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Sample records for neuroectodermal tumors suggesting

  1. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, G.O. Jr.; Davis, P.C.; Patrick, L.E.; Winn, K.J.; Ball, T.I.; Wyly, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy is an uncommon neoplasm occurring primarily in the child one year or less in age. Difficulty in deciding the cellular origin of this tumor has led to numerous names, including congenital melanocarcinoma, melanotic epithelial odontoma, melanotic ameloblastoma, and retinal anlage tumor, to list a few. Electron microscopy and histochemical studies, however, have now established the neural crest the most likely origin. The most frequent site of occurrence is the maxilla followed by the skull, the brain and the mandible. The genital organs are the most frequent extracranial site. Within the skull, there is a predilection for the anterior fontanel. The following is a case report of a young child with melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy arising at the anterior fontanel. Included is a discussion of magnetic resonance (MR) findings, which to our knowledge, have not been previously reported in this tumor. (orig.)

  2. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy

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    Song, Haeng Un; Koh, Kwang Joon [School of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Cheonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-15

    The melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy is a rare neoplasm arising in the first year of life. A 33-day-old female infant had an enlarged alveolar ridge on the right anterior maxilla. Intraoral examination revealed a nonulcerative swelling at the site. An intraoral radiograph showed an ill-defined radiolucency on the right anterior maxilla and displacement of primary incisors from their alveolar sockets. CT scans revealed an expansion of the surrounding bone and partial destruction of the anterior wall of the premaxilla. Histopathologic examination showed the cytoplasm of neuroblastic cells and eosinophilic, epithelioid cells frequently contained a dark brown granular pigment that stained positively to vimentin and HMB45, focally positive to NSE and cytokeratin. Four weeks after the operation, CT scans showed a rapidly growing soft tissue mass occupying right maxillary sinus encroaching to the orbit and nasal cavity. The final diagnosis was made as a malignant melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy.

  3. Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the orbit

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    Das Dipankar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET is a small round cell malignant tumor of neuroectodermal origin. Most of the PNETs occur in the central nervous system (CNS. PNETs recognized outside of CNS are diagnosed as peripheral PNET (pPNET. This tumor which expresses MIC-2 gene (CD99 seems to be least aggressive after complete tumor resection. We describe a rare case of PNET in a young girl.

  4. Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the cervix

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    Li, Bo; Ouyang, Ling; Han, Xue; Zhou, Yang; Tong, Xin; Zhang, Shulang; Zhang, Qingfu

    2013-01-01

    Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are rare and high-grade malignant tumors that mostly occur in children and young adults. The most common sites are the trunk, limbs, and retroperitoneum. Herein, we present a case of a PNET involving the cervix uteri in a 27-year-old woman. The lesion showed characteristic histologic features of a PNET and was positive for the immunohistochemical markers cluster of differentiation (CD) 99, vimentin, neuron-specific enolase, neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (CD56), and CD117 (c-kit), further defining the tumor while helping to confirm PNET. The clinical Stage IIIB tumor was treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. PMID:23836982

  5. Oral melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy

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    Seema Chaudhary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy (MNTI is an extremely rare, benign neoplasm of neural crest origin composed of relatively primitive pigment-producing cells. It usually affects new born or infants of <1 year of age, generally involving the face or cranium. This case report describes a 4-month-old child with MNTI involving the anterior region of maxilla. A partial maxillectomy was performed on the left side of maxilla and the patient is now under follow-up.

  6. Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Stomach: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Woon Ju; Cho, June Sik; Shin, Kyung Sook; Jeong, Hyung Yong; Noh; Seung Moo; Song, Kyu Sang

    2010-01-01

    Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors (peripheral PNETs) are very rare and highly aggressive soft tissue malignancies originating from the neural crest. To the best of our knowledge, only a few cases of peripheral PNETs of the stomach have been reported in the literature. We report a case of large peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the stomach with MDCT findings in a 22-year-old man presenting epigastric pain and vomiting

  7. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the orbit in a 5-year-old girl with microphthalmia

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    Alyahya, Ghassan Ayish Jabur; Heegaard, Steffen; Fledelius, Hans C.

    2000-01-01

    ophthalmology, primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), Ewing's sarcoma, small round-cell tumors, retinoblastoma, medulloepithelioma, microphthalmia, orbitotomy......ophthalmology, primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), Ewing's sarcoma, small round-cell tumors, retinoblastoma, medulloepithelioma, microphthalmia, orbitotomy...

  8. Temporally Regulated Neural Crest Transcription Factors Distinguish Neuroectodermal Tumors of Varying Malignancy and Differentiation

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    Timothy R. Gershon

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuroectodermal tumor cells, like neural crest (NC cells, are pluripotent, proliferative, and migratory. We tested the hypothesis that genetic programs essential to NC development are activated in neuroectodermal tumors. We examined the expression of transcription factors PAX3, PAX7, AP-2α, and SOX10 in human embryos and neuroectodermal tumors: neurofibroma, schwannoma, neuroblastoma, malignant nerve sheath tumor, melanoma, medulloblastoma, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor, and Ewing's sarcoma. We also examined the expression of P0, ERBB3, and STX, targets of SOX10, AP-2α, and PAX3, respectively. PAX3, AP-2α, and SOX10 were expressed sequentially in human NC development, whereas PAX7 was restricted to mesoderm. Tumors expressed PAX3, AP-2α, SOX10, and PAX7 in specific combinations. SOX10 and AP-2α were expressed in relatively differentiated neoplasms. The early NC marker, PAX3, and its homologue, PAX7, were detected in poorly differentiated tumors and tumors with malignant potential. Expression of NC transcription factors and target genes correlated. Transcription factors essential to NC development are thus present in neuroectodermal tumors. Correlation of specific NC transcription factors with phenotype, and with expression of specific downstream genes, provides evidence that these transcription factors actively influence gene expression and tumor behavior. These findings suggest that PAX3, PAX7, AP-2α, and SOX10 are potential markers of prognosis and targets for therapeutic intervention.

  9. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the cervix: a case report

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    Boroujeni Parisa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the cervix uteri is extremely rare. Between 1987 and 2010, there were only nine cases reported in the English literature, with considerably different management policies. Case presentation A 45-year-old Iranian woman presented to our facility with a primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the cervix uteri. Her clinical stage IB2 tumor was treated successfully with chemotherapy. Our patient underwent radical hysterectomy. There was no trace of the tumor after four years of follow-up. Conclusions According to current knowledge, primitive neuroectodermal tumors belong to the Ewing's sarcoma family, and the improvement of treatment outcome in our patient was due to dose-intensive neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgery and consolidation chemotherapy in accordance with the protocol for bony Ewing's sarcoma.

  10. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy: A rare case report

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    E Rajendra Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy (MNTI is a relatively uncommon osteolytic-pigmented neoplasm that primarily affects the jaws of infants. The early onset and its rapid disfiguring spread necessitate early diagnosis. A 4-month-old male child reported with the complaint of swelling in the right back tooth region of the upper jaw, which rapidly increased in size causing disfigurement of the face. Radiographic examination showed a diffuse osteolytic radiolucent lesion in the right maxilla and displacement and dysmorphic changes in the developing primary tooth buds. Wide surgical excision was performed under general anesthesia. Histopathological report revealed characteristic large pigmented epitheloid cells (melanocyte like cells. The biphasic tumor cell population arranged in a background of fibrous connective tissue stroma is suggestive of MNTI involving the cancellous bone. Early diagnosis and management of such aggressive tumors precludes significant morbidity of the patient.

  11. Primary extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor of breast

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    Smita Srivastava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma (EES is a rare soft tissue tumor that is morphologically indistinguishable from skeletal ES. We report a case of a 25-year-old female with recurrent EES/primitive neuroectodermal tumor of right breast with imaging findings on mammogram, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging breast, and positron emission tomography–computed tomography.

  12. Primary intraspinal extradural primitive neuroectodermal tumor: A rare case.

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    Rege, Shrikant V; Tadghare, Jitendra; Patil, Harshad; Narayan, Sharadendu

    2016-01-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are aggressive childhood malignancies and are difficult to treat. Primary intraspinal PNETs are rare. These patients have poor prognosis with short survival time even after surgery and chemoradiation. As there are no standard guidelines exist for the management of these tumors, a multidisciplinary approach has been employed with varying success. According to the review of literature, only few cases of primary intraspinal extradural PNETs have been reported. Herein, author has described a case of intraspinal, extradural PNET.

  13. Melanotic neuroectodermal primitive tumor of infancy. Report of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Mattos, Amaranto; Restrepo, Ligia; Penagos, Pedro; Rubio, Alba

    2002-01-01

    The melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy is a rare neoplasia originated from the neural crest, it is frequently located in orofacial bones, although other localizations have been reported; occurs predominantly in infants. The behavior is benign and the treatment consists mainly in complete surgical resection. A four-month old male with an orbital tumor and intracranial extension, managed surgically with favorable outcome, is described

  14. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of the neurocranium in infancy.

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    Walsh, J W; Strand, R D

    1982-01-01

    Melanotic neuroectodermal tumors of the neurocranium are a rare but life-threatening disorder of infancy. 11 previously reported cases are reviewed in terms of clinical presentation, radiological diagnosis, and management. A twelfth case, a 4-month-old infant who developed three discrete sites of tumor unilaterally in the neurocranium is presented. Several hypotheses for the mechanism of formation of these tumors are reviewed. The authors propose that the mechanism of formation involves a dysontogenesis of neural crest tissue and that these tumors form, at least in part, from fragments of melanin-containing arachnoid villi which are displaced during embryonic development.

  15. Thoracoabdominal peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors in childhood: radiological features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulman, H.; Laufer, L.; Newman-Heinman, N.; Kurtzbart, E.; Maor, E.; Zirkin, H.

    2000-01-01

    Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) are extremely uncommon, malignant neoplasms affecting mostly children and young adults. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data and radiological studies of four such cases. All cases were pathologically proven. Plain films, US, and CT scans were used. The youngest child had a huge pelvic tumor and two adolescents each had a chest wall (Askin) tumor. The fourth patient had a most unusual location of the PNET in the anterior mediastinum. The CT findings are emphasized. We emphasize that the markedly abnormal CT findings are not specific for PNET. (orig.)

  16. Multiple Ewing Sarcoma/Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors in the Mediastinum

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    Bae, Sung Hwan; Hwang, Jung Hwa; Da Nam, Bo; Kim, Hyun Jo; Kim, Ki-Up; Kim, Dong Won; Choi, In Ho

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumors (ES/PNET) are high-grade malignant neoplasms. These malignancies present very rare tumors of thoracopulmonary area and even rarer in the mediastinum. In our knowledge, ES/PNET presented with multiple mediastinal masses has not been reported previously. We experienced a case of a 42-year-old man presented with gradual onset of left-side pleuritic chest pain. A contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography (CT) scan showed separate 2 large heterogeneously enhancing masses in each anterior and middle mediastinum of the left hemithorax. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scan revealed high fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the mediastinal masses. After surgical excision for the mediastinal masses, both of the masses were diagnosed as the ES/PNET group of tumors on the histopathologic examination. The patient refused postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy and came back with local tumor recurrence and distant metastasis on 4-month follow-up after surgical resection. We report this uncommon form of ES/PNET. We are to raise awareness that this rare malignancy should be considered as a differential diagnosis of the malignant mediastinal tumors and which can be manifested as multiple masses in a patient. Understanding this rare entity of extra-skeletal ES/PNET and characteristic imaging findings can help radiologists and clinicians to approach proper diagnosis and better management for this highly malignant tumor. PMID:26886614

  17. Primary Ewing Sarcoma/Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Stomach

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    Safi Khuri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/PNET is a tumor of small round cells arising in skeletal tissues. These tumors rarely arise in the stomach. We present a 31-year-old healthy female patient who was admitted to our surgical ward due to upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Upper endoscopy revealed a large ulcerated bleeding mass originating from the lesser curvature. Biopsy revealed tumor cell immunoreactivity positive for CD99, vimentin, and Ki67 (an index of proliferation. These findings were compatible with gastric ES/PNET. The fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis result for the EWSR1 gene rearrangement (11: 22 translocation was positive. The patient refused neoadjuvant treatment and thus underwent an operation during which a mass at the lesser curvature of the stomach was found. The mass was adhering to the pancreatic tail and to the mesentery of the transverse and descending colon. Total gastrectomy, distal pancreatectomy, splenectomy, and left adrenalectomy were done. The patient refused adjuvant treatment. She is free of disease 3 years after surgery.

  18. Conservative multimodal management of a primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the thyroid

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    Juliette Haudebourg

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET represent 1% of sarcomas. Head and neck peripheral PNETs have an intermediate prognosis between abdominopelvic disease and extremities. We here report the case of a 40-year old male who presented with primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the thyroid and was treated by multimodal treatment, including surgery, chemotherapy and intermediate dose radiotherapy. The patient is alive and fit with a functional larynx at 27 months. Multimodal treatments yield five-year survival rates of about 60%. Major drug regimens use vincristine, doxorubicin, ifosfamide or cyclophosphamide, dactinomycin and/or etoposide. Complete surgical excision is undertaken whenever possible to improve long-term survival. However, the relative radiosensitivity of tumors of the Ewing family, suggest multimodal treatment including adjuvant conformal radiotherapy in case of positive margins or poor response to chemotherapy rather than resection with 2-3 cm margins, which would imply laryngeal sacrifice for thyroid tumors. The role of expert rare tumor networks is crucial for optimal decision-making and management of such rare tumors on a case by case basis.

  19. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of adrenal: Clinical presentation and outcomes

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    Deep Dutta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET of adrenal is an extremely rare tumor of neural crest origin. A nonfunctional left adrenal mass (14.6 × 10.5 × 10.0 cm on computed tomography (CT was detected in a 40-year-old lady with abdominal pain, swelling, and left pleural effusion. She underwent left adrenalectomy and left nephrectomy with retroperitoneal resection. Histopathology revealed sheets and nest of oval tumor cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, prominent nucleoli, scanty cytoplasm, brisk mitotic activity, necrosis, lymphovascular invasion, capsular invasion, and extension to the surrounding muscles; staining positive for Mic-2 (CD-99 antigen, vimentin, synaptophysin, and Melan-A. Thoracocentesis, pleural fluid study, and pleural biopsy did not show metastasis. She responded well to vincristine, adriamycin, and cyclophosphamide followed by ifosfamide and etoposide (IE. This is the first report of adrenal peripheral PNET (pPNET from India. This report intends to highlight that pPNET should be suspected in a patient presenting with huge nonfunctional adrenal mass which may be confused with adrenocortical carcinoma.

  20. CT and MR findings of primitive neuroectodermal tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kook, Shin Ho; Kim, In One; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Moon Hee; Cho, Byung Kyu

    1991-01-01

    Cerebral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), consisting of undifferentiated primitive cells, is a neoplasm of children and young adults that occurs predominantly in the supratentorial compartment. In this report, we retrospectively reviewed and analyzed 18 CT and 6 MR findings in 18 patients with pathologically-proven PNET to discover the characteristic findings, if may. The most characteristic feature of the PNETs was a well-defined multilobular oval or round large mass with components of peripheral cystic change or calcification in the cerebral hemisphere, especially in the parietal lobe. Usually there was only minimal surrounding edema. The CT density of the tumor was iso - or slightly high density with homogeneous contrast enhancement in the solid portion and low density in the cystic area. MR findings demonstrated iso - signal intensity on both T1 - weighted (T1WI) and T2-weighted (T2WI) images and dense enhancement in the solid element. The cystic portion revealed low intensity on T1WI and high intensity on T2WI

  1. Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET) of the kidney: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomara, Giorgio; Cappello, Francesco; Cuttano, Maria G; Rappa, Francesca; Morelli, Girolamo; Mancini, Pierantonio; Selli, Cesare

    2004-01-01

    A case of Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET) of the kidney in a 27-year-old woman is presented. Few cases are reported in the literature with a variable, nonspecific presentation and an aggressive behaviour. In our case, a radical nephrectomy with lymphadenectomy was performed and there was no residual or recurrent tumour at 24-month follow-up. The surgical specimens were formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded. The sections were stained with routinary H&E. Immunohistochemistry was performed. The immunohistochemical evaluation revealed a diffuse CD99 positivity in the cytoplasm of the neoplastic cells. Pankeratin, cytokeratin AE1/AE3, vimentin, desmin, S100, cromogranin were negative. The clinical presentation and the macroscopic aspect, together with the histological pattern, the cytological characteristic and the cellular immunophenotype addressed the diagnosis towards primary PNET of kidney. Since sometimes it is difficult to discriminate between PNET and Ewing's tumour, we reviewed the difficulties in differential diagnosis. These tumors have a common precursor but the stage of differentiation in which it is blocked is probably different. This could also explain their different biological behaviour and prognosis

  2. Postoperative Paraplegia as a Result of Undiagnosed Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor, Not Epidural Analgesia

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    Pei-Ching Hung

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative paraplegia is a rare complication after epidural analgesia and often occurs with spinal hematoma or cord injury. We present the case of a 16-year-old girl who suffered from a tumor mass in the neck and abdomen who underwent gynecologic operation. Preoperatively, liver metastasis was found by computed tomography. Pathologic findings revealed that the abdominal mass was an ovarian dermoid cyst. After the operation, the patient complained of paraplegia while receiving epidural analgesia for postoperative pain control. A peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor in the thoracic and lumbar spines with spinal cord compression was later detected using magnetic resonance imaging. Learning from this case, we suggest that when a patient is preoperatively diagnosed with tumor metastasis, back pain and soreness, spinal cord compression from tumor metastasis should be excluded before epidural analgesia is implemented.

  3. MRI diagnosis of supratentorial and intraspinal primitive neuroectodermal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Meili; Cui Shimin; Han Tong; Li Tao; Liu Li; Lei Jing; Qing Jingxi; Yan Xiaoling; Kong Fanming

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the MRI features of supratentorial and intraspinal primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) and improve the diagnostic accuracy. Methods: MRI manifestations of 9 PNET diagnosed via operation and pathological examination were analyzed. There were 6 men and 3 women, and the mean age was 32.6 years. In all 9 cases, conventional plain MR scans were performed, including spin echo (SE), fast spin echo (FSE), and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences. Diffusion weighted images (DWIs) and postcontrast MR images were obtained in 2 and 4 cases, respectively. Results: The 8 cases with supratentorial lesions included fronto-temporal lesion in 2 cases, occipital lesion in 2 cases, fronto-parietal lobe, parietal lobe, frontal lobe lesion in each 1 case, and posterior part of third ventricle in 1 case, and the lesion located in the thoracic spinal canal in 1 case. All the lesions were quite large in volume, and the largest one was 6.0 cm x 6.9 cm x 4.9 cm. Except for the round-like lesion in the posterior part of third ventricle, the other 7 supratentorial lesions were irregular in shape, well demarked, and often with solid consistency and slight peritumoral edema. The lesions demonstrated long T 1 and long or slightly long T 2 signal intensity in 4 cases, mixed signal intensity on T 1 WI, T 2 WI, and FLAIR images in 4 cases. Small cystic degeneration could be seen in 2 cases, hemorrhage in 4 cases, and flow void vessels in 3 cases. 3 cases demonstrated irregular ring-like enhancement and ependymal dissemination. The lesion in the thoracic canal demonstrated as a slightly enhanced soft tissue mass with adjacent bony destruction and muscle infiltration. Conclusion: MR findings of PNET are rather characteristic, but the final diagnosis relies on pathology

  4. Primary dorsal spine primitive neuroectodermal tumor in an adult patient: Case report and literature review

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    Satyashiva Munjal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary spinal primitive neuroectodermal tumor (psPNET is a rare entity with few cases reported in literature. We report a case of a 50-year-old female who presented to us with paraplegia and was diagnosed with extradural dorsal spine psPNET. The diagnosis was not suspected at presentation or on radiology but was established on histopathological examination. It is important to distinguish it from central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumors and from other spinal tumors since it follows a different clinical course and therapeutic outcome.

  5. Pediatric Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors of the Central Nervous System Differentially Express Granzyme Inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Jeroen F; van Hecke, Wim; Spliet, Wim G M; Villacorta Hidalgo, José; Fisch, Paul; Broekhuizen, Roel; Bovenschen, Niels

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are malignant primary brain tumors that occur in young infants. Using current standard therapy, up to 80% of the children still dies from recurrent disease. Cellular immunotherapy might be key to improve overall

  6. Identification of novel biomarkers in pediatric primitive neuroectodermal tumors and ependymomas by proteome-wide analysis

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    de Bont, Judith M.; den Boer, Monique L.; Kros, Johan M.; Passier, Monique M. C. J.; Reddinglus, Roel E.; Smitt, Peter A. E. Sillevis; Luider, Theo M.; Pieters, Rob

    The aim of this study was to identify aberrantly expressed proteins in pediatric primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) and ependymornas. Tumor tissue of 29 PNET and 12 ependymoma patients was subjected to 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis. Gel analysis resulted in 79 protein spots

  7. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor presenting as a presacral mass: A rare case report with review of literature

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    Pradnya S Bhadarge

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs are a group of highly malignant small round cell tumor (SRCT of neuroectodermal origin. They exhibit a great diversity in their clinical manifestations and pathologic similarities with other SRCTs. PNET commonly occurs in the central nervous system, head and neck region, paravertebral region, pelvis, and lower extremities. PNET presenting as a presacral mass is very rare. We present a case of 65-year-old female patient presented with a mass in the abdomen. Exploratory laparotomy with excision of mass was carried out. Histopathology revealed the diagnosis of PNET. The rarity of PNET at presacral region prompted the description of this case.

  8. A Case of Renal Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor Confirmed by Fluorescence in situ Hybridization

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    Toshiki Etani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET is a member of the Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT. We report a case of PNET in a 66-year-old male who presented with a large solid tumor within the parenchyma of the middle pole of the left kidney with metastases to the left adrenal gland and right ischium. A fine-needle biopsy was performed and showed a small round cell tumor. Results of immunohistochemical staining suggested this tumor belonged to ESFT. Preoperative VDC-IE (combined vincristine, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by another combination of ifosfamide and etoposide chemotherapy and left radical nephrectomy and adrenalectomy were performed. The histopathological findings of the resected tumor were similar to those in the biopsy specimen, but the results of AE1/AE3 were different. For the diagnosis, fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed. Split signals of the EWSR1 gene were detected, and transmission electron microscopy showed neuroendocrine granules and microtubules. The final diagnosis of this tumor was PNET of the kidney.

  9. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy. MR findings and a review of the literature

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    Atkinson, G.O. Jr.; Davis, P.C.; Patrick, L.E.; Winn, K.J.; Ball, T.I.; Wyly, J.B. (Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (USA). Dept. of Radiology)

    1989-11-01

    Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy is an uncommon neoplasm occurring primarily in the child one year or less in age. Difficulty in deciding the cellular origin of this tumor has led to numerous names, including congenital melanocarcinoma, melanotic epithelial odontoma, melanotic ameloblastoma, and retinal anlage tumor, to list a few. Electron microscopy and histochemical studies, however, have now established the neural crest the most likely origin. The most frequent site of occurrence is the maxilla followed by the skull, the brain and the mandible. The genital organs are the most frequent extracranial site. Within the skull, there is a predilection for the anterior fontanel. The following is a case report of a young child with melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy arising at the anterior fontanel. Included is a discussion of magnetic resonance (MR) findings, which to our knowledge, have not been previously reported in this tumor. (orig.).

  10. Ewing Sarcoma/Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Kidney: Two Unusual Presentations of a Rare Tumor

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    E. C. Castro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Only few cases of primary renal Ewing's sarcoma have been reported in the literature to date. We present here two cases of renal ES/PNET with an uncanny presentation. The first case was discovered after the patient presented clinically with irradiating flank pain, mimicking the pain related with kidney stones. The second case had clinical presentation of pulmonary thromboembolism after the patient was involved in an automobilist accident. The tumors were mainly composed of small blue cells which by immunohistochemical were positive for neural markers, and FISH revealed the translocation 22q12 for the EWSR1 gene. The diagnosis of renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor/EWING tumor is very rare and usually involves several different diagnostic techniques. The differential diagnosis is usually broad with frequent overlapping features between the entities. The cases presented in this paper illustrated the difficulties with which routine anatomical pathologist is faced when dealing with rare renal poorly differentiated neoplasm in adults.

  11. A novel splice mutation in the TP53 gene associated with Leydig cell tumor and primitive neuroectodermal tumor

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    Stecher, Chalotte Willemann; Grønbaek, Kirsten; Hasle, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    A 20-month-old boy presented with precocious puberty due to a Leydig cell tumor, and at the age of 6 years with a primitive neuroectodermal brain-tumor (PNET). A novel splice site mutation of the TP53-gene, likely to be associated with a nonfunctional protein, was found in the proband, his father...

  12. De novo appearance of primitive neuroectodermal tumor in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus and moyamoya disease.

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    Park, D J; Kim, T J; Lee, H J; Lee, K E; Lee, S J; Seo, S R; Yoon, W; Moon, K S; Lee, K W; Lee, S S; Park, Y W

    2010-07-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumor is a rare brain tumor composed of undifferentiated or poorly differentiated neuroepithelial cells with a high malignant potential that usually occurs in children, and which is only occasionally encountered in adults. A 19-year-old female with systemic lupus erythematosus presented with right hemiparesis and a headache of 10 days duration. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a large solid mass with necrotic portions in the left frontoparietal lobe. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor was confirmed by a neuronavigator-guided brain biopsy. This is the first case report of primitive neuroectodermal tumor associated with systemic lupus erythematosus and moyamoya disease. This case demonstrates that brain tumors, such as primitive neuroectodermal tumor, should be included in the differential diagnosis of neurological manifestations in children and adolescent patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

  13. RASSF1A promoter is highly methylated in primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the central nervous system.

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    Inda, María-del-Mar; Castresana, Javier S

    2007-08-01

    Although cancer is rare in children, primary brain tumors constitute the most frequent location of solid tumors in childhood. Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) of the central nervous system can be divided into infratentorial PNET or medulloblastoma (MB), and supratentorial (sPNET) tumors. Although MB and sPNET are histologically similar, clinical evolution differs, sPNET being more aggressive than MB. Some studies have suggested that MB and sPNET present different molecular genetic aberrations. The RASSF1A (Ras Association Domain Family Protein 1) gene, located at 3p21.3, is highly methylated in multiple primary tumor samples, including neuroblastoma. In order to define whether there are genetic differences in the methylation frequency of RASSF1A between MB and sPNET, we analyzed 32 PNET paraffin-embedded samples (23 MB and 9 sPNET) by methylation specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP). We also analyzed RASSF1A expression by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in five PNET cell lines. All PNET cell lines showed lack of RASSF1A expression that was correlated with RASSF1A promoter hypermethylation. RASSF1A methylation was detected in 19 of 21 MB cases (91%) and in five of six sPNET samples (83%). Although the methylation frequency found in MB was slightly higher than in sPNET, no statistical differences were found for the RASSF1A hypermethylation frequency (P > 0.05) presented at MB versus sPNET. Therefore, the inactivation of the RASSF1A gene seems to be an important step in the tumorigenesis of PNET of the central nervous sytem. More studies should be performed in order to determine genetic differences between MB and sPNET.

  14. Molecular analysis of childhood primitive neuroectodermal tumors defines markers associated with poor outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheurlen, W G; Schwabe, G C; Joos, S

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: The diagnostic and prognostic significance of well-defined molecular markers was investigated in childhood primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using microsatellite analysis, Southern blot analysis, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), 30 primary tumors......: In our study, amplification of c-myc was a poor-prognosis marker in PNET. LOH of chromosome 17p was associated with metastatic disease. Molecular analysis of primary tumors using these markers may be useful for stratification of children with PNET in future prospective studies. The other aberrations...... investigated were not of significant prognostic value, but may provide an entry point for future large-scale molecular studies....

  15. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor or small cell carcinoma of the kidney, arare neoplasm: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhi, A.; Ratnakar, K.S.; Al-Durazi, M.; Khalifa, F.

    2002-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma is a malignancy primarily recognized in thebronchopulmonary region. Extrapulmonary locations are extremely uncommon. Wereport here a case of renal tumor encountered in a 34-year-old female, withextensive metastases in liver, lung and bone. Histological examination wasmost compatible with primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) small cellcarcinoma. There were negative immunohistochemical markers for cytokeratin,any hormonal peptides and epithelial membrane antigens, which is consistentwith the designation of neoplasm as PNET. Previously reported cases have allbeen in the elderly and, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first caseof proven PNET of the kidney described in a young female. (author)

  16. Primary Vaginal Extraosseous Ewing Sarcoma/Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor with Cranial Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Man Yip

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Extraosseous Ewing sarcoma is now regarded as a member of the Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET family. It typically involves the soft tissues of the chest wall, pelvis, paravertebral region, abdominal wall, retroperitoneal region and extremities of children, adolescents and young adults, but it seldom occurs in the female genital tract. We report an extremely rare case of retrospective diagnosis of vaginal extraosseous Ewing sarcoma/PNET which metastasized to the right frontoparietal scalp, skull, and dura. Surgical resection, followed by adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy resulted in a favourable clinical outcome. Both the vaginal and head tumors had similar light microscopic features supporting the diagnosis.

  17. Congenital Ewing's Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shu-Guang; Jiang, Xiao-Ping; Zhong, Lin

    2016-10-01

    Ewing's sarcoma (EWS) and peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (pPNET) are small round cell malignancies that develop in soft tissue and bone. They very rarely affect newborns. A diagnosis of EWS/pPNET depends mainly on immunohistochemistry and molecular/genetic assays. Since these tumors are highly aggressive, patient prognosis is typically very poor, and treatment remains a challenge. Here, we report a 13-day-old newborn diagnosed with congenital EWS/pPNET and describe its treatment. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Congenital Ewing's Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Guang Jin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ewing's sarcoma (EWS and peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (pPNET are small round cell malignancies that develop in soft tissue and bone. They very rarely affect newborns. A diagnosis of EWS/pPNET depends mainly on immunohistochemistry and molecular/genetic assays. Since these tumors are highly aggressive, patient prognosis is typically very poor, and treatment remains a challenge. Here, we report a 13-day-old newborn diagnosed with congenital EWS/pPNET and describe its treatment.

  19. Primitive neuroectodermal tumors of kidney: Our experience in a tertiary care center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, A; Mahapatra, S K; Nayak, B; Saini, A K; Biswas, B

    2016-01-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) are rare highly aggressive neoplasms. The diagnosis is made by histopathology with the support of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and cytogenetics. The aggressive multimodality treatment is recommended for the management of these tumors. The purpose of our study is to review our experiences in the diagnoses and treatment of PNET of the kidneys. We retrospectively reviewed the data of all the patients, who were treated for the PNET of the kidneys at our institute between April and March 2011 and compared with the available literature. A total of eight patients were treated for PNET of the kidney. Out of the eight patients, four were males and four females. Nearly 50% of our patients had inferior vena caval thrombus at the time of presentation. The diagnosis was made on histopathology supported by IHC. Out of the eight patients, one patient had intraoperative death due to massive pulmonary thromboembolism and another died on the 7th post-operative day due to disseminated intravascular coagulation and multiorgan failure. Rest six patients were treated with post-operative chemotherapy or a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. For these six patients, overall median survival was 45 months with a 3 year disease-free survival of 66% and 5 year survival of 44%. PNET of the kidneys are rare peripheral neuroectodermal tumors with an aggressive clinical course. These tumors carry a very poor prognosis. An aggressive treatment approach using a combination of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy is recommended for a reasonable survival in these tumors.

  20. Ewing's sarcoma: a neuroectodermal tumor of the chest wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, M. J.; Lorente, M. L.; Martin, A. M.; Gonzalez, I.

    2000-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is the second most common malignant bone tumor in children and young adults. It is most prevalent between the ages of 10 and 15 years. There are present two cases of Ewing's sarcoma of the chest wall. The clinical, radiological and pathological features are described and the therapeutic options are discussed. (Author)

  1. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor arising 8 years after chemotherapy and radiotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Yuya; Toma, Yasuo; Arai, Masayuki; Higashi, Ryo; Kashihara, Kengo; Kaizaki, Yasuharu

    2005-01-01

    We report a case of primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) arising 8 years after chemotherapy and radiotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. A 15-year-old boy with a history of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, at the age of 7, underwent chemotherapy and 14 Gy of radiotherapy to the whole brain. He was admitted to our department due to the development of aphasia, right hemiparesis and generalized convulsive seizure. MRI showed an irregularly enhanced mass in the left frontal lobe. A gross total removal of the tumor was performed and histological examination showed it to be PNET. Postoperatively, the patient underwent 20 Gy of radiotherapy to the whole brain and 42 Gy of local radiotherapy. Follow-up MRI showed no evidence of recurrent tumor 4 months after the radiotherapy. This tumor was thought to be a secondary brain tumor arising in this survivor of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and it is a rare complication of successful leukemia treatment. (author)

  2. Heavy Metal Bioaccumulation in an Atypical Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Abdominal Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncati, Luca; Gatti, Antonietta Morena; Capitani, Federico; Barbolini, Giuseppe; Maiorana, Antonio; Palmieri, Beniamino

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals are able to interfere with the function of vital cellular components. Besides in trace heavy metals, which are essential at low concentration for humans, there are heavy metals with a well-known toxic and oncogenic potential. In this study, for the first time in literature, we report the unique adulthood case of an atypical primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the abdominal wall, diagnosed by histology and immunohistochemistry, with the molecular hybridization support. The neoplasia occurred in a patient chronically exposed to a transdermal delivery of heavy metal salts (aluminum and bismuth), whose intracellular bioaccumulation has been revealed by elemental microanalysis.

  3. Congenital peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor: A case treated successfully with multimodality treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, Sh.; Biswas, A.; Mohanti, B.K.; Gupta, R.

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal tumors comprise less than two percent of childhood malignancies. Most are solid tumors, most common histologies being teratoma and neuroblastoma. We encountered a child who was detected to have a right arm mass on antenatal sonogram, which was diagnosed to be a primitive neuroectodermal tumor involving the triceps on fine needle aspiration cytology performed in the post-natal period. The child was successfully treated with multimodality treatment consisting of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We also discuss briefly the problems associated with therapy in neonatal period. A review of all cases reported to have congenital Ewing’s sarcoma family of tumors is presented. Novel therapies are needed to improve efficacy and decrease the devastating side effects of treatment in this age group.

  4. Clinical analysis of primary primitive neuroectodermal tumors in the female genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Changji; Zhao, Jing; Guo, Peng; Wang, Dan; Zhao, Dachun; Ren, Tong; Yang, Jiaxin; Shen, Keng; Lang, Jinghe; Xiang, Yang; Cui, Quancai

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) in the female genital tract. From April 2001 to May 2013, the clinicopathologic characteristics, treatments, outcomes, and prognosis of 11 patients with PNET in the female genital tract were analyzed retrospectively at our hospital. The location of PNET in the 11 patients presented here included vulva (2 patients), cervix (2 patients), uterus and its ligament (5 patients), and the ovaries (2 patients). Ages ranged from 18 to 59 years (median, 31 years).The main clinical manifestations of PNET in the female genital tract are irregular vaginal bleeding (6 patients), pelvic mass, uterine enlargement, and rapidly increasing vulvar mass (8 patients), and vulvar pain and lower abdominal pain (5 patients). The CA125 levels of 8 patients were elevated before the operations and reduced to normal when the diseases were controlled, while the levels increased as the tumor was progressive. Results for the most commonly used immunohistochemistry studies revealed CD99 in 11 of the 11 tumors, synaptophysin in 6 of the 7 positive tumors, and neuron-specific enolase in 6 of the 6 tumors. Ten patients underwent surgical resection. Nine of them underwent preoperative or/and postoperative combination chemotherapy. The follow-up of 10 patients were available and ranged from 1 to 145 months (median, 30.5 months), 3 of whom experiencing recurrence. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor is very rare and can originate from any part of the female genital tract. The tumors had different manifestations but the same pathologic features. CA125 may be an important marker for prognosis and follow-up of PNET of the female internal genital tract.

  5. EUS-FNA for the Diagnosis of Retroperitoneal Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijaz A. Sofi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET is a rare “small round blue cell tumor” that is diagnosed by open biopsy or percutaneous biopsy of the lesion under radiologic guidance. In this case report, we present a novel approach to the diagnosis of a retroperitoneal PNET by endoscopic ultrasound- (EUS- guided fine needle aspiration (FNA. A 35-year-old man presented with the history of left-sided flank pain and swelling of 3-weeks duration. Computerized tomography (CT scan of his abdomen revealed a 12.8 × 13 × 12.5 cm cystic and solid mass arising from the retroperitoneum and displacing the third and fourth portions of the duodenum. He underwent EUS which revealed a well-circumscribed heterogeneous mass abutting the inferior portion of the stomach. EUS-FNA of the mass revealed malignant cells consistent with primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET/Ewing's sarcoma. EUS-guided FNA is an appropriate technique for diagnosing retroperitoneal PNET/Ewing's sarcoma.

  6. Clinical and pathological characteristics of primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the cerebral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Jun; Zhou Youxin; Xu Feng; Ye Ming; Zhou Dai; Bao Yaodong; Kang Suya

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the features of the cerebral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) in the clinical manifestation and in the histogenesis, morphology. Methods: Seven cases of cerebral PNET was analyzed with their clinical manifestations, histologic and immunohistochemical results. Results: Five patients of this group were children or young adults. Seven tumors were composed of primitive cells with focal evidence of glial or neuronal differentiation. Five out seven expressed NSE, one out seven expressed Syn, two out seven expressed CD99 and only one case expressed Vimentin, None expressed GFAP and S-100. CT findings were a homogeneous high density or heterogeneous mass. MR findings were high signal intensity both on T1 and T2 images. Conclusion: To diagnose the cerebral PNET depends on pathology and cerebral PNET have poor prognosis

  7. Primary peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor/Ewing's tumor of the testis in a 46-year-old man-differential diagnosis and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikaus, Sebastian; Schaefer, Karl-Ludwig; Eucker, Jan; Hogrebe, Esther; Danebrock, Raihanatou; Wai, Daniel H; Krenn, Veit; Gabbert, Helmut E; Poremba, Christopher

    2009-06-01

    Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor/Ewing's tumors are rare bone and soft tissue malignancies with a highly aggressive clinical course and early metastases occurring at multiple peripheral sites. Here, we present for the first time a case of a 46-year-old man with a primary peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor/Ewing's tumor of the testis. The diagnosis of peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor/Ewing's tumor was established by histology, immunohistochemistry, and molecular pathology. The tumor revealed a rapid progress in 2 months' time. Therefore, the patient was included in the EURO-E.W.I.N.G.99 study and was placed on chemotherapy. However, the tumor progressed during ongoing therapy, and the patient died in March 2008. In conclusion, though being reported here for the first time, peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor/Ewing's tumors should be considered in the differential diagnosis of blue round cell tumors of the testis. A rapid and correct diagnosis of this entity is crucial for fast and accurate therapy, which is stressed by the fatal case presented here.

  8. Multiple Ewing Sarcoma/Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors in the Mediastinum: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sung Hwan; Hwang, Jung Hwa; Da Nam, Bo; Kim, Hyun Jo; Kim, Ki-Up; Kim, Dong Won; Choi, In Ho

    2016-02-01

    Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumors (ES/PNET) are high-grade malignant neoplasms. These malignancies present very rare tumors of thoracopulmonary area and even rarer in the mediastinum. In our knowledge, ES/PNET presented with multiple mediastinal masses has not been reported previously. We experienced a case of a 42-year-old man presented with gradual onset of left-side pleuritic chest pain. A contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography (CT) scan showed separate 2 large heterogeneously enhancing masses in each anterior and middle mediastinum of the left hemithorax. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scan revealed high fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the mediastinal masses. After surgical excision for the mediastinal masses, both of the masses were diagnosed as the ES/PNET group of tumors on the histopathologic examination. The patient refused postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy and came back with local tumor recurrence and distant metastasis on 4-month follow-up after surgical resection. We report this uncommon form of ES/PNET. We are to raise awareness that this rare malignancy should be considered as a differential diagnosis of the malignant mediastinal tumors and which can be manifested as multiple masses in a patient. Understanding this rare entity of extra-skeletal ES/PNET and characteristic imaging findings can help radiologists and clinicians to approach proper diagnosis and better management for this highly malignant tumor.

  9. A general aspect on soft-tissue sarcoma and c-kit expression in primitive neuroectodermal tumor and Ewings sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kara, Ismail O.; Sahin, B.; Gonlusen, G.; Ergin, M.; Erdogan, S.

    2005-01-01

    Within soft-tissue sarcoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors have been shown to cover a wide spectrum of small round cell sarcomas, including Ewings sarcomas (Es) and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PET). The role of the stem cell factor/kit pathway has been investigated in different human tumors especially in chronic metallically leukemia and gastrointestinal stromal tumor and an autocrine loop has been assumed in small cell lung carcinoma, and recently in Es and PET. Our aim is to investigate the c-kit expression in Es and PET and also to assessed if c-kit has any role in disease process. We thoroughly searched the archives of the Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Cukurova University Turkey, between 2000 and 2004; and found 14 ES and 14 PNET paraffin embedded tissues. We carried out the detection of the c-kit expression by immunohistochemical staining. The patients median age was 23.7 +/-14.6 (12 male and 16 female). Five were diagnosed as metastatic disease whereas 23 were diagnosed as non-metastatic disease at admission. The mean follow up period was 38.9 +/- 22.3 months. The main localization of the disease was lower extremity (32.1%), and others were as follows: head and neck 25%, thorax and abdomen 14.3%, pelvic and upper extremity 7.1% (11 were localized skeletal and 17 were extraskeletal). According to treatment modalities, 10 were treated with surgery alone, 11 with surgery and chemotherapy, and 7 with surgery, radiation therapy and also with chemotherapy. The primary tumor was lower than 5 cm in its dimension in 21 patients. While in 5 patients, tumor was more than 5 cm but did not exceed 10 cm, it was >10 cm in 2 patients. The c-kit expression was positive in 7 patients both cytoplasmic and membranously, whereas 8 patients were positive cytoplasmically. In 5 PNET patients, c-kit expression were stained immunohistochemically in over 50% and in 3 of ES patients. There was no significant correlation between c-kit expression and gender

  10. Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI study of primary primitive neuroectodermal tumor in the thoracic spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yu; Xu Jianmin; Li Ying; Zhang Jingzhong; Zhu Jing

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging in the diagnosis and differentiation of primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) in the thoracic spine. Methods: The dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging of 2 patients (3 times) with PNET in the thoracic spine proved by surgery and pathology were prospectively studied. Results: In the curves of SI-time and CER-time, PNET in the thoracic spine showed a rapid rise to the peak between 60 s and 120 s, then the flat level was kept and no obvious decline was detected after about 3.5 minute. Conclusion: Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI can help to make the diagnosis and differential diagnosis for PNET in the thoracic spine, offer reliable information for the choice of clinical management, and predict the prognosis

  11. Solitary epidural brain metastasis of Neuroepithelioma (a Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Farshidfar

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A 14 years old male was referred to Computerized tomography scan (CT of our hospital for evaluation of headache. The patient was known case of cervical soft tissue Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET which has undergone surgery and radiotherapy 4 years ago. The CT scan showed large solitary extra axial, epidural lesion in right parietal region, with mass effect and bony involvement. Then surgery was done for him and the resultant biopsy was Neuroepithelioma. After diagnosis the patient has undergone chemotherapy and radiotherapy. He has no signs or symptoms of malignancy, and also follow up CT scan of the brain, chest, and abdomen were normal after two years of surgery. This is the first reported case of epidural metastasis of a head and neck PNET in an adolescent.

  12. Extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma / primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the sacral nerve plexus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narula, MK; Gupta, Nishant; Anand, Rama; Kapoor, Sudhir

    2009-01-01

    We report an unusual case of Ewing's sarcoma / primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) of the sacral nerve plexus in a 9-year-old boy who presented with a soft tissue swelling and severe piercing pain in the lower back region. MRI of the lumbosacral spine showed a lobulated soft tissue mass with clubbed finger-like projections along the path of the sacral nerves, which had caused widening of the spinal canal and the sacral foramina (S2–S4 level). There was presacral extension and posterior scalloping of the sacral vertebrae. Histopathology of the lesion confirmed Ewing's sarcoma / PNET of the sacral spinal nerve plexus. The patient responded favorably to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, showing clinical and radiological improvement

  13. PTEN and DMBT1 homozygous deletion and expression in medulloblastomas and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inda, María Mar; Mercapide, Javier; Muñoz, Jorge; Coullin, Philippe; Danglot, Giséle; Tuñon, Teresa; Martínez-Peñuela, José María; Rivera, José María; Burgos, Juan J; Bernheim, Alain; Castresana, Javier S

    2004-12-01

    Medulloblastoma, which accounts for 20-25% of all childhood brain tumors, is defined as a primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) located in the cerebellum. Supratentorial PNET are less frequent than medulloblastoma. But their clinical outcome is worse than in medulloblastomas. Chromosome 10q contains at least 2 tumor suppressor genes that might play a role in brain tumor development: PTEN and DMBT1. The aim of this study was to compare the status of homozygous deletion and expression of PTEN and DMBT1 genes in PNET primary tumor samples and cell lines. Homozygous deletions of PTEN and DMBT1 were studied in 32 paraffin-embedded PNET samples (23 medulloblastomas and 9 supratentorial PNET) and in 7 PNET cell lines, by differential PCR and by FISH. PTEN homozygous losses were demonstrated in 7 medulloblastomas (32%) and in no supratentorial PNET, while homozygous deletions of DMBT1 appeared in 1 supratentorial PNET (20%) and in 7 medulloblastomas (33%). No homozygous deletion of PTEN or DMBT1 was detected in any of the PNET cell lines either by differential PCR or by FISH. Expression study of the 2 genes was performed in the 7 PNET cell lines by RT-PCR. One PNET cell line lacked PTEN and DMBT1 expression, while 2 medulloblastoma cell lines did not express DMBT1. Our results add some positive data to the hypothesis that supratentorial PNETs and medulloblastomas might be genetically different.

  14. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy (progonoma): a case report emphasizing the computed tomography findings and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Junior, Cyrillo Rodrigues de; Carvalho, Tarcisio Nunes; Fraguas Filho, Sergio Roberto; Costa, Marlos Augusto Bitencourt; Borba, Ana Olivia Cardoso; Figueiredo, Sizenildo da Silva; Machado, Marcio Martins; Teixeira, Kim-Ir-Sen Santos

    2004-01-01

    The melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy, also known as progonoma, is a rare benign disease of neural crest origin that occurs within the first year of life and affects mainly the maxilla. The authors report a case of a 10-month-old child presenting with this uncommon tumor in the maxilla, emphasizing the diagnostic findings on computed tomography, and present a literature review. (author)

  15. Primary Ewing's sarcoma-primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the uterus: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Yeol; Lee, Sun; Kang, Hyoung Jin; Kim, Hy-Sook; Park, Sang-Yoon

    2007-08-01

    Primary Ewing's sarcoma-primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES-PNET) of the uterus is an extremely rare malignancy. A 30-year-old Korean woman presented with abnormal uterine bleeding with uterine enlargement. A computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the abdomen and pelvis showed a huge uterine mass measuring 18 x 20 x 21 cm, metastasis to both pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes, and omental infiltration. The pathology report of the uterine mass described a uniformly hypercellular tumor, which was arranged in diffuse solid sheets of uniform, small, rounded, and sometimes spindle-shaped cells, with scanty cytoplasm. Immunohistochemically, the mass tested positive for vimentin, CD99, and chromogranin. The patient received several courses of combination chemotherapy and radiotherapy but died from tumor progression 16 months after the initial diagnosis. This is a rare case of primary uterine ES-PNET in a woman of reproductive age. A review of the literature indicates that primary uterine ES-PNET requires early diagnosis and multimodality treatment including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. The behavior of this tumor is potentially aggressive.

  16. Recurrent spinal primitive neuroectodermal tumor with brain and bone metastases: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Frank; Chiou, Shyh-Shin; Lin, Sheng-Fung; Lieu, Ann-Shung; Chen, Yi-Ting; Huang, Chih-Jen

    2017-11-01

    Primary spinal primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) is relatively rare in all age groups, and the prognosis in most cases of spinal PNETs appears to be poor, with a median patient survival of 1 to 2 years. We present a case with recurrent spinal PNET with brain and bone metastases that was successfully treated by multimodality treatment. A 14-year-old teenage girl had suffered from progressive left upper back pain with bilateral lower legs weakness and numbness for 1 year. After treatment, left neck mass was noted 3 years later. Initially, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed neurogenic tumor involving intradural extramedullary space of T5-T10. Pathology report showed PNET (World Health Organization grade IV) featuring lobules of neoplastic cells with round regular nuclei, high nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio, and fibrillary cytoplasm. At the time of tumor recurrence, chest MRI then showed recurrent tumor at T2-T3 level of the epidural space with right neural foramina invasion. Brain MRI showed extensive bilateral calvarial metastases and leptomeningeal metastases in the right frontoparietal regions. Bone scan showed multiple bone metastases. T-spine tumor removal and adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) to T-spine tumor bed were performed in the initial treatment. After clinical tumor recurrence, tumor removal was done again. She then received chemotherapy followed by whole brain irradiation with hippocampal sparing with 35 gray in 20 fractions. After treatment, follow-up images showed that the disease was under control. There was no neurological sequela. She has survived more than 7 years from diagnosis and more than 4 years from recurrence to date. Multimodality treatments including operation, RT, and chemotherapy should be considered in the initial treatment planning, and salvage chemotherapy was useful in this case.

  17. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the zygomaticoorbital complex: a rare location and ways of surgical repair of the area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. R. Ragimov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primitive neuroectodermal tumor in the zygomaticoorbital region is a rare neoplasm of the head and neck. Due to the necessity for wide radical excision of a primary tumor, there may be serious functional and cosmetic disorders that substantially affect quality of life in patients. Restoration of this region is one of the challenges of reconstructive surgery because of the specific features of the relief of bone structures. The paper describes a clinical case of the site of primitive neuroectodermal tumor in the zygomaticoorbital complex and a method for repairing postresectional defect and completely recovering the function of the organ of vision and aesthetic parameters of the face.

  18. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings of peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weidong; Chen Yanfeng; Li Chuanxing; Zhang Liang; Xu Zhibin; Zhang Fujun

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: We aimed to analyze the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (pPNET) of the head and neck. Methods: Eight patients with pPNET of the head and neck confirmed by histopathological examination were analyzed retrospectively. Results: The average patient age was 8 years. The tumor location in the 8 patients was as follows: maxillofacial region (right, 2; left, 1), left maxillary sinus (1), right masticator space (1), left carotid space (1), right infratemporal fossa (1), and left parotid gland (1). All 5 patients who underwent CT demonstrated ill-defined soft masses and no calcification. Three patients with tumors in the maxillofacial region showed homogeneous small masses and a mild enhancement. The patient with left maxillary sinus tumor showed a heterogeneous mass with patchy, necrotic foci and mild heterogeneous enhancement. The patient with right masticator space tumor showed a heterogeneous mass, and marked heterogeneous enhancement. The T1-weighted images of the patients with right infratemporal fossa, left carotid space, and left parotid gland tumors were isointense. The T2-weighted images were heterogeneous and mildly hyperintense in 2 patients and hyperintense in 1 patient. Heterogeneous intermediate enhancement was demonstrated in 2 patients and mild ring enhancement in 1 patient. Conclusion: The imaging features of pPNET of the head and neck are non-specific. An ill-defined, aggressive mass and variable enhancement on CT and MR images may suggest the diagnosis of pPNET. Peripheral PNET should be included in the differential diagnosis of children and adolescents' regional tumors.

  19. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings of peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the head and neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Weidong [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Department of Radiology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510060 (China); Chen Yanfeng [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510060 (China); Li Chuanxing; Zhang Liang; Xu Zhibin [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Department of Radiology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510060 (China); Zhang Fujun, E-mail: drzhangfj@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Department of Radiology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510060 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: We aimed to analyze the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (pPNET) of the head and neck. Methods: Eight patients with pPNET of the head and neck confirmed by histopathological examination were analyzed retrospectively. Results: The average patient age was 8 years. The tumor location in the 8 patients was as follows: maxillofacial region (right, 2; left, 1), left maxillary sinus (1), right masticator space (1), left carotid space (1), right infratemporal fossa (1), and left parotid gland (1). All 5 patients who underwent CT demonstrated ill-defined soft masses and no calcification. Three patients with tumors in the maxillofacial region showed homogeneous small masses and a mild enhancement. The patient with left maxillary sinus tumor showed a heterogeneous mass with patchy, necrotic foci and mild heterogeneous enhancement. The patient with right masticator space tumor showed a heterogeneous mass, and marked heterogeneous enhancement. The T1-weighted images of the patients with right infratemporal fossa, left carotid space, and left parotid gland tumors were isointense. The T2-weighted images were heterogeneous and mildly hyperintense in 2 patients and hyperintense in 1 patient. Heterogeneous intermediate enhancement was demonstrated in 2 patients and mild ring enhancement in 1 patient. Conclusion: The imaging features of pPNET of the head and neck are non-specific. An ill-defined, aggressive mass and variable enhancement on CT and MR images may suggest the diagnosis of pPNET. Peripheral PNET should be included in the differential diagnosis of children and adolescents' regional tumors.

  20. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the kidney in a 51-year-old female following breast cancer: A case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    ZHONG, JINJING; CHEN, NI; CHEN, XUEQIN; GONG, JING; NIE, LING; XU, MIAO; ZHOU, QIAO

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor/Ewing’s sarcoma (pPNET/EWS) is an aggressive type of sarcoma that is rarely observed in the kidney. pPNET of the kidney principally occurs in young patients (

  1. Tipifarnib in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent or Progressive High-Grade Glioma, Medulloblastoma, Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor, or Brain Stem Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-07

    Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma

  2. Treatment Outcome and Prognostic Molecular Markers of Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo Hee Choi

    Full Text Available To identify prognostic factors and define the optimal management of patients with supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (sPNETs, we investigated treatment outcomes and explored the prognostic value of specific molecular markers.A total of 47 consecutive patients with pathologically confirmed sPNETs between May 1985 and June 2012 were included. Immunohistochemical analysis of LIN28, OLIG2, and Rad51 expression was performed and correlated with clinical outcome.With a median follow-up of 70 months, 5-year overall survival (OS and progression-free survival (PFS was 55.5% and 40%, respectively, for all patients. Age, surgical extent, and radiotherapy were significant prognostic factors for OS and PFS. Patients who received initially planned multimodal treatment without interruption (i.e., radiotherapy and surgery (≥subtotal resection, with or without chemotherapy showed significantly higher 5-year OS (71.2% and PFS (63.1%. In 29 patients with available tumor specimens, tumors with high expression of either LIN28 or OLIG2 or elevated level of Rad51 were significantly associated with poorer prognosis.We found that multimodal treatment improved outcomes for sPNET patients, especially when radiotherapy and ≥subtotal resection were part of the treatment regimen. Furthermore, we confirmed the prognostic significance of LIN28 and OLIG2 and revealed the potential role of Rad51 in sPNETs.

  3. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy in an African-indigenous patient from the Amazon: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Thiago Pastor da Silva; Carneiro, José Thiers; de Melo Alves, Sérgio; de Jesus Viana Pinheiro, João; Tuji, Fabrício Mesquita

    2013-11-25

    Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy (MNTI) is a rare condition that occurs normally in the anterior maxilla of infants aged Amazon residency, who presented to our unit in 2009 with a history of an expanding mass involving the anterior maxilla. Clinical and computerized tomography scans were used to diagnose the mass as MNTI, which was removed by total excision. A biopsy later confirmed the MNTI diagnosis.

  4. Integrated bioinformatic analysis unveils significant genes and pathways in the pathogenesis of supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang G

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Guang-Yu Wang,1,* Ling Li,2,* Bo Liu,1 Xiao Han,1 Chun-Hua Wang,1 Ji-Wen Wang3 1Department of Neurosurgery, 2Department of Pediatrics, Qilu Children’s Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, 3Department of Neurology, Shanghai Children’s Medical Center, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Pudong New District, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: This study aimed to explore significant genes and pathways involved in the pathogenesis of supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (sPNET. Materials and methods: Gene expression profile of GSE14295 was downloaded from publicly available Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs were screened out in primary sPNET samples compared with normal fetal and adult brain reference samples (sPNET vs fetal brain and sPNET vs adult brain. Pathway enrichment analysis of these DEGs was conducted, followed by protein–protein interaction (PPI network construction and significant module selection. Additionally, transcription factors (TFs regulating the common DEGs in the two comparison groups were identified, and the regulatory network was constructed. Results: In total, 526 DEGs (99 up- and 427 downregulated in sPNET vs fetal brain and 815 DEGs (200 up- and 615 downregulated in sPNET vs adult brain were identified. DEGs in sPNET vs fetal brain and sPNET vs adult brain were associated with calcium signaling pathway, cell cycle, and p53 signaling pathway. CDK1, CDC20, BUB1B, and BUB1 were hub nodes in the PPI networks of DEGs in sPNET vs fetal brain and sPNET vs adult brain. Significant modules were extracted from the PPI networks. In addition, 64 upregulated and 200 downregulated overlapping DEGs were identified in both sPNET vs fetal brain and sPNET vs adult brain. The genes involved in the regulatory network upon overlapping DEGs and the TFs were correlated with calcium signaling pathway

  5. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the maxillary sinus in an elderly male: A case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Saiquat; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul

    2014-01-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), which belongs to the Ewing's sarcoma (ES) family of tumors, is mainly seen in children and young adults. PNETs are extremely rare in the maxilla. Here, we report a case of PNET of the left maxillary sinus in an elderly male. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a slightly enhanced solid mass occupying the left maxillary sinus and infiltrating into the retroantral space. A partial maxillectomy was performed. Despite postoperative chemotherapy, follow-up computed tomography (CT) and MRI revealed a nodal metastasis in the submandibular space. Neck dissection was performed. However, the patient died 10 months after the second surgery because of distant metastasis to the liver. MRI and CT were particularly useful in detecting the extent of the tumor, recurrence, and metastasis. Further, a literature review of the previously reported PNET cases of the maxilla was carried out. In this paper, we also discuss the current approach for the diagnosis and management of these tumors.

  6. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the maxillary sinus in an elderly male: A case report and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Saiquat [Dept. of Dental Public Health, Bangladesh Dental College, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Dental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), which belongs to the Ewing's sarcoma (ES) family of tumors, is mainly seen in children and young adults. PNETs are extremely rare in the maxilla. Here, we report a case of PNET of the left maxillary sinus in an elderly male. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a slightly enhanced solid mass occupying the left maxillary sinus and infiltrating into the retroantral space. A partial maxillectomy was performed. Despite postoperative chemotherapy, follow-up computed tomography (CT) and MRI revealed a nodal metastasis in the submandibular space. Neck dissection was performed. However, the patient died 10 months after the second surgery because of distant metastasis to the liver. MRI and CT were particularly useful in detecting the extent of the tumor, recurrence, and metastasis. Further, a literature review of the previously reported PNET cases of the maxilla was carried out. In this paper, we also discuss the current approach for the diagnosis and management of these tumors.

  7. [Primitive neuroectodermal tumor/Ewing's sarcoma of the penis in children: a case report and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Da-Wei; Jin, Mei; Zhou, Chun-Ju; Song, Hong-Cheng; Ma, Xiao-Li

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the clinical manifestations, pathological characteristics and treatment of primitive neuroectodermal tumor/Ewing's sarcoma (PNET/EWS) of the penis in children. We analyzed the clinical data of a case of PNET/EWS and reviewed relevant literature. The patient was a 5-year-old boy, admitted for penis swelling with pain for 11 months. Biopsy showed a small round cell tumor, CD99 positive by immunohistochemical staining, with EWS translocation by fluorescence in situ hybridization on molecular biological examination. The tumor was confirmed to be PNET/EWS of the penis, and disappeared after 45 weeks of chemotherapy and local radiotherapy. PNET/EWS of the penis is an extremely rare disease, with no specific clinical symptoms except penis enlargement with pain. Immunohistochemistry and molecular biological examination contribute to its diagnosis.

  8. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the urinary bladder in an Arab woman with history of squamous cell carcinoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Meshaan, Mohd Khaled; Nayef, Marwan; Kwaider, Talal; Otto, Wolfgang; Katchy, Ken C

    2009-04-29

    Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the urinary bladder are rare and tend to occur in an older age group than do their counterparts in bones and soft tissue. We report a case of peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the urinary bladder in a 67-year-old woman of Arab origin. She had undergone transurethral resection followed by chemotherapy because of pulmonary metastasized muscle-invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder in 2005. One year later, she first presented with a history of repeated hematuria in our institution. Performing cystoscopy any tumor could be detected. Control cystoscopy two months later showed a tumor mass of 3 cm in diameter at another location than described for the first tumor. After perforating by transurethral resection partial bladder resection had to be done. Tissue specimen after pathological analysis revealed a peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor with tumor cells reactive to cluster of differentiation 99, neuron-specific enolase and S100 protein and stained negative for other markers such as cytokeratins, epithelial membrane antigen, desmin, smooth muscle actin, chromogranin and leucocyte common antigen. Staging computerized tomography was especially free from any hint on organ metastasis, but the patient died due to a cardiac problem only a few months later. To the best of our knowledge, we report the eighth case of bladder peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors in literature and the first concerning an Arab patient. It is also the first presentation of a peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor patient with a history of squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder. As in other cases, expression of single-chain-type 1 glycoprotein and neural markers was positive and the disease was at an advanced stage at the time of diagnosis.

  9. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy: Case report of an unusual tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal P

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy is a rare, pigmented neoplasm of neural crest origin occurring in infants before 1 year of age. We report a 6-month-old male baby with a similar tumour involving superior maxillary alveolar ridge and most of the hard palate. A partial maxillectomy was performed by oral approach. One-year follow-up of the patient showed no recurrence.

