic gastritis were enroled at the participating centres. A total of 207 patients (154 female, 53 males, median age: 56.0 years) were included in the final analysis. One hundred and twenty-six patients had chronic atrophic gastritis without a gastric neuroendocrine neoplasia and 81 had a chronic atrophic gastritis with type 1 gastric neuroendocrine neoplasia. The median Chromogranin A level, evaluated in 141 patients, was 52.0 U/L. At upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, atrophy of the gastric mucosa was mild/moderate in 137 patients and severe in 68. Intestinal metaplasia of the corpus was present in 168 patients. At histological examination, 81 patients had a gastric neuroendocrine neoplasia (42 patients had a NET G1 and 33 a NET G2). The median Ki67 index was 2.0 %. At univariate and multivariate analysis, the risk factors for a gastric neuroendocrine neoplasia were: male gender, chromogranin A greater than 61 U/L, presence of intestinal metaplasia and age equal to or greater than 59 years. Chromogranin A greater than 61 U/L, the presence of intestinal metaplasia and male gender were independent risk factors for a type 1 gastric neuroendocrine neoplasia in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis.

  12. Psychology of family business

    OpenAIRE

    Taylyakova, Feruzahon

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the basic psychological characteristics of family businesses. The author describes the psychological properties that contribute to improve individual and family businesses. The article also discusses mental properties adversely affect the development of a family business.

  13. Professional psychology in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagulha, T; Dana, R H

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes the history and current status of professional psychology in Portugal where a unique perspective combines training, research, and practical contributions from Europe and the Americas with their own history of psychological tradition and expertise. Training in professional psychology includes Social Psychology and Educational and Vocational Guidance specializations in addition to Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy and Counseling for the professional degree, Licenciatura. Advanced degrees are offered in Environmental Psychology, Career Development, Social Cognition, and other areas, primarily for academic positions. Research in all of these areas is expected to have applied outcomes that contribute to individual well being and an improved quality of life for the entire population. The result has been a rapid development of an indigenous professional psychology to address mental health, social, and environmental concerns that compel psychological attention and resources worldwide as well as those problems of local and national origins.

  14. Psychological Stress and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... learn to cope with psychological stress? Emotional and social support can help patients learn to cope with psychological stress. Such support can reduce levels of depression, anxiety, and disease- and treatment-related symptoms among patients. Approaches can include the ...

  15. Adrenoleukodystrophy - neuroendocrine pathogenesis and redefinition of natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Stephan; Huffnagel, Irene C; Linthorst, Gabor E; Wanders, Ronald J; Engelen, Marc

    2016-10-01

    X-Linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is a peroxisomal metabolic disorder with a highly complex clinical presentation. ALD is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene, which leads to the accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids in plasma and tissues. Virtually all men with ALD develop adrenal insufficiency and myelopathy. Approximately 60% of men develop progressive cerebral white matter lesions (known as cerebral ALD). However, one cannot identify these individuals until the early changes are seen using brain imaging. Women with ALD also develop myelopathy, but generally at a later age than men and adrenal insufficiency or cerebral ALD are very rare. Owing to the multisystem symptomatology of the disease, patients can be assessed by the paediatrician, general practitioner, endocrinologist or a neurologist. This Review describes current knowledge on the clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of ALD, and highlights gaps in our knowledge of the natural history of the disease owing to an absence of large-scale prospective cohort studies. Such studies are necessary for the identification of new prognostic biomarkers to improve care for patients with ALD, which is particularly relevant now that newborn screening for ALD is being introduced.

  16. Psychology in its Place

    OpenAIRE

    Radford, John

    2008-01-01

    In 1996 Graham Richards published Putting Psychology in its Place: An introduction from a critical historical perspective. Here, I seek to consider what is or should be the ‘place’ of Psychology in education, more particularly Higher Education, and not just from a historical perspective. This raises issues about several contexts in which Psychology finds itself. In the Higher Education context itself, Psychology continues to be in demand. But what is offered in first degrees is largely dictat...

  17. PSYCHOLOGICAL EMPOWERMENT AND DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth

    PSYCHOLOGICAL EMPOWERMENT AND. DEVELOPMENT. Oladipo, S.E. PhD. Dept. of Counselling Psychology, Tai Solarin University of Education,. Ijagun, Ogun State. Abstract. Using the archival method of investigation, this paper explores the subject of psychological empowerment (particularly in relation to youths) ...

