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Sample records for neurocognitive testing blood

  1. Neurocognitive deficits or stress overload: Why do individuals with schizophrenia show poor performance in neurocognitive tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krkovic, Katarina; Moritz, Steffen; Lincoln, Tania M

    2017-05-01

    Poor performance in neurocognitive tasks is consistently found across studies in all stages of schizophrenia spectrum disorders and is interpreted as an underlying, brain function-related, neurocognitive deficit. However, neurocognitive test performance in schizophrenia might be compromised by patients' increased stress level. We investigated group-differences in neurocognitive performance while accounting for psychophysiological (salivary cortisol, heart rate, skin conductance level) and self-reported stress. We included 35 patients with schizophrenia, 29 participants with attenuated psychotic symptoms, 26 first-degree relatives of individuals with schizophrenia and 28 healthy controls. Participants completed a neurocognitive test battery that assessed processing speed, task switching, attention, working memory, verbal episodic memory, and verbal comprehension. Multivariate analyses of covariance (MANCOVA) were calculated to test for main effects of group on neurocognitive performance thereby not accounting versus accounting for confounding effects of stress. As expected, patients with schizophrenia scored lower than the other groups in all neurocognitive domains. Participants with attenuated psychotic symptoms, first-degree relatives and healthy individuals did not differ from each other in their performance. After accounting for heart rate and self-reported stress, the multivariate effect of group on neurocognition remained significant, but was rendered non-significant for specific domains - working memory capacity, episodic memory, and long-term memory. The findings imply that stress is relevant to neurocognitive performance and this should be taken into account when interpreting the origin of performance deficits in schizophrenia patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Blood Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be a sign of anemia or thalassemia. Blood Chemistry Tests/Basic Metabolic Panel The basic metabolic panel ( ... parents, and children talk about their experiences with clinical research. More Information Related Health Topics Anemia Coronary Heart ...

  3. Debating the utility of computerised neurocognitive testing in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this article was to contribute to an argument regarding the utility of computerised baseline and follow-up neurocognitive testing within the sports concussion arena. Heated debate around this issue via a number of contributions has appeared recently in the journal Current Sports Medicine Reports, with its use ...

  4. Intrinsic motivation, neurocognition and psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia: testing mediator and moderator effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagami, Eri; Xie, Bin; Hoe, Maanse; Brekke, John S

    2008-10-01

    This study examined the nature of the relationships among neurocognition, intrinsic motivation, and psychosocial functioning for persons with schizophrenia. Hypotheses concerning both mediator and moderator mechanisms were tested. 120 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia were recruited as they entered outpatient psychosocial rehabilitation programs. Measures of psychosocial functioning and intrinsic motivation were administered at baseline. Measures of neurocognition were administered at baseline by testers blind to scores on other study variables. Data were analyzed using latent construct modeling to test for mediator and moderator effects. There were strong bivariate relationships between neurocognition, intrinsic motivation, and psychosocial functioning. The results demonstrated that intrinsic motivation strongly mediated the relationship between neurocognition and psychosocial functioning. This mediation was evidenced by: (i) the direct path from neurocognition to functional outcome no longer being statistically significant after the introduction of motivation into the model, (ii) the statistical significance of the indirect path from neurocognition through motivation to functional outcome. There was no support for the two moderation hypotheses: the level of neurocognition did not influence the relationship between intrinsic motivation and psychosocial functioning, nor did the level of intrinsic motivation influence the relationship between neurocognition and psychosocial functioning. Neurocognition influences psychosocial functioning through its relationship with intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation is a critical mechanism for explaining the relationship between neurocognition and psychosocial functioning. Implications for the theoretical understanding and psychosocial treatment of intrinsic motivation in schizophrenia are discussed.

  5. The "value added" of neurocognitive testing after sports-related concussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kampen, Derk A.; Lovell, Mark R.; Pardini, Jamie E.; Collins, Michael W.; Fu, Freddie H.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Neurocognitive testing has been endorsed as a "cornerstone" of concussion management by recent Vienna and Prague meetings of the Concussion in Sport Group. Neurocognitive testing is important given the potential unreliability of athlete self-report after injury. Relying only on athletes'

  6. Catecholamine blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norepinephrine - blood; Epinephrine - blood; Adrenalin - blood; Dopamine - blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... the test. This is especially true if both blood and urine catecholamines are to be measured. You ...

  7. Reliability of a Computerized Neurocognitive Test in Baseline Concussion Testing of High School Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, James; Duerson, Drew

    2015-07-01

    Baseline assessments using computerized neurocognitive tests are frequently used in the management of sport-related concussions. Such testing is often done on an annual basis in a community setting. Reliability is a fundamental test characteristic that should be established for such tests. Our study examined the test-retest reliability of a computerized neurocognitive test in high school athletes over 1 year. Repeated measures design. Two American high schools. High school athletes (N = 117) participating in American football or soccer during the 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 academic years. All study participants completed 2 baseline computerized neurocognitive tests taken 1 year apart at their respective schools. The test measures performance on 4 cognitive tasks: identification speed (Attention), detection speed (Processing Speed), one card learning accuracy (Learning), and one back speed (Working Memory). Reliability was assessed by measuring the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between the repeated measures of the 4 cognitive tasks. Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated as a secondary outcome measure. The measure for identification speed performed best (ICC = 0.672; 95% confidence interval, 0.559-0.760) and the measure for one card learning accuracy performed worst (ICC = 0.401; 95% confidence interval, 0.237-0.542). All tests had marginal or low reliability. In a population of high school athletes, computerized neurocognitive testing performed in a community setting demonstrated low to marginal test-retest reliability on baseline assessments 1 year apart. Further investigation should focus on (1) improving the reliability of individual tasks tested, (2) controlling for external factors that might affect test performance, and (3) identifying the ideal time interval to repeat baseline testing in high school athletes. Computerized neurocognitive tests are used frequently in high school athletes, often within a model of baseline testing

  8. Blood Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Intramural Research Research Resources Research Meeting Summaries Technology Transfer Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & ... special preparations. For some, you may need to fast (not eat any food) for 8 to 12 hours before the test. ...

  9. Blood sugar test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fasting blood sugar; Glucose test; Diabetic screening - blood sugar test; Diabetes - blood sugar test ... to screen a person for diabetes. High blood sugar and diabetes may not cause symptoms in the early stages. ...

  10. HCG blood test - quantitative

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood test - quantitative; Beta-HCG blood test - quantitative; Pregnancy test - blood - quantitative ... of a screening test for Down syndrome. This test is also done to diagnose abnormal conditions not related to pregnancy that can raise HCG level.

  11. Myoglobin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum myoglobin; Heart attack - myoglobin blood test; Myositis - myoglobin blood test; Rhabdomyolysis - myoglobin blood test ... too high, it can damage the kidneys. This test is ordered when your health care provider suspects ...

  12. Effects of the dietary approaches to stop hypertension diet, exercise, and caloric restriction on neurocognition in overweight adults with high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patrick J; Blumenthal, James A; Babyak, Michael A; Craighead, Linda; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A; Browndyke, Jeffrey N; Strauman, Timothy A; Sherwood, Andrew

    2010-06-01

    High blood pressure increases the risks of stroke, dementia, and neurocognitive dysfunction. Although aerobic exercise and dietary modifications have been shown to reduce blood pressure, no randomized trials have examined the effects of aerobic exercise combined with dietary modification on neurocognitive functioning in individuals with high blood pressure (ie, prehypertension and stage 1 hypertension). As part of a larger investigation, 124 participants with elevated blood pressure (systolic blood pressure 130 to 159 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure 85 to 99 mm Hg) who were sedentary and overweight or obese (body mass index: 25 to 40 kg/m(2)) were randomized to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet alone, DASH combined with a behavioral weight management program including exercise and caloric restriction, or a usual diet control group. Participants completed a battery of neurocognitive tests of executive function-memory-learning and psychomotor speed at baseline and again after the 4-month intervention. Participants on the DASH diet combined with a behavioral weight management program exhibited greater improvements in executive function-memory-learning (Cohen's D=0.562; P=0.008) and psychomotor speed (Cohen's D=0.480; P=0.023), and DASH diet alone participants exhibited better psychomotor speed (Cohen's D=0.440; P=0.036) compared with the usual diet control. Neurocognitive improvements appeared to be mediated by increased aerobic fitness and weight loss. Also, participants with greater intima-medial thickness and higher systolic blood pressure showed greater improvements in executive function-memory-learning in the group on the DASH diet combined with a behavioral weight management program. In conclusion, combining aerobic exercise with the DASH diet and caloric restriction improves neurocognitive function among sedentary and overweight/obese individuals with prehypertension and hypertension.

  13. Ketones blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acetone bodies; Ketones - serum; Nitroprusside test; Ketone bodies - serum; Ketones - blood; Ketoacidosis - ketones blood test ... fat cells break down in the blood. This test is used to diagnose ketoacidosis . This is a ...

  14. Glucagon blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type I - glucagon test; Hypoglycemia - glucagon test; Low blood sugar - glucagon test ... A blood sample is needed . ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel ... Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This ...

  15. Prolactin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003718.htm Prolactin blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... test measures the amount of prolactin in the blood. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed . How ...

  16. Chloride Blood Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/chloridebloodtest.html Chloride Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Chloride Blood Test? A chloride blood test measures the amount of ...

  17. Potassium Blood Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/potassiumbloodtest.html Potassium Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Potassium Blood Test? A potassium blood test measures the amount of ...

  18. Zinc protoporphyrin levels, blood lead levels and neurocognitive deficits in Andean children with chronic lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counter, S Allen; Buchanan, Leo H; Ortega, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between blood lead (PbB), zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels and performance on a test of auditory memory in Andean children and adolescents with chronic lead (Pb) exposure. PbB and ZPP levels were measured in blood samples from 166 participants (aged 6-16 yrs.) exposed to Pb in a local ceramic glazing cottage industry in Ecuadorian villages. PbB levels and ZPP/heme ratios were analyzed in relation to performance on the Digit Span subtest of the Wechsler IV intelligence scale, a test of auditory memory. Mean PbB level for the study group was 18.0 microg/dL (S.D.: 15.1; range: 3.0-86.0), and the mean ZPP/heme ratio was 105.7 mumol/mol (S.D.: 100.9; range: 36.0-592.0). There was no significant difference in PbB and ZPP levels between the 84 females and the 82 males. The mean Digit Span scale score (DS SS) for the study group was 6.81 (S.D.: 2.95; range: 1.0-17.0), which is below the average score of 10 for the test, with the females performing significantly better than males (t=2.435; p=0.01). Regression analyses revealed statistically significant inverse associations between DS SS and PbB level (r=0.251, p=0.001), and between DS SS and ZPP/heme ratio (r=0.246, p=0.001). Elevated PbB levels, representing acute exposure, and ZPP levels, reflecting chronic Pb exposure in this cohort of Andean inhabitants were associated with poor performance on a test of auditory memory, suggesting that the children and adolescents in the study area have neurocognitive deficits that may affect learning.

  19. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells HIV DNA levels impact intermittently on neurocognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucette A Cysique

    Full Text Available To determine the contribution of peripheral blood mononuclear cells' (PBMCs HIV DNA levels to HIV-associated dementia (HAD and non-demented HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND in chronically HIV-infected adults with long-term viral suppression on combined antiretroviral treatment (cART.Eighty adults with chronic HIV infection on cART (>97% with plasma and CSF HIV RNA <50 copies/mL were enrolled into a prospective observational cohort and underwent assessments of neurocognition and pre-morbid cognitive ability at two visits 18 months apart. HIV DNA in PBMCs was measured by real-time PCR at the same time-points.At baseline, 46% had non-demented HAND; 7.5% had HAD. Neurocognitive decline occurred in 14% and was more likely in those with HAD (p<.03. Low pre-morbid cognitive ability was uniquely associated with HAD (p<.05. Log10 HIV DNA copies were stable between study visits (2.26 vs. 2.22 per 106 PBMC. Baseline HIV DNA levels were higher in those with lower pre-morbid cognitive ability (p<.04, and higher in those with no ART treatment during HIV infection 1st year (p = .03. Baseline HIV DNA was not associated with overall neurocognition. However, % ln HIV DNA change was associated with decline in semantic fluency in unadjusted and adjusted analyses (p = .01-.03, and motor-coordination (p = .02-.12 to a lesser extent.PBMC HIV DNA plays a role in HAD pathogenesis, and this is moderated by pre-morbid cognitive ability in the context of long-term viral suppression. While the HIV DNA levels in PBMC are not associated with current non-demented HAND, increasing HIV DNA levels were associated with a decline in neurocognitive functions associated with HAND progression.

  20. Platelet antibodies blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    This blood test shows if you have antibodies against platelets in your blood. Platelets are a part of the blood ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Platelet antibody - blood. In: Chernecky ... caused by platelet destruction, hypersplenism, or hemodilution. ...

  1. Haptoglobin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003634.htm Haptoglobin blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The haptoglobin blood test measures the level of haptoglobin in your blood. ...

  2. ACTH blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003695.htm ACTH blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... the adrenal gland . It regulates blood pressure and blood sugar. This test can help find the causes of certain hormone ...

  3. Pyruvate kinase blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003357.htm Pyruvate kinase blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... energy when oxygen levels are low. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed. In the laboratory, white blood ...

  4. Fibrinopeptide A blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003373.htm Fibrinopeptide A blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... measure the level of this substance in your blood. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed. How ...

  5. Phosphorus blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003478.htm Phosphorus blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The phosphorus blood test measures the amount of phosphate in the blood. ...

  6. Ferritin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003490.htm Ferritin blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The ferritin blood test measures the level of ferritin in the blood. ...

  7. Calcium blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003477.htm Calcium blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The calcium blood test measures the level of calcium in the blood. ...

  8. Ammonia blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003506.htm Ammonia blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... Encephalopathy - ammonia; Cirrhosis - ammonia; Liver failure - ammonia Images Blood test References Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Ammonia (NH3) - blood ...

  9. Antithrombin III blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003661.htm Antithrombin III blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... a protein that helps control blood clotting. A blood test can determine the amount of AT III present ...

  10. Blood Test: Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Glucose KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Glucose What's in ... liver or kidneys) is working. What Is a Glucose Test? A glucose test measures how much glucose ...

  11. Blood Test: Bilirubin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Important? Top 10 Homework Tips Raising Confident Kids Blood Test: Bilirubin KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Bilirubin Print ... español Análisis de sangre: bilirrubina What Is a Blood Test? A blood test is when a sample of ...

  12. Post-exertion neurocognitive test failure among student-athletes following concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Neal; Dinn, Wayne M; Collins, Michael W; Lovell, Mark R; Elbin, R J; Kontos, Anthony P

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine post-exertion (PE) neurocognitive performance among student-athletes following concussion who were asymptomatic and returned to baseline normal neurocognitive test levels at rest. This study examined the neurocognitive performance of a sub-set of student-athletes who 'failed' to perform at baseline levels of neurocognitive function, i.e. exhibited downward reliable change index (RCI) alterations following a moderate exertional protocol during recovery from concussion. A retrospective records review was carried out of Immediate Post-concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) and neuropsychological consultation data among athletes with sports-related concussion from a network of 22 schools and one junior hockey programme. Fifty-four student-athletes met inclusion criteria and participated in the study. A total of 27.7% of concussed student-athletes who were symptom-free and returned to baseline on ImPACT at rest (i.e. no longer demonstrated performance deficits on neurocognitive tests) exhibited cognitive decline following moderate physical exertion. The PE cognitive changes were not simply general performance effects, but significant changes in memory ability in the presence of intact processing speed functions. The PE-Pass and PE-Fail groups did not, however, differ on post-concussive symptoms or concussion history. Clinicians' return-to-play evaluation protocols should include post-exertional computerized neurocognitive testing.

  13. BUN - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003474.htm BUN - blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... for the Test Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health care provider will tell you ...

  14. Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells HIV DNA Levels Impact Intermittently on Neurocognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cysique, Lucette A.; Hey-Cunningham, William J.; Dermody, Nadene; Chan, Phillip; Brew, Bruce J.; Koelsch, Kersten K.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the contribution of peripheral blood mononuclear cells’ (PBMCs) HIV DNA levels to HIV-associated dementia (HAD) and non-demented HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in chronically HIV-infected adults with long-term viral suppression on combined antiretroviral treatment (cART). Methods Eighty adults with chronic HIV infection on cART (>97% with plasma and CSF HIV RNA HIV DNA in PBMCs was measured by real-time PCR at the same time-points. Results At baseline, 46% had non-demented HAND; 7.5% had HAD. Neurocognitive decline occurred in 14% and was more likely in those with HAD (pHIV DNA copies were stable between study visits (2.26 vs. 2.22 per 106 PBMC). Baseline HIV DNA levels were higher in those with lower pre-morbid cognitive ability (pHIV infection 1st year (p = .03). Baseline HIV DNA was not associated with overall neurocognition. However, % ln HIV DNA change was associated with decline in semantic fluency in unadjusted and adjusted analyses (p = .01-.03), and motor-coordination (p = .02-.12) to a lesser extent. Conclusions PBMC HIV DNA plays a role in HAD pathogenesis, and this is moderated by pre-morbid cognitive ability in the context of long-term viral suppression. While the HIV DNA levels in PBMC are not associated with current non-demented HAND, increasing HIV DNA levels were associated with a decline in neurocognitive functions associated with HAND progression. PMID:25853424

  15. CEA blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcinoembryonic antigen blood test ... A blood sample is needed . ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain. Others feel only a prick or stinging sensation. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. ...

  16. Lyme disease blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lyme disease blood test looks for antibodies in the blood to the bacteria that causes Lyme disease. The test is used to help ... specialist looks for Lyme disease antibodies in the blood sample using the ELISA test . If the ELISA test is positive, it must ...

  17. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003565.htm Methylmalonic acid blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The methylmalonic acid blood test measures the amount of methylmalonic acid ...

  18. Cord blood testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003403.htm Cord blood testing To use the sharing features on this page, ... the baby to the mother's womb. Cord blood testing can be done to evaluate a newborn's health. ...

  19. Home blood sugar testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes - home glucose testing; Diabetes - home blood sugar testing ... day Your blood sugar level The amount of carbohydrates you ate The type and dose of your diabetes medicine The type of any exercise you do ...

  20. Ethylene glycol blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003564.htm Ethylene glycol blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... risk any time the skin is broken) Images Blood test References Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Ethylene glycol - serum ...

  1. HCG blood test - qualitative

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003509.htm HCG blood test - qualitative To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A qualitative HCG blood test checks if there is a hormone called human ...

  2. ACE blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003567.htm ACE blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... Alternative Names Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme; SACE Images Blood test References Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Angiotensin-converting enzyme ( ...

  3. Calcitonin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003699.htm Calcitonin blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The calcitonin blood test measures the level of the hormone calcitonin in ...

  4. ALP - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003470.htm ALP - blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... include the liver, bile ducts, and bone. A blood test can be done to measure the level of ...

  5. Aldosterone blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003704.htm Aldosterone blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The aldosterone blood test measures the level of the hormone aldosterone in ...

  6. Anthrax - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003534.htm Anthrax blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The anthrax blood test looks for antibodies against Bacillus anthracis , the bacteria ...

  7. Leucine aminopeptidase blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003559.htm Leucine aminopeptidase blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... Alternative Names Serum leucine aminopeptidase; LAP - serum Images Blood test References Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) - ...

  8. Antidiuretic hormone blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003702.htm Antidiuretic hormone blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Antidiuretic blood test measures the level of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in ...

  9. LDH isoenzyme blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003499.htm LDH isoenzyme blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... Names LD; LDH; Lactic (lactate) dehydrogenase isoenzymes Images Blood test References Carty RP, Pincus MR, Sarafraz-Yazdi E. ...

  10. Aldolase blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003566.htm Aldolase blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... risk any time the skin is broken) Images Blood test References Berridge BR, Van Vleet JF, Herman E. ...

  11. Antibody Blood Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibody Blood Tests Researchers have discovered that people with celiac disease who eat gluten have higher than normal levels of ... do I do if I have a negative blood test (or panel) but I’m still having symptoms? ...

  12. Blood Test: Testosterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Voice in Health Care Decisions Blood Test: Testosterone KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Testosterone Print A A A What's in this article? ... Análisis de sangre: testosterona What It Is A testosterone test measures the blood level of the male ...

  13. Protein S blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in your body that prevents blood clotting. A blood test can be done to see how much of ... Certain medicines can change blood test results: Tell your health care provider about all the medicines you take. Your provider will tell you if you need ...

  14. Protein C blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the body that prevents blood clotting. A blood test can be done to see how much of ... Certain medicines can change blood test results. Tell your health care provider about all the medicines you take. Your provider will tell you if you need ...

  15. Blood Differential Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorder or related condition What happens during a blood differential test? A health care professional will take a sample of your blood by using a small needle to draw blood from a vein in your arm. The needle is attached to a test tube, which will store your sample. When the ...

  16. Computerized neurocognitive testing in the management of sport-related concussion: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Jacob E; McCrea, Michael A; Cullum, C Munro

    2013-12-01

    Since the late nineties, computerized neurocognitive testing has become a central component of sport-related concussion (SRC) management at all levels of sport. In 2005, a review of the available evidence on the psychometric properties of four computerized neuropsychological test batteries concluded that the tests did not possess the necessary criteria to warrant clinical application. Since the publication of that review, several more computerized neurocognitive tests have entered the market place. The purpose of this review is to summarize the body of published studies on psychometric properties and clinical utility of computerized neurocognitive tests available for use in the assessment of SRC. A review of the literature from 2005 to 2013 was conducted to gather evidence of test-retest reliability and clinical validity of these instruments. Reviewed articles included both prospective and retrospective studies of primarily sport-based adult and pediatric samples. Summaries are provided regarding the available evidence of reliability and validity for the most commonly used computerized neurocognitive tests in sports settings.

  17. The Influence of Education and Age on Neurocognitive Test Performance in Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    DenBesten, Nicholas P.

    2009-01-01

    This research involves an examination of the relationship between education and age on a wide array of neuropsychological test measures among patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's and vascular dementia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of education as an attenuating factor to neurocognitive decline in dementia. Although numerous…

  18. Blood Gases Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LDL Particle Testing (LDL-P) Lead Legionella Testing Leptin Levetiracetam Lipase Lipid Profile Lipoprotein (a) Lithium Liver ... such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is suspected. Blood gases may also be used ...

  19. Vitamin A blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003570.htm Vitamin A blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The vitamin A test measures the level of vitamin A ...

  20. Pathological gambling: an impulse control disorder? Measurement of impulsivity using neurocognitive tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannon, Pinhas N; Shoenfeld, Netta; Rosenberg, Oded; Kertzman, Semion; Kotler, Moshe

    2010-04-01

    Pathological gambling is classified in the DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) and in the ICD-10 (International Classification of Disease) as an impulse control disorder. The association between impulsivity and pathological gambling remains a matter of debate: some researchers find high levels of impulsivity within pathological gamblers, others report no difference compared to controls, and yet others even suggest that it is lower. In this review we examine the relationship between pathological gambling and impulsivity assessed by various neurocognitive tests. These tests--the Stroop task, the Stop Signal Task, the Matching Familiar Figures Task, the Iowa Gambling Task, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Tower of London test, and the Continuous Performance Test--demonstrated less impulsivity in gambling behavior. The differences in performance between pathological gamblers and healthy controls on the neurocognitive tasks could be due to addictive behavior features rather than impulsive behavior.

  1. Rh Factor Blood Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... June 3, 2015. Rh factor blood test About Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  2. Tips on Blood Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Total Protein and Albumin/Globulin (A/G) Ratio Toxoplasmosis Testing Trace Minerals Transferrin and Iron-binding Capacity ( ... Blood in Urine (Hematuria) Bone Marrow Disorders Breast Cancer Cancer Cardiovascular Disease Celiac Disease Cervical Cancer Chronic ...

  3. Baseline neurocognitive testing in sports-related concussions: the importance of a prior night's sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, D Jake; Zuckerman, Scott L; Kutscher, Scott J; Gregory, Andrew J; Solomon, Gary S

    2014-02-01

    The management of sports-related concussions (SRCs) utilizes serial neurocognitive assessments and self-reported symptom inventories to assess recovery and safety for return to play (RTP). Because postconcussive RTP goals include symptom resolution and a return to neurocognitive baseline levels, clinical decisions rest in part on understanding modifiers of this baseline. Several studies have reported age and sex to influence baseline neurocognitive performance, but few have assessed the potential effect of sleep. We chose to investigate the effect of reported sleep duration on baseline Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) performance and the number of patient-reported symptoms. We hypothesized that athletes receiving less sleep before baseline testing would perform worse on neurocognitive metrics and report more symptoms. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. We retrospectively reviewed 3686 nonconcussed athletes (2371 male, 1315 female; 3305 high school, 381 college) with baseline symptom and ImPACT neurocognitive scores. Patients were stratified into 3 groups based on self-reported sleep duration the night before testing: (1) short, MANCOVA) with an α level of .05 was used to assess the influence of sleep duration on baseline ImPACT performance. A univariate ANCOVA was performed to investigate the influence of sleep on total self-reported symptoms. When controlling for age and sex as covariates, the MANCOVA revealed significant group differences on ImPACT reaction time, verbal memory, and visual memory scores but not visual-motor (processing) speed scores. An ANCOVA also revealed significant group differences in total reported symptoms. For baseline symptoms and ImPACT scores, subsequent pairwise comparisons revealed these associations to be most significant when comparing the short and intermediate sleep groups. Our results indicate that athletes sleeping fewer than 7 hours before baseline testing perform worse on 3 of 4 Im

  4. Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... to temporarily stop medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ...

  5. Testing Na+ in blood

    OpenAIRE

    Lava, Sebastiano A.G.; Bianchetti, Mario G.; Milani, Gregorio P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Both direct potentiometry and indirect potentiometry are currently used for Na+ testing in blood. These measurement techniques show good agreement as long as protein and lipid concentrations in blood remain normal. In severely ill patients, indirect potentiometry commonly leads to relevant errors in Na+ estimation: 25% of specimens show a disagreement between direct and indirect potentiometry, which is ?4 mmol/L (mostly spuriously elevated Na+ level due to low circulating albumin con...

  6. The Relationship between Tests of Neurocognition and Performance on a Laparoscopic Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oumar Kuzbari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate if there is a relationship between the results of tests of neurocognition and performance on a laparoscopic surgery simulator. Methods and Materials. Twenty participants with no prior laparoscopic experience had baseline cognitive tests administered (Trail Making Test, Part A and B (TMT-A and TMT-B, Grooved Peg Board Test, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, Symbol Digit Recall Test, and Stroop Interference Test, completed a demographic questionnaire, and then performed laparoscopy using a simulator. We correlated the results of cognitive tests with laparoscopic surgical performance. Results. One cognitive test sensitive to frontal lobe function, TMT-A, significantly correlated with laparoscopic surgical performance on the simulator (correlation coefficient of 0.534 with P<.05. However, the correlation between performance and other cognitive tests (TMT-B, Grooved Peg Board Test, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, Symbol Digit Recall Test, and Stroop Interference Test was not statistically significant. Conclusion. Laparoscopic performance may be related to measures of frontal lobe function. Neurocognitive tests may predict motor skills abilities and performance on laparoscopic simulator.

  7. Mild test anxiety influences neurocognitive performance among African Americans and European Americans: Identifying interfering and facilitating sources

    OpenAIRE

    Thames, AD; Panos, SE; Arentoft, A; Byrd, DA; Hinkin, CH; Arbid, N

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 American Psychological Association. The current study examined ethnic/racial differences in test-related anxiety and its relationship to neurocognitive performance in a community sample of African American (n = 40) and European American (n = 36) adults. The authors hypothesized the following: (a) Test-anxiety related to negative performance evaluation would be associated with lower neurocognitive performance, whereas anxiety unrelated to negative evaluation would be associated with hig...

  8. Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/fecaloccultbloodtestfobt.html Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT) To use the sharing features on this ... please enable JavaScript. What is a Fecal Occult Blood Test? A fecal occult blood test (FOBT) looks at ...

  9. Debating the utility of computerised neurocognitive testing in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    including the state- ment that 'to advocate for the addition of baseline neuropsychological testing for athletes at this time is scientifically unfounded, financially irresponsible and should be roundly condemned for confusing and raising false expectations in the athletes that are subjected to it as well as adding additional ...

  10. Flushable reagent stool blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stool occult blood test - flushable home test; Fecal occult blood test - flushable home test ... This test is performed at home with disposable pads. You can buy the pads at the drug store without ...

  11. [Dexmedetomidine for neurocognitive testing in awake craniotomy: case report.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Marcelo Cursino Pinto Dos; Vinagre, Ronaldo Contreras Oliveira

    2006-08-01

    Tumor resections in the speech areas of the brain are more safely done using cognitive tests to determine their exact location. Patients must be awake, comfortable, and cooperative for the precise identification of the areas to be preserved. The objective of this report is to present a surgical procedure done with the patient awake, without endotracheal intubation, using sevofluorane initially, followed by dexmedetomidine. This technique allowed the realization of motor and speech evaluation tests. Twenty-seven years old male patient, physical status ASA I, with a brain tumor. In the operating room, without pre-anesthetic medication, midazolam (1 mg) was administered, and general anesthesia was induced with propofol (80 mg). Maintenance was done with O2, N2O, and sevofluorane, with a mask, for catheterization of the right radial artery, introduction of a vesical catheter, and infiltration of the surgical site. This phase lasted around 20 minutes, and the infusion of dexmedetomidine was initiated in the last 10 minutes to maintain a level of sedation Ramsay score 2. Cortical mapping followed (75 minutes). Afterwards, tumor resection was done while the patient remained sedated with higher doses of dexmedetomidine. Hemodynamic and respiratory parameters remained stable, and the procedure was performed without complications, lasting a total of five hours. After the surgical procedure the patient was transferred to the ICU. He did not develop any neurological changes, being discharged to a regular ward the following day. Awake craniotomy with the proper mapping of speech and motor cortical areas was successfully done with the continuous infusion of dexmedetomidine. Both the patient and the surgical team were pleased with the technique.

  12. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/003690.htm Parathyroid hormone (PTH) blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... to measure the amount of PTH in your blood. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed. How ...

  13. Blood Pressure Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... several blood pressure readings at home. Tracking your blood pressure readings It can be helpful in diagnosing or ... medication options might work best for you. Low blood pressure Low blood pressure that either doesn't cause ...

  14. Supervision and computerized neurocognitive baseline test performance in high school athletes: an initial investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Andrew Warren; Solomon, Gary S

    2014-01-01

    Computerized neuropsychological testing batteries have provided a time-efficient and cost-efficient way to assess and manage the neurocognitive aspects of patients with sport-related concussion. These tests are straightforward and mostly self-guided, reducing the degree of clinician involvement required by traditional clinical neuropsychological paper-and-pencil tests. To determine if self-reported supervision status affected computerized neurocognitive baseline test performance in high school athletes. Retrospective cohort study. Supervised testing took place in high school computer libraries or sports medicine clinics. Unsupervised testing took place at the participant's home or another location with computer access. From 2007 to 2012, high school athletes across middle Tennessee (n = 3771) completed computerized neurocognitive baseline testing (Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing [ImPACT]). They reported taking the test either supervised by a sports medicine professional or unsupervised. These athletes (n = 2140) were subjected to inclusion and exclusion criteria and then matched based on age, sex, and number of prior concussions. We extracted demographic and performance-based data from each de-identified baseline testing record. Paired t tests were performed between the self-reported supervised and unsupervised groups, comparing the following ImPACT baseline composite scores: verbal memory, visual memory, visual motor (processing) speed, reaction time, impulse control, and total symptom score. For differences that reached P < .05, the Cohen d was calculated to measure the effect size. Lastly, a χ(2) analysis was conducted to compare the rate of invalid baseline testing between the groups. All statistical tests were performed at the 95% confidence interval level. Self-reported supervised athletes demonstrated better visual motor (processing) speed (P = .004; 95% confidence interval [0.28, 1.52]; d = 0.12) and faster reaction time (P

  15. Beta-carotene blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003571.htm Beta-carotene blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... skin is broken) Alternative Names Carotene test Images Blood test References Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Carotene - serum. In: ...

  16. Alanine transaminase (ALT) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/003473.htm Alanine transaminase (ALT) blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The alanine transaminase (ALT) blood test measures the level of the enzyme ALT in ...

  17. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/003472.htm Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The aspartate aminotransferase (AST) blood test measures the level of the enzyme AST in ...

  18. Blood Test: Lead (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Important? Top 10 Homework Tips Raising Confident Kids Blood Test: Lead KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Lead Print A A A What's in this ... locate a vein Helping Your Child Having a blood test is relatively painless. Still, many children are afraid ...

  19. Sensitivity and specificity of subacute computerized neurocognitive testing and symptom evaluation in predicting outcomes after sports-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Brian C; Collins, Michael W; Lovell, Mark R

    2011-06-01

    Concussions affect an estimated 136 000 high school athletes yearly. Computerized neurocognitive testing has been shown to be appropriately sensitive and specific in diagnosing concussions, but no studies have assessed its utility to predict length of recovery. Determining prognosis during subacute recovery after sports concussion will help clinicians more confidently address return-to-play and academic decisions. To quantify the prognostic ability of computerized neurocognitive testing in combination with symptoms during the subacute recovery phase from sports-related concussion. Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. In sum, 108 male high school football athletes completed a computer-based neurocognitive test battery within 2.23 days of injury and were followed until returned to play as set by international guidelines. Athletes were grouped into protracted recovery (>14 days; n = 50) or short-recovery (≤14 days; n = 58). Separate discriminant function analyses were performed using total symptom score on Post-Concussion Symptom Scale, symptom clusters (migraine, cognitive, sleep, neuropsychiatric), and Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing neurocognitive scores (verbal memory, visual memory, reaction time, processing speed). Multiple discriminant function analyses revealed that the combination of 4 symptom clusters and 4 neurocognitive composite scores had the highest sensitivity (65.22%), specificity (80.36%), positive predictive value (73.17%), and negative predictive value (73.80%) in predicting protracted recovery. Discriminant function analyses of total symptoms on the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale alone had a sensitivity of 40.81%; specificity, 79.31%; positive predictive value, 62.50%; and negative predictive value, 61.33%. The 4 symptom clusters alone discriminant function analyses had a sensitivity of 46.94%; specificity, 77.20%; positive predictive value, 63.90%; and negative predictive value, 62.86%. Discriminant function

  20. CBC blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    High RBC, hemoglobin, or hematocrit may be due to: A lack of enough water and fluids, such as from ... to treat high blood pressure Kidney disease with high ... Low RBC, hemoglobin, or hematacrit is a sign of anemia, which ...

  1. Blood Culture Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Blood Culture Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At a ... Scientist Find Us On Social Media: Facebook Twitter Google Plus Get the Mobile App: Footer Menu Home ...

  2. Renin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enough hormones ( Addison disease or other adrenal gland insufficiency) Bleeding (hemorrhage) Heart failure High blood pressure caused by narrowing of the kidney arteries ( renovascular hypertension ) Liver scarring and poor liver ...

  3. Blood Test: Lipid Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advertisement Featured ContentPap Smear (Pap Test)Read Article >>Pap Smear (Pap Test)Preconception Carrier ScreeningsRead Article >>Preconception Carrier ... Article >>Tests and ProceduresPap Smear (Pap Test)A Pap smear (Pap test) is a medical exam used to ...

  4. Blood Test: Estradiol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... levels of estradiol, which are produced by the testes and adrenal glands. In young girls, estradiol levels ... to check for damage or disease of the testes, ovaries, or adrenal glands. Testing estradiol levels also ...

  5. CO2 blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicarbonate test; HCO3-; Carbon dioxide test; TCO2; Total CO2; CO2 test - serum; Acidosis - CO2; Alkalosis - CO2 ... The CO2 test is most often done as part of an electrolyte or basic metabolic panel. Changes in your ...

  6. Test–Retest Reliability of Computerized Neurocognitive Testing in Youth Ice Hockey Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womble, Melissa N.; Reynolds, Erin; Schatz, Philip; Shah, Kishan M.; Kontos, Anthony P.

    2016-01-01

    Computerized neurocognitive tests are frequently used to assess pediatric sport-related concussions; however, only 1 study has focused on the test–retest reliability of the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) in high school athletes and age influences have largely been ignored. Therefore, the purpose was to investigate the test–retest reliability of ImPACT and underlying age influences in a pediatric population. Two hundred (169 men and 31 women) youth ice hockey players completed ImPACT before/after a 6-month season. Reliability was assessed using Pearson correlation coefficients, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), and regression-based methods (RBz). ICCs for the sample ranged from .48 to .75 (single)/.65 to .86 (average). In general, the older athletes (15–18: Single/Average ICCs = .35–.75/.52–.86) demonstrated greater reliability across composites than the younger athletes (11–14: Single/Average ICCs = .54–.63/.70–.77). Although there was variation in athletes' performance across two test administrations, RBz revealed that only a small percentage of athletes performed beyond 80%, 90%, and 95% confidence intervals. Statistical metrics demonstrated reliability coefficients for ImPACT composites in a pediatric sample similar to previous studies, and also revealed important age-related influences. PMID:27084734

  7. Baseline Neurocognitive Test Results In Non-concussed Athletes: Does Sleep Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    McClure, D. Jake; Scott L. Zuckerman; Kutscher, Scott J; Gregory, Andrew; Solomon, Gary S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: When managing sport-related concussions (SRC), sports medicine physicians utilize serial neurocognitive assessments and self-reported symptom inventories when evaluating athlete recovery and safety for returning to play (RTP). Since post-concussive RTP goals include symptom resolution and return to neurocognitive baseline, clinical decisions rest on an understanding of modifiers of baseline performance. Several studies have reported the influence of age, gender and sport on baseli...

  8. Blood Urea Nitrogen Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pagana, T. J., and Pagana, T. N. (© 2015). Mosby's Diagnostic & Laboratory Test Reference 12th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 946-948. Sources ... Edition]. Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, ...

  9. Neurocognitive test profiles of extremely low birth weight five-year-old children differ according to neuromotor status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkman, Marit; Mikkola, Kaija; Ritari, Niina; Tommiska, Viena; Salokorpi, Teija; Haataja, Leena; Tammela, Outi; Pääkkönen, Leena; Olsén, Päivi; Fellman, Vineta

    2008-01-01

    The neurocognitive outcome of children born with extremely low birth weight (ELBW) is highly variable due to the complexity of morbidity. So far, no study has compared comprehensive neuropsychological test profiles in groups with different neuromotor status. In a national cohort of ELBW children neuropsychological test profiles were assessed in 4 groups defined according to a neurological examination at 5 years of age: normal neuromotor status (N = 56), motor coordination problems (N = 32), multiple subtle neuromotor signs including both motor coordination problems and deviant reflexes (N = 20), and spastic diplegia (N = 12). The neurocognitive assessment included a test of intelligence, the Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R) and 14 subtests of attention and executive functions, verbal functions, manual motor functions, visuoconstructional functions and verbal learning (NEPSY). The children with normal neuromotor status performed within the average range; children with motor coordination problems had widespread impairment; and children with spastic diplegia and children with multiple minor neuromotor signs had uneven test profiles with stronger verbal results but weaknesses in attention and executive functions, and in manual motor and visuoconstructional tasks. In conclusion, very preterm children with neuromotor signs, including motor coordination problems, are at risk for neurocognitive impairment, in spite of average intelligence. More impaired children have more irregular test profiles. Follow-up and neuropsychological assessment of very preterm children with minor neuromotor signs are therefore indicated.

  10. TBG - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... salicylates, including aspirin Male hormones, including androgens and testosterone Prednisone How the Test will Feel When the ... Wisse, MD, Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology & Nutrition, University of Washington School of Medicine, ...

  11. Blood Urea Nitrogen Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol Heavy Metals Helicobacter pylori Testing Hematocrit Hemoglobin Hemoglobin A1c Hemoglobinopathy Evaluation ... protein breakdown (catabolism), significantly increased protein in the diet, or gastrointestinal bleeding (because of the proteins present ...

  12. Porphyrins - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is Performed This test is used to diagnose porphyrias . This is a group of rare disorders often ... coproporphyrins may be a sign of: Congenital erythropoietic porphyria Hepatic coproporphyria Sideroblastic anemia Variegate porphyria An increased ...

  13. Alpha-1 antitrypsin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... amount of alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) in your blood. ... A1AT test ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain. Others feel only a prick or stinging. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon goes away.

  14. Excess soluble CD40L contributes to blood brain barrier permeability in vivo: implications for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna C Davidson

    Full Text Available Despite the use of anti-retroviral therapies, a majority of HIV-infected individuals still develop HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND, indicating that host inflammatory mediators, in addition to viral proteins, may be contributing to these disorders. Consistently, we have previously shown that levels of the inflammatory mediator soluble CD40L (sCD40L are elevated in the circulation of HIV-infected, cognitively impaired individuals as compared to their infected, non-impaired counterparts. Recent studies from our group suggest a role for the CD40/CD40L dyad in blood brain barrier (BBB permeability and interestingly, sCD40L is thought to regulate BBB permeability in other inflammatory disorders of the CNS. Using complementary multiphoton microscopy and quantitative analyses in wild-type and CD40L deficient mice, we now reveal that the HIV transactivator of transcription (Tat can induce BBB permeability in a CD40L-dependent manner. This permeability of the BBB was found to be the result of aberrant platelet activation induced by Tat, since depletion of platelets prior to treatment reversed Tat-induced BBB permeability. Furthermore, Tat treatment led to an increase in granulocyte antigen 1 (Gr1 positive monocytes, indicating an expansion of the inflammatory subset of cells in these mice, which were found to adhere more readily to the brain microvasculature in Tat treated animals. Exploring the mechanisms by which the BBB becomes compromised during HIV infection has the potential to reveal novel therapeutic targets, thereby aiding in the development of adjunct therapies for the management of HAND, which are currently lacking.

  15. Blood Glucose Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/bloodglucosetest.html Blood Glucose Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Blood Glucose Test? A blood glucose test measures the glucose ...

  16. Calcium Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/calciumbloodtest.html Calcium Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Calcium Blood Test? A calcium blood test measures the ...

  17. Bilirubin Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/bilirubinbloodtest.html Bilirubin Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Bilirubin Blood Test? A bilirubin blood test measures the levels of ...

  18. Albumin Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/albuminbloodtest.html Albumin Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is an Albumin Blood Test? An albumin blood test measures the amount of ...

  19. Factor structure of the neurocognitive tests: an application of the confirmative factor analysis in stabilized schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Jihae; Kim, Ji-Hae; Hong, Kyung Sue; Kim, Nara; Nam, Hee Jung; Lee, Dongsoo; Yoon, Se Chang

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the factor structure of neurocognitive tests used on schizophrenia patients by using the confirmative factor analysis, and to assess the factor score differences of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. Comprehensive neurocognitive tests were administered to stabilized schizophrenia patients (N=114) and healthy controls (N=120). In the results of factor analyses on patients, the multifactorial-6-factor model, which included the speed of processing, working memory, verbal learning and memory, visual learning and memory, attention/vigilance, and reasoning/problem solving as suggested by the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS), showed the better goodness of fit than any of the other models tested. And assessing the group differences of factor scores, we found the patients performed worse than the controls in all factors, but the result showed meaningful variations of impairments across the cognitive factors. Our study identifies the six major domains with multifactorial structure of cognitive abilities in schizophrenia patients and confirms the distinctive impairment patterns of each cognitive domain. These results may have utility in better understanding the pathology of schizophrenia as well as in genetic studies.

  20. Brain activation during neurocognitive testing using functional near-infrared spectroscopy in patients following concussion compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontos, A P; Huppert, T J; Beluk, N H; Elbin, R J; Henry, L C; French, J; Dakan, S M; Collins, M W

    2014-12-01

    There is no accepted clinical imaging modality for concussion, and current imaging modalities including fMRI, DTI, and PET are expensive and inaccessible to most clinics/patients. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a non-invasive, portable, and low-cost imaging modality that can measure brain activity. The purpose of this study was to compare brain activity as measured by fNIRS in concussed and age-matched controls during the performance of cognitive tasks from a computerized neurocognitive test battery. Participants included nine currently symptomatic patients aged 18-45 years with a recent (15-45 days) sport-related concussion and five age-matched healthy controls. The participants completed a computerized neurocognitive test battery while wearing the fNIRS unit. Our results demonstrated reduced brain activation in the concussed subject group during word memory, (spatial) design memory, digit-symbol substitution (symbol match), and working memory (X's and O's) tasks. Behavioral performance (percent-correct and reaction time respectively) was lower for concussed participants on the word memory, design memory, and symbol match tasks than controls. The results of this preliminary study suggest that fNIRS could be a useful, portable assessment tool to assess reduced brain activation and augment current approaches to assessment and management of patients following concussion.

  1. Brain activation during neurocognitive testing using functional near-infrared spectroscopy in patients following concussion compared to healthy controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, T. J.; Beluk, N. H.; Elbin, R. J.; Henry, L. C.; French, J.; Dakan, S. M.; Collins, M. W.

    2016-01-01

    There is no accepted clinical imaging modality for concussion, and current imaging modalities including fMRI, DTI, and PET are expensive and inaccessible to most clinics/ patients. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a non-invasive, portable, and low-cost imaging modality that can measure brain activity. The purpose of this study was to compare brain activity as measured by fNIRS in concussed and age-matched controls during the performance of cognitive tasks from a computerized neurocognitive test battery. Participants included nine currently symptomatic patients aged 18–45 years with a recent (15–45 days) sport-related concussion and five age-matched healthy controls. The participants completed a computerized neurocognitive test battery while wearing the fNIRS unit. Our results demonstrated reduced brain activation in the concussed subject group during word memory, (spatial) design memory, digit-symbol substitution (symbol match), and working memory (X’s and O’s) tasks. Behavioral performance (percent-correct and reaction time respectively) was lower for concussed participants on the word memory, design memory, and symbol match tasks than controls. The results of this preliminary study suggest that fNIRS could be a useful, portable assessment tool to assess reduced brain activation and augment current approaches to assessment and management of patients following concussion. PMID:24477579

  2. Comparison of Neurocognitive Testing and the Measurement of Marinobufagenin in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of concussed athletes, including testing to determine if and when they may return to play, has become an important task of athletic trainers and team physicians. Currently, concussion protocols are in place, which depend largely upon assessments based upon neurocognitive testing (NCT. The authors have evaluated the use of a biomarker of brain trauma, marinobufagenin (MBG, and compared its application in concussed athletes with the performance of NTC. We found a disparity between these two testing procedures. In this communication, the findings of these comparative data are presented. We noted that athletes whose NCT evaluations had returned to baseline and who were allowed to again participate in play then showed a recurrence of elevated urinary MBG excretion. These observations raise concern as to the processes currently in effect with regard to the decision as to returning athletes to the full activity. They suggest a need for further evaluation.

  3. An Independent, Prospective, Head to Head Study of the Reliability and Validity of Neurocognitive Test Batteries for the Assessment of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    traumatic brain injury; concussion ; neurocognitive assessment 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a...Sports Concussion Arm, preseason baseline testing was conducted prior to the fall and winter sports seasons for soccer (men/women), field hockey ... hockey , field hockey , rugby, wrestling), football will provide the large quantity of both baseline testing participants and concussed athletes. 6

  4. Fibrin degradation products blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... oxygen in the blood Infections Leukemia Liver disease Problem during pregnancy such as preeclampsia, placenta abruptio , miscarriage Recent blood transfusion Recent surgery that involved a heart and lung ...

  5. Blood Test: Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Voice in Health Care Decisions Blood Test: Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP) KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Comprehensive Metabolic Panel ( ... or kidneys) is working. What Is a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP)? The comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) is a ...

  6. Neurocognitive performance and symptom profiles of Spanish-speaking Hispanic athletes on the ImPACT test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Summer; Schatz, Philip; Solomon, Gary; Ryan, Joseph J

    2014-03-01

    This study documented baseline neurocognitive performance of 23,815 athletes on the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) test. Specifically, 9,733 Hispanic, Spanish-speaking athletes who completed the ImPACT test in English and 2,087 Hispanic, Spanish-speaking athletes who completed the test in Spanish were compared with 11,955 English-speaking athletes who completed the test in English. Athletes were assigned to age groups (13-15, 16-18). Results revealed a significant effect of language group (p speaking athletes completing the test in Spanish scored more poorly than Spanish-speaking and English-speaking athletes completing the test in English, on all Composite scores and Total Symptom scores. Spanish-speaking athletes completing the test in English also performed more poorly than English-speaking athletes completing the test in English on three Composite scores. These differences in performance and reported symptoms highlight the need for caution in interpreting ImPACT test data for Hispanic Americans.

  7. Parathyroid hormone-related protein blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/003691.htm Parathyroid hormone-related protein blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... measures the level of a hormone in the blood, called parathyroid hormone-related protein. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed . How ...

  8. ALT Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/altbloodtest.html ALT Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is an ALT Blood Test? ALT, which stands for alanine transaminase, is an ...

  9. MPV Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/mpvbloodtest.html MPV Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is an MPV Blood Test? MPV stands for mean platelet volume. Platelets are ...

  10. Allergy Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/allergybloodtest.html Allergy Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is an Allergy Blood Test? Allergies are a common and chronic ...

  11. Blood Test: Hemoglobin A1C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Shopping Healthy Drinks for Kids Blood Test: Hemoglobin A1c KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Hemoglobin A1c ... liver or kidneys) is working. What Is a Hemoglobin A1c Test? A hemoglobin A1c test measures how ...

  12. Processing, testing and selecting blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alister; Heyes, Jennifer

    Transfusion of blood components can be an essential and lifesaving treatment for many patients. However, components must comply with a number of national requirements to ensure they are safe and fit for use. Transfusion of incorrect blood components can lead to mortality and morbidity in patients, which is why patient testing and blood selection are important. This second article in our five-part series on blood transfusion outlines the requirements for different blood components, the importance of the ABO and RhD blood group systems and the processes that ensure the correct blood component is issued to each patient.

  13. Blood Sugar Testing: Why, When and How

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Understand how other factors, such as illness or stress, affect blood sugar levels Monitor the effect of diabetes medications on blood ... You may need to test before meals and snacks, before and after exercise, ... to check your blood sugar level more often if you are ill, change your ...

  14. Effects of Sleep Loss on Subjective Complaints and Objective Neurocognitive Performance as Measured by the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Ryan P J; Khan, Hassen; Henry, Luke; Germain, Anne

    2017-05-01

    This study examined the effects of total and partial sleep deprivation on subjective symptoms and objective neurocognitive performance, as measured by the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) in a sample of healthy adults. One-hundred and two, right-handed, healthy participants (between ages 18 and 30 years old) completed three consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory with concurrent continuous polysomnography monitoring. Night 1 served as a baseline night. Prior to Night 2, they were randomly assigned to one of three sleep conditions: undisrupted normal sleep (N = 34), sleep restriction (50% of habitual sleep, N = 37), or total sleep deprivation (N = 31). Participants slept undisturbed on Night 3. ImPACT was administered on three separate occasions. Sleep loss was associated with increased severity of subjectively reported affective, cognitive, physical, and sleep symptoms. Although objective neurocognitive task scores derived from the ImPACT battery did not corroborate subjective complaints, sleep loss was associated with significant differences on tasks of visual memory, reaction time, and visual motor speed over time. While self-report measures suggested marked impairments following sleep loss, deficits in neurocognitive performance were observed only on three domains measured with ImPACT. ImPACT may capture subtle changes in neurocognitive performance following sleep loss; however, independent and larger validation studies are needed to determine its sensitivity to acute sleep loss and recovery sleep. Neurocognitive screening batteries may be useful for detecting the effects of more severe or chronic sleep loss under high-stress conditions that mimic high-risk occupations.

  15. Test Your Blood Pressure IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... State SELECT YOUR LANGUAGE Español (Spanish) 简体中文 (Traditional Chinese) 繁体中文 (Simplified Chinese) Tiếng Việt (Vietnamese) Healthy Living for Heart.org ... Changes That Matter • Find Tools & Resources HBP Resources Animation Library Track Your Blood Pressure: Print (PDF) | Online ...

  16. What Do Blood Tests Show?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 9 to 12 hours of fasting. High blood cholesterol is a risk factor for coronary heart disease . Your doctor should discuss your results ... NEWS August 04, 2015 | News Release Measurement of Cholesterol Function Might Provide Link to Heart Attack Risk in Patients with Psoriasis WHAT: Scientists now report ...

  17. Anti-DNase B blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anti-DNase B is a blood test to look for antibodies to a substance produced by Group A Streptococcus. This is the bacteria that causes strep throat. When used together with the ASLO titer test , more than 90% of ...

  18. Hip Resurfacing Arthroplasty and Perioperative Blood Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Cook

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is standard practice in many institutions to routinely perform preoperative and postoperative haemoglobin level testing in association with hip joint arthroplasty procedures. It is our observation, however, that blood transfusion after uncomplicated primary hip arthroplasty in healthy patients is uncommon and that the decision to proceed with blood transfusion is typically made on clinical grounds. We therefore question the necessity and clinical value of routine perioperative blood testing about the time of hip resurfacing arthroplasty. We present analysis of perioperative blood tests and transfusion rates in 107 patients undertaking unilateral hybrid hip resurfacing arthroplasty by the senior author at a single institution over a three-year period. We conclude that routine perioperative testing of haemoglobin levels for hip resurfacing arthroplasty procedures does not assist in clinical management. We recommend that postoperative blood testing only be considered should the patient demonstrate clinical signs of symptomatic anaemia or if particular clinical circumstances necessitate.

  19. Blood Count Tests - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sangre: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) National Library of Medicine Your Lab Tests - English ... PDF American Cancer Society Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language ...

  20. Blood tests for acute pancreatitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Basnayake, Chamara; Ratnam, Dilip

    2015-01-01

    .... A threshold concentration 2-4 times the upper limit of normal is recommended for diagnosis. Serum lipase is now the preferred test due to its improved sensitivity, particularly in alcohol-induced pancreatitis...

  1. Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamma-GT; GGTP; GGT; Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGTP, gamma-glutamyltransferase) - blood. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. St Louis, ...

  2. [Is syphilis test necessary in blood donors?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-López, María Rebeca F; Arenas-Esqueda, Alfonso; Ambriz-Fernández, Raúl

    2009-01-01

    A syphilis test is performed in blood donors because the national transfusion law makes it mandatory, nevertheless the blood has not been found as an important vehicle of transmission for Treponema pallidum infection. Our objective was to know the prevalence of syphilis in blood donors. we reviewed tests from blood donors of the "Banco Central de Sangre del Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI" in two periods, the first from July 2001 to April 2003, and the second from March 2005 to June 2006. Both groups went through screening tests, such as VDRL or USR. and a second test for confirmation, FTA-ABS for the first group and TPHA for the second group. in the first group 111 030 blood donors were included. In this group the positive results from VDRL or USR tests were 471 (0.42 %). One hundred and ninety six were confirmed (0.17 %) with FTA-ABS. In the second group results from 80 578 blood donors were included; the positive results from VDRL or USR tests were 279 (0.34 %). In this group, only 0.08 % were confirmed for a syphilis infection.

  3. Blood histamine release: A new allergy blood test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraj, B.A.; Gottlieb, G.R.; Camp, V.M.; Lollies, P.

    1985-05-01

    Allergen-mediated histamine release from human leukocytes represents an important model for in vitro studies of allergic reactions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the measurement of histamine released in allergic patients (pts) by radioenzymatic assay following mixing of their blood with common allergens represents a reliable index for diagnosis of atopic allergy. Three categories of allergies were used: (1) housedust and mite; (2) cat and dog dander; (3) trees and grasses and ragweed mixture. The presence of allergy was established by intradermal skin testing in the study group of 82 pts. Significant atopy was defined as greater than or equal to 3+ (overall range 0-4 +, negative to maximum) on skin testing. The test was carried out in tubes with 0.5 ml heparinized blood, 0.5 ml tris albumin buffer, and one of the allergens (60-100 PNU/ml). In 20 controls without allergy, there always was less than or equal to 4% histamine release (normal response). A significant allergen-mediated histamine release, ranging from 12 to 30% of the total blood histamine content, was observed in 96% of the pts with skin test sensitivity of greater than or equal to 3+. There was good agreement between skin testing and histamine release in terms of the allergen causing the response. Thus, measurement of histamine release in blood in response to allergen challenge represents a clinically useful in vitro test for the diagnosis of atopic allergy. Because data can be obtained from a single sample and are highly quantitative, this new method should have application to the longitudinal study of allergic pts and to the assessment of interventions.

  4. 21 CFR 640.53 - Testing the blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testing the blood. 640.53 Section 640.53 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Cryoprecipitate § 640.53 Testing the blood. (a) Blood... sample of blood collected at the time of collecting the source blood, and such sample container shall be...

  5. Acknowledging the results of blood tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torkilsheyggi, Arnvør Martinsdottir á; Hertzum, Morten

    At the studied hospital, physicians from the Medical and Surgical Departments work some of their shifts in the Emergency Department (ED). Though icons showing the blood-test process were introduced on electronic whiteboards in the ED, these icons did not lead to increased attention to test...... acknowledgement. Rather, the physicians, trans-ferred work practices from their own departments, which did not have electronic white-boards, to the ED. This finding suggests a challenge to the cross-disciplinary work and norms for how to follow up on blood-test results in the ED....

  6. Identification of an abbreviated test battery for detection of HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment in an early-managed HIV-infected cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Moore

    Full Text Available HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND remain prevalent despite improved antiretroviral treatment (ART, and it is essential to have a sensitive and specific HAND screening tool.Participants were 200 HIV-infected US military beneficiaries, managed early in the course of HIV infection, had few comorbidities, and had open access to ART. Participants completed a comprehensive, seven-domain (16-test, neuropsychological battery (∼120 min; neurocognitive impairment (NCI was determined using a standardized score derived from demographically adjusted T-scores (global deficit score ≥0.5. Restricting the estimated administration time of the screening battery to < = 20 minutes, we examined the sensitivity and specificity of detecting NCI for all possible combinations of 2-, 3-, and 4- tests from the comprehensive battery.Participants were relatively healthy (median CD4 count: 546 cells/mm(3 with 64% receiving ART. Prevalence of NCI was low (19%. The best 2-test screener included the Stroop Color Test and the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (11 min; sensitivity = 73%; specificity = 83%; the best 3-test screener included the above measures plus the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT; 16 min; sensitivity = 86%; specificity = 75%. The addition of Action Fluency to the above three tests improved specificity (18 min; sensitivity = 86%; specificity = 87%.Combinations of widely accepted neuropsychological tests with brief implementation time demonstrated good sensitivity and specificity compared to a time intensive neuropsychological test battery. Tests of verbal learning, attention/working memory, and processing speed are particularly useful in detecting NCI. Utilizing validated, easy to administer, traditional neuropsychological tests with established normative data may represent an excellent approach to screening for NCI in HIV.