  10. Tissue Reactivity of the 14F7 Mab Raised against N-Glycolyl GM3 Ganglioside in Tumors of Neuroectodermal, Mesodermal, and Epithelial Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Rancés; Quintana, Yisel; Blanco, Damián; Cedeño, Mercedes; Rengifo, Charles E.; Frómeta, Milagros; Ríos, Martha; Rengifo, Enrique; Carr, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    The expression of N-glycolylneuraminic acid forming the structure of gangliosides and/or other glycoconjugates (Hanganutziu-Deicher antigen) in human has been considered as a tumor-associated antigen. Specifically, some reports of 14F7 Mab (a highly specific Mab raised against N-glycolyl GM3 ganglioside) reactivity in human tumors have been recently published. Nevertheless, tumors of epithelial origin have been mostly evaluated. The goal of the present paper was to evaluate the immunohistochemical recognition of 14F7 Mab in different human tumors of neuroectodermal, mesodermal, and epithelial origins using an immunoperoxidase staining method. Samples of fetal, normal, and reactive astrocytosis of the brain were also included in the study. In general, nontumoral tissues, as well as, low-grade brain tumors showed no or a limited immunoreaction with 14F7 Mab. Nevertheless, high-grade astrocytomas (III-IV) and neuroblastomas, as well as, sarcomas and thyroid carcinomas were mostly reactive with 14F7. No reaction was evidenced in medulloblastomas and ependymoblastomas. Our data suggest that the expression of N-glycolyl GM3 ganglioside could be related to the aggressive behavior of malignant cells, without depending on the tumor origin. Our data could also support the possible use of N-glycolyl GM3 as a target for both active and passive immunotherapies of malignancies expressing this molecule. PMID:26317019

  11. Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor E wing's Sarcoma Arising from the Cigomatic Arch and the Masticator y Space. A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arango Bonnet, German; Andres Narvaez, Jorge; Garcia, Sara Eugenia

    2008-01-01

    Peripheral primitive neuroectodermic tumor (PNET) or peripheral neuro epithelioma is a malignant neoplasia consisting of round small blue cells, which derive from the neural crest. Amongst malignant tumors it is one the least differentiated histological types. Ewings sarcoma and PNET are morphologically impossible to differentiate; they are also very similar pathologically in terms of their imagining appearance. Due to these similarities we will consider them as a single entity. These can appear in infants, but are more common in adolescents. Treatment includes hemo therapy,surgery and radiotherapy. We present a case of an 8 year old female patient, diagnosed with Ewing Sarcoma, confirmed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry, we will also present a brief review of the literature.

  12. Local recurrence and distant metastasis of supratentorial primitive neuro-ectodermal tumor in an adult patient successfully treated with intensive induction chemotherapy and maintenance temozolomide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terheggen, F.; Troost, D.; Majoie, C. B.; Leenstra, S.; Richel, D. J.

    2007-01-01

    Supratentorial primitive neuro-ectodermal tumors (PNET) in adults are very rare. Extraneural metastasis are unusual and the optimal palliative chemotherapy regimen is not established. We present a 26-year-old patient with local recurrence and distant metastasis of supratentorial PNET successfully

  13. Primary Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the ileum: case report of a 16-year-old Chinese female and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Teng; Zhang, Fang; Cao, Yarui; Ning, Shoubin; Bi, Yongmin; Xue, Weicheng; Ren, Li

    2017-05-04

    Ewing's sarcoma (ES) and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) are closely related tumors. Although soft tissue ES/PNET are common in clinical practice, they are rare in the small intestine. Because of the absence of characteristic clinical symptoms, they are easily misdiagnosed as other benign or malignant diseases. Here, we present the case of a 16-year-old female who complained of anemia and interval hematochezia. Her serum test results showed only a slight elevation of CA-125 and a low level of hemoglobin. Computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cystic and solid mass in the lower abdominal quadrant and pelvic region, which prompted suspicion of a malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the small intestine. After resection, the tumor's histology and immunohistochemistry (positive for CD99, vimentin and synaptophysin) results suggested ES/PNET. Fluorescent in situ hybridization tests proved the breakpoint rearrangement of the EWSR1 gene in chr 22.Ultrastructural analysis revealed neurosecretory and glycogen granules in the tumor cell cytoplasm. Together, these data supported the diagnosis of a rare case of localized ES/PNET in the small intestine without adjuvant chemo- or radiotherapy. To our knowledge, this is the first report from China of a primary small bowel ES/PNET in the English-language literature. In addition, on the basis of findings from previous publications and the current case, the optimal treatment for localized gastrointestinal ES/PNET is discussed.

  14. Diagnostic Study of Tumor Characteristics in Patients With Ewing's Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    Localized Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  15. Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors of the Female Genital Tract: A Morphologic, Immunohistochemical, and Molecular Study of 19 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Sarah; Snuderl, Matija; Kojiro-Sanada, Sakiko; Quer Pi-Sunyer, Ariadna; Daya, Dean; Hayashi, Tohru; Bosincu, Luisanna; Ogawa, Fumihiro; Rosenberg, Andrew E; Horn, Lars-Christian; Wang, Lu; Iafrate, A John; Oliva, Esther

    2017-06-01

    Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) of the female genital tract is rare, and its proper classification remains unclear. The clinical, histologic, and immunophenotypic features as well as EWSR1 rearrangement status of 19 gynecologic PNETs, including 10 ovarian, 8 uterine, and 1 vulvar tumors, are herein reported. Patient age ranged from 12 to 68 years, with a median age of 20 and 51 years among those with ovarian and uterine PNETs, respectively. Morphologic features of central nervous system (CNS) tumors were seen in 15 PNETs, including 9 medulloblastomas, 3 ependymomas, 2 medulloepitheliomas, and 1 glioblastoma, consistent with central PNET. The remaining 4 PNETs were composed entirely of undifferentiated small round blue cells and were classified as Ewing sarcoma/peripheral PNET. Eight PNETs were associated with another tumor type, including 5 ovarian mature cystic teratomas, 2 endometrial low-grade endometrioid carcinomas, and a uterine carcinosarcoma. By immunohistochemistry, 17 PNETs expressed at least 1 marker of neuronal differentiation, including synaptophysin, NSE, CD56, S100, and chromogranin in 10, 8, 14, 8, and 1 tumors, respectively. GFAP was positive in 4 PNETs, all of which were of central type. Membranous CD99 and nuclear Fli-1 staining was seen in 10 and 16 tumors, respectively, and concurrent expression of both markers was seen in both central and Ewing sarcoma/peripheral PNETs. All tumors expressed vimentin, whereas keratin cocktail (CAM5.2, AE1/AE3) staining was only focally present in 4 PNETs. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was successful in all cases and confirmed EWSR1 rearrangement in 2 of 4 tumors demonstrating morphologic features of Ewing sarcoma/peripheral PNET and concurrent CD99 and Fli-1 expression. In conclusion, central and Ewing sarcoma/peripheral PNETs may be encountered in the female genital tract with central PNETs being more common. Central PNETs show a spectrum of morphologic features that overlaps with CNS

  16. Primary Ewing's Sarcoma/Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of Kidney with Caval Involvement in a Pregnant Woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yinghui; Huang, Zhenlin; Ding, Yafei; Jia, Zhankui; Gu, Chaohui; Xue, Rui; Yang, Jinjian

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we report the case of a woman in whom was found an abdominal mass during pregnancy and who underwent nephrectomy and extraction of the emboli after delivery. The kidney had a volume of 15 × 10 × 8 cm and pathological diagnosis was primary Ewing's sarcoma. The patient was treated with conventional chemotherapy for 1 year after surgery, at which time multiple metastases were found. From this case, we surmise that hormonal changes that occur during pregnancy may accelerate the growth of Ewing's sarcoma of the kidney, suggesting that renal tumors in pregnant women demand serious attention and that anti-cancer treatment should begin as soon as possible. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Proton Radiation Therapy for Pediatric Medulloblastoma and Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors: Outcomes for Very Young Children Treated With Upfront Chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Rachel B., E-mail: rbjimenez@partners.org [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Sethi, Roshan [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Depauw, Nicolas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Pulsifer, Margaret B. [Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Adams, Judith [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); McBride, Sean M. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ebb, David [Department of Pediatrics, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Fullerton, Barbara C.; Tarbell, Nancy J.; Yock, Torunn I.; MacDonald, Shannon M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: To report the early outcomes for very young children with medulloblastoma or supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (SPNET) treated with upfront chemotherapy followed by 3-dimensional proton radiation therapy (3D-CPT). Methods and Materials: All patients aged <60 months with medulloblastoma or SPNET treated with chemotherapy before 3D-CPT from 2002 to 2010 at our institution were included. All patients underwent maximal surgical resection, chemotherapy, and adjuvant 3D-CPT with either craniospinal irradiation followed by involved-field radiation therapy or involved-field radiation therapy alone. Results: Fifteen patients (median age at diagnosis, 35 months) were treated with high-dose chemotherapy and 3D-CPT. Twelve of 15 patients had medulloblastoma; 3 of 15 patients had SPNET. Median time from surgery to initiation of radiation was 219 days. Median craniospinal irradiation dose was 21.6 Gy (relative biologic effectiveness); median boost dose was 54.0 Gy (relative biologic effectiveness). At a median of 39 months from completion of radiation, 1 of 15 was deceased after a local failure, 1 of 15 had died from a non-disease-related cause, and the remaining 13 of 15 patients were alive without evidence of disease recurrence. Ototoxicity and endocrinopathies were the most common long-term toxicities, with 2 of 15 children requiring hearing aids and 3 of 15 requiring exogenous hormones. Conclusions: Proton radiation after chemotherapy resulted in good disease outcomes for a small cohort of very young patients with medulloblastoma and SPNET. Longer follow-up and larger numbers of patients are needed to assess long-term outcomes and late toxicity.

  18. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy (progonoma): a case report emphasizing the computed tomography findings and literature review; Tumor neuroectodermico melanocitico da infancia (progonoma): relato de caso enfatizando os aspectos tomograficos e revisao da literatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo Junior, Cyrillo Rodrigues de; Carvalho, Tarcisio Nunes; Fraguas Filho, Sergio Roberto; Costa, Marlos Augusto Bitencourt; Borba, Ana Olivia Cardoso; Figueiredo, Sizenildo da Silva; Machado, Marcio Martins; Teixeira, Kim-Ir-Sen Santos [Goias Univ., Goiania, GO (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: radiologia@brturbo.com

    2004-12-01

    The melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy, also known as progonoma, is a rare benign disease of neural crest origin that occurs within the first year of life and affects mainly the maxilla. The authors report a case of a 10-month-old child presenting with this uncommon tumor in the maxilla, emphasizing the diagnostic findings on computed tomography, and present a literature review. (author)

  19. Hyperfractionated craniospinal radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy for children with newly diagnosed medulloblastoma and other primitive neuroectodermal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, Jeffrey C.; Donahue, Bernadine; DaRosso, Robert; Nirenberg, Anita

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: This single-institution Phase I/II study conducted from 1989 to 1995 evaluates the feasibility of a multi-modality protocol combining hyperfractionated craniospinal radiotherapy (HFRT) followed by adjuvant chemotherapy in 23 patients with newly diagnosed primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) arising in the central nervous system. Methods and Materials: All 23 patients had a histologically confirmed PNET and were over 3 years of age at diagnosis. The eligibility criteria for PNET patients with cerebellar primaries (medulloblastoma) included either a high T stage (T3b or 4) or high M stage (M1-3). All patients with noncerebellar primaries were eligible regardless of T or M stage. The median age of the 23 patients was 9 years (mean 3-25); 11 were female. The primary tumor arose in the cerebellum in 19. Of these medulloblastoma patients, 15 had high T stages (T3b or T4) with large locally invasive tumors and no evidence of metastases (M0), constituting Group 1. Thirteen (86%) of these patients had gross total resections. Four other medulloblastoma patients had both high T and high M stages, constituting Group 2. Group 3 consisted of four other patients with exocerebellar primaries (two brain, one brain stem, and one cauda equina), three of whom were M3. Hyperfractionated radiotherapy was administered within 4 weeks of surgery. Twice-daily 1-Gy fractions were administered separated by 4-6 h. The total dose to the primary intracranial tumor and other areas of measurable intracranial disease was 72 Gy. The prophylactic craniospinal axis dose was 36 Gy, and boosts of 44-56 Gy were administered to metastatic spinal deposits. Following radiotherapy, monthly courses of multiagent chemotherapy were administered sequentially (cyclophosphamide-vincristine followed by cisplatin-etoposide followed by carboplatin-vincristine) for a total of 9 months. Results: All patients completed radiotherapy as planned. Only three patients lost >10% of their body weight. One patient

  20. The usefulness of I-131 MIBG scintigraphy in assessing the staging of neuroectodermal tumors in children - Our experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budlewski, T.; Rogowski, F.; Luczynski, W.; Krawczuk-Rybak, M.

    2004-01-01

    metastases in mediastinum, abdominal cavity and bone marrow. The child was prepared for autotransplantation of parent cells. MIBG scintigraphy showed high activity in liver hilus. Clinical test pointed to the progress of the disease. O.P. 3-year-old child with a Kinsbournea syndrome without a primary focus. MIBG study showed higher radioactivity in the right submandibular gland. The biopsy showed neoplastic infiltration. HP-neuroblastoma. The results of tests performed after chemotherapy were good, pointing to a total remission of the disease. M.A. 2 year old child having a tumor on the skin under the right scapula. In MIBG scan, a hyperactivity area in the right kidney region was found. The first CT scan was negative. A CT study three months later was positive. The child was successfully operated on. The MIBG control study showed hyperactivity area in the right chest. Clinically a subcutaneous tissue inflammation in the region of vascular port was diagnosed. Currently, a total remission of the disease. J.G. 10-year-old child having tumor in the right iliac fossa. The first MIBG study showed hyperactivity focus in the right iliac fossa. HP-pheochromocytoma. Post operation MIBG study was negative. Clinically total remission without a chemotherapy. K.K. 15-months-old: tumor of the posterior mediastinum. HP-neuroblastoma. MIBG study performed after operation and chemotherapy was negative. Clinically: total remission. Z.T. 13-year-old child with primary tumor in vertebral canal in the level L1-L4. HP-neuroblastoma with marrow bone infiltration. MIBG study negative. Clinical test pointed to the progress of the disease. To sum up, in most cases the MIBG study was positive and very useful to asses the staging and prognosis in neuroectodermal tumors in children. If the results of MIBG are positive after an operation and chemotherapy the prognosis is bad, and vice versa, if they are negative, the prognosis for these children is good. However, one must remember that these were very

  1. Rare case of undifferentiated uterine sarcoma with neuroectodermal differentiation and osteoclast-like giant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu-Hsuan Cheng

    2018-06-01

    Conclusion: UUSs are rare high-grade tumors observed in elderly women. These women typically present with postmenopausal bleeding and extrauterine diseases and have a poor prognosis. Neuroectodermal differentiation in UUSs has a müllerian origin. The presence of OGCs may suggest a poor prognosis; however, further studies are necessary to determine the exact nature of such neoplasms.

  2. Survival of very young children with medulloblastoma (primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the posterior fossa) treated with craniospinal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saran, Frank H.; Driever, Pablo Herniz; Thilmann, Christoph; Mose, Stephan; Wilson, Paula; Sharpe, Geoff; Adamietz, Irenaeus A.; Boettcher, Heinz D.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Very young children with medulloblastoma are considered to have a worse prognosis than older children. As radiotherapy remains an important part of the treatment, the adverse prognosis could be due to inadequate radiation treatment rather than biological factors. We analyzed the published literature to examine the impact of radiotherapy on survival in this group. Methods and Materials: A Medline search was performed and we reviewed studies of treatment of medulloblastoma where radiotherapy was delivered using megavoltage equipment and the minimum follow-up allowed the calculation of 5-year survival rates. Results: Thirty-nine studies were published between 1979 and 1996 with a treatment including craniospinal irradiation and boost to the posterior fossa. Eleven studies comprising 1366 patients analyzed survival by age at diagnosis. Eight of 11 studies showed a worse 5-year survival for the younger patient group which reached statistical significance in two. There is also a suggestion of a higher proportion of children with metastatic disease at presentation in the very young age group. The usual policy in younger children was to give a lower dose of radiotherapy to the craniospinal axis (CSA) and posterior fossa (PF) with reduction of dose in the range of 15 to 25% compared to standard treatment. As dose reduction to the posterior fossa is associated with worse survival and local recurrence is the predominant site of failure, the major determinant of worse survival in very young children with medulloblastoma may be suboptimal radiotherapy. Protocols including postoperative chemotherapy with delayed, omitted, or only local tumor irradiation do not reach survival rates of protocols with standard radiotherapy, also suggesting a continued importance for irradiation. Conclusion: Very young children with medulloblastoma have a worse prognosis than older children. Inadequate radiation dose and technique to the primary tumor region may be a major contributing

  3. Treatment of Children With Central Nervous System Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors/Pinealoblastomas in the Prospective Multicentric Trial HIT 2000 Using Hyperfractionated Radiation Therapy Followed by Maintenance Chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Nicolas U., E-mail: nicolas.gerber@kispi.uzh.ch [Department of Pediatric Oncology, University Children' s Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland); Hoff, Katja von; Resch, Anika [Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Ottensmeier, Holger [Department of Pediatric Oncology, University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany); Kwiecien, Robert; Faldum, Andreas [Institute of Biostatistics and Clinical Research, University of Muenster (Germany); Matuschek, Christiane [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University of Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf (Germany); Hornung, Dagmar [Department of Radiotherapy and Radio-Oncology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Bremer, Michael [Institute for Radiation Therapy and Special Oncology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover (Germany); Benesch, Martin [Division of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria); Pietsch, Torsten [Department of Neuropathology, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Warmuth-Metz, Monika [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany); Kuehl, Joachim [Department of Pediatric Oncology, University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany); Rutkowski, Stefan [Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Kortmann, Rolf D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: The prognosis for children with central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumor (CNS-PNET) or pinealoblastoma is still unsatisfactory. Here we report the results of patients between 4 and 21 years of age with nonmetastatic CNS-PNET or pinealoblastoma diagnosed from January 2001 to December 2005 and treated in the prospective GPOH-trial P-HIT 2000-AB4. Methods and Materials: After surgery, children received hyperfractionated radiation therapy (36 Gy to the craniospinal axis, 68 Gy to the tumor region, and 72 Gy to any residual tumor, fractionated at 2 × 1 Gy per day 5 days per week) accompanied by weekly intravenous administration of vincristine and followed by 8 cycles of maintenance chemotherapy (lomustine, cisplatin, and vincristine). Results: Twenty-six patients (15 with CNS-PNET; 11 with pinealoblastoma) were included. Median age at diagnosis was 11.5 years old (range, 4.0-20.7 years). Gross total tumor resection was achieved in 6 and partial resection in 16 patients (indistinct, 4 patients). Median follow-up of the 15 surviving patients was 7.0 years (range, 5.2-10.0 years). The combined response rate to postoperative therapy was 17 of 20 (85%). Eleven of 26 patients (42%; 7 of 15 with CNS-PNET; 4 of 11 with pinealoblastoma) showed tumor progression or relapse at a median time of 1.3 years (range, 0.5-1.9 years). Five-year progression-free and overall survival rates (±standard error [SE]) were each 58% (±10%) for the entire cohort: CNS-PNET was 53% (±13); pinealoblastoma was 64% (±15%; P=.524 and P=.627, respectively). Conclusions: Postoperative hyperfractionated radiation therapy with local dose escalation followed by maintenance chemotherapy was feasible without major acute toxicity. Survival rates are comparable to those of a few other recent studies but superior to those of most other series, including the previous trial, HIT 1991.

  4. Are clinical parameters valuable prognostic factors in childhood primitive neuroectodermal tumors? A multivariate analysis of 105 cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michiels, E. M.; Heikens, J.; Jansen, M. J.; Oldenburger, F.; Voûte, T.

    2000-01-01

    Medulloblastoma is one of the most frequent brain tumors in children. Long-term survivors are often confronted with serious late sequelae, caused by the therapy. Therefore, prognostic markers must be identified that allow the children to be assigned to different treatment schedules according to

  5. Detection of SYT and EWS gene rearrangements by dual-color break-apart CISH in liquid-based cytology samples of synovial sarcoma and Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Arisa; Motoi, Toru; Tsuji, Kaori; Imamura, Tetsuo; Fukusato, Toshio

    2010-08-01

    To improve cytologic diagnostic accuracy for translocation-associated sarcomas, we explored dual-color break-apart (dc) chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) on liquid-based cytology (LBC) samples of 2 prototypic sarcomas: synovial sarcoma (SS) and Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/PNET). LBC samples of 10 cases of SS and 9 cases of ES/PNET were subjected to dc-CISH using probes for the specifically rearranged genes in each tumor entity: SYT in SS and EWS in ES/PNET. Rearranged SYT was successfully detected in all SSs but not in any ES/PNETs. In contrast, EWS rearrangement was identified in all ES/PNETs but not in any SSs. These results were validated by dc-fluorescence in situ hybridization and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. dc-CISH on LBC samples is a reliable modality to detect gene rearrangements in sarcomas. This system has a clear advantage over other methods, enabling simultaneous visualization of the genetic abnormality and well-preserved, nonoverlapping cytomorphologic features with clear background under bright-field microscope.

  6. Non-pineal supratentorial primitive neuro-ectodermal tumors (sPNET) in teenagers and young adults: Time to reconsider cisplatin based chemotherapy after cranio-spinal irradiation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Swethajit; Burke, Amos; Cherian, Sheen; Williams, Denise; Nicholson, James; Horan, Gail; Jefferies, Sarah; Williams, Michael; Earl, Helena M; Burnet, Neil G; Hatcher, Helen

    2009-07-01

    Supratentorial PNET (sPNET) are rare CNS tumors of embryonal origin arising in children and adults. The treatment of sPNET for all age groups at our cancer center has been based on the management of medulloblastoma (MB), involving neurosurgical debulking followed by cranio-spinal irradiation (CSI) and systemic chemotherapy. Medical records were reviewed to gather demographic and clinical data about all embryonal CNS tumors in children and adults from 2001 to 2007. Tumor pathology, clinical management and survival data were also assessed, particularly as regards those patients who received the Packer chemotherapy regimen for either sPNET or MB. Eleven patients (five children and six adults) were identified with non-pineal sPNET, three children with pineal sPNET, and 19 patients (18 children and 1 adult) with MB. There was no difference in overall survival (OS) rates between pediatric and adult sPNET. When all sPNET were compared to all MB, 5-year OS was 14% versus 73%, respectively, but was only 9% for non-pineal sPNET. When only considering those patients treated with the Packer chemotherapy regimen, the 5-year OS was 12% for sPNET versus 79% for MB. This retrospective study demonstrates that non-pineal sPNET are clinically distinct from MB and are resistant to the Packer chemotherapy regimen. We suggest that it is time to reconsider the use of this regimen in teenage and young adult non-pineal sPNET and to investigate the utility of alternative approaches. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. A Phase II Study of Preradiotherapy Chemotherapy Followed by Hyperfractionated Radiotherapy for Newly Diagnosed High-Risk Medulloblastoma/Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group (CCG 9931)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, Jeffrey; Donahue, Bernadine; Mehta, Minesh; Miller, Douglas C.; Rorke, Lucy B.; Jakacki, Regina; Robertson, Patricia; Sposto, Richard; Holmes, Emi; Vezina, Gilbert; Muraszko, Karin; Puccetti, Diane; Prados, Michael; Chan, K.-W.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To verify feasibility and monitor progression-free survival and overall survival in children with high-risk medulloblastoma and noncerebellar primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) treated in a Phase II study with preradiotherapy chemotherapy (CHT) followed by high-dose, hyperfractionated craniospinal radiotherapy (CSRT). Methods and Materials: Eligibility criteria included age >3 years at diagnosis, medulloblastoma with either high M stage and/or >1.5 cm 2 postoperative residual disease, and all patients with noncerebellar PNET. Treatment was initiated with five alternating monthly cycles of CHT (A [cisplatin, cyclophosphamide, etoposide, and vincristine], B [carboplatin and etoposide], A, B, and A) followed by hyperfractionated CSRT (40 Gy) with a boost to the primary tumor (72 Gy) given in twice-daily 1-Gy fractions. Results: The valid study group consisted of 124 patients whose median age at diagnosis was 7.8 years. Eighty-four patients (68%) completed the entire protocol according to study guidelines (within 9 months), and the median time to complete CSRT was 1.6 months. Major reasons for failure to complete CHT included progressive disease (17%) and toxic death (2.4%). The 5-year progression-free survival and overall survival rates were 43% ± 5% and 52% ± 5%, respectively. No significant differences were detected in subset analysis related to response to CHT, site of primary tumor, postoperative residual disease, or M stage. Conclusions: The feasibility of this intensive multimodality protocol was confirmed, and response to pre-RT CHT did not impact on survival. Survival data from this protocol can not be compared with data from other studies, given the protocol design.

  8. Updated results of a pilot study of low dose craniospinal irradiation plus chemotherapy for children under five with cerebellar primitive neuroectodermal tumors (medulloblastoma)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldwein, Joel W.; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Johnson, James; Moshang, Thomas; Packer, Roger J.; Sutton, Leslie N.; Rorke, Lucy B.; D'Angio, Giulio J.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Children under 5 years old with medulloblastoma (MB) have a poor prognosis. They are more susceptible to the deleterious effects of craniospinal irradiation (CSART) and have a higher relapse rate when treated with low-dose CSART alone. We, thus, embarked on a prospective trial testing the usefulness of very low dose CSART and adjuvant chemotherapy. This is an update of a previous report on these patients. Methods and Materials: Between January 1988 and March 1990, 10 patients with medulloblastoma were treated using 18 Gy radiation therapy (RT) to the craniospinal axis, a posterior fossa (PF) boost to 50.4-55.8 Gy and chemotherapy consisting of vincristine (VCR) weekly during RT. This was followed by VCR, cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (CDDP), and lomustine (CCNU) for eight, 6-week cycles. Patients between 18 and 60 months of age without evidence of tumor dissemination were eligible for study. Follow-up was available until September 1994 with a median follow-up for living patients of 6.3 years from diagnosis. Results: Actuarial survival at over 6 years is 70 ± 20%. Three of the 10 patients relapsed and died. In one patient, the relapse developed in the spine and brain outside the posterior fossa, in the second, concurrently in the posterior fossa, brain and spine, and the third, only in the spine. One surviving child developed a brain stem infarct 4.8 years after diagnosis and has since almost fully recovered. A mean intelligence quotient (IQ) score of 103 in six patients surviving at least 1 year is unchanged from the baseline group score of 107. Five children tested at baseline and 2 years following treatment had IQ scores of 101 and 102, respectively. Six children tested at baseline and at 3 years had IQ scores of 106 and 96, respectively. Excluding the child tested shortly after his brain stem infarct, baseline and 3 year IQ scores were 103 and 97, respectively. Five of the seven long-term survivors grew at rates significantly below their expected

  9. Exome sequencing of bilateral testicular germ cell tumors suggests independent development lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabrand, Sigmund; Johannessen, Bjarne; Axcrona, Ulrika; Kraggerud, Sigrid M; Berg, Kaja G; Bakken, Anne C; Bruun, Jarle; Fosså, Sophie D; Lothe, Ragnhild A; Lehne, Gustav; Skotheim, Rolf I

    2015-02-01

    Intratubular germ cell neoplasia, the precursor of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), is hypothesized to arise during embryogenesis from developmentally arrested primordial germ cells (PGCs) or gonocytes. In early embryonal life, the PGCs migrate from the yolk sac to the dorsal body wall where the cell population separates before colonizing the genital ridges. However, whether the malignant transformation takes place before or after this separation is controversial. We have explored the somatic exome-wide mutational spectra of bilateral TGCT to provide novel insight into the in utero critical time frame of malignant transformation and TGCT pathogenesis. Exome sequencing was performed in five patients with bilateral TGCT (eight tumors), of these three patients in whom both tumors were available (six tumors) and two patients each with only one available tumor (two tumors). Selected loci were explored by Sanger sequencing in 71 patients with bilateral TGCT. From the exome-wide mutational spectra, no identical mutations in any of the three bilateral tumor pairs were identified. Exome sequencing of all eight tumors revealed 87 somatic non-synonymous mutations (median 10 per tumor; range 5-21), some in already known cancer genes such as CIITA, NEB, platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRA), and WHSC1. SUPT6H was found recurrently mutated in two tumors. We suggest independent development lineages of bilateral TGCT. Thus, malignant transformation into intratubular germ cell neoplasia is likely to occur after the migration of PGCs. We reveal possible drivers of TGCT pathogenesis, such as mutated PDGFRA, potentially with therapeutic implications for TGCT patients. Copyright © 2014 Neoplasia Press, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Exome Sequencing of Bilateral Testicular Germ Cell Tumors Suggests Independent Development Lineages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigmund Brabrand

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Intratubular germ cell neoplasia, the precursor of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs, is hypothesized to arise during embryogenesis from developmentally arrested primordial germ cells (PGCs or gonocytes. In early embryonal life, the PGCs migrate from the yolk sac to the dorsal body wall where the cell population separates before colonizing the genital ridges. However, whether the malignant transformation takes place before or after this separation is controversial. We have explored the somatic exome-wide mutational spectra of bilateral TGCT to provide novel insight into the in utero critical time frame of malignant transformation and TGCT pathogenesis. Exome sequencing was performed in five patients with bilateral TGCT (eight tumors, of these three patients in whom both tumors were available (six tumors and two patients each with only one available tumor (two tumors. Selected loci were explored by Sanger sequencing in 71 patients with bilateral TGCT. From the exome-wide mutational spectra, no identical mutations in any of the three bilateral tumor pairs were identified. Exome sequencing of all eight tumors revealed 87 somatic non-synonymous mutations (median 10 per tumor; range 5-21, some in already known cancer genes such as CIITA, NEB, platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRA, and WHSC1. SUPT6H was found recurrently mutated in two tumors. We suggest independent development lineages of bilateral TGCT. Thus, malignant transformation into intratubular germ cell neoplasia is likely to occur after the migration of PGCs. We reveal possible drivers of TGCT pathogenesis, such as mutated PDGFRA, potentially with therapeutic implications for TGCT patients.

  11. The Combination of the Tumor Markers Suggests the Histological Diagnosis of Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linjie Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor markers are beneficial for the diagnosis and therapy monitoring of lung cancer. However, the value of tumor markers in lung cancer histological diagnosis is unknown. In this study, we analyzed the serum levels of six tumor markers (CEA, CYFRA21-1, SCC, NSE, ProGRP, and CA125 in 2097 suspected patients with lung cancer and determined whether the combination of the tumor markers was useful for histological diagnosis of lung cancer. We found that CYFRA21-1 was the most sensitive marker in NSCLC. ProGRP showed a better clinical performance than that of NSE in discriminating between SCLC and NSCLC. The serum level of CYFRA21-1 or SCC was significantly higher in squamous carcinoma (p<0.05, and the levels of ProGRP and NSE were significantly higher in SCLC (p<0.05. According to the criteria established, SCLC and NSCLC were discriminated with sensitivity of 87.12 and 62.63% and specificity of 64.61 and 99.5%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity in the differentiation of adenocarcinoma and squamous carcinoma were 68.1 and 81.63% and 70.73 and 65.93%, with NPV of 46.03 and 68.97% and PPV of 85.82 and 79.47%, respectively. Our results suggested the combination of six tumor markers could discriminate the histological types of lung cancer.

  12. Echinococcus cysticus of the liver - sonographic pattern suggestive of solid tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosser, G.; Hauenstein, K.H.; Henke, W.

    1985-01-01

    In a patient with Hodgkin's disease, an intrahepatic echodense mass was diagnosed incidentally by ultrasonography. The sonographic pattern suggested a solid tumor. Despite negative or borderline serology, computed tomography establised the diagnosis of echinococcus cysticus by documentation of one ''daughter'' cyst; this diagnosis was confirmed by surgery. The criteria of echinococcus cysticus in modern imaging methods like sonography and computed tomography are summarized and the diagnostic value of various procedures including diagnostic procedure in seronegative cases are discussed. (orig.) [de

  13. Imaging of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaensler, E.H.L.

    1995-01-01

    The contents are diagnostic approaches, general features of tumors -hydrocephalus, edema, attenuation and/or intensity value, hemorrhage, fat, contrast enhancement, intra-axial supratentorial tumors - tumors of glial origin, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, subependymomas, subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma; midline tumors - colloid cysts, craniopharyngiomas; pineal region tumors and miscellaneous tumors i.e. primary intracerebral lymphoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, hemangioblastomas; extraaxial tumors - meningiomas; nerve sheath tumors -schwannomas, epidermoids, dermoids, lipomas, arachnoid cysts; metastatic tumors (8 refs.)

  14. Imaging of brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaensler, E H.L. [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-12-31

    The contents are diagnostic approaches, general features of tumors -hydrocephalus, edema, attenuation and/or intensity value, hemorrhage, fat, contrast enhancement, intra-axial supratentorial tumors - tumors of glial origin, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, subependymomas, subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma; midline tumors - colloid cysts, craniopharyngiomas; pineal region tumors and miscellaneous tumors i.e. primary intracerebral lymphoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, hemangioblastomas; extraaxial tumors - meningiomas; nerve sheath tumors -schwannomas, epidermoids, dermoids, lipomas, arachnoid cysts; metastatic tumors (8 refs.).

  15. Echinococcus cysticus of the liver - sonographic pattern suggestive of solid tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosser, G.; Hauenstein, K.H.; Henke, W.

    1985-09-01

    In a patient with Hodgkin's disease, an intrahepatic echodense mass was diagnosed incidentally by ultrasonography. The sonographic pattern suggested a solid tumor. Despite negative or borderline serology, computed tomography establised the diagnosis of echinococcus cysticus by documentation of one ''daughter'' cyst; this diagnosis was confirmed by surgery. The criteria of echinococcus cysticus in modern imaging methods like sonography and computed tomography are summarized and the diagnostic value of various procedures including diagnostic procedure in seronegative cases are discussed.

  16. Simultaneous occurrence of a supra- and an infratentorial glioma in a patient with Ollier's disease : more evidence for non-mesodermal tumor predisposition in multiple enchondromatosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeg, M; Klein, JP; Krikke, AP

    1998-01-01

    A case is presented in which two neuro-ectodermal tumors, an infra- and a supratentorial glioma, developed in a young man with multiple enchondromatosis of Ollier's disease. This is the third such case of multifocal low-grade glioma in Ollier's disease, suggesting a predisposition for non-mesodermal

  17. Malignant melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy affecting the occipital squama.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patankar T

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available An unusual case of a melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of the occipital squama, which underwent malignant transformation in a nine-month-old infant is reported and pertinent literature reviewed.

  18. FOETAL ULTRASOUND - NEUROECTODERMAL ANOMALIES IN RURAL PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mala Venkata

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND A prospective clinical study to know the various types of congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies on obstetric Ultrasound, in rural pregnant women. To reduce the maternal morbidity and mortality by early detection of these Congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies. To calculate the incidence and prevalence of different types of Congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies, in these rural pregnant women. To assist the obstetrician in taking decisions regarding the termination or continuation of the pregnancy in relation to the type of malformation and its prognosis. METHODS A prospective clinical study of Congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies in 22,000 rural pregnant women coming to the Santhiram Medical College, Radiology Department for a routine obstetric scan. 44 cases of neuroectodermal anomalies were detected out of the 22000 cases, within an incidence of 2 per 1000 cases. Approximately 1 in every 500 cases showed an anomaly. RESULTS The most common lesions detected were hydrocephalus, and spina bifida followed by anencephaly. Association of these lesions with consanguinity, previous history of similar anomaly and intake of iron and folic acid tablets was noted. CONCLUSION Ultrasound is an excellent modality for the diagnosis and characterisation of the neuroectodermal anomalies. Its multiplanar imaging property along with real time image visualisation make it an excellent tool for the diagnosis and characterisation of these anomalies

  19. High resolution array-based comparative genomic hybridisation of medulloblastomas and supra-tentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Martin Gerard; Ichimura, Koichi; Liu, Lu; Plant, Karen; Bäcklund, L Magnus; Pearson, Danita M; Collins, Vincent Peter

    2010-01-01

    Medulloblastomas and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumours are aggressive childhood tumours. We report our findings using array comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) on a whole-genome BAC/PAC/cosmid array with a median clone separation of 0.97Mb to study 34 medulloblastomas and 7 supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumours. Array CGH allowed identification and mapping of numerous novel small regions of copy number change to genomic sequence, in addition to the large regions already known from previous studies. Novel amplifications were identified, some encompassing oncogenes, MYCL1, PDGFRA, KIT and MYB, not previously reported to show amplification in these tumours. In addition, one supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumour had lost both copies of the tumour suppressor genes CDKN2A & CDKN2B. Ten medulloblastomas had findings suggestive of isochromosome 17q. In contrast to previous reports using conventional CGH, array CGH identified three distinct breakpoints in these cases: Ch 17: 17940393-19251679 (17p11.2, n=6), Ch 17: 20111990-23308272 (17p11.2-17q11.2, n=4) and Ch 17: 38425359-39091575 (17q21.31, n=1). Significant differences were found in the patterns of copy number change between medulloblastomas and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumours, providing further evidence that these tumours are genetically distinct despite their morphological and behavioural similarities. PMID:16783165

  20. Primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the kidney: radiologic-pathological correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chea, Y W; Agrawal, Rashi; Poh, Angeline C C

    2008-06-01

    A primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the kidney is a rare malignancy. We report the computed tomographic features and the histopathological correlation of such a tumour occurring in a middle-aged man. Although the radiological appearance has significant overlap with other renal tumours, this tumour should be included in the differential diagnosis of a large renal mass in younger patients.

  1. Human BCAS3 expression in embryonic stem cells and vascular precursors suggests a role in human embryogenesis and tumor angiogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Siva

    Full Text Available Cancer is often associated with multiple and progressive genetic alterations in genes that are important for normal development. BCAS3 (Breast Cancer Amplified Sequence 3 is a gene of unknown function on human chromosome 17q23, a region associated with breakpoints of several neoplasms. The normal expression pattern of BCAS3 has not been studied, though it is implicated in breast cancer progression. Rudhira, a murine WD40 domain protein that is 98% identical to BCAS3 is expressed in embryonic stem (ES cells, erythropoiesis and angiogenesis. This suggests that BCAS3 expression also may not be restricted to mammary tissue and may have important roles in other normal as well as malignant tissues. We show that BCAS3 is also expressed in human ES cells and during their differentiation into blood vascular precursors. We find that BCAS3 is aberrantly expressed in malignant human brain lesions. In glioblastoma, hemangiopericytoma and brain abscess we note high levels of BCAS3 expression in tumor cells and some blood vessels. BCAS3 may be associated with multiple cancerous and rapidly proliferating cells and hence the expression, function and regulation of this gene merits further investigation. We suggest that BCAS3 is mis-expressed in brain tumors and could serve as a human ES cell and tumor marker.

  2. [Bilateral anophthalmia and left-sided orbital tumor : case of an eight-month-old infant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundertmark, P; Dierks, P; Gottschalk, J; Kreusch, T; Wiegand, W

    2011-08-01

    An 8-month-old infant from Russia with bilateral anophthalmia presented with an expanding orbital tumor. The tumor was extirpated and the histological examination revealed a non-malignant pseudocystic process with residual neuro-ectodermal structures.

  3. New Brain Tumor Entities Emerge from Molecular Classification of CNS-PNETs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, Dominik; Orr, Brent A.; Toprak, Umut H.; Hovestadt, Volker; Jones, David T. W.; Capper, David; Sill, Martin; Buchhalter, Ivo; Northcott, Paul A.; Leis, Irina; Ryzhova, Marina; Koelsche, Christian; Pfaff, Elke; Allen, Sariah J.; Balasubramanian, Gnanaprakash; Worst, Barbara C.; Pajtler, Kristian W.; Brabetz, Sebastian; Johann, Pascal D.; Sahm, Felix; Reimand, Jüri; Mackay, Alan; Carvalho, Diana M.; Remke, Marc; Phillips, Joanna J.; Perry, Arie; Cowdrey, Cynthia; Drissi, Rachid; Fouladi, Maryam; Giangaspero, Felice; Łastowska, Maria; Grajkowska, Wiesława; Scheurlen, Wolfram; Pietsch, Torsten; Hagel, Christian; Gojo, Johannes; Lötsch, Daniela; Berger, Walter; Slavc, Irene; Haberler, Christine; Jouvet, Anne; Holm, Stefan; Hofer, Silvia; Prinz, Marco; Keohane, Catherine; Fried, Iris; Mawrin, Christian; Scheie, David; Mobley, Bret C.; Schniederjan, Matthew J.; Santi, Mariarita; Buccoliero, Anna M.; Dahiya, Sonika; Kramm, Christof M.; von Bueren, André O.; von Hoff, Katja; Rutkowski, Stefan; Herold-Mende, Christel; Frühwald, Michael C.; Milde, Till; Hasselblatt, Martin; Wesseling, Pieter; Rößler, Jochen; Schüller, Ulrich; Ebinger, Martin; Schittenhelm, Jens; Frank, Stephan; Grobholz, Rainer; Vajtai, Istvan; Hans, Volkmar; Schneppenheim, Reinhard; Zitterbart, Karel; Collins, V. Peter; Aronica, Eleonora; Varlet, Pascale; Puget, Stephanie; Dufour, Christelle; Grill, Jacques; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Wolter, Marietta; Schuhmann, Martin U.; Shalaby, Tarek; Grotzer, Michael; van Meter, Timothy; Monoranu, Camelia-Maria; Felsberg, Jörg; Reifenberger, Guido; Snuderl, Matija; Forrester, Lynn Ann; Koster, Jan; Versteeg, Rogier; Volckmann, Richard; van Sluis, Peter; Wolf, Stephan; Mikkelsen, Tom; Gajjar, Amar; Aldape, Kenneth; Moore, Andrew S.; Taylor, Michael D.; Jones, Chris; Jabado, Nada; Karajannis, Matthias A.; Eils, Roland; Schlesner, Matthias; Lichter, Peter; von Deimling, Andreas; Pfister, Stefan M.; Ellison, David W.; Korshunov, Andrey; Kool, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the central nervous system (CNS-PNETs) are highly aggressive, poorly differentiated embryonal tumors occurring predominantly in young children but also affecting adolescents and adults. Herein, we demonstrate that a significant proportion of institutionally

  4. New Brain Tumor Entities Emerge from Molecular Classification of CNS-PNETs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, Dominik; Orr, Brent A.; Toprak, Umut H.; Hovestadt, Volker; Jones, David T W; Capper, David; Sill, Martin; Buchhalter, Ivo; Northcott, Paul A.; Leis, Irina; Ryzhova, Marina; Koelsche, Christian; Pfaff, Elke; Allen, Sariah J.; Balasubramanian, Gnanaprakash; Worst, Barbara C.; Pajtler, Kristian W.; Brabetz, Sebastian; Johann, Pascal D.; Sahm, Felix; Reimand, Jüri; Mackay, Alan; Carvalho, Diana M.; Remke, Marc; Phillips, Joanna J.; Perry, Arie; Cowdrey, Cynthia; Drissi, Rachid; Fouladi, Maryam; Giangaspero, Felice; Łastowska, Maria; Grajkowska, Wiesława; Scheurlen, Wolfram; Pietsch, Torsten; Hagel, Christian; Gojo, Johannes; Lötsch, Daniela; Berger, Walter; Slavc, Irene; Haberler, Christine; Jouvet, Anne; Holm, Stefan; Hofer, Silvia; Prinz, Marco; Keohane, Catherine; Fried, Iris; Mawrin, Christian; Scheie, David; Mobley, Bret C.; Schniederjan, Matthew J.; Santi, Mariarita; Buccoliero, Anna M.; Dahiya, Sonika; Kramm, Christof M.; Von Bueren, André O.; Von Hoff, Katja; Rutkowski, Stefan; Herold-Mende, Christel; Frühwald, Michael C.; Milde, Till; Hasselblatt, Martin; Wesseling, Pieter; Rößler, Jochen; Schüller, Ulrich; Ebinger, Martin; Schittenhelm, Jens; Frank, Stephan; Grobholz, Rainer; Vajtai, Istvan; Hans, Volkmar; Schneppenheim, Reinhard; Zitterbart, Karel; Collins, V. Peter; Aronica, Eleonora; Varlet, Pascale; Puget, Stephanie; Dufour, Christelle; Grill, Jacques; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Wolter, Marietta; Schuhmann, Martin U.; Shalaby, Tarek; Grotzer, Michael; Van Meter, Timothy; Monoranu, Camelia Maria; Felsberg, Jörg; Reifenberger, Guido; Snuderl, Matija; Forrester, Lynn Ann; Koster, Jan; Versteeg, Rogier; Volckmann, Richard; Van Sluis, Peter; Wolf, Stephan; Mikkelsen, Tom; Gajjar, Amar; Aldape, Kenneth; Moore, Andrew S.; Taylor, Michael D.; Jones, Chris; Jabado, Nada; Karajannis, Matthias A.; Eils, Roland; Schlesner, Matthias; Lichter, Peter; Von Deimling, Andreas; Pfister, Stefan M.; Ellison, David W.; Korshunov, Andrey; Kool, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Summary Primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the central nervous system (CNS-PNETs) are highly aggressive, poorly differentiated embryonal tumors occurring predominantly in young children but also affecting adolescents and adults. Herein, we demonstrate that a significant proportion of

  5. Primary extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumour of breast

    OpenAIRE

    Ikhwan, S M; Kenneth, V K T; Seoparjoo, A; Zin, A A M

    2013-01-01

    Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) and extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma belongs to the Ewing's family of tumours. Primary tumours arising from breast are very rare. There are only a few case reports published on primary extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma and PNET arising from breast. We present an extremely rare case of an inoperable primary Ewing's sarcoma arising from left breast with contralateral breast, lymphatic and lung metastasis.

  6. Primary extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumour of breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhwan, S M; Kenneth, V K T; Seoparjoo, A; Zin, A A M

    2013-06-21

    Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) and extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma belongs to the Ewing's family of tumours. Primary tumours arising from breast are very rare. There are only a few case reports published on primary extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma and PNET arising from breast. We present an extremely rare case of an inoperable primary Ewing's sarcoma arising from left breast with contralateral breast, lymphatic and lung metastasis.

  7. ERK inhibition promotes neuroectodermal precursor commitment by blocking self-renewal and primitive streak formation of the epiblast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Xiaoxin; Zhai, Yanhua; Lu, Xukun; Ma, Haixia; Zhu, Kai; Zhao, Tongbiao; Jiao, Jianwei; Zhao, Zhen-Ao; Li, Lei

    2018-01-05

    Pluripotent stem cells hold great promise for regenerative medicine. However, before clinical application, reproducible protocols for pluripotent stem cell differentiation should be established. Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) signaling plays a central role for the self-renewal of epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs), but its role for subsequent germ layer differentiation is still ambiguous. We proposed that ERK could modulate differentiation of the epiblast. PD0325901 was used to inhibit ERK activation during the differentiation of embryonic stem cells and EpiSCs. Immunofluorescence, western blot analysis, real-time PCR and flow cytometry were used to detect germ layer markers and pathway activation. We demonstrate that the ERK phosphorylation level is lower in neuroectoderm of mouse E7.5 embryos than that in the primitive streak. ERK inhibition results in neural lineage commitment of epiblast. Mechanistically, PD0325901 abrogates the expression of primitive streak markers by β-catenin retention in the cytoplasm, and inhibits the expression of OCT4 and NANOG during EpiSC differentiation. Thus, EpiSCs differentiate into neuroectodermal lineage efficiently under PD0325901 treatment. These results suggest that neuroectoderm differentiation does not require extrinsic signals, supporting the default differentiation of neural lineage. We report that a single ERK inhibitor, PD0325901, can specify epiblasts and EpiSCs into neural-like cells, providing an efficient strategy for neural differentiation.

  8. [Undifferentiated soft tissue tumor with rhabdoid phenotype (extra-renal rhabdoid tumor). Report of a congenital case associated with medulloblastoma in a brother].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costes, V; Medioni, D; Durand, L; Sarran, N; Marguerite, G; Baldet, P

    1997-03-01

    We report a case of congenital cervical rhabdoid tumor with association of a medulloblastoma in a brother. The immunohistochemical features of this tumor are compatible with a neuroectodermal differentiation (MIC 2+, Leu 7+). Extrarenal rhabdoid tumors share a common morphology but do not represent a single entity with only one histogenesis. Most of them are now considered to be of neuroectodermal origin. In our case, the association with a medulloblastoma in a brother seems to confirm this concept.

  9. BMPs regulate msx gene expression in the dorsal neuroectoderm of Drosophila and vertebrates by distinct mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Francisco F; Springhorn, Alexander; Kague, Erika; Taylor, Erika; Pyrowolakis, George; Fisher, Shannon; Bier, Ethan

    2014-09-01

    In a broad variety of bilaterian species the trunk central nervous system (CNS) derives from three primary rows of neuroblasts. The fates of these neural progenitor cells are determined in part by three conserved transcription factors: vnd/nkx2.2, ind/gsh and msh/msx in Drosophila melanogaster/vertebrates, which are expressed in corresponding non-overlapping patterns along the dorsal-ventral axis. While this conserved suite of "neural identity" gene expression strongly suggests a common ancestral origin for the patterning systems, it is unclear whether the original regulatory mechanisms establishing these patterns have been similarly conserved during evolution. In Drosophila, genetic evidence suggests that Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) act in a dosage-dependent fashion to repress expression of neural identity genes. BMPs also play a dose-dependent role in patterning the dorsal and lateral regions of the vertebrate CNS, however, the mechanism by which they achieve such patterning has not yet been clearly established. In this report, we examine the mechanisms by which BMPs act on cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) that control localized expression of the Drosophila msh and zebrafish (Danio rerio) msxB in the dorsal central nervous system (CNS). Our analysis suggests that BMPs act differently in these organisms to regulate similar patterns of gene expression in the neuroectoderm: repressing msh expression in Drosophila, while activating msxB expression in the zebrafish. These findings suggest that the mechanisms by which the BMP gradient patterns the dorsal neuroectoderm have reversed since the divergence of these two ancient lineages.

  10. BMPs regulate msx gene expression in the dorsal neuroectoderm of Drosophila and vertebrates by distinct mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco F Esteves

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In a broad variety of bilaterian species the trunk central nervous system (CNS derives from three primary rows of neuroblasts. The fates of these neural progenitor cells are determined in part by three conserved transcription factors: vnd/nkx2.2, ind/gsh and msh/msx in Drosophila melanogaster/vertebrates, which are expressed in corresponding non-overlapping patterns along the dorsal-ventral axis. While this conserved suite of "neural identity" gene expression strongly suggests a common ancestral origin for the patterning systems, it is unclear whether the original regulatory mechanisms establishing these patterns have been similarly conserved during evolution. In Drosophila, genetic evidence suggests that Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs act in a dosage-dependent fashion to repress expression of neural identity genes. BMPs also play a dose-dependent role in patterning the dorsal and lateral regions of the vertebrate CNS, however, the mechanism by which they achieve such patterning has not yet been clearly established. In this report, we examine the mechanisms by which BMPs act on cis-regulatory modules (CRMs that control localized expression of the Drosophila msh and zebrafish (Danio rerio msxB in the dorsal central nervous system (CNS. Our analysis suggests that BMPs act differently in these organisms to regulate similar patterns of gene expression in the neuroectoderm: repressing msh expression in Drosophila, while activating msxB expression in the zebrafish. These findings suggest that the mechanisms by which the BMP gradient patterns the dorsal neuroectoderm have reversed since the divergence of these two ancient lineages.

  11. Molecular crosstalk between cancer cells and tumor microenvironment components suggests potential targets for new therapeutic approaches in mobile tongue cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayan, Dan; Salo, Tuula; Salo, Sirpa; Nyberg, Pia; Nurmenniemi, Sini; Costea, Daniela Elena; Vered, Marilena

    2012-01-01

    We characterized tumor microenvironment (TME) components of mobile tongue (MT) cancer patients in terms of overall inflammatory infiltrate, focusing on the protumorigenic/anti-inflammatory phenotypes and on cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in order to determine their interrelations and associations with clinical outcomes. In addition, by culturing tongue carcinoma cells (HSC-3) on a three-dimensional myoma organotypic model that mimics TME, we attempted to investigate the possible existence of a molecular crosstalk between cancer cells and TME components. Analysis of 64 cases of MT cancer patients revealed that the overall density of the inflammatory infiltrate was inversely correlated to the density of CAFs (P = 0.01), but that the cumulative density of the protumorigenic/anti-inflammatory phenotypes, including regulatory T cells (Tregs, Foxp3+), tumor-associated macrophages (TAM2, CD163+), and potentially Tregs-inducing immune cells (CD80+), was directly correlated with the density of CAFs (P = 0.01). The hazard ratio (HR) for recurrence in a TME rich in CD163+ Foxp3+ CD80+ was 2.9 (95% CI 1.03–8.6, P = 0.043 compared with low in CD163+ Foxp3+ CD80+). The HR for recurrence in a TME rich in CAFs was 4.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3–12.8, P = 0.012 compared with low in CAFs). In vitro studies showed cancer-derived exosomes, epithelial–mesenchymal transition process, fibroblast-to-CAF-like cell transdifferentiation, and reciprocal interrelations between different cytokines suggesting the presence of molecular crosstalk between cancer cells and TME components. Collectively, these results highlighted the emerging need of new therapies targeting this crosstalk between the cancer cells and TME components in MT cancer

  12. Synovial sarcoma with radiological appearances of primitive neuroectodermal tumour/Ewing sarcoma: differentiation by molecular genetic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, P.; Diss, T.C.; Whelan, J.; Flanagan, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma (SS) arises in soft tissues but may invade adjacent bone. We describe a case of SS presenting as aggressive lysis of the proximal ulna, the imaging of which suggested a primary bone lesion. Needle biopsy showed a 'small round blue cell tumour', and a primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET)/Ewing sarcoma was suggested on the basis of the imaging appearances. The definitive diagnosis of synovial sarcoma was made following molecular genetic studies, which demonstrated a fusion product incorporating the genes SYT and SSX1. The importance of correct diagnosis to guide appropriate management, and, therefore, the necessity for molecular genetic studies, is discussed. (orig.)

  13. Medulloblastomas - primitive neuroectodermal tumours in the adult population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smee, R.I.; Williams, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    Medulloblastomas - primitive neuroectodermal tumours are rare in adults. This review will evaluate a single centre's experience with this malignancy. The medulloblastoma - primitive neuroectodermal tumour database was evaluated for all patients aged more than 18 years who were referred for management. Relevant information from the database was abstracted to provide a descriptive record of this malignancy. Between 1977-2004 there were 11 patients referred, 1 with persistent disease and 10 were eligible, presenting with initial diagnosis. There was increased intracranial pressure in 50% of patients. Most patients had symptoms >3 months, with three having symptoms 1-3 months before diagnosis and one patient having thoracic dural metastases at presentation. Complete resection was recorded in four patients and six had 50-90% resection. All patients completed craniospinal radiotherapy (35-36 Gy at 1.8-2.0 Gy fractions) barring one patient, who died of surgical complications during his radiotherapy. Chemotherapy was given in five of the nine patients postradiotherapy. There were two posterior fossa recurrences, with associated supratentorial and extra central nervous system disease. Of the 10 primary patients 7 are alive with no evidence of diease, 2 died because of disease, with 1 intercurrent death. One patient developed a second malignancy. The outcome for adults matches that of the more common paediatric patients. Radiotherapy could control local disease even where complete resection was not achieved.

  14. Extraosseous Ewing′s tumor of larynx: A rare presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Shinde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs are a group of highly malignant tumors composed of small round cells of neuroectodermal origin that affect soft tissue and bone. PNET of the larynx is extremely rare. We report a case of a 41-year-old male who presented with the complaints of progressively increasing stridor of 3 months duration, which was diagnosed as a case of neuroectodermal tumor in the subglottis. Patient was subjected to microlaryngeal surgery and the tumor was excised. Postoperatively, patient was given three cycles of chemotherapy comprising of ifosfamide, etoposide, and mesna, along with granulocyte colony stimulating factor, with 21 days interval. After chemotherapy repeat computed tomography scan showed no evidence of the tumor and no lymphadenopathy. Patient is symptom free for 18 months following completion of treatment. He is under regular follow-up and is undergoing monthly serial endoscopic evaluation.

  15. A distinguishing gene signature shared by tumor-infiltrating Tie2-expressing monocytes, blood "resident" monocytes, and embryonic macrophages suggests common functions and developmental relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucci, Ferdinando; Venneri, Mary Anna; Biziato, Daniela; Nonis, Alessandro; Moi, Davide; Sica, Antonio; Di Serio, Clelia; Naldini, Luigi; De Palma, Michele

    2009-07-23

    We previously showed that Tie2-expressing monocytes (TEMs) have nonredundant proangiogenic activity in tumors. Here, we compared the gene expression profile of tumor-infiltrating TEMs with that of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), spleen-derived Gr1(+)Cd11b(+) neutrophils/myeloid-derived suppressor cells, circulating "inflammatory" and "resident" monocytes, and tumor-derived endothelial cells (ECs) by quantitative polymerase chain reaction-based gene arrays. TEMs sharply differed from ECs and Gr1(+)Cd11b(+) cells but were highly related to TAMs. Nevertheless, several genes were differentially expressed between TEMs and TAMs, highlighting a TEM signature consistent with enhanced proangiogenic/tissue-remodeling activity and lower proinflammatory activity. We validated these findings in models of oncogenesis and transgenic mice expressing a microRNA-regulated Tie2-GFP reporter. Remarkably, resident monocytes and TEMs on one hand, and inflammatory monocytes and TAMs on the other hand, expressed coordinated gene expression profiles, suggesting that the 2 blood monocyte subsets are committed to distinct extravascular fates in the tumor microenvironment. We further showed that a prominent proportion of embryonic/fetal macrophages, which participate in tissue morphogenesis, expressed distinguishing TEM genes. It is tempting to speculate that Tie2(+) embryonic/fetal macrophages, resident blood monocytes, and tumor-infiltrating TEMs represent distinct developmental stages of a TEM lineage committed to execute physiologic proangiogenic and tissue-remodeling programs, which can be co-opted by tumors.

  16. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy: CT and MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haque, Saira; Sebire, Neil; McHugh, Kieran [Great Ormond Street Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); McCarville, Mary Beth [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy (MNTI) is a rare neoplasm of neural crest origin. To describe three further cases of MNTI, with emphasis on CT and MRI findings. Data for children with histologically confirmed MNTI following biopsy or surgery were retrieved. Three children with available imaging at the time of diagnosis were included in the study. All three children had primary tumour in the head and neck region: one in the maxilla, one in the occipital bone (extra-axial but with intracranial extension) and one with an unusual tumour growing exophytically from the subcutaneous tissues adjacent to the occipital bone. All tumours were iso/hypointense both on T1- and T2-weighted MRI, and showed marked contrast enhancement in their non-ossified components. CT allowed identification of bone destruction and remodelling. Our findings are consistent with previously reported cases of MNTI regarding age at presentation and location in the head and neck region. Our MR findings did not demonstrate the typical pattern of T1-shortening expected from melanin deposition. (orig.)

  17. DNA hybrids suggesting a recombination process repairing radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks in Ehrlich Ascites tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthel, H.R.

    1984-01-01

    The results presented suggest the possibility of repair of DNA double-strand breaks by recombination, at least in the S and G 2 -phases of the cell cycle, in mammalian cells. Further experiments with synchronized cell cultures will have to show whether this process may also occur in the G 1 -phase of the cell cycle. (orig./AJ) [de

  18. Transcription factor KLF7 regulates differentiation of neuroectodermal and mesodermal cell lineages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caiazzo, Massimiliano; Colucci-D'Amato, Luca; Esposito, Maria T.; Parisi, Silvia; Stifani, Stefano; Ramirez, Francesco; Porzio, Umberto di

    2010-01-01

    Previous gene targeting studies in mice have implicated the nuclear protein Krueppel-like factor 7 (KLF7) in nervous system development while cell culture assays have documented its involvement in cell cycle regulation. By employing short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated gene silencing, here we demonstrate that murine Klf7 gene expression is required for in vitro differentiation of neuroectodermal and mesodermal cells. Specifically, we show a correlation of Klf7 silencing with down-regulation of the neuronal marker microtubule-associated protein 2 (Map2) and the nerve growth factor (NGF) tyrosine kinase receptor A (TrkA) using the PC12 neuronal cell line. Similarly, KLF7 inactivation in Klf7-null mice decreases the expression of the neurogenic marker brain lipid-binding protein/fatty acid-binding protein 7 (BLBP/FABP7) in neural stem cells (NSCs). We also report that Klf7 silencing is detrimental to neuronal and cardiomyocytic differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), in addition to altering the adipogenic and osteogenic potential of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Finally, our results suggest that genes that are key for self-renewal of undifferentiated ESCs repress Klf7 expression in ESCs. Together with previous findings, these results provide evidence that KLF7 has a broad spectrum of regulatory functions, which reflect the discrete cellular and molecular contexts in which this transcription factor operates.

  19. A dual role of the extracellular domain of Drosophila Crumbs for morphogenesis of the embryonic neuroectoderm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shradha Das

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Epithelia are highly polarised tissues and several highly conserved polarity protein complexes serve to establish and maintain polarity. The transmembrane protein Crumbs (Crb, the central component of the Crb protein complex, is required, among others, for the maintenance of polarity in most epithelia in the Drosophila embryo. However, different epithelia exhibit different phenotypic severity upon loss of crb. Using a transgenomic approach allowed us to more accurately define the role of crb in different epithelia. In particular, we provide evidence that the loss of epithelial tissue integrity in the ventral epidermis of crb mutant embryos is due to impaired actomyosin activity and an excess number of neuroblasts. We demonstrate that the intracellular domain of Crb could only partially rescue this phenotype, while it is able to completely restore tissue integrity in other epithelia. Based on these results we suggest a dual role of the extracellular domain of Crb in the ventral neuroectoderm. First, it is required for apical enrichment of the Crb protein, which in turn regulates actomyosin activity and thereby ensures tissue integrity; and second, the extracellular domain of Crb stabilises the Notch receptor and thereby ensures proper Notch signalling and specification of the correct number of neuroblasts.