  18. What is Political Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Morton

    1983-01-01

    Political psychology is the study of the bidirectional interaction of political and psychological processes. This academic discipline was founded after the First World War by Harold D. Lasswell. The content of political psychology is discussed and illustrative studies of the field are briefly summarized. (CS)

  19. School Psychology in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Anders

    1987-01-01

    Describes education system of Denmark and reviews background and development of school psychology in that country. Discusses organization of school psychology work and practice. Explains qualifications and training of school psychologists and describes professional organizations, wages, and problems in school psychology. (NB)

  20. Intro through Internet Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Sandra K.; Kelliher, Thomas P.

    Psychology and computer science were clustered into a course in "Internet Psychology" with the goal of enabling students to use electronic networks responsibly and creatively and to understand the principles of psychology as they operate in the electronic context. Fourteen students from a variety of majors registered for the class.…

  1. Psychology in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushma, B.; Padmaja, G.

    2011-01-01

    Psychology forms the basis of every human activity. The scope of psychology is increasingly widening in various economic, political, social, cultural and technological aspects. Though the application of psychology is extending to various aspects of life, it needs to be indigenised to address the dynamic needs in the various socio-economic contexts…

  2. Psychology in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio

    2011-01-01

    The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental…

  3. Neuroendocrine Tumor, Well Differentiated, of the Breast: A Relatively High-Grade Case in the Histological Subtype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shogo Tajima

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast is a rare entity, comprising <1% of breast carcinomas. Described here is the case of a 78-year-old woman who developed an invasive tumor in the left breast measuring 2.0 cm x 1.5 cm x 1.2 cm. The tumor was composed of only endocrine elements in the invasive part. It infiltrated in a nested fashion with no tubular formation. Intraductal components were present both inside and outside of the invasive portion. Almost all carcinoma cells consisting of invasive and intraductal parts were positive for synaptophysin and neuron-specific enolase. According to the World Health Organization classification 2012, this tumor was subclassified as neuroendocrine tumor, well-differentiated. Among the subgroup, this tumor was relatively high-grade because it was grade 3 tumor with a few mitotic figures. Vascular and lymphatic permeation and lymph node metastases were noted. In the lymph nodes, the morphology of the tumor was similar to the primary site. No distant metastasis and no relapse was seen for one year after surgery. The prognosis of neuroendocrine carcinomas is thought to be worse than invasive mammary carcinomas, not otherwise specified. Therefore, immunohistochemistry for neuroendocrine markers is important in the routine practice to prevent overlooking neuroendocrine carcinomas.

  4. Solitary pulmonary metastasis from prostate cancer with neuroendocrine differentiation: a case report and review of relevant cases from the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maebayashi, Toshiya; Abe, Katsumi; Aizawa, Takuya; Sakaguchi, Masakuni; Ishibash, Naoya; Fukushima, Shoko; Honma, Taku; Kusumi, Yoshiaki; Matsui, Tsuyoshi; Kawata, Nozomu

    2015-05-07

    Solitary lung metastasis from prostate cancer is rare. There are few reports of such cases with neuroendocrine differentiation. A 50-year-old man presented to our hospital with a chief complaint of dysuria. Histological examination revealed prostate cancer, which was classified as cT4 N0 M0, stage IV adenocarcinoma. Since the patient was at high risk, endocrine and radiation therapies were started. One year after starting radiation therapy, the patient developed bloody sputum. Chest radiography revealed a nodular shadow in his left lung (S5). Although 18-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography revealed abnormal accumulation in the lesion, the cytological diagnosis was class IIIa, which did not yield a definitive diagnosis. Given that prostate specific antigen (PSA) was not elevated, a primary lung tumor was suspected, and thoracoscopic segmental resection of the lung was performed with lymph node dissection. The final pathological diagnosis was solitary lung metastasis from prostate cancer with neuroendocrine differentiation and mediastinal lymph node metastasis. The specimen showed a mixed pattern of conventional prostatic and neuroendocrine carcinomas. We herein report a case with neuroendocrine differentiation (NED), along with a review of the relevant literature, including histopathological findings. According to previous case reports, some patients with solitary lung metastasis from prostate cancer achieved relatively good long-term survival. We consider establishing the correct diagnosis and implementing an appropriate treatment plan to be essential in prostate cancer patients with oligometastases that have the potential to be neuroendocrine (NE) tumors.