  7. Factors associated with neurocognitive test performance at baseline: a substudy of the INSIGHT Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Treatment (START) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, E J; Grund, B; Cysique, L A; Robertson, K R; Brew, B J; Collins, G; Shlay, J C; Winston, A; Read, T R H; Price, R W

    2015-04-01

    We describe neuropsychological test performance (NP) in antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naïve HIV-positive individuals with CD4 cell counts above 500 cells/μL. In a neurology substudy of the International Network for Strategic Initiatives in Global HIV Trials (INSIGHT) Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Treatment (START) study, eight neurocognitive tests were administered. The primary measure of NP was the quantitative NP z-score (QNPZ-8), the average of the z-scores for the eight tests. Associations of baseline factors with QNPZ-8 scores were assessed by multiple regression. Mild neurocognitive impairment (NCI) was defined as z-scores Argentina/Chile. This is the largest study of NP in ART-naïve HIV-positive adults with CD4 counts > 500 cells/μL. Demographic factors and diabetes were most strongly associated with NP. Unmeasured educational/sociocultural factors may explain geographical differences. Poorer NP was independently associated with longer time since HIV diagnosis, suggesting that untreated HIV infection might deleteriously affect NP, but the effect was small. © 2015 British HIV Association.

  8. Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood test that gives doctors information about the body's fluid balance, levels of electrolytes like sodium and potassium, and ... carbon dioxide , and chloride , which help control the body's fluid levels and its acid-base balance. Normal levels of these electrolytes help keep cells ...

  9. 21 CFR 864.6550 - Occult blood test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Occult blood test. 864.6550 Section 864.6550 Food... DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6550 Occult blood test. (a) Identification. An occult blood test is a device used to detect occult blood in urine or feces. (Occult blood is...

  10. 21 CFR 640.14 - Testing the blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testing the blood. 640.14 Section 640.14 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.14 Testing the blood. Blood from which Red Blood Cells are prepared shall be tested as prescribed in § 610.40 of this chapter and...

  11. Analysis of Baseline Computerized Neurocognitive Testing Results among 5–11-Year-Old Male and Female Children Playing Sports in Recreational Leagues in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen D. Liller

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a paucity of data related to sports injuries, concussions, and computerized neurocognitive testing (CNT among very young athletes playing sports in recreational settings. The purpose of this study was to report baseline CNT results among male and female children, ages 5–11, playing sports in Hillsborough County, Florida using ImPACT Pediatric, which is specifically designed for this population. Data were collected from 2016 to 2017. The results show that 657 baseline tests were conducted and t-tests and linear regression were used to assess mean significant differences in composite scores with sex and age. Results showed that females scored better on visual memory and in general as age increased, baseline scores improved. The results can be used to build further studies on the use of CNT in recreational settings and their role in concussion treatment, management, and interventions.

  12. Rates and Predictors of Invalid Baseline Test Performance in High School and Collegiate Athletes for 3 Computerized Neurocognitive Tests: ANAM, Axon Sports, and ImPACT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Lindsay D; Pfaller, Adam Y; Rein, Lisa E; McCrea, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    Preseason baseline testing using computerized neurocognitive tests (CNTs) is increasingly performed on athletes. Adequate effort is critical to establish valid estimates of ability, but many users do not evaluate performance validity, and the conditions that affect validity are not well understood across the available CNTs. To examine the rates and predictors of invalid baseline performance for 3 popular CNTs: Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM), Axon Sports, and Immediate Post-Concussion and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT). Controlled laboratory study. High school and collegiate athletes (N = 2063) completed 2 of 3 CNTs each during preseason evaluations. All possible pairings were present across the sample, and the order of administration was randomized. Examiners provided 1-on-1, scripted pretest instructions, emphasizing the importance of good effort. Profile validity was determined by the manufacturers' standard criteria. The overall percentage of tests flagged as of questionable validity was lowest for ImPACT (2.7%) and higher for ANAM and Axon (10.7% and 11.3%, respectively). The majority of invalid baseline profiles were flagged as such because of failure on only 1 validity criterion. Several athlete and testing factors (eg, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], estimated general intellectual ability, administration order) predicted validity status for 1 or more CNTs. Considering only first CNT administrations and participants without ADHD and/or a learning disability (n = 1835) brought the rates of invalid baseline performances to 2.1%, 8.8%, and 7.0% for ImPACT, ANAM, and Axon, respectively. Invalid profiles on the Medical Symptom Validity Test (MSVT) were rare (1.8% of participants) and demonstrated poor correspondence to CNT validity outcomes. The validity criteria for these CNTs may not identify the same causes of invalidity or be equally sensitive to effort. The validity indicators may not be equally appropriate for some

  13. 21 CFR 640.33 - Testing the blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testing the blood. 640.33 Section 640.33 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.33 Testing the blood. (a) Blood from...

  14. 21 CFR 640.23 - Testing the blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testing the blood. 640.23 Section 640.23 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Platelets § 640.23 Testing the blood. (a) Blood from... this chapter and § 640.5 (a), (b), and (c). (b) The tests shall be performed on a sample of blood...

  15. 21 CFR 640.5 - Testing the blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testing the blood. 640.5 Section 640.5 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Whole Blood § 640.5 Testing the blood. All laboratory tests shall be made on a specimen of blood taken from the donor at the time of collecting the unit of...

  16. Neurocognitive Deficits in Borderline Personality Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Marianne Skovgaard; Ruocco, Anthony C; Carcone, Dean

    2017-01-01

    The present study evaluates the severity of neurocognitive deficits and assesses their relations with self-reported childhood trauma and dimensions of personality psychopathology in 45 outpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) matched to 56 non-psychiatric controls. Participants...... completed a comprehensive battery of neurocognitive tests, a retrospective questionnaire on early life trauma and a dimensional measure of personality psychopathology. Patients with BPD primarily showed deficits in verbal comprehension, sustained visual attention, working memory and processing speed....... Comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and an elevated childhood history of physical trauma were each accompanied by more severe neurocognitive deficits. There were no statistically significant associations between neurocognitive function and dimensions of personality psychopathology. These results...

  17. BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen): MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/bunbloodureanitrogen.html BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen) To use the sharing features on this ... please enable JavaScript. What is a BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen) Test? A BUN, or blood urea nitrogen ...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1130 - Blood volume test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood volume test system. 862.1130 Section 862...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1130 Blood volume test system. (a) Identification. A blood volume test system is a device intended to...

  19. Tuberculosis in Children: New diagnostic Blood Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Kakkar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The interferon-gamma-release assays were developed to overcome the pitfalls and logistic difficulties of the tuberculin skin test (TST for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI. These blood tests measure the in vitro production of interferon-gamma by sensitized lymphocytes in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific antigens. Two interferon-gamma-release assays are registered for use in Canada: the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube assay (Cellestis Inc, Australia and the T.SPOT–TB test (Oxford Immunotec, United Kingdom. Evaluation of these tests has been hampered by the lack of a gold standard for LTBI, and limited paediatric data on their use. It appears that they are more specific than the TST, and may be useful for evaluating TST-positive patients at low risk of true LTBI. Moreover, they may add sensitivity if used in addition to the TST in immunocompromised patients, very young children and close contacts of infectious adults. A summary of these tests, their limitations and their application to clinical paediatric practice are described.

  20. Blood Count Tests: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish WBC count (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Blood Count Tests ... WBC count Show More Show Less Related Health Topics Bleeding Disorders Blood Laboratory Tests National Institutes of ...

  1. Blood Test Can Screen for Rare Sinus Cancer, Study Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167694.html Blood Test Can Screen for Rare Sinus Cancer, Study Finds ... Aug. 9, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A new DNA blood test can catch a rare but deadly form of ...

  2. The effect of pulmonary tuberculosis on neurocognitive function in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To examine group differences in neurocognitive status, we used Wilcoxon ranked sum tests to compare the performance between groups on neuropsychological test battery. Results: Out of 324, only 244 were studied. Results indicated significant neurocognitive impairment in PTB+/HIV+ group than PTB-/HIV+ in the GDS, ...

  3. Painless blood testing to prevent neonatal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costakos, Dennis T; Walden, Jennifer; Rinzel, Mary Therese; Dahlen, Lynn

    2009-09-01

    The current US guidelines advise that all women colonized with Group B streptococcus (GBS) at 35-37 weeks, as well as those laboring before this time and all women with GBS urinary tract infections, should be offered intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis, usually in the form of high-dose intravenous penicillin or ampicillin, unless delivered by planned cesarean section before the onset of labor in a woman with intact membranes. In term and preterm babies who are born to treated women, in addition to babies who act ill, the recommendation is to treat the baby with antibiotics. In certain circumstances, such as when the mother receives an intrapartum antibiotic delivery, the baby receives antibiotics even if the baby appears well. This paper proposes a new process for testing for GBS that involves using the umbilical cord. If this process were used, babies would not need to have blood drawn and would experience less pain.

  4. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahir Vally

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available HIV infection is associated with disturbances in brain function referred to as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND. This literature review outlines the recently revised diagnostic criteria for the range of HAND from the earliest to the more advanced stages: (i asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment; (ii mild neurocognitive disorder; and (iii HIV-associated dementia. Relevant literature is also reviewed regarding the differential impact upon component cognitive domains known to be affected in HAND, which in turn should ideally be targeted during clinical and neuropsychological assessments: psychomotor and information processing speed, learning and memory, attention and working memory, speech and language, executive functioning and visuospatial functioning. A discussion outlining the neuropsychological tools used in the diagnostic screening of HAND is also included. The central mechanisms of HAND appear to revolve primarily around psychomotor slowing and cognitive control over mental operations, possibly reflecting the influence of disrupted fronto-striatal circuits on distributed neural networks critical to cognitive functions. The accurate assessment and diagnosis of HAND depends on meeting the need for statistically sound neuropsychological assessment techniques that may be used confidently in assessing South African populations, as well as the development of relevant norms for comparison of test performance data.

  5. Nanoscale Test Strips for Multiplexed Blood Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    A critical component of the DNA Medicine Institute's Reusable Handheld Electrolyte and Lab Technology for Humans (rHEALTH) sensor are nanoscale test strips, or nanostrips, that enable multiplexed blood analysis. Nanostrips are conceptually similar to the standard urinalysis test strip, but the strips are shrunk down a billionfold to the microscale. Each nanostrip can have several sensor pads that fluoresce in response to different targets in a sample. The strips carry identification tags that permit differentiation of a specific panel from hundreds of other nanostrip panels during a single measurement session. In Phase I of the project, the company fabricated, tested, and demonstrated functional parathyroid hormone and vitamin D nanostrips for bone metabolism, and thrombin aptamer and immunoglobulin G antibody nanostrips. In Phase II, numerous nanostrips were developed to address key space flight-based medical needs: assessment of bone metabolism, immune response, cardiac status, liver metabolism, and lipid profiles. This unique approach holds genuine promise for space-based portable biodiagnostics and for point-of-care (POC) health monitoring and diagnostics here on Earth.

  6. A Comparison of Four Computerized Neurocognitive Assessment Tools to a Traditional Neuropsychological Test Battery in Service Members with and without Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Wesley R; Arrieux, Jacques P; Ivins, Brian J; Schwab, Karen A; Qashu, Felicia M

    2018-02-01

    Computerized neurocognitive assessment tools (NCATS) are often used as a screening tool to identify cognitive deficits after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). However, differing methodology across studies renders it difficult to identify a consensus regarding the validity of NCATs. Thus, studies where multiple NCATs are administered in the same sample using the same methodology are warranted. We investigated the validity of four NCATs: the ANAM4, CNS-VS, CogState, and ImPACT. Two NCATs were randomly assigned and a battery of traditional neuropsychological (NP) tests administered to healthy control active duty service members (n = 272) and to service members within 7 days of an mTBI (n = 231). Analyses included correlations between NCAT and the NP test scores to investigate convergent and discriminant validity, and regression analyses to identify the unique variance in NCAT and NP scores attributed to group status. Effect sizes (Cohen's f2) were calculated to guide interpretation of data. Only 37 (0.6%) of the 5,655 correlations calculated between NCATs and NP tests are large (i.e. r ≥ 0.50). The majority of correlations are small (i.e. 0.30 > r ≥ 0.10), with no clear patterns suggestive of convergent or discriminant validity between the NCATs and NP tests. Though there are statistically significant group differences across most NCAT and NP test scores, the unique variance accounted for by group status is minimal (i.e. semipartial R2 ≤ 0.033, 0.024, 0.062, and 0.011 for ANAM4, CNS-VS, CogState, and ImPACT, respectively), with effect sizes indicating small to no meaningful effect. Though the results are not overly promising for the validity of the four NCATs we investigated, traditional methods of investigating psychometric properties may not be appropriate for computerized tests. We offer several conceptual and methodological considerations for future studies regarding the validity of NCATs.

  7. Neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia are associated with alterations in blood levels of neurosteroids: a multiple regression analysis of findings from a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial with DHEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritsner, Michael S; Strous, Rael D

    2010-01-01

    While neurosteroids exert multiple effects in the central nervous system, their associations with neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia are not yet fully understood. The purpose of this study was to identify the contribution of circulating levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), its sulfate (DHEAS), androstenedione, and cortisol to neurocognitive deficits through DHEA administration in schizophrenia. Data regarding cognitive function, symptom severity, daily doses, side effects of antipsychotic agents and blood levels of DHEA, DHEAS, androstenedione and cortisol were collected among 55 schizophrenia patients in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial with DHEA at three intervals: upon study entry, after 6weeks of DHEA administration (200mg/d), and after 6weeks of a placebo period. Multiple regression analysis was applied for predicting sustained attention, memory, and executive function scores across three examinations controlling for clinical, treatment and background covariates. Findings indicated that circulating DHEAS and androstenedione levels are shown as positive predictors of cognitive functioning, while DHEA level as negative predictor. Overall, blood neurosteroid levels and their molar ratios accounted for 16.5% of the total variance in sustained attention, 8-13% in visual memory tasks, and about 12% in executive functions. In addition, effects of symptoms, illness duration, daily doses of antipsychotic agents, side effects, education, and age of onset accounted for variability in cognitive functioning in schizophrenia. The present study suggests that alterations in circulating levels of neurosteroids and their molar ratios may reflect pathophysiological processes, which, at least partially, underlie cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Brain-based teaching : behavioral and neuro-cognitive evidence for the power of test-enhanced learning

    OpenAIRE

    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola

    2014-01-01

    A primary goal of education is the acquisition of durable knowledge which challenges the use of efficient pedagogical methods of how to best facilitate learning. Research in cognitive psychology has demonstrated that repeated testing during the learning phase improves performance on later retention tests compared to restudy of material. This empirical phenomenon is called the testing effect. The testing effect has shown to be robust across different kinds of material and when compared to diff...

  9. Neurocognitive performance profile postparathyroidectomy: a pilot study of computerized assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Caitlin F; Warrick, Mathew M; Gallagher, Kathleen C; Baregamian, Naira

    2017-11-10

    Neurocognitive symptoms attributable to primary hyperparathyroidism are important diagnostic criteria, yet the basic characterization and assessment of neurocognitive deficits in primary hyperparathyroidism are not defined fully. In this prospective pilot study, patients with unequivocal biochemical diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism were evaluated for neurocognitive performance preoperatively and postparathyroidectomy (2 weeks, 6 months) using a battery of computerized modular tests designed by LUMOSITY. The individual test scores and aggregate scores representing a subject's total neurocognitive performance profile were calculated. Statistical comparisons between groups were performed using univariate analysis and repeated measures of analysis of variance. In the study, 34 participants were assessed preoperatively; 18 completed all 3 assessments, 2 completed pretest and 6-month assessments, and 30 completed preoperative and 2-week postparathyroidectomy assessments. Primary hyperparathyroidism patients demonstrated significant deficits in memory, attention, mental flexibility, and speed of processing when compared with controls. Total neurocognitive performance profile score was significantly lower at the preoperative (P = .0001) and 2-week postparathyroidectomy (P = .0004) time points when compared with controls; this difference was bridged by 6 months postparathyroidectomy. Computerized neurocognitive performance profile assessment validated the neurocognitive benefits of parathyroidectomy. Additional study is needed to determine if this novel method provides long-term, objective, quantifiable, and accessible neurocognitive performance profile assessment in primary hyperparathyroidism patients and can serve as a valuable diagnostic and prognostic tool. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Fetal-maternal erythrocyte distribution blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... helps find out how much Rh immune globulin (RhoGAM) she must receive to prevent her body from ... in the mother's blood. The standard dose of RhoGAM is enough in this case. Normal value ranges ...

  11. Donor Infectious Disease Testing Multinational assessment of blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Donor Infectious Disease Testing Multinational assessment of blood-borne virus testing and transfusion safety on the African continent... ... A newly formed network of African blood transfusion specialists has therefore decided to perform a baseline evaluation of serologic testing performance. Building on the experience of a ...

  12. A modified isometric test to evaluate blood pressure control with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAMJ. VOL 83. NOV 1993. A modified isometric test to evaluate blood pressure control with once-daily slow-release verapamil. A. CANTOR, H. GILUTZ, T. MEYER. Abstract Blood pressure at rest is not predictive of round- the-clock values. Blood pressure should therefore be measured during effort to evaluate hypertension.

  13. A miniaturized hemoretractometer for blood clot retraction testing

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zida; Li, Xiang; McCracken, Brendan; Shao, Yue; Ward, Kevin; Fu, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Blood coagulation is a critical hemostatic process that must be properly regulated to maintain a delicate balance between bleeding and clotting. Disorders of blood coagulation can expose patients to the risk of either bleeding disorders or thrombotic diseases. Coagulation diagnostics using whole blood is very promising for assessing the complexity of the coagulation system and for global measurements of hemostasis. Despite the clinic values that existing whole blood coagulation tests have dem...

  14. Random blood glucose testing in dental practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barasch, Andrei; Safford, Monika M; Qvist, Vibeke

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) has been increasing. Instances of patients' not having received a diagnosis have been reported widely, as have instances of poor control of DM or prediabetes among patient's who have the disease. These facts indicate that blood glucose screening is needed....

  15. Home Use Tests: Fecal Occult Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your fruits and vegetables well . Don't eat raw turnips, radishes, broccoli, or horseradish. These foods can make it look like you have hidden blood when you don't. Don't eat red meat. (You may eat poultry or fish). Red meat in your diet can make it look like you have hidden ...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1120 - Blood gases (PCO2, PO2) and blood pH test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood gases (PCO2, PO2) and blood pH test system... Test Systems § 862.1120 Blood gases (PCO2, PO2) and blood pH test system. (a) Identification. A blood gases (PCO2, PO2) and blood pH test system is a device intended to measure certain gases in blood, serum...

  17. A Pattern of Perseveration in Cocaine Addiction May Reveal Neurocognitive Processes Implicit in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woicik, Patricia A.; Urban, Catherine; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Henry, Ashley; Maloney, Thomas; Telang, Frank; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to adapt behavior in a changing environment is necessary for humans to achieve their goals and can be measured in the lab with tests of rule-based switching. Disease models, such as cocaine addiction, have revealed that alterations in dopamine interfere with adaptive set switching, culminating in perseveration. We explore perseverative…

  18. Is it time to rethink how neuropsychological tests are used to diagnose mild forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders? Impact of false-positive rates on prevalence and power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Ana-Claire L; Boscardin, W John; Kwasa, Judith K; Price, Richard W

    2013-01-01

    Between 0 and 48% of normal HIV-uninfected individuals score below threshold neuropsychological test scores for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) or are false positives. There has been little effort to understand the effect of varied interpretations of research criteria for HAND on false-positive frequencies, prevalence and analytic estimates. The proportion of normal individuals scoring below Z score thresholds drawn from research criteria for HAND, or false-positive frequencies, was estimated in a normal Kenyan population and a simulated normal population using varied interpretations of research criteria for HAND. We calculated the impact of false-positive frequencies on prevalence estimates and statistical power. False-positive frequencies of 2-74% were observed for asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment/mild neurocognitive disorder and 0-8% for HIV-associated dementia. False-positive frequencies depended on the definition of an abnormal cognitive domain, Z score thresholds and neuropsychological battery size. Misclassification led to clinically important overestimation of prevalence and dramatic decreases in power. Minimizing false-positive frequencies is critical to decrease bias in prevalence estimates and minimize reductions in power in studies of association, particularly for mild forms of HAND. We recommend changing the Z score threshold to ≤-1.5 for mild impairment, limiting analysis to 3-5 cognitive domains and using the average Z score to define an abnormal domain. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Influence of Blood Collection Systems on Coagulation Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Yavaş

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Coagulation tests are influenced by pre-analytic conditions such as blood collection systems. Change of glass collection tubes with plastic ones will cause alteration of the test results. The aim of this study was to compare three plastic blood collection tubes with a standard glass blood collection tube and each plastic collection tube with the other two for possible additional tube-to- tube differences. METHODS: A total of 284 blood samples were obtained from 42 patients receiving warfarin during their routine controls, besides 29 healthy volunteers. Subgroup analyses were done according to health status. RESULTS: Our study demonstrated that different blood collection tubes have a statistically significant influence on coagulation tests. The magnitude of the effect depends on the tube used. However most of the tests performed on samples obtained from any tube correlated significantly with results obtained from other tube samples. CONCLUSION: Although blood collection tubes with different brands or properties will have distinct effects on coagulation tests, the influence of these blood collection tubes may be relatively small to interfere with decision-making on dose prescription, therefore lack clinical importance. Correlations between the results showed that, one of these plastic blood collection tubes tested in our study, can be used interchangably for a wide variety of coagulation assays.

  20. Galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galactosemia screen; GALT; Gal-1-PUT ... This is a screening test for galactosemia. In normal diets, most galactose comes from the breakdown ( metabolism ) of lactose, which is found in milk and dairy products. One out ...

  1. Utility of diagnostic blood tests in clinical podiatric medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zier, Bennett G

    2015-01-01

    Clinical podiatric medical practice encompasses a wide spectrum of podiatric medical and surgical problems. Technological advances such as imaging have greatly improved diagnostic acumen; however, physical diagnosis and blood testing remain extremely important factors in reinforcing diagnostic hypotheses as a part of differential diagnosis. There are certain blood tests of importance that the podiatric medical practitioner should be familiar with in everyday medical and surgical practice. The purpose of this article is to identify and highlight which blood tests are truly essential and practical in terms of diagnosis. This article encompasses blood tests pertinent to the clinical areas of hematology, hemostasis, electrolytes, endocrine, cardiac, rheumatology, nephrology, and gastroenterology. Careful selection of these tests and proper interpretation of their results will help reinforce diagnostic hypotheses.

  2. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... look at your PSA result and consider your age, ethnicity, medicines you are taking, and other things to ... things when deciding on the next step: Your age If you had a PSA test ... such as ethnicity and family history Men at high risk may ...

  3. Sleep and neurocognitive functioning in children with eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camfferman, Danny; Kennedy, J Declan; Gold, Michael; Simpson, Carol; Lushington, Kurt

    2013-08-01

    Sleep disruption in childhood is associated with clearly defined deficits in neurocognition and behaviour. Childhood eczema is also a potent cause of sleep disruption though it is unknown whether it too results in neurocognitive deficits. To test this hypothesis, neurocognitive (WISC-IV), parental-reported sleep quality (Sleep Disturbance Scale of Children (SDSC)) and overnight polysomnographic (PSG) data were collected in 21 children with eczema and 20 healthy controls (age range 6-16 years). Children with eczema had worse sleep quality on both PSG (notably increased nocturnal wakefulness, a higher number of stage shifts and a longer latency to REM onset) and parental report. In addition, they demonstrated significant neurocognitive deficits (especially verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning and to a lesser extent working memory) with a composite Full Scale IQ 16 points lower than controls. Parental reported sleep problems but not PSG parameters were correlated with reduced neurocognitive performance. However, hierarchical regression analyses revealed that eczema status was predictive while sleep fragmentation (parental or PSG) was not predictive of neurocognitive performance. As this is the first study to systematically examine neurocognitive functioning in children with eczema and given the finding of significant deficits it merits replication especially given the prevalence of the condition. The unanswered question is whether these cognitive deficits normalise with effective eczema treatment and if this is mediated by improvements in sleep architecture. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. INFECTIOUS-DISEASE TESTING FOR BLOOD-TRANSFUSIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DESFORGES, JF; ATHARI, F; COOPER, ES; JOHNSON, CS; LEMON, SM; LINDSAY, KL; MCCULLOUGH, J; MCINTOSH, K; ROSS, RK; WHITSETT, CF; WITTES, J; WRIGHT, TL

    1995-01-01

    Objective.-To provide physicians and other transfusion medicine professionals with a current consensus on infectious disease testing for blood transfusions. Participants.-A nonfederal, nonadvocate, 12-member consensus panel representing the fields of hematology, infectious disease, transfusion

  5. Blood: Tests Used to Assess the Physiological and Immunological Properties of Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, J. G.; Tansey, E. A.; Johnson, C. D.; Roe, S. M.; Montgomery, L. E. A.

    2016-01-01

    The properties of blood and the relative ease of access to which it can be retrieved make it an ideal source to gauge different aspects of homeostasis within an individual, form an accurate diagnosis, and formulate an appropriate treatment regime. Tests used to determine blood parameters such as the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, hemoglobin…

  6. A Blood Test Diagnostic of Exposure to Aldrin and Dieldrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, V. K. H.; Hunter, C. G.; Richardson, A.

    1964-01-01

    The findings of a diagnostic blood test for the presence of hexachloro-epoxy-octahydro-dimethanonaphthalene (H.E.O.D.) performed on whole blood obtained from operatives of plants manufacturing two chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides, aldrin and dieldrin, and formulating products containing them and from dogs experimentally exposed to dieldrin have been reported. When clinical signs of poisoning were present, the concentration of H.E.O.D. in the blood was more than 16·0-17·0 μg./100 g. blood. In the absence of clinical signs of intoxication the concentration of H.E.O.D. found in the blood was less than these values. However, the concentration of H.E.O.D. found in several operatives and in two dogs who were without signs of intoxication was above these values. It is suggested that there is a concentration of H.E.O.D. in the blood of man and dog which is a threshold for intoxication. The value for the threshold concentration may be near 15·0-20·0 μg./100 g. blood. An individual man or dog with a concentration of H.E.O.D. in the blood greater than the threshold is in a critical condition requiring some factor or factors not yet determined to precipitate intoxication. The use of this blood test will assess the severity of occupational exposure and support the diagnosis in suspected intoxication. PMID:14249897

  7. Evaluation of Verigene Blood Culture Test Systems for Rapid Identification of Positive Blood Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Seok Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of molecular tests using the Verigene Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Blood Culture nucleic acid tests (BC-GP and BC-GN, resp.; Naosphere, Northbrook, IL, USA was evaluated for the identification of microorganisms detected from blood cultures. Ninety-nine blood cultures containing Gram-positive bacteria and 150 containing Gram-negative bacteria were analyzed using the BC-GP and BC-GN assays, respectively. Blood cultures were performed using the Bactec blood culture system (BD Diagnostic Systems, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA and conventional identification and antibiotic-susceptibility tests were performed using a MicroScan system (Siemens, West Sacramento, CA, USA. When a single strain of bacteria was isolated from the blood culture, Verigene assays correctly identified 97.9% (94/96 of Gram-positive bacteria and 93.8% (137/146 of Gram-negative bacteria. Resistance genes mecA and vanA were correctly detected by the BC-GP assay, while the extended-spectrum β-lactamase CTX-M and the carbapenemase OXA resistance gene were detected from 30 cases cultures by the BC-GN assay. The BC-GP and BC-GN assays showed high agreement with conventional identification and susceptibility tests. These tests are useful for rapid identification of microorganisms and the detection of clinically important resistance genes from positive Bactec blood cultures.

  8. Evaluation of Verigene Blood Culture Test Systems for Rapid Identification of Positive Blood Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Seok; Kang, Go-Eun; Kim, Han-Sung; Kim, Hyun Soo; Song, Wonkeun; Lee, Kyu Man

    2016-01-01

    The performance of molecular tests using the Verigene Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Blood Culture nucleic acid tests (BC-GP and BC-GN, resp.; Naosphere, Northbrook, IL, USA) was evaluated for the identification of microorganisms detected from blood cultures. Ninety-nine blood cultures containing Gram-positive bacteria and 150 containing Gram-negative bacteria were analyzed using the BC-GP and BC-GN assays, respectively. Blood cultures were performed using the Bactec blood culture system (BD Diagnostic Systems, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA) and conventional identification and antibiotic-susceptibility tests were performed using a MicroScan system (Siemens, West Sacramento, CA, USA). When a single strain of bacteria was isolated from the blood culture, Verigene assays correctly identified 97.9% (94/96) of Gram-positive bacteria and 93.8% (137/146) of Gram-negative bacteria. Resistance genes mecA and vanA were correctly detected by the BC-GP assay, while the extended-spectrum β-lactamase CTX-M and the carbapenemase OXA resistance gene were detected from 30 cases cultures by the BC-GN assay. The BC-GP and BC-GN assays showed high agreement with conventional identification and susceptibility tests. These tests are useful for rapid identification of microorganisms and the detection of clinically important resistance genes from positive Bactec blood cultures.

  9. 78 FR 13069 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Recommendations for Screening, Testing, and, Management of Blood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... and Blood and Blood Components Based on Screening Tests for Syphilis,'' dated March 2013. The draft... donations based on screening tests for syphilis. The draft guidance is intended for blood establishments... Screening, Testing, and Management of Blood Donors and Blood and Blood Components Based on Screening Tests...

  10. [Inside quality control for whole blood preservation performed at blood transfusion compatibility testing laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Ma, Chun-Ya; Feng, Qian; Chen, Xin; Guan, Xiao-Zhen; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Chen, Lin-Feng; Lin, Zi-Lin; Pan, Ji-Chun; Zhang, Ting; Luo, Qun; Wang, De-Qing

    2010-06-01

    This study was aimed to establish the technique for preparation and storage of internal quality control pro-ducts by using existing blood sample resources of blood transfusion compatibility testing laboratory. 24 healthy blood donors with group A and RhD-positive were randomly selected, and 4 ml venous blood from these donors were collected, respectively. Based on the use of anticoagulant type, whether to add red blood cell preservation solution and the samples stored at room temperature for 1 or 2 hours daily, 24 specimens were randomly divided into 8 groups by using factorial design methodology. All samples in tube with cap were stored at 4 degrees C, and placed at room temperature for 1 or 2 hours daily. ABO, RhD blood group (recorded on the agglutination strength of the forward and reverse typing), IgM anti-B antibody titer, and free hemoglobin concentration in the supernatant for all samples were detected at 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 days of products preservation. The results indicated that the red blood cell damage from the group used anticoagulants ACD-B and added the MAP red blood cell preservation solution and placed at room temperature 1 hour daily (recorded as A2B2C1 group) was kept minimal, and FHb concentration and FHb increments at each time point were the lowest (p 0.05). In conclusion, blood transfusion compatibility testing laboratory can use A2B2C1 program established by this study to prepare relatively stable modified whole blood internal quality control products in the existing conditions, which can be effectively preserved and meet the requirements of internal quality control for blood transfusion compatibility testing.

  11. Testing of Some Canine Blood Types in Transfusion Compatibility Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Ognean

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood types were determined using SHIGETA (n=136 and DEA1.1 (n=25 kits, in two groups of dogs, consisting of patients that underwent blood transfusions and healthy donors. The tests were conducted in accordance with the procedures established by the manufacturers, using specific monoclonal antibodies kits, heparinized blood for the tube agglutination (TUBE and slide (SLIDE methods, and EDTA treated blood for the CARD and chromatographic (CHROM methods. The clear expression of tube agglutination reaction in the SHIGETA kit provided a good detection of antigens. Positive reactions with anti-DEA1.1 were clear and evident with the CHROM test. SHIGETA tests revealed a predominance 1.1B (47.05% of blood type, common in Rotweilers (81.81% and Romanian Shepherds (73.68% and group 1(-B (24.26%, frequently found in German Shepherds (54.16%, these also representing an important source of compatible blood. DEA1.1 type test, revealed a high frequency of positive dogs (75%, associated with lower number of potential donors. Extrapolation of SHIGETA groups into the DEA system, confirmed the 1(-B positive dogs as DEA 1.1 negative, and their prevalence in German Shepherds also confirmed their known tendency to be “ideal donors”. The CHROME test showed a good efficiency in auto agglutination control and detecting DEA1.1 positive dogs, including patients with severe forms of anemia.

  12. Delays in DUI blood testing: Impact on cannabis DUI assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Ed; Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Drum, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the time from law enforcement dispatch to the first blood draw in cases of driving under the influence (DUI) vehicular homicide and a subset of DUI vehicular assault cases in Colorado in 2012. Laboratory toxicology results were also examined to understand the implications of delays in blood draws in cases of driving while under the influence of marijuana's delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Colorado court records were reviewed and information regarding charges, presence of alcohol and/or drugs, time of law enforcement contact and blood draw, crash location, and other contextual factors were identified. The distributions of first blood draw times were studied by charge and by responding law enforcement agency. Toxicology data from a different cohort of DUI traffic arrests in Colorado and Washington were examined to determine the proportion of blood tests for THC that were above specified legal limits in those states. The average time from law enforcement dispatch to blood draw in cases of vehicular homicide and vehicular assault was 2.32 h (SD ± 1.31 h), with a range of 0.83 to 8.0 h and a median of 2.0 h. Data from DUI traffic arrests found that between 42 and 70% of all cannabinoid-positive traffic arrests tested below 5 ng/ml THC in blood, which is the legal limit in Colorado and Washington. Given the current delays to blood testing in cases of arrests for vehicular homicide and vehicular assault in Colorado, many blood tests are unlikely to confirm that drivers who are impaired from smoking marijuana have THC levels above established legal limits.

  13. Guidelines on the management of abnormal liver blood tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Philip N; Cramb, Rob; Davison, Suzanne M; Dillon, John F; Foulerton, Mark; Godfrey, Edmund M; Hall, Richard; Harrower, Ulrike; Hudson, Mark; Langford, Andrew; Mackie, Anne; Mitchell-Thain, Robert; Sennett, Karen; Sheron, Nicholas C; Verne, Julia; Walmsley, Martine; Yeoman, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    These updated guidelines on the management of abnormal liver blood tests have been commissioned by the Clinical Services and Standards Committee (CSSC) of the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) under the auspices of the liver section of the BSG. The original guidelines, which this document supersedes, were written in 2000 and have undergone extensive revision by members of the Guidelines Development Group (GDG). The GDG comprises representatives from patient/carer groups (British Liver Trust, Liver4life, PBC Foundation and PSC Support), elected members of the BSG liver section (including representatives from Scotland and Wales), British Association for the Study of the Liver (BASL), Specialist Advisory Committee in Clinical Biochemistry/Royal College of Pathology and Association for Clinical Biochemistry, British Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (BSPGHAN), Public Health England (implementation and screening), Royal College of General Practice, British Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiologists (BSGAR) and Society of Acute Medicine. The quality of evidence and grading of recommendations was appraised using the AGREE II tool. These guidelines deal specifically with the management of abnormal liver blood tests in children and adults in both primary and secondary care under the following subheadings: (1) What constitutes an abnormal liver blood test? (2) What constitutes a standard liver blood test panel? (3) When should liver blood tests be checked? (4) Does the extent and duration of abnormal liver blood tests determine subsequent investigation? (5) Response to abnormal liver blood tests. They are not designed to deal with the management of the underlying liver disease. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. DNA methylation profiling for a confirmatory test for blood, saliva, semen, vaginal fluid and menstrual blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwan Young; Jung, Sang-Eun; Lee, Eun Hee; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2016-09-01

    The ability to predict the type of tissues or cells from molecular profiles of crime scene samples has important practical implications in forensics. A previously reported multiplex assay using DNA methylation markers could only discriminate between 4 types of body fluids: blood, saliva, semen, and the body fluid which originates from female reproductive organ. In the present study, we selected 15 menstrual blood-specific CpG marker candidates based on analysis of 12 genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of vaginal fluid and menstrual blood. The menstrual blood-specificity of the candidate markers was confirmed by comparison with HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array data obtained for 58 samples including 12 blood, 12 saliva, 12 semen, 3 vaginal fluid, and 19 skin epidermis samples. Among 15CpG marker candidates, 3 were located in the promoter region of the SLC26A10 gene, and 2 of them (cg09696411 and cg18069290) showed high menstrual blood specificity. DNA methylation at the 2CpG markers was further tested by targeted bisulfite sequencing of 461 additional samples including 49 blood, 52 saliva, 34 semen, 125 vaginal fluid, and 201 menstrual blood. Because the 2 markers showed menstrual blood-specific methylation patterns, we modified our previous multiplex methylation SNaPshot reaction to include these 2 markers. In addition, a blood marker cg01543184 with cross reactivity to semen was replaced with cg08792630, and a semen-specific unmethylation marker cg17621389 was removed. The resultant multiplex methylation SNaPshot allowed positive identification of blood, saliva, semen, vaginal fluid and menstrual blood using the 9CpG markers which show a methylation signal only in the target body fluids. Because of the complexity in cell composition, menstrual bloods produced DNA methylation profiles that vary with menstrual cycle and sample collection methods, which are expected to provide more insight into forensic menstrual blood test. Moreover, because the developed

  15. Effect of Blood Cell Subtypes Lysis on Routine Biochemical Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünlü Burcu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to establish the contribution of blood cells subtypes on hemolysis. Methods: Separated blood cell subtype suspensions prepared with blood from 10 volunteers were serially diluted to obtain different concentrations of cell suspensions. The cells were fully lysed and cell hemolysates were added (1:20 to aliquots of serum pool. Thus, seven serum pools with different concentrations of interferent were obtained for each blood cell subtype. Biochemical parameters and serum indices were measured by an autoanalyzer. As cell lysis markers, free hemoglobin was measured by spectrophotometry while myeloperoxidase and b-thromboglobulin were measured by enzyme immunoassay. The percent changes in analyte levels of the serum pools were evaulated by Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and compared with clinical thresholds defined for each test. Results: The clinical thresholds were exceeded in lactate dehydrogenase, potassium, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, magnesium, total protein, total cholesterol, inorganic phosphate, glucose for red blood cells (RBC; lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, total protein, inorganic phosphate and glucose for platelets (PLT. Free hemoglobin was significantly correlated with RBC (r=0.999; p=0.001, while myeloperoxidase and b thromboglobulin showed no significant correlation to white blood cells (WBC and PLT, respectively. Conclusion: The effect of RBC hemolysis in serum on the routine biochemical tests are clearly established, yet, additional studies are required in order to verify this kind of effects of PLT and WBC hemolysis.

  16. The causal relationships between neurocognition, social cognition and functional outcome over time in schizophrenia: a latent difference score approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoe, M; Nakagami, E; Green, M F; Brekke, J S

    2012-11-01

    Social cognition has been identified as a significant construct for schizophrenia research with relevance to diagnosis, assessment, treatment and functional outcome. However, social cognition has not been clearly understood in terms of its relationships with neurocognition and functional outcomes. The present study sought to examine the empirical independence of social cognition and neurocognition; to investigate the possible causal structure among social cognition, neurocognition and psychosocial functioning. The sample consists of 130 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia. All participants were recruited as they were admitted to four community-based psychosocial rehabilitation programs. Social cognition, neurocognition and psychosocial functioning were measured at baseline and 12 months. The empirical independence of social cognition and neurocognition was tested using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and the possible causal structure among social cognition, neurocognition and psychosocial functioning was investigated using latent difference score (LDS) analysis. A two-factor model of social cognition and neurocognition fit the data very well, indicating the empirical independence of social cognition, whereas the longitudinal CFA results show that the empirical independence of neurocognition and social cognition is maintained over time. The results of the LDS analysis support a causal model that indicates that neurocognition underlies and is causally primary to social cognition, and that neurocognition and social cognition are causally primary to functional outcome. Social cognition and neurocognition could have independent and distinct upward causal effects on functional outcome. It is also suggested that the approaches for remediation of neurocognition and social cognition might need to be distinct.

  17. Neurocognitive characteristics of DUI recidivists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouimet, Marie Claude; Brown, Thomas G; Nadeau, Louise; Lepage, Martin; Pelletier, Marc; Couture, Sophie; Tremblay, Jacques; Legault, Lucie; Dongier, Maurice; Gianoulakis, Christina; Ng Ying Kin, N M K

    2007-07-01

    Individuals who drive under the influence (DUI) of alcohol may be at greater risk for neurocognitive impairment because of their exposure to multiple sources of neurological risk. This could contribute to the persistence of DUI behaviour and influence the effectiveness of remedial interventions. The objectives of this study were to clarify the neurocognitive characteristics of DUI recidivists and the nature of potential impairments, and to explore relationships between these characteristics and the frequency of past DUI convictions. One hundred male recidivists were evaluated for visuospatial constructional abilities and visual memory, verbal fluency, attention skills, cognitive flexibility, spatial planning, and verbal and movement inhibition. Results indicated that a majority of recidivists showed signs of neurocognitive impairment on several dimensions. Impairment was most marked on visuospatial constructional abilities and visual memory. In contrast to previous studies, no participants were found to have impulse control problems. Measures of memory and cognitive efficiency were significantly associated with the frequency of past convictions. Finally, exploratory analyses of two potential sources of impairment, alcohol exposure and head trauma, suggested the role of excessive alcohol use as the most obvious associated factor. Overall, the findings indicate that neurocognitive impairments are a common feature in recidivists and may contribute to DUI persistence. Development of a DUI-specific neurocognitive assessment and greater understanding of how neurocognitive status influences DUI risk could lead to remediation strategies better adapted to the individual characteristics of recidivists.

  18. Participation in blood glucose test, knowledge and prevalence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diabetes mellitus causes great health complications which include cardiovascular diseases and nerve damage. Aim: To ascertain the participation in blood glucose test, knowledge of diabetes mellitus (DM) and prevalence of hyperglycemia among traders at New market, Enugu State. Methods: The study is a ...

  19. Sensitivity of fecal occult blood testing in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudinsky, Adam J; Guillaumin, Julien; Gilor, Chen

    2017-06-01

    Objectives The impact of dietary factors on fecal occult blood (FOB) testing has been previously evaluated in cats, but the analytical sensitivity of this point-of-care test remains unexamined. The primary goal of this study was to assess the analytical sensitivity of the FOB test in cats. Methods Five cats were used in a repeated measures study. Following oral administration of blood, feces were collected and tested every 12 h for FOB and melena. All cats were fed an animal protein-free diet starting the week before entry into the study. Blood was administered on a milligram of hemoglobin per kilogram of body weight basis, and dosed at 1.5, 3, 15, 30 and 45 mg/kg hemoglobin in series with a wash-out period between each trial. Results FOB was detected in one cat at 1.5 mg/kg hemoglobin, three cats at 3 mg/kg hemoglobin and in all five cats at 15, 30 and 45 mg/kg hemoglobin. Melena was noted in one cat at 30 mg/kg and four cats at 45 mg/kg, but not at lower doses. Conclusions and relevance Administration of 15 mg/kg hemoglobin (equivalent to about 1.5 ml blood) was sufficient for positive results in all cats. However, detection occurred with as little as 1.5 mg/kg hemoglobin. Thus, FOB has good analytical sensitivity in cats under appropriate clinical situations.

  20. Changing the Price of Marriage: Evidence from Blood Test Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckles, Kasey; Guldi, Melanie; Price, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    We use state repeals of blood test requirements (BTRs) for a marriage license that occurred between 1980 and 2008 to examine the impact of changes in the price of marriage on the marriage decision. Using a within-group estimator that holds constant state and year effects and exploits variation in the repeal dates of BTRs across states, we find…

  1. Solubility tests and the peripheral blood film method for screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the cost benefit of screening for sicklecell disease among infants at district health centres in Uganda using sickling, solubility tests and the peripheral blood film method. Methods. Pilot screening services were established at district health centres. Cost benefit analysis (CBA) was performed in four ...

  2. What do tests do for doctors? A qualitative study of blood testing in UK primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jessica; de Salis, Isabel; Banks, Jonathan; Salisbury, Chris

    2017-11-16

    Rates of blood testing are rising with significant geographical variability. Most research into diagnostic testing focuses on the role of tests in diagnostic decision-making. The aim of this study was to explore the non-medical motives for blood testing by considering what tests do for doctors, through qualitative interviews with general practitioners (GPs). We undertook 23 in-depth semi-structured interviews with UK GPs. Reasons for performing recent inflammatory marker blood tests were explored by reviewing GPs pathology inboxes to ground discussions in real-life clinical practice. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using a grounded theory approach. Blood tests offer doctors a tool to manage uncertainty; within a context of increased litigation, risk aversion and reduced continuity of care. Tests can also be offered as a 'gift' for patients, a way to be seen to be 'doing something'; in the social context of time pressures and perceived patient pressures. There was a tension however. On the one hand, doctors talked about using tests for reassurance and as a 'gift' offering 'truth'. Yet paradoxically, they also discussed the challenges of uncertainty and anxiety from inconclusive test results. Our study emphasises that defining 'unnecessary' blood testing may not be as simple as determining medical criteria for testing; psychosocial reasons may be equally valid and interlinked. Further research is needed to help GPs manage uncertainty within the context of a risk averse society, and to explore the congruence and dissonance between doctors' and patients' perceptions of testing.

  3. [Standardised environmental conditions for neurocognitive laboratories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamoros-Tuma, M; Alvarez-González, M

    The exploration of neurocognition in neurology departments has gone a long way from the traditional psychometric tests to the present day use of high technology methods in cognitive neurophysiology, as is the case of event related potentials. Given the increased sensitivity of these procedures, it has become absolutely essential to control the influence of environmental variables that may exert non controlled effects on the patient s response. Many neurocognitive laboratories have been set up in premises in which the spatial layout and the environmental characteristics have been determined beforehand and consequently technical staff has had to prepare these rooms in an empirical way. This gives rise to two types of drawbacks: interferences in the patient s concentration and low reproducibility of the results in other laboratories. In this paper we present a proposed set of standardised conditions for a neurocognitive laboratory from an architectural perspective, and more specifically with regard to interior design. We outline the functional design of the premises, the conditions for workplaces where VDU computers (Video Display Units) are used and where psychometric evaluation is carried out. We also discuss the criteria to be followed when placing the laboratory within a hospital, lighting parameters, air conditioning and suggestions about psychological input. Although we do not seek to establish a rigid set of norms, these conditions will raise the quality of evaluations and facilitate the comparison of results because of the reduced variability from the environment.

  4. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system. (a) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes (red...

  5. Forensic Identification of Human Blood: comparison of two one-step presumptive tests for blood screening of crime scene samples.

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Flávia Belchior Andrade; Maria Emília Cambria Guimaro Siqueira; Luciano Chaves Arantes; Larissa Silva Queiroz; Rayane Luiza Viegas Silva; Eduardo Dias Ramalho

    2014-01-01

    Blood is the most common body fluid found at crime scenes. One-step presumptive tests have been designed as a rapid immunological test for the qualitative detection of human hemoglobin in stool samples (faecal occult blood) their usefulness for forensic purposes has been demonstrated before. In this study we compare Hexagon OBTI kit and FOB One-step Bioeasy kit sensitivity in the analysis of diluted blood samples. With Hexagon OBTI, positive test results are achieved in whole blood dilutions ...

  6. Hair sheep blood, citrated or defibrinated, fulfills all requirements of blood agar for diagnostic microbiology laboratory tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Yeh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Blood agar is used for the identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of many bacterial pathogens. In the developing world, microbiologists use human blood agar because of the high cost and inhospitable conditions for raising wool sheep or horses to supply blood. Many pathogens either fail to grow entirely or exhibit morphologies and hemolytic patterns on human blood agar that confound colony recognition. Furthermore, human blood can be hazardous to handle due to HIV and hepatitis. This study investigated whether blood from hair sheep, a hardy, low-maintenance variety of sheep adapted for hot climates, was suitable for routine clinical microbiology studies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Hair sheep blood obtained by jugular venipuncture was anticoagulated by either manual defibrination or collection in human blood bank bags containing citrate-phosphate-dextrose. Trypticase soy 5% blood agar was made from both forms of hair sheep blood and commercial defibrinated wool sheep blood. Growth characteristics, colony morphologies, and hemolytic patterns of selected human pathogens, including several streptococcal species, were evaluated. Specialized identification tests, including CAMP test, reverse CAMP test, and satellite colony formation with Haemophilus influenzae and Abiotrophia defectiva were also performed. Mueller-Hinton blood agar plates prepared from the three blood types were compared in antibiotic susceptibility tests by disk diffusion and E-test. CONCLUSIONS: The results of all studies showed that blood agar prepared from citrated hair sheep blood is suitable for microbiological tests used in routine identification and susceptibility profiling of human pathogens. The validation of citrated hair sheep blood eliminates the labor-intensive and equipment-requiring process of manual defibrination. Use of hair sheep blood, in lieu of human blood currently used by many developing world laboratories and as an alternative to cost

  7. Polymerase chain reaction and blood culture in blood donors screened by ELISA test for Chagas' disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Tieko Kinoshita-Yanaga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate, through blood culture and PCR, the results of the ELISA for Chagas' disease in the screening of blood donors in the public blood-supply network of the state of Paraná, Brazil, and to map the epidemiological profile of the donors with respect to their risk of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi. The negative and positive results of the ELISA were confirmed by blood culture and PCR for 190/191 individuals (99.5%. For one individual (0.5%, the ELISA was inconclusive, blood culture and IIF were negative, and IHA and PCR positive. Three individuals (1.6% were positive for T. cruzi on all the tests. Donors were predominantly female, and natives of Paraná, of rural origin, had observed or been informed of the presence of the vector in the municipalities where they resided, had never received a blood transfusion, had donated blood 1 to 4 times, and reported no cases of Chagas' disease in their families. We concluded that PCR and blood culturing have excellent potential for confirming the results of the ELISA, and that candidate blood donors with negative or positive tests have a similar risk of infection by T. cruzi, indicating that the ELISA test is sufficiently safe for screening blood prior to use.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar, pela hemocultura e PCR, os resultados do teste ELISA utilizado para doença de Chagas na triagem de doadores de sangue na rede pública do Estado do Paraná, Brasil, e traçar o perfil epidemiológico dos doadores quanto ao risco de infecção pelo Trypanosoma cruzi. Os resultados negativos e positivos do ELISA foram confirmados pela hemocultura e PCR em 190/191 indivíduos (99,5%. Para um indivíduo (0,5%, o teste de ELISA foi inconclusivo, hemocultura e IFI foram negativas, HAI e PCR foram positivas. Três indivíduos (1,6% foram positivos para T. cruzi em todos os testes. A maioria dos doadores era do sexo feminino, oriundos do Estado do Paraná, de origem rural, tinham

  8. Neurocognitive Function in Children with Primary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, Marc B; Batisky, Donald L; Kupferman, Juan C; Samuels, Joshua; Hooper, Stephen R; Falkner, Bonita; Waldstein, Shari R; Szilagyi, Peter G; Wang, Hongyue; Staskiewicz, Jennifer; Adams, Heather R

    2017-01-01

    To compare neurocognitive test performance of children with primary hypertension with that of normotensive controls. Seventy-five children (10-18 years of age) with newly diagnosed, untreated hypertension and 75 frequency-matched normotensive controls had baseline neurocognitive testing as part of a prospective multicenter study of cognition in primary hypertension. Subjects completed tests of general intelligence, attention, memory, executive function, and processing speed. Parents completed rating scales of executive function and the Sleep-Related Breathing Disorder scale of the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ-SRBD). Hypertension and control groups did not differ significantly in age, sex, maternal education, income, race, ethnicity, obesity, anxiety, depression, cholesterol, glucose, insulin, and C-reactive protein. Subjects with hypertension had greater PSQ-SRBD scores (P = .04) and triglycerides (P = .037). Multivariate analyses showed that hypertension was independently associated with worse performance on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (List A Trial 1, P = .034; List A Total, P = .009; Short delay recall, P = .013), CogState Groton Maze Learning Test delayed recall (P = .002), Grooved Pegboard dominant hand (P = .045), and Wechsler Abbreviated Scales of Intelligence Vocabulary (P = .016). Results indicated a significant interaction between disordered sleep (PSQ-SRBD score) and hypertension on ratings of executive function (P = .04), such that hypertension heightened the association between increased disordered sleep and worse executive function. Youth with primary hypertension demonstrated significantly lower performance on neurocognitive testing compared with normotensive controls, in particular, on measures of memory, attention, and executive functions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Principles of dielectric blood coagulometry as a comprehensive coagulation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yoshihito; Brun, Marc-Aurèle; Machida, Kenzo; Nagasawa, Masayuki

    2015-10-06

    Dielectric blood coagulometry (DBCM) is intended to support hemostasis management by providing comprehensive information on blood coagulation from automated, time-dependent measurements of whole blood dielectric spectra. We discuss the relationship between the series of blood coagulation reactions, especially the aggregation and deformation of erythrocytes, and the dielectric response with the help of clot structure electron microscope observations. Dielectric response to the spontaneous coagulation after recalcification presented three distinct phases that correspond to (P1) rouleau formation before the onset of clotting, (P2) erythrocyte aggregation and reconstitution of aggregates accompanying early fibrin formation, and (P3) erythrocyte shape transformation and/or structure changes within aggregates after the stable fibrin network is formed and platelet contraction occurs. Disappearance of the second phase was observed upon addition of tissue factor and ellagic acid for activation of extrinsic and intrinsic pathways, respectively, which is attributable to accelerated thrombin generation. A series of control experiments revealed that the amplitude and/or quickness of dielectric response reflect platelet function, fibrin polymerization, fibrinolysis activity, and heparin activity. Therefore, DBCM sensitively measures blood coagulation via erythrocytes aggregation and shape changes and their impact on the dielectric permittivity, making possible the development of the battery of assays needed for comprehensive coagulation testing.

  10. 9 CFR 147.3 - The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-blood test. 3 147.3 Section 147.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Blood Testing Procedures § 147.3 The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 3 The procedure... necessary. The test plate should be rocked from side to side a few times to mix the antigen and blood...

  11. Changes in Neurocognitive Functioning After 6 Months of Mentalization-Based Treatment for Borderline Personality Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Marianne Skovgaard; Ruocco, Anthony C; Uliaszek, Amanda A

    2017-01-01

    Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) have deficits in neurocognitive function that could affect their ability to engage in psychotherapy and may be ameliorated by improvements in symptom severity. In the current study, 18 patients with BPD completed neurocognitive tests prior...

  12. Influence of blood lipids on global coagulation test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Ah; Kim, Ji-Eun; Song, Sang Hoon; Kim, Hyun Kyung

    2015-01-01

    High levels of blood lipids have been associated with high levels of coagulation factors. We investigated whether blood lipids influence the results of global coagulation tests, including prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and thrombin generation assay (TGA). PT, aPTT, and TGA, along with procoagulant and anticoagulant factors, were measured in 488 normal individuals. Vitamin K status was assessed with prothrombin-induced by vitamin K absence-II (PIVKA-II). The procoagulant factors II, VII, IX, X, and XI and anticoagulant factors protein C and protein S showed significant correlations with triglyceride, and the procoagulant factors II, V, VII, IX, X, XI, and XII and anticoagulant factors antithrombin and protein C correlated with total cholesterol. There were no correlations of blood lipid levels with PIVKA-II levels. Subjects with high triglyceride levels (≥200 mg/dL) showed shorter PT values than those with lower triglyceride levels. However, aPTT value was not changed in terms of blood lipid levels. In both 1 and 5 pM tissue factor-induced TGAs, subjects in the high-triglyceride or high-cholesterol groups (≥240 mg/dL) had high levels of lag time, time-to-peak, and endogenous thrombin potential. Total cholesterol was a significant determinant of PT and TGA values. High blood lipids were related with increased coagulation activity in a normal population. Our findings are expected to help interpret the global coagulation test results in individuals with high lipid levels.

  13. Neurocognitive effects of alcohol hangover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, Gemma; Adan, Ana; Pérez-Pàmies, Montserrat; Sànchez-Turet, Miquel

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol hangover is characterized by adverse physical and mental effects that occur the next morning after the intake of toxic doses of alcohol. One of the more relevant functional consequences of hangover is the cognitive and subjective impairment, which could be related to the high socioeconomic costs of alcohol consumption. Nevertheless, few studies have addressed the study of neurocognitive and subjective effects of hangover. The systematic and exhaustive study of neurocognitive and subjective effects has not been done. In the present work we briefly review the hangover impact, not only in the objective execution of attention, psychomotricity and memory tasks, but in the subjective state of the subjects as well. Moreover, we also highlight the methodology difficulties to study neurocognitive effects of hangover and suggest several aspects to take into account in future investigations.

  14. Selective Neurocognitive Impairments in Adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Georges; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Jepsen, Susie; Ballard, Kristin; Nelson, Megan; Houri, Alaa; Kumra, Sanjiv; Cullen, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether major depression in adolescence is characterized by neurocognitive deficits in attention, affective decision making, and cognitive control of emotion processing. Neuropsychological tests including the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, the Continuous Performance Test-Identical Pairs, the Attention Network…

  15. Urine Test Strips to Exclude Cerebral Spinal Fluid Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall, Robin A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Determining the presence or absence of red blood cells (RBC or their breakdown products in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF is essential for the evaluation of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH in headache patients. Current methodology for finding blood in the CSF is either spectrophotometric detection of pigment, which is time consuming and labor intensive, or visual assesment of samples for color change (xanthochromia, which is inaccurate. Bayer Multistix® urine test strips are designed to test urine for RBC by detecting the presence of hemoglobin. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the perfomance of urine reagent test strips for ruling out the presence of RBC in CSF.Methods: We compared color changes on Multistix® urine test strips to the standard of spectrophotometric absorbtion at 415nm and initial RBC counts in 138 visually clear CSF samples.Results: We performed Pearson Chi-Square and likelihood ratios on the results and found a correlation between a negative result on the urine test strip and less than 5 RBC per high power field and a spectrophotometric absorbance of less than 0.02% at 415nm in a CSF sample.Conclusion: These results warrant further investigation in the form of a prospective clinical validation as it may alter the emergency department evaluation for SAH. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(1:63-66.