  20. Transcription factor KLF7 regulates differentiation of neuroectodermal and mesodermal cell lineages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caiazzo, Massimiliano, E-mail: caiazzo@igb.cnr.it [Institute of Genetics and Biophysics ' A. Buzzati-Traverso,' CNR, 80131 Naples (Italy); Istituto di diagnosi e cura ' Hermitage Capodimonte,' 80131 Naples (Italy); Colucci-D' Amato, Luca, E-mail: luca.colucci@unina2.it [Institute of Genetics and Biophysics ' A. Buzzati-Traverso,' CNR, 80131 Naples (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita, Seconda Universita di Napoli, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Esposito, Maria T., E-mail: maria_teresa.esposito@kcl.ac.uk [CEINGE Biotecnologie Avanzate, 80145 Naples (Italy); Parisi, Silvia, E-mail: parisi@ceinge.unina.it [CEINGE Biotecnologie Avanzate, 80145 Naples (Italy); Stifani, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.stifani@mcgill.ca [Centre for Neuronal Survival, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 2B4 (Canada); Ramirez, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.ramirez@mssm.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Systems Therapeutics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Porzio, Umberto di, E-mail: diporzio@igb.cnr.it [Institute of Genetics and Biophysics ' A. Buzzati-Traverso,' CNR, 80131 Naples (Italy)

    2010-08-15

    Previous gene targeting studies in mice have implicated the nuclear protein Krueppel-like factor 7 (KLF7) in nervous system development while cell culture assays have documented its involvement in cell cycle regulation. By employing short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated gene silencing, here we demonstrate that murine Klf7 gene expression is required for in vitro differentiation of neuroectodermal and mesodermal cells. Specifically, we show a correlation of Klf7 silencing with down-regulation of the neuronal marker microtubule-associated protein 2 (Map2) and the nerve growth factor (NGF) tyrosine kinase receptor A (TrkA) using the PC12 neuronal cell line. Similarly, KLF7 inactivation in Klf7-null mice decreases the expression of the neurogenic marker brain lipid-binding protein/fatty acid-binding protein 7 (BLBP/FABP7) in neural stem cells (NSCs). We also report that Klf7 silencing is detrimental to neuronal and cardiomyocytic differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), in addition to altering the adipogenic and osteogenic potential of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Finally, our results suggest that genes that are key for self-renewal of undifferentiated ESCs repress Klf7 expression in ESCs. Together with previous findings, these results provide evidence that KLF7 has a broad spectrum of regulatory functions, which reflect the discrete cellular and molecular contexts in which this transcription factor operates.

  1. Palbociclib in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Rb Positive Advanced Solid Tumors, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, or Histiocytic Disorders With Activating Alterations in Cell Cycle Genes (A Pediatric MATCH Treatment Trial)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-15

    Advanced Malignant Solid Neoplasm; RB1 Positive; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma; Recurrent Glioma; Recurrent Hepatoblastoma; Recurrent Kidney Wilms Tumor; Recurrent Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis; Recurrent Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Malignant Glioma; Recurrent Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Neuroblastoma; Recurrent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Osteosarcoma; Recurrent Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Rhabdoid Tumor; Recurrent Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Refractory Ependymoma; Refractory Ewing Sarcoma; Refractory Glioma; Refractory Hepatoblastoma; Refractory Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis; Refractory Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Refractory Malignant Glioma; Refractory Medulloblastoma; Refractory Neuroblastoma; Refractory Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Osteosarcoma; Refractory Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Refractory Rhabdoid Tumor; Refractory Rhabdomyosarcoma; Refractory Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  2. Differences Between Colon Cancer Primaries and Metastases Using a Molecular Assay for Tumor Radiation Sensitivity Suggest Implications for Potential Oligometastatic SBRT Patient Selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Kamran A.; Fulp, William J.; Berglund, Anders E.; Hoffe, Sarah E.; Dilling, Thomas J.; Eschrich, Steven A.; Shridhar, Ravi; Torres-Roca, Javier F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We previously developed a multigene expression model of tumor radiation sensitivity index (RSI) with clinical validation in multiple independent cohorts (breast, rectal, esophageal, and head and neck patients). The purpose of this study was to assess differences between RSI scores in primary colon cancer and metastases. Methods and Materials: Patients were identified from our institutional review board–approved prospective observational protocol. A total of 704 metastatic and 1362 primary lesions were obtained from a de-identified metadata pool. RSI was calculated using the previously published rank-based algorithm. An independent cohort of 29 lung or liver colon metastases treated with 60 Gy in 5 fractions stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) was used for validation. Results: The most common sites of metastases included liver (n=374; 53%), lung (n=116; 17%), and lymph nodes (n=40; 6%). Sixty percent of metastatic tumors, compared with 54% of primaries, were in the RSI radiation-resistant peak, suggesting metastatic tumors may be slightly more radiation resistant than primaries (P=.01). In contrast, when we analyzed metastases based on anatomical site, we uncovered large differences in RSI. The median RSIs for metastases in descending order of radiation resistance were ovary (0.48), abdomen (0.47), liver (0.43), brain (0.42), lung (0.32), and lymph nodes (0.31) (P<.0001). These findings were confirmed when the analysis was restricted to lesions from the same patient (n=139). In our independent cohort of treated lung and liver metastases, lung metastases had an improved local control rate compared to that in patients with liver metastases (2-year local control rate of 100% vs 73.0%, respectively; P=.026). Conclusions: Assessment of radiation sensitivity between primary and metastatic tissues of colon cancer histology revealed significant differences based on anatomical location of metastases. These initial results warrant validation in a larger

  3. Differences Between Colon Cancer Primaries and Metastases Using a Molecular Assay for Tumor Radiation Sensitivity Suggest Implications for Potential Oligometastatic SBRT Patient Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Kamran A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States); Fulp, William J.; Berglund, Anders E. [Department of Biostatistics, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States); Hoffe, Sarah E.; Dilling, Thomas J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States); Eschrich, Steven A. [Department of Bioinformatics, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States); Shridhar, Ravi [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States); Torres-Roca, Javier F., E-mail: javier.torresroca@moffitt.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: We previously developed a multigene expression model of tumor radiation sensitivity index (RSI) with clinical validation in multiple independent cohorts (breast, rectal, esophageal, and head and neck patients). The purpose of this study was to assess differences between RSI scores in primary colon cancer and metastases. Methods and Materials: Patients were identified from our institutional review board–approved prospective observational protocol. A total of 704 metastatic and 1362 primary lesions were obtained from a de-identified metadata pool. RSI was calculated using the previously published rank-based algorithm. An independent cohort of 29 lung or liver colon metastases treated with 60 Gy in 5 fractions stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) was used for validation. Results: The most common sites of metastases included liver (n=374; 53%), lung (n=116; 17%), and lymph nodes (n=40; 6%). Sixty percent of metastatic tumors, compared with 54% of primaries, were in the RSI radiation-resistant peak, suggesting metastatic tumors may be slightly more radiation resistant than primaries (P=.01). In contrast, when we analyzed metastases based on anatomical site, we uncovered large differences in RSI. The median RSIs for metastases in descending order of radiation resistance were ovary (0.48), abdomen (0.47), liver (0.43), brain (0.42), lung (0.32), and lymph nodes (0.31) (P<.0001). These findings were confirmed when the analysis was restricted to lesions from the same patient (n=139). In our independent cohort of treated lung and liver metastases, lung metastases had an improved local control rate compared to that in patients with liver metastases (2-year local control rate of 100% vs 73.0%, respectively; P=.026). Conclusions: Assessment of radiation sensitivity between primary and metastatic tissues of colon cancer histology revealed significant differences based on anatomical location of metastases. These initial results warrant validation in a larger

  4. BNCT for malignant brain tumors in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kageji, T.; Mizobuchi, Y.; Nagahiro, S.; Nakagawa, Y.; Kumada, Hiroaki

    2006-01-01

    BSH-based intra-operative BNCT as an initial treatment underwent in 4 children with malignant brain tumors since 1998. There were 2 glioblastomas, one primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) and one anaplastic ependymoma patient. They included two children under 3-year-old. All GBM patients were died of CSF dissemination without tumor regrowth in the primary site. Another PNET and anaplastic ependymoma patients are still alive without tumor recurrence. We can consider BNCT is optimal treatment modality for malignant brain tumor in children. (author)

  5. Yoga Therapy in Treating Patients With Malignant Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-27

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Tumor; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor

  6. Primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the kidney with vena caval and atrial tumour thrombus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ong Poh

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Renal primitive neuroectodermal tumour is an extremely rare malignancy. Case presentation A 21-year-old woman presented with microscopic haematuria, a palpable right loin mass, dyspnoea, dizziness and fatigue. Initial ultrasound scan of the kidneys revealed an 11 cm right renal mass with venous extension into the inferior vena cava. Computed tomography of the thorax and abdomen revealed an extension of the large renal mass into the right renal vein, inferior vena cava and up to the right atrium. A small paracaval lymph node was noted and three small metastatic nodules were identified within the lung parenchyma. The patient underwent a radical nephrectomy and inferior vena caval tumour (level IV thrombectomy with cardiopulmonary bypass and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Immunohistochemical staining of the specimen showed a highly specific cluster of differentiation (CD 99, thus confirming the diagnosis of a primitive neuroectodermal tumour. Conclusion It is important that a renal primitive neuroectodermal tumour be considered, particularly in young patients with a renal mass and extensive thrombus.

  7. Suv4-20h histone methyltransferases promote neuroectodermal differentiation by silencing the pluripotency-associated Oct-25 gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Nicetto

    Full Text Available Post-translational modifications (PTMs of histones exert fundamental roles in regulating gene expression. During development, groups of PTMs are constrained by unknown mechanisms into combinatorial patterns, which facilitate transitions from uncommitted embryonic cells into differentiated somatic cell lineages. Repressive histone modifications such as H3K9me3 or H3K27me3 have been investigated in detail, but the role of H4K20me3 in development is currently unknown. Here we show that Xenopus laevis Suv4-20h1 and h2 histone methyltransferases (HMTases are essential for induction and differentiation of the neuroectoderm. Morpholino-mediated knockdown of the two HMTases leads to a selective and specific downregulation of genes controlling neural induction, thereby effectively blocking differentiation of the neuroectoderm. Global transcriptome analysis supports the notion that these effects arise from the transcriptional deregulation of specific genes rather than widespread, pleiotropic effects. Interestingly, morphant embryos fail to repress the Oct4-related Xenopus gene Oct-25. We validate Oct-25 as a direct target of xSu4-20h enzyme mediated gene repression, showing by chromatin immunoprecipitaton that it is decorated with the H4K20me3 mark downstream of the promoter in normal, but not in double-morphant, embryos. Since knockdown of Oct-25 protein significantly rescues the neural differentiation defect in xSuv4-20h double-morphant embryos, we conclude that the epistatic relationship between Suv4-20h enzymes and Oct-25 controls the transit from pluripotent to differentiation-competent neural cells. Consistent with these results in Xenopus, murine Suv4-20h1/h2 double-knockout embryonic stem (DKO ES cells exhibit increased Oct4 protein levels before and during EB formation, and reveal a compromised and biased capacity for in vitro differentiation, when compared to normal ES cells. Together, these results suggest a regulatory mechanism, conserved

  8. How specific is the MRI appearance of supratentorial atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Au Yong, Kong Jung; Jaremko, Jacob L.; Bhargava, Ravi [University of Alberta Hospital, Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, Edmonton (Canada); Jans, Lennart [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Gent (Belgium); Coleman, Lee T. [University of Melbourne and Murdoch Children' s Research Institute, Department of Radiology and Pediatrics, Melbourne (Australia); Medical Imaging, Royal Children' s Hospital, Parkville (Australia); Mehta, Vivek [University of Alberta Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Edmonton (Canada); Ditchfield, Michael R. [Monash Children' s and Monash University, Monash Medical Centre, Diagnostic Imaging, Clayton (Australia)

    2013-03-15

    Supratentorial atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) in many cases has a distinctive appearance on post-gadolinium MRI. We sought to determine whether this is a unique appearance allowing ATRT to be distinguished accurately from other types of pediatric supratentorial tumors. Retrospective review of all available preoperative MRI of pediatric supratentorial tumors at two tertiary children's hospitals, and systematic literature review of case series and reports describing the MRI imaging appearances of supratentorial ATRT. We had 61 supratentorial tumors, including 32 gliomas, 6 ATRT, 8 ependymomas, 6 gangliogliomas, 2 pilomyxoid astrocytomas, 3 primitive neuro-ectodermal tumors, 2 choroid plexus papillomas, and 2 meningiomas. ATRT presented in significantly younger patients than astrocytomas (mean age 2.6 years vs. 9.9 years, P < 0.05). The visual pattern of a thick, wavy (irregular) heterogeneously enhancing wall around a cystic center was seen in 5/6 (83%) ATRTs and only 3/55 (5.4%) other tumors (P < 0.0001), for specificity of 95%, sensitivity of 83%, positive predictive value of 63% and a negative predictive value of 95%. A supratentorial tumor with a thick, wavy (irregular) heterogeneously enhancing wall surrounding a central cystic region is suggestive of ATRT in the appropriate clinical setting, especially in a child of preschool age. (orig.)

  9. How specific is the MRI appearance of supratentorial atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au Yong, Kong Jung; Jaremko, Jacob L.; Bhargava, Ravi; Jans, Lennart; Coleman, Lee T.; Mehta, Vivek; Ditchfield, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Supratentorial atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) in many cases has a distinctive appearance on post-gadolinium MRI. We sought to determine whether this is a unique appearance allowing ATRT to be distinguished accurately from other types of pediatric supratentorial tumors. Retrospective review of all available preoperative MRI of pediatric supratentorial tumors at two tertiary children's hospitals, and systematic literature review of case series and reports describing the MRI imaging appearances of supratentorial ATRT. We had 61 supratentorial tumors, including 32 gliomas, 6 ATRT, 8 ependymomas, 6 gangliogliomas, 2 pilomyxoid astrocytomas, 3 primitive neuro-ectodermal tumors, 2 choroid plexus papillomas, and 2 meningiomas. ATRT presented in significantly younger patients than astrocytomas (mean age 2.6 years vs. 9.9 years, P < 0.05). The visual pattern of a thick, wavy (irregular) heterogeneously enhancing wall around a cystic center was seen in 5/6 (83%) ATRTs and only 3/55 (5.4%) other tumors (P < 0.0001), for specificity of 95%, sensitivity of 83%, positive predictive value of 63% and a negative predictive value of 95%. A supratentorial tumor with a thick, wavy (irregular) heterogeneously enhancing wall surrounding a central cystic region is suggestive of ATRT in the appropriate clinical setting, especially in a child of preschool age. (orig.)

  10. Hanging drop culture enhances differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells into anterior neuroectodermal cells using small molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirpour, Noushin; Razavi, Shahnaz; Esfandiari, Ebrahim; Hashemibeni, Batoul; Kazemi, Mohammad; Salehi, Hossein

    2017-06-01

    Inspired by in vivo developmental process, several studies were conducted to design a protocol for differentiating of mesenchymal stem cells into neural cells in vitro. Human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) as mesenchymal stem cells are a promising source for this purpose. At current study, we applied a defined neural induction medium by using small molecules for direct differentiation of hADSCs into anterior neuroectodermal cells. Anterior neuroectodermal differentiation of hADSCs was performed by hanging drop and monolayer protocols. At these methods, three small molecules were used to suppress the BMP, Nodal, and Wnt signaling pathways in order to obtain anterior neuroectodermal (eye field) cells from hADSCs. After two and three weeks of induction, the differentiated cells with neural morphology expressed anterior neuroectodermal markers such as OTX2, SIX3, β-TUB III and PAX6. The protein expression of such markers was confirmed by real time, RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry methods According to our data, it seems that the hanging drop method is a proper approach for neuroectodermal induction of hADSCs. Considering wide availability and immunosuppressive properties of hADSCs, these cells may open a way for autologous cell therapy of neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetic changes of two Wilms tumors with anaplasia and a review of the literature suggesting a marker profile for therapy resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Cornelia; Ambros, Inge M; Lion, Thomas; Zoubek, Andreas; Amann, Gabriele; Gadner, Helmut; Ambros, Peter F

    2002-06-01

    Cytogenetic data on Wilms tumors (WT) with anaplasia frequently associated with an unfavorable outcome are scarce. We present cytogenetic changes of two WT with anaplasia (primary tumor material) from nonresponders with a synopsis of the literature. The WT were investigated by cytogenetic analysis, comparative genomic hybridization, fluorescence in situ hybridization, immunofluorescence, and flow cytometric analyses. Both tumors exhibited characteristic genetic changes. One tumor was hypodiploid due to loss of entire chromosome 11; losses of 16p, 16q, 17p, chromosome 19 material, and loss of 22q12-qter. The other tumor was hyperdiploid and triploid, and displayed gain of 1q12-q23 and chromosome 9 material. Moreover, two morphological and genetically distinct cell lines have been established from both tumors, demonstrating underrepresentation of chromosomes 13, 14, 16, and 19. Karyotype descriptions of 120 WT with known clinical data together with data of this report confirm: (1) inter- and intratumor heterogeneity exists; (2) loss or underrepresentation of chromosome material at 11, 13, 14, 16, 17p, 19, and 22q in various combinations presents a new marker profile of resistance to cytotoxic agents regardless of the histological types; and (3) the prognostic impact of gain at 1q12-q23 sequences warrants further validation.

  12. Integrated bioinformatic analysis unveils significant genes and pathways in the pathogenesis of supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Wang,Guang-Yu; Li,Ling; Liu,Bo; Han,Xiao; Wang,Chunhua; Wang,Jiwen

    2018-01-01

    Guang-Yu Wang,1,* Ling Li,2,* Bo Liu,1 Xiao Han,1 Chun-Hua Wang,1 Ji-Wen Wang3 1Department of Neurosurgery, 2Department of Pediatrics, Qilu Children’s Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, 3Department of Neurology, Shanghai Children’s Medical Center, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Pudong New District, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: This study aimed to explore ...

  13. Integrated bioinformatic analysis unveils significant genes and pathways in the pathogenesis of supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Wang G; Li L; Liu B; Han X; Wang CH; Wang JW

    2018-01-01

    Guang-Yu Wang,1,* Ling Li,2,* Bo Liu,1 Xiao Han,1 Chun-Hua Wang,1 Ji-Wen Wang3 1Department of Neurosurgery, 2Department of Pediatrics, Qilu Children’s Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, 3Department of Neurology, Shanghai Children’s Medical Center, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Pudong New District, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: This study aimed to explore significant gene...

  14. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of seminal vesicles: Is there a role for relatively aggressive treatment modalities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Crestani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A 50 year old white man received an incidental ultrasound diagnosis of hypoechoic mass interesting the right seminal vesicle. A CT scan showed the presence of a 7.8 cm roundish cyst, originating from the right seminal vesicle. He had been followed by the removal of the right seminal vesicle and both the cystic lesion. The histological findings of the specimen documented the presence of small round cells compatible with Ewing’s sarcoma/PPNET. The patient received also adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation treatment. After 10 years, the follow-up is still negative.

  15. Maternal xNorrin, a canonical Wnt signaling agonist and TGF-β antagonist, controls early neuroectoderm specification in Xenopus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhong Xu

    Full Text Available Dorsal-ventral specification in the amphibian embryo is controlled by β-catenin, whose activation in all dorsal cells is dependent on maternal Wnt11. However, it remains unknown whether other maternally secreted factors contribute to β-catenin activation in the dorsal ectoderm. Here, we show that maternal Xenopus Norrin (xNorrin promotes anterior neural tissue formation in ventralized embryos. Conversely, when xNorrin function is inhibited, early canonical Wnt signaling in the dorsal ectoderm and the early expression of the zygotic neural inducers Chordin, Noggin, and Xnr3 are severely suppressed, causing the loss of anterior structures. In addition, xNorrin potently inhibits BMP- and Nodal/Activin-related functions through direct binding to the ligands. Moreover, a subset of Norrin mutants identified in humans with Norrie disease retain Wnt activation but show defective inhibition of Nodal/Activin-related signaling in mesoderm induction, suggesting that this disinhibition causes Norrie disease. Thus, xNorrin is an unusual molecule that acts on two major signaling pathways, Wnt and TGF-β, in opposite ways and is essential for early neuroectoderm specification.

  16. Collecting and Storing Blood and Brain Tumor Tissue Samples From Children With Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-11

    Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Newly Diagnosed Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma

  17. Neuro image in neuroectodermal disorders. Part III: angiomatous and melanotic syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marti-Bonmati, L.; Menor, F.; Poyatos, C.; Cortina, H.; Esteban, M.J.; Vilar, J.

    1994-01-01

    Twenty-eight consecutive patients affected by these rare angiomatous melanotic neuroectodermal disorders are assessed. The diagnostics value and clinical correlation of neuroimaging methods, both CT and MR, are established. Patients with Sturge-Weber syndrome (15 cases), Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome (1 case), Rendu-Osler disease (3 cases), multiple hemangiomatosis (4 cases), von Hippel-Lindau syndrome (3 cases), neuro cutaneous melanosis (1 case) and hypo melanosis of Ito (1 case) are included. In vascular phacomatosis, neuroimaging methods usually contribute to the positive diagnosis. In melanotic disorders, the neuroradiological findings most often are unspecific and do not contribute to the diagnosis of the disease

  18. {sup 68}Ga-labelled peptides in the management of neuroectodermal tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naji, Meeran [Maidstone and Tunbridge Wells NHS Trust, Departments of Nuclear Medicine and Radiology, Maidstone (United Kingdom); Al-Nahhas, Adil [Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College NHS Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-15

    Neuroectodermal tumours arise from chromaffin cells and possess the ability to secrete catecholamines. They are generally rare and may occur in association with a variety of hereditary syndromes such as MEN-2A and 2B, neurofibromatosis type 1 and von Hippel-Lindau disease. The most common types are phaeochromocytoma arising from the adrenal medulla and paraganglioma of extra-adrenal origin. Phaeochromocytomas tend to be benign and are often associated with a gene mutation if the disease is bilateral, while paragangliomas are often malignant, have a more aggressive nature and tend to metastasize. There are no specific histological or immunohistochemical features that indicate the malignant potential and the diagnosis of malignancy can only be established by the presence of distant metastases. Therefore, imaging can play a vital role in the diagnosis, localization, staging and assessment of spread. Traditionally, this is achieved with a combination of cross-sectional (CT and MRI) and functional ({sup 123}I-MIBG or {sup 111}In-octreotide) imaging. However, these modalities are not adequate and achieve moderate sensitivity. The introduction of {sup 68}Ga-DOTA peptide in PET/CT imaging has led to improved receptor targeting and superb PET resolution, as well as accurate localization of lesions. The use of this technique in neuroectodermal tumours has been shown to be superior to all available modalities, but the available data are limited and larger studies are awaited to establish its role in the management of these tumours. (orig.)

  19. Small round blue cell tumor of seminal vesicle in a young patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano A. De Paula

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Seminal vesicle tumor is a rare disease with unclear origin. Generally, it is presented as a pelvic mass that can be detected by sonography and digital rectal exam. The authors report a 25-year-old patient with a pelvic mass which the magnetic resonance and surgical specimen reveal a seminal vesicle tumor. Immunohistochemical findings favored a primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the seminal vesicle. Herein, the treatment, histological and histochemical findings of this entity are discussed.

  20. Targeted α-Therapy of Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer with 225Ac-PSMA-617: Swimmer-Plot Analysis Suggests Efficacy Regarding Duration of Tumor Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochwil, Clemens; Bruchertseifer, Frank; Rathke, Hendrik; Hohenfellner, Markus; Giesel, Frederik L; Haberkorn, Uwe; Morgenstern, Alfred

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this evaluation was to identify the first indicators of efficacy for 225 Ac-labeled prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-617 therapy in a retrospectively analyzed group of patients. Methods: Forty patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer were selected for treatment with three 100 kBq/kg cycles of 225 Ac-PSMA-617 at 2-mo intervals. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and blood cell count were measured every 4 wk. PSMA PET/CT or PSMA SPECT/CT were used for baseline staging and imaging follow-up at month 6. Follow-up included the duration of PSA response and radiologic progression-free survival at month 6. Patient histories were reviewed for the duration of previous treatment lines, and a swimmer plot was used to intraindividually compare the duration of tumor control by PSMA therapy versus prior treatment modalities. Results: Thirty-one of 40 patients were treated per protocol. Five patients discontinued treatment because of nonresponse, and 4 because of xerostomia. Of the 38 patients surviving at least 8 wk, 24 (63%) had a PSA decline of more than 50%, and 33 (87%) had a PSA response of any degree. The median duration of tumor control under 225 Ac-PSMA-617 last-line therapy was 9.0 mo; 5 patients had an enduring response of more than 2 y. Because all patients had advanced disease, this result compares favorably with the tumor control rates associated with earlier-phase disease; the most common preceding first-, second-, third-, and fourth-line therapies were abiraterone (median duration 10.0 mo), docetaxel (6.5 mo), enzalutamide (6.5 mo), and cabazitaxel (6.0 mo), respectively. Conclusion: A positive response for surrogate parameters demonstrates remarkable antitumor activity for 225 Ac-PSMA-617. Swimmer-plot analysis indicates a promising duration of tumor control, especially considering the unfavorable prognostic profile of the selected advanced-stage patients. Xerostomia was the main reason patients discontinued therapy or refused

  1. Oral treatment with a rattlesnake native polypeptide crotamine efficiently inhibits the tumor growth with no potential toxicity for the host animal and with suggestive positive effects on animal metabolic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campeiro, Joana D; Marinovic, Marcelo P; Carapeto, Fernando Cintra; Dal Mas, Caroline; Monte, Gabriela Guilherme; Carvalho Porta, Lucas; Nering, Marcela B; Oliveira, Eduardo B; Hayashi, Mirian A F

    2018-02-01

    The efficacy of crotamine as antitumoral was first demonstrated by daily intraperitoneal (IP) injections of low doses of this toxin in an animal model bearing melanoma tumors. Significant inhibition of tumor growth and increased lifespan of mice bearing tumor was also noticed after 21 consecutive days of this daily IP administration of crotamine. However, due to the limited acceptance of treatments by IP route in clinical conditions, herein, we evaluated the antitumor effect of this native polypeptide employing the oral route. The efficacy of crotamine in inhibiting the melanoma growth in vivo, even after passing through the gastrointestinal tract of the animal, was confirmed here. In addition, biochemical biomarkers and also histopathological analysis showed both the absence of any potential toxic effects in tissues or organs of the animal in which the highest accumulation of crotamine is expected. Interestingly, a reduction of weight gain was observed mainly in animals with tumor treated with crotamine by IP route, but not by oral administration. Albeit, oral administered crotamine was able to significantly decrease the body weight gain of healthy animals without tumor. Taking advantage of this same experimental animal models receiving crotamine by oral route, it was possible to show metabolic changes as the increased capacity of glucose clearance, which was accompanied by a reduction of the total cholesterol, and by increased high-density lipoprotein levels, both observed mainly in the absence of tumor. Triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein were also significantly decreased, but only in the absence of tumor. Taken together, these data suggest a clear trend for metabolic positive effects and mischaracterize unhealthy condition of animals, with or without tumors, treated with crotamine for 21 days. In addition, this study confirmed the efficacy of crotamine administered by oral route as antitumor agent, which besides the additional advantage of

  2. Cross-sectional imaging with CT and/or MRI of pediatric chest tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyttenbach, R.; Vock, P.; Tschaeppeler, H.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of the spectrum of pediatric chest masses, to present the results of cross-sectional imaging with CT and/or MRI, and to define diagnostic criteria to limit differential diagnosis. Seventy-eight children with thoracic mass lesions were retrospectively evaluated using CT (72 patients) and/or MR imaging (12 patients). All masses were evaluated for tissue characteristics (attenuation values or signal intensity, enhancement, and calcification) and were differentiated according to age, gender, location, and etiology. Twenty-eight of 38 (74 %) mediastinal masses were malignant (neuroblastoma, malignant lymphoma). Thirty of 38 (79 %) pulmonary masses were metastatic in origin, all with an already known primary tumor (osteosarcoma, Wilms tumor). With one exception, all remaining pulmonary lesions were benign. Seventeen of 21 (81 %) chest wall lesions were malignant (Ewing sarcoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumor). The majority of mediastinal and chest wall tumors in children is malignant. Lung lesions are usually benign, unless a known extrapulmonary tumor suggests pulmonary metastases. Cross-sectional imaging with CT and/or MRI allows narrowing of the differential diagnosis of pediatric chest masses substantially by defining the origin and tissue characteristics. Magnetic resonance imaging is preferred for posterior mediastinal lesions, whereas CT should be used for pulmonary lesions. For the residual locations both modalities are complementary. (orig.)

  3. Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors: challenges and search for solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Ahitagni; Kashyap, Lakhan; Kakkar, Aanchal; Sarkar, Chitra; Julka, Pramod Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a highly malignant embryonal central nervous system tumor commonly affecting children <3 years of age. It roughly constitutes 1%–2% of all pediatric central nervous system tumors. Recent data show that it is the most common malignant central nervous system tumor in children <6 months of age. Management of this aggressive tumor is associated with a myriad of diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. On the basis of radiology and histopathology alone, distinction of AT/RT from medulloblastoma or primitive neuroectodermal tumor is difficult, and hence this tumor has been commonly misdiagnosed as primitive neuroectodermal tumor for decades. Presence of a bulky heterogeneous solid-cystic mass with readily visible calcification and intratumor hemorrhage, occurring off-midline in children <3 years of age, should alert the radiologist toward the possibility of AT/RT. Presence of rhabdoid cells on histopathology and polyphenotypic immunopositivity for epithelial, mesenchymal, and neuroectodermal markers along with loss of expression of SMARCB1/INI1 or SMARCA4/BRG1 help in establishing a diagnosis of AT/RT. The optimal management comprises maximal safe resection followed by radiation therapy and multiagent intensive systemic chemotherapy. Gross total excision is difficult to achieve in view of the large tumor size and location and young age at presentation. Leptomeningeal spread is noted in 15%–30% of patients, and hence craniospinal irradiation followed by boost to tumor bed is considered standard in children older than 3 years. However, in younger children, craniospinal irradiation may lead to long-term neurocognitive and neuroendocrine sequel, and hence focal radiation therapy may be a pragmatic approach. In this age group, high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue may also be considered to defer radiation therapy, but this approach is also associated with significant treatment-related morbidity and mortality

  4. Evaluation of the correlation between KRAS mutated allele frequency and pathologist tumorous nuclei percentage assessment in colorectal cancer suggests a role for zygosity status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libbrecht, Louis; Baldin, Pamela; Dekairelle, Anne-France; Jouret-Mourin, Anne

    2018-04-27

    Evaluation of molecular tumour heterogeneity relies on the tumorous nuclei percentage (TNP) assessment by a pathologist, which has been criticised for being inaccurate and suffering from interobserver variability. Based on the 'Big Bang theory' which states that KRAS mutation in colorectal cancer is mostly homogeneous, we investigated this issue by performing a critical analysis of the correlation of the KRAS mutant allele fraction with the TNP in 99 colorectal tumour samples with a positive KRAS mutation status as determined by next-generation sequencing. Our results yield indirect evidence that the KRAS zygosity status influences the correlation between these parameters and we show that a well-trained pathologist is indeed capable of accurately assessing TNP. Our findings indicate that tumour zygosity, a feature which has largely been neglected until now, should be taken into account in future studies on (colorectal) molecular tumour heterogeneity. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Peripheral primitive neuroendocrine tumor of the chest wall—A case report with pathological correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jidi Gao, MD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Primitive neuroectodermal tumor is a high-grade malignant tumor originating from the neural crest and neuroectoderm, which can be subdivided into central and peripheral categories. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor is thought to be identical to Ewing's sarcoma, and falls under a broader category of Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors. Very rarely, it may present without osseous involvement, known as extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma. Here we present a case of a 38-year-old woman, who presented with several-month history of a slow-growing chest wall mass, initially thought to be a breast mass. The mass was diagnosed as extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma upon tissue biopsy. The patient was started on a dose-intensified neoadjuvant therapy, based on protocol from pediatric population given rarity of this tumor in the adult population. While the patient was initially planned for surgical resection, the tumor showed excellent response to chemotherapy on follow-up imaging, and radiation therapy was elected in lieu of resection. Keywords: Chest wall tumors, Peripheral PNET, Ewing's sarcoma

  6. Primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) of the kidney: a rare renal tumour in adolescents with seemingly characteristic radiological features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Winnie C.; Reznikov, Boris; Lee, Edward Y.; Grant, Ronald M.; Cheng, Frankie W.T.; Babyn, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNETs) constitute a family of neoplasms of presumed neuroectodermal origin that predominantly present as bone or soft-tissue masses in adolescents and young adults. PNET arising in the kidney is rare. To describe the radiological features in three patients with primary renal PNET. The radiological features of primary renal PNET in three adolescent patients (age 10, 14 and 16 years) are described. Tumour thrombus extending into the renal vein and inferior vena cava was noted in all three patients. In addition, further tumour extension into the atrium was seen in two patients with extension into a pulmonary artery in one patient. Neural foraminal and intraspinal extension close to the origin of the tumour was identified in two patients. Liver, bone and lung metastases were identified. While rare, one should consider the diagnosis of PNET when encountering a renal mass with aggressive features such as inferior vena cava tumour thrombus, direct intraspinal invasion and distant metastasis. (orig.)

  7. Palbociclib Isethionate in Treating Younger Patients With Recurrent, Progressive, or Refractory Central Nervous System Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-27

    Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Recurrent Childhood Gliosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  8. 18F-FLT Positron Emission Tomography and Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Planning Surgery and Radiation Therapy and Measuring Response in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Ewing Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-16

    Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Ewing Sarcoma of Bone; Extraosseous Ewing Sarcoma; Localized Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Untreated Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  9. Complete clinical response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in a 54-year-old male with Askin tumor.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulsow, J

    2012-02-01

    Askin tumor is a tumor of the thoracopulmonary region that most commonly affects children and adolescents. These rare tumors are a form of primitive neuroectodermal tumor and typically carry a poor prognosis. Treatment is multimodal and consists of a combination of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, radical resection, and adjuvant chemo- and radiotherapy or all of the above. Surgery is advocated in most cases. We report a case of Askin tumor in a 54-year-old male who showed rapid and complete response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. This allowed potentially radical surgery to be avoided. At one-year follow-up he remains disease-free.

  10. Genetic heterogeneity in supratentorial and infratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumours of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inda, M M; Perot, C; Guillaud-Bataille, M; Danglot, G; Rey, J A; Bello, M J; Fan, X; Eberhart, C; Zazpe, I; Portillo, E; Tuñón, T; Martínez-Peñuela, J M; Bernheim, A; Castresana, J S

    2005-12-01

    Medulloblastoma (MB), a kind of infratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET), is the most frequent malignant brain tumour in childhood. In contrast, supratentorial PNET (sPNET) are very infrequent tumours, but they are histologically similar to MB, although they present a worse clinical outcome. We investigated the differences in genetic abnormalities between sPNET and MB. We analysed 20 central PNET (14 MB and six sPNET) by conventional comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) in order to determine whether a different genetic profile for each tumour exists. Isochromosome 17q was detected in four of the 14 MB cases, but not in any sPNET. Gains at 17q and 7 happened more frequently in MB, and those at 1q in sPNET. Losses at chromosome 10 were detected only in MB, while losses at 16p and 19p happened more frequently in sPNET. A new amplification site, on 4q12, was detected in two MB. Central PNET are a heterogeneous group of tumours from the genetic point of view. The present and previous data, together with further results from larger series, might contribute to the establishment of specific treatments for supratentorial and infratentorial PNET.

  11. Wilms tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... suggested. Alternative Names Nephroblastoma; Kidney tumor - Wilms Images Kidney anatomy Wilms tumor References Babaian KN, Delacroix SE, Wood CG, Jonasch E. Kidney cancer. In: Skorecki K, Chertow GM, Marsden PA, ...

  12. GLI1 is a central mediator of EWS/FLI1 signaling in Ewing tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Joo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The Ewing Sarcoma Family Tumors (ESFT consist of the classical pathologic entities of Ewing Sarcoma and peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor. Occurring largely in the childhood through young adult years, these tumors have an unsurpassed propensity for metastasis and have no defined cell of origin. The biology of these aggressive malignancies centers around EWS/FLI1 and related EWS/ETS chimeric transcription factors, which are largely limited to this tumor class. Much progress has been made in the identification of a network of loci whose expression is modulated by EWS/FLI1 and its congeners. To date, little progress has been made in reconstructing the sequence of direct and indirect events that produce this network of modulated loci. The recent identification of GLI1 as an upregulated target of EWS/ETS transcription factors suggests a target which may be a more central mediator in the ESFT signaling network. In this paper, we further define the relationship of EWS/FLI1 expression and GLI1 upregulation in ESFT. This relationship is supported with data from primary tumor specimens. It is consistently observed across multiple ESFT cell lines and with multiple means of EWS/FLI1 inhibition. GLI1 inhibition affects tumor cell line phenotype whether shRNA or endogenous or pharmacologic inhibitors are employed. As is seen in model transformation systems, GLI1 upregulation by EWS/FLI1 appears to be independent of Hedgehog stimulation. Consistent with a more central role in ESFT pathogenesis, several known EWS/FLI1 targets appear to be targeted through GLI1. These findings further establish a central role for GLI1 in the pathogenesis of Ewing Tumors.

  13. The role of H1 linker histone subtypes in preserving the fidelity of elaboration of mesendodermal and neuroectodermal lineages during embryonic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giang D Nguyen

    Full Text Available H1 linker histone proteins are essential for the structural and functional integrity of chromatin and for the fidelity of additional epigenetic modifications. Deletion of H1c, H1d and H1e in mice leads to embryonic lethality by mid-gestation with a broad spectrum of developmental alterations. To elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying H1 linker histone developmental functions, we analyzed embryonic stem cells (ESCs depleted of H1c, H1d and H1e subtypes (H1-KO ESCs by utilizing established ESC differentiation paradigms. Our study revealed that although H1-KO ESCs continued to express core pluripotency genes and the embryonic stem cell markers, alkaline phosphatase and SSEA1, they exhibited enhanced cell death during embryoid body formation and during specification of mesendoderm and neuroectoderm. In addition, we demonstrated deregulation in the developmental programs of cardiomyocyte, hepatic and pancreatic lineage elaboration. Moreover, ectopic neurogenesis and cardiomyogenesis occurred during endoderm-derived pancreatic but not hepatic differentiation. Furthermore, neural differentiation paradigms revealed selective impairments in the specification and maturation of glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurons with accelerated maturation of glial lineages. These impairments were associated with deregulation in the expression profiles of pro-neural genes in dorsal and ventral forebrain-derived neural stem cell species. Taken together, these experimental observations suggest that H1 linker histone proteins are critical for the specification, maturation and fidelity of organ-specific cellular lineages derived from the three cardinal germ layers.

  14. An anterior signaling center patterns and sizes the anterior neuroectoderm of the sea urchin embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Range, Ryan C; Wei, Zheng

    2016-05-01

    Anterior signaling centers help specify and pattern the early anterior neuroectoderm (ANE) in many deuterostomes. In sea urchin the ANE is restricted to the anterior of the late blastula stage embryo, where it forms a simple neural territory comprising several types of neurons as well as the apical tuft. Here, we show that during early development, the sea urchin ANE territory separates into inner and outer regulatory domains that express the cardinal ANE transcriptional regulators FoxQ2 and Six3, respectively. FoxQ2 drives this patterning process, which is required to eliminate six3 expression from the inner domain and activate the expression of Dkk3 and sFRP1/5, two secreted Wnt modulators. Dkk3 and low expression levels of sFRP1/5 act additively to potentiate the Wnt/JNK signaling pathway governing the positioning of the ANE territory around the anterior pole, whereas high expression levels of sFRP1/5 antagonize Wnt/JNK signaling. sFRP1/5 and Dkk3 levels are rigidly maintained via autorepressive and cross-repressive interactions with Wnt signaling components and additional ANE transcription factors. Together, these data support a model in which FoxQ2 initiates an anterior patterning center that implements correct size and positions of ANE structures. Comparisons of functional and expression studies in sea urchin, hemichordate and chordate embryos reveal striking similarities among deuterostome ANE regulatory networks and the molecular mechanism that positions and defines ANE borders. These data strongly support the idea that the sea urchin embryo uses an ancient anterior patterning system that was present in the common ambulacrarian/chordate ancestor. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Single cell cultures of Drosophila neuroectodermal and mesectodermal central nervous system progenitors reveal different degrees of developmental autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüer, Karin; Technau, Gerhard M

    2009-08-03

    The Drosophila embryonic central nervous system (CNS) develops from two sets of progenitor cells, neuroblasts and ventral midline progenitors, which behave differently in many respects. Neuroblasts derive from the neurogenic region of the ectoderm and form the lateral parts of the CNS. Ventral midline precursors are formed by two rows of mesectodermal cells and build the CNS midline. There is plenty of evidence that individual identities are conferred to precursor cells by positional information in the ectoderm. It is unclear, however, how far the precursors can maintain their identities and developmental properties in the absence of normal external signals. To separate the respective contributions of autonomous properties versus extrinsic signals during their further development, we isolated individual midline precursors and neuroectodermal precursors at the pre-mitotic gastrula stage, traced their development in vitro, and analyzed the characteristics of their lineages in comparison with those described for the embryo. Although individually cultured mesectodermal cells exhibit basic characteristics of CNS midline progenitors, the clones produced by these progenitors differ from their in situ counterparts with regard to cell numbers, expression of molecular markers, and the separation of neuronal and glial fate. In contrast, clones derived from individually cultured precursors taken from specific dorsoventral zones of the neuroectoderm develop striking similarities to the lineages of neuroblasts that normally delaminate from these zones and develop in situ. This in vitro analysis allows for the first time a comparison of the developmental capacities in situ and in vitro of individual neural precursors of defined spatial and temporal origin. The data reveal that cells isolated at the pre-mitotic and pre-delamination stage express characteristics of the progenitor type appropriate to their site of origin in the embryo. However, presumptive neuroblasts, once

  16. Single cell cultures of Drosophila neuroectodermal and mesectodermal central nervous system progenitors reveal different degrees of developmental autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Technau Gerhard M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Drosophila embryonic central nervous system (CNS develops from two sets of progenitor cells, neuroblasts and ventral midline progenitors, which behave differently in many respects. Neuroblasts derive from the neurogenic region of the ectoderm and form the lateral parts of the CNS. Ventral midline precursors are formed by two rows of mesectodermal cells and build the CNS midline. There is plenty of evidence that individual identities are conferred to precursor cells by positional information in the ectoderm. It is unclear, however, how far the precursors can maintain their identities and developmental properties in the absence of normal external signals. Results To separate the respective contributions of autonomous properties versus extrinsic signals during their further development, we isolated individual midline precursors and neuroectodermal precursors at the pre-mitotic gastrula stage, traced their development in vitro, and analyzed the characteristics of their lineages in comparison with those described for the embryo. Although individually cultured mesectodermal cells exhibit basic characteristics of CNS midline progenitors, the clones produced by these progenitors differ from their in situ counterparts with regard to cell numbers, expression of molecular markers, and the separation of neuronal and glial fate. In contrast, clones derived from individually cultured precursors taken from specific dorsoventral zones of the neuroectoderm develop striking similarities to the lineages of neuroblasts that normally delaminate from these zones and develop in situ. Conclusion This in vitro analysis allows for the first time a comparison of the developmental capacities in situ and in vitro of individual neural precursors of defined spatial and temporal origin. The data reveal that cells isolated at the pre-mitotic and pre-delamination stage express characteristics of the progenitor type appropriate to their site of origin in

  17. Engineered Herpes Simplex Viruses for the Treatment of Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    lines). This is an entry receptor usually limited to lymphoid cells has not been previously identified in neuroectodermal tissue. Year 3: As a... innate and adaptive immune 327 response. However, resistance is common in vitro and therefore, to the extent that tumor cell lines 328 maintain the...Handgretinger R, et al. Innate immune 461 defense defines susceptibility of sarcoma cells to measles vaccine virus-based oncolysis. J Virol. 462 2013;87

  18. Imaging of non-central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumours: Diagnostic features and correlation with outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, E.A.; McHugh, K.; Kimber, C.; Michalski, A

    2001-03-01

    AIM: To document the varied radiological features before, during, and after treatment of non-Central Nervous System Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumours (PNETs), which are rare tumours of childhood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-three children with PNETs have been treated at our institution between 1990 and 1999. Full radiological and clinical follow-up was obtained in 29 (17 females, 12 males). Imaging was retrospectively reviewed, with particular attention to Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). RESULTS: Age range at diagnosis was 0-16 years old (mean 4.4 years). There were five main sites of tumour: head and neck (n = 7), scapula/axilla (n 2), chest (n = 11), abdomen (n = 3), and spinal/paraspinal (n = 6). Overall mortality was 62%. Tumours of the scapula or paraspinal region appear to show better survival than other sites. Of 23 patients who had Tc99m-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scans at diagnosis, four patients showed widespread distant metastases, seven showed focal increased uptake in an adjacent bone only, and 12 had normal examinations. CT was performed in 25 patients and MRI in 20, both at diagnosis and follow-up. Average size of tumours at presentation was 4.5 cm in the paraspinal, head and neck and scapular regions and 7.5 cm in the chest and abdomen. Tumours were typically of soft tissue density on CT with the larger (>5 cm) masses tending to be more heterogeneous in character. The lesions were slightly higher signal than muscle on T1-weighted (T1W) MRI and all masses were heterogeneous on T2W sequences. Calcification was uncommon (n = 6) and generally sparse. Tumours tended to displace adjacent soft tissue structures such as vessels and bronchi rather than invade or encase them. Tumours rarely crossed the midline. Local or bony invasion was seen in 12 patients at diagnosis. Metastases were identified in the lung (n = 5), pleura (n = 2), brain (n = 4), bone (n = 4), lymph nodes (n = 2), liver (n = 2), subcutaneous tissues

  19. Imaging of non-central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumours: Diagnostic features and correlation with outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick, E.A.; McHugh, K.; Kimber, C.; Michalski, A.

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To document the varied radiological features before, during, and after treatment of non-Central Nervous System Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumours (PNETs), which are rare tumours of childhood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-three children with PNETs have been treated at our institution between 1990 and 1999. Full radiological and clinical follow-up was obtained in 29 (17 females, 12 males). Imaging was retrospectively reviewed, with particular attention to Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). RESULTS: Age range at diagnosis was 0-16 years old (mean 4.4 years). There were five main sites of tumour: head and neck (n = 7), scapula/axilla (n 2), chest (n = 11), abdomen (n = 3), and spinal/paraspinal (n = 6). Overall mortality was 62%. Tumours of the scapula or paraspinal region appear to show better survival than other sites. Of 23 patients who had Tc99m-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scans at diagnosis, four patients showed widespread distant metastases, seven showed focal increased uptake in an adjacent bone only, and 12 had normal examinations. CT was performed in 25 patients and MRI in 20, both at diagnosis and follow-up. Average size of tumours at presentation was 4.5 cm in the paraspinal, head and neck and scapular regions and 7.5 cm in the chest and abdomen. Tumours were typically of soft tissue density on CT with the larger (>5 cm) masses tending to be more heterogeneous in character. The lesions were slightly higher signal than muscle on T1-weighted (T1W) MRI and all masses were heterogeneous on T2W sequences. Calcification was uncommon (n = 6) and generally sparse. Tumours tended to displace adjacent soft tissue structures such as vessels and bronchi rather than invade or encase them. Tumours rarely crossed the midline. Local or bony invasion was seen in 12 patients at diagnosis. Metastases were identified in the lung (n = 5), pleura (n = 2), brain (n = 4), bone (n = 4), lymph nodes (n = 2), liver (n = 2), subcutaneous tissues

  20. Potential role of proton therapy in the treatment of pediatric medulloblastoma/primitive neuro-ectodermal tumors: spinal theca irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miralbell, Raymond; Lomax, Anthony; Russo, Mariateresa

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Conventional postoperative photon-beam radiotherapy to the spine in children with medulloblastoma/PNET is associated with severe late effects. This morbidity (growth and developmental) is related to the exit dose of the beams and is particularly severe in young children. With the purpose of reducing this toxicity, a dosimetric study was undertaken in which proton therapy was compared to standard megavoltage photon treatment. Methods and materials: The results of a comparative dosimetric study are presented in such a way that the dose distribution achievable with a posterior modulated 100 MeV proton beam (spot scanning method) is compared with that of a standard set of posterior 6 MV x-ray fields. The potential improvements with protons are evaluated, using dose-volume histograms to examine the coverage of the target as well as the dose to the vertebral bodies (growth plates), lungs, heart, and liver. Results: The target (i.e., the spinal dural sac) received the full prescribed dose in both treatment plans. However, the proportions of the vertebral body volume receiving ≥50% of the prescribed dose were 100 and 20% for 6 MV x-rays and protons, respectively. For 6 MV x-rays >60% of the dose prescribed to the target was delivered to 44% of the heart volume, while the proton beam was able to completely avoid the heart, the liver, and in all likelihood the thyroid and gonads as well. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates a potential role of proton therapy in decreasing the dose (and toxicity) to the critical structures in the irradiation of the spinal neuraxis in medulloblastoma/PNET. The potential bone marrow and growth arrest sparing effects make this approach specially attractive for intensive chemotherapy protocols and for very young children. Sparing the thyroid gland, the posterior heart wall, and the gonads may be additional advantages in assuring a long-term posttreatment morbidity-free survival

  1. Congenital tumors of the central nervous system

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    Severino, Mariasavina [G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy); Schwartz, Erin S. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Thurnher, Majda M. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Rydland, Jana [MR Center, St. Olav' s Hospital HF, Trondheim (Norway); Nikas, Ioannis [Agia Sophia Children' s Hospital, Imaging Department, Athens (Greece); Rossi, Andrea [G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy); G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    Congenital tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) are often arbitrarily divided into ''definitely congenital'' (present or producing symptoms at birth), ''probably congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first week of life), and ''possibly congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first 6 months of life). They represent less than 2% of all childhood brain tumors. The clinical features of newborns include an enlarged head circumference, associated hydrocephalus, and asymmetric skull growth. At birth, a large head or a tense fontanel is the presenting sign in up to 85% of patients. Neurological symptoms as initial symptoms are comparatively rare. The prenatal diagnosis of congenital CNS tumors, while based on ultrasonography, has significantly benefited from the introduction of prenatal magnetic resonance imaging studies. Teratomas constitute about one third to one half of these tumors and are the most common neonatal brain tumor. They are often immature because of primitive neural elements and, rarely, a component of mixed malignant germ cell tumors. Other tumors include astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors, and medulloblastomas. Less common histologies include craniopharyngiomas and ependymomas. There is a strong predilection for supratentorial locations, different from tumors of infants and children. Differential diagnoses include spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage that can occur in the presence of coagulation factor deficiency or underlying vascular malformations, and congenital brain malformations, especially giant heterotopia. The prognosis for patients with congenital tumors is generally poor, usually because of the massive size of the tumor. However, tumors can be resected successfully if they are small and favorably located. The most favorable outcomes are achieved with choroid plexus tumors

  2. Congenital tumors of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severino, Mariasavina; Schwartz, Erin S.; Thurnher, Majda M.; Rydland, Jana; Nikas, Ioannis; Rossi, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Congenital tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) are often arbitrarily divided into ''definitely congenital'' (present or producing symptoms at birth), ''probably congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first week of life), and ''possibly congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first 6 months of life). They represent less than 2% of all childhood brain tumors. The clinical features of newborns include an enlarged head circumference, associated hydrocephalus, and asymmetric skull growth. At birth, a large head or a tense fontanel is the presenting sign in up to 85% of patients. Neurological symptoms as initial symptoms are comparatively rare. The prenatal diagnosis of congenital CNS tumors, while based on ultrasonography, has significantly benefited from the introduction of prenatal magnetic resonance imaging studies. Teratomas constitute about one third to one half of these tumors and are the most common neonatal brain tumor. They are often immature because of primitive neural elements and, rarely, a component of mixed malignant germ cell tumors. Other tumors include astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors, and medulloblastomas. Less common histologies include craniopharyngiomas and ependymomas. There is a strong predilection for supratentorial locations, different from tumors of infants and children. Differential diagnoses include spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage that can occur in the presence of coagulation factor deficiency or underlying vascular malformations, and congenital brain malformations, especially giant heterotopia. The prognosis for patients with congenital tumors is generally poor, usually because of the massive size of the tumor. However, tumors can be resected successfully if they are small and favorably located. The most favorable outcomes are achieved with choroid plexus tumors, where aggressive surgical treatment leads to disease

  3. Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor: an unusual presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandhi, Chirag D.; Krieger, Mark D.; McComb, J. Gordon

    2004-01-01

    Atypical teratoid/ rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) of the central nervous system is a rare, highly aggressive malignancy of infancy. Although it is reported infrequently in the literature, it has often been histologically confused with a primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET)/medulloblastoma (MB) but has a much worse prognosis. We present an infant with two AT/RT tumors, one suprasellar in location and the other within the vermis without evidence of tumor elsewhere. What makes this case unusual is that there were two separate lesions in different cranial compartments, with no evidence of subarachnoid seeding. In addition, the lesions had different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics even though they were histologically the same. (orig.)

  4. Enhanced anti-tumor activity of a new curcumin-related compound against melanoma and neuroblastoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastorino Fabio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sharing the common neuroectodermal origin, melanoma and neuroblastoma are tumors widely diffused among adult and children, respectively. Clinical prognosis of aggressive neuroectodermal cancers remains dismal, therefore the search for novel therapies against such tumors is warranted. Curcumin is a phytochemical compound widely studied for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. Recently, we have synthesized and tested in vitro various curcumin-related compounds in order to select new anti-tumor agents displaying stronger and selective growth inhibition activity on neuroectodermal tumors. Results In this work, we have demonstrated that the new α,β-unsaturated ketone D6 was more effective in inhibiting tumor cells growth when compared to curcumin. Normal fibroblasts proliferation was not affected by this treatment. Clonogenic assay showed a significant dose-dependent reduction in both melanoma and neuroblastoma colony formation only after D6 treatment. TUNEL assay, Annexin-V staining, caspases activation and PARP cleavage unveiled the ability of D6 to cause tumor cell death by triggering apoptosis, similarly to curcumin, but with a stronger and quicker extent. These apoptotic features appear to be associated with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release. In vivo anti-tumor activity of curcumin and D6 was surveyed using sub-cutaneous melanoma and orthotopic neuroblastoma xenograft models. D6 treated mice exhibited significantly reduced tumor growth compared to both control and curcumin treated ones (Melanoma: D6 vs control: P and D6 vs curcumin P Neuroblastoma: D6 vs both control and curcumin: P . Conclusions Our data indicate D6 as a good candidate to develop new therapies against neural crest-derived tumors.

  5. JMJD2A attenuation affects cell cycle and tumourigenic inflammatory gene regulation in lipopolysaccharide stimulated neuroectodermal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Amitabh, E-mail: amitabhdas.kn@gmail.com [Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Chai, Jin Choul, E-mail: jincchai@gmail.com [Department of Molecular and Life Science, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa 3-dong, Ansan 426-791, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Kyoung Hwa, E-mail: khjung2@gmail.com [Department of Molecular and Life Science, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa 3-dong, Ansan 426-791, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Das, Nando Dulal, E-mail: nando.hu@gmail.com [Clinical Research Centre, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon 400-711 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Sung Chul, E-mail: gujiju11@gmail.com [Department of Molecular and Life Science, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa 3-dong, Ansan 426-791, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Seek, E-mail: yslee@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Molecular and Life Science, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa 3-dong, Ansan 426-791, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hyemyung, E-mail: hseo@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Molecular and Life Science, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa 3-dong, Ansan 426-791, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Chai, Young Gyu, E-mail: ygchai@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Molecular and Life Science, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa 3-dong, Ansan 426-791, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-01

    JMJD2A is a lysine trimethyl-specific histone demethylase that is highly expressed in a variety of tumours. The role of JMJD2A in tumour progression remains unclear. The objectives of this study were to identify JMJD2A-regulated genes and understand the function of JMJD2A in p53-null neuroectodermal stem cells (p53{sup −/−} NE-4Cs). We determined the effect of LPS as a model of inflammation in p53{sup −/−} NE-4Cs and investigated whether the epigenetic modifier JMJD2A alter the expression of tumourigenic inflammatory genes. Global gene expression was measured in JMJD2A knockdown (kd) p53{sup −/−} NE-4Cs and in LPS-stimulated JMJD2A-kd p53{sup −/−} NE-4C cells. JMJD2A attenuation significantly down-regulated genes were Cdca2, Ccnd2, Ccnd1, Crebbp, IL6rα, and Stat3 related with cell cycle, proliferation, and inflammatory-disease responses. Importantly, some tumour-suppressor genes including Dapk3, Timp2 and TFPI were significantly up-regulated but were not affected by silencing of the JMJD2B. Furthermore, we confirmed the attenuation of JMJD2A also down-regulated Cdca2, Ccnd2, Crebbp, and Rest in primary NSCs isolated from the forebrains of E15 embryos of C57/BL6J mice with effective p53 inhibitor pifithrin-α (PFT-α). Transcription factor (TF) motif analysis revealed known binding patterns for CDC5, MYC, and CREB, as well as three novel motifs in JMJD2A-regulated genes. IPA established molecular networks. The molecular network signatures and functional gene-expression profiling data from this study warrants further investigation as an effective therapeutic target, and studies to elucidate the molecular mechanism of JMJD2A-kd-dependent effects in neuroectodermal stem cells should be performed. - Highlights: • Significant up-regulation of epigenetic modifier JMJD2A mRNA upon LPS treatment. • Inhibition of JMJD2A attenuated key inflammatory and tumourigenic genes. • Establishing IPA based functional genomics in JMJD2A-attenuated p53{sup

  6. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  7. Ewing’s sarcoma: an uncommon breast tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawsen Meddeb

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ewing’s sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumors (EWS/PNET are rare malignant and aggressive tumors, usually seen in the trunk and lower limbs of children and young adults. They are uncommon in the breast. We report a case of a 43-year-old woman who developed a painless breast mass. An initial core needle biopsy concluded to a fibrocystic dystrophy contrasting with a rapidly growing mass; thus a large lumpectomy was done. Diagnosis of primary PNET of the breast was established, based on both histopathological examination and immunohistochemical findings. Surgical margins were positive, therefore, left modified radical mastectomy with axillary lymph nodes dissection was performed. The patient was given 6 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy containing cyclophosphamide, adriamycin and vincristine. Twenty months later, she is in life without recurrence or metastasis. EWS/PNET may impose a diagnostic challenge. Indeed, mammography and ultrasonography features are non specific. The histopathological pattern is variable depending on the degree of neuroectodermal differentiation. Immuno-phenotyping is necessary and genetic study is the only confirmatory tool of diagnosis showing a characteristic cytogenetic anomaly; t (11; 22 translocation.

  8. Boron neutron capture therapy for children with malignant brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Yoshinobu; Komatsu, Hisao; Kageji, Teruyoshi; Tsuji, Fumio; Matsumoto, Keizo; Kitamura, Katsuji; Hatanaka, Hiroshi; Minobe, Takashi.

    1993-01-01

    Among the 131 cases with brain tumors treated by boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT), seventeen were children. Eight supratentorial tumors included five astrocytomas(grade 2-4), two primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) and one rhabdomyosarcoma. Seven pontine tumors included one astrocytoma, one PNET and 5 unverified gliomas. Two cerebellar tumors (PNET and astrocytoma) were also treated. All pontine tumors showed remarkable decrease in size after BNCT. However, most of them showed regrowth of the tumors because the neutrons were insufficient due to the depth. Four cases with cerebral tumor died of remote cell dissemination, although they all responded to BNCT. One of them survived 7 years after repeated BNCTs. An 11 years old girl with a large astrocytoma in the right frontal lobe has lived more than 11 years and is now a draftswoman at a civil engineering company after graduating from a technical college. An 8 years old girl with an astrocytoma in the left occipital lobe has no recurrence of the tumor for 2 years and attends on elementary school without mental and physical problems. Two children (one year old girl and four years old boy) with cerebellar tumors have shown showed an excellent growth after BNCT and had no neurological deficits. Mental and physical development in patients treated by BNCT is usually better than that in patients treated by conventional radiotherapy. (author)

  9. Comparative expression analysis reveals lineage relationships between human and murine gliomas and a dominance of glial signatures during tumor propagation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriquez, Nico V; Forshew, Tim; Tatevossian, Ruth; Ellis, Matthew; Richard-Loendt, Angela; Rogers, Hazel; Jacques, Thomas S; Reitboeck, Pablo Garcia; Pearce, Kerra; Sheer, Denise; Grundy, Richard G; Brandner, Sebastian

    2013-09-15

    Brain tumors are thought to originate from stem/progenitor cell populations that acquire specific genetic mutations. Although current preclinical models have relevance to human pathogenesis, most do not recapitulate the histogenesis of the human disease. Recently, a large series of human gliomas and medulloblastomas were analyzed for genetic signatures of prognosis and therapeutic response. Using a mouse model system that generates three distinct types of intrinsic brain tumors, we correlated RNA and protein expression levels with human brain tumors. A combination of genetic mutations and cellular environment during tumor propagation defined the incidence and phenotype of intrinsic murine tumors. Importantly, in vitro passage of cancer stem cells uniformly promoted a glial expression profile in culture and in brain tumors. Gene expression profiling revealed that experimental gliomas corresponded to distinct subclasses of human glioblastoma, whereas experimental supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (sPNET) correspond to atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT), a rare childhood tumor. ©2013 AACR.

  10. Central nervous system tumors: Radiologic pathologic correlation and diagnostic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishita Pant

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to formulate location-wise radiologic diagnostic algorithms and assess their concordance with the final histopathological diagnosis so as to evaluate their utility in a rural setting where only basic facilities are available. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis to assess the concordance of radiology (primarily MRI with final histopathology report was done. Based on the most common incidence of tumor location and basic radiology findings, diagnostic algorithms were prepared. Results: For supratentorial intraaxial parenchymal location concordance was seen in all high-grade astrocytomas, low- and high-grade oligodendrogliomas, metastatic tumors, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, high-grade ependymomas, neuronal and mixed neuro-glial tumors and tumors of hematopoietic system. Lowest concordance was seen in low-grade astrocytomas. In the supratentorial intraaxial ventricular location, agreement was observed in choroid plexus tumors, ependymomas, low-grade astrocytomas and meningiomas; in the supratentorial extraaxial location, except for the lack of concordance in the only case of metastatic tumor, concordance was observed in meningeal tumors, tumors of the sellar region, tumors of cranial and paraspinal nerves; the infratentorial intraaxial parenchymal location showed agreement in low- as well as high-grade astrocytomas, metastatic tumors, high-grade ependymoma, embryonal tumors and hematopoietic tumors; in the infratentorial intraaxial ventricular location, except for the lack of concordance in one case of low-grade astrocytoma and two cases of medulloblastomas, agreement was observed in low- and high-grade ependymoma; infratentorial extraaxial tumors showed complete agreement in all tumors of cranial and paraspinal nerves, meningiomas, and hematopoietic tumors. Conclusion: A location-based approach to central nervous system (CNS tumors is helpful in establishing an appropriate differential diagnosis.