  5. Profiling of metastatic small intestine neuroendocrine tumors reveals characteristic miRNAs detectable in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Michaela; Zhou, Chensheng W; Zhang, Sui; Brais, Lauren; Rossi, Ashley; Naudin, Laurent; Thiagalingam, Arunthi; Sicinska, Ewa; Kulke, Matthew H

    2017-08-15

    Current diagnostic and prognostic blood-based biomarkers for neuroendocrine tumors are limited. MiRNAs have tumor-specific expression patterns, are relatively stable, and can be measured in patient blood specimens. We performed a multi-stage study to identify and validate characteristic circulating miRNAs in patients with metastatic small intestine neuroendocrine tumors, and to assess associations between miRNA levels and survival. Using a 742-miRNA panel, we identified candidate miRNAs similarly expressed in 19 small intestine neuroendocrine tumors and matched plasma samples. We refined our panel in an independent cohort of plasma samples from 40 patients with metastatic small intestine NET and 40 controls, and then validated this panel in a second, large cohort of 120 patients with metastatic small intestine NET and 120 independent controls. miRNA profiling of 19 matched small intestine neuroendocrine tumors and matched plasma samples revealed 31 candidate miRNAs similarly expressed in both tissue and plasma. We evaluated expression of these 31 candidate miRNAs in 40 independent cases and 40 normal controls, and identified 4 miRNAs (miR-21-5p, miR-22-3p, miR-29b-3p, and miR-150-5p) that were differently expressed in cases and controls (p<0.05). We validated these 4 miRNAs in a separate, larger panel of 120 cases and 120 controls. We confirmed that high circulating levels of miR-22-3p (p<0.0001), high levels of miR 21-5p, and low levels of miR-150-5p (p=0.027) were associated with the presence of metastatic small intestine NET. While levels of 29b-3p were lower in cases than in controls in both the initial cohort and the validation cohort, the difference in the validation cohort did not reach statistical significance. We further found that high levels of circulating miR-21-5p, high levels of circulating miR-22-3p and low levels of circulating miR-150-5p were each independently associated with shorter overall survival. A combined analysis using all three markers

  6. NEUROECTODERMAL TUMORS OF THE PERIPHERAL AND THE CENTRAL-NERVOUS-SYSTEM SHARE NEUROENDOCRINE N-CAM-RELATED ANTIGENS WITH SMALL-CELL LUNG CARCINOMAS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MOLENAAR, WM; DELEIJ, L; TROJANOWSKI, JQ

    1991-01-01

    The current study describes the presence of neuroendocrine antigens of peripheral and central neural tumors using eight monoclonal antibodies raised to small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), which recognize "neural/neuroendocrine" or "neural" antigens, as defined by their reaction pattern in normal

  7. Concordance in the neuroendocrine tumors between scintigraphy with pentetreotide labelled with indium 111 and morphological imaging; Concordance dans les tumeurs neuroendocrines entre la scintigraphie au pentetreotide marque a l'indium 111 et l'imagerie morphologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkadri, N.; Sellem, A.; El Ajmi, W.; Meddeb, I.; Hammami, H. [Hopital militaire de Tunis, Service de medecine nucleaire (Tunisia); Rejeb, O.; Slimene, H. [Hopital La Rabta, service d' endocrinologie, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2010-07-01

    Assess the consistency in the exploration of neuroendocrine tumors between pentetreotide scintigraphy labeled with {sup 111}In (octreoscan) and morphological imaging by CT and / or magnetic resonance imaging (CT and / or MRI). Conclusions: The association between Octreoscan and morphologic imaging (CT and / or MRI) allows a more complete assessment of the lesions of neuroendocrine tumors. Octreoscan is probably not indicated in cases of carcinoid syndrome with a positive urine assay for 5-hydroxy-indole-acetic acid (5-H.I.A.A.) and without hepatic localization in morphological imaging.Scintigraphy with depreotide labelled with {sup 99m}Tc would be probably more appropriate. (N.C.)