  16. Social attribution test--multiple choice (SAT-MC) in schizophrenia: comparison with community sample and relationship to neurocognitive, social cognitive and symptom measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Morris D; Fiszdon, Joanna M; Greig, Tamasine C; Wexler, Bruce E

    2010-09-01

    This is the first report on the use of the Social Attribution Task - Multiple Choice (SAT-MC) to assess social cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. The SAT-MC was originally developed for autism research, and consists of a 64-second animation showing geometric figures enacting a social drama, with 19 multiple choice questions about the interactions. Responses from 85 community-dwelling participants and 66 participants with SCID confirmed schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders (Scz) revealed highly significant group differences. When the two samples were combined, SAT-MC scores were significantly correlated with other social cognitive measures, including measures of affect recognition, theory of mind, self-report of egocentricity and the Social Cognition Index from the MATRICS battery. Using a cut-off score, 53% of Scz were significantly impaired on SAT-MC compared with 9% of the community sample. Most Scz participants with impairment on SAT-MC also had impairment on affect recognition. Significant correlations were also found with neurocognitive measures but with less dependence on verbal processes than other social cognitive measures. Logistic regression using SAT-MC scores correctly classified 75% of both samples. Results suggest that this measure may have promise, but alternative versions will be needed before it can be used in pre-post or longitudinal designs. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comorbid anxiety and neurocognitive dysfunctions in children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemsma, J Monique; Boer, Frits; Arnold, Renée; Banaschewski, Tobias; Faraone, Stephen V; Buitelaar, Jan K; Sergeant, Joseph A; Rommelse, Nanda; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2013-04-01

    Previous research established that children with ADHD and comorbid anxiety have a later age of ADHD onset, show less off-task and hyperactive behavior, and have more school problems than children with ADHD alone. Comorbid anxiety appears to ameliorate behavioral inhibition deficits, worsen working memory problems, and lengthen reaction times in ADHD. This study investigated the effect of comorbid anxiety on a broad range of neurocognitive functions and includes child-, parent- and teacher reports of anxiety. The sample consisted of 509 children in the age range 5-19 years, including 238 children with a diagnosis of ADHD combined subtype and 271 normal control children. Children were tested on a broad battery of neurocognitive tasks that proved highly sensitive to ADHD in previous work. Linear Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to estimate the effect of comorbid anxiety on the neurocognitive functions. Child reported anxiety was associated with slower motor speed and response speed and better behavioral inhibition. Teacher reported anxiety was related to worse time production. Parent reported anxiety was not significantly associated with any of the neurocognitive functions. Compared to parent and teacher reports of anxiety, child reported comorbid anxiety shows foremost the largest associations with the neurocognitive dysfunctions observed in children with ADHD. This stresses the importance of including child self-reported anxiety assessments in clinical and research practice.

  18. Aging, neurocognition, and medication adherence in HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettenhofer, Mark L; Hinkin, Charles H; Castellon, Steven A; Durvasula, Ramani; Ullman, Jodi; Lam, Mona; Myers, Hector; Wright, Matthew J; Foley, Jessica

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the hypothesis that poor adherence to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) would be more strongly related to cognitive impairment among older than among younger HIV-seropositive adults. A volunteer sample of 431 HIV-infected adult patients prescribed self-administered HAART was recruited from community agencies and university-affiliated infectious disease clinics in the Los Angeles area. Neurocognitive measures included tests of attention, information processing speed, learning/memory, verbal fluency, motor functioning, and executive functioning. Medication adherence was measured using microchip-embedded pill bottle caps (Medication Event Monitoring System) and self-report. Latent/structural analysis techniques were used to evaluate factor models of cognition and adherence. Mean adherence rates were higher among older (>or=50 years) than younger (<50 years) HIV-positive adults. However, latent/structural modeling demonstrated that neurocognitive impairment was associated with poorer medication adherence among older participants only. When cognitive subdomains were examined individually, executive functioning, motor functioning, and processing speed were most strongly related to adherence in this age group. CD4 count and drug problems were also more strongly associated with adherence among older than younger adults. Older HIV-positive individuals with neurocognitive impairment or drug problems are at increased risk of suboptimal adherence to medication. Likewise, older adults may be especially vulnerable to immunological and neurocognitive dysfunction under conditions of suboptimal HAART adherence. These findings highlight the importance of optimizing medication adherence rates and evaluating neurocognition in the growing population of older HIV-infected patients.

  19. Nutritional and Immunological Correlates of Memory and Neurocognitive Development Among HIV-Infected Children Living in Kayunga, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiseñor-Escudero, Horacio; Familiar-Lopez, Itziar; Sikorskii, Alla; Jambulingam, Nikita; Nakasujja, Noelline; Opoka, Robert; Bass, Judith; Boivin, Michael

    2016-04-15

    To identify the nutritional and immunological correlates of memory and neurocognitive development as measured by the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL) and by the Color Object Association Test (COAT) among children in Uganda. This analysis uses baseline data collected between 2008 and 2010 from 119 HIV-infected children aged 1-6 years, participating in a randomized controlled trial of an interventional parenting program in Kayunga, Uganda. Peripheral blood draws were performed to determine immunological biomarkers. Unadjusted and adjusted linear regression models were used to relate MSEL and COAT scores to sociodemographic characteristics, weight-for-age Z scores (WAZs), antiretroviral therapy status, and immunological biomarkers. In the final analysis, 111 children were included. Lower levels of CD4 CD38 T cells (P = 0.04) were associated to higher immediate and total recall scores (P = 0.04). Higher levels of CD8 HLA-DR T cells were associated with higher total recall score (P = 0.04) of the COAT. Higher CD4 CD38 HLA-DR T cells levels were associated with higher gross motor scores of the MSEL (P = 0.02). WAZ was positively correlated to visual reception, fine motor, expressive language, and composite score of the MSEL. Overall, WAZ was a stronger predictor of neurocognitive outcomes assessed by the MSEL. CD4 CD38 T cells were more specifically associated with memory-related outcomes. Future research should include immunological markers and standardized neurocognitive tests to further understand this relationship.

  20. Social cognition and neurocognitive deficits in first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliksted, Vibeke Fuglsang; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Weed, Ethan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent research has shown a significant impact of social cognitive domains on real world functioning and prognosis in schizophrenia. However, the correlations between specific aspects of social cognition, neurocognition, IQ and clinical symptoms remain unclear in first......-episode schizophrenia. Researchers have speculated about social cognitive subgroups since patients with schizophrenia appear to be a very heterogeneous group. METHODS: Patients with a recent diagnosis of first-episode schizophrenia were tested regarding theory of mind, social perception, neurocognition, IQ......, and clinical symptoms. RESULTS: Data from 36 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 36 one to one matched healthy controls were analysed. Principal component analysis in the patient group was used to examine the variance contributed by different aspects of social cognition, neurocognition, and clinical...

  1. Quiz: Does Your Blood Pressure Pass the Test? | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Special Section: Healthy Blood Pressure Quiz: Does Your Blood Pressure Pass the Test? Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table of Contents Blood pressure changes throughout the day. It is highest while ...

  2. Neurocognition and Duration of Psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rund, Bjørn Rishovd; Barder, Helene Eidsmo; Evensen, Julie

    2016-01-01

    A substantial proportion of schizophrenia-spectrum patients exhibit a cognitive impairment at illness onset. However, the long-term course of neurocognition and a possible neurotoxic effect of time spent in active psychosis, is a topic of controversy. Furthermore, it is of importance to find out...

  3. Molecular neuropsychology: creation of test-specific blood biomarker algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryant, Sid E; Xiao, Guanghua; Barber, Robert; Cullum, C Munro; Weiner, Myron; Hall, James; Edwards, Melissa; Grammas, Paula; Wilhelmsen, Kirk; Doody, Rachelle; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Prior work on the link between blood-based biomarkers and cognitive status has largely been based on dichotomous classifications rather than detailed neuropsychological functioning. The current project was designed to create serum-based biomarker algorithms that predict neuropsychological test performance. A battery of neuropsychological measures was administered. Random forest analyses were utilized to create neuropsychological test-specific biomarker risk scores in a training set that were entered into linear regression models predicting the respective test scores in the test set. Serum multiplex biomarker data were analyzed on 108 proteins from 395 participants (197 Alzheimer patients and 198 controls) from the Texas Alzheimer's Research and Care Consortium. The biomarker risk scores were significant predictors (p neuropsychological tests. With the exception of premorbid intellectual status (6.6%), the biomarker risk scores alone accounted for a minimum of 12.9% of the variance in neuropsychological scores. Biomarker algorithms (biomarker risk scores and demographics) accounted for substantially more variance in scores. Review of the variable importance plots indicated differential patterns of biomarker significance for each test, suggesting the possibility of domain-specific biomarker algorithms. Our findings provide proof of concept for a novel area of scientific discovery, which we term 'molecular neuropsychology'. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Comparative study of red blood cell method in rat and calves blood as alternatives of Draize eye irritation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarto, A; Vega, R; Vega, Y; Guerra, I; González, R

    2006-06-01

    Red blood cell assay (RBC) is used to estimate potential irritation of tensioactive agents and detergents. Cell membrane lysis and cell protein denaturation are measured photometrically. This study was aimed to determine if rat blood cells can be used to predict eye potential irritation in the same way of calves blood cells in RBC assay. We evaluated 20 cosmetic formulations using rat and calves blood according to INVITOX protocol No 37. Data of media hemolysis concentration, denaturation index and the ratio of both parameters were compared with in vivo data of eye irritancy. There was a significant difference (p<0.01) between H50 value when evaluated the standard SDS with red blood cell method in rat and calves blood. According to the exact probability of Fisher taking as approach the acceptance or rejection of the substance there are no significant differences between in vitro assay with calves blood and in vivo results. Not happening the same way for the RBC assay with rat blood where significant differences were obtained (p<0.01) among the classification of in vitro and in vivo test. The RBC assay using calves blood showed better results. Several test substances were false negatives with rat blood. This high false negative rate would be correctly identified by the animal test but it may also lead to increased animal consumption. For that RBC assay with calf blood cells is preferable to the employment of rat blood as screening method with a reduction and refinement strategy.

  5. Pathways between neurocognition, social cognition and emotion regulation in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rheenen, T E; Meyer, D; Rossell, S L

    2014-11-01

    Converging evidence suggests that in bipolar disorder (BD), social cognition and emotion regulation are affected by the capacity for effective neurocognitive function. Adaptive emotion regulation may also rely on intact social cognition, and it is possible that social cognition acts as a mediator in its relationship with neurocognition. We aimed to address this hypothesis by explicitly examining interrelationships among neurocognition, social cognition and emotion regulation in an out-patient sample meeting criteria for a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of BD compared with controls. Fifty-one BD patients and 52 healthy controls completed a battery of tests assessing neurocognition, social cognition (emotion perception and theory of mind) and emotion regulation. Path analysis revealed that in BD, neurocognition was associated with social cognition, but social cognition was not associated with emotion regulation as expected. In contrast, a component of social cognition was found to mediate the relationship between neurocognition and emotion regulation in healthy controls. These findings highlight differences in the pattern of associations between neurocognition, social cognition and emotion regulation across BD patients and controls. In the present data, these results appear to indicate that neurocognitive and social cognitive abilities generally operate in isolation from emotion regulation in BD. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Atrial Fibrillation, Neurocognitive Decline and Gene Expression After Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Rahul S; Sabe, Ashraf A; Elmadhun, Nassrene Y; Ramlawi, Basel; Sellke, Frank W

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation and neurocognitive decline are common complications after cardiopulmonary bypass. By utilizing genomic microarrays we investigate whether gene expression is associated with postoperative atrial fibrillation and neurocognitive decline. Twenty one cardiac surgery patients were prospectively matched and underwent neurocognitive assessments pre-operatively and four days postoperatively. The whole blood collected in the pre-cardiopulmonary bypass, 6 hours after-cardiopulmonary bypass, and on the 4th postoperative day was hybridized to Affymetrix Gene Chip U133 Plus 2.0 Microarrays. Gene expression in patients who developed postoperative atrial fibrillation and neurocognitive decline (n=6; POAF+NCD) was compared with gene expression in patients with postoperative atrial fibrillation and normal cognitive function (n=5; POAF+NORM) and patients with sinus rhythm and normal cognitive function (n=10; SR+NORM). Regulated genes were identified using JMP Genomics 4.0 with a false discovery rate of 0.05 and fold change of >1.5 or cardiopulmonary bypass, and 34 named genes four days postoperatively (Pcardiopulmonary bypass may have differential genomic responses compared to normal patients and patients with only postoperative atrial fibrillation, suggesting common pathophysiology for these conditions. Further exploration of these genes may provide insight into the etiology and improvements of these morbid outcomes.

  7. Comparison of blood glucose test strips in the detection of neonatal hypoglycaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkins, B H; Kalra, D.

    1982-01-01

    Blood glucose levels were estimated in 101 neonatal blood samples using three glucose test strip methods and the results compared with those from a laboratory. BM-test-glycemie 20-800 test strips and Reflotest-hypoglycemie test strips gave a rapid and reliable estimate of blood glucose level in the range 0-8 mmol/l (0-140 mg/100 ml). Dextrostix test strips tended to overestimate all blood glucose levels.

  8. Obesity and gambling: neurocognitive and clinical associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, J E; Derbyshire, K; Leppink, E; Chamberlain, S R

    2015-05-01

    Research on health correlates in gamblers has found an association between gambling and obesity. The neurocognitive underpinnings of impulsivity may be useful targets for understanding and ultimately treating individuals with both gambling and obesity problems. 207 non-treatment seeking young adults (18-29 years) with subsyndromal gambling disorder were recruited from the community. Subjects were grouped according to weight ('normal weight' BMIgambling behaviour and objective computerized neurocognitive measures were collected. Of the 207 subjects, 22 (10.6%) were obese and 49 (23.7%) were overweight. The obese gamblers consumed more nicotine (packs per day equivalent) and reported losing more money per week to gambling. Obese gamblers exhibited significant impairments in terms of reaction times for go trials on the stop-signal test (SST), quality of decision making and risk adjustment on the Cambridge Gamble Test (CGT), and sustained attention on the rapid visual information processing task (RVP). Obesity was associated with decision making and sustained attention impairments in gamblers, along with greater monetary loss due to gambling. Future work should use longitudinal designs to examine the temporal relationship between these deficits, weight, other impulsive behaviour, and functional impairment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Neurocognitive decrements are present in intellectually superior schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja eVaskinn

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Data suggests that individuals with schizophrenia (SZ and superior intelligence can present without specific neurocognitive deficits. However, neurocognitive decrements, defined as worse cognition than expected, have been reported in practically all schizophrenia cases. This study investigated if neurocognitive decrements are present in intellectually superior SZ by comparing the neuropsychological profile of SZ cases with IQ-matched healthy controls (HC across intellectual level. Participants with SZ and HCs were stratified into three IQ-groups; intellectually low (IQ 80-95; SZ n = 65 & HC n = 13, intellectually normal (IQ = 100-115; SZ n = 111 & HC n = 115 and intellectually superior (IQ > 120; SZ n = 20 & HC n = 50. A repeated measures multivariate analysis of co-variance compared performance on eight selected neuropsychological tests across IQ-strata and diagnostic group. Differences in clinical characteristics and social functioning in SZ across IQ-strata were investigated with multivariate and univariate analyses of variance. Intellectually superior SZ participants scored within normal limits, but had neurocognitive decrements compared to superior HCs. Decrements were of the same magnitude as in the low and normal IQ-strata. Levels of functional impairments and clinical characteristics in participants with SZ did not differ significantly across IQ-strata. Results indicate that neurocognitive decrements are present in intellectually superior SZ to the same extent as in intellectually low and intellectually normal SZ, supporting the notion that SZ is a neurocognitive disorder. Similar levels of social functional deficits and clinical symptoms suggest similar disease processes in SZ across intellectual level.

  10. The relation between neurocognition and symptomatology in people with schizophrenia: social cognition as the mediator

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, TMC; Raine, A; Lam, YH

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The relationship between neurocognition and symptomatology in people with schizophrenia has been established. The present study examined whether social cognition could mediate this relationship. METHODS: There were 119 participants (58 people with paranoid schizophrenia and 61 healthy controls) participated in this study. Neurocognition was assessed by Raven's Progressive Matrices Test, the Judgment of Line Orientation Test, and the Tower of London Test. Psychiatric symptoms in pe...

  11. Operationalizing a frailty index using routine blood and urine tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritt, Martin; Jäger, Jakob; Ritt, Julia Isabel; Sieber, Cornel Christian; Gaßmann, Karl-Günter

    2017-01-01

    Background Uncomplicated frailty instruments are desirable for use in a busy clinical setting. The aim of this study was to operationalize a frailty index (FI) from routine blood and urine tests, and to evaluate the properties of this FI compared to other frailty instruments. Materials and methods We conducted a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study on 306 patients aged ≥65 years hospitalized on geriatric wards. An FI comprising 22 routine blood parameters and one standard urine parameter (FI-Lab), a 50-item FI based on a comprehensive geriatric assessment (FI-CGA), a combined FI (FI-combined [items from the FI-Lab + others from the FI-CGA]), the Clinical Frailty Scale, rule-based frailty definition, and frailty phenotype were operationalized from data obtained during patients’ hospital stays (ie, before discharge [baseline examination]). Follow-up data were obtained up to 1 year after the baseline examination. Results The mean FI-Lab score was 0.34±15, with an upper limit of 0.74. The FI-Lab was correlated with all the other frailty instruments (all Pfrailty measure or in combination with/in addition to other frailty instruments. PMID:28721031

  12. 21 CFR 864.7140 - Activated whole blood clotting time tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Activated whole blood clotting time tests. 864....7140 Activated whole blood clotting time tests. (a) Identification. An activated whole blood clotting time tests is a device, used to monitor heparin therapy for the treatment of venous thrombosis or...

  13. Recovery of neurocognitive functions following sustained abstinence after substance dependence and implications for treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulte, M.H.J.; Cousijn, J.; den Uyl, T.E.; Goudriaan, A.E.; van den Brink, W.; Veltman, D.J.; Schilt, T.; Wiers, R.W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Substance Use Disorders (SUDs) have been associated with impaired neurocognitive functioning, which may (partly) improve with sustained abstinence. New treatments are emerging, aimed at improving cognitive functions, and being tested. However, no integrated review is available regarding

  14. Recovery of neurocognitive functions following sustained abstinence after substance dependence and implications for treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulte, Mieke H. J.; Cousijn, Janna; den Uyl, Tess E.; Goudriaan, Anna E.; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J.; Schilt, Thelma; Wiers, Reinout W.

    2014-01-01

    Substance Use Disorders (SUDs) have been associated with impaired neurocognitive functioning, which may (partly) improve with sustained abstinence. New treatments are emerging, aimed at improving cognitive functions, and being tested. However, no integrated review is available regarding

  15. Recovery of neurocognitive functions following sustained abstinence after substance dependence and implications for treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulte, Mieke H J; Cousijn, Janna; den Uyl, Tess E; Goudriaan, Anna E; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J; Schilt, Thelma; Wiers, Reinout W

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Substance Use Disorders (SUDs) have been associated with impaired neurocognitive functioning, which may (partly) improve with sustained abstinence. New treatments are emerging, aimed at improving cognitive functions, and being tested. However, no integrated review is available regarding

  16. Blood in Urine: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Hematuria (Blood in the Urine); 2016 Jul [cited 2017 ... www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/urologic-diseases/hematuria-blood-urine Saint Francis Health System [Internet]. Tulsa ( ...

  17. [Reference values for the blood coagulation tests in Mexico: usefulness of the pooled plasma from blood donors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada-Contreras, Adriana; Moreno-Hernández, Manuel; Castillo-Torres, Noemi Patricia; Souto-Rosillo, Guadalupe; Hernández-Juárez, Jesús; Ricardo-Moreno, María Tania; Sánchez-Fernández, Maria Guadalupe de Jesús; García-González, América; Majluf-Cruz, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    The blood coagulation system maintains the blood in a liquid state and bleeding and thrombosis are the manifestations of its malfunction. Blood coagulation laboratory evaluates the physiology of this system. To establish both, the reference values for several tests performed at the blood coagulation laboratory as well as the utility of the pooled plasma to perform these assays. MATERIAL AND: In this descriptive, cross-sectional, randomized study, we collected plasma from Mexican Mestizos. Each pooled plasma was prepared with the plasma from at least 20 blood donors. We performed screening and special tests and the Levey-Jennings graphs were built and interpreted after each pass. Results of the tests were analyzed and their distribution was established using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. To establish the reference values we used 95% confidence intervals. We collected 72 pooled plasmas. The distribution for PT, APTT, and TT tests was abnormal. Although the PT test showed a bimodal distribution it was normal for factor VII. The reference values for the hemostatic, anticoagulant, and fibrinolytic factors were different from those suggested by the manufacturers. We established the reference values for the blood coagulation tests in the adult Mexican population. We have shown that the pooled plasma must be used for the screening tests. We suggest that each clinical laboratory should establish its own reference values (at least for the screening tests). To reach this objective, we encourage the use of the pooled plasma.

  18. Neurocognition as a predictor of outcome in schizophrenia in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Juola

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to study neurocognitive performance as a predictor of outcomes in midlife schizophrenia. There is a lack of studies with unselected samples and a long follow-up. The study is based on the prospective, unselected population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. The study includes 43 individuals with schizophrenia and 73 controls, whose neurocognitive performance was assessed twice, at 34 and 43 years. At both time points we used identical neurocognitive tests to assess verbal and visual memory and executive functions. Our main aim was to analyse neurocognitive performance at 34 years as a predictor of clinical, vocational and global outcomes at 43 years. Additionally, the analysis addressed cross-sectional associations between cognitive performance and clinical, vocational and global measures at 43 years. The assessment of outcomes was performed in the schizophrenia group only. In the longitudinal analysis poorer visual memory predicted poorer vocational outcome and poorer long-term verbal memory predicted poorer global outcome. In the cross-sectional analysis poorer visual memory and lower composite score of neurocognition were associated with poorer global outcome. No individual neurocognitive test or the composite score of these predicted remission. These data indicate that neurocognition, especially memory function, is an important determinant of long-term functional outcome in midlife schizophrenia.

  19. Neurological abnormalities and neurocognitive functions in healthy elder people: A structural equation modeling analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Raymond CK

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/Aims Neurological abnormalities have been reported in normal aging population. However, most of them were limited to extrapyramidal signs and soft signs such as motor coordination and sensory integration have received much less attention. Very little is known about the relationship between neurological soft signs and neurocognitive function in healthy elder people. The current study aimed to examine the underlying relationships between neurological soft signs and neurocognition in a group of healthy elderly. Methods One hundred and eighty healthy elderly participated in the current study. Neurological soft signs were evaluated with the subscales of Cambridge Neurological Inventory. A set of neurocognitive tests was also administered to all the participants. Structural equation modeling was adopted to examine the underlying relationship between neurological soft signs and neurocognition. Results No significant differences were found between the male and female elder people in neurocognitive function performances and neurological soft signs. The model fitted well in the elderly and indicated the moderate associations between neurological soft signs and neurocognition, specifically verbal memory, visual memory and working memory. Conclusions The neurological soft signs are more or less statistically equivalent to capture the similar information done by conventional neurocognitive function tests in the elderly. The implication of these findings may serve as a potential neurological marker for the early detection of pathological aging diseases or related mental status such as mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

  20. Neurological abnormalities and neurocognitive functions in healthy elder people: a structural equation modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Raymond C K; Xu, Ting; Li, Hui-jie; Zhao, Qing; Liu, Han-hui; Wang, Yi; Yan, Chao; Cao, Xiao-yan; Wang, Yu-na; Shi, Yan-fang; Dazzan, Paola

    2011-08-10

    Neurological abnormalities have been reported in normal aging population. However, most of them were limited to extrapyramidal signs and soft signs such as motor coordination and sensory integration have received much less attention. Very little is known about the relationship between neurological soft signs and neurocognitive function in healthy elder people. The current study aimed to examine the underlying relationships between neurological soft signs and neurocognition in a group of healthy elderly. One hundred and eighty healthy elderly participated in the current study. Neurological soft signs were evaluated with the subscales of Cambridge Neurological Inventory. A set of neurocognitive tests was also administered to all the participants. Structural equation modeling was adopted to examine the underlying relationship between neurological soft signs and neurocognition. No significant differences were found between the male and female elder people in neurocognitive function performances and neurological soft signs. The model fitted well in the elderly and indicated the moderate associations between neurological soft signs and neurocognition, specifically verbal memory, visual memory and working memory. The neurological soft signs are more or less statistically equivalent to capture the similar information done by conventional neurocognitive function tests in the elderly. The implication of these findings may serve as a potential neurological marker for the early detection of pathological aging diseases or related mental status such as mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

  1. [Blood pressure and sleep apnoea hypopnoea syndrome in workers. STOP-Bang test versus Epworth test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Herrero, M T; Capdevila-García, L; Bellido-Cambrón, M C; Ramírez-Iñiguez de la Torre, M V; Lladosa-Marco, S

    OSAHS is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke. Arterial hypertension is a key risk factor to consider due to its impact on health. Cross-sectional study carried out on Spanish public service workers. The nocturnal apnoea risk using the Epworth and STOP-Bang questionnaires and their influence on the mean values of blood pressure are assessed. The detection of OSAHS using the Epworth test and, particularly with the STOP-Bang shows a significant relationship with the mean values of blood pressure, with differences between both questionnaires. The Epworth and STOP-Bang questionnaires are useful for the initial detection of OSAHS and a higher prevalence of high blood pressure. Both can be used in screening procedures in occupational health. Copyright © 2017 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. A modified isometric test to evaluate blood pressure control with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood pressure at rest is not predictive of roundthe- clock values. Blood pressure should therefore be measured during effort to evaluate hypertension and its response to treatment. The effect of sustained-release verapamil (240 mg taken once a day) on blood pressure at rest and during isometric effort was therefore ...

  3. BloodLink: Computer-based Decision Support for Blood Test Ordering; Assessment of the effect on physicians' test-ordering behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.M. van Wijk (Marc)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractRequesting blood tests is an important aspect of the health care delivered by the general practitioner in The Netherlands. About three to four percent of the patients encounters with Dutch general practitioners result in the physician requesting blood tests, which is lower than in many

  4. Umbilical Cord Blood Use for Admission Blood Tests of VLBW (Very Low Birth Weight) Preterm Neonates: A Multi-center Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-12

    collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. Umbilical Cord Blood Use for Admission Blood Tests of VLBW Preterm...NICU) as part of the admission evaluation [1, 2]. These blood tests include the following: complete blood count with differential and platelet...count (CBC), blood culture, blood gas, blood glucose, and type and cross match. Occasionally it can also include the newborn metabolic screen

  5. Collection, processing and testing of bone, corneas, umbilical cord blood and haematopoietic stem cells by European Blood Alliance members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Närhi, M; Natri, O; Desbois, I

    2013-01-01

    A questionnaire study was carried out in collaboration with the European Blood Alliance (EBA) Tissues and Cells (T&C) working group. The aim was to assess the level of involvement and commonality of processes on the procurement, testing and storage of bone, corneas, umbilical cord blood (UCB...

  6. Social cognition and neurocognitive deficits in first-episode schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliksted, Vibeke; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Weed, Ethan; Frith, Chris; Videbech, Poul

    2014-03-01

    Recent research has shown a significant impact of social cognitive domains on real world functioning and prognosis in schizophrenia. However, the correlations between specific aspects of social cognition, neurocognition, IQ and clinical symptoms remain unclear in first-episode schizophrenia. Researchers have speculated about social cognitive subgroups since patients with schizophrenia appear to be a very heterogeneous group. Patients with a recent diagnosis of first-episode schizophrenia were tested regarding theory of mind, social perception, neurocognition, IQ, and clinical symptoms. Data from 36 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 36 one to one matched healthy controls were analysed. Principal component analysis in the patient group was used to examine the variance contributed by different aspects of social cognition, neurocognition, and clinical symptoms. Complex aspects of social cognition explained 24% of the variance in the patient group. The other principal components consisted mainly of aspects of simple perception of theory of mind. Neurocognition and clinical symptoms only explained a minor proportion of the variance in the patient group. The results imply that social cognitive deficits in first-episode schizophrenia come in two distinct versions where one is a complex, cognitive demanding form linked with IQ. The other version is related to simpler forms of social cognition and independent of IQ. These two forms are comparable to the implicit and explicit mentalising discussed in the developmental literature. The two forms of social cognitive deficits are likely to require quite different social cognitive interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Neurocognitive Effects of Radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    investigates the effect of radiotherapy using serial MRI imaging and a series of neuropsychological measurements on two groups of patients; (1) those with...demonstrated a significant change over time in the RT- treated group, although a comprehensive neuropsychological battery of repeatable measures...woman of child -bearing potential, a negative pregnancy test (urine) will be required before participation in this study. ABNORMAL FINDINGS

  8. Neurocognitive Performance in Unmedicated Patients with Hoarding Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Jennifer M.; Noack, Carolyn G.; Filoteo, J. Vincent; Maddox, W. Todd; Saxena, Sanjaya

    2015-01-01

    Objective Hoarding disorder (HD) is an often incapacitating psychiatric illness associated with a wide range of neurocognitive abnormalities. Some prior neuropsychological studies have found executive dysfunction in HD, but no clear pattern has emerged. One potential reason for discrepant results in previous studies might be the inclusion of patients on psychotropic and other medications that can affect neurocognitive performance. Therefore, we examined neurocognitive functioning in medication-free HD patients. We also added a novel investigation of implicit learning, which has been found to be abnormal in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and related disorders. Method 26 participants meeting DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for HD and 23 normal controls were administered a battery of neuropsychological tests and symptom rating scales. All participants were free of psychotropic medications for at least six weeks prior to the study. Results HD participants showed no significant differences from normal controls on measures of verbal memory, attention, or executive functioning, including response inhibition, planning, organization, and decision-making. However, HD participants demonstrated a trend toward less implicit learning and greater use of explicit learning strategies during perceptual categorization, compared to normal controls. HD participants who used an implicit strategy performed significantly worse than controls who used an implicit strategy. Hoarding symptom severity was not associated with neurocognitive performance. Conclusions HD patients may have a tendency to use explicit rather than implicit learning strategies for perceptual categorization but perform as well as normal controls on many other neurocognitive measures. Future studies should assess unmedicated participants and examine test strategies, not just outcomes. PMID:26301774

  9. Neurophysiologic and neurocognitive case profiles of Andean patients with chronic environmental lead poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counter, S Allen; Buchanan, Leo H; Ortega, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    This report presents case profiles of three siblings in a family of lead (Pb) glazing workers living in a Pb-contaminated Andean village who presented with extreme plumbism (blood Pb levels: 47 to 128 microg/dl) from childhood to adolescence. These cases are examples of persons who have chronic Pb poisoning as a result of prolonged occupational and environmental exposure in a Pb-glazing ceramic cottage industry in the study area. Using behavioral and physiological techniques for measuring the integrity of the peripheral and central auditory systems, including otoacoustic emissions, and replicated auditory brainstem electrophysiological potentials, the authors found normal auditory neurosensory function in each patient, thus ruling out hearing impairment as a basis for adverse neurocognitive outcomes. This finding is contrary to the prevailing view regarding the detrimental effects of Pb poisoning on the cochlear and auditory brainstem of children. Performance on tests of visual spatial intelligence and auditory memory/attention was below average in these patients, which may underlie their reported learning disabilities. In two of the cases, there was an improvement in cognitive performance following a lowering of PbB levels from chelation therapy and Pb prevention education, suggesting some level of reversibility of their neurocognitive deficits. Nevertheless, these case profiles suggest that if the patients persist in Pb-glazing activities, in spite of repeated chelation therapy and family counseling, they may continue to be re-intoxicated and remain at risk for learning disabilities and other neurological impairments.

  10. Evaluation of the concomitant use of two different EIA tests for HIV screening in blood banks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Otani, Marcia M; Salles, Nanci A; Barreto, Angela M.E; Barreto, Claudia C; Chamone, Dalton F; Sabino, Ester C

    2003-01-01

    ...: We analyzed data from 1999 through 2001 obtained by testing 698 191 units of donated blood using two EIA HIV screening tests concomitantly at the Pro-Blood Foundation/Blood Center of São Paulo (Fundação Pró...

  11. Evaluation of the concomitant use of two different EIA tests for HIV screening in blood banks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Otani, Marcia M; Salles, Nanci A; Barreto, Angela M E; Barreto, Claudia C; Chamone, Dalton F; Sabino, Ester C

    2003-01-01

    .... We analyzed data from 1999 through 2001 obtained by testing 698 191 units of donated blood using two EIA HIV screening tests concomitantly at the Pro-Blood Foundation/Blood Center of São Paulo (Fundação Pró...

  12. Conceptual disorganization weakens links in cognitive pathways: Disentangling neurocognition, social cognition, and metacognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Kyle S; Marggraf, Matthew P; Davis, Beshaun J; Luther, Lauren; Vohs, Jenifer L; Buck, Kelly D; Lysaker, Paul H

    2015-12-01

    Disentangling links between neurocognition, social cognition, and metacognition offers the potential to improve interventions for these cognitive processes. Disorganized symptoms have shown promise for explaining the limiting relationship that neurocognition holds with both social cognition and metacognition. In this study, primary aims included: 1) testing whether conceptual disorganization, a specific disorganized symptom, moderated relationships between cognitive processes, and 2) examining the level of conceptual disorganization necessary for links between cognitive processes to break down. To accomplish these aims, comprehensive assessments of conceptual disorganization, neurocognition, social cognition, and metacognition were administered to 67 people with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. We found that conceptual disorganization significantly moderated the relationship between neurocognition and metacognition, with links between cognitive processes weakening when conceptual disorganization is present even at minimal levels of severity. There was no evidence that conceptual disorganization-or any other specific disorganized symptom-drove the limiting relationship of neurocognition on social cognition. Based on our findings, conceptual disorganization appears to be a critical piece of the puzzle when disentangling the relationship between neurocognition and metacognition. Roles of specific disorganized symptoms in the neurocognition - social cognition relationship were less clear. Findings from this study suggest that disorganized symptoms are an important treatment consideration when aiming to improve cognitive impairments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Blood Donor Test-Seeking Motivation and Prior HIV Testing Experiences in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Hong-Ha M; Blatyta, Paula F; Santos, Fernanda M; Montebello, Sandra; Esposti, Sandra P D; Hangai, Fatima N; Salles, Nanci Alves; Mendrone, Alfredo; Sabino, Ester C; McFarland, Willi; Gonçalez, Thelma T

    2015-09-01

    HIV test-seeking behavior among blood donors has been observed worldwide and may pose a threat to the safety of the blood supply. We evaluated current test-seeking motivations and prior alternative HIV testing experiences among blood donors in São Paulo, Brazil. All candidate or potential blood donors were consecutively approached and recruited to participate in the study upon presentation at Fundação Pró-Sangue Hemocentro, the largest blood bank in Brazil. Participants were recruited between August 2012 and May 2013 after they were screened for donor eligibility. Questionnaires were administered through audio computer-assisted self-interview. Among 11,867 donors, 38 % previously tested for HIV apart from blood donation, of whom 47.7 % tested at public facilities and 2.7 % acknowledged getting tested for HIV as the primary reason for donating. Dissatisfaction with prior alternative testing experience was reported by 2.5 % of donors. Current test-seeking motivation was associated with dissatisfaction with prior alternative testing experience and testing at a public alternative facility. The most common reasons for dissatisfaction were too long of a wait to get tested and for results, counseling was too long, lack of privacy, and low confidence in the equipment and accuracy of the test. Lack of awareness about the availability of free and confidential public HIV testing services as well as dissatisfaction with past HIV testing and counseling experiences motivate some individuals to test at blood banks. Test-seeking behavior among blood donors may be best addressed by improving alternative testing programs, particularly with respect to time delays, privacy and perceptions about test accuracy. Educational campaigns on safe blood donation and HIV testing for diagnosis, risk counseling and referral to care are also needed for the general public and for health care providers.

  14. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring: test reproducibility and its implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisant

    1998-08-01

    The use of data from ambulatory blood pressure monitoring has the potential to shift how we think about assessing the cardiovascular risk factor of blood pressure. Group mean 24 h, 12 h, 8 h, and hourly blood pressures for two recordings are highly reproducible. A single 24 h ambulatory blood pressure data set correlates better to echocardiographic left ventricular wall thickness than does the average blood pressure of multiple office measurements and than does a single-office visit measurement. Both blunted and excessive nocturnal declines in blood pressure have been associated with more target-organ damage than that with a normal nocturnal decline in blood pressure. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring has proven to be an indispensable tool in development of drugs. Unfortunately, movement, environmental noise, and excessive vibration interfere with measurement of ambulatory blood pressure. The devices are less accurate for patients with dysrhythmias. False data resulting in incorrect medical decisions might be the most important problem with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Reproducibility of individual ambulatory blood pressure data sets is poor. For an individual patient, it might be difficult to detect white-coat hypertension, determine dipping status, and assess a drug's effect. The use of a single ambulatory monitoring record can be inadequate for diagnosing a patient as hypertensive or normotensive. Portable noninvasive ABPM devices would provide more interpretable information if they included an activity detector, a body-position detector, and facilities for performing continuous electrocardiography and measurements of blood pressure. Devices should perform accurately when someone is engaged in vigorous activity. Perhaps detection of sleep and emotional arousal would complete the requirements for an ideal monitor.

  15. Neurocognitive Pattern Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    103 TION OF I NO 60I g5 OLT Unc lass ified SECUITY CLASIFICATION OP THIS PASSG (111440R1114 BOW I. OVERVIEW... A. Senior Scientific Personnel of the...below). Four practiced, right-handed adults performed from 355 to 1000 trials of this design (total 2151 trials). The cue-to-stimulus interval for P’s...between-task spatiotempo- tics were the same. trodes (Fig. IB). and t-tests and analyses ral patterns. Nine right-handed, healthy adults of variance

  16. Forensic Identification of Human Blood: comparison of two one-step presumptive tests for blood screening of crime scene samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia Belchior Andrade

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood is the most common body fluid found at crime scenes. One-step presumptive tests have been designed as a rapid immunological test for the qualitative detection of human hemoglobin in stool samples (faecal occult blood their usefulness for forensic purposes has been demonstrated before. In this study we compare Hexagon OBTI kit and FOB One-step Bioeasy kit sensitivity in the analysis of diluted blood samples. With Hexagon OBTI, positive test results are achieved in whole blood dilutions up to 1:1.000. Sensitivity decreased with aged samples, if samples were not stored under low temperatures regardless of which presumptive test is used. Whole blood tests must take into consideration that “hook” effect may interfere. Comparing both tests, OBTI Hexagon Kit is more sensible to detect diluted blood, showing a wider detection window in all conditions. This is interesting when analyzing forensic samples as forensic analysts usually do not know about the history of the analyzed sample before its collection.

  17. International Neurocognitive Normative Study: Neurocognitive Comparison Data in Diverse Resource Limited Settings: AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5271

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, K; Jiang, H; Evans, SR; Marra, CM; Berzins, B; Hakim, J; Sacktor, N; Silva, M Tulius; Campbell, TB; Nair, A; Schouten, J; Kumwenda, J; Supparatpinyo, K; Tripathy, S.; Kumarasamy, N; La Rosa, A; Montano, S; Mwafongo, A; Firnhaber, C; Sanne, I; Naini, L.; Amod, F; Walawander, A

    2016-01-01

    Summary ACTG A5271 collected neurocognitive normative comparison test data in 2400 at-risk HIV seronegative participants from Brazil, India, Malawi, Peru, South Africa, Thailand and Zimbabwe. The participants were enrolled in strata by site (10 levels), age (2 levels), education (2 levels), and gender (2 levels). These data provide necessary normative data infrastructure for future clinical research and care in these diverse resource limited settings. Infrastructure for conducting neurological research in resource limited settings (RLS) is limited. The lack of neurological and neuropsychological (NP) assessment, and normative data needed for clinical interpretation impede research and clinical care. Here we report on ACTG 5271, which provided neurological training of clinical site personnel, and collected neurocognitive normative comparison data in diverse settings. At 10 sites in seven RLS countries, we provided training for NP assessments. We collected normative comparison data on HIV- participants from Brazil (n=240), India (n=480), Malawi (n=481), Peru (n=239), South Africa (480), Thailand (n=240) and Zimbabwe (n=240). Participants had a negative HIV test within 30 days before standardized NP exams were administered at baseline, and 770 at six-months. Participants were enrolled in 8 strata, gender (female and male), education (<10 years and ≥ 10 years), and age (<35 years and ≥35 years). Of 2400 enrolled, 770 completed the six-month follow up. As expected, significant between-country differences were evident in all the neurocognitive test scores (p<.0001). There was variation between the age, gender and education strata on the neurocognitive tests. Age and education were important variables for all tests; older participants had poorer performance and those with higher education had better performance. Women had better performance on verbal learning/memory and speed of processing tests, while men performed better on motor tests. This study provides the

  18. Negative symptoms mediate the relationship between neurocognition and function in individuals at ultrahigh risk for psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenthøj, L B; Jepsen, Jens Richardt Møllegaard; Hjorthøj, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    and social skills act as mediators between neurocognition and functional outcome in UHR individuals. METHODS: Ultrahigh risk participants (N = 84) underwent neurocognitive testing using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia. Social skills and negative symptoms were assessed using the High......OBJECTIVE: Neurocognition is known to impact functioning in individuals at ultrahigh risk (UHR) for psychosis, but studies investigating potential mediators of this relationship are scarce. Building on evidence from schizophrenia spectrum disorders, the study tested whether negative symptoms......-Risk Social Challenge task and the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms respectively. Four instruments were used to assess overall functioning, and one instrument assessed quality of life encompassing social functioning. RESULTS: The cross-sectional analyses revealed that neurocognition was related...

  19. Implementation of a multi-parameter Point-of-Care-blood test analyzer reduces central laboratory testing and need for blood transfusions in very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahieu, Ludo; Marien, Annick; De Dooy, Jozef; Mahieu, Margo; Mahieu, Hanne; Van Hoof, Viviane

    2012-01-18

    Blood sampling for laboratory testing is a major cause of iatrogenic blood loss and anemia in neonatal intensive care unit [NICU] patients. The objective of the study was to assess whether the implementation of a multi-parameter Point of Care Test [POCT] (Roche, Cobas b221) analyzer affected blood loss for central laboratory testing and need for red blood cell transfusion in our NICU. This was a retrospective observational cohort study in a NICU with comparison of two serial cohorts of 2 years each. Implementation of a multi-parameter POCT decreased central laboratory performed testing for bilirubin (-32% per patient) and electrolytes (-36% per patient). On average, the net blood volume taken per admitted patient for electrolyte testing decreased with 23.7% and 22.2% for bilirubin testing in the second cohort. After implementation of POCT, fewer very low birth weight infants [VLBWI] required blood transfusion (38.9% vs. 50%, pparameter POCT analyzer decreases transfusions among VLBWI by reducing iatrogenic blood loss for central laboratory testing. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Affective temperaments and neurocognitive functioning in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Manuela; Mahon, Katie; Shanahan, Megan; Ramjas, Elizabeth; Solon, Carly; Braga, Raphael J; Burdick, Katherine E

    2014-12-01

    There is evidence that patients with bipolar disorder (BD) score higher on affective temperament ratings compared to healthy controls (HCs). Moreover, unaffected relatives demonstrate similar patterns as BD patients suggesting that such temperaments are related to the genetic risk for BD and may serve as endophenotypes for the disorder. It is unknown whether affective temperaments are associated with other core features of BD, such as impairments in neurocognition. This study examined the relationship between affective temperaments and neurocognition in patients with BD and in HCs. Temperaments were evaluated using the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego, Auto-questionnaire version (TEMPS-A) in 64 patients with BD and 109 HCs. Neurocognitive functioning was evaluated using the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). Correlational analyses between temperaments and cognition were conducted in BD and HC subjects. Data suggest that affective temperaments and neurocognition are correlated. In BD higher ratings of cyclothymia and irritability were associated with better processing speed, working memory, reasoning and problem-solving. In the HC group, increased irritability was related to worse performance on measures of attention and social cognition. Lack of functional outcome measures to evaluate the impact of temperaments and cognition on psychosocial functioning. It would be useful to test these findings on unaffected relatives of BD patients. Cyclothymic and irritable temperaments are correlated with specific aspects of neurocognition in BD. This study is among the few exploring the dimensional relationship between temperaments and cognition in BD, and provides preliminary evidence for future studies investigating the neural and genetic mechanisms underlying the association between these variables. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Neurocognitive dysfunction in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rund, Bjørn Rishovd; Melle, Ingrid; Friis, Svein

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship of neurocognitive function with duration of untreated psychosis, premorbid illness factors, and clinical symptoms to determine whether long duration of untreated psychosis independently compromises cognitive function.......The authors examined the relationship of neurocognitive function with duration of untreated psychosis, premorbid illness factors, and clinical symptoms to determine whether long duration of untreated psychosis independently compromises cognitive function....

  2. Insight and neurocognitive functioning in bipolar subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shad, Mujeeb U; Prasad, Konasale; Forman, Steven D; Haas, Gretchen L; Walker, Jon D; Pisarov, Liubomir A; Goldstein, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Insight concerning having a mental illness has been found to influence outcome and effectiveness of treatment. It has been studied mainly in the area of schizophrenia with few studies addressing other disorders. This study evaluates insight in individuals with bipolar disorder using the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD), a comprehensive interview for evaluation of awareness of illness and attribution of symptoms. The hypothesis was that in bipolar disorder level of awareness may be associated with numerous factors including neurocognitive function, structural changes in the frontal lobes and hippocampus evaluated by MRI, neurocognitive status, severity of mania and other psychiatric symptoms and comorbid alcoholism. In order to evaluate this hypothesis 33 individuals with DSM-IV diagnosed bipolar disorder, some with and some without comorbid alcoholism, were administered the SUMD and a number of other procedures including a quantitative MRI measuring volume of the frontal lobes and hippocampus, a brief battery of neurocognitive tests, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, and the Young Mania Rating Scale. The data were analyzed by comparing participants with and without alcoholism on these procedures using t tests and by linear multiple regression, with SUMD ratings of awareness and attribution as the dependent variables and variable sets from the other procedures administered as multivariate independent variables. The median score obtained from the SUMD for current awareness was in a range between full awareness and uncertainty concerning presence of a mental disorder. For attribution, the median score indicated that attribution was usually made to the illness itself. None of the differences between participants with and without comorbid alcoholism were significant for the SUMD awareness and attribution scores, neurocognitive or MRI variables. The multiple regression analyses only showed a significant degree of association between the SUMD

  3. Do Neurocognitive SCAT3 Baseline Test Scores Differ Between Footballers (Soccer) Living With and Without Disability? A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Richard; van Mechelen, Willem; Fuller, Colin; Ahmed, Osman Hassan; Verhagen, Evert

    2018-01-01

    To determine if baseline Sport Concussion Assessment Tool, third Edition (SCAT3) scores differ between athletes with and without disability. Cross-sectional comparison of preseason baseline SCAT3 scores for a range of England international footballers. Team doctors and physiotherapists supporting England football teams recorded players' SCAT 3 baseline tests from August 1, 2013 to July 31, 2014. A convenience sample of 249 England footballers, of whom 185 were players without disability (male: 119; female: 66) and 64 were players with disability (male learning disability: 17; male cerebral palsy: 28; male blind: 10; female deaf: 9). Between-group comparisons of median SCAT3 total and section scores were made using nonparametric Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon ranked-sum test. All footballers with disability scored higher symptom severity scores compared with male players without disability. Male footballers with learning disability demonstrated no significant difference in the total number of symptoms, but recorded significantly lower scores on immediate memory and delayed recall compared with male players without disability. Male blind footballers' scored significantly higher for total concentration and delayed recall, and male footballers with cerebral palsy scored significantly higher on balance testing and immediate memory, when compared with male players without disability. Female footballers with deafness scored significantly higher for total concentration and balance testing than female footballers without disability. This study suggests that significant differences exist between SCAT3 baseline section scores for footballers with and without disability. Concussion consensus guidelines should recognize these differences and produce guidelines that are specific for the growing number of athletes living with disability.

  4. Biomarkers of nutrition and stress in pregnant women with a history of eating disorders in relation to head circumference and neurocognitive function of the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koubaa, Saloua; Hällström, Tore; Brismar, Kerstin; Hellström, Per M; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén

    2015-11-27

    Eating disorders during pregnancy can affect fetal growth and the child's early development, but the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate serum biomarkers of nutrition and stress in pregnant women with previous eating disorders compared to controls and in relation to head circumference and early neurocognitive development of the offspring. In a longitudinal cohort study, pregnant nulliparous non-smoking women with a history of anorexia nervosa (n = 20), bulimia nervosa (n = 17) and controls (n = 59) were followed during pregnancy and their children's growth and neurocognitive development were followed up to five years of age. We investigated maternal serum biomarkers of nutrition and stress (ferritin, cortisol, thyroid-stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, insulin, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein 1) in blood samples collected during early pregnancy and compared between groups (ANOVA, LSD post-hoc test). The results were related to previous data on head circumference at birth and neurocognitive development at five years of age of the offspring (Spearman rank correlation or Pearson correlation test). Serum levels of ferritin in the women with previous anorexia nervosa, but not in those with a history of bulimia nervosa, were significantly lower than in the controls (p eating disorders are positively associated with fetal head growth.

  5. Shorter telomere length - A potential susceptibility factor for HIV-associated neurocognitive impairments in South African women [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Malan-Müller

    Full Text Available The neuropathogenesis of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV may manifest as various neurocognitive impairments (NCI. HIV-positive individuals also have significantly shorter telomere length (TL in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs and CD8+ T cells compared to HIV-negative individuals. Additionally, reduced TL has been found to be associated with chronic psychological stress. This study focused on the effects of HIV-infection and chronic stress associated with childhood trauma on telomere length, and investigated whether leukocyte TL (LTL, in particular, represents a risk factor for NCI. Eighty-three HIV-positive and 45 HIV-negative women were assessed for childhood trauma and were subjected to detailed neurocognitive testing. Blood from each participant was used to extract Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA. Relative LTL were determined by performing real time quantitative PCR reactions as described by Cawthon et al. (2002. As expected, relative LTL in the HIV-positive individuals was significantly shorter than that of HIV-negative individuals (F = 51.56, p = <0.01. Notably, a significant positive correlation was evident between relative LTL and learning performance in the HIV-positive group. In addition, a significant negative correlation was observed between relative LTL and verbal fluency, but this association was only evident in HIV-positive individuals who had experienced trauma. Our results suggest that reduced LTL is associated with worse learning performance in HIV-positive individuals, indicating that TL could act as a susceptibility factor in increasing neurocognitive decline in HIV-infected individuals.

  6. [An evaluation of Visidex test strips in the blood sugar control of diabetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khristov, V; Manov, A; Nestorov, I

    1991-01-01

    The test stripes Visidex for visual evaluation of glycemia were tested clinically. The results were compared with a reference laboratory method for blood sugar measurement. A correlation coefficient of r = 0.971 with 74% coincidence in the same glycemic interval was found. The test stripes are suitable for blood sugar self-control in domestic conditions.

  7. Neurocognitive Performance After Cerebral Revascularization in Adult Moyamoya Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeifert, Penelope D; Karzmark, Peter; Bell-Stephens, Teresa E; Steinberg, Gary K; Dorfman, Leslie J

    2017-06-01

    Cerebral revascularization using EC-IC bypass is widely used to treat moyamoya disease, but the effects of surgery on cognition are unknown. We compared performance on formal neurocognitive testing in adults with moyamoya disease before and after undergoing direct EC-IC bypass. We performed a structured battery of 13 neurocognitive tests on 84 adults with moyamoya disease before and 6 months after EC-IC bypass. The results were analyzed using reliable change indices for each test, to minimize test-retest variability and practice effects. Twelve patients (14%) showed significant decline postoperatively, 9 patients (11%) improved, and 63 patients (75%) were unchanged. Similar results were obtained when the analysis was confined to those who underwent unilateral (33) or bilateral (51) revascularization. The majority of patients showed neither significant decline nor improvement in neurocognitive performance after EC-IC bypass surgery. Uncomplicated EC-IC bypass seems not to be a risk factor for cognitive decline in this patient population. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Can latent heat safely warm blood? – in vitro testing of a portable prototype blood warmer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McEwen Mark P

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trauma/retrieval patients are often in shock and hypothermic. Treatment of such patients usually involves restoring their blood volume with transfusion of blood (stored at 2°C – 6°C and/or crystalloids or colloids (stored at ambient temperature. Rapid infusion of these cold fluids can worsen or even induce hypothermia in these patients. Warming of intravenous fluids at accident sites has traditionally been difficult due to a lack of suitable portable fluid warmers that are not dependent on mains electrical or battery power. If latent heat, the heat released when a liquid solidifies (an inherently temperature limiting process can warm intravenous fluids, portable devices without a reliance on electrical energy could be used to reduce the incidence of hypothermia in trauma patients. Methods Rapid infusion of red cells into patients was timed to sample typical clinical flow rates. An approved dry heat blood warmer was compared with a prototype blood warmer using a supercooled liquid latent heat storage material, to warm red cells whilst monitoring inlet and outlet temperatures. To determine the effect of warming on red cell integrity compared to the normal storage lesion of blood, extracellular concentrations of potassium, lactate dehydrogenase and haemoglobin were measured in blood which had been warmed after storage at 2°C – 6°C for 1 to 42 days. Results A prototype latent heat fluid warmer consistently warmed red cells from approximately 4°C to approximately 35°C at typical clinical flow rates. Warming of stored blood with latent heat did not affect red cell integrity more than the approved dry heat blood warmer. Conclusion Using latent heat as an energy source can satisfactorily warm cold blood or other intravenous fluids to near body temperature, without any adverse affects.

  9. Effects of post-sampling analysis time, type of blood samples and collection tubes on values of blood gas testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smajić, Jasmina; Kadić, Damira; Hasić, Sabaheta; Serdarević, Nafija

    2015-08-01

    To investigate effects of post-sampling analysis time, a type of blood samples and collection tubes on blood gas testing. This study included 100 patients at the Clinic for Pulmonary Diseases, Clinical Centre Sarajevo. The partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) and carbon dioxide (pCO2), and the oxygen saturation level of hemoglobin (sO2) were analyzed in the arterial blood samples (ABS) and capillary blood samples (CBS) by a potentiometric method using a blood gas analyzer ABL 555 (Radiometer, Copenhagen, Denmark). Paired measurements of ABS were performed within 15 minutes and after 60 minutes from sampling and compared. The results of CBS obtained within 15 minutes were compared with matching ABS results, as well as the results obtained from CBS within 15 minutes taken into glass and plastic tubes. pO2 and sO2 values were significantly lower after 60 minutes compared to those within 15 minutes in ABS (9.20±1.89 vs. 9.51±1.95 and 91.25±5.03 vs. 92.40±4.5; pblood values were not influenced significantly (p>0.05). The length of post-sampling analysis time, a type of blood samples and collection tubes have significant impact on blood oxygen parameters. Analysis within 15 minutes after blood sampling is considered as appropriate. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.

  10. Cerebral Blood Flow, Heart Rate, and Blood Pressure Patterns during the Tilt Test in Common Orthostatic Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Novak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The head-up tilt test is widely used for evaluation of orthostatic intolerance. Although orthostatic symptoms usually reflect cerebral hypoperfusion, the cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv profile in orthostatic syndromes is not well described. This study evaluated CBFv and cardiovascular patterns associated with the tilt test in common orthostatic syndromes. Methods. This retrospective study analyzed the tilt test of patients with history of orthostatic intolerance. The following signals were recorded: ECG, blood pressure, CBFv using transcranial Doppler, respiratory signals, and end tidal CO2. Results. Data from 744 patients were analyzed. Characteristic pattern associated with a particular orthostatic syndrome can be grouped into abnormalities predominantly affecting blood pressure (orthostatic hypotension, orthostatic hypertension syndrome, vasomotor oscillations, and neurally mediated syncope—cardioinhibitory, vasodepressor, and mixed, cerebral blood flow (orthostatic hypoperfusion syndrome, primary cerebral autoregulatory failure, and heart rate (tachycardia syndromes: postural tachycardia syndrome, paroxysmal sinus tachycardia, and inappropriate sinus tachycardia. Psychogenic pseudosyncope is associated with stable CBFv. Conclusions. The tilt test is useful add-on in diagnosis of several orthostatic syndromes. However diagnostic criteria for several syndromes had to be modified to allow unambiguous pattern classification. CBFv monitoring in addition to blood pressure and heart rate may increase diagnostic yield of the tilt test.

  11. Development of a new test for the global fibrinolytic capacity in whole blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, D.C.; Hoegee-de Nobel, E.; Jie, A.F.H.; Atsma, D.E.; Schalij, M.J.; Nieuwenhuizen, W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The development of global tests for the fibrinolytic capacity in blood is hampered by the low base-line fibrinolytic activity in blood, by the involvement of both plasmatic components and blood cells in the fibrinolytic system and by the loss of fibrinolytic activity as a result of the

  12. Validation of capillary blood analysis and capillary testing mode on the epoc Point of Care system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Cao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laboratory test in transport is a critical component of patient care, and capillary blood is a preferred sample type particularly in children. This study evaluated the performance of capillary blood testing on the epoc Point of Care Blood Analysis System (Alere Inc. Methods: Ten fresh venous blood samples was tested on the epoc system under the capillary mode. Correlation with GEM 4000 (Instrumentation Laboratory was examined for Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pO2, pCO2, and pH, and correlation with serum tested on Vitros 5600 (Ortho Clinical Diagnostics was examined for creatinine. Eight paired capillary and venous blood was tested on epoc and ABL800 (Radiometer for the correlation of Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pCO2, and pH. Capillary blood from 23 apparently healthy volunteers was tested on the epoc system to assess the concordance to reference ranges used locally. Results: Deming regression correlation coefficients for all the comparisons were above 0.65 except for ionized Ca2+. Accordance of greater than 85% to the local reference ranges were found in all assays with the exception of pO2 and Cl-. Conclusion: Data from this study indicates that capillary blood tests on the epoc system provide comparable results to reference method for these assays, Na+, K+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pCO2, and pH. Further validation in critically ill patients is needed to implement the epoc system in patient transport. Impact of the study: This study demonstrated that capillary blood tests on the epoc Point of Care Blood Analysis System give comparable results to other chemistry analyzers for major blood gas and critical tests. The results are informative to institutions where pre-hospital and inter-hospital laboratory testing on capillary blood is a critical component of patient point of care testing. Keywords: Epoc, Capillary, Transport, Blood gas, Point of care

  13. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... organs and show how well treatments are working. Problems with your blood may include bleeding disorders, excessive clotting and platelet disorders. If you lose too much blood, you may need a transfusion. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

  14. Whiteboard Icons to Support the Blood-Test Process in an Emergency Department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torkilsheyggi, Arnvør Martinsdottir á; Hertzum, Morten; From, Gustav

    2013-01-01

    The competent treatment of emergency department (ED) patients requires an effective and efficient process for handling laboratory tests such as blood tests. This study investigates how ED clinicians go about the process, from ordering blood tests to acknowledging their results and, specifically......, assesses the use of whiteboard icons to support this process. On the basis of observation and interviews we find that the blood-test process is intertwined with multiple other temporal patterns in ED work. The whiteboard icons, which indicate four temporally distinct steps in the blood-test process......, support the nurses in maintaining the flow of patients through the ED and the physicians in assessing test results at timeouts. The main results of this study are, however, that the blood-test process is temporally and collaboratively complex, that the whiteboard icons pass by most of this complexity...