  11. Open to Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Reading, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Offers (1) suggestions for improving college students' study skills; (2) a system for keeping track of parent, teacher, and community contacts; (3) suggestions for motivating students using tic tac toe; (4) suggestions for using etymology to improve word retention; (5) a word search grid; and (6) suggestions for using postcards in remedial reading…

  12. Clinical results of BNCT for malignant brain tumors in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Yoshinobu; Kageji, Teruyoshi; Mizobuchi, Yoshifumi; Kumada, Hiroaki; Nakagawa, Yoshiaki

    2009-01-01

    It is very difficult to treat the patients with malignant brain tumor in children, especially under 3 years, because the conventional irradiation cannot be applied due to the damage of normal brain tissue. However, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has tumor selectivity such that it can make damage only in tumor cells. We evaluated the clinical results and courses in patients with malignant glioma under 15 years. Among 183 patients with brain tumors treated by our group using BSH-based intra-operative BNCT, 23 patients were under 15 years. They included 4 patients under 3 years. There were 3 glioblastomas (GBM), 6 anaplastic astrocytomas(AAS), 7 primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), 6 pontine gliomas and 1 anaplastic ependymoma. All GBM and PNET patients died due to CSF and/or CNS dissemination without local tumor regrowth. All pontine glioma patients died due to regrowth of the tumor. Four of 6 anaplastic astrocytoma and 1 anaplastic ependymoma patients alive without tumor recurrence. BNCT can be applied to malignant brain tumors in children, especially under 3 years instead of conventional radiation. Although it can achieve the local control in the primary site, it cannot prevent CSF dissemination in patients with glioblastoma.

  13. A CASE-CONTROL STUDY OF CHILDHOOD BRAIN TUMORS AND FATHERS’ HOBBIES — A CHILDREN’S ONCOLOGY GROUP STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Andrea L.; Hovinga, Mary E.; Rorke-Adams, Lucy B.; Spector, Logan G.; Bunin, Greta R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective A comprehensive case-control study was conducted to evaluate parental risk factors for medulloblastoma (MB) and primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET). This analysis was conducted to evaluate associations between fathers’ hobbies and risk of their children developing MB/PNET. The hobbies chosen for study were those with similar exposures as occupations associated with childhood cancers. Methods Cases were 318 subjects under 6 years of age at diagnosis between 1991-1997 and registered with the Children’s Cancer Group. An equal number of controls were selected through random digit dialing and individually matched to cases. Results In multivariate analyses, a significant association was seen for lawn care with pesticides [during pregnancy: odds ratio (OR) = 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0, 2.5; after birth: OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.8] and a weak association was seen for stripping paint [during pregnancy: OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 0.8, 2.6; after birth: OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 0.7, 2.6]. Conclusions This study suggests that household exposures from hobbies, particularly pesticides, may increase risk of MB/PNET in children; previous research has been mostly limited to occupational exposures. PMID:18560982

  14. A case-control study of childhood brain tumors and fathers' hobbies: a Children's Oncology Group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Andrea L; Hovinga, Mary E; Rorke-Adams, Lucy B; Spector, Logan G; Bunin, Greta R

    2008-12-01

    A comprehensive case-control study was conducted to evaluate parental risk factors for medulloblastoma (MB) and primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET). This analysis was conducted to evaluate associations between fathers' hobbies and risk of their children developing MB/PNET. The hobbies chosen for study were those with similar exposures as occupations associated with childhood cancers. Cases were 318 subjects under six years of age at diagnosis between 1991 and 1997 and registered with the Children's Cancer Group. An equal number of controls were selected through random digit dialing and individually matched to cases. In multivariate analyses, a significant association was seen for lawn care with pesticides [during pregnancy: odds ratio (OR) = 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0, 2.5; after birth: OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.8] and a weak association was seen for stripping paint [during pregnancy: OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 0.8, 2.6; after birth: OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 0.7, 2.6]. This study suggests that household exposures from hobbies, particularly pesticides, may increase risk of MB/PNET in children; previous research has been mostly limited to occupational exposures.

  15. Suicidality and interrogative suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard-Boone, Lea; Range, Lillian M

    2005-01-01

    All people are subject to memory suggestibility, but suicidal individuals may be especially so. The link between suicidality and suggestibility is unclear given mixed findings and methodological weaknesses of past research. To test the link between suicidality and interrogative suggestibility, 149 undergraduates answered questions about suicidal thoughts and reasons for living, and participated in a direct suggestibility procedure. As expected, suggestibility correlated with suicidality but accounted for little overall variance (4%). Mental health professionals might be able to take advantage of client suggestibility by directly telling suicidal persons to refrain from suicidal thoughts or actions.

  16. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  17. Suggestive Objects at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene Gad

    2009-01-01

    In Western secular societies, spiritual life is no longer limited to classical religious institutions but can also be found at workplace organizations. While spirituality is conventionally understood as a subjective and internal process, this paper proposes the concept of ‘suggestive objects......’, constructed by combining insights from Gabriel Tarde's sociology with Bruno Latour's actor-network theory, to theorize the material dimension of organizational spirituality. The sacred in organizations arises not from the internalization of collective values but through the establishment of material...... scaffolding. This has deep implications for our understanding of the sacred, including a better appreciation of the way that suggestive objects make the sacred durable, the way they organize it....

  18. Detection of EWS/FLI-1 fusion in non-Ewing soft tissue tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trancău, I O; Huică, R; Surcel, M; Munteanu, A; Ursaciuc, C

    2015-01-01

    EWS/FLI-1 fusion mainly appears in Ewing's sarcoma or the primitive neuroectodermal tumors and represents a genomic marker for these tumors. However, it can appear with lower frequency in other soft tissue tumors. The paper investigates the presence of EWS/FLI-1 fusion in clinically diagnosed sarcoma belonging to different non-Ewing connective tissue tumors in order to search for a possible new biomarker valuable for investigators. 20 patients with soft tissue tumors, who underwent surgery, were tested. Intra-operative samples of normal and tumor tissue were collected for histopathological diagnosis and genetics determinations. The patients' RNA from tumor and normal peritumoral tissue was extracted and EWS/FLI-1 fusion screened by quantitative real-time PCR. The relative expression of the fusion in the tumor sample was compared to the similar expression in normal tissue. The amplification in the threshold zone was shown by 5 samples (25%): 2 clear cell sarcoma, 1 fibrosarcoma, 1 malignant tumor of nerve sheath, 1 metastatic adenocarcinoma. We differentiated between the unspecific amplification and concluded that these are weak positive results. Genomic investigation may establish the tumor malignancy and its possible affiliation earlier than histopathology. It can support the screening of EWS/FLI-1 fusion in a larger variety of clinically diagnosed soft tissue tumors.

  19. Bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unni, K.K.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings on bone tumors. Topics covered include: Bone tumor imaging: Contribution of CT and MRI, staging of bone tumors, perind cell tumors of bone, and metastatic bone disease

  20. Endocrine tumors other than thyroid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeichi, Norio; Dohi, Kiyohiko

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the tendency for the occurrence of tumors in the endocrine glands, other than the thyroid gland, in A-bomb survivors using both autopsy and clinical data. ABCC-RERF sample data using 4136 autopsy cases (1961-1977) revealed parathyroid tumors in 13 A-bomb survivors, including 3 with the associated hyperparathyroidism, with the suggestion of dose-dependent increase in the occurrence of tumors. Based on clinical data from Hiroshima University, 7 (46.7%) of 15 parathyroid tumors cases were A-bomb survivors. Data (1974-1987) from the Tumor Registry Committee (TRC) in Hiroshima Prefecture revealed that a relative risk of parathyroid tumors was 5.6 times higher in the entire group of A-bomb survivors and 16.2 times higher in the group of heavily exposed A-bomb survivors, suggesting the dose-dependent increase in their occurrence. Adrenal tumors were detected in 47 of 123 cases from the TRC data, and 15 (31.5%) of these 47 were A-bomb survivors. Particularly, 11 cases of adrenal tumors associated with Cushing syndrome included 6 A-bomb survivors (54.5%). The incidence of multiple endocrine gonadial tumors (MEGT) tended to be higher with increasing exposure doses; and the 1-9 rad group, the 10-99 rad group, and the 100 or more rad group had a risk of developing MEGT of 4.1, 5.7, and 7.1, respectively, relative to both the not-in the city group and the 0 rad group. These findings suggested that there is a correlation between A-bomb radiation and the occurrence of parathyroid tumors (including hyperparathyroidism), adrenal tumors associated with Cushing syndrome and MEGT (especially, the combined thyroid and ovarian tumors and the combined thyroid and parathyroid tumors). (N.K.)

  1. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor arisen from plexiform Neurofibromatosis type 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirova, G.; Penkov, M.; Hadjidekov, G.; Parvanova, V.

    2005-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 is multisystemic neurocutaneous disorder involving both neuroectodermal and mesenchymal texture and the most common familial cancer predisposing syndrome in humans. Tumors occurring in patients with NF1 are primarily peripheral neurofibromas. They can continue to develop throughout life and the rate of appearance may vary greatly from year to year. At the same time any new and rapid change noted at clinical examination - increase volume, pain or neurological deficit, requires biopsy because of potential malignant transformation of the neurofibroma into neurofibrosarcoma. The definitive treatment depends on the respectable character of the tumor. In this case the authors document two cases of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor occurring in the association with NF type l

  2. Multimodality Treatment in Ewing's Sarcoma Family Tumors of the Maxilla and Maxillary Sinus: Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamot, Christoph; Krasniqi, Fatime; Metternich, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) encompasses a group of highly aggressive, morphologically similar, malignant neoplasms sharing a common spontaneous genetic translocation that affect mostly children and young adults. These predominantly characteristic, small round-cell tumors include Ewing's sarcoma of the bone and soft tissue, as well as primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) involving the bone, soft tissue, and thoracopulmonary region (Askin's tumor). Extraosseous ESFTs are extremely rare, especially in the head and neck region, where literature to date consists of sporadic case reports and very small series. We hereby present a review of the literature published on ESFTs reported in the maxilla and maxillary sinus region from 1968 to 2016. PMID:27413360

  3. Performance characteristics of a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of tumor-specific fusion transcripts from archival tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Michael K; Bridge, Julia A; Schuster, Amy E; Perlman, Elizabeth J; Argani, Pedram

    2003-01-01

    Pediatric small round cell tumors still pose tremendous diagnostic problems. In difficult cases, the ability to detect tumor-specific gene fusion transcripts for several of these neoplasms, including Ewing sarcoma/peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/PNET), synovial sarcoma (SS), alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS), and desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), can be extremely helpful. Few studies to date, however, have systematically examined several different tumor types for the presence of multiple different fusion transcripts in order to determine the specificity and sensitivity of the RT-PCR method, and no study has addressed this issue for formalin-fixed material. The objectives of this study were to address the specificity, sensitivity, and practicality of such an assay applied strictly to formalin-fixed tissue blocks. Our results demonstrate that, for these tumors, the overall sensitivity for detecting each fusion transcript is similar to that reported in the literature for RT-PCR on fresh or formalin-fixed tissues. The specificity of the assay is very high, being essentially 100% for each primer pair when interpreting the results from visual inspection of agarose gels. However, when these same agarose gels were examined using Southern blotting, a small number of tumors also yielded reproducibly detectable weak signals for unexpected fusion products, in addition to a strong signal for the expected fusion product. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies in one such case indicated that a rearrangement that would account for the unexpected fusion was not present, while another case was equivocal. The overall specificity for each primer pair used in this assay ranged from 94 to 100%. Therefore, RT-PCR using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections can be used to detect chimeric transcripts as a reliable, highly sensitive, and highly specific diagnostic assay. However, we

  4. Tumor disease and associated congenital abnormalities on prenatal MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemec, Stefan F.; Horcher, Ernst; Kasprian, Gregor; Brugger, Peter C.; Bettelheim, Dieter; Amann, Gabriele; Nemec, Ursula; Rotmensch, Siegfried; Rimoin, David L.; Graham, John M. Jr.; Prayer, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Fetal tumors can have a devastating effect on the fetus, and may occur in association with congenital malformations. In view of the increasing role of fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to prenatal ultrasonography (US), we sought to demonstrate the visualization of fetal tumors, with regard to congenital abnormalities, on MRI. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 18 fetuses with tumors depicted on fetal MRI after suspicious US findings. An MRI standard protocol was used to diagnose tumors judged as benign or malignant. All organ systems were assessed for tumor-related complications and other congenital malformations. Available US results and histopathology were compared with MRI. Results: There were 13/18 (72.2%) benign and 5/18 (27.8%) malignant tumors diagnosed: a cerebral primitive neuroectodermal tumor in 1/18, head–neck teratomas in 4/18; ventricular rhabdomyomas in 4/18; a cardiac teratoma in 1/18; a hepatoblastoma in 1/18; neuroblastomas in 2/18; a cystic hemorrhagic adrenal hyperplasia in 1/18; a pelvic leiomyoma in 1/18; sacrococcygeal teratomas in 3/18. Tumor-related complications were present in 13/18 (72.2%) cases; other congenital abnormalities in 3/18 (16.7%). MRI diagnosis and histology were concordant in 8/11 (72.7%) cases. In 6/12 (50%) cases, US and MRI diagnoses were concordant, and, in 6/12 (50%) cases, additional MRI findings changed the US diagnosis. Conclusion: Our MRI results demonstrate the visualization of fetal tumors, with frequently encountered tumor-related complications, and other exceptional congenital abnormalities, which may provide important information for perinatal management. Compared to prenatal US, MRI may add important findings in certain cases.

  5. Tumor disease and associated congenital abnormalities on prenatal MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Stefan F; Horcher, Ernst; Kasprian, Gregor; Brugger, Peter C; Bettelheim, Dieter; Amann, Gabriele; Nemec, Ursula; Rotmensch, Siegfried; Rimoin, David L; Graham, John M; Prayer, Daniela

    2012-02-01

    Fetal tumors can have a devastating effect on the fetus, and may occur in association with congenital malformations. In view of the increasing role of fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to prenatal ultrasonography (US), we sought to demonstrate the visualization of fetal tumors, with regard to congenital abnormalities, on MRI. This retrospective study included 18 fetuses with tumors depicted on fetal MRI after suspicious US findings. An MRI standard protocol was used to diagnose tumors judged as benign or malignant. All organ systems were assessed for tumor-related complications and other congenital malformations. Available US results and histopathology were compared with MRI. There were 13/18 (72.2%) benign and 5/18 (27.8%) malignant tumors diagnosed: a cerebral primitive neuroectodermal tumor in 1/18, head-neck teratomas in 4/18; ventricular rhabdomyomas in 4/18; a cardiac teratoma in 1/18; a hepatoblastoma in 1/18; neuroblastomas in 2/18; a cystic hemorrhagic adrenal hyperplasia in 1/18; a pelvic leiomyoma in 1/18; sacrococcygeal teratomas in 3/18. Tumor-related complications were present in 13/18 (72.2%) cases; other congenital abnormalities in 3/18 (16.7%). MRI diagnosis and histology were concordant in 8/11 (72.7%) cases. In 6/12 (50%) cases, US and MRI diagnoses were concordant, and, in 6/12 (50%) cases, additional MRI findings changed the US diagnosis. Our MRI results demonstrate the visualization of fetal tumors, with frequently encountered tumor-related complications, and other exceptional congenital abnormalities, which may provide important information for perinatal management. Compared to prenatal US, MRI may add important findings in certain cases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiation Treatment for Malignant Small Cell Tumor of the Thoracopulmonary Region Primitive Pluripotent Histogenesis and Differential Diagnosis-A Case Report and Review of Literatures-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Won Young; Yang, Jin Yeong; Whang, In Soon

    1991-01-01

    Malignant small round cell tumor (SRCT) of the thoracopulmonary region appears to originate in the soft tissues of the chest wall or the peripheral lung. A differential diagnosis of poorly differentiated small round cell tumors which include Ewing's sarcoma of bone and soft tissue, embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, Askin tumor, neuroblastoma, peripheral neuroectodermal tumor, small cell osteogenic sarcoma and lymphoma are after difficult by light microscopy alone. In recent, by the extensive studies electron microscopic examination, histochemical study, immunochemical study, cytogenetics and gene analysis, these tumors may be derived from the primitive and pluripotential cells, differentiating into mesenchymal, epithelial and neural features in variable proportions. Treatment for SRCT of thoracopulmonary regin is not determined because of massive involvement of the lung, pleura or soft tissues of the chest wall resulted in a dismal outcome despite aggressive surgery, irradiation and chemotherapy

  7. New Brain Tumor Entities Emerge from Molecular Classification of CNS-PNETs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Dominik; Orr, Brent A; Toprak, Umut H; Hovestadt, Volker; Jones, David T W; Capper, David; Sill, Martin; Buchhalter, Ivo; Northcott, Paul A; Leis, Irina; Ryzhova, Marina; Koelsche, Christian; Pfaff, Elke; Allen, Sariah J; Balasubramanian, Gnanaprakash; Worst, Barbara C; Pajtler, Kristian W; Brabetz, Sebastian; Johann, Pascal D; Sahm, Felix; Reimand, Jüri; Mackay, Alan; Carvalho, Diana M; Remke, Marc; Phillips, Joanna J; Perry, Arie; Cowdrey, Cynthia; Drissi, Rachid; Fouladi, Maryam; Giangaspero, Felice; Łastowska, Maria; Grajkowska, Wiesława; Scheurlen, Wolfram; Pietsch, Torsten; Hagel, Christian; Gojo, Johannes; Lötsch, Daniela; Berger, Walter; Slavc, Irene; Haberler, Christine; Jouvet, Anne; Holm, Stefan; Hofer, Silvia; Prinz, Marco; Keohane, Catherine; Fried, Iris; Mawrin, Christian; Scheie, David; Mobley, Bret C; Schniederjan, Matthew J; Santi, Mariarita; Buccoliero, Anna M; Dahiya, Sonika; Kramm, Christof M; von Bueren, André O; von Hoff, Katja; Rutkowski, Stefan; Herold-Mende, Christel; Frühwald, Michael C; Milde, Till; Hasselblatt, Martin; Wesseling, Pieter; Rößler, Jochen; Schüller, Ulrich; Ebinger, Martin; Schittenhelm, Jens; Frank, Stephan; Grobholz, Rainer; Vajtai, Istvan; Hans, Volkmar; Schneppenheim, Reinhard; Zitterbart, Karel; Collins, V Peter; Aronica, Eleonora; Varlet, Pascale; Puget, Stephanie; Dufour, Christelle; Grill, Jacques; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Wolter, Marietta; Schuhmann, Martin U; Shalaby, Tarek; Grotzer, Michael; van Meter, Timothy; Monoranu, Camelia-Maria; Felsberg, Jörg; Reifenberger, Guido; Snuderl, Matija; Forrester, Lynn Ann; Koster, Jan; Versteeg, Rogier; Volckmann, Richard; van Sluis, Peter; Wolf, Stephan; Mikkelsen, Tom; Gajjar, Amar; Aldape, Kenneth; Moore, Andrew S; Taylor, Michael D; Jones, Chris; Jabado, Nada; Karajannis, Matthias A; Eils, Roland; Schlesner, Matthias; Lichter, Peter; von Deimling, Andreas; Pfister, Stefan M; Ellison, David W; Korshunov, Andrey; Kool, Marcel

    2016-02-25

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the central nervous system (CNS-PNETs) are highly aggressive, poorly differentiated embryonal tumors occurring predominantly in young children but also affecting adolescents and adults. Herein, we demonstrate that a significant proportion of institutionally diagnosed CNS-PNETs display molecular profiles indistinguishable from those of various other well-defined CNS tumor entities, facilitating diagnosis and appropriate therapy for patients with these tumors. From the remaining fraction of CNS-PNETs, we identify four new CNS tumor entities, each associated with a recurrent genetic alteration and distinct histopathological and clinical features. These new molecular entities, designated "CNS neuroblastoma with FOXR2 activation (CNS NB-FOXR2)," "CNS Ewing sarcoma family tumor with CIC alteration (CNS EFT-CIC)," "CNS high-grade neuroepithelial tumor with MN1 alteration (CNS HGNET-MN1)," and "CNS high-grade neuroepithelial tumor with BCOR alteration (CNS HGNET-BCOR)," will enable meaningful clinical trials and the development of therapeutic strategies for patients affected by poorly differentiated CNS tumors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Tumor-Associated Macrophages and Neutrophils in Tumor Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehong Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Distinct tumor microenvironment forms in each progression step of cancer and has diverse capacities to induce both adverse and beneficial consequences for tumorigenesis. It is now known that immune cells can be activated to favor tumor growth and progression, most probably influenced by the tumor microenvironment. Tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils can exert protumoral functions, enhancing tumor cell invasion and metastasis, angiogenesis, and extracellular matrix remodeling, while inhibiting the antitumoral immune surveillance. Considering that neutrophils in inflammatory environments recruit macrophages and that recruited macrophages affect neutrophil functions, there may be various degrees of interaction between tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils. Platelets also play an important role in the recruitment and regulation of monocytic and granulocytic cells in the tumor tissues, suggesting that platelet function may be essential for generation of tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils. In this review, we will explore the biology of tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils and their possible interactions in the tumor microenvironment. Special attention will be given to the recruitment and activation of these tumor-associated cells and to the roles they play in maintenance of the tumor microenvironment and progression of tumors.

  9. Pathology, treatment and management of posterior fossa brain tumors in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, K.; Siegel, K.R.

    1988-01-01

    Brain tumors are the second most common childhood malignancy. Between 1975 and 1985, 462 newly diagnosed patients were treated at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia; 207 (45%) tumors arose in the posterior fossa and 255 (55%) appeared supratentorially. A wide variety of histological subtypes were seen, each requiring tumor-specific treatment approaches. These included primitive neuroectodermal tumor (n = 86, 19%), astrocytoma (n = 135, 30%), brainstem glioma (n = 47, 10%), anaplastic astrocytoma (n = 32, 7%), and ependymoma (n = 30, 6%). Because of advances in diagnostic abilities, surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, between 60% and 70% of these patients are alive today. Diagnostic tools such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging allow for better perioperative management and follow-up, while the operating microscope, CO 2 laser, cavitron ultrasonic aspirator and neurosurgical microinstrumentation allow for more extensive and safer surgery. Disease specific treatment protocols, utilizing radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy, have made survival common in tumors such as medulloblastoma. As survival rates increase, cognitive, endocrinologic and psychologic sequelae become increasingly important. The optimal management of children with brain tumors demands a multidisciplinary approach, best facilitated by a neuro-oncology team composed of multiple subspecialists. This article addresses incidence, classification and histology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, pre-, intra- and postoperative management, long-term effects and the team approach in posterior fossa tumors in childhood. Management of specific tumor types is included as well. 57 references

  10. N-cadherin Expression in Testicular Germ Cell and Gonadal Stromal Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Heidenberg, Joel H. Barton, Denise Young, Michael Grinkemeyer, Isabell A. Sesterhenn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural-cadherin is a member of the cadherin gene family encoding the N-cadherin protein that mediates cell adhesion. N-cadherin is a marker of Sertoli cells and is also expressed in germ cells of varying stages of maturation. The purpose of this study was to determine the presence and distribution of this protein by immunohistochemistry in 105 germ cell tumors of both single and mixed histological types and 12 gonadal stromal tumors. Twenty-four germ cell tumors consisted of one cell type and the remaining were mixed. Of the 23 seminomas in either pure or mixed tumors, 74% were positive. Two spermatocytic seminomas were positive. Of the 83 cases with yolk sac tumor, 99% were positive for N-cadherin. The teratomas were positive in 73% in neuroectodermal and / or glandular components. In contrast, 87% of embryonal carcinomas did not express N-cadherin. Only 17% of the syncytiotrophoblastic cells were positive for N-cadherin. In conclusion, N-cadherin expression is very helpful in the identification of yolk sac tumors. In addition to glypican-3 and Sal-like protein 4, N-cadherin can be beneficial for the diagnosis and classification of this subtype of testicular germ cell tumor. Nine of the 12 gonadal stromal tumors were positive to a variable extent.

  11. Essential contribution of tumor-derived perlecan to epidermal tumor growth and angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Xinnong; Multhaupt, Hinke; Chan, En

    2004-01-01

    As a major heparan sulfate proteoglycan (PG) in basement membranes, perlecan has been linked to tumor invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Here we produced epidermal tumors in immunocompromised rats by injection of mouse RT101 tumor cells. Tumor sections stained with species-specific perlecan...... factor. In vivo, antisense perlecan-transfected cells generated no tumors, whereas untransfected and vector-transfected cells formed tumors with obvious neovascularization, suggesting that tumor perlecan rather than host perlecan controls tumor growth and angiogenesis....

  12. Efficacy of 68Ga-DOTATOC Positron Emission Tomography (PET) CT in Children and Young Adults With Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-27

    Acoustic Schwannoma; Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Tumor; Adult Craniopharyngioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade I Meningioma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Meningeal Melanocytoma; Newly Diagnosed Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Diffuse Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Fibrillary Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Gemistocytic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Recurrent Childhood Gliosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood

  13. Causation of nervous system tumors in children: insights from traditional and genetically engineered animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, Jerry M.

    2004-01-01

    Pediatric neurogenic tumors include primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs), especially medulloblastoma; ependymomas and choroid plexus papillomas; astrocytomas; retinoblastoma; and sympathetic neuroblastoma. Meningiomas and nerve sheath tumors, although uncommon in childhood, are also significant because they can result from exposures of children to ionizing radiation. Specific chromosomal loci and specific genes are related to each of these tumor types. Virtually all these genes appear to act as tumor suppressor genes, which are inactivated in tumor cells by mutations or by chromosomal loss. In genetically engineered mice, some genes that are clearly associated with specific human tumors (e.g., RB1 in retinoblastoma and NF2 in meningiomas and schwannomas) have no such effect. Other genetic constructs in mice involving the genes p53, ptc1, and Nf1 have produced tumors remarkably similar to some of the human pediatric neoplasms. Some of these tumors become clinically apparent after only a few weeks, while the mice are still juveniles, especially when two or more tumor suppressor genes are inactivated in the same genetic construct. Conversely, at least one genetic pathway in rodents involving point mutation in the coding region of a transforming gene (neu in malignant schwannomas) does not appear to operate in any human tumors. The nervous system is markedly susceptible to experimental carcinogenesis during early life in rodents, dogs, primates, and other nonhuman species, and there is no obvious reason why this generalization should not also apply to humans. However, except for therapeutic ionizing radiation, no physical, chemical, or biological cause of human pediatric nervous system tumors is known. The failure of experimental transplacental carcinogenesis to mirror human pediatric experience more closely may reflect the need for multiple mutational events in target cells, and for experimental carcinogens that are capable of causing the full spectrum of

  14. Types of suggestibility: Relationships among compliance, indirect, and direct suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polczyk, Romuald; Pasek, Tomasz

    2006-10-01

    It is commonly believed that direct suggestibility, referring to overt influence, and indirect suggestibility, in which the intention to influence is hidden, correlate poorly. This study demonstrates that they are substantially related, provided that they tap similar areas of influence. Test results from 103 students, 55 women and 48 men, were entered into regression analyses. Indirect suggestibility, as measured by the Sensory Suggestibility Scale for Groups, and compliance, measured by the Gudjonsson Compliance Scale, were predictors of direct suggestibility, assessed with the Barber Suggestibility Scale. Spectral analyses showed that indirect suggestibility is more related to difficult tasks on the BSS, but compliance is more related to easy tasks on this scale.

  15. Analysis of limb function after various reconstruction methods according to tumor location following resection of pediatric malignant bone tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokuhashi Yasuaki

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the reconstruction of the affected limb in pediatric malignant bone tumors, since the loss of joint function affects limb-length discrepancy expected in the future, reconstruction methods that not only maximally preserve the joint function but also maintain good limb function are necessary. We analysis limb function of reconstruction methods by tumor location following resection of pediatric malignant bone tumors. Patients and methods We classified the tumors according to their location into 3 types by preoperative MRI, and evaluated reconstruction methods after wide resection, paying attention to whether the joint function could be preserved. The mean age of the patients was 10.6 years, Osteosarcoma was observed in 26 patients, Ewing's sarcoma in 3, and PNET(primitive neuroectodermal tumor and chondrosarcoma (grade 1 in 1 each. Results Type I were those located in the diaphysis, and reconstruction was performed using a vascularized fibular graft(vascularized fibular graft. Type 2 were those located in contact with the epiphyseal line or within 1 cm from this line, and VFG was performed in 1, and distraction osteogenesis in 1. Type III were those extending from the diaphysis to the epiphysis beyond the epiphyseal line, and a Growing Kotz was mainly used in 10 patients. The mean functional assessment score was the highest for Type I (96%: n = 4 according to the type and for VFG (99% according to the reconstruction method. Conclusion The final functional results were the most satisfactory for Types I and II according to tumor location. Biological reconstruction such as VFG and distraction osteogenesis without a prosthesis are so high score in the MSTS rating system. Therefore, considering the function of the affected limb, a limb reconstruction method allowing the maximal preservation of joint function should be selected after careful evaluation of the effects of chemotherapy and the location of the tumor.

  16. Sinus Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RESOURCES Medical Societies Patient Education About this Website Font Size + - Home > CONDITIONS > Sinus Tumors Adult Sinusitis Pediatric ... and they vary greatly in location, size and type. Care for these tumors is individualized to each ...

  17. Tumors markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi-Mizumoto, N.H.

    1989-01-01

    In order to study blood and cell components alterations (named tumor markers) that may indicate the presence of a tumor, several methods are presented. Aspects as diagnostic, prognostic, therapeutic value and clinical evaluation are discussed. (M.A.C.)

  18. Spinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goethem, J.W.M. van; Hauwe, L. van den; Oezsarlak, Oe.; Schepper, A.M.A. de; Parizel, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    Spinal tumors are uncommon lesions but may cause significant morbidity in terms of limb dysfunction. In establishing the differential diagnosis for a spinal lesion, location is the most important feature, but the clinical presentation and the patient's age and gender are also important. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays a central role in the imaging of spinal tumors, easily allowing tumors to be classified as extradural, intradural-extramedullary or intramedullary, which is very useful in tumor characterization. In the evaluation of lesions of the osseous spine both computed tomography (CT) and MR are important. We describe the most common spinal tumors in detail. In general, extradural lesions are the most common with metastasis being the most frequent. Intradural tumors are rare, and the majority is extramedullary, with meningiomas and nerve sheath tumors being the most frequent. Intramedullary tumors are uncommon spinal tumors. Astrocytomas and ependymomas comprise the majority of the intramedullary tumors. The most important tumors are documented with appropriate high quality CT or MR images and the characteristics of these tumors are also summarized in a comprehensive table. Finally we illustrate the use of the new World Health Organization (WHO) classification of neoplasms affecting the central nervous system

  19. Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  20. Urogenital tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    An overview is provided for veterinary care of urogenital tumors in companion animals, especially the dog. Neoplasms discussed include tumors of the kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis, ovary, vagina, vulva and the canine transmissible venereal tumor. Topics addressed include description, diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Suggestibility and suggestive modulation of the Stroop effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Irving

    2011-06-01

    Although the induction of a hypnotic state does not seem necessary for suggestive modulation of the Stroop effect, this important phenomenon has seemed to be dependent on the subject's level of hypnotic suggestibility. Raz and Campbell's (2011) study indicates that suggestion can modulate the Stroop effect substantially in very low suggestible subjects, as well as in those who are highly suggestible. This finding casts doubt on the presumed mechanism by which suggestive modulation is brought about. Research aimed at uncovering the means by which low suggestible individuals are able to modulate the Stroop effect would be welcome, as would assessment of this effect in moderately suggestible people. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiotherapy for pediatric brain tumors: Standards of care, current clinical trials, and new directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldwein, Joel W.

    1995-01-01

    The objectives of the course are to evaluate the role of radiation therapy in the treatment of pediatric brain tumors. Areas where the role is evolving will be identified, and the results of clinical trials which been mounted to clarify radiotherapy's role will be reviewed. Brain tumors are the second most common malignancy of childhood after leukemias and lymphomas. However, they remain the most common group of childhood tumors to require radiation therapy. Therefore, a thorough understanding of these tumors, and the appropriate role of surgery, radiation and chemotherapy is critical. Issues surrounding the management of sequelae are no less important. The role of radiotherapy for the treatment of these tumors is far different from that for adults. These differences relate to the profound potential for sequelae from therapy, the higher overall cure rates, and the utility of multimodality therapies. In addition, the rarity of childhood brain tumors compared with adults' makes them more difficult to study. In this session, the following issues will be reviewed; 1. Incidence of pediatric brain tumors, 2. General issues regarding symptoms, diagnosis, diagnostic tests and evaluation, 3. Importance of a team approach, 4. General issues regarding treatment sequelae, 5. Specific tumor types/entities; a. Cerebellar Astrocytomas b. Benign and malignant Gliomas including brainstem and chiasmatic lesions c. Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors (PNET) and Medulloblastoma d. Ependymomas e. Craniopharyngiomas f. Germ cell tumors g. Miscellaneous and rare pediatric brain tumors 6. Management of sequelae 7. New and future directions a. Treatment of infants b. The expanding role of chemotherapy c. Advances in radiotherapy. The attendees will complete the course with a better understanding of the role that radiation therapy plays in the treatment of pediatric brain tumors. They will be knowledgeable in the foundation for that role, and the changes which are likely to take place in the

  3. Tumor immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otter, W. den

    1987-01-01

    Tumor immunology, the use of immunological techniques for tumor diagnosis and approaches to immunotherapy of cancer are topics covered in this multi-author volume. Part A, 'Tumor Immunology', deals with present views on tumor-associated antigens, the initiation of immune reactions of tumor cells, effector cell killing, tumor cells and suppression of antitumor immunity, and one chapter dealing with the application of mathematical models in tumor immunology. Part B, 'Tumor Diagnosis and Imaging', concerns the use of markers to locate the tumor in vivo, for the histological diagnosis, and for the monitoring of tumor growth. In Part C, 'Immunotherapy', various experimental approaches to immunotherapy are described, such as the use of monoclonal antibodies to target drugs, the use of interleukin-2 and the use of drugs inhibiting suppression. In the final section, the evaluation, a pathologist and a clinician evaluate the possibilities and limitations of tumor immunology and the extent to which it is useful for diagnosis and therapy. refs.; figs.; tabs

  4. Prognostic value of proton MR spectroscopy of cerebral hemisphere tumors in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, N. [Department of Neuroradiology and Vascular Radiology, Hopital de la Timone, Marseille (France); Wang, Z.J.; Zimmerman, R.A. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States); Erbetta, A. [Department of Neuroradiology, Istituto Nazionale Neurologico C. Besta, Milan (Italy); Sutton, L.N. [Division of Neurosurgery, Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States); Phillips, P.C. [Neurooncology Program, Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States); Rorke, L.B. [Department of Neuropathology, Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1998-02-01

    We studied 14 young people with newly diagnosed hemisphere tumors, aged from 3 to 20 years (average 10 years). All underwent surgery following MR imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS). The tumors studied were three glioblastomas, one each of ganglio-glioblastoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), rhabdoid teratoid tumor, pilocytic astrocytoma, ependymoma, anaplastic ependymoma, and gliomatosis cerebri, and four gangliogliomas. Four patients died; ten patients are alive (five with stable residual tumor, five with no evident tumor). Images and spectra were acquired on a 1.5-T imager. Proton MRS was performed before gadolinium injection in all but one case. Single-voxel techniques were utilized in all cases, using a spin-echo or STEAM sequence with a long echo time (135 or 270 ms). Peak areas of N -acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), and creatine and phosphocreatine (Cr) were assessed. The NAA/Cho peak-area ratio was very low in the patients who died (mean {+-} s. d. 0.20 {+-} 0.14), and higher in the patients who are alive (0.74 {+-} 0.47; P = 0.007 by two-tailed t -test). The Cr/Cho peak-area ratio also followed a similar trend for the two groups (mean {+-} s. d. 0.17 {+-} 0.07 and 0.49 {+-} 0.30, respectively; P = 0.01 by two-tailed t -test). (orig.) With 4 figs., 3 tabs., 22 refs.

  5. Dynamic association with donor cell filopodia and lipid-modification are essential features of Wnt8a during patterning of the zebrafish neuroectoderm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Luz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Wnt proteins are conserved signaling molecules that regulate pattern formation during animal development. Many Wnt proteins are post-translationally modified by addition of lipid adducts. Wnt8a provides a crucial signal for patterning the anteroposterior axis of the developing neural plate in vertebrates. However, it is not clear how this protein propagates from its source, the blastoderm margin, to the target cells in the prospective neural plate, and how lipid-modifications might influence Wnt8a propagation and activity. RESULTS: We have dynamically imaged biologically active, fluorescently tagged Wnt8a in living zebrafish embryos. We find that Wnt8a localizes to membrane-associated, punctate structures in live tissue. In Wnt8a expressing cells, these puncta are found on filopodial cellular processes, from where the protein can be released. In addition, Wnt8a is found colocalized with Frizzled receptor-containing clusters on signal receiving cells. Combining in vitro and in vivo assays, we compare the roles of conserved Wnt8a residues in cell and non-cell-autonomous signaling activity and secretion. Non-signaling Wnt8 variants show these residues can regulate Wnt8a distribution in producing cell membranes and filopodia as well as in the receiving tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Together, our results show that Wnt8a forms dynamic clusters found on filopodial donor cell and on signal receiving cell membranes. Moreover, they demonstrate a differential requirement of conserved residues in Wnt8a protein for distribution in producing cells and receiving tissue and signaling activity during neuroectoderm patterning.

  6. Dynamic association with donor cell filopodia and lipid-modification are essential features of Wnt8a during patterning of the zebrafish neuroectoderm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Marta; Spannl-Müller, Stephanie; Özhan, Günes; Kagermeier-Schenk, Birgit; Rhinn, Muriel; Weidinger, Gilbert; Brand, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Wnt proteins are conserved signaling molecules that regulate pattern formation during animal development. Many Wnt proteins are post-translationally modified by addition of lipid adducts. Wnt8a provides a crucial signal for patterning the anteroposterior axis of the developing neural plate in vertebrates. However, it is not clear how this protein propagates from its source, the blastoderm margin, to the target cells in the prospective neural plate, and how lipid-modifications might influence Wnt8a propagation and activity. We have dynamically imaged biologically active, fluorescently tagged Wnt8a in living zebrafish embryos. We find that Wnt8a localizes to membrane-associated, punctate structures in live tissue. In Wnt8a expressing cells, these puncta are found on filopodial cellular processes, from where the protein can be released. In addition, Wnt8a is found colocalized with Frizzled receptor-containing clusters on signal receiving cells. Combining in vitro and in vivo assays, we compare the roles of conserved Wnt8a residues in cell and non-cell-autonomous signaling activity and secretion. Non-signaling Wnt8 variants show these residues can regulate Wnt8a distribution in producing cell membranes and filopodia as well as in the receiving tissue. Together, our results show that Wnt8a forms dynamic clusters found on filopodial donor cell and on signal receiving cell membranes. Moreover, they demonstrate a differential requirement of conserved residues in Wnt8a protein for distribution in producing cells and receiving tissue and signaling activity during neuroectoderm patterning.

  7. MicroRNA Signatures as Biomarkers and Therapeutic Target for CNS Embryonal Tumors: The Pros and the Cons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Shalaby

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Embryonal tumors of the central nervous system represent a heterogeneous group of childhood cancers with an unknown pathogenesis; diagnosis, on the basis of histological appearance alone, is controversial and patients’ response to therapy is difficult to predict. They encompass medulloblastoma, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors and a group of primitive neuroectodermal tumors. All are aggressive tumors with the tendency to disseminate throughout the central nervous system. The large amount of genomic and molecular data generated over the last 5–10 years encourages optimism that new molecular targets will soon improve outcomes. Recent neurobiological studies have uncovered the key role of microRNAs (miRNAs in embryonal tumors biology and their potential use as biomarkers is increasingly being recognized and investigated. However the successful use of microRNAs as reliable biomarkers for the detection and management of pediatric brain tumors represents a substantial challenge. This review debates the importance of miRNAs in the biology of central nervous systemembryonal tumors focusing on medulloblastoma and atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors and highlights the advantages as well as the limitations of their prospective application as biomarkers and candidates for molecular therapeutic targets.

  8. Deepening Sleep by Hypnotic Suggestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordi, Maren J.; Schlarb, Angelika A.; Rasch, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however, it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance, effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” extends the amount of SWS. Design: Within-subject, placebo-controlled crossover design. Setting: Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Participants: Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. Intervention: Participants listened to an auditory text with hypnotic suggestions or a control tape before napping for 90 min while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. Measurements and Results: After participants listened to the hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” subsequent SWS was increased by 81% and time spent awake was reduced by 67% (with the amount of SWS or wake in the control condition set to 100%). Other sleep stages remained unaffected. Additionally, slow wave activity was significantly enhanced after hypnotic suggestions. During the hypnotic tape, parietal theta power increases predicted the hypnosis-induced extension of SWS. Additional experiments confirmed that the beneficial effect of hypnotic suggestions on SWS was specific to the hypnotic suggestion and did not occur in low suggestible participants. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnotic suggestions to specifically increase the amount and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) in a midday nap using objective measures of sleep in young, healthy, suggestible females. Hypnotic suggestions might be a successful tool with a lower risk of adverse side effects than pharmacological treatments to extend SWS also in clinical and elderly populations. Citation: Cordi MJ, Schlarb AA, Rasch B. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1143-1152. PMID:24882909

  9. A t (11; 22 (p13; q12 EWS-WT 1 positive desmoplastic small round cell tumor of the maxilla: An unusual case indicating the role of molecular diagnosis in round cell sarcomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekhi B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT is an uncommon tumor characterized by polyphenotypic expression and a specific reciprocal translocation t (11; 22 (p13; q12. It has been rarely identified in the head and neck region. Herein, we describe a DSRCT in the maxilla of a young man, who was initially diagnosed with a primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET, based on histopathological appearance of a round cell tumor, with MIC2 and -FLI-1 positivity, on immunohistochemistry (IHC. Diagnosis of a DSRCT was confirmed on molecular analysis with positive -RT-PCR and sequencing results for EWS-WT1 transcript and negativity for EWS-FL1. The case is presented to highlight the value of molecular diagnosis in round cell sarcomas at uncommon sites, especially when similar IHC markers can be expressed in a PNET and a DSRCT. An exact diagnosis of a round cell sarcoma has a therapeutic relevance.

  10. Infant brain tumors: incidence, survival, and the role of radiation based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Andrew J; McDonald, Mark W; Chang, Andrew L; Esiashvili, Natia

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of infant brain tumors and survival outcomes by disease and treatment variables. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program November 2008 submission database provided age-adjusted incidence rates and individual case information for primary brain tumors diagnosed between 1973 and 2006 in infants less than 12 months of age. Between 1973 and 1986, the incidence of infant brain tumors increased from 16 to 40 cases per million (CPM), and from 1986 to 2006, the annual incidence rate averaged 35 CPM. Leading histologies by annual incidence in CPM were gliomas (13.8), medulloblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (6.6), and ependymomas (3.6). The annual incidence was higher in whites than in blacks (35.0 vs. 21.3 CPM). Infants with low-grade gliomas had the highest observed survival, and those with atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs) or primary rhabdoid tumors of the brain had the lowest. Between 1979 and 1993, the annual rate of cases treated with radiation within the first 4 months from diagnosis declined from 20.5 CPM to incidence of infant brain tumors has been stable since 1986. Survival outcomes varied markedly by histology. For infants with medulloblastoma and ATRTs, improved survival was observed in patients treated with both surgery and early radiation compared with those treated with surgery alone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Representational constraints on children's suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceci, Stephen J; Papierno, Paul B; Kulkofsky, Sarah

    2007-06-01

    In a multistage experiment, twelve 4- and 9-year-old children participated in a triad rating task. Their ratings were mapped with multidimensional scaling, from which euclidean distances were computed to operationalize semantic distance between items in target pairs. These children and age-mates then participated in an experiment that employed these target pairs in a story, which was followed by a misinformation manipulation. Analyses linked individual and developmental differences in suggestibility to children's representations of the target items. Semantic proximity was a strong predictor of differences in suggestibility: The closer a suggested distractor was to the original item's representation, the greater was the distractor's suggestive influence. The triad participants' semantic proximity subsequently served as the basis for correctly predicting memory performance in the larger group. Semantic proximity enabled a priori counterintuitive predictions of reverse age-related trends to be confirmed whenever the distance between representations of items in a target pair was greater for younger than for older children.

  12. Tumoral tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, E.E.

    1979-01-01

    Direct tumor tracers are subdivided in the following categories:metabolite tracers, antitumoral tracers, radioactive proteins and cations. Use of 67 Ga-citrate as a clinically important tumoral tracer is emphasized and gallium-67 whole-body scintigraphy is discussed in detail. (M.A.) [pt

  13. Animal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillette, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    There are few trained veterinary radiation oncologists and the expense of facilities has limited the extent to which this modality is used. In recent years, a few cobalt teletherapy units and megavoltage x-ray units have been employed in larger veterinary institutions. In addition, some radiation oncologists of human medical institutions are interested and willing to cooperate with veterinarians in the treatment of animal tumors. Carefully designed studies of the response of animal tumors to new modalities serve two valuable purposes. First, these studies may lead to improved tumor control in companion animals. Second, these studies may have important implications to the improvement of therapy of human tumors. Much remains to be learned of animal tumor biology so that appropriate model systems can be described for such studies. Many of the latter studies can be sponsored by agencies interested in the improvement of cancer management

  14. Classification of hadith into positive suggestion, negative suggestion, and information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraby, Said Al; Riviera Rachmawati Jasin, Eliza; Kusumaningrum, Andina; Adiwijaya

    2018-03-01

    As one of the Muslim life guidelines, based on the meaning of its sentence(s), a hadith can be viewed as a suggestion for doing something, or a suggestion for not doing something, or just information without any suggestion. In this paper, we tried to classify the Bahasa translation of hadith into the three categories using machine learning approach. We tried stemming and stopword removal in preprocessing, and TF-IDF of unigram, bigram, and trigram as the extracted features. As the classifier, we compared between SVM and Neural Network. Since the categories are new, so in order to compare the results of the previous pipelines, we created a baseline classifier using simple rule-based string matching technique. The rule-based algorithm conditions on the occurrence of words such as “janganlah, sholatlah, and so on” to determine the category. The baseline method achieved F1-Score of 0.69, while the best F1-Score from the machine learning approach was 0.88, and it was produced by SVM model with the linear kernel.

  15. Interrogative suggestibility in opiate users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, A; Edelmann, R J; Davis, P E

    1996-09-01

    The present study investigated interrogative suggestibility in opiate users. A group of patients undergoing a methadone detoxification programme in an in-patient drug treatment unit (Detox group, n = 21), and a group of residents who had come off drugs and were no longer suffering from withdrawal syndrome (Rehab group, n = 19) were compared on interrogative suggestibility and various other psychological factors. Significant differences were found between the two groups, with the Detox group having more physical and psychological problems, and a higher total suggestibility score in comparison with the Rehab group. These findings are discussed in relation to the context of police interrogations and the reliability of confessions made by suspects and witnesses dependent on opiates.

  16. Chest magnetic resonance imaging: a protocol suggestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Hochhegger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the recent years, with the development of ultrafast sequences, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has been established as a valuable diagnostic modality in body imaging. Because of improvements in speed and image quality, MRI is now ready for routine clinical use also in the study of pulmonary diseases. The main advantage of MRI of the lungs is its unique combination of morphological and functional assessment in a single imaging session. In this article, the authors review most technical aspects and suggest a protocol for performing chest MRI. The authors also describe the three major clinical indications for MRI of the lungs: staging of lung tumors; evaluation of pulmonary vascular diseases; and investigation of pulmonary abnormalities in patients who should not be exposed to radiation.

  17. CT findings of parotid gland tumors: benign versus malignant tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Moon Ok; Han, Chun Hwan; Kim, Mie Young; Yi, Jeong Geun; Park, Kyung Joo; Lee, Joo Hyuk; Bae, Sang Hoon; Kim, Jeung Sook

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the characteristics of parotid gland tumors to help in the differentiation between benign and malignant lesions. The CT findings of 22 patients with surgically proven parotid gland tumors were reviewed. Analysis was focused on the density and margin characteristics of the tumors, and the relationship between the tumor and surrounding structures. Those tumors were pleomorphic adenoma (n = 8), Warthin's tumor (n = 5), basal cell adenoma (n = 1), lipoma (n = 1), dermoid cyst (n = 1), adenoid cystic carcinoma (n = 2), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (n 1), epidermoid carcinoma (n = 1), and carcinoma in pleomorphic adenoma (n 1). Most of benign and malignant tumors were heterogeneous in density on contrast enhanced CT scans. In 5 of 6 malignant cases, the tumors had irregular or ill-defined margin and a tendancy to involve or cross the superficial layer of deep cervical fascia with obliteration of subcutaneous fat. Two malignant tumors invaded surrounding structures. Although the heterogeneous density of tumor is not a specific finding for malignancy at CT, following findings, such as, irregular or blurred margin of the lesion, the involvement of fascial plane, and the infiltration of surrounding structures may suggest the possibility of malignant parotid tumor

  18. Pituitary Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Association (ABTA) International RadioSurgery Association National Brain Tumor Society National Institute of Child Health and Human Development ... Definition The pituitary is a small, bean-sized gland ...

  19. Hypothalamic tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the brain to reduce spinal fluid pressure. Risks of radiation therapy include damage to healthy brain cells when tumor cells are destroyed. Common side effects from chemotherapy include loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, and fatigue.

  20. [Pineal anlage tumor in a 8-month-old boy. The first case reported in Spanish language].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Velasco, Alicia; Ramírez-Reyes, Alma Griselda

    2014-01-01

    The pineal anlage tumor is a very infrequent malign neoplasm. Even though it has been documented in literature, it is not listed yet in the World Health Organization's last nervous system classification (2007). It is a primitive pineal tumor with neuroepithelial and ectomesenchyme differentiation. Due to its low frequency, the understanding of its biological behavior and a suitable treatment are incomplete. In a search performed in PubMed with the term pineal anlage tumor, only seven informed cases were identified between 1989 and 2011. An 8-month-old infant was brought to medical attention because he had a progressive enlargement of the cephalic perimeter, and convergent strabismus of two months of evolution. A pineal tumor was identified. The histology showed glial tissue, ganglia cells, pigmented neuroepithelium and striate muscle cells. A ventriculoperitoneal derivation was done to diminish hydrocephalic pressure and also to led the complete surgical resection. The patient was treated with two courses of chemotherapy with carboplatine, ifosfamide and mesna. One year after the treatment, the patient is asymptomatic. This is the first case reported in Spanish language. Given that it is a really infrequent tumor, it could be misdiagnosed as teratome, melanotic or mesoblastic medulloblastoma, or a melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of childhood (melanotic prognoma).

  1. High-level expression of podoplanin in benign and malignant soft tissue tumors: immunohistochemical and quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongjun; Ogose, Akira; Kawashima, Hiroyuki; Hotta, Tetsuo; Ariizumi, Takashi; Li, Guidong; Umezu, Hajime; Endo, Naoto

    2011-03-01

    Podoplanin is a 38 kDa mucin-type transmembrane glycoprotein that was first identified in rat glomerular epithelial cells (podocytes). It is expressed in normal lymphatic endothelium, but is absent from vascular endothelial cells. D2-40 is a commercially available mouse monoclonal antibody which binds to an epitope on human podoplanin. D2-40 immunoreactivity is therefore highly sensitive and specific for lymphatic endothelium. Recent investigations have shown widespread applications of immunohistochemical staining with D2-40 in evaluating podoplanin expression as an immunohistochemical marker for diagnosis and prognosis in various tumors. To determine whether the podoplanin (D2-40) antibody may be useful for the diagnosis of soft tissue tumors, 125 cases, including 4 kinds of benign tumors, 15 kinds of malignant tumors and 3 kinds of tumor-like lesions were immunostained using the D2-40 antibody. Total RNA was extracted from frozen tumor tissue obtained from 41 corresponding soft tissue tumor patients and 12 kinds of soft tissue tumor cell lines. Quantitative real-time PCR reactions were performed. Immunohistochemical and quantitative real-time RT-PCR analyses demonstrated the expression of the podoplanin protein and mRNA in the majority of benign and malignant soft tissue tumors and tumor-like lesions examined, with the exception of alveolar soft part sarcoma, embryonal and alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma/peripheral primitive neuro-ectodermal tumor and lipoma, which were completely negative for podoplanin. Since it is widely and highly expressed in nearly all kinds of soft tissue tumors, especially in spindle cell sarcoma, myxoid type soft tissue tumors and soft tissue tumors of the nervous system, podoplanin is considered to have little value in the differential diagnosis of soft tissue tumors.

  2. Tumor Types: Understanding Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... May cause excessive secretion of hormones Common among men and women in their 50s-80s Accounts for about 13 percent of all brain tumors Symptoms Headache Depression Vision loss Nausea or vomiting Behavioral and cognitive ...

  3. Risk factors for oligodendroglial tumors: a pooled international study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, Bridget J; Rankin, Kristin M; Aldape, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Oligodendroglial tumors are rare subtypes of brain tumors and are often combined with other glial tumors in epidemiological analyses. However, different demographic associations and clinical characteristics suggest potentially different risk factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate p...

  4. Tumor immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Simone; Lise, Mario; Nitti, Donato

    2007-01-01

    Advances in tumor immunology are supporting the clinical implementation of several immunological approaches to cancer in the clinical setting. However, the alternate success of current immunotherapeutic regimens underscores the fact that the molecular mechanisms underlying immune-mediated tumor rejection are still poorly understood. Given the complexity of the immune system network and the multidimensionality of tumor/host interactions, the comprehension of tumor immunology might greatly benefit from high-throughput microarray analysis, which can portrait the molecular kinetics of immune response on a genome-wide scale, thus accelerating the discovery pace and ultimately catalyzing the development of new hypotheses in cell biology. Although in its infancy, the implementation of microarray technology in tumor immunology studies has already provided investigators with novel data and intriguing new hypotheses on the molecular cascade leading to an effective immune response against cancer. Although the general principles of microarray-based gene profiling have rapidly spread in the scientific community, the need for mastering this technique to produce meaningful data and correctly interpret the enormous output of information generated by this technology is critical and represents a tremendous challenge for investigators, as outlined in the first section of this book. In the present Chapter, we report on some of the most significant results obtained with the application of DNA microarray in this oncology field.

  5. Pancreatic islet cell tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cell tumors; Islet of Langerhans tumor; Neuroendocrine tumors; Peptic ulcer - islet cell tumor; Hypoglycemia - islet cell tumor ... stomach acid. Symptoms may include: Abdominal pain Diarrhea ... and small bowel Vomiting blood (occasionally) Glucagonomas make ...

  6. Captopril improves tumor nanomedicine delivery by increasing tumor blood perfusion and enlarging endothelial gaps in tumor blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Jiang, Ting; Tuo, Yanyan; Jin, Kai; Luo, Zimiao; Shi, Wei; Mei, Heng; Hu, Yu; Pang, Zhiqing; Jiang, Xinguo

    2017-12-01

    Poor tumor perfusion and unfavorable vessel permeability compromise nanomedicine drug delivery to tumors. Captopril dilates blood vessels, reducing blood pressure clinically and bradykinin, as the downstream signaling moiety of captopril, is capable of dilating blood vessels and effectively increasing vessel permeability. The hypothesis behind this study was that captopril can dilate tumor blood vessels, improving tumor perfusion and simultaneously enlarge the endothelial gaps of tumor vessels, therefore enhancing nanomedicine drug delivery for tumor therapy. Using the U87 tumor xenograft with abundant blood vessels as the tumor model, tumor perfusion experiments were carried out using laser Doppler imaging and lectin-labeling experiments. A single treatment of captopril at a dose of 100 mg/kg significantly increased the percentage of functional vessels in tumor tissues and improved tumor blood perfusion. Scanning electron microscopy of tumor vessels also indicated that the endothelial gaps of tumor vessels were enlarged after captopril treatment. Immunofluorescence-staining of tumor slices demonstrated that captopril significantly increased bradykinin expression, possibly explaining tumor perfusion improvements and endothelial gap enlargement. Additionally, imaging in vivo, imaging ex vivo and nanoparticle distribution in tumor slices indicated that after a single treatment with captopril, the accumulation of 115-nm nanoparticles in tumors had increased 2.81-fold with a more homogeneous distribution pattern in comparison to non-captopril treated controls. Finally, pharmacodynamics experiments demonstrated that captopril combined with paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles resulted in the greatest tumor shrinkage and the most extensive necrosis in tumor tissues among all treatment groups. Taken together, the data from the present study suggest a novel strategy for improving tumor perfusion and enlarging blood vessel permeability simultaneously in order to improve

  7. Pericytes limit tumor cell metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xian, Xiaojie; Håkansson, Joakim; Ståhlberg, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Previously we observed that neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) deficiency in beta tumor cells facilitates metastasis into distant organs and local lymph nodes. Here, we show that NCAM-deficient beta cell tumors grew leaky blood vessels with perturbed pericyte-endothelial cell-cell interactions...... the microvessel wall. To directly address whether pericyte dysfunction increases the metastatic potential of solid tumors, we studied beta cell tumorigenesis in primary pericyte-deficient Pdgfb(ret/ret) mice. This resulted in beta tumor cell metastases in distant organs and local lymph nodes, demonstrating a role...... and deficient perivascular deposition of ECM components. Conversely, tumor cell expression of NCAM in a fibrosarcoma model (T241) improved pericyte recruitment and increased perivascular deposition of ECM molecules. Together, these findings suggest that NCAM may limit tumor cell metastasis by stabilizing...

  8. Bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moylan, D.J.; Yelovich, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    Primary bone malignancies are relatively rare with less than 4,000 new cases per year. Multiple myeloma (more correctly a hematologic malignancy) accounts for 40%; osteosarcomas, 28%; chondrosarcomas, 13%; fibrosarcomas arising in bone, 4%; and Ewing's sarcoma, 7%. The authors discuss various treatments for bone tumors, including radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery

  9. Wilms Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a child's general health and to detect any adverse side effects (such as low red or white blood cell ... medicine needed, which helps reduce long-term side effects. The most common ... can be completely removed by surgery. About 41% of all Wilms tumors are stage ...

  10. Nephrogenic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesbauer, P.

    2008-01-01

    Nephroblastomas are the most common malignant renal tumors in childhood. According to the guidelines of the SIOP (Societe Internationale d'Oncologie Pediatrique) and GPOH (Gesellschaft fuer Paediatrische Onkologie und Haematologie) pre-operative chemotherapy can be started without histological confirmation and thus initial imaging studies, in particular ultrasound, play an outstanding role for diagnostic purposes

  11. Suggestions on technical guide of implantation of radioactive seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhongmin; Huang Gang; Lv Zhongwei; Liu Jianjun; Chen Kemin; Chen Yongde

    2009-01-01

    Implantation of radioactive seeds is an effective therapeutic option for the treatment of malignant tumors. With the development of imaging technique and the use of treatment planning system (TPS) it has been more and more employed in clinical settings. The technique has been widely practiced in various malignant tumors, such as prostate cancer, lung caner, pancreatic cancer, hepatocarcinoma, etc. In order to standardize the clinical application of this technology, the authors propose some suggestions concerning the management of radioactive seeds, the indications and contraindications as well as the method of operation as a technical guidance. (authors)

  12. Suggestions on technical guide of implantation of radioactive seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhongmin, Wang; Gang, Huang; Zhongwei, Lv; Jianjun, Liu [Department of Radiology, Luwan Branch of Ruijin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong Univ., Shanghai (China); Kemin, Chen; Yongde, Chen

    2009-09-15

    Implantation of radioactive seeds is an effective therapeutic option for the treatment of malignant tumors. With the development of imaging technique and the use of treatment planning system (TPS) it has been more and more employed in clinical settings. The technique has been widely practiced in various malignant tumors, such as prostate cancer, lung caner, pancreatic cancer, hepatocarcinoma, etc. In order to standardize the clinical application of this technology, the authors propose some suggestions concerning the management of radioactive seeds, the indications and contraindications as well as the method of operation as a technical guidance. (authors)

  13. Biological stoichiometry in tumor micro-environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Kareva

    Full Text Available Tumors can be viewed as evolving ecological systems, in which heterogeneous populations of cancer cells compete with each other and somatic cells for space and nutrients within the ecosystem of the human body. According to the growth rate hypothesis (GRH, increased phosphorus availability in an ecosystem, such as the tumor micro-environment, may promote selection within the tumor for a more proliferative and thus potentially more malignant phenotype. The applicability of the GRH to tumor growth is evaluated using a mathematical model, which suggests that limiting phosphorus availability might promote intercellular competition within a tumor, and thereby delay disease progression. It is also shown that a tumor can respond differently to changes in its micro-environment depending on the initial distribution of clones within the tumor, regardless of its initial size. This suggests that composition of the tumor as a whole needs to be evaluated in order to maximize the efficacy of therapy.

  14. Imaging probe for tumor malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shotaro; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae; Hiraoka, Hasahiro

    2009-02-01

    Solid tumors possess unique microenvironments that are exposed to chronic hypoxic conditions ("tumor hypoxia"). Although more than half a century has passed since it was suggested that tumor hypoxia correlated with poor treatment outcomes and contributed to cancer recurrence, a fundamental solution to this problem has yet to be found. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) is the main transcription factor that regulates the cellular response to hypoxia. It induces various genes whose functions are strongly associated with malignant alteration of the entire tumor. The cellular changes induced by HIF-1 are extremely important targets of cancer therapy, particularly in therapy against refractory cancers. Imaging of the HIF-1-active microenvironment is therefore important for cancer therapy. To image HIF-1activity in vivo, we developed a PTD-ODD fusion protein, POHA, which was uniquely labeled with near-infrared fluorescent dye at the C-terminal. POHA has two functional domains: protein transduction domain (PTD) and VHL-mediated protein destruction motif in oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domain of the alpha subunit of HIF-1 (HIF-1α). It can therefore be delivered to the entire body and remain stabilized in the HIF-1-active cells. When it was intravenously injected into tumor-bearing mice, a tumor-specific fluorescence signal was detected in the tumor 6 h after the injection. These results suggest that POHA can be used an imaging probe for tumor malignancy.

  15. "Cancer tumor".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronshtehn, V. A.