  8. Bronchopulmonary Neuroendocrine Neoplasms and Their Precursor Lesions in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Detlef K; Albers, Max B; Lopez, Caroline L; Apitzsch, Jonas C; Walthers, Eduard M; Fink, Ludger; Fendrich, Volker; Slater, Emily P; Waldmann, Jens; Anlauf, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence and clinical behavior of bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine tumors (bNET) associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) are not well defined. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, potential precursor lesions and prognosis of bNET in patients with MEN1. A database of 75 prospectively collected MEN1 cases was retrospectively analyzed for bNET. Patient characteristics, imaging and treatment were evaluated. Resection specimens of operated patients were reassessed by two specialized pathologists. Available CT scans of the whole cohort were reviewed to determine the prevalence of bronchopulmonary nodules. Five of the 75 MEN1 patients (6.6%; 2 male, 3 female) developed histologically confirmed bNET after a median follow-up of 134 months. The median age at diagnosis of bNET was 47 years (range 31-67), and all patients were asymptomatic. Four patients underwent anatomic lung resections with lymphadenectomy; the remaining patient with multiple lesions had only a wedge resection of the largest bNET. Tumor sizes ranged from 7 to 32 mm in diameter, and all bNET were well differentiated. Two patients had lymph node metastases. Two of 4 reevaluated resection specimens revealed multifocal bNET, and 3 specimens showed tumorlets (up to 3) associated with multifocal areas of a neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia within the subsegmental bronchi. One bNET-related death (1.3%) occurred during long-term follow-up. Review of the available CT scans of the patients without proven bNET revealed small bronchopulmonary lesions (≥3 mm) in 16 of 53 cases (30.2%). bNET in MEN1 might be more common than previously recognized. Their natural course seems to be rather benign. Multifocal tumorlets and multifocal neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia might represent their precursor lesions. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Child Maltreatment and Gender Interactions as Predictors of Differential Neuroendocrine Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doom, Jenalee R.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Dackis, Melissa N.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Child maltreatment is a potent stressor associated with neuroendocrine dysregulation and increased risk for mental and physical disorders throughout the lifespan. Gender differences in stress reactivity and adult psychopathology prevalence may be related to sex-specific responsivity to stress. The purpose of this study is to examine whether gender interacts with the stress of maltreatment to produce differential neuroendocrine profiles in children. Participants included 137 maltreated and 110 nonmaltreated low-income, racially and ethnically diverse children (range: 7.9–10.9 years; M= 9.42 years; 52% male) who attended a summer research day camp. Saliva was collected 3 times across the day for 5 days for cortisol and dehydroepiandosterone (DHEA) analysis. Department of Human Services records were examined to determine the type, severity, chronicity, onset, and recency of maltreatment for children in the maltreated group. Significant interactions between gender and maltreatment pervasiveness predicted diurnal cortisol, DHEA, and cortisol/DHEA ratio levels. Elevated daily cortisol levels were reported for boys compared to girls in the group with more pervasive maltreatment. Boys with less pervasive maltreatment had lower DHEA and higher cortisol/DHEA ratio levels than girls with similar experiences, nonmaltreated boys, and boys with more pervasive maltreatment. Further results are consistent with down-regulation of cortisol production in girls with more pervasive maltreatment and girls who experienced maltreatment that was early onset and not recent. The effectiveness of interventions for maltreated children may be improved with greater knowledge of how maltreatment differentially affects neuroendocrine regulation by gender. PMID:23333253

  10. Neuroendocrine disruption of organizational and activational hormone programming in poikilothermic vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Cheryl S; Denslow, Nancy D; Orlando, Edward F; Gutierrez-Villagomez, Juan Manuel; Trudeau, Vance L