  15. A Triadic Reflective-Impulsive-Interoceptive Awareness Model of General and Impulsive Information System Use: Behavioral Tests of Neuro-Cognitive Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turel, Ofir; Bechara, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    This study examines a behavioral tripartite model developed in the field of addiction, and applies it here to understanding general and impulsive information technology use. It suggests that technology use is driven by two information-processing brain systems: reflective and impulsive, and that their effects on use are modulated by interoceptive awareness processes. The resultant reflective-impulsive-interoceptive awareness model is tested in two behavioral studies. Both studies employ SEM techniques to time-lagged self-report data from n 1 = 300 and n 2 = 369 social networking site users. Study 1 demonstrated that temptations augment the effect of habit on technology use, and reduce the effect of satisfaction on use. Study 2 showed that temptations strengthen the effect of habit on impulsive technology use, and weaken the effect of behavioral expectations on impulsive technology use. Hence, the results consistently support the notion that information technology users' behaviors are influenced by reflective and impulsive information processing systems; and that the equilibrium of these systems is determined, at least in part, by one's temptations. These results can serve as a basis for understanding the etiology of modern day addictions.

  16. Comparison and combination of blood-based inflammatory markers with faecal occult blood tests for non-invasive colorectal cancer screening

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tao, S; Haug, U; Kuhn, K; Brenner, H

    2012-01-01

    Faecal occult blood tests (FOBTs) are widely used for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Blood-based inflammatory markers have been suggested as alternative or supplementary non-invasive CRC screening tests...

  17. Neurocognitive functions and social functioning in young females with recent-onset anorexia nervosa and recovered individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Mette; Jepsen, Jens Richardt Moellegaard; Kjaersdam Telléus, Gry

    2017-01-01

    neurocognitive functions relevant to social functioning: set-shifting, local processing, processing speed, working memory, sustained attention, verbal memory, and verbal abstraction. Further, we tested the association between neurocognitive function and social function, measured by Autism Diagnostic Observation...... Schedule (ADOS), with an ordinal logistic regression model. RESULTS: First, participants did not differ on any neurocognitive function across groups. Second, only the neurocognitive function "verbal memory" was significantly associated with social function. Higher performance in verbal memory...... was associated with lower odds of impaired social function. Diagnostic group remained a significant factor, but the absence of an interaction between group and neurocognitive performance indicated that the association between verbal memory and social function was independent of group membership. CONCLUSION...

  18. Neurocognitive enhancement in older adults: comparison of three cognitive training tasks to test a hypothesis of training transfer in brain connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strenziok, Maren; Parasuraman, Raja; Clarke, Ellen; Cisler, Dean S; Thompson, James C; Greenwood, Pamela M

    2014-01-15

    The ultimate goal of cognitive enhancement as an intervention for age-related cognitive decline is transfer to everyday cognitive functioning. Development of training methods that transfer broadly to untrained cognitive tasks (far transfer) requires understanding of the neural bases of training and far transfer effects. We used cognitive training to test the hypothesis that far transfer is associated with altered attentional control demands mediated by the dorsal attention network and trained sensory cortex. In an exploratory study, we randomly assigned 42 healthy older adults to six weeks of training on Brain Fitness (BF-auditory perception), Space Fortress (SF-visuomotor/working memory), or Rise of Nations (RON-strategic reasoning). Before and after training, cognitive performance, diffusion-derived white matter integrity, and functional connectivity of the superior parietal cortex (SPC) were assessed. We found the strongest effects from BF training, which transferred to everyday problem solving and reasoning and selectively changed integrity of occipito-temporal white matter associated with improvement on untrained everyday problem solving. These results show that cognitive gain from auditory perception training depends on heightened white matter integrity in the ventral attention network. In BF and SF (which also transferred positively), a decrease in functional connectivity between SPC and inferior temporal lobe (ITL) was observed compared to RON-which did not transfer to untrained cognitive function. These findings highlight the importance for cognitive training of top-down control of sensory processing by the dorsal attention network. Altered brain connectivity - observed in the two training tasks that showed far transfer effects - may be a marker for training success. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Audiovisual emotional processing and neurocognitive functioning in patients with depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie eDoose-Grünefeld

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in the processing of emotional stimuli (e.g. facial expressions, prosody, music have repeatedly been reported in patients with major depression. Such impairments may result from the likewise prevalent executive deficits in these patients. However, studies investigating this relationship are rare. Moreover, most studies to date have only assessed impairments in unimodal emotional processing, whereas in real life, emotions are primarily conveyed through more than just one sensory channel. The current study therefore aimed at investigating multi-modal emotional processing in patients with depression and to assess the relationship between emotional and neurocognitive impairments. 41 patients suffering from major depression and 41 never-depressed healthy controls participated in an audiovisual (faces-sounds emotional integration paradigm as well as a neurocognitive test battery. Our results showed that depressed patients were specifically impaired in the processing of positive auditory stimuli as they rated faces significantly more fearful when presented with happy than with neutral sounds. Such an effect was absent in controls. Findings in emotional processing in patients did not correlate with BDI-scores. Furthermore, neurocognitive findings revealed significant group differences for two of the tests. The effects found in audiovisual emotional processing, however, did not correlate with performance in the neurocognitive tests.In summary, our results underline the diversity of impairments going along with depression and indicate that deficits found for unimodal emotional processing cannot trivially be generalized to deficits in a multi-modal setting. The mechanisms of impairments therefore might be far more complex than previously thought. Our findings furthermore contradict the assumption that emotional processing deficits in major depression are associated with impaired attention or inhibitory functioning.

  20. Validation of capillary blood analysis and capillary testing mode on the epoc Point of Care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jing; Edwards, Rachel; Chairez, Janette; Devaraj, Sridevi

    2017-12-01

    Laboratory test in transport is a critical component of patient care, and capillary blood is a preferred sample type particularly in children. This study evaluated the performance of capillary blood testing on the epoc Point of Care Blood Analysis System (Alere Inc). Ten fresh venous blood samples was tested on the epoc system under the capillary mode. Correlation with GEM 4000 (Instrumentation Laboratory) was examined for Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pO2, pCO2, and pH, and correlation with serum tested on Vitros 5600 (Ortho Clinical Diagnostics) was examined for creatinine. Eight paired capillary and venous blood was tested on epoc and ABL800 (Radiometer) for the correlation of Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pCO2, and pH. Capillary blood from 23 apparently healthy volunteers was tested on the epoc system to assess the concordance to reference ranges used locally. Deming regression correlation coefficients for all the comparisons were above 0.65 except for ionized Ca2+. Accordance of greater than 85% to the local reference ranges were found in all assays with the exception of pO2 and Cl-. Data from this study indicates that capillary blood tests on the epoc system provide comparable results to reference method for these assays, Na+, K+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pCO2, and pH. Further validation in critically ill patients is needed to implement the epoc system in patient transport. This study demonstrated that capillary blood tests on the epoc Point of Care Blood Analysis System give comparable results to other chemistry analyzers for major blood gas and critical tests. The results are informative to institutions where pre-hospital and inter-hospital laboratory testing on capillary blood is a critical component of patient point of care testing.

  1. Neurocognitive function in clinically stable individuals with long-term bipolar I disorder: Comparisons with schizophrenia patients and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pei-Yun; Wang, Peng-Wei; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2017-05-01

    This study compared the levels of the five domains of neurocognitive function-executive function, attention, memory, verbal comprehension, and perceptual organization-among clinically stable individuals with long-term bipolar I disorder, individuals with long-term schizophrenia, and a group of controls. We recruited a total of 93 clinically stable individuals with bipolar I disorder, 94 individuals with schizophrenia, and 106 controls in this study. Their neurocognitive function was measured using a series of neurocognitive function tests: the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III), Line Cancellation Test, Visual Form Discrimination, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Continuous Performance Task, and Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition. Neurocognitive function was compared among the three groups through a multivariate analysis of variance. The results indicated that when the effect of age was controlled, clinically stable individuals with bipolar I disorder and those with schizophrenia demonstrated poor neurocognitive function on all tests except for the WAIS-III Similarity and Information and the Line Cancellation Test. The individuals with bipolar I disorder had similar levels of neurocognitive function compared with the schizophrenia group, but higher levels of neurocognitive function on the WAIS-III Comprehension, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, and Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition Auditory Immediate and Delayed Index and Visual Immediate and Delayed Index. The conclusions of this study suggest that compared with controls, individuals with long-term bipolar I disorder and those with long-term schizophrenia have poorer neurocognitive function, even when clinically stable. Individuals with long-term bipolar I disorder and those with long-term schizophrenia have similar levels of deficits in several domains of neurocognitive function. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  2. Neurocognitive function in clinically stable individuals with long-term bipolar I disorder: Comparisons with schizophrenia patients and controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yun Lin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the levels of the five domains of neurocognitive function—executive function, attention, memory, verbal comprehension, and perceptual organization—among clinically stable individuals with long-term bipolar I disorder, individuals with long-term schizophrenia, and a group of controls. We recruited a total of 93 clinically stable individuals with bipolar I disorder, 94 individuals with schizophrenia, and 106 controls in this study. Their neurocognitive function was measured using a series of neurocognitive function tests: the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Third Edition (WAIS-III, Line Cancellation Test, Visual Form Discrimination, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Continuous Performance Task, and Wechsler Memory Scale—Third Edition. Neurocognitive function was compared among the three groups through a multivariate analysis of variance. The results indicated that when the effect of age was controlled, clinically stable individuals with bipolar I disorder and those with schizophrenia demonstrated poor neurocognitive function on all tests except for the WAIS-III Similarity and Information and the Line Cancellation Test. The individuals with bipolar I disorder had similar levels of neurocognitive function compared with the schizophrenia group, but higher levels of neurocognitive function on the WAIS-III Comprehension, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, and Wechsler Memory Scale—Third Edition Auditory Immediate and Delayed Index and Visual Immediate and Delayed Index. The conclusions of this study suggest that compared with controls, individuals with long-term bipolar I disorder and those with long-term schizophrenia have poorer neurocognitive function, even when clinically stable. Individuals with long-term bipolar I disorder and those with long-term schizophrenia have similar levels of deficits in several domains of neurocognitive function.

  3. A modified isometric test to evaluate blood pressure control with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    35 mmHg sysrolic and 97 ± 21 mmHg diastolic. Twenty-nine patients were unresponsive to various drug combinations as judged by diastolic blood pressures which remained above 100 mmHg at rest, while 16 had not received any prior medical therapy. Four patients had coronary artery disease, treated with nitrates and.

  4. Consuming functional foods enriched with plant sterol or stanol esters for 85 weeks does not affect neurocognitive functioning or mood in statin-treated hypercholesterolemic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiepers, Olga J G; de Groot, Renate H M; van Boxtel, Martin P J; Jolles, Jelle; de Jong, Ariënne; Lütjohann, Dieter; Plat, Jogchum; Mensink, Ronald P

    2009-07-01

    Recent animal and human studies have shown that plant sterols and stanols, which are used as functional food ingredients to lower increased LDL cholesterol concentrations, pass the blood-brain barrier. Whether this affects neurocognitive functioning and mental well-being in humans has, to our knowledge, never been investigated. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine the effects of long-term plant sterol or stanol consumption on neurocognitive functioning and mood in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled dietary intervention trial. To this end, hypercholesterolemic individuals, aged 43-69 y, receiving stable statin treatment were randomly assigned to an 85-wk supplementation with margarines enriched with plant sterol esters (2.5 g/d), plant stanol esters (2.5 g/d), or placebo. At baseline and at the end of the intervention period, all participants underwent a cognitive assessment. In addition, subjective cognitive functioning and mood were assessed by means of questionnaires (Cognitive Failure Questionnaire and depression subscale of the Symptom Checklist 90, respectively). Long-term supplementation with plant sterol or stanol esters did not affect cognitive performance (memory, simple information processing speed, complex information processing speed, Letter-Digit Substitution test performance), subjective cognitive functioning, or mood. In conclusion, the present results indicate that long-term use of plant sterols or stanols at recommended intakes of 2.5 g/d does not affect neurocognitive functioning or mood in hypercholesterolemic individuals receiving statin treatment.

  5. Personality and Performance in Specific Neurocognitive Domains Among Older Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Benjamin P; Benedict, Ralph H; Lin, Feng; Roy, Shumita; Federoff, Howard J; Mapstone, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Certain Big 5 personality dimensions have been repeatedly linked to global measures of cognitive function and outcome categories. We examined whether the Big 5 or their specific components showed differential evidence of associations with specific neurocognitive domains. Participants were 179 older adults (70+) from a broader study on cognitive aging. The NEO-Five Factor Inventory and a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests were used. Adjusted for age, gender, and years of education, probability values, Bayes Factors, and measures effect size from linear models suggested strong evidence for associations between better delayed recall memory and higher Conscientiousness (principally the facets of Goal-Striving and Dependability) and Openness (specifically the Intellectual Interest component). Better executive function and attention showed moderate to strong evidence of associations with lower Neuroticism (especially the Self-conscious Vulnerability facet) and higher Conscientiousness (mostly the Dependability facet). Better language functioning was linked to higher Openness (specifically, the Intellectual Interests facet). Worse visual-spatial function was strongly associated with higher Neuroticism. Different tests of neurocognitive functioning show varying degrees of evidence for associations with different personality traits. Better understanding of the patterning of neurocognitive-personality linkages may facilitate grasp of underlying mechanisms and/or refine understanding of co-occurring clinical presentation of personality traits and specific cognitive deficits. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Neurocognitive effects following an overnight call shift on faculty anesthesiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, L C; Mahoney, J J; Raty, S R; Ortiz, J; Apodaca, S; De La Garza, R

    2013-09-01

    The impact of sleep deprivation on neurocognitive performance is a significant concern to both the health of patients and to the physicians caring for them, as demonstrated by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education enforced resident work hours. This study examined the effects of an overnight call at a level 1 trauma hospital on neurocognitive performance of faculty anesthesiologists. Eleven faculty anesthesiologists completed a series of computerized tests that were designed to evaluate different areas of neurocognition, such as working memory, verbal learning, and concentration. The anesthesiologists completed the tests following an overnight call in the morning at 6:30 and again following a normal night's rest at 6:30 on a different date. Within-subjects, repeated measures analysis of variance revealed a significant difference on post-call vs. control performance on measures of learning and memory (P = 0.04). However, there were no significant differences on performance on measures of working memory or sustained attention and vigilance. Pre-call vs. control performances were also evaluated, but no significant differences were detected. Following a night call shift, performance on learning and memory was significantly reduced. Other areas were not significantly affected, which may have been due to certain possibilities, such as practice effect or variability in the call shifts. The real-world relevance of the decline in performance on these measures remains unclear. © 2013 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Platelet Activation Test in Unprocessed Blood (Pac-t-UB) to Monitor Platelet Concentrates and Whole Blood of Thrombocytopenic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roest, Mark; van Holten, Thijs C; Fleurke, Ger-Jan; Remijn, Jasper A

    2013-04-01

    Platelet concentrate transfusion is the standard treatment for hemato-oncology patients to compensate for thrombocytopenia. We have developed a novel platelet activation test in anticoagulated unprocessed blood (pac-t-UB) to determine platelet function in platelet concentrates and in blood of thrombocytopenic patients. We have measured platelet activity in a platelet concentrate and in anticoagulated unprocessed blood of a post-transfusion thrombocytopenic patient. Our data show time-dependent platelet activation by GPVI agonist (collagen related peptide; CRP), PAR-1 agonist (SFLLRN), P2Y12 agonist (ADP), and thromboxane receptor agonist (U46619) in a platelet concentrate. Furthermore, pac-t-UB showed time-dependent platelet activation in unprocessed blood of a post-transfusion patient with thrombocytopenia. Testing platelet function by different agonists in relation to storage show that 3-day-old platelet concentrates are still reactive to the studied agonists. This reactivity rapidly drops for each agonists during longer storage. Pac-t-UB is a novel tool to estimate platelet function by different agonists in platelet concentrates and in unprocessed blood of thrombocytopenic patients. In the near future, we will validate whether pac-t-UB is an adequate test to monitor the quality of platelet concentrates and whether pac-t-UB predicts the bleeding risk of transfused thrombocytopenic patients.

  8. A Turner syndrome neurocognitive phenotype maps to Xp22.3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elder Frederick F

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Turner syndrome (TS is associated with a neurocognitive phenotype that includes selective nonverbal deficits, e.g., impaired visual-spatial abilities. We previously reported evidence that this phenotype results from haploinsufficiency of one or more genes on distal Xp. This inference was based on genotype/phenotype comparisons of individual girls and women with partial Xp deletions, with the neurocognitive phenotype considered a dichotomous trait. We sought to confirm our findings in a large cohort (n = 47 of adult women with partial deletions of Xp or Xq, enriched for subjects with distal Xp deletions. Methods Subjects were recruited from North American genetics and endocrinology clinics. Phenotype assessment included measures of stature, ovarian function, and detailed neurocognitive testing. The neurocognitive phenotype was measured as a quantitative trait, the Turner Syndrome Cognitive Summary (TSCS score, derived from discriminant function analysis. Genetic analysis included karyotyping, X inactivation studies, fluorescent in situ hybridization, microsatellite marker genotyping, and array comparative genomic hybridization. Results We report statistical evidence that deletion of Xp22.3, an interval containing 31 annotated genes, is sufficient to cause the neurocognitive phenotype described by the TSCS score. Two other cardinal TS features, ovarian failure and short stature, as well as X chromosome inactivation pattern and subject's age, were unrelated to the TSCS score. Conclusion Detailed mapping suggests that haploinsufficiency of one or more genes in Xp22.3, the distal 8.3 megabases (Mb of the X chromosome, is responsible for a TS neurocognitive phenotype. This interval includes the 2.6 Mb Xp-Yp pseudoautosomal region (PAR1. Haploinsufficiency of the short stature gene SHOX in PAR1 probably does not cause this TS neurocognitive phenotype. Two genes proximal to PAR1 within the 8.3 Mb critical region, STS and NLGN4X, are

  9. Blood test could predict risk of heart attack and subsequent death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-18

    A high-sensitivity blood test, known as a troponin test, could predict the risk of heart attack and death and patients' response to statins, say researchers from the Universities of Edinburgh and Glasgow.

  10. the reliability of sickling and solubility tests and peripheral blood film ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although sickling and solubility tests and peripheral blood film methods are today available for sickle cell disease screening in Uganda, their reliability and ease of applicability have not been determined. This study was therefore carried out to determine the reliability of sickling and solubility tests and peripheral blood film ...

  11. Why humans do not make good vampires. Testing the ability of humans to detect true blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, Delphine; Van Speybroeck, Linda; Verplaetse, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Research indicating the effects of real blood or of its iconic representation on human behaviour has thus far concentrated on phobia and aggressiveness. Little is known about other responses or, more fundamentally, about the biological basis of all such responses. In this study it is examined whether or not humans are able to detect real blood. Human subjects (n = 89) were asked to distinguish different kinds of blood from red control fluids under varying visual and choice conditions. Relevant differences between subjects were tested for through written questionnaires, including standardized scales for disgust sensitivity (DS-R) and blood phobia (MBPI) and performance on two clinical olfactory tests. Analysis of variance shows that humans are excellent detectors of animal blood (in casu pig blood), whereas the ability of detecting human blood is much less developed. Surprisingly, differences in olfactory capacities and personal experience with blood have no effect on blood detection, while blood fear lowers and disgust sensitivity ameliorates this performance. This study allows further mapping of the exact role of disgust sensitivity in human behaviour, as well as a deliberate choice of materials in blood-related experiments. It is imperative for further research on the behavioural and psychological impact 'blood' resorts on humans.

  12. Preoperative gene expression may be associated with neurocognitive decline after cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabe, Ashraf A; Dalal, Rahul S; Chu, Louis M; Elmadhun, Nassrene Y; Ramlawi, Basel; Bianchi, Cesario; Sellke, Frank W

    2015-02-01

    Despite advances in surgical techniques, neurocognitive decline after cardiopulmonary bypass remains a common and serious complication. We have previously demonstrated that patients with neurocognitive decline have unique genetic responses 6 hours after cardiopulmonary bypass when compared with normal patients. We used genomic microarray to objectively investigate whether patients with neurocognitive decline had associated preoperative gene expression profiles and how these profiles changed up to 4 days after surgery. Patients undergoing cardiac surgery underwent neurocognitive assessments preoperatively and 4 days after surgery. Skeletal muscle was collected intraoperatively. Whole blood collected before cardiopulmonary bypass, 6 hours after cardiopulmonary bypass, and on postoperative day 4 was hybridized to Affymetrix Gene Chip U133 Plus 2.0 microarrays (Affymetrix Inc, Santa Clara, Calif). Gene expression in patients with neurocognitive decline was compared with gene expression in the normal group using JMP Genomics (SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC). Only genes that were commonly expressed in the 2 groups with a false discovery rate of 0.05 and a fold change greater than 1.5 were carried forward to pathway analysis using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (Ingenuity Systems, Redwood City, Calif). Microarray gene expression was validated by Green real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Neurocognitive decline developed in 17 of 42 patients. A total of 54,675 common transcripts were identified on microarray in each group across all time points. Preoperatively, there were 140 genes that were significantly altered between the normal and neurocognitive decline groups (P cardiopulmonary bypass and to 25 four days after surgery. There was no correlation in gene expression between the blood and the skeletal muscle. Patients in whom neurocognitive decline developed after cardiopulmonary bypass had increased differential gene expression before surgery versus

  13. The relationship between neurocognition and symptomatology in people with schizophrenia: social cognition as the mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Bess Y H; Raine, Adrian; Lee, Tatia M C

    2014-05-13

    The relationship between neurocognition and symptomatology in people with schizophrenia has been established. The present study examined whether social cognition could mediate this relationship. There were 119 participants (58 people with paranoid schizophrenia and 61 healthy controls) participated in this study. Neurocognition was assessed by Raven's Progressive Matrices Test, the Judgment of Line Orientation Test, and the Tower of London Test. Psychiatric symptoms in people with schizophrenia were assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Social cognition was measured by the Faux Pas Test, the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" Test, and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Results were consistent with previous findings that neurocognition and social cognition were impaired in the clinical participants. A novel observation is that social cognition significantly mediated the relationship between neurocognition and symptomatology. These findings suggest that neurocognitive deficits predispose people with schizophrenia to worse psychiatric symptoms through the impairment of social cognition. Findings of the present study provide important insight into a functional model of schizophrenia that could guide the development of cost-effective interventions for people with schizophrenia.

  14. Neurocognitive profiles of learning disabled children with neurofibromatosis type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladys eOrraca-Castillo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1 is a genetic condition generally associated with intellectual deficiency and learning disabilities. Although there have been groundbreaking advances in the understanding of the molecular, cellular, and neural systems underlying learning deficits associated to NF1 in animal models, much remains to be learned about the spectrum of neurocognitive phenotype associated with the NF1 clinical syndrome. In the present study, 32 children with NF1 ranging from 7 to 14 years were evaluated with neurocognitive tests dedicated to assess basic capacities which are involved in reading and mathematical achievement. Deficits in lexical and phonological strategies and poor number facts retrieval were found underlying reading and arithmetic disorders, respectively. Additionally, efficiencies in lexical/phonological strategies and mental arithmetic were significant predictors of individual differences in reading attainment and math. However, deficits in core numeric capacities were not found in the sample, suggesting that it is not responsible for calculation dysfluency. The estimated prevalence of Developmental Dyscalculia was 18.8%, and the male:female ratio was 5:1. On the other hand, the prevalence of Developmental Dyslexia was almost 3 times as high (50%, and no gender differences were found (male:female ratio=1:1. This study offers new evidence to the neurocognitive phenotype of NF1 contributing to an in depth understanding of this condition, but also to possible treatments for the cognitive deficits associated with NF1.

  15. Altered structural brain changes and neurocognitive performance in pediatric HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh K. Yadav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric HIV patients often suffer with neurodevelopmental delay and subsequently cognitive impairment. While tissue injury in cortical and subcortical regions in the brain of adult HIV patients has been well reported there is sparse knowledge about these changes in perinatally HIV infected pediatric patients. We analyzed cortical thickness, subcortical volume, structural connectivity, and neurocognitive functions in pediatric HIV patients and compared with those of pediatric healthy controls. With informed consent, 34 perinatally infected pediatric HIV patients and 32 age and gender matched pediatric healthy controls underwent neurocognitive assessment and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI on a 3 T clinical scanner. Altered cortical thickness, subcortical volumes, and abnormal neuropsychological test scores were observed in pediatric HIV patients. The structural network connectivity analysis depicted lower connection strengths, lower clustering coefficients, and higher path length in pediatric HIV patients than healthy controls. The network betweenness and network hubs in cortico-limbic regions were distorted in pediatric HIV patients. The findings suggest that altered cortical and subcortical structures and regional brain connectivity in pediatric HIV patients may contribute to deficits in their neurocognitive functions. Further, longitudinal studies are required for better understanding of the effect of HIV pathogenesis on brain structural changes throughout the brain development process under standard ART treatment.

  16. Neurocognitive profiles of learning disabled children with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orraca-Castillo, Miladys; Estévez-Pérez, Nancy; Reigosa-Crespo, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) is a genetic condition generally associated with intellectual deficiency and learning disabilities. Although there have been groundbreaking advances in the understanding of the molecular, cellular, and neural systems underlying learning deficits associated to NF1 in animal models, much remains to be learned about the spectrum of neurocognitive phenotype associated with the NF1 clinical syndrome. In the present study, 32 children with NF1 ranging from 7 to 14 years were evaluated with neurocognitive tests dedicated to assess basic capacities which are involved in reading and mathematical achievement. Deficits in lexical and phonological strategies and poor number facts retrieval were found underlying reading and arithmetic disorders, respectively. Additionally, efficiencies in lexical/phonological strategies and mental arithmetic were significant predictors of individual differences in reading attainment and math. However, deficits in core numeric capacities were not found in the sample, suggesting that it is not responsible for calculation dysfluency. The estimated prevalence of Developmental Dyscalculia was 18.8%, and the male:female ratio was 5:1. On the other hand, the prevalence of Developmental Dyslexia was almost 3 times as high (50%), and no gender differences were found (male: female ratio = 1:1). This study offers new evidence to the neurocognitive phenotype of NF1 contributing to an in depth understanding of this condition, but also to possible treatments for the cognitive deficits associated with NF1.

  17. Virtual Reality Stroop Task for neurocognitive assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Thomas D; Courtney, Christopher G; Arizmendi, Brian; Dawson, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Given the prevalence of traumatic brain injury (TBI), and the fact that many mild TBIs have no external marker of injury, there is a pressing need for innovative assessment technology. The demand for assessment that goes beyond traditional paper-and-pencil testing has resulted in the use of automated cognitive testing for increased precision and efficiency; and the use of virtual environment technology for enhanced ecological validity and increased function-based assessment. To address these issues, a Virtual Reality Stroop Task (VRST) that involves the subject being immersed in a virtual Humvee as Stroop stimuli appear on the windshield was developed. This study is an initial validation of the VRST as an assessment of neurocognitive functioning. When compared to the paper-and-pencil, as well as Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics versions of the Stroop, the VRST appears to have enhanced capacity for providing an indication of a participant's reaction time and ability to inhibit a prepotent response while immersed in a military relevant simulation that presents psychophysiologically arousing high and low threat stimuli.

  18. Sleep Duration and Neurocognitive Function in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Alberto R; Tarraf, Wassim; Daviglus, Martha; Davis, Sonia; Gallo, Linda C; Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Penedo, Frank J; Redline, Susan; Rundek, Tatjana; Sacco, Ralph L; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Wright, Clinton B; Zee, Phyllis C; González, Hector M

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the association between sleep duration and neurocognitive function in a representative sample of middle-aged to older Hispanic/Latino adults in the US. We tested the hypothesis that sleep duration has a nonlinear, inverted U-shaped association with neurocognitive function. We performed a cross-sectional analysis from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) participants ages 45-74 years (n = 8,676). HCHS/SOL is a community-based cohort from four US urban areas sampled using a probability design from 2008-2011. Self-reported sleep duration was calculated as a weighted average of the difference between habitual wake and bedtimes assessed by separate questions for weekdays and weekends. Neurocognitive function was measured with standardized scores for Word (Phonemic) Fluency (WF), Brief-Spanish English Verbal learning test (B-SEVLT), and Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS) tests. The mean age was 56.5 years; 55% were women; and 40.4% had less than high school education. Average sleep duration was 7.8 ± 1.7 hours. There was an inverted U-shaped association with sleep duration and WF, B-SEVLT sum, and the DSS, with no association with B-SEVLT delayed-recall. Participants with intermediate sleep duration had the best neurocognitive function, while long sleepers had worse neurocognitive function adjusting for demographic, behavioral, and medical factors, daytime sleepiness, and use of sleep medications. Sleep duration had curvilinear inverted U-shaped associations with neurocognitive function, with worse scores among participants with longer sleep duration. These findings may provide a framework to further examine sleep duration in the prevention and treatment of neurocognitive disorders.

  19. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia and can affect people who have a diet ... 2015 More on this topic for: Teens Blood Types Donating Blood Blood Transfusions Anemia Sickle Cell Disease Hemophilia When Cancer Keeps You ...

  20. Neurocognitive function of pediatric heart transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haavisto, Anu; Korkman, Marit; Jalanko, Hannu; Holmberg, Christer; Qvist, Erik

    2010-07-01

    Pediatric heart transplant recipients exhibit cognitive delays, as evident in assessments of their general intelligence. Less is known about their specific neurocognitive impairments. All 19 children in Finland aged 6 to 16 years who had undergone heart transplantation (HTx) participated. Of these, 12 (63%) had cardiomyopathy (CM) and 7 (37%) had congenital heart disease (CHD). They were assessed on average 5.5 (SD, 3.6) years post-operatively at a mean age of 12.0 (SD, 3.1) years. A standardized test of intelligence (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children [WISC]-III), a neuropsychological test battery (NEPSY-II), and a parental developmental questionnaire (FTF) were administered. The neuropsychological test profile of the HTx group was compared with that of a matched control group. HTx children had a lower mean Performance Intelligence Quotient (PIQ; 82.2, p = 0.001) and Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ; 85.6, p = 0.004) compared with population norms. HTx children scored generally lower than the control group on the neuropsychological tests (p = 0.002). Seven patients with pre-HTx neurologic sequelae (n = 6) or extreme prematurity (n = 1) had lower mean FSIQ (72.1) than did children without major pre-HTx risk factors (93.5, p = 0.012). The latter group scored below average on only 1 of 6 WISC-III sub-tests and 2 of 10 NEPSY-II sub-tests, all measuring visuoconstructional performance. Children without major neurologic risk factors pre-HTx may have normal general intelligence after HTx but deficits in the visuoconstructional domain.

  1. [Preoperative autologous blood bank: communication, documentation, informed consent, iron supplement, testing, blood bank reports, cost control, transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekamp, U

    1990-01-01

    Preoperative deposition auf autologous blood requires a strenuous effort for its initiation and operation. K.R.A.F.T.A.K.T. (literal translation: strenuous effort) became therefore the acronym for the program realized at this institution; it stands for: K = communication between patient and his physicians (primary care, surgeon, blood banker) R = direction of the program through the primary care physician (who does what, when, where, how and how much of it) A = informed consent of the patient prior to the first donation F = iron supplement (100mg Fe++ daily beginning 2 weeks prior) T = collection, processing, labelling, storage, pretransfusion testing, and release in accordance with GMP and legal requirements A = blood bank reports on the available units to all concerned K = cost control (limited to operations in need of transfusion) T = transfusion of autologous prior to any homologous unit. We report initial experiences and a cost assessment.

  2. Blood lactate level in Elite boy swimmers after lactate tolerance exercise test

    OpenAIRE

    Asghar Nikseresht; Iman Yabande; Karamatollah Rahmanian; Abdolreza Sotoodeh Jahromi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: To avoid injuries during high-intensity sports training, it is important to recognize conditions of bodily consumption and production of adequate energy; exercise increases the concentration of the blood lactate. This paper is an attempt to compare pre and post lactate tolerance exercise test - blood lactate concentrations - of elite boy swimmers. Methods: Blood lactates are measured by an enzymatic method on 12 subjects 30 minutes before and adjust and 24 hours after the t...

  3. Gingival crevicular blood for screening of blood glucose level in patients with & without diabetes: a chair-side test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavsar, M V; Brahmbhatt, N A; Sahayata, V; Bhavsar, N V

    2016-05-01

    Diabetes is a pandemic disease with increasing prevalence and serious complications. Periodontitis being one of its presentation and is its sixth recognized complication. This study compares blood glucose levels in gingival crevicular blood of patients with and without diabetes elicited during routine periodontal probing and venous blood sample. Seventy patients with moderate gingivitis and periodontitis positive for bleeding on probing were chosen. All the subjects were divided in two groups, group I consisted of 35 diabetic and group II of 35 non-diabetic subjects. Blood from the gingiva of the most inflamed site was collected with the test strip of a glucose self-monitoring device, and the blood glucose levels were measured. At the same time, intravenous blood was collected for measurement in a laboratory glucose analyzer. Gingival index and probing pocket depth were evaluated for each subject at same time. The mean GCB levels and VB derived from all samples were 156.07 ± 49.23 mg dl(-1) and 156 ± 49.89 mg dl(-1) , respectively, for diabetic group and 90.80 ± 11.07 and 93.41 ± 9.30 for non-diabetic group. In both the groups, the difference between GCB and VB glucose levels was non-significant (P > 0.005). Highly significant correlation between GCB and VB (r = 0.972 for diabetic and r = 0.721 for non-diabetic) in both the groups was found. The data from this study show that GCB collected during diagnostic periodontal examination can be an excellent source for estimation of blood sugar or glucometric analysis. This technique is also suitable for routine screening of diabetic and early diagnosis of unknown diabetic cases. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Nanoscale Test Strips for Multiplexed Blood Analysis Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of our nanoscale test strips, or nanostrips, is to provide rapid, low-cost, powerful multiplexed analyses in a diminutive form so that whole body health...

  5. Development of a Diagnostic Blood Test for Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gabrielson, Edward

    2002-01-01

    .... During the second year of this study, a small number of serum samples from breast cancer patients were tested for methylation of genes previously determined to be methylated in the cancer tissue...

  6. Blood Smear: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... minutes. Will I need to do anything to prepare for the test? You don't need any ... health/health-topics/topics/bdt/with UF Health: University of Florida Health [Internet]. University of Florida; c2017. ...

  7. Potential Impact of Rapid Blood Culture Testing for Gram-Positive Bacteremia in Japan with the Verigene Gram-Positive Blood Culture Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Kikuchi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Early detection of Gram-positive bacteremia and timely appropriate antimicrobial therapy are required for decreasing patient mortality. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the performance of the Verigene Gram-positive blood culture assay (BC-GP in two special healthcare settings and determine the potential impact of rapid blood culture testing for Gram-positive bacteremia within the Japanese healthcare delivery system. Furthermore, the study included simulated blood cultures, which included a library of well-characterized methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE isolates reflecting different geographical regions in Japan. Methods. A total 347 BC-GP assays were performed on clinical and simulated blood cultures. BC-GP results were compared to results obtained by reference methods for genus/species identification and detection of resistance genes using molecular and MALDI-TOF MS methodologies. Results. For identification and detection of resistance genes at two clinical sites and simulated blood cultures, overall concordance of BC-GP with reference methods was 327/347 (94%. The time for identification and antimicrobial resistance detection by BC-GP was significantly shorter compared to routine testing especially at the cardiology hospital, which does not offer clinical microbiology services on weekends and holidays. Conclusion. BC-GP generated accurate identification and detection of resistance markers compared with routine laboratory methods for Gram-positive organisms in specialized clinical settings providing more rapid results than current routine testing.

  8. Perioperative hyperglycemia is associated with postoperative neurocognitive disorders after cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang X

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Xiaopeng Zhang,1 Xiaowei Yan,2 Jennifer Gorman,2 Stuart N Hoffman,3 Li Zhang,1 Joseph A Boscarino2 1Department of Anesthesiology, Geisinger Medical Center, 2Center for Health Research, Geisinger Clinic, 3Department of Neurology, Geisinger Medical Center, Danville, PA, USA Objective: Neurocognitive disorders commonly occur following cardiac surgery. However, the underlying etiology of these disorders is not well understood. The current study examined the association between perioperative glucose levels and other risk factors and the onset of neurocognitive disorders in adult patients following coronary artery bypass and/or valvular surgery. Methods: Adult patients who underwent their first cardiac surgery at a large tertiary care medical center were identified and those with neurocognitive disorders prior to surgery were excluded. Demographic, perioperative, and postoperative neurocognitive outcome data were extracted from the Society for Thoracic Surgery database, and from electronic medical records, between January 2004 and June 2009. Multiple clinical risk factors and measures associated with insulin resistance, such as hyperglycemia, were assessed. Multivariable Cox competing risk survival models were used to assess hyperglycemia and postoperative neurocognitive disorders at follow up, adjusting for other risk factors and confounding variables. Results: Of the 855 patients included in the study, 271 (31.7% had new onset neurocognitive disorders at follow-up. Age, sex, New York Heart Failure (NYHF Class, length of postoperative intensive care unit stay, perioperative blood product transfusion, and other key factors were identified and assessed as potential risk factors (or confounders for neurocognitive disorders at follow-up. Bivariate analyses suggested that new onset neurocognitive disorders were associated with NYHF Class, cardiopulmonary bypass, history of diabetes, intraoperative blood product use, and number of diseased coronary vessels

  9. Andersen-Tawil syndrome: definition of a neurocognitive phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, G; Quitania, L; Kramer, J H; Fu, Y H; Miller, B L; Ptácek, L J

    2006-06-13

    The Andersen-Tawil syndrome (ATS) is a potassium ion channelopathy caused by mutations in the KCNJ2 gene. It is characterized by periodic paralysis, cardiac arrhythmias, and distinctive features; the effect of KCNJ2 mutations on the CNS has never been studied. To define a potential CNS phenotype in ATS using standardized methods. Ten subjects with KCNJ2 mutations and their unaffected siblings were evaluated at the University of California San Francisco General Clinical Research Center. A comprehensive battery of neurocognitive tests was administered to ATS subjects and their unaffected siblings, followed by pairwise analysis of the resultant differences in scores. An EEG was obtained for all ATS subjects. There was no EEG evidence of subclinical seizure activity in any subject. ATS subjects universally had more school difficulties than their siblings, despite similar IQ between the two groups. On formal neurocognitive testing, there was no difference between ATS subjects and their siblings on tests of verbal and visual memory. Assessment of executive functioning revealed ATS subjects scored 1.93 points lower than their siblings on tests of Design Fluency (95% CI -3.46, 0.01; p = 0.052) and made 1.9 more errors (95% CI 0.46, 2.54; p = 0.005). Subjects with ATS scored an average of 5 points lower than their siblings on tests of matrix reasoning (95% CI -8.67, -1.33; p = 0.008). On tests of general ability, ATS subjects achieved much lower scores than their siblings, with an average difference of 9.13 points for reading (95% CI -12.46, 3.21; p = 0.056) and 23.4 points for mathematics (95% CI -42.53, -4.22; p = 0.017). Mutations in KCNJ2 are associated with a distinct neurocognitive phenotype, characterized by deficits in executive function and abstract reasoning.

  10. Obesity and neurocognitive recovery after sports-related concussion in athletes: a matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young M; Wu, Adela; Zuckerman, Scott L; Stanko, Kevin M; LaChaud, Gregory Y; Solomon, Gary S; Sills, Allen K

    2016-09-01

    Sports-related concussions (SRCs) are a significant public health concern in athletes. Data exist suggesting a link between obesity and decreased neurocognitive function, yet the effect of body mass index (BMI) on neurocognitive function and recovery after a SRC is unknown. The goal of our study was to discern the effect of BMI on recovery after SRC. This study was a retrospective observational cohort study. Between 2013 and 2014, 7,606 athletes between the ages of 13-20 years valid baseline neurocognitive testing performed at multiple regional concussion centers sustained a concussion. Out of these athletes, 711 normal weight athletes and 711 obese athletes were matched by age, gender, number of previous concussions, and sport. The proportions of athletes returning to baseline within two weeks between the groups were defined by using 80% confidence reliable change index (RCI) criteria and were compared using Fisher's Exact Test. Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis with log-rank test was used to compare the median time to neurocognitive recovery between groups. Fewer obese athletes returned to baseline within 2 weeks on measures of verbal memory, visual motor speed, reaction time, postconcussion symptom scale (PCSS), and overall recovery compared to normal weight athletes. Obese athletes also had greater median time of return to baseline with respect to reaction time, PCSS, and overall recovery. Using RCI methodology, there exists an association between obesity and increased time to return to neurocognitive and symptom baseline after SRC in athletes, specifically reaction time, symptom scores, and overall recovery.

  11. Relationships among obstructive sleep apnea, anthropometric measures, and neurocognitive functioning in adolescents with severe obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Tamara S; Rofey, Dana L; Ryan, Christopher M; Clapper, Denise A; Chakravorty, Sangeeta; Arslanian, Silva A

    2012-05-01

    To explore associations between measures of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and sleep quality, anthropometrics, and neurocognitive functioning in severely obese adolescents. This was a cross-sectional pilot study performed at an academic medical center in 37 severely obese (body mass index [BMI] >97th percentile) adolescents. Study evaluations included polysomnography, BMI, waist circumference, and standardized neurocognitive tests to assess memory, executive functioning, psychomotor efficiency, academic achievement, and an approximation of full-scale IQ. Outcome data were evaluated categorically, based on clinical criteria for the diagnosis of OSA, and continuously to quantify associations between sleep parameters, anthropometrics, and neurocognitive test results. Sleep fragmentation and poorer sleep quality were associated with reduced psychomotor efficiency, poorer memory recall, and lower scores on standardized academic tests. Having evidence of OSA was associated with lower math scores, but not with other neurocognitive measures. BMI and waist circumference were negatively associated with oxygen saturation. Our pilot study findings suggest that sleep fragmentation and poorer sleep quality have implications for neurocognitive functioning in obese adolescents. The epidemic of childhood obesity has dire implications, not only for increasing cardiometabolic pathology, but also for possibly promoting less readily apparent neurologic alterations associated with poor sleep quality. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Blood lactate level in Elite boy swimmers after lactate tolerance exercise test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Nikseresht

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To avoid injuries during high-intensity sports training, it is important to recognize conditions of bodily consumption and production of adequate energy; exercise increases the concentration of the blood lactate. This paper is an attempt to compare pre and post lactate tolerance exercise test - blood lactate concentrations - of elite boy swimmers. Methods: Blood lactates are measured by an enzymatic method on 12 subjects 30 minutes before and adjust and 24 hours after the test. Results: The mean lactate concentration of 30.35±12.16 mg/dl is observed in swimmers 30 minutes before the test. Swimmers adjust after the test show mean blood lactate concentration of 108.52±18.17 mg/dl that is significantly higher than 30 minutes before the test (p<0.001. Then blood lactate level decreases below baseline level at 24 hours after the test. Conclusion: Blood lactate increases with the test and decreases below baseline within 24 hours after the test.

  13. Comparative infectious serology testing of pre- and post-mortem blood samples from cornea donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkemeyer, I; Pruss, A; Kalus, U; Schroeter, J

    2012-08-01

    Defined serological blood tests of deceased cornea donors are required to minimize the risk of viral infections of a transplant recipient as much as possible. Haemolysis, autolysis and bacterial contamination, may produce significant changes of post-mortem blood samples, which may lead to false serological test results. Pre- and post-mortem findings from the same cornea donors of the University Tissue Bank of the Charité in the years 2004-2009 (n = 487) were retrospectively analyzed and compared. The test results from pre-mortem blood samples were defined as the reference for the post-mortem blood test. Of 487 cornea donors, there were a total of 21 cases (4.3%) with discrepancies between serological test results from pre- and post-mortem blood samples. Of these, 7 values referred to the HBsAg-testing, 3 to the anti-HBs-, 1 to the anti-HBcIgG + IgM-, 1 to the anti-HCV-, 4 to the anti-HIV 1/2- and 5 to the TPLA-findings. False negative results within post-mortem serology occurred in 4 of 487 cases (0.8%). False positive results within the post-mortem blood samples occurred at a much more frequent rate, with 17 of 487 cases (3.5%). Discrepancies between serological pre- and post-mortem blood tests occur mainly due to the use of non-validated test systems. Therefore, it seems reasonable to test pre- and post-mortem blood samples serologically, whenever possible, at the same time, regardless of the sample age. Positive results, regardless of the sample type, should always be retested with validated confirmation tests (e.g. NAT), in order to differentiate between false and true positive results.

  14. Neurocognitive functioning in compulsive buying disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbyshire, Katherine L; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Odlaug, Brian L; Schreiber, Liana R N; Grant, Jon E

    2014-02-01

    Compulsive buying (CB) is a fairly common behavioral problem estimated to affect 5.8% of the population. Although previous research has examined the clinical characteristics of CB, little research has examined whether people with CB manifest cognitive deficits. Twenty-three non-treatment-seeking compulsive buyers (mean age, 22.3±3.5; 60.9% female) and 23 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (mean age, 21.1±3.4, 60.9% female) underwent neurocognitive assessment. We predicted that the following cognitive domains would be impaired in CB: spatial working memory (Spatial Working Memory test), response inhibition (Stop-Signal Task), cognitive flexibility (Intra-Extra Dimensional Set Shift task), and decision making (Cambridge Gambling Task). Compared with controls, individuals with CB exhibited significant impairments in response inhibition (P=.043), risk adjustment during decision making (P=.010), and spatial working memory (P=.041 total errors; P=.044 strategy scores). Deficits were of large effect size (Cohen's d, 0.6 to 1.05). These pilot data suggest that individuals with CB experience problems in several distinct cognitive domains, supporting a likely neurobiological overlap between CB and other putative behavioral and substance addictions. These findings may have implications for shared treatment approaches as well as how we currently classify and understand CB.

  15. Rapid prototyping of centrifugal microfluidic modules for point of care blood testing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Madzivhandila, Phophi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We present modular centrifugal microfluidic devices that enable a series of blood tests to be performed towards a full blood count. The modular approach allows for rapid prototyping of device components in a generic format to complete different...

  16. Impact of a confirmatory RhD test on the correct serologic typing of blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cayres Schmidt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The RHD gene is highly polymorphic, which results in a large number of RhD variant phenotypes. Discrepancies in RhD typing are still a problem in blood banks and increase the risk of alloimmunization. In this study, the RhD typing strategy at a blood bank in Brazil was evaluated.METHODS: One-hundred and fifty-two samples typed as RhD negative and C or E positive by routine tests (automated system and indirect antiglobulin test using the tube technique were reevaluated for RhD status by three methods. The method with the best performance was implemented and evaluated for a period of one year (n = 4897 samples. Samples that were D positive exclusively in the confirmatory test were submitted to molecular analysis.RESULTS: The gel test for indirect antiglobulin testing with anti-D immunoglobulin G (clone ESD1 presented the best results. Seventy samples (1.43% previously typed as RhD negative showed reactivity in the gel test for indirect antiglobulin testing and were reclassified as D positive. D variants that may cause alloimmunization, such as weak D type 2 and partial DVI, were detected.CONCLUSION: The confirmatory RhD test using the gel test for indirect antiglobulin testing represents a breakthrough in transfusion safety in this blood center. Our results emphasize the importance of assessing the blood group typing strategy in blood banks.

  17. Complete Blood Count: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... uses to learn about your health. Your medical history, symptoms, and other factors will be considered before a diagnosis. Additional testing and follow-up care may also be recommended. References Mayo Clinic [Internet]. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; ...

  18. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Solubility tests and the peripheral blood film ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-12-02

    Dec 2, 2009 ... Each of the sickle-cell screening methods established at the district health centre would be the recommended screening method for SCD. • The automated capillary haemoglobin electrophoresis system would be used in Mulago and regional hospitals as a. 'gold standard'. • All children testing negative at ...

  19. An ontology based approach in health information systems: Blood test ontology example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Sezer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Health domain is a complex and distributed research area, where different institutions and people take and provide service, at the same time. Therefore, the health data about a patient is completely distributed among doctors, clinics, hospitals, pharmacies and insurance companies. To share and reuse the distributed, well-structured and semantically rich clinical data with the appropriate permissions from anywhere is one of the major areas that the research of information systems focused in healthcare domain in recent years. The semantic web provides a technological infrastructure with representing the meaning of data and reasoning new information from the existing knowledge for the healthcare domain. The blood, as the life fluid, gives hints to the clinicians about a patient's general health status by analyzing the ingredients in. The results of blood tests contain lots of information that can be used by different clinics. In the diagnostic phase, analyzing the blood for the same tests repeatedly delays to start the treatment process and increases the cost. The Blood Test Ontology is developed to model the blood tests semantically that is done in the health field and also to define information related with the blood and the blood tests as well as the relationships between them. The ontology in this work is developed with the aim to be used in the health information system, which should provide the querying, sharing and reusing the personalized the blood test result of the patients, as a knowledge base. The Blood Test Ontology is supported by the medical information standards to be able to interoperable with the other medical ontologies that are developed in the health.

  20. Validation of a brief telephone battery for neurocognitive assessment of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palevsky Harold I

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of pulmonary arterial hypertension on brain function are not understood, despite patients' frequent complaints of cognitive difficulties. Using clinical instruments normally administered during standard in-person assessment of neurocognitive function in adults, we assembled a battery of tests designed for administration over the telephone. The purpose was to improve patient participation, facilitate repeated test administration, and reduce the cost of research on the neuropsychological consequences of acute and chronic cardiorespiratory diseases. We undertook this study to validate telephone administration of the tests. Methods 23 adults with pulmonary arterial hypertension underwent neurocognitive assessment using both standard in-person and telephone test administration, and the results of the two methods compared using interclass correlations. Results For most of the tests in the battery, scores from the telephone assessment correlated strongly with those obtained by in-person administration of the same tests. Interclass correlations between 0.5 and 0.8 were observed for tests that assessed attention, memory, concentration/working memory, reasoning, and language/crystallized intelligence (p ≤ 0.05 for each. Interclass correlations for the Hayling Sentence Completion test of executive function approached significance (p = 0.09. All telephone tests were completed within one hour. Conclusion Administration of this neurocognitive test battery by telephone should facilitate assessment of neuropsychological deficits among patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension living across broad geographical areas, and may be useful for monitoring changes in neurocognitive function in response to PAH-specific therapy or disease progression.

  1. [Signs and symptoms of major neurocognitive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bier, J-C

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive disorders are a common problem, especially for older people. Dementia, recently renamed "major neurocognitive disorder" in DSM-5 is a complex subject. Age, vascular risk factors, subjective decline and its objectivation, are all risk factor for such neurocognitive disorders. Face to minor neurocognitive disorder, decline seemed more associated with the presence of structural atrophy or functional metabolic modification. It seems however more and more clear that, at least actually, such a diagnosis should not be done as early as possible but well timely and individually correct. This patient-centred approach requires the peculiar involvement of its familial, general physician. But when early detection tools will be used, for any legitimate reason, it will also be important to address specialized teams. In case of neurocognitive disorders, particularly major, psychoeducative programs are the most effective therapeutic on both patient and caregiver qualities of live. Such multidisciplinary program of care for patients with neurocognitive disorder and his/her caregiver has just obtained a financial agreement via the specific protocol 3 and should be known to be efficient.

  2. Survival and neurocognitive outcomes in pediatric extracorporeal-cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Guerra, Gonzalo; Zorzela, Liliane; Robertson, Charlene M T; Alton, Gwen Y; Joffe, Ari R; Moez, Elham Khodayari; Dinu, Irina A; Ross, David B; Rebeyka, Ivan M; Lequier, Laurance

    2015-11-01

    Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (E-CPR) is the initiation of extracorporeal life support during active chest compressions. There are no studies describing detailed neurocognitive outcomes of this population. We aim to describe the survival and neurocognitive outcomes of children who received E-CPR. Prospective cohort study. Children who received E-CPR at the Stollery Children's Hospital between 2000 and 2010 were included. Neurocognitive follow-up, including Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence, was completed at the age of 4.5 years, and at a minimum of 6 months after the E-CPR admission. Fifty-five patients received E-CPR between 2000 and 2010. Children with cardiac disease had a 49% survival to hospital discharge and 43% survival at age 5-years, with no survivors (n=4) in those with non-cardiac disease. Pediatric E-CPR survivors had a mean (SD) Full Scale Intelligence quotient (FSIQ) score of 76.5 (15.9); with 4 children (24%) having intellectual disability (defined as FSIQ over 2 standard deviations below the population mean; i.e., CPR, open chest CPR, longer duration of CPR, low pH and more red blood cells given on the first day of ECMO, and longer time for lactate to normalize on ECMO were associated with higher mortality at age 5-years. Pediatric patients with cardiac disease who required E-CPR had 43% survival at age 5 years. Of concern, the intelligence quotient in E-CPR survivors was significantly lower than the population mean, with 24% having intellectual disability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of the concomitant use of two different EIA tests for HIV screening in blood banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Marcia M; Salles, Nanci A; Barreto, Angela M E; Barreto, Claudia C; Chamone, Dalton F; Sabino, Ester C

    2003-01-01

    In 1998, the Brazilian Ministry of Health made it mandatory for all blood banks in the country to screen donated blood for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) concomitantly using two different enzyme immunoassay (EIA) tests. Concerned with the best use of available resources, our objective with this study was to evaluate the usefulness of conducting two EIA screening tests instead of just one. We analyzed data from 1999 through 2001 obtained by testing 698 191 units of donated blood using two EIA HIV screening tests concomitantly at the Pro-Blood Foundation/Blood Center of São Paulo (Fundação Pró-Sangue/Hemocentro de São Paulo), which is a major blood center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. All samples reactive in at least one of the two EIA tests were submitted for confirmation by a Western blot (WB) test, and the persons who had donated those samples were also asked to return and provide a follow-up sample. Out of the 698 191 blood units that were donated, 2 718 of them (0.4%) had to be discarded because they were reactive to at least one of the EIA tests. There were two WB-positive donation samples that were reactive in only one HIV EIA screening test. On their follow-up samples, both donors tested WB-negative. These cases were considered false positive results at screening. Of the 2 718 donors who were asked to return and provide a follow-up sample, 1 576 of them (58%) did so. From these 1 576 persons, we found that there were two individuals who had been reactive to only one of the two EIA screening tests and who had also been negative on the WB at screening but who were fully seroconverted on the follow-up sample. We thus estimated that, in comparison to the use of a single EIA screening test, the use of two EIA screening tests would detect only one extra sample out of 410 700 units of blood. Our data do not support the use of two different, concomitant EIA screening tests for HIV. The great majority of HIV-positive donors have already seroconverted and

  4. Testing a new surfactant in a widely-used blood mimic for ultrasound flow imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaowei; Hoskins, Peter R

    2017-11-01

    A blood-mimicking fluid developed by Ramnarine et al. has been widely used in flow phantoms for ultrasound flow imaging research, and it has also been cited by IEC 61685 as a reference for making blood-mimicking fluid.However, the surfactant material Synperonic N in this blood-mimicking fluid recipe is phased out from the European market due to environmental issues. The aim of this study is to test whether Synperonic N can be substituted by biodegradable Synperonic A7 in making blood-mimicking fluid for ultrasound flow imaging research. A flow phantom was fabricated to test the blood-mimicking fluid with Synperonic N and Synperonic A7 as surfactants separately. Doppler images and velocity data were collected using a clinical ultrasound scanner under constant and pulsatile flows; and images and measured velocities were compared. It was found that both blood mimics can provide exactly the same images under spectral Doppler ultrasound and colour Doppler ultrasound in terms of their image qualities. The maximum velocities under constant flow were measured by the spectral Doppler ultrasound as 0.4714 ± 0.001 m.s-1 and 0.4644 ± 0.001 m.s-1 for blood-mimicking fluid with Synperonic N and blood-mimicking fluid with Synperonic A7, respectively. Measured velocities using the two different blood-mimicking fluids were statistically different (p flow imaging research.

  5. Neurocognition, insight and medication nonadherence in schizophrenia: a structural equation modeling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Boyer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the complex relationships among neurocognition, insight and nonadherence in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. INCLUSION CRITERIA: Diagnosis of schizophrenia according to the DSM-IV-TR criteria. DATA COLLECTION: Neurocognition was assessed using a global approach that addressed memory, attention, and executive functions; insight was analyzed using the multidimensional 'Scale to assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder;' and nonadherence was measured using the multidimensional 'Medication Adherence Rating Scale.' ANALYSIS: Structural equation modeling (SEM was applied to examine the non-straightforward relationships among the following latent variables: neurocognition, 'awareness of positive symptoms' and 'negative symptoms', 'awareness of mental disorder' and nonadherence. RESULTS: One hundred and sixty-nine patients were enrolled. The final testing model showed good fit, with normed χ(2 = 1.67, RMSEA = 0.063, CFI = 0.94, and SRMR = 0.092. The SEM revealed significant associations between (1 neurocognition and 'awareness of symptoms,' (2 'awareness of symptoms' and 'awareness of mental disorder' and (3 'awareness of mental disorder' and nonadherence, mainly in the 'attitude toward taking medication' dimension. In contrast, there were no significant links between neurocognition and nonadherence, neurocognition and 'awareness of mental disorder,' and 'awareness of symptoms' and nonadherence. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the hypothesis that neurocognition influences 'awareness of symptoms,' which must be integrated into a higher level of insight (i.e., the 'awareness of mental disorder' to have an impact on nonadherence. These findings have important implications for the development of effective strategies to enhance medication adherence.

  6. Nutritional status and social behavior in preschool children: the mediating effects of neurocognitive functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghong; Raine, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Early malnutritional status has been associated with reduced cognitive ability in childhood. However, there are almost no studies on the effect of malnutrition on positive social behavior, and no tests of possible mediating mechanisms. This study tests the hypothesis that poor nutritional status is associated with impaired social functioning in childhood, and that neurocognitive ability mediates this relationship. We assessed 1553 male and female 3-year-olds from a birth cohort on measures of malnutrition, social behavior and verbal and spatial neurocognitive functions. Children with indicators of malnutrition showed impaired social behavior (p malnutrition and degree of social behavior, with increased malnutrition associated with more impaired social behavior. Neurocognitive ability was found to mediate the nutrition–social behavior relationship. The mediation effect of neurocognitive functioning suggests that poor nutrition negatively impacts brain areas that play important roles in developing positive social behavior. Findings suggest that reducing poor nutrition, alternatively promoting good nutrition, may help promote positive social behavior in early childhood during a critical period for social and neurocognitive development, with implications for improving positive health in adulthood. PMID:27133006

  7. Nutritional status and social behavior in preschool children: the mediating effects of neurocognitive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghong; Raine, Adrian

    2017-04-01

    Early malnutritional status has been associated with reduced cognitive ability in childhood. However, there are almost no studies on the effect of malnutrition on positive social behavior, and no tests of possible mediating mechanisms. This study tests the hypothesis that poor nutritional status is associated with impaired social functioning in childhood, and that neurocognitive ability mediates this relationship. We assessed 1553 male and female 3-year-olds from a birth cohort on measures of malnutrition, social behavior and verbal and spatial neurocognitive functions. Children with indicators of malnutrition showed impaired social behavior (p nutritional status. These associations even persisted after controlling for social adversity and parental education. Findings were not moderated by gender or ethnicity, and there was no interaction effect with parental education. A dose-response relationship was observed between degree of malnutrition and degree of social behavior, with increased malnutrition associated with more impaired social behavior. Neurocognitive ability was found to mediate the nutrition-social behavior relationship. The mediation effect of neurocognitive functioning suggests that poor nutrition negatively impacts brain areas that play important roles in developing positive social behavior. Findings suggest that reducing poor nutrition, alternatively promoting good nutrition, may help promote positive social behavior in early childhood during a critical period for social and neurocognitive development, with implications for improving positive health in adulthood. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Value of routine blood tests for prediction of mortality risk in hip fracture patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosfeldt, Mathias; Pedersen, Ole Birger Vesterager; Riis, Troels

    2012-01-01

    There is a 5- to 8-fold increased risk of mortality during the first 3 months after a hip fracture. Several risk factors are known. We studied the predictive value (for mortality) of routine blood tests taken on admission.......There is a 5- to 8-fold increased risk of mortality during the first 3 months after a hip fracture. Several risk factors are known. We studied the predictive value (for mortality) of routine blood tests taken on admission....