    The title is a phrase borrowed from a speech by a Leningrad pressman, V. E. Lvov, who called upon those attending a theoretical conference on ideological issues in astronomy held by the Leningrad Branch of the All-Union Astronomic and Geodetic Society (13 - 4 December 1948), "to make a more radical emphasis on the negative role of relativistic cosmology which is a cancer tumor disintegrating the contemporary astronomy theory, and a major ideological enemy of a materialist astronomy".

  16. Understanding Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know About Brain Tumors . What is a Brain Tumor? A brain tumor is an abnormal growth
 ... Tumors” from Frankly Speaking Frankly Speaking About Cancer: Brain Tumors Download the full book Questions to ask ...

  17. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  18. Brain tumor - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  19. Adrenal Gland Tumors: Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gland Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Adrenal Gland Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 03/ ... primary adrenal gland tumor is very uncommon. Exact statistics are not available for this type of tumor ...

  20. Tumor-Infiltrating Immune Cells Promoting Tumor Invasion and Metastasis: Existing Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-gao Man, Alexander Stojadinovic, Jeffrey Mason, Itzhak Avital, Anton Bilchik, Bjoern Bruecher, Mladjan Protic, Aviram Nissan, Mina Izadjoo, Xichen Zhang, Anahid Jewett

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a commonly held belief that infiltration of immune cells into tumor tissues and direct physical contact between tumor cells and infiltrated immune cells is associated with physical destructions of the tumor cells, reduction of the tumor burden, and improved clinical prognosis. An increasing number of studies, however, have suggested that aberrant infiltration of immune cells into tumor or normal tissues may promote tumor progression, invasion, and metastasis. Neither the primary reason for these contradictory observations, nor the mechanism for the reported diverse impact of tumor-infiltrating immune cells has been elucidated, making it difficult to judge the clinical implications of infiltration of immune cells within tumor tissues. This mini-review presents several existing hypotheses and models that favor the promoting impact of tumor-infiltrating immune cells on tumor invasion and metastasis, and also analyzes their strength and weakness.

  1. Pediatric brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poussaint, Tina Y. [Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Huisman, Thierry A.G.M. [Charlotte R. Bloomberg Children' s Center, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Pediatric Radiology and Pediatric Neuroradiology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Among all causes of death in children from solid tumors, pediatric brain tumors are the most common. This article includes an overview of a subset of infratentorial and supratentorial tumors with a focus on tumor imaging features and molecular advances and treatments of these tumors. Key to understanding the imaging features of brain tumors is a firm grasp of other disease processes that can mimic tumor on imaging. We also review imaging features of a common subset of tumor mimics. (orig.)

  2. Affinity cytochemistry of vascular endothelia in brain tumors by biotinylated Ulex europaeus type I lectin (UEA I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, T; Seitz, R J; Liebert, U G; Gallasch, E; Wechsler, W

    1985-01-01

    The vascularization of 50 tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) including 17 meningiomas, 25 neuroectodermal tumors, i.e., astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, mixed gliomas, glioblastomas, medulloblastomas, seven metastatic carcinomas, and one malignant hemangioendothelioma were investigated using biotinylated Ulex europaeus type I lectin (UEA I) in an indirect avidinbiotin-peroxidase procedure. The cytochemical staining pattern of UEA I on paraffin sections was compared with that of biotinylated Dolichos biflorus lectin (DBA), and with the immunocytochemical staining of factor VIII related antigen (F VIII/RAG) by polyclonal antisera using the PAP technique. UEA I visualized the endothelia of blood vessels with equal intensity, sensitivity, and reliability in normal brain and in tumor tissue with neovascularization. While large, medium, and small vessels were equally well demonstrated by UEA I and antibodies against FVIII/RAG, capillaries and endothelial sprouts were stained more consistently and intensely by UEA I. No reliable cytochemical staining could be obtained by DBA regardless of tissue or cell type investigated. It is concluded that UEA I is a highly useful cytochemical marker for the identification of vascular endothelia in paraffin sections of human brain tumors.

  3. Tumor stem cells: A new approach for tumor therapy (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENG, MIN; ZHAO, XIN-HAN; NING, QIAN; HOU, LEI; XIN, GUO-HONG; LIU, LI-FENG

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the existence of a minority of tumor cells possessing the stem cell properties of self-renewal and differentiation in leukemia and several solid tumors. However, these cells do not possess the normal regulatory mechanisms of stem cells. Following transplantation, they are capable of initiating tumorigenesis and are therefore known as ‘tumor stem cells’. Cellular origin analysis of tumor stem cells has resulted in three hypotheses: Embryonal rest hypothesis, anaplasia and maturation arrest. Several signaling pathways which are involved in carcinogenesis, including Wnt/β-catenin, Notch and Oct-4 signaling pathways are crucial in normal stem cell self-renewal decisions, suggesting that breakdown in the regulation of self-renewal may be a key event in the development of tumors. Thus, tumors can be regarded as an abnormal organ in which stem cells have escaped from the normal constraints on self-renewal, thus, leading to abnormally differentiated tumor cells that lose the ability to form tumors. This new model for maligancies has significance for clinical research and treatment. PMID:22844351

  4. Testis tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.L.; Maier, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    Clinical trials are evaluating new combinations of drugs with the goal of diminishing the toxicity associated with the current regimens while not compromising the chance for cure. The evolution of information and staging studies such as tumor markers, CT scanning and MR scanning has made possible the detection of residual metastatic disease while obviating the need for surgical staging procedures. This has made less treatment possible for a large number of patients. The regularity of follow-up studies has made early detection of recurrences a possibility, so that effective and curative treatment is generally possible

  5. Teratoid Wilms′ tumor - A rare renal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswanath Mukhopadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Teratoid Wilms′ tumor is an extremely rare renal tumor. We report a case of unilateral teratoid Wilms′ tumor in a 4-year-old girl. The patient was admitted with a right-sided abdominal mass. The mass was arising from the right kidney. Radical nephrectomy was done and the patient had an uneventful recovery. Histopathology report showed teratoid Wilms′ tumor.

  6. Tumors of the small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Gamboa, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Differential diagnoses are performed to establish the cause of chronic abdominal pain in patients. Histological types are considered in patients with primary tumors of unknown origin. Benign and malignant neoplasms are described, including methods of diagnosis and treatment. Clinical manifestations are cited. Early and accurate diagnoses are important for an acceptable outcome in patients with malignant small bowel tumors. Recurrence is provoked many deaths, suggesting the importance of adjuvant chemotherapy [es

  7. Array-based gene expression, CGH and tissue data defines a 12q24 gain in neuroblastic tumors with prognostic implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilpinen Sami

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuroblastoma has successfully served as a model system for the identification of neuroectoderm-derived oncogenes. However, in spite of various efforts, only a few clinically useful prognostic markers have been found. Here, we present a framework, which integrates DNA, RNA and tissue data to identify and prioritize genetic events that represent clinically relevant new therapeutic targets and prognostic biomarkers for neuroblastoma. Methods A single-gene resolution aCGH profiling was integrated with microarray-based gene expression profiling data to distinguish genetic copy number alterations that were strongly associated with transcriptional changes in two neuroblastoma cell lines. FISH analysis using a hotspot tumor tissue microarray of 37 paraffin-embedded neuroblastoma samples and in silico data mining for gene expression information obtained from previously published studies including up to 445 healthy nervous system samples and 123 neuroblastoma samples were used to evaluate the clinical significance and transcriptional consequences of the detected alterations and to identify subsequently activated gene(s. Results In addition to the anticipated high-level amplification and subsequent overexpression of MYCN, MEIS1, CDK4 and MDM2 oncogenes, the aCGH analysis revealed numerous other genetic alterations, including microamplifications at 2p and 12q24.11. Most interestingly, we identified and investigated the clinical relevance of a previously poorly characterized amplicon at 12q24.31. FISH analysis showed low-level gain of 12q24.31 in 14 of 33 (42% neuroblastomas. Patients with the low-level gain had an intermediate prognosis in comparison to patients with MYCN amplification (poor prognosis and to those with no MYCN amplification or 12q24.31 gain (good prognosis (P = 0.001. Using the in silico data mining approach, we identified elevated expression of five genes located at the 12q24.31 amplicon in neuroblastoma (DIABLO, ZCCHC

  8. Tumor-reactive immune cells protect against metastatic tumor and induce immunoediting of indolent but not quiescent tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Kyle K; Keim, Rebecca C; Graham, Laura; Idowu, Michael O; Wan, Wen; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Toor, Amir A; Bear, Harry D; Manjili, Masoud H

    2016-09-01

    Two major barriers to cancer immunotherapy include tumor-induced immune suppression mediated by myeloid-derived suppressor cells and poor immunogenicity of the tumor-expressing self-antigens. To overcome these barriers, we reprogrammed tumor-immune cell cross-talk by combined use of decitabine and adoptive immunotherapy, containing tumor-sensitized T cells and CD25(+) NKT cells. Decitabine functioned to induce the expression of highly immunogenic cancer testis antigens in the tumor, while also reducing the frequency of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and the presence of CD25(+) NKT cells rendered T cells, resistant to remaining myeloid-derived suppressor cells. This combinatorial therapy significantly prolonged survival of animals bearing metastatic tumor cells. Adoptive immunotherapy also induced tumor immunoediting, resulting in tumor escape and associated disease-related mortality. To identify a tumor target that is incapable of escape from the immune response, we used dormant tumor cells. We used Adriamycin chemotherapy or radiation therapy, which simultaneously induce tumor cell death and tumor dormancy. Resultant dormant cells became refractory to additional doses of Adriamycin or radiation therapy, but they remained sensitive to tumor-reactive immune cells. Importantly, we discovered that dormant tumor cells contained indolent cells that expressed low levels of Ki67 and quiescent cells that were Ki67 negative. Whereas the former were prone to tumor immunoediting and escape, the latter did not demonstrate immunoediting. Our results suggest that immunotherapy could be highly effective against quiescent dormant tumor cells. The challenge is to develop combinatorial therapies that could establish a quiescent type of tumor dormancy, which would be the best target for immunotherapy. © The Author(s).

  9. Tumor Macroenvironment and Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Zhoughbi, Wael; Huang, Jianfeng; Paramasivan, Ganapathy S.; Till, Holger; Pichler, Martin; Guertl-Lackner, Barbara; Hoefler, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    In this review we introduce the concept of the tumor macroenvironment and explore it in the context of metabolism. Tumor cells interact with the tumor microenvironment including immune cells. Blood and lymph vessels are the critical components that deliver nutrients to the tumor and also connect the tumor to the macroenvironment. Several factors are then released from the tumor itself but potentially also from the tumor microenvironment, influencing the metabolism of distant tissues and organ...

  10. Macrophage content of murine tumors: Associations with TD50 and tumor radiocurability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wike, J.; Hunter, N.; Volpe, J.; Milas, L.

    1987-01-01

    The experiments were designed to investigate whether the tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) content of murine solid tumors correlates with tumor response to ionizing radiation and with the clonogenic ability of tumor cells to establish s.c. tumors. Of 13 tumors studied, 6 were sarcomas and 7 were carcinomas; all tumors were of spontaneous origin in C/sub 3/Hf/Kam mice, with the exception of one sarcoma that was induced by 3-methylcholanthrene. Tumors were growing in the hind thighs of syngeneic mice, and their TAM content was determined when they were 8 mm in diameter. Their macrophage content varied greatly, ranging from 9 to 83%. Radiocurability of 8 mm tumors, determined by TCD50, ranged from 42 Gy (fibrosarcoma FSA) to > 80 Gy (hepatocarcinoma HCA-I). There was an obvious trend toward positive correlation (r = 0.43) between TAM content and reduced local tumor radiocurability. However, there was a significant negative correlation between TAM content and TD50 values, implying that cells from tumors with higher macrophage content were more clonogenic. TAM from the NFSA sarcoma, a tumor with a low TD50 value and poorly responsive to radiation, stimulated the in vitro growth of NFSA tumor cells. These observations suggest that high TAM content could be conducive to tumor cell proliferation and could be a factor in poor tumor radioresponse

  11. Correlation between the progressive cytoplasmic expression of a novel small heat shock protein (Hsp16.2) and malignancy in brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozsgai, Eva; Gomori, Eva; Szigeti, Andras; Boronkai, Arpad; Gallyas, Ferenc Jr; Sumegi, Balazs; Bellyei, Szabolcs

    2007-01-01

    Small heat shock proteins are molecular chaperones that protect proteins against stress-induced aggregation. They have also been found to have anti-apoptotic activity and to play a part in the development of tumors. Recently, we identified a new small heat shock protein, Hsp16.2 which displayed increased expression in neuroectodermal tumors. Our aim was to investigate the expression of Hsp16.2 in different types of brain tumors and to correlate its expression with the histological grade of the tumor. Immunohistochemistry with a polyclonal antibody to Hsp16.2 was carried out on formalin-fixed, paraffin-wax-embedded sections using the streptavidin-biotin method. 91 samples were examined and their histological grade was defined. According to the intensity of Hsp16.2 immunoreactivity, low (+), moderate (++), high (+++) or none (-) scores were given. Immunoblotting was carried out on 30 samples of brain tumors using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western-blotting. Low grade (grades 1–2) brain tumors displayed low cytoplasmic Hsp16.2 immunoreactivity, grade 3 tumors showed moderate cytoplasmic staining, while high grade (grade 4) tumors exhibited intensive cytoplasmic Hsp16.2 staining. Immunoblotting supported the above mentioned results. Normal brain tissue acted as a negative control for the experiment, since the cytoplasm did not stain for Hsp16.2. There was a positive correlation between the level of Hsp16.2 expression and the level of anaplasia in different malignant tissue samples. Hsp16.2 expression was directly correlated with the histological grade of brain tumors, therefore Hsp16.2 may have relevance as becoming a possible tumor marker

  12. Correlation between the progressive cytoplasmic expression of a novel small heat shock protein (Hsp16.2 and malignancy in brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallyas Ferenc

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small heat shock proteins are molecular chaperones that protect proteins against stress-induced aggregation. They have also been found to have anti-apoptotic activity and to play a part in the development of tumors. Recently, we identified a new small heat shock protein, Hsp16.2 which displayed increased expression in neuroectodermal tumors. Our aim was to investigate the expression of Hsp16.2 in different types of brain tumors and to correlate its expression with the histological grade of the tumor. Methods Immunohistochemistry with a polyclonal antibody to Hsp16.2 was carried out on formalin-fixed, paraffin-wax-embedded sections using the streptavidin-biotin method. 91 samples were examined and their histological grade was defined. According to the intensity of Hsp16.2 immunoreactivity, low (+, moderate (++, high (+++ or none (- scores were given. Immunoblotting was carried out on 30 samples of brain tumors using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western-blotting. Results Low grade (grades 1–2 brain tumors displayed low cytoplasmic Hsp16.2 immunoreactivity, grade 3 tumors showed moderate cytoplasmic staining, while high grade (grade 4 tumors exhibited intensive cytoplasmic Hsp16.2 staining. Immunoblotting supported the above mentioned results. Normal brain tissue acted as a negative control for the experiment, since the cytoplasm did not stain for Hsp16.2. There was a positive correlation between the level of Hsp16.2 expression and the level of anaplasia in different malignant tissue samples. Conclusion Hsp16.2 expression was directly correlated with the histological grade of brain tumors, therefore Hsp16.2 may have relevance as becoming a possible tumor marker.

  13. Infant Brain Tumors: Incidence, Survival, and the Role of Radiation Based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, Andrew J.; McDonald, Mark W.; Chang, Andrew L.; Esiashvili, Natia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence of infant brain tumors and survival outcomes by disease and treatment variables. Methods and Materials: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program November 2008 submission database provided age-adjusted incidence rates and individual case information for primary brain tumors diagnosed between 1973 and 2006 in infants less than 12 months of age. Results: Between 1973 and 1986, the incidence of infant brain tumors increased from 16 to 40 cases per million (CPM), and from 1986 to 2006, the annual incidence rate averaged 35 CPM. Leading histologies by annual incidence in CPM were gliomas (13.8), medulloblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (6.6), and ependymomas (3.6). The annual incidence was higher in whites than in blacks (35.0 vs. 21.3 CPM). Infants with low-grade gliomas had the highest observed survival, and those with atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs) or primary rhabdoid tumors of the brain had the lowest. Between 1979 and 1993, the annual rate of cases treated with radiation within the first 4 months from diagnosis declined from 20.5 CPM to <2 CPM. For infants with medulloblastoma, desmoplastic histology and treatment with both surgery and upfront radiation were associated with improved survival, but on multivariate regression, only combined surgery and radiation remained associated with improved survival, with a hazard ratio for death of 0.17 compared with surgery alone (p = 0.005). For ATRTs, those treated with surgery and upfront radiation had a 12-month survival of 100% compared with 24.4% for those treated with surgery alone (p = 0.016). For ependymomas survival was higher in patients treated in more recent decades (p = 0.001). Conclusion: The incidence of infant brain tumors has been stable since 1986. Survival outcomes varied markedly by histology. For infants with medulloblastoma and ATRTs, improved survival was observed in patients treated with both surgery and early radiation

  14. Tumor-associated fibrosis as a regulator of tumor immunity and response to immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Hegde, Samarth; DeNardo, David G

    2017-08-01

    Tumor-associated fibrosis is characterized by unchecked pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory signaling. The components of fibrosis including significant numbers of cancer-associated fibroblasts, dense collagen deposition, and extracellular matrix stiffness, are well appreciated regulators of tumor progression but may also be critical regulators of immune surveillance. While this suggests that the efficacy of immunotherapy may be limited in highly fibrotic cancers like pancreas, it also suggests a therapeutic opportunity to target fibrosis in these tumor types to reawaken anti-tumor immunity. This review discusses the mechanisms by which fibrosis might subvert tumor immunity and how to overcome these mechanisms.

  15. Human neutrophils facilitate tumor cell transendothelial migration.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wu, Q D

    2012-02-03

    Tumor cell extravasation plays a key role in tumor metastasis. However, the precise mechanisms by which tumor cells migrate through normal vascular endothelium remain unclear. In this study, using an in vitro transendothelial migration model, we show that human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) assist the human breast tumor cell line MDA-MB-231 to cross the endothelial barrier. We found that tumor-conditioned medium (TCM) downregulated PMN cytocidal function, delayed PMN apoptosis, and concomitantly upregulated PMN adhesion molecule expression. These PMN treated with TCM attached to tumor cells and facilitated tumor cell migration through different endothelial monolayers. In contrast, MDA-MB-231 cells alone did not transmigrate. FACScan analysis revealed that these tumor cells expressed high levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) but did not express CD11a, CD11b, or CD18. Blockage of CD11b and CD18 on PMN and of ICAM-1 on MDA-MB-231 cells significantly attenuated TCM-treated, PMN-mediated tumor cell migration. These tumor cells still possessed the ability to proliferate after PMN-assisted transmigration. These results indicate that TCM-treated PMN may serve as a carrier to assist tumor cell transendothelial migration and suggest that tumor cells can exploit PMN and alter their function to facilitate their extravasation.

  16. Fluorescent Nanoparticle Uptake for Brain Tumor Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Tréhin

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate delineation of tumor margins is vital to the successful surgical resection of brain tumors. We have previously developed a multimodal nanoparticle CLIO-Cy5.5, which is detectable by both magnetic resonance imaging and fluorescence, to assist in intraoperatively visualizing tumor boundaries. Here we examined the accuracy of tumor margin determination of orthotopic tumors implanted in hosts with differing immune responses to the tumor. Using a nonuser-based signal intensity method applied to fluorescent micrographs of 9L gliosarcoma green fluorescent protein (GFP tumors, mean overestimations of 2 and 24 µm were obtained using Cy5.5 fluorescence, compared to the true tumor margin determined by GFP fluorescence, in nude mice and rats, respectively. To resolve which cells internalized the nanoparticle and to quantitate degree of uptake, tumors were disaggregated and cells were analyzed by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Nanoparticle uptake was seen in both CD11b+ cells (representing activated microglia and macrophages and tumor cells in both animal models by both methods. CD11b+ cells were predominantly found at the tumor margin in both hosts, but were more pronounced at the margin in the rat model. Additional metastatic (CT26 colon and primary (Gli36 glioma brain tumor models likewise demonstrated that the nanoparticle was internalized both by tumor cells and by host cells. Together, these observations suggest that fluorescent nanoparticles provide an accurate method of tumor margin estimation based on a combination of tumor cell and host cell uptake for primary and metastatic tumors in animal model systems and offer potential for clinical translation.

  17. Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... navigate their brain tumor diagnosis. WATCH AND SHARE Brain tumors and their treatment can be deadly so ... Pediatric Central Nervous System Cancers Read more >> Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation 302 Ridgefield Court, Asheville, NC 28806 ...

  18. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Brain Tumors KidsHealth / For Parents / Brain Tumors What's in ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  19. Childhood Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  20. Malignant bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zedgenidze, G.A.; Kishkovskij, A.N.; Elashov, Yu.G.

    1984-01-01

    Clinicoroentgenologic semiotics of malignant bone tumors as well as metastatic bone tumors are presented. Diagnosis of malignant and metastatic bone tumors should be always complex, representing a result of cooperation of a physician, roentgenologist, pathoanatomist

  1. Tumors and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumors during pregnancy are rare, but they can happen. Tumors can be either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. The most common cancers in pregnancy are breast cancer, cervical cancer, lymphoma, and melanoma. ...

  2. Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumor > Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 01/ ... the body. It is important to remember that statistics on the survival rates for people with a ...

  3. Radiation-induced nitric oxide mitigates tumor hypoxia and radioresistance in a murine SCCVII tumor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagane, Masaki; Yasui, Hironobu; Yamamori, Tohru; Zhao, Songji; Kuge, Yuji; Tamaki, Nagara; Kameya, Hiromi; Nakamura, Hideo; Fujii, Hirotada; Inanami, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •IR-induced NO increased tissue perfusion and pO 2 . •IR increased NO production in tumors without changes in the mRNA and protein levels of NOS isoforms. •NOS activity assay showed that IR upregulated eNOS activity in tumors. •IR-induced NO decreased tumor hypoxia and altered tumor radiosensitivity. -- Abstract: Tumor hypoxia, which occurs mainly as a result of inadequate tissue perfusion in solid tumors, is a well-known challenge for successful radiotherapy. Recent evidence suggests that ionizing radiation (IR) upregulates nitric oxide (NO) production and that IR-induced NO has the potential to increase intratumoral circulation. However, the kinetics of NO production and the responsible isoforms for NO synthase in tumors exposed to IR remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the mechanism by which IR stimulates NO production in tumors and the effect of IR-induced NO on tumor radiosensitivity. Hoechst33342 perfusion assay and electron spin resonance oxymetry showed that IR increased tissue perfusion and pO 2 in tumor tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis using two different hypoxic probes showed that IR decreased hypoxic regions in tumors; treatment with a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, L-NAME, abrogated the effects of IR. Moreover, IR increased endothelial NOS (eNOS) activity without affecting its mRNA or protein expression levels in SCCVII-transplanted tumors. Tumor growth delay assay showed that L-NAME decreased the anti-tumor effect of fractionated radiation (10 Gy × 2). These results suggested that IR increased eNOS activity and subsequent tissue perfusion in tumors. Increases in intratumoral circulation simultaneously decreased tumor hypoxia. As a result, IR-induced NO increased tumor radiosensitivity. Our study provides a new insight into the NO-dependent mechanism for efficient fractionated radiotherapy

  4. Peripheral epithelial odontogenic tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carzoglio, J.; Tancredi, N.; Capurro, S.; Ravecca, T.; Scarrone, P.

    2006-01-01

    A new case of peripheral epithelial odontogenic tumor (Pindborg tumor) is reported. It is localized in the superior right gingival region, a less frequent site, and has the histopathological features previously reported. Immunochemical studies were performed, revealing a differential positive stain to cytokeratins in tumor cells deeply seated in the tumor mass, probably related to tumoral cell heterogeneity.Interestingly, in this particular case S-100 protein positive reactivity was also detected in arborescent cells intermingled with tumoral cells, resembling Langerhans cells. Even though referred in the literature in central Pindborg tumors, no references were found about their presence in peripheral tumors, like the one that is presented here

  5. Biopsy in Musculoskeletal Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Gharehdaghi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of bone tumors is based on careful evaluation of clinical, imaging and a pathologic findings. So the biopsy of bone and soft tissue sarcomas is the final step in evaluation and a fundamental step in the diagnosis of the lesion. It should not be performed as a shortcut to diagnosis (1. The biopsy should be performed in order to confirm the diagnosis and differentiate among few diagnoses after careful staged studies. Real and artificial changes in imaging studies will be superimposed after performing biopsy, which may alter the interpretation if done after biopsy is taken (1. The correct management of a sarcoma depends on the accurate diagnosis. Inadequate, inapprppriate, or inaccurate non-representative biopsy leads to poorer outcome in terms of survivorship and limb salvage. An incorrect, unplanned incision and biopsy may unnecessarily contaminate uninvolved compartments which may convert a salvageable limb to amputation. Anatomic approach along with the proper biopsy techniques may lead to success or catastrophe. It is clear that in patients with inappropriate biopsy, the chance of the need to change the treatment to more radical than would originally be expected is significantly higher. Also it is more probable to need to  convert curative to palliative treatment and to require adjuvant radiotherapy in patients with inappropriate biopsies. Patients with sarcoma are best served by early referral to a specialized center where staged investigations and biopsy can be performed with minimal morbidity (3. Open biopsy is still considered the gold standard; however, recent studies suggest comparable results with percutaneous core needle biopsy. Our study on 103 consecutive CNB and open biopsy showed comparable results as well. Surgeons need to answer to two questions prior to performing a biopsy: 1-          Where is the best part of the lesion to be biopsied? 2-          What is the safest route without contaminating

  6. Treatment Resistance Mechanisms of Malignant Glioma Tumor Stem Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmalz, Philip G.R.; Shen, Michael J.; Park, John K.

    2011-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are highly lethal because of their resistance to conventional treatments. Recent evidence suggests that a minor subpopulation of cells with stem cell properties reside within these tumors. These tumor stem cells are more resistant to radiation and chemotherapies than their counterpart differentiated tumor cells and may underlie the persistence and recurrence of tumors following treatment. The various mechanisms by which tumor stem cells avoid or repair the damaging effects of cancer therapies are discussed

  7. Promotion of Tumor Invasion by Cooperation of Granulocytes and Macrophages Activated by Anti-tumor Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Barbera-Guillem

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the potential role of anti-tumor antibodies and tumor antigens in the formation of immune complexes which promote matrix degradation and angiogenesis. B-cell deficient or B-cell depleted mice showed a reduction in tumor invasion and metastasis. In vitro invasion assays and in vivo models of metastasis showed that anti-sTn antibodies and sTn tumor antigens form complexes which induce granulocytes and macrophages together to mediate tumor invasion and metastasis by processes including extracellular matrix degradation and angiogenesis. These results suggest the existence of a tumor promoting role of a B-cell immune response induced by shed tumor associated antigens of solid, nonlymphoid tumors.

  8. Radiological diagnostics of skeletal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhl, M.; Herget, G.W.

    2008-01-01

    The book contains contributions concerning the following topics: 1. introduction and fundamentals: WHO classification of bone tumors, imaging diagnostics and their function; localization, typical clinical and radiological criteria, TNM classification and status classification, invasive tumor diagnostics; 2. specific tumor diagnostics: chondrogenic bone tumors, osseous tumors, connective tissue bony tumors, osteoclastoma, osteomyelogenic bone tumors, vascular bone tumors, neurogenic bone tumors, chordoma; adamantinoma of the long tubular bone; tumor-like lesions, bony metastases, bone granulomas, differential diagnostics: tumor-like lesions

  9. Pedunculated Pulmonary Artery Sarcoma Suggested by Transthoracic Echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobing; Ren, Weidong; Yang, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Pulmonary artery sarcoma (PAS) is an extremely rare malignancy. It is usually found after it grows large enough to occupy almost the entire lumen of the pulmonary artery and causes serious clinical symptoms. Thus, it is usually difficult to distinguish PAS from pulmonary thromboembolism based on imaging examinations. Few case reports had shown the attachment of PAS to pulmonary artery, a key characteristic for diagnosis, and differential diagnosis of PAS. In this case, we found a PAS, which did not cause local obstruction and some tumor emboli, which obstructed the branches of the pulmonary arteries and caused pulmonary hypertension and clinical symptoms. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) revealed a part of the tumor attached to the intima of the main pulmonary artery with a peduncle and had obvious mobility, which was suggestive of PAS and differentiated it from the pulmonary thromboembolism. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a pedunculated PAS suggested by TTE. Combined with pulmonary artery computed tomography angiography, the diagnosis of PAS is strongly suggested before the operation. This case indicates that TTE could reveal the attachment and mobility of PAS in the main pulmonary and may provide useful information for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of PAS, especially a pedunculated PAS. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Immune response to UV-induced tumors: mediation of progressor tumor rejection by natural killer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streeter, P.R.; Fortner, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    Skin tumors induced in mice by chronic ultraviolet (UV) irradiation are highly antigenic and can induce a state of transplantation immunity in syngeneic animals. In the present study, the authors compared the in vitro cytolytic activity of splenic lymphocytes from mice immunized with either regressor or progressor UV-tumors. The results of this comparison implicated tumor-specific cytolytic T (Tc) lymphocytes in rejection of regressor UV-tumors, and revealed that immunization with the progressor UV-tumor 2237 failed to elicit detectable levels of progressor tumor-specific Tc cells even as the tumors rejected. Following in vitro resensitization of spleen cells from either regressor or progressor tumor immune animals, the authors found NK-like lymphocytes with anti-tumor activity. As the authors had not detected cells with this activity in splenic lymphocyte preparations prior to in vitro resensitization, the authors examined lymphocytes from the local tumor environment during the course of progressor tumor rejection for this activity. This analysis revealed NK lymphocytes exhibiting significant levels of cytolytic activity against UV-tumors. These results implicate NK cells as potential effector cells in the rejection of progressor UV-tumors by immune animals, and suggests that these cells may be regulated by T lymphocytes

  11. Local and systemic tumor immune dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enderling, Heiko

    Tumor-associated antigens, stress proteins, and danger-associated molecular patterns are endogenous immune adjuvants that can both initiate and continually stimulate an immune response against a tumor. In retaliation, tumors can hijack intrinsic immune regulatory programs that are intended to prevent autoimmune disease, thereby facilitating continued growth despite the activated antitumor immune response. In metastatic disease, this ongoing tumor-immune battle occurs at each site. Adding an additional layer of complexity, T cells activated at one tumor site can cycle through the blood circulation system and extravasate in a different anatomic location to surveil a distant metastasis. We propose a mathematical modeling framework that incorporates the trafficking of activated T cells between metastatic sites. We extend an ordinary differential equation model of tumor-immune system interactions to multiple metastatic sites. Immune cells are activated in response to tumor burden and tumor cell death, and are recruited from tumor sites elsewhere in the body. A model of T cell trafficking throughout the circulatory system can inform the tumor-immune interaction model about the systemic distribution and arrival of T cells at specific tumor sites. Model simulations suggest that metastases not only contribute to immune surveillance, but also that this contribution varies between metastatic sites. Such information may ultimately help harness the synergy of focal therapy with the immune system to control metastatic disease.

  12. A Rare Gestational Trophoblastic Disease: Placental Site Trophoblastic Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senem Yaman Tunç

    2016-12-01

    PSTT is a rare tumor. In contrast to other trophoblastic tumors, PSTT produces a small amount of ß-HCG and it is relatively insensitive to chemotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is suggested to follow surgical treatment in the cases with metastasis.

  13. Suggestibility and negative priming: two replication studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Daniel; Brown, Richard J

    2002-07-01

    Research suggests that inhibiting the effect of irrelevant stimuli on subsequent thought and action (cognitive inhibition) may be an important component of suggestibility. Two small correlation studies were conducted to address the relationship between different aspects of suggestibility and individual differences in cognitive inhibition, operationalized as the degree of negative priming generated by to-be-ignored stimuli in a semantic categorization task. The first study found significant positive correlations between negative priming, hypnotic suggestibility, and creative imagination; a significant negative correlation was obtained between negative priming and interrogative suggestibility, demonstrating the discriminant validity of the study results. The second study replicated the correlation between negative priming and hypnotic suggestibility, using a different suggestibility measurement procedure that assessed subjective experience and hypnotic involuntariness as well as objective responses to suggestions. These studies support the notion that the ability to engage in cognitive inhibition may be an important component of hypnotic responsivity and maybe of other forms of suggestibility.

  14. Liver Tumors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Liver Tumors KidsHealth / For Parents / Liver Tumors What's in this article? Types of Tumors ... Cancerous) Tumors Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Coping Print The liver is the body's largest solid organ. Lying next ...

  15. Suggestibility and Expectancy in a Counseling Analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Theodore J.; Parker, Clyde A.

    1971-01-01

    The data indicated that (a) subjectively experienced suggestibility was more closely related to attitude change than was objective suggestibility, and (b) the generalized expectancy treatments were ineffective in influencing different criterion scores. (Author)

  16. Evidentiality and Suggestibility: A New Research Venue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Cagla; Ceci, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests that acquisition of mental-state language may influence conceptual development. We examine this possibility by investigating the conceptual links between evidentiality in language and suggestibility. Young children are disproportionately suggestible and tend to change their reports or memories when questioned. The authors…

  17. The Effects of Suggestibility on Relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Henry C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Selected undergraduates (N=32) on the basis of Creative Imagination Scale scores and randomly assigned high and low suggestibility subjects to progressive relaxation (PR) and suggestions of relaxation (SR) training modes. Results revealed a significant pre-post relaxation effect, and main efffects for both suggestibility and training mode. (NRB)

  18. Reinventing suggestion systems for continuous improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuring, R.W.; Luijten, Harald

    2001-01-01

    This article reports an experiment to increase the effectiveness of a suggestion system by deliberately applying principles of the kaizen and performance management. Design rules for suggestion systems are derived from these theories. The suggestion system that resulted differs from traditional

  19. CT of abdominal tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Satoshi; Yamada, Kenji; Ito, Masatoshi; Ito, Hisao; Yamaura, Harutsugu

    1981-01-01

    CT findings in 33 patients who had an abdominal tumor were evaluated. CT revealed a tumor in 31 cases. The organ from which the tumor originated was correctly diagnosed in 18 patients. Whether the tumor was solid or cystic was correctly predicted in 28 patients. The diagnosis malignant or benign nature of tumor was correct, incorrect and impossible, in 23, 3, and five patiens, respectively. (Kondo, M.)

  20. The influence of suggestibility on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Serge; Collins, Thérèse; Gounden, Yannick; Roediger, Henry L

    2011-06-01

    We provide a translation of Binet and Henri's pioneering 1894 paper on the influence of suggestibility on memory. Alfred Binet (1857-1911) is famous as the author who created the IQ test that bears his name, but he is almost unknown as the psychological investigator who generated numerous original experiments and fascinating results in the study of memory. His experiments published in 1894 manipulated suggestibility in several ways to determine effects on remembering. Three particular modes of suggestion were employed to induce false recognitions: (1) indirect suggestion by a preconceived idea; (2) direct suggestion; and (3) collective suggestion. In the commentary we suggest that Binet and Henri's (1894) paper written over 115 years ago is still highly relevant even today. In particular, Binet's legacy lives on in modern research on misinformation effects in memory, in studies of conformity, and in experiments on the social contagion of memory. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The relationships between suggestibility, influenceability, and relaxability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polczyk, Romuald; Frey, Olga; Szpitalak, Malwina

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the relationships between relaxability and various aspects of suggestibility and influenceability. The Jacobson Progressive Muscle Relaxation procedure was used to induce relaxation. Tests of direct suggestibility, relating to the susceptibility of overt suggestions, and indirect suggestibility, referring to indirect hidden influence, as well as self-description questionnaires on suggestibility and the tendency to comply were used. Thayer's Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List, measuring various kinds of activation and used as a pre- and posttest, determined the efficacy of the relaxation procedure. Indirect, direct, and self-measured suggestibility proved to be positively related to the ability to relax, measured by Thayer's subscales relating to emotions. Compliance was not related to relaxability. The results are discussed in terms of the aspects of relaxation training connected with suggestibility.

  2. Clinicopathological characteristics of duodenal epithelial neoplasms: Focus on tumors with a gastric mucin phenotype (pyloric gland-type tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiro Mitsuishi

    Full Text Available Epithelial tumors less commonly occur in the duodenum than in the stomach or large intestine. The clinicopathological characteristics of duodenal epithelial tumors remain a matter of debate. We therefore studied resected specimens to investigate the clinicopathological characteristics of duodenal epithelial tumors.Among duodenal epithelial tumors resected endoscopically or surgically in our hospital, we studied the clinicopathological characteristics of 110 adenomas or intramucosal carcinomas. The grade of atypia of all tumors was classified into 3 groups according to the World Health Organization (WHO 2010 classification. The tumors were immunohistochemically evaluated to determine the frequency of differentiation toward fundic glands.As for patient characteristics, there were 76 men (75.2% and 25 women (24.8%, with a median age of 65 years (range, 34 to 84. The tumors most commonly arose in the first to second part of the duodenum. Many lesions were flat, and the median tumor diameter was 8.0 mm. The lesions were classified into 2 types according to mucin phenotype: intestinal-type tumors (98 lesions, 89.1% and gastric-type tumors (12 lesions, 10.9%. Intestinal-type tumors were subdivided into 2 groups: tubular-type tumors (91 lesions, 82.7% and tubulovillous-type tumors (7 lesions, 6.4%. Gastric-type tumors were classified into 2 types: foveolar type (3 lesions, 2.7% and pyloric gland-type (PG tumors (9 lesions, 8.2%. The grade of atypia was significantly higher in gastric-type tumors (p<0.01. PG tumors were gastric-type tumors characterized by pyloric glands and findings suggesting differentiation toward fundic glands.About 10% of the duodenal tumors had a gastric-type mucin phenotype. Gastric-type tumors showed high-grade atypia. In particular, PG tumors showed similarities to PG tumors of the stomach, such as differentiation toward fundic glands.

  3. Effects of stereotypes and suggestion on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechory, Mally; Nachson, Israel; Glicksohn, Joseph

    2010-02-01

    In this study, the interactive effect of stereotype and suggestion on accuracy of memory was examined by presenting 645 participants (native Israelis and immigrants from the former Soviet Union and Ethiopia) with three versions of a story about a worker who is waiting in a manager's office for a meeting. All versions were identical except for the worker's name, which implied a Russian or an Ethiopian immigrant or a person of no ethnic origin. Each participant was presented with one version of the story. After an hour delay, the participants' memories were tested via two questionnaires that differed in terms of level of suggestion. Data analyses show that (a) when a suggestion matched the participant's stereotypical perception, the suggestion was incorporated into memory but (b) when the suggestion contradicted the stereotype, it did not influence memory. The conclusion was that recall is influenced by stereotypes but can be enhanced by compatible suggestions.

  4. Behavioural Decision Making and Suggestional Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Molz, Günter

    2001-01-01

    Common features between the domains of behavioural decision making and suggestional processes are discussed. These features are allocated in two aspects. First, behavioural decision making and suggestional processes are traditionally considered to provoke inadequate human behaviour. In this article arguments are put forward against this interpretation: Actions induced by non-rational decisions and / or by suggestional processes often have adaptive functions. Second, two common themat...

  5. Interrogative suggestibility in patients with conversion disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foong, J; Lucas, P A; Ron, M A

    1997-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that increased interrogative suggestibility may contribute to the shaping and maintaining of conversions symptoms. Interrogative suggestibility was measured in 12 patients with conversion disorder and 10 control patients with confirmed neurological disease matched for age, premorbid intelligence, and as closely as possible in terms of their neurological symptoms to the patients with conversion disorder. Our observations do not support the contention that individual differences in interrogative suggestibility are of importance in the etiology of conversion disorders.

  6. Personality Styles and Suggestibility: A Differential Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Rute; Silva, Danilo R.; Ferreira, Ana Sousa

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses the relationship between personality styles measured with the Portuguese adaptation of the Millon Index of Personality Styles Revised – MIPS-R and interrogative suggestibility assessed by the Portuguese adaptation of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale – GSS1. Hypotheses predicted individual differences in suggestibility and that these differences correspond to differences in individuals’ personality styles. The study was conducted with a sample of 258 individuals (M age ...

  7. Tumor macroenvironment and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zoughbi, Wael; Al-Zhoughbi, Wael; Huang, Jianfeng; Paramasivan, Ganapathy S; Till, Holger; Pichler, Martin; Guertl-Lackner, Barbara; Hoefler, Gerald

    2014-04-01

    In this review we introduce the concept of the tumor macroenvironment and explore it in the context of metabolism. Tumor cells interact with the tumor microenvironment including immune cells. Blood and lymph vessels are the critical components that deliver nutrients to the tumor and also connect the tumor to the macroenvironment. Several factors are then released from the tumor itself but potentially also from the tumor microenvironment, influencing the metabolism of distant tissues and organs. Amino acids, and distinct lipid and lipoprotein species can be essential for further tumor growth. The role of glucose in tumor metabolism has been studied extensively. Cancer-associated cachexia is the most important tumor-associated systemic syndrome and not only affects the quality of life of patients with various malignancies but is estimated to be the cause of death in 15%-20% of all cancer patients. On the other hand, systemic metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes are known to influence tumor development. Furthermore, the clinical implications of the tumor macroenvironment are explored in the context of the patient's outcome with special consideration for pediatric tumors. Finally, ways to target the tumor macroenvironment that will provide new approaches for therapeutic concepts are described. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Interrogative suggestibility and perceptual motor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, G H

    1984-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between interrogative suggestibility, as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, and Arrow-Dot scores. The tendency of subjects (25 men and 25 women, mean age 30.2 yr.) to alter their answers once interpersonal pressure had been applied correlated significantly with poor Arrow-Dot Ego functioning.

  9. Maltreated Children's Memory: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Mitchell L.; Goodman, Gail S.; Qin, Jianjian; Davis, Suzanne; Crayton, John

    2007-01-01

    Memory, suggestibility, stress arousal, and trauma-related psychopathology were examined in 328 3- to 16-year-olds involved in forensic investigations of abuse and neglect. Children's memory and suggestibility were assessed for a medical examination and venipuncture. Being older and scoring higher in cognitive functioning were related to fewer…

  10. Multiparametric MR assessment of pediatric brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzika, A.A.; Astrakas, L.G.; Zarifi, M.K.; Petridou, N.; Young-Poussaint, T.; Goumnerova, L.; Black, P.McL.; Zurakowski, D.; Anthony, D.C.

    2003-01-01

    MR assessment of pediatric brain tumors has expanded to include physiologic information related to cellular metabolites, hemodynamic and diffusion parameters. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between MR and proton MR spectroscopic imaging in children with primary brain tumors. Twenty-one patients (mean age 9 years) with histologically verified brain tumors underwent conventional MR imaging, hemodynamic MR imaging (HMRI) and proton MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI). Fourteen patients also had diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWMRI). Metabolic indices including choline-containing compounds (Cho), total creatine (tCr) and lipids/lactate (L) were derived by proton MRSI, relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) by HMRI, and apparent tissue water diffusion coefficients (ADC) by DWMRI. Variables were examined by linear regression and correlation as well as by ANOVA. Cho (suggestive of tumor cellularity and proliferative activity) correlated positively with rCBV, while the relationship between Cho and ADC (suggestive of cellular density) was inverse (P<0.001). The relationship between rCBV and ADC was also inverse (P=0.004). Cho and lipids (suggestive of necrosis and/or apoptosis) were not significantly correlated (P=0.51). A positive relationship was found between lipids and ADC (P=0.002). The relationships between Cho, rCBV, ADC and lipids signify that tumor physiology is influenced by the tumor's physical and chemical environment. Normalized Cho and lipids distinguished high-grade from low-grade tumors (P<0.05). Multiparametric MR imaging using MRSI, HMRI and DWMRI enhances assessment of brain tumors in children and improves our understanding of tumor physiology while promising to distinguish higher- from lower-malignancy tumors, a distinction that is particularly clinically important among inoperable tumors. (orig.)

  11. Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor of the Nasal Septum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Okumura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an extremely rare case of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the posterior edge of the nasal septum. An 11-year-old boy presented with frequent epistaxis and nasal obstruction persisting for one year. Based on the clinical presentation and imaging studies, juvenile angiofibroma was suspected, but angiography suggested the possibility of another type of tumor. Transnasal endoscopic surgery found that the tumor protruded into the nasopharynx from the posterior end of the nasal septum. Histological examination identified spindle cells with immunoreaction for vimentin, smooth muscle actin, and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK, but not for desmin and cytokeratin. This is a report of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor mimicking juvenile angiofibroma. This case suggests that angiography is helpful in the differential diagnosis of epipharyngeal tumor in adolescence.

  12. Bronchial carcinoid tumors: A rare malignant tumor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-03

    Feb 3, 2015 ... Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice • Sep-Oct 2015 • Vol 18 • Issue 5. Abstract. Bronchial carcinoid tumors (BCTs) are an uncommon group of lung tumors. They commonly affect the young adults and the middle aged, the same age group affected by other more common chronic lung conditions such as ...

  13. Lapatinib Plasma and Tumor Concentrations and Effects on HER Receptor Phosphorylation in Tumor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil L Spector

    Full Text Available The paradigm shift in cancer treatment from cytotoxic drugs to tumor targeted therapies poses new challenges, including optimization of dose and schedule based on a biologically effective dose, rather than the historical maximum tolerated dose. Optimal dosing is currently determined using concentrations of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in plasma as a surrogate for tumor concentrations. To examine this plasma-tumor relationship, we explored the association between lapatinib levels in tumor and plasma in mice and humans, and those effects on phosphorylation of human epidermal growth factor receptors (HER in human tumors.Mice bearing BT474 HER2+ human breast cancer xenografts were dosed once or twice daily (BID with lapatinib. Drug concentrations were measured in blood, tumor, liver, and kidney. In a randomized phase I clinical trial, 28 treatment-naïve female patients with early stage HER2+ breast cancer received lapatinib 1000 or 1500 mg once daily (QD or 500 mg BID before evaluating steady-state lapatinib levels in plasma and tumor.In mice, lapatinib levels were 4-fold higher in tumor than blood with a 4-fold longer half-life. Tumor concentrations exceeded the in vitro IC90 (~ 900 nM or 500 ng/mL for inhibition of HER2 phosphorylation throughout the 12-hour dosing interval. In patients, tumor levels were 6- and 10-fold higher with QD and BID dosing, respectively, compared to plasma trough levels. The relationship between tumor and plasma concentration was complex, indicating multiple determinants. HER receptor phosphorylation varied depending upon lapatinib tumor concentrations, suggestive of changes in the repertoire of HER homo- and heterodimers.Plasma lapatinib concentrations underestimated tumor drug levels, suggesting that optimal dosing should be focused on the site of action to avoid to inappropriate dose escalation. Larger clinical trials are required to determine optimal dose and schedule to achieve tumor concentrations that maximally

  14. Treatment outcomes and late toxicities in patients with embryonal central nervous system tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odagiri, Kazumasa; Omura, Motoko; Hata, Masaharu; Aida, Noriko; Niwa, Tetsu; Goto, Hiroaki; Ito, Susumu; Adachi, Masanori; Yoshida, Haruyasu; Yuki, Hiroko; Inoue, Tomio

    2014-01-01

    Standard treatment strategies for embryonal central nervous system (CNS) tumors have not yet been established. We treated these tumors using an original chemoradiation therapy protocol; the clinical outcomes and toxicities were retrospectively evaluated. Twenty-four patients were enrolled including sixteen with medulloblastoma, four with supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (sPNET), three with atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, and one with pineoblastoma. Immediately after diagnosis, all patients underwent surgery initially. They were then categorized as high- or average-risk groups independent of tumor type/pathogenesis. The average-risk group included patients who were aged ≥3 years at diagnosis, had non-metastatic disease at diagnosis (M0), and had undergone gross total resection. Other patients were categorized as the high-risk group; this group received more intensive treatment than the average-risk group, including high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem-cell transplantation. All patients received craniospinal irradiation (CSI). The CSI dose was 23.4 Gy for M0 patients aged ≥5 years, 18 Gy for M0 patients aged <5 years, and 30–36 Gy for all patients with M + disease. The total dose to the primary tumor bed was 54 Gy. The median follow-up time was 73.5 (range, 19–118) months. The 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 71.1 and 88.9%, respectively in the average-risk group (n = 9) and 66.7 and 71.1%, respectively in the high-risk group (n = 15). The PFS and OS rates were not significantly different between the average- and high-risk groups. In patients with medulloblastoma only, these rates were also not significantly different between the average- and high-risk groups. Three of four patients with sPNET were disease free. The height standard deviation score (SDS) was significantly decreased at the last assessment relative to that at diagnosis (P < 0.0001). The latest median height SDS was -1.6 (range, 0

  15. Children's Brain Tumor Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2 Family Donate Volunteer Justin's Hope Fund Children’s Brain Tumor Foundation, A non-profit organization, was founded ... and the long term outlook for children with brain and spinal cord tumors through research, support, education, ...

  16. Metaphyseal giant cell tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, L.F.; Hemais, P.M.P.G.; Aymore, I.L.; Carmo, M.C.R. do; Cunha, M.E.P.R. da; Resende, C.M.C.

    1986-01-01

    Three cases of metaphyseal giant cell tumor are presented. A review of the literature is done, demostrating the lesion is rare and that there are few articles about it. Age incidence and characteristics of the tumor are discussed. (Author) [pt

  17. Testicular germinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresco, R.

    2010-01-01

    This work is about diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of testicular germinal tumors. The presumed diagnosis is based in the anamnesis, clinical examination, testicular ultrasound and tumor markers. The definitive diagnosis is obtained through the inguinal radical orchidectomy

  18. LSD enhances suggestibility in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, R L; Kaelen, M; Whalley, M G; Bolstridge, M; Feilding, A; Nutt, D J

    2015-02-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) has a history of use as a psychotherapeutic aid in the treatment of mood disorders and addiction, and it was also explored as an enhancer of mind control. The present study sought to test the effect of LSD on suggestibility in a modern research study. Ten healthy volunteers were administered with intravenous (i.v.) LSD (40-80 μg) in a within-subject placebo-controlled design. Suggestibility and cued mental imagery were assessed using the Creative Imagination Scale (CIS) and a mental imagery test (MIT). CIS and MIT items were split into two versions (A and B), balanced for 'efficacy' (i.e. A ≈ B) and counterbalanced across conditions (i.e. 50 % completed version 'A' under LSD). The MIT and CIS were issued 110 and 140 min, respectively, post-infusion, corresponding with the peak drug effects. Volunteers gave significantly higher ratings for the CIS (p = 0.018), but not the MIT (p = 0.11), after LSD than placebo. The magnitude of suggestibility enhancement under LSD was positively correlated with trait conscientiousness measured at baseline (p = 0.0005). These results imply that the influence of suggestion is enhanced by LSD. Enhanced suggestibility under LSD may have implications for its use as an adjunct to psychotherapy, where suggestibility plays a major role. That cued imagery was unaffected by LSD implies that suggestions must be of a sufficient duration and level of detail to be enhanced by the drug. The results also imply that individuals with high trait conscientiousness are especially sensitive to the suggestibility-enhancing effects of LSD.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of syrinx cavity. Differentiation between syrinx with spinal cord tumor and without tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Teruo; Inoue, Yuichi; Nemoto, Yutaka

    1987-12-01

    Syrinx cavity may result from a number of intramedullary tumors or non-neoplastic conditions such as Chiari malformation, trauma and meningitis. The surgical procedure to repair the syrinx is quite different between the cases with spinal cord tumor and without tumor. Therefore, it is important to determine whether syrinx is associated with tumor or not before surgery. We reviewed MR images of 26 cases with syrinx cavity; 20 of which were not associated with tumor (12 Chiari malformation, 5 trauma, 1 meningitis, 1 hydrocephalus, 1 idiopathic) and 6 of which were associated with intramedullary tumor (3 ependymoma, 2 astrocytoma, 1 hemangioendothelioma). The syrinx showed low signal in all 26 cases on T1 weighted images (SE 600/40). All 6 cases with syrinx associated with intramedullary tumor showed high intensity on T2 weighted images (SE 2000/120). On the other hand, the syrinx of 19 of 20 cases with no tumor condition showed reduced intensity on T2 weighted images. Only one post-traumatic small syrinx showed high signal. This was quite different between the cases with spinal cord tumor and without tumor. Therefore, when the syrinx cavity shows high signal on T2 weighted images, an intramedullary tumor is strongly suggested.

  20. Tissue engineered tumor models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M; Techy, G B; Ward, B R; Imam, S A; Atkinson, R; Ho, H; Taylor, C R

    2010-08-01

    Many research programs use well-characterized tumor cell lines as tumor models for in vitro studies. Because tumor cells grown as three-dimensional (3-D) structures have been shown to behave more like tumors in vivo than do cells growing in monolayer culture, a growing number of investigators now use tumor cell spheroids as models. Single cell type spheroids, however, do not model the stromal-epithelial interactions that have an important role in controlling tumor growth and development in vivo. We describe here a method for generating, reproducibly, more realistic 3-D tumor models that contain both stromal and malignant epithelial cells with an architecture that closely resembles that of tumor microlesions in vivo. Because they are so tissue-like we refer to them as tumor histoids. They can be generated reproducibly in substantial quantities. The bioreactor developed to generate histoid constructs is described and illustrated. It accommodates disposable culture chambers that have filled volumes of either 10 or 64 ml, each culture yielding on the order of 100 or 600 histoid particles, respectively. Each particle is a few tenths of a millimeter in diameter. Examples of histological sections of tumor histoids representing cancers of breast, prostate, colon, pancreas and urinary bladder are presented. Potential applications of tumor histoids include, but are not limited to, use as surrogate tumors for pre-screening anti-solid tumor pharmaceutical agents, as reference specimens for immunostaining in the surgical pathology laboratory and use in studies of invasive properties of cells or other aspects of tumor development and progression. Histoids containing nonmalignant cells also may have potential as "seeds" in tissue engineering. For drug testing, histoids probably will have to meet certain criteria of size and tumor cell content. Using a COPAS Plus flow cytometer, histoids containing fluorescent tumor cells were analyzed successfully and sorted using such criteria.

  1. Factor structure of suggestibility revisited: new evidence for direct and indirect suggestibility

    OpenAIRE

    Romuald Polczyk

    2016-01-01

    Background Yielding to suggestions can be viewed as a relatively stable individual trait, called suggestibility. It has been long proposed that there are two kinds of suggestible influence, and two kinds of suggestibility corresponding to them: direct and indirect. Direct suggestion involves overt unhidden influence, while indirect suggestion concerns influence that is hidden, and the participant does not know that the suggestibility is being measured. So far however, empirical evidence ...

  2. Tumor interstitial fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina; Olsen, Charlotta J.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) is a proximal fluid that, in addition to the set of blood soluble phase-borne proteins, holds a subset of aberrantly externalized components, mainly proteins, released by tumor cells and tumor microenvironment through various mechanisms, which include classical...

  3. pH distribution in human tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thistlethwaite, A.J.; Leeper, D.B.; Moylan, D.J.; Nerlinger, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    pH distribution in human tumors is being determined to evaluate this parameter as a prognostic indicator of hyperthermia response. pH is measured by a modified glass pH electrode (21g, model MI 408, Microelectrodes, Inc., Londonderry, NH) inserted through an 18g open-ended Angiocath. Eight tumors have been evaluated to date; and of those, 3 were also assayed after the first heat treatment coincident with determination of blood flow. Tumors were between 2-5 cm, of various histologies, and of primary, recurrent, or metastatic origin. 2-4 measurements were made per tumor. Pretreatment readings were between 6.4 and 7.2 pH units. As tumor blood flow increased after 1 hr heating (41.5 - 43 0 ) pH rose 0.1 - 0.3 units. Normal rat muscle yields pH readings of 7.35 - 7.45. Although there was considerable heterogeneity of pH within tumors, accuracy and drift were not a problem. 5-15 min were required for pH stabilization after catheter insertion and <5 min after electrode insertion. A saline wheal was used for anesthesia to preclude modification of pH by anesthetics. Patient tolerance has not been a problems. This study suggests that human tumor tissue has a preponderance of areas more acidic than normal tissue. This may serve to sensitize tumor cells to hyperthermia and provide a prognostic indicator of tumor response

  4. Genomic Heterogeneity of Breast Tumor Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, Rachel E.; Hooke, Jeffrey A.; Shriver, Craig D.; Ellsworth, Darrell L.

    2009-01-01

    Pathological grade is a useful prognostic factor for stratifying breast cancer patients into favorable (low-grade, well-differentiated tumors) and less favorable (high-grade, poorly-differentiated tumors) outcome groups. Under the current system of tumor grading, however, a large proportion of tumors are characterized as intermediate-grade, making determination of optimal treatments difficult. In an effort to increase objectivity in the pathological assessment of tumor grade, differences in chromosomal alterations and gene expression patterns have been characterized in low-grade, intermediate-grade, and high-grade disease. In this review, we outline molecular data supporting a linear model of progression from low-grade to high-grade carcinomas, as well as contradicting genetic data suggesting that low-grade and high-grade tumors develop independently. While debate regarding specific pathways of development continues, molecular data suggest that intermediate-grade tumors do not comprise an independent disease subtype, but represent clinical and molecular hybrids between low-grade and high-grade tumors. Finally, we discuss the clinical implications associated with different pathways of development, including a new clinical test to assign grade and guide treatment options. PMID:20689613

  5. Measuring Children's Suggestibility in Forensic Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpini, Laura; Melis, Manuela; Petralia, Stefania; Rosenberg, Melina D

    2016-01-01

    According to the scientific literature, childrens' cognitive development is not complete until adolescence. Therefore, the problems inherent in children serving as witnesses are crucial. In preschool-aged children, false memories may be identified because of misinformation and insight bias. Additionally, they are susceptible of suggestions. The aim of this study was to verify the levels of suggestibility in children between three and 5 years of age. Ninety-two children were examined (44 male, 48 female; M = 4.5 years, SD = 9.62). We used the correlation coefficient (Pearson's r) and the averages variance by SPSS statistical program. The results concluded that: younger children are almost always more susceptible to suggestibility. The dimension of immediate recall was negatively correlates with that of total suggestibility (r = -0.357 p suggestibility, because older children shift their answers more often (r = 0.394 p < 0.001). Younger children change their answers more times (r = -0.395 p < 0.001). © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. Impulsivity, self-control, and hypnotic suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, V U; Stelzel, C; Krutiak, H; Prunkl, C E; Steimke, R; Paschke, L M; Kathmann, N; Walter, H

    2013-06-01

    Hypnotic responding might be due to attenuated frontal lobe functioning after the hypnotic induction. Little is known about whether personality traits linked with frontal functioning are associated with responsiveness to hypnotic suggestions. We assessed whether hypnotic suggestibility is related to the traits of self-control and impulsivity in 154 participants who completed the Brief Self-Control Scale, the Self-Regulation Scale, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (HGSHS:A). BIS-11 non-planning impulsivity correlated positively with HGSHS:A (Bonferroni-corrected). Furthermore, in the best model emerging from a stepwise multiple regression, both non-planning impulsivity and self-control positively predicted hypnotic suggestibility, and there was an interaction of BIS-11 motor impulsivity with gender. For men only, motor impulsivity tended to predict hypnotic suggestibility. Hypnotic suggestibility is associated with personality traits linked with frontal functioning, and hypnotic responding in men and women might differ. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Overview of the SBS 2016 Suggestion Track

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koolen, Marijn; Bogers, Toine; Jaap, Kamps

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the SBS 2016 Suggestion Track is to evaluate approaches for supporting users in searching collections of books who express their information needs both in a query and through example books. The track investigates the complex nature of relevance in book search and the role of traditional...... and user-generated book metadata in retrieval. We consolidated last year’s investigation into the nature of book suggestions from the LibraryThing forums and how they compare to book relevance judgements. Participants were encouraged to incorporate rich user profiles of both topic creators and other...

  8. Colorectal Mesenchymal Tumor: A Clinicopathologic Study of 25 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Hui Lee

    2005-07-01

    Conclusion: Two clinicopathologically different categories were identified from our colorectal mesenchymal tumors: intramural GISTs and polypoid submucosal leiomyomas. Our study suggests that GIST is a better categorization than smooth muscle tumor because of the malignant potential. Prognosis is strictly related to the number of mitoses. However, tumor size, nuclear atypia and tumor necrosis are probably also significant predictive factors of lethality. Future studies with DNA analysis and larger patient numbers are essential to evaluate the prognostic significance of our findings.

  9. PET and endocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigo, P.; Belhocine, T.; Hustinx, R.; Foidart-Willems, J.