    2017-01-01

    In vertebrates, sexual differentiation of the reproductive system and brain is tightly orchestrated by organizational and activational effects of endogenous hormones. In mammals and birds, the organizational period is typified by a surge of sex hormones during differentiation of specific neural circuits; whereas activational effects are dependent upon later increases in these same hormones at sexual maturation. Depending on the reproductive organ or brain region, initial programming events may be modulated by androgens or require conversion of androgens to estrogens. The prevailing notion based upon findings in mammalian models is that male brain is sculpted to undergo masculinization and defeminization. In absence of these responses, the female brain develops. While timing of organizational and activational events vary across taxa, there are shared features. Further, exposure of different animal models to environmental chemicals such as xenoestrogens such as bisphenol A-BPA and ethinylestradiol-EE2, gestagens, and thyroid hormone disruptors, broadly classified as neuroendocrine disrupting chemicals (NED), during these critical periods may result in similar alterations in brain structure, function, and consequently, behaviors. Organizational effects of neuroendocrine systems in mammals and birds appear to be permanent, whereas teleost fish neuroendocrine systems exhibit plasticity. While there are fewer NED studies in amphibians and reptiles, data suggest that NED disrupt normal organizational-activational effects of endogenous hormones, although it remains to be determined if these disturbances are reversible. The aim of this review is to examine how various environmental chemicals may interrupt normal organizational and activational events in poikilothermic vertebrates. By altering such processes, these chemicals may affect reproductive health of an animal and result in compromised populations and ecosystem-level effects.

  11. Neuroendocrine and behavioral response to social confrontation: residents versus intruders, active versus passive coping styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Karl; Wotjak, Carsten T; Landgraf, Rainer; Engelmann, Mario

    2005-01-01

    We investigated in the present study the neuroendocrine correlates in intruder and resident rats of a social confrontation. Adult male Wistar rats (intruders) were introduced into the home cage of a well-trained resident to induce characteristic agonistic interactions including physical attacks prior to separation by a wire mesh. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and the intrahypothalamic release of arginine vasopressin (AVP) were monitored via chronically implanted jugular venous catheters and microdialysis probes aimed at the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), respectively. Based on the behavioral data collected during the 30-min confrontation, intruders and residents were additionally classified into two different subgroups: intruders which showed almost no freezing behavior (active copers) versus those showing pronounced freezing behavior (passive copers) and residents which were either predominantly aggressive or non-aggressive. The neuroendocrine data show that social confrontation caused a significantly increased secretion of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) into plasma in both intruder subgroups, independently of their coping strategy. In contrast, plasma ACTH in residents was increased in response to social confrontation in non-aggressive animals only, whereas aggressive residents failed to mount an ACTH response. Interestingly, plasma AVP decreased in response to social confrontation in active intruders. As measured in microdialysates, the two groups of residents and passive intruders failed to show significant changes of intra-PVN release of AVP. In contrast, an increased release of this neuropeptide within the PVN could be monitored for active intruders. The data of the present study suggest that the different interpretation of an aversive encounter results in differences in the neuroendocrine response and intrahypothalamic vasopressinergic signaling in intruders versus residents.

  12. Effect of yoga on sleep quality and neuroendocrine immune response in metastatic breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra Mohan Rao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have shown that distress and accompanying neuroendocrine stress responses as important predictor of survival in advanced breast cancer patients. Some psychotherapeutic intervention studies have shown have modulation of neuroendocrine-immune responses in advanced breast cancer patients. In this study, we evaluate the effects of yoga on perceived stress, sleep, diurnal cortisol, and natural killer (NK cell counts in patients with metastatic cancer. Methods: In this study, 91 patients with metastatic breast cancer who satisfied selection criteria and consented to participate were recruited and randomized to receive “integrated yoga based stress reduction program” (n = 45 or standard “education and supportive therapy sessions” (n = 46 over a 3 month period. Psychometric assessments for sleep quality were done before and after intervention. Blood draws for NK cell counts were collected before and after the intervention. Saliva samples were collected for three consecutive days before and after intervention. Data were analyzed using the analysis of covariance on postmeasures using respective baseline measure as a covariate. Results: There was a significant decrease in scales of symptom distress (P < 0.001, sleep parameters (P = 0.02, and improvement in quality of sleep (P = 0.001 and Insomnia Rating Scale sleep score (P = 0.001 following intervention. There was a decrease in morning waking cortisol in yoga group (P = 0.003 alone following intervention. There was a significant improvement in NK cell percent (P = 0.03 following intervention in yoga group compared to control group. Conclusion: The results suggest modulation of neuroendocrine responses and improvement in sleep in patients with advanced breast cancer following yoga intervention.