  9. Direct, rapid antimicrobial susceptibility test from positive blood cultures based on microscopic imaging analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jungil; Jeong, Hyun Yong; Lee, Gi Yoon; Han, Sangkwon; Han, Shinhun; Jin, Bonghwan; Lim, Taegeun; Kim, Shin; Kim, Dong Young; Kim, Hee Chan; Kim, Eui-Chong; Song, Sang Hoon; Kim, Taek Soo; Kwon, Sunghoon

    2017-01-01

    For the timely treatment of patients with infections in bloodstream and cerebrospinal fluid, a rapid antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST) is urgently needed. Here, we describe a direct and rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing (dRAST) system, which can determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria from a positive blood culture bottle (PBCB) in six hours. The positive blood culture sample is directly mixed with agarose and inoculated into a micropatterned plastic microchip wit...

  10. Characteristics of neurocognitive functions in mild cognitive impairment with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hyun-Seok; Han, Changsu; Jeon, Sang Won; Yoon, Seoyoung; Jeong, Hyun-Ghang; Huh, Yu Jeong; Pae, Chi-Un; Patkar, Ashwin A; Steffens, David C

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies suggest that there is a strong association between depression and cognitive decline, and that concurrent depressive symptoms in MCI patients could contribute to a difference in neurocognitive characteristics compared to MCI patients without depression. The authors tried to compare neurocognitive functions between MCI patients with and without depression by analyzing the results of neuropsychological tests. Participants included 153 MCI patients. Based on the diagnosis of major depressive disorder, the participants were divided into two groups: depressed MCI (MCI/D+) versus non-depressed MCI (MCI/D-). The general cognitive and functional statuses of participants were evaluated. And a subset of various neuropsychological tests was presented to participants. Demographic and clinical data were analyzed using Student t-test or χ 2 test. A total of 153 participants were divided into two groups: 94 MCI/D+ patients and 59 MCI/D- patients. Age, sex, and years of education were not significantly different between the two groups. There were no significant differences in general cognitive status between MCI/D+ and MCI/D- patients, but MCI/D+ participants showed significantly reduced performance in the six subtests (Contrasting Program, Go-no-go task, Fist-edge-palm task, Constructional Praxis, Memory Recall, TMT-A) compared with MCI/D- patients. There were significantly greater deficits in neurocognitive functions including verbal memory, executive function, attention/processing speed, and visual memory in MCI/D+ participants compared to MCI/D-. Once the biological mechanism is identified, distinct approaches in treatment or prevention will be determined.

  11. BLOOD

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    benefit (altruism). '35 An individual who gives blood in replacement for that which has been given to his relation is referred to as family replacement donor. '2 But when a person donates blood for the purpose of transfusing a. defined patient, such a person is referred to as. AHMED S. G. AND HASSAN A. W. a directed donor.

  12. Perinatal cortical growth and childhood neurocognitive abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathbone, R; Counsell, S J; Kapellou, O; Dyet, L; Kennea, N; Hajnal, J; Allsop, J M; Cowan, F; Edwards, A D

    2011-10-18

    This observational cohort study addressed the hypothesis that after preterm delivery brain growth between 24 and 44 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) is related to global neurocognitive ability in later childhood. Growth rates for cerebral volume and cortical surface area were estimated in 82 infants without focal brain lesions born before 30 weeks PMA by using 217 magnetic resonance images obtained between 24 and 44 weeks PMA. Abilities were assessed at 2 years using the Griffiths Mental Development Scale and at 6 years using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R), the Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment (NEPSY), and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). Analysis was by generalized least-squares regression. Mean test scores approximated population averages. Cortical growth was directly related to the Griffiths Developmental Quotient (DQ), the WPPSI-R full-scale IQ, and a NEPSY summary score but not the MABC score and in exploration of subtests to attention, planning, memory, language, and numeric and conceptual abilities but not motor skills. The mean (95% confidence interval) estimated reduction in cortical surface area at term corrected age associated with a 1 SD fall in test score was as follows: DQ 7.0 (5.8-8.5); IQ 6.0 (4.9-7.3); and NEPSY 9.1 (7.5-11.0) % · SD(-1). Total brain volume growth was not correlated with any test score. The rate of cerebral cortical growth between 24 and 44 weeks PMA predicts global ability in later childhood, particularly complex cognitive functions but not motor functions.

  13. Collection, processing and testing of bone, corneas, umbilical cord blood and haematopoietic stem cells by European Blood Alliance members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Närhi, M; Natri, O; Desbois, I; Kinggaard Holm, D; Galea, G; Aranko, K; Korhonen, M; Nordstrom, K

    2013-11-01

    A questionnaire study was carried out in collaboration with the European Blood Alliance (EBA) Tissues and Cells (T&C) working group. The aim was to assess the level of involvement and commonality of processes on the procurement, testing and storage of bone, corneas, umbilical cord blood (UCB) and haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in order to identify different practices and to explore whether recommendations can be made for harmonization. An online questionnaire was used for data collection in 2011, and 43 replies were received covering 71 product answers from 13 countries. Estimated percentages of tissue and cell banking covered by EBA member blood banks as a proportion of all collections of each individual country varied markedly. There were also major differences in the amounts of products collected and discarded and in proportions tissues provided for grafting. However, discarding of certain collections also reflects the practice of increasing the likelihood of the very best units being used for transplantation. Harmonization of possible practices should focus on matching supply with demand and on identifying the most efficient operators. This could allow for the development of practices for minimizing unnecessary collections. © 2013 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  14. Test and Evaluation Report of the Physio Control Blood Pressure Monitor Model LIFESTAT (Trademark) 100

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    oscillometric technique. Arterial pulsations acting against the inflated cuff are used to determine blood pressure and pulse rate. These pulsations are...USAARL Report No. 92-44 AD-A248 352 IIII~~~l1I7 1 111 li-l Test and Evaluation Report of the Physlo Control Blood Pres-sure Monitor Model LIFESTAT5...1. TITLE (Include Securrry Ciaspfication) Test and Evaluation Report of the Phy.’io Control Blood Pressure Monitor Model LIFESTATO 100 12 PERSONAL

  15. A study on optimizing reporting process for hepatitis C virus antibody test for blood donors in blood center′ laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHEN Zhijun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To assess the accuracy of indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for hepatitis C virus (HCV antibody as a routine test in the blood center, discuss how to optimize the reporting process for HCV antibody, and protect donors′ enthusiasm and precious blood resources. Methods A total of 116 samples were screened by two indirect anti-HCV ELISA kits available from Shanghai Kehua (reagent A and Beijing Wantai (reagent B, respectively. Samples that yielded positive results or gray-zone results were further validated using a confirmation reagent to establish definitive results and compare confirmed positive results and the results with the two reagents for indirect ELISA. Differences in the ELISA results of the 116 samples between the two anti-HCV reagents were compared using the paired chi-square test and the agreement between the results with the two reagents were compared using the Kappa test. Results There were significant differences in the test results between the two reagents used for indirect ELISA (P=0.04, but the two reagents varied greatly from each other. The false positive rates of samples strongly or weakly positive with both reagents were 0 and 35.7%, respectively; the false positive rates of samples positive with either reagent or samples with gray-zone results were 94.3% and 100% for reagent A and 842% and 88.9% for reagent B. Conclusion Reagents used for indirect ELISA have high false positive rates and poor specificity and considerable differences exist between homemade indirect reagents. The existing HCV reporting process should be modified. Weakly positive specimens should be further validated by a confirmatory test to protect blood donors′ enthusiasm.

  16. The effects of desvenlafaxine on neurocognitive and work functioning in employed outpatients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Raymond W; Iverson, Grant L; Evans, Vanessa C; Yatham, Lakshmi N; Stewart, Kurtis; Tam, Edwin M; Axler, Auby; Woo, Cindy

    2016-10-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with staggering personal and economic costs, a major proportion of which stem from impaired psychosocial and occupational functioning. Few studies have examined the impact of depression-related cognitive dysfunction on work functioning. We examined the association between neurocognitive and work functioning in employed patients with MDD. Employed adult outpatients (n=36) with MDD of at least moderate severity (≥23 on the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale, MADRS) and subjective cognitive complaints completed neurocognitive tests (CNS Vital Signs computerized battery) and validated self-reports of their work functioning (LEAPS, HPQ) before and after 8 weeks of open-label treatment with flexibly-dosed desvenlafaxine 50-100mg/day. Relationships between neurocognitive tests and functional measures were examined using bivariate correlational and multiple regression analyses, as appropriate. An ANCOVA model examined whether significant change in neurocognitive performance, defined as improvement of ≥1SD in the Neurocognition Index (NCI) from baseline to post-treatment, was associated with improved outcomes. Patients showed significant improvements in depressive symptom, neurocognitive, and work functioning measures following treatment with desvenlafaxine (e.g., MADRS response=77% and MADRS remission=49%). There were no significant correlations between changes in NCI or cognitive domain subscales and changes in MADRS, LEAPS, or HPQ scores. However, patients demonstrating significant improvement in NCI scores (n=11, 29%) had significantly greater improvement in clinical and work functioning outcomes compared to those without NCI improvement. The limitations of this study include small sample size, lack of a placebo control group, and lack of a healthy comparison group. Our sample also had more years of education and higher premorbid intelligence than the general population. There were no significant correlations

  17. Blood test values and Community Periodontal Index scores in medical checkup recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takami, Yuko; Nakagaki, Haruo; Morita, Ichizo; Tsuboi, Shinji; Takami, Shuji; Suzuki, Noriko; Niwa, Hisae; Ogura, Yukio

    2003-12-01

    We examined the blood test values of people who received general medical checkups and their Community Periodontal Index (CPI) score. A total of 7,452 persons (5,742 males and 1,710 females), who had general medical and dental checkups, were the subjects of the study. Many were people who worked for companies in and around Nagoya and their family members, ranging in age from 16 to 80 years. The blood test in our study consisted of 37 items used in general blood tests. Partial-mouth recordings were used to measure CPI scores. The highest CPI score for each subject was used for analysis. Odds ratios and confidence interval values were obtained using the Mantel-Haenszel method to analyze the results. CPI scores of 3 and 4 were related to the test values of high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, serum iron, white blood cell count, fasting blood sugar, glycosylated hemoglobin A1, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, and C-reactive protein. Blood test values tended to show correlations with CPI scores, more clearly seen in males than in females.

  18. Internet-Based Contingency Management to Improve Adherence with Blood Glucose Testing Recommendations for Teens with Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiff, Bethany R.; Dallery, Jesse

    2010-01-01

    The current study used Internet-based contingency management (CM) to increase adherence with blood glucose testing to at least 4 times daily. Four teens diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes earned vouchers for submitting blood glucose testing videos over a Web site. Participants submitted a mean of 1.7 and 3.1 blood glucose tests per day during the 2…

  19. Association between the MMPI-2 restructured form (MMPI-2-RF) and malingered neurocognitive dysfunction among non-head injury disability claimants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarescavage, Anthony M; Wygant, Dustin B; Gervais, Roger O; Ben-Porath, Yossef S

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the over-reporting Validity Scales of the MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008/2011) in relation to the Slick, Sherman, and Iverson (1999) criteria for the diagnosis of Malingered Neurocognitive Dysfunction in a sample of 916 consecutive non-head injury disability claimants. The classification of Malingered Neurocognitive Dysfunction was based on scores from several cognitive symptom validity tests and response bias indicators built into traditional neuropsychological tests. Higher scores on MMPI-2-RF Validity Scales, particularly the Response Bias Scale (Gervais, Ben-Porath, Wygant, & Green, 2007), were associated with probable and definite Malingered Neurocognitive Dysfunction. The MMPI-2-RF's Validity Scales classification accuracy of Malingered Neurocognitive Dysfunction improved when multiple scales were interpreted. Additionally, higher scores on MMPI-2-RF substantive scales measuring distress, internalizing dysfunction, thought dysfunction, and social avoidance were associated with probable and definite Malingered Neurocognitive Dysfunction. Implications for clinical practice and future directions are noted.

  20. Blood Culture Testing via a Mobile App That Uses a Mobile Phone Camera: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Guna; Lee, Yura; Chong, Yong Pil; Jang, Seongsoo; Kim, Mi Na; Kim, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Woo Sung; Lee, Jae-Ho

    2016-10-26

    To evaluate patients with fever of unknown origin or those with suspected bacteremia, the precision of blood culture tests is critical. An inappropriate step in the test process or error in a parameter could lead to a false-positive result, which could then affect the direction of treatment in critical conditions. Mobile health apps can be used to resolve problems with blood culture tests, and such apps can hence ensure that point-of-care guidelines are followed and processes are monitored for blood culture tests. In this pilot project, we aimed to investigate the feasibility of using a mobile blood culture app to manage blood culture test quality. We implemented the app at a university hospital in South Korea to assess the potential for its utilization in a clinical environment by reviewing the usage data among a small group of users and by assessing their feedback and the data related to blood culture sampling. We used an iOS-based blood culture app that uses an embedded camera to scan the patient identification and sample number bar codes. A total of 4 medical interns working at 2 medical intensive care units (MICUs) participated in this project, which spanned 3 weeks. App usage and blood culture sampling parameters (including sampler, sampling site, sampling time, and sample volume) were analyzed. The compliance of sampling parameter entry was also measured. In addition, the participants' opinions regarding patient safety, timeliness, efficiency, and usability were recorded. In total, 356/644 (55.3%) of all blood culture samples obtained at the MICUs were examined using the app, including 254/356 (71.3%) with blood collection volumes of 5-7 mL and 256/356 (71.9%) with blood collection from the peripheral veins. The sampling volume differed among the participants. Sampling parameters were completely entered in 354/356 cases (99.4%). All the participants agreed that the app ensured good patient safety, disagreed on its timeliness, and did not believe that it was

  1. Neurocognitive function impairment after whole brain radiotherapy for brain metastases: actual assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tallet Agnes V

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT is an effective treatment in brain metastases and, when combined with local treatments such as surgery and stereotactic radiosurgery, gives the best brain control. Nonetheless, WBRT is often omitted after local treatment due to its potential late neurocognitive effects. Publications on radiation-induced neurotoxicity have used different assessment methods, time to assessment, and definition of impairment, thus making it difficult to accurately assess the rate and magnitude of the neurocognitive decline that can be expected. In this context, and to help therapeutic decision making, we have conducted this literature review, with the aim of providing an average incidence, magnitude and time to occurrence of radio-induced neurocognitive decline. We reviewed all English language published articles on neurocognitive effects of WBRT for newly diagnosed brain metastases or with a preventive goal in adult patients, with any methodology (MMSE, battery of neurcognitive tests with which baseline status was provided. We concluded that neurocognitive decline is predominant at 4 months, strongly dependant on brain metastases control, partially solved at later time, graded 1 on a SOMA-LENT scale (only 8% of grade 2 and more, insufficiently assessed in long-term survivors, thus justifying all efforts to reduce it through irradiation modulation.

  2. Characteristics of Resting-State Functional Connectivity in HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hea Won Ann

    Full Text Available HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND can occur in patients without prior AIDS defining illness and can be debilitating. This study aimed to evaluate the difference in the patterns of intrinsic brain activity between patients with or without HAND for deepening our understanding of HAND.We evaluated 24 HIV-infected individuals, 12 with previously diagnosed HAND and 12 previously diagnosed without HAND, and 11 seronegative individuals. These individuals then underwent repeat NP testing and a functional brain MRI scan. For functional MRI analysis, seed-based analysis with bilateral precuneus cortex seed was applied.Among the 12 individuals with previously diagnosed HAND, 3 showed improvement of their neurocognitive function and 1 was excluded for worsening liver disease. Among the 12 patients who previously had normal neurocognitive function, 2 showed neurocognitive impairment. Overall, the HAND group, who had impaired cognitive function at the time of MRI scan, showed significant decrease of resting status functional connectivity between bilateral precuneus and prefrontal cortex (PFC compared with nonHAND group, those who had normal neurocognitive function (Corrected P<0.05. The functional connectivity with the right inferior frontal operculum and right superior frontal gyrus was positively correlated with memory and learning ability.This cross-sectional study found a significant difference in fMRI patterns between patients with and without HAND. Decreased functional connectivity between precuneus and PFC could be possible functional substrate for cognitive dysfunction in HIV patients, which should be characterized in a longitudinal study.

  3. Asymptomatic neurocognitive disorders in patients infected by HIV: fact or fiction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torti Carlo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neurocognitive disorders are emerging as a possible complication in patients infected with HIV. Even if asymptomatic, neurocognitive abnormalities are frequently detected using a battery of tests. This supported the creation of asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI as a new entity. In a recent article published in BMC Infectious Diseases, Magnus Gisslén and colleagues applied a statistical approach, concluding that there is an overestimation of the actual problem. In fact, about 20% of patients are classified as neurocognitively impaired without a clear impact on daily activities. In the present commentary, we discuss the clinical implications of their findings. Although a cautious approach would indicate a stricter follow-up of patients affected by this disorder, it is premature to consider it as a proper disease. Based on a review of the data in the current literature we conclude that it is urgent to conduct more studies to estimate the overall risk of progression of the asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment. Moreover, it is important to understand whether new biomarkers or neuroimaging tools can help to identify better the most at risk population. Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2334/11/356

  4. Low dose, short-term rivastigmine administration does not affect neurocognition in methamphetamine dependent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalechstein, Ari D; Yoon, Jin H; Croft, Daniel E; Jaeggi, Susanne; Mahoney, James J; De La Garza, Richard

    2011-09-01

    Neurocognitive impairment is a well-documented consequence of methamphetamine addiction. Not surprising, methamphetamine-associated neurocognitive impairment has been identified as an important target of treatment. Thus, this study sought to determine whether rivastigmine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and cognition enhancing agent, could improve neurocognitive performance in a sample of long-term, high-dose methamphetamine addicts who were not seeking treatment at the time of enrollment in the study. This double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated whether a daily dose 0, 3, or 6 mg of rivastigmine, administered over six consecutive days, would enhance performance on measures of attention/information processing speed, episodic memory, and executive/frontal lobe functioning relative to test performance at baseline. The results revealed that rivastigmine did not alter neurocognition in this cohort. There are a number of factors that may have mitigated the effects of rivastigmine in this particular study, including especially the short-term, low-dose treatment regimen utilized. The negative findings notwithstanding, the study serves as a springboard for future investigations that will examine whether other medications can alter neurocognition in methamphetamine dependent study participants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Neurocognitive Function and Health-Related Quality of Life in Pediatric Korean Survivors of Medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hee Jung; Kim, Hyery; Park, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Dong Seok; Ra, Young Shin; Shin, Hee Young

    2016-11-01

    The neurocognitive function and quality of life of 58 Korean survivors of childhood medulloblastoma were assessed after surgery, cranial radiation and chemotherapy. All patients were evaluated with a battery of neurocognitive function tests and the Pediatric Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Brain Tumor Survivors, which consists of self-report questionnaires on quality of life. The mean full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ), verbal IQ, and performance IQ scores were 90.2, 97.1, and 84.16, respectively. The mean memory quotient (MQ) score was 86.78, which was within 1 standard deviation of the average score of 100. Processing speed, attention, and executive function showed mild to moderate deficits. Intelligence, memory, executive function, visuospatial function, and simple motor function were significantly lower in the patients diagnosed before 8 years of age compared with those diagnosed after 8. The cognitive deficits in the patients diagnosed at younger ages might be related to earlier exposure to craniospinal irradiation and chemotherapy. The patient and parent proxy evaluations of attention, fine motor function, and quality of life did not differ. We found significant neurocognitive changes in a wide range of neurocognitive functional domains in Korean survivors of childhood medulloblastoma. Long-term follow-up studies of survivors of childhood medulloblastoma beginning at the time of their first diagnosis are required to better understand the deficits exhibited by survivors of childhood medulloblastoma, so that intervention strategies and treatment refinements that reduce the long-term neurocognitive decline can be developed.

  6. [Results of Training for Personnel Involved in Blood-Transfusion Testing Outside of Regular Work Hours at Saga University Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Marie; Yamada, Naotomo; Higashitani, Takanori; Ohta, Shoichiro; Sueoka, Eisaburo

    2015-11-01

    Laboratory testing prior to blood transfusion outside of regular hours in many hospitals and clinics is frequently conducted by technicians without sufficient experience in such testing work. To obtain consistent test results regardless of the degree of laboratory experience with blood transfusion testing, the number of facilities introducing automated equipment for testing prior to blood transfusion is increasing. Our hospital's blood transfusion department introduced fully automated test equipment in October of 2010 for use when blood transfusions are conducted outside of regular hours. However, excessive dependence on automated testing can lead to an inability to do manual blood typing or cross-match testing when necessitated by breakdowns in the automated test equipment, in the case of abnormal specimen reactions, or other such case. In addition, even outside of normal working hours there are more than a few instances in which transfusion must take place based on urgent communications from clinical staff, with the need for prompt and flexible timing of blood transfusion test and delivery of blood products. To address this situation, in 2010 we began training after-hours laboratory personnel in blood transfusion testing to provide practice using test tubes manually and to achieve greater understanding of blood transfusion test work (especially in cases of critical blood loss). Results of the training and difficulties in its implementation for such after-hours laboratory personnel at our hospital are presented and discussed in this paper. [Original

  7. Blood Agar Validation for Susceptibility Testing of Isoniazid, Rifampicin, Ethambutol, and Streptomycin to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coban, Ahmet Yilmaz

    2013-01-01

    In recent studies, it was shown that blood agar can be used at least as effectively as Löwenstein-Jensen medium for growing Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It was also shown that susceptibility testing can be performed on blood agar. Additional validation of blood agar was performed on regional M. tuberculosis isolates from Turkey to determine critical concentrations of isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RIF), ethambutol (ETM), and streptomycin (STR). In the current study, 40 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates were tested. H37Rv, which is susceptible to all antituberculosis agents, ATCC 35822 (INH-resistant), ATCC 35838 (RIF-resistant), ATCC 35837 (ETM-resistant), and ATCC 35820 (STR-resistant) quality control strains were used as control strains. Proportion method on 7H11 agar was considered as gold standard in the study. MIC values of the control strains and clinical isolates were detected on blood and 7H11 agar. Categorical agreements were 100% for each antibiotic, and essential agreements were 100%, 97.5%, 82.5%, and 95% for INH, RIF, ETM, and STR, respectively. According to the data, 0.2 µg/mL for INH, 1 µg/mL for RIF, 4 µg/mL for ETM, and 2 µg/mL for STR were appropriate breakpoint values for susceptibility testing on blood agar. Blood agar may be recommended for use in both developed and developing countries for the susceptibility testing of M. tuberculosis isolates to primary antituberculosis drugs. PMID:23405140

  8. Correlation Between Capillary and Venous Blood Glucose in the Lactose Tolerance Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez Jiménez, José Luis; Fernández Suárez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The lactose tolerance test is a classic method for the study of lactose malabsorption. However, the methodology used has not been standardized, and this leads to differences in results. The aim of this report was to analyze whether capillary blood glucose measurement is in agreement with venous blood glucose when performing lactose tolerance test. This is a prospective study of consecutive patients with suspected lactose malabsorption who had lactose tolerance test performed in venous and capillary blood simultaneously, using a load of 50 g lactose. Agreement was measured using the concordance correlation coefficient of Lin (95 % CI) and Bland-Altman plots. The degree of agreement was measured using the Kappa index. A value of p index of 0.59 (p lactose tolerance test in different studies for lactose malabsorption is incorrect, making it necessary to specify the analysis method.

  9. Antioxidant Activity in the Blood and Testes of the Mottled Brown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IJAAAR

    Corresponding author: eoewuola@gmail.com; GSM: +234(8)060862361. Abstract. This study was carried out to assess the antioxidant activity in the blood and testes of mottled brown male. Japanese quails at ... induction of oxidative stress in the testes.

  10. 9 CFR 71.21 - Tissue and blood testing at slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tissue and blood testing at slaughter. 71.21 Section 71.21 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... provide the access and facilities required by this section upon future APHIS notification that testing is...

  11. Comparison of guaiac and immunological fecal occult blood tests in colorectal cancer screening: the patient perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deutekom, M.; Rossum, L.G.M. van; Rijn, A.F. van; Laheij, R.J.F.; Fockens, P.; Bossuyt, P.M.; Dekker, E. den; Jansen, J.B.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programs can decide upon the type of fecal occult blood test (FOBT): the guaiac FOBT (g-FOBT) or the immunological FOBT (i-FOBT). The effectiveness of any screening program depends not only on the diagnostic performance of the screening test but also on

  12. Comparison of guaiac and immunological fecal occult blood tests in colorectal cancer screening: The patient perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deutekom, Marije; van Rossum, Leo G. M.; van Rijn, Anne F.; Laheij, Robert J. F.; Fockens, Paul; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Dekker, Evelien; Jansen, Jan B. M. J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective. Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programs can decide upon the type of fecal occult blood test (FOBT): the guaiac FOBT (g-FOBT) or the immunological FOBT (i-FOBT). The effectiveness of any screening program depends not only on the diagnostic performance of the screening test but also on

  13. Application of drag-reducing polymer solutions as test fluids for in vitro evaluation of potential blood damage in blood pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Amanda R; Sobajima, Hideo; Olia, Salim E; Takatani, Setsuo; Kameneva, Marina V

    2010-01-01

    In vitro evaluation of the potential of a circulatory-assist device to damage blood cells has generally been performed using blood from various species. Problems with this approach include the variability of blood sensitivity to mechanical stress in different species, preparation of blood including the adjustment of hematocrit to a standard value, changes in the mechanical properties of blood that occur during storage, and necessity to pool blood samples to obtain an adequate amount of blood for in vitro circulating systems. We investigated whether the mechanical degradation of a drag-reducing polymer (DRP) solution resulting in the loss of drag-reducing ability can indicate the degree of shear-induced blood damage within blood pumps. DRP solution (polyethylene oxide, 4,500 kDa, 1,000 ppm) or porcine blood were driven through a turbulent flow system by a centrifugal pump, either the Bio-Pump BPX-80 (Medtronic, Inc.) or CentriMag (Levitronix LLC) at a constant pressure gradient of 300 mm Hg for 120 minutes. DRP mechanical degradation was evaluated by reduction of flow rate and solution viscosity. A proposed index of DRP mechanical degradation (PDI) is similar to the normalized index of hemolysis (NIH) typically used to quantify the results of in vitro testing of blood pumps. Results indicate that the mechanical degradation of DRP solutions may provide a sensitive standard method for the evaluation of potential blood trauma produced by blood pumps without the use of blood.

  14. Noninvasive cerebral blood oxygenation monitoring: clinical test of multiwavelength optoacoustic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Y. Y.; Prough, D. S.; Petrova, I.; Patrikeev, I. A.; Cicenaite, I.; Esenaliev, R. O.

    2007-02-01

    Continuous monitoring of cerebral blood oxygenation is critically important for treatment of patients with life-threatening conditions like severe brain injury or during cardiac surgery. We designed and built a novel multiwavelength optoacoustic system for noninvasive, continuous, and accurate monitoring of cerebral blood oxygenation. We use an Optical Parametric Oscillator as a light source. We successfully tested the system in vitro as well as in vivo in large animals (sheep) through thick tissues overlying blood vessels which drain venous blood out of the brain (e.g., superior sagittal sinus or jugular vein). Here we present the results of clinical tests of the system for continuous noninvasive cerebral blood oxygenation monitoring in the internal jugular vein of healthy volunteers. We applied our custom-built optoacoustic probe (which incorporated a wide-band acoustic transducer and an optical fiber) to the neck area overlying the internal jugular vein. We performed measurements with volunteers at 18 wavelengths in the near-infrared spectral range. Despite a thick layer of overlying connective tissue and low energy used in the experiments, we recorded signals with high signal-to-noise ratios for all volunteers. We found that the temporal (independent of signal amplitude) parameters of recorded profiles for different levels of blood oxygenation correlated well with the spectrum of effective attenuation coefficients of blood.

  15. Test of a novel miniature blood pressure sensor in the coronary arteries of a swine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nan; Sun, Kai; Zou, Xiaotian; Barringhaus, Kurt; Wang, Xingwei

    2011-06-01

    Fractional flow reserve (FFR) has proven to be very useful in diagnosis of narrowed coronary arteries. It is a technique that is used in coronary catheterization to measure blood pressure difference across a coronary artery stenosis in maximal flow. In-vivo blood pressure measurement is critical in FFR diagnosis. This paper presents a novel miniature all-optical fiber blood pressure sensor. It is based on Fabry-Perot (FP) interferometry principle. The FP cavity was fabricated by directly wet etching the fiber tip. Then, a diaphragm with well-controlled thickness was bonded to the end face of the fiber using the thermal bonding technique. Finally, the sensor was packaged with a bio-compatible and flexible coil for animal tests. A 25-50 kg Yorkshire swine model was introduced as the animal test target. The left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) was exposed, and beyond the takeoff of the largest diagonal branch, a 3.0 mm vascular occluder was secured. Firstly, standard invasive manometry was used to obtain the blood pressure as baseline. Next, a guiding catheter was introduced into the ostium of the left main coronary artery, and the miniature blood pressure sensor was advanced into the LAD at a point beyond the vascular occlude. The blood pressure beyond the vascular occlude was recorded. The sensor successfully recorded the blood pressure at both near-end and far-end of the vascular occluder.

  16. Diagnostic performance of rapid diagnostic tests versus blood smears for malaria in US clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, William M; Cartwright, Charles P; Olson, Douglas A; Juni, Billie Anne; Taylor, Charlotte M; Bowers, Susan H; Hanson, Kevan L; Rosenblatt, Jon E; Boulware, David R

    2009-09-15

    Approximately 4 million US travelers to developing countries are ill enough to seek health care, with 1500 malaria cases reported in the United States annually. The diagnosis of malaria is frequently delayed because of the time required to prepare malaria blood films and lack of technical expertise. An easy, reliable rapid diagnostic test (RDT) with high sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV), particularly for Plasmodium falciparum, would be clinically useful. The objective of this study was to determine the diagnostic performance of a RDT approved by the US Food and Drug Administration compared with traditional thick and thin blood smears for malaria diagnosis. This prospective study tested 852 consecutive blood samples that underwent thick and thin smears and blinded malaria RDTs at 3 hospital laboratories during 2003-2006. Polymerase chain reaction verified positive test results and discordant results. Malaria was noted in 95 (11%) of the 852 samples. The RDT had superior performance than the standard Giemsa thick blood smear (p = .003). The RDT's sensitivity for all malaria was 97% (92 of 95 samples), compared with 85% (81 of 95) for the blood smear, and the RDT had a superior NPV of 99.6%, compared with 98.2% for the blood smear (p = .001). The P. falciparum performance was excellent, with 100% rapid test sensitivity, compared with only 88% (65 of 74) by blood smear (p = .003). This operational study demonstrates that the US Food and Drug Administration-approved RDT for malaria is superior to a single set of blood smears performed under routine US clinical laboratory conditions. The most valuable clinical role of the RDT is in the rapid diagnosis or the exclusion of P. falciparum malaria, which is particularly useful in outpatient settings when evaluating febrile travelers.

  17. Basic self-disturbance, neurocognition and metacognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koren, Dan; Scheyer, Ravit; Reznik, Noa

    2017-01-01

    AIM: The goal of this pilot study was to assess the association between basic self-disturbance (SD) and deficits in neurocognitive and metacognitive functioning among help-seeking adolescents with and without attenuated psychosis syndrome (APS). METHODS: Sixty-one non-psychotic, help-seeking adol......AIM: The goal of this pilot study was to assess the association between basic self-disturbance (SD) and deficits in neurocognitive and metacognitive functioning among help-seeking adolescents with and without attenuated psychosis syndrome (APS). METHODS: Sixty-one non-psychotic, help......-seeking adolescents (age 13-18) were assessed with the examination of anomalous self-experience, the structured interview for prodromal syndromes and a new metacognitive approach to neurocognitive assessment applied to two non-social (executive functions and verbal memory) and two social (theory of mind and emotion......: As hypothesized, metacognitive monitoring and control had a significant contribution to the prediction of SD over and above neurocognitive functioning and attenuated psychotic symptoms. However, the direction of this association was positive rather than negative. Also, inconsistent with or hypothesis...

  18. Neurocognitive networks: findings, models, and theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Timothy P; Bressler, Steven L

    2012-11-01

    Through its early history, cognitive neuroscience largely followed a modular paradigm wherein high-level cognitive functions were mapped onto locally segregated brain regions. However, recent evidence drives a continuing shift away from modular theories of cognitive brain function, and toward theories which hold that cognition arises from the integrated activity of large-scale, distributed networks of brain regions. A growing consensus favors the fundamental concept of this new paradigm: the large-scale cognitive brain network, or neurocognitive network. This consensus was the motivation for Neurocognitive Networks 2010 (NCN 2010), a conference sponsored by the Cognitive Neuroscience Program of the National Science Foundation, organized by Drs. Steven Bressler and Craig Richter of Florida Atlantic University (FAU), and held at FAU in Boca Raton, FL on January 29-30, 2010. NCN 2010 gathered together some of today's leading investigators of neurocognitive networks. This paper serves to review their presentations as they relate to the paradigm of neurocognitive networks, as well as to compile the emergent themes, questions, and possible future research directions that arose from the conference. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Neurocognitive Treatments for Eating Disorders and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichen, Dawn M; Matheson, Brittany E; Appleton-Knapp, Sara L; Boutelle, Kerri N

    2017-09-01

    Recent research has highlighted executive function and neurocognitive deficits among individuals with eating and weight disorders, identifying a potential target for treatment. Treatments targeting executive function for eating and weight disorders are emerging. This review aims to summarize the recent literature evaluating neurocognitive/executive function-oriented treatments for eating and weight disorders and highlights additional work needed in this area. Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) for anorexia nervosa has been the most extensively studied neurocognitive treatment for eating disorders. Results demonstrate that CRT improves executive function and may aid in the reduction of eating disorder symptomatology. Computer training programs targeting modifying attention and increasing inhibition are targeting reduction of binge eating and weight loss with modest success. Neurocognitive treatments are emerging and show initial promise for eating and weight disorders. Further research is necessary to determine whether these treatments can be used as stand-alone treatments or whether they need to be used as an adjunct to or in conjunction with other evidence-based treatments to improve outcomes.

  20. An assessment of various blood collection and transfer methods used for malaria rapid diagnostic tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baik Fred

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Four blood collection and transfer devices commonly used for malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs were assessed for their consistency, accuracy and ease of use in the hands of laboratory technicians and village health workers. Methods Laboratory technicians and village health workers collected blood from a finger prick using each device in random order, and deposited the blood either on filter paper or into a suitable casette-type RDT. Consistency and accuracy of volume delivered was determined by comparing the measurements of the resulting blood spots/heights with the measurements of laboratory-prepared pipetted standard volumes. The effect of varying blood volumes on RDT sensitivity and ease of use was also observed. Results There was high variability in blood volume collected by the devices, with the straw and the loop, the most preferred devices, usually transferring volumes greater than intended, while the glass capillary tube and the plastic pipette transferring less volume than intended or none at all. Varying the blood volume delivered to RDTs indicated that this variation is critical to RDT sensitivity only when the transferred volume is very low. Conclusion None of the blood transfer devices assessed performed consistently well. Adequate training on their use is clearly necessary, with more development efforts for improved designs to be used by remote health workers, in mind.

  1. Neurocognitive and executive functioning in adult survivors of congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klouda, Leda; Franklin, Wayne J; Saraf, Anita; Parekh, Dhaval R; Schwartz, David D

    2017-01-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) can affect the developing central nervous system, resulting in neurocognitive and behavioral deficits. Preoperative neurological abnormalities as well as sequelae of the open heart operations required to correct structural abnormalities of the heart contribute to these deficits. There are few studies examining the neurocognitive functioning of adults with CHD. This study sought to investigate multiple domains of neurocognitive functioning in adult survivors of CHD who had childhood cardiac surgery with either moderate or severe disease complexity. A total of 48 adults (18-49 years of age) who had undergone cardiac surgery for CHD prior to five years of age participated in the study. CHD severity was classified as moderate or severe according to the 32nd Bethesda Guidelines. A computerized battery of standardized neurocognitive tests (CNS-Vital Signs), a validated rating scale of executive functioning, and demographic questionnaires were administered. There were no significant differences between the moderate CHD group and normative data on any cognitive measure. In contrast, the severe CHD group differed from norms in multiple domains: psychomotor speed, processing speed, complex attention, reaction time, and on the overall neurocognitive index. Number of surgeries was strongly related to worse executive functioning. There was no association between age at first surgery or time since last surgery and neuropsychological functioning. Number of surgeries was also unrelated to neurocognitive test performance. Patients with severe CHD performed significantly worse on measures of processing speed, attention, and executive functioning. These findings may be useful in the long-term care of adults with congenital heart disease. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Relationship between HIV stage and psychomotor speed neurocognitive score at a Kenyan sub-county hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael N. Kinuthia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS is associated with cognitive impairment which affects psychomotor speed. Psychomotor slowing is a predictor of dementia and death in people living with HIV and AIDS. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between HIV disease stage and psychomotor speed neurocognitive score which will add to the body of knowledge required to manage patients with HIV and AIDS. Objective: To determine the relationship between psychomotor speed neurocognitive score and the HIV disease stage in adults at initiation of care. Setting: This study was conducted at Kangundo Sub-county hospital comprehensive care centre. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. All HIV seropositive patients aged 18 to 50 years recently initiated into care were studied. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect data. The World Health Organization (WHO stage was used during data collection to classify study participants into asymptomatic and symptomatic groups. The grooved pegboard test was used to obtain psychomotor speed neurocognitive scores. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise data. Mann–Whitney U test, Spearman’s rho and multiple linear regression were employed in the analysis; p-value of 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The WHO stage did not have a significant effect on the psychomotor speed neurocognitive score (p ≥ 0.05. The CD4 count had a significant effect on psychomotor speed neurocognitive score (p = 0.001. Conclusions: There was a significant correlation between CD4 counts and psychomotor speed neurocognitive score. Efforts should be made to ensure that the CD4 counts of people living with HIV and AIDS do not continue to fall after initiation into care in order to preserve psychomotor function.

  3. Personalized Risk Index for Neurocognitive Decline Among People With Well-Controlled HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Tracy; Brouillette, Marie-Josée; Fellows, Lesley K; Ellis, Ronald J; Letendre, Scott; Heaton, Robert; Mayo, Nancy

    2017-09-01

    Little is known about the predictors of neurocognitive decline in HIV+ individuals with good virological control. Identification of modifiable risk factors would allow targeted interventions to reduce the risk of decline in higher risk individuals. The objective of this study was to develop a risk index to predict neurocognitive decline over 3 years in aviremic HIV+ individuals. As part of the CNS HIV Anti-Retroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) study, HIV+ adults completed clinical evaluation and neuropsychological tests every 6 months. Group-based trajectory analysis was used to detect patterns of neurocognitive change; individuals who deteriorated ≥ 0.5 SD on at least one neuropsychological test were considered decliners. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify baseline sociodemographic, clinical, biological, and lifestyle factors associated with decline in the subgroup that was consistently aviremic during the first 3 years. A risk index was developed using the beta-coefficients from the final regression model. Neurocognitive decline occurred in 23 of 191 (12%) participants followed longitudinally. The baseline factors that predicted decline were glomerular filtration rate ≤50 mL/min, known duration of HIV infection ≥15 years, education ≤12 years, and cerebrospinal fluid protein >45 mg/dL. Using this analytic approach, neurocognitive decline was uncommon in this sample of aviremic HIV+ individuals. The 3-year risk of decline ranged from 2% in those with no risk factors to 95% in those with all 4. The strongest predictor was glomerular filtration rate, also a predictor of cardiovascular disease. This raises the possibility that controlling vascular risk factors could reduce the risk of neurocognitive decline.

  4. Neurocognitive profiles in treatment-resistant bipolar I and bipolar II disorder depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Ute; Schoeyen, Helle K; Andreassen, Ole A; Eide, Geir E; Hammar, Åsa; Malt, Ulrik F; Oedegaard, Ketil J; Morken, Gunnar; Sundet, Kjetil; Vaaler, Arne E

    2013-04-04

    The literature on the neuropsychological profiles in Bipolar disorder (BD) depression is sparse. The aims of the study were to assess the neurocognitive profiles in treatment-resistant, acutely admitted BD depression inpatients, to compare the neurocognitive functioning in patients with BD I and II, and to identify the demographic and clinical illness characteristics associated with cognitive functioning. Acutely admitted BD I (n = 19) and BD II (n = 32) inpatients who fulfilled the DSM-IV-TR criteria for a major depressive episode were tested with the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB), the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, the National Adult Reading Test, and a battery of clinical measures. Neurocognitive impairments were evident in the BD I and BD II depression inpatients within all MCCB domains. The numerical scores on all MCCB-measures were lower in the BD I group than in the BD II group, with a significant difference on one of the measures, category fluency. 68.4% of the BD I patients had clinically significant impairment (>1.5 SD below normal mean) in two or more domains compared to 37.5% of the BD II patients (p = 0.045). A significant reduction in IQ from the premorbid to the current level was seen in BD I but not BD II patients. Higher age was associated with greater neurocognitive deficits compared to age-adjusted published norms. A high proportion of patients with therapy-resistant BD I or II depression exhibited global neurocognitive impairments with clinically significant severity. The cognitive impairments were more common in BD I compared to BD II patients, particularly processing speed. These findings suggest that clinicians should be aware of the severe neurocognitive dysfunction in treatment-resistant bipolar depression, particularly in BD I. NCT00664976.

  5. Neurocognitive function in acromegaly after surgical resection of GH-secreting adenoma versus naïve acromegaly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Martín-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Patients with active untreated acromegaly show mild to moderate neurocognitive disorders that are associated to chronic exposure to growth hormone (GH and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I hypersecretion. However, it is unknown whether these disorders improve after controlling GH/IGF-I hypersecretion. The aim of this study was to compare neurocognitive functions of patients who successfully underwent GH-secreting adenoma transsphenoidal surgery (cured patients with patients with naive acromegaly. In addition, we wanted to determine the impact of different clinical and biochemical variables on neurocognitive status in patients with active disease and after long-term cure. A battery of six standardized neuropsychological tests assessed attention, memory and executive functioning. In addition, a quantitative electroencephalography with Low-Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA solution was performed to obtain information about the neurophysiological state of the patients. Neurocognitive data was compared to that of a healthy control group. Multiple linear regression analysis was also conducted using clinical and hormonal parameters to obtain a set of independent predictors of neurocognitive state before and after cure. Both groups of patients scored significantly poorer than the healthy controls on memory tests, especially those assessing visual and verbal recall. Patients with cured acromegaly did not obtain better cognitive measures than naïve patients. Furthermore memory deficits were associated with decreased beta activity in left medial temporal cortex in both groups of patients. Regression analysis showed longer duration of untreated acromegaly was associated with more severe neurocognitive complications, regardless of the diagnostic group, whereas GH levels at the time of assessment was related to neurocognitive outcome only in naïve patients. Longer duration of post-operative biochemical remission of acromegaly was associated with

  6. In vitro blood flow model with physiological wall shear stress for hemocompatibility testing-An example of coronary stent testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Gerwin Erik; Blok, Sjoerd Leendert Johannes; van Oeveren, Willem

    2016-09-18

    Hemocompatibility of blood contacting medical devices has to be evaluated before their intended application. To assess hemocompatibility, blood flow models are often used and can either consist of in vivo animal models or in vitro blood flow models. Given the disadvantages of animal models, in vitro blood flow models are an attractive alternative. The in vitro blood flow models available nowadays mostly focus on generating continuous flow instead of generating a pulsatile flow with certain wall shear stress, which has shown to be more relevant in maintaining hemostasis. To address this issue, the authors introduce a blood flow model that is able to generate a pulsatile flow and wall shear stress resembling the physiological situation, which the authors have coined the "Haemobile." The authors have validated the model by performing Doppler flow measurements to calculate velocity profiles and (wall) shear stress profiles. As an example, the authors evaluated the thrombogenicity of two drug eluting stents, one that was already on the market and one that was still under development. After identifying proper conditions resembling the wall shear stress in coronary arteries, the authors compared the stents with each other and often used reference materials. These experiments resulted in high contrast between hemocompatible and incompatible materials, showing the exceptional testing capabilities of the Haemobile. In conclusion, the authors have developed an in vitro blood flow model which is capable of mimicking physiological conditions of blood flow as close as possible. The model is convenient in use and is able to clearly discriminate between hemocompatible and incompatible materials, making it suitable for evaluating the hemocompatible properties of medical devices.

  7. Neurocognitive Deficits of Concussed Adolescent Athletes at Self-reported Symptom Resolution in the Zurich Guidelines Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriz, Peter K; Mannix, Rebekah; Taylor, Alex M; Ruggieri, Danielle; Meehan, William P

    2017-11-01

    Previous studies have evaluated high school and collegiate athletes in the pre-Zurich guidelines era; whether adolescent athletes demonstrate similar neurocognitive decrements in the current concussion management era remains unclear. To assess for the presence of neurocognitive deficits in adolescents with a sport-related concussion at the time of self-reported symptom resolution. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 32 patients, aged 13 to 18 years, who sustained concussions during ice hockey and who were referred to 3 sports medicine clinics between September 1, 2012, and March 31, 2015. Demographic, anthropometric, and injury data were collected at the time of the initial postconcussion evaluation. To document symptoms, patients completed the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS) at initial and follow-up visits. Baseline and postinjury neurocognitive function were assessed using computerized neurocognitive testing (Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Test [ImPACT]), and a reliable change index was used to determine significant changes in composite scores. Statistical comparisons were conducted using the Student t test and Mann-Whitney U test. A total of 9 of 32 athletes (28.1%; 95% CI, 14.8%-46.9%) demonstrated continued neurocognitive impairment on ≥1 composite score when no longer reporting concussion-related symptoms, while only 2 of 32 athletes (6.3%; 95% CI, 1.4%-23.2%) demonstrated continued neurocognitive impairment on ≥2 composite scores. Neurocognitive deficits persist in adolescent athletes who no longer report concussion-related symptoms, at rates similar to those of collegiate athletes but at longer time intervals. This finding provides further evidence that adolescent athletes with a sport-related concussion demonstrate a protracted recovery and resolution of neurocognitive deficits compared with collegiate and professional athletes. Computer-based neurocognitive testing as part of

  8. Neurocognitive effects of clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, and haloperidol in patients with chronic schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilder, Robert M; Goldman, Robert S; Volavka, Jan; Czobor, Pal; Hoptman, Matthew; Sheitman, Brian; Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre; Citrome, Leslie; McEvoy, Joseph; Kunz, Michal; Chakos, Miranda; Cooper, Thomas B; Horowitz, Terri L; Lieberman, Jeffrey A

    2002-06-01

    Newer antipsychotic drugs have shown promise in ameliorating neurocognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia, but few studies have compared newer antipsychotic drugs with both clozapine and conventional agents, particularly in patients who have had suboptimal response to prior treatments. The authors examined the effects of clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, and haloperidol on 16 measures of neurocognitive functioning in a double-blind, 14-week trial involving 101 patients. A global score was computed along with scores in four neurocognitive domains: memory, attention, motor function, and general executive and perceptual organization. Global neurocognitive function improved with olanzapine and risperidone treatment, and these improvements were superior to those seen with haloperidol. Patients treated with olanzapine exhibited improvement in the general and attention domains but not more than that observed with other treatments. Patients treated with risperidone exhibited improvement in memory that was superior to that of both clozapine and haloperidol. Clozapine yielded improvement in motor function but not more than in other groups. Average effect sizes for change were in the small to medium range. More than half of the patients treated with olanzapine and risperidone experienced "clinically significant" improvement (changes in score of at least one-half standard deviation relative to baseline). These findings did not appear to be mediated by changes in symptoms, side effects, or blood levels of medications. Patients with a history of suboptimal response to conventional treatments may show cognitive benefits from newer antipsychotic drugs, and there may be differences between atypical antipsychotic drugs in their patterns of cognitive effects.

  9. Utility of point of care test devices for infectious disease testing of blood and oral fluid and application to rapid testing in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stephen R.; Kardos, Keith W.; Yearwood, Graham D.; Guillon, Geraldine B.; Kurtz, Lisa A.; Mokkapati, Vijaya K.

    2008-04-01

    Rapid, point of care (POC) testing has been increasingly deployed as an aid in the diagnosis of infectious disease, due to its ability to deliver rapid, actionable results. In the case of HIV, a number of rapid test devices have been FDA approved and CLIA-waived in order to enable diagnosis of HIV infection outside of traditional laboratory settings. These settings include STD clinics, community outreach centers and mobile testing units, as well as identifying HIV infection among pregnant women and managing occupational exposure to infection. The OraQuick ® rapid test platform has been widely used to identify HIV in POC settings, due to its simplicity, ease of use and the ability to utilize oral fluid as an alternative specimen to blood. More recently, a rapid test for antibodies to hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been developed on the same test platform which uses serum, plasma, finger-stick blood, venous blood and oral fluid. Clinical testing using this POC test device has shown that performance is equivalent to state of the art, laboratory based tests. These devices may be suitable for rapid field testing of blood and other body fluids for the presence of infectious agents.

  10. Multicenter evaluation of the Verigene Gram-negative blood culture nucleic acid test for rapid detection of bacteria and resistance determinants in positive blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Naoki; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Yamakawa, Hiromi; Yamada, Maiko; Yaguchi, Yuji; Notake, Shigeyuki; Tamai, Kiyoko; Yanagisawa, Hideji; Misawa, Shigeki; Yanagihara, Katsunori

    2015-12-01

    The Verigene Gram-Negative Blood Culture Nucleic Acid Test (BC-GN) is a microarray-based assay that enables rapid detection of 9 common Gram-negative bacteria and 6 resistance determinants directly from positive blood cultures. We compared the performance of BC-GN with currently used automated systems, testing 141 clinical blood cultures and 205 spiked blood cultures. For identification of BC-GN target organisms in clinical and spiked blood cultures, the BC-GN assay showed 98.5% (130/132) and 98.9% (182/184) concordance, respectively. Of 140 resistance genes positively detected in clinical and spiked blood cultures with the BC-GN test, 139 (99.3%) were confirmed by PCR, and the detection results were consistent with the resistance phenotypes observed. The BC-GN assay, thus, can potentially improve care for sepsis patients by enabling timely detection and targeted antimicrobial therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A simulator for oscillometric blood-pressure signals to test automated noninvasive sphygmomanometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, W.; Mieke, S.; Seemann, R.; Ittermann, B.

    2011-02-01

    A device was developed allowing to generate simulated human blood pressure signals for the purpose of testing the performance of automated noninvasive sphygmomanometers. The apparatus reproducibly generates blood-pressure oscillations synthesized from prerecorded measurements on human subjects. These real-life data allow for a much better evaluation of the accuracy of blood-pressure measurements than the existing simulators using artificial and thus less realistic waveforms. To assess the performance of a given sphygmomanometer under both stable and varying conditions, generated signals can be repeated in their original shape or distorted by well-defined artifacts. In comparison to clinical tests, the procedural influences on the performance testing of sphygmomanometers are largely reduced when the simulator is used.

  12. Estimation Of Blood Vessels Functional State By Means Of Analysis Of Temperature Reaction On Occlusive Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Rytik

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Temperature reaction of distant phalanges in the case of the occlusive test has been registered. It has been revealed that the temperature reaction on the occlusive test for the group of patients with disturbances of vessel tone regulation differs from the reaction of norm group. Possible influence of vessel regulation state and volumetric blood supply on the skin temperature dynamics has been estimated. Diagnostic ability of the temperature occlusive test has been investigated

  13. Reducing blood volume requirements for clinical pathology testing in toxicologic studies-points to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitout-Belissent, Florence; Aulbach, Adam; Tripathi, Niraj; Ramaiah, Lila

    2016-12-01

    In preclinical safety assessment, blood volume requirements for various endpoints pose a major challenge. The goal of this working group was to review current practices for clinical pathology (CP) testing in preclinical toxicologic studies, and to discuss advantages and disadvantages of methods for reducing blood volume requirements. An industry-wide survey was conducted to gather information on CP instrumentation and blood collection practices for hematology, clinical biochemistry, and coagulation evaluation in laboratory animals involved in preclinical studies. Based on the survey results and collective experience of the authors, the working group proposes the following "points to consider" for CP testing: (1) For most commercial analyzers, 0.5 mL and 0.8 mL of whole blood are sufficient for hematology and biochemistry evaluation, respectively. (2) Small analyzers with low volume requirements and low throughput have limited utility in preclinical studies. (3) Sample pooling or dilution is inappropriate for many CP methods. (4) Appropriate collection sites should be determined based on blood volume requirements and technical expertise. (5) Microsampling does not provide sufficient volume given current analyzer and quality assurance requirements. (6) Study design considerations include: the use of older/larger animals (rodents), collection of CP samples before toxicokinetic samples, use of separate subsets of mice for hematology and clinical biochemistry testing, use of a priority list for clinical biochemistry, and when possible, eliminating coagulation testing. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  14. Evaluation of HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV and VDRL test results in blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan Ağalar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The most frequently encountered complication in the transfusion of blood and blood products are transmitted infections from these products. Infections caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV remain the leading most important health problems in the transfusion of blood and blood products worldwide. Therefore, screening tests such as HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV, and RPR or VDRL for Treponema pallidum are mandatory tests to look at before transfusion of blood and blood products. In this study, the screening tests results of blood donors examined were evaluated and the results were compared with the results of the other blood banks stated in our country.Materials and methods: Screening tests results of a total of 784 blood donors, which have been admitted the Kırıkkale University Hospital Blood Center for blood donation between January 2003 and December 2004, evaluated retrospectively. Blood samples which taken from blood donors before blood donation were investigated for HBsAg, anti-HCV, and anti-HIV tests with chemiluminescense (ELISA method by automated analyzer. VDRL screening test was investigated by commercial test kit.Results: A total of 734 (93.7% of 784 blood donors were male and 50 (6.3% were female. HBsAg was positive in 11 (1.4% blood donors and anti-HCV in 2 (0.2% blood donors. None of the blood donors were found to anti-HIV and VDRL seropositivity.Conclusions: Seropositivity rates of HBsAg and anti-HCV were lower than that of Turkey in general. J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2 (4: 416-419

  15. Effect of Environmental Exposure to Lead and Tobacco Smoke on Inattentive and Hyperactive Symptoms and Neurocognitive Performance in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Soo-Churl; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Hong, Yun-Chul; Shin, Min-Sup; Yoo, Hee Jeong; Kim, Jae-Won; Bhang, Soo-Young; Cho, In Hee; Kim, Hyo-Won

    2010-01-01

    Background: The present study assessed the association between blood lead and urinary cotinine levels and inattentive and hyperactive symptoms and neurocognitive performance in children. Methods: A total of 667 children (age range 8-11) were recruited from nine schools in five Korean cities. The teachers and parents completed the Korean version of…

  16. Feasibility and safety of virtual-reality-based early neurocognitive stimulation in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turon, Marc; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Sol; Jodar, Mercè; Gomà, Gemma; Montanya, Jaume; Hernando, David; Bailón, Raquel; de Haro, Candelaria; Gomez-Simon, Victor; Lopez-Aguilar, Josefina; Magrans, Rudys; Martinez-Perez, Melcior; Oliva, Joan Carles; Blanch, Lluís

    2017-12-01

    Growing evidence suggests that critical illness often results in significant long-term neurocognitive impairments in one-third of survivors. Although these neurocognitive impairments are long-lasting and devastating for survivors, rehabilitation rarely occurs during or after critical illness. Our aim is to describe an early neurocognitive stimulation intervention based on virtual reality for patients who are critically ill and to present the results of a proof-of-concept study testing the feasibility, safety, and suitability of this intervention. Twenty critically ill adult patients undergoing or having undergone mechanical ventilation for ≥24 h received daily 20-min neurocognitive stimulation sessions when awake and alert during their ICU stay. The difficulty of the exercises included in the sessions progressively increased over successive sessions. Physiological data were recorded before, during, and after each session. Safety was assessed through heart rate, peripheral oxygen saturation, and respiratory rate. Heart rate variability analysis, an indirect measure of autonomic activity sensitive to cognitive demands, was used to assess the efficacy of the exercises in stimulating attention and working memory. Patients successfully completed the sessions on most days. No sessions were stopped early for safety concerns, and no adverse events occurred. Heart rate variability analysis showed that the exercises stimulated attention and working memory. Critically ill patients considered the sessions enjoyable and relaxing without being overly fatiguing. The results in this proof-of-concept study suggest that a virtual-reality-based neurocognitive intervention is feasible, safe, and tolerable, stimulating cognitive functions and satisfying critically ill patients. Future studies will evaluate the impact of interventions on neurocognitive outcomes. Trial registration Clinical trials.gov identifier: NCT02078206.

  17. Patch test responses to rockwool of different diameters evaluated by cutaneous blood flow measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun, H C; Lee, H G; Paik, N W

    1991-04-01

    Rockwool is a man-made mineral fiber used mainly for insulation, which can cause mechanical skin irritation. This study was performed to evaluate the irritant potential of rockwools of different diameters and to compare the change of blood flow, measured by laser Doppler flowmetry, at different patch test occlusion times with rockwools. Rockwool A (mean diameter 4.20 +/- 1.96 mu) was more irritating than rockwool B (mean diameter 3.20 +/- 1.5 mu). The difference was more clearly observed in a 48-h patch test than in an 8-h or 24-h test. We concluded that laser Doppler blood flow measurement was a useful experimental tool for the evaluation of irritant patch test responses to mechanical irritants like rockwool, and that 48 h or more of occlusion time was necessary to produce irritant patch test responses to certain types of rockwool.