    2000-01-01

    The authors review the main indications of PET examination, and specifically of 18 FDG, in the assessment of endocrine tumors: of the thyroid, of the parathyroid, of the adrenal and of the pituitary glands. Neuroendocrine tumors, gastro-entero-pancreatic or carcinoid tumors are also under the scope. Usually, the most differentiated tumors show only poor uptake of the FDG as they have a weak metabolic and proliferative activity. In the assessment of endocrine tumors, FDG-PET should be used only after most specific nuclear examinations been performed. (author)

  10. Tumor penetrating peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambet eTeesalu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor-homing peptides can be used to deliver drugs into tumors. Phage library screening in live mice has recently identified homing peptides that specifically recognize the endothelium of tumor vessels, extravasate, and penetrate deep into the extravascular tumor tissue. The prototypic peptide of this class, iRGD (CRGDKGPDC, contains the integrin-binding RGD motif. RGD mediates tumor homing through binding to αv integrins, which are selectively expressed on various cells in tumors, including tumor endothelial cells. The tumor-penetrating properties of iRGD are mediated by a second sequence motif, R/KXXR/K. This C-end Rule (or CendR motif is active only when the second basic residue is exposed at the C-terminus of the peptide. Proteolytic processing of iRGD in tumors activates the cryptic CendR motif, which then binds to neuropilin-1 activating an endocytic bulk transport pathway through tumor tissue. Phage screening has also yielded tumor-penetrating peptides that function like iRGD in activating the CendR pathway, but bind to a different primary receptor. Moreover, novel tumor-homing peptides can be constructed from tumor-homing motifs, CendR elements and protease cleavage sites. Pathologies other than tumors can be targeted with tissue-penetrating peptides, and the primary receptor can also be a vascular zip code of a normal tissue. The CendR technology provides a solution to a major problem in tumor therapy, poor penetration of drugs into tumors. The tumor-penetrating peptides are capable of taking a payload deep into tumor tissue in mice, and they also penetrate into human tumors ex vivo. Targeting with these peptides specifically increases the accumulation in tumors of a variety of drugs and contrast agents, such as doxorubicin, antibodies and nanoparticle-based compounds. Remarkably the drug to be targeted does not have to be coupled to the peptide; the bulk transport system activated by the peptide sweeps along any compound that is

  11. A novel gene's role in an ancient mechanism: secreted Frizzled-related protein 1 is a critical component in the anterior-posterior Wnt signaling network that governs the establishment of the anterior neuroectoderm in sea urchin embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Anita; Martínez-Bartolomé, Marina; Burr, Stephanie D; Range, Ryan C

    2018-01-01

    The anterior neuroectoderm (ANE) in many deuterostome embryos (echinoderms, hemichordates, urochordates, cephalochordates, and vertebrates) is progressively restricted along the anterior-posterior axis to a domain around the anterior pole. In the sea urchin embryo, three integrated Wnt signaling branches (Wnt/β-catenin, Wnt/JNK, and Wnt/PKC) govern this progressive restriction process, which begins around the 32- to 60-cell stage and terminates by the early gastrula stage. We previously have established that several secreted Wnt modulators of the Dickkopf and secreted Frizzled-related protein families (Dkk1, Dkk3, and sFRP-1/5) are expressed within the ANE and play important roles in modulating the Wnt signaling network during this process. In this study, we use morpholino and dominant-negative interference approaches to characterize the function of a novel Frizzled-related protein, secreted Frizzled-related protein 1 (sFRP-1), during ANE restriction. sFRP-1 appears to be related to a secreted Wnt modulator, sFRP3/4, that is essential to block Wnt signaling and establish the ANE in vertebrates. Here, we show that the sea urchin sFRP3/4 orthologue is not expressed during ANE restriction in the sea urchin embryo. Instead, our results indicate that ubiquitously expressed maternal sFRP-1 and Fzl1/2/7 signaling act together as early as the 32- to 60-cell stage to antagonize the ANE restriction mechanism mediated by Wnt/β-catenin and Wnt/JNK signaling. Then, starting from the blastula stage, Fzl5/8 signaling activates zygotic sFRP-1 within the ANE territory, where it works with the secreted Wnt antagonist Dkk1 (also activated by Fzl5/8 signaling) to antagonize Wnt1/Wnt8-Fzl5/8-JNK signaling in a negative feedback mechanism that defines the outer ANE territory boundary. Together, these data indicate that maternal and zygotic sFRP-1 protects the ANE territory by antagonizing the Wnt1/Wnt8-Fzl5/8-JNK signaling pathway throughout ANE restriction, providing precise

  12. A novel gene’s role in an ancient mechanism: secreted Frizzled-related protein 1 is a critical component in the anterior–posterior Wnt signaling network that governs the establishment of the anterior neuroectoderm in sea urchin embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Khadka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The anterior neuroectoderm (ANE in many deuterostome embryos (echinoderms, hemichordates, urochordates, cephalochordates, and vertebrates is progressively restricted along the anterior–posterior axis to a domain around the anterior pole. In the sea urchin embryo, three integrated Wnt signaling branches (Wnt/β-catenin, Wnt/JNK, and Wnt/PKC govern this progressive restriction process, which begins around the 32- to 60-cell stage and terminates by the early gastrula stage. We previously have established that several secreted Wnt modulators of the Dickkopf and secreted Frizzled-related protein families (Dkk1, Dkk3, and sFRP-1/5 are expressed within the ANE and play important roles in modulating the Wnt signaling network during this process. In this study, we use morpholino and dominant-negative interference approaches to characterize the function of a novel Frizzled-related protein, secreted Frizzled-related protein 1 (sFRP-1, during ANE restriction. sFRP-1 appears to be related to a secreted Wnt modulator, sFRP3/4, that is essential to block Wnt signaling and establish the ANE in vertebrates. Here, we show that the sea urchin sFRP3/4 orthologue is not expressed during ANE restriction in the sea urchin embryo. Instead, our results indicate that ubiquitously expressed maternal sFRP-1 and Fzl1/2/7 signaling act together as early as the 32- to 60-cell stage to antagonize the ANE restriction mechanism mediated by Wnt/β-catenin and Wnt/JNK signaling. Then, starting from the blastula stage, Fzl5/8 signaling activates zygotic sFRP-1 within the ANE territory, where it works with the secreted Wnt antagonist Dkk1 (also activated by Fzl5/8 signaling to antagonize Wnt1/Wnt8–Fzl5/8–JNK signaling in a negative feedback mechanism that defines the outer ANE territory boundary. Together, these data indicate that maternal and zygotic sFRP-1 protects the ANE territory by antagonizing the Wnt1/Wnt8–Fzl5/8–JNK signaling pathway throughout ANE

  13. Leadership Theories--Managing Practices, Challenges, Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    A shortage of community college executives due to the number of retirements occurring among current leaders is predicted. An examination of three leadership theories--servant-leadership, business leadership and transformational leadership--suggests techniques for potential community college leaders. Servant-leaders focus on the needs of their…

  14. Seven Salutary Suggestions for Counselor Stamina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Cynthia J.

    2004-01-01

    Counselor stamina is deemed essential in the midst of a consistently challenging, complex, and changing mental health care environment. Rather than perpetuating conversations about "burnout" and "burnout prevention," this article provides a salutary or health-promoting perspective. Seven suggestions for counselor stamina are presented and…

  15. Interrogative Suggestibility in an Adolescent Forensic Occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, G.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Sixty-five juvenile offenders in residential care completed the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, and their scores were matched for IQ and memory with those of 60 adult offenders. The juveniles gave in significantly more to interrogative pressure through negative feedback but were no more yielding to leading questions than adults. (JPS)

  16. Evidence Suggesting Absence of Mitochondrial DNA Methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mechta, Mie; Ingerslev, Lars R; Fabre, Odile

    2017-01-01

    , 16S, ND5 and CYTB, suggesting that mtDNA supercoiled structure blocks the access to bisulfite conversion. Here, we identified an artifact of mtDNA bisulfite sequencing that can lead to an overestimation of mtDNA methylation levels. Our study supports that cytosine methylation is virtually absent...

  17. Didactic Experiments Suggest Enhanced Learning Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pals Svendsen, Lisbet

    2011-01-01

    and presenting material in the language studied, just as they were encouraged to systematically use evaluation processes to enhance learning outcomes. Eventually, increased grade point averages suggested that the experiment was successful. The article also mentions subsequent revisions to the original format...

  18. Do astrophysical measurements suggest massive neutrinos?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.; Fazal-e-Aleem; Rashid, H.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the solar neutrino puzzle and suggest modification in the standard solar model. It has been observed that the discrepancy between experimental measurements and theoretically produced values can be removed by considering neutrinos to process non-zero mass. (author)

  19. The role of tag suggestions in folksonomies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollen, D.G.F.M.; Halpin, H.

    2009-01-01

    Most tagging systems support the user in the tag selection process by providing tag suggestions, or recommendations, based on a popularity measurement of tags other users provided when tagging the same resource. The majority of theories and mathematical models of tagging found in the literature

  20. Cable Television Report and Suggested Ordinance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    League of California Cities, Sacramento.

    Guidelines and suggested ordinances for cable television regulation by local governments are comprehensively discussed in this report. The emphasis is placed on franchising the cable operator. Seventeen legal aspects of franchising are reviewed, and an exemplary ordinance is presented. In addition, current statistics about cable franchising in…

  1. Suggestions for Structuring a Research Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, James D.; Reiser, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers often experience difficulty as they attempt to prepare journal articles that describe their work. The purpose of this article is to provide researchers in the field of education with a series of suggestions as to how to clearly structure each section of a research manuscript that they intend to submit for publication in a scholarly…

  2. Family Living: Suggestions for Effective Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Lilian G.; And Others

    Suggestions for effective parenting of preschool children are provided in 33 brief articles on children's feelings concerning self-esteem; fear; adopted children; the birth of a sibling; death; depression; and coping with stress, trauma, and divorce. Children's behavior is discussed in articles on toddlers' eating habits, punishment and…

  3. Overview of the SBS 2016 Suggestion Track

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koolen, Marijn; Bogers, Toine; Jaap, Kamps

    2016-01-01

    and user-generated book metadata in retrieval. We consolidated last year’s investigation into the nature of book suggestions from the LibraryThing forums and how they compare to book relevance judgements. Participants were encouraged to incorporate rich user profiles of both topic creators and other...

  4. Accounting: Suggested Content for Postsecondary Tax Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Patricia H.; Morgan, Samuel D.

    1978-01-01

    Surveys of community college graduates and of certified public accountants were made to determine employment relevance of the accounting curriculum. The article suggests topics from the study data which should be included in taxation courses, e.g., income tax accounting, corporate taxation accounting, and tax law. (MF)

  5. Morphologic classification of ductal breast tumors on ultrasound : differential diagnosis of benign and malignant tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Mi Sook; Chung, Soo Young; Yang, Ik; Lee, Yul; Park, Hai Jung; Lee, Myoung Hwan; Yoon, In Sook; Koh, Mi Gyoung

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the morphologic differential diagnosis of benign and malignant ductal breast tumors, as seen on US US findings in 29 pathologically proven cases of ductal breast tumor were retrospectively reviewed. All patients were female and their mean age was 42 years. Nineteen tumors were benign and ten were malignant, and all ductal or cystic lesions showed solid masses. According to the location of the mural nodule, we classified the sonographic appearance of these tumors into three types:intraductal, intracystic and amorphic. The intraductal type was divided into three subtypes:incompletely obstructive, completely obstructive and multiple mural nodules. For the intracystic type, too, three subtypes were designated:the intracystic mural nodule (mural cyst), intracystic mural nodule with the duct (mural cyst+duct) and intracystic multiple mural nodules. The amorphic type is defined as an atypical ductal tumor with the mural nodule extending into adjacent parenchyma. The margin of the duct or cyst was smooth in 68.4% of benign, and irregular in 90% of malignant ductal tumors. Internal echogeneity of the duct or cyst usually showed homogeneity in both benign and malignant tumors. 73.7% of tumors connecting the duct were benign and 50% were malignant. In benign tumors, 52.6% of mural nodule had an irregular margin, while in malignant tumors, the corresponding proportion was 100%;both types usually showed heterogeneous hypoechogeneity. Among benign tumors, the most common morphologic type was the intraductal incompletely obstructive subtype (36.8%);among those that were malignant, the amorphic type was most common, accounting for 40% of tumors. No amorphic type was benign and no incompletely obstructive subtype was malignant. When ductal breast tumors are morphologically classified on the basis of sonographic findings, the intraductal incompletely obstructive subtype suggests benignancy, and the amorphic type, malignancy. The morphologic classification of ductal

  6. Epilepsy and Brain Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-yi Sha

    2009-01-01

    @@ Epidemiology It is estimated 61,414 new cases of primary brain tumors are expected to be diagnosed in 2009 in the U.S. The incidence statistic of 61,414 persons diagnosed per year includes both malignant (22,738) and non-malignant (38,677) brain tumors. (Data from American Brain Tumor Association). During the years 2004-2005, approximately 359,000 people in the United States were living with the diagnosis of a primary brain or central nervous system tumor. Specifically, more than 81,000 persons were living with a malignant tumor, more than 267,000 persons with a benign tumor. For every 100,000 people in the United States, approximately 131 are living following the diagnosis of a brain tumor. This represents a prevalence rate of 130.8 per 100,000 person years[1].

  7. Combined cytotoxic effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha with various cytotoxic agents in tumor cell lines that are drug resistant due to mutated p53

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleijfer, S; Le, T. K. P.; de Jong, S.; Timmer-Bosscha, H; Withoff, S; Mulder, NH

    Several studies suggest that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) is able to overcome drug resistance in tumors. Whether TNF is able to do so in tumor cell lines that are drug resistant due to a mutation in the tumor suppressor gene p53 is unclear. Therefore, we studied the in vitro cytotoxic effects

  8. Sequential induction of embryonic and adult forms of glutamic acid decarboxylase during in vitro-induced neurogenesis in cloned neuroectodermal cell-line, NE-7C2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varju, Patricia; Katarova, Zoya; Madarász, Emília; Szabó, Gábor

    2002-02-01

    The expression of different forms of glutamate decarboxylases and GABA was investigated in the course of retinoic acid-induced neuronal differentiation of NE-7C2 cell-line established from brain vesicles of 9-day-old mouse embryos lacking functional p53 gene. Non-induced NE-7C2 cells expressed embryonic GAD mRNAs with a low level of embryonic GAD25 protein and did not contain detectable amounts of GABA. Addition of 10(-6) M retinoic acid induced the expression of N-tubulin and a significant increase in the level of embryonic GAD messages and GAD25 protein in early stage differentiating neurones. The enzymatically active embryonic GAD44 was detected at later stages of induction in neurone-like cells and showed a maximum of expression at the time of neurite elongation and network formation. With the advance of neuronal maturation, the expression of embryonic forms declined while the adult GAD65 and GAD67 transcripts became dominant. GABA-containing neurones were first demonstrated on the sixth day of induction coinciding with the peak of GAD44 expression and the beginning of GAD65 expression. The sequential induction of different GAD forms and the stage-dependent GABA synthesis in NE-7C2 cells is highly reminiscent of the temporal pattern found in vivo and suggests that these processes might be involved in the differentiation of neuronal progenitors.

  9. Molecular-Guided Therapy for Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-07

    Neuroblastoma; Medulloblastoma; Glioma; Ependymoma; Choroid Plexus Neoplasms; Craniopharyngioma; Dysembryoplastic Neuroepithelial Tumor; Meningioma; Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors (PNETs); Germ Cell Tumors; Rhabdomyosarcoma; Non-rhabdomyosarcoma; Ewings Sarcoma; Osteosarcoma; Wilms Tumor; Renal Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Rhabdoid Tumor; Clear Cell Sarcoma; Liver Tumors

  10. Why does Jack, and not Jill, break his crown? Sex disparity in brain tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Tao; Warrington, Nicole M; Rubin, Joshua B

    2012-01-01

    Abstract It is often reported that brain tumors occur more frequently in males, and that males suffer a worse outcome from brain tumors than females. If correct, these observations suggest that sex plays a fundamental role in brain tumor biology. The following review of the literature regarding primary and metastatic brain tumors, reveals that brain tumors do occur more frequently in males compared to females regardless of age, tumor histology, or region of the world. Sexually dimorphic mecha...

  11. Suggestion of a conventional Islamic calendar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Rashed

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a complexity of the problem concerning the first sighting of the new lunar crescent, which is attributed to various astronomical, astrophysical and geographical factors. Therefore, Astronomers adopted various criteria for the new crescent visibility. Muslims around the world differ in the beginning of the Hijric months. In fact the differences are not due to different methodology of astronomical calculations, which in turn the variations of the calendar at different countries gives. Farewell Hajj of Prophet Mohamed was on Friday, the ninth of Thul'hejja of the tenth year of immigration (Biography of the Prophet Mohamed. Therefor; the beginning of the month of Thul'hejja 10 A.H is on Thursday. Our suggested calendar takes Farewell Hajj of the Prophet Mohammad to be the base of this calendar. The advantage of our suggested calendar far away from any criteria; where the adoption of criteria for the new crescent visibility is often misleading.

  12. Suggestion of a conventional Islamic calendar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, M. G.; Moklof, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    There is a complexity of the problem concerning the first sighting of the new lunar crescent, which is attributed to various astronomical, astrophysical and geographical factors. Therefore, Astronomers adopted various criteria for the new crescent visibility. Muslims around the world differ in the beginning of the Hijric months. In fact the differences are not due to different methodology of astronomical calculations, which in turn the variations of the calendar at different countries gives. Farewell Hajj of Prophet Mohamed was on Friday, the ninth of Thul'hejja of the tenth year of immigration (Biography of the Prophet Mohamed). Therefor; the beginning of the month of Thul'hejja 10 A.H is on Thursday. Our suggested calendar takes Farewell Hajj of the Prophet Mohammad to be the base of this calendar. The advantage of our suggested calendar far away from any criteria; where the adoption of criteria for the new crescent visibility is often misleading.

  13. Hypnotic suggestibility, cognitive inhibition, and dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienes, Zoltán; Brown, Elizabeth; Hutton, Sam; Kirsch, Irving; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Wright, Daniel B

    2009-12-01

    We examined two potential correlates of hypnotic suggestibility: dissociation and cognitive inhibition. Dissociation is the foundation of two of the major theories of hypnosis and other theories commonly postulate that hypnotic responding is a result of attentional abilities (including inhibition). Participants were administered the Waterloo-Stanford Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form C. Under the guise of an unrelated study, 180 of these participants also completed: a version of the Dissociative Experiences Scale that is normally distributed in non-clinical populations; a latent inhibition task, a spatial negative priming task, and a memory task designed to measure negative priming. The data ruled out even moderate correlations between hypnotic suggestibility and all the measures of dissociation and cognitive inhibition overall, though they also indicated gender differences. The results are a challenge for existing theories of hypnosis.

  14. [Suggestions to improve dentist-endodontist collaboration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabalegui, B; Zabalegui, I; Flores, L

    1989-01-01

    Referrals from the general dentist to the endodontist are in some occasions complicated with lack of proper communication among dentist-patient-specialist, resulting in the loss of confidence or even the patient. Suggestions to improve this communication are discussed, which will provide the patient a higher confidence in the indicated endodontic treatment and a better dental service. It will also enhance the prestige of the general dentists' and specialists' practice.

  15. Application for Suggesting Restaurants Using Clustering Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Alexandra IANCU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present an application whose purpose is to make suggestions of restaurants to users. The application uses as input the descriptions of restaurants, reviews, user reviews available on the specialized Internet sites and blogs. In the application there are used processing techniques of natural language implemented using parsers, clustering algorithms and techniques for data collection from the Internet through web crawlers.

  16. Conjunctival Melanocytic Tumors-New Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya Gökmen Soysal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Melanocytic lesions of the conjunctiva represent a wide spectrum of tumors that include benign, premalignant, and malignant tumors. There are many ongoing arguments about the definition, classification, and therapeutic options of the conjunctival melanocytic tumors with many different suggestions. Conjunctival nevi are the most common melanocytic tumors and their risk of malignant transformation is less than1%. Primary acquired melanosis (PAM histopathologically includes various types of lesions from increased melanin pigmentation without melanocyte proliferation to melanoma in situ and is accepted as a clinical definition, so that a new classification is recommended which is based on more objective criteria than before. Although conjunctival melanoma is seen rarely, it is associated with a high mortality rate. Management of these tumors mainly involves surgery and adjuvant topical chemotherapy, cryotherapy, and radiation therapy that help improving the survival, however, new options are being investigated related to genetic and molecular researches. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: Supplement 15-21

  17. Tumor suppressors: enhancers or suppressors of regeneration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Jason H.; Blau, Helen M.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor suppressors are so named because cancers occur in their absence, but these genes also have important functions in development, metabolism and tissue homeostasis. Here, we discuss known and potential functions of tumor suppressor genes during tissue regeneration, focusing on the evolutionarily conserved tumor suppressors pRb1, p53, Pten and Hippo. We propose that their activity is essential for tissue regeneration. This is in contrast to suggestions that tumor suppression is a trade-off for regenerative capacity. We also hypothesize that certain aspects of tumor suppressor pathways inhibit regenerative processes in mammals, and that transient targeted modification of these pathways could be fruitfully exploited to enhance processes that are important to regenerative medicine. PMID:23715544

  18. Tumor-Associated Macrophages as Major Players in the Tumor Microenvironment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanmee, Theerawut; Ontong, Pawared; Konno, Kenjiro; Itano, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    During tumor progression, circulating monocytes and macrophages are actively recruited into tumors where they alter the tumor microenvironment to accelerate tumor progression. Macrophages shift their functional phenotypes in response to various microenvironmental signals generated from tumor and stromal cells. Based on their function, macrophages are divided broadly into two categories: classical M1 and alternative M2 macrophages. The M1 macrophage is involved in the inflammatory response, pathogen clearance, and antitumor immunity. In contrast, the M2 macrophage influences an anti-inflammatory response, wound healing, and pro-tumorigenic properties. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) closely resemble the M2-polarized macrophages and are critical modulators of the tumor microenvironment. Clinicopathological studies have suggested that TAM accumulation in tumors correlates with a poor clinical outcome. Consistent with that evidence, experimental and animal studies have supported the notion that TAMs can provide a favorable microenvironment to promote tumor development and progression. In this review article, we present an overview of mechanisms responsible for TAM recruitment and highlight the roles of TAMs in the regulation of tumor angiogenesis, invasion, metastasis, immunosuppression, and chemotherapeutic resistance. Finally, we discuss TAM-targeting therapy as a promising novel strategy for an indirect cancer therapy

  19. Tumor-Associated Macrophages as Major Players in the Tumor Microenvironment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanmee, Theerawut [Institute of Advanced Technology, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Ontong, Pawared [Division of Engineering (Biotechnology), Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Konno, Kenjiro [Department of Animal Medical Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Itano, Naoki, E-mail: itanon@cc.kyoto-su.ac.jp [Institute of Advanced Technology, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Division of Engineering (Biotechnology), Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Department of Molecular Biosciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan)

    2014-08-13

    During tumor progression, circulating monocytes and macrophages are actively recruited into tumors where they alter the tumor microenvironment to accelerate tumor progression. Macrophages shift their functional phenotypes in response to various microenvironmental signals generated from tumor and stromal cells. Based on their function, macrophages are divided broadly into two categories: classical M1 and alternative M2 macrophages. The M1 macrophage is involved in the inflammatory response, pathogen clearance, and antitumor immunity. In contrast, the M2 macrophage influences an anti-inflammatory response, wound healing, and pro-tumorigenic properties. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) closely resemble the M2-polarized macrophages and are critical modulators of the tumor microenvironment. Clinicopathological studies have suggested that TAM accumulation in tumors correlates with a poor clinical outcome. Consistent with that evidence, experimental and animal studies have supported the notion that TAMs can provide a favorable microenvironment to promote tumor development and progression. In this review article, we present an overview of mechanisms responsible for TAM recruitment and highlight the roles of TAMs in the regulation of tumor angiogenesis, invasion, metastasis, immunosuppression, and chemotherapeutic resistance. Finally, we discuss TAM-targeting therapy as a promising novel strategy for an indirect cancer therapy.

  20. Role of tumor necrosis factor in flavone acetic acid-induced tumor vasculature shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadevan, V.; Malik, S.T.; Meager, A.; Fiers, W.; Lewis, G.P.; Hart, I.R.

    1990-01-01

    Flavone acetic acid (FAA), a novel investigational antitumor agent, has been shown to cause early vascular shutdown in several experimental murine tumors, and this phenomenon is believed to be crucial to FAA's antitumor effects. However, the basis of this FAA-induced tumor vascular shutdown is unknown. In this study a radioactive tracer-clearance technique has been used as an objective indication of tumor blood flow to show that i.p. administered FAA induces a progressive and sustained reduction in blood flow in a colon 26 tumor growing s.c. in syngeneic mice. As early as 1 h after administration, there was a significant increase in the t1/2 clearance value for intratumorally injected 133Xe, reaching a peak at 3 h (117.3 +/- 36.4 versus 7.8 +/- 0.85 min for controls). Significant inhibition of blood flow was still apparent 48 h after a single injection of drug. This FAA-induced vascular shutdown was virtually abolished in tumor-bearing mice pretreated with an antiserum against tumor necrosis factor, while no such effect was observed in controls pretreated with nonimmune serum (t1/2 of 10.8 +/- 1.2 versus 65.6 +/- 8.0 min for controls). Furthermore, in vitro FAA was seen to induce tumor necrosis factor secretion from murine peritoneal cells and splenocytes. These studies suggest that FAA-induced tumor vascular shutdown in the colon 26 tumor is mediated by tumor necrosis factor

  1. Factor structure of suggestibility revisited: new evidence for direct and indirect suggestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Polczyk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Yielding to suggestions can be viewed as a relatively stable individual trait, called suggestibility. It has been long proposed that there are two kinds of suggestible influence, and two kinds of suggestibility corresponding to them: direct and indirect. Direct suggestion involves overt unhidden influence, while indirect suggestion concerns influence that is hidden, and the participant does not know that the suggestibility is being measured. So far however, empirical evidence for the existence of the two factors has been scarce. In the present study, more sophisticated and reliable tools for measuring suggestibility were applied than in the previous research, in the hope that better measurement would reveal the factor structure of suggestibility. Two tests of direct suggestibility were used: the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A, measuring hypnotic susceptibility, and the Barber Suggestibility Scale, measuring non-hypnotic direct imaginative suggestibility. Three tests served to measure indirect suggestibility: the Sensory Suggestibility Scale, measuring indirect suggestibility relating to perception; the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, measuring the tendency to yield to suggestive questions and changing answers after negative feedback; and the Emotional Dialogs Tests, measuring the tendency to perceive nonexistent aggression. Participants and procedure In sum, 115 participants were tested, 69 women, 49 men, mean age 22.20 years, SD = 2.20. Participants were tested in two sessions, lasting for a total of four hours. Results Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the existence of two uncorrelated factors of suggestibility: direct and indirect. Conclusions Suggestibility may indeed involve two factors, direct and indirect, and failure to discover them in previous research may be due to methodological problems.

  2. Tumors of the pineal region: radiological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, G.; Delgado, F.; Cano, A.; Vicente, J.; Ramos, M.

    1997-01-01

    To consider the different radiological findings that, together with age, sex, clinical picture and serum markers, indicate a presumed or even definitive diagnosis in tumors of the pineal region. We reviewed retrospectively 18 patients diagnosed as having pineal region tumors. The lesions in this series consisted of seven germinoma, three meningiomas, one pineoblastoma. two ependymomas, one teratoma, two glial cysts, and arachnoid cyst and a lipoma. All but the arachnoid cysts and the lipoma were confirmed histologically. We took into account mainly the epidemiological data, tumor markers and CT and MR features. The germinoma was the most common lesions, representing 38.8% of the tumors in our series. All developed in men (mean age: 21 years). Small non tumoral calcifications were present in pineal gland in six of these cases. This tumor usually invades adjacent structures and produces metastatic seeding in CSF. The pineoblastoma contained prominent tumor calcifications. Meningiomas were detected only in middle-aged women. In addition to the fact that the behavior of these lesions was typical of that meningiomas in other locations, meningeal enhancement in the vicinity of the extraaxial tumor aided in the diagnosis. The teratoma showed variable attenuation, ranging from a fatty substance to calcium, and elevated fetoprotein levels. The glial cyst is a cyst lesion that does not be-have exactly like the CSF, while the arachnoid cyst was isointense with respect to the CSF in all sequences. Enhancement was observed in the glial cysts, one peripheral and the other nodular. The assessment of age, sex, clinical picture and tumor markers, together with the features observed in CT an MR images are suggestive of the histological diagnosis of pineal region tumors. We recommend the use of CT because of its availability and its ability detect calcifications, thus indicating a specific histological type, and of MR because of its greater anatomical definition and its, ability to

  3. New dynamic system suggested for earth expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, J [Asuncion Nacional Univ. (Paraguay). Inst. de Ciencias

    1972-01-01

    It is here suggested that there may have been much more radioactive materials in the deep interior of the earth than bitherto supposed. Trapped heat being generated in the interior would provide a mechanism for earth expansion. An assumption of heat generation in the deep interior of the earth of the order of 0,5 X 10-13 calories per second, per cubic centimeter, would provide sufficient thermal expansion to account for approximately 0.1 mm. change in the radius of the earth per year.

  4. Do experiments suggest a hierarchy problem?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vissani, F.

    1997-09-01

    The hierarchy problem of the scalar sector of the standard model is reformulated, emphasizing the role of experimental facts that may suggest the existence of a new physics large mass scale, for instance indications of the instability of the matter, or indications in favor of massive neutrinos. In the see-saw model for the neutrino masses a hierarchy problem arises if the mass of the right-handed neutrinos is larger than approximatively 10 7 GeV: this problem, and its possible solutions, are discussed. (author)

  5. Responding to hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestions: performance standards, imaginative suggestibility, and response expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Eric C; Lynn, Steven Jay

    2011-07-01

    This study examined the relative impact of hypnotic inductions and several other variables on hypnotic and nonhypnotic responsiveness to imaginative suggestions. The authors examined how imaginative suggestibility, response expectancies, motivation to respond to suggestions, and hypnotist-induced performance standards affected participants' responses to both hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestions and their suggestion-related experiences. Suggestions were administered to 5 groups of participants using a test-retest design: (a) stringent performance standards; (b) lenient performance standards; (c) hypnosis test-retest; (d) no-hypnosis test-retest; and (e) no-hypnosis/hypnosis control. The authors found no support for the influence of a hypnotic induction or performance standards on responding to suggestions but found considerable support for the role of imaginative suggestibility and response expectancies in predicting responses to both hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestions.

  6. The effect of posthypnotic suggestion, hypnotic suggestibility, and goal intentions on adherence to medical instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Claudia; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Kirsch, Irving; Meo, Maria; Santandrea, Maura

    2008-04-01

    The effects of implementation intentions and posthypnotic suggestion were investigated in 2 studies. In Experiment 1, participants with high levels of hypnotic suggestibility were instructed to take placebo pills as part of an investigation of how to best enhance compliance with medical instruction. In Experiment 2, participants with high, medium, and low levels of hypnotic suggestibility were asked to run in place, take their pulse rate before, and send an e-mail report to the experimenter each day. Experiment 1 revealed enhanced adherence as a function of both implementation intentions and posthypnotic suggestion. Experiment 2 failed to find any significant main effects but found a significant interaction between suggestibility and the effects of posthypnotic suggestion. Posthypnotic suggestion enhanced adherence among high suggestible participants but lowered it among low suggestibles.

  7. FEM effective suggestion of guitar construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Dániel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Modal analysis of the whole guitar construction was performed. The results of eigenfrequencies were obtained. Stress in strings affects not only static loading of material, but also shift of eigenfrequencies. From obtained natural frequencies for solved spectrum such frequencies were used which coincides with assumed ribs new positions of ribs were suggested. Other ribs which do not carry out the mechanical function were removed. Also static reaction was evaluated and new position of ribs was adjusted. For final model new eigenfrequencies were computed and compared with previous ones. Significant changes were revealed in low frequencies (bellow 400 Hz where fewer amounts of natural shapes were obtained. Approximately 50% were lost by adding of ribs. For chosen frequencies of equal temperament the harmonic analysis was performed. The analysis proved ability of oscillation for frequencies far of natural frequencies. The final model satisfies the requirement of minimization of static stress in material due to strings and allows very effective oscillation of top the guitar resonance board. In comparison with literature good agreement in amplitude size of front board and amount of modes in appropriate frequencies were achieved. Suggested model even offers higher amount of natural shapes in comparison with literature, namely in high frequencies. From additional comparison of eigenfrequencies and natural shapes the influence of ribs position on natural shapes was approved.

  8. Dinosaur peptides suggest mechanisms of protein survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Antonio, James D; Schweitzer, Mary H; Jensen, Shane T; Kalluri, Raghu; Buckley, Michael; Orgel, Joseph P R O

    2011-01-01

    Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development. Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a 'preservation motif', and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival.

  9. Dinosaur Peptides Suggest Mechanisms of Protein Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Antonio, James D.; Schweitzer, Mary H.; Jensen, Shane T.; Kalluri, Raghu; Buckley, Michael; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O. (Harvard-Med); (IIT); (NCSU); (UPENN); (Manchester); (Orthovita)

    2011-09-16

    Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development. Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a 'preservation motif', and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival.

  10. Histopathological studies on the irradiated brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Tadao

    1980-01-01

    Of 43 cases of irradiated brain tumor, histological findings showed extensive necrosis or disappearance of the neoplasm, considered to be attributable to radiation treatment, in 30 (70%). Extensive necrosis of the tumor in areas exposed to radiation was found in 16 treated cases (37.2%). The histopathology of massive necrosis was that of simple coagulative necrosis, sometimes with marked vascular alterations and extravasation of fibrinoid material into the necrotic tissue. Necrosis was almost always incomplete, and foci of residual tumors were found at the periphery of the tumors. The terminal picture in cases of massive necrosis was often that of widespread intra- and extracranial metastasis. Almost complete disappearance of the tumor was observed in some cases with subsequent diffuse degenerative changes in the brain parenchyma exposed to radiation. In 5 cases of irradiated tumors, autopsy findings suggested that the growth of the primary tumor might have been restricted. And in 5 cases tumor cytology revealed the marked presence of a large number of multinucleated, bizarre giant cells with evidence of degeneration in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Multifocal necrosis of the brain, with axonal swelling and sponginess of the tissue, was observed in two patients following combined radiation and antineoplastic chemotherapy. Diffuse loss and degeneration of nerve cells of the cerebral cortex in pseudo-laminar fashion was observed in 7 patients with or without bilateral necrosis of the globus pallidus. Histological findings revealed typical anoxic encephalopathy. (J.P.N.)

  11. Histopathological studies on the irradiated brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narita, T [Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan).School of Medicine

    1980-01-01

    Of 43 cases of irradiated brain tumor, histological findings showed extensive necrosis or disappearance of the neoplasm, considered to be attributable to radiation treatment, in 30 (70%). Extensive necrosis of the tumor in areas exposed to radiation was found in 16 treated cases (37.2%). The histopathology of massive necrosis was that of simple coagulative necrosis, sometimes with marked vascular alterations and extravasation of fibrinoid material into the necrotic tissue. Necrosis was almost always incomplete, and foci of residual tumors were found at the periphery of the tumors. The terminal picture in cases of massive necrosis was often that of widespread intra- and extracranial metastasis. Almost complete disappearance of the tumor was observed in some cases with subsequent diffuse degenerative changes in the brain parenchyma exposed to radiation. In 5 cases of irradiated tumors, autopsy findings suggested that the growth of the primary tumor might have been restricted. And in 5 cases tumor cytology revealed the marked presence of a large number of multinucleated, bizarre giant cells with evidence of degeneration in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Multifocal necrosis of the brain, with axonal swelling and sponginess of the tissue, was observed in two patients following combined radiation and antineoplastic chemotherapy. Diffuse loss and degeneration of nerve cells of the cerebral cortex in pseudo-laminar fashion was observed in 7 patients with or without bilateral necrosis of the globus pallidus. Histological findings revealed typical anoxic encephalopathy.

  12. Ductuloinsular tumors of the pancreas - Endocrine tumors with entrapped nonneoplastic ductules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eeden, Susanne; de Leng, Wendy W. J.; Offerhaus, G. Johan A.; Morsink, Folkert H.; Weterman, Marian A. J.; de Krijger, Ronald R.; Klöppel, Günter; Klimstra, David S.

    2004-01-01

    Rare pancreatic neoplasms have been reported that show both endocrine and exocrine differentiation in the neoplastic components. In addition, pancreatic endocrine tumors may contain small, cytologically bland ductules intimately admixed with the endocrine component. It was recently suggested that

  13. CT and MRI of germ-cell tumors with metastasis or multi-located tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagami, Mitsusuke; Tazoe, Makoto; Tsubokawa, Takashi

    1989-01-01

    Twenty-seven cases of germ-cell tumors were examined with a CT scan in our clinic. In the 11 cases of metastasis or multi-localized tumors, the CT findings were studied in connection with the MRI findings. There were 6 cases of germ-cell tumors which had broad infiltrating tumors with multiple lesions on first admission. Their tumor sites were different from that in cases of malignant glioma, being frequently localized in the pineal and/or the suprasellar region, on the wall of the third and/or lateral ventricle, and in the region of the basal ganglia. Five of the cases of germ-cell tumors had metastasis with various patterns connected to a remote area - that is, to spinal cords, to the ventricular wall and basal cistern of the brain stem by CSF dissemination, to a lung by hematogeneous metastasis, and to the peritoneal wall or organs by a V-P shunt. The CT findings of germ-cell tumors were correlated mainly with the results of the histological diagnosis; they were found not to differ with the tumor site. The germinoma in the suprasellar region had less calcification than in the pineal region. Cysts, calcification, and an enlargement of the lateral ventricle on the tumor side were frequently seen in the germinoma of the basal ganglia. On the MRI of 5 cases of germinoma, the T 1 -weighted image revealed a slightly low or iso signal intensity, while the T 2 -weighted image showed a high signal intensity. In the case of multiple tumor lesions, some cases demonstrated different CT findings and radiosensitivities for each tumor. The possibility of a multicentric origin for the tumors is thus suggested in some cases of germ-cell tumors. (author)

  14. [Immune system and tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terme, Magali; Tanchot, Corinne

    2017-02-01

    Despite having been much debated, it is now well established that the immune system plays an essential role in the fight against cancer. In this article, we will highlight the implication of the immune system in the control of tumor growth and describe the major components of the immune system involved in the antitumoral immune response. The immune system, while exerting pressure on tumor cells, also will play a pro-tumoral role by sculpting the immunogenicity of tumors cells as they develop. Finally, we will illustrate the numerous mechanisms of immune suppression that take place within the tumoral microenvironment which allow tumor cells to escape control from the immune system. The increasingly precise knowledge of the brakes to an effective antitumor immune response allows the development of immunotherapy strategies more and more innovating and promising of hope. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  15. Imaging of pancreatic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambs, Hans-Juergen; Juchems, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Ductal adenocarcinoma is the most frequent solid tumor of the pancreas. This tumor has distinct features including early obstruction of the pancreatic duct, diminished enhancement after administration of contrast material due to desmoplastic growth, high propensity to infiltrate adjacent structures and to metastasize into the liver and the peritoneum. Hormone active endocrine tumors cause specific clinical symptoms. Imaging is aimed at localization of these hypervascular tumors. Non hormone active tumors are most frequently malignant and demonstrate very varying features. Cystic pancreatic tumors are increasingly detected by means of cross sectional imaging. Exact classification can be achieved with knowledge of the macropathology and considering clinical presentation as well as age and gender of the patients. (orig.)

  16. Influence of WR-2721 on metastatic tumor spread after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, R.L.; Jernigan, M.C.; Yuhas, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The Line 1 alveolar cell carcinoma is a transplantable murine tumor which, unlike most others, kills the host by means of metastatic spread. Attempts to cure this tumor with localized radiation therapy often fail, in spite of local tumor control, because the metastases evade the treatment. These facts suggest that host-tumor interactions may play a particularly important role in determining the ultimate survival of the tumor bearing animal. In order to initially evaluate the possible importance of normal regional tissues in host-tumor interactions the influence of WR-2721, a radioprotective drug, was examined for local tumor control and subsequent survival of the tumor bearing animal after localized radiation. Results indicated that WR-2721 can decrease metastasis. (U.S.)

  17. Ultrasonographic findings of early abortion: suggested predictors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Soon Ae; Ahn, Myoung Ock; Cha, Kwang Yul; Lee, Young Doo

    1992-01-01

    To investigate predictable ultrasonographic findings of early abortion. To investigate objective rules for the screening of abortion. Ultrasonographic examination of 111 early pregnancies between the sixth and ninth week in women who had regular 28 day menstrual cycles was performed. Ultrasonographic measurements of the gestational sac, crown rump length and fetal heart rate were performed using a linear array real time transducer with doppler ultrasonogram. All measurements of 17 early abortions were compared to those of 94 normal pregnancies. Most of early aborted pregnancies were classified correctly by discriminant analysis with G-SAC and CRL (G-SAC=0.5 CRL + 15, sensitivity 76.5%, specificity 96.8%). With the addition of FHR, 94.1% of early abortions could be predicted. In conclusion, ultrasonographic findings of early intrauterine growth retardation, small gestational sac and bradycardia can be predictable signs suggestive of poor prognosis of early pregnancies

  18. Elastic wave scattering methods: assessments and suggestions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubernatis, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    The author was asked by the meeting organizers to review and assess the developments over the past ten or so years in elastic wave scattering methods and to suggest areas of future research opportunities. He highlights the developments, focusing on what he feels were distinct steps forward in our theoretical understanding of how elastic waves interact with flaws. For references and illustrative figures, he decided to use as his principal source the proceedings of the various annual Reviews of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE). These meetings have been the main forum not only for presenting results of theoretical research but also for demonstrating the relevance of the theoretical research for the design and interpretation of experiment. In his opinion a quantitative NDE is possible only if this relevance exists, and his major objective is to discuss and illustrate the degree to which relevance has developed

  19. Blockade of Notch Signaling in Tumor-Bearing Mice May Lead to Tumor Regression, Progression, or Metastasis, Depending on Tumor Cell Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Bin Hu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that blocking Notch signaling in tumor-bearing mice results in abortive angiogenesis and tumor regression. However, given that Notch signaling influences numerous cellular processes in vivo, a comprehensive evaluation of the effect of Notch inactivation on tumor growth would be favorable. In this study, we inoculated four cancer cell lines in mice with the conditional inactivation of recombination signal-binding protein-Jκ (RBP-J, which mediates signaling from all four mammalian Notch receptors. We found that whereas three tumors including hepatocarcinoma, lung cancer, and osteogenic sarcoma grew slower in the RBP-J-deficient mice, at least a melanoma, B16, grew significantly faster in the RBP-J-deficient mice than in the controls, suggesting that the RBP-J-deficient hosts could provide permissive cues for tumor growth. All these tumors showed increased microvessels and up-regulated hypoxia-inducible factor 1α, suggesting that whereas defective angiogenesis resulted in hypoxia, different tumors might grow differentially in the RBP-J-deleted mice. Similarly, increased infiltration of Gr1+/Mac1+ cells were noticed in tumors grown in the RBP-J-inactivated mice. Moreover, we found that when inoculated in the RBP-J knockout hosts, the H22 hepatoma cells had a high frequency of metastasis and lethality, suggesting that at least for H22, deficiency of environmental Notch signaling favored tumor metastasis. Our findings suggested that the general blockade of Notch signaling in tumor-bearing mice could lead to defective angiogenesis in tumors, but depending on tumor cell types, general inhibition of Notch signaling might result in tumor regression, progression, or metastasis.

  20. Commensal bacteria modulate the tumor microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poutahidis, Theofilos; Erdman, Susan E

    2016-09-28

    It has been recently shown that gut microbes modulate whole host immune and hormonal factors impacting the fate of distant preneoplastic lesions toward malignancy or regression. This raises the possibility that the tumor microenvironment interacts with broader systemic microbial-immune networks. These accumulated findings suggest novel therapeutic opportunities for holobiont engineering in emerging tumor microenvironments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Central nervous system tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curran, W.J. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Intrinsic tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) pose a particularly challenging problem to practicing oncologists. These tumors rarely metastasize outside the CNS, yet even histologically benign tumors can be life-threatening due to their local invasiveness and strategic location. The surrounding normal tissues of the nervous system is often incapable of full functional regeneration, therefore prohibiting aggressive attempts to use either complete surgical resection or high doses of irradiation. Despite these limitations, notable achievements have recently been recorded in the management of these tumors

  2. Management of CNS tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griem, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    The treatment of tumors of the CNS has undergone a number of changes based on the impact of CT. The use of intraoperative US for the establishment of tumor location and tumor histology is demonstrated. MR imaging also is beginning to make an impact on the diagnosis and treatment of tumors of the CNS. Examples of MR images are shown. The authors then discuss the important aspects of tumor histology as it affects management and newer concepts in surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy on tumor treatment. The role of intraoperative placement of radioactive sources, the utilization of heavy particle radiation therapy, and the potential role of other experimental radiation therapy techniques are discussed. The role of hyperfractionated radiation and of neutrons and x-ray in a mixed-beam treatment are discussed in perspective with standard radiation therapy. Current chemotherapy techniques, including intraarterial chemotherapy, are discussed. The complications of radiation therapy alone and in combination with chemotherapy in the management of primary brain tumors, brain metastases, and leukemia are reviewed. A summary of the current management of pituitary tumors, including secreting pituitary adenomas and chromophobe adenomas, are discussed. The treatment with heavy particle radiation, transsphenoidal microsurgical removal, and combined radiotherapeutic and surgical management are considered. Tumor metastasis management of lesions of the brain and spinal cord are considered

  3. Metronomic Chemotherapy vs Best Supportive Care in Progressive Pediatric Solid Malignant Tumors: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Raja; Agarwala, Sandeep; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar; Thulkar, Sanjay; Vishnubhatla, Sreenivas; Batra, Atul; Dhawan, Deepa; Bakhshi, Sameer

    2017-09-01

    3 cycles (HR for PFS, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.23-0.93; P = .03) and those without a bone sarcoma (ie, neither primitive neuroectodermal tumor nor osteosarcoma) (HR for PFS, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.18-0.81; P = .01) appeared to benefit from metronomic chemotherapy. Metronomic chemotherapy does not improve 6-month PFS, compared with placebo, among pediatric patients with extracranial progressive solid malignant tumors . However, patients without bone sarcoma and those able to tolerate therapy for more than 3 cycles (9 weeks) benefit. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01858571.

  4. Tumor carcinoide apendicular Appendiceal carcinoid tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Vázquez Palanco

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue dar a conocer un interesante caso de tumor carcinoide que se presentó con cuadro clínico de apendicitis aguda. El paciente fue un varón de 8 años de edad, al cual se realizó apendicectomía a causa de una apendicitis aguda. El resultado anatomopatológico confirmó un tumor de células endocrinas (argentafinoma, tumor carcinoide en el tercio distal del órgano, que infiltraba hasta la serosa, y apendicitis aguda supurada. El paciente fue enviado a un servicio de oncohematología para tratamiento oncoespecífico. Por lo inusual de estos tumores en edades tempranas y por lo que puede representar para el niño una conducta no consecuente, decidimos presentar este caso a la comunidad científica nacional e internacional. Es extremadamente importante el seguimiento de los pacientes con apendicitis aguda y de las conclusiones del examen histológico, por lo que puede representar para el niño una conducta inadecuada en una situación como esta.The objective of this paper was to make known an interesting case of carcinoid tumor that presented a clinical picture of acute appendicitis.The patient was an eight-year-old boy that underwent appendectomy due to an acute appendicitis. The anatomopathological report confirmed an endocrine cell tumor (argentaffinoma, carcinoid tumor in the distal third of the organ that infiltrated up to the serosa, and acute suppurative appendicitis. The patient was referred to an oncohematology service for oncospecific treatment. As it is a rare tumor at early ages, and taking into account what a inconsequent behavior may represent for the child, it was decided to present this case to the national and international scientific community. The follow-up of the patients with acute appendicitis and of the conclusions of the histological examination is extremely important considering what an inadequate conduct may represent for the child in a situation like this.

  5. Maxillectomy defects: a suggested classification scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinmoladun, V I; Dosumu, O O; Olusanya, A A; Ikusika, O F

    2013-06-01

    The term "maxillectomy" has been used to describe a variety of surgical procedures for a spectrum of diseases involving a diverse anatomical site. Hence, classifications of maxillectomy defects have often made communication difficult. This article highlights this problem, emphasises the need for a uniform system of classification and suggests a classification system which is simple and comprehensive. Articles related to this subject, especially those with specified classifications of maxillary surgical defects were sourced from the internet through Google, Scopus and PubMed using the search terms maxillectomy defects classification. A manual search through available literature was also done. The review of the materials revealed many classifications and modifications of classifications from the descriptive, reconstructive and prosthodontic perspectives. No globally acceptable classification exists among practitioners involved in the management of diseases in the mid-facial region. There were over 14 classifications of maxillary defects found in the English literature. Attempts made to address the inadequacies of previous classifications have tended to result in cumbersome and relatively complex classifications. A single classification that is based on both surgical and prosthetic considerations is most desirable and is hereby proposed.

  6. Suggestion on Information Sharing for AP implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Hye Won; Kim, Min Su; Koh, Byung Marn [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Under the Additional Protocol, States should provide the IAEA with expanded declarations of activities related to the nuclear fuel cycle and other nuclear activities, and with expanded access to the relevant information and sites to allow the IAEA to verify the completeness of these declarations. The AP to the Safeguards Agreement (the Additional Protocol) was signed on June 21{sup st}, 1999 and entered into force on February 19{sup th}, 2004. ROK submitted initial declarations in August 2004. Since then, ROK has been submitting annual updated reports of initial declaration on every May 15{sup th}. To achieve successful implementation, it is necessary to collect the information for each individual article in Article 2 of the AP and verify the declared information provided by facility operators. Therefore, the cooperation among the ministries and offices concerned is a prerequisite for successful implementation of AP. Unfortunately, the formal procedure for inter-organizational information sharing and cooperation is not established. This paper will briefly outline the AP declarations and suggest the information sharing among the ministries, offices and organizations for effective and efficient implementation of AP. The State authority has responsibility for AP implementation and it should verify correctness and completeness of the information declared by facility operators before submitting the declarations. The close cooperation and information sharing among the ministries, offices and organizations are indispensable to effective and efficient implementation of AP.

  7. [Evidence that suggest the reality of reincarnation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Ernesto

    2015-06-01

    Worldwide, children can be found who reported that they have memories of a previous life. More than 2,500 cases have been studied and their specifications have been published and preserved in the archives of the Division of Perceptual Studies at the University of Virginia (United States). Many of those children come from countries where the majority of the inhabitants believe in reincarnation, but others come from countries with different cultures and religions that reject it. In many cases, the revelations of the children have been verified and have corresponded to a particular individual, already dead. A good number of these children have marks and birth defects corresponding to wounds on the body of his previous personality. Many have behaviors related to their claims to their former life: phobias, philias, and attachments. Others seem to recognize people and places of his supposed previous life, and some of their assertions have been made under controlled conditions. The hypothesis of reincarnation is controversial. We can never say that it does not occur, or will obtain conclusive evidence that it happens. The cases that have been described so far, isolated or combined, do not provide irrefutable proof of reincarnation, but they supply evidence that suggest its reality.

  8. An exceptional collision tumor: gastric calcified stromal tumor and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The authors report an exceptional case of collision tumor comprised of a gastric calcified stromal tumor and a pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The pancreatic tumor was detected fortuitously on the histological exam of resection specimen. Key words: Collision tumor, stromal tumor, adenocarcinoma ...

  9. Pituitary gland tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesser, J.; Schlamp, K.; Bendszus, M.

    2014-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the most common tumors of the pituitary gland and the differential diagnostics with special emphasis on radiological diagnostic criteria. A selective search of the literature in PubMed was carried out. Pituitary adenomas constitute 10-15 % of all intracranial tumors and are the most common tumors of the sellar region. Tumors smaller than 1 cm in diameter are called microadenomas while those larger than 1 cm in diameter are called macroadenomas. Approximately 65 % of pituitary gland adenomas secrete hormones whereby approximately 50 % secrete prolactin, 10 % secrete growth hormone (somatotropin) and 6 % secrete corticotropin. Other tumors located in the sella turcica can also cause endocrinological symptoms, such as an oversecretion of pituitary hormone or pituitary insufficiency by impinging on the pituitary gland or its stalk. When tumors spread into the space cranial to the sella turcica, they can impinge on the optic chiasm and cause visual disorders. A common differential diagnosis of a sellar tumor is a craniopharyngeoma. In children up to 10 % of all intracranial tumors are craniopharyngeomas. Other differential diagnoses for sellar tumors are metastases, meningiomas, epidermoids and in rare cases astrocytomas, germinomas or Rathke cleft cysts As these tumors are located in an anatomically complex region of the skull base and are often very small, a highly focused imaging protocol is required. The currently favored modality is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the administration of a contrast agent. The sellar region should be mapped in thin slices. In cases of suspected microadenoma the imaging protocol should also contain a sequence with dynamic contrast administration in order to assess the specific enhancement characteristics of the tumor and the pituitary gland. (orig.) [de

  10. [Pituitary gland tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesser, J; Schlamp, K; Bendszus, M

    2014-10-01

    This article gives an overview of the most common tumors of the pituitary gland and the differential diagnostics with special emphasis on radiological diagnostic criteria. A selective search of the literature in PubMed was carried out. Pituitary adenomas constitute 10-15% of all intracranial tumors and are the most common tumors of the sellar region. Tumors smaller than 1 cm in diameter are called microadenomas while those larger than 1 cm in diameter are called macroadenomas. Approximately 65% of pituitary gland adenomas secrete hormones whereby approximately 50% secrete prolactin, 10% secrete growth hormone (somatotropin) and 6% secrete corticotropin. Other tumors located in the sella turcica can also cause endocrinological symptoms, such as an oversecretion of pituitary hormone or pituitary insufficiency by impinging on the pituitary gland or its stalk. When tumors spread into the space cranial to the sella turcica, they can impinge on the optic chiasm and cause visual disorders. A common differential diagnosis of a sellar tumor is a craniopharyngeoma. In children up to 10% of all intracranial tumors are craniopharyngeomas. Other differential diagnoses for sellar tumors are metastases, meningiomas, epidermoids and in rare cases astrocytomas, germinomas or Rathke cleft cysts As these tumors are located in an anatomically complex region of the skull base and are often very small, a highly focused imaging protocol is required. The currently favored modality is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the administration of a contrast agent. The sellar region should be mapped in thin slices. In cases of suspected microadenoma the imaging protocol should also contain a sequence with dynamic contrast administration in order to assess the specific enhancement characteristics of the tumor and the pituitary gland.

  11. 99mTc-monoclonal antibody radiolabeled via hydrazino nicotinamide derivative for imaging disialoganglioside GD2-positive tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonti, Rosa; Cheung, N.-K.V.; Bridger, Gary J.; Guo, H.-F.; Abrams, Michael J.; Larson, Steven M.

    1999-01-01

    3F8 is a murine IgG 3 monoclonal antibody (MAb) selective for the ganglioside G D2 . Previous studies using 131 I-3F8 have shown great potential in the imaging of neuroectodermal tumors and the therapy of human neuroblastoma. 131 I is commonly used in radioimmunodiagnosis, but its relatively long half-life (8 days) and its high energy γ-emission (364 KeV) are suboptimal for imaging purposes when compared with 99m Tc (6 h and 140 KeV, respectively). To label 3F8 with 99m Tc, the antibody was first coupled with a heterobifunctional linker, succinimidyl-6-hydrazinonicotinate hydrochloride (SHNH), obtaining a hydrazinonicotinamide-antibody conjugate. Using 99m Tc-Tricine as the precursor complex, 3F8-SHNH was coupled efficiently to 99m Tc, resulting in >90% radiometal incorporation, with a specific activity >10 mCi/mg and retaining full immunoreactivity. Immunoscintigraphy at 6, 22, and 46 h after intravenous injection of 1 mCi of 99m Tc-3F8 showed selective neuroblastoma localization in xenografted nude mice, comparable to that obtained with the injection of 100 μCi of 131 I-3F8. Biodistribution studies of 131 I-3F8 and 99m Tc-3F8 in mice demonstrated comparable %ID/g uptake in tumor (with a T/B ratio: ∼2.5 at 24 h and ∼3.5 at 48 h) and normal organs, including blood, except for spleen and liver which had about a three times higher uptake of the 99m Tc conjugate. In conclusion, 99m Tc can be coupled conveniently at high specific activity to 3F8 without compromising immunoreactivity. SHNH appears to be a useful linker for 99m Tc in tumor diagnostic imaging and may have potential utility in coupling other radioisotopes (e.g., 94m Tc) for positron imaging and therapy

  12. Quantitative histological models suggest endothermy in plesiosaurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna V. Fleischle

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Plesiosaurs are marine reptiles that arose in the Late Triassic and survived to the Late Cretaceous. They have a unique and uniform bauplan and are known for their very long neck and hydrofoil-like flippers. Plesiosaurs are among the most successful vertebrate clades in Earth’s history. Based on bone mass decrease and cosmopolitan distribution, both of which affect lifestyle, indications of parental care, and oxygen isotope analyses, evidence for endothermy in plesiosaurs has accumulated. Recent bone histological investigations also provide evidence of fast growth and elevated metabolic rates. However, quantitative estimations of metabolic rates and bone growth rates in plesiosaurs have not been attempted before. Methods Phylogenetic eigenvector maps is a method for estimating trait values from a predictor variable while taking into account phylogenetic relationships. As predictor variable, this study employs vascular density, measured in bone histological sections of fossil eosauropterygians and extant comparative taxa. We quantified vascular density as primary osteon density, thus, the proportion of vascular area (including lamellar infillings of primary osteons to total bone area. Our response variables are bone growth rate (expressed as local bone apposition rate and resting metabolic rate (RMR. Results Our models reveal bone growth rates and RMRs for plesiosaurs that are in the range of birds, suggesting that plesiosaurs were endotherm. Even for basal eosauropterygians we estimate values in the range of mammals or higher. Discussion Our models are influenced by the availability of comparative data, which are lacking for large marine amniotes, potentially skewing our results. However, our statistically robust inference of fast growth and fast metabolism is in accordance with other evidence for plesiosaurian endothermy. Endothermy may explain the success of plesiosaurs consisting in their survival of the end-Triassic extinction

  13. Employee suggestion programs: the rewards of involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, J M; McKendall, M

    1993-09-01

    Successful ESPs are the products of a great deal of effort by managers, administrators, teams, individuals, and reviewers, who are all striving to achieve the goals of increased profitability and enhanced employee involvement. A review of the literature indicates that there are several prescriptions that will increase the likelihood of a successful ESP (see the box). Today's American business prophets sound ceaseless calls to arms in the name of "world class performance," "global competitiveness," "total quality management," and a variety of other buzz terms. A burgeoning industry has evolved that promises, through speeches, teleconferences, seminars, and consulting contracts, to teach American organizations how to achieve excellence. In the face of a sputtering economy and unrelenting competitive pressure, today's managers must translate these laudatory ideals into hands-on reality without sacrificing the firm's profit margin to experimentation. If any idea can help an organization achieve improvement through a workable program, then that idea and that program deserve real consideration. An ESP represents an opportunity to tap the intelligence and resourcefulness of an organization's employees, and by doing so, reap significant cost savings. Those companies and managers that have an ESP program uniformly list economic advantages first when describing the benefits of their employee suggestion programs. But there is another deeper and longer term benefit inherent in an ESP. These programs allow employees to become involved in their organization; they drive deaccession to lower levels, they give employees more responsibility, they foster creative approaches to work, and they encourage creativity in pursuit of company goals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Suggestions for an updated fusion power program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.F.

    1976-02-01

    This document contains suggestions for a revised CTR Program strategy which should allow us to achieve equivalent goals while operating within the above constraints. The revised program is designed around three major facilities. The first is an upgrading of the present TFTR facility which will provide a demonstration of the generation of tens of megawatts electric equivalent originally envisioned for the 1985 EPR. The second device is the TTAP which will allow the integration and optimization of the plasma physics results obtained from the next generation of plasma physics experiments. The improvement in tokamak reactor operation resulting from this optimization of fusion plasma performance will enable an EPR to be designed which will produce several hundred megawatts of electric power by 1990. This will move the fusion program much closer to its goal of commercial fusion power by the turn of the century. In addition to this function the TTAP will serve as a prototype of the 1990 EPR system, thus making more certain the successful operation of this device. The third element of this revised program is an intense radiation damage facility which will provide the radiation damage information necessary for the EPR and subsequent fusion reactor facilities. The sum total of experience gained from reacting plasma experiments on TFTR, reactor grade plasma optimization and technological prototyping on TTAP, and end of life radiation damage results from the intense neutron facility will solve all of the presently foreseen problems associated with a tokamak fusion power reactor except those associated with the external nuclear systems. These external system problems such as tritium breeding and optimal power recovery can be developed in parallel on the 1990 EPR

  15. CASE REPORT Paraspinal primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    could be confirmed on the lateral lumbar spine X-ray. The T11 inter- pedicular distance was ... Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Limpopo, Medunsa Campus. CASE REPORT. 18. SA JOURNAL OF ... tumours from neural crest origin.1-4,6 PNET and ES are classified together into the Ewing family of tumours ...

  16. Hyperdensity liver tumor on plain CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirota, Shozo; Hanaguri, Katsuro [Kochi Municipal Central Hospital (Japan); Shimizu, Masahumi; Sako, Masao; Harada, Yasushi

    1984-12-01

    Most liver tumors on plain CT have been recognized as low density or iso-density masses. Sometimes calcified high density masses were shown on plain CT in case of cysts or metastatic liver tumors. However, hyperdensity mass of the liver on CT, of which the density was a little higher than surrounding tissues, was very rare. Recently 7 patients with hyperdensity liver masses on plain CT were experienced: 6 hepatocellular carcinomas and 1 hepatic cavernous hemangioma. A single hyperdensity mass was shown in 4 patients, a hyperdensity mass of multiple hepatic tumors was shown in 2 patients, and some hyperdensity masses of multiple hepatic tumors were shown in 1 patient. Lesions are classified in 3 types according to the appearance of hyperdensity masses: diffuse hyperdensity all over the mass, ring like hyperdensity, creascent like hyperdensity. Intravenous contrast enhancement was performed in 2 patients: one with a primary hepatocellular carcinoma, and another with a hepatic cavernous hemangioma. In the former case the tumor margin had changed unclear, in the latter case the tumor was markedly enhanced. Our results revealed that hyperdensity liver tumors were divided into 2 types: One type, shown in a cavernous hemangioma with fatty liver, demonstrated relative hyperdensity due to lower density of the surrounding tissue. Another type, shown in 6 hepatocellular carcinomas, showed hyperdensity since the density of the tumor was hyperdensity relative to the surrounding tissue of the liver. It was suggested that the tumor with the latter type had been strongly probable of malignant one, and been recommended to receive further examination. Cause of hyperdensity was thought to be due to hemorrhage, though microcalcification could not be denyed. In Japan, no hyperdensity liver tumor had been reported partly due to a wide window width with which CT photographs were taken.

  17. Costal chondrosarcoma requiring differential diagnosis from metastatic tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Katsunari; Ueda, Mitsuhiro; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro

    2017-02-01

    Although chondrosarcoma is a common malignant bone tumor, cases arising in the rib are relatively rare. We experienced a case of chondrosarcoma arising in the right 10th rib during follow-up after lung cancer surgery. Although the finding of an osteolytic mass suggested a metastatic bone tumor, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography demonstrated low fluorodeoxyglucose uptake, and a primary bone tumor was suspected. The bone tumor was resected and diagnosed as chondrosarcoma. Four years after resection, there has been no recurrence or metastasis. Positron-emission tomography was useful for differential diagnosis between a chondrosarcoma and a metastatic bone tumor.