  13. Cutaneous Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the External Auditory Canal: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ke Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma (cNEC is rarely seen in the external ear. In this paper, we newly describe a patient with cNEC in his right external auditory canal, followed by a further discussion on the clinical features, diagnosis, and treatments of cNEC of the external ear. A review of the literature showed that cNEC of the external auditory canal generally presents as asymptomatic and that pathology yields the most confirmative diagnosis. A wide resection with adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy is recommended. The overall prognosis of this condition is poor.

  14. [The relationship between neuroendocrine dysfunction and free-radical oxidation in old age alcoholism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, D B; Mingazov, A Kh; Izarovskaya, I V; Babin, K A; Sinitsky, A I

    2015-01-01

    to study the relationship between dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and free-radical oxidation in old age alcoholism. Authors examined 46 men and women, aged 60-80 years, with alcoholism. Contents of cortisol, lipid peroxidation products and the level of an oxidatively modified protein were measured. A decrease in blood cortisol content and correlations between its level and activity of free-radical oxidation were identified. The severity of neuroendocrine dysfunction in old patients was sex-related. It has been suggested that the impairment of HPA system activity may be a cause of oxidative stress and development of alcoholism.

  15. The uncovering and characterization of a CCKoma syndrome in enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F; Federspiel, Birgitte; Agersnap, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Neuroendocrine tumors in the pancreas and the gastrointestinal tract may secrete hormones which cause specific syndromes. Well-known examples are gastrinomas, glucagonomas, and insulinomas. Cholecystokinin-producing tumors (CCKomas) have been induced experimentally in rats, but a CCKoma...... attacks from a contracted gallbladder. The CCK concentrations in plasma were not affected by resection of the pancreatic tumor, but decreased to normal after hemihepatectomy with removal of the metastases. CONCLUSION: A CCKoma syndrome with severe hypersecretion of CCK exists in man. The duodenal ulcer...

  16. Somatic currents contribute to frequency-dependent spike-broadening in supraoptic neuroendocrine cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Regan, M H; Cobbett, P

    1993-10-29

    Voltage-gated K and Ca currents were recorded in acutely dissociated neuroendocrine cells of the supraoptic nucleus. The effect of repeated activation of the currents by trains of (10) voltage pulses over a range of pulse-repetition frequencies were examined. There was a significant reduction of K-current amplitude and a significant increase of Ca-current amplitude during trains with high repetition frequencies. Frequency-dependent changes in K and Ca conductances may contribute to frequency-dependent spike-broadening which is exhibited during bursts of action potentials generated by these neurons.

  17. End-Stage Renal Disease From Cast Nephropathy in a Teenager With Neuroendocrine Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butani, Lavjay; Ducore, Jonathan

    2016-07-01

    Cast nephropathy is the most common manifestation of renal injury in patients with multiple myeloma but is rarely reported in other conditions. We are reporting our experience in caring for a teenager with a metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma who developed rapidly progressive kidney injury that advanced to end-stage renal disease. On renal biopsy extensive tubular necrosis and intratubular eosinophilic casts were noted. This previously unreported finding should prompt oncologists to closely monitor for such a complication in patients with secretory tumors. Whether early plasmapheresis could be of benefit, as has been tried in multiple myeloma, remains to be determined.

  18. Radioembolization for neuroendocrine liver metastases: safety, imaging, and long-term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Khairuddin; Lewandowski, Robert J; Mulcahy, Mary F; Riaz, Ahsun; Ryu, Robert K; Sato, Kent T; Gupta, Ramona; Nikolaidis, Paul; Miller, Frank H; Yaghmai, Vahid; Gates, Vanessa L; Atassi, Bassel; Newman, Steven; Omary, Reed A; Benson, Al B; Salem, Riad