  18. PCSK9 Variants, LDL-Cholesterol, and Neurocognitive Impairment: The REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mefford, Matthew T; Rosenson, Robert S; Cushman, Mary; Farkouh, Michael E; McClure, Leslie A; Wadley, Virginia G; Irvin, Marguerite R; Bittner, Vera A; Safford, Monika M; Somaratne, Ransi; Monda, Keri L; Muntner, Paul; Levitan, Emily B

    2017-11-16

    Background -Despite concerns about adverse neurocognitive events raised by prior trials, pharmacologic PCSK9 inhibition was not associated with neurocognitive effects in a recent phase 3 randomized trial. PCSK9 loss-of-function (LOF) variants that result in life-long exposure to low LDL-C can provide information on the potential long-term effects of low LDL-C on neurocognitive impairment and decline. Methods -We investigated the association between PCSK9 LOF variants and neurocognitive impairment and decline among African-American REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study participants with (n=241) and without (n=10,454) C697X or Y142X LOF variants. Neurocognitive tests included Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) battery (Word List Learning, Delayed Recall, Animal Fluency) and Six Item Screener (SIS) assessments, administered longitudinally during follow-up. Neurocognitive impairment was defined as a score ≥ 1.5 standard deviations (SD) below age, sex, and education-based stratum-specific means on 2 or 3 CERAD assessments, or, separately, a score impairment at any assessment was 6.3% by CERAD and 15.4% by SIS definitions. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for neurocognitive impairment for participants with versus without PCSK9 LOF variants were 1.11 (95% CI 0.58, 2.13) using the CERAD battery and 0.89 (95% CI 0.61, 1.30) using the SIS assessment. Standardized average differences in individual neurocognitive assessment scores over the 5.6 year (range 0.1, 9.1) study period ranged between 0.07 (95% CI -0.06, 0.20) and -0.07 (95% CI -0.18, 0.05) among participants with versus without PCSK9 LOF variants. Patterns of neurocognitive decline were similar between participants with and without PCSK9 LOF variants (all p > 0.10). ORs for neurocognitive impairment per 20 mg/dL LDL-C decrements were 1.02 (95% CI 0.96, 1.08) and 0.99 (95% CI 0.95, 1.02) for the CERAD and SIS definitions of impairment, respectively

  19. Nucleic acid amplification testing in Indian blood banks: A review with perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Mishra, Kanchan

    2017-01-01

    Nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT) is restricted to a few blood banks in India since 2008. This review was directed toward understanding NAT yield in different parts of the country and prevalence in the NAT of different types of virus. English literature was searched from 1990 to 2016 in PubMed, Scopus, Ind med, and Google database using properly constructed key words. Literature was collected and finally the data were synthesized. NAT results from 11 publications and one personal communication showed that till date 389387 blood units have been NAT tested from various parts of the country. NAT yield varied from 1:476 to 1:4403 in various studies. Till date, 58/2550 (2%) blood banks of India are doing NAT testing but all of them have not published their results. Majority of the centers have used ID-NAT (Individual NAT) protocol and 21 blood banks are using minipool format of the test. One center has used in-house NAT testing system. In> 70% of the time, the NAT positivity with due to hepatitis B (Hep B). For individual infection, NAT yield from the pooled data showed HIV in 1:66,000, Hep C virus 1:5484 and Hep B in 1:1761 seronegative donors. In view of the very high NAT yield (1:1361), NAT in some from needs to be universally applied in Indian blood banks. However, the high Hep B occult infection suggests stricter donor selection and immunization of adults for Hep B may be way forward toward ensuring the viral safety of blood components in India.

  20. A short tool to screen HIV-infected patients for mild neurocognitive disorders ? a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Fasel, Dominique; Kunze, Ursula; Elzi, Luigia; Werder, Vreni; Niepmann, Susanne; Monsch, Andreas U.; Schumacher, Rahel; Battegay, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Background We aimed to evaluate the accuracy and acceptability of a short screening test battery for mild neurocognitive deficits. Methods HIV-infected individuals with a suppressed viral load were examined at the University Hospital Basel with a screening test consisting of a questionnaire and selected cognitive tests, administered by trained nurses, followed by an in-depth neuropsychological examination. Test acceptance was evaluated with a questionnaire. Results 30 patients were included i...

  1. Evaluation of the concomitant use of two different EIA tests for HIV screening in blood banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otani Marcia M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In 1998, the Brazilian Ministry of Health made it mandatory for all blood banks in the country to screen donated blood for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV concomitantly using two different enzyme immunoassay (EIA tests. Concerned with the best use of available resources, our objective with this study was to evaluate the usefulness of conducting two EIA screening tests instead of just one. METHODS: We analyzed data from 1999 through 2001 obtained by testing 698 191 units of donated blood using two EIA HIV screening tests concomitantly at the Pro-Blood Foundation/Blood Center of São Paulo (Fundação Pró-Sangue/Hemocentro de São Paulo, which is a major blood center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. All samples reactive in at least one of the two EIA tests were submitted for confirmation by a Western blot (WB test, and the persons who had donated those samples were also asked to return and provide a follow-up sample. RESULTS: Out of the 698 191 blood units that were donated, 2 718 of them (0.4% had to be discarded because they were reactive to at least one of the EIA tests. There were two WB-positive donation samples that were reactive in only one HIV EIA screening test. On their follow-up samples, both donors tested WB-negative. These cases were considered false positive results at screening. Of the 2 718 donors who were asked to return and provide a follow-up sample, 1 576 of them (58% did so. From these 1 576 persons, we found that there were two individuals who had been reactive to only one of the two EIA screening tests and who had also been negative on the WB at screening but who were fully seroconverted on the follow-up sample. We thus estimated that, in comparison to the use of a single EIA screening test, the use of two EIA screening tests would detect only one extra sample out of 410 700 units of blood. CONCLUSIONS: Our data do not support the use of two different, concomitant EIA screening tests for HIV. The great

  2. Incentivizing Blood Donation: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis to Test Titmuss’ Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Titmuss hypothesized that paying blood donors would reduce the quality of the blood donated and would be economically inefficient. We report here the first systematic review to test these hypotheses, reporting on both financial and nonfinancial incentives. Method: Studies deemed eligible for inclusion were peer-reviewed, experimental studies that presented data on the quantity (as a proxy for efficiency) and quality of blood donated in at least two groups: those donating blood when offered an incentive, and those donating blood with no offer of an incentive. The following were searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO using OVID SP, CINAHL via EBSCO and CENTRAL, the Cochrane Library, Econlit via EBSCO, JSTOR Health and General Science Collection, and Google. Results: The initial search yielded 1100 abstracts, which resulted in 89 full papers being assessed for eligibility, of which seven studies, reported in six papers, met the inclusion criteria. The included studies involved 93,328 participants. Incentives had no impact on the likelihood of donation (OR = 1.22 CI 95% 0.91–1.63; p = .19). There was no difference between financial and nonfinancial incentives in the quantity of blood donated. Of the two studies that assessed quality of blood, one found no effect and the other found an adverse effect from the offer of a free cholesterol test (β = 0.011 p < .05). Conclusion: The limited evidence suggests that Titmuss’ hypothesis of the economic inefficiency of incentives is correct. There is insufficient evidence to assess their likely impact on the quality of the blood provided. PMID:24001244

  3. Incentivizing blood donation: systematic review and meta-analysis to test Titmuss' hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niza, Claudia; Tung, Burcu; Marteau, Theresa M

    2013-09-01

    Titmuss hypothesized that paying blood donors would reduce the quality of the blood donated and would be economically inefficient. We report here the first systematic review to test these hypotheses, reporting on both financial and nonfinancial incentives. Studies deemed eligible for inclusion were peer-reviewed, experimental studies that presented data on the quantity (as a proxy for efficiency) and quality of blood donated in at least two groups: those donating blood when offered an incentive, and those donating blood with no offer of an incentive. The following were searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO using OVID SP, CINAHL via EBSCO and CENTRAL, the Cochrane Library, Econlit via EBSCO, JSTOR Health and General Science Collection, and Google. The initial search yielded 1100 abstracts, which resulted in 89 full papers being assessed for eligibility, of which seven studies, reported in six papers, met the inclusion criteria. The included studies involved 93,328 participants. Incentives had no impact on the likelihood of donation (OR = 1.22 CI 95% 0.91-1.63; p = .19). There was no difference between financial and nonfinancial incentives in the quantity of blood donated. Of the two studies that assessed quality of blood, one found no effect and the other found an adverse effect from the offer of a free cholesterol test (β = 0.011 p < .05). The limited evidence suggests that Titmuss' hypothesis of the economic inefficiency of incentives is correct. There is insufficient evidence to assess their likely impact on the quality of the blood provided. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Advanced paternal age is associated with impaired neurocognitive outcomes during infancy and childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanta Saha

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Advanced paternal age (APA is associated with an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia, as well as with dyslexia and reduced intelligence. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between paternal age and performance on neurocognitive measures during infancy and childhood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A sample of singleton children (n = 33,437 was drawn from the US Collaborative Perinatal Project. The outcome measures were assessed at 8 mo, 4 y, and 7 y (Bayley scales, Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale, Graham-Ernhart Block Sort Test, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Wide Range Achievement Test. The main analyses examined the relationship between neurocognitive measures and paternal or maternal age when adjusted for potential confounding factors. Advanced paternal age showed significant associations with poorer scores on all of the neurocognitive measures apart from the Bayley Motor score. The findings were broadly consistent in direction and effect size at all three ages. In contrast, advanced maternal age was generally associated with better scores on these same measures. CONCLUSIONS: The offspring of older fathers show subtle impairments on tests of neurocognitive ability during infancy and childhood. In light of secular trends related to delayed fatherhood, the clinical implications and the mechanisms underlying these findings warrant closer scrutiny.

  5. The definition of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders: are we overestimating the real prevalence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisslén Magnus

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A substantial prevalence of mild neurocognitive disorders has been reported in HIV, also in patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART. This includes a new disorder that has been termed asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI. Discussion ANI is identified by performance on formal neuropsychological testing that is at least 1 SD below the mean of normative scores in at least two cognitive domains out of at least five examined in patients without associated symptoms or evident functional impairment in daily living. While two tests are recommended to assess each domain, only one is required to fulfill this diagnostic criterion. Unfortunately, this definition necessitates that about 20% of the cognitively normal HIV-infected population is classified as suffering ANI. This liberal definition raises important ethical concerns and has as well diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Since neither its biological substrate, prognostic significance nor therapeutic implications are clearly established, we recommend that this diagnosis be modified or applied cautiously. Summary The diagnoses of less severe forms of neurocognitive disorders in HIV relies on the outcomes of neuropsychological testing, and a high proportion of HIV-infected patients with effective cART may be classified as neurocognitively abnormal using the current criteria. The definition of ANI is not stringent, and results in approximately 20% of the population being classified as abnormal. To us this seems an unacceptable false-positive rate.

  6. Advanced paternal age is associated with impaired neurocognitive outcomes during infancy and childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sukanta; Barnett, Adrian G; Foldi, Claire; Burne, Thomas H; Eyles, Darryl W; Buka, Stephen L; McGrath, John J

    2009-03-10

    Advanced paternal age (APA) is associated with an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia, as well as with dyslexia and reduced intelligence. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between paternal age and performance on neurocognitive measures during infancy and childhood. A sample of singleton children (n = 33,437) was drawn from the US Collaborative Perinatal Project. The outcome measures were assessed at 8 mo, 4 y, and 7 y (Bayley scales, Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale, Graham-Ernhart Block Sort Test, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Wide Range Achievement Test). The main analyses examined the relationship between neurocognitive measures and paternal or maternal age when adjusted for potential confounding factors. Advanced paternal age showed significant associations with poorer scores on all of the neurocognitive measures apart from the Bayley Motor score. The findings were broadly consistent in direction and effect size at all three ages. In contrast, advanced maternal age was generally associated with better scores on these same measures. The offspring of older fathers show subtle impairments on tests of neurocognitive ability during infancy and childhood. In light of secular trends related to delayed fatherhood, the clinical implications and the mechanisms underlying these findings warrant closer scrutiny.

  7. Optimization of cord blood unit sterility testing: impact of dilution, analysis delay, and inhibitory substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Mélissa; Laforce-Lavoie, Audrey; de Grandmont, Marie Joëlle; Cayer, Marie-Pierre; Fournier, Diane; Delage, Gilles; Thibault, Louis

    2017-08-01

    Different methods are used by cord blood banks to prepare samples for sterility testing. Suboptimal methods can result in the release of contaminated products. In our organization, samples are prepared by diluting the final product in RPMI-1640 medium. In this work, we have compared our method with different approaches to verify whether optimization should be sought. Cord blood units (n = 6 units per bacterial strain) characterized to contain inhibitory substances or not were inoculated (10 colony-forming units/mL) with Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, or Bacteroides fragilis. After plasma and red blood cell removal, stem cell concentrates were diluted in RPMI-1640, thioglycollate, or the unit's plasma. These products, as well as final product, plasma, and red blood cell fractions, were held from 0 to 72 hours at 20 to 24°C before inoculation in culture bottles and detection using the BacT/ALERT 3D system. Dilution of cell concentrates in RPMI-1640 allowed bacterial detection in 93.3% of noninhibitory cord blood samples after a 24-hour storage period. Thioglycollate medium better promoted bacterial growth in inhibitory cord blood samples that were held for 72 hours before testing (66.7%) compared with RPMI-1640 (45.0%). Less than 33% of all spiked plasma samples were detected by the BacT/ALERT 3D system. Diluting cord blood samples in culture medium containing bacterial growth promoting substances is a suitable option for sterility testing, whereas the use of plasma should be proscribed, because it might lead to false-negative results. Because inhibitory substances affect bacterial growth, inoculation of culture bottles should be done rapidly after sample preparation. © 2017 AABB.

  8. Single ketamine infusion and neurocognitive performance in bipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permoda-Osip, A; Kisielewski, J; Bartkowska-Sniatkowska, A; Rybakowski, J K

    2015-03-01

    We estimated neurocognitive performance using the trail making test (TMT) and the Stroop color-word interference test before, and on the 3(rd) day after a single infusion of ketamine, in 18 bipolar depressed patients receiving mood-stabilizing drugs. The performance on all tests significantly improved on the 3(rd) day after ketamine infusion which correlated positively with baseline intensity of neuropsychological impairment and was not associated either with baseline intensity of depression or reduction of depressive symptoms after 3 or 7 days. The results suggest that in such population of patients, single ketamine infusion may improve neuropsychological performance independently of antidepressant effect. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Exploring the Factor Structure of Neurocognitive Measures in Older Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Nadine Correia; Costa, Patrício Soares; Amorim, Liliana; Moreira, Pedro Silva; Cunha, Pedro; Cotter, Jorge; Sousa, Nuno

    2015-01-01

    Here we focus on factor analysis from a best practices point of view, by investigating the factor structure of neuropsychological tests and using the results obtained to illustrate on choosing a reasonable solution. The sample (n=1051 individuals) was randomly divided into two groups: one for exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and principal component analysis (PCA), to investigate the number of factors underlying the neurocognitive variables; the second to test the “best fit” model via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). For the exploratory step, three extraction (maximum likelihood, principal axis factoring and principal components) and two rotation (orthogonal and oblique) methods were used. The analysis methodology allowed exploring how different cognitive/psychological tests correlated/discriminated between dimensions, indicating that to capture latent structures in similar sample sizes and measures, with approximately normal data distribution, reflective models with oblimin rotation might prove the most adequate. PMID:25880732

  10. It’s More Than a Blood Test: Patients’ Perspectives on Noninvasive Prenatal Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Farrell, Ruth M.; Mary Beth Mercer; Patricia K. Agatisa; Smith, Marissa B.; Elliot Philipson

    2014-01-01

    Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) offers pregnant women a new risk assessment tool for fetal aneuploidy that is superior to conventional screening tests. We conducted focus groups with women who were currently pregnant or had recently delivered in the past year to characterize their perspectives about NIPT and to explore factors they would consider during decision making about its use. Women identified accuracy, early timing, testing ease, and determination of fetal sex as advantages of NI...

  11. Effect of blood on ROM diagnosis accuracy of PAMG-1 and IGFBP-1 detecting rapid tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsauer, Babett; Duwe, Wiebke; Schlehe, Bettina; Pitts, Regina; Wagner, Dirk; Wutkewicz, Katja; Chuvashkin, Dmitry; Abele, Harald; Lachmann, Robert

    2015-07-01

    Vaginal bleeding may be present in up to 30% of patients presenting with signs and symptoms of a rupture of the fetal membranes (ROM). The presence of blood may lead to false positive results with biochemical markers. The data presented in this study came from a multi-centric prospective observational clinical study that, for the first time, systematically evaluated the performance of placental alpha microglobulin-1 (PAMG-1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) detecting tests in 151 women with vaginal bleedings as well as signs and symptoms indicative of ROM. Our data showed better performance for the PAMG-1 compared with the IGFBP-1 detecting tests in all quality parameters evaluated. In detail, sensitivity (SN) was 97.8% (91.0%), specificity (SP) was 91.5% (75.0%), positive predictive value (PPV) was 94.6% (83.5%) and negative predictive value (NPV) was 96.4% (85.7%) for PAMG-1 tests (and IGFBP-1 tests, respectively). A major difference between both tests was related to the number of non-evaluable test results (e.g., hidden bands due to blood smear on the test strips). While 2% of all results were not evaluable for PAMG-1 tests, this artifact appeared in 11% of the results obtained with IGFBP-1 tests. This difference and also those in Specificity and PPV were statistically significant, demonstrating superiority of PAMG-1 over IGFBP-1 detecting tests. In conclusion, the PAMG-1 detecting test was significantly less susceptible to interference by blood than the IGFBP-1 detecting test.

  12. Informed consent for blood tests in people with a learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Lesley; Woodward, Val; Jackson, Leigh; Skirton, Heather

    2013-09-01

    This article is a report of a study of informed consent in people with a learning disability. The aims of the study were to explore the information needs of people with mild-to-moderate learning disabilities with respect to consent for blood tests and to identify ways of facilitating informed consent. The recent political agenda for social change in the UK has emphasized the right of people with a learning disability to have more autonomy and make their own decisions. As in other countries, there has also been a shift towards shared decision-making in healthcare practice. Qualitative study using an ethnographic approach. An ethnographic approach was used for this qualitative study. Phase 1 involved observation of six participants with a learning disability having a routine blood test in general practice, followed by semi-structured interviews with 14 participants with a learning disability in Phase 2. Data were collected between February 2009-February 2010. The data showed that consent procedures were often inadequate and provision of information to patients prior to a blood test was variable. People with a learning disability expressed clearly their information requirements when having a routine blood test; this included not wanting any information in some cases. Healthcare practitioners and people with a learning disability need to be familiar with current consent law in their own country to facilitate valid consent in the healthcare context. This study demonstrated the value of qualitative research in exploring the knowledge and attitudes of people with learning disability. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Is D U Phenotype Testing A Necessity In Blood Bank Practice In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the necessity of Du Phenotype testing in blood bank practice in Nigeria. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Three health institutions within Port Harcourt metropolis: The University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Braithewaite Memorial Hospital, Port Harcourt and Orogbum comprehensive ...

  14. Endoscopic Follow-Up of Positive Fecal Occult Blood Testing in the Ontario FOBT Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Paszat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Ontario FOBT Project is a pilot study of fecal occult blood testing (FOBT for colorectal cancer screening conducted among age-eligible volunteers (50 to 75 years in 12 of 37 public health regions in Ontario.

  15. Comparison of blood smear microscopy to a rapid diagnostic test for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To compare the diagnostic performance of microscopy using Giemsastained thick and thin blood smears to a rapid malaria dipstick test (RDT) in detecting P. falciparum malaria in Kenyan school children. Design: Randomised, controlled feeding intervention trial from 1998-2001. Setting: Rural Embu district, Kenya ...

  16. Validation of a new blood-mimicking fluid for use in Doppler flow test objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramnarine, KV; Nassiri, DK; Hoskins, PR; Lubbers, J

    A blood-mimicking fluid (BMF) suitable for use in Doppler flow test objects is described and characterised, The BMF consists of 5 mu m diameter nylon scattering particles suspended in a fluid base of water, glycerol, dextran and surfactant, The acoustical properties of various BMF preparations were

  17. Pilot study of light therapy and neurocognitive performance of attention and memory in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersani, Giuseppe; Marconi, Daniela; Limpido, Lucilla; Tarolla, Emanuele; Caroti, Eleonora

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether light therapy improves healthy subjects' neurocognitive performance of attention, memory, and language. Ten subjects were treated with white bright light for 5 days and a control group of 10 with no treatment were assessed with a battery of neurocognitive tests which included the Stroop Colour Word Interference Test, the Verbal Fluency Test, the Story Recall Test, and the Word Pairs Recall Test. Analysis showed improvements in cognitive scores in both groups, although on all the cognitive tests the mean difference scores between baseline and endpoint were significantly larger in the light-treated group. These preliminary results suggest that short-term bright light may exert beneficial effects on cognitive functions.

  18. Fasting glucose and glucose tolerance as potential predictors of neurocognitive function among nondiabetic older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims Wright, Regina; Levy, Shellie-Anne T; Katzel, Leslie I; Rosenberger, William F; Manukyan, Zorayr; Whitfield, Keith E; Waldstein, Shari R

    2015-01-01

    Significant evidence has demonstrated that Type 2 diabetes mellitus and related precursors are associated with diminished neurocognitive function and risk of dementia among older adults. However, very little research has examined relations of glucose regulation to neurocognitive function among older adults free of these conditions. The primary aim of this investigation was to examine associations among fasting glucose, glucose tolerance, and neurocognitive function among nondiabetic older adults. The secondary aim was to examine age, gender, and education as potential effect modifiers. The study employed a cross-sectional, correlational study design. Participants were 172 older adults with a mean age of 64.43 years (SD = 13.09). The sample was 58% male and 87% White. Participants completed an oral glucose tolerance test as part of a larger study. Trained psychometricians administered neuropsychological tests that assessed performance in the domains of response inhibition, nonverbal memory, verbal memory, attention and working memory, visuoconstructional abilities, visuospatial abilities, psychomotor speed and executive function, and motor speed and manual dexterity. Linear multiple regressions were run to test study aims. No significant main effects of fasting glucose and 2-hour glucose emerged for performance on any neurocognitive test; however, significant interactions were present. Higher fasting glucose was associated with poorer short-term verbal memory performance among men, but unexpectedly better response inhibition and long-term verbal memory performance for participants over age 70. Higher 2-hour glucose values were associated with reduced divided attention performance among participants with less than a high school education. Mixed findings suggest that glucose levels may be both beneficial and deleterious to neurocognition among nondiabetic older adults. Additional studies with healthy older adults are needed to confirm this unexpected pattern of

  19. In Vivo Model to Test Implanted Biosensors for Blood pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Somps, Chris J.; Madou, Marc; Hines, John; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Biosensors for monitoring physiologic data continuously through telemetry are available for heart rate, respiration, and temperature but not for blood pH or ions affected by hydrogen ion concentration. A telemetric biosensor for monitoring blood pH on-line could be used to identify and manage problems in fluid and electrolyte metabolism, cardiac and respiratory function during space flight and the acid-base status of patients without the need for venipuncture in patients on Earth. Critical to the development of biosensors is a method for evaluating their performance after implantation. Mature rats, prepared with jugular, cannulas for repeated blood samples, were exposed to a gas mixture containing high levels of carbon dioxide (7%) in a closed environment to induce mild respiratory acidosis. Serial blood gas and pH measurements in venous blood were compared with electrical responses from sensors implanted in the subcutaneous tissue. Animals became slightly tachypneic after exposure to excess CO2, but remained alert and active. After 5 minutes, basal blood pH decreased from 7.404 +/- 0.013 to 7.289 +/- 0.010 (p less than 0.001)and PC02 increased from 45 +/- 6 to 65 +/- 4 mm. Hg (p les than 0.001). Thereafter pH and blood gas parameters remained stable. Implanted sensors showed a decrease in millivolts (mV) which paralleled the change in pH and averaged 5-6 mV per 0.1 unit pH. Implanted sensors remained sensitive to modest changes in tissue pH for one week. A system for inducing acidosis in rats was developed to test the in vivo performance of pH biosensors. The system provides a method which is sensitive, rapid and reproducible in the same and different animals with full recovery, for testing the performance of sensors implanted in subcutaneous tissues.

  20. Performance Assessment of Internal Quality Control (IQC) Products in Blood Transfusion Compatibility Testing in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gui-Ping; Wu, Li-Fang; Li, Jing-Jing; Gao, Qi; Liu, Zhi-Dong; Kang, Qiong-Hua; Hou, Yi-Jun; Zhang, Luo-Chuan; Hu, Xiao-Mei; Li, Jie; Zhang, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Internal quality control (IQC) is a critical component of laboratory quality management, and IQC products can determine the reliability of testing results. In China, given the fact that most blood transfusion compatibility laboratories do not employ IQC products or do so minimally, there is a lack of uniform and standardized IQC methods. To explore the reliability of IQC products and methods, we studied 697 results from IQC samples in our laboratory from 2012 to 2014. The results showed that the sensitivity and specificity of the IQCs in anti-B testing were 100% and 99.7%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the IQCs in forward blood typing, anti-A testing, irregular antibody screening, and cross-matching were all 100%. The reliability analysis indicated that 97% of anti-B testing results were at a 99% confidence level, and 99.9% of forward blood typing, anti-A testing, irregular antibody screening, and cross-matching results were at a 99% confidence level. Therefore, our IQC products and methods are highly sensitive, specific, and reliable. Our study paves the way for the establishment of a uniform and standardized IQC method for pre-transfusion compatibility testing in China and other parts of the world.

  1. Usefullness of routine use of fecal occult blood test in a hospital setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Ravnik

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fecal occult blood test, hematest, is a well excepted non-invasive method used for detecting different diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. It was proven in different randomized studies that usage of this simple method may facilitate further diagnostic and therapeutic treatment.Patients and methods: The retrospective analysis includes patients, which were admitted to the gastroenterological and endoscopy department of the General hospital Maribor in the last quarter of the year 2005. In all patients fecal occult blood test was performed.Results: We examined 200 patients, 104 women and 96 men, average age 63.9 years, SD±16.9, ranging from 21 to 97 years. Positive hematest was discovered in 76 patients (38 %. The source of hemorrhage from the upper digestive tract was confirmed in 37 patients (48.6 % of all positive tests and from the lower digestive tract in 34 patients (46 % of all positive tests. The most frequent causes of hemorrhage from the lower digestive tract were chronic inflammatory bowel disease (13.1 % of all positive tests, colorectal cancer (10.5 % and polyps (6.6 %. The source of hemorrhage was not located in five patients (6.6 % of all positive tests despite the accurate diagnostic procedure.Conclusions: By performing a fecal occult blood screening in non-symptomatic patients, we can make an essential step towards discovering different gastrointestinal diseases, even colorectal cancer in its early, limited form, when the effect of treatment is greatest.

  2. Hepatitis B core antibody testing in Indian blood donors: A double-edged sword!

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    R N Makroo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Until lately, anti-HBc antibodies were considered an effective marker for occult Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection and have served their role in improving blood safety. But, with the development of advanced tests for HBV DNA detection, the role of anti-HBc in this regard stands uncertain. Materials and Methods: Anti-HBc and HBsAg ELISA and ID-NAT tests were run in parallel on donor blood samples between April 1, 2006 and December 31, 2010 at the Department of Transfusion Medicine, Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, New Delhi. A positive ID-NAT was followed by Discriminatory NAT assay. Results: A total of 94 247 samples were tested with a total core positivity rate of 10.22%. We identified nearly 9.17% of donors who were reactive for anti-HBc and negative for HBsAg and HBV DNA. These are the donors who are potentially non-infectious and may be returned to the donor pool. Conclusion: Although anti HBc testing has a definite role in improving blood safety, centers that have incorporated NAT testing may not derive any additional benefit by performing anti-HBc testing, especially in resource-limited countries like ours.

  3. Neurocognitive impairment in early adolescence following prenatal alcohol exposure of varying duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkman, Marit; Kettunen, Satu; Autti-Rämö, Ilona

    2003-06-01

    The aims of the study were, first, to perform a comprehensive assessment of neurocognitive status in early adolescence of children exposed to alcohol prenatally; and, second, to examine whether duration of exposure continues to be predictive of outcome at this age. Twenty-seven exposed 12-14-year-olds and 39 non-exposed 13-14-year-olds underwent neuropsychological assessments (WISC-III, NEPSY subtests) of attention and executive functions, language, visuomotor functions, and memory. The group of non-exposed children was used to develop preliminary test norms for the 13-14-year-old exposed children whereas published test norms could be used for the 12-year-olds. The results demonstrated neurocognitive impairment across all types of tasks. Impairment varied in degree according to the duration of alcohol exposure. Children exposed throughout pregnancy, most of who had diagnoses of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) or Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE), performed well below the average range. It was concluded that the neurocognitive effects of alcohol exposure tend to be widespread and generalized. Attention and executive functions do not seem to be selectively affected. Further, the relationship between duration of prenatal alcohol exposure and neurocognitive development continues to be significant in early adolescence.

  4. Neurocognitive predictors of performance-based functional capacity in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Daniel N; Bello, Danielle T; Thaler, Nicholas S

    2015-09-01

    Neurocognitive impairment can predict functional capacity in individuals with bipolar disorder, though little research has examined whether different neurocognitive domains impact specific types of tasks. This study examined the relationship between several neurocognitive variables and the UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment (UPSA; Patterson et al., 2011) to identify the domains and tests that best predict the performance across the subscales. Forty-seven euthymic participants who were diagnosed with either Bipolar I or Bipolar II were recruited and assessed on a battery of neuropsychological measures and the UPSA. Correlational and regression analyses were run to identify neurocognitive predictors of UPSA subscales. Per the literature, verbal learning and memory and executive function composites were first examined. Verbal learning and memory predicted the Communication subscale and Total score variables above and beyond the estimated FSIQ and symptom rating scales. In a secondary exploratory analysis, the Benton Judgment of Line Orientation subtest predicted the Finance subscale while the California Verbal Learning Test predicted the UPSA total score. Verbal learning and memory emerged as the strongest predictor of functional capacity, suggesting that this domain should be investigated in future mediational and longitudinal studies with the UPSA. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Assessment of semi-automated nucleic acid testing programme in a Regional Blood Transfusion Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Mishra, Kanchan Kumar; Trivedi, Apeksha; Sosa, Sheetal; Patel, Krima

    2017-01-01

    Detection of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), hepatitis-C (HCV) and hepatitis-B virus (HBV) in the blood donors is crucial. An efficient form of detection is nucleic acid testing (NAT) in blood screening. We assessed the suitability of commercial NAT testing in a developing country, focusing on the Altona RealStar assay and the method of Sacace Biotechnologies. We have standardised and validated commercially available NAT kits with a semi-automated system for detection of HBV, HCV and HIV-1 in blood donations. The MP-NAT (mini-pool) assay consists of pooling of sample, virus extraction, amplification and detection with commercially available NAT kits. An internal control (IC) is incorporated in the assay to monitor the extraction, target amplification and detection process. The sensitivity of the Altona RealStar assay at 10-MP for each viral target was evaluated, HBV showed amplification in all diluted positive samples of 100, 50, 25, 10 and 5 IU/ml. HIV and HCV infected samples showed amplification in all diluted positive samples of 500, 100, 50 and 30 IU/ml. For HIV, out of six diluted samples of 30 IU/ml, five were amplified. A total of 14,170 seronegative blood samples were tested by RealStar PCR kit in 10-MP and 6 (0.042%) samples/pools were positive. A total of 65,362 seronegative blood donations were also tested by kits of Sacace Biotechnologies, in 10-MP and 45 (0.075%) pools were positive. The prevalence of combined NAT yield cases among routine donors was 1 in 1559 donations tested for all the 3 viruses. The semi-automated combined system for NAT screening assays is robust, sensitive, reproducible, and this gives an additional layer of safety with affordable cost.

  6. Nucleic acid testing: Is it the only answer for safe Blood in India?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N K Naidu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the implementation of NAT in countries around the world, there is a growing pressure on the transfusion services in India to adopt NAT testing. India has about 2545 licensed Blood Centres. The Transfusion Services in India are fragmented, poorly regulated and the quality standards are poorly implemented. Blood Centres are still dependent on replacement/family donors and in most places laboratory testing for Transfusion transmitted infections is not quality assured, laboratory equipment are not calibrated and maintained, and validation of results is not carried out. Against the current scenario introducing NAT for screening of blood donors in India would pose a challenge. Aim: To study the prudence of universal NAT testing in India. Materials and Methods : A retrospective study of 5 years from 2008-2012 was undertaken to study the true reactivity of donors using WHO strategy II and III and therefore the true seroprevalence of TTI infections in the donor populations. Results : The true reactivity of the donors was much less as compared to the initially reactive donors due to the use of a well designed testing algorithm. In addition having a total voluntary blood collection along with good pre-donation counseling program also reduces the transmission of infections. Conclusions : What India essentially needs to do is religiously implement the strategies outlined in the WHO Aide-memoire. The blood should be collected only from voluntary non remunerative and repeat donors , there should be stringent donor selection with pre-donation counseling instituted. Strict implementation of quality management system, development of well defined testing startegies and strong haemovigilance system could take us a step in the right direction.

  7. Nucleic acid testing: Is it the only answer for safe Blood in India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, N K; Bharucha, Z S; Sonawane, Vandana; Ahmed, Imran

    2016-01-01

    With the implementation of NAT in countries around the world, there is a growing pressure on the transfusion services in India to adopt NAT testing. India has about 2545 licensed Blood Centres. The Transfusion Services in India are fragmented, poorly regulated and the quality standards are poorly implemented. Blood Centres are still dependent on replacement/family donors and in most places laboratory testing for Transfusion transmitted infections is not quality assured, laboratory equipment are not calibrated and maintained, and validation of results is not carried out. Against the current scenario introducing NAT for screening of blood donors in India would pose a challenge. To study the prudence of universal NAT testing in India. A retrospective study of 5 years from 2008-2012 was undertaken to study the true reactivity of donors using WHO strategy II and III and therefore the true seroprevalence of TTI infections in the donor populations. The true reactivity of the donors was much less as compared to the initially reactive donors due to the use of a well designed testing algorithm. In addition having a total voluntary blood collection along with good pre-donation counseling program also reduces the transmission of infections. What India essentially needs to do is religiously implement the strategies outlined in the WHO Aide-memoire. The blood should be collected only from voluntary non remunerative and repeat donors, there should be stringent donor selection with pre-donation counseling instituted. Strict implementation of quality management system, development of well defined testing startegies and strong haemovigilance system could take us a step in the right direction.

  8. Perinatal iron deficiency and neurocognitive development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Clare Radlowski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency is the most common form of nutrient deficiency worldwide. It is highly prevalent due to the limited availability of high quality food in developing countries, and poor dietary habits in industrialized countries. According to the World Health Organization, it affects nearly 2 billion people and up to 50% of women who are pregnant. Maternal anemia during pregnancy is especially burdensome to healthy neurodevelopment in the fetus because iron is needed for proper neurogenesis, development, and myelination. Maternal anemia also increases the risk of low birth weight, either due to premature birth or fetal growth restriction, which is associated with delayed neurocognitive development and even psychiatric illness. As rapid neurodevelopment continues after birth infants that received sufficient iron in utero, but that receive a low iron diet after 6 months of age, also show deficits in neurocognitive development, including impairments in learning and memory. Unfortunately, the neurocognitive complications of iron deficiency during critical pre- and postnatal periods of brain development are difficult to remedy, persisting into adulthood. Thus, preventing iron deficiency in the pre- and postnatal periods is critical as is devising new means to recapture cognitive function in individuals who experienced early iron deficiency. This review will discuss the prevalence of pre- and postnatal iron deficiency, the mechanism, and effects of iron deficiency on brain and cognitive development.

  9. Dexmedetomidina para teste neurocognitivo em craniotomia com o paciente acordado: relato de caso Dexmedetomidina para prueba neurocognitiva en craniotomía con el paciente despierto: relato de caso Dexmedetomidine for neurocognitive testing in awake craniotomy: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cursino Pinto dos Santos

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: As ressecções tumorais em áreas eloqüentes do cérebro são realizadas com mais segurança utilizando-se testes cognitivos para identificação exata desses locais. Os pacientes devem estar acordados, confortáveis e colaborativos para que se identifiquem com clareza as áreas que devem ser preservadas. O objetivo deste relato foi apresentar intervenção cirúrgica realizada com o paciente acordado, utilizando sevoflurano no período inicial, sem intubação traqueal e a dexmedetomidina, posteriormente, técnica que permitiu a realização dos testes de avaliação motora e da fala. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente do sexo masculino, 27 anos, estado físico ASA I, com tumor cerebral. Na sala cirúrgica, sem medicação pré-anestésica, foi administrado midazolam (1 mg, induzida a anestesia geral com propofol (80 mg. A manutenção foi realizada com O2, N2O e sevoflurano sob máscara para punção da artéria radial direita, cateterismo vesical e infiltração da área cirúrgica. Essa fase durou cerca de 20 minutos, com início da infusão de dexmedetomidina nos últimos 10 minutos, para manter o nível de sedação Ramsay 2. Depois, foi realizado o mapeamento cortical (75 minutos. Seguiu-se a ressecção tumoral, com o paciente sedado recebendo doses maiores de dexmedetomidina. Observou-se estabilidades hemodinâmica e respiratória, tendo o procedimento transcorrido sem intercorrências, com duração total de cinco horas. Após o término da intervenção cirúrgica o paciente foi encaminhado ao CTI, sem alterações neurológicas, tendo alta para a enfermaria no dia seguinte. CONCLUSÕES: A craniotomia com o paciente acordado e o adequado mapeamento das áreas corticais de fala e motora foram realizados com sucesso, por meio da infusão contínua de dexmedetomidina. Houve plena satisfação do paciente e da equipe cirúrgica com a técnica.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Las resecciones tumorales en áreas elocuentes del

  10. Effect of rivaroxaban on blood coagulation using the viscoelastic coagulation test ROTEM™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casutt, M; Konrad, C; Schuepfer, G

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated the influence of the oral direct inhibitor of factor Xa rivaroxaban on blood coagulation measured by rotation thrombelastometry ROTEM™. Blood was obtained from 11 healthy male volunteers before and 2.5 h after oral administration of 10 mg rivaroxaban. In addition to standard coagulation tests clot formation was measured by ROTEM™ analyzing extrinsic (Extem) and intrinsic thrombelastometry (Intem). Significant differences to the baseline values were found in the Extem clotting time (Extem-CT, 58 ± 9 s and 87 ± 17 s, p coagulation by rivaroxaban.

  11. Is the test result correct? A questionnaire study of blood collection practices in primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderberg, Johan; Wallin, Olof; Grankvist, Kjell; Brulin, Christine

    2010-08-01

    Venous blood tests are important for clinical decision making. Most errors in blood testing are due to human errors before the blood samples reach the laboratory. The present study was designed to investigate venous blood sampling (VBS) practices in primary health care centres (PHCs) compared with clinical laboratory staff. A cross-sectional survey of 70 PHCs and two clinical laboratories is conducted. All staff responsible for VBS (317 respondents, response rate 94%) completed a questionnaire on VBS practices. Instructions for VBS were not followed in the surveyed PHCs. For example, only 54% reported that they always identified the patient by using name/Swedish identification number and only 5% reported that they always used photo-ID, the two preferred means for patient identification. Only 12% reported that they always released venous stasis as soon as possible. Fewer PHC staff than clinical laboratory staff reported correct VBS practices. For example, 54% of the PHC staff reported that they always identified the patient by name and Swedish identification number, as compared with 95% of the clinical laboratory staff (P VBS routines and re-education in VBS were not clearly associated with reported correct VBS practices. In the surveyed PHCs, there are clinically important risks for misidentification of patients and erroneous test results, with consequences for the diagnosis and treatment of patients. Quality interventions, aimed at improving VBS practices, are needed to ensure patient safety.

  12. It’s More Than a Blood Test: Patients’ Perspectives on Noninvasive Prenatal Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth M. Farrell

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT offers pregnant women a new risk assessment tool for fetal aneuploidy that is superior to conventional screening tests. We conducted focus groups with women who were currently pregnant or had recently delivered in the past year to characterize their perspectives about NIPT and to explore factors they would consider during decision making about its use. Women identified accuracy, early timing, testing ease, and determination of fetal sex as advantages of NIPT over other screens, and the noninvasive method of NIPT as an advantage over diagnostic tests. False positive and false negative results, anxiety, cost and insurance coverage were seen as disadvantages of NIPT. Women who do not want fetal aneuploidy information most likely will not undergo NIPT, despite its advantages over other screening tests. However, given its advantages, the decision to have NIPT is straightforward for women who want genetic information about the fetus. Women emphasized the need to make autonomous, private, and informed choices about NIPT, as they would with any prenatal genetic testing option. These perspectives may guide clinicians to conduct effective and clinically relevant counseling with pregnant women who consider utilizing this new genetic technology.

  13. It's More Than a Blood Test: Patients' Perspectives on Noninvasive Prenatal Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Ruth M; Mercer, Mary Beth; Agatisa, Patricia K; Smith, Marissa B; Philipson, Elliot

    2014-06-19

    Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) offers pregnant women a new risk assessment tool for fetal aneuploidy that is superior to conventional screening tests. We conducted focus groups with women who were currently pregnant or had recently delivered in the past year to characterize their perspectives about NIPT and to explore factors they would consider during decision making about its use. Women identified accuracy, early timing, testing ease, and determination of fetal sex as advantages of NIPT over other screens, and the noninvasive method of NIPT as an advantage over diagnostic tests. False positive and false negative results, anxiety, cost and insurance coverage were seen as disadvantages of NIPT. Women who do not want fetal aneuploidy information most likely will not undergo NIPT, despite its advantages over other screening tests. However, given its advantages, the decision to have NIPT is straightforward for women who want genetic information about the fetus. Women emphasized the need to make autonomous, private, and informed choices about NIPT, as they would with any prenatal genetic testing option. These perspectives may guide clinicians to conduct effective and clinically relevant counseling with pregnant women who consider utilizing this new genetic technology.

  14. It’s More Than a Blood Test: Patients’ Perspectives on Noninvasive Prenatal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Ruth M.; Mercer, Mary Beth; Agatisa, Patricia K.; Smith, Marissa B.; Philipson, Elliot

    2014-01-01

    Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) offers pregnant women a new risk assessment tool for fetal aneuploidy that is superior to conventional screening tests. We conducted focus groups with women who were currently pregnant or had recently delivered in the past year to characterize their perspectives about NIPT and to explore factors they would consider during decision making about its use. Women identified accuracy, early timing, testing ease, and determination of fetal sex as advantages of NIPT over other screens, and the noninvasive method of NIPT as an advantage over diagnostic tests. False positive and false negative results, anxiety, cost and insurance coverage were seen as disadvantages of NIPT. Women who do not want fetal aneuploidy information most likely will not undergo NIPT, despite its advantages over other screening tests. However, given its advantages, the decision to have NIPT is straightforward for women who want genetic information about the fetus. Women emphasized the need to make autonomous, private, and informed choices about NIPT, as they would with any prenatal genetic testing option. These perspectives may guide clinicians to conduct effective and clinically relevant counseling with pregnant women who consider utilizing this new genetic technology. PMID:26237393

  15. Systolic Blood Pressure Response During Exercise Stress Testing: The Henry Ford ExercIse Testing (FIT) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Wesley T; Qureshi, Waqas T; Blaha, Michael J; Keteyian, Steven J; Brawner, Clinton A; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H

    2015-05-07

    The prognostic significance of modest elevations in exercise systolic blood pressure response has not been extensively examined. We examined the association between systolic blood pressure response and all-cause death and incident myocardial infarction (MI) in 44 089 (mean age 53±13 years, 45% female, 26% black) patients who underwent exercise treadmill stress testing from the Henry Ford ExercIse Testing (FIT) Project (1991-2010). Exercise systolic blood pressure response was examined as a categorical variable (>20 mm Hg: referent; 1 to 20 mm Hg, and ≤0 mm Hg) and per 1 SD decrease. Cox regression was used to compute hazard ratios (HR) and 95% CI for the association between systolic blood pressure response and all-cause death and incident MI. Over a median follow-up of 10 years, a total of 4782 (11%) deaths occurred and over 5.2 years, a total of 1188 (2.7%) MIs occurred. In a Cox regression analysis adjusted for demographics, physical fitness, and cardiovascular risk factors, an increased risk of death was observed with decreasing systolic blood pressure response (>20 mm Hg: HR=1.0, referent; 1 to 20 mm Hg: HR=1.13, 95% CI=1.05, 1.22; ≤0 mm Hg: HR=1.21, 95% CI=1.09, 1.34). A trend for increased MI risk was observed (>20 mm Hg: HR=1.0, referent; 1 to 20 mm Hg: HR=1.09, 95% CI=0.93, 1.27; ≤0 mm Hg: HR=1.19, 95% CI=0.95, 1.50). Decreases in systolic blood pressure response per 1 SD were associated with an increased risk for all-cause death (HR=1.08, 95% CI=1.05, 1.11) and incident MI (HR=1.09, 95% CI=1.03, 1.16). Our results suggest that modest increases in exercise systolic blood pressure response are associated with adverse outcomes. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  16. Screening for neurocognitive impairment in pediatric cancer long-term survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krull, Kevin R; Okcu, M Fatih; Potter, Brian; Jain, Neelam; Dreyer, ZoAnn; Kamdar, Kala; Brouwers, Pim

    2008-09-01

    Recent studies suggest that up to 40% of childhood cancer survivors may experience neurocognitive problems, a finding that has led the Children's Oncology Group to recommend regular evaluation. However, for a variety of reasons, including costs, time restraints, health insurance, and access to professional resources, these guidelines are often difficult to implement. We report reliability and validity data on a brief neurocognitive screening method that could be used to routinely screen patients in need of comprehensive follow-up. Two hundred forty consecutive patients were screened during their annual visits to a long-term survivor clinic using standard neurocognitive measures and brief parent rating. From this total, 48 patients had a second screening, and 52 patients had a comprehensive follow-up evaluation. Test-retest reliability and predictive and discriminative validity were examined. Good test-retest reliability was demonstrated, with an overall r = 0.72 and all individual subtest correlations greater than r = 0.40. Although means tended to improve from first to second testing, no significant changes were detected (all P > .10). The screen accurately predicted global intellect (F(6,45) = 11.81, P reading skills (F(6,45) = 4.74, P < .001), and mathematics (F(6,45) = 3.35, P < .008). Parent rating was a marginal indicator of global intellect only. The brief neurocognitive screening was a better predictor of child functioning than specific parent rating. This brief measure, which can be completed in 30 minutes, is a practical and reliable method to identify cancer survivors in need of further neurocognitive follow-up.

  17. Tolvaptan and Neurocognitive Function in Mild to Moderate Chronic Hyponatremia: A Randomized Trial (INSIGHT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbalis, Joseph G; Ellison, Howard; Hobart, Mary; Krasa, Holly; Ouyang, John; Czerwiec, Frank S

    2016-06-01

    This trial assessed the effect of tolvaptan on cognition, gait, and postural stability in adult patients with mild to moderate asymptomatic hyponatremia. Phase 3b, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group pilot study. 57 men and women 50 years or older with chronic asymptomatic euvolemic or hypervolemic hyponatremia (serum sodium concentration >120-tolvaptan or matching placebo beginning at a dose of 15mg/d, with titration to 30 or 60mg/d based on change in serum sodium concentration and tolerance. Primary: change from baseline in the neurocognitive composite score of speed domains. Secondary: changes from baseline in individual neurocognitive domain scores, overall neurocognitive composite score, gait and postural stability test results, and serum sodium concentrations. Mean serum sodium concentration increased from 129 to 136 mEq/L in the tolvaptan group and from 130 to 132 mEq/L in the placebo group (Ptolvaptan (treatment effect, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.04-0.51; P=0.03). There were some imbalances between treatment groups in baseline neurocognitive function scores and some baseline test results were near normal, leaving little opportunity for improvement. Formal sample size calculations were not performed because this was a pilot study. The study population was small (n=57) and treatment was of short duration (3 weeks). The primary end point of the study was not significant; thus, subgroup analyses are subject to errors of multiplicity and should be regarded as hypothesis generating. Tolvaptan was effective in reversing chronic hyponatremia, and this correlated with improvements in results of a variety of neurocognition tests, particularly rapid motor movements, which tended to reverse following return to a low baseline serum sodium concentration after treatment withdrawal. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Visible but Unseen? A Workplace Study of Blood-Test Icons on Electronic Emergency-Department Whiteboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torkilsheyggi, Arnvør Martinsdóttir á; Hertzum, Morten

    2015-01-01

    of its work with blood tests. We investigate this use of the whiteboard through observations and in-formal interviews in the ED and analyze the ability of the whiteboard to support coordination and awareness in the work with blood tests. Our findings show limitations in the ability of the whiteboard...... to support awareness in a setting where the users are (locally) mobile, specifically in regard to information that requires continuous monitoring. We do however also find that the whiteboard safeguarded the work with blood tests against some risks by making blood-test information socially visible...

  19. Routine blood tests are associated with short term mortality and can improve emergency department triage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Michael; Iversen, Anne Kristine Servais; Gerds, Thomas Alexander

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prioritization of acutely ill patients in the Emergency Department remains a challenge. We aimed to evaluate whether routine blood tests can predict mortality in unselected patients in an emergency department and to compare risk prediction with a formalized triage algorithm. METHODS...... registration. Multiple logistic regressions were used to predict 30-day mortality. Validation was performed by applying the regression models on the 2013 validation cohort. RESULTS: Thirty-day mortality was 5.3%. The routine blood tests had a significantly stronger discriminative value on 30-day mortality...... compared to the formalized triage (AUC 88.1 [85.7;90.5] vs. 63.4 [59.1;67.5], p tests was able to identify a larger number of low risk patients (n = 2100, 30-day mortality 0.1% [95% CI 0.0;0.3%]) compared to formalized triage (n = 1591, 2.8% [95% CI 2...

  20. Cell free fetal DNA testing in maternal blood of Romanian pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica E Radoi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The discovery of circulating fetal DNA in maternal blood led to the discovery of new strategies to perform noninvasive testing for prenatal diagnosis. Objective: The purpose of the study was to detect fetal aneuploidy at chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y by analysis of fetal cell-free DNA from maternal blood, without endangering pregnancy. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study has been performed in Bucharest at Medlife Maternal and Fetal Medicine Department between 2013-2014. In total 201 women were offered noninvasive prenatal test. Maternal plasma samples were collected from women at greater than 9 weeks of gestation after informed consent and genetics counseling. Results: From 201 patients; 28 (13.93% had screening test with high risk for trisomy 21, 116 (57.71% had advanced maternal age, 1 (0.49% had second trimester ultrasound markers and the remaining 56 patients (27.86% performed the test on request. Of those patients, 189 (94.02% had a “low risk” result (99% risk all for trisomy 21 (T21. T21 was confirmed by amniocentesis in 1 patient and the other 4 patients declined confirmation. The 7 remaining patients (3.48% had a low fetal fraction of DNA. Conclusion: It is probably that prenatal diagnosis using fetal DNA in maternal blood would play an increasingly role in the future practice of prenatal testing because of high accuracy.

  1. Exercise Modality Is Differentially Associated with Neurocognition in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Kai Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the effects of exercise modality and type of fitness index on cognitive function in the older adults as assessed via behavioral and neuroelectrical approaches. Sixty older adults were assigned to an aerobic exercise, a coordination exercise, or a control group based on their previous exercise experience. The participants completed congruent and incongruent trials of a modified Stroop Test, during which, event-related potentials were recorded. The participants also completed multiple physical tests that assessed health- and skill-related fitness. Our findings suggest that, in general, both aerobic and coordination exercise, as well as higher scores on health- and skill-related fitness indices, are positively associated with better performance of various cognitive functions in the elderly population. The mechanisms underlying these relationships may be differentially related to specific neuroelectrical processes involved in neurocognitive control.

  2. Early detection of Haemonchus contortus infection in sheep using three different faecal occult blood tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Rodríguez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Haemonchus contortus is a blood-sucking parasite causing the presence of faecal occult blood (FOB. The objective was to study three different FOB tests in order to have a new indicator of H. contortus infection in sheep that could be included in the genetic evaluation system as an alternative selection criterion to faecal worm egg count (FEC. A total of 29 Corriedale lambs were experimentally infected with 10.000 larvae of H. contortus. Stool samples were recorded for FEC and FOB tests (Hexagon, Hematest® and Multistix®, blood for packed cell volume (PCV, haemoglobin, white and red blood cell count (RBC, and FAMACHA© for scoring anaemia. At the end of the experiment lambs were slaughtered to worm burden count. Field infection was achieved in 309 Merino lambs under natural parasite challenge. FEC data were normalized through logarithmic transformation (LnFEC. Pearson correlation was estimated to examine the relationship between all traits. The three tests were able to detect the presence of FOB at day 11. FEC, PCV and RBC decreased to sub-normal values from day 18. FAMACHA© score 3 was considered to be indicative of anaemia. Most of the correlations were of high magnitude, with the exception of Multistix® test that was moderately correlated with haematological parameters, LnFEC and FEC. In field infection, most samples were negative to FOB tests and the correlations were lower than those calculated under experimental infection. In conclusion, FOB tests were able to detect haemonchosis earlier than FEC under high experimental parasite challenge. However, they were not able to detect FOB under natural mixed parasite challenge. FAMACHA© and PCV demonstrated to be good indicators of Haemonchosis, having moderate to high correlations with FEC.

  3. Early detection of Haemonchus contortus infection in sheep using three different faecal occult blood tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, A V; Goldberg, V; Viotti, H; Ciappesoni, G

    2015-01-01

    Haemonchus contortus is a blood-sucking parasite causing the presence of faecal occult blood (FOB). The objective was to study three different FOB tests in order to have a new indicator of H. contortus infection in sheep that could be included in the genetic evaluation system as an alternative selection criterion to faecal worm egg count (FEC). A total of 29 Corriedale lambs were experimentally infected with 10.000 larvae of H. contortus. Stool samples were recorded for FEC and FOB tests (Hexagon, Hematest(®) and Multistix(®)), blood for packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin, white and red blood cell count (RBC), and FAMACHA(©) for scoring anaemia. At the end of the experiment lambs were slaughtered to worm burden count. Field infection was achieved in 309 Merino lambs under natural parasite challenge. FEC data were normalized through logarithmic transformation (LnFEC). Pearson correlation was estimated to examine the relationship between all traits. The three tests were able to detect the presence of FOB at day 11. FEC, PCV and RBC decreased to sub-normal values from day 18. FAMACHA(©) score 3 was considered to be indicative of anaemia. Most of the correlations were of high magnitude, with the exception of Multistix(®) test that was moderately correlated with haematological parameters, LnFEC and FEC. In field infection, most samples were negative to FOB tests and the correlations were lower than those calculated under experimental infection. In conclusion, FOB tests were able to detect haemonchosis earlier than FEC under high experimental parasite challenge. However, they were not able to detect FOB under natural mixed parasite challenge. FAMACHA(©) and PCV demonstrated to be good indicators of Haemonchosis, having moderate to high correlations with FEC.

  4. Preoperative haemostasis testing does not predict requirement of blood products in cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prohaska, W; Zittermann, A; Inoue, K; Tenderich, G; Lüth, J-U; Köster-Eiserfunke, W; Körfer, R; Kleesiek, K

    2008-11-24

    Standard haemostasis screening tests are performed to reveal unknown congenital or acquired disturbances of plasma and/or platelet haemostasis. Since their diagnostic efficacy is often low, routinely performed haemostasis testing has been questioned. We investigated whether preoperatively assessed haemostasis testing can be used to predict the requirement of blood products. We retrospectively assessed haemostasis parameters including platelet function testing by PFA 100 as well as the numbers of red blood cell (RBC) concentrates, fresh frozen plasmas (FFPs), and platelet concentrates (PCs) that were given peri-operatively and during the first two postoperative days in 2,831 cardiac surgery patients. Logistic regression analyses were used to select those parameters, which could predict blood product requirement. Of our study cohort, 56.5% needed RBCs, 15% FFPs, and 5% PCs. The need for RBCs was associated with significantly altered pre-operative values of most haemostasis parameters. However, by the use of logistic regression analysis fibrinogen was the only haemostasis parameter that was independently associated with the use of RBCs (odds ratio 1.56; 95% CI: 1.27-1.91; P parameters such as age, body weight, haemoglobin, and haematocrit was however much higher in comparison to fibrinogen (odds ratios: 1.92-3.50; P parameters to accurately identify patients at risk for RBC use. Moreover, we were unable to estimate the need for FFPs and PCs using preoperative haemostasis testing. Our data demonstrate that preoperatively performed haemostasis testing is not predictive in estimating the need for blood products in cardiac surgery patients.

  5. Comparative Evaluation of Four Presumptive Tests for Blood to Detect Epithelial Injury on Fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colotelo, Alison HA; Smokorowski, Karen; Haxton, Tim; Cooke, Steven J.

    2014-06-01

    Current methods of fish epithelial injury detection are limited to gross macroscopic examination that has a subjective bias as well as an inability to reliably quantify the degree of injury. Fluorescein, a presumptive test for blood, has been shown to have the capability to detect and quantify fish epithelial injury. However, there are several other presumptive tests for blood (Bluestar*, phenolphthalein, and HemastixH) that may have benefits over the use of fluorescein, particularly for field research on wild fish. This study investigated the capabilities of these four tests to detect and quantify a variety of injuries commonly encountered by fish (abrasion, cuts, fin frays, and punctures) using the freshwater bluegill Lepomis macrochirus as a model. Fluorescein was consistently found to be the most reliable (i.e., detected the highest proportion of true positive results and rarely detected false positive reactions) of the four presumptive tests for blood compared. Further testing was conducted to examine the reliability of fluorescein. By 24 h after an injury was inflicted, the injury was no longer detectable by fluorescein, and when fluorescein was applied to an injured fish, the fluorescein was no longer detectable 3 h after application. In a comparison of two common anaesthetics used in fisheries research, there was no significant difference in the proportion of injury detected when 3- aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester methanesulfate (tricaine) was used compared with a clove oil and ethanol (1:9) solution. In summary, fluorescein was the most reliable presumptive test for blood examined in this study for the detection and quantification of recent (hours) fish epithelial injury.

  6. Physical Exercise And Cognitive Engagement Outcomes for Mild Neurocognitive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-14

    Mild Cognitive Impairment; Memory Disorders; Mild Dementia; Impaired Cognition; Mild Cognitive Disorder; Amnestic Disorder; Dementia and Amnestic Conditions; Poor Short-term Memory; Memory Impairment; Mild Neurocognitive Disorder

  7. Disposable glucose test strip for whole blood with integrated sensing/diffusion-limiting layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Zhencheng [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Fang Cheng, E-mail: fangpingchuan@163.co [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Wang Hongyan; He Jishan [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2009-12-30

    A disposable glucose test strip with an integrated sensing/diffusion-limiting layer was developed. A formulation containing filler, glucose oxidase and electronic mediator was screen-printed over two carbon electrodes to form an integrated sensing/diffusion-limiting layer. On rehydration, the integrated layer does not break up, but swells to form a gelled and three-dimensional meshy reaction zone on the surface of the underlying conductive elements in which reactants and mediator move freely, but interfering species such as red blood cells containing oxygenated hemoglobin are excluded. On the same time, the integrated layer maintains a rate of permeation of the analyte through it with a variation of less than 10% at temperatures ranging from 15 deg. C to 42 deg. C. This biosensor is substantially insensitive to interferents and essentially independent to relevant temperature, which provides a more reliable reading of actual blood glucose value in human whole blood.