  18. Efficacy and complications of radiotherapy of anterior visual pathway tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capo, H.; Kupersmith, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    A progressive disturbance in visual acuity or visual field, along with an unexplained optic nerve atrophy, suggests the possibility of a tumor. Tumors that frequently affect the anterior visual pathway include primary optic nerve sheath meningiomas, intracranial meningiomas, optic gliomas, pituitary tumors, and craniopharyngiomas. The location of these tumors sometimes prohibits a complete surgical excision that might jeopardize the visual system. Radiation therapy, however, can be beneficial in these cases. This article reviews the indications for radiotherapy of tumors that involve the anterior visual pathway, along with the possible complications. Cases that present the effect of radiation therapy and radiation damage are presented.131 references

  19. The role of suggestibility in determinations of Miranda abilities: a study of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Richard; Harrison, Kimberly S; Rogstad, Jill E; LaFortune, Kathryn A; Hazelwood, Lisa L

    2010-02-01

    Traditionally, high levels of suggestibility have been widely assumed to be linked with diminished Miranda abilities, especially in relationship to the voluntariness of waivers. The current investigation examined suggestibility on the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scales in a multisite study of pretrial defendants. One important finding was the inapplicability of British norms to American jurisdictions. Moreover, suggestibility appeared unrelated to Miranda comprehension, reasoning, and detainees' perceptions of police coercion. In testing rival hypotheses, defendants with high compliance had significantly lower Miranda comprehension and ability to reason about exercising Miranda rights than their counterparts with low compliance. Implications of these findings to forensic practice are examined.

  20. Ewing tumors in infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Henk; Dirksen, Uta; Ranft, Andreas; Jürgens, Heribert

    2008-01-01

    Malignancies in infancy are extremely rare. Ewing tumors are hardly ever noted in these children. Since it is generally assumed that malignancies in infancy have an extremely poor outcome, we wanted to investigate whether this was also the case in Ewing tumors. We identified in the Munster data

  1. GASTROENTEROPANCREATIC NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pavel M.E., Baum U., Hahn E.G., Hensen J. Doxorubucin and streptozocin after failed biotherapy of Neuroendocrine tumors. Int J. Gastrointest Cancer 2005; 35 179-185. 33. Yao J.C., Phan A., Hoff P.M., et al. Targeting vas- cular endothelial growth factor in advanced carci- noid tumors: a random assignment phase II study.

  2. Atypically localized glomus tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meric Ugurlar

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: When a painful mass is found in the body, glomus tumors should be kept in mind. The consideration of symptoms, including pain, temperature sensitivity, point tenderness, and discoloration, common characteristics of glomus tumors, may aid diagnosis. [Hand Microsurg 2016; 5(3.000: 112-117

  3. Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, S T; Jensen, C; Bagi, P

    2007-01-01

    Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare soft-tissue tumor of controversial etiology with a potential for local recurrence after incomplete surgical resection. The radiological findings in renal IMT are not well described. We report two cases in adults with a renal mass treated...

  4. Pseudoanaplastic tumors of bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Won-Jong [Uijongbu St. Mary Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gyunggido, 480-821 (Korea); Mirra, Joseph M. [Orthopaedic Hospital, Orthopedic Oncology, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2004-11-01

    To discuss the concept of pseudoanaplastic tumors of bone, which pathologically show hyperchromatism and marked pleomorphism with quite enlarged, pleomorphic nuclei, but with no to extremely rare, typical mitoses, and to propose guidelines for their diagnosis. From a database of 4,262 bone tumors covering from 1971 to 2001, 15 cases of pseudoanaplastic bone tumors (0.35% of total) were retrieved for clinical, radiographic and pathologic review. Postoperative follow-up after surgical treatment was at least 3 years and a maximum of 7 years. There were eight male and seven female patients. Their ages ranged from 10 to 64 years with average of 29.7 years. Pathologic diagnoses of pseudoanaplastic variants of benign bone tumors included: osteoblastoma (4 cases), giant cell tumor (4 cases), chondromyxoid fibroma (3 cases), fibrous dysplasia (2 cases), fibrous cortical defect (1 case) and aneurysmal bone cyst (1 case). Radiography of all cases showed features of a benign bone lesion. Six cases, one case each of osteoblastoma, fibrous dysplasia, aneurysmal bone cyst, chondromyxoid fibroma, giant cell tumor and osteoblastoma, were initially misdiagnosed as osteosarcoma. The remaining cases were referred for a second opinion to rule out sarcoma. Despite the presence of significant cytologic aberrations, none of our cases showed malignant behavior following simple curettage or removal of bony lesions. Our observation justifies the concept of pseudoanaplasia in some benign bone tumors as in benign soft tissue tumors, especially in their late evolutionary stage when bizarre cytologic alterations strongly mimic a sarcoma. (orig.)

  5. Vanishing tumor in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M V Vimal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient with microprolactinoma, who had two successful pregnancies, is described for management issues. First pregnancy was uneventful. During the second pregnancy, the tumor enlarged to macroprolactinoma with headache and blurring of vision which was managed successfully with bromocriptine. Post delivery, complete disappearance of the tumor was documented.

  6. Vanishing tumor in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimal, M. V.; Budyal, Sweta; Kasliwal, Rajeev; Jagtap, Varsha S.; Lila, Anurag R.; Bandgar, Tushar; Menon, Padmavathy; Shah, Nalini S.

    2012-01-01

    A patient with microprolactinoma, who had two successful pregnancies, is described for management issues. First pregnancy was uneventful. During the second pregnancy, the tumor enlarged to macroprolactinoma with headache and blurring of vision which was managed successfully with bromocriptine. Post delivery, complete disappearance of the tumor was documented. PMID:23226664

  7. Glial tumors with neuronal differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul-Kee; Phi, Ji Hoon; Park, Sung-Hye

    2015-01-01

    Immunohistochemical studies for neuronal differentiation in glial tumors revealed subsets of tumors having both characteristics of glial and neuronal lineages. Glial tumors with neuronal differentiation can be observed with diverse phenotypes and histologic grades. The rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor of the fourth ventricle and papillary glioneuronal tumor have been newly classified as distinct disease entities. There are other candidates for classification, such as the glioneuronal tumor without pseudopapillary architecture, glioneuronal tumor with neuropil-like islands, and the malignant glioneuronal tumor. The clinical significance of these previously unclassified tumors should be confirmed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Tumorous interstitial lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinkel, E.; Meyer, E.; Mundinger, A.; Helwig, A.; Blum, U.; Wuertemberger, G.

    1990-01-01

    The radiological findings in pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis and in leukemic pulmonary infiltrates mirror the tumor-dependent monomorphic interstitial pathology of lung parenchyma. It is a proven fact that pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis is caused by hematogenous tumor embolization to the lungs; pathogenesis by contiguous lymphangitic spread is the exception. High-resolution CT performed as a supplement to the radiological work-up improves the sensitivity for pulmonary infiltrates in general and thus makes the differential diagnosis decided easier. Radiological criteria cannot discriminate the different forms of leukemia. Plain chest X-ray allows the diagnosis of pulmonary involvement in leukemia due to tumorous infiltrates and of tumor- or therapy-induced complications. It is essential that the radiological findings be interpreted with reference to the stage of tumor disease and the clinical parameters to make the radiological differential diagnosis of opportunistic infections more reliable. (orig.) [de

  9. Tumors of peripheral nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Michael; Lutz, Amelie M.

    2017-01-01

    Differentiation between malignant and benign tumors of peripheral nerves in the early stages is challenging; however, due to the unfavorable prognosis of malignant tumors early identification is required. To show the possibilities for detection, differential diagnosis and clinical management of peripheral nerve tumors by imaging appearance in magnetic resonance (MR) neurography. Review of current literature available in PubMed and MEDLINE, supplemented by the authors' own observations in clinical practice. Although not pathognomonic, several imaging features have been reported for a differentiation between distinct peripheral nerve tumors. The use of MR neurography enables detection and initial differential diagnosis in tumors of peripheral nerves. Furthermore, it plays an important role in clinical follow-up, targeted biopsy and surgical planning. (orig.) [de

  10. Wilm's tumor in adulthood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveev, B.P.; Bukharkin, B.V.; Gotsadze, D.T.

    1984-01-01

    Wilms' tumor occurs extremely rarely in adults. There is no consensus in the literature on the problems of clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of the diseasa. Ten adult patients (aged 16-29) with Wilms' tumor formed the study group. They made up 0.9 per cent of the total number of kidney tumor patients. The peculiarities of the clinical course that distinguish adult nephroblastoma from renal cancer and Wilms' tumor of the infancy were analysed. The latent period appeared to be long. Problems of diagnosis are discussed. Angiography proved to be of the highest diagnostic value. Complex treatment including transperitoneal nephrectory, radiation and chemotherapy was carried out in 7 cases, palliative radiation treatmenchemotherapy andn 3. Unlike pediatric nephroblastomt - i Wilms' tumor in adults was resistant to radiation. Treatment results still remained unsatisfactory: 6 patients died 7-19 months after the beginning of treatment

  11. Radiotherapy of pineal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danoff, B.; Sheline, G.E.

    1984-01-01

    Radiotherapy has universally been used in the treatment of pineal tumors and suprasellar germinomas. Recently however, major technical advances related to the use of the operating microscope and development of microsurgical techniques have prompted a renewed interest in the direct surgical approach for biopsy and/or excision. This interest has resulted in a controversy regarding the role of surgery prior to radiotherapy. Because of the heterogeneity of tumors occurring in the pineal region (i.e., germ cell tumors, pineal parenchymal tumors, glial tumors, and cysts) and their differing biological behavior, controversy also surrounds aspects of radiotherapy such as: the optimal radiation dose, the volume to be irradiated, and indications for prophylactic spinal irradiation. A review of the available data is presented in an attempt to answer these questions

  12. Parallel evolution of tumor subclones mimics diversity between tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Pierre; Birkbak, Nicolai Juul; Gerlinger, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) may foster tumor adaptation and compromise the efficacy of personalized medicines approaches. The scale of heterogeneity within a tumor (intratumor heterogeneity) relative to genetic differences between tumors (intertumor heterogeneity) is unknown. To address this, ...

  13. Are Dysphoric Individuals More Suggestible or Less Suggestible Than Nondysphoric Individuals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarland, Wendy L.; Morris, Steven J.

    1998-01-01

    Dysphoric individuals are shown to be susceptible to interrogative suggestion, whether in the form of leading questions or interrogative pressure. The association of a clinically relevant condition of dysphoria (depression) with relatively high levels of suggestibility was investigated in a college student population (N=139). Applicability to…

  14. Suggestibility under Pressure: Theory of Mind, Executive Function, and Suggestibility in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpinski, Aryn C.; Scullin, Matthew H.

    2009-01-01

    Eighty preschoolers, ages 3 to 5 years old, completed a 4-phase study in which they experienced a live event and received a pressured, suggestive interview about the event a week later. Children were also administered batteries of theory of mind and executive function tasks, as well as the Video Suggestibility Scale for Children (VSSC), which…

  15. Targeting Mitochondrial Function to Treat Quiescent Tumor Cells in Solid Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonan Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The disorganized nature of tumor vasculature results in the generation of microenvironments characterized by nutrient starvation, hypoxia and accumulation of acidic metabolites. Tumor cell populations in such areas are often slowly proliferating and thus refractory to chemotherapeutical drugs that are dependent on an active cell cycle. There is an urgent need for alternative therapeutic interventions that circumvent growth dependency. The screening of drug libraries using multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS or glucose-starved tumor cells has led to the identification of several compounds with promising therapeutic potential and that display activity on quiescent tumor cells. Interestingly, a common theme of these drug screens is the recurrent identification of agents that affect mitochondrial function. Such data suggest that, contrary to the classical Warburg view, tumor cells in nutritionally-compromised microenvironments are dependent on mitochondrial function for energy metabolism and survival. These findings suggest that mitochondria may represent an “Achilles heel” for the survival of slowly-proliferating tumor cells and suggest strategies for the development of therapy to target these cell populations.

  16. Testing increases suggestibility for narrative-based misinformation but reduces suggestibility for question-based misinformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPaglia, Jessica A; Chan, Jason C K

    2013-01-01

    A number of recent studies have found that recalling details of an event following its occurrence can increase people's suggestibility to later presented misinformation. However, several other studies have reported the opposite result, whereby earlier retrieval can reduce subsequent eyewitness suggestibility. In the present study, we investigated whether differences in the way misinformation is presented can modulate the effects of testing on suggestibility. Participants watched a video of a robbery and some were questioned about the event immediately afterwards. Later, participants were exposed to misinformation in a narrative (Experiment 1) or in questions (Experiment 2). Consistent with previous studies, we found that testing increased suggestibility when misinformation was presented via a narrative. Remarkably, when misinformation was presented in questions, testing decreased suggestibility. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Study of Genistein in Pediatric Oncology Patients (UVA-Gen001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-20

    Lymphoma; Childhood Lymphoma; Solid Tumor; Childhood Solid Tumor; Neuroblastoma; Ewing Sarcoma; Hodgkin Lymphoma; Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Rhabdomyosarcoma; Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Medulloblastoma; Germ Cell Tumor; Wilms Tumor; Brain Neoplasms; Medulloblastoma, Childhood; Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive

  18. Application of lectins to tumor imaging radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Shuji; Jay, M.

    1986-01-01

    We investigated the in vitro binding of 125 I-lectins to Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) cells and in vivo uptake of 125 I-lectins in Ehrlich solid tumor (EST) bearing mice. In in vitro binding assays, phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin (PHA), pisum sativum agglutinin (PSA), and concanavalia agglutinin (Con A) showed a high affinity for EAT cells. The in vivo biodistribution of 125 I-lectins showed 125 I-PSA to be significantly taken up into EST tissues 24 h postinjection. After IV injection of 125 I-PSA, uptake of the radioactivity into the tumor tissues reached a maximum at 6 h, and thereafter decreased. Rapid disappearance of the radioactivity from blood and its excretion into kidney soon after injection of 125 I-PSA were observed. When compared with the biodistribution of 67 Ga-citrate in EST bearing mice 24 h postinjection, tumor to liver (T/B), tumor to muscle (T/M), and tumor to blood (T/B) ratios were superior for 125 I-PSA. At 6 h postinjection, the T/B-ratio of 125 I-PSA was 2.5, and this value may be sufficient to enable discernable diagnostic images. Our results suggest that PSA might be a useful tumor imaging radiopharmaceutical. (orig.)

  19. Differentiation of phyllodes tumors versus fibroadenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, E.; Sal, S. [Dokuz Eyluel Univ. Hospital, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Radiology; Lebe, B. [Dokuz Eyluel Univ. Hospital, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Pathology

    2002-04-01

    Purpose: To determine if mammographic and sonographic findings allow discrimination between phyllodes tumor and large sized fibroadenoma, which mimic each other in the clinical, radiologic and histopathologic appearances. Material and Methods: Thirty-one histopathologically proven masses including 12 phyllodes tumors and 19 fibroadenomas 3 cm or greater in diameter were compared. In total 28 women were retrospectively evaluated by mammography and pre-operative sonography. Results: Mammography revealed a high-density mass compared with surrounding fibroglandular breast tissue to be present in 9 of the 12 (75%) phyllodes tumors and 7 of the 19 (37%) fibroadenomas. At sonography a mass, which had a round or lobulated shape, marked posterior acoustic enhancement and intramural cystic areas, were statistically significantly more likely to be phyllodes tumors than fibroadenomas. None of the other mammographic or sonographic characteristics proved to be useful in differentiating phyllodes tumors and fibroadenomas. Conclusion: Although masses of high density at mammography, circumscribed border associated with posterior acoustic enhancement and internal cystic areas at sonography should suggest the diagnosis of phyllodes tumors rather than large sized fibroadenomas, there was a substantial overlap in the mammographic and sonographic characteristics of these two tumors. Therefore, an excisional biopsy would be necessary for equivocal masses.

  20. Differentiation of phyllodes tumors versus fibroadenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, E.; Sal, S.; Lebe, B.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if mammographic and sonographic findings allow discrimination between phyllodes tumor and large sized fibroadenoma, which mimic each other in the clinical, radiologic and histopathologic appearances. Material and Methods: Thirty-one histopathologically proven masses including 12 phyllodes tumors and 19 fibroadenomas 3 cm or greater in diameter were compared. In total 28 women were retrospectively evaluated by mammography and pre-operative sonography. Results: Mammography revealed a high-density mass compared with surrounding fibroglandular breast tissue to be present in 9 of the 12 (75%) phyllodes tumors and 7 of the 19 (37%) fibroadenomas. At sonography a mass, which had a round or lobulated shape, marked posterior acoustic enhancement and intramural cystic areas, were statistically significantly more likely to be phyllodes tumors than fibroadenomas. None of the other mammographic or sonographic characteristics proved to be useful in differentiating phyllodes tumors and fibroadenomas. Conclusion: Although masses of high density at mammography, circumscribed border associated with posterior acoustic enhancement and internal cystic areas at sonography should suggest the diagnosis of phyllodes tumors rather than large sized fibroadenomas, there was a substantial overlap in the mammographic and sonographic characteristics of these two tumors. Therefore, an excisional biopsy would be necessary for equivocal masses

  1. Peritumoral edema associated with metastatic brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirotani, Toshiki; Takiguchi, Hiroshi; Shima, Katsuji; Chigasaki, Hiroo; Tajima, Atsushi; Watanabe, Satoru.

    1992-01-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) examinations were performed in 94 lesions of 50 patients with metastatic brain tumors. Peritumoral edema (A E ) and tumor area (A T ) were measured using the planimetric method on the CT scan films that demonstrated maximum size of the tumor. Then, the volume of the peritumoral edema (V E ) and the surface area of the tumor (S T ) were claculated from these data. Eighty-three brain lesions from lung cancers were subdivided into 49 adenocarcinomas, 11 squamous cell carcinomas, 16 small cell carcinomas and 7 large cell carcinomas. Eleven metastatic tumors from breast cancers were all adenocarcinomas. There was statistical correlation between the surface area of tumor and the volume of the peritumoral edema for the adenocarcinoma (r=0.4043, p E /S T ratios in small cell carcinomas were smaller then those in non-small cell carcinomas, when the volume of the tumor was larger than 10 mm 3 . Accordingly, we suggest that the volume of the peritumoral edema in the small cell carcinoma is generally smaller than that in others. (author)

  2. The lifetime of hypoxic human tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, Ralph E.; Sham, Edward

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: For hypoxic and anoxic cells in solid tumors to be a therapeutic problem, they must live long enough to be therapeutically relevant, or else be rapidly recruited into the proliferating compartment during therapy. We have, therefore, estimated lifetime and recruitment rate of hypoxic human tumor cells in multicell spheroids in vitro, or in xenografted tumors in SCID mice. Materials and Methods: Cell turnover was followed by flow cytometry techniques, using antibodies directed at incorporated halogenated pyrimidines. The disappearance of labeled cells was quantified, and verified to be cell loss rather than label dilution. Repopulation was studied in SiHa tumor xenografts during twice-daily 2.5-Gy radiation exposures. Results: The longevity of hypoxic human tumor cells in spheroids or xenografts exceeded that of rodent cell lines, and cell turnover was slower in xenografts than under static growth as spheroids. Human tumor cells remained viable in the hypoxic regions of xenografts for 4-10 days, compared to 3-5 days in spheroids, and 1-3 days for most rodent cells in spheroids. Repopulation was observed within the first few radiation treatments for the SiHa xenografts and, with accumulated doses of more than 10 Gy, virtually all recovered cells had progressed through at least one S-phase. Conclusion: Our results suggest an important difference in the ability of human vs. rodent tumor cells to withstand hypoxia, and raise questions concerning the increased longevity seen in vivo relative to the steady-state spheroid system

  3. Ketoconazole attenuates radiation-induction of tumor necrosis factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallahan, D.E.; Virudachalam, S.; Kufe, D.W.; Weichselbaum, R.R. [Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that inhibitors of phospholipase A2 attenuate ionizing radiation-induced arachidonic acid production, protein kinase C activation, and prevent subsequent induction of the tumor necrosis factor gene. Because arachidonic acid contributes to radiation-induced tumor necrosis factor expression, the authors analyzed the effects of agents which alter arachidonate metabolism on the regulation of this gene. Phospholipase A2 inhibitors quinicrine, bromphenyl bromide, and pentoxyfylline or the inhibitor of lipoxygenase (ketoconazole) or the inhibitor of cycloxygenase (indomethacine) were added to cell culture 1 h prior to irradiation. Radiation-induced tumor necrosis factor gene expression was attenuated by each of the phospholipase A2 inhibitors (quinicrine, bromphenylbromide, and pentoxyfylline). Furthermore, ketoconazole attenuated X ray induced tumor necrosis factor gene expression. Conversely, indomethacin enhanced tumor necrosis factor expression following irradiation. The finding that radiation-induced tumor necrosis factor gene expression was attenuated by ketoconazole suggests that the lipoxygenase pathway participates in signal transduction preceding tumor necrosis factor induction. Enhancement of tumor necrosis factor expression by indomethacin following irradiation suggests that prostaglandins produced by cyclooxygenase act as negative regulators of tumor necrosis factor expression. Inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor induction ameliorate acute and subacute sequelae of radiotherapy. The authors propose therefore, that ketoconazole may reduce acute radiation sequelae such as mucositis and esophagitis through a reduction in tumor necrosis factor induction or inhibition of phospholipase A2 in addition to its antifungal activity. 25 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Tumor size and prognosis in patients with Wilms tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Oliveira Provenzi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Investigate the relationship of the tumor volume after preoperative chemotherapy (TVAPQ and before preoperative chemotherapy (TVBPQ with overall survival at two and at five years, and lifetime. METHODS: Our sample consisted of consecutive patients evaluated in the period from 1989 to 2009 in an Onco-Hematology Service. Clinical, histological and volumetric data were collected from the medical records. For analysis, chi-square, Kaplan-Meier, log-rank and Cox regression tests were used. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 32 patients, 53.1% were male with a median age at diagnosis of 43 months. There was a significant association between TVAPQ>500mL and the difference between the TVBPQ and TVAPQ (p=0.015 and histologic types of risk (p=0.008. It was also verified an association between the difference between the TVBPQ and TVAPQ and the predominant stromal tumor (p=0.037. When assessing the TVAPQ of all patients, without a cutoff, there was an association of the variable with lifetime (p=0.013, i.e., for each increase of 10mL in TVAPQ there was an average increase of 2% in the risk of death. CONCLUSIONS: Although our results indicate that the TVAPQ could be considered alone as a predictor of poor prognosis regardless of the cutoff suggested in the literature, more studies are needed to replace the histology and staging by tumor size as best prognostic variable.

  5. Single and 30 fraction tumor control doses correlate in xenografted tumor models: implications for predictive assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerweck, Leo E.; Dubois, Willum; Baumann, Michael; Suit, Herman D.

    1995-01-01

    , the rank-order correlation coefficient between the single dose hypoxic versus fractionated dose TCD50s under hypoxic or aerobic conditions was 1.0. For all 5 tumors examined, a trend for rank correlation was observed between the single dose and the fractionated dose TCD50s performed under normal or clamp hypoxic conditions (r=0.7, p=0.16 in both cases). The linear correlation coefficients were 0.83, p=0.08 and 0.72, p=0.17, respectively. Failure to attain a rank correlation of 1.0 was due to one tumor exhibiting an insignificant fractionation effect. The rank correlation between the TCD50s for fractionated treatments under normal versus the extrapolated TCD50s under clamp hypoxic conditions was 1.00; the linear correlation coefficient was 0.97 (p=0.01). Conclusions: In the tumor models examined, factors controlling the single fraction tumor control dose, also impact the response to fractionated treatments. These results suggest that laboratory estimates of intrinsic radiosensitivity and tumor clonogen number at the onset of treatment, will be of use in predicting radiocurability for fractionated treatments, as has been observed for single dose treatments

  6. Tumor control probability after a radiation of animal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urano, Muneyasu; Ando, Koichi; Koike, Sachiko; Nesumi, Naofumi

    1975-01-01

    Tumor control and regrowth probability of animal tumors irradiated with a single x-ray dose were determined, using a spontaneous C3H mouse mammary carcinoma. Cellular radiation sensitivity of tumor cells and tumor control probability of the tumor were examined by the TD 50 and TCD 50 assays respectively. Tumor growth kinetics were measured by counting the percentage of labelled mitosis and by measuring the growth curve. A mathematical analysis of tumor control probability was made from these results. A formula proposed, accounted for cell population kinetics or division probability model, cell sensitivity to radiation and number of tumor cells. (auth.)

  7. The Tumor Macroenvironment: Cancer-Promoting Networks Beyond Tumor Beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Melanie R; Svoronos, Nikolaos; Perales-Puchalt, Alfredo; Conejo-Garcia, Jose R

    2015-01-01

    During tumor progression, alterations within the systemic tumor environment, or macroenvironment, result in the promotion of tumor growth, tumor invasion to distal organs, and eventual metastatic disease. Distally produced hormones, commensal microbiota residing within mucosal surfaces, myeloid cells and even the bone marrow impact the systemic immune system, tumor growth, and metastatic spread. Understanding the reciprocal interactions between the cells and soluble factors within the macroenvironment and the primary tumor will enable the design of specific therapies that have the potential to prevent dissemination and metastatic spread. This chapter will summarize recent findings detailing how the primary tumor and systemic tumor macroenvironment coordinate malignant progression. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ets2 in tumor fibroblasts promotes angiogenesis in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Wallace

    Full Text Available Tumor fibroblasts are active partners in tumor progression, but the genes and pathways that mediate this collaboration are ill-defined. Previous work demonstrates that Ets2 function in stromal cells significantly contributes to breast tumor progression. Conditional mouse models were used to study the function of Ets2 in both mammary stromal fibroblasts and epithelial cells. Conditional inactivation of Ets2 in stromal fibroblasts in PyMT and ErbB2 driven tumors significantly reduced tumor growth, however deletion of Ets2 in epithelial cells in the PyMT model had no significant effect. Analysis of gene expression in fibroblasts revealed a tumor- and Ets2-dependent gene signature that was enriched in genes important for ECM remodeling, cell migration, and angiogenesis in both PyMT and ErbB2 driven-tumors. Consistent with these results, PyMT and ErbB2 tumors lacking Ets2 in fibroblasts had fewer functional blood vessels, and Ets2 in fibroblasts elicited changes in gene expression in tumor endothelial cells consistent with this phenotype. An in vivo angiogenesis assay revealed the ability of Ets2 in fibroblasts to promote blood vessel formation in the absence of tumor cells. Importantly, the Ets2-dependent gene expression signatures from both mouse models were able to distinguish human breast tumor stroma from normal stroma, and correlated with patient outcomes in two whole tumor breast cancer data sets. The data reveals a key function for Ets2 in tumor fibroblasts in signaling to endothelial cells to promote tumor angiogenesis. The results highlight the collaborative networks that orchestrate communication between stromal cells and tumor cells, and suggest that targeting tumor fibroblasts may be an effective strategy for developing novel anti-angiogenic therapies.

  9. Recurrent and multiple bladder tumors show conserved expression profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, David; Fioretos, Thoas; Månsson, Wiking; Höglund, Mattias; Gudjonsson, Sigurdur; Jee, Kowan Ja; Liedberg, Fredrik; Aits, Sonja; Andersson, Anna; Chebil, Gunilla; Borg, Åke; Knuutila, Sakari

    2008-01-01

    Urothelial carcinomas originate from the epithelial cells of the inner lining of the bladder and may appear as single or as multiple synchronous tumors. Patients with urothelial carcinomas frequently show recurrences after treatment making follow-up necessary. The leading hypothesis explaining the origin of meta- and synchronous tumors assumes a monoclonal origin. However, the genetic relationship among consecutive tumors has been shown to be complex in as much as the genetic evolution does not adhere to the chronological appearance of the metachronous tumors. Consequently, genetically less evolved tumors may appear chronologically later than genetically related but more evolved tumors. Forty-nine meta- or synchronous urothelial tumors from 22 patients were analyzed using expression profiling, conventional CGH, LOH, and mutation analyses. We show by CGH that partial chromosomal losses in the initial tumors may not be present in the recurring tumors, by LOH that different haplotypes may be lost and that detected regions of LOH may be smaller in recurring tumors, and that mutations present in the initial tumor may not be present in the recurring ones. In contrast we show that despite apparent genomic differences, the recurrent and multiple bladder tumors from the same patients display remarkably similar expression profiles. Our findings show that even though the vast majority of the analyzed meta- and synchronous tumors from the same patients are not likely to have originated directly from the preceding tumor they still show remarkably similar expressions profiles. The presented data suggests that an expression profile is established early in tumor development and that this profile is stable and maintained in recurring tumors

  10. Tumor-associated antigens identified by mRNA expression profiling as tumor rejection epitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Marie; Ruhwald, Morten; Thorn, Mette

    2003-01-01

    , suggesting that SM7 thymoma cells are recognized by the adaptive immune system of the host. However, prophylactic vaccination with RAD23-31 and RAD24-31 peptides combined with anti-CTLA4 Ab treatment and did not improve tumor resistance. Our data would indicate that vaccination with immunogenic peptides......Thirteen H-2b-binding peptides derived from six potentially overexpressed proteins in p53-/- thymoma (SM7) cells were studied for immunogenecity and vaccine-induced prevention of tumor growth in mice inoculated with SM7 tumor cells. Six of the peptides generated specific CTL responses after...... immunization, but only two of these peptides (RAD23-31 and RAD24-31) were capable of generating a weak vaccination-induced protection against adoptive tumor growth. SM7 inoculated mice treated with a blocking antibody against the inhibitory T cell signal transducing molecule CTLA4 appeared to delay tumor take...

  11. Does Tumor Development Follow a Programmed Path?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Robert

    2011-03-01

    The initiation and progression of a tumor is a complex process, resembling the growth of a embryo in terms of the stages of development and increasing differentiation and somatic evolution of constituent cells in the community of cells that constitute the tumor. Typically we view cancer cells as rogue individuals violating the rules of the games played within an organism, but I would suggest that what we see is a programmed and algorithmic process. I will then question If tumor progression is dominated by the random acquisition of successive survival traits, or by a systematic and sequential unpacking of ``weapons'' from a pre-adapted ``toolkit'' of genetic and epigenetic potentialities? Can we then address this hypothesis by data mining solid tumors layer by layer? Support of the NSF and the NCI is gratefully acknowledged.

  12. Big Bang Tumor Growth and Clonal Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ruping; Hu, Zheng; Curtis, Christina

    2018-05-01

    The advent and application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to tumor genomes has reinvigorated efforts to understand clonal evolution. Although tumor progression has traditionally been viewed as a gradual stepwise process, recent studies suggest that evolutionary rates in tumors can be variable with periods of punctuated mutational bursts and relative stasis. For example, Big Bang dynamics have been reported, wherein after transformation, growth occurs in the absence of stringent selection, consistent with effectively neutral evolution. Although first noted in colorectal tumors, effective neutrality may be relatively common. Additionally, punctuated evolution resulting from mutational bursts and cataclysmic genomic alterations have been described. In this review, we contrast these findings with the conventional gradualist view of clonal evolution and describe potential clinical and therapeutic implications of different evolutionary modes and tempos. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of nasopharyngeal malignant tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakakihara, Junji; Kanoh, Naoyuki; Hayakawa, Katsumi.

    1988-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was used in the examination of three patients with nasopharyngeal malignant tumor and cranial nerve symptoms. Coronal and saggital sections were very useful for determining skull base invasion. Its high contrast resolution enabled us to visualize several cranial nerves directly. Differentiation between tumor and effusion in the paranasal sinuses was easy especially in T2 weighted images. Bone destruction could also be detected as bone marrow replacement by tumor or as interruption of the black line of compact bone. Local relationships of tumor and large blood vessels were visualized by MRI without invasive contrast enhancing methods. Despite such advantages, in one patient whose symptoms were highly suggestive of cranial invasion, no cranial invasion was detected by CT or MRI. (author)

  14. Radiofrequency Ablation of Lung Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA) / Microwave Ablation (MWA) of Lung Tumors ... and Microwave Ablation of Lung Tumors? What are Radiofrequency and Microwave Ablation of Lung Tumors? Radiofrequency ablation, ...

  15. The PCa Tumor Microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sottnik, Joseph L; Zhang, Jian; Macoska, Jill A; Keller, Evan T

    2011-12-01

    The tumor microenvironment (TME) is a very complex niche that consists of multiple cell types, supportive matrix and soluble factors. Cells in the TME consist of both host cells that are present at tumor site at the onset of tumor growth and cells that are recruited in either response to tumor- or host-derived factors. PCa (PCa) thrives on crosstalk between tumor cells and the TME. Crosstalk results in an orchestrated evolution of both the tumor and microenvironment as the tumor progresses. The TME reacts to PCa-produced soluble factors as well as direct interaction with PCa cells. In return, the TME produces soluble factors, structural support and direct contact interactions that influence the establishment and progression of PCa. In this review, we focus on the host side of the equation to provide a foundation for understanding how different aspects of the TME contribute to PCa progression. We discuss immune effector cells, specialized niches, such as the vascular and bone marrow, and several key protein factors that mediate host effects on PCa. This discussion highlights the concept that the TME offers a potentially very fertile target for PCa therapy.

  16. Epilepsy and brain tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ENGLOT, DARIO J.; CHANG, EDWARD F.; VECHT, CHARLES J.

    2016-01-01

    Seizures are common in patients with brain tumors, and epilepsy can significantly impact patient quality of life. Therefore, a thorough understanding of rates and predictors of seizures, and the likelihood of seizure freedom after resection, is critical in the treatment of brain tumors. Among all tumor types, seizures are most common with glioneuronal tumors (70–80%), particularly in patients with frontotemporal or insular lesions. Seizures are also common in individuals with glioma, with the highest rates of epilepsy (60–75%) observed in patients with low-grade gliomas located in superficial cortical or insular regions. Approximately 20–50% of patients with meningioma and 20–35% of those with brain metastases also suffer from seizures. After tumor resection, approximately 60–90% are rendered seizure-free, with most favorable seizure outcomes seen in individuals with glioneuronal tumors. Gross total resection, earlier surgical therapy, and a lack of generalized seizures are common predictors of a favorable seizure outcome. With regard to anticonvulsant medication selection, evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of focal epilepsy should be followed, and individual patient factors should also be considered, including patient age, sex, organ dysfunction, comorbidity, or cotherapy. As concomitant chemotherapy commonly forms an essential part of glioma treatment, enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants should be avoided when possible. Seizure freedom is the ultimate goal in the treatment of brain tumor patients with epilepsy, given the adverse effects of seizures on quality of life. PMID:26948360

  17. CNS tumors: postoperative evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayanir, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Imaging assessment of brain tumors following surgery is complex and depends upon several factors, including the location of the tumor, the surgical procedure and the disease process for which it was performed. Depending upon these factors, one or a combination of complementary imaging modalities may be required to demonstrate any clinically relevant situation, to assist the surgeon in deciding if repeat surgery is necessary. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can show the shape, size, signal intensity, and enhancement of a brain tumor. It has been widely used to diagnose and differentiate brain tumors and to assess the surgery outcomes. Longitudinal MRI scans have also been applied for the assessment of treatment and response to surgery. The newly developed MRI techniques, including diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), have the potential to provide the molecular, functional and metabolic information of preoperative and postoperative brain tumors. Postoperative diffusion and perfusion magnetic resonance imaging are especially useful in predicting early functional recovery from new deficits after brain tumor surgery.This lecture will stress the principles, applications, and pitfalls of conventional as well as newly developing functional imaging techniques following operation of brain tumors

  18. Tumor cell surface proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennel, S.J.; Braslawsky, G.R.; Flynn, K.; Foote, L.J.; Friedman, E.; Hotchkiss, J.A.; Huang, A.H.L.; Lankford, P.K.

    1982-01-01

    Cell surface proteins mediate interaction between cells and their environment. Unique tumor cell surface proteins are being identified and quantified in several tumor systems to address the following questions: (i) how do tumor-specific proteins arise during cell transformation; (ii) can these proteins be used as markers of tumor cell distribution in vivo; (iii) can cytotoxic drugs be targeted specifically to tumor cells using antibody; and (iv) can solid state radioimmunoassay of these proteins provide a means to quantify transformation frequencies. A tumor surface protein of 180,000 M/sub r/ (TSP-180) has been identified on cells of several lung carcinomas of BALB/c mice. TSP-180 was not detected on normal lung tissue, embryonic tissue, or other epithelial or sarcoma tumors, but it was found on lung carcinomas of other strains of mice. Considerable amino acid sequence homology exists among TSP-180's from several cell sources, indicating that TSP-180 synthesis is directed by normal cellular genes although it is not expressed in normal cells. The regulation of synthesis of TSP-180 and its relationship to normal cell surface proteins are being studied. Monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) to TSP-180 have been developed. The antibodies have been used in immunoaffinity chromatography to isolate TSP-180 from tumor cell sources. This purified tumor antigen was used to immunize rats. Antibody produced by these animals reacted at different sites (epitopes) on the TSP-180 molecule than did the original MoAb. These sera and MoAb from these animals are being used to identify normal cell components related to the TSP-180 molecule

  19. Central nervous system tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, P.R.; Fike, J.R.; Hoopes, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) tumors are relatively common in veterinary medicine, with most diagnoses occurring in the canine and feline species. Numerous tumor types from various cells or origins have been identified with the most common tumors being meningiomas and glial cell tumors. Radiation therapy is often used as an aid to control the clinical signs associated with these neoplasms. In general, these tumors have a very low metastatic potential, such that local control offers substantial benefit. Experience in veterinary radiation oncology would indicate that many patients benefit from radiation treatment. Current practice indicates the need for computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging studies. These highly beneficial studies are used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and to monitor treatment response. Improvements in treatment planning and radiation delivered to the tumor, while sparing the normal tissues, should improve local control and decrease potential radiation related problems to the CNS. When possible, multiple fractions of 3 Gy or less should be used. The tolerance dose to the normal tissue with this fractionation schedule is 50 to 55 Gy. The most common and serious complications of radiation for CNS tumors is delayed radiation myelopathy and necrosis. Medical management of the patient during radiation therapy requires careful attention to anesthetic protocols, and medications to reduce intracranial pressure that is often elevated in these patients. Canine brain tumors have served as an experimental model to test numerous new treatments. Increased availability of advanced imaging modalities has spawned increased detection of these neoplasms. Early detection of these tumors with appropriate aggressive therapy should prove beneficial to many patients

  20. Stochastic models for tumoral growth

    OpenAIRE

    Escudero, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Strong experimental evidence has indicated that tumor growth belongs to the molecular beam epitaxy universality class. This type of growth is characterized by the constraint of cell proliferation to the tumor border, and surface diffusion of cells at the growing edge. Tumor growth is thus conceived as a competition for space between the tumor and the host, and cell diffusion at the tumor border is an optimal strategy adopted for minimizing the pressure and helping tumor development. Two stoch...

  1. Uterine mesenchymal tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil A Sangle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Uterine mesenchymal tumors are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that can frequently be diagnostically challenging. Differentiation between the benign and malignant counterparts of mesenchymal tumors is significant due to differences in clinical outcome, and the role of the surgical pathologist in making this distinction (especially in the difficult cases cannot be underestimated. Although immunohistochemical stains are supportive toward establishing a final diagnosis, the morphologic features trump all the other ancillary techniques for this group of neoplasms. This review therefore emphasizes the key morphologic features required to diagnose and distinguish uterine mesenchymal tumors from their mimics, with a brief description of the relevant immunohistochemical features.

  2. Targeting the tumor microenvironment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, P.A.; Lee, G.Y.; Bissell, M.J.

    2006-11-07

    Despite some notable successes cancer remains, for the most part, a seemingly intractable problem. There is, however, a growing appreciation that targeting the tumor epithelium in isolation is not sufficient as there is an intricate mutually sustaining synergy between the tumor epithelial cells and their surrounding stroma. As the details of this dialogue emerge, new therapeutic targets have been proposed. The FDA has already approved drugs targeting microenvironmental components such as VEGF and aromatase and many more agents are in the pipeline. In this article, we describe some of the 'druggable' targets and processes within the tumor microenvironment and review the approaches being taken to disrupt these interactions.

  3. Risk interrelationship among multiple primary tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, Mohammed; Sun, Xiuhua; Wang, Lifen; Zhang, Xinwei; Song, Jicheng; Ameen, Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Along with advanced management in oncology, great progress has been recently achieved in the studies of multiple primary tumors. Several reports have studied the coexistence between lymphoma and either renal cell carcinoma (RCC) or Warthin tumor. However, the level of coexistence between these cases remains unclear due to the absence of a distinct link between them. Patient concerns: We present a unique case of multiple primary tumors (lymphoma, RCC, and Warthin tumor) in an 80-year-old man and a review of the literature on the coexistence of RCC with lymphoma and lymphoma with Warthin tumor. Diagnosis: With a history of RCC, the patient had a freely movable lump under his left ear, and the pathological report indicated Hodgkin lymphoma and Warthin tumor. Intervention: RCC and Warthin tumor of the patient were surgically treated, followed by 2 cycles (14 days per cycle) of Epirubicin 40 mg day 1, Bleomycin 8 mg day 1, Vincristine 2 mg day 1, and Dacarbazine 500 mg day 1. The chemotherapy protocol was then changed to Epirubicin 40 mg day 1, Vincristine 2 mg day 1, and Dacarbazine 500 mg day 1 for 7 cycles. Outcomes: After the last day of chemotherapy, the patient showed a complete response. Lessons: To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first to report a case of multiple primary tumors with a complete response. For their early detection, favorable prognosis, and correlation identification, we suggest a transitive relation between these coexisting tumors. Therefore, similar studies should be conducted. PMID:29642151

  4. Avoiding Pitfalls in the Statistical Analysis of Heterogeneous Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith-Anne W. Chapman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Information about tumors is usually obtained from a single assessment of a tumor sample, performed at some point in the course of the development and progression of the tumor, with patient characteristics being surrogates for natural history context. Differences between cells within individual tumors (intratumor heterogeneity and between tumors of different patients (intertumor heterogeneity may mean that a small sample is not representative of the tumor as a whole, particularly for solid tumors which are the focus of this paper. This issue is of increasing importance as high-throughput technologies generate large multi-feature data sets in the areas of genomics, proteomics, and image analysis. Three potential pitfalls in statistical analysis are discussed (sampling, cut-points, and validation and suggestions are made about how to avoid these pitfalls.

  5. Tumor associated CD70 expression is involved in promoting tumor migration and macrophage infiltration in GBM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Haitao; Mu, Luyan; Jin, Linchun; Yang, Changlin; Chang, Yifan Emily; Long, Yu; DeLeon, Gabriel; Deleyrolle, Loic; Mitchell, Duane A; Kubilis, Paul S; Lu, Dunyue; Qi, Jiping; Gu, Yunhe; Lin, Zhiguo; Huang, Jianping

    2017-10-01

    Tumor migration/metastasis and immunosuppression are major obstacles in effective cancer therapy. Incidentally, these 2 hurdles usually coexist inside tumors, therefore making therapy significantly more complicated, as both oncogenic mechanisms must be addressed for successful therapeutic intervention. Our recent report highlights that the tumor expression of a TNF family member, CD70, is correlated with poor survival for primary gliomas. In this study, we investigated how CD70 expression by GBM affects the characteristics of tumor cells and the tumor microenvironment. We found that the ablation of CD70 in primary GBM decreased CD44 and SOX2 gene expression, and inhibited tumor migration, growth and the ability to attract monocyte-derived M2 macrophages in vitro. In the tumor microenvironment, CD70 was associated with immune cell infiltrates, such as T cells; myeloid-derived suppressor cells; and monocytes/macrophages based on the RNA-sequencing profile. The CD163+ macrophages were far more abundant than T cells were. This overwhelming level of macrophages was identified only in GBM and not in low-grade gliomas and normal brain specimens, implying their tumor association. CD70 was detected only on tumor cells, not on macrophages, and was highly correlated with CD163 gene expression in primary GBM. Additionally, the co-expression of the CD70 and CD163 genes was found to correlate with decreased survival for patients with primary GBM. Together, these data suggest that CD70 expression is involved in promoting tumor aggressiveness and immunosuppression via tumor-associated macrophage recruitment/activation. Our current efforts to target this molecule using chimeric antigen receptor T cells hold great potential for treating patients with GBM. © 2017 UICC.

  6. Pathway-specific differences between tumor cell lines and normal and tumor tissue cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tozeren Aydin

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell lines are used in experimental investigation of cancer but their capacity to represent tumor cells has yet to be quantified. The aim of the study was to identify significant alterations in pathway usage in cell lines in comparison with normal and tumor tissue. Methods This study utilized a pathway-specific enrichment analysis of publicly accessible microarray data and quantified the gene expression differences between cell lines, tumor, and normal tissue cells for six different tissue types. KEGG pathways that are significantly different between cell lines and tumors, cell lines and normal tissues and tumor and normal tissue were identified through enrichment tests on gene lists obtained using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM. Results Cellular pathways that were significantly upregulated in cell lines compared to tumor cells and normal cells of the same tissue type included ATP synthesis, cell communication, cell cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, purine, pyrimidine and pyruvate metabolism, and proteasome. Results on metabolic pathways suggested an increase in the velocity nucleotide metabolism and RNA production. Pathways that were downregulated in cell lines compared to tumor and normal tissue included cell communication, cell adhesion molecules (CAMs, and ECM-receptor interaction. Only a fraction of the significantly altered genes in tumor-to-normal comparison had similar expressions in cancer cell lines and tumor cells. These genes were tissue-specific and were distributed sparsely among multiple pathways. Conclusion Significantly altered genes in tumors compared to normal tissue were largely tissue specific. Among these genes downregulation was a major trend. In contrast, cell lines contained large sets of significantly upregulated genes that were common to multiple tissue types. Pathway upregulation in cell lines was most pronounced over metabolic pathways including cell nucleotide metabolism and oxidative

  7. Management of Renal Tumors by Image-Guided Radiofrequency Ablation: Experience in 105 Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breen, David J.; Rutherford, Elizabeth E.; Stedman, Brian; Roy-Choudhury, Shuvro H.; Cast, James E. I.; Hayes, Matthew C.; Smart, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    Aims. In this article we present our experience with radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in the treatment of 105 renal tumors. Materials and Methods. RFA was performed on 105 renal tumors in 97 patients, with a mean tumor size of 32 mm (11-68 mm). The mean patient age was 71.7 years (range, 36-89 years). The ablations were carried out under ultrasound (n = 43) or CT (n = 62) guidance. Imaging follow-up was by contrast-enhanced CT within 10 days and then at 6-monthly intervals. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine variables associated with procedural outcome. Results. Eighty-three tumors were completely treated at a single sitting (79%). Twelve of the remaining tumors were successfully re-treated and a clinical decision was made not to re-treat seven patients. A patient with a small residual crescent of tumor is under follow-up and may require further treatment. In another patient, re-treatment was abandoned due to complicating pneumothorax and difficult access. One patient is awaiting further re-treatment. The overall technical success rate was 90.5%. Multivariate analysis revealed tumor size to be the only significant variable affecting procedural outcome. (p = 0.007, Pearson χ 2 ) Five patients had complications. There have been no local recurrences. Conclusion. Our experience to date suggests that RFA is a safe and effective, minimally invasive treatment for small renal tumors

  8. Are You Suggesting That's My Hand? The Relation Between Hypnotic Suggestibility and the Rubber Hand Illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, E; Guilmette, D N; Longo, M R; Moore, J W; Oakley, D A; Halligan, P W; Mehta, M A; Deeley, Q

    2015-01-01

    Hypnotic suggestibility (HS) is the ability to respond automatically to suggestions and to experience alterations in perception and behavior. Hypnotically suggestible participants are also better able to focus and sustain their attention on an experimental stimulus. The present study explores the relation between HS and susceptibility to the rubber hand illusion (RHI). Based on previous research with visual illusions, it was predicted that higher HS would lead to a stronger RHI. Two behavioral output measures of the RHI, an implicit (proprioceptive drift) and an explicit (RHI questionnaire) measure, were correlated against HS scores. Hypnotic suggestibility correlated positively with the implicit RHI measure contributing to 30% of the variation. However, there was no relation between HS and the explicit RHI questionnaire measure, or with compliance control items. High hypnotic suggestibility may facilitate, via attentional mechanisms, the multisensory integration of visuoproprioceptive inputs that leads to greater perceptual mislocalization of a participant's hand. These results may provide insight into the multisensory brain mechanisms involved in our sense of embodiment.

  9. Benign Liver Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Legacy Society Make Gifts of Stock Donate Your Car Personal Fundraising Partnership & Support Share Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now Benign Liver Tumors Back ...

  10. Overview of Heart Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumors By Siddique A. Abbasi, MD, MSc, Assistant Professor of Medicine, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University; Attending Cardiologist, Director of Heart Failure, and Director of Cardiac MRI, Providence VA Medical ...

  11. Renal tumors in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucaya, J.; Garcia, P.

    1997-01-01

    The classification of childhood renal masses in updated, including the clinical signs and imaging techniques currently employed to confirm their presence and type them. Several bening and malignant childhood tumors are described in substantial detail. (Author) 24 refs

  12. Radioimmunoassays for tumor diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressler, J.

    1983-01-01

    Aside from imaging techniques several (radio-)immunological analyses are used for tumor diagnosis. Oncofetal antigens, for instance the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), have become the most important substances for many malignancies. However, nearly all of the so-called tumor markers are not suitable for early diagnosis or screening either because of low sensitivity or low tumor specifity. On the other hand follow-up measurements give a very sensitive index of the success of treatment and may indicate tumor progression when other signs are still not present. In some carcinomas and under some clinical circumstances tumorspecific markers are available and mandatory for detection and/or staging: AFP in hepatoma, acid phosphatase in metastasizing carcinoma of the prostate and serum thyreoglobulin in differentiated thyroid cancer. (orig.) [de

  13. GASTROINTESTINAL STROMAL TUMOR (GIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi eTornillo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are the most frequent mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. The discovery that these tumors, formerly thought of smooth muscle origin, are indeed better characterized by specific activating mutation in genes coding for the receptor tyrosine kinases CKIT and PDGFRA and that these mutations are strongly predictive for the response to targeted therapy with receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors has made GISTs the typical example of the integration of basic molecular knowledge in the daily clinical activity. The information on the mutational status of these tumors is essential to predict (and subsequently to plan the therapy. As resistant cases are frequently wild-type, other possible oncogenic events, defining other entities, have been discovered (e.g. succinil dehydrogenase mutation/dysregulation, insuline growth factor expression, mutations in the RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway. The classification of disease must nowadays rely on the integration of the clinico-morphological characteristics with the molecular data.

  14. Allogeneic tumor cell vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivatsan, Sanjay; Patel, Jaina M; Bozeman, Erica N; Imasuen, Imade E; He, Sara; Daniels, Danielle; Selvaraj, Periasamy

    2014-01-01

    The high mortality rate associated with cancer and its resistance to conventional treatments such as radiation and chemotherapy has led to the investigation of a variety of anti-cancer immunotherapies. The development of novel immunotherapies has been bolstered by the discovery of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), through gene sequencing and proteomics. One such immunotherapy employs established allogeneic human cancer cell lines to induce antitumor immunity in patients through TAA presentation. Allogeneic cancer immunotherapies are desirable in a clinical setting due to their ease of production and availability. This review aims to summarize clinical trials of allogeneic tumor immunotherapies in various cancer types. To date, clinical trials have shown limited success due potentially to extensive degrees of inter- and intra-tumoral heterogeneity found among cancer patients. However, these clinical results provide guidance for the rational design and creation of more effective allogeneic tumor immunotherapies for use as monotherapies or in combination with other therapies. PMID:24064957

  15. Multiple Primary Tumors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-12-05

    Dec 5, 2017 ... Multiple primary tumors occur in clinical practice causing diagnostic dilemma. It is not very .... was estrogen receptor negative, progesterone receptor negative, and ... cervical, ovarian, and urinary bladder cancers. Multiple.

  16. Pituitary Tumors: Condition Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hormones. They can press on or damage the pituitary gland and prevent it from secreting adequate levels of hormones. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (2010). NINDS pituitary tumors information page . ...

  17. Tumor-Triggered Geometrical Shape Switch of Chimeric Peptide for Enhanced in Vivo Tumor Internalization and Photodynamic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kai; Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Weiyun; Wang, Shibo; Xu, Luming; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Xianzheng; Han, Heyou

    2017-03-28

    Geometrical shape of nanoparticles plays an important role in cellular internalization. However, the applicability in tumor selective therapeutics is still scarcely reported. In this article, we designed a tumor extracellular acidity-responsive chimeric peptide with geometrical shape switch for enhanced tumor internalization and photodynamic therapy. This chimeric peptide could self-assemble into spherical nanoparticles at physiological condition. While at tumor extracellular acidic microenvironment, chimeric peptide underwent detachment of acidity-sensitive 2,3-dimethylmaleic anhydride groups. The subsequent recovery of ionic complementarity between chimeric peptides resulted in formation of rod-like nanoparticles. Both in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that this acidity-triggered geometrical shape switch endowed chimeric peptide with accelerated internalization in tumor cells, prolonged accumulation in tumor tissue, enhanced photodynamic therapy, and minimal side effects. Our results suggested that fusing tumor microenvironment with geometrical shape switch should be a promising strategy for targeted drug delivery.

  18. Antibody tumor penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Greg M.; Schmidt, Michael M.; Wittrup, K. Dane

    2009-01-01

    Antibodies have proven to be effective agents in cancer imaging and therapy. One of the major challenges still facing the field is the heterogeneous distribution of these agents in tumors when administered systemically. Large regions of untargeted cells can therefore escape therapy and potentially select for more resistant cells. We present here a summary of theoretical and experimental approaches to analyze and improve antibody penetration in tumor tissue. PMID:18541331

  19. Pituitary tumors containing cholecystokinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, J F; Lindholm, J; Andersen, B N

    1987-01-01

    We found small amounts of cholecystokinin in the normal human adenohypophysis and therefore examined pituitary tumors from 87 patients with acromegaly, Cushing's disease, Nelson's syndrome, prolactinoma, or inactive pituitary adenomas. Five adenomas associated with Nelson's syndrome contained......'s disease and 7 acromegaly with adenomas containing ACTH. The cholecystokinin peptides from the tumors were smaller and less sulfated than cholecystokinin from normal pituitary glands. We conclude that ACTH-producing pituitary cells may also produce an altered form of cholecystokinin....

  20. Perlecan and tumor angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Xinnong; Couchman, John R

    2003-01-01

    Perlecan is a major heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) of basement membranes (BMs) and connective tissues. The core protein of perlecan is divided into five domains based on sequence homology to other known proteins. Commonly, the N-terminal domain I of mammalian perlecan is substituted with thr...... have unwanted promoting effects on tumor cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis. Understanding of these attributes at the molecular level may offer opportunities for therapeutic intervention....

  1. Adrenocortical tumors in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Ribeiro

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Childhood adrenocortical tumors (ACT are rare. In the USA, only about 25 new cases occur each year. In Southern Brazil, however, approximately 10 times that many cases are diagnosed each year. Most cases occur in the contiguous states of São Paulo and Paraná. The cause of this higher rate has not been identified. Familial genetic predisposition to cancer (p53 mutations and selected genetic syndromes (Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome have been associated with childhood ACT in general but not with the Brazilian counterpart. Most of the affected children are young girls with classic endocrine syndromes (virilizing and/or Cushing. Levels of urinary 17-ketosteroids and plasma dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S, which are abnormal in approximately 90% of the cases, provide the pivotal clue to a diagnosis of ACT. Typical imaging findings of pediatric ACT consist of a large, well-defined suprarenal tumor containing calcifications with a thin capsule and central necrosis or hemorrhage. The pathologic classification of pediatric ACT is troublesome. Even an experienced pathologist can find it difficult to differentiate carcinoma from adenoma. Surgery is the single most important procedure in the successful treatment of ACT. The role of chemotherapy in the management of childhood ACT has not been established although occasional tumors are responsive to mitotane or cisplatin-containing regimens. Because of the heterogeneity and rarity of the disease, prognostic factors have been difficult to establish in pediatric ACT. Patients with incomplete tumor resection or with metastatic disease at diagnosis have a dismal prognosis. In patients with localized and completely resected tumors, the size of the tumor has predictive value. Patients with large tumors have a much higher relapse rate than those with small tumors.

  2. Colorectal cancer: genetic abnormalities, tumor progression, tumor heterogeneity, clonal evolution and tumor-initiating cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Ugo; Pelosi, Elvira; Castelli, Germana

    2018-04-13

    Colon cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide. Most colorectal cancer occurrences are sporadic, not related to genetic predisposition or family history; however, 20-30% of patients with colorectal cancer have a family history of colorectal cancer and 5% of these tumors arise in the setting of a Mendelian inheritance syndrome. In many patients, the development of a colorectal cancer is preceded by a benign neoplastic lesion: either an adenomatous polyp or a serrated polyp. Studies carried out in the last years have characterized the main molecular alterations occurring in colorectal cancers, showing that the tumor of each patient displays from two to eight driver mutations. The ensemble of molecular studies, including gene expression studies, has led to two proposed classifications of colorectal cancers, with the identification of four/five non-overlapping groups. The homeostasis of the rapidly renewing intestinal epithelium is ensured by few stem cells present at the level of the base of intestinal crypts. Various experimental evidence suggests that colorectal cancers may derive from the malignant transformation of intestinal stem cells or of intestinal cells that acquire stem cell properties following malignant transformation. Colon cancer stem cells seem to be involved in tumor chemoresistance, radioresistance and relapse.

  3. Tumor-like tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soon Yong

    1975-01-01

    It was known that some of the abdominal tuberculosis can produce tumor-like appearance clinically and radiologically. But these were mainly masses formed in mesenteric and retroperitoneal lymph nodes. The author has experienced the gastrointestinal tuberculosis resembling to a neoplastic process. In the gastric tuberculosis, irregular narrowing and filling defect with mucosal distortion and occasional shoulder effect could be seen in pyloric antrum. Deformity of proximal portion of duodenum was noted in most cases. Difficulty in differential diagnosis from the gastric cancer might be encountered. If duodenum was not involved. No definite sign of mucosal destruction involved area and associated deformity of duodenum was suggestive of an inflammatory lesion. If there is any tuberculous changes in small bowel, than gastric tuberculosis is more likely. There was the tuberculosis of descending duodenum or pancreaticoduodenal group of lymph nodes revealed cancer-like appearance. Long irregular narrowing with nodular filling defect and mucosal distortion or inverted 3 sign was evident. Differential diagnosis from cancer in duodenum or pancreas could not be made radiographically. Short annular stenosis and nodular filling defect with shoulder effect in both ends of stenosis was noted in some of small bowel tuberculosis. The findings were very resemble to malignancy. There was a case of huge hepatoma-like tuberculosis formed a large irregular mass by lymph nodes and adjacent organs. Chest film was not much help in the differential diagnosis. In many cases of the gastrointestinal tuberculosis, radiological findings were resembled to a neoplastic process. Since none of radiologic findings are specific enough to allow one to make a definitive diagnosis of the gastrointestinal tuberculosis and since type of the gastrointestinal tuberculosis could be cured by chemotherapy, careful analyzation of clinical features is emphasized before surgery.

  4. Tumor-like tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soon Yong [Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1975-06-15

    It was known that some of the abdominal tuberculosis can produce tumor-like appearance clinically and radiologically. But these were mainly masses formed in mesenteric and retroperitoneal lymph nodes. The author has experienced the gastrointestinal tuberculosis resembling to a neoplastic process. In the gastric tuberculosis, irregular narrowing and filling defect with mucosal distortion and occasional shoulder effect could be seen in pyloric antrum. Deformity of proximal portion of duodenum was noted in most cases. Difficulty in differential diagnosis from the gastric cancer might be encountered. If duodenum was not involved. No definite sign of mucosal destruction involved area and associated deformity of duodenum was suggestive of an inflammatory lesion. If there is any tuberculous changes in small bowel, than gastric tuberculosis is more likely. There was the tuberculosis of descending duodenum or pancreaticoduodenal group of lymph nodes revealed cancer-like appearance. Long irregular narrowing with nodular filling defect and mucosal distortion or inverted 3 sign was evident. Differential diagnosis from cancer in duodenum or pancreas could not be made radiographically. Short annular stenosis and nodular filling defect with shoulder effect in both ends of stenosis was noted in some of small bowel tuberculosis. The findings were very resemble to malignancy. There was a case of huge hepatoma-like tuberculosis formed a large irregular mass by lymph nodes and adjacent organs. Chest film was not much help in the differential diagnosis. In many cases of the gastrointestinal tuberculosis, radiological findings were resembled to a neoplastic process. Since none of radiologic findings are specific enough to allow one to make a definitive diagnosis of the gastrointestinal tuberculosis and since type of the gastrointestinal tuberculosis could be cured by chemotherapy, careful analyzation of clinical features is emphasized before surgery.

  5. Hemoglobins, Hemorphins, and 11p15.5 Chromosomal Region in Cancer Biology and İmmunity with Special Emphasis for Brain Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinoz, Meric Adil; Elmaci, Ilhan; Ince, Bahri; Ozpinar, Aysel; Sav, Aydin Murat

    2016-05-01

    In systemic cancers, increased hemolysis leads to extracellular hemoglobin (HB), and experimental studies have shown its provoking role on tumor growth and metastasis. However, investigations have shown that HB chains presented by tumor vascular pericytes or serum protein complexes of HB could also induce antitumor immunity, which may be harnessed to treat refractory cancers and brain tumors. Mounting recent evidence shows that expression of HBs is not restricted to erythrocytes and that HBs exist in the cells of lung and kidney, in macrophages, and in neurons and glia of the central nervous system (CNS). HBs mediate coping with hypoxia and free radical stress in normal and tumor cells, and they are increased in certain tumors including breast, lung, colon, and squamous cell cancers. Recent studies showed HBs in meningioma, in the cyst fluid of craniopharyngioma, in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of pediatric patients with posterior fossa tumors, and in glioblastoma cell lines. Hemorphins, abundant brain peptides formed via HB-chain cleavage, exert opioid activity and antiproliferative and immunomodifier effects. Hence mutations in HBs may modify brain tumorigenesis via influencing hemorphins and perturbing regulations of immune surveillance and cell growth in the neuroectodermal tissues. The β-globin gene cluster resides in the chromosome region 11p15.5, harboring important immunity genes and IGF2, H19, PHLDA2/TSSC3, TRIM3, and SLC22A18 genes associated with cancers and gliomas. 11p15.5 is a prominent region subject to epigenetic regulation. Thus the β-globin loci may exert haplotypal interactions with these. Some clues support this theory. It is well established that iron load induces liver cancer in thalassemia major; however iron load-independent associations also exist. Enhanced rates of hematologic malignancies are associated with HB Lepore, association of hemoglobin E with cholangiocarcinoma, and enhanced gastric cancer rates in the thalassemia trait. In

  6. Neuroendocrine tumors and smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Miličević

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuroendocrine cells are dispersed around the body and can be found within the gastrointestinal system, lungs, larynx, thymus, thyroid, adrenal, gonads, skin and other tissues. These cells form the so-called ''diffuse neuroendocrine system'' and tumors arising from them are defined as neuroendocrine tumors (NETs. The traditional classification of NETs based on their embryonic origin includes foregut tumors (lung, thymus, stomach, pancreas and duodenum, midgut tumors (beyond the ligament of Treitz of the duodenum to the proximal transverse colon and hindgut tumors (distal colon and rectum. NETs at each site are biologically and clinically distinct from their counterparts at other sites. Symptoms in patients with early disease are often insidious in onset, leading to a delay in diagnosis. The majority of these tumors are thus diagnosed at a stage at which the only curative treatment, radical surgical intervention, is no longer an option. Due to the increasing incidence and mortality, many studies have been conducted in order to identify risk factors for the development of NETs. Still, little is known especially when it comes to preventable risk factors such as smoking. This review will focus on smoking and its contribution to the development of different subtypes of NETs.