    2012-07-01

    To present long-term outcomes on the safety and efficacy of Yttrium-90 radioembolization in the treatment of unresectable hepatic neuroendocrine metastases refractory to standard-of-care therapy. This study was approved by our institutional review board and was compliant with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. Forty patients with hepatic neuroendocrine metastases were treated with (90)Y radioembolization at a single center. Toxicity was assessed using National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria v3.0. Response to therapy was assessed by World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for size and European Association for the Study of the Liver disease (EASL) guidelines for necrosis. Time to response and overall survival were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The median dose was 113 Gy (29-299 Gy). Clinical toxicities included fatigue (63%), nausea/vomiting (40%), abdominal pain (18%), fever (8%), diarrhea and weight loss (5%); Grade 3 and 4 bilirubin toxicities were experienced by 2 patients and 1 patient, respectively. Different responses were noted by WHO (complete response, 1.2%; partial response, 62.7%) and EASL (complete response, 20.5%; partial response, 43.4%). Median time to response was 4 and 4.9 months by lesion and patient, respectively. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year overall survival rates were 72.5%, 62.5%, and 45%, respectively. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance score 0 (p < 0.0001), tumor burden ≤25% (p = 0.0019), albumin ≥3.5 g/dL (p = 0.017), and bilirubin ≤1.2 mg/dL (p = 0.002) prognosticated survival on univariate analysis; only ECOG performance score 0 and bilirubin ≤1.2 mg/dL prognosticated better survival outcome on multivariate analysis (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.02). Yttrium-90 therapy for hepatic neuroendocrine metastases leads to satisfactory tumor response and patient survival with low toxicity, in line with published national guidelines

  19. Radioembolization for Neuroendocrine Liver Metastases: Safety, Imaging, and Long-Term Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Memon, Khairuddin; Lewandowski, Robert J. [Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Mulcahy, Mary F. [Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Riaz, Ahsun; Ryu, Robert K.; Sato, Kent T.; Gupta, Ramona; Nikolaidis, Paul; Miller, Frank H.; Yaghmai, Vahid; Gates, Vanessa L.; Atassi, Bassel [Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Newman, Steven [Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Omary, Reed A. [Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Benson, Al B. [Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Salem, Riad, E-mail: r-salem@northwestern.edu [Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To present long-term outcomes on the safety and efficacy of Yttrium-90 radioembolization in the treatment of unresectable hepatic neuroendocrine metastases refractory to standard-of-care therapy. Methods and Materials: This study was approved by our institutional review board and was compliant with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. Forty patients with hepatic neuroendocrine metastases were treated with {sup 90}Y radioembolization at a single center. Toxicity was assessed using National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria v3.0. Response to therapy was assessed by World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for size and European Association for the Study of the Liver disease (EASL) guidelines for necrosis. Time to response and overall survival were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results: The median dose was 113 Gy (29-299 Gy). Clinical toxicities included fatigue (63%), nausea/vomiting (40%), abdominal pain (18%), fever (8%), diarrhea and weight loss (5%); Grade 3 and 4 bilirubin toxicities were experienced by 2 patients and 1 patient, respectively. Different responses were noted by WHO (complete response, 1.2%; partial response, 62.7%) and EASL (complete response, 20.5%; partial response, 43.4%). Median time to response was 4 and 4.9 months by lesion and patient, respectively. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year overall survival rates were 72.5%, 62.5%, and 45%, respectively. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance score 0 (p < 0.0001), tumor burden {<=}25% (p = 0.0019), albumin {>=}3.5 g/dL (p = 0.017), and bilirubin {<=}1.2 mg/dL (p = 0.002) prognosticated survival on univariate analysis; only ECOG performance score 0 and bilirubin {<=}1.2 mg/dL prognosticated better survival outcome on multivariate analysis (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.02). Conclusion: Yttrium-90 therapy for hepatic neuroendocrine metastases leads to satisfactory tumor response and patient survival

  20. Quantitative gene-expression of the tumor angiogenesis markers vascular endothelial growth factor, integrin alphaV and integrin beta3 in human neuroendocrine tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxboel, Jytte; Binderup, Tina; Knigge, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    compared to both colorectal liver metastases (p=0.10) and normal liver tissue (p=0.06). In neuroendocrine tumors, gene-expression was highly variable of VEGF (530-fold), integrin alphaV (23-fold) and integrin beta3 (106-fold). Quantitative gene-expression levels of the key angiogenesis molecules VEGF......, in neuroendocrine tumors. We used quantitative real-time PCR for measuring mRNA gene-expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), integrin alphaV, and integrin beta3, and CD34 for a group of patients with neuroendocrine tumors (n=13). Tissue from patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases (n=14......) and normal liver tissues (n=16) was used as control. We found a lower mRNA level of VEGF in neuroendocrine tumors compared to both colorectal liver metastases (pbeta3 there was also a borderline significant lower level of mRNA in neuroendocrine tumors...