  8. The Sympathetic Release Test: A Test Used to Assess Thermoregulation and Autonomic Control of Blood Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansey, E. A.; Roe, S. M.; Johnson, C. J.

    2014-01-01

    When a subject is heated, the stimulation of temperature-sensitive nerve endings in the skin, and the raising of the central body temperature, results in the reflex release of sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone in the skin of the extremities, causing a measurable temperature increase at the site of release. In the sympathetic release test, the…

  9. Evaluation of a PCR test for detection of treponema pallidum in swabs and blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, P A; Gressier, L; Dion, P L; Farhi, D; Benhaddou, N; Gerhardt, P; Morini, J P; Deleuze, J; Pantoja, C; Bianchi, A; Lassau, F; Avril, M F; Janier, M; Dupin, N

    2012-03-01

    Syphilis diagnosis is based on clinical observation, serological analysis, and dark-field microscopy (DFM) detection of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, the etiological agent of syphilis, in skin ulcers. We performed a nested PCR (nPCR) assay specifically amplifying the tpp47 gene of T. pallidum from swab and blood specimens. We studied a cohort of 294 patients with suspected syphilis and 35 healthy volunteers. Eighty-seven of the 294 patients had primary syphilis, 103 had secondary syphilis, 40 had latent syphilis, and 64 were found not to have syphilis. The T. pallidum nPCR results for swab specimens were highly concordant with syphilis diagnosis, with a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 95%. Reasonable agreement was observed between the results obtained with the nPCR and DFM methods (kappa = 0.53). No agreement was found between the nPCR detection of T. pallidum in blood and the diagnosis of syphilis, with sensitivities of 29, 18, 14.7, and 24% and specificities of 96, 92, 93, and 97% for peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC), plasma, serum, and whole-blood fractions, respectively. HIV status did not affect the frequency of T. pallidum detection in any of the specimens tested. Swab specimens from mucosal or skin lesions seemed to be more useful than blood for the efficient detection of the T. pallidum genome and, thus, for the diagnosis of syphilis.

  10. Assessing Neurocognition via Gamified Experimental Logic: A Novel Approach to Simultaneous Acquisition of Multiple ERPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ajay K; Sasidharan, Arun; John, John P; Mehrotra, Seema; Kutty, Bindu M

    2016-01-01

    The present study describes the development of a neurocognitive paradigm: "Assessing Neurocognition via Gamified Experimental Logic" (ANGEL), for performing the parametric evaluation of multiple neurocognitive functions simultaneously. ANGEL employs an audiovisual sensory motor design for the acquisition of multiple event related potentials (ERPs)-the C1, P50, MMN, N1, N170, P2, N2pc, LRP, P300, and ERN. The ANGEL paradigm allows assessment of 10 neurocognitive variables over the course of three "game" levels of increasing complexity ranging from simple passive observation to complex discrimination and response in the presence of multiple distractors. The paradigm allows assessment of several levels of rapid decision making: speeded up response vs. response-inhibition; responses to easy vs. difficult tasks; responses based on gestalt perception of clear vs. ambiguous stimuli; and finally, responses with set shifting during challenging tasks. The paradigm has been tested using 18 healthy participants from both sexes and the possibilities of varied data analyses have been presented in this paper. The ANGEL approach provides an ecologically valid assessment (as compared to existing tools) that quickly yields a very rich dataset and helps to assess multiple ERPs that can be studied extensively to assess cognitive functions in health and disease conditions.

  11. Assessing Neurocognition via Gamified Experimental Logic: A novel approach to simultaneous acquisition of multiple ERPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar eNair

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the development of a neurocognitive paradigm: ‘Assessing Neurocognition via Gamified Experimental Logic’ (ANGEL, for performing the parametric evaluation of multiple neurocognitive functions simultaneously. ANGEL employs an audiovisual sensory motor design for the acquisition of multiple event related potentials (ERPs - the C1, P50, MMN, N1, N170, P2, N2pc, LRP, P300 and ERN. The ANGEL paradigm allows assessment of ten neurocognitive variables over the course of three ‘game’ levels of increasing complexity ranging from simple passive observation to complex discrimination and response in the presence of multiple distractors. The paradigm allows assessment of several levels of rapid decision making: speeded up response vs response-inhibition; responses to easy vs difficult tasks; responses based on gestalt perception of clear vs ambiguous stimuli; and finally, responses with set shifting during challenging tasks. The paradigm has been tested using 18 healthy participants from both sexes and the possibilities of varied data analyses have been presented in this paper. The ANGEL approach provides an ecologically valid assessment (as compared to existing tools that quickly yields a very rich dataset and helps to assess multiple ERPs that can be studied extensively to assess cognitive functions in health and disease conditions.

  12. Diagnostic Value of Electrocardiogram in Predicting Exaggerated Blood Pressure Response to Exercise Stress Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshraghi, Ali; Ebdali, Reyhaneh Takalloo; Sajjadi, Seyed Sajed; Golnezhad, Reza

    2016-08-01

    It is believed that an exaggerated blood pressure response (EBPR) to exercise stress test is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular events. It is also assumed that QT dispersion (QT-d), which was originally proposed to measure the spatial dispersion of ventricular recovery times, may have a relationship to cardiovascular events. The objective of this study was to examine the difference of changes in QT-d, Maxi-QT, Mini-QT, and QT-c (corrected QT interval) of the electrocardiogram in two groups of patients with exaggerated blood pressure responses (EBPR group) and normal responses (control group) to exercise testing. Also, the diagnostic value of each of these criteria in the prediction of EBPR was studied. This cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2015 to February 2016 on patients suspected of coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing exercise testing who had been referred to Ghaem and Imam Reza hospitals in Mashhad (Iran). All patients underwent a treadmill exercise test with the 12-lead ECG, which was optically scanned and digitized for analysis of QT-d, QT max, and QT min. Patients were divided into two groups of normal and EBPR to exercise testing. QT changes of ECG were compared between the two groups, and the diagnostic accuracy of QT variables for prediction of EBPR to exercise testing was studied. A multiple linear regression analysis (MLR), Pearson Chi-qquare, independent samples t-test, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were used as statistical methods in IBM SPSS version 19. Sixty patients (55% male) with a mean age of 50.48 ± 10.89 years were studied in two groups of normal (n=30) and exaggerated blood pressure response (n=30) to exercise testing. Maximum QT and QT dispersion were statistically different in individuals' exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise stress test (p exercise testing. Also, a significant difference in maxi-QT and QT-d was observed between two groups of patients with normal and EBPR during

  13. Reducing Unnecessary Postoperative Complete Blood Count Testing in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Maya; Galvez, Jorge; Polsky, Tracey; Kreher, Genna; Kraus, Blair; Ahumada, Luis; Mccloskey, John; Wolfe, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Complete blood count (CBC) testing commonly occurs to determine the need for blood transfusions after surgical procedures. Many clinicians believe postoperative CBCs are "routine." To decrease unnecessary routine CBC testing in a low-risk cohort of postoperative patients in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia by 50% in 6 months. Quality-improvement study. Data from our institution regarding frequency of ordering laboratory studies and transfusion requirements were collected for prior quality-improvement work demonstrating the safety and feasibility of avoiding routine postoperative CBCs in this cohort. Baseline survey data were gathered from key stakeholders on attitudes about and utilization of routine postoperative laboratory testing. Patient and clinician data were shared with all PICU clinicians. Simple Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles involving education, audit, and feedback were put into place. Percentage of postoperative patients receiving CBCs within 48 hours of PICU admission. Balancing measures were hemoglobin level below 8 g/dL in patients for whom CBCs were sent and blood transfusions up to 7 days postoperatively for any patients in this cohort. Sustained decreases below our 50% goal were seen after our interventions. There were no hemoglobin results below 8 g/dL or surgery-related blood transfusions in this cohort within 7 days of surgery. Estimated hospital charges related to routine postoperative CBCs decreased by 87% during 6 postintervention months. A simple approach to a systemic problem in the PICU of unnecessary laboratory testing is feasible and effective. By using local historical data, we were able to identify a cohort of patients for whom routine postoperative CBC testing is unnecessary.

  14. Development of an Arm Phantom for Testing Non-Invasive Blood Pressure Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Jackson, LaTecia D.

    Approximately one in every three adults age 20 older are diagnosed with high blood pressure or hypertension. It is estimated that hypertension affects 78 million people in the United States, is equally prevalent in both men and woman (Crabtree, Stuart-Shor, & McAllister, 2013). In the United States, around 78% of people suffering from hypertension are aware of their condition, with only 68% using hypertensive medications to control their blood pressure (Writing Group et al., 2010). Clinically, blood pressure measurements may lack accuracy, which can be attributed to various factors, including device limitations, cuff mis-sizing and misplacement, white-coat effect, masked hypertension, and lifestyle factors. The development of an arm phantom to simulate physiologic properties of a human arm and arterial BP waveforms may allow us to better assess the accuracy of non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP) monitors. The objective of this study are to: (1) Develop an arm phantom to replicate physiological properties of the human arm, and (2) Incorporate the arm phantom into a mock circulatory flow loop to simulate different physiological blood pressure readings on the bench. A tissue mimicking material, styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene (SEBS), a co-block polymer was used to develop the arm phantom for in-vitro testing. To determine the optimal mechanical properties for the arm phantom, individual arm components were isolated and tested. A protocol was developed to evaluate various components for optimal arm phantom development. Mechanical testing was conducted on 10%, 15%, and 20% SEBS gel samples for modulus of elasticity measurements in order to simulate physiological properties of the human arm. As a result of the SEBS polymer being a new material for this application, this investigation will contribute to resolving the limitations that occurred during experimentation. In this study, we demonstrated that although SEBS polymer may be an ideal material to use for simulating

  15. International validation of pyrogen tests based on cryopreserved human primary blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Stefanie; Spreitzer, Ingo; Löschner, Bettina; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Hennes, Kilian; Halder, Marlies; Brügger, Peter; Frey, Esther; Hartung, Thomas; Montag, Thomas

    2006-10-20

    Pyrogens as fever-inducing agents can be a major health hazard in parenterally applied drugs. For the control of these contaminants, pyrogen testing for batch release is required by pharmacopoeias. This has been done either by the in vivo rabbit pyrogen test (since 1942) or the limulus amoebocyte lysate test (LAL), since 1976. New approaches include cell-based assays employing in vitro culture of human immune cells which respond e.g. by cytokine production (IL-1beta; IL-6) upon contact with pyrogens. Six variants of these assays have been validated in a collaborative international study. The recent successful development of cryopreservation methods promises to make standardized immunoreactive primary human blood cells available for widespread use. Furthermore, the pretesting of donors for infectious agents such as HIV or hepatitis has made it possible to develop a safe and standardised reagent for pyrogen testing. Using a total of 13 drugs, we have validated the pyrogen test based on fresh and cryopreserved human whole blood in four laboratories. The test reached >90% sensitivity and specificity. In contrast to the LAL, the test was capable of detecting non-endotoxin pyrogens derived from Gram-positive bacteria or fungi.

  16. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of positive blood culture isolates from briefly incubated solid medium cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballestero-Téllez, Mónica; Recacha, Esther; de Cueto, Marina; Pascual, Álvaro

    2017-11-01

    Mass spectrometry Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization Time-of-Flight (MALDI-TOF) helps in the rapid identification of microorganisms causing blood stream infection. Rapid and reliable methods are required to decrease the turnaround time for reporting antimicrobial susceptibility results from blood culture isolates. An evaluation was performed on the reliability of a method for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of positive blood culture isolates from briefly incubated solid medium cultures. The agreement between the evaluated and standard methods was 99.3%. The major and minor error rates were 0.4% and 0.3%, respectively, and no very major errors were observed. The inoculation of briefly incubated solid medium cultures into antimicrobial susceptibility testing panels is an easy and reliable technique, and helps to decrease the turnaround time for reporting antimicrobial susceptibility results of positive blood cultures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  17. Routine testing for blood-borne viruses in prisons: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumble, Caroline; Pevalin, David J; O'Moore, Éamonn

    2015-12-01

    People in prison have a higher burden of blood-borne virus (BBV) infection than the general population, and prisons present an opportunity to test for BBVs in high-risk, underserved groups. Changes to the BBV testing policies in English prisons have recently been piloted. This review will enable existing evidence to inform policy revisions. We describe components of routine HIV, hepatitis B and C virus testing policies in prisons and quantify testing acceptance, coverage, result notification and diagnosis. We searched five databases for studies of both opt-in (testing offered to all and the individual chooses to have the test or not) and opt-out (the individual is informed the test will be performed unless they actively refuse) prison BBV testing policies. Forty-four studies published between 1989 and 2013 met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 82% were conducted in the USA, 91% included HIV testing and most tested at the time of incarceration. HIV testing acceptance rates ranged from 22 to 98% and testing coverage from 3 to 90%. Mixed results were found for equity in uptake. Six studies reported reasons for declining a test including recent testing and fear. While the quality of evidence is mixed, this review suggests that reasonable rates of uptake can be achieved with opt-in and, even better, with opt-out HIV testing policies. Little evidence was found relating to hepatitis testing. Policies need to specify exclusion criteria and consider consent processes, type of test and timing of the testing offer to balance acceptability, competence and availability of individuals. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  18. Results of the analysis of the blood lymphocyte proliferation test data from the National Jewish Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    From, E.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Mathematical Sciences Section; Newman, L.S.; Mroz, M.M. [National Jewish Center for Immunology and Respiratory Medicine, Denver, CO (United States)

    1997-03-01

    A new approach to the analysis of the blood beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (LPT) was presented to the Committee to Accredit Beryllium Sensitization Testing-Beryllium Industry Scientific Advisory Committee in April, 1994. Two new outlier resistant methods were proposed for the analysis of the blood LPT and compared with the approach then in use by most labs. The National Jewish Center (NJC) agreed to provide data from a study that was underway at that time. Three groups of LPT data are considered: (1) a sample of 168 beryllium exposed (BE) workers and 20 nonexposed (NE) persons; (2) 25 unacceptable LPTs, and (3) 32 abnormal LPTs for individuals known to have chronic beryllium disease (CBD). The LAV method described in ORNL-6818 was applied to each LPT. Graphical and numerical summaries similar to those presented for the ORISE data are given. Three methods were used to identify abnormal LPTs. All three methods correctly identified the 32 known CBD cases as abnormal.

  19. Current Challenges Towards the Development of a Blood Test for Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A. Santiago

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’ disease (PD is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disease worldwide. To date, there is no disease-modifying agent, and current medical treatment only provides symptomatic benefits. Early diagnosis of PD would be useful in clinical practice to identify patients for clinical trials, test potential drugs and neuroprotective agents and track their therapeutic effect. Considerable progress has been made in the discovery and validation of diagnostic biomarkers for PD. In particular, blood-based biomarkers have shown promise in identifying PD patients in samples from independent clinical trials. Evaluation of these biomarkers in de novo patients and individuals at risk for PD remains a top priority. Here, we review the current advances and challenges toward the clinical translation of these biomarkers into a blood-based test for PD.

  20. [Detection of fetal nucleated red blood cells in the maternal circulation by Kleihauer test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Yu; Jin, Chun-Lian; Liu, Li-Ying; Lin, Chang-Kun; Wang, Yan; Sun, Kai-Lai

    2007-03-01

    Maternal blood was obtained from 18 pregnant women at 7 to 25 weeks of gestation. After Percoll discontinuous density gradient centifugation, the fetal nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) were stained with Kleihauer test. Positive fetal cells appeared with an intense red cytoplasmic staining while maternal cells with adult haemoglobin were colourless. Individual positive NRBC was collected by micromanipulator and whole genome amplification was then performed to determine sex and STR status. This allowed the simultaneous verification of the fetal origin of NRBC and prenatal diagnosis of genetic diseases. The non-invasive prenatal genetic diagnosis of 9 fetuses at high risk of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) was completed successfully. The Kleihauer test is a rapid, simple and direct chemical staining method to select fetal cells and can be applied in prenatal diagnosis.

  1. Correlation of neurocognitive function and brain parenchyma volumes in children surviving cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddick, Wilburn E.; White, Holly A.; Glass, John O.; Mulhern, Raymond K.

    2002-04-01

    This research builds on our hypothesis that white matter damage and associated neurocognitive symptoms, in children treated for cancer with cranial spinal irradiation, spans a continuum of severity that can be reliably probed using non-invasive MR technology. Quantitative volumetric assessments of MR imaging and psychological assessments were obtained in 40 long-term survivors of malignant brain tumors treated with cranial irradiation. Neurocognitive assessments included a test of intellect (Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), attention (Conner's Continuous Performance Test), and memory (California Verbal Learning Test). One-sample t-tests were conducted to evaluate test performance of survivors against age-adjusted scores from the test norms; these analyses revealed significant impairments in all apriori selected measures of intelligence, attention, and memory. Partial correlation analyses were performed to assess the relationships between brain tissues volumes (normal appearing white matter (NAWM), gray matter, and CSF) and neurocognitive function. Global intelligence (r = 0.32, p = 0.05) and global attentional (r = 0.49, p < 0.01) were significantly positively correlated with NAWM volumes, whereas global memory was significantly positively correlated with overall brain parenchyma (r = 0.38, p = 0.04). We conclude that quantitative assessment of MR examinations in survivors of childhood cancer treated with cranial irradiation reveal that loss of NAWM is associated with decreased intellectual and attentional deficits, whereas overall parenchyma loss, as reflected by increased CSF and decreased white matter, is associated with memory-related deficits.

  2. Development, validation and applications of the monocyte activation test for pyrogens based on human whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Stefanie; von Aulock, Sonja; Daneshian, Mardas; Hartung, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Microorganisms such as Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria, viruses and fungi contain components that activate the innate immune system. These components, called pyrogens (Greek: pyros=fire), can occur independently of viable microorganisms and are a major safety concern in parenterally administered drugs, since they can cause severe reactions such as fever, organ failure, and shock in the recipient. So far these drugs have been tested by injecting them intravenously into rabbits and measuring their fever reaction or, alternatively, by the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate (LAL) test, employing the coagulation of the hemolymph lysate of Limulus polyphemus. Both tests have inherent limitations. A new in vitro monocyte activation test (MAT) based on human whole blood, capable of measuring all pyrogens relevant to the human patient, introduced in this journal in 1995, was validated and recently accepted by European Pharmacopoeia and US FDA. This review describes its principle, development, validation and the wide spectrum of applications, such as for testing of medical devices, blood products, toxic or immunomodulatory drugs, dialysis liquids, lipidic parenterals, and air quality. This alternative method promises to replace the rabbit pyrogen test fully and to overcome several limitations of the LAL assay.

  3. Perspectives on neurocognitive rehabilitation as an adjunct treatment for addictive disorders: From cognitive improvement to relapse prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezapour, Tara; DeVito, Elise E; Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Ekhtiari, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Addiction, as a brain disorder, can be defined with two distinct but interacting components: drug dependency and neurocognitive deficits. Most of the therapeutic interventions in addiction medicine, including pharmacological or psychosocial therapies, that are in clinical use have been mainly focused on directly addressing addictive behaviors, especially drug use and urges to use drugs. In the field of addiction treatment, it is often presumed that drug users' neurocognitive deficits will reverse following abstinence. However, in many cases, neurocognitive deficits are not fully ameliorated following sustained abstinence, and neurocognitive function may further deteriorate in early abstinence. It can be argued that many cognitive functions, such as sustained attention and executive control, are essential for full recovery and long-term abstinence from addiction. Recent advances in cognitive neuroscience have provided scientific foundations for neurocognitive rehabilitation as a means of facilitating recovery from drug addiction. Neurocognitive rehabilitation for drug addicted individuals could be implemented as part of addiction treatment, with highly flexible delivery methods including traditional "paper and pencil" testing, or computer-based technology via laptops, web-based, or smartphones in inpatient and outpatient settings. Despite this promise, there has been limited research into the potential efficacy of neurocognitive rehabilitation as a treatment for drug addiction. Further, many questions including the optimum treatment length, session duration, and necessary treatment adherence for treatment efficacy remain to be addressed. In this chapter, we first introduce cognitive rehabilitation as one of the potential areas to bridge the gap between cognitive neuroscience and addiction medicine, followed by an overview of current challenges and future directions. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Correlations between physical activity and neurocognitive domain functions in patients with schizophrenia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurebayashi, Yusuke; Otaki, Junichi

    2017-01-05

    Neurocognitive dysfunction is a critical target symptom of schizophrenia treatment. A positive correlation between physical activity level and neurocognitive function has been reported in healthy individuals, but it is unclear whether such a correlation exists in patients with schizophrenia and whether the relationship is different according to inpatients or outpatients. This study aimed to examine the differences in the correlations between physical activity and multiple neurocognitive domains in inpatients and outpatients with schizophrenia and obtain suggestions for further study to facilitate this field. Twenty-nine patients with schizophrenia were examined (16 inpatients and 13 outpatients, 56.0 ± 11.4 years of age). Current symptoms were assessed using the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale and neurocognitive functions using Cognitrax, which yields a composite neurocognitive index (NCI) and 11 domain scores. After testing, participants wore an HJA-750C accelerometer for one week to measure physical activity levels and durations. Partial correlation analyses were performed between exercise and cognitive parameters. In the outpatient group, higher physical activity was associated with faster Motor and Psychomotor Speeds in outpatients. However, higher physical activity was associated with lower overall NCI, Attention score, and Memory scores in inpatients. Although higher physical activity was associated with better neurocognitive functions of outpatients, in inpatients with non-remitted schizophrenia, higher physical activity was associated with worsening of several cognitive domains. In a future study examining the relationship between physical activity and neurocognitive function for facilitating this research field, separation between inpatients and outpatients are needed because the relationship is different between inpatients and outpatients.

  5. The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study-Neurocognitive Questionnaire (CCSS-NCQ) Revised: Item Response Analysis and Concurrent Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenzik, Kelly M.; Huang, I-Chan; Brinkman, Tara M.; Baughman, Brandon; Ness, Kirsten K.; Shenkman, Elizabeth A.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Robison, Leslie L.; Krull, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Childhood cancer survivors are at risk for neurocognitive impairment related to cancer diagnosis or treatment. This study refined and further validated the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study Neurocognitive Questionnaire (CCSS-NCQ), a scale developed to screen for impairment in long-term survivors of childhood cancer. Method Items related to task efficiency, memory, organization and emotional regulation domains were examined using item response theory (IRT). Data were collected from 833 adult survivors of childhood cancer in the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study who completed self-report and direct neurocognitive testing. The revision process included: 1) content validity mapping of items to domains, 2) constructing a revised CCSS-NCQ, 3) selecting items within specific domains using IRT, and 4) evaluating concordance between the revised CCSS-NCQ and direct neurocognitive assessment. Results Using content and measurement properties, 32 items were retained (8 items in 4 domains). Items captured low to middle levels of neurocognitive concerns. The latent domain scores demonstrated poor convergent/divergent validity with the direct assessments. Adjusted effect sizes (Cohen's d) for agreement between self-reported memory and direct memory assessment were moderate for total recall (ES=0.66), long-term memory (ES=0.63), and short-term memory (ES=0.55). Effect sizes between self-rated task efficiency and direct assessment of attention were moderate for focused attention (ES=0.70) and attention span (ES=0.50), but small for sustained attention (ES=0.36). Cranial radiation therapy and female gender were associated with lower self-reported neurocognitive function. Conclusion The revised CCSS-NCQ demonstrates adequate measurement properties for assessing day-to-day neurocognitive concerns in childhood cancer survivors, and adds useful information to direct assessment. PMID:24933482

  6. Does True Neurocognitive Dysfunction Contribute to Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2nd Edition-Restructured Form Cognitive Validity Scale Scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Phillip K; Schroeder, Ryan W; Heinrichs, Robin J; Baade, Lyle E

    2015-08-01

    Previous research has demonstrated RBS and FBS-r to identify non-credible reporters of cognitive symptoms, but the extent that these scales might be influenced by true neurocognitive dysfunction has not been previously studied. The present study examined the relationship between these cognitive validity scales and neurocognitive performance across seven domains of cognitive functioning, both before and after controlling for PVT status in 120 individuals referred for neuropsychological evaluations. Variance in RBS, but not FBS-r, was significantly accounted for by neurocognitive test performance across most cognitive domains. After controlling for PVT status, however, relationships between neurocognitive test performance and validity scales were no longer significant for RBS, and remained non-significant for FBS-r. Additionally, PVT failure accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in both RBS and FBS-r. Results support both the convergent and discriminant validity of RBS and FBS-r. As neither scale was impacted by true neurocognitive dysfunction, these findings provide further support for the use of RBS and FBS-r in neuropsychological evaluations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. New method for rapid Susceptibility Testing on blood culture with HB&L system: preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Rondinelli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood culture, although represents the gold standard in detecting the ethiological agent of sepsis, is rather rarely required in relation to the real diagnostic importance. The result of this test depends in fact on many factors (sample volume, time of collection, accuracy, antibiotic therapy, contamination, number of drawings, drawing site, interpretation difficulties, etc. that are often considered by many clinicians so limited as to doubt about their actual value. The disadvantages are therefore represented by the lack of standardization but also by the low sensitivity and above all by the technical times too long for the clinical needs. Blood culture begins with the drawing of samples from the “septic” patient followed incubation of the bottles in automatic thermostated systems. In case of positive result (36 hours, the culture is Gram stained and streaked on solid media in order to obtain isolated colonies for the identification and the susceptibility testing (48 hours from positive result. The long time required for pathogen identification and susceptibility testing involves empirical broad spectrum antibiotic therapy that can promote the increase of bacterial resistance but also patient management costs. A clinically useful report should be available on short notice in order to guide the clinician to choose the most appropriate antibiotic. The microbiologist has therefore the hard work of reviewing the organization and the management of the procedures.We have therefore started to consider the possibility of treating the blood as an biological liquid in order to quickly determine the susceptibility of bacteria to antibiotics.

  8. Effectiveness of saliva and fingerprints as alternative specimens to urine and blood in forensic drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwayama, Kenji; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Yamamuro, Tadashi; Tsujikawa, Kenji; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Iwata, Yuko T; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    In forensic drug testing, it is important to immediately take biological specimens from suspects and victims to prove their drug intake. We evaluated the effectiveness of saliva and fingerprints as alternative specimens to urine and blood in terms of ease of sampling, drug detection sensitivity, and drug detection periods for each specimen type. After four commercially available pharmaceutical products were administered to healthy subjects, each in a single dose, their urine, blood, saliva, and fingerprints were taken at predetermined sampling times over approximately four weeks. Fourteen analytes (the administered drugs and their main metabolites) were extracted from each specimen using simple pretreatments, such as dilution and deproteinization, and were analyzed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Most of the analytes were detected in saliva and fingerprints, as well as in urine and blood. The time-courses of drug concentrations were similar between urine and fingerprints, and between blood and saliva. Compared to the other compounds, the acidic compounds, for example ibuprofen, acetylsalicylic acid, were more difficult to detect in all specimens. Acetaminophen, dihydrocodeine, and methylephedrine were detected in fingerprints at later sampling times than in urine. However, a relationship between the drug structures and their detection periods in each specimen was not found. Saliva and fingerprints could be easily sampled on site without using special techniques or facilities. In addition, fingerprints could be immediately analyzed after simple and rapid treatment. In cases where it would be difficult to immediately obtain urine and blood, saliva and fingerprints could be effective alternative specimens for drug testing. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Neurocognitive Correlates of Apathy and Anxiety in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena Bogdanova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is associated with various nonmotor symptoms including neuropsychiatric and cognitive dysfunction. We examined the relation between apathy, anxiety, side of onset of motor symptoms, and cognition in PD. We hypothesized that PD patients would show different neuropsychiatric and neurocognitive profiles depending on the side of onset. 22 nondemented PD patients (11 right-side onset (RPD with predominant left-hemisphere pathology, and 11 LPD and 22 matched healthy controls (NC were administered rating scales assessing apathy and anxiety, and a series of neuropsychological tests. PD patients showed a higher anxiety level than NC. There was a significant association between apathy, anxiety, and disease duration. In LPD, apathy but not anxiety was associated with performance on nonverbally mediated executive function and visuospatial measures, whereas, in RPD, anxiety but not apathy correlated with performance on verbally mediated tasks. Our findings demonstrated a differential association of apathy and anxiety to cognition in PD.

  10. Dairy constituents and neurocognitive health in ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camfield, David A; Owen, Lauren; Scholey, Andrew B; Pipingas, Andrew; Stough, Con

    2011-07-01

    Age-related cognitive decline (ARCD) and dementia are of increasing concern to an ageing population. In recent years, there has been considerable research focused on effective dietary interventions that may prevent or ameliorate ARCD and dementia. While a number of studies have considered the impact that dairy products may have on physiological health, particularly with regard to the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular health, further research is currently needed in order to establish the impact that dairy products have in the promotion of healthy brain function during ageing. The present review considers the available evidence for the positive effects of dairy products on the metabolic syndrome and glucose regulation, with consideration of the implications for neurocognitive health. A literature search of current (September 2010) meta-analyses/reviews and original research regarding dairy products and cognition was conducted through SCOPUS using the following search terms for dairy consituents: dairy, milk, cheese, yoghurt, probiotics, whey protein, alpha lactalbumin, calcium, B-12, bioactive peptides and colostrinin (CLN). These search terms for dairy products were combined with the following search terms related to cognition and health: cognition, cognitive decline, dementia, Alzheimer's disease, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, insulin resistance and glucose regulation. Concerns regarding SFA and other fatty acids found in dairy products are also reviewed in relation to different forms of dairy products. The review also considers recent evidence for positive neurocognitive effects associated with bioactive peptides, CLN and proline-rich polypeptides, α-lactalbumin, vitamin B12, calcium and probiotics. Future directions for the extraction and purification of beneficial constituents are also discussed. It is concluded that low-fat dairy products, when consumed regularly as part of a balanced diet, may have a number of beneficial outcomes for neurocognitive health

  11. Impact of epidemic rates of diabetes on the Chinese blood glucose testing market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jamie; Zhang, Xian-En

    2011-09-01

    China has become the country with the largest diabetes mellitus population in the world since the 1990s. About 100 million diabetes cases have been diagnosed since 2008. Handheld blood glucose meters and test strips are urgently needed for daily patient measurement. The glucose monitor with a screen-printed carbon-based glucose electrode has been in commercial production since 1994. Since then, approximately 20 companies have been involved in manufacturing and marketing meters and test strips in China. The current market and production volume and updates on technology issues are discussed in this article. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  12. JP8 exposure and neurocognitive performance among US Air Force personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Kristin J; Maule, Alexis L; Smith, Kristen W; Rodrigues, Ema G; McClean, Michael D; Proctor, Susan P

    2017-09-01

    Petroleum-based fuels such as jet propellant (JP) 4, JP5, JP8, and jet A1 (JetA) are among the most common occupational chemical exposures encountered by military and civilian workforces. Although acute toxicity following high-level exposures to JP8 and similar chemical mixtures has been reported, the relationship between persistent low-level occupational exposures to jet fuels and both acute and longer-term central nervous system (CNS) function has been comparatively less well characterized. This paper describes results of neurocognitive assessments acquired repeatedly across a work week study design (Friday to Friday) as part of the Occupational JP8 Exposure Neuroepidemiology Study (OJENES) involving U.S. Air Force (AF) personnel with varying levels of exposure to jet fuel (JP8). JP8 exposure levels were quantified using both personal air monitoring and urinary biomarkers of exposure. Neurocognitive performance was evaluated using an objective, standardized battery of tests. No significant associations with neurocognitive performances were observed between individuals having regular contact and those with minimal/no direct contact with JP8 (measured by average work week levels of personal breathing zone exposure). Also, no significant findings were noted between repeated measures of absorbed dose (multi-day pre-shift urinary 1- and 2-naphthol) and reduced proficiency on neurocognitive tasks across the work week. Results suggest that occupational exposure to lower (than regulated standards) levels of JP8 do not appear to be associated with acute, measurable differences or changes in neurocognitive performance. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Lifestyle and Neurocognition in Older Adults With Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, James A; Smith, Patrick J; Mabe, Stephanie; Hinderliter, Alan; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen; Browndyke, Jeffrey N; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Kraus, William; Doraiswamy, P Murali; Burke, James; Sherwood, Andrew

    The aim of the study was to determine the relationship of lifestyle factors and neurocognitive functioning in older adults with vascular risk factors and cognitive impairment, no dementia (CIND). One hundred sixty adults (M [SD] = 65.4 [6.8] years) with CIND completed neurocognitive assessments of executive function, processing speed, and memory. Objective measures of physical activity using accelerometry, aerobic capacity determined by exercise testing, and dietary habits quantified by the Food Frequency Questionnaire and 4-Day Food Diary to assess adherence to the Mediterranean and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diets were obtained to assess direct effects with neurocognition. Potential indirect associations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and the Framingham Stroke Risk Profile also were examined. Greater aerobic capacity (β = 0.24) and daily physical activity (β = 0.15) were associated with better executive functioning/processing speed and verbal memory (βs = 0.24; 0.16). Adherence to the DASH diet was associated with better verbal memory (β = 0.17). Greater high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (βs = -0.14; -0.21) and Framingham Stroke Risk Profile (β = -0.18; -0.18) were associated with poorer executive functioning/processing speed and verbal memory. Greater stroke risk partially mediated the association of aerobic capacity with executive functioning/processing speed, and verbal memory and greater inflammation partially mediated the association of physical activity and aerobic fitness, with verbal memory. Higher levels of physical activity, aerobic fitness, and adherence to the DASH diet are associated with better neurocognitive performance in adults with CIND. These findings suggest that the adoption of healthy lifestyle habits could reduce the risk of neurocognitive decline in vulnerable older adults. NCT01573546.

  14. Characterization of neurophysiologic and neurocognitive biomarkers for use in genomic and clinical outcome studies of schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A Light

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endophenotypes are quantitative, laboratory-based measures representing intermediate links in the pathways between genetic variation and the clinical expression of a disorder. Ideal endophenotypes exhibit deficits in patients, are stable over time and across shifts in psychopathology, and are suitable for repeat testing. Unfortunately, many leading candidate endophenotypes in schizophrenia have not been fully characterized simultaneously in large cohorts of patients and controls across these properties. The objectives of this study were to characterize the extent to which widely-used neurophysiological and neurocognitive endophenotypes are: 1 associated with schizophrenia, 2 stable over time, independent of state-related changes, and 3 free of potential practice/maturation or differential attrition effects in schizophrenia patients (SZ and nonpsychiatric comparison subjects (NCS. Stability of clinical and functional measures was also assessed. METHODS: Participants (SZ n = 341; NCS n = 205 completed a battery of neurophysiological (MMN, P3a, P50 and N100 indices, PPI, startle habituation, antisaccade, neurocognitive (WRAT-3 Reading, LNS-forward, LNS-reorder, WCST-64, CVLT-II. In addition, patients were rated on clinical symptom severity as well as functional capacity and status measures (GAF, UPSA, SOF. 223 subjects (SZ n = 163; NCS n = 58 returned for retesting after 1 year. RESULTS: Most neurophysiological and neurocognitive measures exhibited medium-to-large deficits in schizophrenia, moderate-to-substantial stability across the retest interval, and were independent of fluctuations in clinical status. Clinical symptoms and functional measures also exhibited substantial stability. A Longitudinal Endophenotype Ranking System (LERS was created to rank neurophysiological and neurocognitive biomarkers according to their effect sizes across endophenotype criteria. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of neurophysiological and

  15. Factor Analysis of an Expanded Halstead-Reitan Battery and the Structure of Neurocognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patt, Virginie M; Brown, Gregory G; Thomas, Michael L; Roesch, Scott C; Taylor, Michael J; Heaton, Robert K

    2017-05-13

    -used neuropsychological tests and may represent the structure of neurocognition.

  16. Poor sleep and neurocognitive function in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuula, Liisa; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Martikainen, Silja; Kajantie, Eero; Lahti, Jari; Strandberg, Timo; Tuovinen, Soile; Heinonen, Kati; Pyhälä, Riikka; Lahti, Marius; Räikkönen, Katri

    2015-10-01

    Evidence regarding the associations between sleep duration and quality, and neurocognitive function in adolescents remains scanty. This study examined the associations in early adolescence between: sleep duration; efficiency; fragmentation; wake-after-sleep-onset (WASO); catch-up sleep; intelligence; memory; and executive function, including attention. This study included 354 girls and boys with a mean age 12.3 years (SD = 0.5) from a birth cohort born in 1998. Sleep was measured with accelerometers for an average of eight nights. Cognitive function was evaluated with subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III (WISC-III), the Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment 2 (NEPSY-2), the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST), Conners' Continuous Performance Task (CPT), and the Trail Making Test (TMT). In girls, a higher WASO and fragmentation index were associated with poorer executive functioning (higher number of perseverative errors in the WCST), and longer catch-up sleep was associated with longer reaction times and better performance in one verbal intelligence test (Similarities subtest of the WISC-III). In boys, shorter sleep duration, lower efficiency, higher WASO, higher sleep fragmentation and shorter catch-up sleep were associated with lower executive functioning (more commission errors, shorter reaction times, and had lower D Prime scores in CPT). In adolescent girls, poorer sleep quality was only weakly associated with poorer executive functioning, while in boys, poorer sleep quantity and quality were associated with an inattentive pattern of executive functioning. The amount of catch-up sleep during weekends showed mixed patterns in relation to neurocognitive function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Is there a preference for different ways of performing faecal occult blood tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettner, J D; Whatrup, C; Verne, J E; Young, K; Williams, C B; Northover, J M

    1990-05-01

    Low compliance with faecal occult blood screening reduces the power of clinical trials, potential benefit, and efficiency. It has been proposed that the faecal manipulation required to perform conventional guaiac based tests may be an important factor in low compliance. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether use of a new method (vehicle) of stool collection for the faecal occult blood guaiac test would be preferred to the established standard. A novel self-interpreted test, Early Detector (ED), requires the subject to apply a guaiac/peroxide spray to a stool sample collected simply by wiping the anus with a specimen pad. To determine whether this method would be preferred to the stool manipulation required by Haemoccult (HO) and to compare test validity, employees at a London company were invited to use both tests. Eight-hundred and fifty-seven subjects were shown both tests. Before use, 48% indicated a preference for the method of Early Detector; 24% chose Haemoccult (p less than 0.001), while 28% indicated no immediate preference. Seven-hundred and one performed both tests. After use, 74% preferred ED; 5% preferred HO (p less than 0.001); 21% had no preference (NP). The preference for the ED test method was consistent by sex categories, age groups and occupational class. Logistics, aesthetics, and immediacy of results were the main reasons indicated for choosing ED. Whether the preference for ED could result in higher compliance remains to be proven. Its high positivity (14%), however, would preclude its use as a sole test to determine the need for endoscopic and/or radiologic investigation in the screened patient.

  18. Neurocognitive Functioning in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinvall, Outi; Voutilainen, Arja; Kujala, Teija; Korkman, Marit

    2013-01-01

    There is a paucity of research studying comprehensive neurocognitive profiles of adolescents with higher functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study compared the neurocognitive profiles of higher functioning adolescents with ASD (n = 30, mean age 13.5) with that of typically developing adolescents (n = 30; mean age 13.7). Adolescents…

  19. The nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test and white blood cell count in acute throat infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkstén, B; Ekstrand, T; Gothefors, L; Ostberg, Y

    1975-01-01

    The clinical value of the NBT test and of leucocyte counts in the aetiological differentiation of acute throat infections was investigated. In our hands a frequency of less than 13% NBT positive neutrophils is considered as normal and a test value above 19% as "positive", i.e. indicating a bacterial infection. More than 19% or more than 1 800 NBT positive neutrophils per mm-3 blood were found in 10 of 18 patients with an infection caused by beta-haemolytic streptococci, in 1 of 2 patients with a Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection and in 1 patient with both a streptococcal and mycoplasmal infection, but in none of 19 patients with a viral infection. Since 8 of 18 patients with streptococcal throat infection had normal NBT test results, the NBT test apparently is of limited value in the early recognition of these infections. A high NBT test value would however support the diagnosis. The white blood cell and neutrophil counts were of little value in the differentiation between streptococcal and viral throat infection.

  20. The determination of phenazone in blood plasma for obtained sistem suitable test of monitoring drug level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Lazuardi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The determining of Phenazone to human blood plasma from healthy man after separated by solid phase extraction (SPE and spectroscopic measurements has been investigated. The objective of that research was to obtain system suitable test for determine the Phenazone level in biological fluids (human blood plasma, for new performed dosage regimented in clinical dentistry. The method can be divided into the following four steps. 1. Centrifugation the blood sample, 2. Extraction from blood plasma and, 3. Separation by SPE with manual pressured, 4. Elution to SPE followed by the measurement on a spectrophotometer in the ultra violet region. The critical value of  │t │at the 5% confidence level indicates that there is no systematic error in the linearity proposed method. Recoveries for this research were obtained at ranging 93.460 to 95.598%. The coefficient variation precision of this procedure was clearly good at smallest than 2%. The analytical procedure can be carried out in one working operation as a monitored therapeutic activity.

  1. [Positive Distribution Rate of Coombs Test in Patients with Clinical Anemia and Blood Transfusion and Its Effect on Clinical Blood Transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gang; Duan, Yu-Han

    2018-02-01

    To study the positive distribution rate of Coombs test in patients with clinical anemia and blood transfusion, and its effect on clinical blood transfusion. Seventy patients with hemoglobin level in the normal range were enrolled into control group, while 130 patients with anemia or blood transfusion who' s hemoglobin level was lower comfirmed by micro-column gel antihuman globin detection card and 70 surgical patients with anemia or blood transfusion who' s hemoglobin level was lower comfirmed by micro-column gel anti-human globin card were enrolled into anemia or blood transfusion (A or BT) group. And coomb' s test performed for all the patients, in which the positive patients in Department of Internal Medicine need to be re-typed. Among 70 surgical patients with anemia or blood transfusion, 14 cases were directly detected to be anti-human globine positive with detection rate 20%; among 130 internal medicine patients with anemia or blood transfusion, 54 cases were directly detected to be anti-human globine positive with detection rate 41.4%. Among 270 cases, the highest positive rate (66.7%) was observed in patients with 50-59 g/L of hemoglobin. According to type test, the samples of 54 patients with anemia in Department of Internal Medicine, who were directly selected to be anti-human globin positive, could be divided into anti-C3d(7 cases, accounting for 13.0%), anti-IgG(12 cases accounting for, 22.2%) and anti-C3d+anti-IgG(35 cases, accounting for 64.8%), while according to diseases, the anti-human globin positive ratio was high in tumor cancer, hephropathy and gastroenteropathy patients, and patients in intensive care unit, moreover the blood transfusion frequency of these patients was higher than that of patients with anti-human globin negative(Pblood transfusion, so as to ensure the effectiveness of blood transfusion.

  2. Neurocognitive decline in Alexander disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, June; Bernardin, Linda; Hammeke, Thomas

    2011-10-01

    Alexander disease is a neurological condition associated with prominent white matter deterioration. Its rarity and relatively rapid disease course have provided limited understanding into the cognitive effects of the illness. We report the serial neuropsychological findings of a 21-year-old with normal development and no medical history until age 9, when he experienced refractory sinusitis, stabbing headaches with vertigo, disorientation, and decline in academic and social settings. An MRI scan of the brain found acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis, with a preponderance of white matter degeneration in the bilateral frontal lobes. Interval MRIs showed continued degeneration. Confirmation of Alexander disease was made at age 20 through genetic testing. Four evaluations completed from ages 15 to 21 showed impairment across all cognitive domains. Cognitive deficits were most prominent in new learning and recent memory, executive functions, and fine motor dexterity, and less apparent in information processing and visual scanning speed. These results present evidence for a particular cognitive pattern in individuals with juvenile-onset Alexander disease. Despite extensive white matter degeneration in the frontal lobes, certain tasks associated with frontal lobe integrity were relatively preserved. Further research into the neuropsychological presentation of the subtypes of Alexander disease can enhance diagnostic clarity and treatment planning.

  3. Orthostatic blood pressure test for risk stratification in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Münch

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM is the most common cause of sudden cardiac death (SCD in young adults, mainly ascribed to ventricular tachycardia (VT. Assuming that VT is the major cause of (pre- syncope in HCM patients, its occurrence is essential for SCD risk stratification and primarily preventive ICD-implantation. However, evidence of VT during syncope is often missing. As the differentiation of potential lethal causes for syncope such as VT from more harmless reasons is crucial, HCM patients were screened for orthostatic dysregulation by using a simple orthostatic blood pressure test.Over 15 months (IQR [9;20] 100 HCM patients (55.8±16.2 yrs, 61% male were evaluated for (pre-syncope and VT (24h-ECGs, device-memories within the last five years. Eighty patients underwent an orthostatic blood pressure test. Logistic regression models were used for statistical analysis.In older patients (>40 yrs a positive orthostatic test result increased the chance of (pre- syncope by a factor of 63 (95%-CI [8.8; 447.9], p<0.001; 93% sensitivity, 95%-CI [76; 99]; 74% specificity, 95%-CI [58; 86]. No correlation with VT was shown. A prolonged QTc interval also increased the chance of (pre- syncope by a factor of 6.6 (95%-CI [2.0; 21.7]; p=0.002.The orthostatic blood pressure test is highly valuable for evaluation of syncope and presyncope especially in older HCM patients, suggesting that orthostatic syncope might be more relevant than previously assumed. Considering the high complication rates due to ICD therapies, this test may provide useful information for the evaluation of syncope in individual risk stratification and may help to prevent unnecessary device implantations, especially in older HCM patients.

  4. Sensitive KIT D816V mutation analysis of blood as a diagnostic test in mastocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielsgaard Kristensen, Thomas; Vestergaard, Hanne; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    The recent progress in sensitive KIT D816V mutation analysis suggests that mutation analysis of peripheral blood (PB) represents a promising diagnostic test in mastocytosis. However, there is a need for systematic assessment of the analytical sensitivity and specificity of the approach in order...... to establish its value in clinical use. We therefore evaluated sensitive KIT D816V mutation analysis of PB as a diagnostic test in an entire case-series of adults with mastocytosis. We demonstrate for the first time that by using a sufficiently sensitive KIT D816V mutation analysis, it is possible to detect...... the mutation in PB in nearly all adult mastocytosis patients. The mutation was detected in PB in 78 of 83 systemic mastocytosis (94%) and 3 of 4 cutaneous mastocytosis patients (75%). The test was 100% specific as determined by analysis of clinically relevant control patients who all tested negative. Mutation...

  5. A nurse-led intervention improved blood-borne virus testing and vaccination in Victorian prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Rebecca J; White, Bethany; Kinner, Stuart A; Stoové, Mark; Guy, Rebecca; Hellard, Margaret E

    2016-12-01

    Testing is the first step in treatment and care for blood-borne viruses (BBVs) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). As new treatments for viral hepatitis emerge, it is important to document effective models for BBV/STI testing. A nurse-led intervention was implemented across three prisons in Victoria to improve BBV/STI testing. We evaluated the impact of the intervention on BBV/STI testing rates and hepatitis B (HBV) vaccination for reception prisoners. BBV/STI testing and HBV vaccination data were collected from the medical files of 100 consecutive reception prisoners at three prisons (n=300) prior to and after the intervention was implemented. BBV testing increased significantly from 21% of prisoners to 62% post-intervention. Testing for some STIs increased significantly, but remained low: 5% to 17% for chlamydia and 1% to 5% for gonorrhoea. HBV vaccination increased significantly from 2% to 19%. The nurse-led intervention resulted in substantially increased testing and vaccination, demonstrating the benefits of a concerted effort to improve BBV and STI management in correctional settings. The availability of new treatments for hepatitis C has precipitated expansion of treatment in prisons. Improving the testing rate of prisoners, the first step in the treatment cascade, will maximise the benefits. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  6. Hepatitis B virus nucleic acid testing in Chinese blood donors with normal and elevated alanine aminotransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Fu-Rong; Wang, Jing-Xing; Huang, Yi; Yao, Fu-Zhu; Lv, Yun-Lai; Li, Ju-Lin; Wen, Guo-Xin; Wen, Xiu-Qiong; Liu, Jiang; Dong, Xiang-Dong; Ma, Hong-Li; Zhou, Zhong-Min; Bi, Xin-Hong; Tu, Lin; King, Melissa; Nelson, Kenrad; Ness, Paul; Shan, Hua

    2011-12-01

    Nucleic acid testing (NAT) is currently not a routine donor test in China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the current residual risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission and the value of ALT testing in preventing HBV infection. From January 2008 to September 2009, a total of 5521 qualified donations by routine screening and 5034 deferred donations due to elevated ALT alone were collected from five blood centers. Samples were tested for HBV DNA by triplex individual-donation (ID)-NAT (ULTRIO assay, on the TIGRIS system, Novartis Diagnostics). HBV NAT-reactive samples were further analyzed by HBV serology, alternative NAT, and viral load and were diluted to simulate if they could be detected in a minipool-NAT. There was no significant difference in the HBV NAT-yield rate between the qualified donations group (5/5521) and the deferred donations group (4/5034). Of these nine potential HBV-yield cases, one donor (11%) was a possible HBV window-period donor, one (11%) was a chronic HBV carrier, and seven (78%) had probable or confirmed occult HBV infections. Of seven potential HBV-yield cases quantified, the viral loads were less than or equal to 70.0 IU/mL. Minipool testing (minipools of 4, 8, and 16 donations) would miss 43% to 79% of the nine HBV-yield donations. Based on our findings in qualified donations, we estimate that the nationwide implementation of ID-NAT testing for HBV DNA in China would detect an additional 9964 viremic donations per year. ALT testing seems to have no significant value in preventing transfusion-transmitted HBV infection. ID-NAT versus simulated minipool-NAT using the ULTRIO test demonstrates the benefit to implement a more sensitive NAT strategy in regions of high HBV endemicity. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  7. Evaluation of a whole blood remote platelet function test for the diagnosis of mild bleeding disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovlatova, N; Lordkipanidzé, M; Lowe, G C; Dawood, B; May, J; Heptinstall, S; Watson, S P; Fox, S C

    2014-05-01

    Mild platelet function disorders (PFDs) are complex and difficult to diagnose. The current gold standard test, light transmission aggregometry (LTA), including lumi-aggregometry, is time and labour intensive and blood samples must be processed within a limited time after venepuncture. Furthermore, many subjects with suspected PFDs do not show a platelet abnormality on LTA. To assess the diagnostic potential of an easy-to-use remote platelet function test (RPFT) as a diagnostic pre-test for suspected PFDs. A remote platelet function test was compared with lumi-aggregometry in participants recruited to the Genotyping and Phenotyping of Platelets Study (GAPP, ISRCTN 77951167). For the RPFT, whole blood was stimulated with platelet agonists, stabilized with PAMFix and returned to the central laboratory for analysis of P-selectin and CD63 by flow cytometry. For the 61 study participants (42 index cases and 19 relatives) there was a good agreement between lumi-aggregometry and the RPFT, with diagnosis being concordant in 84% of cases (κ = 0.668, P tests, 29 participants were identified to have a deficiency in platelet function and 22 participants appeared normal. There were four participants where lumi-aggregometry revealed a defect but the RPFT did not, and six participants where the RPFT detected an abnormal platelet response that was not identified by lumi-aggregometry. This study suggests that the RPFT could be an easy-to-use pre-test to select which participants with bleeding disorders would benefit from extensive platelet phenotyping. Further development and evaluation of the test are warranted in a wider population of patients with excessive bleeding and could provide informative screening tests for PFDs. © 2014 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  8. Detection of malaria infection in blood transfusion: a comparative study among real-time PCR, rapid diagnostic test and microscopy: sensitivity of Malaria detection methods in blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanpour, Gholamreza; Mohebali, Mehdi; Raeisi, Ahmad; Abolghasemi, Hassan; Zeraati, Hojjat; Alipour, Mohsen; Azizi, Ebrahim; Keshavarz, Hossein

    2011-06-01

    The transmission of malaria by blood transfusion was one of the first transfusion-transmitted infections recorded in the world. Transfusion-transmitted malaria may lead to serious problems because infection with Plasmodium falciparum may cause rapidly fatal death. This study aimed to compare real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) with rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and light microscopy for the detection of Plasmodium spp. in blood transfusion, both in endemic and non-endemic areas of malaria disease in Iran. Two sets of 50 blood samples were randomly collected. One set was taken from blood samples donated in blood bank of Bandar Abbas, a city located in a malarious-endemic area, and the other set from Tehran, a non-endemic one. Light microscopic examination on both thin and thick smears, RDTs, and real-time PCR were performed on the blood samples and the results were compared. Thin and thick light microscopic examinations of all samples as well as RDT results were negative for Plasmodium spp. Two blood samples from endemic area were positive only with real-time PCR. It seems that real-time PCR as a highly sensitive method can be helpful for the confirmation of malaria infection in different units of blood transfusion organization especially in malaria-endemic areas where the majority of donors may be potentially infected with malaria parasites.

  9. [Digital blood flow measurement by venous occlusion plethysmography in Raynaud's phenomenon. Value of the rewarming test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristol, R; Debray, J

    1986-01-01

    The fingertip blood flow measured by mercury strain gauge plethysmography with venous occlusion, at 22 degrees C room temperature, had significantly lower mean values in 190 patients with Raynaud's phenomenon (55 men aged 49 yrs +/- 16, 135 women aged 48 yrs +/- 16) than in 40 age and sex matched controls: 18 ml/100 ml/minute +/- 14.6 versus 35 ml/100 ml/minute +/- 15 at level p less than 0.01. The mean fingertip blood flow was significantly lower (p less than 0.01) in 31 cases of scleroderma and 32 cases of pulpar necrosis (respectively 13 ml +/- 13 and 11 ml +/- 8) than in 55 cases of primary Raynaud's disease (no detectable etiology and normal capillaroscopy 5 years after onset) or in 34 cases of mild Raynaud's phenomenon (respectively 21.6 +/- 16 and 24.4 +/- 18). A warming test (both hands in water at 45 degrees C during 3 minutes) was performed in 50 cases with low basal fingertip blood flow. It induced a "normalized" flow in 22 cases (mostly primary or mild Raynaud), a partly improved flow in 20 cases (mostly secondary Raynaud) and no improvement in 8 cases (scleroderma). The warming test appears to be clinically useful to assess the vasospasm and the vasodilating capabilities.

  10. [Chagas disease: screening tests evaluation in a blood military center, prevalence in the French Army].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerleguer, A; Massard, S; Janus, G; Joussemet, M

    2007-12-01

    Chagas disease is a major public health problem in Latin and Central America, 15 to 20 million people are affected and some 100 million is at risk of acquiring Chagas disease. Chagas disease starts to appear in amazonian area and french Guyana. Three kits: Elisa Novagnost (Dade Behring), BioElisa Chagas (Orgentec) et Elisa Cruzi (BioMérieux) were compared using performance panel. Sensibility, reproductibility and specificity (using 40 serum of blood donors who never went to an endemic area) were evaluated. Orgentec assay (recombinant antigens) and BioMérieux assay (whole-epimastigote antigens) performed better than Dade Behring assay. The latter was discarded from the study at this stage. Lack of sensibility seems due to the antigenic composition. Reproductibility and specificity are good for the other two tests. Mixtures of recombinants antigens increased specificity, but sensibility is better using mixtures of whole-epimastigote antigens. For routine blood donor screening both tests must be performed. A prevalence study was done during 11 months on 1570 serum of military blood donors. Despite of a low prevalence (less than 0.7 per thousand), the entire donation from donors who were in the endemic area (7.95% from our whole population) are screened for antibody against Trypanosoma cruzi, with these two assays.

  11. Update on HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfahad, Tariq B; Nath, Avindra

    2013-10-01

    Neurocognitive disorders are a feared complication of HIV infection, especially in the post-antiretroviral era as patients are living longer. These disorders are challenging in terms of diagnosis and treatment. The clinical syndrome has evolved, driven in part by comorbidities such as aging, drug abuse, psychiatric illnesses, and a metabolic syndrome associated with the use of antiretroviral drugs. Additionally some individuals may develop a fulminant immune reconstitution syndrome. Hence, treatment of these patients needs to be individualized. The focus of research in the HIV field has recently switched towards elimination of the HIV reservoir as a means of combating long-term HIV complications. However, these approaches may be suitable for limited populations and might not be applicable once the HIV reservoir has been established in the brain. Further, all clinical trials using neuroprotective or anti-inflammatory drugs for treatment of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders have been unsuccessful. Hence, neurological complications of HIV infection are the biggest challenge facing HIV researchers, and there is a critical need to develop new diagnostics and approaches for treatment of these disorders.

  12. Neurocognitive impairment in childhood chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei eMizuno

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurocognitive impairment is a feature of childhood chronic fatigue syndrome (CCFS. Several studies have demonstrated reduced attention control in CCFS patients in switching and divided attention tasks. In students, the extent of deterioration in task performance depends on the level of fatigue. Poor performance in switching and divided attention is common in both fatigued students and CCFS patients. Additionally, attentional functions show dramatic development from childhood to adolescence, suggesting that abnormal development of switching and divided attention may be induced by chronic fatigue. The brain structures associated with attentional control are situated in the frontal and parietal cortices, which are the last to mature, suggesting that severe fatigue in CCFS patients and students may inhibit normal structural and functional development in these regions. A combination of treatment with cognitive behavioral therapy and antidepressant medication is effective to improve attentional control processing in CCFS patients. Studies identifying the features of neurocognitive impairment in CCFS have improved our current understanding of the neurophysiological mechanisms of CCFS.