  7. Computed tomographic findings of ovarian tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Kwi Ryeon; Lee, Ki Man; Woo, Seong Ku; Suh, Soo Jhi [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Duk Sik [Kyungpook National University College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-08-15

    The diagnosis of ovarian tumor has been mainly dependent on manual pelvic examination and ultrasonography. But in case of malignant ovarian tumor, CT has more advantages over ultrasonography in assessing anatomic details, relationships to bowel loops, precise extents of tumors and follow-up examinations after surgery. Authors analyzed CT features of 46 cases of pathologically proven ovarian tumors for recent 4 years at Keimyung University Dongsan Hospital. The results were as follows: 1. The most common tumor was serous cyst adenocarcinoma (9 cases: 20%), followed by metastases (8 cases: 17%), mucinous cyst adenocarcinoma (7 cases: 15%), mucinous cyst adenocarcinoma (5 cases: 11%), teratoma (5 cases: 11%), lymphoma (3 cases: 7%) and dysgerminoma (2 cases: 4%). 2. The ovarian tumors were variable in size from 2.5 cm to 33 cm in diameter. Most of the solid tumors were smaller than 10 cm in diameter and most of the cystic tumors were larger than 10 cm in diameter. Usually mucinous tumors were much larger than serous tumors. Mucinous cyst adenomas were the largest tumors. 3. Unilateral tumors (left 19, right 13 cases) were more common than bilateral tumors (12 cases). Bilateral tumors were seen in serous and mucinous cyst adenocarcinoma, metastases and lymphoma. 4. CT features of mucinous cyst adenomas were smooth margins and thin wall of the tumor masses and multifaceted cysts with internal septa in all 7 cases. 5. In contrast, CT demonstration of bilaterally, irregular margin, thick wall, enhancing solid lesion, septal irregularity, adhesion to adjacent structures, peritoneal/omental implantation, ascites and hydronephrosis were signs suggesting malignancy. CT features of the serous cyst adenocarcinoma were mostly solid to mixed nature (83%), irregular margin (75%), enhancing solid lesion (67%), papillary growth (75%), internal septa (58%), multilocularity (58%) and calcification (25%) in descending order of frequency. 6. On CT, mucinous cystadenocarcinoma were

  8. Primary cardiac tumors associated with genetic syndromes. A comprehensive review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Elizabeth; Agarwal, Prachi P. [University of Michigan Health System, University Hospital Division of Cardiothoracic Radiology, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Mahani, Maryam Ghadimi [University of Michigan Health System, University Hospital Division of Cardiothoracic Radiology, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); University of Michigan Health System, Section of Pediatric Radiology, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lu, Jimmy C.; Dorfman, Adam L. [University of Michigan Health System, Section of Pediatric Radiology, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, University of Michigan Health System, Section of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Srinivasan, Ashok [University of Michigan Health System, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2018-02-15

    Various cardiac tumors occur in the setting of a genetic syndrome such as myxomas in Carney complex and rhabdomyomas in tuberous sclerosis. Tumor biology can be different in syndromic forms, and on imaging children sometimes demonstrate additional manifestations of the underlying syndrome. We discuss the imaging appearance of cardiac tumors occurring in the framework of a genetic syndrome, the findings that suggest an underlying syndrome, and the impact on management. (orig.)

  9. Primary cardiac tumors associated with genetic syndromes. A comprehensive review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Elizabeth; Agarwal, Prachi P.; Mahani, Maryam Ghadimi; Lu, Jimmy C.; Dorfman, Adam L.; Srinivasan, Ashok

    2018-01-01

    Various cardiac tumors occur in the setting of a genetic syndrome such as myxomas in Carney complex and rhabdomyomas in tuberous sclerosis. Tumor biology can be different in syndromic forms, and on imaging children sometimes demonstrate additional manifestations of the underlying syndrome. We discuss the imaging appearance of cardiac tumors occurring in the framework of a genetic syndrome, the findings that suggest an underlying syndrome, and the impact on management. (orig.)

  10. Mast cells: potential positive and negative roles in tumor biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marichal, Thomas; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen J

    2013-11-01

    Mast cells are immune cells that reside in virtually all vascularized tissues. Upon activation by diverse mechanisms, mast cells can secrete a broad array of biologically active products that either are stored in the cytoplasmic granules of the cells (e.g., histamine, heparin, various proteases) or are produced de novo upon cell stimulation (e.g., prostaglandins, leukotrienes, cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors). Mast cells are best known for their effector functions during anaphylaxis and acute IgE-associated allergic reactions, but they also have been implicated in a wide variety of processes that maintain health or contribute to disease. There has been particular interest in the possible roles of mast cells in tumor biology. In vitro studies have shown that mast cells have the potential to influence many aspects of tumor biology, including tumor development, tumor-induced angiogenesis, and tissue remodeling, and the shaping of adaptive immune responses to tumors. Yet, the actual contributions of mast cells to tumor biology in vivo remain controversial. Here, we review some basic features of mast cell biology with a special emphasis on those relevant to their potential roles in tumors. We discuss how using in vivo tumor models in combination with models in which mast cell function can be modulated has implicated mast cells in the regulation of host responses to tumors. Finally, we summarize data from studies of human tumors that suggest either beneficial or detrimental roles for mast cells in tumors. ©2013 AACR.

  11. Reduced glucocorticoid receptor expression predicts bladder tumor recurrence and progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, Hitoshi; Kawahara, Takashi; Zheng, Yichun; Netto, George J; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2014-08-01

    To assess the levels of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression in bladder tumors because the status and its prognostic value remain largely unknown. We immunohistochemically stained for GR in bladder tumor and matched non-neoplastic bladder tissue specimens. Overall, GR was positive in 129 (87%) of 149 urothelial tumors, which was significantly (P=.026) lower than in non-neoplastic urothelium (90 [96%] of 94). Forty-two (79%) of 53 low-grade tumors vs 45 (47%) of 96 high-grade carcinomas (Pcancer-specific survival of MI tumors (P=.067). Multivariate analysis identified low GR expression as a strong predictor for recurrence of NMI tumors (P=.034). GR expression was downregulated in bladder tumors compared with nonneoplastic bladder tumors and in high-grade/MI tumors compared with low-grade/NMI tumors. Decreased expression of GR, as an independent prognosticator, predicted recurrence of NMI tumors. These results support experimental evidence suggesting an inhibitory role of GR signals in bladder cancer outgrowth. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  12. Tumor Penetrating Theranostic Nanoparticles for Enhancement of Targeted and Image-guided Drug Delivery into Peritoneal Tumors following Intraperitoneal Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ning; Bozeman, Erica N; Qian, Weiping; Wang, Liya; Chen, Hongyu; Lipowska, Malgorzata; Staley, Charles A; Wang, Y Andrew; Mao, Hui; Yang, Lily

    2017-01-01

    The major obstacles in intraperitoneal (i.p.) chemotherapy of peritoneal tumors are fast absorption of drugs into the blood circulation, local and systemic toxicities, inadequate drug penetration into large tumors, and drug resistance. Targeted theranostic nanoparticles offer an opportunity to enhance the efficacy of i.p. therapy by increasing intratumoral drug delivery to overcome resistance, mediating image-guided drug delivery, and reducing systemic toxicity. Herein we report that i.p. delivery of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) targeted magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) led to intratumoral accumulation of 17% of total injected nanoparticles in an orthotopic mouse pancreatic cancer model, which was three-fold higher compared with intravenous delivery. Targeted delivery of near infrared dye labeled IONPs into orthotopic tumors could be detected by non-invasive optical and magnetic resonance imaging. Histological analysis revealed that a high level of uPAR targeted, PEGylated IONPs efficiently penetrated into both the peripheral and central tumor areas in the primary tumor as well as peritoneal metastatic tumor. Improved theranostic IONP delivery into the tumor center was not mediated by nonspecific macrophage uptake and was independent from tumor blood vessel locations. Importantly, i.p. delivery of uPAR targeted theranostic IONPs carrying chemotherapeutics, cisplatin or doxorubicin, significantly inhibited the growth of pancreatic tumors without apparent systemic toxicity. The levels of proliferating tumor cells and tumor vessels in tumors treated with the above theranostic IONPs were also markedly decreased. The detection of strong optical signals in residual tumors following i.p. therapy suggested the feasibility of image-guided surgery to remove drug-resistant tumors. Therefore, our results support the translational development of i.p. delivery of uPAR-targeted theranostic IONPs for image-guided treatment of peritoneal tumors.

  13. Tumor associated osteoclast-like giant cells promote tumor growth and lymphangiogenesis by secreting vascular endothelial growth factor-C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Yu; Nakahama, Ken-ichi; Isobe, Mitsuaki; Morita, Ikuo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • M-CSF and RANKL expressing HeLa cells induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro. • We established OGC-containing tumor model in vivo. • OGC-containing tumor became larger independent of M-CSF or RANKL effect. • VEGF-C secreted from OGCs was a one of candidates for OGC-containing tumor growth. - Abstract: Tumors with osteoclast-like giant cells (OGCs) have been reported in a variety of organs and exert an invasive and prometastatic phenotype, but the functional role of OGCs in the tumor environment has not been fully clarified. We established tumors containing OGCs to clarify the role of OGCs in tumor phenotype. A mixture of HeLa cells expressing macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF, HeLa-M) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL, HeLa-R) effectively supported the differentiation of osteoclast-like cells from bone marrow macrophages in vitro. Moreover, a xenograft study showed OGC formation in a tumor composed of HeLa-M and HeLa-R. Surprisingly, the tumors containing OGCs were significantly larger than the tumors without OGCs, although the growth rates were not different in vitro. Histological analysis showed that lymphangiogenesis and macrophage infiltration in the tumor containing OGCs, but not in other tumors were accelerated. According to quantitative PCR analysis, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C mRNA expression increased with differentiation of osteoclast-like cells. To investigate whether VEGF-C expression is responsible for tumor growth and macrophage infiltration, HeLa cells overexpressing VEGF-C (HeLa-VC) were established and transplanted into mice. Tumors composed of HeLa-VC mimicked the phenotype of the tumors containing OGCs. Furthermore, the vascular permeability of tumor microvessels also increased in tumors containing OGCs and to some extent in VEGF-C-expressing tumors. These results suggest that macrophage infiltration and vascular permeability are possible mediators in these tumors. These

  14. THE TUMOR MACROENVIRONMENT: CANCER-PROMOTING NETWORKS BEYOND TUMOR BEDS

    OpenAIRE

    Rutkowski, Melanie R.; Svoronos, Nikolaos; Puchalt, Alfredo Perales; Conejo-Garcia, Jose R.

    2015-01-01

    During tumor progression, alterations within the systemic tumor environment, or macroenvironment, result in the promotion of tumor growth, tumor invasion to distal organs, and eventual metastatic disease. Distally produced hormones, commensal microbiota residing within mucosal surfaces, and myeloid cells and even the bone marrow impact the systemic immune system, tumor growth, and metastatic spread. Understanding the reciprocal interactions between the cells and soluble factors within the mac...

  15. Targeted delivery of immunotoxin by antibody to ganglioside GD3: a novel drug delivery route for tumor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanina Torres Demichelis

    Full Text Available Gangliosides are sialic acid-containing glycolipids expressed on plasma membranes from nearly all vertebrate cells. The expression of ganglioside GD3, which plays essential roles in normal brain development, decreases in adults but is up regulated in neuroectodermal and epithelial derived cancers. R24 antibody, directed against ganglioside GD3, is a validated tumor target which is specifically endocytosed and accumulated in endosomes. Here, we exploit the internalization feature of the R24 antibody for the selective delivery of saporin, a ribosome-inactivating protein, to GD3-expressing cells [human (SK-Mel-28 and mouse (B16 melanoma cells and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1 cells]. This immunotoxin showed a specific cytotoxicity on tumor cells grew on 2D monolayers, which was further evident by the lack of any effect on GD3-negative cells. To estimate the potential antitumor activity of R24-saporin complex, we also evaluated the effect of the immunotoxin on the clonogenic growth of SK-Mel-28 and CHO-K1(GD3+ cells cultured in attachment-free conditions. A drastic growth inhibition (>80-90% of the cell colonies was reached after 3 days of immunotoxin treatment. By the contrary, colonies continue to growth at the same concentration of the immuntoxin, but in the absence of R24 antibody, or in the absence of both immunotoxin and R24, undoubtedly indicating the specificity of the effect observed. Thus, the ganglioside GD3 emerge as a novel and attractive class of cell surface molecule for targeted delivery of cytotoxic agents and, therefore, provides a rationale for future therapeutic intervention in cancer.

  16. Children's Memory for Their Mother's Murder: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Resistance to Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Kelly; Narr, Rachel; Goodman, Gail S; Ruiz, Sandra; Mendoza, Macaria

    2013-01-31

    From its inception, child eyewitness memory research has been guided by dramatic legal cases that turn on the testimony of children. Decades of scientific research reveal that, under many conditions, children can provide veracious accounts of traumatic experiences. Scientific studies also document factors that lead children to make false statements. In this paper we describe a legal case in which children testified about their mother's murder. We discuss factors that may have influenced the accuracy of the children's eyewitness memory. Children's suggestibility and resistance to suggestion are illustrated. Expert testimony, based on scientific research, can aid the trier of fact when children provide crucial evidence in criminal investigations and courtroom trials about tragic events.

  17. Macrophages support splenic erythropoiesis in 4T1 tumor-bearing mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Liu

    Full Text Available Anemia is a common complication of cancer; a role of spleen in tumor-stress erythropoiesis has been suggested. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the splenic erythropoiesis following tumor maintenance remain poorly understood. Here we show that tumor development blocks medullar erythropoiesis by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF and then causes anemia in murine 4T1 breast tumor-bearing mice. Meanwhile, tumor-stress promotes splenic erythropoiesis. Splenectomy worsened tumor-induced anemia, and reduced tumor volume and tumor weight, indicating the essential role of spleen in tumor-stress erythropoiesis and tumor growth. Tumor progression of these mice led to increased amounts of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4 in spleen. The in vivo role of macrophages in splenic erythropoiesis under tumor-stress conditions was investigated. Macrophage depletion by injecting liposomal clodronate decreased the expression of BMP4, inhibited splenic erythropoiesis, aggravated the tumor-induced anemia and suppressed tumor growth. Our results provide insight that macrophages and BMP4 are positive regulators of splenic erythropoiesis in tumor pathological situations. These findings reveal that during the tumor-stress period, the microenvironment of the spleen is undergoing changes, which contributes to adopt a stress erythropoietic fate and supports the expansion and differentiation of stress erythroid progenitors, thereby replenishing red blood cells and promoting tumor growth.

  18. Tumor detection using feature extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankar, A.S.; Amudhavalli, N.; Sivakolundu, M.K.

    2008-01-01

    The assistance system for brain tumor detection helps the doctor to analyse the brain tumor in MRI image and help to make decision. The manual detection system takes 3 -5 hours time to analyse the tumor. Doctors are in a position to analyze the tumor faster and make a correct decision with an assistance system

  19. Wilms tumors: genotypes and phenotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Segers (Heidi)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWilms tumor, or nephroblastoma, represents about 90% of all pediatric renal tumors and about 7% of all pediatric malignancies. Most Wilms tumors are unilateral, although in 5-10 % of the patients both kidneys are infected. Wilms tumor typically occurs between the age of 2 and 4 years,

  20. Optimizing the dosing schedule of l-asparaginase improves its anti-tumor activity in breast tumor-bearing mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoya Shiromizu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Proliferation of acute lymphoblastic leukemic cells is nutritionally dependent on the external supply of asparagine. l-asparaginase, an enzyme hydrolyzing l-asparagine in blood, is used for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemic and other related blood cancers. Although previous studies demonstrated that l-asparaginase suppresses the proliferation of cultured solid tumor cells, it remains unclear whether this enzyme prevents the growth of solid tumors in vivo. In this study, we demonstrated the importance of optimizing dosing schedules for the anti-tumor activity of l-asparaginase in 4T1 breast tumor-bearing mice. Cultures of several types of murine solid tumor cells were dependent on the external supply of asparagine. Among them, we selected murine 4T1 breast cancer cells and implanted them into BALB/c female mice kept under standardized light/dark cycle conditions. The growth of 4T1 tumor cells implanted in mice was significantly suppressed by intravenous administration of l-asparaginase during the light phase, whereas its administration during the dark phase failed to show significant anti-tumor activity. Decreases in plasma asparagine levels due to the administration of l-asparaginase were closely related to the dosing time-dependency of its anti-tumor effects. These results suggest that the anti-tumor efficacy of l-asparaginase in breast tumor-bearing mice is improved by optimizing the dosing schedule. Keywords: l-asparaginase, Asparagine, Solid tumor, Chrono-pharmacotherapy

  1. Radionecrosis after radiotherapy for brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Yoshihiko; Maki, Yutaka; Tosa, Junichi; Tsuboi, Koji; Matsumura, Akira

    1984-01-01

    The neurological deterioration after radiotherapy of brain tumor may depend on radionecrosis or regrowth of the tumor. In the present study, five patients with brain tumor were irradiated with doses of 3,900 to 6,800 rads. The neurological deterioration appeared 3.5 to 46 months after radiotherapy in three patients, who received 5,000 to 5,680 rads, immediately after radiotherapy in one patient, who received 6,800 rads, and during radiotherapy in one patient, who received 3,900 rads. Ring enhancement was observed on sequential CT scans. This enhanced area was surgically removed and the correlation between histology and CT scans and superimposed dose distributions was studied in order to differentiate radionecrosis from regrowth of tumor. The radionecrosis was confirmed at the second operation in five patients, but regrowth of the tumor was also observed in the brain adjacent to radionecrosis in three out of five patients. Coagulation necrosis and fibrinoid necrosis were observed microscopically at the rim of the ring enhancement and necrotic and hyalinized debri were observed in the central low density area of the ring enhancement. Viable tumor cells were noted in the enhanced area adjacent to the ring enhancement on CT scans. Both radionecrosis and regrowth of tumor were observed in the dose distribution area of 3,500 to 6,120 rads on CT scans. This suggested that the superimposed dose distributions could not differentiate radionecrosis from tumor regrowth. Forty-eight cases of cerebral radionecrosis gathered from the literature were reviewed. (J.P.N.)

  2. Pituitary gland tumors; Hypophysentumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesser, J.; Schlamp, K.; Bendszus, M. [Radiologische Klinik, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    This article gives an overview of the most common tumors of the pituitary gland and the differential diagnostics with special emphasis on radiological diagnostic criteria. A selective search of the literature in PubMed was carried out. Pituitary adenomas constitute 10-15 % of all intracranial tumors and are the most common tumors of the sellar region. Tumors smaller than 1 cm in diameter are called microadenomas while those larger than 1 cm in diameter are called macroadenomas. Approximately 65 % of pituitary gland adenomas secrete hormones whereby approximately 50 % secrete prolactin, 10 % secrete growth hormone (somatotropin) and 6 % secrete corticotropin. Other tumors located in the sella turcica can also cause endocrinological symptoms, such as an oversecretion of pituitary hormone or pituitary insufficiency by impinging on the pituitary gland or its stalk. When tumors spread into the space cranial to the sella turcica, they can impinge on the optic chiasm and cause visual disorders. A common differential diagnosis of a sellar tumor is a craniopharyngeoma. In children up to 10 % of all intracranial tumors are craniopharyngeomas. Other differential diagnoses for sellar tumors are metastases, meningiomas, epidermoids and in rare cases astrocytomas, germinomas or Rathke cleft cysts As these tumors are located in an anatomically complex region of the skull base and are often very small, a highly focused imaging protocol is required. The currently favored modality is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the administration of a contrast agent. The sellar region should be mapped in thin slices. In cases of suspected microadenoma the imaging protocol should also contain a sequence with dynamic contrast administration in order to assess the specific enhancement characteristics of the tumor and the pituitary gland. (orig.) [German] Diese Arbeit ist eine Uebersicht ueber die haeufigsten Hypophysentumoren und deren Differenzialdiagnosen mit Augenmerk auf die

  3. Functional microarray analysis suggests repressed cell-cell signaling and cell survival-related modules inhibit progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares Fernando A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer shows a great diversity in its clinical behavior which cannot be easily predicted using the currently available clinical or pathological markers. The identification of pathways associated with lymph node metastasis (N+ and recurrent head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC may increase our understanding of the complex biology of this disease. Methods Tumor samples were obtained from untreated HNSCC patients undergoing surgery. Patients were classified according to pathologic lymph node status (positive or negative or tumor recurrence (recurrent or non-recurrent tumor after treatment (surgery with neck dissection followed by radiotherapy. Using microarray gene expression, we screened tumor samples according to modules comprised by genes in the same pathway or functional category. Results The most frequent alterations were the repression of modules in negative lymph node (N0 and in non-recurrent tumors rather than induction of modules in N+ or in recurrent tumors. N0 tumors showed repression of modules that contain cell survival genes and in non-recurrent tumors cell-cell signaling and extracellular region modules were repressed. Conclusions The repression of modules that contain cell survival genes in N0 tumors reinforces the important role that apoptosis plays in the regulation of metastasis. In addition, because tumor samples used here were not microdissected, tumor gene expression data are represented together with the stroma, which may reveal signaling between the microenvironment and tumor cells. For instance, in non-recurrent tumors, extracellular region module was repressed, indicating that the stroma and tumor cells may have fewer interactions, which disable metastasis development. Finally, the genes highlighted in our analysis can be implicated in more than one pathway or characteristic, suggesting that therapeutic approaches to prevent tumor progression should target more than one gene or pathway

  4. Tumor scintigram, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Shunichi; Hasegawa, Yoshihisa; Shimura, Kazuo; Ifuka, Keijiro

    1975-01-01

    In various cases of malignant tumors, especially those of lung cancer and liver cancer, scans were made with 57 Co-bleomycin(BLM), and its diagnostic significance was evaluated. Tumors were visualized with 57 Co-BLM in 22 of the 26 cases of lung cancer (84.6%). Concentrations of the RI were noted in all of the cases of squamous epithelium cancer, adenoid cancer and cellule-type undifferentiated cancer. The smallest tumor that could be detected was a 2 x 2 cm adenoid cancer. Tumors were imaged in 19 of the 27 cases of liver cancer (70.4%). This detection rate was increased by a combination of 57 Co-BLM and 198 Au-colloid scanning. The authors believe that 57 Co-BLM will help to establish the diagnosis of lung cancer or liver cancer. Tumors were also imaged in 6 of the 15 cases of breast cancer, but no distinct concentration was noted in the 7 cases of thyroid cancer. (Ueda, J.)

  5. Parotid hybrid tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravo C, Gustavo; Seymour M, Camila; Fernandez R, Lara; Villanueva I, Maria Elena; Scott C, Carlos; Celedon L, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Tumors of the salivary glands represent 33%-10% of head and neck neoplasms. The most common location is the parotid gland, accounting for 50%-85% of the cases, with 20%-30% of them being malignant. The following are known to be indicative of a malignant tumor: fast growing, painless mass, associated facial paralysis and lymphadenopathy. Most parotid neoplasm derive from a single histological type but eventually the development of more than one type on the same gland can occur. This paper presents a case of a parotid neoplasm with two different histological tumors, with uncharacteristic clinical presentation. The patient presented initially with ear pain and otorrhoea, in the clinical examination highlighted an external auditory canal tumor. The complementary study revealed a parotid neoplasm and a total resection of the gland was performed. The biopsy revealed an adenoid-cystic carcinoma with differentiated basaloid areas. Adjuvant radio-chemotherapy was administered, and the imaging control with PET-CT showed no evidence of recurrence or dissemination of the tumor

  6. Large mid-esophageal granular cell tumor: benign versus malignant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prarthana Roselil Christopher

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Granular cell tumors are rare soft tissue neoplasms, among which only 2% are malignant, arising from nervous tissue. Here we present a case of a large esophageal granular cell tumor with benign histopathological features which metastasized to the liver, but showing on positron emission tomography-computerized tomography standardized uptake value suggestive of a benign lesion.

  7. Computed tomography of the orbital tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jai Korl; Lee, Hwang Bok; Kang, Eun Young; Seol, Hae Young; Suh, Won Hyuck; Ahn, Byeong Yeob

    1987-01-01

    The development of computed tomography (CT) provided a noninvasive safe technique for imaging the orbit in any plane exquisitely demonstrating its normal anatomy as well as its pathologic process. The orbit is an ideal structure to be examined by CT because of large difference of absorption values between the intraorbital fat, muscle, optic nerve and vessels. In this study, the authors reviewed CT findings of 66 pathologically proven orbital tumors and tumorous conditions among the total of 98 cases who had taken orbital CT scan because if exophthalmos, ocular pain, diplopia and other ophthalmologic symptoms suggesting orbital masses during the period of 3 years. For the analysis of characteristic CT findings of the orbital lesions, all lesions are divided into 4 groups according to the site of origin, i.e., tumors arising in the eyeball (group 1); from intraconal space (group 2); from extraconal space (group 3); and from extraorbital regions (group 4). The results are as follows; 1.Extra tumor detection and localization was possible in 63 cases. Thus the detection rate was 95% with CT scan. 2.Among 36 males and 30 females, their age ranged from 10 months to 72 years. 3.Intraocular tumors (group 1) were 10 cases. Retinoblastoma occurred wholly in the young children under 5 years and combined with calcification in 57%. Choroidal melanoma occurred wholly in adults. 4.Intraconal tumors (group 2) were 9 cases. Vascular tumors (7 cases) were the most frequent and well enhancing mass. 5.The tumors arising in the extraconal region (group 3) were pseudotumor (12 cases), lymphoma (3 cases), dermoid cyst (4 cases), metastasis (2 cases), adenoid cystic carcinoma (1 case) and teratoma (1 case). A case of lymphoma demonstrating retrobulbar ill defined mass with scleral l thickening could not be differentiated from the pseudotumor which showing similar finding. 6.The lesions arising from extraorbital region (group 4) were PNS cancer (9 cases), mucocele (3 cases), lid cancer (4

  8. Computed tomography of the orbital tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jai Korl; Lee, Hwang Bok; Kang, Eun Young; Seol, Hae Young; Suh, Won Hyuck [College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Byeong Yeob [Han Mi Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-04-15

    The development of computed tomography (CT) provided a noninvasive safe technique for imaging the orbit in any plane exquisitely demonstrating its normal anatomy as well as its pathologic process. The orbit is an ideal structure to be examined by CT because of large difference of absorption values between the intraorbital fat, muscle, optic nerve and vessels. In this study, the authors reviewed CT findings of 66 pathologically proven orbital tumors and tumorous conditions among the total of 98 cases who had taken orbital CT scan because if exophthalmos, ocular pain, diplopia and other ophthalmologic symptoms suggesting orbital masses during the period of 3 years. For the analysis of characteristic CT findings of the orbital lesions, all lesions are divided into 4 groups according to the site of origin, i.e., tumors arising in the eyeball (group 1); from intraconal space (group 2); from extraconal space (group 3); and from extraorbital regions (group 4). The results are as follows; 1.Extra tumor detection and localization was possible in 63 cases. Thus the detection rate was 95% with CT scan. 2.Among 36 males and 30 females, their age ranged from 10 months to 72 years. 3.Intraocular tumors (group 1) were 10 cases. Retinoblastoma occurred wholly in the young children under 5 years and combined with calcification in 57%. Choroidal melanoma occurred wholly in adults. 4.Intraconal tumors (group 2) were 9 cases. Vascular tumors (7 cases) were the most frequent and well enhancing mass. 5.The tumors arising in the extraconal region (group 3) were pseudotumor (12 cases), lymphoma (3 cases), dermoid cyst (4 cases), metastasis (2 cases), adenoid cystic carcinoma (1 case) and teratoma (1 case). A case of lymphoma demonstrating retrobulbar ill defined mass with scleral l thickening could not be differentiated from the pseudotumor which showing similar finding. 6.The lesions arising from extraorbital region (group 4) were PNS cancer (9 cases), mucocele (3 cases), lid cancer (4

  9. Genetic ablation of soluble tumor necrosis factor with preservation of membrane tumor necrosis factor is associated with neuroprotection after focal cerebral ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Pernille M; Clausen, Bettina H; Degn, Matilda

    2016-01-01

    Microglia respond to focal cerebral ischemia by increasing their production of the neuromodulatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor, which exists both as membrane-anchored tumor necrosis factor and as cleaved soluble tumor necrosis factor forms. We previously demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor...... reduced infarct volumes at one and five days after stroke. This was associated with improved functional outcome after experimental stroke. No changes were found in the mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor and tumor necrosis factor-related genes (TNFR1, TNFR2, TACE), pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6...... knockout mice display increased lesion volume after focal cerebral ischemia, suggesting that tumor necrosis factor is neuroprotective in experimental stroke. Here, we extend our studies to show that mice with intact membrane-anchored tumor necrosis factor, but no soluble tumor necrosis factor, display...

  10. Tumor radiation responses and tumor oxygenation in aging mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwell, S.

    1989-01-01

    EMT6 mouse mammary tumors transplanted into aging mice are less sensitive to radiation than tumors growing in young adult animals. The experiments reported here compare the radiation dose-response curves defining the survivals of tumor cells in aging mice and in young adult mice. Cell survival curves were assessed in normal air-breathing mice and in mice asphyxiated with N 2 to produce uniform hypoxia throughout the tumors. Analyses of survival curves revealed that 41% of viable malignant cells were severely hypoxic in tumors in aging mice, while only 19% of the tumor cells in young adult animals were radiobiologically hypoxic. This did not appear to reflect anaemia in the old animals. Treatment of aging animals with a perfluorochemical emulsion plus carbogen (95% O 2 /5% CO 2 ) increased radiation response of the tumors, apparently by improving tumor oxygenation and decreasing the number of severely hypoxic, radiation resistant cells in the tumors. (author)

  11. Primary tumors of the patella. A review of 42 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kransdorf, M.J. (Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC (USA). Dept. of Radiology; University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD (USA). Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine); Moser, R.P. Jr. (Armed Forces Inst. of Pathology, Washington, DC (USA). Dept. of Radiologic Pathology; University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD (USA). Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine); Vinh, T.N. (Armed Forces Inst. of Pathology, Washington, DC (USA). Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery); Aoki, J. (Armed Forces Inst. of Pathology, Washington, DC (USA). Dept. of Radiologic Pathology); Callaghan, J.J. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (USA). Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery)

    1989-08-01

    This study reports 42 cases of histologically proven and radiographically correlated primary patellar tumors. Despite diverse histologic diagnoses, the radiographic appearanaces of benign as opposed to malignant patellar neoplasms are essentially indistinguishable. Although the literature suggests that giant cell tumor is the most frequent benign tumor of the patella, the most common benign neoplasm in this series is chondroblastoma (16 cases). Only four primary malignant lesions were encountered, three cases of lymphoma and one case of hemangioendothelioma. Since 38 (90%) of the 42 cases were benign, a benign etiology should be strongly favored, notwithstanding the radiographic appearance, whenever a primary patellar tumor is encountered. (orig.).

  12. Transformation of benign fibroadenoma to malignant phyllodes tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, Linda M; Daigle, Megan E; Tortora, Matthew; Panasiti, Ryane

    2015-01-01

    The transformation of a benign fibroadenoma into a phyllodes tumor is uncommon and unpredictable. We report the case of a 40-year-old woman with a core biopsy proven fibroadenoma that underwent transformation into a malignant phyllodes tumor after 3 years of size stability. We present ultrasound and magnetic resonance images, as well as pathology slides from core biopsy and surgical excision, to illustrate this transformation. It has been suggested that phyllodes tumors may be misdiagnosed as fibroadenomas by core biopsy. However, in this case, pathology supports correct initial diagnosis of fibroadenoma and demonstrates a portion of the original fibroadenoma along the periphery of the malignant phyllodes tumor

  13. Radiology of neuroendocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hako, R.; Hakova, H.; Gulova, I.

    2011-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors arise in the bronchopulmonary or gastrointestinal tract, but they can arise in almost any organ. The tumors have varied malignant potential depending on the site of their origin. Metastases may be present at the time of diagnosis, which often occurs at a late stage of the disease. Most NETs have nonspecific imaging characteristics. Imaging plays a pivotal role in the localization and staging of neuroendocrine tumors and in monitoring the treatment response. Imaging should involve multi-phase computed tomography, contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and other one. Hepatic metastatic disease in particular lends itself to a wide range of interventional treatment options. Transcatheter arterial embolization may be used alone or in combination with chemo embolization. Ablative techniques, hepatic cryotherapy and percutaneous ethanol injection may then be undertaken. A multidisciplinary approach to treatment and follow-up is important. (author)

  14. Bilateral Wilms' tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malcolm, A.W.; Jaffe, N.; Folkman, M.J.; Cassady, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty children with bilateral Wilms' tumor were presented to the Children's Hospital Medical Center and Children's Cancer Research Foundation, Sidney Farber Cancer Institute, and Joint Center for Radiation Therapy (CHMC-CCRF, SFCI, JCRT) from January 1, 1956 to December 31, 1976. Of these 20, 16 had simultaneous and 4 had metachronous disease on presentation. All patients were treated with surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Of the 16 patients with simultaneous disease, 10 (63%) are alive and free of disease 12+ to 175+ months post diagnosis and treatment, with median follow-up of 121 months. There were no long-term survivors in the metachronous group; all were dead of disease within 21 months from initial presentation of original tumor. With these data we relate prognosis to extent of disease and discuss a general approach to the management of bilateral Wilms' tumor

  15. Upper urinary tract tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandrup, Karen L; Nordling, Jørgen; Balslev, Ingegerd

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Computed tomography urography (CTU) is used widely in the work-up of patients with symptoms of urinary tract lesions. Preoperative knowledge of whether a tumor is invasive or non-invasive is important for the choice of surgery. So far there are no studies about the distinction...... of invasive and non-invasive tumors in ureter and renal pelvis based on the enhancement measured with Hounsfield Units. PURPOSE: To examine the value of CTU using split-bolus technique to distinguish non-invasive from invasive urothelial carcinomas in the upper urinary tract. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients...... obtained at CTU could distinguish between invasive and non-invasive lesions. No patients had a CTU within the last year before the examination that resulted in surgery. CONCLUSION: A split-bolus CTU cannot distinguish between invasive and non-invasive urothelial tumors in the upper urinary tract...

  16. Dysembryoplastic Neuroepithelial Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon-Lim Suh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT is a benign glioneuronal neoplasm that most commonly occurs in children and young adults and may present with medically intractable, chronic seizures. Radiologically, this tumor is characterized by a cortical topography and lack of mass effect or perilesional edema. Partial complex seizures are the most common presentation. Three histologic subtypes of DNTs have been described. Histologically, the recognition of a unique, specific glioneuronal element in brain tumor samples from patients with medically intractable, chronic epilepsy serves as a diagnostic feature for complex or simple DNT types. However, nonspecific DNT has diagnostic difficulty because its histology is indistinguishable from conventional gliomas and because a specific glioneuronal element and/or multinodularity are absent. This review will focus on the clinical, radiographic, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features as well as the molecular genetics of all three variants of DNTs. The histological and cytological differential diagnoses for this lesion, especially the nonspecific variant, will be discussed.

  17. Mediastinal tumors. Update 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.E.; Thomas, C.R. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    This volume represents the premier work devoted solely to the complex myriad of mediastinal tumors. The contributors to the state-of-the-art text are clinical investigators of international renown. The diagnosis, natural history, and therapeutic strategies in respect of all mediastinal tumors are thoroughly addressed in a concise and logical manner. An emphasis on the multidisciplinary nature of mediastinal tumors is thematic throughout the text. Moreover, the combined-modality treatment schemes that have been increasingly developed worldwide are analyzed. This textbook will prove of value to all general surgeons, thoracic surgeons, medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, pulmonologists, and endocrinologists, as well as to nursing and medical students, residents and fellows-in training. (orig.). 55 figs., 21 tabs

  18. Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in radiation-induced dog lung tumors by immunocytochemical localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, F.L.; Park, J.F.; Dagle, G.E.

    1993-06-01

    In studies to determine the role of growth factors in radiation-induced lung cancer, epidermal growth factor (EGFR) expression was examined by immunocytochemistry in 51 lung tumors from beagle dogs exposed to inhaled plutonium; 21 of 51 (41%) tumors were positive for EGFR. The traction of tumors positive for EGFR and the histological type of EGFR-positive tumors in the plutonium-exposed dogs were not different from spontaneous dog lung tumors, In which 36% were positive for EGFR. EGFR involvement in Pu-induced lung tumors appeared to be similar to that in spontaneous lung tumors. However, EGFR-positive staining was observed in only 1 of 16 tumors at the three lowest Pu exposure levels, compared to 20 of 35 tumors staining positive at the two highest Pu exposure levels. The results in dogs were in good agreement with the expression of EGFR reported in human non-small cell carcinoma of the lung, suggesting that Pu-induced lung tumors in the dog may be a suitable animal model to investigate the role of EGFR expression in lung carcinogenesis. In humans, EGFR expression in lung tumors has been primarily related to histological tumor types. In individual dogs with multiple primary lung tumors, the tumors were either all EGFR positive or EGFR negative, suggesting that EGFR expression may be related to the response of the individual dog as well as to the histological type of tumor.

  19. Correlation of MRI Biomarkers with Tumor Necrosis in Hras5 Tumor Xenograft in Athymic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Bradley

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI can measure the effects of therapies targeting the tumor vasculature and has demonstrated that vascular-damaging agents (VDA induce acute vascular shutdown in tumors in human and animal models. However, at subtherapeutic doses, blood flow may recover before the induction of significant levels of necrosis. We present the relationship between changes in MRI biomarkers and tumor necrosis. Multiple MRI measurements were taken at 4.7 T in athymic rats (n = 24 bearing 1.94 ± 0.2-cm3 subcutaneous Hras5 tumors (ATCC 41000 before and 24 hours after clinically relevant doses of the VDA, ZD6126 (0-10 mg/kg, i.v.. We measured effective transverse relaxation rate (R2*, initial area under the gadolinium concentration-time curve (IAUGC60/150, equivalent enhancing fractions (EHF60/150, time constant (Ktrans, proportion of hypoperfused voxels as estimated from fit failures in Ktrans analysis, and signal intensity (SI in T2-weighted MRI (T2W. ZD6126 treatment induced < 90% dose-dependent tumor necrosis at 10 mg/kg; correspondingly, SI changes were evident from T2W MRI. Although R2* did not correlate, other MRI biomarkers significantly correlated with necrosis at doses of ≥ 5 mg/kg ZD6126. These data on Hras5 tumors suggest that the quantification of hypoperfused voxels might provide a useful biomarker of tumor necrosis.

  20. Tumor-induced osteomalacia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Florenzano

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome clinically characterized by bone pain, fractures and muscle weakness. It is caused by tumoral overproduction of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23 that acts primarily at the proximal renal tubule, decreasing phosphate reabsorption and 1α-hydroxylation of 25 hydroxyvitamin D, thus producing hypophosphatemia and osteomalacia. Lesions are typically small, benign mesenchymal tumors that may be found in bone or soft tissue, anywhere in the body. In up to 60% of these tumors, a fibronectin-1(FN1 and fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR1 fusion gene has been identified that may serve as a tumoral driver. The diagnosis is established by the finding of acquired chronic hypophosphatemia due to isolated renal phosphate wasting with concomitant elevated or inappropriately normal blood levels of FGF23 and decreased or inappropriately normal 1,25-OH2-Vitamin D (1,25(OH2D. Locating the tumor is critical, as complete removal is curative. For this purpose, a step-wise approach is recommended, starting with a thorough medical history and physical examination, followed by functional imaging. Suspicious lesions should be confirmed by anatomical imaging, and if needed, selective venous sampling with measurement of FGF23. If the tumor is not localized, or surgical resection is not possible, medical therapy with phosphate and active vitamin D is usually successful in healing the osteomalacia and reducing symptoms. However, compliance is often poor due to the frequent dosing regimen and side effects. Furthermore, careful monitoring is needed to avoid complications such us secondary/tertiary hyperparathyroidism, hypercalciuria, and nephrocalcinosis. Novel therapeutical approaches are being developed for TIO patients, such as image-guided tumor ablation and medical treatment with the anti-FGF23 monoclonal antibody KRN23 or anti FGFR medications. The case of a patient with TIO is presented to

  1. Tumors of germinal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plazas, Ricardo; Avila, Andres

    2002-01-01

    The tumors of germinal cells (TGC) are derived neoplasia of the primordial germinal cells that in the life embryonic migrant from the primitive central nervous system until being located in the gonads. Their cause is even unknown and they represent 95% of the testicular tumors. In them, the intention of the treatment is always healing and the diagnostic has improved thanks to the results of the handling multidisciplinary. The paper includes topics like their incidence and prevalence, epidemiology and pathology, clinic and diagnoses among other topics

  2. Management of hemorrhage in gastrointestinal stromal tumors: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Kong, Fanmin; Zhou, Jianping; Dong, Ming; Dong, Qi

    2018-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are relatively common mesenchymal tumors. They originate from the wall of hollow viscera and may be found in any part of the digestive tract. The prognosis of patients with stromal tumors depends on various risk factors, including size, location, presence of mitotic figures, and tumor rupture. Emergency surgery is often required for stromal tumors with hemorrhage. The current literature suggests that stromal tumor hemorrhage indicates poor prognosis. Although the optimal treatment options for hemorrhagic GISTs are based on surgical experience, there remains controversy with regard to optimum postoperative management as well as the classification of malignant potential. This article reviews the biological characteristics, diagnostic features, prognostic factors, treatment, and postoperative management of GISTs with hemorrhage.

  3. Tumor-derived circulating endothelial cell clusters in colorectal cancer.

    KAUST Repository

    Cima, Igor; Kong, Say Li; Sengupta, Debarka; Tan, Iain B; Phyo, Wai Min; Lee, Daniel; Hu, Min; Iliescu, Ciprian; Alexander, Irina; Goh, Wei Lin; Rahmani, Mehran; Suhaimi, Nur-Afidah Mohamed; Vo, Jess H; Tai, Joyce A; Tan, Joanna H; Chua, Clarinda; Ten, Rachel; Lim, Wan Jun; Chew, Min Hoe; Hauser, Charlotte; van Dam, Rob M; Lim, Wei-Yen; Prabhakar, Shyam; Lim, Bing; Koh, Poh Koon; Robson, Paul; Ying, Jackie Y; Hillmer, Axel M; Tan, Min-Han

    2016-01-01

    Clusters of tumor cells are often observed in the blood of cancer patients. These structures have been described as malignant entities for more than 50 years, although their comprehensive characterization is lacking. Contrary to current consensus, we demonstrate that a discrete population of circulating cell clusters isolated from the blood of colorectal cancer patients are not cancerous but consist of tumor-derived endothelial cells. These clusters express both epithelial and mesenchymal markers, consistent with previous reports on circulating tumor cell (CTC) phenotyping. However, unlike CTCs, they do not mirror the genetic variations of matched tumors. Transcriptomic analysis of single clusters revealed that these structures exhibit an endothelial phenotype and can be traced back to the tumor endothelium. Further results show that tumor-derived endothelial clusters do not form by coagulation or by outgrowth of single circulating endothelial cells, supporting a direct release of clusters from the tumor vasculature. The isolation and enumeration of these benign clusters distinguished healthy volunteers from treatment-naïve as well as pathological early-stage (≤IIA) colorectal cancer patients with high accuracy, suggesting that tumor-derived circulating endothelial cell clusters could be used as a means of noninvasive screening for colorectal cancer. In contrast to CTCs, tumor-derived endothelial cell clusters may also provide important information about the underlying tumor vasculature at the time of diagnosis, during treatment, and throughout the course of the disease.

  4. Tumor-derived circulating endothelial cell clusters in colorectal cancer.

    KAUST Repository

    Cima, Igor

    2016-06-29

    Clusters of tumor cells are often observed in the blood of cancer patients. These structures have been described as malignant entities for more than 50 years, although their comprehensive characterization is lacking. Contrary to current consensus, we demonstrate that a discrete population of circulating cell clusters isolated from the blood of colorectal cancer patients are not cancerous but consist of tumor-derived endothelial cells. These clusters express both epithelial and mesenchymal markers, consistent with previous reports on circulating tumor cell (CTC) phenotyping. However, unlike CTCs, they do not mirror the genetic variations of matched tumors. Transcriptomic analysis of single clusters revealed that these structures exhibit an endothelial phenotype and can be traced back to the tumor endothelium. Further results show that tumor-derived endothelial clusters do not form by coagulation or by outgrowth of single circulating endothelial cells, supporting a direct release of clusters from the tumor vasculature. The isolation and enumeration of these benign clusters distinguished healthy volunteers from treatment-naïve as well as pathological early-stage (≤IIA) colorectal cancer patients with high accuracy, suggesting that tumor-derived circulating endothelial cell clusters could be used as a means of noninvasive screening for colorectal cancer. In contrast to CTCs, tumor-derived endothelial cell clusters may also provide important information about the underlying tumor vasculature at the time of diagnosis, during treatment, and throughout the course of the disease.

  5. Effects of exercise on tumor physiology and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Line; Christensen, Jesper Frank; Hojman, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is a potent regulator of a range of physiological processes in most tissues. Solid epidemiological data show that exercise training can reduce disease risk and mortality for several cancer diagnoses, suggesting that exercise training may directly regulate tumor physiology and metabolism. Here, we review the body of literature describing exercise intervention studies performed in rodent tumor models and elaborate on potential mechanistic effects of exercise on tumor physiology. Exercise has been shown to reduce tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity, and tumor growth across numerous different transplantable, chemically induced or genetic tumor models. We propose 4 emerging mechanistic effects of exercise, including (1) vascularization and blood perfusion, (2) immune function, (3) tumor metabolism, and (4) muscle-to-cancer cross-talk, and discuss these in details. In conclusion, exercise training has the potential to be a beneficial and integrated component of cancer management, but has yet to fully elucidate its potential. Understanding the mechanistic effects of exercise on tumor physiology is warranted. Insight into these mechanistic effects is emerging, but experimental intervention studies are still needed to verify the cause-effect relationship between these mechanisms and the control of tumor growth.

  6. Tumor Heterogeneity and Drug Resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucerova, L.; Skolekova, S.; Kozovska, Z.

    2015-01-01

    New generation of sequencing methodologies revealed unexpected complexity and genomic alterations linked with the tumor subtypes. This diversity exists across the tumor types, histologic tumor subtypes and subsets of the tumor cells within the same tumor. This phenomenon is termed tumor heterogeneity. Regardless of its origin and mechanisms of development it has a major impact in the clinical setting. Genetic, phenotypic and expression pattern diversity of tumors plays critical role in the selection of suitable treatment and also in the prognosis prediction. Intratumoral heterogeneity plays a key role in the intrinsic and acquired chemoresistance to cytotoxic and targeted therapies. In this review we focus on the mechanisms of intratumoral and inter tumoral heterogeneity and their relationship to the drug resistance. Understanding of the mechanisms and spatiotemporal dynamics of tumor heterogeneity development before and during the therapy is important for the ability to design individual treatment protocols suitable in the given molecular context. (author)

  7. Stochastic models for tumoral growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Carlos

    2006-02-01

    Strong experimental evidence has indicated that tumor growth belongs to the molecular beam epitaxy universality class. This type of growth is characterized by the constraint of cell proliferation to the tumor border and the surface diffusion of cells at the growing edge. Tumor growth is thus conceived as a competition for space between the tumor and the host, and cell diffusion at the tumor border is an optimal strategy adopted for minimizing the pressure and helping tumor development. Two stochastic partial differential equations are reported in this paper in order to correctly model the physical properties of tumoral growth in (1+1) and (2+1) dimensions. The advantage of these models is that they reproduce the correct geometry of the tumor and are defined in terms of polar variables. An analysis of these models allows us to quantitatively estimate the response of the tumor to an unfavorable perturbation during growth.

  8. Immunological tolerance and tumor rejection in embryo-aggregated chimeric mice – Lessons for tumor immunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Alexander Y; Holle, Eric; Holle, Lori; Yu, Xianzhong; Schwamberger, Günter

    2008-01-01

    Rejection of transplanted tumors by the immune system is a rare event in syngeneic hosts, and is considered to be dependent on the local interaction of defensive immune reactions and tumor tolerance mechanisms. Here, we have enlisted the aid of a unique set of embryo-aggregated lineage chimeric mice derived from C57/BL6 and FVB donors to study the interplay between local and systemic tumor immunity and tolerance in rejection of mouse B16 melanoma cells, syngeneic to the C57/BL6 donor strain. Two variants of embryo-aggregated chimeric mice with either variable or no contribution of C57-derived cells to their skin were generated by the fusion of different ratios of morula stage blastomers. Chimeric mice were analyzed for s.c. growth of B16 tumors in comparison to their respective donor strains as well as normal F1 hybrids, and the relative frequencies of cellular components of the immune system by FACS analysis of peripheral blood or lymph node cells. B16 tumors grew significantly faster in mice with full chimerism in their skin as compared to syngeneic C57 or semi-syngeneic C57 × FVB F1 hosts. In contrast, s.c. tumor growth was either absent or significantly reduced in chimeric mice lacking C57-derived cells in their skin, but tolerant to C57 tissue in other organs. Comparison of the relative frequencies of various immune cells in the periphery via FACS-analysis did not reveal any significant differences between the two types of chimeric mice with respect to their donor strains. Our data suggest a complex interplay between mechanisms of local peripheral tolerance and innate antitumor mechanisms possibly involving NK cell allorecognition as a basis for the differential growth or rejection of B16 tumors in these unique chimeric mice, which we suggest to constitute a valuable new model system for the study of immune-mediated tumor rejection

  9. Response of the tumor and organs of the tumor-bearing animal to the action of an ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlakova, E.B.; Gaintseva, V.D.; Pal'mina, N.P.; Sezina, N.P.

    1977-01-01

    Changes in the antioxigenic activity (AOA) of the liver of the tumor-bearing animals and the tumor have been studied after a single whole-body exposure of animals to a dose of 600 R. AOA of the liver of animals having hepatoma 22-a and Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) was found to decrease immediately after irradiation while that of the tumor itself can both increase (hepatoma 22-a) and decrease (EAT). Proceeding from the assumption that AOA is connected with tissue radiosensitivity it is suggested that the observed variations in the response of tumor cells and normal tissue to the action of ionizing radiation should be taken into account when developing the schemes of radiation effect on the tumor

  10. Circulating tumor DNA functions as an alternative for tissue to overcome tumor heterogeneity in advanced gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jing; Wang, Haixing; Zang, Wanchun; Li, Beifang; Rao, Guanhua; Li, Lei; Yu, Yang; Li, Zhongwu; Dong, Bin; Lu, Zhihao; Jiang, Zhi; Shen, Lin

    2017-09-01

    Overcoming tumor heterogeneity is a major challenge for personalized treatment of gastric cancer, especially for human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 targeted therapy. Analysis of circulating tumor DNA allows a more comprehensive analysis of tumor heterogeneity than traditional biopsies in lung cancer and breast cancer, but little is known in gastric cancer. We assessed mutation profiles of ctDNA and primary tumors from 30 patients with advanced gastric cancer, then performed a comprehensive analysis of tumor mutations by multiple biopsies from five patients, and finally analyzed the concordance of HER2 amplification in ctDNA and paired tumor tissues in 70 patients. By comparing with a single tumor sample, ctDNA displayed a low concordance of mutation profile, only approximately 50% (138/275) somatic mutations were found in paired tissue samples, however, when compared with multiple biopsies, most DNA mutations in ctDNA were also shown in paired tumor tissues. ctDNA had a high concordance (91.4%, Kappa index = 0.784, P < 0.001) of HER2 amplification with tumor tissues, suggesting it might be an alternative for tissue. It implied that ctDNA-based assessment could partially overcome the tumor heterogeneity, and might serve as a potential surrogate for HER2 analysis in gastric cancer. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  11. Neutrophils responsive to endogenous IFN-beta regulate tumor angiogenesis and growth in a mouse tumor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonska, Jadwiga; Leschner, Sara; Westphal, Kathrin; Lienenklaus, Stefan; Weiss, Siegfried

    2010-04-01

    Angiogenesis is a hallmark of malignant neoplasias, as the formation of new blood vessels is required for tumors to acquire oxygen and nutrients essential for their continued growth and metastasis. However, the signaling pathways leading to tumor vascularization are not fully understood. Here, using a transplantable mouse tumor model, we have demonstrated that endogenous IFN-beta inhibits tumor angiogenesis through repression of genes encoding proangiogenic and homing factors in tumor-infiltrating neutrophils. We determined that IFN-beta-deficient mice injected with B16F10 melanoma or MCA205 fibrosarcoma cells developed faster-growing tumors with better-developed blood vessels than did syngeneic control mice. These tumors displayed enhanced infiltration by CD11b+Gr1+ neutrophils expressing elevated levels of the genes encoding the proangiogenic factors VEGF and MMP9 and the homing receptor CXCR4. They also expressed higher levels of the transcription factors c-myc and STAT3, known regulators of VEGF, MMP9, and CXCR4. In vitro, treatment of these tumor-infiltrating neutrophils with low levels of IFN-beta restored expression of proangiogenic factors to control levels. Moreover, depletion of these neutrophils inhibited tumor growth in both control and IFN-beta-deficient mice. We therefore suggest that constitutively produced endogenous IFN-beta is an important mediator of innate tumor surveillance. Further, we believe our data help to explain the therapeutic effect of IFN treatment during the early stages of cancer development.

  12. Optimizing the dosing schedule of l-asparaginase improves its anti-tumor activity in breast tumor-bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiromizu, Shoya; Kusunose, Naoki; Matsunaga, Naoya; Koyanagi, Satoru; Ohdo, Shigehiro

    2018-04-01

    Proliferation of acute lymphoblastic leukemic cells is nutritionally dependent on the external supply of asparagine. l-asparaginase, an enzyme hydrolyzing l-asparagine in blood, is used for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemic and other related blood cancers. Although previous studies demonstrated that l-asparaginase suppresses the proliferation of cultured solid tumor cells, it remains unclear whether this enzyme prevents the growth of solid tumors in vivo. In this study, we demonstrated the importance of optimizing dosing schedules for the anti-tumor activity of l-asparaginase in 4T1 breast tumor-bearing mice. Cultures of several types of murine solid tumor cells were dependent on the external supply of asparagine. Among them, we selected murine 4T1 breast cancer cells and implanted them into BALB/c female mice kept under standardized light/dark cycle conditions. The growth of 4T1 tumor cells implanted in mice was significantly suppressed by intravenous administration of l-asparaginase during the light phase, whereas its administration during the dark phase failed to show significant anti-tumor activity. Decreases in plasma asparagine levels due to the administration of l-asparaginase were closely related to the dosing time-dependency of its anti-tumor effects. These results suggest that the anti-tumor efficacy of l-asparaginase in breast tumor-bearing mice is improved by optimizing the dosing schedule. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Multiple Primary Tumors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... breast and ascending colon. KEYWORDS: Carcinoid, colorectal cancer, metachronous, synchronous. Multiple Primary Tumors. MA Adeyanju, AA Ilori. Address for correspondence: Dr. MA Adeyanju,. Department of Surgery, Federal Medical Centre, Ebute Metta,. Lagos, Nigeria. E-mail: mbadeyanju@yahoo.

  14. Surgery for adrenal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamah, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the presentation, localization, pathology, surgical management and outcome of surgery for adrenal gland tumors. Design: Prospective clinico epidemiological study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the Department of General Surgery, University Unit, Riyadh medical Complex Kingdom of Saudi Rabia from June, 1991 to may, 2001. Subjects and Methods: A total of 21 cases with adrenal tumors were studied for demographic data, clinical presentation, diagnostic workup, localization, surgical management, pathology and outcome. The outcome of these patients was followed prospectively. Results: The study included 12 female and 9 male patients. The mean age at surgery was 36.7 years. Hypertension (69.%) was the commonest presentation in hypersecretory functional tumors. The localization accuracy for ultrasonography, computerized tomography, MRI and MIBG scan was 95.2%, 98.3% 87.8% and 83.6% respectively. Pheochromocytoma was the most common adrenal pathology observed in 14 (66.6%) cases. The overall morbidity was 19% with no hospital mortality. Complete follow-up of available 19 patients (90.5 %) revealed no tumor recurrence and persistent hypertension in 14.3% cases. Conclusion: surgery on adrenal glands is safe in experienced hands and is recommended in institutes with all backup facilities. (author)

  15. Study of wilms' tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.H.; Yaqub, N.

    2001-01-01

    This study is an effort to bring into light data related to children with Wilms' tumor managed at Islamabad as local literature on this topic is lacking. It was retrospective study. The study was conducted at Children Hospital, Pakistan Institute of Medical Science, Islamabad between January, 1987 and December 1995. All patients managed during the study period were included in the study. In all the patients complete blood count (CBC), urine analysis (D/R),X-ray abdomen and chest, ultrasound abdomen and in selected cases CT scan were performed. National Wilms' Tumor Study Group (NWTS 3) protocol was followed for further management. Fifty patients including 28 males and 22 females with the age range from 9 months to 8 years were managed in 9 years period. Left kidney was involved in 31 patients. Most of the tumors were solid on ultrasound, 76% patients were in stage III and IV. In one case bilateral involvement of kidney was found. Forty patients underwent primary surgery. Only 14 patients received complete course of chemotherapy while 31 radiotherapy. Nineteen patients died and 15 lost to follow-up. The survival and mortality rates are comparable to NWTS-3 results, although, most of the patients were presented in advance stage of Wilms tumor. The survival of these patients can be improved by increasing awareness of society through electronic and print media. (author)

  16. Tumor-induced osteomalacia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, William H; Molinolo, Alfredo A; Chen, Clara C; Collins, Michael T

    2012-01-01

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare and fascinating paraneoplastic syndrome in which patients present with bone pain, fractures, and muscle weakness. The cause is high blood levels of the recently identified phosphate and vitamin D-regulating hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). In TIO, FGF23 is secreted by mesenchymal tumors that are usually benign, but are typically very small and difficult to locate. FGF23 acts primarily at the renal tubule and impairs phosphate reabsorption and 1α-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, leading to hypophosphatemia and low levels of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D. A step-wise approach utilizing functional imaging (F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and octreotide scintigraphy) followed by anatomical imaging (computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging), and, if needed, selective venous sampling with measurement of FGF23 is usually successful in locating the tumors. For tumors that cannot be located, medical treatment with phosphate supplements and active vitamin D (calcitriol or alphacalcidiol) is usually successful; however, the medical regimen can be cumbersome and associated with complications. This review summarizes the current understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and provides guidance in evaluating and treating these patients. Novel imaging modalities and medical treatments, which hold promise for the future, are also reviewed. PMID:21490240

  17. Imaging findings of sacral tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Ho; Hong, Sung Hwan; Choi, Ja Young; Koh, Sung Hye; Chung, Hye Won; Choi, Jung Ah; Kang, Heung Sik

    2003-01-01

    The various pathologic conditions detected at CT and MRI and subsumed by the term 'sacral tumor' include primary bone tumors, sacral canal tumors and metastases. Among these, metastases are much more common than primary bone tumors, of which chordoma is the most common. Although the imaging findings of sacral tumors are nonspecific, a patient's age and sex, and specific findings such as calcification or fluid-fluid levels, can help radiologists in their differential diagnosis. We describe the imaging findings of primary sacral tumors, emphasizing the MRI findings

  18. The problem: Tumor radioresistance in clinical radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, L.J.; Withers, H.R.; Thames, H.D.; Fletcher, G.H.; M.D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Inst., Houston, TX)

    1983-01-01

    Tumor radioresistance in clinical radiotherapy implies failure to achieve local-regional disease control with radiation doses producing an acceptable degree of morbidity. Such radioresistance may be due to many different causes (biological and technical) which are reviewed in terms of possible remedial actions. Dose-response relationships for human cancers suggest that, in many sites, tumors are heterogeneous with respect to their cure-limiting characteristics. The case is developed that unless the predominant cure-limiting factor can be predicted, little benefit may be seen in trials of new treatment strategies using heterogeneous tumor populations. The fundamental problem of clinical radioresistance is therefore perceived as the inability to identify predictively its cause in the individual patient

  19. Tumor of granular cells of esophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Fabian, Licet; Diaz Anaya, Amnia; Perez de la Torre, Georgina

    2010-01-01

    Granular cells tumors are rare and asymptomatic lesions and by general, it is an incidental finding en high or low endoscopy. They were described for the first time by Abrikossoff in 1926. The more frequent locations are the buccal mucosa, dermis and subcutaneous cellular tissue, most of these tumors has a benign origin. This is the case of a woman aged 44 with a pyrosis history from a year ago; by high endoscopy it is noted a 8 mm lesion distal to esophagus and confirmed by histological study of granular cells tumor. Elective treatment of this lesion is the endoscopic polypectomy. Despite that the malign potential is low; we suggested a close clinical and endoscopic follow-up.

  20. Famine versus feast: understanding the metabolism of tumors in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayers, Jared R; Vander Heiden, Matthew G

    2015-03-01

    To fuel unregulated proliferation, cancer cells alter metabolism to support macromolecule biosynthesis. Cell culture studies have revealed how different oncogenic mutations and nutrients impact metabolism. Glucose and glutamine are the primary fuels used in vitro; however, recent studies have suggested that utilization of other amino acids as well as lipids and protein can also be important to cancer cells. Early investigations of tumor metabolism are translating these findings to the biology of whole tumors and suggest that additional complexity exists beyond nutrient availability alone in vivo. Whole-body metabolism and tumor heterogeneity also influence the metabolism of tumor cells, and successful targeting of metabolism for cancer therapy will require an understanding of tumor metabolism in vivo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.