  13. Associations of cytokines, sleep patterns, and neurocognitive function in youth with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Samuel B; Lu, Ming; Glaze, Daniel G; Reuben, James M; Harris, Lynnette L; Cohen, Evan N; Lee, Bang-Ning; Zhao, Enxu; Paul, Mary E; Schwarzwald, Heidi; McMullen-Jackson, Chivon; Clark, Charla; Armstrong, F Daniel; Brouwers, Pim Y; Miller, Tracie L; Colin, Andrew A; Scott, Gwendolyn B; Shahzeidi, Shahriar; Willen, Elizabeth J; Asthana, Deshratn; Lipshultz, Steven E; Thompson, Bruce W; Shearer, William T

    2012-07-01

    Youth infected with HIV at birth often have sleep disturbances, neurocognitive deficits, and abnormal psychosocial function which are associated with and possibly resulted from elevated blood cytokine levels that may lead to a decreased quality of life. To identify molecular pathways that might be associated with these disorders, we evaluated 38 HIV-infected and 35 uninfected subjects over 18-months for intracellular cytokine levels, sleep patterns and duration of sleep, and neurodevelopmental abilities. HIV infection was significantly associated with alterations of intracellular pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-12), sleep factors (total time asleep and daytime sleep patterns), and neurocognitive factors (parent and patient reported problems with socio-emotional, behavioral, and executive functions; working memory-mental fatigue; verbal memory; and sustained concentration and vigilance. By better defining the relationships between HIV infection, sleep disturbances, and poor psychosocial behavior and neurocognition, it may be possible to provide targeted pharmacologic and procedural interventions to improve these debilitating conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Inconsistent detection of changes in cerebral blood volume by near infrared spectroscopy in standard clinical tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canova, D; Roatta, S; Bosone, D; Micieli, G

    2011-06-01

    The attractive possibility of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to noninvasively assess cerebral blood volume and oxygenation is challenged by the possible interference from extracranial tissues. However, to what extent this may affect cerebral NIRS monitoring during standard clinical tests is ignored. To address this issue, 29 healthy subjects underwent a randomized sequence of three maneuvers that differently affect intra- and extracranial circulation: Valsalva maneuver (VM), hyperventilation (HV), and head-up tilt (HUT). Putative intracranial ("i") and extracranial ("e") NIRS signals were collected from the forehead and from the cheek, respectively, and acquired together with cutaneous plethysmography at the forehead (PPG), cerebral blood velocity from the middle cerebral artery, and arterial blood pressure. Extracranial contribution to cerebral NIRS monitoring was investigated by comparing Beer-Lambert (BL) and spatially resolved spectroscopy (SRS) blood volume indicators [the total hemoglobin concentration (tHb) and the total hemoglobin index, (THI)] and by correlating their changes with changes in extracranial circulation. While THIe and tHbe generally provided concordant indications, tHbi and THIi exhibited opposite-sign changes in a high percentage of cases (VM: 46%; HV: 31%; HUT: 40%). Moreover, tHbi was correlated with THIi only during HV (P < 0.05), not during VM and HUT, while it correlated with PPG in all three maneuvers (P < 0.01). These results evidence that extracranial circulation may markedly affect BL parameters in a high percentage of cases, even during standard clinical tests. Surface plethysmography at the forehead is suggested as complementary monitoring helpful in the interpretation of cerebral NIRS parameters.

  15. [Neurocognitive markers of suicide vulnerability in the elderly: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard-Devantoy, Stéphane; Jollant, Fabrice; Deguigne, Florence; Letourneau, Geneviève

    2013-12-01

    a comprehensive literature review suggests that suicidal behaviour results from a complex interplay between stressful events and vulnerability factors including cognitive deficits. The aim of this systematic literature review was to identify the neurocognitive markers associated with suicide vulnerability in elderly people. a systematic English Medline literature search of cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional studies published between January 1960 and December 2012 was performed, combining the MeSH terms "Suicide", "Neuropsychology", "Neuropsychological Tests", "Executive Function", "Magnetic Resonance Imaging", "Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging", "Positron-Emission Tomography", "Prefrontal Cortex", "Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon", and "Diffusion Tensor Imaging". The abstract selection was based on the Strobe checklist for observational studies. of the 446 original articles, 10 neuropsychological and 4 brain imaging studies were selected. The number of suicidal subjects ranged from 10 to 29 (mean age=66.8 to 79.1 years old, 0-85% women). Executive functions, in particular decision-making and cognitive inhibition, were more impaired in the depressed elderly with a history of suicide attempts compared to those without such a history. fMRI data, which need to be confirmed in further details, showed abnormalities of fronto-limbic circuits which are involved in suicide vulnerability in the elderly independently of any associated psychopathological conditions including depression. this literature review confirms the existence of neurocognitive markers of suicide vulnerability in elderly people. A neuropsychological assessment could thus help to identify the suicide vulnerability of a depressed elderly person, a first step for both pharmacological and psychotherapeutic cares.

  16. Deficits in self-awareness impact the diagnosis of asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment in HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Stephanie; Rosen, Howard J; Nicolas, Krista; Wendelken, Lauren A; Alcantar, Oscar; Rankin, Katherine P; Miller, Bruce; Valcour, Victor

    2013-06-01

    A recent national survey of HIV(+) adults noted that nearly three-quarters of cognitively impaired individuals are categorized as having asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI), lacking documented compromise of everyday function. The clinical impact and long-term consequences of ANI are unknown and the importance of this asymptomatic diagnosis has raised concerns in clinical care settings where competing priorities often exist. In this study, we conducted structured tests of everyday functioning in a sample of HIV(+) subjects over 60 years of age and asked subjects to rate their performance relative to peers. We demonstrate that individuals with neuropsychological testing impairment often lack self-awareness of functional performance deficits. Specifically, ANI subjects rated functional performance similar to that of HIV-negative control subjects, despite noted deficits in objective measures of function. These findings have important implications for use of self-report of function in the diagnosis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), likely underestimating symptomatic impairment.

  17. [Comparison of thromboelastography and routine coagulation tests for evaluation of blood coagulation function in patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guan-Yi; Ou Yang, Xi-Lin; Wu, Jing-Hui; Wang, Li-Hua; Yang, Jin-Hua; Gu, Li-Nan; Lu, Zhu-Jie; Zhao, Xiao-Zi

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the correlation and consistency between thromboelastography(TEG) and routine coagulation tests, and to evaluate the value of the two methods in determining the blood coagulation of patients. The TEG, routine coagulation tests and platelet counts of 182 patients from the Intensive Care Unit(ICU) and Department of Gastroenterology in our hospital from January to September 2014 were performed and analyzed retrospectively for their correlation, Kappa identity test analysis and chi-square test, and the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of both methods in the patients with bleeding were evaluated. The TEG R time and PT, R time and APTT showed a linear dependence (P0.05) and 0.061 (P>0.05), respectively. The chi-square test values of the TEG R time with PT and APTT were 35.309 (Pcoagulation tests, but the consistency is weak. Moreover, the diagnostic sensitivity of two methods in the patients with bleeding is low. It was concluded that the TEG cannot replace the conventional coagulation tests, and the preferable method remains uncertain which could reflect the risk of bleeding.

  18. Improving Detection of Prediabetes in Children and Adults: Using Combinations of Blood Glucose Tests

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    Ike Solomon Okosun

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine combinations of blood glucose tests: oral glucose tolerance (OGT, fasting plasma glucose (FBG and hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C that are associated with highest diagnostic rates of prediabetes in non-diabetic American children and adults.Methods: The 2007-2008 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys data were used for this study. Overall and specific prevalence of prediabetes (defined using OGT+FPG, OGT+HbA1C, HbA1C+FPG and OGT+FPG+HbA1C tests were determined across age, race/ethnicity, sex and BMI categories.Results: FPG+HbA1C test was associated with significantly higher diagnostic rates of prediabetes across age, race/ethnicity and BMI. Estimates of overall prevalence of prediabetes using OGT+FPG, OGT+HbA1C, HbA1C+FPG and OGT+FPG+HbA1C tests were 20.3%, 24.2%, 33% and 34.3%, respectively. Compared to OGT+FPG, the use of HbA1C+FPG test in screening was associated with 44.8%, 135%, 38.6% and 35.9% increased prevalence of prediabetes in non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, Mexican-American and other racial/ethnic men, respectively. The corresponding values in women were 67.8%, 140%, 37.2% and 42.6%, respectively. Combined use of all blood glucose tests did not improve the overall and gender-specific prediabetes prevalence beyond what was observed using HbA1C+FPG test.Conclusions: HbA1C criteria were associated with higher diagnosis rates of prediabetes than FPG and OGT tests in non-diabetic American children and adults. Using a combination of HbA1C and FPG test in screening for prediabetes reduces intrinsic systematic bias in using just HbA1C testing and offers the benefits of each test. A well-defined HbA1C that takes into consideration race/ethnicity, gender, age and body mass index may improve detection of prediabetes in population and clinical settings.

  19. Blood lactate minimum of rats during swimming test using three incremental stages

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    Mariana de Souza Sena

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe purpose of this study was to determine the lactate minimum intensity (LMI by swimming LACmintest using three incremental stages (LACmintest3 and to evaluate its sensitivity to changes in aerobic fitness (AF. Twenty Wistar rats performed: LACmintest3 (1: induction of hyperlactacidemia and incremental phase (4%, 5% and 6.5% of bw; Constant loads tests on (2 and above (3 the LMI. Half of the animals were subjected to training with the individual LMI and the tests were performed again. The mean exercise load in LACmintest3 was 5.04 ± 0.13% bw at 5.08 ± 0.55 mmol L-1 blood lactate minimum (BLM. There was a stabilize and disproportionate increase of blood lactate in tests 2 and 3, respectively. After the training period, the mean BLM was lower in the trained animals. The LACmintest3 seems to be a good indicator of LMI and responsive to changes in AF in rats subjected to swim training.

  20. Colonoscopic prioritization in colorectal carcinoma screening using quantitative immunochemical faecal occult blood test: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, H Y; Roslani, A C; Law, C W

    2013-01-01

    Screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) improves outcomes and reduces its incidence. However, population-based screening in Malaysia continues to be a challenge, in view of cost and limited availability of colonoscopic skills and facilities. Conventional qualitative faecal occult blood tests help to prioritize those who require earlier colonoscopies, but cannot distinguish between benign and malignant causes. Recently, quantitative immunochemical faecal occult blood tests (qFOBT) have demonstrated some discriminatory ability in distinguishing benign and malignant causes. We aim to assess feasibility of qFOBT as a tool for stratification of colonoscopic priority in asymptomatic patients. A health awareness exhibition was held in a major shopping complex in Kuala Lumpur on 6 and 7 Feb 2010. All asymptomatic individuals> 40 years, and those Chinese (60%), followed by Malay (25%), Indian (12%) and others (3%). Twelve (10%) participants were tested positive and were advised to undergo colonoscopy but 9 (75%) declined colonoscopy and further investigations citing lack of time as the reason. Of the 3 participants (all in the moderately positive group) who underwent colonoscopy, 2 had a family history of CRC. Colonoscopic findings revealed haemorrhoids in one participant and two participants had histologically proven benign sigmoid colonic polyps. The use of qFOBT as a tool to screen and prioritize asymptomatic patients for early colonoscopy in CRC screening is logistically feasible. However, in order for it to be effective, measures to improve compliance to colonoscopy need to be taken.

  1. Concussion symptoms and neurocognitive performance of high school and college athletes who incur multiple concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covassin, Tracey; Moran, Ryan; Wilhelm, Kristyn

    2013-12-01

    Multiple concussions have been associated with prolonged symptoms, recovery time, and risk for future concussions. However, very few studies have examined the effect of multiple concussions on neurocognitive performance and the recently revised symptom clusters using a large database. To examine concussed athletes with a history of 0, 1, 2, or ≥3 concussions on neurocognitive performance and the recently revised symptom clusters. Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. The independent variables were concussion group (0, 1, 2, and ≥3 concussions) and time (baseline, 3 days, and 8 days). The dependent variables were neurocognitive test scores as measured by the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) neurocognitive test battery (verbal and visual memory, processing speed, and reaction time) and 4 concussion symptom clusters (migraine-cognitive-fatigue, affective, somatic, and sleep). All concussed athletes (n = 596) were administered the ImPACT test at a mean 2.67 ± 1.98 and 7.95 ± 4.46 days after injury. A series of 4 (concussion group) × 3 (time) repeated-measures analyses of covariance (age = covariate) were performed on ImPACT composite scores and symptom clusters. Concussed athletes with ≥3 concussions were still impaired 8 days after a concussion compared with baseline scores on verbal memory (P Concussed athletes with a history of ≥3 concussions take longer to recover than athletes with 1 or no previous concussion. Future research should concentrate on validating the new symptom clusters on multiple concussed athletes, examining longer recovery times (ie, >8 days) among athletes with multiple concussions.

  2. Neurocognitive Effects of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS in Adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD

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    Christopher A Wall

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: It is estimated that 30% to 40% of adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD do not receive full benefit from current antidepressant therapies. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is a novel therapy approved by the US FDA to treat adults with MDD. Research suggests rTMS is not associated with adverse neurocognitive effects in adult populations; however, there is no documentation of its neurocognitive effects in adolescents. This is a secondary post hoc analysis of neurocognitive outcome in adolescents who were treated with open label rTMS in two separate studies. Methods: Eighteen patients (mean age, 16.2 ± 1.1 years; 11 females, 7 males with MDD who failed to adequately respond to at least 1 antidepressant agent were enrolled in the studies. Fourteen patients completed all 30 rTMS treatments (5 days/week, 120% of motor threshold, 10 Hz, 3,000 stimulations per session applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (L-DLPFC. Depression was rated using the Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R. Neurocognitive evaluation was performed at baseline and after completion of 30 rTMS treatments with the Children’s Auditory Verbal Learning Test (CAVLT and Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (DKEFS Trail Making Test. Results: Over the course of 30 rTMS treatments, adolescents showed a substantial decrease in depression severity and a statistically significant improvement in memory and delayed verbal recall. Other learning and memory indices and executive function remained intact. Neither participants nor their family members reported clinically meaningful changes in neurocognitive function. Conclusion: These preliminary findings suggest rTMS does not adversely impact neurocognitive functioning in adolescents and may provide subtle enhancement of verbal memory as measured by the CAVLT. Further controlled investigations are warranted to confirm and extend these findings.

  3. Why do patients want to have their blood tested? A qualitative study of patient expectations in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bokhoven, Marloes A; Pleunis-van Empel, Marjolein C H; Koch, Hèlen; Grol, Richard P T M; Dinant, Geert-Jan; van der Weijden, Trudy

    2006-12-13

    General practitioners often take their impression of patients' expectations into account in their decision to have blood tests done. It is commonly recommended to involve patients in decision-making during consultations. The study aimed to obtain detailed information on patients' expectations about blood tests. Qualitative study among patients in waiting rooms of general practices. Each patient was presented with a short questionnaire about their preferences in terms of diagnostics. Patients who would like blood tests to be done were interviewed. Fifty-seven (26%) of the 224 respondents wanted blood tests. Twenty-two were interviewed. Patients overestimated the qualities of blood tests. Favourable test results were regarded as proof of good health. Patients regarded blood tests as a useful instrument to screen for serious disorders, and were confirmed in this belief by people in their social environment and by the media. Many patients expected their GP to take an active test ordering approach, though some indicated that they might be convinced if their GP proposed a wait-and-see policy. GPs' perceptions about patient expectations seem justified: patients appear to have high hopes for testing as a diagnostic tool. They expect diagnostic certainty without mistakes and a proof of good health. The question is whether it would be desirable to remove patients' misconceptions, allowing them to participate in policy decisions on the basis of sound information, or whether it would be better to leave the misconceptions uncontested, in order to retain the 'magic' of additional tests and reassure patients. We expect that clarifying the precise nature of patients' expectations by the GP may be helpful in creating a diagnostic strategy that satisfies both patients and GPs. GPs will have to balance the benefits of reassuring their patients by means of blood tests which may be unnecessary against the benefits of avoiding unnecessary tests. Further research is needed into the

  4. Neurofeedback to improve neurocognitive functioning of children treated for a brain tumor: design of a randomized controlled double-blind trial

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    de Ruiter Marieke A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurotoxicity caused by treatment for a brain tumor is a major cause of neurocognitive decline in survivors. Studies have shown that neurofeedback may enhance neurocognitive functioning. This paper describes the protocol of the PRISMA study, a randomized controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of neurofeedback to improve neurocognitive functioning in children treated for a brain tumor. Methods/Design Efficacy of neurofeedback will be compared to placebo training in a randomized controlled double-blind trial. A total of 70 brain tumor survivors in the age range of 8 to 18 years will be recruited. Inclusion also requires caregiver-reported neurocognitive problems and being off treatment for more than two years. A group of 35 healthy siblings will be included as the control group. On the basis of a qEEG patients will be assigned to one of three treatment protocols. Thereafter patients will be randomized to receive either neurofeedback training (n=35 or placebo training (n=35. Neurocognitive tests, and questionnaires administered to the patient, caregivers, and teacher, will be used to evaluate pre- and post-intervention functioning, as well as at 6-month follow-up. Siblings will be administered the same tests and questionnaires once. Discussion If neurofeedback proves to be effective for pediatric brain tumor survivors, this can be a valuable addition to the scarce interventions available to improve neurocognitive and psychosocial functioning. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00961922.

  5. Mild traumatic brain injuries in early adolescent rugby players: Long-term neurocognitive and academic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, D G; Shuttleworth-Edwards, A B; Kidd, M; Malcolm, C M

    2015-01-01

    Information is scant concerning enduring brain injury effects of participation in the contact sport of Rugby Union (hereafter rugby) on early adolescents. The objective was prospectively to investigate differences between young adolescent male rugby players and non-contact sports controls on neurocognitive test performance over 3 years and academic achievement over 6 years. A sample of boys from the same school and grade was divided into three groups: rugby with seasonal concussions (n = 45), rugby no seasonal concussions (n = 21) and non-contact sports controls (n = 30). Baseline neurocognitive testing was conducted pre-season in Grade 7 and post-season in Grades 8 and 9. Year-end academic grades were documented for Grades 6-9 and 12 (pre-high school to year of school leaving). A mixed model repeated measures ANOVA was conducted to investigate comparative neurocognitive and academic outcomes between the three sub-groups. Compared with controls, both rugby groups were significantly lower on the WISC-III Coding Immediate Recall sub-test. There was a significant interaction effect on the academic measure, with improved scores over time for controls, that was not in evidence for either rugby group. Tentatively, the outcome suggests cognitive vulnerability in association with school level participation in rugby.

  6. Neurocognitive outcome and white matter anisotropy in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia survivors treated with different protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElAlfy, Mohsen; Ragab, Iman; Azab, Inas; Amin, Shaimaa; Abdel-Maguid, Marwa

    2014-03-01

    Neurocognitive outcome affects the quality of life of ALL survivors. This study is aimed to assess the prevalence of neurocognitive dysfunction by psychometric and imaging tools in survivors of childhood ALL, treated with 3 different protocols and the effect of time elapsed since the end of chemotherapy. Sixty-two ALL survivors aged 6-18 years and treated in the period 1997-2007 and 60 healthy age and sex matched controls were subjected to neurocognitive testing using Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Benton visual retention (BVRT) and Trail Making test (TMT), followed by diffusion weighed and diffusion tensor MRI for calculation of fraction anisotropy (FA). Survivors underwent revision of protocol and type of CNS therapy. Three different protocols were used: modified BFM 83, BFM 90, and CCG. Survivors treated with modified CCG protocol showed a significant decrease in all cognitive tests compared to control (ptests between BFM 83 and control group. Frontal FA was lower in CCG treated group compared to control, BFM 90 and BFM 83 groups (pchildhood ALL survivors.

  7. Influence of the recurrent syncope episodes on neurocognitive functions in patients with vasovagal syncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jędrzejczyk-Spaho, Joanna; Pietrucha, Artur Z; Borowiec, Agnieszka; Bzukała, Irena; Wnuk, Mateusz; Konduracka, Ewa; Nessler, Jadwiga

    2017-03-21

    The aim of study was to evaluate an influence of recurrent syncope episodes on the neurocognitive functions (NCF) in patients with suspected VVS. The aim of study was to evaluate an influence of recurrent syncope episodes on the neurocognitive functions (NCF) in patients with suspected VVS. Study population: 24 pts. (16 women) aged 17-70 yrs (mean age 40 years), with suspected VVS, referred to HUTT (head-up tilt test). All pts. underwent initial evaluation regarding to the number and circumstances of the syncopal and/or presyncopal spells. All pts performed HUTT with Westminster protocol. Basing on the syncope history and HUTT results, two groups of pts were distinguished: gr. I - 18 pts with at least 2 syncopal spells and positive HUTT, and gr. II 6 pts with only presyncopal status without complete loss of consciousness and negative HUTT. All pts underwent the evaluation of NCF with computer-assisted Vienna Test System battery, consisted of the following tests: DAUF - evaluation of long-term selective attention and concentration; COG - assessment of attention and concentration; STROOP - registration of the color-word interference tendency, CORSI - estimation of visual short-term memory capacity and implicite visuo-spatial learning. Values of the measured parameters were compared between both groups of pts. Patients without syncope (gr. II) had higher number of correctly reproduced sequences (11,0 vs 8,38 pvasovagal syndrome. Syncope episodes may have potentially negative influence on neurocognitive functions in patients with vasovagal syndrome.

  8. Identification of Pathogenic Bacteria in Blood Cultures and Susceptibility Testing of Isolates With Various Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholoujini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Blood infections are an extensive range of disorders that can vary from limited bacteremia to fatal septicemia. Bacteremia refers to the transient presence of a bacterium in the bloodstream. A delay in the diagnosis and treatment of sepsis can cause mortality, with a 20% - 50% prevalence rate. Objectives Due to the changing patterns of antibiotic resistance, as well as differences in patterns over time in different settings, we decided to identify infectious agents and their antibiotic resistance patterns in blood cultures. Materials and Methods This study was conducted at Shahid Beheshti hospital, Hamadan, Iran, during a one-year period (March 21, 2014, to March 22, 2015. From patients with suspected bloodstream infections, 5-10 mL of blood was collected three times and inoculated into culture bottles. After identifying the types of microorganisms, susceptibility testing was performed according to CLSI standards, and the results were analyzed with statistical software. Results In the present study, 2,130 blood cultures were obtained from 710 patients (384 females and 326 males. Of these cultures, 232 (18.9% were positive; 107 (46% and 125 (54% were from females and males, respectively. Most of the positive cultures were related to the internal medicine and hematology wards, which had 132 cases (56.9%, and the ICU, with 37 cases (16%. The most frequent isolates were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus aureus, with prevalence rates of 18.2%, 24.1%, 10.3%, and 10.3%, respectively. The most effective antibiotic against Gram-positive isolates was vancomycin. Conclusions This study revealed that the most effective antibiotics against two Gram-negative and Gram-positive groups were amikacin and norfloxacin, so it is recommended that these antibiotics be used empirically, at least in the setting where this study was conducted, before performing the culturing and antibiogram

  9. Opportunistic screening for colorectal neoplasia in Singapore using faecal immunochemical occult blood test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wah Siew; Tang, Choong Leong; Koo, Wen Hsin

    2013-04-01

    The use of faecal immunochemical occult blood test (FIT) has been reported to decrease mortality from colorectal cancer. The Singapore Cancer Society (SCS) gives out FIT kits to encourage opportunistic screening of colorectal cancer. Any Singapore citizen or permanent resident aged ≥ 50 years is eligible to receive two FIT kits. Participants with at least one positive FIT are referred for further evaluation. We aimed to analyse the results of SCS data from the year 2008. The factors evaluated included compliance, positive test rate (PR) and positive predictive value (PPV) of FIT. 20,989 participants received 41,978 kits in 2008. Compliance was 38.9%, with 8,156 participants returning at least one kit. 8% of participants tested positive, and 75% of these test-positive participants agreed to undergo further investigations. 33 participants had colorectal cancers, 45 had advanced polyps (≥ 1 cm) and 90 had polyps test had colorectal neoplasia. PR and PPV of FIT in our study were comparable to that in the literature. However, compliance was low and a quarter of all participants who tested positive refused further investigations. Extensive population education programmes are required to improve compliance and tackle inhibitions among the masses. It is also important to take steps to enhance the cost effectiveness of future screening programmes.

  10. Neurocognitive Trajectory of Boys Who Received a Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant at an Early Stage of Childhood Cerebral Adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierpont, Elizabeth I; Eisengart, Julie B; Shanley, Ryan; Nascene, David; Raymond, Gerald V; Shapiro, Elsa G; Ziegler, Rich S; Orchard, Paul J; Miller, Weston P

    2017-06-01

    Untreated childhood cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy (cALD) is a fatal disease associated with progressive cerebral demyelination and rapid, devastating neurologic decline. The standard of care to enhance long-term survival and stabilize cerebral disease is a hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Neurologic outcomes are better when HSCT occurs at an earlier stage of cALD, yet there is limited understanding of the neurocognitive trajectory of patients who undergo HSCT. To characterize neurocognitive outcomes of boys with cALD and early-stage cerebral disease who were treated with an allogeneic HSCT and to identify disease- and treatment-related factors associated with long-term functioning. Baseline and follow-up neurocognitive test performance was analyzed for all boys with cALD who received an HSCT at the University of Minnesota between January 1, 1991, and October 20, 2014, and who had a pretransplant magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) severity score of less than 10 (scale range, 0-34; higher scores indicate greater severity). Longitudinal neurocognitive test performance in 4 domains (verbal comprehension, perceptual [visual] reasoning, working memory, and processing speed) were the primary outcome measures. Secondary analysis at the most recent evaluation also included measures of sustained attention, verbal memory, visual-motor integration, and fine motor function. Among the 62 boys in this study (mean [SD] age at transplant, 8.37 [2.80] years; range, 4-16 years), there was a significant association of pretransplant MRI severity and baseline verbal comprehension (r = -0.340; P = .008), perceptual reasoning (r = -0.419; P = .001), and processing speed (r = -0.285; P = .03) scores. Higher pretransplant MRI severity scores were also associated with a steeper decline in neurocognitive functioning during the 5-year follow-up period. Twenty-two of 33 patients (67%) with available long-term follow-up neurocognitive testing had severe impairment

  11. Enhanced neurocognitive functioning and positive temperament in twins discordant for bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higier, Rachel G; Jimenez, Amy M; Hultman, Christina M; Borg, Jacqueline; Roman, Cristina; Kizling, Isabelle; Larsson, Henrik; Cannon, Tyrone D

    2014-11-01

    Based on evidence linking creativity and bipolar disorder, a model has been proposed whereby factors influencing liability to bipolar disorder confer certain traits with positive effects on reproductive fitness. The authors tested this model by examining key traits known to be associated with evolutionary fitness, namely, temperament and neurocognition, in individuals carrying liability for bipolar disorder. Schizophrenia probands and their co-twins were included as psychiatric controls. Twin pairs discordant for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia and control pairs were identified through the Swedish Twin Registry. The authors administered a neuropsychological test battery and temperament questionnaires to samples of bipolar probands, bipolar co-twins, schizophrenia probands, schizophrenia co-twins, and controls. Multivariate mixed-model analyses of variance were conducted to compare groups on temperament and neurocognitive scores. Bipolar co-twins showed elevated scores on a "positivity" temperament scale compared with controls and bipolar probands, while bipolar probands scored higher on a "negativity" scale compared with their co-twins and controls, who did not differ. Additionally, bipolar co-twins showed superior performance compared with controls on tests of verbal learning and fluency, while bipolar probands showed performance decrements across all neurocognitive domains. In contrast, schizophrenia co-twins showed attenuated impairments in positivity and overall neurocognitive functioning relative to their ill proband counterparts. These findings suggest that supra-normal levels of sociability and verbal functioning may be associated with liability for bipolar disorder. These effects were specific to liability for bipolar disorder and did not apply to schizophrenia. Such benefits may provide a partial explanation for the persistence of bipolar illness in the population.

  12. A sensitive guaiac faecal occult blood test is less useful than an immunochemical test for colorectal cancer screening in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, B C-Y; Wong, W M; Cheung, K L; Tong, T S M; Rozen, P; Young, G P; Chu, K W; Ho, J; Law, W L; Tung, H M; Lai, K C; Hu, W H C; Chan, C K; Lam, S K

    2003-11-01

    Colorectal cancer screening by guaiac faecal occult blood test has been shown to reduce the incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer in Western populations. The optimal faecal occult blood test, whether guaiac or immunochemical, for colorectal cancer screening in the Chinese population remains to be defined. To compare the performance characteristics of a sensitive guaiac-based faecal occult blood test (Hemoccult SENSA) and an immunochemical faecal occult blood test (FlexSure OBT) in a Chinese population referred for colonoscopy. One hundred and thirty-five consecutive patients who were referred for colonoscopy and who met the study inclusion criteria took samples for the two faecal occult blood tests simultaneously from three successive stool specimens, with no dietary restrictions. All tests were developed and interpreted by a single experienced technician who was blind to the clinical diagnosis. The sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value for the detection of colorectal adenomas and cancers were estimated for the two tests. The sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value for the detection of significant colorectal neoplasia (adenomas > or = 1.0 cm and cancers) were 91%, 70% and 18% for Hemoccult SENSA and 82%, 94% and 47% for FlexSure OBT. The specificity and positive predictive value were significantly higher for FlexSure OBT than for Hemoccult SENSA (P occult blood tests did not improve the accuracy. The positive predictive value of the immunochemical faecal occult blood test for the detection of significant colorectal neoplasia was 29% better than that of the sensitive guaiac-based test. This may relate to the Chinese diet and requires further study. The poor specificity of the sensitive guaiac-based test, without dietary restriction, makes it less useful for colorectal cancer screening in a Chinese population.

  13. Experimental testing of a new left ventricular assist device--the microdiagonal blood pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Stefan; Demircan, Lütfü; Kwant, Paul B; Akdis, Mustafa; Rex, Steffen; Buhre, Wolfgang; Langebartels, Georg; Kuruc, Norbert; Nikolin, Stefan; Reul, Helmut; Autschbach, Rüdiger

    2004-01-01

    All existing ventricular assist devices are associated with a considerable number of serious complications. This article reports on the first animal tests with a newly developed microdiagonal blood pump (MDP). Six adult female sheep weighing 80 to 90 kg underwent implantation of the microdiagonal blood pump. The inflow and outflow conduits were anastomosed to the left atrium and the descending aorta. Pump flow was adjusted to 2-3 L/minute. Hemodynamic and echocardiographic data, as well as blood samples, were measured over the entire test period of 7 days. All internal organs and the pump were explanted for thorough examination at the end of the trial. Mean arterial (range 88.5 +/- 13.1-103.7 +/- 10.7 mm Hg) and mean pulmonary arterial (18.3 +/- 2.7-21.6 +/- 20.5 mm Hg) pressures, as well as the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (14.2 +/- 3.0 - 16.6 +/- 4.0 mm Hg), remained stable during the whole test period. Cardiac output (4.9 +/- 0.7 --> 3.2 +/- 0.5 L/minute) decreased postoperatively caused by partial unloading of the heart. Left ventricular end diastolic (4.1 +/- 0.5 --> 3.6 +/- 0.3 cm) and end systolic (3.2 +/- 0.4 --> 2.8 +/- 0.5 cm) diameters, as well as the ejection fraction (57 +/- 9 --> 42 +/- 5%), decreased after MDP implantation and did not change during the test period. Mean number of platelets (428 +/- 54 --> 286 +/- 66 x 10(3)/microL) and hemoglobin (9.8 +/- 1.3 --> 6.3 +/- 0.8 g/dL) decreased perioperatively because of surgical reasons and increased continuously in the postoperative course (platelet count and hemoglobin on day 7:441 +/- 74 x 10(3)/microL and 7.2 +/- 1.1 g/dL, respectively). Free hemoglobin was not enhanced in the postoperative course (mean value during the test period: 18.8 mmoL/L). Histologic examination of the organs did not demonstrate any infarctions of internal organs other than typical operative sequelae such as chronic pericarditis and some degree of atelectasis of the left lungs. These results demonstrate that the

  14. Development of an Intervention for implementing Immunochemical Faecal Occult Blood Test in General Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Jakob Søgaard; Vedsted, Peter; Bro, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    Denne korte artikel handler om udviklingen af en intervention til implementering af immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT) i almen praksis. Artiklen gennemgår processen fra de tidlige udviklingsstadier, over pilot-testning og frem til de endelige justeringer før selve implementeringen blev...... vurdering og viden om patienten. Kombinationen af teori og praksis viste sig at være en god måde at sikre hurtig ibrugtagning af en ny test i almen praksis til at identificere potentielle tegn på tarmkræft hos patienter. Særligt pilot-testning af interventionen viste sig at være værdifuld, fordi den...

  15. Toward laboratory blood test-comparable photometric assessments for anemia in veterinary hematology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taehoon; Choi, Seung Ho; Lambert-Cheatham, Nathan; Xu, Zhengbin; Kritchevsky, Janice E.; Bertin, Francois-René; Kim, Young L.

    2016-10-01

    Anemia associated with intestinal parasites and malnutrition is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in small ruminants worldwide. Qualitative scoring of conjunctival redness has been developed so that farmers can gauge anemia in sheep and goats to identify animals that require treatment. For clinically relevant anemia diagnosis, complete blood count-comparable quantitative methods often rely on complicated and expensive optical instruments, requiring detailed spectral information of hemoglobin. We report experimental and numerical results for simple, yet reliable, noninvasive hemoglobin detection that can be correlated with laboratory-based blood hemoglobin testing for anemia diagnosis. In our pilot animal study using calves, we exploit the third eyelid (i.e., palpebral conjunctiva) as an effective sensing site. To further test spectrometer-free (or spectrometerless) hemoglobin assessments, we implement full spectral reconstruction from RGB data and partial least square regression. The unique combination of RGB-based spectral reconstruction and partial least square regression could potentially offer uncomplicated instrumentation and avoid the use of a spectrometer, which is vital for realizing a compact and inexpensive hematology device for quantitative anemia detection in the farm field.

  16. Neurocognitive Function in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: 3-Year Follow-Up Shows Cognitive Development Lagging behind Healthy Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavuluri, Mani N.; West, Amy; Hill, Kristian; Jindal, Kittu; Sweeney, John A.

    2009-01-01

    The comparison of the neurocognitive functioning of people with pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) with a control group shows that the developmental progress in executive functions and verbal memory of those with PBD was significantly less than those in the control group. The results were seen after comparing data from baseline cognitive tests and a…

  17. Effects of magnetic stray fields from a 7 Tesla MRI scanner on neurocognition: a double-blind randomised crossover study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nierop, L.E.; Slottje, P.; van Zandvoort, M.J.; de Vocht, F.; Kromhout, H.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study characterises neurocognitive domains that are affected by movement-induced time-varying magnetic fields (TVMF) within a static magnetic stray field (SMF) of a 7 Tesla (T) MRI scanner. METHODS Using a double-blind randomised crossover design, 31 healthy volunteers were tested in

  18. Immunochemical faecal occult blood tests have superior stability and analytical performance characteristics over guaiac-based tests in a controlled in vitro study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Chun Seng

    2011-06-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to determine the measurement accuracy of a widely used guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) compared with an immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT) during in vitro studies, including their analytical stability over time at ambient temperature and at 4°C; and (2) to compare analytical imprecision and other characteristics between two commercially available iFOBT methods.

  19. Factors affecting initial training success of blood glucose testing in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reamer, Lisa A; Haller, Rachel L; Thiele, Erica J; Freeman, Hani D; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes can be a problem for captive chimpanzees. Accurate blood glucose (BG) readings are necessary to monitor and treat this disease. Thus, obtaining voluntary samples from primates through positive reinforcement training (PRT) is critical. The current study assessed the voluntary participation of 123 chimpanzees in BG sampling and investigated factors that may contribute to individual success. All subjects participate in regular PRT sessions as part of a comprehensive behavioral management program. Basic steps involved in obtaining BG values include: voluntarily presenting a finger/toe; allowing digit disinfection; holding for the lancet device; and allowing blood collection onto a glucometer test strip for analysis. We recorded the level of participation (none, partial, or complete) when each chimpanzee was first asked to perform the testing procedure. Nearly 30% of subjects allowed the entire procedure in one session, without any prior specific training for the target behavior. Factors that affected this initial successful BG testing included sex, personality (chimpanzees rated higher on the factor "openness" were more likely to participate with BG testing), and past training performance for "present-for-injection" (chimpanzees that presented for their most recent anesthetic injection were more likely to participate). Neither age, rearing history, time since most recent anesthetic event nor social group size significantly affected initial training success. These results have important implications for captive management and training program success, underlining individual differences in training aptitude and the need for developing individual management plans in order to provide optimal care and treatment for diabetic chimpanzees in captivity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. In vitro blood flow model with physiological wall shear stress for hemocompatibility testing-An example of coronary stent testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, Gerwin Erik; Blok, Sjoerd Leendert Johannes; van Oeveren, Willem

    Hemocompatibility of blood contacting medical devices has to be evaluated before their intended application. To assess hemocompatibility, blood flow models are often used and can either consist of in vivo animal models or in vitro blood flow models. Given the disadvantages of animal models, in vitro

  1. Analysis of the practice guidelines of the Dutch College of General Practitioners with respect to the use of blood tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Bohnen (Arthur); J. van der Lei (Johan); M.A.M. van Wijk (Marc)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To determine the consistency among the practice guidelines of the Dutch College of General Practitioners with respect to the use of blood tests. METHODS: The authors evaluated 64 practice guidelines of the Dutch College of General Practitioners.

  2. A systematic review of the effect of pre-test rest duration on toe and ankle systolic blood pressure measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sadler, Sean; Chuter, Vivienne; Hawke, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of toe and ankle blood pressure is commonly used to evaluate peripheral vascular status, yet the pre-test rest period is inconsistent in published studies and among practitioners, and could affect results...

  3. Brief report: Neurocognitive functioning in adolescents following childhood maltreatment and evidence for underlying planning & organizational deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, Brian; Holler, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Children and adolescents with a history of childhood maltreatment are at risk for a host of psychiatric conditions, although the underlying neurocognitive functioning of these individuals remains largely understudied. This study examined the neurocognitive functioning of childhood maltreatment victims in an adolescent psychiatric inpatient setting. The sample consisted of adolescent inpatients (ages 13-19) that completed intellectual testing as part of a neuropsychological/psychological assessment during hospitalization (n = 39). The sample was grouped based on childhood maltreatment history with one group categorized by maltreatment history (n = 15) and the other group characterized by no maltreatment history (n = 24). Analyses revealed statistically significant differences (p organizational and planning difficulties in those individuals with maltreatment history. Group differences in the frequency of impaired performance for neuropsychological tasks were largest (p history of childhood maltreatment.

  4. The measurement of peripheral blood volume reactions to tilt test by the electrical impedance technique after exercise in athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, A. A.; Popov, S. G.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Vikulov, A. D.

    2013-04-01

    We have investigated the distribution of peripheral blood volumes in different regions of the body in response to the tilt-test in endurance trained athletes after aerobic exercise. Distribution of peripheral blood volumes (ml/beat) simultaneously in six regions of the body (two legs, two hands, abdomen, neck and ECG) was assessed in response to the tilt-test using the impedance method (the impedance change rate (dZ/dT). Before and after exercise session cardiac stroke (CSV) and blood volumes in legs, arms and neck were higher in athletes both in lying and standing positions. Before exercise the increase of heart rate and the decrease of a neck blood volume in response to tilting was lower (p athletes. The reactions in arms and abdomen blood volumes were similar. Also, the neck blood volumes as percentage of CSV (%/CSV) did not change in the control but increased in athletes (p athletes. The neck blood flow (%/CSV) did not change in athletes but decreased in control (pathletes both before and after exercise during fatigue which is due to effective distribution of blood flows aimed at maintaining cerebral blood flow.

  5. Evaluation of Four Veterinary Hematology Analyzers for Bovine and Ovine Blood Counts for In Vitro Testing of Medical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Ina Laura; Friedmann, Yasmin; Jones, Alyssa; Thornton, Catherine

    2016-11-01

    Small affordable automated hematology analyzers that produce rapid and accurate complete blood cell counts are a valuable tool to researchers developing blood-handling medical devices, such as ventricular assist devices, for in vitro safety assessments. In such studies, it is common to use the blood of large animals such as cattle and sheep. However, the commercially available instruments have not been evaluated for their ability to measure the blood counts of these animals. In this study, we compare, for the first time, four veterinary analyzers for blood counts on bovine and ovine blood samples. We look at ease of use, repeatability and agreement with a view to inform researchers of the benefits of these instruments in routine measurement of ovine and bovine bloods during in vitro testing. Complete blood cell counts and a three-part differential (granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocytes) were measured by each of the instruments, and the results compared to those obtained from two additional analyzers used in a reference laboratory. Repeatability and agreement were evaluated using the Bland-Altman method; bias and 95% limits of agreement between the instruments, and between the instruments and two reference instruments, were used to evaluate instrument performance. In summary, there are advantages and disadvantages with all instruments. Of the four instruments tested, the repeatability and agreement was fairly similar for all instruments except one instrument which cannot be recommended for bovine or ovine blood counts. Copyright © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. A systematic review of the effect of pre-test rest duration on toe and ankle systolic blood pressure measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Sadler, Sean; Chuter, Vivienne; Hawke, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    Background Measurement of toe and ankle blood pressure is commonly used to evaluate peripheral vascular status, yet the pre-test rest period is inconsistent in published studies and among practitioners, and could affect results. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate all research that has investigated the effect of different periods of pre-test rest on toe and ankle systolic blood pressure. Methods The following databases were searched up to April 2012: Medline (from 1946), EMBASE (...

  7. The A[subscript 1c] Blood Test: An Illustration of Principles from General and Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerber, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    The glycated hemoglobin blood test, usually designated as the A[subscript 1c] test, is a key measure of the effectiveness of glucose control in diabetics. The chemistry of glucose in the bloodstream, which underlies the test and its impact, provides an illustration of the importance of chemical equilibrium and kinetics to a major health problem.…

  8. Neurocognitive effects of neurofeedback in adolescents with ADHD: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bink, Marleen; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs; Popma, Arne; Bongers, Ilja L; van Boxtel, Geert J M

    2014-05-01

    Neurofeedback aims to reduce symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), mainly attention problems. However, the additional influence of neurofeedback over treatment as usual (TAU) on neurocognitive functioning for adolescents with ADHD remains unclear. By using a multicenter parallel randomized controlled trial (RCT) design, male adolescents with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of ADHD (mean age = 16.1 years; range, 12-24) were randomized to receive either a combination of TAU and neurofeedback (n = 45) or TAU (n = 26). Randomization was computer generated and stratified by age group (ages 12 through 15, 16 through 20, and 21 through 24 years). The neurofeedback intervention consisted of approximately 37 sessions over a period of 25 weeks of theta/sensorimotor rhythm training on the vertex (Cz). Primary neurocognitive outcomes included performance parameters derived from the D2 Test of Attention, the Digit Span backward, the Stroop Color-Word Test and the Tower of London, all assessed preintervention and postintervention. Data were collected between December 2009 and July 2012. At postintervention, outcomes of attention and/or motor speed were improved, with faster processing times for both intervention conditions and with medium to large effect sizes (range, ηp2 = .08-.54; P values neurofeedback over TAU was observed. Hence, this study does not provide evidence for using theta/sensorimotor rhythm neurofeedback to enhance neurocognitive performance as additional intervention to TAU for adolescents with ADHD symptoms. Trialregister.nl identifier: 1759. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  9. Optimal neurocognitive, personality and behavioral measures for assessing impulsivity in cocaine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoBue, Christian; Cullum, C Munro; Braud, Jacqueline; Walker, Robrina; Winhusen, Theresa; Suderajan, Prabha; Adinoff, Bryon

    2014-11-01

    Impulsivity may underlie the poor treatment retention and high relapse rates observed in cocaine-dependent persons. However, observed differences in measures of impulsivity between cocaine-dependent and healthy control participants often do not reach clinical significance, suggesting that the clinical relevance of these differences may be limited. To examine which measures of impulsivity (i.e. self-report impulsivity, self-report personality, neurocognitive testing) best distinguish cocaine-dependent and healthy control participants (i.e. showing differences at least 1.5 standard deviations [SD] from controls). Optimal measures were considered to demonstrate sufficient classification accuracy. Sixty-five recently abstinent cocaine-dependent and 25 healthy control participants were assessed using select neurocognitive tests and self-report questionnaires including the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R), Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11a), and the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe). When corrected for years of education and gender, neurocognitive measures did not demonstrate clinically significant differences between cocaine-dependent and control participants. The personality measures TCI Purposefulness and Congruent Second Nature and NEO-PI-R Impulsiveness, and the self-rating measures FrSBe Disinhibition and BIS-11 Motor Impulsivity and Total successfully identified clinically meaningful elevations in impulsivity within cocaine-dependent participants (>1.5 SDs from controls). Furthermore, these measures achieved 84-93% accuracy in discriminating cocaine-dependent from control participants. Clinically significant neurocognitive impairment in cocaine-dependent participants was not observed in this sample. As the BIS-11 or FrSBe are brief to administer, accurate, and have been shown to predict treatment retention and relapse, these measures appear to be optimal, relative to the personality measures, for

  10. Optimal neurocognitive, personality and behavioral measures for assessing impulsivity in cocaine dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoBue, Christian; Cullum, C. Munro; Braud, Jacqueline; Walker, Robrina; Winhusen, Theresa; Suderajan, Prabha; Adinoff, Bryon

    2015-01-01

    Background Impulsivity may underlie the poor treatment retention and high relapse rates observed in cocaine-dependent persons. However, observed differences in measures of impulsivity between cocaine-dependent and healthy control participants often do not reach clinical significance, suggesting that the clinical relevance of these differences may be limited. Objectives To examine which measures of impulsivity (i.e. self-report impulsivity, self-report personality, neurocognitive testing) best distinguish cocaine-dependent and healthy control participants (i.e. showing differences at least 1.5 standard deviations [SD] from controls). Optimal measures were considered to demonstrate sufficient classification accuracy. Methods Sixty-five recently abstinent cocaine-dependent and 25 healthy control participants were assessed using select neurocognitive tests and self-report questionnaires including the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R), Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11a), and the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe). Results When corrected for years of education and gender, neurocognitive measures did not demonstrate clinically significant differences between cocaine-dependent and control participants. The personality measures TCI Purposefulness and Congruent Second Nature and NEO-PI-R Impulsiveness, and the self-rating measures FrSBe Disinhibition and BIS-11 Motor Impulsivity and Total successfully identified clinically meaningful elevations in impulsivity within cocaine-dependent participants (>1.5 SDs from controls). Furthermore, these measures achieved 84–93% accuracy in discriminating cocaine-dependent from control participants. Conclusion Clinically significant neurocognitive impairment in cocaine-dependent participants was not observed in this sample. As the BIS-11 or FrSBe are brief to administer, accurate, and have been shown to predict treatment retention and relapse, these measures appear to be

  11. Intraindividual variability in neurocognitive speed: a comparison of Parkinson's disease and normal older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Frias, Cindy M; Dixon, Roger A; Fisher, Nancy; Camicioli, Richard

    2007-06-18

    We examined whether intraindividual variability of neurocognitive speed, or inconsistency, is greater in stages of Parkinson's disease (PD) as compared to a matched group of normal older adults. Intraindividual variability was assessed using four reaction time (RT) (simple and complex) tasks. We examined three sets of correlates: executive functioning (Stroop (interference index), Trail Making Test (Part B), and Digit Ordering Test), finger tapping speed, and gait speed. The participants were matched on age, sex, and education, and did not differ in global cognitive functioning. There were 50 patients with a clinical diagnosis of idiopathic PD (29 men and 21 women) who ranged from 65 to 84 years (M=71.5, S.D.=4.7) and 48 matched healthy older adults who ranged from 65 to 84 years (M=71.5, S.D.=4.9). Multiple analyses of variance showed that the PD patients were slower on all three complex RT tasks, and more inconsistent than healthy older adults on the most complex (eight-choice) RT task. Individuals with advanced disease had slower neurocognitive speed and more inconsistency than patients with earlier stage PD. Poorer executive functioning was associated with slower neurocognitive performance in healthy older adults, mild PD patients, and especially severe PD patients. Greater inconsistency in speed was related to poorer executive functioning in late stage PD (for the most complex task) and in healthy older adults (for the simplest task), indicating that motor and cognitive domains have functional coupling (i.e., as one becomes compromised so does the other). Intraindividual variability was not correlated with tapping speed and gait speed in any group. Executive functioning and neurocognitive speed may be valid and distinct clinical markers of disease progression in PD.

  12. Long-term neurocognitive outcome and quality of life in pediatric acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppiej, Agnese; Cainelli, Elisa; Casara, Giulia; Cappellari, Ambra; Nosadini, Margherita; Sartori, Stefano

    2014-04-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is an inflammatory-demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system usually with a monophasic course and a favorable neurological outcome. Long-term neurocognitive sequelae and quality of life have not yet been fully investigated. To examine neurocognitive outcome and quality of life in pediatric monophasic acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Of the 36 patients diagnosed with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis at our institution, six were lost to follow-up and eight relapsed (two with multiphasic forms and six with multiple sclerosis). The outcome of the 22 remaining patients was evaluated using four subscales of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for estimation of IQ, a battery of neuropsychological tests, and semistructured and PedsQL questionnaires for quality of life. The effect of age at onset, neuroradiological recovery, and time elapsed from the acute event on outcome was also investigated. Estimated IQ, neuropsychological mean group scores, and quality of life at follow-up were within the normal range, but 23% of the patients had pathological scores in various neuropsychological functions, among which attention was the most clearly affected. The neuroradiological recovery was not correlated with the result of the neuropsychological tests. Age at onset correlated with linguistic skills, whereas the time elapsed from the acute event had a significant effect on attention tasks: scores were worse in the group of patients with a follow-up shorter than 7 years. Our results suggest that pediatric monophasic acute disseminated encephalomyelitis has a favorable neurocognitive outcome. Patients with longer follow-up had a better outcome, suggesting a neurocognitive course that is different from that of multiple sclerosis and a potential for long-term recovery of affected functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Self-driven filter-based blood plasma separator microfluidic chip for point-of-care testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madadi, Hojjat; Casals-Terré, Jasmina; Mohammadi, Mahdi

    2015-05-22

    There is currently a growing need for lab-on-a-chip devices for use in clinical analysis and diagnostics, especially in the area of patient care. The first step in most blood assays is plasma extraction from whole blood. This paper presents a novel, self-driven blood plasma separation microfluidic chip, which can extract more than 0.1 μl plasma from a single droplet of undiluted fresh human blood (~5 μl). This volume of blood plasma is extracted from whole blood with high purity (more than 98%) in a reasonable time frame (3 to 5 min), and without the need for any external force. This would be the first step towards the realization of a single-use, self-blood test that does not require any external force or power source to deliver and analyze a fresh whole-blood sample, in contrast to the existing time-consuming conventional blood analysis. The prototypes are manufactured in polydimethylsiloxane that has been modified with a strong nonionic surfactant (Silwet L-77) to achieve hydrophilic behavior. The main advantage of this microfluidic chip design is the clogging delay in the filtration area, which results in an increased amount of extracted plasma (0.1 μl). Moreover, the plasma can be collected in one or more 10 μm-deep channels to facilitate the detection and readout of multiple blood assays. This high volume of extracted plasma is achieved thanks to a novel design that combines maximum pumping efficiency without disturbing the red blood cells' trajectory through the use of different hydrodynamic principles, such as a constriction effect and a symmetrical filtration mode. To demonstrate the microfluidic chip's functionality, we designed and fabricated a novel hybrid microdevice that exhibits the benefits of both microfluidics and lateral flow immunochromatographic tests. The performance of the presented hybrid microdevice is validated using rapid detection of thyroid stimulating hormone within a single droplet of whole blood.

  14. The role of self-reported impulsivity and reward sensitivity versus neurocognitive measures of disinhibition and decision-making in the prediction of relapse in pathological gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudriaan, A E; Oosterlaan, J; De Beurs, E; Van Den Brink, W

    2008-01-01

    Disinhibition and decision-making skills play an important role in theories on the cause and outcome of addictive behaviors such as substance use disorders and pathological gambling. In recent studies, both disinhibition and disadvantageous decision-making strategies, as measured by neurocognitive tests, have been found to influence the course of substance use disorders. Research on factors affecting relapse in pathological gambling is scarce. This study investigated the effect of both self-reported impulsivity and reward sensitivity, and neurocognitively assessed disinhibition and decision-making under conflicting contingencies, on relapse in a group of 46 pathological gamblers. Logistic regression analysis indicated that longer duration of the disorder and neurocognitive indicators of disinhibition (Stop Signal Reaction Time) and decision-making (Card Playing Task) were significant predictors of relapse (explaining 53% of the variance in relapse), whereas self-reported impulsivity and reward sensitivity did not significantly predict relapse. Overall classification accuracy was 76%, with a positive classification accuracy of 76% and a negative classification accuracy of 75%. Duration of the disorder and neurocognitive measures of disinhibition and decision-making are powerful predictors of relapse in pathological gambling. The results suggest that endophenotypical neurocognitive characteristics are more promising in the prediction of relapse in pathological gambling than phenotypical personality characteristics. Neurocognitive predictors may be useful to guide treatment planning of follow-up contacts and booster sessions.

  15. Evaluation of the Verigene® Blood Culture Nucleic Acid test for rapid identification of gram positive pathogens from positive blood cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnese Cellini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The rapid identification of the etiology and the evaluation of the antimicrobial susceptibility of the bacteria causing bacteremia is of outmost relevance to set up an adequate treatment of sepsis. In this study we evaluated the microarray based method, Verigene Gram-positive blood cultures (BC-GP nucleic acid test (Nanosphere Inc., Northbrook, IL, USA for the identification of Gram positive pathogens from positive blood cultures. The panel BC-GP is capable to identify 13 germs and 3 genes associated with antimicrobial resistance. Materials and Methods. In this study a total of 100 positive, non replicated and monomicrobic blood cultures have been evaluated. For testing on the Verigene platform using the BC-GP assay, 350 L of blood culture media from a positive the blood culture bottle.Results. A total of 100 positive blood cultures were tested by the Verigene BC-GP assay: out of these a total of 100 Gram-positive cocci were identified. The most frequent bacteria identified included staphylococci, streptococci and enterococci. Among staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus accounted for 25% (15/60, with 38% of S. epidermidis 37% (23/60 and 37% (22/60 other CoNS. All the S. aureus isolates were correctly identified by BC-GP whereas in 2/45 cases (4% BC-GP misidentified CoNS. In the case of enterococci 7/10 were E. faecalis and 3 E. faecium, all of these were correctly identified.Conclusions. The overall agreement with the results obtained by standard procedure is quite elevated (88% and as a consequence the BC-GP panel could be used as a rapid diagnostic tool to give a faster response in the case of bacteremia associated with sepsis.

  16. A projection of benefits due to fecal occult blood test for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dongfeng; Erwin, Diane; Rosner, Gary L

    2009-10-01

    A prospective study to estimate benefits due to fecal occult blood tests for colorectal cancer are carried out for both males and females, under different screening frequencies. We apply the statistical method developed by Wu et al. (2007) [1] using the Minnesota colorectal cancer study group data, to make Bayesian inference for the lead time, the time of diagnosis advanced by screening for both male and female participants in a periodic screening program. The lead time is distributed as a mixture of a point mass at zero and a piecewise continuous distribution. The two parts of the mixture correspond to two aspects of the screening: the probability of no benefit, or the percentage of interval cases; and the probability distribution of the early diagnosis time. We present estimates of these two measures for males and females by simulation studies using the Minnesota study group data. We also provide the mean, mode, variance, and density curve of the program's lead time by gender. This may provide policy makers important information on the effectiveness of the FOBT screening in colorectal cancer early detection. The mean lead time increases as the screening time interval decreases for both males and females. The standard error of the lead time also increases as the screening time interval decreases for both genders. Females seem get more benefit than males, in that females usually have a longer lead time than males if both take the test at the same time interval and the lead time mode for females is greater than that of males in the same screening time interval. According to the predictive estimation of the lead time distribution, to guarantee a 90% chance of early detection, it seems necessary for the males to take the fecal occult blood test every 9 months, while the females can take it annually.

  17. [Faecal occult blood test for colorectal cancer screening: high quality for a good price].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veldhuizen, Harriët; Bonfrer, J M G Hans; Kuipers, Ernst J

    2013-01-01

    The Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) awarded the immunochemical faecal occult blood test (IFOBT) to FOB Gold of Sentinel following a European call for tenders. The contract-awarding procedure included the application of quality knock-out criteria, which were met by two suppliers. The decisive factor was the best price/quality ratio. A recent review indicated that, at present, no single IFOBT is better than any other. The decision to opt for a test manufactured by a different supplier than was used in the previous screening pilots made it necessary to re-determine the cut-off value. This value has now been set (88 ng/ml) and is confirmed by a laboratory test. Colonoscopy-related capacity planning, as well as its diagnostic yield, depends on numerous factors; therefore, the RIVM is currently monitoring the referral percentage and number of adenomas detected and is collaborating on quality terms. Any necessary adjustments are to be made during the introduction of the screening test.

  18. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders | Vally | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). ... The accurate assessment and diagnosis of HAND depends on meeting the need for statistically sound neuropsychological assessment techniques that may be used confidently in assessing ...

  19. Ten year neurocognitive trajectories in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Barder, Helene E.; Sundet, Kjetil

    2013-01-01

    Memory for patients with psychotic relapse in the first year[F-(4,F- (38)) = 5.8, p = 0.001, eta(2) = 0.40]. Conclusions: Main findings are long-term stability in neurocognitive functioning in FEP patients, with the exception of verbal memory in patients with psychotic relapse or non-remission early......Objective: Neurocognitive impairment is commonly reported at onset of psychotic disorders. However, the long-term neurocognitive course remains largely uninvestigated in first episode psychosis (FEP) and the relationship to clinically significant subgroups even more so. We report 10 year...... longitudinal neurocognitive development in a sample of FEP patients, and explore whether the trajectories of cognitive course are related to presence of relapse to psychosis, especially within the first year, with a focus on the course of verbal memory. Method: Forty-three FEP subjects (51% male, 28 +/- 9...

  20. Determinants of myocardial blood flow response to cold pressor testing and pharmacologic vasodilation in healthy humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prior, John O.; Schindler, Thomas H.; Facta, Alvaro D.; Hernandez-Pampaloni, Miguel; Campisi, Roxana; Dahlbom, Magnus; Schelbert, Heinrich R. [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, B2-085J CHS, 10833 Le Conte Ave, Box 956948, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2007-01-15

    Response of myocardial blood flow (MBF) to sympathetic stimulation with cold is modulated by endothelium-related factors and is typically altered in the presence of coronary risk factors. Determinants of flow response to cold pressor testing (CPT) in normal volunteers at low risk for CAD remain less well defined, especially relative to baseline conditions such as hemodynamics and MBF, plasma substrate and lipid levels, and total pharmacologically stimulated vasodilator capacity. In 50 normal volunteers (42{+-}13 years; 31 women) without coronary risk factors, insulin resistance, or family history of diabetes/premature CAD, MBF was measured with {sup 13}N-ammonia and PET at baseline, during CPT, and during pharmacologic hyperemia. Sympathetic stimulation with CPT raised heart rate and blood pressure and thus MBF ({delta}MBF=0.23{+-}0.09 ml/min/g). MBF response, defined in absolute flow units as the difference between CPT and baseline, was independent of age, gender, heart rate, and blood pressure and rate-pressure product (RPP) at baseline as well as plasma substrate and lipid levels with the exception of an association with HDL cholesterol ({rho}=0.40, p=0.005) but depended on the change in RPP from rest ({rho}=0.33, p=0.019). Finally, changes in coronary vascular resistance in response to CPT were associated with changes in pharmacologic vasodilation ({rho}=0.56, p<0.0001). MBF response to sympathetic stimulation with cold (NO-mediated endothelium-dependent vasomotion), reflecting the functional state of the coronary endothelium, was independent of gender, age, and resting heart conditions. It was modulated by HDL cholesterol levels, even in healthy volunteers, and also related to pharmacologically stimulated vasodilator capacity at the coronary vascular resistance level. (orig.)